Part 5 of 7 (Chapters IX-X)





   John Yarker

  A bishop of Durham, circa 1295-1300 named Beke had required more than the accustomed military service from the tenants of St. Cuthbert, who pleaded the privileges of "Haly-werk folc, not to march beyond the Tees or Tyne," and Surtees explains that "Halywerk folc or holywork people, whose business, to wit, was to defend the holy body of St. Cuthbert, in lieu of all other service"<<"Hist. Durham, Genl." xxxiii.>>, are here alluded to, but of Culdee original the term implied an art origin.  Sir James Dalrymple, speaking of Scotland, says, -- "The Culdees continued till the beginning of the 14th century, up to which time they contended for their ancient rights, not only in opposition to the whole power of the primacy, but the additional support of papal authority."  Noted Lodges exist from old times at Culdee seats, such as Kilwinning, Melrose, Aberdeen, and as the period when this was shewn was that of the suppression of the Templars, and the Scotch generally never allowed themselves to be Pope-ridden, we have one reason why the name of Templar was continued in that country.  There was everywhere a growing discontent against the Church of Rome secretly indicated, even in the art of the Masonic Sodalities.  Isaac Disraeli alludes to it in his Curiosities of Literature.  In his Chapter entitled, "Expression of Suppressed Opinion," he states that sculptors, and illuminators, shared these opinions, which the multitude dare not express, but which the designers embodied in their work.  Wolfius, in 1300 mentions, as in the Abbey of Fulda, the picture of a wolf in a Monk's cowl preaching to a flock of sheep, and the legend, "God is my witness, how I long for you all in my bowels."  A cushion was found in an old Abbey, on which was embroidered a fox preaching to a flock of geese, each with a rosary in its mouth.  On the stone work and columns of the great church at Argentine, as old as 1300, were sculptured wolves, bears, foxes, and other animals carrying holy-water, crucifixes, and tapers, and other things more indelicate.  In a magnificent {327} illuminated Chronicle of Froissart is inscribed several similar subjects, -- a wolf in a Monk's cowl stretching out its paw to bless a cock; a fox dropping beads which a cock is picking up.  In other cases a Pope (we hope Clement V.) is being thrust by devils into a cauldron, and Cardinals are roasting on spits.  He adds that, at a later period, the Reformation produced numerous pictures of the same class in which each party satirised the other.

   Over the entrance to the Church of St. Genevieve, says James Grant in "Captain of the Guard" (ch. xxxiii.), at Bommel is the sculpture of mitred cat preaching to twelve little mice.  There is a somewhat indecent carving at Stratford upon Avon.  The Incorporated Society of Science, Letters, and Art, in its Journal of January, 1902, contains a paper by Mr. T. Tindall Wildbridge upon the ideographic ornamentation of Gothic buildings.  He observes that there were Masons who possessed the tradition of ancient symbolic formula, and that whilst the Olympic Mythology is almost ignored, the "Subject being (by them) derived from the Zodiacal system," and it is, he observes, that this symbolisation, often satirical, holds place on equal terms with the acknowledged church emblems.  He instances some of these at Oxford and elsewhere, one of which is the symbol of Horus in his shell, and in a second instance reproduced as a "fox" with a bottle of holy water.  The altar of the Church of Doberan in Mecklenburg exhibits the priests grinding dogmas out of a mill.

   In 1322 Alan de Walsingham restored Ely, himself planning and working at the building.  The 1322 Will of Magister Simon le Masoun of York is printed in the Surtees Society's collection.  Of 1325 is the tomb of Sir John Croke and Lady Alyne his wife at Westley Wanterleys in Cambridgeshire; upon it is the letter N, with a hammer above it, and a half-moon and six-pointed star on each side; the N is an old Mason's mark, and also a pre-Christian Persian Symbol.  Of this period there is a stone-coffin lid at Thornton Abbey in Lincolnshire, which {328} has upon it a shafted floriated Greek cross, and besides the shaft a square -- religion and art united; a similar one occurs at Blidworth in Northamptonshire having upon it a square and axe.  At Halsall in Lancashire is a three-step cross on one side of which is a square, and on the other an ordinary set-square.  There is also in Lincoln Cathedral a gravestone of this century representing Ricardus de Gaynisburg, Cementarius, or Mason, on each side of whom is a trowel, and a square.  Chartres Cathedral in France has a window containing the working tools of masons.  Mr. Wyatt Papworth observes that at the end of the 13th century, and beginning of the 14th, there is mention of the Magister Cementarii and his Socii, or Fellows.  There is documentary evidence of the term Freemason in 1376, and it may have been in use at an earlier date.  Brother F. F. Schnitger argues, on the evidence of a Nuremberg work of 1558, that the prefix indicates a free art, as sculpture, which the ancients say that handicraft is not, but that the former is, "the use of the square and compasses artistically."<<Vide "Ars Quat. Cor." ii., p.141.>>  Brother G. W. Speth advocated, with a little hesitancy, that as the travelling Masons moved about they adopted the term "Free" to indicate that they were outside, or free from, any Guild but that established under their own Constitution.  It does not, necessarily follow, however, that the term "Free" had everywhere the same import.<<"Ibid" vii.>>

   Scotland has many important documents.  The Chevalier Ramsay, in his Paris Oration of 1737, states that James, Lord Steward of Scotland, in 1286 held a Lodge at Kilwinning and initiated the Earls of Gloucester and Ulster into Freemasonry.  What authority there is for this statement no one now knows, but Tytler in his History of Scotland shows that these two Earls were present at a meeting of the adherents of Robert Bruce at Turnbury Castle, which is about 30 miles west of Kilwinning Abbey, and were concerting plans for the vindication of his claims to the Scottish throne. {329}

   The rebuilding of Melrose Abbey in Scotland was begun in 1326 under King Robert the Bruce, who seems to have been a protector of the Templars.  There is a legend in regard to a window which is said to have been wrought by an Apprentice who was slain by his Master out of jealousy, and the same myth applies to similar work in other countries.  The structure is full of recondite symbolism both within and without; the Chapel is interpreted to represent the human body in all its parts; in Symbols there is a pelican feeding its young, and the phoenix rising from its ashes.  It contains a later inscription on the lintel of the turret stairs, as follows, and there are others of like import: -- 

              "Sa gays ye compass royn aboute,

               Truith and laute do but doute,

               Behold to ye hende q. Johne Morvo." 

A second on the west wall of the south transept is a shield inscribed to the next John Moray, or Murray, who was son of Patrick, bearing two pairs of compasses laid across each other between three fleur-de-lis, though his own arms were three mullets, in chief, and a fleur-de-lis in base.  The older of the two inscriptions refers to a John Moray who died 1476, a Mason but also Keeper of Newark Castle in 1467; and whose son Patrick had the same status until 1490.  The epitaph of the second of the name is thus read: --<<lbid v, p. 227; also ix, p. 172>>   

"John Morow sum tym callit           -gu Melros and Paslay of

  was I and born in Parysse           Nyddysdayll and of Galway,

  certainly an had in kepyng           Pray to God, and Mari baith.

  all Mason work of Sant An-         And sweet Sant Tohn to keep this

  droys ye hye Kyrk, of Glas-         haly kirk fra Skailh." 

This John Moray had grants of lands from James IV. in 1490 and 1497, was Sheriff of Selkirk 1501, and assassinated on his way to the Sheriff's Court in 1510.

   In the reign of Edward III., 1327-77, we are told by Anderson that Lodges were many and frequent, and that great men were Masons, the King patronising the arts {330} and sciences.  He says that it is implicitly implied, in an old record, "that in the glorious reign of King Edward III., when Lodges were many and frequent, the Grand Master with his Wardens, at the head of Grand Lodge, with consent of the Lords of the Realm, then generally Free-masons, ordained -- That for the future, at the making or admission of a brother, the Constitutions shall be read and the Charges hereunto annexed."  Such specific statement is not at present known and is doubtless a paraphrase of the existing MSS.  The King founded the Abbey of Eastminster, and others built many stately mansions and about thirty pious houses, in spite of all the expensive wars of this reign.

   The south transept of Gloucester Cathedral was begun about the year 1330, and is traditionally said to be by "John Goure, who built Camden Church and Gloster Towre."  He is believed to be represented in a monument, of which an engraving appears in Ars Quatuor (vol. ii.); it is in form of a Mason's square, and the builder is represented as if supporting it; his arm is in the position of hailing his Fellows; below the man's effigy is a budget of tools.  Until a recent restoration of the ancient Church of the Dominicans in Limerick, there was, on the gable end, the half length figure of a person in Monkish dress; the right hand was clutching the heart, and the left arm, kept close to the side, was raised with the palm outward, index and second finger raised.<<The Kneph. C. M. Wilson, J.P.>>

   In 1330, Thomas of Canterbury, a Master Mason, began work at St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster.  The Abbey-gate of Bury St. Edmund's contains the double triangles, and is of this period.  On the carved bosses of a Gothic church at Linlithgow are these emblems: -- (1) a double circle within which is a book upon which are square and compasses; (2) a double square within which are two circles, and in these a double lozenge in the centre of which is the letter G.<<Freem. Mag., May 1853.>>  The brass of John de Bereford at Allhallows, Mayor 1356-7 of Oxford, contains a shield {331} on which are square and compasses.  At Dryburgh Abbey there is a tomb, late this century, on which is a cross-hilted sword, surrounded by a wreath of ivy, and on each side of the sword, the square and compasses; this, and others of like nature, might imply the Initiation of a person of Knightly rank.

   The condemnation of the 1326 Council of Avignon would seem to have had its influence in England, for upon the "black death" of 1348, when near half the population died, an Ordinance of 1350 confirmed by Statute law in 1360, forbade "all alliances, covines, congregations, chapters, ordinances, and oaths," amongst Masons, Carpenters, and artisans, and this Statute was endorsed by others of a like nature in 1368, 1378, 1414, and 1423.  These laws are, however, rather directed against Journeymen, Apprentices, and labourers, and, in any case, from their repetition at long intervals, had little effect upon the Masonic Assemblies.

   A much more important bearing upon the Masonic organisation is a record of 1356.  At this period there was a dispute in existence between the "Layer Masons or Setters," and the "Mason squarers."  Six members of each class appeared before the Mayor, Sheriff, and Aldermen of the city of London, to have their organisation defined in order that the disputes, which had arisen between them might be adjusted, "because that their trades had not been regulated by the folks of their trade in such form as other trades are."  That is, they had not yet been so regulated in the city of London.  Amongst these representatives of the Mason squarers was Henry Yeveley; the "Free-masons" as opposed to the "Layer Masons," who were perhaps derived from the ancient body of the Kingdom, who would suffer in status by French importations, and would prefer, elsewhere, the Saxon Constitution.  The Mayor, after consultation with these two sections, drew up a code of ten rules, which appears in full in Gould's History of Freemasonry, and which virtually allowed the two bodies identical privileges, {332} and rules, mutually with a seven years Apprenticeship.  In either case a Master, taking any work in gross, was to bring 6 or 4 sworn men of the "Ancients" of his trade, to prove his ability and to act as his sureties; and they were to be ruled by sworn Overseers.  Twelve Masters were sworn, which virtually united both bodies, and made a uniform rule for both, thus establishing the London Company of Masons.  Such a union of the Christian Masonry of York and the Semitic Masonry of the Normans, coupled with the grant of Royal Charters to the Masters, might lead to the recognition of the Rites of the Harodim-Rosy Cross as the unification of the two, which it actually is.  It is quite probable that this judicious action of the Mayor saved London a repetition of the disturbances which occurred in France amongst the sects of the Compagnonage.

   In the middle of the 14th century Ranulf Higden had compiled his Polychronicon in the Benedictine Monastery of St. Werberg, Chester, which is here noted as it constituted the authority for all the Masonic Charges as to Jabal, Jubal, Tubal, and Naamah; Nimrod and his cousin Ashur, the two pillars of Enoch, the origin of Geometry, etc., and which introduced into the Saxon Charge by the author of the "Cooke MS.," whoever that may have been, became the basis of all the later Charges which have come down to us.

It is quite probable that the old 17th century Lodge, of which Randle Holmes was a member, dates from the earliest period of Norman architecture in Chester, if not beyond; its prior antiquity is proved by the fact that it had in the 17th century ceased to have any practical object in relation to architecture.  The ancient Scotch Lodges in most cases advance such claims.

   This era was the beginning of the "Rectilinear" or "Perpendicular" style of architecture, which continued in vogue down to 1550 From 1349 works were in progress at Windsor, and John de Spoulee, Master stone-cutter to whom Anderson has given the title of "Master of the {333} Ghiblim," though in Ashmole's Order of the Garter the term used is Stone-cutter, had power given him to impress Masons; he rebuilt St. George's Chapel where the King instituted the Order of the Garter in 1350.  In 1356 William of Wykeham, who was made Bishop of Winchester in 1367, was appointed Surveyor, and in 1359 Chief Warden and Surveyor of various castles, and employed 400 Free-Masons at Windsor.  In 1360 the King impressed 360 Masons at his own wages, and attempts were made to punish those who left work, and this is the year in which the Statute law was passed against all alliances, covines, and oaths, so that the one may have influenced the other.  About this year William Edington, Bishop of Winchester, erected a very beautiful church at Edington.  In 1362 writs were issued for the King's works to impress 302 Masons and delvers of stone, and the counties of York, Devon, and Salop were to furnish 60 men each.  These arbitrary proceedings of the King have an explanatory bearing upon both the Statute laws and the Masonic Charges.  In 1365 Henry Yeveley, already referred to as a Mason-cutter, was director of the work of St. Stephen's Chapel, now the House of Parliament, and according to Anderson is "called at first, in the old Records, the King's Free Mason"; he built for the King the London Charter-house, King's Hall in Cambridge, and Queensborough Castle.  In 1370 William de Wynnesford, Cementarius, was sent beyond sea to retain divers Masons for the service of the King.  In 1375, Robert a Barnham at the head of 250 Free Masons completed St George's great Hall; and Simon Langham, Abbot of Westminster, repaired the body of that cathedral.

   In Prior Fossour's time, 1341-74, the great West window of Durham Cathedral was placed, and the Altar-screen finished in 1380 to which Lord Neville of Raby contributed 600 marks.

   Green, in his History of the English People, has some remarks on the English Guilds which we may run over here.  He says that "Frank-Pledge," and the "Frith-Guild" {334} sprang out of kinship and were recognised both by Alfred and Athelstan.  The Merchant Guild of London sprang out of various Guilds in the city which were united into one by Athelstan.  But this led to a Craft Guild struggle, for their Wardens had the Inspection of all work done, all tools used and everything necessary for the good of their several trades.  Apart from the Masons who had their own records, not mentioned by Green, the first to secure royal sanction was the weavers who had their charter from Henry I., though the contest went on during the reign of John, for the control of trade in the 11th century had begun to pass from the Merchant Guild to those of the Craft.  It may also be added that the Masons had begun to pass from Monastic control and were becoming secularised.  A constant struggle was taking place between the "Prudhommes," or Wise, and the Commune; those Craftsmen who were unenfranchised united in secret Frith-guilds and Mobs arose, but the open contest did not begin until 1261, when the Craftsmen invaded the Town-mote, set aside the Aldermen and chose Thomas Fitz Thomas for their Mayor.  The contest continued until the time of Edward III., who himself joined the Guild of Armourers.  Charters had now been granted to every trade, and their ordinances duly enrolled in the Mayor's Court, and distinctive Liveries assumed.  Green adds that the wealthier citizens now finding their power broken sought to regain their old influence by enrolling themselves as members of the Trade-guilds (p. 189-95).

   With the exception of the Masons' Guild at York, which was continuously employed on the Minster, and other churches in York, and as these sent Guilds to other distant parts which ceased to exist when their work was done, it is impossible to trace old Guilds in permanency.  When they had completed their labours they would report to York, and as workmen were required elsewhere, a Guild with the proper complement of Apprentices, Fellows, and Passed Masters would be sent there.  In some cases, in small towns, a remnant would remain in permanence, and {335} it is to such as these that we owe a special Charge distinct from that of the General Assembly.

   In 1377 the Guilds of London were reconstituted and became known as "Livery Companies," from their special Livery or dress.  In place of "Guild," we now have "Crafts and Mysteries," and for "Aldermen," the Masters or Wardens.  The Masons had sent 4 members and the Free Masons 2 members to the Municipal Council, but an old list shews that this distinction had been done away with and an erasure is made to credit the delegates as "Masons."  The oath of the Wardens is preserved; they swore, well and truly to Oversee the Craft of Masonry, to observe its rules, and to bring all defaulters before the Chamberlain of the City; to spare no man for favour, nor grieve any man for hate; to commit neither extortion nor wrong, nor in anything to be against the peace of the King or city.  The Oath concludes, as in the French formula before mentioned, "So help you God and all Syntes."  The title of the London Company of Masons, at this time, was "The Craft and Fellowship of Masons."  The Court Rolls of the Manor of Long Benynton, county of Lincoln, the lord being Thomas of Woodstock, the youngest son of Edward III., has John Playster and John Freemason in this year.<<Coleman's Catalogue, 1882, xviii, No. 150.>> The Charters of City Companies of Masons was clearly a legalised usurpation of the Saxon right of Assembly, and modelled upon the older "Fraternities" of France; where such City Companies were chartered the result might be the withdrawal of the Masters into the Livery, leading to the continuation of the Assembly by journeymen and amateurs.  To put the question in other words, some Assemblies may have become Livery Companies, whilst York, and other northern towns, continued the ancient right of Masonic Assembly; and in regard to this the views of Brother Speth that the Masonic Assembly, and the Charges belonging thereto, is a claim that they were free from the Guilds is worthy of close consideration.  Brother Gould {336} has mentioned several instances where Journeymen attempted to establish Guilds for their own enjoyment and protection, but were speedily suppressed by the Masters; in 1387 three Cordwainers had been promised a Papal brief for this purpose, but only obtained the privilege of the London prison of Newgate; a similar attempt of the Journeymen Saddlers was suppressed in 1396; the same befel the Journeymen Tailors in 1415; also the Journeymen Guild of St. George at Coventry in 1427.  Unfortunately all the documents of the London Company of Masons prior to 1620 have been lost, or we should have had valuable information as to the working of that Guild.  Brother Edward Conder has shewn that the Company at the earliest period of its records had a speculative Lodge meeting at its hall, which was not confined to Masons by profession; and that a Master's grade such as is spoken of in the "Regius" and "Cooke" MSS. was the appanage of the Fellowship, by which "accepted" or non-operatives became qualified for the rank of Liverymen and Assistants who composed the governing Council, and thus the esoteric or symbolic branch was allied with the exoteric one on the Council.

   We will now return, in a few notes, to works in progress at this period.  In the reign of Richard II., 1377-99, about fifteen pious houses were built. Between 1380-86 the building of the new College, in Oxford, was accomplished by William of Wykeham; the Wardens and Fellows, 14th April, 1386, made solemn entrance, marching in procession with the cross borne before them and chanting Litanies.  Between 1387-93 the same architect founded Winchester College; it contains the arms of the Architect, which have a peculiarity worthy of notice; they are -- two chevronels or carpenters' couples between three roses; motto, Manners makyth man.  It is probably but a coincidence that if we reverse a Master Mason's apron, it is a copy of the arms of Wykeham, whilst the motto, as previously noted, is found in the "Regius" MS., and in a book on etiquette styled "Urbanitatis," of which it is {337} possible he may have been author.  His Master Mason was William de Wynnesford, mentioned here in 1370, and his portrait as William Wynfor, lathomus, appears in stained glass, with that of the Master Carpenter, and Dominus Simon Membury, Supervisor or Clerk of the Works.  In the old Masonic Charges there is a law that no Fellow shall go into the town at night, without a Fellow to bear him company, as witness of his good conduct; and Brother F. Compton Price, who has executed the beautiful facsimiles of Masonic MSS., points out that Wykeham had the same law for the Monks and Canons, who were prohibited from going abroad without leave of the Prior, and without a Companion.

   From 1389-91 the celebrated poet Geoffrey Chaucer, was Clerk of the Works over the King's Masons, and it is possible that our old Charges may have had some influence upon his poetical works.  Romsey Abbey has a pillar in the south aisle, upon the capital of which is sculptured certain figures supposed to represent the Dedicators of the Church; it has a trowel and a large square said to contain the words: "Rohert me fecit."  Between the years 1389-91 two very beautiful churches were erected, one at the village of Shottesbrook in Berkshire, and the other at Winnington in Beds, but the "Perpendicular "style had not reached these places.  St. Michael's Church in Coventry was completed in 1395; St. Nicholas in Lynn, 1400; the Collegiate Church in Manchester was in progress, and it has been supposed the builders met at the adjacent "Seven Stars," a very ancient hostelry.

   Works were in constant progress at York from 1349-99, and even down to 1520.  In the year 1352, the Chapter of the Minster issued regulations for the Masons employed, which are interesting in themselves, and indicate to us various particulars which shew how carefully old Masonic customs have been handed down to us.  It would be an error to suppose that such Lodges as are described herein were the York Assembly; that body was an annual Assembly drawn from all the Masons within a wide circle.  {338} Such Lodges might possibly receive Apprentices.  The document from which we quote the following particulars is part of the Fabric Rolls, printed by the Surtees' Society: 1352, "The first and second Masons, who are Masters of the same, and the Carpenters," took an oath to carry out these regulations.  After work, between May and August, breakfast was to last half an hour, "and then the aforesaid Masters, or one of them, shall knock upon the door of the lodge, and forthwith all shall go to their work."  After dinner they shall sleep within their lodge, and when the Vicars have come from the Canons' dinner table, the Master Mason, or his substitute, shall cause them to rise and come to their work.  Then they were to work from the first bell for Vespers, and then drink within the lodge until the third bell of St. Mary's Abbey called le longe bell.  "The aforesaid two Master Masons and Carpenters of the Fabric shall be present at each drinking time, and these shall notify to the Keeper of the Fabric, and to the Controller thereof, all failures and absences."

   In 1370 the Dean and Chapter issued another Code of regulations under which none were allowed to go away above a mile, under penalty of a fine.  A new workman was to be tested for a week, and if "he is foundyn conisant of his werke, be recayde ye commune assent of ye Mayster, and ye Keper of ye werke and of ye Mastyr Masoun, shall swere upon ye boke yet he shall trewle ande bysili at his poure, for out anye manner gylary, fayntis, outher desayte, hald, and kepe holy, all ye poyntes of ys forsayde ordinance in all thynges yt him touches or may touche, fra tyme yt he be recavyde."  In this same year Master Robert de Patryngton, and 12 Masons appeared and received Articles to this tenor: - "Lords, if it be your wyles, we grant for to stand at our workes trewly, and at our power."  In the following year we find that this Master had under him 35 Masons and Apprentices, 18 labourers, and the church found them Livery of tunics, aprons, gloves, and clogs. {339}

   In 1389 the Masters and Wardens of Guilds were ordered by the Crown to make a return of their laws, oaths, feasts, meetings, and if they possessed charters to  produce them, and the existence of both social and Craft Guilds is admitted by issue of separate writs.  A body such as the London Fellowship of Masons, says Bro. R. F. Gould, would not be affected by such writs, for it had the governance of the London Craft, and Anderson expresses an opinion, in 1723, that its members had first been received according to well-known Masonic forms.  Masons in many parts, who had no Charters, would no doubt be affected by the Writs of 1389, and it is very probable that the order may have led to the compilation of a series of Constitutional Charges, which were, again and again, recopied and handed down to us in later MSS.; but it is clear that such scribes did not hesitate, at any time, to introduce supposed improvements of their own.  Whether or not such a recompilation originated thus, the laws of the country shew that Assemblies continued to be held down to the 15th century, and Masonic documents prove their later continuance, and the variations in the MSS. lead us to believe that if there were Masons who preferred a Norman French Charge, there were others who preferred their ancient Saxon privilege of a right of Assembly to obligate Fellows, and pass Masters, and we will give particulars of two such documents shortly, both of which embrace legends of this date.

   We will now say a little upon the Symbolism of the time both English and Foreign.  Dr. Inman, of Liverpool<<"Ancient Faiths in Ancient Names.", has the following: -- "The ancient parish church of Bebington, Cheshire, has not only the solar wheel, the spikes of which terminate in the phallic triad, as one of the adornments of the reredos, but abounds with deltas, acorns, Maltese crosses, enfolding triangles, and Virgins who, like the ancient Isis, are crowned with the inverted crescent, the chaplet being still further adorned with the  {340} seven planets."  A very interesting series of Marks, cut between 1120-1534 has been collected by Brother Rylands.<<"Ars Quat. Cor." 1894.>>  At Great Waltham there are some well carved panel heads of open seats, the tops of which in triplicated form contain the five-pointed star, with a ball in the centre.  The pavement of Westminster Abbey contains the double triangle, each angle containing a small one, whilst three triangles separated appear in the centre.  During last century certain leaden medals designated Moralli were disinterred at Dover, and believed to be travelling tokens from one Monastery to another, ensuring welcome, some bore a five-pointed star, others had a dot at each angle, and the letter G in the centre.<<Feem. Mag., 1863, viii, p. 86.>>  Masons as a necessity were travellers, and could not carry work to their shop.  The Rev. Bro. A. F. A. Woodford, whose ability as a Masonic authority is unquestioned, has several times stated in print that there was found in the Minster Yard in York an ancient token or seal, undoubtedly of the 14th century, which had upon it words only known to Masons and Hiramites.

   By a Statute of Henry VI. (1406) the Liverymen of Guilds were permitted to wear girdles of silk, embroidered with silver and gold.  The date to the Will of John Cadeby is indecipherable, but earlier than 1451, as one of the persons mentioned in it died in that year.  Bro. G. F. Fort in his treatise on builders' marks quotes Matthew of Arras and Peter Arler, whose images in the Cathedral of Prague, of the end of the 14th century, wear in the former case his mark on a keystone set in a semi-circle, depending from a broad band of blue, and Peter Arler's is a perfect square.  A Guild Mason would say that the Mark of Matthew of Arras proves him to have belonged to an "Arch" Guild, though blue is a Craft colour.

   The inventory of the Will here named of John Cadeby, of Beverley, Mason, has mention of several Zonas, which though literally girdles, may be interpreted Aprons: -- {341}

   One silk zona, green and red, silver mounted, weight 17 oz., 32s. 8d.

   One silk zona, silver mounted, with leaves and ivy, weighs 7 1/4 oz., 40s. 8d.

   One silk zona, silver mounted, with Roses, weighs 9 3/4 oz., 16s. 3d

   One damaged silk zona, silver mounted, with letters B and I in the middle, weight . . . .

   One zona, of mixture, silvered, ornamented with stars, 3s

   One zona, of black and green silk, weight 3 oz., 3s

   The Girdle, then an article of clothing in general use, was appropriate to a Master.

    The foreign churches of the 14th century are equally suggestive in Symbolism common to Masonry.  The dome of Wurtzburg, in front of the chamber of the dead, has two columns, which are supposed to date from 104o but may be later; on one is the letters IAC-HION, and BOO-Z.  There is an old church in Hanover which was building from 1284-1350, and which contains the circle, double triangles, and pentagon; in this church is also a statue of St. George with the red cross, and one of St. James the Pilgrim; at one time it possessed a charger with the Baptist's head; an inscription says: "The fire was a sore thorn to Stoics and Hebrews," which a Chronicle of 1695 refers to the fact of the burning of the Templars, 1310-3, a remark which would seem to imply a belief that these Knights were guilty of Monotheistic heresy.  Hargrave Jennings says that in old representations of the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, the sun and moon, with other emblems, are placed respectively on the two porches.

    The Church of Doberan has many double triangles, placed in a significant manner; three vine-leaves united by a cord, and symbolic cyphers; there is also a painting in the same church, in which the Apostles are represented in Masonic attitudes.<<Hist. Freem. J. G. Findel.>>  Fort asserts that in one of the churches of Florence are life size figures in Masonic attitudes.  Many paintings of the old Masters are said to {342} exhibit similar characteristics.  The Church of Santa Croce, Florence, over the main portal has a figure of Christ, holding in the hand a perfect square; he it was who told Peter that "upon this stone (petra) I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it."  Clavel states that the figure of Christ in the Church of St. Denis has the hand placed in a position well known to Freemasons; at the beginning of this chapter we gave other information hereon.  The Abbey Church of St. Owen in Rouen begun in 1318, and completed by Alexander Berneval, who died in 1440 and was buried in the church, has a legend in regard to a very fine Rose-window which is identical with that of Melrose; the five-pointed star appears in the stone tracery, and Murray says that there is a tradition that it was made by an Apprentice whom Berneval, the Master mason, slew out of jealousy because he had surpassed himself.  Other edifices at Rouen contain the pentagon.  This general identity of Symbolism in various countries tends to prove a secret understanding amongst all Masons as to its meaning, and a similar Initiation of the builders everywhere, which as they travelled about ensured a brotherly welcome.

   Victor Hugo in his novel of Notre Dame says that "there is an intimate connection between architecture and the Hermetic philosophy."  He further alleges an alchemical symbolism in the sculpture attributed to Bishop William of Parys in the great Portal; he also instances the Virgins with their lamps turned down, and those turned up; the opening of the book (of philosophy); some naked figures at the foot of Mary; one with wings on the heels (Mercury); the Sower; Job (the philosopher's stone, tortured to become perfect); a dragon with its tail in a bath from which rises smoke and a king's head, demons and dragon's head; and Abraham offering his son Isaac.

   In the reign of Henry IV., 1399-1413, six pious houses were built; the Londoners erected their Guild Hall, and the King founded Battle Abbey in Shrewsbury, and afterwards that of Fotheringay.  In 1399 Hugh de Hedon {343} had employed at York 28 Masons; but fuller information will be found in the Fabric Rolls.

   In the reign of Henry V., 1413-22, eight pious houses were built, and the King rebuilt the palace, and the Abbey of Sheen, under the direction of Henry Chichley, Archbishop of Canterbury.  At York, "our dred lord the King" had, in 1416, given them William de Colchester from Westminster Abbey; the appointment must have been an unpopular one, for, in the third year of his Mastership, certain stone-cutters assaulted and did grievously injure him and his assistant; the work continued here down to 1520.  Cattrick Bridge was constructed in 1413, and the three Masons were to have a gown "according to their degree," but this will mean employment rank.  Cattrick Church was begun in 1421, and the Masons were to have "a Luge of tre," with four rooms of "syelles," and of two "henforkes."

   The reign of Henry VI. lasted from 1422-61, and he was an infant upon his succession.  It is tolerably certain that in his reign the Masons were dabblers in the Hermetic sciences.  During the time of Henry IV. Alchemy was made felony, by an act of 1404, which continued in force during the reign of Henry V.   Henry VI. took the art under his protection and obtained the consent of Parliament, empowering three Lancashire gentlemen, "lovers of truth and haters of deception," to practise the art.<<Vide Scientific and Relig. Mysteries.  Yarker. 1872. p. 62.>>  An Act of Parliament was passed in 1425 alleging that by the "yearly congregations and confederacies of the Masons in their general Chapters assembled," the good effect of the Statutes of labourers was violated and prohibited all such meetings; no effect was given to this act, and it remained a dead letter on the Statute book until the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when it passed into oblivion, being annulled by other Acts.

   In 1424 Prior Wessington repaired the tower of Durham Cathedral, and spent  1,454 Pounds of the money of the time.

   In 1426 the Masons erecting Walberswick steeple were {344} to be provided with a house to work in, to eat and drink, and to lie in and to make "mete" in, to be built near the place of working.  In 1427, William of Warmington began the rebuilding of the western tower of Croyland Abbey, and the vaulting with stone of the north aisle; his memorial stone, which has been engraved in Ars Quatuor<<A.Q.C. v, p. 146.>>, represents him as holding a square in his right hand, and a pair of compasses in his left; there are other Masonic symbols carved here, for which consult the reference under the date 1113.  There was a Lodge of Masons attached to the Priory of Canterbury at this time; as the Register of William Molash, in 1429, mentions Thomas Stapylton, the Master, John Morys the Custos, or Warden, both of whom rank as Esquires; and 16 Masons; all receive their livery, or clothing.  Chichley also had livery, and these extracts prove that Christ Church Convent had a considerable body of Masons working at the building.  St. Mary's Church, Bury, was begun 1424.

   In the contract with Horwood for building the Nave of Fotheringay Church in 1434 it is enacted, "that if the two said letters, or any of them, be noght profitable ne suffisant workmen for the lordys availle, then by oversight of Master Masons of the countie, they shall be denyd."  If Horwood did not fulfill his engagements, "he shall yielde his body to prison at my lordy's will (Duke of York), and all his moveable goods and heritages be at my said lordy's disposition and ordinance."  In 1439 the Abbot of St. Edmundsbury contracts with John Wood for the restoration of the great bell tower, "in all manere of things that longe to Free-masonry, and to have borde for himself as a gentleman, and his servant as a yeoman, and thereby two robys, one for himselfe after a gentleman's livery."<<Archaelogia, xxiii, p. 331.>> Southwold Church was begun 1440.

   In 1436 an Act was passed which required the Masters, Wardens, people of the Guilds, fraternities, and other companies incorporate, to produce their letters Patent to the Justices and others, where such Guilds and fraternities {345} be, for their approval.  This Act is directed against such bodies making their own laws, and it mentions the Chief Master as distinct from the Masons under him.  It is a very valid supposition that it was this circumstance which led to the production of the Masonic Constitution for the sanction of the King, as several old copies known last century assert that it was.  It has been suggested that the King's Master Mason of our large cities might be the head of the Masonic Assemblies to whom the rest were responsible.

   There is a Catechism purporting to be the examination of a Freemason by Henry VI., which admits Occult studies; it was given to the world last century under the name of the antiquaries Leland and John Locke, and though possibly a forgery, in its present shape may have been the actual Catechism of some lodge given to these studies.  There, is, however, ancient and genuine testimony to the practice of Alchemy by the Masons.  We instanced in our Chapter (VI.) on the Hermetic Schools, the nature of the Symbolism of Jacques Coeur, 1450 and that of Basil Valentine.  Whatever uncertainty there may be about this there is none in the fact that Thomas Norton classes the Free Masons by name as giving themselves to Alchemical studies.  One Richard Carter in this year 1476, had granted him a license to practise Alchemy.

   During this reign Wainfleet, Bishop of Winchester, and Archbishop Chichley superintended the erection of various buildings in Oxford, Cambridge, and others built twelve pious houses.  Fuller says of King's College in Cambridge, founded by Henry VI., in 1441, that it is "one of the rarest fabrics in Christendom."  Churches begun, St. Mary's Redcliffe, 1440; Tattershall 1455.

   In Scotland William St. Clair built Roslyn Chapel in 1445, and Mr. James Ferguson considers that the builders were from North Spain.  Within it is a very beautiful Pillar called the Prentice's Pillar, to which a legend is attached which says that whilst the Master went to Rome for instruction, an Apprentice completed the work in his {346} absence and that out of envy at seeing the beauty of the workmanship he slew the Apprentice by a blow on the forehead.  Three heads are shewn in the Chapel as representing those of the Master, the Apprentice, and the widowed Mother, but it has been suggested that they may equally represent Joseph, Jesus, and Mary, in their application to the Rites of Harodim-Rosy Cross.  A similar Apprentice legend is attached to Cologne, Strasburg, Rouen, Melrose, Lincoln, and to other places, and though it has a distinct esoteric reference easily understood by all Masons, may possibly be carried forward to an Asiatic superstition that a building intended to endure must be cemented by the sacrifice of life.  Brother Speth is of opinion that in addition to a foundation-sacrifice, previously mentioned, there was a completion-sacrifice made at the crowning of the edifice, and that it was a custom obtaining amongst the Teutonic and other races, of which he gives many examples.

   Two documents, actually copied at this period, deserve ample reference here; one is the "Cooke MS.," written about 1450; and of the other there are several duplicates, the "Wm. Watson MS.," which we shall take as our reference; the duplicates being the "Heade MS.," dated 1675; another is quoted by Dr. Plot in 1686, and Dr. James Anderson, between 1723-38 had seen a copy.  Bro. Dr. W. W. Begemann has investigated the "Cooke MS.," and considers that it is copied from one about the year 1410, whilst the second part or book of Charges is much earlier, by at least a century; the Preface being compiled in a west Midland County.  Upon the "Watson MS., a valuable Commentary by Brother C. C. Howard, of Picton, has been printed, with a facsimile, and he shews very forcibly that it is a more complete and unabridged version than the Preface to the "Cooke MS.," but this also has been taken from a copy at least three removes from the original compilation, which served both for the "Cooke" and the "Watson" MSS., which again might be amplified copies of still older MSS.  It is probable that {347} modifications may have been made to adapt it for presentation to Henry VI., and the "Lords of his honourable Council," about the year 1442; and it may have been slightly modified in the next reign, when again copied, as little changes are made in all copies, no two being verbally alike.  It will be convenient to place the two copies side by side, and to distinguish where the variations occur, to suit them to two different Masonic schools.

   These MSS. begin with a description of the Seven Liberal Arts and Sciences, upon which all Crafts in the world were founded, and especially Geometry, which is the basis of all other arts, for there is "no handicraft but it is wrought by Geometry."  The author's legendary origin of the Craft begins with Adam, -- before Noah's flood there was a man called Lamech who had two wives, -- "one hight Adah, and another Zillah, by the first wife, that hight Adah he begat two sons, that hight Jabal, and the other hight Jubal."  Jabal was "Cain's Master Mason and governor of all his works, when he made the city of Enoch, that was the first city."  Jubal was the founder of Music.  "Lamech begat upon his other wife, that hight Zillah.  . . . Tubal Cain . . . and his daughter Naamah. . . . This son Tubal Cain was the founder of Smith's Craft. . . Naamah was the founder of weaver's Craft."  Being forewarned of the deluge they wrote the sciences upon two manner of stones, marble and latres, one of which would not burn, nor the other sink.  "A great clerk that was called Putugoras found that one, and Hermes the philosopher, found the other."  Nimrod began to build the tower of Babel and taught the workmen Craft of measures, and had 40 thousand Masons whom he loved and cherished well.  Nimrod sent to his cousin Asur 30 hundred of Masons, and gave them a Charge.  Abraham "a wise man and a great clerk" taught Geometry to the Egyptians, and had a worthy clerk called Euclid as his pupil.  A relation, varied in terms, from the more ancient form, is given as to Euclid's governance.  The author then tells us that the Children {348} of Israel learned Masonry when they were in Egypt, that "King David loved well Masons, and he grave them (Charges) right nigh as they be now" and "Solomon confirmed the Charges that David his father had given to Masons."  Thence the worthy Science passed into France where was a worthy King called Charles the Second; "he was a Mason before he was a King and gave them Charges."  Up to this point the two MSS. are in perfect agreement, allowing for copyist's errors, but they now diverge in a remarkable manner, and we give a summary, side by side, the "Watson" MS. complete in itself, the "Cooke" having an older part attached: --




    In the Watson MS. the account given of a charge by St. Alban is very full.  It gives Athelstan for authority that "Amphabell came out of France," and converted St. Alban to Christendom, he was Steward of the King and built the walls of Verulam; cherished Masons, and "made them good pay," and gave Charges "as Amphabell had  

brought them out of France."    


   Edwin (son of Athelstan) purchased from his father the right of Assembly and "correction within themselves," and held an Assembly at York.         


   The style of Cbarges differ from the "Cooke MS.," and yet allusions are made in these legends to "Books of Charges," as if existing, which embrace Nimrod, Solomon, Euclid, St. Alban, Athelstan.        


   A general series of Charges has been collected out of these, which do not differ so much in substance from the Saxon Charge, as they are differently arranged.  Certain of the Points, such as duty to King, and           

Church, and Employers, are Charges to "Masons in general."  There is also no distinction between Masters ARTICLES, and Fellows POINTS, but this might be work of a later Scribe.     


   Stewards of the Lodge, Chamber, or Hall, are mentioned as in the "Regius MS." The "Cooke MS." may have an imperfection, as the duties appear but not the word Steward, to which evidently the duties are intended to apply.



    In the Cook MS. the Charge and account of St. Alban is much abridged.  It says "soon after that came St. Adhabell into England, and converted St. Alban to Christianity, who gave them Charges," . . . "And after that there was a worthy King in England that was called Athelstan, and his youngest son

loved well the Science of Geometry, . . . wherefore he drew him to Council and learned the practice of that Science to his speculative, for of speculative he was a Master, and he loved well Masonry and Masons." It is an abridgement of the "Watson MS.," and goes on to say that this unnamed son purchased a free Patent of the King "that they should make Assembly when they saw a reasonable time."   This omission of the son's name, partially avoids 





a difficulty, as Athelstan had no son, but he had a younger brother Edwin, who went to sea in a leaky boat and was drowned, and in later times attempts were made to fix his death upon King Athelstan.  The MS. concludes with the remark that as to the manner of Assembly "as it is written and taught in the Book of our Charges wherefore I leave it at this time."


    The author attaches an actual Book of Charges, which is admittedly of an older date than the Preface of the MS. to the point at which it leaves off.







   The closing lines, which precede the Charges of the "Watson MS." are as follows: -- "These Charges have been seen and perused by our late Soveraigne Lord King Henry ye Sixth, and ye Lords of ye Honourable Councell, and they have allowed them well, and said they were right good and reasonable to be holden; and these Charges have been drawn and gathered out of divers ancient books, both of ye old Law, and new Law, as they were confirmed and made in Egypt, by ye King, and ye great Clerk Euclidus, and at ye making of Solomon's temple by King David and Salom his sonn, and in England by St. Alban, who was ye King's Steward yt was at yt time, and afterwards by King Ethelstone yt was King of England, and his son Edwin yt was King after his father, as it is rehearsed in many and diverse histories and stories and Chapters."

   To some extent the false chronology of these MSS. might be reconciled if we substitute Hermes for Euclid, {350} and Chaldeans for Abraham, but this latter would only be correct at a certain period of Egyptian history, when the Shepherd Kings were in power, and scarcely historically accurate.  The chronology has been disarranged apparently by adding the Euclid Charge in a document to which it does not belong.  The introduction into the Albanus legend of Amphibulus with Charges from France, betrays the work of an Anglo-Norman, for Britain supplied France with Artisans at that remote period.  The whole basis of the "Watson MS." and the first part of the "Cooke MS.," point to a French original, and the laws might be considered more applicable, as given in the "Watson MS.," to a Chartered Company which had the supervision of Lodges of the Craft; we consider, as we have before stated, that the "Watson MS.," may represent the union of two Sects, and the amalgamation of their Constitutional Charges.  Our learned Brother the late W. H. Upton, Past Grand Master of Washington, U.S.A., thinks that Hermes may have been first described as "Lucis Pater," and that Euclid may have been described as pupil of Hermes, until some one destroyed the context by interpolating Abraham.  In reference to the Alban legend he supposes that Amphibalus may be a later gloss; and that the Saxon text might be accommodated thus, -- "the good rule of Masonry was destroyed until the time of Knight Athelstan (a worthy son of King Edward), and he brought the land into good rest and peace, and he (Athelstan) loved Masons more than his father."  The Edwin legend thus arising by substitution of the short Edwd. of the father.  He would restore the Saxon thus, -- or tid cnihte aedlstanes daegs hwele weorthfull sunne cyninge Eadwearde waes, ond se sunu brohte . . . ond he lufode Craeftinga mare d oune his faedr (Eddwd.).  Other emendations will be found noticed in the Appendix, with which we close this book.

   Architecture is said to have been much neglected during the 17 years of the Wars of the Roses, but in the reign of {351} Edward IV., 1461-83, the walls of London were rebuilt, and seven pious houses erected.  Wakefield Church, Yorkshire, was begun in 1470; St. Stephen's, Bristol, same year; Blithborough Church, Suffolk, was completed in 1472,; St. Laurence, Norwich, in the same year; Swaffham, Norfolk, 1474; St. Mary's, Oxford, and St. Mary's, Cambridge, in 1478; Long Melford, Suffolk, 1481.  Heswell Church tower, Cheshire, was in course of erection, and its Masons' Marks were printed in 1894 by Brother Rylands.  The King in 1475 expresses general disapprobation against "the giving of livries, signs, tokens, retainers of indenture, promises, oaths, and writings," and this is about the date when the original of the "Watson MS." was made.  John Islip, Abbot of Westminster, finished the repair of the Abbey in 1483.  In 1472 "the hole Craft and Felawship of Masons" had coat armour granted, -- "sable, a chevron argent engrailed, between three castles, garnished with doors and windows of the field, on the chevron a compass, sable.  Crest, -- A castle triple towered as in the arms."  The oldest motto, -- God is our guide, which later gave place to this, -- In the Lord is all our trust.  With slight differences the Lodges generally adopted these arms.  Brother Conder informs us that the Company, at one time, possessed the Constitutions of the Fellowship, presented to them in the Mayorality of John Brown in 1481; these were the laws of their own body as a Company, but are now lost.

   Germany. It is known that the Emperor Rudolph I. even in the year 1275, authorised an Order of Masons, whilst Pope Nicholas III. in the year 1278 granted to the Brotherhood of Stonemasons at Strasburg, a letter of Indulgence which was renewed by all his successors down to Benedict XII. in 1340.  The oldest order of German Masons arises in 1397, next follow the so-called Vienna witnesses of 1412, 1434, 1435.  Then the Strasburg Order of Lodges in 1464; that of Torgau 1462, and finally 16 different orders on to 1500, and the following centuries, for Spiers, Regensburg, Saxony, Altenburg, Strassburg, {352} Oesterrich, and Ungarn.  "Geschichte der Freimaurerei in Oesterreich und Ungarn, Ludwig Abafi, Budapest, 1890-1).  The German statutes of Ratisbon 1459 and of Strasburg 1464, confirmed by the Emperor Maximilian I. on the 1st May, 1498, are but a more ornate version of those of England.  They were to be kept secret by the Master upon his Oath, and were his authority, as he had Charge of the (Contribution) book, and they were to be read yearly to the Fellows in the Lodge, and the "Brotherhood book" of 1563 mentions 22 towns where copies were kept.  This book contains the following: -- LIV. . . . . 

"Every Apprentice when he has served his time, and is declared free, shall promise the Craft, on his troth and honor, in lieu of oath, under pain of losing his right to practise Masonry, that he will disclose or communicate the Masons' greeting and grip to no one, except "to him to whom he may justly communicate it, and also that he will write nothing whatever."  LVI. . . . "And every Master having aforesaid Apprentices, shall earnestly enjoin and invite each one when he has thus completed the above written five years to become a Brother by the Oath which such one has taken to the Craft, and is offered to each."

   Vicentius in the "Mirrour of the World." printed by Caxton in 1480, contains short descriptions of the Seven Liberal Arts and Sciences, similar to the description in the Masonic Charges, but adding to each an explanatory woodcut.  A book was published by Veldener in Holland in 1486 which is said to contain symbolism of Craft and Egyptian Initiation.

   The book of Ludwig Abafi says of Bohemia and Hungary that they had other Mystic Brotherhoods "Die Bruder von Reif und Hammer" -- Brothers of the Circle and Hammer.  "Die Hackbruderschaft" -- Brotherhood of the Hatchett.  "Die Freund vom Kreuz" -- Friends of the Cross, which spread to Netherlands and were still holding meetings in 1785 in Wallachia, Transylvania, and other places.  {353}

   The Torgau Ordinances of 1462 indicate clearly the German qualification for granting a Mark, enacting, in Article 94, that no Fellow shall qualify if he "has not served his time or has bought his Mark, and not honestly earned it."  By Article 25, at his Freedom he demanded a Mark from his Workmaster, and had to make a payment for the service of God.  Article 12 enacts that if any one communed with a harlot he should retire from the Lodge, "so far as one may cast a gavel."

   Of the reign of Richard III., 1483-5, nothing noteworthy is recorded.

   In the reign of Henry VII., 1485-1509, various royal works were in progress, and about six pious houses were built.  Reginald Bray, raised the middle chapel of Windsor, and rebuilt the palace of Richmond.  The Savoy was converted into a hospital, and in 1500 the Knights of St. John elected the King as Protector.

   In 1495 the law forbade the giving of liveries, signs, tokens, etc., being an official enforcement of the Complaint made to the Star Chamber in 1475.  Various minor works were in progress which we need not particularise here; we may mention that John Hylmer and William Virtue contracted, in 1507 for the groined roofing of St. George's Chapel at Windsor; and in 1509 Robert Jenyns, Robert Virtue, and John Lobins, are styled "Ye King's III Mr. Masons."

   The palace of Sheen was rebuilt after the fire of 1500 in the Burgundian style.  Additions were made to Windsor, also to Hundsden, Bridewell, and Newhall or Beaulieu in Essex.

   Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, began the palace of Thornbury, in Gloucestershire, but went to the scaffold before completion.  The King in 1544 gave a Patent to John of Padua as "designer of his Majesty's buildings," and a noted engineer, and Gothic architect, -- Sir Richard Lea, was employed as a Master Mason, and had a grant of the Manor of Topwell in Hertfordshire.  The Church of St. Mary at Beverley -- already mentioned {354} -- was rebuilt, in the reign of Henry VIII.  It has upon the 6th Pillar: "This pillar made the Minstrels."  The city usually had five officials of this character; the Chief Minstrel had a long loose coat trimmed with fur, and the costume of the others was a yellow jacket, long brown hose, blue belts, and a heavy gold chain round the neck.

   A new style in domestic architecture termed the Tudor had arisen and is said to be Burgundian.  The Rev. Wm. Benham says that Richard IlI. left an illegitimate son, 16 years of age at his father's death, who got his living as a Mason, and was buried in Eastwell, Kent, thus recorded: -- "Richard Plantagenet was buried the 22nd day of December ut Supra" (1650), so that he must have been 81 years of age.  Drake (Eboracum p. 117) states that he was knighted by his father at York.

   The reign of Henry VIII., 1509-47, was more remarkable for other things than Masonry, Charles Dickens disposes of the King as a blot of blood and grease on the page of English history.  Cardinal Wolsey and Thomas Cromwell built several great works, -- Hampton Court, Whitehall, Trinity College in Oxford, the College of Ipswich, St James' Palace, Christ's Hospital in London, Esher in Surrey, and Greenwich Castle.  Lord Audley built Magdalen College, and Audley-end.  In 1512 the "Master of Works" at Christ's Church College in Oxford was Nicholas Townley, a priest.  In 1520 York Minster was completed, and at the erection of St. Michael le Belfry, 1526, the Master Mason was John Freeman with 13 Masons, 2 Apprentices, 1 Intailer, and 17 labourers.  In 1530 the London "Craft and Fellowship of Masons," adopted the title of "Company of Freemasons."  There was in building at this date, and at the period of the Reformation: -- St. James' Church, Bury; Lavenham, Suffolk, Bidston Church tower, the Marks of which were collected in 1894<<Ars Quat. Cor. 1894.>>, St. Stephen's, Norwich; Whiston, Northamptonshire, 1534; Bath Abbey Church, 1539; Trinity College Chapel, Cambridge, 1539.  Of this {355} century there is in Winchester Cathedral, a carved stone of the Freemasons' Arms, and containing also the square, level, and compasses.<<Ibid, i.>>

   Brother H. R. Shaw points out in the Banner, some interesting symbolism in the pavement of Printing-house Square, London, which would be of value, had it been shewn to be ancient.  The manager of the Times told him the site was that of old Blackfriars' Monastery, and, after the Reformation, of the King's printing-house.  The square is slightly oblong and divided with granite cubes, by diagonally crossed lines, so as to form four triangles, each of which has a circle of cubes and in the centre an emblem: in the east is a "cross," or it may be a pair of diagonals; in the west is a five-pointed star.<<Freemason. 7 Sep., 1594.>>  An interesting find was made in digging a drain, near Arreton, in the Isle of Wight, in 1856, -- a basin of a species of bell-metal, which has on the outside of the base the double triangles, a tau cross within three circles, and at each of the six outer angles a star, and a seventh in the Centre, near the Cross.<<Freem. Mag., 1856, p. 845.>>

   The German Rivius, in his Steinmetzen Grund, 1548, terms the circle and triangle "the two most distinguished principles of stone Masons," and he also adds that "the dimensions of the equilateral triangle are the primitive and most distinguishing marks of ancient cathedrals," of the period treated in this Chapter.  As practical symbols they typified arithmetic and geometry, and were treated as the standpoints of all created matter.  It is somewhat remarkable that an ancient emblem of the theological trinity of Egypt, the triangle with an eye in it, passed into the Christian Church, and is yet used as an emblem in the Oriental churches.  It was carved in 1173 on the Sarcophagus of Bishop Eusebius who was interred at Mount Athos, we have also seen it upon an old Armenian sword.

   The regulations of the Masons and other Crafts for {356} the City of Norwich are given in the 1903 volume of Ars Quatuor Coronatorum.  The Corporation possessed a "Book of Customs" from the 13th or 14th century.  The Bailiff and some 12 to 24 members of each Craft had the examination, with power to levy fines, of the Craft guilds.  All apprentices were to be indentured for seven years, and some of the 15th century are preserved.  The Smith's Craft was at this period united with the Masons, and some regulations were made in 1469 because of faults "used by the Masons to the dishonour of their Craft," and it is stated in 1491 that no Masters or Wardens had been sworn to make search for defective work.  An Apprentice roll from 1512 is preserved and there are lists of Wardens until the middle of the 18th century.  In the Mystery plays they had to perform the part of Abel and Cain.  Each member paid an annual penny to the priest of the Chapel of St. John who "sang for the prosperity of the brethren who are alive, and the souls of those departed."  Some changes took place at the dissolution of Guilds in 1548 but the "feasts" and "fellowships," and the priest's salary, were continued.  In 1572 rules for the Masons are drawn in the "Assembly Book," and the Limeburners are included, with the fines each had to pay for various faults.  The Masons were to assemble every year with their two Wardens and headmen, and were to elect 12, 11, 10, 9, or 8 of the members, and these had to elect new Wardens, headman, a beadall, annually, and fines are imposed for not attending meetings, when summoned by the latter.  If necessary the fines were recoverable by distress, half of which went to the town and half to the Society.  These regulations do not differ very materially either from the London Livery Companies, or the Scottish Incorporated Masters, nor from the trade Incorporations granted by the Bishop of Durham.  There is no doubt such bodies had usually a Speculative Lodge held of them, as at London and as at Newcastle in 1581.  In other cases such assemblies granted an annual commission, say of five, to Initiate.  {357}

   Scotland.  We will now hark back a little to examine the system which prevailed in Scotland; it embraces the features of the English Livery Companies and the French Fraternities of Masters, with a much stricter control over its members than the English Companies found it convenient to enforce; and probably, at a later period, and even to this day through the Grand Lodge, may have had an influence upon the English Society of Free Masons, though the term Mason is always used in Scotland.  There is no doubt that at an early period Scotland had its Masonic Assemblies,but early in the 15th century, a cause was at work which modified the Assemblies, by withdrawing the Masters into bodies, similarly to the English Companies.  A Statute was passed in the reign of James I., 1424, empowering handicraftsmen to elect a "Wise Man of the Craft" as "Dekyn or Kirk Master;" and it was found necessary to bring Craftsmen from France, Flanders, Spain, Holland, and England; the reason assigned being that all Scottish Men of Craft had been slain in the wars.  The powers granted were obnoxious and abolished 2 years later.  There followed upon this the constitution of Masters' Incorporations granted by "Seal of Cause," upon a petition to the Lord provost and town Council.  The Masons, Wrights, and Weavers received their Charter in 1475, which would confirm their older self-made regulations; the Hammermen in 1475; Butchers, 1488; Cordwainers, 1489.  The members of these Incorporations had to contribute "a weekly penny," to support the altar and priest, equally a custom of the French Masters' Fraternities.  Trial-pieces, "essays," or examinations, equally with France, were exacted upon application for admission to the Masters' Incorporations.  On opening and closing the meeting prayer was offered up by the Deacon, as the Master was termed.  An oath was required which embraced secrecy, obedience to their own and the Burgh laws, and to the Deacon of their own trade, and also to a higher Officer that began to be constituted in various towns, namely the {358} Deacon Convener, loyalty to the King and the whole Craft.

   The "Convenery" was established somewhat later than the "Incorporations," the object being to unite the whole of the trades or Arts of a town under one head and Assembly, composed of the Deacons or Masters of the various "Incorporations;" these elected their own president or "Convener" thus providing a supreme central authority.

   We thus see the gradual transformation of the primitive Assemblies into Lodges of Apprentices and Journeymen; Incorporations of Masters; Conveneries of all trades; which were recruited by an accepted trial-piece; the private Lodges being held in subjection to the Masters-Fraternity initiated by "Seal of Cause."  These various bodies never lost their legal status, and the Incorporations of the Masons and Wrights exist to this day; but many of the private Lodges, which were subject, or subordinate to them, went under the Grand Lodge of Scotland when it was established in 1736.<<Vide Ars Quat. Cor. ii, p. 160; also v, p. 126.>>  It forms no part of our labours to give a history of Scottish Masonry, but some information is necessary in regard to countries other than England.

   The Burgh records of Aberdeen afford evidence from 1483-1555, that the Craft dealings with their employers, without reference to esoteric Lodge work, resembled that of the 14th century Freemasons employed in York Minster.  In 1483 the Masons at work are "obligated be the faith of thare bodies," and there is mention of the Luge.  In 1484 it was ordered that the Craftsmen "bear their tokens" on their breasts on Candlemas day; in 1496 that every Craft have their standard.  In 1498 Matheu Wricht agreed "be his hand ophaldin to make good service in the luge," also "that Nicol Masone and Dauid Wricht oblist thame be the fathis of thar bodies, the gret aith sworne to remain at Sand Nicholes werk in the luge. . . . . to be leil and truve in all points."  In 1532 a "Seal {359} of Cause," established a Masters' Incorporation; and in 1555 it was ordered that "thair be na craftsman made fre man to use his craft except he haf seruit a Prentis under one maister three yeiris, and he found sufficient and qualified in his Craft to be one Maister."  How are we to read this?  After serving an apprenticeship he had to be made free of his Lodge, and could only become a Master and a Member of the "Incorporation," after an "essay."  It is an instance of the loose language so often found in Masonic documents, by which we are necessarily led away in reasoning upon Masonic rites and laws.  A law of the Incorporation was in force in 1587 that Journeymen and Prentices, though not members of the Society, were to be entered in the books of their Craft, whilst apprentices were to be entered in the books of the Town, to enable them to obtain the rights of Freedom of Craft, as free Burgesses.  It seems like a side blow at the Lodges, and the same custom was in force in the chief towns of England.  In 1599 a Convenery of all the trades was established, and their rules of 1641 enact that all Indentures between Masters and Prentices shall be presented to the Town Clerk, within 21 days, for registry.  Of course all this legislation, and the foundation of special bodies for the Masters, must have affected the status and position of the Scottish Lodges materially, and the same in England where Lodges were established in towns in which there was a Chartered Livery Company.

   Powers which had been granted 1424 were restored 1555.  A Dicreet Arbitral was issued by James VI. in 1580 by which the Council consists of:

"The auld Provost, four auld Baillies, the Dean of Guild, and Treasurer of the next year preceding, and three other Merchants to be chosen to them, and also to consist of eight Craftsmen thereof, six Deacons, and the other Craftsmen, mak, and in the hail, the said Council eighteen persons."

Regulations follow as to the form of Apprenticeship.  In 1590 the same King, 25 Septr., appointed Patrick Copeland of Udaucht "Warden and Justice" of {360} the Masons, but in 1601-2 the Freemen Maisons request the St. Clairs to procure from the King the office of Patron and Judge, and the document having perished by fire, the Lodges confirm it in 1628.  In 1598 and 1599 William Schaw, "Maister of Wark" to King James, granted Constitutions to Edinburgh and Kilwinning districts, and perhaps also to Stirling and others at these dates; these have already been mentioned.

   There is a tomb in the Chapel Royal of Holyrood of the year 1543 upon which is a stepped-cross; on one side of it is a compass and some other emblem beneath, on the other side a square and below that a square-headed gavel.  In Glasgow Cathedral, on the inside of a stone window-sill of the south side of the choir and carved over the date 1556, is an eye, crescent moon, three stars, hand pointing a finger, ladder of five steps, square and compasses; these were pointed out by Brother W. P. Buchan who casts doubt, we think unnecessarily, upon the date given.<<Freem. Mag., 1869 (engraved).>>  It may be noticed here, that the Lodge of Mary's Chapel, Edinburgh, has minutes from 1599, and was old then, and that these minutes, those of the Incorporation, and those of the Convenery are independent of each other, and confirm what we have stated, and which we shall refer to more fully.  In the year 1543 the Castle of Wark in Northumberland, was repaired by an Italian of the name of Archan.  Soon after 1549 the Wark Lodge sent a contingent Guild to Haddington, which afterwards went on to Aitchinson's Haven, and St. John's Kilwinning Lodge, at Haddington, claims to be an offshoot of the Wark Lodge.<<Some old Scot. Lodges, 1899, Liverpool, Bro. Jobn Armstrong.>>

   The Belgian Masons, Tilers, etc., had a Guild-house of the "Four Crowned," erected at Antwerp in 1531, the walls of which were decorated with the 4 Statues, and with seven large pictures representing their martyrdom; the Guild is mentioned in 1423, and their Incorporation by the Magistrates dates from 1458.  At Brussels at this {361} date the ranks alluded to are Apprentices, Fellows, and Masters, but the Antwerp laws of 1458, allows an Apprentice, at 18 years of age, who has served 4 years, to make his trial-piece and become a Master.<<Ars Quat. Cor. 1900. pt. 2. Bro. Count d' Alviella. P.G.M.>>

   A recent history of Spanish Freemasonry, by Brother Nicholas Diaz y Perez states that in 1514 Mosen Rubi established a Masonic temple in Avila, and that the celebrated Admiral Coligny initiated a large number of Spanish personages in Catalonia, and later in the army.  We give this last with reserve.  In Danver's Portugese in India is an engraved portrait, of which there is a copy in the British Museum, representing Prince Henrique, surnamed the Navigator, in the upper left hand corner of which is the level, square, plumb-line and weight, and open compasses: it was printed about 1620 by Simon van de Paes.

   In Sebastian Munster's Cosmography, printed in 1554, is the square and compasses in which is the letter G as a marginal ornament.  "The Enemie of Idleness," by W. F. (Wm. Fleetwood), London, 1578, mentions a work on architecture and the science of building by Baptista Leo, a Florentine, and his "Secrete and hid discipline."

   The compilation of this Chapter is much indebted to the collections of the late E. W. Shaw, and Mr. Wyatt Papworth, also to the Histories of Anderson and Gould, and the various papers of Ars Quatuor Coronatorum.  The particulars, though interesting in themselves, relate rather to the Craft in its operative and exoteric aspect; but they also shew the nature of the speculative and esoteric Symbolism, the plan of the Societies' organisation, the nature of an esoteric ritual, the fact that Assemblies continued to be held; and that all things of the period of this Chapter point to a perfect conformity with what is known of Guild Masonry, and its imitation in the Free Masonry of to-day.  The Statute law and the chartering of Livery Companies or Masters' Fraternities, seems to have gradually shorn the Assemblies of much of {362} their prestige and privileges, and contributed to make the more extensive Assemblies stationary town Lodges, with a modified Constitution.  The abandonment of Gothic Art about 1550, and the death of the operative Masters of that Art about 1580 accomplished the rest and left Free Masonry what it was in 1700.  The Gothic arcanum had died out; its Lodges had become mere social clubs; but a counter movement was in progress under Inigo Jones to restore the arcanum of the Classical architecture of Italy.

   We cannot conclude better than with the following quotation from Robert Fabian's Concordance of Histories, which appeared in 1516 (Pynson).  The writer was Sheriff and Alderman of London, 1493-1502; and died about 1511, but his book was not printed until 1516 by Pynson.  The following is from his prologue of 28 Stanzas of which this is the 5th and 6th.  He may have been a member of the Mason's Company: -- 

        "And I, like the Prentice that heweth the rought stone,

         And bringeth it to square, with hard strokes and many,

         That the Master after, may it oeur gone

         And prynte therein his figures and his story,

         And so to work after his propornary

         That it may appear, to all that shall it see,

         A thynge right parfyte, and well in eche degree;

         So have I now sette oute this rude worke,

         As rough as the stone that comen to the square,

         That the learnede and the studyed Clerke,

        May it oeur polysshe, and clene do it pare,

         Flowyrsshe it with eloquence, whereof it is bare,

         And frame it to ordre that yt is out of joynt,

         That it with old authors may gree in every poynt." 

   We will only add that we think that this Chapter clearly proves that there was engrafted upon the simple Anglo-Saxon Constitution of Masonry a series of Semitic legends, and their compliment in the Free-Masonic ceremonies, which entered this country from the East in {363} Anglo-Norman times, with an improved style of building, of Saracenic origin.

   Whence England derived its Semitic ceremonies of Free Masonry is not very definite but circumstances point very clearly to a direct importation from Palestine, extended by French Masons who came over from time to time and it is in that country that we find the earliest allusion to the Solomonic legends, and it is evidenced in this Chapter that these legends were introduced into the older Saxon Charges from that country. 






THE pretensions that Dr. James Anderson has made for the Grand Masterships of numerous Bishops, Priests, and Monks, should not be passed over with a shrug of contempt.  Ages after architecture had been relieved from Monkish trammels the great architects were mainly Clerics, who have left their marks upon the soil of England.  We have mentioned many such in our last Chapter, and these stand out prominently: -- Peter Bishop of Winchester, 1220; Edington and Wykeham, both Bishops 1364; the work of the latter, some author observes, is stamped with a genius, almost a style in itself; Prior Bolton, in conjunction with Sir Reginald Bray, 1503; and Cardinal Wolsey was a most accomplished architect, as is proved by all the buildings with which he was connected.  It has been aptly said that, "the Classic styles are the prose of architecture, Gothic its poetry; the Classic its speech, and Gothic its song."  The period of this Chapter is the "Renaissance Style," which arose in Rome, and spread to this country.  The change of style was in part a matter of taste, and in part a matter of vanity as with the affectation of classical learning it became the fashion to treat the brilliant Gothic as a barbarous style.  The Gothic fraternity laboured in bands or guilds, travelling about, and disappearing when their work was accomplished, and each man left his individual stamp upon the work: as each part of a Gothic edifice supports both itself and some other part, so the Free Masonic bands supported each other.  Under the Renaissance {365} each building bears the stamp of one man, and the architect came into being with the loss of the old Sodalities.  With the Reformation we have the decay of Catholic symbolism, and the loss of it to the modern Freemason.  With the Renaissance we find this symbolism, as a part of Catholic doctrine in the old times, carried into the erection of private buildings, and we have castles and mansions built on a cruciform basis; or in the form of variously shaped triangles; and in the shape of letters of the Roman Alphabet.  It is said that John Thorpe, who erected many mansions in the Elizabethan style was a pupil of John of Padua.  But it is to the Italian masters of the 17th century that we owe the preservation of the Rites of Guild Masonry.

   The period which we have now reached in Freemasonry exhibits an organisation which somewhat diverges from its ancient Constitution; for reasons assigned in our last Chapter.  The ARTICLES and POINTS of a Master and Fellow have become combined in one code, in a new series of Constitutional Charges dating from about the Reformation.  York was now universally recognised as the primary seat of Masonic Assembly and London may have acquiesced in this from the fact that the Oversight of Masonry rested with the Company of Freemasons known to date from the time of Edward III., though it had a Speculative Lodge attached to which amateurs, and others for the Livery, were admitted.

   Authorities are not quite agreed as to the original date to which we may carry back the numerous copies of Masonic MSS. that we possess, but there seems not the slightest reason to doubt that all our modern Guild Charges are derived from an abridgement of the "Cooke and Watson MSS.," which had become too lengthy for general use in the Lodges, and with its reduction in length was associated other changes brought about by the circumstances of the times.  Of this new Constitution some 70 copied have come down to us dating between 1560-1700, and most of them no doubt have been the {366} Official Copies of Masters of Lodges.  They are all verbal departures from some one abridged copy, made perhaps about the years 1535-45, but in what locality there is nothing to shew.

   They usually begin with an invocation to the Trinity, and are addressed to the "Good Brethren and Fellows."  The Euclid Charge which is the sole feature of the primitive Saxon Charge, is condensed as in the "Watson MS.," to ordain a duly Passed Master or a Master of Work, and which, in the esoteric work of a Lodge, is somewhat equivalent to the Installation of a Master; but which would be inapplicable to a large Provincial Assembly, met to receive Fellows, and pass Masters, as arranged for in the Athelstan Constitution.  The new MS. also agrees with the present ritualistic system, as it brings into prominence the Charges of David and Solomon, and the assistance of Hiram of Tyre.  The Laws begin with a "General Charge to all Masons," collected out of the oldest Articles and Points, and then follows a "Charge to Masters and Fellows."  Where an "Article" of the Master has been copied out of the oldest MSS. the word Fellow usually follows it, as if with the intention of claiming that a Fellow in a Lodge was equally a Master.  Usually the distance assigned, within which attendance at the Assembly is compulsory is 50 miles, which gives 100 miles diameter in a circle round a common centre.  All these later Charges are the basis of the esoteric receptions then, and still in use.

   These later Constitutions are in main agreement with the "Watson MS." and the Preface to the "Cooke MS.," which state that the great Patron of Masonry in France was Charles II., the Karl II. of the German Catechism, and the grandson of Charlemagne, respecting which we volunteered some remarks in our last chapter.  But in the later MSS., however the correction has been reached, a return has been made to Charles Martel, who, though only Regent of France, was the accepted Patron of stonecutters in France before the 13th century.  Possibly {367} secundus was a German error either for Magnus or for Martel and obtained credence in England.  The instructor of Martel has a name that has puzzled most Masonic' scribes, as he appears in endless forms, amongst others, Naymus Grecus, Manus Graecus, Mamongetus, Namus Grenaeus, etc., and he had wrought at the building of Solomon's temple with Ammon, Aymon, Anon, etc.  It is possible that the origin of the name was from Nimes in Southern France, then from Namus to Marcus Graecus, a philosopher of the 8th or 9th century it is supposed, though not heard of till the 13th century, and when in the 16th century the name was disfigured beyond recognition, and Caxton had printed the "Four Sons of Aymon," which contains a Masonic legend, that Aymon was adopted.  The name Aymon was used in baptism as Cornelius Agrippa gave it to his firstborn son.  Simon Greynaeus also obtained countenance from his eminence as a Geometrician.  Brother Schnitger, in his Commentary upon the MS. Charges printed by the Newcastle College of Rosicrucians in 1893, suggests that the difficulty in regard to Namus labouring at Solomon's temple and then instructing Charles Martel may be got over by reading it that he was one "who had been at the buildings of Solomon's temple," that is had visited the site.  All these later Constitutions preserve the relations as to Hermes, Pythagoras, and Euclid, and we cannot admit that the Masons who recognised these personages as, in some sort, their predecessors, were ignorant of the sublime spiritual geometry which underlaid their ancient philosophy.

   It is probable that in time we may adopt a theory developed in a paper before the Quatuor Coronati Lodge 2076 by Bro. Dring that Carolus Secundus of the Cooke MS. is an error for Carolus Magnus or Charlemagne, and that Manus, Namus, or the man with the Greek name, was Alcuin Flaccus of York, also called Albines, who it was suggested might be the St. Alban therein mentioned, and who terms Charlemagne "the wise Solomon" and speaks of the erection of the Church at Aixe-la-Chapelle as the {368} work of this wise Solomon.  The theory has the merit of rectifying the chronology, which is erroneous as it stands.

   The importance of York as a Masonic centre would decline from various causes.  In 1538 the Monasteries were dissolved, and building requirements ceased for a time; this was emphasised by the suppression of the Minor Fraternities, Brotherhoods, and Guilds.  One of the Guilds thus suppressed at York had endured exactly for a century, and was named the Guild of Corpus Christi and consisted of a Master and six priests, who annually on Trinity Sunday regulated the Mystery-play of Corpus Christi when every trade in the city was bound to furnish a Pageant; this sacred drama existed at York in 1220 A.D.  Another reason is that with the abolition of Guilds, the existing Livery Companies lost even the lax hold which they had possessed over the trades; and the Municipality of York, and other cities, had adopted a form of City Freedom, as early as the 14th century, which was granted by the Lord Mayor and Common Council to the Apprentice who had served his term of seven years.  It was an Exoteric mode resembling the Esoteric reception of a Mason.  An Apprentice was bound by an Indenture, in which he took upon himself rules of conduct, which are practically the same as those to which, as a Mason, he would have been sworn in Lodge; this Indenture was taken to the City Clerk, who endorsed it "Entered."  At the end of his seven years' Apprenticeship he repaired to the Guild Hall, and took an oath addressed "to the Lord Mayor and Good Men," that he would keep the privities and maintain with his body the Freedom of the City.  The Clerk then "Charged" him to protect the tolls and dues of the City, and conferred the "Freedom."  We have not the precise date when this form began at York, though there are lists of Freemen from early in the 14th century; the same usage was in force at Boston in Lincolnshire, and lists of the Apprentices "Freed" are preserved there from 1559; it existed at Leicester, {369} Norwich, Appleby, etc., etc.<<Ars Quat. Cor. iv.>>  A like custom was adopted in Scotland, and ordered at Aberdeen in 1641.<<Ibid. ii, p. 161.>>  Smith, in his learned Essay on the Romano-German laws, which we have previously quoted, considers that the Roman Collegia were the foundations of our Municipal corporations, and says: "In England the Guilds appear to have been the immediate foundation of the old Municipal corporations.  Many of the exclusive privileges, which are scarcely yet forgotten, and many of the customs derived from the Guilds, with regard to the exercise of a Craft, have passed into common law, though now disconnected with the immunities derived from the Municipalities."

   At this period, and for long afterwards, the Crown had ample cause for uneasiness in regard to the Assembly of any large body of Men in the North of England; and no other portion of the kingdom so strongly resented the suppression of Monasteries and Guilds as did Northumberland, Durham, and Yorkshire.  Brother Francis Drake, the historian, says that their dissolution inflicted a terrible blow upon the grandeur of York, the sick, the infirm, and all sorts of religious persons were turned out of house and home to starve or beg.  A formidable rebellion was organised in 1537 under the name of the "Pilgrimage of Grace," in which the leading men of the country, with the Abbots of Fountains, Jervaux, and Rivalx, took part.  These Pilgrims took an oath of their good intentions to church and King, and at their head marched a body of priests, habited in their vestments, and with crosses in their hands.  The leaders assumed characteristics such as Charity, Faith, Poverty, Pity.  Their banner was embroidered with a crucifix, a chalice, and emblems of the 5 wounds of Christ, and the last mentioned emblems were placed on the sleeves of their robes, with the name of Jesus in the centre.  The rising was suppressed in Henry's usual brutal manner, but the dissatisfaction continued to slumber on, and must have caused the government to look {370} with suspicion upon any considerable gathering of men, however innocent their intentions might be.  This dissatisfied element was also very strong in South Durham as well as North Yorkshire, and extended into Northumberland.  A second and final rising occurred in 1569, under Elizabeth, but was as disastrous as the first, but though these "Recusants" were often persecuted, and large numbers hanged, they made no further attempt to regain their lost position; it is however, known that they adopted secret modes of recognition, such as passwords, by which to recognise friends; one of these was Gibb, and Gibbs in a continental system was one of the 3 Ruffians.

   We find nothing worthy of mention in the reigns of Edward VI., 1547-53, or that of Mary, 1553-8, but the long reign of Elizabeth, 1558-1603, has much to record.  The "old tradition," recorded by Anderson, that Queen Elizabeth sent an armed force in 1561 to break up the annual Assembly at York is probably of an authentic character.  He states that it was held under Sir Thomas Sackville, as President, and that by his friendly management the Assembly was allowed to continue its labours.  There is an ancient song in reference to this which may be almost contemporary.<<Rosicrucian, 1878, p. 464>>

   The Law complained querulously, in 1548, that "artificers made confederacies not to meddle with another's work"; which is exactly what the Masonic Charges had insisted upon from ancient times.  In 1562 all previous laws are superseded by Statute empowering Justices to rate the wages of journeymen and forbidding the exercise of trades without an Apprenticeship to such trades, which requirement is what Masons always contended for as a necessity of their trade.  Anderson quotes the view of Judge Coke, as to the Statute of 1425, which he said was now abrogated, and adds that it confirms the opinions of old Masons that "he was a faithful brother."

   It is asserted in Masonic histories that, up to 1561, York was paramount in Masonic Government, but that North {371} and South were now divided, and the existing remnants of the old Guild system teaches that the Trent was the division line; it is, therefore, probably a true statement.

   In the feeble rule of the Masons' Company and the existence of independent Guilds there is traditional basis for the foregoing statement, which seems to be represented by a Southern version of the old Charges.  These MSS., for there are several copies, do not differ materially from the others except but in one or two points; they omit the Euclid Charge, but that seems to be an accident of the scribe.  Edwin is said to have been the son of a worthy King of England in the time of Knight Athelstan, thus referring to their father, Edward the elder, and this Edwin was made a Mason "at Windsor."  Hebrew MSS. are now said to have been produced at the Assembly which Athelstan held at York, and there is actually a Jewish profession of Faith before Solomon in use by the French "Sons of Solomon."  The oath in these MSS. is confirmed by the Invocation of Almighty God, or as a copy of 1686, which is believed to have been prepared for the London Guild whence sprang the Lodge of Antiquity, has it "Almighty God of Jacob," in place of "by my Halidame."  The most important script of this version is the "Landsdowne MS.," reproduced in facsimile by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, and supposed to have been in the possession of Lord Burghley, who died in 1598.  There is some doubt of its alleged antiquity, and the changes made savour of Commonwealth times, 1649-60 when the Jews were readmitted.  A critical examination of the several copies has been made by Brother Dr. W. W. Begemann, with the conclusion that there was an older version than any of the three versions examined, such might have been Burgley's.

   If Queen Elizabeth did contemplate the suppression of the Assembly at York, it would go before the law officers of the Crown, and the Secretary of State at that time was Sir William Cecil, a Lincolnshire man, who was created Baron Burghley, and is alleged to have possessed this {372} Constitution.  He began the building of Burghley House about 1556, and it was continued down to 1578, and all details of the work were submitted to him.  One of the Free-Masons employed was Roger Ward, Peter Kempe was Clerk of Works, and Richard Shute Surveyor.  We read 10th January, 1562, Of "one freemason yt was hyred by ye yere working upon ye ij wyndows of ye courte" in the letter of Kempe to Sir William Cecil.<<Trans. Ro. Inst. of Brit. Arch. 1890.>>  Burghley and Sir Nicholas Bacon, who was Lord Keeper, married two sisters, and Bacon died in 1578, leaving a son Francis born in 1561, and created Baron Verulam and Viscount St. Albans in 1618-19.  Now the following curious coincidences occur in regard to these three closely related persons of rank and ability: --

   1. This peculiar Charge is supposed to have belonged to Lord Burghley.

   2. The house of Sir Nicholas Bacon, called Gorhambury House in St. Albans, built about 1565, contains portraits of persons distinguished in the seven Liberal Arts and Sciences, and beneath each of these two Latin lines, expressive of benefits to be derived from the study of each: --

   Grammar -- Donatus, Lilly, Servius, Priscan.

   Arithmetic -- Stifelius, Budaeus, Pythagoras.

   Logic -- Aristotle, Rodolp; Porphyry, Seton.

   Music -- Aryan, Terpander, Orpheus.

   Rhetoric -- Cicero, Isocrates, Demosthenes, Quintilian.

   Geometry -- Archimedes, Euclid, Strabo, Apollonius.

   Astronomy -- Regiomontanus, Haly, Copernicus, Ptolomey.<<Vide "Royal Mas. Cyclo." -- Mackenzie.>>.

   3. Francis, son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, wrote in 1624 the unfinished fragment called "New Atlantis, or the House of Solomon, or of the Six Days' Work."  Many foreign writers of note have erroneously thought that it led to the establishment of Freemasonry; but it is likely that the writer had the Masonic Society in his mind and desired to {373} shew how its value might be enhanced.  The 1620 edition of his Instauratio Magna (John Bell, London) has as engraved title a ship between two columns.

   In 1570 Sir Thomas Gresham built the Royal Exchange in London, and the movement to revive "the Augustan style" and depreciate the Gothic was general.  The facsimile of a map of Portsmouth, of this period, shews the position of a "Masons' Lodge," probably a body was at work on some building at the port.<<A.Q.C. vi.>>  In 1584 Sir Walter Mildmay founded Emanuel College at Cambridge.  A colony of Spaniards settled at Galway in 1584, and many of their buildings yet exist, and are said to resemble the older Moorish architecture.

   The north is in evidence in the year 1581: "The Ordinary of the Company of Masons of Newcastle upon Tyne, dated the first of September of this year, constituted a body Incorporated of themselves, with perpetual succession, enjoyned them to meet yearly to choose Wardens, &c.  'That whenever the general plays of the town called Corpus Christi should be played they should play the burial of our Lady St. Mary the Virgin,' every absent brother to pay 2s. 6d., and that at all the marriages and burials of the brethren and their wives, the Company should attend to the church such persons to be married or buried."  The Arms attached to this paragraph are -- On a chevron between three towers a pair of compasses extended.  Crest -- A tower.  Motto -- In the Lord is all our trust.<<Richardson's Border Table Talk, i, p. 219.>>  It would seem that the intention of the Newcastle Council was to constitute a body held of themselves; at the same time the Lodge may have long existed, and have sought a Municipal Charter to legalise their meetings.  In reference to the Corpus Christi Mystery-plays, they are mentioned at Newcastle in 1426, but would seem from the "Ordinary" to have been on the decline in 1548, the house-carpenters, whose Ordinary dates 1579, played the Burial of Christ, and the Masons that of St. Mary.  The Lodge may have been privy to the Initiation {374} of Sir Robert Moray in 1641 by a Scotch deputation, and had late meetings of their own.  The "Watson MS." was discovered in the town, and is signed by Edward Thompson in 1687, who was doubtless a member of that Lodge, the Arms attached to it are identical with those assigned to the body of 1581.  It is now known to have come through the hands of Dalziel, a member of Lodge 24.  We shall allude to these Masons again in later notices.

   The position of this "Ordinary" of Newcastle needs a better explanation than that here given.  Durham and Northumberland were a County Palatine under the Bishop, but Newcastle as an important military station was a county in itself.  Previously to 1215 Newcastle was governed by Bailiffs, but Henry III. in this year ordered a Mayor and 4 Bailiffs to appoint a trusty Moneyer and Assayist.  But it was in 1400 that Henry IV. chartered the town as a separate county with a Sheriff, a Mayor, and 6 Aldermen.  The Newcastle "Ordinaries" begin in 1426 with the Coopers.  The Skinners' "Ordinary" of 1437 contains the names of the Mayor, Sheriff, and the 6 Aldermen.  In 1527 the Weavers met in Carliel tower, and in 1532 the Tanners had the Black Friary.  The "Ordinary" of the Goldsmiths in 1536 included Braziers, Plumbers, &c., and they had to play the Three Kings of Cologne (the 3 Magi who visited the infant Jesus), at the Corpus Christi.  It would seem therefore that an old Masters' Guild of Masons existed here which accepted its "Ordinary" from the Mayor, Sheriff, and Bailiffs in 1581.

   Whoever examines an old Cathedral cannot fail to see that two classes of Masons were employed on them, a class which did the level and square work, and a class which did the curved and arched work, yet their separate duties was one of their trade secrets.  Surprise has often been expressed that amongst these Mystery plays there are none recorded as specially Masonic.  Mackenzie states in his Cyclopaedia that an "Arch Confraternity" of builders existed in 1540 and enacted Mystery Plays in the Colosseum of Vespasian and expresses belief that it {375} still exists.  There is some evidence that in 1561 Masonry at York was in a declining state, as the Records say that their share of the Corpus Christi plays was given to the Minstrels.

   Incorporations also continued to be granted by the Bishops as Count Palatines.  The Cordwainers of Durham in 1436.  In 1559 Bishop Tunstall re-incorporated the Barkers and Tanners of Gateshead.  Up to 1565 the City of Durham had been governed by Bailiffs, but in that year Bishop Pilkington Incorporated the Aldermen.  In 1638 a charter was granted to the Free Maysons, Rough Maysons, etc., etc., of the Cittie of Durham.

   We gather from the Schaw Statutes of 1598, the Warden General of James VI., that Edinburgh was a district governed by "Six men of Ancient Memory," who had to "tak tryall of the offensis," and these "six of the maist parfyte and worthiest of memorie" had to "tak tryall of the haill Maisons within the boundis foresaid."  They appear to be the "Deacon Maisters," and Wardens of the old Lodges, and they were authorised to Pass Fellows of Craft, after serving a seven years' Apprenticeship, and another seven years as Journeymen unless the latter was reduced by the Assembly, and after making a trial-piece.  We see from this that to become a Passed Master a Freed Apprentice had to serve seven years as a Passed Fellow.  A similar Constitution was given to Kilwinning in 1599, and their Six Quarter Masters were to appoint a famous notary as Clerk.  King James' sanction was awaited this Constitution, and possibly there were other districts that may have had similar grants by the Lord Warden General.  Thus we learn from a Kilwinning Minute that the Six Quarter Masters of Cunning, Carrick, and Barrowthrow in 1659 continued to meet once a year at Ayr to "tak order with the transgressors of the Acts of Court."  There can be no question that these six in every case were duly Passed Masters and that they correspond with what we shall hear of as Harods in Durham.

   For want of contemporary MS. ceremonials we will {376} occasionally refer to Masonic symbolism in several countries; for identity of symbols and the mode of their application, press on towards the proofs that Initiatory ceremonies were identical in all times.  In Ireland a Mason's square was deposited in the "east" corner of the northern landpier of Baal's Bridge in Limerick.  It bears date 1517, and was dug out in 1830.  There is a heart at the angle on each side, and this inscription in one line at each side: -- 

        I will strive to live with love and care, 1517,

        Upon the level, by the square.<<Freem. Quart., engd., 1850, p. 330>> 

   In Coverdale's translation of Wermylierus' Spirituall and Most Precyousse Pearle, 1550, is the following:" -- The Free Mason hewyth the harde stones, hewyth of here one pece, there another, tyll the stones be fytte and apte for the place where he wyll lay them.  Even so God the heavenly Free Mason buildeth a Christian churche, and he frameth and polysheth us which are the costlye and precyous stone with the cosse and affliction that all abbomynacon and wickedness which do not agree unto this gloryus buyldynge mighte be removed and taken out of the waye."  (Cowderie's Treasurie of Similies, 1609.)

   In the old church in Hanover of which we made mention in our last chapter there is a sun-dial with the date 1555, and the letters H.B.A.S., which a chronicle of 1695 says alludes to Hans Buntingsen, "who loved his art, and was well acquainted with the compasses and square and the great secret thereof."

   In the parish register of Much Wenlock in Shropshire is an entry of value, as it shews the meaning then attached to the word "Speculative," as theory; it refers to dates between 1546-76: "Burd. out of tenmts. in Madfold Street, next St. Owen's well, Sir William Corvehill priest of the service of or. Lady in this ch., which 2 tents. belonged to the sd. service; he had them in his occupacon in pt. of his wages, wch. was viii. marks, and the said houses in an ov'plus.  He was well skilled in geometry, not by speculation {377} but by experience, could make organs, clocks, and chimes, in kerving, in Masonry, in silk weaving, or painting, and could make all instruments of music, etc., etc.  All this country had a great loss of Sir William, he was a good bell-founder and maker of frames."  The same Register records in 1599 that "Walter Hancox, free mason, was buried 16 September.  This man was a very skilfull man in the art of Masonry."

   A Melrose MS. of 1581 alludes to "Loses or Cowans," and contains a caution that "he ought not to let you know ye privilege of ye compass, square, levell, and ye plum-rule."  The Master Wincestre who gives the Charge as a Certificate to his freed Apprentice, was evidently an Englishman, as he dates it in the 12th year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth.<<Ars Quat. Cor. v, p. 129.>>  "Be it known to all men to whom these presents shall come, that Robert Wincester hath lawfully done his dutie to the science of Masonrie, as witness whereof, I, John Wincester, his Master Free Mason, have subscribed my name, and sett to my Mark, in the year of our Lord 1581, and in the raing of our Most Sovereign Lady Elizabeth the (22) year."  Probably Robert Wincester was an English Mason settling at Melrose, and the Constitution is further endorsed thus: "extracted by me A. M. [in margin 'Andrew Main'] upon the 1, 2, 3, and 4 dayes of December Anno MDCLXXIII."

   Brother W. H. Rylands has contributed much information, at various times, upon Masons' Marks, and amongst these we have those of Stoneyhurst, 1585; Bidston old Hall, 1590; Bromborough Manor-house,etc.  At Ayton Church, near Nantwich, is a monument of 21 April, 1596, to Peter and Elizabeth Ashton; it has two shields of arms, one containing a five-pointed star, and the other a square from which hangs a pair of compasses.<<Ibid, viii, p. 88.>>

   The reign of James I., 1603-25, is Masonically important.  When he came to this country, he had at his own request, been accepted a Mason, by his Master Mason John Mylne, who was Deacon, or Master, of the Scoon and Perth {378} Lodge.  This is related in positive terms in the 1658 records of that Lodge, and the King accepted membership in it.<<A copy in Scottish Freemason, Aug. 1894.>>  He claimed to be a patron of the learned who designated him the "Scottish Solomon."  A rising artist who had professionally made the tour of Italy under the patronage of Thomas Earl of Pembroke, named Inigo Jones, was employed by the King in 1607 to build a new banqueting hall at Whitehall, and Anderson asserts that at this time many wealthy and learned men were received into the Craft.  In 1649 he and Stone were engaged to repair St. Paul's.  Part of Wigan Church was rebuilt in 1620, the Rector having a Charter from Richard III. as Lord of the Manor.  It is the seat of irregular Lodges in recent times.

   In the reign of Charles I., 1625-49, whom Anderson claims as an Initiate, many erections were made under the superintendence of Inigo Jones, who died in 1652 aged 80 years.  Anderson (1738) cites a MS. by Nicholas Stone which was burnt in 1720, to shew that Jones remodelled the Lodges after the manner of the Schools, or Academies of designers in Italy, of which we gave a specimen in the Cuchiari of Florence (ch. vi.); he is said to have held Quarterly Communications of the Masters and Wardens of Lodges, and Nicholas Stone was a Warden of these Assemblies.  Possibly the system of the Guild which built St. Paul's was the system "remodelled" by Jones.

   The Stone family was actively employed at this time, and were no doubt members of the Masonic Society.  Nicholas was born in 1586 at Woodbury, near Exeter, and buried at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields in 1647, and the records of the Masons' Company prove that he was a member of the Speculative Lodge there before 1639; he had several sons; it is recorded upon the monument of his son Henry at Long-acre, that he "spent the greater part of thirty-seven years in Holland, France, and Italy," and died in 1653; therefore he may have been known to Jehtudi Leon mentioned later; he also seems to have been {379} a member of Masons' Company Lodge in 1649.  A somewhat interesting inscription appears on a tablet in the Chancel of Sidbury Church in Devonshire,<<The Critic, 15 June. 1861.>> to the memory of John Stone, Free-Mason, who died 1 January, 1617: -- 

        "On our great Corner-Stone, this Stone relied,

         For blessing to his building, loving most

         To build God's temples, in works he died,

         And lived the temple of the Holy Ghost,

         In whom hard life is proved, and honest fame,

         God can of Stones raise seed to Abraham." 

   Mackey quotes a sentence of 1607: "Yet all this forme of formless deity drewe by the square and compasse of our creed."

   In the year 1619 two books were printed in London, one having the title, "Keep within compasse"; the other, "Live within compasse."  An old black-letter book on Bees, printed at London by H. B., 1608, is dedicated "To the Worshipful Master M. gentleman," and although the patron's name and profession is not given it proves the use of a certain title at that date.  In Speed's Description of Britain, 1611, we have some characteristic language of a Masonic cast, worth reference: "Applying myself wholly to this most goodley building, has as a poore labourer, carried the carved stones and polished pillars, from the hands of the more skilfull architects, to be set in their fit places, which I offer upon the altar of love to my country."

   Dating from 1620, Bother Edward Conder, junr., has given us some valuable information in regard to the Speculative Lodge of the London Company of Masons, which met, from time to time, in their own Hall, accepted Master Masons, and had a framed list of such, now unfortunately lost.  The fees, 1622, are thus recorded: "As a gratuity to the Company, 1.Pounds 0s. 0d.; for being made a Master, 3s. 4d.; fee for entrance, 6d."  The Company preserved "the names of the Accepted Masons in a fair enclosed frame with a lock and key."  The Inventory (of {380} 1660 and 1675) mentions, "one book of the Constitutions that Mr. fflood gave."  In 1629-33 the celebrated Dr. Fludd has various symbolic allusions to his wise brethren who are labouring as architects.  The Lodge had also a set of 1481 laws for the governance of the Livery.  In 1649 certain persons were admitted on the "Livery," after "Accepting Masonry," or in other words after Initiation and Passing as Masters.  This proves that Anderson had grounds for expressing a belief that in former times members of the Masons' Company had first to be admitted in a private Lodge; and also that Continental writers had slight grounds for their belief that Freemasonry arose at Masons' Hall.

   Brother J. Ross Robertson, P.G.M. of Canada, alludes to a boulder stone, with square and compasses, and the date 1606 indented upon it, which was discovered in 1827 on the shore of Annapolis Basin in Nova Scotia.<<Canadian Craftsman, xxvii, p. 206.>>  Brother Hosier mentions in the Bauhutte of 1889 that amongst the portraits of his ancestors is one of 1624 of Jacob Hosier, which represents him decorated with Masonic emblems and using the Master's sign.  In Derrykeighan, County Antrim, is a tombstone of Robert Kar, who died 1617; it appears to have Masonic application to family arms; the top is a species of shield: Quarterly, 1st and 4th, a sun, or star of eleven points; 2nd and 3rd, a deer's head upon which is a square.

   A Lodge at Berwick upon Tweed has an old armchair of 1641,<<Ars Quat. Cor. Plate, iv.>> which may be described as a carved shield of arms; a chevron between various Masonic emblems; in the lower division a circular body, apparently an armilliary sphere, and "1641" above the chevron a pair of compasses and square, and reversed, back to back, with the others, square and compasses; in chief a scallop shell between two circular or floral emblems, with a raised point in the centre.

   Of Commonwealth times, 1649-60 there is nothing that need be specifically named.  Speculative Masons have no {381} Lodge minutes of any antiquity in England, such as they have in Scotland, and though these are rather a puzzle to us than of serious value, our want of such is regrettable.  Besides the paucity of the material to be found in such minutes, there is the fact of their dependence upon the Masters' Incorporations, and a doubt whether the rituals of Scotland and England were identical though no doubt they had in ancient times been so.  The Jews were readmitted in Cromwell's time, and Catholic attacks in France alleged that he founded Masonry.  In 1655 the London Company dropped the title of "Free," presumably because there existed independent Guilds of Free Masons, and Robt. Padgett who signed the MS. of 1686, now in possession of Lodge "Antiquity," was not a member of the Company.

   The Kilwinning records shew between 1642-56 that the Lodge consisted of Fellow Crafts or Masters and Apprentices.  Prentices on entering paid 20s. and Fellow Crafts at Passing 40s. Scots, with 5s. additional for their Mark.  This incidentally confirms certain old Catechisms which make the Fellow Craft degree to consist of two parts -- the Master's part being the second portion.  Scotland certainly had, in some sort, two degrees in their Lodges, whilst the Chair and Work Masters were in the Incorporations and had their trials upon admission; opening and closing prayers, with oaths as in the English Companies.  In neither company, at any time in their history, does the Society seem to have confined the Lodge receptions to operative Masons, and certainly, in the 17th century, amateurs and gentlemen were accepted in both countries; in Scotland the non-operatives were termed "Geomatic" and the operative "Domatic"; thus distinguishing Geometers and house builders.  Nor can we form any other opinion of the Constitutions during a thousand years, when they tell us that it was a Society for all trades using Geometry, and we see Clerics as leading members.  A Lodge was held at Newcastle, by deputation, on behalf of the Lodge of Mary's Chapel, the 20th May, 1641, under {382} commission to Robert Mackey, General Quartermaster of the Armies of Scotland, to receive Sir Robert Moray; amongst those present were General Hamilton and John Mylne.  This latter family were Master Masons to the Kings of Scotland for many generations, and for five they were members of the Lodge of Mary's Chapel; the last of them was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral in 1811, having been surveyor of that edifice for fifty years.<<Gould's "Hist. Freem." i, p. 151.>>

   In 1646 Elias Ashmole was made a Mason in a Lodge at Warrington, and it is now ascertained that the majority of the members present were not operative Masons.  Amongst the Sloane MSS. is a copy of the Masonic Charges, endorsed by Robert Sankey in 1646; the name is a place name, and that of an old Warrington family.

   The reign of Charles II. extended from 1660-85.  Anderson asserts that he was made a Mason abroad during his exile, which is not improbable, and may have been traditional.  In a proclamation of 1661 he advocates the building in brick and stone in place of timber, for the safety and beauty of London, the former being equally cheap.  Early last century the clerical enemies of Masonry in France attributed a Cromwellian use to Masonry, but on the other hand, and with more probability, there has existed a Masonic belief that the Lodges were used by the Stuarts to further the return of Charles II., and Brother Charles Purton Cooper, past P.G.M., has given us a note to the effect that "G" (Geusau 1741), who was acquainted with the Chevalier Ramsay and often conversed with him on Masonry, had learned from him that the restoration was prepared by the Freemasons, and that General Monck belonged to the Lodges.<<Freem. Mag., xii, p. 301; vide also Bonneville's "Jesuits Chasse," 1788.>>  The Wise Man's Crown, 1664, alludes to the "late years of tyranny," in which Masons, who are mixed with other trades in the notice, were allowed to write and teach Astrology; the affinity between the two must lie in the {383} abstruse geometrical and mathematical calculations required in both professions.

   Brother George E. Turner some short time ago bought from a widow a quantity of Masonic scraps, amongst which are 27 plates, apparently torn out of various books, and referring chiefly to the ancient gods and Mysteries.  These he printed in 1896 at Blandford, and, from the mode in which they were acquired we give them with reserve.  One of these is a readable "set off," from an alleged work entitled: -- "Treatise on Phremazeonry," with dedication to the Earl of St. Albans, 1670.  A fragment of printed matter on one of the plates, mentions a 12 mo. tome of 1539 entitled Solis Adoraio, which alludes to Phre-Mazonry, and says Lord Danby (died 1643), Sir Gilbert Gerherd (named in sister's Will 1637), Sir John Brooke (created Baron Cobham 1645), "and many others; noted members of the Order," were of this opinion, whatever that may be.

   The Scottish Kirk was tainted with the narrow-mindedness of the times of the Commonwealth, as is proved by an attack upon one of their own Ministers: -- Extracted from the MS. records of the Presbytery of Jedburg, parish of Minto, by the Rev. J. Thompson Grant.  "1652.  James Ainslie, A.M....called 11th January and admitted and instituted (after being sustained by the General Assembly).  December 9th, 1652, objection having been taken because he was a Freemason, and the neighbouring Presbytery consulted previous to entering him on trial, the Presbytery of Kelso, 24th February, 1653, shewed 'that, to their judgement, there is neither sinne nor scandal in that Word, because in the purest tymes of this Kirke, Maisons having that Word have been, and are daylie in our sessions, and many professors having that Word are daylie admitted to the ordinances,'"  Two other references, 1678 and 1691, as to the nature of this Word, have recently come to light.  The first is from the letters of the Rev. George Hickes, D.D., Dean of Worcester, amongst the MSS. of the Duke of Portland.  He says: -- "The {384} Lairds of Roslyn have been great Architects and Patrons of building for many generations.  They are obliged to receive the Masons Word, which is a secret signall Masons have throughout the world to know one another by.  They allege it is as old as since Babel when they could not understand one another and conversed by signs.  Others would have it no older than Solomon.  However it is he that hath it will bring his brother Mason to him without calling to him, or you perceiving the signe."<<Vide Ars Quat. Cor. vii, pp. 55-8.>>  The other notice is from a MS. in the advocate's Library entitled the Secret Commonwealth, by Mr. Robert Kirk, Minister of Aberfoil, 1691.  It contains the following:" -- The Masons Word which tho' some make a misterie of it, I will not conceal a little of what I know.  It is like a Rabbinical Tradition in way of comment on Jachin and Boaz, the two Pillars erected in Solomon's temple (I. Kings 7, 21) with ane addition of some secret signe, delivered from Hand to Hand, by which they know and become familiar one with another."<<Vide Ars Quat. Cor. vii, pp. 55-8.>>  Much nonsense has been written by Modern Masons by way of proving that Scottish Masonry consisted in a Single Word, but there is no doubt that well informed Initiates meant more by it than four letters, in the same way that Plato and St. John meant more than the five letters in Logos.  An Oath must have had some ceremonial.

   The traditions of the ancient Masonic Guilds are not to be altogether despised.  The actual Guild of York is said to have claimed to date from A.D. 79 in the time of Agricola, and there was a Carpenters' Guild which claimed to date from A.D. 626.  The former built a Roman temple at that time, and the latter a church of wood on the model of the Tabernacle of Moses.  Like the old operative Lodge of which the Duke of Richmond was Master which claimed to date from the time of Julius Caesar it would seem to have been the fashion of the Guilds to claim from some great ancient work, thus there was an operative Lodge {385} at Berwick which claimed to date from the erection of the great wall to keep out the Picts.

   The detached printed notices which we have of Free-Masonry in England during the reign of Charles II, shew that small Lodges were scattered over the country, independent of each other, but with a copy of the old Constitutions as its right of Assembly, and with a formal ceremony of reception.  All Trades are admissable, and gentlemen affect their company.  Here and there, as we might expect, one Lodge seems more faithful to the old traditions than another.  It is evident that in the 17th century the Speculative, or Geomatic, element was becoming predominant, and that an attempt was made to retain the Society in its old groove, and to keep on foot the general Assembly.  This is indicated in the existence of several Copies of the old MSS. which contain a Code headed "New Regulations."  It is quite probable that there was an earlier and a later formal adoption of this Code.  Two of these MSS., the "Harleian" and "Grand Lodge No. 2," have been printed in facsimile.  Yet we have no record, either of the date of these, or the place where the Assembly was held.  They are supposed to be early 17th century, but Anderson says that they were adopted, though it may be readopted with the addition of an article limiting the reception to persons of full age, at an Assembly held on the 27th December, 1663, under the Earl of St. Albans.  Critics admit that none of the existing MSS. are copied from each other and that there was an older copy not now extant.  A version was printed by J. Roberts in 1722. which states that the "New Laws" were adopted at a General Assembly held at (13 dashes -- which may read "the city of York ") on the 8th day of December 1663.  The New Laws, of this latest Charge, enact that in future the Craft shall be ruled by "one Master and Assembly," and that there shall be present a Master and Warden of the trade of operative Free-Masonry, and that certificates were to be given and {386} required.   The "Grand Lodge, No. 2;" "Roberts; "and the MSS. seen by Anderson contain a Clause which is not in the "Harleian MS.," that no one shall be accepted if under 21 years of age; possibly this indicates the 1663 revision of an older form.  Attached to these "New Regulations" is, for the first time, a separate Apprentice Charge, which closes with an oath of Secrecy, and indicates that Apprentices and Fellows had a ceremony of reception.  A York origin for this form may be thought to be indicated by the fact that most of the Copies in which the Apprentice Charge appears are found in the North of England; the form was used at Bradford and elsewhere 1680-93; at Alnwick 1701; and is minuted in 1725 at Swalwell.  Brother Conder, however, considers that it originated with the London Company of Masons.

   There are no minutes now preserved at York of the 16th and 17th centuries, but there are other proofs that Assemblies continued to be held.  There is a copy of the Charges which was discovered at the demolition of Pontefract Castle, where persons sent their documents for safety during the civil wars; it is supposed to date about the year 1600, and contains: --

   "An annagraime upon the name of Masonrie: Willm. Kay to his friend Robt. Preston upon his Artt of masonrie as followeth: -- 

M   Much might be said of the noble Artt,           

A   A craft that's worth estieming in every part,  

S   Sundry Nations, Noables, and Kings also,       

O   Oh how they sought its worth to know.           

N   Nimrod and Solomon, the wisest of all men,    

R   Reason saw to love this science then            

    I'll say no more, lest by my shallow verses I, 

E   Endeavouring to praise should blemish Masonrie  



     Another MS. was found at York circa 1630.  There is also a mahogany flat rule of 15 inches containing the following names.  It is considered that John Drake was cousin of the Rev. Francis Drake who was collated to the {387} Prebendal Stall of Donnington in 1663, and father of the historian of same name: --




                    OF YORK, 1663.                      

JOHN DRAKE.                                  JOHN     BARON.  


   Before 1660 there existed a Lodge at Chester of which Randle Holme was a member.  A Copy of the Charges, written by himself, is No. 2054 of the Harleian MSS., which contains the ordinary information and two fragments: -- "There is severall words and signes of a free Mason to be reveiled to you,

which as you will answer before God at the great and terrible day of judgement you keep secret, and not to revaile the same in the heares of any person, or to any but the Masters and Fellows of the said Society of free Masons, so helpe me God."  The second fragment is a list of fees, and no doubt a Lodge list, beginning: -- "William Wade wt. give for to be a Free Mason," twenty-five names follow paying sums from 5s. to 20s.  Brother W. R. Rylands has shewn that it was a Speculative Lodge, embracing many who did not follow operative Masonry.  In his Academie of Armorie, 1688, Randle Holme, a member of above Lodge, says: -- "I cannot but honour the Fellowship of the Masons because of its antiquity; and the more as being a member of that Society called Free Masons.  In being conversant amongst them I have observed the use of their several tools following, some whereof I have seen borne in coats of armour."  Lord Egerton held a special P.G.L. at Chester 18 April 1892 to erect a memorial to this old Brother, and quoted the following words of his, as written above 200 years ago: -- "By the help of Masonry the most glorious structures in the world have been set up, as if their art had endeavoured to imitate the handiwork of God, in making little worlds in the great fabric of the universe."  The tomb of the third Randle at Chester, erected by his son, has the skull and cross bones.<<Vide Ars Quat. Cor. 1897.  But see full arguments in the History of F.M. in Cheshire, by Bro. John Armstrong. London, 1902.>> {388}

   There is an interesting document at Gateshead dated 24 April 1671, which the Bishop of Durham, granted as a Charter of Incorporation of a "Communitie. ffelowship, and Company," to make freemen and brethren; amongst the Charter members are Myles Stapylton, Esquire (son of Brian Stapleton of Myton, co. York); Henry Fresall, gentleman; Robert Trollop; Henry Trollop; and others, Masons, Carvers, Stone-cutters, and various trades mentioned therein.  It would seem to represent an ordinary Masters' Incorporated Lodge of the time.  They were to assemble yearly on St. John the Baptist's day, and to elect four to be Wardens, and a fit person to be Clerk; each Warden was to have a key of the Chest.  On the dexter margin of the Charter are various trade arms, those of the Masons, Azure, on a chevron between three Single towers a pair of compasses; Crest, -- A tower; Motto, -- In the Lord is all our trust.  On the sinister side are the arms of the sculptors.<<Vide Hist. Freem., R. F. Gould.>>  The Masons' arms are the same as those in the MS. of 1687 written by Edward Thompson, and termed "Watson MS."

   As a Masters' fraternity it would hold Craft Lodges, and as Harodim would rule them.

   There is an early grave cover in St. Nicholas' church, now the Cathedral, with a floriated Greek Cross lengthened, on the left side is a fish, and on the right a key.  It is said to have had an inscription to the Architect of the Newcastle town Court, built in 1659.  The two Trollopes who are mentioned in the Bishop's charter were Masons of the City of York.

   The inscription to Robert Trollope is said to have been as follows: -- 

               Here lies Robert Trollope,

               Who made yon stones roll up,

               When death took his soul up,

               His body filled this hole up. 

   It may be mentioned here that Brother Horace Swete, M.D., described in 1872, a tobacco box, which he says {389} formerly belonged to the Jacobite John Drummond, created Earl of Melfort in 1685, and which with the date and initials "J.D. 1670." contains emblems identical with those of the catechisms of 1723.<<Spec. Mas. -- Yarker; also Ars Quat. Cor. 1901.>>

   It is not probable that Christopher Wren was a Mason accepted at this period, though it is said there is an Arch Guild minute of his reception in 1649, but no doubt his colleagues the Strongs were such.  Valentine Strong, son of Timothy of Little Berrington, is termed Free-Mason and was buried Novr. 1662, at Fairford, Oxfordshire.  He was father of Thomas Strong of London; and of Edward Strong, senior, who with his son laboured at St. Paul's.  Thomas laid the first stone 11th June, 1677, and brought from Oxford a Lodge of Masons for whom a special Act was passed to make them free of London for seven years; he died in 1681, and his brother Edward laid the last stone 26th October 1708.

   Hayden in his Dictionary of Dates (p.51) mentions the Court of Arches is so called from its having been held at the Church of St. Mary le Bow, London, whose top is built on stone pillars erected archwise.  An old record says that it was built by "Companions of the Arch Guild," and was designed by its Master, and was considered a Master piece.  The "Bow-Makers Guild" included "Bow Carpenters," who had the construction of the wooden centres to build Arches.  It is said that Strong was a member of the Arch Guild and that they received Chris. Wren in 1649.  They reckoned seven degrees as in the Craft, but where the latter held, as symbols three straight rods to form a square, the Arch-i-tectus, of whom there were three, had curved rods with which to form a circle. They, only, used compasses and employed themselves in curved, and in Assemblies they sat in circular and not in square fashion.

   Elias Ashmole records his own presence at a Lodge in London in 1682, and Brother Conder makes no doubt that it was the Speculative Lodge held at Masons' Hall {390} by the Company, 10th March 1682.  Ashmole says that he was the Senior Fellow present amongst a number whose names he gives, and that there was admitted into the Fellowship of Free Masons, Sir William Wilson, Knight; Captain Richard Borthwick; Mr. William Woodman; Mr. William Grey; Mr. Samuel Taylour; and Mr. William Wise.  These notices, and those which follow, have been so often printed verbatim, that we give only a summary of them.<<Vide "Kneph;" also Gould's "Hist. Mas."; also a "West Yorks reprint.">>

   The next printed notice is one of 1686, by Robert Plot, LLD., in his Natural History of Staffordshire, wherein he says: -- "To these add the customs relating to the "County" whereof they have one of admitting men into the Society of Free-Masons, that in the Moorelands of this County seems to be of greater request than anywhere else; though I find the custom spread more or less over all the nation."  "For here I found persons of the most eminent quality that did not disdain to be of this Fellowship.  Nor indeed need they, were it of that antiquity and honour that is pretended in a large parchment volume that they have amongst them containing the History and Rules of the Craft of Masonry."  He then goes on to give an account from the old Masonic MSS., and the nature of the copy which he had seen is indicated by his stating that "these Charges and manners were after perused and approved by King Henry VI. and his Council."  He then describes the mode of admission, with signs whereby they are known to each other, and the obligations of mutual assistance.  He then comments in an abusive manner upon the Society, and thinks the old Acts against the Society ought to be revived.<<Vide Kneph; also Gould's Hist. Mas.; also a West Yorks reprint.>>  The names of Ashmole, Boyle, and Wren, appear amongst the subscribers to the work.

   Aubrey next mentions the Society in his Natural History of Wiltshire (page 277): -- "Sir William Dugdale told me many years since, that about Henry, the Third's time, the Pope gave a Bull or Patent to a company of Italian Free-Masons to travel up and down over all Europe to {391} build churches. . . . . The manner of their adoption is very formall, and with an oath of secrecy."<<Vide Kneph; also Gould's Hist. Mas.; also a West Yorks reprint.>> "Memorandum, -- This day, May the 18th being Monday 1691, after Rogation Sunday, is a great convention at St. Paul's Church of the Fraternity of Adopted Masons, when Sir C. Wren is to be Adopted a Brother, and Sir Henry Gooderic of the Tower, and divers others.  There have been Kings that have been of this Sodality."

   There is no doubt these three interesting accounts give an accurate view of the state of Freemasonry in England at the time.

   Both an "Arch" and "Square" Guild existed at St. Paul's in 1675 and minutes have been preserved with extreme care.  Its ceremonies are known to the writer and it sent a branch into Derbyshire to build Chatsworth, though in the jurisdiction of York.  Some 30 or 40 years ago, an Assembly of about 400 could be expected annually and it is not yet extinct.  The St. Paul's Guild was quite independent of the Masons Company which in 1677 obtained a Charter from the King.  One of their Initiates is now at Assuan, and affirms that an ancient Jewish Guild exists there, and that they practise Solomonian ceremonies with exactly the same rites as he received in 1866-76.  They have a plan of a quarry, of three rooms through which the stone is perfected, and near thereto are other three for the officers, and a site for the building.  Egypt has a "Slant Masons Guild" unknown here.

   A properly constructed Lodge room in these several offices or yards would have double folding doors, forming a porch to each, where the preparation takes place.  Solomon's temple is said to have had only a single door in the East.  The 1st Officer sits in the West, the 2nd in the East, and the 3rd in the North; and this applies to all the six sections; in the Modern Freemasonry of 1717 they sit East, South, and West, or with their backs to their assigned duties.  Their carpet has squares of one {392} cubit and the border is a lozenge 8 x 6 inches, a figure which includes the 3-4-5 angle four times repeated.

   All Stones are sent from the Quarry to the 1st yard and dressed 1/16th larger than required; in the 2nd yard they are trued to their required size; and in the 3rd are marked and fitted for the site.  The 5th, 6th, 7th Offices are Overseers.

   Now as to the ceremony continued to our own day; the Candidate passes through the same process, and as a "living stone," is first taken as a boy rough dressed, then polished, and advanced.

   I Apprentice, received by a ceremony similar to the I in Speculative Freemasonry.  Three officers are sent out to prepare him in the Porch.  He bathes as in the ancient Mysteries, is refreshed with food, clothed in the white Roman Cloak, examined by the doctor, and finally admitted on the report of the three officers sent out.  He remains a brother 7 years, but is not a Free-Mason as in the speculative system.

   2 Fellow, at about 21 years of age the Brother applies to be relieved of his Bond; is accepted as a square Fellow by a ceremony similar to the 2 of modern Freemasonry.

   3 Super-Fellow, after 12 months is "Marked" as a "living stone," and sent to the "site."  He is instructed in marking and fitting the actual stone.

   4 Super-Fellow, Erector, knowing the system of Marking he knows how to join the stones and is himself erected in that position.  If it has any connection with Modern Masonry it is the 1st part of 3.  The two sections, however, are found in the degree of Mark Man and Master.

   5 Superintendent.  These represent the 3,300 Menatzchim of Solomon.  They are foremen, and were of old termed cures or Wardens under the Master.  Receives technical instruction.  Has 10 men under him as Intendant.

   6 Passed Masters.  These are the ancient Harods or Chiefs of whom there were 15.  The qualification, absolutely {393} required, is that of a modern Architect.  The ceremony of reception is of a most solemn character, and cannot be given publicly.

   7 Grand Master.  There are three of these, co-equal, received in private.  The degree has no analogy in Modern Freemasonry, except in the three Principals of a Royal Arch Chapter, which seems to have restored a portion of the old Guild ceremonial.

   Annual Commemorations, given 2nd and 30th October.  (1) Laying Foundation and fixing the centre by 3, 4, 5, and by the 5 Points; there is a portion referring to the 2nd temple which has originated the Modern Royal Arch degree. (2) A tragedy, and Solomon appoints Adoniram the 3rd G.M.M.; the 2nd part of the Modern 3rd Degree is taken from this.  (3) The Dedication.  There is a symbolical sacrifice in the 1st or Foundation.  These Rites should be performed by the Grand Master, acting in the 6th Degree and transferred to the site of the Temple or 4th Degree.  -- All these commemorative ceremonies are Semitic, the rest might equally appertain to any nation.  When first I heard of these ceremonies in 1856 the Guild could number 400 members at the annual Drama.

   There is a curious analogy between the seven degrees of the Guild and the seven ranks of the London Company of Masons, which had a Charter of Incorporation, granted, in 1677, with a 7 mile radius: Conder gives these ranks as follows (p. 139): -- (1) Apprentice, bound for 7 years to a member, and paid 2s 6d; (2) Freedom or Yeomandry; (3) the Livery or robes; (4) the Court of Assistants; (5) Renter Warden; (6) Upper Warden; (7) Master in the Chair; these would have to be sworn though no ceremony is mentioned.  They had however the Guild Society's branch, and Conder considers that they were termed "Accepted," because they were received as amateurs to qualify them for acceptance into the Livery of the Company.

   The Guild Masons say that before the advent of Modern Freemasonry they had four Head Guild Houses {394} which ruled different parts of the country and are those given by Anderson.  As I read Anderson, who wrote in 1738, guided by what we actually know before 1738, he can only mean that when, in 1716, Anthony Sayer was elected Grand Master, by "some old brothers," he had one or more of some, or of all these Guilds, or is supposed to have had them.  It seems an attempt to hoodwink the reader.  No. 1, the Antiquity, certainly continued to meet for some years at the Goose and Gridiron, the House of St. Paul's Guild, but Modern Nos. 2, 3 and 4, seem never to have met at the other three Guild houses.

   The reign of James II., 1685-8, was too short to leave its influence upon Free-Masonry but much of importance must have occurred in that of William III., 1689-1702, had the particulars been preserved.  We do not doubt that 16 May 1691 is the actual date of the Initiation of Sir C. Wren as an Accepted Mason; even though a Master of the Arch Guild 1649; and with the Convention of St. Paul's it may be conjectured that the connection of the Accepted Masons with the Livery Company ceased to exist, if any existed, which the Arch Guilds deny.  The notorious Prichard, who wrote in 1730 makes 1691 to be the actual beginning of the "Quarterly Communications," which ended in the formation of the Grand Lodge of 1717 by the dissidents who had been members of a real Guild.

   Dr Anderson in his Constitutions (1738) writes that a Lodge met at St. Thomas' Hospital in 1691 at the instance of Sir Thomas Clayton; and, on the authority of "some brothers living in 1730" that six other Lodges then assembled in London; and besides the old Lodge of St. Paul's (whose bastard offspring, according to the Guild, was the Lodge of Antiquity), which possesses a copy of the Masonic Charges written by "Robert Padgett, Clearke to the Worshipful Society of Free-Masons for the City of London," he mentions one in Piccadilly opposite St. James' Church; one near Westminster Abbey, which may be represented in a printed catechism of {395} 1723 alluding to the "Lodge of St. Stephens"; one in Covent Garden; one in Holborn; another on Tower Hill; and some others that assembled at stated times, these were probably no more than meetings at Inns frequented by Masons.  No doubt the great fire of London, and the efforts of Sir C. Wren in restoring the city after that calamity, would attract people from all parts of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and lead to the Assemblies of Masons.

   In the North there is a copy of the old MSS. at York, of 1680, which concludes "that at every meeting or Assembly they pray heartily for all Christians."  Another copy of 1693, includes the Apprentice Charge, and has a peculiar reading which is doubtless ill translated Latin, it reads, -- "Then one of the Elders takeing the Booke, and that hee or shee that is to be made Mason, shall lay their hands thereon, and the Charge shall be given."  It concludes, -- "These be the constitucions of the Noble and famous History, called Masonry, made and now in practise by the best Masters and Fellowes, for directing and guiding all that use the said Craft.  Scripted p. me, vicesimo tertio die Octobris, Anno Regni Regis et Regina Gulielmy et Marie quinto annoque domini 1693.  Mark Kypling.  The names of the Lodg, -- William Simpson, Anthony Horsman, Christopher Thompson, Christopher Gill, Mr. Isaac Brent, Lodg. Ward."

   The Duke of Richmond seems to have been Master of a Lodge at Chichester in 1696.  The Minutes of Grand Lodge of 2 March 1732 contain an entry that Edward Hall was "Made a Mason by the late Duke of Richmond six and thirty years ago."  Hall's petition was recommended by the Duke's son, who was then Grand Master, and the Chichester Lodge was registered by Grand Lodge as dating from the time of Julius Caesar.<<Freemasonry in Havant. -- Thos. Francis. 1892.>>

   A Lodge met at Alnwick, Northumberland, in 1701; it was an operative Craft Lodge, and may have kept more {396} closely to old customs from its nearness to Scotland, where the ceremonial work was practically extinct though the legal basis of Masonic Guilds was still in force.  We give two of the regulations of 1701 in regard to Entering Apprentices, and Accepting Fellows,, -- "5th item.  That no Mason shall take an Apprentice and give him his Charge within one whole year after.  Not so doing the Master shall pay for any such offence 0Pounds 3 4."  "9th item.  There shall noe Apprentice, after he has served his seven years, be admitted or Accepted but on the Feast of Michaell the Archangel, paying to the Master and Wardens 0Pounds 6 8."  A minute of 21 January 1708, decrees, "that for the future no Master, Warden, or Fellow shall appear on St. John's day, or attend the church service at Alnwick, without his apron, and common square fixt in the belt thereof."

   We must carefully guard ourselves from the supposition that these (Passed) Wardens and Masters, are those now termed such; they were the Menatzchim and Harods, or Superintendents and Passed Masters of the old Guild ceremonies.  In the County of Durham up to 1813, Wardens, as well as other officers, took the same O.B. as the Master.  The Guilds O.B. the Master in the 6th Degree and the Minor officers in the 5th Degree Lodge.

   A similar operative Lodge existed in Durham, and is supposed to have been first established at Winlaton circa 1690, by a German iron Master, which art had been established at Solingen from early centuries, from Damascus, thence it removed to Swalwell in 1725.  This last date is later than the period with which we intended to close this Chapter, but as it is considered to date from 1690, and as its Lodge customs were similar to those at Alnwick, and were maintained to the last unaltered, it is not inappropriate here.  Its regulations are minuted in 1725.  The "Penal Laws," that when a youth was taken as Apprentice by a member of the Lodge, his Master was required to "Enter" him within 40 days, in contrast to the one year at Alnwick, and a small fee was charged.  {397} The form by which the Apprentice was "Entered" is given in the Minute Book, and is an abridgement of the history given in our Charge.  Of course the Apprentice Charges, known to date between 1600-63, are those he would be sworn to keep.  Nothing is said about Secrets, but the 8th Penal Laws imposes a fine of 10 Pounds, "not faithfully to keep the 3 fraternal signs, and all points of fellowship."  When the Apprenticeship expired the youth was made free of his Craft by the full ceremony.  On the 21 March 1735 the Lodge went under the Grand Lodge of London, but retained its old customs intact for over 30 years afterwards.  But we now read of two Masters' grades, the one termed Harodim, spelled in the minutes Highrodiam, given in a "Grand Lodge," and the other termed "English Master," and the presumption is very strong, and especially as a mutual recognition of fees are made, that Harodim was their old Passed Master's Ceremony, but we shall again refer to the nature of these Rites in our next Chapter, as operative Masons.  There was also an independent Lodge at Hexham, but nothing is known of its history.

   In the Minute Book of the Haughfoot Lodge, Scotland, there is an entry under date 22 Decr. 1701, after a missing leaf, which clearly alludes to Fellow Craft work, as it says, -- "Of entrie as the Apprentice did leaving out the common Juge (Gudge? Luge); they then whisper the word as before, and the Master Mason grips his hand after the ordinary way."  As we understand it, the "common," or Apprentice part, who is a rough dresser, was omitted from the ceremony, and the Fellowcraft word was given in a manner similar to the former degree.  But the Scottish system seems to have been so loose that very little reliance can be placed upon what we meet with in their minutes, as a general custom, and it would appear that, at times, Apprentices were present when a higher ceremony was conferred, and that the signs, tokens, and words, were communicated privately, whispered, shewn in the Bible, or given in a separate room.  The regulations {398} of the old Dumfries Lodge, 20th May, 1687, enact that on Entering Apprentices a fee of 10 Pounds Scots had to be paid, and when afterwards passed as Fellow Craft a fee of 5 Pounds Scots, in each case besides gloves and entertainment.  (A Scots Pound is 1 shilling.)

   If Professor Robison is correct in his conclusions as to the operative Masonry of Germany, and he seems to have carefully studied the subject, the instruction and therefore the ceremonies varied in that country. .  He says that there were Wort Maurers, and Schrift Maurers; and that there were Borough Laws enjoining the Masters to give employment to Journeymen who had the proper words and signs; that some Cities had more.extensive privileges in this respect than others; that the Word given at Wetzler entitled the possessor to work over the whole empire; and that we may infer from some Municipal decisions that the Master gave a Word and Token, for each year's progress of the Apprentice, the Word of the City upon which he depended, and another by which all his pupils recognised each other.  The Word and Token were abolished in 1731 in favour of the Script Masons.  At Halberstadt there is a copy of the German Statutes of 2 December 1713, from which we gather that there were still four Overmasters at Koln, Strasburg, Wien, and Zurich.  These are designated Old-Masters, as distinct from the Old-Fellows who governed the Craft.  The first were a Chief or Arch-fraternity, the second were Masters of Lodges.  A Master who made his Apprentice Free of the Craft had to bind him to keep the Word concealed in his heart, under the pain of his soul's salvation.

   There is an old Arm chair at Lincoln of the date of 1681.<<"Ars. Quat. Cor," v, -- Plate.>>  In a semi-circular top is carved a hand holding a balance in equilibrium, and under it PIERI--1681--POYNT.  Below this are two stalks with leaves, each bearing what appears to be a passion-flower.  Beneath are two panels, one of which contains the double triangles, {399} and the plumb-rule; the other panel has the square and compasses.  A member of the family deems the chair to have belonged to William, 4th Earl of Kingston, Lord Chief Justice in Eyre beyond Trent.  In the grave-yard of Slane Castle, Ireland, there is a tomb-stone to John Frow, who died in 1687, in the upper arc are compasses, Greek cross, and square.  The Freemasons' Chronicle (2 March 1909) says that in the Leicester Corporation Museum there is an old chair which, 250 years ago, belonged to a Free Masons' Guild which met at the White Lion down to 1790.  Upon the back is a design to mark a square building and the letter B, and it is thought there may have been another with J.  A second chair is said to have belonged the Arch Guild.

   Until very recent times our knowledge of what transpired in Ireland has been almost nil, but Brother Chetwode Crawley has recently shown that in 1688 a Lodge of Free-masons, "consisting of gentlemen, mechanics, porters, parsons, ragmen, divines, tinkers, freshmen, doctors, butchers, and tailors," thus heterogeneously denominated, in the 1688 Tripos of John Jones, as connected with the University of Dublin.  It is further mentioned by Jones that a collection was made for a new brother, "who received from Sir Warren, being Free-Masonised this new way, five shillings."  This new way may mean by some new regulation, or simply in reference to the collection,<<Ars Quat. Cor., 1898, p. 192; also Oliver's Rev. of a Square.>> but that was old Guild custom.

   The tomb of John Abell of Sarsfield, Herts, 1694, has a representation of himself and his two wives; between a circular hoop at the bottom is a square, and above that a plumb, over which is a pair of compasses.

   It is said<<Voice of Masonry. 1887.>> that one John Moore settled in South Carolina in 1680 from England, thence removed to Philadelphia, and in a letter which he writes in 1715, he speaks of having "spent a few evenings in festivity with my Masonic brethren."  The celebrated Jonathan {400} Belcher, Governor of Massachusetts, was made a Mason in the year 1704, for he writes to a Boston Lodge, in 1741, "It is now thirty-seven years since I was admitted in the Ancient and Honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons."  There is a record at Newport, U.S.A., "That ye day and date (1686 or 1688) We mett at ye House of Mordecai Campunall and after synagog We gave Abm. Moses the degrees of Masonrie."  If this took place it would be Operative Masonry, and I see no reason to express a doubt.

   We have alluded in the foregoing, and shall again, to Scottish customs, the more fully because there are traces, to be read between the lines, that the Advent of the Stuarts, and later introductions of Scottish Masons into the South, was instrumental in somewhat modifying the Free-masonry of London, and that what is taken for English is sometimes Scottish.

   Yorkshire is notably rich in the old Charges, as besides those which formerly belonged to the York Grand Lodge, and are in possession of a modern Lodge there, there are others in private hands, and in the "West Yorkshire, Masonic Library."  It is stated in a Manifesto of the Lodge of Antiquity (1778) that there was one old MS. in the hands of Mr. Wilson, of Broomhead, near Sheffield, written in the reign of Henry VIII., which is now missing, and there appears to have been one dated 1560.  The Lodge of Hope, Bradford, has a copy of circa 1680.  It forms no part of our plan to give an account of these old MSS., but students of them are greatly indebted to the late Brother Thomas W. Tew, P.G.M. of the West Riding, who had eight of these, in possession of his Provincial Library, printed and distributed at his sole cost.  Amongst them are the "Thomes W. Tew MS." circa 1680; the "Waistell MS.," circa 1693; and the "Clapham MS.," circa 1700.  The Rolls in possession of the Lodge at York have also been printed by subscription; one of these, dated 1704, is headed with the same Anagram on "Masonrie" as that of 1600, but addressed by Robert {401} Preston to Daniel Moult.  It also appears in a Newcastle Roll, addressed by Richard Stead to his friend Joseph Claughton.

   There are other documents at York, but none older than the reign of Anne, 1702-14.  It seems that George Benson was President in 1705, and that he was followed by other gentlemen at each annual election.  We learn also from an old copy of the Charges which has passed into the possession of the Grand Lodge of Canada, that a "Private Lodge" was held at Scarborough, Yorkshire, 10th July, 1705, with Wm. Thompson, Esq., as President, when six members were received whose names will be found in the facsimiles executed for the West Yorkshire Masons.  Last century the Grand Lodge of All England at York had minutes from the year 1704, but they are not now to be found, they have, however, at the York Lodge some later parchment Rolls, which to some extent take the place of minutes.  The probability is that such information as we have prior to 1726 belongs to the Operative Guild.

   On the 19th March, 1712, we read that several members were "sworne and admitted into the honourable Society and fraternity of free Masons by George Bowes, Esq., Deputy President."  In 1713 the Ancient Lodge held a meeting at Bradford, "when 18 gentlemen of the first families were made Free-Masons." Meetings were held each succeeding year at York, those on St. John the Baptist's Day, in June, being termed a "General Lodge on St. John's Day," whilst the others are designated "Private Lodges."  This was four years before any movement was made in London, and the meetings at Scarborough and at Bradford are in agreement with the ancient Constitutions which state that the Masons were to hold an Assembly "in what place they would"; and it seems very apparent that where the term "General Lodge" is used, as distinct from a "Private Lodge," it is the tradition of the ancient Assembly continued.  {402}

   Again in 1716 it is minuted on this parchment roll as follows: -- "At St. John's Lodge in Christmas, 1716.  At the house of Mr. James Boreham, situate Stone-gate in York, being a general Lodge held then by the Honoble.  Society and Company of Free-Masons in the City of York, John Turner, Esqre., was sworne and admitted into the Said Honoble. Society and Fraternity of Free-Masons."  "Charles Fairfax, Esqre., Dep. President."  Lists of the Grand Masters are found in any Modern Masonic Cyclopaedia, but Brother Whitehead recently discovered in an old Armorial MS. that the name of Sir Wm. Milner, Bart., 1728, has been omitted, "being the 798th Successor from Edwin the Great," apparently claiming an annual election of Grand Masters from the year 930.

   However much we may regret it, yet we cannot blame the York Brothers for the strict respect shewn to the obligations.  In such written documents as we have the terms used are simply well known Guild terms.  We can draw no inference on such slight grounds as to the nature of their ceremonies, we do not know from contemporary documents what they were, and we have no right to expect that we should know.  We can only judge of them by what they were when publicity began to be given to Masonic Rites in the 18th century.  We have not the least warrant for thinking that, on the one hand, they took up new inventions and palmed them off as old Rites, nor on the other hand can we hope that they were very much better than the Grand Lodge of London, and shut their eyes to all improvement of the Ritual; they would be guided in this by old tradition and landmarks.  We note that in the facsimile of the "Stanley MS.," 1677, it is closed with the tail-piece of a chequered pavement.

   The Tatler for 9 June 1709, has an article upon a class of Londoners termed "Pretty Fellows"; the paper is believed to be by Sir Richard Steele, and alludes to matters with which he seems to be acquainted, for he says: "they have signs and words like Free-Masons," and a similar reference is found in the same journal for 1710.  There is {403} no record of Steele being a Mason, but there evidently was an impression that such was the case, for Picart, in his Ceremonies and Costumes, gives a medallion portrait of "Sir Richard Steele," on a screen which gives a copy of the engraved list of Lodges in 1735.

   As illustrating the state of things in Scotland at this date we may instance a dispute which occurred with the Mary's Chapel Lodge in 1707.  A portion of these withdrew and established without permission the Lodge "Journeymen."  Lodge Mary's Chapel objected to their meeting to take fees and give the "Mason's Word," and the dispute ran on for some years.  The Masters' Incorporation was the legal head of such bodies, and the Journeymen obtained leave to sue Mary's Chapel for such Masonic rights as the latter possessed.  The Incorporation agreed in 1715 that the Journeymen should have an "Act of Allowance" to give the Mason's Word.  From this circumstance Bro. R. F. Gould is inclined to think that the custodians of this privilege were the Incorporations, and that this case is the old survival of a claim that the private Lodges were Agencies or Deputations of the Incorporations for that purpose.  It is a reasonable and just conclusion, and however loose the Lodges may have been in their working, we may feel sure that the Incorporations were Custodians of ritualistic Catechisms, probably of a Christian nature, of all known grades in Masonry, whether the same were conferred or had lapsed.

   Brother Clement E. Stretton, who is eminent as a writer of books on his own line as a C.E., has stated in the journals of the day and confirmed to me by letters that Dr. James Anderson was made chaplain of the St. Paul's Guild in 1710, in succession to Dr. Compton, who had been in the habit of holding a daily service.  In September, 1714, Anderson proposed that men of position should be admitted to a species of honorary membership, which was carried by one vote, and the accounts, in that and the following year, show seven fees of 5 guineas each.  All the time St. Paul's work was in operation the Guilds met {404} at High XII. on a Saturday, but Anderson changed the period of meeting to 7 o'clock on a Wednesday evening, at the Goose and Gridiron, and in September, 1715, the Operatives found that their old pass would not admit them, and they complained to Wren and Strong and the dissidents were struck off the Rolls; and this is probably why Anderson complained that Wren "neglected the Lodges."  Now, under such circumstances, no honourable man can say that Anderson acted a creditable part.  But we can see what he actually "digested."  He made the Apprentice in a month, in place of seven years, struck out everything technical, including the ceremonies of conferring the Mark Mason; and left a fine moral institution on the lines of the Mystic Societies of the Ancients, but it is not Free Masonry, but an imitation of it; he retained as much of the Old Rites as suited his purpose, and could be worked into the modern system, but it lacked the explanation the Guild Rites afforded.

   In the Stanley MS. of 1697, facsimiled for the West Yorkshire P.G. Lodge, there is a peculiar addition which is of later date.  A very precise investigation of the allusions therein was made by Brother Gould in 1888, and he has come to the conclusion that the lines are applicable to 1714.  It is supposed to have been a North Country MS., and we give the endorsement: -- 

        "The prophecy of Brother Roger Bacon,

         Disciple of Balaam, Wch Hee Writt on ye

         N.E. Square of ye Pyramids of Egypt

              In capital, Letters.

"When a Martyr's Grand Daughter In ye Throne of Great Brittain,   [Mary.]

Makes Capet's Proud Son look you'd think him beshitten,      [Louis XIV.]

When ye Medway and Mais Piss together In a Quill,          [Kent and Holland.]

And Tagus and Rhine of ye Seine have their will,               [Germanic Confedn.]

When ye Thames has ye Tay taen for better, for worse,    [Act of Union, 1707.]


An' to purchase ye Doxy has well drained his purse,           [Scotland.]

When by roasting a Priest ye Church has her wishes,         [Dr. Sacheverell.]

Loyal Tory's in places, Whiggs silent as fishes,                    [Anne's reign.]

When Europe grows Quiet and a man yts right wily,            [Peace of Utrecht, 1713.]

Setts up a wood bridge from ye Land's End to Chili,           [South-sea. Co.]

Free Masons, beware, Brother Bacon advises,     .  

Interlopers break in and spoil your Devices,    :    

Your Giblin and Squares are all out of Door,    :    

And Jachin and Booz shall be secrets no more."  .

[Old members

are being


   It is evident that York was more advanced than London in the practice of a system of Speculative Freemasonry, because it had a more close operative derivation and was less reduced, and whether the lines above given originated North or South, they indicate the views of some old operative Brother, who saw changes which did not please him.

   Brother Edward Conder has recently shewn that Viscount Doneraile must have held a Lodge at his mansion, Cork, about the year 1710.  At one of these Assemblies some repairs were in progress in the library when his daughter Elizabeth secreted herself to watch the ceremonies, but was detected and forced to undergo the Rites of Making and Passing.  As she was born in 1693, and married to Richard Aldworth in 1713, we may reasonably fix 1710 as about the date of the reception.  Brother W. J. C. Crawley, LL.D., has gone also into this matter in Coementaria Hibernica, and expresses his opinion that similar Lodges may have existed at the Eagle Tavern under Lord Rosse, and at Mitchelstown under Lord Kingstown.

   There is an Irish MS. amongst the Molyneux papers endorsed "Feb., 1711," which clearly indicates a 3 system, and is headed with a

   All the serious works which refer, in print, to the Society of Free-Masons make no question of its antiquity, {406} either during the 17th century or after it had passed into an entirely Speculative System.  The Antiquities of Berkskire by Elias Ashmole (London 1719) has a paragraph which includes the information given by Plot and Aubrey that we have before referred to; and we add some interesting particulars from the letters of Dr. Thomas Knipe, who flourished between 1660 and 1711, in which year he died, and which were used by the compilers of Ashmole's Biography in 1748.  This writer repeats the statement in regard to the Papal Bull of the time of Henry III., and goes on to say: "But this Bull, in the opinion of the learned Mr. Ashmole, was confirmative only and did not by any means create our fraternity, nor even to establish them in this kingdom."  He then proceeds to give an account of the statements gathered from the old Charges from St. Alban to the ratification of the Constitution by Henry VI., and closes with a statement that in the Civil Wars the Free-Masons were generally Yorkists, and abuses Plot for his injurious comments.<<The Kneph; Gould's Hist. Freem., etc.>>

   In Scotland technically it would seem that a Scottish Master was Work Master of the Domatic Lodge, and the Chair Master of the Geomatic Lodge, but who had to be examined and Passed as a Master; for it is to be presumed that non-operatives might be ritualistically dispensed from the 7 years' probation required for a Fellow of Craft.  Melrose had a very old Lodge which kept to the ancient system until a few years ago, when it joined Grand Lodge.  There is a Melrose minute of 1764 of which an unwise use is made; it enacts that the Apprentice and Fellow Craft ceremonies -- for that is what is meant -- shall be "administered in a simple way and manner free of anything sinful and superstitious," at this date it had two degrees and the Praeses was Master Mason.  It only proves the presence of a puritanical spirit in the Lodge.  That there was a Fellow Craft degree in Scotland worked in Lodges is proved by the Charge of St. Mary's, Edinburgh, against the Journeymen in 1713 {407} that they "presumed at their own hand to enter Apprentices and Pass Fellow Crafts in a public change house."

   From the middle of the 17th century the Scottish minute books show numerous admissions of military men, and of Lairds who are designated by their lands.  The Kelso Lodge, to which Sir John Pringle's name appears in 1701, in 1705 imposes a fine for absence upon "Cornet Drummond and Lovetenant Benett."  The Haughfoot Lodge, opened in 1702 by John Pringle of Torsonce, leave us in no doubt that it then conferred and "Passed" Apprentice and Fellow Craft, the Master Mason occupying the chair.  Sometimes both degrees were given at one meeting, at others after an interval.  The annual meeting was held for business, and a "Commission" given each year to 5 members to Initiate others.  The Lodge at Aberdeen had two classes, Geomatic and Domatic Masons, and the admissions differently worded for each.  The Master was Geomatic, and the Senior Warden Domatic, and this latter class had to make a trial-piece for each degree.

   Old Catechisms.  The most important question with Freemasons will be by what sort of Rites were these 17th century Masons received into the Brotherhood? and the answer must depend on the nature of the Lodge which acted.  It does not seem very difficult to form an approximate idea of this.  There are various old Catechisms which, though of doubtful authority, and not wholly written in this century, but yet are clearly of it, and moreover are in general unison with the reduced 16th and 17th century Constitutional Charges.  There is one copy of these Catechisms which the late Rev. Bro. A. F. A. Woodford, who further quotes competent authority, considers from its archaisms to date 1650 if not earlier, and there are versions of 1723, 1724, 1729, 1730 and onwards.  A copy was printed in the "Scots' Magazine" of 1755, and is said to reveal an actual reception at Dundee in 1727.  Although the general {408} character of these Catechisms are similar they differ in detail, but the Dundee specimen is in close agreement with the one that Brother Woodford has attributed to 1650, or earlier, and which is found amongst the Sloane MSS., and has been printed by him; it raises the question whether it is not actually a Scottish version brought South.

   All these documents besides the recognition of some Apprentice ceremony, of an operative appearance, divide the Fellow's part into two portions; first the Catechism of that degree which we now term Fellow-craft, and second the degree now termed Master, and this last clearly defined in every copy that we have, and quite as clearly in the "Sloane MS." as any other.  They are all a debased version of the original system prevailing when it took some years to become an operative Fellow or Master.  Equally some sort of mark or ceremony is in evidence.  In Scottish Lodges such a system might arise from a desire to continue to confer a Master's degree after the actual Masters had Incorporated, and in parts of England where the Fraternity ceased to be practical, from a desire to shorten the reception of Fellow and Master; in other words, to make an amateur into an Apprentice, Fellow, and Master in one evening; in any case all give 5 points of Fellowship as applicable to Craftsmen, but in the ancient Guilds they had a technical reference.

   Sometimes a Passed Apprentice would appear to mean a Fellow, and a Passed Fellow a Master, so loose is the wording.  In all cases, however, the Catechisms give certain secrets of the modern 3rd Degree, from which we may justly infer that they had knowledge of a certain annual Rite, or drama, and that if it should have passed out of practice it was owing to the changed position of the Lodge.  Precisely the same thing has occurred amongst the Guilds claiming mediaeval descent, of which many yet exist, and Passed Masters have to be called in from a distance; one of the most expert workers is a York Mason. {409}

   It is unnecessary to particularise much of these Catechisms, but in our chapter viii. we advocated on the evidence to be obtained from the Saxon Charge, old operatives, and the usages of Societies similarly constituted, that the most ancient form of recognition was a "Salutation," and this is found in every Catechism that has come down to us, until it was expunged in 1813.  If this is correct the most ancient Masons were "Salute Masons," the Freemasons were Hebrew "Word Masons"; no doubt when this union took place, whether in the 13th century or any other date, it would be followed from time to time with revisions, to correct inaccurate oral transmission.  The "Salutation" varies in these old MSS., but the following from the "Sloane," and the printed 1723, are given as specimens; those of Germany were more elaborate as they contained seven prayers or "Words": -- "The Right Worshipful, the Masters and Fellows, in that Worshipful Lodge from whence we last come, Greet you, Greet you, Greet you well."  The Warden replies: "God's Greeting be at this meeting, and with the Right Worshipful the Master, and the Worshipful Fellows who keeps the keys of the Lodge from whence you come, and you also are welcome, Worshipful Brother, into this Worshipful Society."

   In the "Sloane MS." there is found "a Jerusalem word," Giblin, as well as a two-syllabled word, Maharhyn, and doubts thrown on a sign, said to be given in France and Turkey, which may be considered in relation, to what was said at the opening of chapter ix.

   The Catechism of 1723 has the following lines: --<<Gould's Hist. Frem. -- Appendix.>> 

               "An Entered Mason I have been,

                Boaz and Jachin I have seen,

                A Fellow I was sworn most rare,

                And know the Ashlar, Diamond and Square;

                I know the Master's part full well,

                As honest Maughbin will you tell." {410} 

Then the Master says: -- 

               "If a Master Mason you would be,

                Observe you well the rule of three,

                And what you want in Masonry,

                Thy Mark and Maughbin makes thee Free." 

   The printed catechism of 1724 represents a body qualified as a St. John's Lodge, a term we saw used in the oldest York minutes, and it is in altogether better form than some of the others.  We find in it a "version" of an old Rosicrucian and Gnostic symbol, an equal cross with a triangle over it ; it has also the word "Irah," which no one has ventured to explain, but it occurs in the Lectures of HRDM-RSYCSS.  Symbolism couched in rhyme is found in the Scottish and north England Catechisms, to a late period.  In a MS. of the old Charges belonging to the Dumfries Lodge, of date early 18th century, is the following, but we have no space to quote the Christian Catechism of the old Temple Symbolism found therein.<<Vide Ars Quat. Cor. vi, p. 42.>>: --

"Q. Where ought a Lodge to be keapt?

   A. On the top of a mountain or in ye middle of a boge,

        Without the hearing of ye crowing of a cock or ye bark of a doge.

   Q. What was the greatest wonder yt was seen or heard about the Temple?

   A. God was man and man was God, Mary was a mother and yet a maid."

     There can be little doubt that one of the customs here referred to originated in the British and Teutonic customs of holding a Council, Folcmote, or Thing, Friestuhl or Vehme, either on the top of a mountain, or in the open, in the middle of a field, and every Free-Man had a voice in such Courts.  According to a MS. of the learned Mr. Jones in the Cottonian library, the early British Kings when they held a Council either personally or by deputy, --"went to a certain private house or tower on the top {411} of a hill, or some solitary place of counsel, far distant from any dwelling, and there advised unknown to any man, but the Counsellors themselves."

   The following lines, of much interest, appear in the "Dumfries MS." just quoted: -- 

        "A caput mortem here you see,

         To mind you of mortality."

        "Behold great strength I I by Herod fell,

         But 'stablishment in heaven doeth dwell."

        "Let all your acts be just and true,

         Which after death gives life to you,"

        "Keep round within of your appointed sphere,

         Be ready for your latter end draws near."<<Vide Ars Quat. Cor. vi, p. 42.>> 

   A formula of old transmission has the following: -- 

         "By letters four and science five,

          This G aright doth stand." 

   Brother J. A. Cockburn of Adelaide thinks they are of very great antiquity.  He holds that originally the G was the Hebrew gimel, and the Greek gamma, which is a Mason's square, held sacred by the Pythagoreans, and the Cabiric Initiates of the earth-goddess Ge or Gai, and he further suggests that the primitive emblem may have been the Svastica  which embraces four gammas, and again represents the sacred tetragrammaton of the Jews, -- Plutarch says "The number four is a square"; and Philo says, -- "Four is the most ancient of all square numbers, it is found to exist in right angles, as a square in Geometry Shows."  Brother Sydney T. Klein, P.M. 2076, in a lecture upon the ancient Geometry<<Ars Quat. Cor. x.>> says, that the Greek gamma was actually the etymon or name designating the square in the earliest times.  The same Brother considers that the great secret of prehistoric geometry was, "how to make a perfect right angle, in any desired position without possibility of error," and gives as illustration an Egyptian deed of 2,000 B.C., and later papyrus of 1,500 B.C.  Both English and Coptic Guilds still give it, and the old York Lectures also.  He shews that the {412} ancient geometers had this secret, and that it could be made by means of the centre, from any straight line, or by taking any triangular line drawn from the circumference of a circle, by the rope or skirret.  On the formation of Grand Lodge, he says, in 1717, every gentleman desired to be a Master Mason, and as the property of the square was assigned to one W.M., whilst the ritual retained the original wording, the symbolic allusion was lost, and the Euclidean problem was given to the W.M. in place of the simple square.  The Ancient Guilds have possessed this as a secret for ages and based much ceremony upon it.

   Malvern old church, is said to have a curious window, but no information is afforded as to its date; -- "In the left hand division of the last window, at the east end of the south aisle (the subject alluding to paradise); in the top section, is a figure before a dial column (the dial gone) holding in his right hand a square and a huge pair of compasses.  In the next section of the same window, westward, is a figure kneeling, having a globe on a stand, on a pedestal behind him, with the moon, the sun, and seven stars before him; a root of corn is at the foot near a stream of water, with a branch of acacia on raised ground.  And in the third section is a figure prostrate, on a piece of square pavement; the latter is, however, only a compilation of odd pieces of ancient coloured glass."

   Brother Ker of Scotland has written something in reference to an examination of the Master's grade by two astronomers who decided it was some very ancient system.

   The celestial and terrestrial globes were rectified to the time of the foundation of Solomon's temple, and "the signs and words were obtained, and the reason of the implements being used; the legend of the third degree; also the name being thrice repeated; why the ear of corn and the waterfall are depicted; and the direction in which the procession moves."  A lecture similar to this, but not covering all these points, embracing chiefly the temple of {413} Solomon as a type of the Universe, is in the Library of the Grand Chapter of Scotland and attributed to Dr. Walker Arnott, an eminent Scottish Mason.  The late Brother Albert Pike seems to have entertained a similar opinion, and argues for the identification of Hiram with the Sun-god.<<"Morals and Dogma; Vide also Liverpool Mas. Jol.," Dec. 1901.>>  In Egypt, Horus is represented as seated upon lions, the same word meaning both sun and lion.  Again Hari is a Hindu name of the sun, and Khurum or Hiram is the Egyptian Her-ra, Hermes, Hercules.  He thinks certain assassins may possibly be recognised in the Arabic names of certain stars; when, by the precession of the equinoxes, the sun was in Libra, in autumn, he met in the east, where the reign of Typhon commenced, three stars forming a triangle, they are thus designated Zuben-es-chamali in the west, Zuben-hak-rabi in the east, Zuben-el-gabi in the south; of these the corrupt forms, he thinks, may be found in Jubela-Gravelot, Jubelo-Akirop; and Jubulum-Gibbs.<<"Ibid," pp. 79, 488.>>  The theory of Brother Ker's two celebrated astronomers might imply the arrangement of the Rites by old astrologers.

   A similar theory is embodied in the Swedenborgian Rite, which upholds the Masonic symbols as those of the most ancient races, allied to the doctrine of correspondences.  Thus the Masters' degree is an astrological, or astronomical allegory, based upon the position of the stars 5873 B.C.  The Lodge is a symbol of the Universe (also Dr. Arnott's contention), and the Rites represent the building of God's temple in nature, and the building up of humanity; it has a further reference to the erection of the Succuth, Booths, or Lodges erected at the feast of Tabernacles.  Brother Samuel Beswick, in his work on the Rite, asserts that Emanuel Swedenborg was made a Mason at the University of Lunden in 1706, and that this date appears upon a minute of 1787 when King Gustavus III. presided, but that it is erroneously entered London.  He {414} also asserts that Charles XII., who was assassinated in 1718, had Lodges, and Chapters or Encampments in his army.  The ancient Guilds may have been continued in Sweden, and with reference to higher degrees we have already mentioned the existence of Rosy Cross in the 15th century and there was a similar non-Masonic Society in the 18th with the King as Chief.

   It is not supposed that any quarrel occurred at York to separate the Operatives and the Speculatives; the former continued to hold their meetings at High XII., and the latter withdrew to meet in the evening; and their Ritual retained much of the Operative customs not now found in the modern ritual of 1813.

   In the 1st Degree the Candidate took a short O.B. before preparation, in order that if he was rejected or withdrew, he might be pledged to secrecy, and the same system exists in the Guild, as the boy is O.B. in the porch before admission.  On a York reception he was invested with the Operative Mason's leather apron up to the neck; and as in the Operative Guild he was shewn how to hew the rough Ashlar.

   In the 2nd Degree he was thrice tested by the J.W., S.W., and W.M. in the use of the plumb, level, and square.  At the 1st and 2nd rounds he had to test the columns of the Wardens, and the W.M. required him to prove the perfect Ashlar with the square; there is this difference however that the Guild used the hollow square of the nature of a picture frame as a guage both for the stone and the Fellow.  The 3rd Degree begins as Fellow, and ends as "Casual" Master.

   The old Masters' ceremony of York, and the north of England, contained much that is now omitted, and had many points of resemblance to the ancient Mysteries.  The names of the criminals are given, and after the death of Hiram the Superintendent Adoniram succeeds him, and is ruler of Perfect Masters.  The details would read thus, on the lines of the ancient Mysteries: Hiram the Abiv or father of Craftsmen is lamented for twice 7 days, {415} when the fraternity is gladdened by a reappearance in the person of Adoniram the prince of the people.  In real history Adoniram was slain, whilst according to Oliver, who quotes Dius and Menander, Hiram returned to Tyre, where he is known as Abdemonos.  The York ceremony was a good representation of the Aphenism and Euresis of the Mysteries; respecting which Diodorus informs us that Egypt lamented the violent death of Osiris for fourteen days at his tomb, referring to the lunation of the moon, after which they rejoiced on a proclaimed rising.

   In regard to the Masonic symbols it is tolerably certain that the more recondite of these have been received by the Free-Masons from the most ancient times, yet that their actual signification became lost, to the society which ceased its connection with architecture, and in many cases as we know new meanings were assigned by the Grand Lodge in 1717.

   In reference to what has already been said of the perpetuation of a Mark for tools and work, it may be pointed out that the custom was continued in Scotland when an Apprentice was Entered, and Fellows had it in England according to the Catechism quoted and the remnants of Guild life still have it.  By the 1670 Laws of the Aberdeen Lodge the Apprentice, besides other fees, had to pay one Mark for his Mark.  The Laws of this date enact that Apprentices were to be "Entered," in their "Outfield Lodge," in the parish of Ness, save in ill weather when, -- "We ordain lykwise that no lodge be holden within a dwelling house, where there is people living in it, but in the open fields, except it be ill weather, and let there be a house closed, that no person shall heir or see us."  In the old Dumfries Lodge, No. 53, by the Laws of 1687 Apprentices had to pay, "a mark Scots money assignt mark."  The Scots Magazine gives a Dundee Initiation of 1727 and has, -- "How got you that Mark?"  Answer, -- "I took up one Mark, and laid down another."  {416}

   In the Catechism, printed in England, we quoted the lines: -- 

            'And what you want in Masonry,

             Thy Mark and Maughbin makes thee Free." 

   All the evidence which these documents afford us, -- rudimentary, aid-memory, or fragmentary though they may be, point to this, that in some parts, and especially in Scotland, the ancient Fellow and Master of the General Assembly had become the Apprentice and Fellow of the Lodge, first by swearing the Apprentice to a Charge, and then by reducing the seven years' qualification for Fellowship, until finally there was little or no interval, but customs were not uniform, for there was no general central authority.

   In other cases, where a stricter tradition was followed, the Apprentice was sworn to a Charge by some ceremonial and at the end of his seven years' Apprenticeship was accepted a Fellow by a formal ceremony and then, or afterwards, received the more ancient secrets of a Master Mason; or, as in certain Northern Lodges was created a Harod or ruling Chief; for as the Lodges ceased to be schools of architecture there was no call to continue a strict examination for the title of a Passed Master.  This apparently was the view of Grand Lodge in 1717, adopted with some changes to suit a new state of things.

   It is quite open to belief, as modern critics contend, that when an unindentured man, or a gentleman, was made a Mason in a Lodge, such as that of York, he would receive the whole degrees at once, in a running ceremony.  The Guild received amateurs in the 6th Degree only.  It must therefore be true, in a modified sense, that Fellow and Master were convertible terms.  It is all but certain that the Speculative, so-called revivalists of 1717 had oral or written Catechisms of Guild ceremonies, and we are told by Anderson, that the 1721 meetings of Grand Lodge were made very interesting by the Lectures of old Masons.  At any rate, we are required to believe in their good faith, {417} and that the men who formed the Grand Lodge of London in 1717, transmitted us what they had or could remember from the ancients; revised, subtracted, added a little, it may be, but their chief alteration was eventually to make three ceremonies the rule of Speculative Masons, and to contain, in one form or another, all which they had obtained from the Ancient Guild Masons; who when they received an Amateur swore him only in the 6th Degree.  As they had now no use for an Indentured Apprentice, they divided the degree of Reception into two portions, in our present Apprentice and Fellow-Craft degrees, revising somewhat the Passed Fellow and adding a second part to their Master's degree.

   At least they knew, however badly instructed they may have been, better of what genuine Masonry consisted than the iconocalistic critics of near two centuries later; and we must bear in mind that we are dealing with a Society that was established for secret and oral transmission of its Mysteries, and which bound its members to absolute secrecy on every point under the most binding penalties.  The whole allegory of a Master, it has been observed, enforces the lesson that it is a danger, even to allow it to be suspected that he possessed certain Rites, that were a certificate of his proficiency in the Craft.  Nor must we forget that speculative Masonry was constituted as a Triad Society governed by threes, after the manner of the Druids.  Shakespere says, "that a rose by any other name would smell as sweet;" and the Grand Lodge established in 1717 is the same thing whether we call it by that name, or term it Assembly, Congregation, or Chapter, as the ancient designations ran.  Practically 1717 was the revival of a previous attempt to continue a ruling body without its Rites and ceremonies, and from this period Freemasons can have little doubt as to the nature of the Society and its degrees so far as the ordinary Craft Mason is concerned.  The supposed claim of the Modern Grand Lodge to a full possession of the entire {418} system of Masonry was not universally acknowledged but denied, and led to York, and other centres of Masons, being termed ANCIENTS, whilst the Grand Lodge of London was designated MODERN.  The guiding principle of the founders of the Grand Lodge Rites was Universality, and with antiquarian tastes, and logical views, nothing was accepted as Masonry but what concerned Solomon's Temple, and in adopting Guild ceremonies they did so without reference to the 2nd temple.  The question arises here whether or no they were fully informed Initiates, and that is very dubious.

   After a full consideration of all the facts produced in previous chapters can we arrive at any other conclusion than this, that though Freemasonry of the present day, may have undergone modifications in its ceremonies, and changed with the manners of Society, yet that the general tone of its ritual has descended to us from the most remote antiquity.  As to the 2nd part of the Master's ceremony, on which so much criticism has been wasted, there can be no doubt that it has been taken from the yearly celebration of the Guilds of what is supposed to have occurred at the building of the Temple.

   Throughout these pages we have followed the ordinary histories which treat Modern Freemasonry as a succession of the Operative Guilds; it is one of the descendants of these bodies, but lacking their technical instruction, and the abridgement which it has undergone can only be fully understood by placing the two Rites in juxtaposition.  It is, -- what else can we say? a moral and speculative imitation of the more ancient Rites of the Guilds, socially of a higher status, but separated from them, and with the next Chapter we enter entirely upon a Speculative Freemasonry.

   Much confusion has arisen owing to writers attempting to trace Masonry from a special class of what were termed "Mysteries."  We have seen that the early Mysteries were Guilds, and that even after Caste influenced them, and divided them into three sections {419} they were still all one, varying only in the names, &c.  There were then (1) those of the Priests; (2) those of Warriors and agriculturists; (3) those of the Artisans.  All three were equally Mysteries; all were equally Guilds; equally one Mystery; with like ceremonies varying mainly in the object and technical part of their Rituals.  Masonry is the only one of these that has come down to us unchanged at the date we close this Chapter.  They were a necessity to the priestly builders of Temples and Churches, and therefore encouraged.

   It must be admitted, however, that the modern rites have a remarkable reference to those of the Cabiri.  It had seven anthropomorphised Gods of Art, the number of a "perfect Lodge"; of these, three were Chief Gods, and one was slain by the others and buried in the roots of Olympus.  It is said that the Roman Emperor Commodius in initiating a candidate was so energetic that he sent him to join his prototype. 






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