Maccabees & Ladies of the Maccabees

Knights of the Maccabees

Variously known as the Knights (and Ladies) of the Maccabees, Maccabees of the World, Macabees, Women’s Benefit Association.     The original early biblical Maccabees were a priestly family of Jews who organized a successful rebellion against the Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV and reconsecrated the defiled Temple of Jerusalem.   In 1896, the Knights of the Maccabees had a membership of 209,831.  The Knights of the Maccabees were a fraternal and benevolent "legal reserve society."  Families of deceased members received benefits in the form of legal-reserve insurance.  All white persons of sound health and good character, from birth to 70 years of age, were eligible for membership.  Their name comes from the Biblical Maccabees.  The order was founded in London, Ontario in 1878 and reorganized in 1883. Before 1914, it was known as the Knights of the Maccabees.  Subsequent to 1914, it has been simply been called "The Maccabees".   At one time, about one third of membership was in Michigan.  Thirty years ago, their national headquarters was located at 5057 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI.  From "History of Genesee County, Michigan Vol. 1, - 1916":  Knights of the Maccabees of the World, organized originally in Canada, was incorporated in Michigan in 1884.  Originally it operated on an assessment basis; whenever a member died, each living member was assessed 10 cents to go into a pot to provide the widow $1000.  After reorganization, it became much more sophisticated, collecting monthly assessments based on payouts.  By the 1890s it provided not only death benefits but also sick benefits of $4 to $10/week; total and permanent disability benefits of $50, $200, or $300 annually (depending on the size of your assessment); $175-$2000 for loss of hands, eyes, feet, etc.; funeral benefits, and so on. "Coal miners" - "aeronauts" and other dangerous professions excluded.  Manufacturers, sellers, and drinkers of alcohol also excluded.  The Maccabees were one of the more successful of fraternal benefit societies which sprung up after the Civil War.  Many insurance companies were not interested in sales to ordinary people and there was little in the way of "safety nets".  Groups like the Maccabees, Foresters, Woodmen, and so on provided a safety net along with pleasant social meetings and other gatherings.  Each had its own ritual legend -- the Foresters, Robin Hood, for example, and the Maccabees the story of Mattathias Maccabee and his sons, the leaders of the Jewish revolt against Syrian desecration of the Temple.

The insurance aspect of the fraternity has always been paramount. Its fraternal aspect drew on the exploits of the Jewish military genius Judas Maccabeus.  

The Knights of the Modern Maccabees and The Maccabees of the World have since consolidated and were known simply as the Maccabees.  Their fraternalism activities ceased to exist in 1962 when they became a life insurance company. 

 

Ladies of the Maccabees

  The Ladies of the Maccabees were organized in the mid-1880s and not at first recognized by the Knights, but persistence paid off, and according to Albert C. Stevens, (in 1896), "Its successful career has surprised many, even among its well-wishers, and has shown that women may safely be entrusted with the conduct and management of many of the broader business affairs of life."

In 1891, a young woman went to a summer picnic that would transform her life as well as Port Huron's history. The woman, Bina Mae West, was a prodigy. At age 18, she completed her studies at St. Clair County Normal School and returned to her alma mater, Capac High, as a teacher and assistant principal. At 20, she won a seat on the Board of County School Examiners, one of the first women in Michigan to hold elected office.

The picture above and just below are from Karen Baker who describes her female relatives that were members of Ladies of the Maccabees:  My Aunt Jean Drane Yott (with glasses) is on the far right, and my Grandmother Jean Drane is beside her. The young girl kneeling in front of them them is my mother, Elizabeth ("Bettie") Fettes Drane (Married name, Ferency).

The picnic, which she attended with an aunt, was sponsored by the Maccabees, a fraternal benefit society led by Port Huron native Nathan Boynton. Such societies offered social and self-improvement activities as well as life and disability insurance at a time when neither was common.

On the spot, she decided she would change that. Her motivation was the thought of two of her best pupils, whose mother had died without insurance. The father had placed the children with well-to-do families - the daughter as a domestic servant and the son as a stable boy.

As West saw it, the youngsters had been torn from their family and denied a formal education because life insurance was unavailable for women.

This photo is also from Karen Baker.  It was taken while on a Ladies of the Maccabees outing!  Her grandmother, Jean Drane is draped on the fender.

In his 1992 book, An Enduring Heritage, Keith Yates quoted what West told her aunt as they left the picnic: "Aunt Nellie, the fraternal benefit system is the greatest thing I've ever heard of. I will make this my life's work. There is a great need, and I know I can fill it."

  • Over the next 56 years, West devoted herself to her mission.

    WORKING FOR WOMEN: In 1892, when Bina West Miller set up shop in the basement of the Maccabee Temple to create an insurance organization for women and children, she unleashed a revolution. From its humble start, what was to become the Women's Benefit Association would claim more than 75,000 members in 42 states in just eight years. Today, the Woman's Life Insurance Society has more than $180 million in assets.

    As state organizer for the Ladies of the Maccabees, she built its membership from 319 in 1892 to 5,770 in 1894. The organization, later renamed the Women's Benefit Association, had 75,224 members in 42 states by 1900. Four years later, it had nearly 150,000 members and 40 employees at its Port Huron headquarters.

    "In less than 12 years, (it) was no doubt the great business movement of women in the world," Yates wrote.

    The rapid growth led the Maccabees to build a second temple in 1904 at the intersection of Huron and Pine Grove avenues. The original temple, built in 1892 at Huron and Bard, was noted for its hive-shaped brass domes. It became the Algonquin Hotel in 1906 and was destroyed in a fire in 2000.

    Port Huron's mayor declared a public holiday on Oct. 22, 1915, when the cornerstone was placed for the association's headquarters on Military Street. The structure, with an exterior of Indiana limestone and Corinthian columns flanking its entrance, would be dedicated two years later.

    Bena West Miller

    A sign in West's office gave the motto - "Hard Work and Ever At It" - that she embraced until her retirement at age 81. She died in 1954.

    The Woman's Life Insurance Society, as the association is known today, is still based in Port Huron. Janice Whipple, who took over in 1990, is only its sixth president in more than a century.

  • Pictured above is a Past Presidents pin for the Women's Benevolent Association.  It could very well have belonged to Bena West Miller the Founding President or possibly Francis Partridge, as there have been but 5 past presidents of this organization in the past century (116 years).

    Ladies of the Maccabees Petition for Membership

    This circa 1922 application for membership in the Ladies of the Maccabees came from the family of Edward Ward.  Thank you!

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    Ladies of the Maccabees Charter

    Click here to see an early music sheet containing Maccabees Opening Odes, Closing Odes and Initiatory Odes.

    Click here to see National Membership Records for the Maccabees from 1917.

    A special "Thank You" to Dan Harrett, Director, Grand Blanc Heritage Association, Grand Blanc, Michigan for the supporting links above!

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    Ladies of the Maccabees Building in Port Huron, Michigan

    We owe a special "Thanks" to Richard C. Kelly, an amateur photographer who lives in Port Huron for submitting the above picture.

    Here is a collage of Maccabee Founder Major Nathan S. Boynton and his commemorative plaque in front of the "New Maccabees Temple" in 1938.  The dome is smaller and the building is facing in a southerly direction.  The cornerstone is on the north-east corner, or on the right rear of the building.  The current building houses a law firm and "Ladies of The Maccabees" is still on the front above the entrance.  The building on lower left is on the old site of the original temple, about 3 blocks south of the Boynton monument. 

    A special Thanks to Jim Cox for submitting the above picture.

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    About the Founder

    Major Nathan S. Boynton

    Nathan Boynton was a major and a good deal other things besides the man who gave Boynton Beach in Florida his name. He was born June 23, 1837 in Port Huron, Michigan. His direct ancestor John Boynton emigrated to the New World in 1638 (a scant eighteen years after the Mayflower) from Yorkshire, England and settled in Rowley, Massachusetts. Another ancestor, Sir Matthew Boynton, was knighted by the Crown of England in the Seventeenth Century for being the first to ship sheep and goats to America (think about THAT the next time you smear some domestic chèvre on a cracker).

    His father, Granville P. Boynton, helped pioneer Michigan in 1827 and his mother's father, Captain Lewis Rendt, fought in the War of 1812 - on the British side.

    After graduating high-school, Nathan S. Boynton worked as grocery-store clerk and a buggy-whip manufacturer before making a tidy sum of money with his own grocery business. He invested his savings in Michigan pine lands and was promptly wiped out by the Panic of 1857.

    Over the next five years he lived in Cincinnati, New Orleans and St. Louis working alternatively as a farmer's work hand, carpenter and a salesman of electrical apparatus for "curative" purposes (obviously this was before the FDA came into existence). Along the way he married and had his first of six children, Charles Boynton, in 1860. He gave his firstborn the middle name of Lincoln in honor of the newly elected president who's strong anti-slavery position mirrored his own. It was also for that reason that Nathan Boynton left his wife and child to enlist as a private in the Eight Michigan Calvary of the Union Army.

    And it was here that Boynton's star began to shine. He was soon promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant and with a detachment of 100 men cut off the retreat and accepted the surrender of Confederate John Morgan after his devastating raid through Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio. He served under Burnside In the campaign of East Tennessee and was in one of the first units that marched Into Atlanta alongside General Sherman.

    Returning to Port Huron as a Major he became the editor and publisher of the Port Huron Press. Boynton was elected mayor three times and served in the State Legislature. He also invented the Boynton fire escape, the Boynton hook and ladder fire truck and the Boynton system of rope trussing for fire ladders. Nathan S. Boynton was also a founder of the Order of the Maccabees. Under his leadership the order's membership grew from a handful to almost half a million.

    In 1883 his health began to deteriorate. Eleven years later he and his friend, Congressman William S. Linton, traveled to Florida in search of a winter retreat from the harsh Michigan winters. They sailed down the newly dredged Florida East Coast Canal (the Intracoastal) in Fred C. Voss's launch "Victor".

    Pausing at an area close to the present-day Ocean Avenue, Nathan S. Boynton pointed around him and said, "I'll take this."
    It was as simple as that.
    Linton bought the area further south that temporarily bore his name until it was changed to Delray Beach.

    Two years later Boynton began construction of the legendary Boynton Beach Hotel that cemented his name to the area and outlived its creator by fourteen years. He died in Port Huron at 11:30pm on Saturday, May 27, 1911. His last words were, "I am tired. I am ready to go."

    The above history was written by David J. Castello. 

    The photos of Boynton were submitted by Boynton's great great nephew Dennis Smith.

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    Knights of the Maccabees Ribbons and Medal

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    The first two ribbons above are 9 inches long overall, ribbon with gilt brass fittings, brass fringe, celluloid emblems and embroidered flags. The second one is reversible, the back being in black for funeral processions. Condition is very good, it does show some wear. Makers card between the ribbons is "The M.C. Lilley & Co."

    The medal is 4 inches long with a nice 1 inch tin litho.  The logo on the lower portion has some wear and reads: "Modern KOTM Original Lodge 1881" Surrounded with the words: "Astra Castra Numen Lumen" which means: "The stars my camp, the Deity my light"  and Michigan at the bottom. The silver plating has minor wear and tarnish. It has a pin on the top to hold a ribbon and the other pin is broken off. Makers mark on back is "Whitehead & Hoag Co."

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    Knights of the Maccabees Medallion

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    This Knights of the Maccabees medallion served much the same purpose as the Mark Master Chapter Penny.  It bears their Latin motto:   "Astra Castra Numen Lumen" which means: "The stars my camp, the Deity my light" and has an area on the reverse for engraving a name, camp and member number.  They were made by the Whitehead and Hoag Company of Newark, NJ.

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    Knights of the Maccabees Dues Assessment Card and "Permit"

    Pictured above is a Maccabee's "Permit"... It shows how our ancestors had a sense of humor!  It must have had several names penciled in on it and erased over the years by the visible wear on the paper!  The other side I found interesting too!  They wouldn't sell life insurance to you if you were older than 51.  The life expectancy at the time was only about 47!  People sure had a hard life back then! 

    A special "Thank You" to Richelle Campbell for submitting the above pictures of her Maccabee's Permit for our museum!

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    This is a standard member's piece--this one has a past Commander's Jewel dangling from it.  There were a lot of Maccabees and every member had one of these. 

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    Knights of the Maccabees Building in Port Huron, Michigan

    The building did exist at one time in Port Huron, Michigan as the above post card depicts.  It was destroyed by a fire after serving many years as the Algonquin hotel. 

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    This picture was taken looking northeast.  Note the Maccabee Temple with the domes.  The Howard Furniture Co. and the Maccabee Temple are no longer there.  

    In the pictures below you can see the former Maccabees Headquarters being torn down after the fire in 2000.  The beautiful domes collapsed into the building during the fire.

     A special "Thanks" to Dale McDonald who took the above pictures of the (Algonquin Hotel) the original Maccabees Headquarters being torn down!

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    This is a Knights of the Maccabees goat riding collar button!

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    This is what they looked like!

    Above is an early cabinet card photograph of a uniformed Maccabee.  Their dress is very similar to that of a Masonic Knight Templar.

    Here is another young Maccabee wearing his badge and hat.

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    Knights of the Maccabees of the World
    Ritual of the First, or Degree of Protection


    A new member must receive all three of the degrees before he can become a Knight of the Maccabees and entitled to take part in the regular Tent work of the Order.
    When one has received the first degree his insurance protection is in force while he continues in good standing. It is intended that in ordinary practice not more than one degree will be conferred upon a candidate on the same evening.
    While this ritual contains a ceremony for "Communication" of the Second and Third Degrees, it is hoped that this practice will only be resorted to when absolutely necessary, and that every Tent will, as far as possible, prepare itself to confer the dramatic or amplified work of the second and third degrees, which is so beautiful and instructive.
    It is courteously and earnestly recommended that all members of the Order thoroughly familiarize themselves with the laws, rules and usages of the Order, the By-Laws of their Tent, and Cushing’s Parliamentary Rules, not for the purpose of acquiring brilliancy in debate, but for the purpose of quickly and properly disposing of all the business coming before their Tent, and also for the purpose of controlling a contentious class of members when they exist, since the latter not only delay the work but actually threaten the prosperity of the Tent.
    Promptitude should be a distinguishing quality of every Maccabee. Exactly upon the hour for any review he should be present, ready and willing for business and work.
    Great pains have been taken to make the work plain, so that any person can understand it; also, to interpose all the necessary directions as to floor-work, delivery, and drama, so that the most unpretentious Tent may confer the work in an effective and impressive manner. Explanation and directions (when they occur) are printed in smaller type and enclosed in brackets, and should be carefully studied and closely followed. It is recommended also that the amplified degrees be used in all cases when at all practicable.
    Officers of degree teams must memorize their respective parts, and they should drill to perfection in the dramatic and private work before attempting to, confer the degree on any candidate.
    The use of uniforms, badges, emblems, and regalia is governed by the laws of the Order. The use of costumes and paraphernalia in degree work, as well as the proper arrangement of the floor, is fully described at the beginning of each section.
    The utmost decorum and dignity should always prevail; and no boisterous, profane, or other ungentlemanly conduct should be permitted in the hall, whether the Tent is at work or not. This is imperative.
    The head of the Tent is always where the presiding officer sits; the foot of the Tent, the Sir Knight Sergeant’s station; the right of the Tent, the station of the Sir Knight Past Commander; and the left of the Tent, that of the Sir Knight Chaplain.
    Nothing of a political, sectarian, or private character should be brought before the Tent, except grievances; and those only in form and manner provided in the laws of the Order.
    All who have parts to commit to memory must do so perfectly, and then deliver them with spirit and distinct pronunciation and not mumble, stammer, or recite them after the manner of the school-boy speaker. Nothing is more impressive in work of this kind than the energetic action, ready response, bright eye, and impressive behavior of a man thoroughly in earnest.
    Members desiring to cross the hall or go anywhere in the Tent during review must be guided in their course as laid down in the Diagram. Square corners must be observed at all times; and the walks are so arranged that a member, by following them, can reach any part of the hall.
    All Sir Knights moving about the hall should keep and turn to the right when possible, unless there are instructions to the contrary.
    The Master at Arms must have the Tent properly arranged for work before the Commander proceeds to open the review. He should place in the inner ante-room badges sufficient for all members. He should arrange the Altar, by placing thereon the cover (if one is used), and also the book of the Maccabees and copy of the Laws of the Knights of the Maccabees of the World, which should be unopened and have the circle on top. He should also distribute the odes to the members, and deliver the officers’ badges at their respective stations.
    All members should be clothed with regulation badge, before entering the Tent when at work, and must wear one of them during all reviews.
    No Tent or body of members thereof shall be privileged to present in public or in the presence of any person not a member of the Order, anything prescribed herein to be done by a Tent of the Order, under penalty of losing its charter.
    No candidate for the degrees must be subjected to any rude, ungentlemanly, humiliating or boisterous treatment, and in conferring the degrees, nothing must be done that might inflict any injury upon the candidate.
    No Maccabean business can be legally performed except it comes under the regular Order of Business as prescribed in the Third Degree. Therefore, every review must be opened in the Third Degree and all degree work take place as an order of business of that degree. In closing, however, it is not necessary to pass from the degree in which the Tent may be working to the Third; the regular closing may take place at the end of any degree.
    When initiating candidates in the first or second degrees, unless the other degrees are to be "communicated" on the same evening, it is advisable to finish the regular "Order of Business" before taking up Degree Work, so that the tent may be closed when the degree work is over without re opening in the third degree—thus allowing newly admitted members to stay until the Tent is closed in regular order.
    All officers, when addressed by the Commander (or presiding officer), must immediately arise and give the Token of Sincerity; this ceremony must be observed by all Sir Knights when they wish to obtain the floor for any purpose.
    The Commander should set the example and encourage all Sir Knights to wear their "Sunday Clothes" at all reviews.
    The Tent having been properly arranged by the Master at Arms, the Commander opens the Tent in regular form.

     

    Regular Opening


    COMMANDER, giving any number of raps with the gavel to secure order:
    Sir Knights, let us come to order. The officers will take their respective stations. This done Sir Knight Record Keeper, call the roll of officers. Sir Knight Sentinel call in the Picket.
    After the roll call, the Commander will immediately fill all vacancies and the Record Keeper will make the record read accordingly.
    SERGEANT:
    Sir Knights Sentinel and Picket, advance and communicate to me the Pass and Tokens. The two officers will advance and communicate the Pass and the Tokens of the three degrees in a whisper and return to the inner door without Orders.
    COMMANDER:
    Attention Sir Knights! Three raps. All present must arise and give the Token of Sincerity. Sir Knight Record Keeper, are you satisfied that all present are qualified to remain?
    The Record Keeper may satisfy himself by inspection. If all present are entitled to remain, he will report to the Commander:
    RECORD KEEPER:
    All present are qualified to remain, Sir Knight Commander.
    If he is not so satisfied, he will report as follows:
    I am in doubt, Sir Knight Commander.
    The Commander will then proceed as follows:
    COMMANDER: Sir Knights, Right Face! For— ward—MARCH!
    All present will march once around the room in single file. The Record Keeper will pass each one positively known to be qualified to remain and cause those, concerning whom he may be in doubt, to step out of the file and remain in front of his station. The circuit having been completed, the Sir Knights will be seated, provided there are many challenged, otherwise they must remain standing.
    If the R. K. is absent or the Commander deems it necessary he should order the Sergeant to take up the pass, when the following ceremony should be observed:
    SERGEANT:
    Sir Knight Guards, communicate the passwords. At the words, "Sir Knight Guards," the Guards will respond with the "token of sincerity," and after being instructed to communicate the passwords they should step down in front of the Sergeant and communicate the passwords in regular form, after which they should remain standing, facing Sergeant until further instructed.: The words are correct. You will now ascertain that all present are
    qualified to remain.
    The First M. of G. then advances to head of Tent and commences taking passwords from Lieut. Commander, working his way to foot of Tent, while the Second M. of G. works his way from foot to head of Tent. Each member places his left hand on the left shoulder of Guard, and whispers passwords in that officer’s left ear. Members of Tent without passwords will be announced by Guard as follows: "Sir Knight Commander, Sir Knight is without the passwords." The Commander inquires of the proper officer: "Is Sir Knight … clear on the books and entitled to the passwords?"
    The officer reports "He is" or "He is not," as the case may be. If he is in arrears and wishes to pay, the Commander will permit him to do so.
    The Record Keeper having finished with the challenged persons, or the pass having been taken, the Commander will say:
    COMMANDER:
    Sir Knights, let us attend the Chaplain’s invocation.
    All present must stand under the Token of Sincerity and remove any head dress that may be worn. The Chaplain, remaining in his station says:
    CHAPLAIN:
    Supreme Ruler, strengthen our hands in building up this Order. Aid us in carrying out the great principles of fraternity which underlie
    it. Assist us in bringing peace on earth and good will toward men. May the deliberations of this body be conducted in that spirit of harmony so necessary to success. May our Order grow and prosper. May its usefulness be enlarged and its protecting arms extended so that we may be better able to provide for the widow, protect the orphan, and care for those dependent upon us. May we so speak and act as not to bring reproach upon the Order nor disgrace any of its humane principles. Make us a power for good in this land, and worthy exponents of the brotherhood of man.
    COMMANDER:
    Sir Knights, let us exemplify our secret work.
    The Commander from his station calls for this work in the following order, and all present must take part in it, following the Commander.
    1. Step and Salutation Signs (3).
    2. Recognition Sign; its answer.
    3. Ladies’ Recognition Sign; its answer.
    4. Token of Sincerity.
    5. Degree Tokens. (Honor, Amity, Obedience)
    6. Test word. (All say See – Bac - Cam.)

    Master at Arms, attend the Altar.
    MASTER AT ARMS advances to foot of Altar, gives Token of Sincerity, and placing the Book of the Laws of the Maccabees of the World on the Altar, opens the Second Book of the Maccabees at the third chapter, places the circle so that it will rest equally on both books, salutes (Token of Sincerity), and retires to his station.

     
    Opening Ode
    Air:—"Battle Cry of Freedom."
    We have gathered in our Tent, Knights, gathered once again,
    Singing the joyful song of gladness.
    We’ve resolved to be true, more knowledge to obtain,
    Singing the joyful song of gladness.
    Chorus:— United forever, we’ll by each other stand,
    Protecting the helpless all over this land,
    Yes, we’ll rally to our standard, so noble and so grand,
    Singing the joyful song of gladness.
    With the stars for our Tent, and the Deity our Light,
    Singing the joyful song of gladness.
    We’ll battle for the widow, the orphans and the right,
    Singing the joyful song of gladness.
    Chorus:—United forever, etc
    Let harmony prevail in all that we may do,
    Singing the joyful song of gladness.
    Well labor for the right, the good, the grand, the true
    Singing the joyful song of gladness.
    Chorus:—United forever, etc.
    COMMANDER:
    Now by virtue of the authority in me vested as Commander, I declare this Tent regularly opened and ready for business. One rap.
     

    Initiation
    First section


    Instructions
    The Tent is arranged as for a regular review. It is expected that the regular officers confer the Degree, and occupy their regular stations.
    Degree teams may be organized and for the purpose of conferring the degree work the best talent in the Tent should be selected, that the work may be most impressively conducted.
    It is not only possible, but we advise that the Commander do all the work—give all the lectures, ask all the questions, and give the obligation,—thus making it necessary to have only himself and the Lieutenant Commander, thoroughly versed in the "dialogue" Other members must help in the "discussion."
    The text of the Initiation is in the singular number, but when more than one Candidate is initiated, the officers must change the language so as to conform to the plural number.
    As soon as the ceremony proper begins, no one should leave the room except for the most pertinent reasons. Those who are permitted to retire or enter must attract as little attention as possible and report only to the Sergeant and Sentinel.
    Properties.
    Blindfold.
    Lifting Machine, Stones, etc., etc. Water guns may be used with good effect in the test of courage instead of stones.
    Eli. A "trap or bench" that will guarantee the Candidate’s arising at the proper time. When possible an electric battery and chair mat should be used.
    Preliminaries.
    If several are to be admitted at the same review, they may all be taken together. When the Lt. Commander is ready to blindfold the Candidate he will select one or more for that purpose. All the others may then be taken inside and allowed to witness the "work" as it will be given the one or more thus selected. When "questioning" is begun by the Commander all but the one to be thus questioned and tested should be seated on one side of room, together if possible, and they will remain seated until the obligation is to be given, when they will join the others and go with them until after they have been "welcomed." They will then be seated as before, only placing as many as possible on Eli.
    Having reached the sixth order of business, the Commander will proceed as follows:
    COMMANDER:
    Sir Knight Record Keeper, have we any Degree work tonight?
    RECORD KEEPER, saluting:
    Sir Knight Commander, we have (number) candidate entitled to the First Degree.
    COMMANDER:
    Sir Knight Sentinel, you will ascertain if any candidate is in waiting.
    SENTINEL, saluting and opening the wicket will ascertain from the Picket who is in waiting for the first degree and report as follows:

    Sir Knight Commander, … name, candidate for the first degree, is in waiting.
    COMMANDER:
    Sir Knight Record Keeper, retire and collect from the Candidate what may still be due this Tent.
    RECORD KEEPER, salutes, retires to the ante room and does as ordered; returns from the ante room to his station, salutes and reports as follows:
    Sir Knight Commander, … name, candidate for the first degree, has been duly proposed, elected examined and approved, paid all fees and is qualified and ready for his reception.
    Takes his seat.
    COMMANDER:
    Sir Knight Master at Arms, attend the Altar. Three raps. I declare this review closed in the Third Degree and opened in the First Degree. One rap.
    MASTER AT ARMS, rises and salutes upon being addressed, advances to the foot of the Altar and arranges it for the first degree. - He must so time his actions that when the Commander says "closed," he will close the book, and when he says "opened," that he will open the Book at the first Chapter of the Second Book of the Maccabees and place thereon a small Black Stone. Having done so, he returns to his station.
    COMMANDER:
    Sir Knight Lieutenant Commander, retire and introduce the candidate.
    LT. COMMANDER, rises, salutes, retires to the ante room and addresses the candidate:
    My friend, you have been duly proposed, elected, examined and approved for membership in this Tent, and having paid all fees, you are now entitled to receive, at our hands, the degree of protection. HONOR is the first and greatest qualification of this degree. In this degree your moral as well as your physical qualifications will be given further and most searching investigation. To reach the summit of Maccabean Knighthood is not the task of a weakling; it is a work that demands the highest expressions of Honor, Courage and Obedience. With this understanding, are you willing to proceed?
    Candidate must answer in the affirmative.
    In token of your Courage, and as an evidence of your willingness to obey, you must now suffer yourself to be blindfolded, and follow me. Candidate is now blindfolded. Lieutenant Commander then gives three raps at the inner door.
    SENTINEL, partly opening the door:
    Who comes?
    LT. COMMANDER:
    A friend who desires to unite with us in the cause of humanity.
    SENTINEL, closes the door and reports:
    Sir Knight Commander, the Lieutenant Commander, with a friend, who desires to unite with us in the cause of
    humanity, seeks admission.
    COMMANDER:
    Let him enter.
    SENTINEL, opening wide the door:
    Our Commander bids you enter with your friend.
    Lieut. Com. enters with candidate and makes one complete circuit of the room by way of the stations of Past Commander, Commander, Chaplain and, upon arriving at station of Sergeant, turns square corner up center of room, halting at foot of Altar facing Commander’s station. While this is being done, the following responses are to be uttered in a clear, earnest tone of voice and so timed as to conclude the moment the Candidate halts in the middle of the room. These responses may be made by the Commander. The Lieutenant Commander must also so time his steps as to make this possible without undue drag or hurry.
    PAST COMMANDER:
    Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this "To visit the fatherless and the widows in their affliction and to keep himself unspotted from the World."
    CHAPLAIN:
    "But if any provide not for his own, he hath denied the faith and is worse than an infidel."
    LT. COMMANDER, saluting:
    Sir Knight Commander, I have with me a friend who desires to unite with us in the cause of humanity.
    COMMANDER:
    Sir Knight Lieutenant Commander, why is your friend blindfolded?
    LT. COMMANDER:
    As a token of his courage and as an evidence of his willingness to obey.
    COMMANDER:
    Your friend is now about to enter into a most important contract relationship that means much to his loved ones as well as to himself— a contract that shall continue through life—one that he should fully understand in all its terms and conditions. No one should qualify for and complete such a contact in the dark. He should have his eyes wide open and must have every opportunity to know what he is doing. Let the blindfold be removed.
    Lt. Commander now removes the blindfold.
    COMMANDER, Lieutenant Commander and Candidate at foot of Altar, the Commander will address the Candidate as follows. If the Commander is to give all the work prescribed for Past, Com, and Chaplain, Lt. Commander should now conduct Candidate to a seat a few feet in front of Commander:

    My friend, as you are now about to take the first step towards the goal of Maccabean knighthood it is proper at this lime, to impress upon your mind the great objects of this Order as well as to call your attention to some of its membership requirements.
    First, let me tell you something of the reason for calling ourselves The Knights of the Maccabees of the World.
    Nearly twenty-one hundred years ago, there ruled in the land of Syria, a monstrous king, Antiochus the Fourth. Returning from an expedition into Egypt. about the year 167, B. C., he passed by way of Jerusalem, where he halted for a short time. Through the perfidy of a renegade Jew, he became informed of the existence and location of a large sum of money which this people had accumulated and from which they contributed, From time to time, to the relief of their widows and orphans. King Antiochus returned about a year later and sacked the Holy City. He burned the homes and palaces of the people, despoiled the Holy Temple, and plundered the treasury in which was kept the widow and orphan fund. We then desired to make Judea tributary to his kingdom and attempted to abolish the worship of Jehovah and introduce the monstrous practices of Syria and Greece. The prospect of another captivity and another loss of the ancient faith brought on a most determined resistance. The War of Independence ensued, in which the first family of Maccabees (Mattathias and his Five sons), so ably distinguished themselves. Their wonderful achievements on the side of personal independence, freedom of thought, and liberty of conscience the wise and magnanimous uses to which they put their marvellous victories ; their provident forethought in behalf of the widow, the orphan, and the disabled,— these are some of the noble acts of that ancient and heroic family which prompted a just and grateful posterity to recognize the MACCABEES among the first and greatest of the benefactors of the race. Our Order takes its name from that famous household. Like-them, we also wage a righteous warfare against the ills that so constantly afflict humanity; we also care for the widow, protect the fatherless, and assist the disabled; we too have a sacred treasury in which are kept immense sums of money,—millions of dollars—from which we take, with liberal hands our generous contributions to the widow, the orphan, the sick and to those in distress.
    Our principal object is to unite in fraternal fellowship all white men, within certain age limits, who are socially, physically, mentally, and morally acceptable and qualified under our laws, in order to properly as well as fraternally, care for the sick, relieve the distressed and provide in a substantial manner for the widows, orphans, and dependents of our members.
    The Knights of the Maccabees of the World is a great business co-partnership. All its members are equally interested in its welfare—all being equal under its laws. It is not a cold hearted business corporation, organized and run for the sole and sordid purpose of gain or profit; it is a business fraternity, or a fraternal business, founded on HONOR in its highest and most chivalric sense. Human honor is a sure and eternal foundation without which no superstructure of genuine fraternalism or business conduct can be reared with safety. Honor alone, in the governing body not less than in the humblest and most obscure member, makes it possible for this society to guarantee to the future an enormous trust fund involving hundreds of millions of dollars consecrated to the material comfort and personal safety of hundreds of thousands of families.
    Sir Knight Lieutenant Commander, you will conduct your friend to the Past Commander for further instructions.
    PAST COMMANDER:
    The ordeal through which you are about to pass is not an idle invention for the purpose of entertaining a selected audience at your expense. Far from it! It is our aim to impress on your mind, in a manner so forceful as to never be forgotten, the importance and nature of the relationship upon which you are now entering.
    In so far as our work involves the elements of life insurance, we must be governed by strict business principles. We must know, beyond the shadow of a doubt, that all who seek to unite with us are qualified along certain lines; that they understand the contract they are making, and that they have fully, understandingly, and truthfully answered all questions contained in their written application.
    We believe, and we teach, that it is the duty of every man, who has others dependent upon him, to make as ample provision for them in the event of his death, as his circumstances will permit. No man can wish to leave his loved ones without substantial protection to be dependent upon others, or to take the chance of having his good name discredited if not dishonored by failing to fully and properly understand the relationship he is entering into for their protection.
    Sir Knight Lieutenant Commander, you will conduct your friend to the Chaplain for further instructions.
    CHAPLAIN:
    To honestly do your whole duty as a good Maccabee should, you must be true to every vow taken, faithful to every trust imposed, and, for the sake of your own good name and the welfare of those you ought to love above every other being on earth, remain loyal to the Order until death bids you take off your knightly armor! As long as you live like that, rest assured that you will never lack for friends to comfort you in sorrow, assist you in adversity, tenderly commit your body to mother earth when you die, keep green your memory, defend your character, and, in a most fraternal sense, take your place so far as that is possible, in the hearts of those who mourn your departure.
    We have a right, to know with what manner of man we enter into such sacred relations; and that is why we emphasize, in this degree, that highest of all the knightly virtues—HONOR.
    HONOR is the essence of all the moralities. It is the crown of human excellence because it demands the fulfillment of every duty we owe to God, to humanity, and to ourselves. When HONOR speaks, her words ring clear and true as newly minted gold, and every spoken promise becomes the equivalent of actual performance. Blessed is the man, the society, the civilization whose master passion is HONOR.
    Sir Knight Lieutenant Commander, you will conduct your friend to the Commander for further instructions.
    Lieutenant Commander now conducts the Candidate to a point a few feet from the Commander’s station and says:
    If the Candidate has been seated in front of Commander’s Station, the Commander will continue without being addressed by Lieutenant Commander.
    LT. COMMANDER:
    Sir Knight Commander, my friend awaits your further pleasure.
    COMMANDER:
    Sir Knight Lieutenant Commander, we are glad to welcome your friend, but before we can extend to him the hand of fellowship we must know that he is physically and morally fitted for membership, that he fully understands the conditions of membership among us and that he is inclined to aid us in the general service of humanity. We must also require of him a solemn vow and we must be assured that he will remain true to his vow as long as he shall live. Do you vouch for your friend in these things?
    LT. COMMANDER:
    My friend will answer for himself. Let him be questioned.
    COMMANDER, standing, asks Candidate to stand up, and then asks the following questions and others if necessary to have Candidate fully understand the contract he is now about to complete:
    Stranger, how old are you?
    What is your business or occupation?
    Are you physically and mentally sound?
    Where were you born?
    Is your sight or hearing impaired?
    What is your weight? and your height?
    Do you use intoxicating liquors?
    Have you truthfully answered all questions in your written application?
    What physician examined you?
    Have you ever thought of taking your life?
    Do you know that our protection does not extendlto the beneficiaries of those who commit suicide?
    Did you read your written application before signing it?
    Do you know what it contains?
    What does your application say about your engaging in prohibited and hazardous occupations?
    Have you ever been finally suspended or expelled from membership in any Fraternal Order?
    Do you hold membership in any other Order at the present time? Why do you want to become a Maccabee?
    Lieutenant Commander conducts Candidate to seat on Eli at left of Commander’s station, facing the foot of the room, while he resumes his official station. It is the business of the Master at Arms to have the chair ready, but no use should be made of this chair now.
    COMMANDER:
    Sir Knights, you have heard the answers made to the several questions asked. What is your judgment in regard to the Candidate’s physical and mental qualifications, and as to his real motive and purpose in presenting himself before us?
     
    Suggestions
    Here will follow a general and somewhat animated discussion of the answers made by the Candidate. This discussion should be led by the Past Commander, Chaplain and Record Keeper, and the defense should be led by the Lieutenant Commander. Any member may take part in the discussion, and the Candidate himself should be given a chance— even urged—to defend himself.
    During the "speeches," frequent allusions should be made to the fact that "Honor is the first and greatest qualification for membership in the Order."
    The Record Keeper should always have a blank application on his table.
    Among the points of controversy may be mentioned that he looks older than he claims to be in his application. If over forty years of age, it is well to question him concerning his family record of births, etc., especially if he is a foreigner or of foreign descent or extraction. His weight, whether very heavy or very light may be commented on. His calling may be of a hazardous nature, or such as may be prejudicial to his best health, etc., etc. It not unfrequently happens that men claim their eye sight to be perfect and yet wear glasses. He may admit that he drinks a little, this may be inquired into almost to the extent of impertinence. Should it appear that the answers made in the Tent differ from those given to the doctor who made the medical examination, or the one who took his application, both the Candidate and the doctor or the one who took the application may be arraigned for a severe castigation. Sometimes it may be suggested that the doctor tried to aid an unworthy man or foist a bad risk, etc. Much questioning may be indulged in along that line so as to involve more persons than simply the Candidate.
    The Candidate may say that he answered all questions truthfully and yet be made to admit that he did not read all the questions contained in the application blank! If he says he knows what his written application contains, ask him to tell a few of the things stated therein. He may admit that he does not know exactly what it contains. In this event he should be severely criticised for signing a document, the contents of which he does not know much about, etc. Or he may be accused of a-willingness to sign most anything just to get into the Order. In the application he says that he has reviewed all answers with the doctor; press this matter with special reference to the subject of suicide and make it very plain that the beneficiaries of a member who commits suicide will get no benefits.
    If he has ever been suspended or expelled from any Order this can be used with powerful effect as indicating his real motive and his sense of honor. Never lose a chance to ring in the changes on "honor" in all its expressions. If he broke his promise with one Order, he would be likely to do the same in this Order; what must be the attitude of such an one in a contract that is for life! If he is a member of other Orders (and especially if a very active one) he may be charged with being a spy, wanting to find out how we do our work, that he may carry the information as news to others that he probably loves better, etc. Or it may be charged that all he wants with us is to get "insurance," and that he probably will never return to take the other degrees which would of course be poor evidence of his honorable intentions; or that he will not be likely to live up to the requirements of our Order since belonging to so many other Orders his affection must be badly "split up." Make him promise that he will take the other two degrees as soon as possible.
    His reasons for "joining the Maccabees" must be handled critically and with proper emphasis.
    The above are only a few of the many suggestions that may he offered for discussion based on his answers both in the application and while in the room. The discussion while dignified and earnest must not descend to anything base or vile or objectionably personal. The point being never to give the Candidate any other thought than that his advancement in the Order depends upon his ability to prove the purity of his intentions, his physical and mental health and that he is not attempting to gain a membership by fraud, etc. It is one of the objects of this part of the ceremony to get the Candidate to talk in order that something may be learned of his coolness, courage, integrity, etc. To that end, give him all the chance he wants to explain and argue and extenuate his shortcomings.
    SERGEANT, arising:
    Sir Kinight Commander, it is probable that some here desire to further express their opinions but do not care to do so in the presence of the Candidate. I move that he be conducted to the ante-room until we shall have finished our discussion.
    COMMANDER:
    Such will be taken as the will of all present unless there is objection. Sir Knight Lieutenant Commander, conduct your friend to the ante room and there await our further pleasure.
    Lieut. Com. without ceremony, conducts the candidate to the ante room (or to a room adjacent to the Tent room in case another candidate is in waiting) and remains with candidate until recalled. Everything being in readiness, the Lieutenant Commander being notified by the Sentinel, enters with the Candidate and advancing to the foot of the Altar says:

     

    Second Section


    LT. COMMANDER:
    Sir Knight Commander, saluting my friend awaits your pleasure.
    COMMANDER, rising:
    It is the purpose of this household of Fraternity to judge fellowman with leniency—to study the conduct of men with reference to the prompting motive. We are inclined to overlook mere irregularities or clerical errors, where we are satisfied that the intention has been honorable. Sir Knights, if you are satisfied that the motives of this candidate are honorable and are willing to test his fitness to become one of us by the supreme tests of strength, courage and liberality, rise to your feet. All arise Seated be. Addressing Candidate: In order to ascertain your fitness for membership in this Fraternal Household we shall give you ample opportunity to prove yourself possessed of the necessary physical and moral qualifications.
    Do you wish to avail yourself of these opportunities? Candidate should answer in the affirmative.
    Sir Knight Lieutenant Commander, proceed with the tests.
    The Candidate is now conducted by the Lieutenant Commander once round the room while other members place lifting machine near the center of the room, to which the candidate is conducted and made to stand on the platform, take hold of handles and directed to lift as much as he is able. The members may crowd around the machine and make all kinds of remarks as to his strength or weakness as the case may be. When he has given sufficient demonstration of strength so as to "discharge" the machine, the members may compliment him on his ability in that connection and make other complimentary remarks which, would indicate that he has demonstrated the possession of sufficient strength to show that he is in good physical condition.
    This test being completed the Lieutenant Commander conducts the candidate again around the room to a position about midway between the Altar and the Sergeant’s Station, where he is told by the Lieutenant Commander that his ‘courage" will now be put to the test. A few good marksmen have been selected to throw a number of stones at his body. He will be allowed the privilege of freedom, not being bound in any manner, but that he will be put upon his honor and thus most fittingly will his courage be tested. The marksmen will now post themselves at a distance of six or eight steps in front of the Candidate, each one carrying a genuine stone and also a small black sponge which has been saturated with water and squeezed until nearly dry, and which he will, at the proper signal, throw hard at the candidate.
    Lieutenant Commander now takes position to one side, about half way between the Candidate and the throwers, saying, "Are You Ready? I will count three and then say FIRE! Upon the word ‘Fire,’ each of you will throw a stone at the body before you, but not at any part he cannot protect with his hands. Are you ready? (They say "Ready") "One— Two—Three—FIRE!" The Lieutenant Commander will say, "Fire" very quickly after having counted three, or he may count very irregularly, in order to arouse a feeling of unsafety in the mind of the Candidate. The throwers must also be thrown off the "time" thus, so that they do not all throw at the same time. Care must be taken that none throw other than the imitation stones or doing anything that can injure the Candidate in any manner.
    Instead of using stones, the water guns are very effective for this purpose. Two guns are provided, one shoots forward and the other backward. We use the Wm. Tell act. Let Candidate stand as above, place an apple or block of wood on his head and direct some good marksman to shoot it off, using forward action gun. Then give the candidate a chance to "get even" by shooting the apple from the head of a fellow candidate or some member, and while using the pretext of reloading the gun, exchange it for the one with the back action, so that he will get the "shot" when he discharges the gun.
    If the Candidate has stood this ordeal without flinching or showing evidence of fear, the Lieutenant Commander should congratulate him upon his coolness and courage and tell him that the possession of such qualifications should make him a good Maccabee. If, on the other hand, he has shown evidence of fear by dodging or running away, the Lieutenant Commander should express his regret and admonish him that he should know and henceforth remember that in a Tent of the Maccabees he is among friends who would never do him harm or injury. These remarks are addressed to him by the Lieutenant Commander as he conducts him to the foot of the Altar facing the. Commander’s station, where the Lieutenant Commander will say:
    LT. COMMANDER:
    Sir Knight Commander, my friend awaits your further pleasure.
    COMMANDER, arising and in tones of approbation:
    Sir Knight Lieutenant Commander, your friend has demonstrated by tests most convincing that he is indeed well fitted to join with us in the cause of humanity. Let him be placed in position to take our solemn vow.
    Lieutenant Commander causes Candidate to stand at the foot of the Altar, his right hand resting upon the black-stone, his open left hand over his heart. By this time the Chaplain will have arrived at the head of the Altar. The Candidate and Chaplain being in position, the Commander will give three strong raps.
    CHAPLAIN, addressing Candidate:
    You will repeat after me:
    I do most solemnly vow, in the presence of these witnesses that henceforth, in all matters pertaining to the Order of The Knights of the Maccabees of the World, I will be bound by the laws of the Order in force from time to time.
    That I will not make known to any one not a member of this Order, any of its private work or any other thing that I may see or hear under cover of any Tent.
    That I will never take part in any unlawful meeting with members of the Order, nor will I publish, directly or indirectly, by spoken, written or printed words anything calculated to discredit the influence or honor of any department of the Order.
    That I will not knowingly wrong or defraud a Tent, a member or any of his family, nor permit it to be done by another if I can prevent it.
    That I will be temperate in my habits, and upright in my conduct so as to command the respect of all.
    To all this I pledge my honor as a man to remain true and steadfast as long as I shall live.
    ALL PRESENT:
    YOUR VOW SHALL BE REMEMBERED!
    Commander gives one rap. The Lieutenant Commander will conduct the Candidate to the station of the Commander.
    LT. COMMANDER:
    Sir Knight Commander, thus far my friend has appeared in the role of one who was anxious to know and understand our requirements and who is willing to give every evidence of his qualifications as well as of his good faith. He has taken our solemn vow and now desires to engage with us in the great and glorious work of fraternity as taught and practiced by The Knights of the Maccabees of the World.
    COMMANDER:
    My friend, in order to engage upon such a high and noble undertaking, you must be invested with the secret work of the Degree of Protection. I take great pleasure in communicating this work to you.
    To gain admission into a Tent open in the Degree of Protection, (the first), give any ordinary alarm at the outer door. This will attract the Picket, who will open the door or wicket, and to him you will give in a whisper, the Pass, which, for this term, is … This will admit you into the ante room, advance to the inner door and give one loud rap. The Sentinel will open the wicket and to him you will give, in a whisper, your name and the Token of this Degree, which is Honor. This will admit you into the Tent. You will now advance, by way of the Sergeant’s station, to the foot of the Altar on which should rest a copy of the Books of the Maccabees, opened at the first chapter of the second book—a small, black stone resting on the open book. Finding the Altar so arranged, you will give the salutation of this degree and the step, at the same time, saying, "Sir Knight Commander!" to the presiding officer. You will be recognized by a nod of the head, wave of the hand or gavel. You will then take your seat.
    The sign is given by placing the left foot directly in front of the right, the heel touching toe, thus.
    The salutation is given by raising open hands, palms forward, on a level with and about one foot distant from the face, as if shielding it from threatened injury or assault.
    The gavel is an emblem of authority when in the hands of the presiding officer during any review of the Tent. Three raps, gives them call all the members to their feet; one rap gives it, causes all to be seated; two raps gives them, calls to order.
    The symbolic color of this Degree is black; it symbolizes the dark prospects that surrounded Judas Maccabeus in the mighty struggle he waged in behalf of physical, mental, and spiritual liberty.
    I have now given you the regular work of our first degree.
    ANY SIR KNIGHT:
    Sir Knight Commander! Haven’t you forgotten something?
    COMMANDER:
    I presume that the Sir Knight alludes to the "grip!"
    The Commander approaches the Candidate, and, taking him by the right hand, acts as if about to give a very complicated grip. The Lieutenant Commander, at the proper time exclaims loudly, "HOLD!" The Commander slowly releases the hand of the Candidate and returning to his station says:

    Our Order has no grip! That is one of its distinguishing features. Should any one ever pretend to have, or give, the grip of this Order, you may safely regard him an imposter, and engage in no further examination of him.
    If a beneficial member, the Commander will proceed as follows. If only a social member, omit the next paragraph:

    Your insurance protection is in force while you remain in good standing, which you have just promised to do as long as you live. Under our rules you should pay your Monthly Rates to our Record Keeper before the end of each month. This is necessary to keep in good standing.
    You may not, however, take part with us in the regular work of our Tent, until you have taken our second and third degrees, all regular work being done in the third degree.
    If the second and third degrees are to be "communicated," that ceremony should now take place, after which the Commander will conclude with "I welcome, etc."
    This we hope you will do at your earliest convenience, that you may be a duly qualified Knight of the Maccabees.
    Taking Candidate by the hand.
    I welcome, and at the same time, congratulate you upon your admission to membership among us. We sincerely hope that the brotherly relationship established here, at this time, may be a continuing one; that you may be a regular attendant at our reviews, and that in the practice of the principles of Maccabeeism you may find both pleasure and profit. Causes Candidate to face Altar.
    Brothers, please come and join me in giving welcome to our friend.
    The Tent will be at ease for a few moments.
    After all have had an opportunity to meet and welcome the new member, the Commander will again give two raps and call the Tent to order, the Lieutenant Commander conducting the Candidate to a seat on the Eli, which should be placed beside the station of the Master at Arms. The Commander, as soon as quiet is restored, will inquire if there is any further business to be transacted in this degree before proceeding to close, when some one, who has been posted in advance, will create a pretext for the purpose of raising a little money. Sometimes an object of simple charity is advanced. A widow with sick children has come to town, she is a widow of a Maccabee, and should be helped quickly, no time for the usual proceedings, red tape, etc., etc. Sometimes it may be a sick Sir Knight who is passing through town, and is in need of help, or it may be one of the members of the Tent.
    The Sentinel may announce that there is a visiting Sir Knight in the Ante Room, and a committee may be appointed to wait on him and ascertain his wants. He may be a member of the tent who is playing the roll of a "stranger," and if he is not known to the candidate he may be invited in, and allowed to tell a "hard luck" story, thus giving a pretext for raising some money. It may be for himself or his family, or if in a small place where the candidate probably knows everybody, the "committee" may simply report without bringing the stranger in. They may say that he preferred not to come in while the tent was acting on his appeal.
    Sometimes an appropriation for building purposes or for a worthy enterprise like a church, a hospital, etc. Anything will do so that it is agreed upon in advance and promoted with due earnestness and vigor. After there has been some little discussion of the matter, the Commander will request those who will give $5.00 or $10.00 or even more according to the need of the case in hand to arise and the Record Keeper will take their names. No one will rise in response to this suggestion, but the Sir Knight who has charge of the "Eli" will work the lever and as the result of which the new member will be compelled to rise to his feet. The Commander will immediately step forward, and congratulate him upon his promptness.
    The Candidate is now given a pocket coin, which he is asked to always carry with him, not only as a reminder of his experience during his first evening among the Maccabees, but as a means of identification.
    The Candidate is being seated. If no other degrees are to be conferred on this Candidate at this review, he is allowed to retire, after being requested to be ready for the second degree at the next review. After the Candidate has been excused the Tent will open again in the third degree and proceed with the regular order of business. Care must be taken to know that the Eli is working properly—and several members should be "posted" so that if for any reason it does not work promptly they will arise so as to not have the "request for help" fail and thus embarrass the Tent instead of the Candidate.

     
    Regular Closing

    COMMANDER, rises:
    Master at Arms, That officer rises and gives "token of sincerity," what is the last and constant care of every Knight of, the Maccabees?
    MASTER AT ARMS: To remember his pledges to the Order, and to protect humanity, especially the widows and the orphans.
    COMMANDER: Sir Knights, never fail to discharge these important duties. Let us now sing the closing ode.
    Gives three raps with gavel.
    Closing Ode
    Air: —Sweet Bye and Bye.
    1. We now go from our labors tonight,
    To our homes, to our hearths, to our rest
    May our lives overflow with kind acts,
    Our hearts full of joy and tenderness.
    Chorus—Let us join in the song,
    As it comes from that beautiful shore
    Yes, we’ll join in the song,
    As it floats from that beautiful shore.
    2. When we meet in our Tent once again,
    When we enter this guarded abode,
    As brothers our work we’ll review,
    And endeavor to lighten each load.
    Chorus—Let us join in the song, etc.
    3. When our life’s grand review shall be held,
    In yonder grand mansion of rest,
    All warfare and trials will be o’er,
    In that beautiful land of the blest.
    Chorus—Let us join in the song, etc.
    COMMANDER:
    Sir Knight Master at Arms remove the circle; close the book; collect the odes and place all in the depository of this Tent.
    MASTER AT ARMS, after complying with the orders, returns to his station and says:
    Sir Knight Commander, your orders have been obeyed.
    COMMANDER:
    Sir Knight Sentinel, call in the Picket.
    SENTINEL, after the Picket appears, says:
    Sir Knight Commander, your orders have been obeyed.
    COMMANDER:
    This Review is ended. Sir Knights, retire to your homes in peace, and hold yourselves ever in readiness to serve our noble cause.
    All clap hands, right hand above left; taking time from the Commander, he leading. All bring hands nearly together twice, and the third time together at once; and the review is ended.

     

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    Knights of the Maccabees of the World
    Ritual of the Second, or Degree of Friendship

     
    Section 1

    Instructions
    The Tent is arranged to represent an open air Court within, or adjacent to, the camp of Antiochus the Fourth. At the head of the room should be a platform to represent an imp)rovised throne on which the king is to be seated. A thick curtain extending across foot of room should. be so arranged as to be easily parted in the centre. The king should be seated on the throne, the four soldiers near him as a guard, and Eleazar concealed at foot of room. Nothing within the inclosure.
    Actors and Costumes
    Sir Knight Commander as KING ANTIOCHUS IV. Crown, coat of mail reaching to knees, official robe of office, gray or brown wig and beard, flesh colored long hose or leggings, sandals strapped well up the calves, scepter in right hand.
    Sir Knight Chaplain as ELEAZAR. Dressed in the garb of a priest, long flowing white gown, white turban with cape to cover hair, long flowing gray beard, large crooked staff.
    Sir Knight Lieutenant Commander as JUDAS MACCABEUS. Dressed as a Jewish peasant, black and white turban, tunic, hose and sandals.
    Four selected Sir Knights as SOLDIERS. Wearing helmets, shields, coats of mail reaching to knees, spears, tight fitting long flesh colored hose or leggings, sandals.
    Properties
    Two leather scourges, a metal dish or urn in which to burn the red fire during "tableau."
    Preliminaries
    The preliminaries to be observed before the ceremony begins are exactly like those observed in the First Degree, changing the wording and the dressing of the Altar, etc., to fit the Second, instead of the First, Degree.
    In dressing the Altar, the Master at Arms will remove the Altar to one side of the Chaplain’s station.

     

    Ceremony


    COMMANDER as King Antiochus:
    Sir Knight Lt. Commander, be pleased to retire and introduce our kinsman.
    LT. COMMANDER as Judas, arises and salutes the Commander. He then retires to the ante-room where the Candidate should be in waiting and addresses him as follows:
    My Kinsman, having been found to be physically and morally worthy, you received the First, or Degree of Protection, in this Order. You are now entitled to be advanced to the Second, or Degree of Friendship. Nothing will be required of you that a man in pursuit of the higher degrees of this Order would hesitate of refuse to endure. I promise that I will accompany you in your journey and be your special friend. With this assurance on my part are you willing to proceed?
    Candidate must answer in the affirmative.
    Then come with me.
    Lieutenant Commander then enters the room with the Candidate and standing at opening in curtain delivers the following in an earnest, impressive manner:
    I trust you will thoughtfully observe, and vividly remember, all that you are about to see and hear. In order to prepare you, in a measure, for what will soon take place, allow me to call your attention to an event and happening in the history of the human race that doubtless was one of the most pathetic, and, in some respects, the most remarkable this world has ever seen.
    About 175 years before the present era (over two thousand years ago, as you have learned,) there ruled in Syria a king by the name of Antiochus the Fourth.
    He was a most cruel and rapacious despot. After plundering the Holy City of Jerusalem be issued a proclamation that all the people of Palestine should deny the ancient faith and forsake their venerable forms of worship. Many, in order to save their lives, obeyed the impious decree. There were some, however, who preferred death to dishonor. One such was Eleazar, a doctor of the law. He not only refused to obey the edict of the pagan king but determined to go to him and personally make answer before him, according to his understanding of the Holy Ordinance.
    At this moment, the curtain is drawn apart by a Sir Knight selected for the purpose. The king and his Guards are seen at the head of the room. Eleazar, erect and vigorous, emerges from the corner of the room near the foot and boldly approaches the king and his Guards. The instant that Eleazar comes in sight, the Lieutenant Commander will exclaim:
    BEHOLD THE MAN!
    Eleazar reaches a point about ten feet distant from the king, whose attendants meantime manifest much impatience waiting for his order to attack the bold intruder. The king, who has been extending his scepter for some time, now exclaims:
    KING: HOLD! His Guards instantly carry or ground spears. Who art thou?
    ELEAZAR:
    O King! My name is Eleazar. I am a doctor of the law. Bows in a dignified manner.
    KING, leaning forward, and critically looking over the venerable figure:
    What wouldest thou before me, ANT IOCHUS. I have not sent for thee!
    ELEAZAR, slowly and with much emphasis:
    No, O king! Thou hast not sent for me. But I hear that thou hast commanded my people to forsake the sacred law and deny its authority. It would be shameful in me to seek shelter at this time, neither will I stain my age and office with hypocrisy. So I have come before thee to say, that I will not obey thy commands,—I will not embrace thy false teachings!
    KING, seriously:
    Humph! Knowest thou the penalty inflicted upon ALL who refuse to obey my will and commands.
    ELEAZAR, with much fervor and dignity:
    Yea, O King; DEATH! A pause. But what if I do escape thy punishment at this time, I could never escape the Justice of Almighty God! And so I would rather lay down my life now, for the sake of my country and its divine laws, than leave to the young men of my nation pointing to Candidate, an example of dishonor! O king, I would!
    KING, talking to himself:
    This foolish old man shall be taken in his own conceit. And yet I fear nothing in the earth so much as that kind of a spirit!
    Rising suddenly and with much vehemence.
    Away with him! Let him be scourged to death! Stands erect and defiant the very picture of irresponsible power, while the following tableau is being enacted: The Guards instantly seize Eleazar and rush him to near center of Tent. Two of the Guards hold him while the other two mercilessly lash his back with the leather scourges. Eleazar, writhing and groaning, drops limp in death at the feet of the assassins. The king now descends his throne and stands at head of body, chuckling with fiendish satisfaction, and folded arms; the Soldiers raise their spears as if to pierce the corpse; those who did the scourging stand,—one with the scourge resting on the body, the other with scourge raised as if about to give another blow. At this Instant the red fire is lighted and allowed to burn about one minute. The curtain is then closed and the Lieutenant Commander says:
    JUDAS:
    The fidelity of that man is a memorial of civil virtue and personal heroism, not alone to his country and generation but unto all peoples of every age,—as long as patriotism and piety and honesty shall be considered honorable among men. Such sublime courage, such utter contempt of death, such free will honesty, mankind will never willingly forget. It is just such heroism as this that is the glory of our race.
    If you are willing to assist in avenging similar dastardly assaults upon Honor, freedom of thought, and liberty of conscience, follow me.
    Candidate is conducted to ante-room and Lieutenant Commander returns to the room.

     

    Section 2

    Instructions
    In this section, the Tent is supposed to represent a scene in the vicinity, and within the walls of Jerusalem. Curtains of the first section remain. The room should be lighted as in the preceding section.
    Actors and Costumes
    Sir Knight Commander as GENERAL. Dressed as was King Antiochus in first section, except that the crown is removed for a helmet, the robe of office discarded, and a short Grecian sword takes the place of the scepter. He should also carry a scroll which he is supposed to be studying.
    Lieuteuant Commander as JUDAS MACCABEUS. Dressed as usual but wearing a red turban.
    Master at Arms as FRIEND. Dressed as a peasant.
    Four selected Sir Knights as SOLDIERS. Dressed as usual.
    Properties
    The Route. A strip of rough pathway composed of triangular or round pieces of wood, about the size of a large marble; a mat so arranged that electrical contacts may be used and a galvanic battery should be used in this section.
    The Mossy Stone. A large sponge filled with ice water. This is to be placed on a box or stool near foot of room opposite to or across from the inner door, or if an electric battery is used this can be done away with and the "mat" substituted for sponge which should be placed on a collapsible chair.
    Tent. An actual tent or the picture of one on a curtain. It should be near the head of the room. A few pieces of cord should be found within or near the tent.
    Sheet. A piece of strong cotton, about ten feet square. Have this near the place where it is most convenient to leave Candidate.
    Book of Laws. A copy of the Laws of the Maccabees of the World, or a copy of the Decalogue written in Hebrew. This to be in possession of Lieutenant Commander.
    Blindfold. Anything ordinarily used for that purpose.
    Bandages. These must be badly torn and blood stained. There should be one for the head, another for the arm, and possibly one for the body or lower limbs.
    Tunic for the Candidate, with inside pocket on left side. Also black and white turban.
    Tunic. A badly torn, blood stained garment.

     

    Ceremony

    When everything is in readiness the Lieutenant Commander retires to the place where he left the Candidate, and asks him to change his coat for a tunic, then placing a turban on Candidate’s head proceeds as follows:
    LT. COMMANDER as Judas standing with Candidate at inner door wide open:
    A short time ago you witnessed a most heroic sacrifice in the cause of civil and religious freedom. You expressed a determination to assist in the avenging of all such crimes against liberty of mind and conscience. The time for action has come. Let us go tip to Jerusalem, join our fortunes with those of the kinsmen and friends of Judas Maccabeus, for the house of Mattathias and his friends have risen in revolt against the cruel and monstrous king Antiochus.
    In order that nothing may impede the rapidity of , our movements, and also for the purpose of avoiding, recognition, we have changed your clothes. My kinsman, let us enter. Entering the room and halting immediately within the inner door.
    The way to Jerusalem is doubtless thoroughly guarded by the soldiers of Antiochus. Unknown perils may thickly surround us. If captured, we must not disclose our identity under any circumstances or certain death will be our fate. We may never meet again. You have taken the Degree of Protection and are entitled to that of Friendship. Here then! Produces the ‘Book of the Law.’ Take this sacred book as I take it and repeat after me:
    Each take book in left hand clasp right hands upon and over it saying:

    In this solemn moment, and over this sacred volume, I promise to be, and to continue, your friend no matter what danger, hardship, or loss may come to me on account of this covenant. AMEN!
    Now you may trust in my friendship. Therefore, with confidence, let me blindfold you so that nothing may hinder you in relying upon my advice and directions.
    Lieutenant Commander blindfolds Candidate. Lieutenant Commander then arrays himself in the tattered, blood-stained garments and says:
    My friend, thou hast mislaid the Book of the Law. Here it is. Keep it on thy person and never suffer anything to part you from it. Carry it under thy coat, yea, over thy very heart. Puts Book in Candidate's pocket. Now let us start on our dangerous undertaking. We are now in the valley of Jehosophat, near the brook Kedron; the road is rough and filled with sharp rocks. We must proceed carefully.
    He is quickly and vigorously accosted by the Master at Arms.
    MASTER AT ARMS as Friend, placing hand on shoulder of Candidate:
    Halt! Who are you?
    JUDAS:
    A Friend.
    FRIEND:
    Where are you going?
    JUDAS:
    To Jerusalem.
    FRIEND:
    For what purpose?
    JUDAS:
    To join the kinsmen and friends of the Maccabees who have risen in revolt against the atrocities of Antiochus.
    FRIEND, with surprise and avidity:
    Ah-h! I too am on my way to the Holy City for the same purpose! Let us make haste! Straight ahead!
    The Lieutenant Commander and Master at Arms hurry the Candidate over the ‘route.’ This must be done diligently in order to somewhat tire the Candidate. If the ‘route’ has plenty of electricity it will make the ceremony more interesting.
    FRIEND:
    Thy friend seems tired; let him be seated a moment upon this moss covered rock.
    Lieutenant Commander and Master at Arms will see that Candidate sits down properly on the "rock."
    JUDAS:
    What! Rested so soon! My friend is impatient to reach the city. And, if I mistake not, there is much evidence to indicate that foreign soldiers have been here quite recently. Let us hasten.
    Immediately there is a terrible din of shouting and clashing of weapons, with all kinds of exclamations. The Candidate is rushed around the circumference of the room at a breakneck rate of speed, but with great care not to injure him in any manner, while his conductors exclaim, "A detachment of soldiers is upon us!" "We are discovered!" "We shall be slain if captured!" "We are lost!" Then the Lieutenant Commander and Master at Arms differ as to which way to run. One says, "Let us go this way!" The other will say "No, this way!" While thus wrangling and pulling the Candidate first one way then another, the Lieutenant Commander becomes separated from the Candidate. The object of thus separating the Candidate and the Lieutenant Commander will appear presently.
    Master at Arms and Candidate now run right into the detachment of Syrian soldiers, who set up a most derisive and cruel "horse laugh," and Master at Arms drops out of play.
    FIRST SOLDIER:
    Well, if we haven’t another of the rebels! And in disguise too
    SECOND SOLDIER:
    Tear off his mask and lets see what he looks like! Tears off Candidate’s blindfold.
    FIRST SOLDIER:
    Shall we kill him or take him to the General?
    SECOND SOLDIER:
    Why take him to the General, of course, he may be a spy! Ha, Ha.
    The other soldier agrees with a hearty laugh, and they hurry the Candidate about the room to head of Tent, where the General has meantime taken position before his Tent, reading his scroll, or sitting on the platform and reading there.
    FIRST SOLDIER, both giving military salute:
    General, we have secured another captive. The foraging band you dispatched up the valley, came upon three miserable looking peasants and proceeded to capture them. They offered resistance. One was slain on the spot. One defended himself in a most remarkable manner. One undertook to run away. We caught him and have him before you.
    GENERAL, looking up from his paper wearily:
    Let him be searched.
    The Soldiers search him, and finally discover the Book.
    SECOND SOLDIER:
    General, we find nothing but this book full of all kinds of strange markings.
    The General takes the book and examines it quickly, for during the time the second Soldier makes his response, the other two Soldiers are bringing the Lieutenant Commander in.
    GENERAL, excitedly:
    Why this is the Book of the Law. He is a Maccabee! Let him stand aside until we find out what this struggle means.
    Stand the Candidate on the Electric Carpet, and put same into action when General orders him thrown "over the wall."
    THIRD SOLDIER, panting and in broken sentences:
    General, the squad you sent to forage the valley came upon three peasants. One we killed. The
    other escaped. One of them seemed to have the strength of a lion and the skill of David of old. Reinforcements came to our aid else we could not have taken him. He is covered with wounds and almost ready to die from the loss of blood. So we brought him hither. Thinking he might be of more value to you alive than dead, we refrained from killing him.
    We bound up his wounds. In his delirium he continually called for a friend. This we do not understand.
    Question him yourself. Here is his sword stained with the blood of our comrades.
    GENERAL, takes the sword without examining it,—his eyes are fastened upon Judas, the captive:
    My comrades, when I report this affair to his majesty the king, it will please me to mention your valor and skill. Addressing Judas the captive in loud rough tone of voice.
    Stand up, you murderous rebel and tell me who you are!
    Lieutenant Commander, sways from side to side as if about to faint; in a moment he drops to the floor as if dead.
    GENERAL:
    What, refuse to answer me. Ha! Ha! You shall be made to speak. Guards bind him that he may be made ready for the torture. Judas struggles feebly with the Guards, who bind him in such a way that he can free himself.
    GENERAL, turning to Candidate:
    You trembling poltroon, you must know who this man is pointing to the prostrate body of Judas. Your life depends upon your answer. If you do not tell me truly you shall be tortured until your tongue is loosened. Speak
    If he refuses, more emphatically:
    SPEAK, I SAY, and tell me who this traitor is or you shall be made to stiffer as no mortal ever did before.
    If candidate still refuses to disclose who his friend is the General says:
    GENERAL:
    These fellows must be friends.
    If Candidate tells who his friend is, then the General says:
    GENERAL:
    Ah! You are not only a rebel but a traitor as well, who would betray a friend and kinsman to save his own miserable life. Yours shall be the fate of a traitor.
    In either event the General now turns and looks at Judas a moment and then his eyes fall upon the Grecian sword, which he has, apparently, without thought, taken by the hilt with one hand and rested the point in the palm of the other hand. He looks at it; turns it over; raises it high above his head in both hands and with the most frightful outburst of indignant fury, exclaims:
    Why this is the sword of Apollonius ! And that must be pointing to Lt. Commander Judas Maccabeus who killed him! He drops or casts away the sword, so that it may be found in about the centre of room and exclaims: Accursed blade that thou shouldst ever serve our foes! Quickly extending his hands towards the Soldiers, who rush upon the prostrate form of the Lieutenant Commander ready to hack it into pieces.
    NO! Brave soldiers never mangle a fallen foe! Leave him as he fell; later we must in honor return and give him a soldier’s burial,—for he was valiant and brave!
    The sword must be lost sight of or forgotten in the confusion.
    General now turns to candidate and says:
    But as for this poltroon, Guards let his eyes be blinded and his body thrown over the walls as food for the vultures and hyenas. Let it be done!
    Candidate is again blindfolded. Four soldiers take him and carry him around a little ways and then with a "one, two three" signal cast him into the sheet held by four or six strong Sir Knights, who carry and lay him down on Electric Carpet near Judas, wrapping sheet about him and put on the current when Judas says, "Still Alive."
    An alarm is now heard and the general shouts.
    GENERAL:
    Ah! The enemy is upon us. Away to your posts. The Power of Antiochus shall be felt.
    General and Soldiers rush out behind curtain at foot of tent.
    A few moments are passed in perfect silence. Lieutenant Commander begins to move a little, groans as if in pain, and slowly works himself into a sitting, then standing posture. Slowly and painfully he staggers about and as if by accident, he stumbles over the body of the Candidate. He tears off the blindfold, listens to his heart, etc., and says:
    JUDAS:
    My friend! My friend! And still alive. Fortunate indeed are we to have escaped with our lives from those cruel barbarians. I was parted from you against my will and in spite of my best efforts.
    Come, let us hasten to join the forces of the Maccabees that we may aid in the cause of humanity, and share in the glory of their triumph. The destiny of Judea and the liberty of its people hang in the balance.
    Takes Candidate’s right arm and as they approach the sword, Judas discovers it, stops, and as he takes it from the floor, says:
    Ah ! here is my trtisty blade again.
    Judas and the General may here fight a duel with swords—Judas victorious.
    Turning to Candidate and holding sword aloft in his right hand, left foot on prostrate form of General, Judas says:
    Thou shalt yet listen to a proclamation of Judea’s freedom, for unto the just belongeth the victory.
    Candidate is then quickly conducted to the ante-room to be prepared for the next section.

     

    Section 3

    Instructions
    In this section the room will be arranged as it was in the First Degree, Section 1, the Books of the Maccabees opened at the Second Chapter of the Second Book, and lying diagonally across it a naked sword (the sword of Appollonius), with its hilt pointing towards the upper left hand corner of the Altar, the same to be observed from the foot of the Altar.
    Actors and Costumes
    Commander as MATTATHIAS. White flowing gown, white wig and beard, sandals, staff.
    Lieutenant Commander as JUDAS. Red turban, tunic, hose or leggings and sandals.
    Past Commander as JOHN, son of Mattathias. Colored flowing gown, black turban, black beard and sandals.
    Chaplain as ELEAZAR, son of Mattathias. White flowing gown, white turban and sandals.
    When the Lieutenant Commander is sure that everything is in readiness, he will so inform the Commander and retire to the ante-room and introduce the Candidate as follows:
    JUDAS takes Candidate by either arm and without saying anything to him, goes to inner door, giving any number of raps.
    SENTINEL, opens the door slightly and says:
    Who comes?
    JUDAS:
    Judas of the house of Mattathias, with a friend.
    SENTINEL:
    I will inform the Venerable Sire of thy presence.
    Closes the door and striking the floor twice with his heel, says:
    Venerable Sire, without the inner gate stands thy son Judas with a friend.
    MATT.:
    Let him enter with his friend.
    SENTINEL, opens the door wide:
    Thy father bids thee enter with thy friend.
    Lieutenant Commander enters with Candidate and both stand at foot of Altar.
    JUDAS:
    Father, I have with me a Friend who having witnessed the death of Eleazar, and himself experienced some of the atrocities practiced upon our people, now desires to be more intimately and firmly bound unto us by a covenant of Friendship.
    MATT.:
    My son, thy friend is welcome. His object is most worthy. But first let him listen to the further teachings of this degree, because the lessons we would have him learn from these thrilling experiences deal with the most sacred relations of life, and teach loyalty to country, home and friends.
    JOHN:
    Under the Tents of our beloved Order, men of every kind and shade of religious faith, political opinion, and philosophical doctrine, come together; at our Altars they make the same declarations and assume the same vows,—promising to give the influences of their lives a new and different direction; here all differences become merged into one great purpose and lofty sentiment: Here is the "homing place" of many kindred spirits. The philosophic truth that, things alike in all their parts are identical, finds its highest expression in a place like this where the best things of the moral world are the common aim of each and all. Here, the noble of heart reveal themselves to each other in the many little kindnesses done in each others presence; the tender hearted discover each other by the sympathy each expresses in the presence of the other; brotherly natures find their affinities in those who never weary in the saying and doing of fraternal things; friendly natures, sleeping in the lives of all men, rise in majesty to meet and salute each other.
    CHAPLAIN:
    But be not deceived; a friend is more than a mere acquaintance and friendship is much more than external agreeableness. Your friend is youl other self; neither chance nor change can ever lessen his loyalty. A friend sticketh closer than a brother. So subtle, so transcendant a thing is friendship, that you can never by seeking find it out,—it must find you. And you will be most sure of possessing this pearl of inestimable price by showing yourself a friend to that which is good, and true, and just, and merciful in the sight of God and man. Marvel not then, if in adversity you find yourself friendless, if you have been a counterfeit yourself. Nothing is truer than that mercy begets mercy, justice begets justice, charity begets charity, and FRIENDLINESS BEGETS FRIENDSHIP. When He, who spake as never man spake, would promote His associates to the highest rank he could bestow on earth, He said to them, "Henceforth I call you not servants but I have called you friends." "Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you." And so, my friend, cast out of your mind and heart and life, all envy, hate, fraud and the secret fault that no man but yourself may perchance know, and fit yourself for the indwelling of the spirit of universal fellowship,—FRIENDSHIP!
    Judas, my brother, you will now place our friend at the Altar, where, after proper reflection, if he so desires, he may be bound with us in a life long covenant of friendship.
    JUDAS conducts Candidate to foot of Altar and causes him to kneel on both knees and says:
    Remembering your covenant of friendship with me, if you are now willing to make a similar covenant with all Knights of the Maccabees of the World, and I charge that you consider well what this may mean, you will, when you are ready, arise and say aloud "I am."
    When Candidate has arisen and said, "I am," Eleazar advances to head of Altar, takes the naked sword, hilt in right hand, point resting in the palm of the open left hand. Candidate is instructed to place his right hand on the naked blade and his open left hand over his heart, Mattathias then gives three raps, and while the obligation is being given he will remove wig and beard.
    ELEAZAR:
    Repeat after me: I do now, sincerely and solemnly promise and vow:
    That I will never fail this Order, my country, my friends, nor those of my own flesh and blood in time of danger, need, or sorrow.
    That I will comfort with my sympathy and assist with my substance all worthy members of the Order, their families and dependents who may be in sorrow or need,
    That of them I will speak no evil, and should I see, hear, or know of anything that threatens harm them, I will give them timely notice or warning.
    To all this, I pledge my sacred honor as a Maccabee.
    ALL MEMBERS, in concert:
    THY PLEDGE IS RECORDED!
    Commander now gives one rap. Lieutenant Commander conducts Candidate to station of Commander who will instruct him in the secret work of the degree.
    COMMANDER, rising:
    To gain admission into a Tent open in the Degree of Friendship, give any ordinary alarm at the outer door, and to the Picket answering it, the Pass, in a whisper, which for the present term is … gives it. Then give two loud raps on inner door. To the Sentinel, who will open the wicket, you will give in a whisper your name and the Token of this Degree, which is Amity. Entering the room, proceed to the foot of the Altar in the usual manner. On the Altar should rest a copy of the Books of the Maccabees opened at the second chapter of the Second Book, and resting thereon should be a Grecian sword with the hilt resting towards your left hand and the point diagonally downwards and towards your right. If the Altar is so dressed, you will give the step and the salutation of the Second Degree, which is made by placing your open right hand on the naked blade of the sword before you, and your left hand, palm open, over your heart.
    The symbolic color of this degree is red. It symbolizes the zeal of Judas Maccabeus in his struggles for the liberation of his people, and in defense of country, home and friends taking Candidate by the hand.
    On behalf of this Tent, as well as personally, I extend to you the warm and generous hand of friendship, and bid you welcome to all the rights and privileges of our Second Degree,—the Degree of Friendship. Again let me remind you, that if you would have friends in the hour of need, you must be friendly, you must be just and true.
    Members may now come forward and congratulate the Candidate on his advancement, the Tent being at ease for a few minutes. If the Candidate is not to receive the third I degree at this review, when the Tent is called to order, the Commander will explain to him that he should present himself as early as possible for the final degree—and then excuse him.

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    Knights of the Maccabees of the World
    Ritual of the Third, or Degree of Loyalty


    First Section
    In this section the scene is at Modin and represents the Temptation of Mattathias and the revolt of his House. The curtains are to remain across the foot of the room; they should have an opening in the middle. The Tent shows none of the regular furnishings, and the official stations are not occupied. The room should represent a market or other public place, in a dilapidated old Jewish village.
    The floor should be devoid of all furniture, except a rude Altar, about eight or ten feet from curtain at foot of Tent, around which are seated on mats, rugs, or low camp stools, five persons, representing Mattathias and four sons. The Lieutenant Commander, who represents Judas, is to be with the Candidate. A light should be burning on, or in front of, the Altar, all others in the room turned down not too low. A Sir Knight should be dressed as a peasant. The Sir Knight so costumed should remain behind the curtains, near foot of Tent, with Apelles and his soldiers, ready to come on the floor quickly with them.
    Actors and properties
    APELLES—Dressed as Antiochus in the first section, without cloak or beard and wig, with helmet instead of crown and with short sword hanging at side in belt.
    MATTATHIAS—dressed as was Eleazar in the second degree, but wearing white wig and long flowing white beard without turban and with staff.
    HIS FOUR SONS—dressed as priests.
    JUDAS—as in the second degree, third section.
    SOLDIERS—as in the second degree.
    SIR KNIGHT—as Jewish peasant.
    CANDIDATE—as Jewish peasant.
    SENTINEL—as a Jewish peasant armed with spear.

     

    Ceremony

    By the time the Candidate is ready, the floor should have been arranged. Curtain parted at foot of Tent.
    COMMANDER, as MATTATHIAS:
    Sir Knight Lt. Commander, be pleased to retire and introduce the Candidate.
    LT. COMMANDER, as JUDAS, rises, salutes, retires to ante room and addresses Candidate as follows:
    Having served satisfactorily in the Degrees of Protection and Friendship, you are now entitled to receive the final and highest Degree of our beloved Order, that of LOYALTY or KNIGHTHOOD. Let us enter.
    Judas takes the Candidate by the arm, and, without any side conversation, jests, or suggestion of any kind, but in a sober and dignified manner, leads him to the inner door, and knocks several times.
    SENTINEL, opening the door slightly, says:
    Who comes?
    JUDAS:
    Judas, of the house of Mattathias, with a friend.
    SENTINEL:
    I will inform the Venerable Sire of thy presence.
    Closes the door and, advancing to the opening in curtain at foot of the Tent, strikes the floor twice with the end of his spear, saying:
    SENTINEL:
    Venerable Sire, without the gate stands thy son Judas, with a friend.
    MATTATHIAS:
    If he be Judas, my son, let him enter, and present his friend.
    SENTINEL, returns and opens wide the door and says:
    Judas, thy father bids thee enter, and present thy friend.
    They enter quietly, and stand before the opening in the curtain at foot of Tent, and wait until Mattathias has finished his lament.
    MATTATHIAS, in tones of deep distress, with head bowed on left hand:
    Oh, Jerusalem! The Holy! Thy sanctuary is laid waste; thy feasts are turned into
    mourning; thy Sabbath into a reproach; and thy honor into contempt. Wherefore was I born to see this misery of my people, and the sad day when the Holy City should be delivered into the hands of the enemy? To what end should we live any longer?
    JUDAS, as soon as all is quiet in a low voice says:
    Father, I have with me a friend, who, having witnessed the death of Eleazar and having experienced some of the atrocities practiced upon our people, bound himself firmly unto us by a life long covenant of friendship, and who now desires to actively engage with us in the cause of humanity.
    MATTATHIAS (Those at Altar rise, the sons assisting Mattathias who tremblingly leaning on his staff, In a feeble voice says):
    My son, thy friend is welcome; but, before we accept him let him truthfully answer me. Addressing Candidate, says: Art thou true and loyal to thy home and friends? Candidate answers. Dost thou love thy country? Candidate answers. Art thou zealous of its laws? Candidate answers. Dost thou observe them thyself? Candidate answers. Further art thou willing to yield up thy life, shouldst thy country or its institutions require such a sacrifice?
    Candidate
    answers. Kinsman, adversity surrounds us, and the hand of calamity lies heavily upon us. Who knows how soon thy assurances may be put to the test? Perchance, this very night ! If, therefore, thou wouldst recall or modify them, do so now before it is too late. At this moment a flourish of trumpets occurs, with commotion, cheering, etc. Mattathias continuing says: The hour has come.
    Apelles and his soldiers, also Peasant, advance from the 2 corner near the foot of the enclosure toward the corner near the head of the enclosure. Soldiers seize and set up Mattathias’ Altar in front of Apelles, and then take places. There should be a small urn with alcohol burning on this altar, also some red fire which the Peasant will light when he offers sacrifice. Then Apelles says:
    APELLES:
    Hear ye! Hear ye! Men of Judea!
    The King makes proclamation unto you. Unfolds a scroll and reads.
    "I ANTIOCHUS, would have all my kingdom one people. Now, therefore, unto you it is commanded, If that all your former laws and customs shall cease; The Maccabees contemptuously turn away that you shall forthwith set up Altars to Almighty Jove; and that you shall not henceforth discriminate against the flesh of swine. In token of your compliance, you are commanded to sacrifice before the reader these presents.
    I, ANTIOCHUS, have spoken!" Folds the Scroll.
    During the reading much dissatisfaction is expressed or manifested by the crowd. Mattathias and his sons appear indignant and behave almost with daring. Apelles looks about him and continues:
    By the authority in me vested by my Illustrious Sovereign, Antiochus, I invite the men of Judea to advance and sacrifice! THUS!
    He then places one of the red fires in the urn and burns it. None advance. Then in a louder and more mandatory tone:
    In the name of the Great King, I command that ye burn incense on this Altar!
    None come forward. Apelles now seems to discover the patriarchial form of Mattathias in the crowd.

    Behold the noble Mattathias! Come venerable sire, thou of the priestly line of Joarib, set thou an example of obedience to thy hesitating kinsmen!
    MATTATHIAS in a calm but determined tone of voice:
    I cannot obey the order of your king. Soldiers now pass into the crowd as if soliciting men to advance and sacrifice.
    APELLES, extending his right hand quickly, as if in warning:
    Mattathias! Think first, and then make answer! Hast thou not heard why and how the venerable Eleazar perished? Advance and sacrifice!
    MATTATHIAS:
    All Judea hath heard of his fidelity to God and native land, and his dying groans will echo throughout the world while time lasts. God forbid that any of us who remain should deny what he died for. I and my house will remain steadfast!
    APELLES, argumentatively:
    The people of other countries have obeyed—yea even Jason the High Priest at Jerusalem and many more of thine own people have obeyed. Thou art a Father in Israel— thou art a man of influence and crowned with wisdom and Honor. Bow before this Altar and thou and thy house will find favor with the King; receive royal reward; be counted among his friends; never want for power or gold—
    Between each sentence the officer must pause an instant as if studying the effect of the bribe on Mattathias. The proffered bribes and fulsome flattery only serve to increase the resistance of the Maccabees. At last, interrupting the speaker when he says "gold."
    MATTATHIAS, with tremendous emphasis:
    I know how Joshua became High Priest and why the vile traitor calls himself Jason! Officer of the King,—though all the nations of the earth should obey Antiochus, and all the children of Israel abandon the faith of our Fathers, I and my house will remain steadfast.
    During this response the Apostate Jew has been preparing himself to offer sacrifice, and now steps toward Altar sand says:
    APOSTATE:
    General, I crave the favor of your great King Antiochus, and would burn incense on this Altar.
    He now steps forward to the Altar and as he lights the red fire and steps back a few feet and kneels, Mattathias exclaims with tremendous emphasis:
    MATTATHIAS:
    Traitor, thou must DIE!
    So saying he brings down his staff upon the offender. Apelles leaps over the prostrate body of the Apostate as if he would protect him and is felled by a blow intended for the Apostate; instantly the four sons engage with the soldiers who have taken up the attack. The lights are turned very low and the red fire is diligently kept burning. Then the scene becomes stationary: The soldiers stand with raised spears as if to hurl them at Mattathias, who throws back his body and holds aloft his staff as if to protect himself; the four sons stand also in an attitude of defense with raised If cudgels; standing thus in tableau for a few moments, the curtain is closed and Judas addresses Candidate as follows:
    JUDAS:
    The scene you have just witnessed, represents the revolt at Modin. The Venerable Mattathias, the father of the Maccabees, was the first man to actively oppose the mandate of the pagan king. He not only scorned the bribes and flatteries of the king’s officer but in a moment of uncontrollable indignation he slew the Apostate Jew in the act of sacrificing to strange gods, and likewise the king’s officer when he attempted to protect the miserable traitor. Do not mistake the significance of this scene. From the heights of Sinai the thunderous command of Jehovah still echoes through the known world. Yes, "Thou shalt not kill," but the staff of Mattathias was not the weapon of a murderer. Its deadly blow was not struck with the fell purpose of the assassin. Rather did it speak the sudden impulse of the patriot, driven to desperation by the wrongs inflicted upon his country and his people, maddened by the craven hypocrisy of an erstwhile Friend and follower, and fired with an unselfish zeal to strike for the liberty of his countrymen, avenge their wrecked hopes and ruined homes, and hold aloft the sacred traditions of his fathers.
    Learn from this terrific scene a lesson in genuine - patriotism, and see in it your duty to uphold and defend the rights of liberty and conscience when they are threatened by irresponsible power in any form, regardless of what the destroyer would promise or give in its stead. Let us retire.
    Judas retires to ante-room with Candidate and returns to the room to prepare for the next section.

     

    Second Section

    Instructions
    This section represents a scene in the valley of Jehosaphat not far from the brook of Kedron. It is assumed that, an interval of three years has elapsed since the first journey towards Jerusalem, dramatized in the Second Degree, Section 2. The room must be very bare of furnishings, and, if possible, made to look like the natural scenery of a rocky valley. Light quite low.
    Actors and Costumes
    Selected Sir Knight as GHOST. Dressed, or wrapped, in a white mantle and wearing on his head an Effigy of a grinning skull; on hands, pair of white gloves. One of the qualifications for the part, is the possession of a deep voice that can be heard and understood in all parts of the room.
    Lt. Commander as JUDAS MACCABEUS. Dressed in the garb of a warrior returning from the conflicts and hardships of three years war.
    CANDIDATE—In garb of a Jewish soldier of lesser rank than Judas.
    Properties
    The Altar erected near middle of room and covered with a large square piece of black cloth, split at the head so as to easily inclose the "Ghost."

     

    Ceremony

    When everything is in readiness, the Lt. Commander retires to where the Candidate is in waiting and, conducting him into room without ceremony, says:
    JUDAS:
    My friend: It is supposed that a period of three years has passed, and the solemn events of a bloody war concluded, since we last entered the valley of the brook Kedron.
    During all of this response, the Lt. Commander and Candidate will slowly pass around the circumference of the room. He must point out the various objects mentioned.

    How dark the night is, and yet, how familiar the surroundings seem! Can we ever forget the night we first traveled this way! The rough road we tried to follow; the moss cushioned stone; our capture by a band of bloodthirsty pagans; the cruel tortures they inflicted; the death of one of our number; our miraculous escape! Tonight we return by the same route, but in very different spirits. The war has ended, the tyrant has been overthrown, and the Light of Liberty is about to dawn upon our beloved land.
    At this time, it is proper to imitate the dawn by increasing the light in the room.

    We must be nearing the brook Kedron. Is not that dark object against the eastern sky, the wall of Solomon.
    They halt and look towards the reddening sky. At time the Chorus to "The Holy City" could be sung with effect. After this they resume their walk and on co within a few steps of the draped Altar, Lt. Commander says:
    AH! Not all of the Altars of our Fathers have been overthrown! Shall we not tarry a moment and offer up our devotions before this sacred shrine?
    They kneel upon both knees. At that instant the "Ghost" slowly rises and in slow, distinct whisper, if possible says:
    GHOST:
    O my friends, I am glad of your return. I am he that was ELEAZAR. Ye saw me scourged to death. Here now lie my bones. Beneath many Altars like this one, repose the bones of count-less widows and orphans, still the constant care of the Maccabees! Ye return from many a hard fought battle and about to take part in giving to Judea her first independence and to the world the first Republic. Great shall be your well earned reward! Go now and give what remains of life to the noble work of perfecting constitutional government and universal liberty. Neglect not the cry of the widow, the plaint of the orphan, the silence of disabled warriors. GO! GO!
    JUDAS asks Candidate to repeat after him:
    Venerable spirit of Patriotism, Piety and Humanity! W shall heed thy counsel till the night of death closes over us!
    They rise and silently retire to ante-room.

     

    Third Section

    Confirmation
    This section of the work can be made very impressive and beautiful. No effort should be spared in dressing and conferring it in keeping with its possibilities. Nothing, except the financial strength of the Tent, should limit the amount or the quality of the display. Let these directions then be carefully studied, and the dramatic part thoroughly mastered.
    The Tent should be cleared of everything used in the preceding sections and arranged as for general reviews. The banners should be on each side of the Commander’s station.
    Actors and properties
    COMMANDER—wearing the costume of Antiochus; but having, instead of the crown, a rich turban, and without beard and wig.
    PAST COMMANDER—In rich costume, as high priest.
    CHAPLAIN—as priest in first section, but without beard.
    LIEUT. COMMANDER, MASTER AT ARMS, SERGEANT, and CANDIDATE—as warriors, dressed as soldiers were in first section.
    RECORD KEEPER, and PHYSICIAN, as priests in white robes, MASTERS OF THE GUARDS, and SENTINEL— as peasants.
    All in this procession must wear at least a gown and a turban.
    Furniture—consists of number of imitation palm branches, spears, swords, cymbals, tambourines, reeds, trumpets, etc.

     

    Ceremony

    When everything is in readiness, Sir Knights in costume should form in double file in order, leaving a space for the Lieutenant Commander and Candidate to fall into the ranks behind M. of G. The musician takes his place at the instrument; the Sentinel and the Picket remain at their stations. At a given signal, the inner door is thrown wide open. Lieut. Commander with Candidate comes marching in and join the ranks.
    A triumphal march is played. The "Coronation March," from Meyerbeer’s Opera, "The Prophet," is appropriate; or "The Conquering Hero Comes," will be found very easy to sing and very fitting. The procession then starts.
    They should be about two paces apart in the line and should march around the hail twice. In the second circuit, the officers, as they reach their respective stations, step out of the ranks and occupy them, Past Commander first. At the end of the circuit, all will have taken their places, except the Lieut. Commander and Candidate, who, when they reach the Sergeant’s station, wheel to the right and march straight up to the Altar.
    In lieu of a "march" the following, from the Oratorio of Judas Maccabeus, may be sung:—

    See the conquering hero comes,
    Sound the trumpets, beat the drums;
    Sports prepare, the laurel bring,
    Songs of triumph to him sing.
    Sports prepare, the laurel bring,
    Songs of triumph to him sing.
    Or the following:
    HAIL, VALIANT CAPTAIN!
    Hail, valiant captain, hail
    Lay down thy coat of mail,
    Assume thy right.
    And now in many a fold
    The angry war clouds rolled,
    Enter with joy untold,
    In Honor’s might.
    CHORUS— Lion of Judah, hail!
    And let thy name prevail
    From age to age.
    And with the rolling years,
    Claim for thy own the spheres,
    For great is Judas, strong and brave—
    The Maccabee.
    Victor in this great war,
    We hail thy rising star
    Of fame and renown.
    Blow loud the trumpet, blow,
    Wider yon portals throw,
    Enter triumphant now,
    Accept thy crown!
    CHORUS—
    If the above song is sung, the marching should be in perfect step with it and both so timed, or a verse of the chorus repeated, as to enable the procession to pass around the room twice. The second round having been completed the Lieut. Commander will proceed to the foot of the Altar with his charge and face head of room. The ceremony continues as follows:

    COMMANDER, one rap: Welcome, Judas Maccabeus, thrice welcome art thou! What tidings from the front?
    JUDAS, saluting: Sir Knight Commander, the power of Antiochus has been broken! His cruel reign is over! The light of liberty has dawned and the night of bondage is past! JUDEA IS FREE!
    The musicians now start a verse or two of "America," or any patriotic song, in which all present should join.
    AMERICA.
    My country, ‘tis of thee—
    Sweet land of liberty—
    Of thee I sing!
    Land where my fathers died,
    Land of the Pilgrim’s pride,
    From every mountain side,
    Let freedom ring.
    My native country, thee,
    Land of the noble, free,
    Thy name I love;
    I love thy rocks and rills,
    Thy woods and templed hills,
    My heart with rapture thrills,
    Like that above!
    Our Father’s God, to thee,
    Author of liberty,
    To thee we sing;
    Long may our land be bright,
    With freedom’s holy light,
    Protect us by thy might,
    Great God, our King!
    COMMANDER, one rap:
    To the patriotism of thy father, Mattathias, we owe the beginning of the great war, but unto thee, Judas Maccabeus, is due the honor of having achieved its victories. How can we best express our gratitude and the acclaim of generations yet unborn, for this blessed occasion?
    JUDAS:
    Let us not mar the glory of our miraculous triumph by indulging in any vain praise or empty ceremony. Let us perpetuate the virtues which our fathers have worshipped for a thousand years and which destiny has now placed as a sacred trust in our keeping,—freedom of man’s body, mind, and soul and, the spirit of a universal brotherhood. Let us strongly bind ourselves in a bond of fraternal love in order to better aid one another and protect the widows and orphans of our departed brothers. Let us make a covenant with all mankind that as long as Knights of the Maccabees live in this world, the divine endowment of genuine fraternalism shall not perish in the earth!
    And I crave the privilege, Sir Knight Commander, to recommend for the honors of Maccabean Knighthood, this friend—tried and true—who has journeyed with me under the silent stars and stood by my side in the shock of many a bloody battle.
    COMMANDER:
    This last act of thine is greater than any victory thou didst ever win in battle. To defer to a friend is nobler than to wear a crown; and he that ruleth his own spirit is greater than he that taketh a city! Friend of Judas Maccabeus, if you would accept this generous offer, you must first be bound with us in a never ending covenant of loyalty to the principles for which Maccabeeism stands. Are you willing?
    Each Candidate answers, "I am."
    Lieut. Commander causes Candidate to stand with his left foot advanced, right hand resting on book and circle, left hand over heart. Commander gives three raps. All Sir Knights rise, give "token of sincerity," and stand with left foot advanced.
    Chaplain advances to head of Altar. At this moment the members and musicians will sing the following ode. After the ode, the obligation:

    HEAR OUR VOW.
    Father, hear this solemn vow;
    Grant thy presence near us now!
    On Honor’s mountain heights display
    Thy Justice of the better day,
    The Justice of this latter day!
    Amen.
    CHAPLAIN:
    You will now repeat after me. "I voluntarily promise, in the presence of these Sir Knights, that I will be as true to my faith, my country, my people, and myself as was Judas Maccabeus to his religious, political, and personal duties,—and like him, to the best of my knowledge and ability, I will ever defend what is just, and right, and true.
    Further: I will always uphold the dignity, good name, and influence, and will never impugn the motives of a member, here or elsewhere, nor permit it to be done by another person without protest.
    Further: I will bear with modesty and administer with strict integrity each and every trust, official or other, committed to my care or confidence.
    Should I intentionally ever violate this my solemn vow of Knighthood, may the fingers of my left hand be struck off at the knuckle joint, and I thus forever afterwards be unable to prove myself a Knight of the Maccabees of the World!
    The choir again sings, "Hear Our Vow," after which the Commander seats the members. Chaplain returns to his station. Lieutenant Commander seats Candidate in front of Commander’s station who immediately instructs him in the

     

    Secret Work

    COMMANDER, arises:
    I will now instruct you in the secret work of this Degree.
    (1) To gain admission into a Tent open in the Degree of Loyalty, give any number of raps at the outer door. The Picket will open the door, or wicket, and to him you will give in a whisper, the Pass—which for the present term is … gives it. This will admit you into the ante-room, where you must place on your left breast the regulation badge, then give three loud raps on the inner door. The Sentinel will open the wicket and to him you will give in a whisper, your name, and the Token of this Degree, which is Obedience. This will admit you into the Tent.
    (2) If you are within the Tent when the same is being opened in this Degree, you will, at the proper time and when so requested, give both the Pass and
    the Token to the Record Keeper or Guards as the case may be.
    Having been admitted into the room, advance by way of the Sergeant’s station (turning square corners) to the foot of the Altar on which should rest a copy of the Laws of the Order, a copy of the Books of the Maccabees opened at the Third Chapter of the Second hook and a circle resting on both books. If the Altar is not so arranged, give no sign, but ask why the Tent is not opened in regular form. If correctly arranged, give the step and salutation sign of this degree to the Sir Knight Commander, at the same time saying: "Sir Knight Commander." He will recognize you by a nod of the head, or a wave of the hand or gavel. Then you will be at liberty to take your seat.
    (3) The Salutation sign of this degree is given by clasping the two middle fingers of the left hand with the thumb, extending the two outside fingers and raising the hand to the level of the face, palm of hand to the front, the arm forming a right angle. This is also the voting sign.
    (4) The Recognition sign is given by clasping the two middle fingers of the left hand in the palm with the thumb extending the index and little fingers and placing the hand in any position in which it can be plainly seen. The answer is made by clasping the index and little fingers in the palm and extending the two middle fingers, thus—.
    (5) The Ladies Recognition Sign, used by members of The Ladies of the Maccabees, and Knights of the Maccabees in common, is made by clasping the third or ring finger of the left hand with the thumb, extending the other three fingers as much as possible, and placing the hand in any position in which it can be plainly seen, thus . This challenge is used by the ladies only. The answer is given in the same manner.
    (6) The Token of Sincerity is made by placing the open left hand over the heart thus ... It must always be given standing and when addressed by, or when you yourself are addressing any officer of the Order within a regularly opened Tent.
    (7) When you wish to make or second a motion, or address the Tent, you must rise to your feet, give the Token of Sincerity and say: "Sir Knight Commander." You have no right to begin to speak until you have so addressed the presiding officer and been recognized by him.
    (8) The test word is Seebaccam, which is Maccabees spelled backwards; and, in testing a stranger, he must commence the spelling. He gives the first letter, and you the next; and so on, turn about, until spelled. Then pronounce in syllables; he, the first syllable, you the next, and so on. And, when finished, he pronounces the whole word. For your instruction I will test the Sergeant.
    The Commander and the Sergeant should then go through with the test word.

    (9) Grind Honors, given to Supreme or Great officers, are made by giving the ordinary military salute with the right hand and at the same time giving the Token of Sincerity.
    (10) White is the particular color of the Third Degree and symbolizes the unsullied character of Judas Maccabeus, who conducted to a successful termination a most cruel and bloody war without having committed a single crime!
    (11) The emblems of our Order are the circle and the Globe. The circle is universally regarded as symbolic of eternity,—it has no ending. So let it be with the vows you have taken and noble duties you have assumed. Keep inviolate every promise you have made to us and then, wherever you may find yourself on the face of the Globe and find another who has taken the same vows, you will always find a brother.
    You will now listen to the counsel of our Past Commander.
    Lieut. Commander conducts Candidate to Past Commander’s station and seats him.
    PAST COMMANDER, arises:
    My brother, in the First Degree you were informed that The Knights of the Maccabees of the World is a great fraternal business co-partnership founded on HONOR. In that Degree, your first step on the way to Maccabean Knighthood, we magnified the sentiment of HONOR and emphasized some of the more pertinent rules and laws of good business; for without HONOR there can be no Fraternalism that is worthy the name, and without the strict observance of certain regulations and principles there can be no safe business conduct. Therefore we make HONOR the central thought of the Degree of Protection, because it is the foundation of the Mystic Temple we call our Order.
    In the Second Degree, we sought to impress upon your heart and mind the importance and power of FRIENDSHIP. We make FRIENDSHIP the governing ideal of the Second Degree, because it is the Mystic Temple we build on, the enduring foundation of Human Honor.
    In this, the Degree of Loyalty, we teach, both by precept and example, the hard but glorious lesson of OBEDIENCE. We inculcate and demand an obedient and hearty allegiance to every duty which you, as a rational being, owe to God and to humanity. We expect you to faithfully keep every vow taken at our Altar. We expect you to respond like a man to every demand of righteousness, civil duty, human affection, and personal purity. He who is obedient to the behests of these duties, and honestly tries to discharge them, is Truth’s knight militant and God’s ambassador to needy humanity. He who bravely tries to live like that, will walk with steady tread along the lofty pathway of self denial and universal service, first trod by the Son of Man. Me who thus diligently strives, though he may not fully achieve, will yet be crowned of God and surely live in the affection of those who come after him. This is not the work of a sluggard or a coward, but of a genuine man. We make OBEDIENCE the Master Key of the Degree of Loyalty, because it is the Soul of our Mystic Temple built on the enduring foundation of Human Honor.
    Would you become one of earth’s truly great ones? Make HONOR your teacher. Would you make joyous and straight the crooked paths of sorrow and hardship? Be FRIENDLY,—Be Kind. Would you be a leader in the Republic of Man? Be the faithful, honest servant of everything that is good and just and true. Let now this Trinity abide with you; HONOR, FRIENDSHIP, OBEDIENCE—But the greatest of these is OBEDIENCE.
    Sir Knight Lieut. Commander, conduct our kinsman to the Commander’s station, there to receive Knighthood.
    Lieut. Commander conducts Candidate to Commander’s station, causes him to kneel on his left knee, with his right knee raised in front of him and his right hand resting thereon, removes helmet, and says:
    LIEUT. COMMANDER:
    Sir Knight Commander, our kinsman awaits your pleasure.
    COMMANDER:
    In commemoration of the Valor, touches Candidate’s right shoulder with blade of sword Friendship touches Candidate’s left shoulder with blade of sword and Obedience touches top of Candidate’s head with blade of sword and allowing it to rest there until he orders him to arise, of Judas Maccabeus, one of the first fruits of genuine chivalry, and by the authority in me vested as Commander of this Tent, I now dub, create and proclaim you a Knight of the Maccabees of the World. ARISE, SIR KNIGHT, and stand erect among your equals.

    Returns to his station and declares a short recess. During which the Sir Knight should receive the congratulations of the members.

     

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