1901 28th Triennial
This portrait plate is part of a series made by
Pittsburgh Commandery No. 1 Knights Templar for the 28th Triennial Conclave in Louisville,
Kentucky on August 27 - 29, 1901. There is evidence in favor of Napoleon's
initiation into Freemasonry from the writings of a Brother Tuckett which is too long to
describe here... See "Napoleon" in Volume 2 of Mackey's Revised Encyclopedia of
Freemasonry and the article below. This beautiful portrait plate is 8 inches in diameter.
1901 28th Triennial
This portrait plate of Josephine is apart of
the above series of portrait plates made by
Pittsburgh Commandery No. 1 Knights Templar for the 28th Triennial Conclave in Louisville,
Kentucky on August 27 - 29, 1901. This plate also measures 8 inches in diameter.
Freemasonry under the French First
Was Napoleon Bonaparte a member of the Masonic
Brotherhood? Multiple hypotheses have been advanced on the subject, and
although the probability is high, it has never been definitely established
that he was made a Freemason, either in Valence (French Department Drome),
Marseille, Nancy ("St. John of Jerusalem" Lodge, December 3, 1797?), Malta,
Egypt or elsewhere.
What is certain is that members of the expedition he commanded during the
Egyptian campaign brought the Freemasonry to the banks of the Nile. General
Kleber founded the "Isis" Lodge in Cairo (was Bonaparte a co-founder?), while
Gaspard Monge (member, among others, of the "Perfect Union" Military Lodge,
Dominique Vivant Denon (a member of Sophisians, "The Perfect Meeting" Lodge,
Paris) were among the scholars who would make this strategic and military
setback a success that the young General Bonaparte would exploit upon his return
What is also undeniable is that, beginning with Bonaparte's coup of 18 Brumaire,
the Freemasonry would thrive for 15 extraordinary years, multiplying the number
of lodges and members. The First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte, understanding the
advantages he could derive from the obedient Freemasonry, invested in these
reliable men, hoping to be rewarded with faultless servility. He was not
Freemasonry under the
When Napoleon Bonaparte came to power, a text of
nine articles was signed on June 22,
1799 (the 21st day of the third year of the V:. L:. 5799) that unified the
Great Lodge of France (Grande Loge De France: GLDF) and the Great Orient of
France (Grand Orient De France: GODF). The text provided for the assembly of
archives of both organizations, removed the privileges of the masters of the
lodges of Paris, entrenched the tenure of Worshipful Masters, and established a
system of election of officers. However, some "Scottish" lodges rejected this
1801, while in Paris, Brother
Jean Portalis ("Friendship" Lodge, Aix-en-Provence) actively participated in
negotiating the Concordat with the Holy See and drafting the Civil Code with
Jean-Jacques Regis de Cambaceres and
Claude-Ambroise Regnier, a page of Freemason history was written on May 31
in Charleston, South Carolina. There, Colonel John Mitchell, a merchant born in
Ireland, and Frederick Dalcho, a physician born in London of Prussian parents,
"opened the Supreme Council 33° for the United States of America", the first
Supreme Council of rite in 33 grades that would take the name Ancient and
Accepted Scottish Rite (AASR) of France. It would announce its creation through
a circular distributed "across both hemispheres" on January 1, 1803.
The Master Masons of the two great rival systems (Ancients and Moderns) were
eligible indiscriminately, regardless of religion (hence perhaps the term
"Accepted"). The motto Ordo ab Chao was adopted which, in
organizational terms, expressed the desire to create a coherent system of
degrees and to end the chaotic profusion of high grades. The rite, whose ranks
were all of French origin, synthesized the influences initially spun by the
English lodges, Scottish Lodges of Perfection, dissident structures such as the
Council of the Eastern Knights of Brother Pirlet, the Order of Scottish
Trinitarians, and the Order of the Flamboyant Star of Baron Tschoudy, and of the
administrative system of the Mother Lodge of the Scottish Social Contract, which
was a member of Count Auguste de Grasse-Tilly (started in 1783 in the "Saint
John of the Scottish Social Contract" Lodge, Paris).
The universality of the AASR was founded on the basis of 33 successive degrees
of initiation and the content of its various grades that encompassed almost all
sources of ancestral spirituality in the West and Middle East. It was,
therefore, not possible to claim the AASR without rigorously following its
initiation rites and trusting the consistency of its gradual evolution.
In 1801, the Vatican reiterated its ban on priests receiving Masonic initiation.
The same year, the Freemason Rulebook, on the Modern French Rite of the
Great Orient of France, was published, in line with the first Moderns, House of
Grades of the Great Orient and some aspects of the Rectified Scottish Regime (RSR)
that were made in 1795 by the Great Worship Master Alexander-Louis Roëttiers de
This document was consistent with decisions made in 1785, but in 1796 was
repudiated by the Grand Orient, which had opted for communication of rituals to
be exclusively in handwritten, not printed, form. The ritual of the French Rite
was subsequently revised several times.
Regarding the Rectified Scottish Rite, 1801 saw the beginning of a three-year
correspondence between Jean-Baptiste Willermoz, of Lyon ("founder" of the RSR in
France and general counsel of Department Rhone by the First Consul Napoleon
Bonaparte since June 1, 1800) and Claude-François Achard, of Marseille
(Worshipful Master of The Triple Union, which resumed its work on June 1, 1801).
In September 1802, Brother Taxil was received in Lyon by Willermoz and tasked to
copy the "new rituals," which took five years.
On November 12,
1802 (the 12th day of the ninth month of the year of the V:. L:. 5802), a
circular from the Grand Orient of France condemned the "so-called Scottish"
Lodges and invited Brothers to "turn from our Temples a seed of discord
that, during the most tempestuous times, seemed to have been respected."
So as to maintain "regular lodges in France," the GODF began to write off all
lodges practicing a rite other than the French Rite of seven degrees – an action
that specifically targeted Scottish Mother Lodges.
1804 saw, in the atmosphere following the global exclusion of the Grand
Orient, the Count of Grasse-Tilly returning to France and founding the Supreme
Council of the 33rd Degree on September 22. It met on October 22 at the Scottish
General Grand Lodge of France with the participation of the Scottish Mother
Lodge of Marseilles. Both lodges had refused the merger with the Grand Orient in
1799, and were "blacklisted" by the Big East because of "discrepancies" - that
is, for practicing the Scottish Rite – as representatives of Santo Domingo
lodges followed the rite of Ancients, and, according to some sources, the Prince
of Rohan, who had signed the Morin patent in 1761.
Louis Bonaparte became the Grand Master.
Seeing the Supreme Council extended de facto authority over the lodges'
first three degrees, the Grand Orient suddenly had the power to sign a contract
that merged the Scottish Grand Lodge with the Grand Orient, but left in
existence a Sublime Council of the 33rd degree, which remained the sole
authority to confer this level and to "decide on everything that was a
point of honor."
Freemasonry under the Empire
It was during this period that French Freemasonry
would experience its first golden age, as the number of lodges grew from 300 to
1,220 in ten years.
Bonaparte (initiated in "The Perfect Sincerity" Lodge of Marseilles) became
Grand Master of the Grand Orient, which was entirely devoted to Napoleon and
rarely failed to criticize the fiercely independent Scottish lodges.
Napoleon's relationship with the Grand Orient was all the more excellent that
Roëttiers de Montaleau undertook to purify anti-Bonapartists, and that there
were then among the dignitaries of the obedience:
Prince Louis Bonaparte
The Chancellor of the Empire Jean-Jacques Régis of
Andre Massena (initiated in Toulon in 1784 by "The Students of Minerva," a
member of many lodges, including "The Real Friends Meeting" in Nice and the
military lodge "The Perfect Friendship," GODF administrator and member of the
François Etienne Christophe Kellermann ("Saint Napoleon" Lodge, Paris),
Charles Augereau (initiated in the lodge "The Children of Mars" in The
Hague during his assignment in Holland, then a member of the Parisian Lodge
"The Candor" before becoming Worshipful Master of the "Friends of the Arts and
Glory" regimental Lodge),
François Joseph Lefebvre ("Friends Meeting," Mainz),
Catherine Dominique de Perignon,
Jean-Mathieu Philibert Serurier (Parisian lodges "St. Alexander of
Scotland" and "The Imperial Bee"),
Guillaume Brune ("Saint-Napoleon", Orient of Paris and "The Constant
Adolphe Edouard Casimir Joseph Mortier (33°),
Jean-de-Dieu Soult and
Senators Antoine-César de Choiseul-Praslin ("The
Candor," Paris), Arnail-Francis de Jancourt, Louis-Joseph-Charles Amable de
Luynes and Dominique Clement de Ris
Deputy Luc Duranteau de Baune
Grand Chancellor of the Legion of Honor Bernard
Germain Etienne de Lacepede (member of the "Nine Sisters" and "Saint Napoleon"
lodges in Paris)
Scholar Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande (the
first Worshipful Master of the "Nine Sisters" Lodge in Paris)
Etienne Macdonald and Horace Sebastiani
Contre-Admiral Charles Rene Magon de Medine
Ambassador Pierre Riel de Beurnonville
Jean-Baptiste de Nompere de Champagny
Joseph Fouché (initiated in the "Sophie Madeleine, Queen of Sweden" Lodge
in Arras) and the first president of the Court of Appeal Honoré Muraire (in
original records of the secularization of the Civil State).
Jean-Antoine Chaptal ("The Perfect Union," Montpellier) was in charge of
Clearly the Freemasonry was still in power, and
its influence not hidden.
Napoleon I, whether he had been initiated or not, was wary of Freemasonry, which
he monitored through Joseph Fouché, and although the lodges displayed his bust
in their temples and considered any challenge to his regime a serious Masonic
error, some workshops were devoted mainly to celebrating the glory of the
Emperor ("Napoléomagne", "The French Saint-Napoleon"), while others used the
distinctive Masonic signage to conceal the work of subversive royalist
activities ("St. Napoleon", in Angers).
There was a strong development of Masonic military lodges under the Empire, and
Napoleon saw in that Masonic presence a powerful means of military cohesion and
a tool for his European ambitions (using his own passionate feelings to unite
As for Lodges of Adoption (women's lodges
attached to men's lodges by a ritual called "adoption"), most weakened under the
Empire, except for those of the
Empress Josephine, who was a Grand Mistress ("Free Knights" and "Sainte
Caroline" Lodges of Adoption, in Paris). In 1808, Lodges of Adoption were banned
by the male Masons as "contrary to its constitution". The Masonic
practice of adoption did not survive into the nineteenth century, except
Trade guilds, which had been banned during the Revolution – a prohibition
reinforced by the Consulate – were tolerated, but closely monitored, under the
Empire. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the guilds were organized
around three rites. The rite of Father Soubise included roofers, plasterers and
carpenters. Those seen as heirs to the Holy Duty to God (Catholic, royalist and
Bonapartist), followers of Master Jacques, gathered stonemasons, smiths and
tanners, as well as some other professions (rope makers, basket makers, hatters,
Under the rite of Solomon, which welcomed Protestant or agnostic members with a
Republican, left-leaning political sensitivity, one found foreign stonemasons (C:.E:.)
and the Journeymen of the Duty of Freedom (I:.N:.D:.G:.), which separated from
the Duty of Freedom in 1804 under the pressure of freethinking and anticlerical
trade union members. It was during that period that a French Freemason
journeyman introduced the third grade in the Duty of Freedom (which now included
affiliates of members), and an aristocratic body (the "insiders") composed
mainly of members established as Masters was formed.
In 1804, the system of Beneficent Knights of the Holy City (the final stage of
the Rectified Rite or Regime), which had been dormant during the French
Revolution, was revived in Besançon.
1805, the first of two series of the rite of Mizraim (symbolic degrees 1-33°
and philosophical degrees 34-66°) developed in France and Italy, borrowing
various high levels from the eighteenth century (to compete with the AASR):
The rite of the Metropolitan Chapter of France
The Rite of Perfection of the Council of Eastern
and Occidental Emperors (also used for AASR)
The Adonhiramite rite
The rite of the Grand Lodge of the Regular Masters
The rite of the Scottish Mother Lodge of
The Strict Templar Observance (SOT) and the
Rectified Scottish Rite (RSR),
The Primitive Rite of Namur, the Scottish
Philosophical Rite of Avignon, the Golden Rosicrucian, the Inside Brothers of
Asia and the Egyptian Rite of Cagliostro.
Specific contributions rose from the gradations
of Chaos (49-50°) and Key Masonics (54-57°).
That same year,
Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord was introduced to the Imperial Lodge
of the Free Knights in Paris, where he remained apprenticed throughout his life.
It was also in 1805 that the Grand Orient created a Grand Executive Board of
Rites, where some Brothers received the 33rd degree, in violation of agreements
with the Sublime Council. The latter reacted by denouncing the text, restoring
the Grand Lodge and Scottish General, and reinstating its authority over the
entire AASR. But again, the imperial power intervened on behalf of the Grand
Orient and forced the signing of a power-sharing agreement that gave it
authority over the first eighteen degrees, with the Supreme Council of France
overseeing the nineteenth to thirty-third.
Contrary to the wishes of Napoleon, there were now two rival Masonic powers in
France, so the next year, to ensure control of the Supreme Council, he named
Chancellor Jean Jacques Régis de Cambaceres the Sovereign Grand Commander
instead of Grasse-Tilly or one of several dignitaries of the Grand Orient
(Dominique Clement de Ris, Pierre Riel de Beurnonville, Catherine Dominique de
Pérignon, Honoré Muraire, D'Aigrefeuille, etc.).
In the next decade, the Supreme Council dedicated
itself to developing the "Guide to Scottish Freemasons", which took its
roots from the Scottish Mother Lodges and Freemasonry of English and American
Ancients (particularly Three Distinct Knocks of 1760) but also in the
Freemason Regulator of the Modern French Rite. For the blue lodges (the
first three workshops degrees), there was the "Journal of Symbolic three
grades of the Ancient and Accepted Rite".
On February 18,
1806, two months after the battle of
Austerlitz, Napoleon I decided to build a triumphal arch, a project that
involved several Freemasons. Brother Jean-Baptiste Champagny Nompère convinced
the Emperor to choose the site of the monument in these terms: "An Arch of
Triumph that features the most majestic, superb and picturesque view, of the
imperial palace of the Tuileries ... It will strike admiration in the traveler
entering Paris ... It will imprint in any visitor to the French capital an
indelible memory of its incomparable beauty ... Although the visitor has gone
away, he will always have in front of him the triumphant arch. Your Majesty will
cross it on your way to Malmaison, St. Germain, St. Cloud and even to Versailles
Brother Jean Chalgrin ("The Simple Hearts of the North Star" Lodge, Paris), an
architect, drew up the plans, based upon an initial draft prepared by Brother
Charles Louis Balzac ("The Great Sphinx" Lodge, Paris). Under the July Monarchy
(constitutional monarchy in France under King Louis-Philippe, starting with the
July Revolution of 1830), two Brothers were to be in charge of the sculpture in
bas-relief of the North Face - Francois Rude (The Marseillaise) and Jean-Pierre
Cortot (The Peace of Vienna).
It was probably also in 1806 that Pierre-Joseph Briot, Governor of Abruzzo
(under the authority of Joseph Bonaparte), introduced the Carbonari in Italy and
started a "Secret Society of Philadelphian Republicans" at Besançon, "Good
Cousin Carbonari" of the woodsman rite of Alexander the Great's Order of the
Forger, which became affiliated at the rite of Mizraim in 1810.
Meanwhile, Filippo Buonarroti, a French revolutionary from Pisa and an old
friend of Gracchus Babeuf, who knew Briot at Sospel, spent 30 years serving the
lodges, especially within his own organization ("The Perfect Sublime Masters",
under the direction of a "Great Firmament"), to cover up the spread of
revolutionary ideas, Babouvist ideals and communism. Although its incidence was
relatively limited, this unfortunate confusion between Freemasons and Carbonari
ideas would quickly be interpreted as the politicization of the lodges.
The same year, 1806, saw the demise of the Strict Templar Observance (SOT),
which did not survive the Revolution, as well as the introduction of the RSR and
the loss of interest of its great master Charles of Hesse-Cassel, who became
much more passionate about his research and mystical theurgics than about the
Not counting the Anderson texts (The Constitutions of the Free-Masons
of Pastor James Anderson, published in 1723), which defined the Freemasons of
British influence, the statutes enacted in 1806 by the Grand Orient of France
merely noted that "the Masonic Order in France was composed only of
Freemasons recognized as such, assembled at regular workshops for camaraderie".
Also in 1806, archaeologist Alexandre Du Mège (or Dumège) founded an Egyptian
rite, the "Sovereign Pyramid of Friends of the Desert", in Toulouse. There were
some spin-offs in the region (Auch, Montauban), but they didn't last. The
Friends of the Desert came into contact with the neighboring Napoleomagne Lodge,
whose members had revived the Jacobite Scottish Rite of "Scottish Faithful,"
brought to Toulouse in 1747 by George Lockhart, aide to Charles Edward Stuart.
The Grand Executive Board of Rites of the Grand Orient of France rejected this
rite, based on Eastern occultism, in 1812.
1808, Brother Michel Ange de Mangourit, Grand Officer of the Scots
Philosophical rite (who was temporary Foreign Minister in the Government of the
Convention in November 1794), revived the Masonic "adoption" practice by
creating the "Sovereign Metropolitan Chapter of the Ladies Scottish Hospice of
France in Mount Tabor, Paris", which consisted mainly of women of imperial
nobility. This highly esteemed lodge, which would operate until 1830, had a
"class of choice" (Novice Freemason and Discreet Companion), two grades of
Perfection, or "Great Mysteries" (Mistress Adonis and Mistress Moralist), and
two highest grades (Historical and Philosophical).
In Naples, where Joachim Murat became king on August 1, 1808, the (military)
Franco-Italian lodges saw a blossoming of the Rite of Mizraim, which would last
until the end of the Empire. In 1811, Murat required the Grand Orient and
Supreme Council of Naples to unify, and became their Grand Commander. It was
doubtless during this period that the first attempts were made to establish the
Rite of Mizraim in France. The rite thus received its third series (67-77°
mystic degrees) the last (78-90°) would be introduced only until about 1812 in
Pope Pius VII was arrested by order of Napoleon, in anger over his
excommunication because of the capture of Rome and the despoliation of the Papal
States. It seemed the Emperor had not lost the support of the Grand Orient when
he introduced a certain anticlericalism in the lodges, but the Pope did not
forget how the Freemasons supported Napoleon.
1810, there arose in France a groundswell of opposition to republican secret
societies such as the Carbonari founded by Arnaud Bazard, Jacques Flotard and
Brother Jacques Buchez. In the region of Besançon, a revolutionary movement of
Carbonari Cousins tried to infiltrate the lodges to let in opposing ideas and
recruit workers to participate in a republican uprising. The Carbonari were
organized into groups of twenty members, coordinated by a "High" group that
belonged to Brother Lafayette (it also housed the venerable "Friends of Truth"
of Rosoy and member of Supreme Council).
At the other end of the political spectrum, Count Ferdinand de Bertier in 1810
founded the "Knights of the Faith" ("Banner Association"), an ultra-royalist
political movement based on ancient and medieval orders and the more recent and
concrete experience of the Philanthropic Institute. The order had five grades:
Charity Partner, Squire, Knight, Knight of Hospitality, and Knight of Faith.
Several of its members also belonged to the religious congregation of the
1811, several Masonic events occurred:
Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte - Marshal of the Empire, who the previous
year had become hereditary prince of Sweden - reformed the Swedish rite, whose
organization still exists in twelve degrees in the 21st century.
The Provincial Grand Lodge of Hamburg adopted the
rite developed by Brother Friedrich Ludwig Schroeder, limited to three
symbolic grades, inspired by the ancient "Templar" Freemasonry - a rite still
practiced today in some lodges in Germany, Austria, Hungary and Switzerland.
In Egypt, the "Mother Lodge of Paris of the
Scottish Philosophical Rite" was founded in Cairo ("Knights of the Pyramids")
and Alexandria ("Friends of the Concorde").
In Spain, the Count of Grasse-Tilly installed the
Spanish Supreme Council. In
1813, the Rite of Mizraim was endowed from 90 degrees from the impetus of
Charles Lechangeur, Theodoric Cerbes and brothers Marc, Michel and Joseph
Bédarride. Pierre Lassalle, grand master of Mizraim in Naples, was probably
the one who introduced the Arcana Arcanorum in the "Plan of Naples" to the
primitive rite of Mizraim. At the same time, the occultist Lodge of the
"Commanders of Mount Tabor", linked to the Scottish Philosophical Rite, was
founded, while a lodge of Egyptian Rite of Cagliostro ("The Vigilanza")
continued its work independently of Mizraim.
The same year in England, after more than half a
century of conflict, the Union Act put an end to the quarrel between the
Ancients and Moderns, merging them into a universal masonry at three degrees
(Emulation rite), in which explicit references to Christianity were removed.
After the first abdication of Napoleon and his exile to Elba, the Grand Orient
provided support to
King Louis XVIII, affirming the position that the Empire was only tyranny.
This led many Freemasons to resign, especially as the Grand Orient changed its
position again during the Hundred Days.
The Battle of
Waterloo saw the end of the First Empire and of the great period of military
lodges. The units commanded by Brothers
Michel Ney (initiated in 1801 at the "St. John of Jerusalem" Lodge in Nancy,
then a member of "The Candor" Lodge of the 6th Corps of the Grand Army),
Pierre Cambronne and
Emmanuel de Grouchy (of the "Heroism" Lodge in Beauvais and the "Candor"
Lodge in Strasbourg) were defeated by those headed by Brothers
Arthur Wellesley of Wellington (of the "Wellesley Family Lodge # 494" of
Trim, Ireland) and
Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher ("Archimedes" Lodge in Altenburg). Most of the
marshals of the Empire were Freemasons, as were many of their opponents,
including the English Vice-Admiral
Horatio Nelson (York Union Lodge # 331), Sir John Moore, Marshal
Mikhaïl Illarionovitch Kutuzov ("The Three Keys" Lodge, Regensburg) and
General Jean-Victor Marie Moreau.
Among the famous Freemasons of the Empire were:
Jerome Bonaparte (acknowledged as Wolf Cub when he was 17 years old at the
"Peace" Lodge in Toulon, then serving as Grand Master of the Grand Mother
Lodge of Westphalia)
Eugene de Beauharnais, Viceroy of Italy (founder of the Grand Orient and
Supreme Council of Italy)
Jozef Antoni Poniatowski ("Bracia Polacy Zjetnoczeni" Lodge, Warsaw)
Bon Adrien Jannot de Moncey, Duke of Conegliano
Marshal Nicolas Charles Oudinot, Duke of Reggio
("Saint Napoleon" Lodge, Amsterdam)
Louis-Gabriel Suchet, Duke of Albufera
Grand Marshal of the Palace
Géraud-Michel Duroc, Duke of Friuli
Jean Andoche Junot, Duke of Abrantes (initiated in Toulon in 1794 by "The
Children of Mars and Neptune" and member of "The Great Master" Lodge, Paris)
Armand de Caulaincourt, Duke of Vicenza ("Friends Meeting" and "Candor"
General général Jacques Alexandre Law de Lauriston
("Sully" Lodge, regiment of Toul, and deputy Grand Master of the GODF)
General Louis Bertrand de Sivray
General Charles Tristan de Monthollon
General Remi Joseph Isidore Exelmans
Joseph Leopold Sigisbert Hugo ("Friends of the French Honor" Lodge)
Joseph Simeon (Attorney for GODF, then Grand
Master of the Kingdom of Westphalia)
Pierre-Simon de Laplace
Jean-Domique Larrey ("Children of Mars" Lodge at the 27th RI)
Charles-Louis Cadet de Gassicourt
Painters Pierre Prud'hon ("The Charity" Lodge,
François Gerard ("The Great Sphinx" Lodge, Paris) and
Jean-Baptiste Isabey ("Friends Meeting" and "Saint-Napoleon" lodges,
The tragedian François-Joseph Talma ("The Union"
Academic Georges Cabanis
Writer and politician
Architects Alexandre Brongniart ("Saint John of
the Social Contract" Lodge, Paris) and Pierre Fontaine
Luigi Cherubini ("Saint John of Palestine" Lodge, the GODF) and Andre
Sculptor Claude Clodion ("Friends Meeting" Lodge,
Academic Joseph Lakanal ("The Perfect Point" and
"The Triple Harmony" lodges, Paris)
Industrialist Christophe Oberkampf ("The Perfect
Harmony" Lodge, Paris)
Privateer Robert Surcouf (initiated in 1796 to the
"The Triple hope" Lodge in Port Louis, Mauritius and a member in 1809 of "The
Triple Essence" Lodge in Saint-Malo)...
The fall of Napoleon caused to a large extent
that of French Freemasonry. Louis XVIII was returned to power, and during the
subsequent White Terror, people suspected of having ties with the government of
the French Revolution or Napoleon – including the military and Freemasons – saw
their armies and lodges decimated by "Knights of Faith," led by General Amédée
Willot de Gramprez, a freemason himself. Duke Elie Decazes, Prefect of Police
and a member of the Supreme Council of France, was hardly able to limit attacks
against the Freemasons. The Freemasons would later, like many public figures,
capitalize on political opportunism. But they would have to wait until the
Second Empire and, more importantly, the Third Republic, before the Freemasonry
would know a second "golden age" in France.