Part 4 of 7 (Chapters VIII-IX)





   John Yarker




DURING the period embraced in this heading, which includes British times, all the manual arts were Clerical professions in so far as this, that the Monks acted as teachers and directors of lay associations, more or less attached to the Monasteries.  Architecture was exercised under the shadow of the church, and M. Blanqui in writing of the French Monasteries observes that "they were the true origin of industrial Corporations; their birth confounds itself with the Convents where the work was arranged; it is thence that serving with the Franks liberty and industry, long enslaved by the Romans, goes out free to establish itself in the bosom of the towns of the middle ages."  Nor is this all, from the earliest times of Christianity a community of interests, and of knowledge and art, was maintained by means of Couriers journeying to and fro throughout the world, amongst the whole Christian Fraternity, which may account for the sudden and widespread adoption, of particular styles, in countries distant from each other.

   There is no doubt that, even in Druidical times, the Romans organised in the chief cities of this country Colleges of Artificers on the Latin model, although the Britons were themselves, at the time, noble architects.  These Colleges were continued by Romanised Britons after the withdrawal of the Roman troops near the middle period of the fifth century, and though the wars with the Saxons must have greatly retarded the labours of the societies, the Saxons interfered but little with city life, {245} contenting themselves with rural affairs.  We may therefore conclude that the Art-fraternities were continued, even if influenced by the Clergy and by such Guild life as the Saxons may have brought over with them.

   Arranmore has some ancient fortresses.  One of these, built 2,000 years ago, had walls 220 feet long, 20 feet high, and 18 to 20 feet thick, and is built on a cliff hundreds of feet sheer to the sea; three sets of massive walls surround the largest fort.

   As we have remarked the "Articles and Points" of the Masonic MSS. are in agreement with the Corpus Juris of the Collegia, which again are found in an Egypto-Greek source.

   As the Clergy were the builders of their Churches, the chief Monks and Bishops figure in the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge, prepared in 1723, as Grand Masters of the Fraternity; and it must at least be admitted that Anderson was half correct, and there is little of any other mode by which the matter can be treated in this chapter; for Art was an Oath-bound Society the property of those who had learned Art by an Apprenticeship.

   There are numerous Roman remains in this country of buildings which were erected during the occupation of the island by the Latin troops; and amongst these are to be found many interesting particulars in York, London, Chichester, St. Albans, but scattered over the whole island.  Newcastle was in ancient times a place of great importance, and the Romans had a military station in the place by A.D. 78, and a bridge was built over the river to connect it and Gateshead and named the "Pons" Aelii.  The Roman foundations were eventually occupied by Monks, for we learn that when Aldwin, with two Monks, travelled from Gloucester in 1194 to restore the religious foundations, the place was known as Monkchester; and the mother church of St. Nicholas is said to have been erected upon a Roman temple; and St. Mary's Church at Gateshead is said to be as old, if not older.  {246} Pandon, now a part of Newcastle, was peopled by Saxons, and was a Royal residence before 654 A.D.

   Didron<<"Ichnography," i, p. 456.>> gives a Latin sculpture, of the first ages, on which is represented a pair of callipers, compasses, square, skirret, level, maul, chisel, and pen or stylus; an ordinary set-square is often found as an amulet on Egyptian mummies.  With the exception of the first and last these comprise the symbolic tools of a Free-mason, and though the plumb rule, 24 inch gauge, which is an old Egyptian emblem of Truth and of Thoth, the perfect Ashlar, a symbol everywhere as ancient as Man, are lacking, these are found on other Roman remains, with many other emblems, and Masons' Marks of which mention has already been made.

   In Masonic history special mention is made of Verulam, out of the Roman remains of which St. Albans was built, and, it is said that the town was walled round by Alban the Martyr.  It is a legend which may have been taken from some Monastic history by a Masonic lodge of the 13th century in that place.  Chichester had a College of Roman Artisans that erected a temple circa 46-52 A.D., and Masons' Marks are found in the remains of the city.  In the year 114 Marius the British Pendragon, so named as the military chief of the great golden Dragon-standard of Britain, executed a treaty with Tacitus by which Roman law was to be recognised in such towns as might become Municipia or colonies; and the garrisons of York, Chester, and Bangor were to be recruited from British Volunteers; as Rome strengthened herself Christianity was tolerated, but Druidism was prohibited.  A quantity of Roman coins was found in the South-basin at Chichester in 1819, and three with the following emblems: Nerva 96 A,D., two joined hands, and "concordia execretus," encircling.  Hadrian, 117 A.D., moon and seven stars.  Antonius Pius, 138 A.D., two joined hands, two ears of corn, "Cos III."<<"Freemasonry in Havant," 892a, Thos. Francis.>>  We might assume that {247} Chichester in Sussex was the centre of the Roman fraternity, and Verulam a branch.  Upon St. Rook's hill is the remains of an ancient building with entrenchments which during the last and the previous century was used as a place of Masonic Assembly, and near this, at Lavant, are caves with a series of chambers where a very curious copper level, intended to be worn, was discovered.<<"A.Q.C.," 1898, W. H. Rylands.>>

   York has a multitude of Roman remains dating from the time of Adrian and Severus, 134-211 A.D., and later under Constantius.  There was discovered at Toft Green in 1770 beneath the foundation of a Roman temple of brickwork a stone with this inscription, Deo sancto Serapi Templvm asolo fecit Cl. Hieronymianus leg. vi. vic. -- "This temple, sacred to the god Serapis, was erected, from the ground, by Claudius Hieronymianus, Lieutenant of the sixth conquering legion."  On each side of the inscription are two identical ornaments which it is difficult to describe, each is of three circles with a rod, or straight line drawn through them; the other is a peculiar trisula having in its centre a star of six points; at the bottom is a circle with an eight-pointed star in the centre, and in that a point.  There was also found in Micklegate in 1747 a piece of sculpture said to represent Mythras sacrificing a bull; and in 1638 was found an altar erected to Jupiter by the Prefect Marcianus.  A semi-subterranean temple of Mythras was discovered in 1822 at Housesteads in Northumberland, containing an Altar dedicated in 235 A.D., and there are other remains in Chesterholm and Rutchester in the same county; at the latter place is a recess hewn out of the solid rock, called the giant's grave, measuring 12 X 4 1/2 by 2 feet deep.  At one end is a hole; this seems to resemble "St. Patrick's hole," in Donegal.  Several altars have been found in Cumberland and Westmorland dedicated to Baalcadris.  Acta Latamorum and Rebold give a very probable explanation of the Masonic Legend of Verulam.  Carausius caused himself to be elected and proclaimed Emperor of Britain by the {248} Channel Fleet in 284 A.D., and braved all the efforts of Diocletian to dethrone him.  He renewed the privileges of the Collegia in their entirety as these had been much curtailed in the course of centuries, and is therefore supposed to have appointed Albanus as his Inspector.  An inscription to Carausius was found at Carlisle in 1894, and his coins are numerous.  He was assassinated at York in 295 A.D., and Constantius Chlorus took up his residence there, and confirmed the privileges of the Guilds or Collegia.  Brother Giles F. Yates states that an old MS. of the life of St. Alban, the proto-martyr, in British characters was found in the tenth century, and Matthew Paris refers to a book of great antiquity as existing in the Monastery of St. Albans.

   Britain had clearly attained architectural distinction in the time of Carausius and was able to send competent men to instruct the Gauls, for Eumenius, the panegyrist of Maximium, congratulates the Emperor on behalf of the city of Autin, which he informs us was renovated by architects from this country, in the following words: "It has been well stored with Artificers since your victories over the Britains, whose provinces abound with them, and now by their workmanship the city of Autin rises in splendour by rebuilding their ancient houses, the erection of public works, and the instauration of temples.  The ancient name of a Roman brotherhood which they long since enjoyed is again restored by having your Imperial Majesty as their second founder."<<"Paneg. Maximian Aug. dict." -- Oliver's "Remains," iii, and v; also "Masonic Mirror," 1855, p. 32.>>

   Christian architecture, however, is not much in evidence until Saxon times, though the "new superstition," as the Romans termed it, is said to have entered Glastonbury in the Apostleship of Joseph of Arimathea.  Welsh historians assert that Christianity was accepted in a National Council held by King Lucius A.D. 155, when the Archdruids of Evroc, Lud, and Leon, became Archbishops and the Chief Druids of 28 cities became bishops.  It is {249} further asserted that of the British captives carried to Rome, Claudia and Pudens are addressed by name in the Gospel.  King Lucius is said to have been educated at Rome by St. Timotheus, the son of Claudia, to have been proclaimed King in the year 125, and to have been baptised by Timotheus 155 A.D.; after which he proceeded to erect churches at Winchester; Llandaff; St. Peter's, London; and St. Martin's, Canterbury; the faith was then styled Regius Domus, or Royal house.  British history says that at this time there were in existence 59 magnificent cities, and numberless handsome residences.  Of Monasteries the Triads say: There are three perpetual Choirs in the Isle of Britain -- Great Bangor, Caer-Salog (Salisbury), Avillon (Glastonbury); the first named was munificently endowed by King Lucius; it covered a square of five miles, had 10,000 teachers, and every graduate had to learn some profession, art, or business.  Minucius Felix comments upon the absence of temples and altars amongst the Christians of the 3rd century, and of the uselessness of such works in honour of an all embracing Deity, and then says: "Is it not far better to consecrate to the Deity a temple in our heart and spirit?"  It was not until about the year 270 that Christians were allowed to assemble in buildings of their own at Rome, and these appear to have been first erected in imitation of the "Scholae" or Lodge rooms, of the artizans, but in Britain there was but one year's persecution of the Christians, when Socrates, Archbishop of York, the Bishop of St. Albans, and others lost their lives.  About the year 300 church was erected at Verulam over the martyred body of St. Alban, which Bede says was a handsome structure; and Tanner says that there was a church at Winchester, dedicated to Amphibalus who converted him.  There was an Archbishop of York at this time, for Eborius in the year 3I4 attended the Council of Arles in Gaul and is described as Episcopus de civitate Eboracum Provincia Brit.  The same Council was attended by Restitus of {250} London, and Adifius of Caerleon on Usk, which is Lincoln.

   These Christian Britains -- monks, priests, and bishops, were known as Culdees, servants of God; they established Monasteries and Churches in various parts of England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, and there is no doubt that many of them were converts from the Druidical faith; in these countries they opened Colleges, and Schools where handicrafts, arts, sciences, and religion were taught to the people.  Their faith was heretical according to the standard which the Church of Rome had adopted after the succession of Constantine, and they were what Cardinal J. H. Newman terms Platonising Christians, or of the esoteric Arcane Discipline.  They believed in the immortality of the soul, but not in the Jewish doctrine of a resurrection of the material body, which was the teaching of Judaising Christians.  They are also accused of denying the existence of a personal devil, and the personality of Jesus, in which case they were Gnostics, but the reader may refer back to the subject in Chapter VI.  St. Patrick is said to have been born a Druid and to have left Dumbarton for Ireland in the year 432.  Both ancients and moderns charge them with possessing a secret doctrine, and when in 589 Columban went to Burgundy with 12 companions from Ireland (as Columba had previously done in 561 to Icolmkili, the Arcane Mystery gave offence; the King demanded of him, why, as in his own country, "access to their secret enclosures was not granted to all Christians," upon which the Culdee sternly replied, that if he sought to destroy the Cenobia of God his kingdom would assuredly perish.  This mission founded the Abbey of Luxeville, and others in France and Italy.  In England their principal seat was York, in Wales Bangor, in Ireland Donegal, in Scotland the Hebrides.  Those Masons who possess intuition, and the faculty of reading between the lines of such writers as we have quoted, will perceive that Philosophy found it essential, and safe, to openly embrace Christianity, whilst secretly conforming {251} to their old ideals, had it been necessary we could have given plain proof of this.  Even Eusebius says: "In order to render Christianity more acceptable to the Gentiles, the priests adopted the exterior vestments and ornaments used in the Pagan culte."  Philosophy thus secured the survival of its secrets, hence we find the 12 sons of Jacob assimilated to the Zodiacal signs; and much Gnostic symbolism is found in church architecture -- lions, serpents, and things to be named in due course.

   The Rev. W. L. Alexander in writing upon "Iona" says that whilst the Roman armies were harrying the Druids at Anglesea there was a College of them in the Scottish islands situated 56 Degrees 59' N.L. designated lnnis-nan-Druid-neach -- the Isle of the Druids -- and that that priesthood prevailed over all the other islands until the year 563-4 when Colum or Columba arrived with 12 companions who were continued in that number till after ages.  It is said that there existed there certain Druidical priests who professed to be Christians in the hope of inducing Columb to withdraw, and after the settlement of Columb and his friends, the island began to he known as li-cholum-chille -- the island of Columbus' Cell, corrupted to Icolmkill, and we have also li-shona -- the holy island, corrupted to Iona.

   We may now say something in reference to the construction of their churches.  Prior to the 5th century, all Christian churches were after the model of the ancient temples of Egypt divided into three parts, and which corresponded with the secret or esoteric doctrine; and we need have no doubt that the emblematical significance of the architecture was a "close tyled" Mystery of the Initiated builders, and that as in the ancient temples, they were built to symbolise a spiritual doctrine, which ordinary Christians were unacquainted with.  The first part, or Ante-temple, was for the Catechumens, disciples, and penitents; the second part or Nave was for the lay members and the faithful; the third part or Sanctuary was a semi-circular recess with an arched roof, raised above {252} the floor by steps; it represents the Sanctuary of the ancient gods, open only to the priests; within it was the throne of the Bishop which was usually veiled, and placed besides it were smaller thrones for the Clergy; in the centre of this most holy place was the altar.  In Gothic buildings, of a later date, this part is called the Chancel and was separated by a Rood-screen of carved wood or other material; and it is remarkable that the carvers, at times, took great liberties with the Monks and priests, in the representation of their vices.  There is even much recondite symbolism to be found on the outer walls of such buildings.  The Secret Discipline, at these early dates, regulated the symbology of the edifices, and the Vesica-piscis, so often found on ancient temples, and churches of all eras, is held to be the great secret of constructive measurements, and, as has been stated, the Sign of the Epopts both in Philosophy and Christianity.

   In regard to early erections, a small church of rough stone was raised at Peranzabulae in Cornwall about the year 400 by the Culdee Pirau an Irish saint, over whose tomb was found an equilimbed cross of the Greek form, when the building was disinterred in 1835, after having been covered over for ten centuries.  Thong Castle in Lincolnshire was erected for the Saxons about the year 450, it must have been a British labour.  A church of stone was erected at Candida Casa, by the Culdee bishop Ninian 488 A.D.; and Matthew of Westminster tells us that the British King Aurelius Ambrosius, who slew the Saxon Hengist at Conisborough in 466, repaired the churches, travelling to and fro for that purpose, and sent for Cementarii or Masons, and Lignarii, or Carpenters.  Legends state that he erected Stonehenge with blocks brought from Ireland by the engineering skill of Merlin, and that both himself and his brother Uther the Pendragon were buried within its circle (but Norman Lockyer examining it as a Planetarium, dates it, by the Sun, at 1680 B.C.); he defeated Hengist's sons at York in 490.  In 524 Arthur son of Uther, defeated the Saxons, and at {253} Christmas of that year he held a Council at York to consider ecclesiastical affairs, and methods were taken to restore the churches and the ruined places at York, which had been occasioned by his wars to expel the Saxons.  Though Arthur the Pendragon is alleged to have been buried at Glastonbury the legends of the Prince seem to belong chiefly to Cumberland and the adjacent parts, which formed the Kingdom of the Strathclyde Britains; the names used in the Romances of his Round Table and in the connected tales, are Cambrian, and Blase of Northumberland is said to have registered his doings.  Denton says that near St. Cuthbert's Church, Carlisle, in Cumberland, "stood an ancient building called Arthur's chamber, taken to be part of the mansion house of Arthur, the son of Uter Pendragon, of memorable note for his worthiness in the time of antient Kings."<<Quoted in "Hist. Cumb." by Wm. Hutchinson, 1794. ii, p. 606.>>  The Prince was no doubt a Romanised Briton, though his name does not belong to the Celtic language, and that he was a real person who strove to unite the British Christians against the Saxons is beyond serious question.  The allegorical history of the Round-table, and the Knights' "Quest of the Sangrael," or cup of the blood of Christ, is supposed to refer, in mystic terms, to Culdee rites; and in spite of the efforts of Rome the Culdee culte continued to exist in England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland down to the Norman conquest, and, in places, until long afterwards.  At Caerleon on Usk were two churches, and an important Culdee "College of two hundred Philosophers learned in Astronomy, and in all the sciences and the arts."

   It is more than probable that the peculiarities of the Culdee system arose from the engraftation of Druidical beliefs upon the Christian faith.  Many learned writers have sought to derive Free Masonry both from a Druidical and Culdee establishment.  The latter is not at all improbable for one of the branches.  The following may be pointed out at random: -- The custom of symbolising Craft officers by the sun and moon; for the Arch {254} Druid bore the sun and crescent moon on his head dress, whilst the Bard was designated by the crescent moon, equally the tonsure of a Culdee Monk went from ear to ear, in crescent, as opposed to the coronial tonsure of the Romans.  A Culdee origin has also been claimed for the Templars, and the modern ceremonies of that body commemorate the 13 of Iona.

   St. Cibi's, as asserted by Sir John Stanley, was founded in 550 on a Roman temple at Holyhead.  It was, however, rebuilt temp. Edward III., and again in the reign of Henry VII.

   Toland says that the Druidical College of Derry was converted into a Culdee Monastery.  About the year 561 Columba and twelve companions left Ireland to build the Monastery of Icolmkill, and Masonic legend assigns the lectures of the Mastership of Harodim to this Monastery; they founded Colleges at Govan and Kilwinning; and Aidan, one of the twelve, established the original Abbey of Melrose.  The fraternity had other establishments in Scotland; at Abernethy; St. Serf in Lochleven; Dunkeld; St. Andrews; Moneymusk in Aberdeenshire; Dunblane; Dunfermline; and Aberdeen.  Their establishment at Brechin has left a cylinder or Round Tower of unknown date.  At each side of the western entrance, near an ancient gateway, is carved in relief an elephant having the feet of a lion and a horse.  Brother R. Tytler, M.D., in a paper read before the Antiquarian Society of Scotland,<<Vide "Freem. Quart.," 1834.>> makes a precise comparison between this and an astronomical allegory, in like situation, in various Hindu temples.  Above this carving is an apparently later crucifixion scene with two Monks.  It is said that during the life of Columba 100 monasteries were erected, and the Irish claim to have sent architects to Britain some centuries before this time.

   The voyage of Bran, son of Febal (a MS. of 1100), to the Island of Joy, or the Land of the Living, is attributed to Adamnan, Abbot of Ionia, who died in 703; it mentions {255} nine grades of heaven in three steps, and that a fiery circle surrounds the land of the blessed.  The throne is a canopied chair with four columns of precious stones, and beneath it are seven glassen walls.  The sect in England had seats at Lindisfarne, York, and Ripon.

   Mr. Grant Allen in his Anglo-Saxon Britain (1884) says: "It is possible that the families of Craftsmen may at first have been Romanised Welsh inhabitants of the cities, for all the older towns -- London, Canterbury, York, Lincoln, and Rochester -- were almost certainly inhabited without interruption from the Roman period onward."

   The Roman law, and therefore the Guilds or Collegia, never became extinct in any place where the Romans had once had a footing.  They entered Germany with the sack of Rome by the Goths, a country unconquered by arms.  Alaric II. of the Wisegoths, 484-507, commissioned Roman Jurists to compile a code on the basis of the Lex Theodosii which was adopted by all Gaul.  Theodrich the Ostragoth in the year 500 promulgated a similar code, which aimed at fusing Roman and Goth into one people.  A third compilation of Roman law called the Burgundian Lex Romano was promulgated about the year 520 by Sigmund. <<"Arminius," Thos. Smith, F.S.A.. London, 1861.>>  It follows from this that, so far from the Roman Collegia being extinguished with the Empire, they spread throughout Germany.  Smith further says: "These Colleges are evidently the Guilds of the Middle ages; in the Roman Disciple we may detect the modern Apprentice, and in the hereditary obligation to follow a particular trade, we may discern the origin of freedom by birth, or by servitude, in Corporate towns.  The leading idea in Roman institutions was Municipal.  Every franchise was the result of belonging to some College, and we thus infer that the franchise of Cities owe their origin to Rome.  Thus to the Municipia of Rome, not to German institutions, are to be ascribed the origin and form of the Municipal Corporations of the middle ages."<<"Arminius," Thos. Smith, F.S.A.. London, 1861.>>

   Apropos of this quotation is the existence of the Magistri {256} Comacenes, settled near the lake of Como, who hired themselves out to build for the Lombards and are mentioned by the Rev. Charles Kingsley.<<"Roman and Teuton," 1891, Lec. x. p. 253.>>  They are supposed to have fled to a small island on Lake Como, on the sack of Rome by the Goths, where they kept alive the ancient rules of their art, whence was developed the various Italian Styles, the Norman, and the Saxon.  Not only was their organisation that of the Collegia but the ornamentation of their architectural work.  They venerated the Four crowned Martyrs, and were divided into Scolia or Apprentices; Laborerium, operii or those who did the actual work; the Opera or Fabbrica, or the Magistri who designed and taught the others.  Leader Scott quotes an Edict of the Lombard King Rotharis, dated 22nd Nov., 643, conferring privileges on the Magistri Comacini, and the Colligantes, and this when they had been long established.  She also quotes an inscribed stone of 712 to shew that they had then Magistri and Discipula under a Gastaldo or Grand Master and that the same terms were kept up in Lombardy, amongst Free Masons, until the 15th century, and it is known that St. William, Abbot of Benigne in Dijon, a Lombard by birth, brought in his countrymen to build his monastery, and that Richard II., Duke of Normandy, employed this architect for 20 years in like work.<<The "Cathedral Builders," Leader Scott, 1899, London.>>  It is not so difficult to connect Freemasonry with the Collegia, the difficulty lies in attributing Jewish traditions to the Collegia, and we say on the evidence of the oldest charges that such traditions had no existence in Saxon times.

   "In this darkness which extended over all Italy, only one small lamp remained alight, making a bright spark in the vast Italian Necropolis.  It was from the Magistri Comacini.  Their respective names are unknown, their individual works unspecialised, but the breath of their spirit might be felt all through those centuries, and their name collectively is legion.  We may safely say that of all the {257} works of art between 800 and 1000, the greater and better part are due to that brotherhood -- always faithful and often secret -- of the 'Magistri Comacini.' (J. A. Llorente, Hist. of the Inquisition; London 1826.  I. Maestri Comacini; Milano 1893.)

   The conquest of Rome, by the Teutonic nations, led to a great extension of the Christian Monasteries, during the 5th and 6th centuries, and these were usually placed in quiet or inaccessible situations, the better to escape from the tumults of the times.  Here libraries were established and the ancient learning found a resting place.  This led to the cultivation of the Mystical and the spiritual in man, and it may be observed that the term Mystic is derived from the rank of Mystae in the Mysteries, even as the term "Mystery" was adopted by trade Guilds to mean their art, and "closed lips."

   Stowe says that in the 7th or 8th century the walls of London were rebuilt by Benedictine Monks brought from Birkenhead.  The founder of this brotherhood was St. Benedict, born at Nursia in Umbria about A.D. 480; he went to Monte Cassino, 530, afterwards the centre of his order, and there composed his rule, which entered England between the 6th and 7th century.  Archdeacon Prescott says: "The finest Abbeys, and nearly all the Cathedrals, belonged to the order."

   About the year 597 Augustine came over to England from the Church of the Quatuor Coronati at Rome.  His instruction from Pope Gregory was: "Destroy the idols, never the temples; sprinkle them with holy water, place in them relics, and let the nations worship in the places accustomed."  He is said to have brought over Roman Masons, and a further number in the year 601; he died in 605.  It has been supposed that he built the Church of the Four crowned Martyrs at Canterbury, which is mentioned casually by Bede in 619.  This introduction of Masons from Rome is usually taken to prove that the building fraternities had become extinct in this country, but it does no such thing.  There was no doubt a scarcity {258} of capable men amongst the Saxons for the work which the Romish Saint had in view, but we cannot altogether rely upon the good faith of their historians, nor are we at all justified in assuming that the native British Masons, Carpenters, and the building fraternities derived from the Romano-heathen population were extinct, and we have proofs to the contrary in the Culdee erections of St. Peter at York in 626, and in the Culdee establishment at Lindisfarne in the year 634 by Aidan, a Monk of Icolmkill in Iona; and in the "Holy Island" St. Cuthbert was interred before the City of Durham existed.  There lies, behind, the fact that Rome considered all British Christianity as heretical, and all the successors of Augustine followed his role, with the unsuccessful object of wholly destroying Culdee influence.  Bede informs us that the British Christians refused either to live, or eat, with the Augustinians, and they replied to a demand for obedience: "We owe obedience only to God, and after God to our venerable head, the Bishop of Caerleon-on-Uske."  Bede complains also that Monasteries had been established by laymen with themselves as Abbots, whilst still continuing married relations with their wives, a Culdee custom, sanctioned by example of Bishop Synesius.  He says also that a Martyrium of the "four blessed Coronati" existed at Canterbury 619-24.

   The British Pendragons seem to have kept the Saxons in check, but they were able to destroy Bangor in the year 607.  Deira was strongly reinforced by Angles from the Saxon coast, and King Edwin solicited from his friend Caswallon, the British Pendragon, that he might assume the regal crown as Bretwalda, but Caswallon refused his sanction, on the ground that there was "one sole crown of Britain."  Kemble says that, "The Saxons neither took possession of the towns, nor gave themselves the trouble of destroying them."  The Heptarchial princelings and their villagers were Pagans, and exercised but small influence.  Pope Boniface IV. is credited with the grant {259} of privileges in 614 to those architects who had the erection of sacred buildings.

   In 616 Ethelbert King of Kent built the Church of St. Peter, and St. Paul, at Canterbury, upon the site of a small church erected by the early Britains; also the church of St. Andrew in Rochester; and he is thought to have restored St. Paul's in London, erected on the site of a temple to Diana, though other writers suppose it to have been built within the area of what was the Roman Pretorian Camp in the time of Constantine.  Siebert King of the West Saxons, in 630, built the Monastery of Westminster, on the site of a Temple to Apollo, and it was repaired in the next century by Offa King of Mercia.  About the middle of this century, say 650, an Irish saint of the name of Bega established a small Nunnery at the place now called St. Bees in Cumberland, then a British port, and a church was erected afterwards in her honour.

   The Romans had a temple at Teignmouth, and here an important Priory was erected.  In the reign of Edwin over Yorkshire, Durham, and Northumbria, circa 626, a wooden edifice was erected here, similar to Aidan's Church at Lindisfarne, and was followed by a church of stone erected by his successor St. Oswald, circa 663.  After it had been destroyed by the Danes, it was restored by Ecgfrid, in the 15th year of whose reign the neighbouring church at Jarrow was dedicated, and which, with that of Wearmouth, is in the diocese of Hexham.

   In the year 675, Benedict Biscop is said to have brought over from France skilled Masons to erect the Monastery at Jarrow.  At the same date Wilfrid founded Ripon, Hexham, and Ely, bringing Masons from Rome or Italy and France.  King Ina also rebuilt Glastonbury; and William of Malmesbury informs us that it possessed a sapphire of inestimable value, perhaps the origin of the legend of the Graal cup.  The same writer says: "In the pavement are stones designedly laid in triangles and squares, and fixed with lead, under which if I believe some sacred enigma to be enshrined I do no injustice to {260} religion"; he also alludes to two pyramidical structures in the churchyard.

   Anglo-Saxon building, sometimes of wood, and then of stone, continued upon their gradual conversion to Christianity.  In 643 Kenweath of Wessex "bade timber the old Minster of Winchester."  In 654 "Botulf began to build a Monastery at Icambo" (Boston).  In 657, Penda of Mercia and Oswin of Northumbria built a Monastery at Medeshamstede (Peterborough).  Oswin built six in Deira.  In 669 Echbert of Kent gave "Reculver to Bass, the Mass-priest, to build a Monastery."  In 669 St. Ethelreda "began the Monastery at Ely."  Before 735, religious houses existed at Lastringham, Melrose, Lindisfarne, Whithern, Bardney, Gilling, Bury, Ripon, Chertsey, Barking, Abercorn, Selsey, Redbridge, Aldingham, Towcester, Hackness, and several other places.  The Irish Monks were active abroad; in 582 St. Peter's Convent at Salzburg was erected by Rudbert.  About 610, convents at Costnitz and Augsburg erected by Edumban.  About 606, convents at Regenburg under Rudbert.  About 740, convents at Eichstadt under the Irish monk Wildwald.  As to military architecture we read that Edward, the father of Athelstan, had twenty fortresses between Colchester, Manchester, and Chester.  Why then should we dispute the existence of such Guilds as are shadowed in our ancient Masonic MSS.?  Professor Freeman says that St. Mary le Wigford Church was built by Coleswegan.

   Ælfred, brother of Ecfrid King of Northumberland, sojourned in Ireland to acquire from the Monks the learning of the period, and on the death of Ecfrid, in 685, he was recalled to succeed him, but it is very doubtful whether the Britons recognised these Saxons as Kings, until Egbert became Bretwalda in the year 824.  In 690 Theodore, Bishop of Canterbury, erected King's School in that city.  In 716 Ethelbald built Croyland in Lincolnshire.  Of this period a series of drawings exist amongst the Cottonian MSS. in the British Museum, and have been engraved for the Freemasons' Magazine, scenes in the {261} life of St. Guthlac; one of these represents him in the act of building his chapel.  The Saint is hoisting up material to a Mason who is laying a stone at the top of the building; near the Saint is a stone-cutter who is hewing the stone into shape with an axe.  We shall see later that a chisel was used in Norman times,

and soon after a claw-adze.  Although the Arch had its origin in high antiquity, and is said to have been found in Babylonian remains near 10,000 years old, preference was given in early English church architecture to the straight lintel of the Pagan temples, then Arches followed, but it was not until the 10th century that vaulted roofs came into use, and soon spread over the whole of Europe.  As early as the 8th century the English Monk, St. Boniface or Winifrid, established in Germany a special class of Monks for the practice of building, with the grades of Operarii or Craftsmen, and Magistri operum or Masters of Work.  Some of these acted as designers, others as painters or sculptors, others wrought in gold and silver embroidery, and others were Cementarii or Stone Masons: occasionally it was necessary to employ laymen under their superintendence.<<Ludwig Steiglitz, quoted by Mackey.>>

   The church of York, erected in 626, was damaged by fire in 741, and Archbishop Egbert began a new church.  About the year 793 Offa King of Mercia erected the Monastery of St. Albans near the old Roman Verulam, and in the Cottonian Library is a picture, also engraved for the Freemasons' Magazine, shewing him in the act of giving instructions to his Master Mason, who has the square and compasses in hand; a Mason on the top is using a plumb-rule, whilst another is setting a stone; below are two Masons squaring stones with an axe.  These drawings are by Matthew of Paris about the year 1250.  Offa before beginning this work made a journey to Rome by way of France, and Brother C. C. Howard, of Picton, supposes that he brought Masons thence for his work.  At Lyminge in Kent there is an old church built upon a {262} Roman Basilica by Saxon Masons; it is noteworthy as having an old Roman sun-dial built into the south wall of the Nave by St. Dunstan circa 965.  It may be noted here that in recent times a bronze square and compasses were dug up at Corfu, along with coins and vessels of the 8th and 9th centuries.

   The Romans seem not to have had a settlement at Durham, and we do not hear of the place during the time of the Saxon Heptarchy.  The Bishop's See was founded at Lindisfarne as early as 635.  In 883 the Bishop and his clergy took up their abode at the Roman Chester-le-Street, where they remained with the body of St. Cuthbert until 995, when the Danes caused them to take up their wanderings with the body of that Saint.  In 999 Aldune the Bishop caused the Cathedral to be erected, and ere 90 years had passed this small edifice gave place to the present stately fabric.

   During all this period the Saxons had a Guild system in full operation; and the old laws of Alfred, Ina, and Athelstan reproduce still older laws acknowledging the Guilds.  The old Brito-Roman cities must have continued their Guilds during these centuries, even whilst the Saxons were making laws on the subject, and establishing new ones on the old lines.  The laws of Ina, 688-725, touch upon the liability of a Guild, in the case of killing a thief.  In 824 England had absorbed Britain and Saxon under Egbert, and the latter had become the ruling element.  These Guilds exacted an Oath of secrecy for the preservation of trade "Mysteries," and obedience to the laws.  The Judicia Civitatis were ordinances to preserve the social life of Guilds, of the time of Athelstan.  A law of Edgar, 959-75, ordains that "every priest for increase of knowledge shall diligently learn some handicraft," but this was only enforcing old Culdee customs.  There is said to be a letter of the 9th century, written by Eric of Auxerre to Charles the Bald of France, in praise of certain Irish philosophers, who, as "servants of the wise Solomon," were visiting France under the King's protection, who "for {263} the instruction of his countrymen," attracted thither Greeks and Irishmen.  This probably refers to the erection of Aixe-la-Chapelle by his grandfather Charlemagne.  It was introduced into the Irish Masonic Calendar by the late Brother Michael Furnivall, and has created an impression that there existed in Ireland at this period some Society analogous to the Sons of Solomon in France, which we shall mention shortly.  St. Werberg at Chester is said to be erected on the site of a Saxon Church as old as 845.

   About the year 850 Ethelwolf, King and Bretwalda, is said to have employed St. Swithin to repair the pious houses.  The Danes burnt Croyland Monastery in 874 and slew Abbot Theodore at the altar steps.  Alfred the Great, about 872, fortified and rebuilt many towns, and founded the University of Oxford.  In 865, and again in 870, the Priory of Teignmouth, where the Nuns of Hartlepool had taken refuge, was destroyed by the Danes and again rebuilt.

   It is certain that in these times, a large number of timber structures were erected; it was a style of building which admitted of rough stone and rubble work, and was equally common both in England and France.  This is probably the reason why our ancient Constitutions state, as they do, that the original designation of the Fraternity was Geometry, which was as necessary in buildings of wood as of stone, and is some evidence of the antiquity of these ancient MSS.  An authority maintains that later erections of stone, by the Saxons, were influenced by this style, as in the use of stone buttresses in imitation of timber beams, and in window balustres or pillars made to imitate work turned in a lathe.<<"Freems. Mag.," J. F. Parker, F.S.A., 1861. iv, p. 183.>>  Doubtless many of the churches burnt by the Danes were of wood, and rebuilt of stone.  In Constantinople, and the East generally, wooden structures continue, and are preferred to stone.

   In the year 915 Sigebert, King of the East Angles, began the erection of the University of Cambridge, which was completed by Ethelward the brother of King Edward {264} the elder.  This latter erected many considerable works and fortifications, repairing, says Holinshed, in 920, the city of Manchester, defaced by the wars of the Danes.  He was succeeded by his elder, but illegitimate, son, Athelstan, who is said in the oldest MS. Constitution to have "built himself churches of great honour, wherein to worship his God with all his might."  Anderson says that Athelstan rebuilt Exeter, repaired the old Culdee church at York, and also built many castles in the old Northumbrian Kingdom to check the Danes; also the Abbey of St. John at Beverley; and Melton Abbey in Dorsetshire.  If for the advancement and improvement of architecture this King granted an actual charter to York, he would naturally do the same to Winchester, in which city he fixed his royal residence; and there we find architecture flourishing.  Few Saxon specimens of architecture now exist; there is the tower of Earl's Barton Church, Lincolnshire; Sempling in Sussex; St. Michael's in Oxford.

   A fine specimen of military architecture of the period is Castle Rushen in Man.  It is believed to have been begun by King Orry and completed by his son Guthred, circa 960; it resembles so closely one at Elsinore in Denmark that they are both supposed to be by the same architect.  The one in Man is built of the limestone of the district, and is in a state of perfect preservation; the elements have had no effect upon the stone, owing to a hard, glass-like glaze, admitting of a high polish, from which it may be inferred that the military architects were acquainted with some chemical secrets that remain a secret to this day.

   In 942 Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury began the restoration of his Cathedral; it was afterwards much injured by the Danes in 1011, and King Canute ordered its restoration; again it suffered by fire in 1043.  In the time of Ethelworth and St. Dunstan, who was a Benedictine Monk, Anderson says, 26 pious houses were erected, and under Edgar 48 pious houses.  Between 963-84, {265} Ethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, erected 40 Monasteries, and is styled the "Constructor," of his Cathedral church.  Edgar, in 969, at the instance of Dunstan, repaired Westminster Abbey church.  In 974, Ednoth, a Monk of Winchester, superintended the erection of Romsay Abbey church.  From 977-81, Ælfric, Abbot of Malmesbury, is said to have been skilful in architecture.

   There is a charter of King Æthelred of the year 994 which describes the Deity in Masonic terms as "Governor of the bright pole and Architect of the great ethereal design . . . .of the world, unexpressibly placing in order the Fabric."  Another of King Canute uses the same preface.<<Thorpe's "English Charters," 1865.>>  The paucity of Anglo-Saxon remains prevents our dealing largely with their Masonic Symbolism.  There is, however, a bronze seal of Ælfric Duke of Mercia, 992, with the legend " Zigillum Ælfrici ,"  thus placing the cross, and the square and compasses in juxtaposition.<<"Freem. Mag.," I855, p. 509.>>  De Caumont mentions a sarcophagus, of this period, which bears a cross within a circle, and two levels placed sideways.

   With the close of the year 1000 A.D. a great impulse was given to church building, as a feeling prevailed that this year would see the end of the world.  When the panic had passed the Christian nations in thankfulness began building.  The Danes had caused great havoc in this country, and especially at York, and had even revived heathen rites, which Canute proclaimed in the year 1030.  There is no reason to suppose that these wars extinguished the building fraternities, and Canute in 1020 erected a stone Minster at Assingdon, and also repaired the Minsters throughout England, as we are informed by William of Malmesbury.  Leofric Earl of Coventry, circa 1050, built the Abbey of that City and 12 pious houses.  King Edward the Confessor rebuilt Westminster Abbey, devoting to the work a tenth of all his substance.  Of this reign there was a curious inscription at Kirkdale, W.R. Yorkshire, which says that Orin, son of Gemel, rebuilt the {266} church; Chelittle was architect, assisted by Howard and Brand the Priest.  Yorkshire being strong in the Danish element, Mason's Marks are often Runic letters.

   Remains of Saxon architecture yet exist in the churches of Jarrow; Monkwearmouth (both Biscop's 681); at Repton, Co. Derby (875); Ripon, Hexham, York (in Crypts); Earls Barton, and Barnick, Co. Northampton; Barton on Humber; Sompting, Co. Sussex; Caversfield; Deerhurst, Brixworth, etc.  It is well known that the Tower of Babel was one of the most ancient traditions of Masonry, and there is an old Saxon MS. which represents it in course of erection with the Saxon pick, and on the top step of a very tall ladder is the Master Mason giving the hailing sign of a Craftsman yet used, whilst behind him, on the same level, is the angel with drawn sword; a copy of it in Cassells' History of England, of the year 1901, can readily be examined.  It is said that the keep of Arundel Castle dates from Saxon times, but the chief entrance is a fine Norman doorway.

   Mr. James Ferguson says that in these times the working bands of Masons served under Bishop, Abbot, or Priest, and this continued down to the 13th century.  In travelling from one place to another their costume was a short black, or grey, tunic open at the sides, to which a gorget, or cowl or hood was attached; round the waist was a leathern girdle from which depended a short, heavy sword, and a leathern satchel.  Over the tunic they wore a black scapulary, similar to that worn by the priests, which they tucked up under the girdle when working.  They had large straw or felt hats; tight leather breeches, and long boots.  Attached to the Monasteries were Oblali, who were usually received as Monks, acted as serving brothers of the Masons, and whose costume was similar to the travelling Masons, but without the cowl.

   Owing to the fact that modern Free Masonry has always looked to the North of England as its Mecca, inasmuch so that last century its system was denominated "Ancient" York Masonry in opposition to the Grand {267} Lodge of England organised in 1717, which was termed "Modern," we will retrace a little in respect to this division of the old Saxon Heptarchy, which bore the name of Deira, and extended from Humber to Forth, save the Western half which was the Kingdom of the Stratchclyde Britons.  It was these two portions which continued to form the centre of Culdee influence, the capital of Deira being York, and the centre of Ancient Masonry.

   The city of York possesses numerous remains of the Roman occupation, which the early Christians converted to the use of the Church.  The Monastery of the Begging Friars is known to have been a temple dedicated to the Egyptian Serapis, and we have already mentioned the inscription to Serapis discovered at Toft Green in 1770.  In this City the British Legionaries, on the death of Constantius Chlorus, raised his son Constantine, surnamed the Great, on their shields, and proclaimed him Emperor 25th July, 306.  The Culdee King Arthur is believed to have occupied and repaired it in 522.

   It is considered that the Crypt of York Minster affords evidence of the progress of Masonry from Brito-Roman times to Saxon occupation.  The Crypt has a Mosaic pavement of blue and white tiles, laid after the form used in the 1st Degree of Masonry; it shews the sites of three stone altars and such triplication was of Egyptian derivation; but these stone altars are also said to have had seats which were used by the Master and his Wardens who met here, after the manner related by Synesius of the Priests of Egypt, as a sacred and secret place, during the construction of the edifice.  It is known that the Craft occasionally met in this Crypt during last century, and the alleged Masonic custom of meeting in Crypts elsewhere is no doubt founded in fact.

   As the Christian worship at York was of Culdee origin, so the veneration paid to Mistletoe was derived from the Druids.  The learned Brother Dr. Wm. Stukeley has this passage in his Medallic History of Carducius: "The {268} custom is still preserved, and lately at York on the eve of Christmas Day they carry mistletoe to the high altar of the Cathedral and proclaim a public and universal liberty, pardon, and freedom to all sorts of inferior and even wicked people at the gates of the city towards the four quarters of heaven."

   It follows from what we have seen that the Roman Collegia and the Mysteries of Serapis existed side by side at York, and amongst the members of these it is no improbable thing to suppose -- after the close connection which we have shewn to have existed in Egypt -- that there were Brito-Romish Christians who established the Culdee fraternities at York, before the days of Constantius Chlorus, about 2 1/2 centuries before King Arthur was in possession of the city, and that these Culdees influenced the Masonic Collegia, and the same remark equally applies to other cities of the time; and though there is no absolute proof that York was the first centre of Culdee influence in the North, yet everything lends itself to that supposition.  Every circumstance gives weight to the statements of the old Northern Constitutions of Masonry, that, as Associates in Geometry, it was of Greco-Roman derivation from Egypt; and that when it was thought fit to reorganise the Fraternity of Artisans, the Craft produced MSS. in Greek, Latin, and British, which it is said were "found to be all one "; and through this descent we reach those Sodalites which studied in Symbols, Geometry, Science, and Theosophy in their home at Alexandria.

   When we examine the MSS. which embody the ancient Laws of Freemasonry we find that their historical statements and organisation are as much in agreement as their ceremonies were, with the Arcane and Mystic schools.  Nor is this to be wondered at since the Culdee Monks were equally Serapians, Christians, and the Schoolmasters who taught science and religion to the people.  As the Colleges of Artisans, which were introduced by the Romans as early as 46 A.D., ceased to exist in the lapse {269} of years, if ever they did cease to exist, which is very improbable, the members became attached to the Culdee Monasteries and transmitted, through this alliance, their traditional art secrets, and as the priests had their own version of the ancient Mysteries, they understood that which the Masonic MSS. imply.

   It is an historical fact that the early Culdee priests were sometimes educated in Rome, and that they were converted Druidical Initiates; generally speaking it must have been so.  Toland says that in Ireland, Columba, the follower of St. Patrick, converted the Druidical Sanctuaries into Christian Monasteries.<<Toland, i, 1726, p. 8.>>  He also provides us with a theory to explain the preservation of the Masonic Constitutions in rhyme in this, that with the absorption of Druidism, which was prohibited by Rome, into Christianity, it was found necessary to frame new Regulations for the Bards and Minstrels.  Accordingly in 537 an assembly was held at Drumcat in modern Londonderry, at which was present the King Ammerius, Aidus King of Scotland, and the Culdee Columba, when it was resolved that, for the preservation of learning, the Kings and every Lord of a Cantred or Hundred, should have a Bard, and that schools should be endowed under the supervision of the Arch-poet of the King.<<Ibid, p. 4.>>  Thierry<<"Norman Conquest.">> states that when Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland, circa 1138, formed part of Scotland, the Anglo-Saxon traditions were preserved by the Minstrels, and that from thence the old English poetry, although obsolete in places inhabited by the Normans, again made itself heard in a later age.

   The oldest version of the Constitutional Charges is in poetical form, and was first printed by Mr. James Orchard Halliwell, who considers it to be a copy written in the latter part of the 14th century.  Recently a copy has been printed in fine facsimile, with a most valuable Commentary by Brother Robert Freke Gould, P.M. 2076, who conferred upon it its present name of "Regius MS."  He {270} adduces strong evidence for our belief that this version of Masonry may have been patronised by the Culdee Monks of York, and that the system actually dates from the time of Edwin King of Deira, who was converted to Christianity in the year 626 and for whose baptism a small church or Oratory was constructed of wood, completed by St. Oswald in 642, and repaired by Bishop Wilfrid in 669.

   The Culdee Alcuin, surnamed Flaccus and also Albinus, was engaged with Eanbald under Aldbhert, who became Archbishop, in the rebuilding of York Minster of stone between the years 760 and 780.  Alcuin and Eanbald made some journeys to the continent together, and on one occasion at least to Rome, between the years 762 and 766, in search of books and other knowledge, and it was in the year 766-7 that Aldbhert became Archbishop, and converted Alcuin from a Layman into an ordained Deacon.  Two years before his death in 788 the Archbishop created Eanbald Coadjutor Bishop, and gave to Alcuin the charge of his schools, and the now renowned library.

   When Alcuin went to France and became the friend and tutor of Charlemagne it would seem that French Masonry would interlace with that of the North of England.  Charlemagne was crowned a King in the year 754, hut his father King Pepin lived until 768; and when Alcuin speaks, as he does, "of the temple at Aachen which is being constructed by the art of the most wise Solomon," he is paying a compliment to his friend Charlemagne; and again in his treatise De animae ratione for the King's cousin Gundrede he also compares him for wisdom to Solomon.  Hence it seems to be possible that Alcuin might have some knowledge of a Solomonian Masonry, and the Moslems then were, or had been, occupying the South of France.  It is a curious fact that the receptions into the Vehm, founded by Charlemagne, embraces all the salient points of Masonic reception, though the aims of the two Societies were so dissimilar; {271} and this must be considered in estimating German Masonic receptions.

   The ancient Monasteries possessed a "book of gestures," by which they could converse by signs.  The Trappists in Africa use it at this day.  The Masons of old seem to have had a knowledge of this.

   We have every just reason to believe that a Masonic organisation was thus early in existence, and that it was ratified and sanctioned by King Athelstan, who now ruled all England from Winchester to Edwinsburg, now called Edinburgh; and who visited York in the year 933, and again in 937, conferring great privileges upon Beverley and Ripon of which Saxon charters, in rhyme, are produced; he also enriched the Coldei, as they are then termed at York, where they were acting as the priests of St. Peter's, and where they continued until they were relegated to St. Leonard's Hospital by the Bastard to make room for Norman clerics at St. Peter's.  According to this poetical Constitution, Athelstan, in order to remedy divers defects which existed in the organisation of Craft Geometry or Masonry, invited all the Men of Craft to come to him with their Council: -- 

           "Asemble thenne he cowthe let make,

            Of dyvers lordes yn here state,

            Dukys, Erlys, and barnes also,

            Knyzthys, squyers, and mony mo,

            And the grete burges of that syte,

            They were there alle yn here degree." 

   The details of this poetical MS. is confirmed by a prose copy attached to a more modern historical version in a MS. written before the year 1450, and which is known to have been in possession of Grand Master Payne in 1721, and which was first printed in 1868 by Brother Matthew Cooke and is hence termed the "Cooke MS."  A very precise examination of this MS. has been made by Brother G. W. Speth in a Commentary which he has issued with a facsimile, as well as the MS. itself, in book form bound in oak-boards, which Brother W. J. Hughan {272} has justly described as a gem.  Brother Speth has clearly demonstrated that this MS. is a copy made about 1450 by a later writer than the original compiler.  The first part is a Preface drawn by the author from various histories, Masonic traditions and charges, and is of a later period than the Saxon Charges.  To this Preface has been attached an actual copy of the most ancient Book of the Charges.  With some slight differences; which we will note from time to time, the poetical "Regius MS.," and the closing "Book of Charges" of the "Cooke MS." are in substantial agreement, and either might well be the original of the other.  The prose version of the composition of Athelstan's Assembly is not so ornate as that of the poetical, but informs us that "for grete defaut founde amongst Masons" he ordained "bi his counsellers and other greter lordys of the londe, bi comyn assent," a certain rule.  A number of such old MSS. tells us that Athelstan granted a charter to hold such Assembly to his son Edwin, and although Athelstan had no son of the name, he had a younger brother Edwin, whom he is accused, on very insufficient evidence, of having caused to be drowned in 933; Mabillon says, on equally doubtful evidence, that this Edwin was received into the Benedictine Monastery of Bath in 944<<"Annals of the Order of St. Benedict," Paris, 1703.>>

   It has been recently held by Brother R. F. Gould, in a paper of 1892 upon the nature of the Masonic General Assemblies that it may refer, not to a grant of their own Masonic right of Assembly by Athelstan, but to the Saxon Court-leets, Shire-motes, Folc-motes, or Hundred Courts of the Sheriffs.  The author of this theory grounds it chiefly upon that part of the MSS., which we have already quoted, in regard to the great Lords forming part of the Masonic Assembly.  But such argument can amount to no more than this, that the writers of these documents attribute the grant of the right of Masonic Assembly by Athelstan at a meeting of the Witenagemote; and that the Masonic Assemblies were held, or supposed to be held, {273} in similar form to the Folcomtes, and they were in fact, a Court of this nature, confined strictly to Masonic affairs.  Probably Athelstan sanctioned the Masters' "Articles" in a Council of Nobles, and the Masonic Council added the "Points" to govern Craftsmen.  The nature of the Constitutions, thus alleged to be sanctioned, describe an organisation which is out of harmony with what we might expect to find in Norman times, or at any period to which we might assign it after the 12th century.  The Athelstan grant of Masonic Assembly was held for admitting Fellows, and Passing Masters, whilst, on the other hand, the French Masons had their "Masters' Fraternities" to which none were admited without much difficulty.  It has also been suggested by Brothers Speth, Rylands, and Begemann that the Masonic Assemblies may have been held on the same day as the Witenagemote to assure an appeal to the Sheriff if necessary.

   In regard to the origin of the poetical Constitution which is termed the "Regius MS.," there is good reason for believing that it was handed down in rhyme in the Kingdom of Northumbria until it was committed to writing in some other part of England; and that it was intended for a Guild or Assembly of Speculative brethren consisting of Artisans of all descriptions connected with buildings, and admitting Clerics and Esquires; for moral addresses suited to all these classes are strung together in the same MS. Dr. Begemann considers from the language that the copy was made in North Chester, Hereford, or Worcestershire.  In other words, it is addressed to, and for, an Assembly similar to the imitation made by our present Grand Lodges.  Charters of privileges were given by the Norman Bishops of Durham, to a class of people, who must have long existed, called "Hali-werkfolc"; for the name being Saxon they were clearly pre-Norman work folk.  The late Brother William Hutchinson, of Barnard Castle, tells us that, in 1775, he had several Charters alluding to these people, and gives the preamble of one, granted about 1100 by the then Bishop of Durham, {274} which is addressed to both "Franci et Hali-werk folc."  This writer believes that the class were Speculative Masons, and he instances a branch connected with the old Culdee Shrine of St. Cuthbert, and if his views were accepted, it would give good grounds on which to assume the connection of this fraternity with the poem.

   It is worthy of note that the Culdee system existed in Scotland for some centuries after the Norman Conquest, nor does it then seem to have been extinct in Ireland.  The continuation of the name of the Templars in Scotland ages after its suppression in France, is probably owing to the continuance of Culdee heresy.  The Monastery of Brechin, as Mr. Cosmo Innes points out, existed in the time of David I., the promoter of Royal Burghs, 1123-53, and that after the erection of the Episcopal See, the old Culdee Convent became the electoral chapter of the new Bishopric; the Abbot of Brechin was secularised, and transmitted to his children the lands which his predecessors had held for the church; and one of these, in the time of William the Lion, made a grant of lands to the monks at Arbroath.<<Quoted in Abbott's "Eccl. Surnames," 1871.>>  Now the seal of Arbroath has a design which has been taken to refer to the secret Initiation of the Culdees: a priest stands before an altar with a long staff in his right hand, upon the upper part of which is "IO," the top forming a cross; before the altar kneels a scantily clothed man with something in his hand, he might be swearing upon a relic; three other persons are present, of whom two are brandishing swords.  An antagonistic theory is that the seal represents the murder of Thomas a Beckett.  All we will say here is that it is a very fair representation of the former view, and a very poor one of the latter; and that, in consonance with the times, it may have a double meaning.  Sir James Dalrymple says that the Culdees kept themselves together in Scotland until the beginning of the 14th century, and resisted the whole power of the primacy.

   Constitutional Charges.  We will now make a slight {275} examination of what we will call the Athelstan Constitution, as it appears in the Regius MS., at times quoting the version of the Cooke MS.  The former includes much ornate comment, which is given more soberly in the latter, but essentially the two documents are one.  Both consist of two series of Charges for two Classes, and a final ordinance.  These, in both MSS., are preceded by a simple history of the mode in which Euclid organised the fraternity in Egypt, and the regulations by which Athelstan ensured a more perfect system.  The first series of Charges in the Regius MS. are 15, called ARTICLES, and concern the duties of a MASTER to his Prentices, Fellows, and their Lords or employers.  The second series of Charges are called POINTS, and arrange the duties of CRAFTSMEN to their Master and to each other.  In the Cooke MS. these "Articles and Points" have exactly the same bearing but are each divided into 9 in place of 15.  The closing part of the Regius MS. is headed "Other Ordinances," and refers to the grant of a right of Assembly by Athelstan and the duties it had to discharge; but a comparison with the Cooke MS. might suggest that this portion is misplaced and should precede the Articles and Points, though in another point of view it might be taken to be a later addition, and to prove the much greater antiquity of the "Regius," as having a history settled before the grant of the Assembly.  In the Cooke MS. the last thing is Charges to "New Men that never were charged before," which looks like a more ancient form of the Points, but in the Regius MS. this part constitutes the closing Points of a Craftsman, and is concluded in a very characteristic way.  It personates Athelstan himself, and is held to have the very ring of the original grant; and is a record of that King's assent to.all that has been related: -- 

            "These Statutes that y have hyr y fonde,

             Y chulle they ben holde throuzh my londe,

             For the worshe of my rygolte

             That y have by my dygnyte." 


   Athelstan built several castles in Northumberland, and there yet exists a family of the name of Roddam of Roddam who claim their lands under the following Charter, and there is actually no greater improbability in the one than in the other: --<<Burke's "Landed Gentry," 1848.>> 

                    "I Konig Athelstane,

                     giffe heir to Paulane,

                     Oddiam and Roddam,

                     als gude and als fair,

                     als ever ye mine ware,

                     ann yair to witness Maud my wife." 

   Following the Regius Constitution we have a later section devoted to moral duties and etiquette.  It begins with the legend of the "Quatuor Coronati," four "holy martyrs that in this Craft were of great honour," Masons and sculptors of the best.  The church legend relates that they were Christians who were employed in sculpture, and always wrought with prayer in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, after signing with the cross, and their skill was so great that the Philosophers attributed it to the mysterious words of art magic.  Diocletian gave them the option of worshipping the Pagan gods, which they refused to do, and were put to death circa 290, and the Catholic Church canonised them as the "Four Crowned Martyrs."  After this they came to be acknowledged as Patrons of the building trades, and as such are found in the Strasburg, English, Lombard, and other Constitutions.  They are respectively represented with axe, hammer, mallet, compasses and square; sometimes wearing crowns; at times a dog is represented with them.

   Attached to the Regius Constitutions are two other documents intended to complete the instruction in moral duties, begun in the legend just related; the first of them is equally found in a MS. entitled "Instruction to Parish Priests," and concerns behaviour at church; the closing part of this portion is found in another MS. termed "Urbanitatis," and refers to the general behaviour of {277} young persons, whether Artisans or Esquires; MSS. of these two latter portions, as old as 1450 are found separately, but their actual origin is unknown, and it is supposed that they may have had Norman originals.  The motto of William of Wykeham was "Manners makyth man," and line 726 has "Gode maneres maken a mon."  Between the legend of the Four Martyrs and the other documents is a portion which has the appearance of being imperfect, but which refers to the building of Babylon and Euclid's tuition in the seven liberal arts and sciences; it is a part of the matter forming the Preface to the "Book of Charges" in the Cooke MS., so that it is possible there was a MS., now lost, from which the writers of these two documents respectively copied additions.  In any case both these MSS. are but copies of older documents, both have many imperfections attributable to the copyists, and which prove that they were but copyists.

   In both MSS. again, these Constitutions clearly prove that there was a recognised Euclid Charge, who is termed "Englet" in the prose copy; that these Charges were ratified by Athelstan; and the value which the ancient Masons attached to these Charges is proved by the general agreement which exists between two diverse documents, treated in a dissimilar manner, and no doubt used in parts distant from each other.  Both documents equally allude to Masters as a degree of the General or Heptarchial, or provincial Assembly, both assert that a Congregation might be made every year or third year, as they would; there is mention also of Elders, and the "principal of the gathering "; and both equally profess to give the Laws as transmitted from Egypt, and sanctioned by Athelstan.

   The Regius MS., 12th Point, says that at these Assemblies: -- 

            "Ther schul be maystrys and felows also,

             And other grete lordes many mo;

             Ther schal be the Scheref of that contre

             And also the meyer of that syte,

             Knyztes and sqwyres ther schul be,

             And other aldermen, as ye schul se." {278} 

The prose MS. has it, "if need be, the Scheriffe of the countie, or the Mayer of the Cyte, or Alderman of the towne in which the congregacon is holden schall be felaw and sociat of the Master of the congregacon in helpe of him agenst rebelles."  That is the Sheriff and Mayor were to be called to support the Master's authority.  This prose version also mentions the "Maister who is principal of the gadering."  Also, that "Congregacons scholde be maide by Maisters of all Maisters Masons and Felaus in the foresaide art.  And so at such congregacons thei that be mad Masters schall be examined of the Articuls after written and be ransakyed whether thei be abull and kunnynge to the profyte of the lordys them to serue and to the honour of the forsaide art."

   From this it is clear, and we shall see it more plainly as we proceed, that after the accepted Fellow had developed his architectural knowledge it was the province of the Congregation, Assembly, or Chapter, to examine into his competency for Mastership, to swear him to his special "Articles," and, according to traditional custom, to Pass him by a ceremony which gave him certain signs, tokens, and words, which enabled him to prove his capacity wherever his travels might carry him.  That is to say, not actually to Install him a Master of Work, but to enable him, as was the main object of such Tokens, to shew that he was a Passed Master; for the Assembly considered it to be its duty to see that the Craft and Art of Masonry was not dishonoured by ignorant pretenders.  In actual practice, both in this country and on the continent, the Master had to execute an approved task, or piece of work, or "Master piece," as evidence of his ability.  In London in 1356 there was a dispute of such nature between two classes of Masons, when the very authorities cited in these Constitutions, namely, the Aldermen, Sheriffs, &c., arranged the difficulty by a law that any Mason taking work in contract should bring "Six or four ancient men of his trade," to testify to his ability to complete it.  In the laws of the Haupt Hutte of Strasburg, {279) which though of the 15th century must reproduce much older laws, and which resemble our own, it is enacted that they might be altered by "three or four" masters of work, when met together in Chapter; and we find that a Craftsman or Fellow, who served but five years in place of the English seven, could not be made a Parlirer or Foreman until as a Journeyman he had made one year's tour of the country, in order to increase his proficiency.  Such duties the Regius MS. gives in Norman-French as Cure, and later they are designated Wardens' duties; in Guild Rites sworn officers.

   It would seem from what has passed that originally the Fellows and Masters met together in Assembly, but the time came when the Masters met by themselves quarterly, as Findel shows in regard to Germany, whilst the Fellows met monthly.  There the Masters' Fraternities were presided over by an "Old Master," and the Fellows by an "Old Fellow."

   In addition to what has been described it was in the power of the General Assembly to overlook the Liberal Art of Masonry, regulate it, reward merit, and punish irregularities.  It would also appoint officers until the next "Gathering," and fix contributions.  Brother R. F. Gould has disinterred an old 16th century reference to the Guild of Minstrels, which alleges that they had met annually at Beverley, for that purpose, from the day's of King Athelstan; the similar claims of Masons may be valid, though we have access at present to no records, to prove that the Masonic Assembly met annually at York, or elsewhere, beyond what we find in the Laws of the government, and the assertions of old Masonic MSS.

   In the Regius MS. we have the following account of the divisions of the Society by Euclid: -- 

                "Mayster y-called so schulde he be."

For: --

                "To hym that was herre yn this degre

                 That he schulde teche the symplyst of wytte."

Again: --

                "Uchon schulle calle others felows by cuthe,

                 For cause they come of ladyes burthe." {280} 

Now the Cooke MS. had not to accommodate itself to the metre, and may be supposed to give the same thing in closer conformity to the original document.  Speaking of the Constitution granted by Enclid to Egyptians it says: "Bi a serteyn time they were not all ilike abull to take of the forseyd art.  Wherefore the foresayde Maister Englet ordeynet thei (that) were passing of conynge scholde be passing honoured.  And 'ded to call the conynge Maister for to enforme the lesse of counynge Maisters of the wiche were called Masters of nobilitie of wytte and conynge of that art.  Nevertheless thei commanded that thei that were lass of witte scholde not be called seruantes nor sozette but felaus ffor nobilite of their gentylle blode."

   We learn at least from this that a dual system was instituted, which finds its equivalent in the lesser and greater Mysteries, for what we find similar in Rites, between these bodies, extends to organisation, and we see it composed of the noble or Knowing Masters, and the less knowing.  Fellows -- craftsmen, or journeymen -- and we begin to see why the Masters' Articles make mention only of that rank, and the Craftsmens' Points apply only to those subordinate to the Masters.  The two MSS. distinctly tell us that both the Masters and the Prentices were to term the Craftsmen their Fellows.  It is evident that the Apprentices had no call to the Assembly, but we shall soon see what their status actually was.  They may possibly have been sworn in private Lodges of journeymen, and certainly for about 2 1/2 centuries it has been considered that the Charge of the prose MS. to "New Men that never were sworn before," referred to them.

   The two MSS. are again in entire conformity in the following Regius extract.  The first Article of the Masters' orders says: -- 

           "The Mayster Mason must be ful securly,

            Both steadfast, trusty, and trewe,

            Hyt schal him never then arewe,

            And pay thy felows after the coste." {281} 

But the 6th Article distinctly specifies three grades of payment: -- 

            "That the Mayster do the lord no pregedysse,

             To take of the lord for his prenfysse,

             Als much as hys felows don in all vysse,

             For yn that Craft they ben ful perfyt,

             So ys not he ze mowe sen hyt." 

   The Article, however, goes on to enact that the Master may give a deserving Apprentice higher wages than a less perfect one.  Such an one was no doubt at times accepted in the Assembly before the expiry of his seven years; and there was a similar custom in the Arcane Schools, for Iamblichus (ci., vi., p. 22) tells us it was a custom of the Pythagoreans that "the Novitiate of five years was abridged to those who attained sooner to perfection."  It is yet a custom in some countries that when an Apprentice applies to be made a Fellow Freemason, he requests "augmentation of salary."

   We will now follow on to that class of Masons who had not been passed as Masters, or who were employed under a Master of Work.  These rules are called "Points" and here also the poetical and prose MSS. are in perfect accord.  They enforce Brotherly-love as fully as did the ancient Society of Pythagoras.  The first Point says: -- 

     "That whoso wol conne thys craft and come to astate,

      He must love wel God, and holy church algate,

      And his Master also, that he hys wythe,

      Whether it be in fieid or frythe,

      And thy felows thou love also." 

The third Point enjoins secrecy in regard to all he may see or hear: -- 

         "The prevyste of the Chamber tell he no mon,

          Ny yn the logge whatsoever they done,

          Whatsever thou heryst, or syste him do,

          Tell it no mon, whersever thou go,

          The cownsel of halle, and zeke of bowre,

          Kepe hyt wel to gret honoure." {282} 

The fourth Point is as conclusive as to degrees as was the Masters' Articles: --

         "Ny no pregedysse he schal not do,

         To hys Mayster, ny his fellows also,

         And thazth the prentis be under awe." 

The seventh Point is a law against unchaste conduct with a Master's wife, daughter, sister, or concubine, which we mention here because it assigns a penalty, which confirms what we have said, that a deserving Apprentice might be made free of his craft before the expiry of seven years, and in this case it implies a secret or traditional regulation; for the crime specified the penalty is: --

             "The payne thereof let hyt be ser,

             That he be prentes full seven zer."

  The eighth Point alludes to the duty of a Cure or Warden: --

             "A true medyater thou most nede be,

             To thy Mayster and thy felows fre." 

The ninth Point concerns Stewards of "our halle," and has evident reference to the Charges of Euclid with which the MS. commences: -- 

            "Lovelyche to serven uchon othur,

             As thawgh they were syster and brother." 

The later Points are not numbered as such in the prose MS., but follow its ninth Point as unnumbered laws.  The 12th is of "gret Royalte," and at the Assembly: -- 

            "Ther schul be Maystrys and felows also,

             And other grete lordes many mo." 

The fourteenth Point tells us that the Fellow had to be sworn.  As the Assembly had two series of laws for Masters and Fellows, it is quite evident that they had authority over two ranks, besides the Apprentice; and hence the Grand Lodge of England from its revival in 1717, down to 1725, claimed like power over the degrees of Masters and Fellows, thus treating the majority of the subordinate bodies as if Apprentice Lodges.  This 14th Point says: -- 

            "A good trewe oathe he must there swere,

             To hys Mayster and hys felows that ben there." {283} 

The fifteenth Point is a Penal law made against the rebellious and these Statutes close with a confirmation, claiming to be that of Athelstan.

   Now although it must be admitted that these ancient Constitutions are exoteric in character, and do not make it a part of their business to settle the work of degrees, in their esoteric aspect, which it left to the ancient traditional mode; yet what does appear is in perfect affinity to a similar system of degrees such as we possess, and with oaths, ceremonials, and secrets for these.  As there was an examination, ending in an Oath, there must of necessity have been some ceremony, and in its proper place we will give evidence much older than this copy, that the Craft had its secrets, signs, and watchwords and a president whom they swore to obey.  Certificates were not in use at this early date, and in common with the Arcane Schools these secrets did duty for a certificate, and proved as well the degree of skill a Mason possessed; in more ancient times such Rites and symbolic instruction had a higher value than a mere formula by which to recognise each other.  Apart from trade secrets there was another reason for great secrecy as to Masonic Rites in the fact that whilst the Christian Emperors of Rome were destroying the Arcane Schools and hounding them to death, the protection of the Masonic art was necessary to the glorification of the Church -- and each sought to protect themselves.

   There is no doubt that these ancient traditional Rites, which were originally the type of an ancient religion, would vary with circumstances, the convenience of time and place, and the members of the Lodge.  In the very early times of the Society, the Apprentice had no ceremony, until, with time, he merited to become a Fellow.  The esoteric Ritual of the Assembly was then dual, but there is evidence in modern times that the Apprentice was sworn to a Charge.  In very extensive buildings where the Lodge was numerous, -- and we read of some embracing from hundreds to thousands of workmen; the {284}  Apprentice would be sworn, and the chief Master's Fellows would come to include two divisions: Some who had been Passed as "Noble Masters" would take employment on such works as Journeymen, and we should thus find in the same Lodge, sworn Fellows, and Masters, under a sole Worshipful Master of Work, or the system we have to-day in our Lodges, but without the ancient technical knowledge.

   Though these Constitutions had other legends tacked on to them in Norman times, and to which we shall refer in our next chapter, the Anglo-Saxon Masons must have considered them as the time-immemorial Charter of their privileges, even down to the 14th century.  They were the authority under which they continued to hold Assemblies, the existence of which is vouched by the laws which the State made to suppress them.  We have seen that the meetings were held under a president, who had power to swear Freed-Apprentices or Passed Fellows, and in due course to examine and pass these as Masters if fully competent.  Besides the tokens by which they could prove their rank, they had a system of Marks to indicate their property and workmanship; it is alleged there was even a double system, evidenced in this, that as a Stone Cutter possessed a Mark for his work, and the Master one for his approval; traces are claimed to exist where, at a later period, the stone-cutter's Mark comes to be used as the Master's symbol of approbation.  Brother Chetwode Crawley, LL.D., draws attention to this, that during the centuries when the Masonic Association was in full operation, Arabic numerals and therefore modern arithmetic was unknown, and calculations could only be made by aid of the Roman notation; hence the traditions and secret rules of geometry were all important to the Craft, and made it essential that Masons should be geometers.  Mr. Cox finds that the design or tracing-boards of various old buildings are grounded upon the five-pointed Star of Freemasonry, and on the Pythagorean problem of a modern past-Master, with its ratio of 3, 4, {285} 5, or the multiples thereof as 6, 8, IO, and this was especially a Guild secret of construction.

   The MSS. upon which we have been commenting represent the best days of the Saxon Craft; with the Norman Conquest came over French Masons in large numbers; and we may see between the lines, a subtle struggle between antagonistic systems, and possibly much of the secrecy of Masonry that existed throughout the centuries down to 1717, may be owing to this; and to the fact that the Saxon Mason was assigned a subordinate position.  There can be no doubt that at the comparative late date when these two MSS. were written there were Masons in various parts who still clung to the Athelstan constitution.  On the other hand the Anglo-Norman Kings, 1350-60, were passing Ordinances and laws, against "all alliances, covines, congregations, chapters, ordinances and oaths," amongst Masons and other artisans.  These laws were endorsed by others in 1368, 1378, 1414, and 1423.  They seem, however, to have affected very little the Masonic Assemblies, and in 1425 a law was passed to specially prohibit Masons from assembling in Chapters; even this law remained a dead letter on the Statute book; but it is from about this period that the Saxon system passes entirely into disuse.  In this contest between the alleged Saxon right of Assembly, and the objections of the Anglo-Norman rulers to meetings held without a Charter, we see the necessity that existed for the Masons to submit their Constitutional Charges to the reigning Sovereigns, as they had been commanded by Athelstan to do, from King to King; indeed Acts were passed in 1389 and 1439 ordering the officers of Guilds and Fraternities to show their Patents to the neighbouring Justices for their approval, but it does not seem clear whether other is meant than the Chartered Livery Companies.

   It has been previously mentioned that in these two priceless documents which have all the marks of a genuine Saxon transmission, there is not one word which leads us to suppose that the members of the Society thus {286} formed had an idea that their forefathers had wrought at the building of Solomon's temple; and it is impossible to suppose that if the ceremonies then in use had referred to such a circumstance all reference thereto would have been omitted from the Constitution.

   The language in which these documents are couched is Christian, of a liberal but perfectly orthodox cast.  Christian churches could only be symbolically constructed, with Christian symbolism, by Masons practising Christian Rites, and the priests would have been ready enough to burn any Mason that supported the Talmud; we have an instance of this intolerance in the destruction of the Templars in the year 1310-13.  This is a question of simple historical fact in which we need have no bias either one way or the other.  All Masonic tradition is opposed to uniformity of Rites, and in France, from the earliest times, we find three opposing schools whose ceremonies may be broadly classed as Trinitarian and Monotheistic rites.

   When we consider that the Masons of pre-conquest times were not subordinated to those of France, we should not expect uniform Rites in the two countries and when we examine the MSS. of the former and the latter it is clear that such did not exist.  In France itself no such uniformity existed; coming down side by side, shrouded in secrecy for centuries, there existed three sections denominated the "Compagnonage" formed of artizans generally and not confined to Masons, and it is altogether an error to suppose that the most ancient Saxon fraternity was confined to workers in stone, they included all men who used Geometry in their trade, as the MSS. themselves inform us.  Besides these, at an early period, probably much earlier but at least co-eval with the Norman conquest of England, there existed in France Master's fraternities of an essentially Christian character attached to some church, and to the support of which Fellows and Apprentices had to contribute.  As a Sodality the Council of Rouen in 1189, and of Avignon {287} 1326, recorded their disapprobation, against their signs, their oaths, and their obedience to a President.  The English laws of the Norman Kings followed this prohibition, Scotland followed suit, and it is not improbable that this circumstance led to the chartering of Livery Companies in England, and Incorporations in Scotland.

   The French Sects.  The three divisions of the French Compagnonage became chiefly journeymen, and for a period of over 500 years were in mutual dissension, and at times even at actual war, when many lives were lost.  These are, were, and still are, -- (1) the "Children of Master Jacques," which is represented in Anglo-Saxon Christian Masonry; (2) the "Sons of Solomon," classed with our present system; and it is quite possible they may derive a Semitic system from Spain in very early times for the Moslems were in possession in the South until Martel expelled them; (3) the "Children of Father Sonbise "who were chiefly Carpenters, as many of the most early builders must have been, and whose name is supposed to have some affinity with Sabazios, one of the names of Bacchus or Dionysos.  Each of these Sections had their own peculiar ceremonies in which is the drama of an assassination, all somewhat similar but apparently arranged in such manner as to cast odium on their opponents.  One peculiarity is that the Members assume the name of some animal, and branches are known as wolves, werewolves, dogs, foxes, which reminds us of the masks of criminals worn in the religious Mysteries of Greece and Egypt, and we saw that the sun was compared to a wolf in the Mysteries of Bacchus.  Brother Gould has expressed an opinion that the Carpenters were the oldest association, the followers of Jacques the town association, and the Sons of Solomon the privileged corporations that set out from the Monasteries, after the crusades, when architecture became a lay occupation.  It is perhaps as probable, though not irreconcilable with thls view, that the sects arose out of the successive developments of civil, sacred, and military architecture.  Brother {288} F. F. Schnitger expresses an opinion that the Masons belonging to a Domus (civil) were unfree; those attached to the Castle of a Lord would be glebae proscripti (military); and that it would only be the travelling church Masons (sacred), free to work anywhere that would be actual Free Masons, and that these would be likely to have different ceremonies, even if the two first-named were allowed any.

   The probabilities are exceeding strong in France for the transmission of old Roman Rites, and the Fraternities would seem to possess traditions or customs common to the Gnostics and Saracens.  Like the Manichees they reverence the reed and like the Dervish sects they allege the receipt of a Charge by the act of receiving some particular garment of the Master; thus one received his Cap, another his Mantle, and a third his girdle; the same is alleged in the Moslem sects.  It is a rite or claim that has the appearance of derivation, though possibly from an ancient common source, and would scarcely arise accidentally.

   In the legend of Master Jacques, that personage is slain by the followers of Soubise.  The "Sons of Solomon" have a relation in regard to the death of Hiram, or Adoniram the collector of tribute to Solomon and Rheoboam, who was slain by the incensed people, and the account relates that his body was found by a dog; this sect claims a direct Charge from King Solomon and admits all religions without question in contradistinction to the other sects which require their members to be orthodox.  Perdiguer says of its Initiation, that "in it are crimes and punishments."

   In reference to the cause of the ill feeling between the sects the legends vary.  One account carries back this hostility to a period when a section placed themselves under the patronage of Jacques de Molay, Grand Master of Templars 1308-1310, and immediately before the destruction of that Order by Philip le Bel.  Another account attributes these dissensions to the time of a Jacques Molar, who is said to be the builder in 1402 of {289} the towers of Orleans Cathedral; the Sons of Solomon refused to labour with the children of Jacques, struck work and fled, and the strong arm of the law had to be requisitioned.  It looks like the quarrels of an ordinary trade-union whether occurring in 1308 or 1402.  If the Jacques Molar version is historical it is possible that some of the Sons of Solomon may have left that Society and joined an already existing fraternity of Jacques, thus adding a building programme to the many already represented in that fraternity.  The traditions would seem to possess the same reliability as our own Masonic legends; and the one tends to prove the antiquity of the other; for as the Compagnonage and English Masonry, have each their ceremonies, degrees, oaths, and tokens of recognition, they have had a derivation in common, for there has been no alliance between the two at any period.

   In regard to Rites the "Children of Master Jacques" admit only Roman Catholics, and say that they "accept Jacques as their mortal father and Christ as their spiritual father," and adopt the sensible maxim that "whilst Solomon founded them, other men modified them and that they live under the laws of these last."  We have endeavoured, however imperfectly, to shew what Anglo-Saxon Masonry was, and consider this system to assimilate with it; and we must bear in mind that the Continent was much indebted to this country at one time, thus Diocletian sent Artists from Britain to Gaul, Columban journeyed to Burgundy, Alcuin of York to the Court of Charlemagne, St. Boniface to Germany.

   The first step is termed Attendant or Affiliate, and corresponds to our Apprentice, he is a young workman, protected and looked after, but considered to be outside any Mystic Rites as was the Saxon Apprentice.  The second step is termed Received Companion; which is equivalent to the term accepted and the Fellow of the Saxon Assemblies, he has certain secrets and takes part in a dramatic ceremony of the assassination and burial with lamentations as in the old Mysteries, of Master {290} Jacques, whose corpse was discovered supported by reeds.  It is practically a disguised drama of the betrayal of Christ.  The third step probably points to a time prior to the establishment of Masters' Fraternities, and corresponds with the Passed Masters and Harodim of the Guilds; it is termed Finished Companion, in which the Aspirant passes through a dramatic representation of the passion of Christ, and this ceremony, as was doubtless the case in old times in England, rendered and still renders, its possessor eligible for offices of dignity and honour; and may be classed with the Noble, Knowing, or Worshipful Master which formed the chief rank of the Saxon congregations, save those who had been the "Maister who is principal of the gadering."  It is curious that the names should agree so closely with those of the Persian Magi, in the time of Cyrus, which were in translation, -- Disciple, Master, Complete Master.  Two other circumstances point in the same direction for the descent of this branch of the Society, namely the use of the reed, and of some article of clothing to confirm a "Charge;" both the Manichees and the Dervish sects are descendants of the Persian Magi.  This ceremony in the grade of Accepted Companion represents the heroic and pre-Christian anti-type; and as such is parallel with the Pedestal point of Harodim-Rosy Cross, where the Candidate is led up a pinnacle and sees a word that is prophetical of what is given in the degree of Finished Companion which is the explanation and complement of the anti-type.  English Masonry has lost much by the refinements of the learned, or by those who imagined themselves to be learned, and in any case it is easy for such to influence the ignorant.  The French have lacked this in the several sects, and have therefore transmitted what they received without understanding it.  So have English Stone Masons.  There is a peculiar system of salutation called the Guilbrette, two meet, cross their wands and embrace; it has its analogue in all Guilds both East and West. {291}

   The legends as to the schism, though old and in writing now, are of course traditional, and cannot be unconditionally accepted.  We learn something of what their ceremonies consisted 250 years ago, as the Doctors of the Sorbonne examined some traitorous members between 1648-50, and accused the Compagnonage of profaning the Mystery of Christ's passion and death, of baptising in derision, of taking new names, using secret watchwords, obligating to mutual assistance "with other accursed ceremonies."<<Vide Gould's "Hist. Freemasonry.">>  Much of thls we have seen was common to the Arcane Discipline of the church, and the Charges read very similar to those made by the Fathers when they desired to have the Ancient Mysteries suppressed; in the same spirit they have destroyed all literature that made against themselves and their acts.  Almost the same thing might be said by a fanatic and fool against the old Ancient degrees of Harodim-Rosy Cross in this country: and it is very noteworthy and very suggestive that the ancient oath of the English Rosy Cross has a penalty, alluding to the Saviour's death which is absolutely identical with the highest grade of this French fraternity of Jacques.  The French Fendeurs, or Charcoal burners, resemble so closely those described by the priests in 1650, that there can be no doubt both have the same common origin; the Fendeur Initiation carry their legends back to remote times, and claim a Scottish origin; possibly it points to a Culdee or other sectarian derivation thence.

   The Salute.  Most of the Mystic Sects which derive from what we term the Arcane Schools, seem to have a "Salute" by way of recognition, that is, a phrase by way of "Salutation," and this is probably what Brito-Saxon Masonry possessed, before Semitic legends and Hebrew words were introduced in Norman times.  This "Greeting" went with the "Word" until it was abandoned last century.  A Christian system that had no allusion to Solomon's temple would have the "Greeting," and is therefore probably one of the most ancient parts of our Rites. {292}

   Brother J. G. Findel in his History of Freemasonry professes to give the Catechism in use amongst the Masons of the Haupt Hutte of Strasburg, which termed their Assemblies Chapters, after the usage of the Benedictines.  In the strict sense of the term what is called "Words" in this ritual is a Greeting.  The questioner asks: -- "How many words has a Mason?  Seven. Q. What are they?  God bless all honourable conduct; God bless all honourable knowledge; God bless the honourable Craft of Masonry; God bless the honourable Master; God bless the honourable foreman; God bless the honourable Fraternity; God grant honourable preferment to all Masons here, and in all places by sea and land."  We have here seven prayers easily remembered; and the following passwords were elicited by the Questioner: -- "Kaiser Carl II.; Anton Hieronymus; Walkan."  The two last are supposed to be corrupted from Adoniram, and Tubal Cain, the last named, it may be, through Vulcan.  Professor Robison, who wrote upon German Masonry last century, expresses an opinion that an Apprentice received an additional word with each year of his labour.  During last century there still remained old members of the Strasburg Constitution, though it had then lost all its influence, and there is an interesting statement recorded on the authority of Mr. Vogel, an old operative Mason, who is reported to have said, in 1785, that the German Masons consisted of three classes: -- "The Letter Masons," or those made by Certificate; "The Salute Masons," or those who used a form of Salutation similar to that just quoted; and "the Freemasons," who he says, "are the richest, but they work by our word and we by theirs;"<<Gould's "Hist. Freemasonry," ii, p. 312; also Findel's "Hist. Freem.">> which implies that he was a "Salute" Mason, and that the "Greeting," and the "Word" were originally the marks of two distinct sects but had come to be united.  Another writer states, on the authority of a newly received Freemason, who was a member of the Haupt Hutte systems, that the grip was the same in both societies. {293}

   We may dismiss the "Certificate" Mason in a few words; in England it corresponds with trade Freedom granted by Municipal bodies from the time of Queen Elizabeth to our own days.  Our oldest Catechisms not only include a triplicate "Greeting" but the "Word" system, but we need not give this until its proper date, and on the evidence we have given it may be assumed, that in the ancient Masonry of this country the "Salute" was the "Word," and that upon it was engrafted certain Hebrew words.  As the Saxon system was a Christian one, no doubt its chief grade, or Master's Fraternity, has descended to us in the degrees of Harod and the Harodim-Rosy Cross, translated by the French Rose-croix of Heredom, Templar, etc., for all these grades are very similar; and its transmission is equally probable with the known transmission for centuries, of the Christ-like ceremonies of the French fraternity of Jacques, but this we will again refer to in a chapter on the high-grades.

   Conclusion.  As we have observed several times, but may again repeat, the drama of the Mysteries was of a spiritual nature designed to teach how man might so conduct his earthly pilgrimage as to arrive at immortal life, and the Initiate during the instruction personated a god who was slain and rose again from the dead.  It is not difficult to comprehend how such a symbolic death and rebirth was transformed into the drama of the career of the Saviour of fallen man.  Such a Rite is in entire accord with what we know of the Culdee Monks and Masons, who were at York when King Athelstan granted them a Charter, whilst Hiramism is in discord thereto.  We may summarise the details of this chapter in a few words; they point to the derivation of a system of trade Mysteries introduced by Greco-Romans into Britain from an Egyptian source; modified into orthodox Christianity by Culdees who had similar recondite Mysteries of a spiritual type, and who taught and directed the Guilds of Artizans during the whole Saxon period; our next Chapter will indicate a system in consonance with the French "Sons of Solomon."









WE made mention in our last Chapter of a series of Masonic legends which are, in some measure, historically opposed to the old Saxon Constitutions.  These first appear in written documents of about 1450 A.D., but as these are copies of still older MSS., may well date into the 12th century in this country.  There are two old MSS. the laws of which differ in essential points: in the elder or "Cooke MS." those legends which imply a Semitic origin and actually represent our present Craft Rites, form the Preface, or Commentary, to an actual Saxon Charge; whilst the later, or "Wm. Watson MS," is a copy of a much older document, and itself over two centuries old, is complete in itself, with a modified series of charges: the second part might belong to a Guild which had a traditional preference to a Saxon Constitution, and the first to a later compiler, one who had accepted the Norman system, and its Rites.  We will endeavour in this Chapter to supply such reliable information, as can be gathered, to account for the legends superimposed upon the older.

   It is in Norman times, adding French details, that this matter shews itself, and as there is yet no established view on the subject, it may be examined in various aspects.  In the first place these legends may have been fixed in France by the conquests which the Saracens made in that country; or 2ndly, they may have reached that country through the Moorish conquests in Spain; or 3rdly, and a probable view, they might have been brought {295} from the East, by those Masons who returned in the train of the Crusaders; lastly, but upon this we place small credence, some of our able critics have held that the Oriental legends are collected from books of general history by the first compiler of this version of the Charges, though admitting that the author had old Masonic Charges to guide him.

   A very elaborate paper, which may be classed with the first of these views, has been written by Brother C. C. Howard, of Picton, New Zealand, and he relies upon the fact that this new Charge draws its inspiration from Roman Verulam and the erection of St. Albans by Offa, King of Mercia, circa 793, and that one Namas Graecus, under various spellings, is given as the teacher of Masonry in France.  Offa is supposed, by Brother Howard, to have brought Masons from Nismes, or Nimes, in Southern France, for the purpose in view, hence the derivation of Namas Graecus.

   A theory such as that of Brother Howard would well account for all that is peculiar in this Constitution.  The present Nimes is a very ancient Greco-Roman town, and has perfect remains of the work of their architects; moreover it was for two centuries in the hands of the Saracens, until Charles Martel, who was the traditional patron of French Masons and the Hammer of the Saracens, drove them out of that town, and may then have appointed a Duke or prince to rule it.  The "Cooke MS" like the Strasburg Statutes speak of Charles II., but this is an error, and it is noteworthy that the "Charges of David and Solomon," are invariably united with the French patronage, proving that we derive these Masonic views from French sources.  At whatever date these Constitutions first appeared in this country they eventually superseded the English version.

   The Saracens were large builders in the East, and even the Mausoleum of Theodric of Ravenna, erected in the 6th century, is considered by de Vogue to be the work of Syrian Masons brought forward by Byzantines.  It is {296} said that about the year 693 they assembled 12,000 stonecutters to build the great Alamya at Damascus.<<Condes "Arabs in Spain.">>  The Tulun Mosque at Cairo which was built in the 9th century, has all the main features of Gothic styles, and the same race erected numerous magnificent works in Spain.  Gibbon informs us that between 813-33 the Moors brought into Spain all the literature which they could obtain in Constantinople, and that between 912-61 the most celebrated architects were invited from thence.  We learn from a catalogue of the Escuriel library that they possessed 70 public libraries, and that the MSS. handed down includes translations from Greek and Latin and Arabic writers on philosophy, philology, jurisprudence, theology, mysticism, talismans, divination, agriculture, and other arts.  They gave us astronomy, alchemy, arithmetic, algebra, Greek philosophy, paper-making, the pendulum, the mariners' compass, and our first notions of chivalry, and armed-fraternities.  Whether they gave us Gothic architecture may be doubtful but the durability of their own buildings is astounding, and Cordova, the seat of empire, covered a space 24 miles by 6 miles, even in the 8th and 9th centuries, and was filled with magnificent palaces and public edifices.  Roger Bacon probably derived gunpowder through their intermediary.

   It is possible that Syrian fraternities of Masons continued to exist until its invasion by the Saracens, and they themselves, as we have seen, had secret fraternities analogous to Freemasonry, and as the Koran accepts the history of the Jewish Patriarchs such a system as we now possess is in accord with their feelings, and might possibly be acceptable to a French fraternity who were Christians and had derived building instructions from a Moslem race.  If the Saracenic theory in regard to Nismes is inadmissable, or the derivation of the French Charges under Norman introduction, when the system had consolidated under the "Sons of Solomon;" there are two other views we may notice.  The possibility of a derivation from the {297} Spanish Moors; or through the Crusaders who returned from Palestine after erecting endless works with the assistance of the native Masons.  Neither of these two views will account fully for the fact that the Constitutions of the period of this Chapter connect the Charges of David and Solomon with the Namas Graecus "who had been at the building of Solomon's temple," with Charles Martel, or even Charles II.  But this is not a great difficulty, for Namas does not appear until circa 1525, and was always a trouble to the Copyists, sometimes he is Namas, at others he is Aymon, or the man with a Greek name, and on one occasion he is Grenaeus.  Again building, in Europe, was a clerical art down to the 12th century and laymen were subject to them; but the religion of the Saracens was of a different cast, and admitted from the very first, of the continuance of independent schools of Architecture attached to no Sheik-ul-Islam, Mollah, or Dervish.  On the whole we seem to be led by these considerations to the Norman-French introduction into this country of a species of Masonic rules, rites, and legends which existed in Southern France, and which were still further influenced in the 13th century by Masons from the East; but the reader can judge of this upon reading all the facts.

   When Abdur-Rahman built the great Mosque of Cordova in the short space of ten years, he said, -- "Let us raise to Allah a Jamma Musjid which shall surpass the temple raised by Sulieman himself at Jerusalem."  This is the oldest comparison which we have of Solomon's erection as compared with mediaeval erections, and coming from a Moslem is eminently suggestive.  Some 30 years ago Bro. Viner Bedolphe brought forward some cogent arguments to prove that though our Craft Masonry had been derived from the Roman Colleges the 3rd Degree of Modern Masonry had been added, in its second half, by Moslems.  But as a matter of fact the existing Jewish Guilds have a ceremony from which our Modern 3rd Degree is derived through the ancient Guilds, and it is quite possible that the work {298} men of Abdur-Rahman found it of old date in Spain, as we shall see later; and that a Guild of them was employed at Cordova.  Mecca has had for ages a semi-Masonic Society which claims its derivation from the Koreish who were Guardians of the Kaaba; namely, the Benai Ibraham.  For some hundreds of years our Constitutions have asserted that Nimrod was a Grand Master and gave the Masons a Charge which we still follow.  Its first degree is the  "Builders of Babylon," and is directed against Nimrod and his idols, and against idolatry in general.  Its second degree is the "Brothers of the Pyramids," and teaches, as do our own Constitutions, that Abraham taught the Egyptians geometry, and the mode of building the pyramids.  The third degree is "Builders of the Kaaba," in which the three Grand Master Masons Ibrahim, Ishmael, and Isaque, erect the first Kaaba, on the foundations of the temple erected by Seth on the plans of his father Adam.  At the completion of the Kaaba, the twelve chiefs or Assistants of the three Grand Masters are created Princes of Arabia.  The Society was clearly ancient in A.D. 600 as al Koran alludes to the legendary basis on which it is formed.

   There is a very interesting French romance of the 12th century by Huon de Villeneuve which seems to have a bearing upon the names of our old Masonic MSS., or at least on a corrupt version of them; and which moreover commemorates the Masonic death of a person who is supposed to have battled with the Saracens in France and Palestine.  Either the work may veil legends of the Compagnonage, or, with less probability, these latter may have drawn something from it.  This romance is entitled Les Qualre Fils Aymon.  Charlemagne returns victorious from a long and bloody war against the Saracens in Easter, 768, and has to listen to accusations against Prince Aymon of the Ardennes, for failing to perform his fealty in not warring against the Saracens.  Charlemagne has as colleagues Solomon of Bretagne, and his trusty friend the Duke of Naismes.  Renaud, Allard, Guichard, and {299} Richard, the "four sons of Aymon," depart from the Court in quest of adventure.  They defeat Bourgons the Saracen chief before Bordeaux, cause him to become a Christian, and after that restore Yon, King of Aquitaine, to his throne;  Renaud marries his daughter Laura and erects the Castle of Montauban.  Yon fears the anger of Charlemagne, persuades the four Aymons to solicit his grace, and they set out "with olive branches in their hands," but are treacherously waylaid by their enemies, and would have been slain but for the arrival of their cousin Maugis, and the "cyprus was changed for the palm."  Richard is taken prisoner, and condemned to death, but Maugis disguises himself as a Pilgrim, hangs the executioner, carries off Richard, and also the golden crown and sceptre of Charlemagne, who thereupon resolves to attack Montauban.  After a due amount of battles, peace is restored on condition that Renaud departs on a pilgrimage to Palestine.  On arrival there he is surprised to meet Maugis, and between them they restore the old Christian King of Jerusalem to the throne.  After an interval Renaud is recalled to France and on his arrival finds his wife dead of grief, as well as his aged father Aymon and his mother.  His old antagonists -- Naismes, Oger, and Roland have been slain at Ronciveux.  Five years later Charlemagne visits Aix-la-Chapel, with the three brothers Aymon and their two nephews, and the following is a literal translation of what occurred: "'Hollo! says the Emperor, to a good woman, what means this crowd?' The peasant answered, -- 'I come from the village of Crosne, where died two days ago a holy hermit who was tall and strong as a giant.  He proposed to assist the Masons to construct at Cologne the Church of St. Peter; he manoeuvred so well that the others who were jealous of his ability, killed him in the night time whilst he slept, and threw his body into the Rhine, but it floated, covered with light.  On the arrival of the bishop the body was exposed in the Nave, with uncovered face that it might be recognised.  Behold what it is that draws the {300} crowd.'"  The Emperor approached and beheld Renaud of Montauban, and the three Aymons, and two sons of Renaud, mingled their tears over the corpse.  Then the bishop said: -- Console yourselves!  He for whom you grieve has conquered the immortal palm."  The Emperor ordered "a magnificent funeral and a rich tomb."  In the translation of Caxton it is the bishop who does this and also Canonises him as "St. Renaude the Marter."  In the time of Charlemagne, and even much later, there existed a great number of pre-Christian and Gnostic rites, and the Emperor is credited with reforming, or establishing, in Saxony, the country of Aymon, whose memory was held in great veneration even down to the 19th century, a secret fraternity for the suppression of Paganism, which has most of the forms of Modern Freemasonry.  Hargrave Jennings holds that the fleur-de-lis may be traced through the bees of Charlemagne to the Scarab of Egypt, and is again found on the Tiaras of the gods of Egypt and Chaldea.  After the Culdee Alcuin had assisted in building the Church of St. Peter at York, he went over to France, and became a great favourite at Court, having the instruction of the Emperor himself whom he terms a builder "by the Art of the Most Wise Solomon," who made him an Abbot.  Apart from the significance of this romance in a Masonic sense, which appears to have drawn on existing Masonry, there are some peculiar correspondences.  The body of Osiris was thrown into the Nile, that of Renaud into the Rhine.  The address of the bishop to the mourners is almost identical with that of the old Hierophants to the mourners for the slain sun-god.  As before stated the "branch" varied in the Mysteries, as the erica, the ivy, the palm, the laurel, the golden-bough.  As in the case of the substituted victim for Richard the Moslems held that a substitute was made for Jesus.  The romance confuses the time of Charlemagne, if we accept it literally, with that of a Christian King of Jerusalem, as the Masonic MSS. confuse the date of Charles of France with an apocryphal Aymon who was at the building {301} of Solomon's temple.  Possibly the Masons confused the Temple of Solomon with that existing one which Cardinal Vitry and Maundeville inform us was "called the Temple of Solomon to distinguish the temple of the Chivalry from that of Christ;" they allude of course to the house of the Knights Templars.  These legends may well represent some ancient tradition, and we know not what MSS. have perished during the centuries.  A curiously veiled pagan Mythology may be traced in Paris; comparing St. Denis to Dionysos.  The death of St. Denis takes place on Montmartre, that of Dionysos on Mount Parnassus; the remains of Denis are collected by holy women who consign them with lamentations to a tomb over which the beautiful Abbey was erected; but he rises from his tomb like Dionysos, and replacing his severed head walks away.  Over the southern gate of the Abbey is also sculptured a sprig of the vine laden with grapes which was a Dionysian symbol, and at the feet of the Saint, in other parts, the panther is represented, whose skin was in use in the Rites of the Mysteries.

   Other attempts to identify Namas Graecus may be given.  Brother Robert H. Murdock, Major R.A., considers that this person is the Marcus Graecus from whose MS. Bacon admits in De Nullitate Magiae, 1216, that he derived the composition of gunpowder.  There is one old MS. in the early days of the Grand Lodge that has adopted this view.  Here again we run against the Saracens, for Duten shews that the Brahmins were acquainted with powder from whom it passed to the Lulli or Gypsies of Babylon, the Greeks and Saracens, and it is thought to have been used by the Arabs at the siege of Mecca in 690; again Peter Mexia shews that in 1343 the Moors used explosive shells against Alphonso XII. of Castile, and a little later the Gypsies were expert in making the heavy guns.  Very little is known of Marcus Graecus but early in the 9th century his writings are, erroneously, supposed to be mentioned by the Arabian physician Mesue.<<The "Cyclo. of" Eph. Chambers, art. "Gunpowder.">> {302} The acceptance of Marcus of gunpowder notoriety as identical with Namas or Marcus of Masonic notoriety, necessitates one of two suppositions: (1) either he was the instructor, or believed to be so, of Charles Martel in Military erections; or (2) the fraternity of Masons had a branch devoted to the study of Alchemy and the hidden things of nature and science: much might he said in its favor, but unless there was some MS. of a much earlier date that mentions Namas or Marcus, and is missing, the introduction is probably only of the 16th century when Masons were actually Students of Masonry and the secret sciences.  Another theory has been propounded by Brother Klein, F.R.S., the eminent P.M. of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, namely that Haroun al Raschid's son the Caliph al Mamun is "the man with a Greek name."  He shews that in the time of this Caliph the books of Euclid were translated into Arabic for the Colleges of Cordova, and it was not until the 12th century that Abelard of Bath rendered them into Latin.  The original Greek MS. was lost for 700 years when it was found by Simon Grynaeus, a Suabian and co-labourer of Melancthon and Luther.  In 1530 he gave the MS. to the world, and we actually find that in some of our MSS. Graecus is transformed into Green, Grenenois, Grenus, Graneus.  Caxton printed the "Four Sons of Aymon" in the 15th century, and we find some scribes transforming Namas into Aymon.  Here we have a later attempt to identify the personality mentioned; he was a man of whom nobody knew anything, and each scribe sought to develop his own idea, if he had any.

   Charlemagne was a contemporary of the Haroun al Raschid here mentioned who sent him a sapphire ornament and chain by his ambassador.

   Green in his Short History of the English People (London, 1876) says: -- "A Jewish medical school seems to have existed at Oxford; Abelard of Bath brought back a knowledge of Mathematics from Cordova; Roger Bacon himself studied under the English Rabbis" (page {303} 83).  Bacon himself writes: "I have caused youths to be instructed in languages, geometry, arithmetic, the construction of tables and instruments, and many needful things besides."  The great work of this mendicant Friar of the Order of St. Francis, the Opus Majus, is a reform of the methods of philosophy: "But from grammar he passes to mathematics, from mathematics to experimental philosophy.  Under the name of Mathematics was enclosed all the physical science of the time."

   It is beyond doubt that after the Norman conquest in 1066 the predominant genius of Masonry was French; the oversight and the design were French, the labour Anglo-Saxon; but the latter were strong enough as shewn, by an eminent architect, to transmit their own style in combination with that of the French.  It must also be borne in mind that if the English towns have some claims to Roman succession, that feature is doubly strong in France, even to the language.  Long after the conquest of the country by the Franks, and even until modern times, the people were allowed to continue Roman laws, privileges, colleges, and Guilds; pure Roman architecture exists to this day, and notably at Nimes.  Lodges, though not perhaps under that name, must have existed from the earliest times, for we find that in the 12th century, the Craft was divided into three divisions; we may even say four, for besides the Passed Masters Associations, there were Apprentices, Companions or Journeymen, and perpetual Companions, or a class who were neither allowed to take an Apprentice, or to begin business as Masters; that is they could employ themselves only on inferior work.  The eminent historian of Masonry, Brother R. F. Gould, shews this, and also that the so-called "Fraternities" of France were the Masters' Associations, but that the Companions and Apprentices had to contribute to the funds that were necessary for their maintenance.  The qualification necessary to obtain Membership of this Association was the execution of a Master-piece, which was made as expensive as possible, {304} in order to keep down the number of Masters.  It will be seen at once that this is a very different organisation to the Constitution of the Assemblies of our last Chapter, and the reader must keep this distinction in mind, as well as the fact that there came over to this country a class of men impressed with these discordant views.

   It would extend far beyond the scope of this book to give more than a very slight account of the numerous Abbeys, Monasteries, Churches and Castles which were erected after the Norman conquest; it is, however, necessary, in our inquiry after the Speculative element, to say something of these, and of the persons who erected them.  Doctor James Anderson states that King William the Bastard employed Gundulf, bishop of Rochester, and Earl Roger de Montgomery in building, or extending, the Tower of London, Castles of Dover, Exeter, Winchester, Warwick, Hereford, Stafford, York, Durham, Newcastle, also Battle Abbey, St. Saviour's in Southwark, and ninety other pious houses; whilst others built forty two such, and five cathedrals.  Battle Abbey was in building 1067-90, the architect being a Norman Monk who was a noted arrow-head maker and therefore named William the Faber, or Smith.  Between 1070-1130 Canterbury Cathedral was in course of erection.  In 1076 Archbishop Thomas began the re-erection of the Cathedral of York, which had previously been burnt in contest with the Normans.  Between 1079-93, Winchester Cathedral was in progress.  The White or Square tower on the Thames is of this period and Jennings mentions one of the main pillars which has a valute on one side, and a horn on the other, which he considers to have the same significance as the two pillars of Solomon's temple, that is symbolising male and female.  It is evident that Masons must have now been in great demand and that whether Saxon or Norman were sure of employment; the following are of interest, and as we meet with any particulars, which have a distinct bearing upon the Masonic organisation, we will give them. {305}

   The New Castle, whence the name of that town is taken, was built by a son of the Bastard, and thenceforth became, as in Roman times, a place of great strength, and also the chief home of the Monastic Orders, for Benedictines, Augustinians, Carmelites, Franciscans, Hospitallers of St. John, and Nuns all built houses here, and their conventual buildings within its walls, and many an Hospitium for wayfarers, many Guilds, and many a chapel of black, white and grey Friars were founded.  The Percys had a town residence here in the narrow street called the Close.

   In 1074 Lincoln Cathedral was begun by Remgius Foschamp, the Norman Bishop, who had it ready for consecration in 8 years.  It was destroyed by fire in 1141, but Bishop Alexander restored it to more than its former beauty.  Where the Castle now stands existed an ancient fortress which the Bastard converted into a Norman stronghold.

   In 1077 Robert the Cementarius, or Mason, had a grant of lands in reward for his skill in restoring St. Albans; and we may find in this circumstance the origin of the St. Alban Charge combined with that of Charles Martel and David and Solomon; including the Norman fiction that St. Alban had for his Masonic instructor St. Amphabel out of France.  We say fiction because Britain at that day sent Masons to Gaul.

   In Yorkshire a Godifried the Master-builder witnesses the Whitby Charter of Uchtred, the son of Gospatric.  These are Danish names and the Marks of Yorkshire Masons, in this and the following century, are strong in the use of letters of the Runic or Scandinavian alphabet.

   Baldwin, Abbot of St. Edmund's began a church in 1066 which was consecrated in 1095.  Hermannus the Monk, compares it in magnificence to Solomon's temple, which is the first Masonic reference we have to that structure, and in Norman times.

   Paine Peverell, a bastard son of the King, built a small round church at Cambridge which was consecrated in {306} 1101, this form being a model of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem.  He also began a castle in Derbyshire, on a peak inaccessible on three sides one of which overlooks the Peak Cavern, which Faber supposes was used in the Druidical Mysteries.

   A round church was erected at this period in Northampton, probably by Simon de St. Luz.  An ancient sun-dial is built into its walls; the tooling of the building is Saxon chevron style, in contradistinction from the Norman diagonal axe work.

   There is a curiously mystic monument at Brent Pelham to Piers Shonke, who died in 1086.  Weever calls it "a stone whereon is figured a man, and about him an eagle, a lion, and a bull, having all wings, and an angell as if they would represent the four evangelists; under the feet of the man is a cross fleuree."  We must not hastily confound these emblems with the present quartering in the Arms of Freemasons.

   During the reign of Rufus the great palace of Westminster was built, and thirty pious houses.  In 1089 the King laid the foundation of St. Mary's Abbey at York.  In the same year the Bishop of Hereford laid the foundation of the Gothic cathedral at Gloucester, and it was consecrated in 1100.  In 1093 William of Karilipho, Bishop of Durham, laid the foundation of his cathedral, in the presence of Malcolm King of Scots and Prior Turgot.  Surtees says that it "was on a plan which he had brought with him from France."  In the same year the church of the old Culdee settlement of Lindisfarne was erected, and Edward, a monk of Durham, acted as architect.

   In 1093 Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, sent for Anselme, Abbot of Bec, "by his conseile to build the Abbey of St. Werberg at Chester."  It contains an old pulpit of black oak which is full of heraldic carving which has been mistaken for Masonic emblems.<<Past Grand blaster Smith, U.S.A.>>  It was in this Monastery {307} that Ralph Higden compiled the Polychronicon, a history often referred to in the "Cooke MS."

   The work of Durham Cathedral was continued by Bishop Ranulf de Flambard from 1104 and completed before the year 1129.  Under Bishop William de Carilofe the grant which Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland, had made to the See of Durham was confirmed, of the Priory of Teignmouth to the Church of Jarrow, which was built by Benedict Biscop in 689 and of Wearmouth 8 years later.  Also Robert de Mowbray brought monks from St. Albans to rebuild the Priory Church, which was completed in 1110.  Anything connected with these Northern provinces is Masonically important, for Northumberland and Durham had many Operative Lodges long prior to the G.L. of 1717, and any legitimacy which that body can have it owes to those Northern Lodges, which eventually joined its ranks.

   Northumberland is studded with fortified piles or towers and fortified vicarages which must have given much employment to Masons.  Elsden possessed one of these and also two folc-mote hills, where in old time, justice was administered in the open air, as in the Vehm of Westphalia, dating back one thousand years.

   Oswold the good Bishop of Salisbury built the Church of St. Nicholas at Newcastle about the year 1004.  In 1115 Henry I. made grants to the Canons regular of Carlisle.  Many parts of the Church of St. Andrew are earlier than St. Nicholas, but its erection is of later date.

   The Church of St. Mary, Beverley, is supposed to have had upon its site, a Chapel of Ease dedicated to St. Martin by Archbishop Thurston, of York, between 1114-42; it is certain, however, that it was constituted a Vicarage of St. Mary in 1325.  The Nave was built about 1450, and consists of six bays and seven clerestory windows, but in 1530 the upper part of the central tower fell upon the Nave with much loss of life.  Its pillar was erected by the Guild of Minstrels, which like that of the Masons, claimed to date from Saxon times; it has upon the fluted {308} cornishes five figures of the Minstrels with their instruments, of which only two respectively with guitar and pipe are intact; and stands on the north side facing the pulpit.  The Misere stalls in the chancel are of the 15th century, with carved bas reliefs under the seats; one of these represents a fox shot through the body with a woodman's arrow, and a monkey approaching with a bottle of physic.

   In regard to symbolism Brother George Oliver, D.D., mentions an old church at Chester, which he does not name, containing the double equilateral triangles; also the same in the window of Lichfield Cathedral.  Mr. Goodwin states that the triple triangles interlaced may be seen in the tower of a church in Sussex.  We are now approaching the period of the Crusades, and it may be noticed that Cluny and other great French Abbeys are usually considered the centres of action whence proceeded the builders that accompanied the armies of the cross to Palestine.  Here an enormous number of buildings were erected, between 1148-89, in which Europeans directed native workmen, and in which the former learned a lighter style of architecture which resulted in pointed Gothic; a style which had early existence in the East, for Professor T. Hayter Lewis points out that the 9th century Mosque at Tulun in Cairo has every arch pointed, every pier squared, and every capital enriched with leaf ornament; this style the returned Masons began to construct and superintend in the West.

   Mr. Wyatt Papworth mentions that a Bishop of Utrecht in 1199 obtained the "Arcanum Magisterium" in laying the foundation of a church, and that he was slain by a Master Mason whose son had betrayed the secret to the Bishop.  About this time was begun the old church at Brownsover, near Rugby; when it was restored in 1876 two skeletons were found under the north and south walls, in spaces cut out of the solid clay, and covered over with the oakblocks of two carpenters' benches.  A similar discovery was made in Holsworthy parish church in 1885; {309} in this case the skeleton had a mass of mortar over the mouth, and the stones were huddled about the corpse as if to hastily cover it over.  There is no doubt that in this and many other cases the victims were buried alive as a sacrifice.<<"Builders' Rites and Ceremonies," G. W Speth, 1894.>>  They are instances in proof of a widespread and ancient belief of a living sacrifice being necessary.

   King Henry I., 1100-35, built the palaces of Woodstock and Oxford, and fourteen pious houses, whilst others built one hundred such, besides castles and mansions.  The Bishop of Durham confirmed and granted privileges to the Hali-werk-folc who would be Saxon artificers.

   In 1113 Joffred, Abbot of Croyland, laid the foundation of that Abbey; about 22 stones were laid by Patrons, who gave money or lands.  Arnold is described as "a lay brother, of the art of Masonry a most scientific Master."  About this time, or a little earlier, the seven Liberal Arts and Sciences are designated the Trivium and Quadrivium, and the Chronicler gives us the following illustration of the first division: -- "During this time Odo read lessons in Grammar to the younger sort, Terrick Logic to the elder students at noon; and William Rhetoric in the afternoon; whilst Gilbert preached every Sunday, in different churches, in French and Latin against the Jews, and on holiday evenings explained the Scriptures to the learned and clergy."  In Essex's Bibliotheca Topographia, 1783 (vol. iv.) we find it stated that the builders of this portion cut rudely at the west end of the south aisle, a pair of compasses, a lewis, and two circular figures, which, he supposes, are intended for sun and moon; in 1427, however, there were repairs in progress, not of this part, but in the west and north aisles.  This Abbey possessed a library of 900 books, and save that Joffrid, or Gilbert, exhibited so much animosity against the Jews, is so consonant with the first part of the "Cooke MS." that we might have taken it as a proof that the Semitic Rites existed in 1113.  They probably did in France and parts of Spain.  The bronze candelabrum of {310} Gloucester was made in 1115, and has the double triangles and much other Masonic symbolism; it is of Byzantine design and approximates to old Egyptian work and symbolism.

   King Stephen, 1135-54, employed Gilbert de Clare to build four Abbeys, two Nunneries, and the Church of St. Stephen at Westminster, whilst others built about ninety pious houses.  Jesus College at Cambridge was founded in this reign, and a very remarkable church was erected at Adel near Leeds.  It is recorded of a soldier of King Stephen, named Owen or Tyndal, that he received a species of religious Initiation at the Culdee Monastery in Donegal, placed in a pastos of the cell; he then went on a pilgrimage to the Holy-land, and on his return, as has been recorded of Renaud of Montauban, assisted in building the Abbey of Bosmagovsich.  The Marks of Birkenhead Priory of this date have been collected and printed by Brother W. H. Rylands, also those of St. John's Church in Chester, the Cathedral, Chester, and the walls, some of which are Roman work.<<"Ars Quat. Cor.," 1894.>>

   In 1147 Henry de Lacy laid the foundation of Kirkstall Abbey in Yorkshire; it is of pointed Gothic.  Roche Abbey was built between this date and 1186, and these two are believed to be by the same architect.  Rivaulx and Fountains Abbey were begun in 1199 and 1200.  At this time Adam, a Monk of Fountains Abbey, and previously of Whitby, was celebrated for his knowledge of Gothic architecture, and officiated at the building of the Abbeys of Meux, Woburn, and Kirkstede; it is not said whether he was lay or cleric.  York Cathedral was again destroyed by fire in 1137, and Archbishop Roger began to re-erect it in 1154.

   In Normandy the Guilds were travelling about like those of England and were of importance in 1145, and had a Guild union when they went to Chartres.  At this time Huges, Archbishop of Rouen, wrote to Theodric of Amiens informing him that numerous organised companies {311} of Masons resorted thither under the headship of a Chief designated Prince, and that the same companies on their return are reported by Haimon, Abbe of St. Pierre sur Dive, to have restored a great number of churches in Rouen.

   The Priory of St. Mary in Furness was commenced by Benedictines from Savigney.  In 1179 the Priory of Lannercost was founded by Robert de Vallibus, Baron of Gillesland.  Bishop Hugh de Pudsey rebuilt the Norman Castle of Durham, dating from 1092 to 1174.  Between 1153-94 this Prelate was the great Transitional Builder of the north, and he began the erection of a new church at Darlington in 1180 on the site of an old Saxon one.  The great Hall of the Castle of Durham was the work of Bishop Hadfield in the reign of Richard III. on an older Norman one.

   Henry II. between 1154-89 built ten pious houses, whilst others built one hundred such.  It is the era of the advent of the "transitional Gothic."  In the first year of this King's reign, 1155, the "Poor Fellow Soldiers of Jesus Christ, and of the Temple of Solomon," began to build their Temple in Fleet Street, London, and continued at work till 1190.  It is a round church in pointed Gothic to which a rectangular one was added later.  By Papal Bull of 1162 these Knights were declared free of all tithes and imposts in respect of their movables and immovables, and their serving brethren had like favours, indulgences, and Apostolic blessings.  James of Vitry says that they had a very spacious house in Jerusalem, which was known as the Temple of Solomon to distinguish the Temple of the Chivalry from the Temple of the Lord.  In the Rule which Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux, drew up for them, he speaks of the poverty of the Knights, and says of their house that it could not rival the "world renowned temple of Solomon"; in chapter xxx., he again speaks of the poverty of the house of God, and of the temple of Solomon."  As a fraternity he designates them "valiant Maccabees."  Sir John Maundeville visited the house, and {312} speaks of it in 1356 thus: "Near the temple [of Christ] on the south is the Temple of Solomon, which is very fair and well polished, and in that temple dwell the Knights of the Temple, called Templars, and that was the foundation of their order, so that Knights dwelt there, and Canons Regular in the temple of our Lord."  As Masonic symbolism is found in their Preceptories, this would be a channel from which to deduce both our Solomonic legends, and the alleged Papal bulls, which Sir William Dugdale asserted were granted to travelling Freemasons; but this view has never met with favour from Masonic historians, who aim chiefly at writing things agreeable to their patrons and rulers.  Brother Oliver states that the high altar has the double triangles, at any rate these appear on the modern embroidered cover; there is the anchor of the Virgin, also the Beauseant of black and white, which Vitry interprets that they are fair to their friends but black to their enemies, but Jennings says: "This grandly mystic banner is Gnostic, and refers to the mystic Egyptian apothegm that light proceeded from darkness."  He further mentions these symbols in the spandrels of the arches of the long church -- the Beauseant; paschal lamb on a red cross; the lamb with the red cross standard triple cloven; a prolonged cross issuing out of a crescent moon, having a star on each side.  The arches abound with stars, from which issue wavy or crooked flames; the winged horse, white, on a red field, is one of their badges.  He adds that there is a wealth of meaning in every curve of the tombs, which appear in the circular portion.

   Ireland has many works erected during this period, and Mr. Street says of them: "I find in these buildings the most unmistakable traces of their having been erected by the same men, who were engaged at the same time, in England and Wales."  The same remark will apply to Scotland.

   The ancient Preceptory of the Temple at Paris contained (says Atlanta xi. p. 337) "24 columns of silver {313} which supported the audience chamber of the Grand Master, and the Chapel hall paved in Mosaic and enriched by woodwork of cedar of Lebanon, contained sixty huge vauses of gold."  The fortress was partially destroyed in 1779.

   Batissier in his Elements of Archaeology (Paris, 1843), says that the name Magister de Lapidibus vivis was given in the middle ages to the Chief artist of a confraternity -- Master of living stones.  Or the person was simply termed Magister Lapidum, and he refers on both these points to some statutes of the Corporation of Sculptors quoted by Father de la Valle.  For the origin of the first of these terms consult the Apocryphal books of Hermas, but the term has more in it than appears on the surface, for in Guild ceremonial the candidate had to undergo the same treatment as the stone, wrought from the rough to the perfect.  Amateurs were received, for the 1260 Charte Octroyie is quoted by the Bishop of Bale thus: "The same conditions apply to those who do not belong the Metier, and who desire to enter the Fraternity."

   A Priory of the Clunic order of Monks was founded in 1161 at Dudley by Gervase Pagnel, and they had others at Lewes, Castleacre, and Bermondsey.

   A fire having occurred at Canterbury, Gervasius, a Benedictine Monk, in 1174, consulted "French and English Artificers," who disagreed in regard to the repair of the structure.  The account which Gervaise gives is highly interesting and instructing.  The work was given to William of Sens, "a man active, ready, and skillfull both in 'wood and stone.'  "He delivered models for shaping the stones, to the sculptors"; he reconstructed the choir and made two rows, of five pillars on each side; but in the fifth year he was so injured by the fall of his scaffold that he had to appoint as deputy a young Monk "as Overseer of the Masons."  When he found it necessary to return to France the Masons were left to the oversight of William the Englishman, a man "small in body, but in workmanship of many kinds acute and {314} honest."  The Nave was completed in 1180, and Gervaise informs us that in the old structure everything was plain and wrought with an axe, but in the new exquisitely sculptured with a chisel.

   We gather two points of information from this account of 1160; first we have the information that William of Sens issued Models to the workmen, which explains a law of the Masonic MSS. that no Master should give mould or rule to one not a member of the Society; we see, in the second place, that the chisel was superseding the axe.  We will also mention here that there is Charter evidence of this century, that Christian the Mason, and Lambert the Marble Mason had lands from the Bishop of Durham for services rendered.  The fall of Jerusalem in 1187 brought back from the East many artisans to the West, whose influence is traceable in the early pointed style, or as it is termed the "Lancet," or "Early English."

   A noteworthy movement, which extended to other countries had place in France at this period.  A shepherd of the name of Benezet conceived the idea of building a bridge over the Rhone at Avignon; the bishop supported his scheme and superintended its erection between 1171-88.  Upon Benezet's death, in 1184, Pope Clement III. canonised him, and sanctioned a new Fraternity of Freres Pontives -- bridge builders.

   In 1189, Fitz Alwine, Mayor of London, held his first assize, from which we learn that the Master Carpenters and Masons of the City were to be sworn not to prejudice the ancient rights ordained of the estates of the City.

   Between 1189-1204 Bishop Lacey was engaged in adding to Winchester Cathedral.

   There are references worthy of note in Scotland at this time.  In 1190 Bishop Jocelyne obtained a Charter from William the Lion to establish a "Fraternity" to assist in raising funds wherewith to erect the Cathedral of Glasgow; it is supposed to imply the existence of a band of travelling Masons.  The same bishop undertook the erection of the Abbey of Kilwinning.  The Templar {315} Preceptory of Redd-Abbey Stead was erected at the same time, and an ancient Lodge of Masons existed here last century.

   In the reign of John, 1200-16, about forty pious houses were erected. Hugh, Bishop of Lincoln, about 1200, wrought with his own hands at the choir and transept of the Cathedral, the designs being by Gaufrids de Noires, "constructor ecclesiae."  The Masons' Marks are numerous; and it is asserted by Brother Emra Holmes that, from the central tower, may be seen three large figures of a monk, a nun, and an angel, each displaying one of the signs of the three degrees of Masonry.  The Cathedral has also an ancient stained glass window, which has the double triangles in four out of six spaces, an engraving of which appears in the Historical Landmarks of Brother George Oliver.  Brother Fort asserts that the Masons of the middle ages must have received their technical education from the Priories, and that a tendency continually reveals itself to use the abstruse problems of Geometry as the basis of philosophical speculations, thus blending the visible theorems with unseen operations of the spirit.  He considers that the building operations of the Masons were canvassed in the Lodge and worked out mathematically, the plan of the building serving as the basis of instruction.  These views mean in two words that Masonry in all times was Operative and Speculative, but the identical system prevails to-day in some still existing Stone Masons' Guilds.

   In 1202 Godfrey de Lucy, Bishop of Winchester, formed a "Fraternity" for repairing his church during the five years ensuing.  There is nothing to disclose the nature of these Fraternities; it may mean no more than a committee for collecting the means, possibly the Masters' Fraternities of the French may have given the idea.  At this period Gilbert de Eversolde was labouring at St. Albans' Abbey, as the architect, and Hugh de Goldcliffe is called a deceitful workman.  In 1204 the Abbey of Beaulieu in Hants was founded by King John, and {316} Durandus, a Master employed on the Cathedral of Rouen, came over to it by request.  In 1209 London Bridge, which was begun by Peter de Colchurch, was completed.  There is a slab, of this period, in the transept of Marton Church, W.R. Yorkshire, which has upon it a Calvary cross, a cross-hilted sword, and a Mason's square and level, pointing to the union of arms, religion, and art.

   In 1212 a. second Assize was held in London by Mayor Fitz Alwyne, when owing to a great fire it was thought necessary to fix the wages.  At this time a horse or cow could be bought for four shillings.  Masons were granted 3d. per day with food, or 4 ½d. without; Labourers had 1 ½d. or 3d.; cutters of free-stone 2 ½d. or 4d.; the terms used are "Cementarii," and "Sculptores lapidam Liberorum."  John died in 1216, and Matthew of Paris, and others, write his epitaph: "Who mourns, or shall ever mourn, the death of King John "; "Hell, with all its pollutions, is polluted by the soul of John." (i. 288)

   In the reign of Henry III., 1216-72, thirty-two pious houses were erected, and the Templars built their Domus Dei at Dover.  The beginning of this King's reign is the period when Laymen, emancipating themselves from the Monasteries, come to the front as builders, and leaders of working Masons.  It is also the commencement of a more highly finished style of pointed Gothic introduced by the Masons who returned from Palestine.  During this reign flourished the celebrated Friar Roger Bacon, who, as member of a sworn fraternity, gave himself to the investigation of the hidden things of nature and science.

   In the reign of Henry III. the Monks of Teignmouth raised a masterpiece of architecture in their new conventual church, which they completed by 1220, and were engaged in constant contention with the claims to jurisdiction of the Bishops of Durham; and then followed disputes with the burgesses of Newcastle, owing to the Monks fostering the trade of North Shields.  The Prior's officers were in the habit of meeting those of the common {317} law on the hill of Gateshead, or beneath a spreading oak in Northumberland, when they came to hold assizes in Newcastle.

   In 1220 the foundation of Salisbury Cathedral was laid by Bishop Poore; Robert was Master Mason, and Helias de Berham, one of the Canons, employed himself on the structure.  Its base is the Patriarchal cross, its erection occupied 38 years, and it is the only Gothic cathedral in England built in one style of architecture.  The five-pointed star is found in the tracery of the arcades, and heads of 32 windows, and the equilateral triangle is the basic design of the parapet.  In 1220 Peter, Bishop of Winchester, levelled the footstone of Solomon's porch in Westminster Abbey.  He is the same person as Peter de Rupibus, a native of Poictiers, who served with Coeur de Lion in Palestine, and was knighted by him, created Bishop of Winchester in 1204, Chief Justice in 1214, went on a Pilgrimage to Palestine and returned in 1231.  Amongst his architectural labours is a Dominican convent in Winchester; the Abbey of Pitchfield; part of Netley Abbey; a pious house at Joppa; and the Domus Dei in Portsmouth.  He died in 1238, and his effigy, which is a recumbent figure in Winchester Cathedral, has the right hand on the left breast, and his left hand clasping a book.<<Ars Quat. Cor.>>

   From 1233-57 the Close Rolls give numerous details of the King's Masons who were employed at Guildford, Woodstock, and Westminster.  In 1253 the King had consultations with Masons, "Franci et Angli."  It is also the period of origin of the "Geometrical" style.

   There is a document of 1258 which, though French, has an important bearing on English Masonic legends, referring amongst other things to Charles Martel, and which, though traditional, was accepted as sufficient to secure important freedoms.  In this year Stephen Boileau, Provost of the Corporation of Paris, compiled a code of "Regulations concerning the arts and trades of Paris, {318} based upon the Statements of the Masters of Guilds," and amongst these we find the following in regard to the Masons, which gives them a double title to the term "Free," for they were free-stone cutters and free of certain duties: xxi.  The Masons (Macons) and plasterers are obliged to do guard duty, and pay taxes, and render such other services as the other citizens of Paris owe to their King. xxii.  The Mortar-Makers are free of guard duty, as also every stone-cutter since the time of Charles Martel, as the ancients ("Prudolmes" or wise men) have heard, from father to son."  The question arises here whether Masons and setters, who, were not free of duty, though cutters and sculptors were, use the term Carolus Secundus in England as a claim for the Masons and Setters.  The Prudomes were the Wardens under the "Master who rules the Craft," and we are further told that this Master had taken his oath of service at the Palace, and afterwards before the Provost of Paris.  It is also said that, after six years' service the Apprentice appeared before "the Master who keeps the Craft," in order to swear "by the Saints," to conform to Craft usage.  He thus became a Journeyman, or Companion, but could not become a Master, and undertake the entire erection of a building, until he had completed such a "Master-Piece" as was appointed him, and which entailed much outlay; but if this was Passed he became a member of the "Masters' Fraternity."  The difference between the Saxon and the French custom appears to be this: that whilst in the former case the acceptance of a Master rested with the same Assembly as that to which the Journeyman belonged, in the latter case the Masters' Fraternity was now a separate body, with independent laws.  The custom of Montpelier, according to documents printed by Brother R. F. Gould, would seem to have developed somewhat differently.  Here, after an Apprentice had served three years, he was placed for another four years to serve as a Journeyman, under a Master.  At the end of this period he might present his Master-piece, and if it was approved he took the oath to {319} the Provosts and only such sworn Master was permitted to erect a building from the basement; but it was allowable for a Journeyman to undertake small repairs.  Thus as city customs varied confusion must at times have arisen in journeying abroad.  There is mention in 1287, when the Cathedral of Upsala in Sweden was begun, that Etienne de Bonneuill took with him from Paris "ten Master Masons and ten Apprentices"; possibly some of the Masters or some of the Apprentices, were what we call Fellows, but there is nothing to warrant any classification.  It is important to shew the secret nature and the import of the French organisation, and Fraternities, and we quote the following from Brother J. G. Findel's History of Freemasonry: -- "The Fraternities existing as early as the year 1189 were prohibited by the Council of Rouen ("cap." 25); and the same was most clearly expressed at the Council of Avignon in the year 1326, where (cap. 37) it is said that the members of the Fraternity met annually, bound themselves by oath mutually to love and assist each other, wore a costume, had certain well known and characteristic signs and countersigns, and chose a president (Majorem) whom they promised to obey."  Nothing very vile in this.

   In 1242 Prior Melsonby made additions to Durham Cathedral, and others were made by Bishop Farnham before 1247, and by Prior Hoghton about 1290.  At Newcastle the church of All Saints was founded before 1296, and that of St. John in the same century.  The church of St. Nicholas was rebuilt in the 14th century, but the present tower only dates from the time of Henry VI.  Clavel says that the seal of Erwin de Steinbach, Chief Master of Cologne, 1275, bears the square and compasses with the letter G.

   Turning to the North of England we find that at York in 1171, 1127, 1241, and 1291, the choir, south transept, and nave of the Minster were either completed or in course of erection, and the workmanship is infinitely superior to later portions of the building.  In 1270 the new church of {320} the Abbey of St. Mary in York was begun by the Abbot Simon de Warwick, who was seated in a chair with a trowel in his hand and the whole convent standing around him.  There is also a Deed of 1277 with the seal of Walter Dixi, Cementarius, de Bernewelle, which conveys lands to his son Lawrence; the legend is "S. Walter le Masun," surrounding a hammer between a half-moon and a five-pointed star.  In this same year, 1277, Pope Nicholas II. is credited with letters patent to the Masons confirming the freedoms and privileges, said to have been granted by Boniface IV. in 614; if such a Bull was issued, it has escaped discovery in recent times.

   In these somewhat dry building details it will have been noticed that references are made to French designers, and to consultation with French and English Masons, and with this enormous amount of building there must necessarily have been a constant importation of French Masons, with the introduction of French customs.

   On the symbolism of this period there are some interesting particulars in the Rationale of Bishop Durandus, who died in 1296.  The "tiles" signify the protectors of the church; the winding-staircase "imitated from Solomon's temple" the hidden knowledge; the stones are the faithful, those at the corners being most holy; the cement is charity; the squared stones holy and pure have unequal burdens to bear; the foundation is faith; the roof charity; the door obedience; the pavement humility; the four side walls justice, fortitude, temperance, prudence; hence the Apocalypse saith "the city lieth four square."<<"Ars Quat. Cor.," x, p. 60.>>  The custom is Hindu, French, British.

   In a paper recently read before one of the learned Societies Professor T. Hayter Lewis has shewn that the builders of the early "Pointed Gothic "of the 13th century were of a different school to those who preceded them in the 12th century; he shews that the Masons' marks, the style, and the methods of tooling the stones, differ from the older work, and whilst the older was wrought with diagonal tooling, the later was upright {321} with a claw adze.  He traces these changes in methods and marks through Palestine to Phoenicia.  This new style, he considers, was brought into this country by Masons who had learned it amongst the Saracens, and though Masons' marks were in use in this country long before they were now further developed on the Eastern system.<<Ibid, iii, also v, p. 296>>  There is as well tangible evidence of the presence of Oriental Masons in this country; two wooden effigies, said to be of the time of the Crusades, were formerly in the Manor house of Wooburn in Buckinghamshire, of which drawings were shewn to the Society of Antiquaries in 1814, and have recently been engraved in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum.<<Ibid, viii. 1895.>>  These effigies are life size, one represents an old man with quadrant and staff, the other a young man with square and compasses, and "the attire, headdress, and even features, indicate Asiatic originals."  It has been thought that the Moorish Alhambra at Grenada indicates the presence of Persian Masons, and we find the translator of Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered in every case substitutes the word Macon for Mohammed, but this is only a provincial abbreviation for Maometto.

   Though supported in a superior manner, the theory of Professor Hayter Lewis is not new to Freemasonry, as in the 17th century Sir Wm. Dugdale, Sir Chris. Wren, and others fix upon the reign of King Henry III. as the period when the Society of Freemasons was introduced into England by Travelling Masons, protected by Papal Bulls, and Wren is said to have added his belief that pointed Gothic was of Saracenic origin, and that the bands resided in Huts near the erection upon which they were working, and had a Warden over every ten men.  But Elias Ashmole held that whilst such a reorganisation actually took place, it was upon a Roman foundation.  Dugdale probably derived his views from some monastic document, or tradition, whilst Ashmole as a Mason, with better information followed the old MS. Constitutions, as we {322} have done in these chapters.  Brother Gould is of opinion that the alleged Bulls were given to the Benedictines and other monkish fraternities who were builders, and that they only apply to Masons as members, or lay brothers of the Monasteries; and, we may add, Templars.

   It must be clear to all who have eyes to see, that with this importation into England of the foreign element a new series of legends were engrafted upon.the original simple account of the old English Masons.  Such are the Charges of Nimrod, of David and Solomon, and of Charles Martel, and though we have no MSS. of this period to confirm us, there is no doubt that they are of this period; equally we have no contemporary text of the Charges by which the newly imported Masons were ruled.  The information already given enables us to see that there was a difference both in legends and laws between the two elements and that it was a sectarian difference.

   English MSS., of more modern date, refer to "Books of Charges," where those of Nimrod, of Solomon, of St. Alban, and of Athelstan are included, and if they actually existed, as we see no reason to doubt, they were of this century.  Moreover the references to Carolus Secundus, or to Charles Martel, must be of this period (though there can be no doubt that this refers to Carolus Magnus or Charlemagne) as small importations of French Masons in Saxon times would not have influenced the older legends, nor stood a chance of adoption by the English.  In regard to the laws by which the French Masons were governed, we are, however, informed in the more modem MSS. that they differed but little, or "were found all one" with the Roman, British, and Saxon Charges.  It is very evident that the early foreign element had a Charge of their own referring to Nimrod, David, Solomon, and Charles of France, applicable to their own ceremonies, and that in England, they united therewith the "Charges" of Euclid, St. Alban, and Athelstan in a heterogeneous manner; and these are found in two, or more, MSS. to which we refer {323} later, as having been approved by King Henry VI., and afterwards made the general law.

   There is one piece of evidence which might enable us to settle certain difficult points if we could rely upon it.  Professor Marks, a learned Jew, has stated that he saw in one of the public libraries of this country a Commentary upon the Koran of the 14th century, written in the Arabic language, with Hebrew characters, referring according to his view, to Free Masonry, and which contained an anagrammatical sentence of which each line has one of the letters M. O. C. H., and which he reads: "We have found our Lord Hiram" (Chiram); but the Dervish Sects have a similar phrase, which would read: "We have found in our Lord rest" (Kerim, or Cherim).  We must therefore hold our minds in reserve until the book has been re-found and examined.  In any case it seems to add a link to the chain of evidence as to the Oriental origin of our present Rites.  We may feel assured that the Masons who returned from the Holy-land were of a class calculated to make a marked impression on the Society.  The word to which the foregoing alludes, in modern Arabic, might be translated "Child of the Strong one."  Several modern writers, both Masons and non-Masons, hold to the opinion that there were two Artists at the building of Solomon's temple: Huram the Abiv, who began the work, and Hiram the son, who completed what his father had to leave undone.  Succoth, where the brass ornaments for the Temple were cast, signifies Booths or Lodges, and Isaradatha means sorrow or trouble.<<Vide "Light from the Lebanon Lodge."  Joel Nash.>>  Josephus says that Hiram was son of a woman of the tribe of Napthali, and that his father was Ur of the Israelites.  The account that we have of him, in the Bible, is that he was expert in dyeing, and in working in gold, and in brass; which makes him a chemist and metallurgist, rather than a Mason.  There were many Arts in which the ancients were our superiors.  A very important {324} lecture on this point has recently appeared from the pen of the Rev. Bro. M. Rosenbaum.

   After this long digression we will return to architecture in general.  Mr. Wyatt Papworth points out the use of the term Ingeniator, in various documents, between 1160-1300 referring to castles repaired or constructed.  Some of these were undoubtedly Architects and not Engineers, whose duties were the construction of warlike machines; and though gunpowder had not yet come into use in this country, the connection with Masoning might, at a later period, lead to the introduction of Marcus Graecus into our MSS.

   In the reign of Edward I., 1272-1307, Merton College in Oxford, the cathedral of Norwich and twenty pious houses were founded; the noble Gothic style had reached its climax.  Between 1291-4 several crosses were erected; and there are mentions of Masons who were employed by the King, some items of expense refer to timber, "to make a Lodge for Master Michael and his Masons."  Peter de Cavalini designed the "Eleanor Crosses;" the one in Cheapside was begun by Richard de Crumble, and completed by Roger de Crumble; it was of three stories, decorated with Niches having Statues executed by Alexander le Imaginator.  A still more beautiful one was the Charing Cross.  From 1290-1300 West Kirkby Church was building, and the Marks are recorded by Brother Rylands, as well as those of Eastham, and Sefton Churches.<<Ars Quat. Cor. vii.>>  In 1300 Henry the Monk, surnamed Lathom, Latomus, -- Mason or Stone-cutter, rebuilt part of the Abbey of Evesham.  In 1303 the Mayor and 24 Aldermen of London, made ordinances for the regulation of the Carpenters, Masons and labourers; the Mayor was Gregory de Rokeslie, and the Mazounes Mestres, or Master Masons, and Master Carpenters are mentioned, in conjunction with their servants.  From 1308-26 William Boyden was employed in erecting The Chapel of the Virgin at the Abbey of St. Albans. {325}

   In the reign of Edward II., 1307-27, Exeter and Oriel Colleges in Oxford, Clare Hall in Cambridge, and eight pious houses were built.  During this King's reign we have the advent of the "Curvilinear," or "Decorated" style, which held its ground for near a century.  In 1313 the Knights Templars were suppressed with great brutality in France; in England their property was confiscated to the Knights of St. John, their leading Preceptories being at London, Warwick, Walsden, Lincoln, Lindsey, Bollingbroke, Widine, Agerstone, York, Temple-Sowerby, Cambridge, etc.; they were distributed throughout the Monasteries, or joined the Knights of St. John; those of York had lenient treatment by Archbishop Greenfield, and were relegated to St. Mary's adjacent to the Culdee hospital of St. Leonard.  Their Lay brethren, amongst whom would be a numerous body of Masons, were liberated; a circumstance from which might spring more than a traditional connection.  Some of the Knights returned to Lay occupations, and even married to the great annoyance of the Pope.  In Scotland the Knights, aided in their aims by the wars between that country and England, retained their Preceptories and though they seem to have united with the Order of St. John in 1465 they were as often distinguished by one name as the other.  The Burg-laws of Stirling have the following in 1405, -- "Na Templar sall intromet with any merchandise or gudes pertaining to the gilde, be buying and selling, within or without their awn lands, but giff he be ane gilde brother."<<"Freem. Mag." xvi, p. 31.>>  Thus implying that the Knights had actual membership with the Guilds.  The Templars, at the like date (1460) are mentioned in Hungary.<<Malczovich -- Ars Quat, Cor. Yarker.  Also 1904, p. 240.>>  In Portugal their innocence of the charges brought against them was accepted, but to please the Pope their name was changed to Knights of Christ.  In an old Hungarian town, where the Templars once were, the Arms are a wheel on which is the Baptist's head on a charger. {326}





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