Part 7 of 7 (Chapters XII)

THE ARCANE SCHOOLS

 

BY

 

   John Yarker


                                                 

CHAPTER XII.

FREEMASONRY IN THE GRAND LODGE ERA.

 

"And therefore what I throw of is ideal --

Lower'd, leaven'd, like a history of Freemasons,

Which bears the same relation to the real,

As Captain Parry's voyage may do to "Jason's."

The Grand Arcanum's not for men to see all;

My music has some mystic diapasons;

And there is much which could not be appreciated

In any manner by the uninitiated."

                 Byron's "Don Juan." "Canto" xiv., Stanza xxii.

The Guild Assembly is supposed to have been revived as the Grand Lodge of London in 1717, and according to the account of Dr. James Anderson, by four old Lodges, which met for that purpose at the Apple-tree tavern; but another account, of 1764, states that six old Lodges took part in the proceeding but gives no evidence.  The first Grand Master may be considered a member of the old operative body, namely Brother Anthony Sayer, of whom a very excellently executed portrait has recently been published by Brother Henry Sadler; the election of this first Grand Master took place at the Goose and Gridiron on St. John's Day, 1717; he was followed by George Payne, a gentleman of antiquarian tastes, who was elected G.M. on the 24th June, 1718.  In the year 1719 Bro. J. T. Desaguliers was elected Grand Master, he was a man of some scientific eminence, and visited Lodge Mary's Chapel, Edinburgh, where he was received, "after due examination;" it has been suggested that he may have exemplified the London working, but the facts are such that it is much more probable that he went to learn and not to teach, moreover, the Grand Lodge terms, "Cowan" and "Fellow-Craft" are Scottisms. {495}

Of late years the more critical historians have expressed themselves as very dissatisfied with the account which Anderson has given of himself and of the establishment of his Grand Lodge in 1717, and if the statements which appear in our pages are unassailable, -- as we believe them to be, -- he had every reason for prevarication and reticence.  He says that the Grand Lodge was established because Wren neglected the Lodges, that is the Lodges which were established by the dissidents who left the operative Guilds in 1715.  Under the circumstances whatever legitimacy the Grand Lodge of London had it derived it from the old operative Lodges, chiefly in the North of England, which united with it.  The Guilds assert that it was Anderson who abrogated the seven years' Apprenticeship and changed the seat of the Master from West to East.

In 1720 Brother George Payne was elected for a second time, and compiled a code of regulations for the Grand Lodge which was passed on the 24th June 1721, and forms the first Constitution.  Several old MSS. were burnt in London by scrupulous brethren in 1720, one of them being by Nicholas Stone, who is said to have been a Grand Warden of Inigo Jones.  The office of Deputy Grand Master was instituted.

In 1721 the antiquary Dr. William Stukely was made a Mason and records the circumstance thus in his "Diary:" -- "6th January 1721, I was made a Free-mason at the Salutation Tav., Tavistock Street, with Mr. Collins and Captain Rowe who made the famous diving engine."  In his "Common-place" Book he records; that: -- "I was the first person made a Free-mason in London for many years.  We had great difficulty to find members enough to perform the ceremony.  Immediately after that it took a run, and ran itself out of breath through the folly of the members."  In his "Autobiography" he again refers to the matter: "his curiosity led him to be initiated into the mysteries of Masonry, suspecting them to be the remains of the Mysteries of the antients."  These {496} references are very valuable in the inferences to be drawn from them.  As there were few members in 1721, it is clear that under Anderson and his friends much progress had not been made, but from some old members, he must have received the impression of the great antiquity of Masonic Rites.  On the 10th March, 1721, he says -- "I waited on Sir C. Wren."  At a meeting of the 24th June 1721, at which were present the Duke of Montague, Lords Herbert and Stanhope, and Sir Andrew Fountain, Stukely saw the "Cooke M.S.," which he says Grand Master Payne had obtained in the West of England, and Brother Speth points out that Stukely made a copy of the first and last page.  There exist two other copies of it made at this period; Stukely considered the MS. 500 years old.  Grand Master Payne read over a new set of Articles and Dr. Desaguliers pronounced an Oration.<<Vide Gould's "Hist. Frem.">>  From this we gather that Speculative Masonry was rising into importance.

On the 24th June, 1721, at the Grand Lodge held by G. M. Payne at the Queen's Arms, St. Paul's Churchyard, at the request of the Duke of Montague, Philip Lord Stanhope (afterwards Earl of Chesterfield), and several gentlemen attended; after usual proceedings the Brethren adjourned to Stationers' Hall, and in the presence of 150 brethren the Duke of Montague was proclaimed Grand Master and Brother Beale, Deputy.  Dr. J. T. Desaguliers delivered "an eloquent oration about Masons and Masonry," which is said to have been printed.

Stukely records that on the 25th May, 1722, he met the Duke of Queensboro, Lords Dunbarton and Hinchinbroke at the Fountain's Tavern Lodge to consider the Festival of St. John's.  Philip Duke of Wharton was elected G.M. 25th June, 1722, and Brother J. T. Desaguliers Deputy.  Brother Gould has given good reasons for believing that Anderson's statements of 1738 on this point, as well as upon others, are unreliable.<<"Ars Quat. Cor." viii.>>  Brother William Cowper was appointed Grand Secretary, {497} and G.M. Wharton approved a Ceremony for Installing the Master of a Lodge.  Wharton at this time was much embarrassed having inherited an impoverished estate, and was himself a man reckless in his expenses.  Stukely records that on the 3rd November the Duke of Wharton and Lord Dalkeith visited the Lodge of which Stukely was Master.  In this year J. Roberts printed the version of a MS., in which are the "New Regulations," as to one Master and Assembly which his copy says was passed 8th December, 1663; it contains the Clause that a Freemason must be fully 21 years of age.  At this time the Grand Lodge claimed the sole right to confer the grade, or grades, of Fellow and Master; it is thought that one grade is implied, if it is two it indicates the sense in which they regarded the rights of Assembly given in the "Cooke MS."

In 1723 Francis Earl of Dalkeith was Grand Master, and in this year Brother James Anderson, a presbyterian divine, and a genealogist, published the first "Book of Constitutions," which he had compiled from the old MSS., and other sources, by order of the Grand Lodge.  It was dedicated to the Duke of Montague by J. T. Desaguliers the Deputy Grand Master, and Brother Gould is of opinion that Anderson, as an Aberdeen Man introduced Scottish terminology into the English Craft.  As a Scottish Antiquary the author would be well acquainted with the Customs of the Lodges and the Masters' Incorporations, and whilst the early years of Grand Lodge resembles the Scottish Lodges, the grant of "Fellowcraft and Master," to the private Lodges, and the sending of Masters and Wardens to Grand Lodge brings it into line with the Incorporations, but Desaguliers had also visited the Edinburgh Lodge.  This year an engraved list of Lodges was begun by Brother John Payne, in a small volume; the "Freemason an Hudibrastic Poem," appeared, and attacks on the Society began in the Press.

In 1724, 1725, 1726,the Grand Masters were Charles Lennox Duke of Richmond; James Hamilton Lord {498} Paisley; and William O'Brian Earl of Inchiquin.In 1724 the office of Grand Treasurer was instituted.  We gave particulars, in our last Chapter of a considerable Lodge at Chester of which Randle Holme was a member, and it is probable that admissions were continued, for in the year 1724 three Lodges were accepted at Chester and Brother F. Columbine was appointed the Provincial Grand Master.  On the 27th November, 1725, Grand Lodge passed a Resolution granting the privilege of Masters to Private Lodges, -- "the majority of the members being Masters may make Masters at their discretion."  No doubt Grand Lodge found its time fully occupied with affairs of the government; and this led, a little later, to the sanction of "Masters Lodges," or meetings for the sole purpose of making Masters.<<"Ars Quat. Cor." -- Lane.>>  The lampoon on the Freemasons and Gormogons appeared, and in 1726 the "Freemasons' Accusation and Defence."  Anderson seems to have withdrawn from the Grand Lodge until 1730.  A copy of the old Constitutional Charges appeared in 1726 which contains many additions and the name of Hermes is substituted for Euclid.<<Spencer's "Reprints," 1870.>>  In June 1726 Dr. Stukely removed to Grantham and established a Lodge there.

In Ireland Masonry, as we have seen, was known at the University in 1688, and there was a Grand Lodge of Dublin in 1725, having six subordinate Lodges of "gentlemen Freemasons."  The first Grand Master was the Earl of Rosse who was Installed in the Great Hall of King's Inn 26th June, 1725.  There was also a Grand Lodge at Munster in 1726, of which Brother James O'Brian was Grand Master, and also member of the Horn Lodge in London.  At Cork a Lodge is known to have existed in 1728.  The custom of issuing Charters to Lodges began with the Grand Lodge of Ireland in 1729, and they were the first to Charter military Lodges, the earliest of which is 7th November, 1732, to the "First Battalion Royal."<<"Cem. Hiber." -- Crawley.>> {499} A copy of the English Constitutions edited by J. Pennell, with some slight additions, was printed by J. Watts of Dublin in 1730; and in 1734 Bro. Wm. Smith issued a "Pocket Companion," of which later versions appeared in England.

In the constant reception of noble brethren, changes in the Constitutions, and in the qualifications, coupled with the elimination of Christian references which had obtained admission in the course of ages we probably see, it is supposed in the first named case especially, the cause of the attacks made by the press between the years 1723-26, by a class socially inferior, but equally zealous for Masonry, of whom the old Speculative and Operative body had been previously composed.  There are allusions in the "Praise of Drunkenness" by Robert Samber to catechisms then known in 1723; another appeared in that year; the "Grand Mystery" and praise of the Gormogons 1724, and a second edition in 1725; to this a short reply was printed by Dublin Masons, 1725, in which the Society is held to be of great antiquity and supported by superior persons.  Some years ago the late Brother Matthew Cooke brought to light a very curious and important MS. book of this period which is now lying in the British Museum, being Add. MSS. 23002.<<"Frem. Mag." v, 1861. -- Old Lodges.  Now facsimiled by Quat. Cor. Lodge.>>  It is a minute book of the "Philo Musicae et Architecturae Societas" established at the Queen's Head, near Temple Bar, by seven members of whom two were made Masons by Mr. Thomas Bradbury and three by the Duke of Richmond.  Other Initiates were afterwards made by the Society and we read under date 1724, -- "Mr. William Goulston, Court Nevit, Esq., Mr. William Jones, and Mr. Edmund Squire were regularly pass'd Masters, in the beforementioned Lodge of Hollis Street, and before we founded this Society a Lodge was held consisting of Masters sufficient for that purpose, in order to pass Charles Cotton, Esq., Mr. Papillon Ball, and Mr. Thomas Marshall, Fellow Crafts; in the performance of which Mr. {500} William Goulson acted as Senior Warden.  Immediately after which, viz. the 18th day of February A.D. 1724, the said Mr. William Goulson was chosen President of the said Society."  These brethren, were visited amongst others by Past Gd. Master Payne, and the S. Gd. Warden Wm. Sorrel.  As there are no minutes in Grand Lodge of any one being made Masters after 1723, and as it never had an actual body of "Passed" Masters the ancient Guild ceremony is in evidence.  It is probable that the regulation of passing existed only on paper, for we see that officers of Grand Lodge were visiting and acting in private Lodges.

In the North of England, following a meeting evidently operative at Scarborough in 1705, and therefore unminuted; at Bradford in 1713; there are  records of meetings in 1721, 1723, 1725, 1726, of Private Lodges at York, that mode being used to distinguish the Lodge from the General Assemblies on St. John's day.  At a meeting in 1725 Francis Drake, the historian was made a Mason by Brother William Scourfield.  A Code of regulations for their meetings was agreed upon and the Society now took the title of "Grand Lodge of All England."  In 1726 Charles Bathurst was appointed President, and Francis Drake, Warden, and the latter at the Annual Assembly on St. John's day, 27th December, 1726, gave an address, which has often been printed, and always held to be of great interest; he speaks of the efforts to revive the Society in London; addresses the operative Masons, other trades, and gentlemen, and claims for York the undeniable Mastership of "All England."  Brother Wm. Scourfield in 1726 was suspended for calling an unauthorised meeting, and making masons, and was probably acting with the operatives.  The old body met till 1744, and then fell into abeyance until the year 1761, when Drake revived it.  Besides York other bodies of an operative and independent nature existed in the North as at Swalwell, Alnwick, Hexham, Ford, Newcastle, etc. {501}

At London in 1727, 1728, 1729-30, the Grand Masters were Henry Clare Lord Coleraine; James King Lord Kingston; Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolk who held the position for two years.  On the 27th May, 1727, Hugh Warburton was appointed Prov. Gd. Master for North Wales; and on 27th December, 1728, George Pomfret opened a Lodge in Bengal.  A copper plate of the "Mystery of Free Masons," was printed by Andrew White -- "Taken from the papers of a deceased Brother"; and we find Bro. Oakley quoting largely from Samber's Preface to Long Livers, 1721.  Benjamin Cole published in 1728, from copper-plate, the Constitution of 1726.  It is noteworthy as illustrating the state of things now existing that Past Gd. Master Sayer was censured for "behaving irregularly," and what he did was probably to attend his old Guild as he was an operative.  Brother Gould thinks he may have been visiting the Gormogons.  In August and September 1730 the "Daily Journal" printed certain spurious rituals, and the "Grand Whimsey" of Masonry, by F. G., and these were followed in the same year by a broadsheet reprint entitled, "The Mystery and Motions of Free-masonry discovered."  In this year also Samuel Prichard published his "Masonry Dissected" (12mo. pp. 31, London, 1730) which led to an able "Defence," which Brother Gould has proved, from the Minutes of the Lodge at Lincoln, was written by Brother Martin Clare.  Also the censure of Grand Lodge fell upon a Society of Honorary Freemasons.  Also appeared in 1730 "The Perjured Freemason Detected."  In all this there was probably a Jacobite undercurrent coupled with High grade dissatisfaction, for the sympathies of Grand Lodge was Hanoverian while York was essentially Jacobite.  On the 29th January, 1731, the Duke of Norfolk presented Grand Lodge with the old sword of Gustavus Adolphus, to be used as the Sword of State.  It is worthy of note that in the few preserved minutes of Lodge meetings, at this period as in those of Lincoln, there is but little mention, {502} and sometimes none, of the degree of Fellow, now termed Fellow-craft, the minutes confining themselves to record the making of Apprentices and Masters.

Faulkner of Dublin printed in 1731, Swift's "Letter from the Grand Mistress of Female Freemasons."

There appears in the "Daily Advertiser" of 16th August, 1731, an advertisement to the public, that there was on view a fine model of King Solomon's Temple, with 2,000 chambers and windows, 7,000 pillars, and models of the Ark and all the holy utensils; further stating that a printed description, with 12 fine cuts, might be had.  This would be a model prepared by Councillor Schott of Hamburg between 1718-25 and on exhibition 1725-31.  There is mention 22nd September, 1732, of the admission of Jews in the Rose Tavern in Cheapside, and the "Grub Street Journal" printed letters attacking Freemasonry.

There are several interesting notices of meetings at Newcastle-on-Tyne, which we should suppose from "Border Table Talk," to have had a succession from 1581, a tolerable antiquity for an English Lodge, if the links were shewn.  The Northumberland Calendar states that 1st July, 1674, the Society met in the White Friar's tower; and no doubt the "Watson MS." written in 1687 by Edward Thompson was their Lodge document.  On the 29th May, 1730, a Lodge of the "Honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons" was held at Mr. Barth. Pratt's "at which abundance of gentlemen assisted, wearing white leathern aprons and gloves."  On 28th December, 1734, the "anniversary of the Most Honourable and Ancient Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons," was held at widow Grey's, "the Society consisting of the principal inhabitants of the town and country;" after this they attended church to hear a sermon by the Rev. Mr. Robinson, Vicar of Byewell, "their chaplain."  On 27th December, 1737, Walter Blackett, Esq., was W.M.; Mr. Thoresby, Deputy W.M., Messrs. Newton and Graham, Wardens, for the ensuing year.<<Gould's "Hist. Freem." ii, p. 261; also "Trans. Newcastle Coll. Ros." pt. I.>>  Richardson says that {503} in, "1742, the Company obtained from the Corporation a grant of the Cutler's tower in Carliol Croft (now Croft Street), which they repaired, and fit up in a handsome manner."

We have seen an old Craft certificate form used in the old Newcastle Lodge, under the Grand Lodge, which represented two pillars on one of which was engraved "Isk Chotzeb, Isb Sabhal, Giblim;" and on the other (facing right), "Bonai, Menatzckhim, Harods."

The Lodge of Alnwick preserved its minutes from 1700-55, and these have been handsomely printed by the Newcastle College of Rosicrucians.  We find mention of the Entering of Apprentices; making of Free-brothers; of Brothers and Fellows; the annual elections of the Masters and Wardens; yet no word as to Rites and secrets.  But the only inference we can draw from this is that the brethren were real Masons, not pretenders, innoculated with the new doctrines of 1717, and knew that such things could not be written about.  Hence in the case of similar omissions in the minutes of York, Durham, Scotland, etc., no reliance can be placed, or arguments drawn from obscure allusions to matters of this nature.  There was also, at this period a Lodge at Hexham, which would seem to have died out without at any time coming under the Grand Lodge of England.  There was another at Swalwell, which will be referred to when it comes under the Grand Lodge in 1735.

We may add a few lines here in regard to Masonry in Scotland, which had many ancient Lodges at work; and which were societies sanctioned by law for mutual assistance and the regulation of business, and over which the Clare family had an hereditary jurisdiction, and had to be in possession of the "Masons' Word."  From early times they had admitted traders unconnected with building, and gentlemen of position; the one termed "Domatic" or operative Masons, the other "Geomatic," or Speculative Masons.  These bodies met together in 1736, and established a Grand Lodge upon the London {504} system, and consolidated it by the election as Grand Master of Brother William St. Clair, who then resigned the rights if such still existed which he had from his ancestors who had been appointed in the 16th century Lord Wardens General, and patrons of the Masonic Craft; with the consent of Lodges, and sanction of the Kings, Judges of all matters in dispute.<<Vide the "Schaw Constitution," or rules, also previous chapter.>>  From this period, Scotland gradually conformed to the ritualistic system of England, but as proved by the "Dumfries MS.," quoted in our last chapter, for a long period retained its Christian character.

In this condensed account it is unnecessary to repeat the mere names of the Grand Masters of England; these are found in any modern Cyclopaedia, or in the Grand Lodge calendars.  Various old Lodges must have united themselves with the Grand Lodge, but as the entries are made from the date of admission, it is impossible in all cases to trace their origin by the Grand Lodge Register; one notable exception is Lodge 65, of St. Rook's hill, Chichester, which is registered as dating from the time of Julius Caesar.  An old Lodge of Swalwell, nr. Gateshead, with minutes from 1725, accepted a Deputation, or joined the Grand Lodge, 21st March, 1735, and the Earl of Crawford appointed one of its members, namely Brother Joseph Laycock of Winlaton, as Prov. Grand Master at the same date with a second Lodge at Gateshead, 3rd March, 1736, No. 256.  The Lodge was frequented by "brethren from all the surrounding country as the Grand Master conferred the Harodim at his residence."<<"Freem. Mag." 1794, also "Kneph.">>  That these Lodges had the Harodim is proved by an Address which he gave the Lodge in 1735, and which is printed in "The Book M, or Masonry Triumphant," Newcastle, 1736, and which contains subscribers from this Lodge at Swalwell, from Hexham, and Gateshead; but the minutes do not confirm the statement that Laycock continued the Harodim.  It is the "Pocket Companion" of Brother Smith {505} of Dublin adapted to English use; its full title being: "The Book M: or Masonry Triumphant.  In two parts.  Part I. containing the History, Charges, and Regulations of FREE MASONS, with an account of Stately Fabrics erected by the Illustrious Society.  Part II. containing the Songs usually sung in LODGES, Prologues and Epilogues spoken at the Theatres in LONDON in honour of the Craft, with an account of all the places where Regular Lodges are held.  "Be wise as Serpents, yet innocent as Doves."  Newcastle upon Tyne.  Printed by Leonard Umfreville and Company.  MDDCCXXXVI."  It is dedicated to the Brethren and Fellows, "assembling in Lodges in the Northern Counties of England."  In 1735 Anderson complained to Grand Lodge in evident allusion to it.

The Grand Lodge of London had now achieved high prestige, for in 1733 eighteen new Lodges were constituted in the London district alone, and the powers of the Committee of Charity were extended.  In 1734 Prov. Gd.. Masters were appointed for Lancashire and Durham, Northumberland we have already named.  This would not be likely to give much satisfaction to the Grand Lodge of All England at York, and may have contributed to its later relapse, and even in the South, 1735-8, dissatisfaction was spreading; Freemasons were being admitted in unchartered "St. John's Lodges," members dropped off, and Lodges began to be erased.

On the 15th April, 1736, the Earl of Loudan had Garter and Lyon, the Kings of Arms of England and Scotland, besides many titled persons, to attend his Installation as Grand Master, but his appointment of officers seems to have given dissatisfaction.  In 1737 the Prince of Wales was made a Mason, at a private Lodge held at the palace of Kew.  Under the Marquis of Carnarvon the Gd. Master in 1737 a Prov. Gd. Master was appointed for the West Riding of Yorkshire.  A Papal Bull excommunicating the members of the Society made its appearance in 1738.  In the same year Anderson issued a second {506} edition of the "Book of Constitutions" in which the history of architecture is much extended, but some changes were made in the wording of the Charges which were not altogether received with favour.  In the same year the "Gentlemens' Magazine" printed a pretended description of the ceremonies, and J. Wilford, the printer of Prichard's 7th edition,issued a 6d. pamphlet entitled, "Masonry further Dissected; or more SECRETS Of that Mysterious "Society" Reveal'd. Faithfully Englished from the French Original, just publish'd at Paris, by the Permission and Privilege of M. de Harrant, Lieutenant General of Police" (pp.xvi. and 32, London, 1738).  This work of Heraut is given in "Masonry Trahi." 1745.  In 1739, the Holy Roman Inquisition ordered to be burnt a work, written in French, entitled, -- "The History of, and Apology for the Society of Freemasons, by J.G.D.M.F.M.  Printed at Dublin by Patrick Odonoko, 1730."  Oliver gives a professed translation in Volume III. of the "Remains;" and it has been erroneously attributed to the Chevalier Ramsay.

On the 30th June, 1739, Lord Raymond, G.M., there are complaints of irregular makings, and the laws are ordered to be enforced; and on the 23rd July, 1740, Earl of Kintore, G.M., there are complaints of brethren "being present and assisting at irregular meetings."  In the year 1741 the Grand Lodge prohibited the publishing of anything concerning Freemasonry; and in the following year a mock procession was got up by people calling themselves Scald Miserable Masons, in imitation of that of the Grand Lodge which led to the abolition of the annual procession of Freemasons.  A plate of this ridiculous procession was published 27th April, 1742, but this must not be confounded with Hogarth's embodiment of the Gormogon's slanders which had a third edition about the same year, and mentioned in our last chapter.  On the 24th June, 1742, three Lodges were erased for not answering summonses to appear; and between 1743-7 there were 34 more Lodges erased, but No. 9 restored; {506} next there were five Lodges erased, but two restored.  Thus the basis was laid for the prosperous advent of a rival.  A new "Book of Constitutions," the third edition, appeared in 1746, but Brother Hughan points out that it is but that of 1738, with a new title.

In 1736 "Le Franc Macon," appeared at Frankfort and Leipzic, and was dedicated to Count Bruhl.  (Scott gives it in his Pocket Companion of 1757).

In 1737 "The Mysterious Receptions of the Celebrated Society of Freemasons."  Also, in the same year, "The Society of Masonry made known to all men," by S.P.

In 1738, "Masonry further Dissected."

In 1745, The Testament of a Freemason or "Le Testament de Chevalier Graf."

In 1747, "L'Adept Macon, or the True Secret of Freemasonry."

In a work entitled "Magistracy settled upon its only True Basis," by Thomas Nairn, Minister of the Gospel at Abbotshall, printed in the year MDCCXLVII., for which I am indebted to my Publisher, there is a peculiar "Protestation" in the Appendix.  At Kirknewton, on December 27th, 1739, James Chrystie, James Aikman, Andrew Purdie, and John Chrystie renounce the Mason-Word, to which John Miller, at Dalkeith, July 27th, 1747, adds his adhesion.  All repudiate their oaths as members of "The Society of Operative Masons in the Lodge at Torphicen to meet at Livingston Kirk."  They declare "When I was young at my admission amongst you, both as an Apprentice and Fellow Craft, wherein (upon very solemn penalties) I was bound to Secrecy and also to admit none but operative Masons into the Society." . . . "Kneeling upon their bare knee with the Bible upon the same, and the naked arm upon the Bible." . . . "Most of the secrets being idle stuff and lies." . . . "And as a further aggravation the idle and excessive misspending of precious time and money in superstitious observation of St. John's Day in idleness, drunkenness and profane jests and songs."  Several particulars {508} of the old Operative Charges are quoted and they withdraw from the Society in favour of the "Oaths of our National and Solemn League and Covenant."

In 1750, December 27th, A Sermon was preached at Gloucester, by F.M.: printed and dedicated to "Henry Toy Bridgeman, of Prinknach, Esq.," High Sheriff of the County of Gloucester, Master Mason, and Master of the Lodge of the Ancient and Honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons, regularly constituted in the City of Gloucester.

In 1751, "An Answer to the Pope's Bull, with a Vindication of the Real Principles of Freemasonry."  Published by the assent and approbation of the Grand Lodge of Ireland.  "Magna est veritas et proevalebit."  Dublin, printed by John Butler on Cork Hill, for the author, 1751.  Small 8vo., 64 pp.  Dedicated -- "To the Right Worshipful and Right Honourable Lord George Sackville, Grand Master of the Ancient and Honourable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons in Ireland."  (Arms plate -- R. Close, Sculp.)

In the same year, "La Macon Demasque."  By T.W. initiated at the Swan, in the Strand, thro' his friend Mons. Cowen, a Mr. Fielding being the Venerable or Master.  London 1751.  (In Berlin 1757).

It is not difficult to see where the shoe pinched the "Modern Mason."  An old broadsheet of 1755 says that, "the Moderns leave out at least one half of the Lectures" -- and this is confirmed, later, by a pamphlet of 1765 entitled, -- "A Defence of Freemasonry," the writer of which states that he visited a Lodge of the "Ancients," and he condemns their prolixity, and defends the abridged form of Modern ceremonies.  In our days the Guild Free Masons have spoken, to some extent, and we know their process.  What the founders of the G. L. of 1717 did was to do away with all technic, and revise what was left to make a new system; the Dermott body had Guild Masons to help them.

The general dissatisfaction thus shewn to exist, was {509} taken advantage of in the establishment at London of a rival Grand Lodge of which Brother Lawrence Dermott, an old Irish Mason, became the Grand Secretary.  Their ceremonies were undoubtedly, as he states, remodelled by Ancient Guild Masons.  Their affairs from 1751 were managed by a Committee of the Lodges until 1753 when Robert Turner, Esq., became Grand Master, and was succeeded by Robert Vaughan in 1754.  In 1755 a Manifesto entitled "the Masons' Creed" was issued.  In 1756 Dermott issued their first Book of Constitutions under the title of "Ahiman Rezon," and certain rules are entitled, "Regulations for Charity in Ireland and by York Masons in England."  The Earl of Blessington became Grand Master in 1757.  Brother Henry Sadler in his work entitled "Facts and Fictions" has done much to disentangle the confused history of the period and he has shewn that this body was established by Irish Masons, reinforced by dissidents who had been Initiated in the unchartered "St. John's Lodges," and by members of the Lodges which had been struck from the Roll of the Grand Lodge of 1717.  They claimed to have retained the full ancient work of York which had been curtailed by the Grand Lodge which they dubbed Modern.

The "Ancient," or the "York Masonry," by which the new Grand Lodge distinguished itself, was an old Arch-Templar body, and the same system was worked by the London Grand Lodge of 1751.  By their Charters the Arch was worked under Lodge authority, and though no prominence was given to the Templar, it was usually conferred with the Arch degree.  At York itself, when a revival took place under Grand Master Drake, in 1761, the Arch was recognised by the Grand Lodge and the Templar also, continuing in active operation until 1792, when they silently expired.

In 1764 Dermott published a second edition of the "Ahiman Rezon," in which comments are made upon three pamphlets of the period, namely: "Hiram, or the Master Key to Masonry; The three Distinct Knocks;" and "Boaz" {510} "and Jachin;" these works seem to have given Dermott much annoyance, and he brings the author of the two last to untimely ends on the 23rd August, 1762, and 8th September, 1763.  The Charity regulations of this new edition give in parallel columns the Dublin and London rules in force since 1738, and those of 1751 for his own Grand Lodge.  In 1772 the Duke of Athol became Grand Master, after which they were usually designated "Athol Masons," and had formal recognition from the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland.  A third and enlarged edition of the "Ahiman Rezon" appeared in 1778.

We will now return to the Grand Lodge of 1717; and may mention that in 1746 a brother of the name of John Coustos published an account of the sufferings he had undergone by the Roman Inquisition for the crime of Freemasonry, and expressing his grateful thanks to the British Government for claiming his release from his abominable torturers.  Complaints of irregular meetings reappear in 1749, and again in 1752.  In 1754-5 there are proceedings against the members of a Lodge held at the Ben Johnson's Head in Spitalfields as "Ancient" Masons and the Lodge was ordered to be erased; Dermott says that some of its members had been abroad, where they received much favour from the fact of their following the traditional rites of the "Ancients," and therefore they resolved to practise "Ancient" Masonry every third Lodge night, to which meetings the ordinary Craft Mason was not admitted.  The matter was not mended by Brother Spenser, who replied to a letter from an Irish petitioner for his relief that their Grand Lodge was "neither Royal Arch nor Ancient," and Dermott prints his letter in 1764.  The progress of the "Ancients" has been attributed to the general mismanagement of the affairs of Grand Lodge and to the absence from England of Lord Byron the Grand Master, 1747-52, and a proposal was on foot to supersede him in 1751, but Brother Thomas Manningham interposed so judiciously that the proposal fell through, and he himself was promoted to the office of Deputy {511} Grand Master in 1752; various Lectures and Sermons, given between 1735-52, are printed by Oliver in his "Remains," and Brother Thomas Dunckerley delivered a Lecture "On Masonic Truth and Charity" at Plymouth in 1757.

A new edition of the "Book of Constitutions," edited by Brother John Entick, was published in 1756.  In 1757 a list of 14 irregular Masons meeting at the Marlboro's Head in Pelham Street, Spitalfields, was ordered to be sent to each Lodge; and Brother Henry Sadler points out that they were working independently of any Grand Lodge.  In 1760 J. Burd published a translation of

"Les Ordre des Franc Macons Trahi" under the title of "'A Master Key to Freemasonry;" by which all the Secrets of the Society are laid open, and their pretended Mysteries exposed to the Publick."<<"Ars Quat. Cor." 1896, p. 85; J. Bird, opposite St. Dunstan's Church, Fleet St., MDCCLX. 6d. viii and 48pp. 8vo.>>  This led in the same year to the publication of "The Freemasons' Advocate, or Falsehood Detected."  In spite of this untoward state of affairs Freemasonry made progress.  In 1764 appeared a work entitled "Multa Paucis for Lovers of Secrets," which is the basis on which is grounded the charge of negligence by Lord Byron.  In Scotland Joseph Galbraith, of Glasgow, in 1765, issued the "Free Masons' Pocket Companion."  It contains an account of the "Acts of the Associate Synod concerning the Masons' Oath," at Stirling in 1745, September 26th, and at Edinburgh in 1755, March 6th, and appended is an "Impartial Examination of the Associate Synod against Free-masons," reprinted from the "Edinburgh Magazine" of October, 1759.  In 1763 a Lodge at Durham which had met since 1738 went under the Grand Lodge.

The office of Grand Chaplain was instituted in 1765, and in this year a Lodge at Ford in Northumberland, consisting of 40 members, petitioned Grand Lodge for a Charter, "it being of old standing"; and between 1764-7 seventy-one new Lodges were established.  Prince Edward Duke of York having been made a Mason at Berlin in {512} 1765 was constituted a Past Grand Master in 1766.  The Steward's Lodge this year printed an "Address" of 16th November, 1763.  Entick issued a new edition of the "Constitutions" in 1767.  On the 16th May, 1766, William Henry Duke of Gloucester received the three degrees in a Lodge held at the Horn Tavern; on the 9th February, 1767, Henry Frederick Duke of Cumberland at the Thatched House Tavern.  Thus the three princes, as Masons, attended a meeting of Grand Lodge 15th April, 1767, and were presented with their clothing, and the Duke of Cumberland was elected a Past Grand Master.  Brother Thomas Dunckerley, who claimed to be an illegitimate connection of these princes, was present at the meeting, and from this period was a most active promoter of Freemasonry.  The registration of Initiates commenced in 1768.  In the year 1769 Brother Wellins Calcott, P.M., published "A Candid Disquisition of the Principles and Practises of the Most Ancient and Honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons;" he dedicated the work to the Duke of Beaufort, and had the large number of 1,200 subscribers for the edition.

In these years, 1759-70, the opposition to the Grand Lodge, which had never ceased from the time that they broke away from the Operative Guild in 1715, was in constant evidence, as witness the following publications:

In 1759 appeared in jocular evidence, "The Secrets of Freemasonry Revealed, by a Disgusted Brother."

In 1760 "The Three Distinct Knocks," by W.O.V.-N., member of a Lodge in England.  Also a "Wou'd Be's Reason," for and against; followed by a "Willingly Wou'd Be," believed to refer to Dermott's Ahiman Rezon.

In 1762, "Jachin and Boaz," followed by "A Freemason's Answer to the Suspected Author of Jachin and Boaz."

In 1764, "Hiram, or the Grand Master Key, by a member of the Royal Arch."  And in the same year, "An Institute of Red Masonry."

In 1765, "Shibboleth, or every man a Freemason." {513} Also, in the same year, "Mahabone, or the Grand Lodge Door Opened."

Also, "The Way to Things by Words."  McClelland.

"Solomon in All his Glory" professes to be "Translated from the French original published at Berlin, and burnt by order of the King of Prussia, at the intercession of the Freemasons."  London: Printed for G. Robinson and J. Roberts, at Addison's Head in Paternoster Row, 22nd April, 1766. 2s. 0d. viii. and 61 p.  A second edition appeared in 1768.

In 1766, "Solomon in All his Glory, by T. W., an Officer in the Army, and late Member of the Swan Tavern Lodge in the Strand."

In 1767, a second edition of "The Three Distinct Knocks" appeared at London, Sargeant; the previous edition being "Printed by and for A. Cleugh, Radcliffe Highway; T. Hughes, 35 Ludgate St.; B. Crosby, Stationers' Court.  Price one shilling." N.D.

In 1769, "The Freemason Stripped Naked."  Isaac Fell.

We may also mention here six valuable plates by Lanbert de Lintot: 1, Grand Lodge of England.  2, Chapter and Grand Lodge.  3, Foundation of the Royal Order.  4, Fourth and Last Stone.  5, Old and New Jerusalem.  6, Night; and also in 1770 appeared in London a Ritual in French, of the Rose Croix as the 7th degree, the 6th degree being Knight of the East.

An effort was made at this time to Incorporate the Society by Act of Parliament and to build a Hall; and, in reply to a circular letter, 168 Lodges expressed themselves in favour of the proposal and 48 opposed it.  A bill was accordingly promoted in 1771, but the scheme was finally abandoned.  In 1772 under Lord Petrie, G.M., a Committee was appointed for the purpose of erecting a Hall, and Preston's "Illustrations of Masonry" received the sanction of Grand Lodge.  In 1775, "The Spirit of Masonry" was published by Brother William Hutchinson, F.A.S., of Barnard Castle; it bears the sanction of the {514} Grand Officers of England, and is dedicated to the Grand Lodges of England, Ireland, and Scotland, and the Craft in general.  He is said to have revised the Old York Lectures and his system was used in Manchester.  The foundation of Masonic Hall was laid 1st May, 1775, and was dedicated on the 23rd May, 1776.  On 10th April, 1777, the first "Freemasons' Calendar" appeared.

In 1778 a dispute occurred between the time immemorial Lodge of Antiquity and the Grand Lodge.  This resulted in an application from Brother William Preston addressed to the Grand Lodge of All England at York, which had met regularly since 1761, for the grant of a Charter to establish a third Grand Lodge in London.  This was accomplished on the 19th April, 1780, and a Grand Lodge on the Ancient system was constituted, with jurisdiction south of the Trent, and Preston mentions it briefly in the 1781 edition of his "Illustrations."  Now we have three Grand Lodges in London and one in York.

During the ten years' existence of this new Grand Lodge it established only two subordinate Lodges in addition to the "Antiquity," and the authority came to an end with the readmission of Brother Preston in 1790 by the premier Grand Lodge.  In 1783 Brother Captain George Smith published a work entitled, "The Use and Abuse of Freemasonry."  The death of the Grand Lodge at York following shortly upon that of Brother Wm. Preston left only the two London rivals of "Ancients" and "Moderns," and efforts began to be set on foot to unite them.  It is asserted by the Rev. Brother A. F. A. Woodford, on the authority of Mr. Walbran, the editor of the Chartulary of Fountain's Abbey, that the York Brothers were in possession of a Charter, now missing, which was supposed to be that of Athelstan; other brethren say the same, but assert that it was almost illegible.

On the 1st May, 1782, Henry Frederick Duke of Cumberland was nominated Grand Master, with the Earl of Effingham as his Deputy.  In 1784 a new edition of the "Constitutions" was issued by Brother John Northouck; the {515} chief change is that the word "Order" is often used for the customary titles of "Society," or "Brotherhood."  On the 9th March, 1786, Prince William Henry, afterwards Duke of Clarence, was initiated in Lodge No. 86 at Plymouth; and on the 6th February, 1787, the Prince of Wales, afterwards King George IV., was initiated by the Duke of Cumberland in a Lodge held at the Star and Garter, Pall Mall, London; and on the 21st November, 1788, Frederick Duke, of York was initiated by the same Grand Master, at the same place, the Prince of Wales, his brother, assisting at the ceremony.  Sir Peter Parker, Admiral of the Fleet, had been appointed Deputy G.M. in November, 1786.  The "Freemasons' School for Girls" was founded 25th March, 1788, mainly by the exertions of the Chevalier Ruspini; it now bears the title of the "Royal Masonic Institution for Girls."

In 1790 the Grand Lodge met under the auspices of the Duke of Cumberland, when Edward Duke of Kent and Augustus Frederick Duke of Sussex, both of whom had been made Masons abroad, were constituted Past Grand Masters.  It was on this occasion that the old Lodge of "Antiquity" was reinstated.  On the death of the Duke of Cumberland, G.M., the Prince of Wales was elected to the vacant throne, and was Installed Grand Master 2nd May, 1792, when he appointed Lord Rawdon as Acting Grand Master, and Sir Peter Parker as Deputy.  The great extension of Freemasonry under the patronage of all these Princes is shewn by the fact that the number of Prov. Gd. Masters had increased, from eleven in 1770, to twenty-four in 1795, when Prince William of Gloucester was initiated, and Earl Moira appears as Acting Grand Master in 1795.  A Masonic publication entitled, "The Freemasons' Magazine" was begun in 1793, and continued for some years with a change of title in 1798.  In this year Bro. Stephen Jones published his "Masonic Miscellanies."

In 1798 the Boys' School was founded, and continues to the present day.  On the 12th July, 1799, an Act was {516} passed for the better suppression of treasonable Societies, special exemption being made of the Freemasons' Lodges then existing.  Under the favourable influence of the Prince of Wales and Earl Moira, Freemasonry made progress, and the possibility of uniting the two rival Grand Lodges began to be seriously contemplated.  On the 10th April, 1799, an Address was received from the Duke of Sundermania, Chief of the Order in Sweden, and a brotherly reply was reported by the Earl of Moira to Grand Lodge 9th May, 1799.

The first step towards uniting the "Ancient" and "Modern" Masons was made at a meeting of the latter body 20th November, 1801, when a complaint was made against Brother Thomas Harper and others for frequenting Lodges of the "Athol Masons."  Harper then requested a delay of three months, promising to use the time in exerting himself to promote a union of the two Grand Lodges, and this delay was conceded.  On the 4th May, 1802, the complaint against Harper was rescinded, and a Committee appointed, of which Lord Moira was a member, to pave the way for a union.  From some cause or other Harper turned his back on this arrangement; the Duke of Athol's name was used in opposition to the scheme, and no progress resulted.  On the 9th February, 1803, Grand Lodge passed a resolution condemnatory of the "meetings of persons calling themselves Ancient Masons," and threatening to enforce the laws against their own members attending such meetings.  In 1805 the Duke of Sussex was elected a Past Grand Master.  A pamphlet dated 9th February, 1804, by an anonymous author was issued entitled, "Masonic Union: An Address to His Grace the Duke of Athol, on the subject of an Union, etc."  Although the writer was a member of the Grand Lodge of 17I7, he closes his title with a quotation from the ritual of Templar Priest.  He overruns Masonry from the time of Carausius to the period when Harper was expelled by his Grand Lodge.

Other steps were being taken in the meantime, and {517} on the 12th February, 1806, the Earl Of Moira reported that he had exerted his influence with the Grand Lodge of Scotland in favour of the union of the two bodies; the same course was followed with the Grand Lodge of Ireland, and a similar report was made on the 23rd November, 1808.  On the 12th April, 1809, a resolution was passed that it was "necessary no longer to continue in force those measures which were resorted to, in or about the year 1739, respecting irregular Masons; and do therefore enjoin the several lodges to revert to the ancient landmarks of the Society."  This refers to a change which the Grand Lodge of 1717 had made, during the period, of what they were pleased to term the advent of "irregular Lodges," and which is referred to in the pamphlet of 1804, by reversing the words of the Ist degree and 2nd degree, and which the pamphleteer alludes to as a dispute whether "Gog" and "Magog" were on the right hand or left, according to the position of the beholder.  The reversal yet continues with many bodies of foreign Masons.  This step was followed by the appointment of a "Lodge of Promulgation" as preparatory to the desired union.  Generally it is considered that this change had given the Athol Masons the first handle for terming the Grand Lodge "Modern," but the distinction between the two sects had much wider grounds, as shewn in our last chapter.

On the death of Admiral Sir Peter Parker, H.R.H. the Prince of Wales appointed his brother, the Duke of Sussex, 11th December, 1811, as Acting Grand-Master, and when the former became Regent of the Kingdom, the Duke of Sussex was elected Grand Master, and the Regent Grand Patron.

At a meeting of the Grand Lodge on the 27th January, 1813, there were present six Royal Dukes -- Sussex, York, Clarence, Kent, Cumberland, Gloucester; on this occasion Earl Moira, now Marquis of Hastings, was presented with a magnificent chain and jewel of office, as he was about to depart for India.  The Duke of Sussex was installed {518} Grand Master on 12th May, 1813; and as Edward Duke of Kent had already become a member of the Athol Grand Lodge, their Grand Master the Duke of Athol, with the union in view, resigned his office and recommended as his successor H.R.H. the Duke of Kent, who was accordingly Installed as Grand Master on the 1st December, 1813, at Willis' Rooms, St. James' Square.

There now remained no obstacle to the union of the whole Craft, and the formal "Articles of Union" were drawn up at Kensington Palace on the 25th November, 1813, and ratified at meetings of the two Grand Lodges held on 1st December, 1813; these Articles were signed on behalf of the Grand Lodge of 1717, by Augustus Frederick, G.M.; Waller Rodwell Wright, P.G.M. of the Ionian Islands; Arthur Tegart, P.G.W.; James Deans, P.G.W.; William H. White, Gd. Secretary; and on behalf of the Grand Lodge of 1751, by Edward, G.M.; Thomas Harper, D.G.M.; James Perry, P.D.G.M.; James Agar, P.D.G.M.; Robert Leslie, Gd. Secretary.

In accordance with this the two parties met at the Crown and Anchor tavern in Strand, when the Articles were accepted with Masonic acclamation and unanimously confirmed.  A "Lodge of Reconciliation," composed of nine members of the Constitution of England, with Brother White as Secretary, and nine members of the old Institution, with Brother Edward Harper as Secretary, was then constituted with the object of mutually obligating each other, and affording the necessary instruction for amalgamating the two usages into one uniform ritual.

Although the 1717, or "Modern" Masons, had become zealous members of the Royal Arch and Chivalric degrees, yet such degrees were held to be outside their Grand Lodge.  On the other hand the 1751, "Ancient" Masons, had from the first treated the Arch degree as an essential part of Masonry to be conferred on Past Masters under Craft Charters, and to meet this the following was made part of the "Articles:" -- "11. It is declared and pronounced {519} that pure ancient Masonry consists of three degrees, and no more; viz., those of the Entered Apprentice; the Fellow Craft; and the Master Mason (including the Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch).  But this Article is not intended to prevent any Lodge or Chapter from holding a meeting in any of the Orders of Chivalry, according to the Constitutions of the said Orders."

By this Article, which is obligatory upon the Grand Lodge in all time, the Royal Arch is the completion of the third degree, yet worked as a High-grade, and though all other grades are excluded from the new Rite, they are not prohibited but they are allowed to be practised.

At the period of this Chapter the official Catechisms had become elaborate, the Harodim of Brother Preston being of some note.  They still continued to retain a considerable amount of Christian symbolism, confined chiefly to the spiritualisation of Solomon's temple, and the furniture and utensils.

 

{520} 

 

 

 CHAPTER XIII.

  FREEMASONRY UNDER THE UNITED GRAND LODGE. 

A MEETING of the "United Grand Lodge of Ancient Freemasons of England" was held at Freemasons' Hall on the 27th December, 1813, to formally consummate the Union.  The Masters, Wardens, and Past Masters of the two bodies composing this united Assembly had been obligated by the "Lodge of Reconciliation" on a uniform plan, and were admitted by tickets, signed and countersigned by the two Secretaries whose names appear to the Articles of Union mentioned in our last chapter, Brothers White and Leslie.  The two Grand Masters, namely, the Dukes of Sussex and Kent, occupied equal thrones.  The Rev. Brother Coglin, D.D., Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge of 1717, proclaimed the confirmation of the Articles to which the brethren signified their assent; then the Rev. Brother Barry, D.D., Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge of 1751, proclaimed the Union; after which Brother Wesley performed a symphony on the organ.  Other symbolic ceremonies were gone through and the tests were pronounced pure and correct.

The Grand Officers of both bodies now divested themselves of their Insignia.  The Duke of Kent proposed his brother the Duke of Sussex as Grand Master of the United Fraternity.  The latter was then obligated, placed upon the throne and proclaimed; after which the Grand Master proceeded to appoint his officers, the Rev. Bro. Samuel Hemming, D.D., and Bro. Isaac Lindo, Grand Wardens, and the two Grand Secretaries being those of the former Grand Lodges. {521}

The Register of the united List of Lodges was settled by drawing lots for precedence, and as that resulted in favour of the 1751 body its Charters obtained a rank in numerical order over those of the other, which still perpetuates a muddle in the chronological position of the Lodges.  A reference to Brother John Lane's valuable "Masonic Records" indicates that the revised list of the United Grand Lodge included 388 Lodges of the 1717 Constitution, and 260 Lodges of the 1751 Constitution, or a total on the new Register of 648 Lodges.  A new edition of the "Constitutions" was edited by Brother William Williams and issued in 1815, and which inserts the declaration as to degrees with which we closed our last chapter.

The Arms adopted by the United Grand Lodge were a quartering of those of the Grand Lodge of 1717, and those of the Grand Lodge of 1751; the first being a differenced coat of those granted to the London Company of Masons in 1472, and the latter being derived from the standards of the four principal tribes of Israel, adapted by Christians to the four Evangelists, and forming the seal of the Grand Chapter of York, the Grand Lodge Seal being the three crowns attributed to Prince Edwin of Deira.  Motto: Aude vide tace (Hear, see, and be silent.)

A revision of the Lectures of the three degrees of the Craft was committed to the Rev. Bro. Samuel Hemming, D.D., Chaplain to the Duke of Sussex, who made some progress therein, but is said to have been completed by the Rev. Bro. Williams.  The system, though exhibiting no great amount of genius, has continued in use to the present day, and though preserving the main features of the older systems all Christian references were expunged, in order to adapt them, in an antiquarian sense, to the supposed constitution of the Society by King Solomon, whose throne every Worshipful Master is fabled to occupy.

For some years the United Grand Lodge continued the even tenor of its way, without much worthy of notice for the historian.  On the death of Brother William Preston {522} in 1810 he left 300 Pounds in Consols the interest of which was to be devoted to an annual rehearsal of his own system of Lectures.  On the 8th March, 1820, the Grand Master called the attention of Grand Lodge to the death of George III., who had occupied the throne since 1760, and an address of Condolence was voted to the Grand Patron of United Freemasonry, now King George IV.; this address was presented by the Duke of Sussex on the 10th May, 1820, and the Royal Arms were hereafter engraved on the head of the certificates.  A similar address was presented to His Majesty, the Grand Patron upon the death of H.R.H. the Duke of Kent, Past G.M.

Between the years 1819-23 a regrettable misunderstanding occurred between the Prov. Gd. Master of Lancashire and some of the Lodges under his sway; the misunderstanding arising in Lodge No. 31, meeting at Liverpool.  Blame seems to be attributable to all sides alike, and the Lodge was erased in 1822; it was followed in 1823 by the erasure of the Sea Captain's Lodge, No. 140 which had resolved to stand or fall by No. 31.<<Preston's "Illus.," Oliver's ed.; also "Hist. Harmonic Lo.," 163, Jos. Hawkins.>>

The death of the celebrated traveller Brother Belzoni in 1825, left his widow in straightened circumstances, and the Grand Lodge voted her the sum, of 50 Pounds, and has placed it on record that this Brother was made a Mason in the "Lodge of the Pyramids" at Cairo, and whilst resident at Cambridge had joined the "School of Plato Lodge," No. 549.  Belzoni left behind him some little memento of his Masonic theories, in which he refers to the triangular and the serpent aprons of the Egyptian Kings, and their Initiations; he also expresses an opinion that the invention of the Level and Plumb, are due to Nimrod and Ashur.

In the year 1829 past Grand Stewards had permission to wear a Jewel.  The death of the Grand Patron George IV. in 1830 was reported to Grand Lodge 17th July, 1830 by his brother the Grand Master, who then read the draft of an Address to be presented to King William IV. {523} condoling with him upon the loss of his brother, and soliciting that he would extend his Patronage to the Craft.  To this a reply was received from Sir Robert Peel, dated the 28th July, 1830, signifying the King's consent to become Grand Patron.

At the beginning of the year 1832 Sir John Soane, the Grand Superintendent of Works, reported the completion of alterations which had been in progress to adapt the new Masonic Hall as a Temple exclusively devoted to Masonry, and as the expense of the alterations had been great he enclosed a draft for 500 Poounds towards the cost.  In this year 1832 a renumbering of the Lodges took place to fill up the vacancies occasioned by Lodges which had become extinct.  In March 1833 Lord Dundas, the Deputy G.M. presented to Grand Lodge on behalf of the Duke of Sussex, G.M., a bust of King William IV. the Grand Patron; also three gilt trowels which had been used on the occasions of laying the foundation stones of the London University; the Licensed Victuallers' Asylum; and the Charing Cross Hospital.

In the year 1834 the "Freemasons' Quarterly Review" was commenced and continued its labours down to 1850 when a "New Series" was begun, since which time the Craft has never been without one or more periodicals.  The learned Brother George Oliver, D.D., whose father, the Rev. Samuel Oliver, had been a Mason of the "Ancient" school, since 1823 had published a number of Masonic works; he may be considered the father of Masonic literature, though his works, for want of critical attention, have fallen into much undeserved neglect.

Several new Lodges were constituted in the Provinces in 1834, when the Earl of Durham was Deputy G.M., and new Masonic Halls were opened at Dorchester and Tiverton.In the month of June 1835 a resolution was passed at a meeting of brothers favourable to the scheme in view, -- "that it is expedient to provide for the wants of the meritorious, but aged and decayed Freemasons, by {524} the erection of an Asylum to receive them within its Sanctuary."

In December 1835 the Grand Stewards' Lodge celebrated the Centenary of its foundation in June 1735, at Freemasons' Hall.  Also the Grand Lodge of Scotland celebrated the Centenary of its foundation by a Festival on St. Andrew's day 1836.  In this year 1836 several foundation stones were laid in England with Masonic ritual and solemnities.  The Duke of Sussex, G.M., had been for some time in bad health, and the loss of his eyesight was feared, but on the 27th Jany., 1837, he was so far recovered as to make his appearance in Grand Lodge, when he received a most cordial and hearty welcome.  The Grand Lodge at this period conceived the idea of forming a Library.

In the year 1838 a magnificent Candelabrum, the funds to purchase which had been raised by subscription, was presented to the Grand Master.  The "Asylum for Aged and Decayed Freemasons," celebrated a festival in June of this year, but later on, in the same year, an opposition to the scheme was raised by the Grand Master, who had formed the impression that it would injure the other charities, but the opposition was withdrawn, after some very unpleasant scenes, which for a time affected the Masonic standing of Brother R. T. Crucifex, one of its supporters and the Editor of the "Freemasons Quarterly Review."  This Asylum was brought into actual operation in 1839; and the Earl of Durham was appointed Pro-Grand Master in the same year.  In 1842 the Male Annuity Fund of the Royal Benevolent Institution was established, the Grand Lodge voting it an annual sum of 400 Pounds.

The Duke of Sussex, G.M., died on the 21st April, 1843, and it then became necessary for the Grand Lodge to elect a Grand Master.  Bro. Thomas Dundas Earl of Zetland was selected for that office, and his Installation took place in March 1844.  In the same year a handsome testimonial was presented to Dr. George Oliver.  Also the {525} Duchess of Inverness presented to Grand Lodge the Candelabrum which had been given to her husband in 1838.  Between the years 1944-7, a certain amount of friction occurred between the Grand Lodges of England and the Royal York of Berlin, owing to the refusal of the latter to acknowledge any other than Christian Freemasons; the difficulty was finally arranged by the Royal York, acceding, in a limited measure, to the liberal views of this country.  Previous to 1847 it was, from olden time, a necessity that a Candidate should be "free-born," but in this year it was resolved to substitute the qualification of "free-man."  In 1849 the Masonic Widow's Annuity fund was established; and the Queen became Grand Patroness of the Boy's School in 1852.

On the 7th December, 1853, the Grand Master reported to Grand Lodge that he had been under the necessity of suspending Bro. William Tucker, the Prov. Gd. Master of Dorsetshire; the offence being that he had made his appearance in his Prov. Gd. Lodge wearing, in addition to his Craft clothing, the insignia of the Christian orders of Masonry.  It is also on record<<"Freem Quart. Review.">> that Brother. Tucker had made a point in his Address of recommending those higher degrees of Masonry found in the Ancient and Accepted Rite of 33 degrees, which after having met with disfavour from the late Grand Master had been introduced into England from America within two years of the death of the Duke of Sussex.

On the 4th June, 1856, an attempt was made to foist the ceremonial of the Mark degree into the Craft series, but was rejected as an impossibility, as the "Articles of Union" state that pure Freemasonry consists of three degrees and no more; on this occasion Brother John Henderson, the Grand Registrar, said that, -- "no man, nor body of men, could make such innovation as that proposed, without endangering the whole fabric of the Institution."  The Earl of Dalhousie was appointed Deputy G.M. in 1857. {526}

Between October 1855 and September 1857, many of the Canadian Craftsmen withdrew themselves from under our banner alleging neglect by the officials of Grand Lodge, and thereupon erected a Grand Lodge of their own.  This led to the formation of a "Colonial Board" in 1856 by the Grand Lodge of England, and the establishment of a second Grand Lodge in Canada.  On this occasion England lost the Canadian Lodges, save a few Masons who remained faithful to their old allegiance.  The two Grand Lodges, thus formed in Canada united 14th July, 1858 under the designation of "The Grand Lodge of Canada."  These troubles led to the resignation of Bro. Wm. Hy. White, who had been Gd. Secretary since the union of 1813, and to the appointment in 1857 of Brother William Gray Clarke.

The nucleus of a Masonic Hall was begun in Manchester 27th,June, 1857, by taking the upper floor of rooms over the shops with an opening at 78 Cross Street, and dividing the same into Refreshment room supplied by a back staircase, a Lodge Room and a Tyler's Room; a club also was established.  The Liverpool Masonic Temple was commenced in 1858 by the purchase of a building for 1,600 Pounds.

In April 1861 the Earl de Grey and Ripon was appointed Deputy G.M.  On the 8th January, 1862, the Grand Lodge voted an Address of Condolence to the Queen on the death of her Consort on 14th December, 1861.  In July, 1862, the Prov. Gd. Master of East Lancashire Brother Stephen Blair, laid the foundation of a Masonic Hall at Manchester, the necessary funds being raised by a Company of Shareholders.  On the 3rd December, 1862, it was resolved to revise the numbering of the Lodges, thus eliminating the vacancies occurring since 1832.  The Masonic Hall at Manchester was opened by the Prov. Gd. Master 3rd November, 1864.  It had been in contemplation to improve the Masonic Hall, London, by separating the Tavern entirely from that portion used for Grand Lodge purposes, and on the 27th April, 1864, the Earl of Zetland, G.M., laid the {527} foundation stone of the new building which was completed for Masonic purposes in 1866.

In 1865 a revision of the "Book of Constitutions" was made and it was directed that the term Prov. Grand Master in England, should be District Grand Master in the Colonies and foreign parts.  On the 7th June, 1865, the subject of the Mark degree was again brought under discussion and it was resolved to refuse recognition to the Mark Grand Lodge which had been established in 1856, the ceremonial being treated as comparatively modern.  The learned brother Dr. George Oliver was interred with Masonic honours in 1867; and on the death of Brother William Gray Clarke in 1868, Brother John Hervey became Grand Secretary.

On the 2nd June 1869 the Earl of Zetland, G.M., informed the Grand Lodge that H.R.H. the Prince of Wales had been received into Freemasonry by the King of Sweden; and in September of the same year he was elected a Past Gd. Master of England, and the Prince attended Grand Lodge in December 1869.  The number of Lodges on the Roll had increased from 723 in 1844, to 1299 in the year 1869.  Freemasons' Hall had now been separated from the tavern, and was formally inaugurated on the 14th April 1869.

On the voluntary resignation of the Earl of Zetland as Grand Master in 1870, a handsome testimonial was arranged and subscriptions obtained; the Earl accepted a silver inkstand, and directed that the remainder of the contribution, which amounted to 2,730 Pounds should form a fund for the relief of distinguished brethren who might be in distress and to be named the "Zetland Fund."

Earl de Grey and Ripon was now nominated to the office of Grand Master, and was installed as such on the 14th May 1870.  The Masonic career of this Grand Master, who was made a Marquis for diplomatic services in the United States, was not closed in a manner equally distinguished, as upon his embracing the Roman Catholic faith he resigned his office of Grand Master 2nd September, {528} 1874.  Arthur Duke of Connaught and Leopold Duke of Albany were initiated in 1874, the former in the "Prince of Wales Lodge," and the latter in the "Apollo University Lodge."

The Prince of Wales having already the rank of a Past Grand Master of England, a deputation was appointed to interview him upon the acceptance of the office vacated by the Marquis of Ripon.  At the meeting of Grand Lodge in December, 1874, it was reported that the Prince would accept the Grand Mastership, and would appoint the Earl of Carnarvon as pro-Grand Master, and Lord Skelmersdale as Deputy G.M.  Accordingly the Prince of Wales was Installed Grand Master, with great pomp, at the Royal Albert Hall, South Kensington, on the 28th April, 1875, which was duly commemorated by a painting in oil, and an engraved copy of the same.  In May of the same year the Prince was Installed G.Z. of the Supreme Grand Chapter.  His brother Leopold Duke of Albany was Installed Provincial Gd. Master of Oxfordshire in February 1876.

At the meeting of Grand Lodge, April, 1877, the Prince of Wales, G.M., appointed his brothers the Dukes of Connaught and of Albany as his two Grand Wardens; and 4,000 Pounds was voted by Grand Lodge to the Royal National Life Boat Institution.  On the 5th December in this year a Committee was appointed to consider the action of the Grand Orient of France in reference to the abolition of the requirement of any special religious belief from candidates for Initiation, or as the Grand Lodge preferred to put it, the removal of the name of God from their Constitution, and in March 1878 the Committee gave in a report denying recognition as "true and genuine" brethren to those so Initiated.

In 1879 Brother John Hervey, whose death took place the following year, resigned the office of Grand Secretary, and Colonel Shadwell H. Clerke was appointed.  On the 1st June, 1881, the list Of Grand Officers was increased by adding a Deputy Master of Ceremonies and two Grand {529} Sword Bearers.  In 1882 the Prince of Wales, G.M., was present at Grand Lodge, with his two brothers, when a congratulatory Address was voted to the Queen on her escape from the danger of assassination.  In 1883 a new edition of the "Book of Constitutions" was issued; the great Hall at Freemasons' Hall in London was destroyed by fire; and the Society lost the Duke of Albany by death, 28th March, 1884.

On the 28th November, 1884, a Charter was granted for the "Quatuor Coronati Lodge," 2076, Brother Sir Charles Warren being the first W.M.; the object of the Lodge, besides the ordinary routine of such bodies, being the increase of Masonic knowledge by competent Lectures at each meeting, the publication of the same in a journal entitled "Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," and the reprint of our ancient MSS., and other works in volumes designated "Quatuor Coronatorum Antigraphia."  One of their first developments was the establishment, by the late Brother G. W. Speth, the Secretary of the Lodge, of a "Correspondence Circle" which now numbers over three thousand members.

In the year 1884 Grand Lodge passed a resolution of Remonstrance against the Pope's Encyclical denouncing Freemasonry; and a new edition of the Arch Regulations was prepared.  At a meeting of "Royal Alpha Lodge," London, on the 17th March, 1885, the Prince of Wales, G.M., himself Initiated his eldest son Prince Albert Victor, and in 1887 conferred upon him the office of Senior Grand Warden.  The new Great Hall was completed in 1885; and on the 22nd June, 1886, the Prince of Wales, G.M., Installed his brother the Duke of Connaught as Prov. Gd. Master of Sussex.

On the 1st June, 1887, Brother Henry Sadler was appointed Sub-librarian of Grand Lodge, which was a poor affair for so wealthy a body, but which Brother Sadler has done much to improve and is himself the author of some valuable works, as "Masonic Facts and Fictions; Life of Thomas Dunckerley; Notes on the Ceremony of Installation;" {530} Portrait of G. M. Sayer; Catalogue of Gd. Lodge Library, etc.  In this year, 1887, Brother R. F. Gould completed the last volume of his well-known "History of Freemasonry."

On the 13th June, 1887, a grand Masonic Celebration of Her Majesty's Jubilee was held at the Royal Albert Hall, under the presidency of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales as Grand Master, when an Address, handsomely illuminated on vellum, for presentation to her Majesty the Queen, was read to the Assembly and a special Jewel was presented to the Grand Master, such as might be worn by all Masons who were subscribing members of any Lodge at the time.  At a meeting of Grand Lodge, 6th June, 1888, the rank of Past Grand Master was conferred upon Oscar II. King of Sweden and Norway, Grand Master or Vicarius Salamonis in those countries.  Between the 4th and 7th of June in this year the Royal Masonic Benevolent Institution for Girls celebrated its centenary at the Royal Albert Hall; the 4th was the prize distribution day, at which were present the Prince and Princess of Wales, and the Princesses Louise, Victoria, and Maud.  On the 7th the Prince of Wales presided, and was supported by the King of Sweden, and various notables of the English Craft.

In December 1890 the Prince of Wales, G.M., Installed his eldest son Prince Albert Victor Duke of Clarence and Avondale as Prov. Grand Master of Berkshire; unfortunately his tenure of that office was very short as he died on the 14th January, 1892.  The death of Brother Shadwell H. Clerke, the Grand Secretary, on the 25th December, 1891, led to the appointment to that office of Brother Edward Letchworth.

On the 27th January, 1892, the Grand Lodge voted an Address of Condolence to the Queen, and to the Prince of Wales, G.M., on the lamented death of the Duke of Clarence and Avondale, and the whole Craft followed this example.  The Jubilee of the Royal Masonic Benevolent Institution was celebrated the 24th February of this year at the Covent Garden Theatre, with the Earl of {531} Mount Edgecombe as President, when the unprecedented sum of 59,593 Pounds 15s. 0d. was contributed.  In December, 1892, Grand Lodge again agreed to enlarge the number of Grand Officers by the addition of a Deputy Grand Registrar, a Deputy Grand Sword Bearer, additional Grand Deacons, and Grand Directors of Ceremonies; the like appointments to extend to Provincial Grand Lodges, according to their numerical strength.  During this year the question of admitting Jews as Freemasons was agitated in Prussia, and a new Lodge was established for the special purpose of such Initiations.  It is, however, outside a work of this nature to print the ordinary and recent outline of the routine of Freemasonry, which must give the world the idea that all is pomp, parade, man millinery, and banqueting.  Matters of this sort can be gathered from the ordinary Freemasons' Journals, which make it their business to report every detail for the edification of the members of Lodges.  With the great increase that is constantly taking place in the numbers of Lodges, innovations are constantly being introduced of a doubtful character, not calculated for the good of the Society.  We will, however, mention a few more items of general interest.

At a meeting of Grand Lodge, 19th April, 1896, the rank of Past Grand Officer was conferred upon 21 distinguished Masons, in commemoration of the 21 years during which the Prince of Wales had filled the Grand Mastership.  A commemoration festival was held on the 14th June 1897 at the Royal Albert Hall, in honour of her Majesty the Queen having attained the 60th year of her reign, and which was one of the finest spectacles on record.  Another, worthy of record, was the Festival of the Royal Masonic Institution for Boys, on the 10th July, 1898, under the Presidency of the Grand Master at the Royal Albert Hall, London, when the unprecedented sum of 141,000 Pounds was reported as subscribed for the purpose of erecting new school buildings, and removing the School to Bushey, near Watford.  At the meeting of Grand Lodge on the {532} 7th September, 1898, terms were proposed and passed for the recognition of the sometime established Grand Lodge of New Zealand.

On the 12th May, 1900, the foundation-stone was laid at Bushey of the New Royal Masonic Institution for Boys; the inscription upon the plate deposited was as follows: -- "This stone was laid on the 12th May, A.D. 1900, with Masonic ceremonial, by H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, K.G., &c., &c., Grand Master, President of the Institution."

The death of H.M. Queen Victoria occurring on the 22nd January, 1901, With the accession of the Prince of Wales as Edward VII., caused his resignation as Grand Master, on the 15th February, upon which the Duke of Connaught was nominated as Grand Master and was Installed 17th July, 1901, in the Royal Albert Hall.

The prosperity of the Craft, for many years, has been progressive and uninterrupted in its numerical accessions, and since 1869, when the Lodges were renumbered, to the day we write, some 1,500 Lodges are added to the Roll.  The advance in its literary efforts has kept pace with the numerical increase in its Lodges, though Freemasons as a body are very indifferent to its literature.  The "Quatuor Coronati Lodge" has distinguished itself by the issue of numerous facsimiles of ancient MSS. reproduced with great care, and in the most beautiful style; it has completed twenty volumes of its "Transactions," Lectures and papers distinguished by the accuracy and soundness of their information, and the excellence of the workmanship, and it has thus been the means of spreading sound and reliable Masonic literature over all the world; and we have been much indebted to its papers in compiling this book.  In equally good style the Newcastle College of Rosicrucians has produced facsimiles of ancient MSS. besides their ordinary "Transactions."  The Rosicrucian College of London has also published valuable papers.  The West Yorkshire Provincial Library, established by the exertions of Brother Wm. Watson, the Prov. Gd. Secretary {533} and Librarian, has reproduced nine copies of the Constitutional Charges at the cost of the Prov. Gd. Master, the late Brother Thos. Wm. Tew.  The York brothers have published a similar volume of the old Charges by subscription.  Other valuable works have proceeded from the pens of Brothers Wm. James Hughan, Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie, Robert Freke Gould, W. Wynn Westcott, M.B., G. W. Speth, John Strachan, Q.C., Henry Sadler, John Lane, W. J. C. Crawley, LL.D., G. W. Bain, and many others too numerous to mention; also some reprints of old plates, books, and documents.  The Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 2076, however, has had the great misfortune to lose one of its most valued pillars, Bro. G. W. Speth, 19th April, 1901, in his 54th year, and the Lodge erected, by subscription, a monument.  The death of the Treasurer followed on the 4th June 1901, viz., Sir Walter Besant in his 65th year.  In 1905 Bro. R. F. Gould published his "Concise History of Freemasonry."

Another notable event of the time was the establishment, by Mrs. Besant, of a S.G.C. 33rd Degree, in London, under authority from India, which received it from a dissension which occurred in the S.G.C. 33rd Degree of France.  It confers all its degrees indiscriminately upon males and females, and works the Craft degrees under the Ritual of the Grand Lodge of England, and at the present time has numerous adherents and Lodges.  It has added only to the Ritual a "Dharma" Lecture which compares Masonry with secret societies of India, and takes the name of Co-Masonry.

Even this may aid in rousing amongst Freemasons a more intellectual standard of labour.  Possibly, if Masonry was less of a political machine, officered from the Court, and its high officials elected by the Craft for "Merit" alone, we should see a better state of things than now exists.  A section of the Press is now agitating against Freemasonry, assigning as grounds that the worst men are employed by our Municipal Councils to the detriment of non-Masons.  On the other hand, a very worthy brother, {534} who was initiated in the same Lodge as myself, was complaining against the carelessness in inquiry into the character of candidates.  I replied that this was so, but although I had been fifty-five years a Mason, and had been deluged from every part of the world with unsolicited Honours, I was pleased to say that, in all these years, I never, in a single instance, met with any one Mason with an eye to my worldly interests, hence I utterly disbelieved those assertions that good men were ousted in the interests of Masons.

In all these years the old Operative Guilds of Free Masons have continued their work without changing the secrecy of their proceedings.  They have their Lodges in London, Leicester, Norfolk, Derbyshire, Holyhead, York, Durham, Berwick, and elsewhere.  Some of these are in a languishing condition, but they exist, and are in course of galvanisation.  Of late years they seem to have become disgusted with the vain pretensions of Modern Speculative Freemasonry, and under authority of the three coequal G.M.M.'s of the South and North have to some little extent relaxed the secrecy of their proceedings; and though the greater part of their members are utterly averse to anything whatever being made public, possibly in time these restrictions will be further modified, to the advantage of the Speculative system of 1813, for many parts are quite incomprehensible, even to learned Freemasons, without the technical part which only the Guilds of the Free Masons can supply.

 

 

  F I N I S.

 

{535}

 

 

{536}

   

 

A P P E N D I X.

  ____

 

PREFACE.

 

IT has been thought advisable to add here copies of the ancient MSS. referred to in the foregoing pages, reduced into somewhat more modern English for the comfort of the reader.  No injury can arise from this procedure, as those who are interested in the exact verbiage will consult the facsimiles issued by Lodge 2076, and other printed copies.  We have made use of certain emendations which have been shewn to be necessary by the best critics.

Attention was first directed to these MSS. by Brother William James Hughan, who printed, in 1872, a volume of the "Old Charges."  For some years his efforts to direct attention to these MSS. met with slight success, as the bearing of them upon the present state of Freemasonry was not fully recognised; but to Brother Hughan belongs the credit of bringing these documents into prominent notice.

A few zealous brethren, amongst whom may be mentioned the Rev. A. F. A. Woodford, R. F. Gould, G. W. Speth, Dr. William Begemann of Rostock, C. C. Howard of Picton, N.Z., Wm. Watson, Henry Sadler, F. F. Schnitger, and others, have laboured to develop the work thus begun by Brother Hughan, and we must express indebtedness to their unselfish labours.

It is noteworthy that, with the exception of those MSS. which refer to Henry VI., all these documents close their Masonic history with the reign of Athelstan.  Practically the "Regius MS." and the "'Book of Charges'" of the "Cooke MS." are identical, except that the versifier has lengthened the former MS. by his own comments, and we have therefore taken the prose copy, as probably nearer the Athelstan original; for most of the emendations (in brackets) we are indebted to Brother C. C. Howard.  Brother G. W. Speth considered it likely that the nine ARTICLES were the legal enactments of the King, whilst the nine POINTS were those of the employers.

 

                                                     JOHN YARKER.

West Didsbury,

near Manchester, 1909.

 

{537} 

 

 

INTRODUCTION.

 

I.

  ANGLO-SAXON CHARGES.

  This MS. as we have before stated is the "Book of Charges" attached to the "Cooke MS.," and agrees with the "Regius MS.," being complete in itself; and (our oldest MS.) is actually, with some additions, a rhythmical version of No. 1.  When we come to the mention of "New Men," it is possible that the 9 Points may have been substituted for them by "Divers Congregations"; in later times they were read as the Charge of an Apprentice.  It is even so to-day by Masons.

 

  II.

  ANGLO-NORMAN CHARGES.

  There seems no reason to doubt that No. 1 is the original Saxon Charge, but as there was a constant influx of French Masons from the time of the conquest, a pure French Charge must at one time have existed, and which has clearly been added to the older English documents.

The 1316 document is extracted from Brother R. F. Gould's History of Freemasonry (Vol. ii. p. 341).  It is of equal value with any that we have, and illustrates the old MSS. in an interesting way.  In the first place the Laws are decreed by the very authorities which the Charges themselves appeal to, and "six or four ancient men of the trade" are required to testify on a Master taking on work.  It settles the dispute between the Mason-hewers and the Light masons or setters, and places them both under sworn Elders or Ancients of the trade.  It admits that there was no Court, and orders one to be sworn, which thus became the London Company of Masons, uniting Masons and Freemasons, of which the former had 4 representatives and the latter 2, but became now a United Company.

 

III.

  The text of the "Cooke" preface, as far as the same is complete, has been used for this document, the remainder being taken from the "Watson MS.," which is a document complete in itself, but with many errors of the copyist.  The author speaks of "old books of Charges," existing before his time, and he has possibly mistaken "Martellus" for "Secundus," inasmuch as Charles Martel was not King but Regent, and only "came to his {538} kingdom" in his children, Charlemagne being his grandson, who had a grandson Charles Il.

 

  IV. 

 MODERN CHARGES.

  These modern Charges, of which there are about 70 copies, of which no two are exactly alike, are an abridgement of the "Watson MS." series, which had become too lengthy for use in Lodge work.  The version given is a fair representative of all the others and is a York MS. circa 1600.  The portion in brackets [ ], and Charges 19-25 are found in the "Tew MS.," West Riding of Yorkshire.

 

  V.

  The Southern Variation of No. 5 is peculiar and found in a few MSS.  The evidence of causing Edwin to be made a Mason at Windsor shews that it was compiled in the South, though Winchester is probably meant, as King Athelstan had his royal residence in that city.  The version is a late 16th century view found in the "Lansdowne MS.," the "Probity MS.," and the "Antiquity MS."

 

  VI.

  The "Apprentice Charge" attached to a MS. which contains the "New Regulations," are found in many MSS., and are those used in the written Indentures of an Apprentice.  The "New Regulations" are found in the "Harleian MS.," which is the one we give; (2{1?}) the "Grand Lodge MS. 2," numbered 29 c. 33; (2) the "Roberts MS.," numbered 1 to 7; (3) the "McNab MS."; (4) a MS. seen by Dr. James Anderson, number 1 to 7; but there must have been an older original.  The Harleian, Grand Lodge, and McNab MSS. give no date of the Assembly; Roberts and Anderson give 1663; probably there was no date in the oldest original.  The British Museum officials consider the "Harleian MS." to be early 17th century; it forms a species of Grand Lodge, and inaugurates a Charge for Apprentices.

 

VII. 

The Addition of 1663 to the "New Articles," and numbered 6, is given by Anderson in the copy he saw, and also in the copy printed by Roberts in 1722.  But as it appears in "Grand Lodge MS. 2," as Article 32, it may have been omitted by accident from VI. version.

  {539}

 

 

 I.

THE ANGLO-SAXON CONSTITUTION.

     GOOD MEN for this cause and in this manner Masonry took its first beginning.  It befell sometimes that great Lords had no such large possessions that they could well advance their free-begotten children for they had so many; therefore they took counsel how they might advance their children and ordain for them an honest livelihood.  And they sent after wise Masters of the worthy science of Geometry, that through their wisdom they might ordain them some honest living.  Then one of them that had the name of Euclid was the subtle and wise founder, and ordained an Art and called it Masonry, and so with this honest art he taught the children of the great Lords, by the prayer of the fathers and the free-will of their children; the which, when they were taught with high care, by a certain time they were not all alike able to take of the aforesaid Art, wherefore Euclid ordained that they who were passing of cunning should be passing honoured, and ordained to call the more cunning Master, to inform the less cunning, Masters of the which were called Masters of Nobility of wit and cunning of that Art.  Nevertheless they commanded that they who were less of wit should not be called servant, nor subject, but fellow for nobility of their gentle blood.  In this manner was the aforesaid Art begun in the land of Egypt, by the aforesaid Master Euclid, and so it went from land to land, and from kingdom to kingdom.

After that many years, in the time of Athelstan King of England, by his Councillors and other great Lords of the land, by common assent, for great defects found amongst Masons, they ordained a certain Rule amongst them, once in the year, or in three years, as the need were, the King and great Lords of the land, and all the commonality, from province to province, and from country to country, Congregations should be made by Masters, of all Master Masons and Fellows in the aforesaid Art, and so at such Congregations they that be made Masters should be examined of the "Articles" after written, and be ransacked whether they be able and cunning to the profit of the Lords (having) them to serve, and to the honour of the aforesaid Art.

And moreover (that) they should receive their "Charge" that they should well and truly dispend the goods of their Lords, as well the lowest as the highest, for they be their Lords for the time of whom they take pay for their service, and for their travail.

The first "Article" is this, -- That every Master of this Art should be wise and true to the lord that he serveth, dispensing his goods truly as he would have his own were dispensed, and not give more pay to a Mason than he wot he may deserve, after the dearth of corn and victual in the country, no favour withstanding for every man to be rewarded after his travail.

The second "Article" is this, -- That every Master of this Art should be warned beforehand to come to his congregation, but they be excused by some cause.  But nevertheless if they be found rebellious at such Congregations, or faulty in any manner {540} of harm to their lords, and reproof of this Art, they should not be excused unless in peril of death, and though they be in peril of death, they shall warn the Master who is Principal of the Gathering of his decease (disease).

The third "Article" is this, -- That no Master take no Prentice for a less term than 7 years at the least, because such as be within a less term may not profitably come to (knowledge of) this Art, nor able to serve truly his lord and to take as a Mason should take.

The fourth "Article" is this, -- That no Master for no profit take no Prentice to be learned that is born of bond blood, because his lord to whom he is bond, will take him, as he well may, from his Art, and lead him out of his Lodge, or out of his place that he worketh in; for his Fellows peradventure would help him and debate for him, and therefore manslaughter might arise; it is forbidden.  And also for another cause; this Art took beginning of great lord's children freely begotten, as it is said before.

The fifth "Article" is this, -- That no Master give more to his Prentice in time of his Prenticehood, for no profit he might take, than he notes well he may deserve of the lord that he serveth; nor not so much (but) that the lord of the place that he is taught in, may have some profit for his teaching.

The sixth "Article" is this, -- That no Master for no covetousness nor profit take no Prentice to teach that is imperfect, that is to say having any maim, for the which he may not truly work as he ought to do.

The seventh "Article" is this, -- That no Master be found wittingly, or help to procure to be (a) maintainer and sustainer (of) any common nightwalker to rob, by the which manner of nightwalking they may not fulfil their day's work and travail, (and) through the condition their Fellows might be wroth.

The eighth "Article" is this, -- That if it befall that any Mason that be perfect, and cunning come for to seek work, and find an imperfect and uncunning (Mason) working, the Master of the place shall receive the perfect and do way with the imperfect to the profit of his lord.

The ninth "Article" is this, -- That no Master shall supplant another: for it is said in the Art of Masonry, that no man can make an end so well of work, begun by another, to the profit of his lord, as he (that) began it, to end it by his matters, or to whom he sheweth his matters.

THIS COUNCIL is made by divers Lords and Masters of divers Provinces, and divers Congregations of Masonry, and it is, to wit, that whosoe coveteth to come to the state of the foresaid Art it behoveth them: --

First, principally to (love) God and Holy Church and al-halows, and his Master and his Fellows as his own brethren.

The second "Point," -- He must fulfil his day's work truly that he taketh for his pay.

The third "Point," -- That he can hele the Counsel of his Fellows, in "Lodge" and in "Chamber," and in every place where Masons be.

The fourth "Point," -- That he be no deceiver in the foresaid Art, nor do no prejudice, nor sustain any Articles against the Art, nor against any of the Art, but he shall sustain it in all honour, inasmuch as he may.

The fifth "Point," -- When he shall take his pay that he take it meekly, as the time is ordained by the Master to be done, and that he fulfil the acceptations of travail and of rest ordained and set by the Master. {541}

The sixth "Point," -- If any discord shall be between him and his Fellows, he shall obey meekly, and be still at the bidding of his Master, or of the Warden of his Master, in the Master's absence, to the holy day following, and that he accord them at the disposition of his Fellows, and not upon the workday, for hindering of the work and profit of the lord.

The seventh "Point," -- That he covet not the wife, nor the daughter of his Master's, neither of his Fellows, but it be in marriage, nor hold concubines for discord that might fall among them.

The eighth "Point," -- If it befall him to be Warden under his Master, that he be true mean between his Master and his Fellows, and that he be busy in the absence of his Master, to the honour of his Master, and profit of the lord that he serveth.

The ninth "Point," -- If he be wiser and subtler than his Fellow working with him in his Lodge, or any other place, and he perceiveth that he should leave the stone that he is working upon for defect of cunning, and can teach him and amend the stone, he shall inform him, and help him, that the more love may increase among them, and that the work of the lord be not lost.

WHEN THE MASTERS and the Fellows be forewarned (and) are come to the Congregation if need be the Sheriff of the country, or the Mayor of the City, or Alderman of the Town, in which the Congregations are holden, shall be Fellow and Sociate to the Master of the Congregation to help him against rebels, and (for) upbearing of the right of the realm.

At the first beginning "New Men" that never were "Charged" before (were)

"Charged" in this manner, -- (1) That (they) should never be thieves, nor thieves' maintainers.  (2) And that they should truly fulfil their day's work and travail, for their pay that they shall take of their lord.  (3) A true account give to their Fellows (as Stewards) in things to be accounted of them. (4) And to hear and love them as themselves.  (5) And they shall be true to the King of England and to the realm.  (6) And that they keep with all their might all the Articles aforesaid.  (7) After that it shall be enquired if any Master or Fellow that is warned, have broken any Articles beforesaid, the which if they have done it shall be determined there.  (8) Therefore it is, to wit, that if any Master or Fellow that is warned before to come to such Congregations, and be rebellious and will not come, or else shall have trespassed against any Article beforesaid, if it be proved he shall forswear his Masonry and shall no more use his Craft; (9) the which if he presume to do, the Sheriff of the Country in which he may be found working shall prison him and take all his goods into the King's hand, til his grace be granted him and shewed.

For this cause principally were these Congregations ordained that, as well the lowest as the highest should be well and truly served in his Art beforesaid, throughout all the Kingdom of England.  Amen, -- so mote it be.

 

          SUPPOSED ASSENT OF ATHELSTAN.  (REGIUS M.S.).

 

"These Statutes that I have here found,    Beseeching him, of his high grace,

I will they be held throughout my land,To stand with you in every place,

For the worship of my Royalty,            To confirm the Statutes of King

That I have by my dignity.                    Athelstan.

Also at every 'sembly that you hold,      That he ordained to this Craft,

That ye come to your liege King bold,        for good reason."

 

(1-9) Possibly the ancient points, the Nos. 1 to 9, do not appear in the original MS.

 

{542}

 

   

THE ANGLO-NORMAN CONSTITUTIONS

  lI.

STATUTES OF A.D. 1356.

  At a Congregation of Mayor and Aldermen holden on the Monday next before the purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary (2 Feby.) in the thirtieth year of the reign of King Edward III, etc., there being present Simon Fraunceys the Mayor, John Lovekyn, and other Aldermen, the Sheriffs, and John Little, Symon de Benyngtone, and William de Holbeche, commoners, certain Articles were ordained touching the trade of Masons, in these words: --

1. Whereas Simon Fraunceys, Mayor of the City of London, has been given to understand that divers dissensions and disputes have been moved in the said City, between the Masons who are "hewers" on the one hand, and the light-Masons and "setters" on the other; because that their trade has not been regulated in due manner by the government of Folks of their trade in such form as other trades are.  Therefore the said Mayor, for maintaining the peace of our Lord the King, and for allaying such manner of dissensions and disputes, and for nurturing love among all manner of folks, in honour of the said City, and for the profit of the common people, by assent and counsel of the Aldermen and Sheriffs, caused all the good folks of the said trade to be summoned before him, to have from them good and due information how their trade might be best ordered and ruled, for the profit of the common people.

2. Whereupon the good folks of the said trade chose from among themselves twelve of the most skilful men of their trade, to inform the Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffs, as to the acts and articles touching their said trade; -- that is to say Walter de Sallynge, Richard de Sallynge, Thomas de Bredone, John de Tyringtone, Thomas de Gloucestre, and Henry de Yevelee, on behalf of the "Mason Hewers;" Richard Joye, Simon de Bartone, John de Estoune, John Wylot, Thomas Hardegray, and Richard de Cornewaylle on behalf of the "light-Masons and Setters;" which folks were sworn before the aforesaid Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffs, in manner as follows: --

3. In the first place that every man of the trade may work at any work touching the trade, if he be perfectly skilled and knowing in the same.

4. Also, that good folks of the said trade shall be chosen and sworn every time that need shall be, to Oversee that no one of the trade takes work to complete, if he does not well and perfectly know how to perform such work, on pain of losing, to the use of the commonality, the first time that he shall by the persons so sworn be convicted thereof, one mark; and the second time two marks; and the third time he shall forswear his trade for ever.

5. Also, that no one shall take work in gross, if he be not in ability in a proper manner to complete such work; and he who wishes to undertake such work in gross, shall come to the good men, of whom he has taken such work to do and complete, and {543} shall bring with him "Six" or "Four" Ancient men of his trade, sworn thereunto, if they are prepared to testify unto the good men of whom he has taken such work to do, that he is skilful and of ability to do such work, and that if he shall fail to complete such work in due manner, or not to be of ability to do the same, they themselves who so testify that he is skilful and of ability to finish the work are bound to complete the same work, well and properly, at their own charges, in such manner as he undertook; in case the employer who owns the work shall have fully paid the workman.  And if the employer shall then owe him anything let him pay it to the persons who have so undertaken for him to complete such work.

6. Also, that no one shall set an apprentice or journeyman to work, except in the presence of his Master, before he has been perfectly instructed in his calling; and he who shall do the contrary, and by the person so sworn be convicted thereof, let him pay the first time to the commonality half a mark, and the second time one mark, and the third time 20 shillings; and so let him pay 20 shillings every time that he shall be convicted thereof.

7. Also, that no man of the said trade shall take an Apprentice for a less time than seven years, according to the usage of the City; and he who shall do the contrary thereof, shall be punished in the same manner.

8. Also; that the said Masters so chosen, shall see that all those who work by the day shall take for their hire according as they are skilled and may deserve for their work, and not outrageously.

9. Also, that if any one of the said trade will not be ruled or directed in due manner by the persons of his trade sworn thereto, such sworn persons are to make known his name unto the Mayor, and the Mayor by assent of the aldermen and sheriffs shall cause him to be chastised by imprisonment, and other punishment, so that rebels may take example by him, to be ruled by the good folks of their trade.

10. Also, that no one of the said trade shall take the Apprentice of another to the prejudice or damage of his Master, until his term shall have fully expired, on pain of paying, to the use of the commonality, half a mark each time that he shall be convicted thereof.

   

 

THE ANCIENT CHARGES

III.

CHARGE, "circa" 1400, REVISED, "circa" 1475.

THANKED BE GOD our glorious Father and founder and former of heaven and earth, and of all things that in them is, that he would vouchsafe of his glorious Godhead to make so many things of divers virtues for mankind; for he made all worldly things to be obedient and subject to man; for all things that be comestible or of wholesome nature he ordained it for man's sustenance.  And also he hath given to man wit and cunning of divers sciences and crafts, by the which he may labour in this world to get our living with (them); and to make divers things for God's pleasure and our (own) ease and profit; the which things if I were to rehearse them, it were too long to tell and to write.  Wherefore I will leave (them), but I will shew you some part of them, and tell you how and in what wise the science of Geometry first began, and who were the founders thereof, and of other Crafts more, as it is noted in the Bible and other stories. {544}

How and in what manner this worthy science of Geometry first began I will tell you, as I said before.  Ye shall understand that there be seven Liberal Sciences by which seven sciences all the Sciences and Crafts in the world were first found, and especially the science of Geometry, for it is the cause of all other that be, the which seven sciences are called thus: -- As for the first, that is called the foundation of science, its name is "Grammar," it teacheth a man rightly to speak, and write truly.  The second is "Rhetorick," and it teacheth a man to write formably and fair.  The third is "Dialecticus"<<"Logic" (Watson M.S.)>>, and that science teacheth a man to discern the true from the false, and most commonly it is called the art of sophistry.  The fourth is called Arithmetic, the which teacheth a man the craft of numbers, for to reckon and make accounts of all manner of things.  The fifth is Geometry," the which teacheth a man mete and measures and ponderation and weightiness, in all manner of crafts.  The sixth is "Music," that teacheth a man the craft of song in notes of voice and organ and trumpet and harp and all others pertaining to them.  The seventh is "Astronomy," that teacheth a man the course of the sun and of the moon, and all other planets and stars of heaven.

OUR INTENT is principally to treat of the first foundation of the worthy science of Geometry, and who were the founders thereof.  As I said before, there are seven Liberal Sciences, that is to say seven sciences or crafts that are free in themselves, the which seven live only by one, and that is the science of Geometry.  And Geometry is, as much as to say, the measure of the earth, "et sic dicetur a Gea graece quod est pro terra Latine, e metrona quod est mensura una Geometria ie mensura terae vel terrarum," that is to say in English that Geometry is, as I said, of "geo" in Greek earth, and "metron" that is to say measure, and thus is this name Geometry compounded, and is said (to be) the measure of the earth.

MARVEL ye not that I said that all sciences live only by the science of Geometry, for there is no artificial or handicraft that is wrought by man's hand but is wrought by Geometry, and a notable cause, for if a man works with his hands he worketh with some manner of tool, and there is no instrument of material things in this world, but it comes of some kind of earth, and to earth it will turn again.  And there is no instrument, that is to say a tool to work with, but it hath some proportion more or less, and proportion is measure, and the tool or instrument is earth, and Geometry is said to be the measure of the earth.  Wherefore I may say that men live all by Geometry, for all men here in this world live by the labour of their hands.

MANY more probations I could tell you, why that Geometry is the science that all reasonable men live by, but I will leave it at this time for the long process of writing.  And now I will proceed further on my matter.  Ye shall understand that among all the crafts of the world of man's craft Masonry hath the most notability, and most part of this science of Geometry, as it is noted and said in history, and in the Bible, and in the Master of Stories, and in the "Polichronicon," a chronicle proved, and in the histories that is named Beda "'de Imagine Mundi,'" et Isodorus "'Ethemolegiarum'."  "Mathodius Episcopus et Martyrus," and others, many more, said that Masonry is principal of Geometry, as me thinketh it may well be said, for it is the first that was founded, as it is noted in the Bible, in the first book of Genesis in the 4th chapter, and also all the doctors aforesaid accordeth thereto, and some of {545} them saith it more openly and plainly right as it saith in the Bible -- Genesis.

ADAM'S line lineal of sons descending down the 7th age after Adam, before Noah's flood there was a man called Lamech, the which had two wives, the one called Adah and the other Zillah; by the first named Adah he begat two sons, the one named Jabal and the other named Jubal.  The elder son Jabal, he was the first man that ever found Geometry and Masonry, and he made houses and is named in the Bible, "Pater habitanicum in tentoriis atque Pastorum," that is to say father of men dwelling in tents, that is dwelling-houses.<<And the fnther of Shepherds and Headsman (other MSS.)>>  And he was Cain's Master Mason and governor of all his works when he made the city of Enoch; that was the first city that ever was made, and that made Cain Adam's son, and gave it to his son Enoch, and gave the city the name of his son and called it Enoch, and now it is called Ephraim, and there was the science of Geometry and Masonry first occupied and contrived for a science and for a craft; and so we may say that was the cause and foundation of all crafts and sciences, and also this man Jabal was called "Pater pastorum."<<And the father of Shepherds and Headsman (other MSS.)>>  The Master of Stories saith, and Beda "de Imagine Mundi Polichronicon," and others more say, that he was the first that made partition of land, that every man might know his own ground and labour thereupon, as for his own.  And also he parted flocks of sheep that every man might know his own sheep, and so we may say that he was the first founder of that science.  And his brother Jubal was the first founder of Music and of song as ("Pythagoras") saith, the "Polichronicon," and the same saith Isadore in his "Ethemolegies" in the sixth book, there he saith that he was the first founder of music in song and of organ and trumpet, and he found that science by the sound of ponderation of his brother's hammers, that was Tubal Cain.

SOOTHLY as the Bible saith in the same chapter, that is to say the 4th of Genesis, this Lamech begat upon his other wife, that named Zillah, a son and a daughter, the names of them were called Tubal Cain, that was the son; and his daughter was called Naamah, and as the "Polichronicon" saith, that some men say that she was Noah's wife; whether it be so or no we affirm it not.

YE shall understand that this son Tubal Cain was the founder of Smiths' Craft and of other Crafts of Metal, that is to say of iron, of brass, of gold, and of silver, as sundry doctors sayeth; and his sister Naamah was founder of weavers' craft, for before that time there was no cloth woven, but they did spin yarn and knit it, and made such clothing as they could, but as the woman Naamah found the craft of weaving, therefore it is called women's craft; and these three, her brethren, had knowledge before that God would take vengeance for sin either by fire or by water, and they had great care how they might do to save the sciences that they had found, and they took their counsel together and by all their wits they said that there were two manner of stones of such virtue that the one would never burn, and that stone is called marble, and that other stone would not sink in water, and that stone is named lacerus (laterus).  And so they devised to write all the sciences that they had found in these two stones, so that if God should take vengeance by fire, that the marble should not burn; and if God sent vengeance by water that the other should not drown; and so they prayed their elder brother Jabal that he would make two pillars of these stones, that is to say of marble and lacerus, and that he would write in the two pillars all the {546} sciences and crafts that they all had found, and so he did, and therefore we may say that he was the most cunning in science, for he first began and performed the end before Noah's flood.

KINDLY (intuitively) knowing of that vengeance that God would send, whether it should be by fire or by water the brethren had it not by manner of prophecy; they wist that God would send one thereof, and therefore they wrote their sciences in the ii. pillars of stone, and some men say that they wrote in the stones all the seven sciences; but they had in their minds that a vengeance would come; and so it was that God sent vengeance by water, so that their came such a flood that all the world was drowned; and all men were dead therein; save viii. persons, and that was Noah and his wife and his iii. sons and their wives of which three sons all the world come of and their names were in this manner -- Shem, Ham, and Japheth.  And this flood was called Noah's flood, for he and his children were saved therein.  And after this flood, many years, as the chronicle telleth, these ii. pillars were found, and as the "Polichronicon" saith that a great clerk that men called Pythagoras found the one and Hermes the philosopher found the other, and they taught forth the sciences that they found therein written.

EVERY chronicle and storiell, and many other clerks, and the Bible principally, witnesseth of the making of the tower of Babylon, and it is written in the Bible, Genesis, Capo. x., how that Ham, Noah's son, begot Nimrod, and he waxed a mighty man upon the earth, and he was a strong man like a giant, and he was a great king.  And the beginning of his kingdom was the true kingdom of Babylon, and Erech, and Accad, and Calnah, and the land of Shinar.  And this same Nimrod began the tower of Babylon, and he taught to his workmen the craft of measures, and he had with him many Masons, more than forty thousands, and he loved them and cherished them well: and it is written in the "Polichronicon," and in the Master of Stories, and other stories more, and this, in part, witnesseth the Bible, in the said x. chapter, where it saith that Ashur, that was nigh of kin to Nimrod, "yede" out of the land of Shinar, and he built the city of Nineveh, and Plateas, and other more, thus it saith -- "De terra illa in de Sennare egressus est Assur et edificavit Nineven et Plateas civitatis et Calen, et Resen, quoque est inter Nineven et Calen haec est civitatis magna."

REASON would that we should tell openly how, and in what manner the Charges of Masoncraft was first founded, and who gave first the name to it of Masonry.  And ye shall know well that it is plainly told and written in "Polichronicon," and in Methodius episcopus et Martyrus, that Ashur that was a worthy lord of Shinar, sent to Nimrod the king to send him Masons and workmen of craft that might help him to make his city that he was in will to make.  And Nimrod sent thirty hundred of Masons; and when he should go and send them forth he called them before him, and said to them -- "You must go to my cousin Ashur, to help him to build a city; but look that ye be well governed, and I shall give you a charge profitable to you and me.

"WHEN ye come to that Lord, look that ye be true to him, like as ye would be to me, and truly do your labour and craft, and take reasonable for your meed therefore, as you may deserve; and also that ye love together as ye were brethren, and hold together truly, and he that hath most cunning teach it to his Fellow, and look ye govern yourselves well towards your lord, and among yourselves, that I may have worship and thanks for my sending, and teaching you the craft." {547}

AND they received the charge of the King that was their Master and their Lord, and went forth to Ashur and builded the city of Nineveh in the country of Plateas and other cities more that men call Calah and Resen that is a great city between Calah and Nineveh.  And in this manner the craft of Masonry was first preferred and charged for a science and a craft.

REASON would that we should shew you how that the Elders that were before time had these Charges written (to them as we have now in our Charges of the Story of Euclid, as we have seen them written) in Latin and in French; and how that Euclid came to Geometry, we should tell you as it is noted in the Bible and in other stories.  In xii. capitolo Genesis he telleth how that Abraham came to the land of Canaan, and the Lord appeared to him and said, "I shall give this land to thee and to thy seed," but there fell a great hunger in that land and Abraham took Sarah his wife with him and went into (the land of) Egypt in pilgrimage, while the hunger endured he would bide there.  And Abraham was a wise man and a great cleric, and he knew all the seven sciences, and taught the Egyptians the science of Geometry.  And this worthy clerk Euclid was his scholar and learned of him; and he gave it first the name of Geometry, all be that it was occupied before it had the name of Geometry.  But it is said in Isidorus, "Ethemolegiarum," in the 5th book, Capitolo primo, that Euclid was one of the first founders of Geometry and he gave it name; for in his time there was a water in the land of Egypt that was called Nile, and it flowed so far into the land that men might not dwell therein.  Then this worthy clerk Euclid taught them to make great walls and ditches to hold out the water; and he by Geometry measured the land and apportioned it in divers parts, and made every man to close his own part with walls and ditches, and then it became a plenteous country of all manner of fruit and of young people, of men and women, that there was so much fruit of young people that they could not well live.  And the lords of the country drew them together and made a council how they might help their children that had no livelyhood competent and able to find for themselves and their children, for they had so many.  And among them all in Council was this worthy clerk Euclid, and when he saw that they all could not bring about this matter he said to them -- "Will ye (give) to me your sons in governance and I shall teach them such a science that they shall live thereby gentlemanly, under condition that ye will be sworn to me, to perform the governance that I will set you to, and them both."  And the King of the land and all the lords, by one consent, granted thereto.

REASON would that every man would grant to that thing that were profitable to himself, and they took their sons to Euclid to govern them at his own will, and he taught them the Craft of Masonry and gave it the name of Geometry, because of the parting of the ground that he had taught the people in the time of the making of the walls and ditches aforesaid, to close out the water, and Isadore saith in his "Ethemolegies" that Euclid calleth the craft Geometry; and there this worthy clerk gave it name, and taught it the lords' sons of the land that he had in his teaching.  And he gave them a Charge, that they should call each other Fellow and no otherwise, because they were all of one craft, and gentle birth born and lords' sons.  And also he that were most cunning should be governor of the work and should be called Master, and other Charges more that are written in the "Book of Charges."  And so they wrought with the lords of that land, and {548} made cities and towns, castles, and temples, and lords' palaces, and did live honestly and truly by the said craft.

WHAT time the children of Israel dwelt in Egypt they learned the craft of Masonry.  And afterwards, (when) they were driven out of Egypt, they came into the land of Behest which is now called Jerusalem, and it was occupied and Charges there held and kept.  And (also) at the making of King Solomon's temple that King David began.  And King David loved well Masons and he gave them Charges right nigh as they be now.  And at the making of the temple in Solomon's time, as it is said in the Bible, in the third book "Regum in tercio Regum capitolo quinto" that Solomon had iv. score thousand Masons at his work; and the King's son of Tyre was his Master Mason.  And in other Chronicles it is said, and in old "Books of Masonry," that Solomon confirmed the Charges that David his father had given to Masons.  And Solomon himself taught them their manners, but little differing from the manners that now are used.

AND from thence this worthy science was brought into France, and into many other regions.  Sometime there was a worthy king that was called Carolus Secundus, that is to say Charles the Second, and this Charles was elected King of France by the grace of God and by lineage also.  And some men say that he was elected by fortune only, the which is false as by the chronicle he was of the king's blood royal.  And this same King Charles was a Mason before that he was a King, and after that he was a King he loved well Masons and cherished them, and gave them Charges and manners at his device, whereof some be yet used in France, and he ordained that they should have reasonable pay and should assemble once a year and commune together of such things as were amiss, and to be ruled by Masons and Fellows.

   EVERY honest Mason or any other worthy workman that hath any love to the Craft of Masonry and would know how the Craft came first into England, and how it was grounded and confirmed, as it is noted and written in Storialls of England and in old Charges of St. Alban's time and of King Athelstan ('s reign<<In original the word is "declared.">> that Amphabell came out of France into England and brought St. Alban into Christendom, and made him a Christian man.  And he brought with him the Charges of Masons as they were in France, and in other lands.  And at that time the king of the land, who was a pagan, dwelt where St. Albans is now, and he had many masons working on the town walls, and at that time St. Alban was the King's steward, paymaster, and governor of the King's works, and he loved Masons and cherished them well and made them good pay, for (before that time throughout all England) a Mason took but a penny a day and meat and drink, and St. Alban got of the King that every Mason should have xxxd. and iiid. for their noon finding, and he got them Charges and manners as St. Amphabell had taught him, and they do but little differ from the Charges that be used at this time, and so these Charges and manners were used many years.

AFTERWARDS they were almost near hand lost through barbarous wars, until the time of King Athelstan<<Query, Edwd., and Athelstan (suggested by Bro. W. H. Upton, P.G.M., of Washington).  May admit of interpretation as Edwd. the elder, and his sons Athelstan and Edwin (see IV. and V.)>> (who brought the land to rest and peace, and he loved well Masons and had a son called Edwin),<<Query, Edwd., and Athelstan (suggested by Bro. W. H. Upton, P.G.M., of Washington).  May admit of interpretation as Edwd. the elder, and his sons Athelstan and Edwin (see IV. and V.)>> and the same (Edwin) loved well Geometry and applied himself busily in learning that science, and also he desired to have the practice thereof, wherefore he called to himself {549} the best Masons that were in the realm, for he knew well that they had the practise of Geometry best of any craft in the realm, and he learned of them Masonry and loved and cherished them well, and he took unto him the Charges, and learned the manners, and afterwards for the love that he had unto the craft, and for the good grounding on which it was founded, he purchased a free charter of the King his father that they should have such freedom, to have correction within themselves, and that they might commune together, to correct such things as were amiss within themselves; and they made a great Congregation of Masons to assemble together at York, where he was himself, and let call the old Masons of the realm to that Congregation, and commanded them to bring to him all the writings of the old books of the craft that they had, out of which book they contrived the Charges by the device of the wisest Masons that were there, and commanded that these charges might be kept and holden, and he ordained that such Congregations should be called Assembly, and he ordained for them good pay that they might live honestly; the which Charges I will declare hereafter, and thus was the Craft of Masonry grounded and confirmed in England.

IN ENGLAND Right Worshipful Masters and Fellows that (have) been of divers Assemblies and Congregations, with the consent of the lords of this realm, hath ordained and made Charges, by their best advise, that all manner of men that shall be made and Allowed Masons, must be sworn upon a book to keep the same, in all that they may, to the uttermost of their Power.  And also that they have ordained that when any Fellow shall be Received and Allowed that these Charges shall be read to him, and he to take his Charges.  And these Charges have been seen and perused by our late Sovereign Lord King Henry the Sixth, and the Lords of the honourable Council, and they have allowed them well, and said they were right good and reasonable to be holden.  And these Charges have been drawn and gathered out of divers ancient Books, both of the old Law and new Law, as they were confirmed and made in Egypt by the King and by the great clerk Euclid; and at the making of Solomon's temple by King David, and Salom his son; and in France by Charles King of France; and in England by St. Alban that was steward to the King; and afterwards by King Athelstan<<Query, Edwd., and Athelstan (suggested by Bro. W. H. Upton, P.G.M., of Washington).  May admit of interpretation as Edwd. the elder, and his sons Athelstan and Edwin (see IV. and V.)>> that was King of England, and by his son Edwin that was king after his father<<Query, Edwd., and Athelstan (suggested by Bro. W. H. Upton, P.G.M., of Washington).  May admit of interpretation as Edwd. the elder, and his sons Athelstan and Edwin (see IV. and V.)>>; as it is rehearsed in many and divers histories, and storialls, and chapters, and ensueth as the Charges following, Particularly and severally.

The first and principal Charge is: --

1. THAT ye shall be true man, or true men, to God and the Holy Church, and that ye shall use neither error nor heresy, by your own understanding nor discredit wise-men's teaching.

2. That ye be true liegemen to the King without treason or falsehood, and if you know any treason or treachery, look ye amend it if you can, or else privately warn the King, or his rulers, or his deputies, and officers.

3. That ye shall be true one to another; that is to say every Master and Fellow of the science and craft of Masonry, that be Allowed Masons; and to do unto them as ye would they should do unto you.

4. That every Mason keep true Council both of "Lodge" and "Chamber," and all other councils that ought to be kept by way of Masonry.

5. That no Mason be thief, or thieves (maintainers), so far as he knoweth. {550}

6. That he shall be true to his lord and (to his) Master, that he doth serve, and truly look to his Master's profit and advantage.

7. You shall call Masons your Fellows, or your Brethren, and by no foul name, nor shall you take your Fellow's wife in villany, nor further desire his daughter or servant.

8. And also that you pay truly for your meat or your drink, wheresoever you go to board, also ye shall do no villany in the house, whereby the Craft may be slandered.

THESE be the Charges in general that every Mason should hold, both Masters and Fellows.

NOW other singular Charges for Masters and Fellows: --

1st -- THAT no Master, nor Fellow, take upon him Lord's work, nor other man's, but he know himself able and cunning to perform it; so that the Craft have no slander nor disworship; so that the lord may be well and truly served.

2ly -- That no Master take work but he take it reasonably so that the lords may be well and truly served with his own goods, and the Master may live honestly, and pay his Fellows truly their pay, as the manner of Craft asketh.

3ly -- That no Master, nor Fellow, shall supplant other of his work, that is to say, if he have taken a work, or stand Master of any lord's work, or other.  Ye shall not put him out, unless he is unable of cunning to end that work.

4ly -- That no Master, nor Fellow, take no Apprentice, to be allowed his apprentice but for seven years, and that the apprentice be able, (and) of birth and living, as he ought to be.

5ly -- That no Master, nor Fellow, take no allowance (nor allow any) to be Mason without the consent of V. or VI. of his Fellows at least; and that he that shall be made Mason to be (amenable in all points), that is to say, that he be free born and of good kindred, and no bondsman, and that he have his right limbs, as a man ought to have.

6ly -- "That no Master, nor Fellow, take any lord's work to task that hath been accounted to be journey-work.

7ly -- That every Master) give pay to his Fellow but as he may deserve, so that the worthy lord of the work may not be deceived through false workmen.

8ly -- That no Fellow do slander another behind his back to make him lose his good name, or his worldly goods.

9ly -- That no Fellow within Lodge, or without it, do minister evil answers to another ungodly, without reasonable cause.

10ly -- That every Mason shall do reverence to his elders, and shall put him to worship.

11ly -- That no Mason shall play at hazard, nor at the dice, nor at any other unlawful games, whereby the Craft might be slandered.

12ly -- That no Mason be ribald in lechery, to make the Craft slandered.

13th -- That no Fellow go into town in the night time without a Fellow to bear witness that he hath been in honest company; for if he do so there is to be a Lodge of Fellows to punish the sin.

14th -- That every Mason and Fellow shall come to the Assembly if it be within five (fifty) miles of him, and if he have any warning to stand at the award of Masters and Fellows.

15th -- That every Mason and Fellow if they have trespassed to stand at the award of Masters and Fellows to make them accord, if they may, and if they may not accord then to go to the common law.

16th -- That no Master make no mould, nor square, nor rule, to layers (i.e., setters).

17th -- That no Master, nor Fellow, shall set a layer within {551} Lodge, nor without it, to shew any moulded stones, with any mould of his making.

18th -- That every Master shall receive and cherish strange Masons when they come out of the country, and set them to work, as the manner is; that is to say, if they have moulded stones in the place, ye shall set him a fortnight at the least in work, and give him his pay, and if ye have no stones for him to work, then ye shall refresh him to the next Lodge.

19th -- That you shall truly serve your lord for your pay, and justly and truly make an end of your work, be it task or journey-work, so that you may have your pay truly, as you ought to have.

20th -- That every Mason work truly upon the working day, so that he may receive his pay and deserve it; that he may live honestly upon the holiday; and that ye, and every Mason, receive your pay godly of your paymaster, and that you shall keep due time of labour in your work, and of rest as it is ordained of the Master's counsel.

21st -- That if any Fellow shall be at discord or dissention, ye shall truly treat with them to make accord and agreement, and shew no favour to either party, but act justly and truly for both, and that it be done at such times as the lord's work be not hindered.

22nd -- ALSO if ye stand Warden or have any power under the Master, where you serve, ye shall be true to your said Master while ye be with him, and be a true mediator between Master and Fellows, to the uttermost of your power.

23rd -- ALSO if ye stand steward, either of Lodge, Chamber, or Common House needs, ye shall give a true account of your Fellows' goods, how they are dispensed, at such times as they may take account; and also if ye have more cunning than your Fellow that stands by you at his work, and see him in danger to spoil his stone, and wants counsel of you, ye shall inform and teach him honestly, so that the lord's work be not spoiled.

          THESE Charges that we have declared and recorded unto you, ye shall well and truly keep to your power.  So help you God, and your Hali-dame; and by ye holy contents of this book.

 

IV.

MODERN CHARGES.

  (ABBREVIATED, "circa" 1535).

 

   The might of the Father of heaven, with the wisdom of the blessed Son, through the grace of God, and the goodness of     the Holy Ghost, that be three persons in one Godhead, be with us at our beginning, and give us grace so to govern us here in this life, that we may come to His blessing, that never shall have ending.

GOOD BRETHREN and Fellows, our purpose is to tell you how and in what manner this worthy science of Masonry was first founded and afterwards how it was maintained and upholden by worthy kings and princes, and many other worshipful men.  And also, to them that be here, we will declare the Charges that it belongs to every Free-Mason to keep sure in good faith; and therefore take good heed hereunto, for it is a science that is worthy of being kept, for it is a worthy Craft; and is one of the seven liberal sciences. {552}

The names of the seven liberal sciences are these: The first is "Grammar" that teacheth a man to speak and write truly; the second is "Rhetoric" that teacheth a man to speak well, in subtle terms; the third is "Dialectic," or Logic, that teacheth a man to discern truth from falsehood.  The fourth is "Arithmetic," that teacheth a man to reckon and count all kinds of numbers; the fifth is "Geometry" that teacheth a man to mete and measure the earth and all other things, on which science Masonry is grounded.  The sixth is "Music" that teacheth the craft of song and voice, of tongue, organ, and harp.  The seventh is "Astronomy" that teacheth a man to know the course of the sun, moon, and stars.

THESE be the seven liberal Sciences, the which are all grounded upon one, that is to say Geometry.  And this may a man prove that the science of all work is grounded upon Geometry, for it teacheth mete, measure, ponderation, and weight of all manner of things on earth; for there are none that work any science, but he worketh by some measure or weight, and all this is Geometry.  Merchants and all Craftsmen, and others who use the Sciences, and especially the plowmen and tillers of all manner of grains and seeds, planters of vineyards and setters of fruit, none can till without Geometry; for neither in Grammar, Rhetoric, or Astronomy can any man find mete or measure without geometry.  Wherefore this science may well be called the most worthy science, for it foundeth all others.

HOW this science was first begun I will now tell you.  Before Noah's flood there was a man called Lamech, as it is written in the Bible in the 4th chapter of Genesis.  And this Lamech had two wives, the one called Adah by whom he had two sons, one called Jabal and the other Jubal.  And his other wife was called Zillah, by whom he had one son Tubal-Cain, and one daughter named Naamah; and these four children founded the beginning of all the sciences in the world.  Jabal, the eldest son, found out the science of Geometry; he kept flocks of sheep and lambs in the fields, as it is noted in the chapter aforesaid.  His brother Jubal founded the science of Music, in song of tongue, harp, and organ, and trumpet.  And the third brother Tubal Cain found the science of smith's craft, in gold, silver, copper, and iron.  And their sister Naamah found the craft of weaving.  And these persons knowing right well that God would take vengeance for sin, either by fire or water, therefore they writ their several sciences that they had found in ii. pillars of stone, that they might be found after Noah's flood.  The one stone was marble that would not burn with fire, and the other called "latres" (latens, laterns, lacerus, &c.) because it would not drown with water.  Our intent is now to tell you, how and in what manner these stones were found in which were written these sciences.  After the destruction of the world by Noah's flood, as histories affirm, a great clerk called Pythagoras found the one, and Hermes the philosopher (who was Cush's son, who was Shem's son, who was Noah's son) found the other, and was called the Father of wise men.  These two found the two pillars in which the sciences were written, and taught them to other men.

AND at the making of the Tower of Babylon masonry was much esteemed.  And the king of Babylon that was named Nimrod was a Mason himself, and he loved well Masons and their science, as it is said by Masters of histories.  And when the cities of Nineveh, and other cities of eastern Asia, were to be built this Nimrod sent thither three score masons<<Other MSS. have it, sixty, forty, thirty hundred, see also No. 3 MS.>> at the request of the {553} King of Nineveh, his cousin, and when he sent them forth he gave them a Charge in this manner.  That they should each one be true to the other; that they should love well one another; that they should serve their lord truly for their pay, that the Master may have worship and all that belong to him.  And other more Charges he gave them, and this was the first time that a Mason had any Charges of his Craft.

MOREOVER Abraham and Sarah his wife went into Egypt, and there he taught the seven sciences to the Egyptians; and ("he had") a worthy scholar named Euclid ("and he") learned right well and was Master of all the vii. sciences; and in his days it befell that the lords and states of the land had so many sons, some by their wives and some by their concubines, for that land is hot and plenteous of generation; and they had not a competent proportion of estates wherewith to maintain their said children, which caused them much care; and the King of that land summoned a great Council to consult how they might provide for their children to live honestly as gentlemen; and they could find no good way.  And then they made proclamation throughout all the realm, that if there were any that could inform them therein he should come to them and would be well rewarded for his labours.  After this proclamation was made the worthy Clerk Euclid came and said unto the King and the nobles -- "If you will accept of me to teach, instruct, and govern your children, I will teach them the vii. liberal sciences whereby they may live honestly as gentlemen.  I will do it upon condition that you will grant me and them a commission, that I may have power to rule them, after the manner the science ought to be ruled."  The King and all the Council granted him this and sealed the Commission; and then this worthy doctor took to himself these lords' sons and taught them the science of Geometry, and to practise work in stones, of all manner of work that belongeth to building churches, temples, castles, towers, manors, and all other sorts of buildings, and gave them a Charge in this manner: First, that they should be true to the lord that they serve; that they should love well one another; that they should call each other Fellow or Brother, and not servant, knave, or other foul name; that they should truly deserve their pay of their lord, or the master that they served; and that they should ordain the wisest of them to be masters of the work, and neither to chose for love, nor affection, nor greatness, nor richness, to set any in the work that hath not sufficient knowledge or cunning to be master of the work, whereby the Master should be evilly served and they dishonoured; and also that they should call the governor of the work Master, during the time that they work with him, and other more Charges which is too long to tell here.  And to all these Charges he made them swear a great Oath, that men used at that time; and he ordained for them reasonable pay that they might live honestly thereby; also that they should assemble themselves together once every year, and consult how they might best work for their lord's profit and their own credit; and correct within themselves him that had trespassed against the science.  And thus was the science grounded in Egypt, and that worthy Master Euclid was the first that gave it the name of Geometry the which is now called Masonry.

AND, AFTER that, when the children of Israel were come into the land of Behest which is now called with us the country of Jerusalem (Jewry), King David began the temple that is now called Templum Dei, as is called with us the Temple of Jerusalem, and the said King David loved well Masons and {554} cherished them much, and he gave them good wages, and also Charges and manners, as they had learned in Egypt ("from Euclid"), and other more Charges that you shall hear afterwards.  After the decease of King David, Solomon his son finished the said temple that his father had begun, and he sent for Masons out of divers countries and divers lands, and gathered them together so that he had four score thousand workers of stone who were Masons, and he chose out of them three thousand that were ordained to be Masters and governors of the work.  And furthermore, there was a king of another region that men called Hiram, and he loved King Solomon well, and he gave him timber for his work.  And he had a son named Aman (Aymon, Hymon, Anon, Adon, &c.) and he was a Master of Geometry, and chief Master of all his gravings, carvings, and all his masons and masonry, as appears in Scripture, in libro primo Regum and chapter 5th.  And this Solomon confirmed both the Charges and manners that his father had given to Masons, and thus was the worthy science of Masonry confirmed in the country of Jewry, and city of Jerusalem, and in many other kingdoms.

CURIOUS Craftsmen walked about full wide into other countries, some to learn more craft, and some to teach others that had little skill and cunning.  And it befell that there was one curious Mason named Namas Graecas (Namus Graecus, Manus Graecus, Memon Grecus, Mammungretus, Mamus Graecus, Minus Goventis, Marcus Graecus, Namus Grenaeus, etc.) that had been at the building<<Building's (query of Bro. Schnitger) -- he had a Solomon's temple ritual.>> of Solomon's temple and he came into France and there he taught the science of Masonry to men of that land.  And there was one of the royal line of France called Charles Martel, and he was a man that loved well such a craft, and he drew to this . . . . . abovesaid, and learned of him the craft, and took upon him Charges and manners, and afterwards by the providence of God, he was elected King of France, and when he was in his estate he took and helped to make men Masons which before were not; and he gave them both their Charge and manners, and good pay as he had learned of other Masons, and also confirmed a Charter from year to year to hold their Assembly where they would, and cherished them right well, and thus came this famous Craft into France.

ENGLAND in all this time stood void of any Charge of Masonry until St. Alban's time, and in his days the King of England<<Carausius.>> then a pagan did wall the town (that is now called) St. Albans about.  And St. Alban was a worthy Knight and Steward of the King's household, and had the government of the realm, and had also the ordering of the walls of the said town, and he loved and cherished Masons right well, and made their pay right good, for he gave them (3s. a week -- 2s. 6d. and 3d. for noon, 3s. 6d. and 3d., etc.), and before that time, throughout all the land, a Mason took but a penny a day, until St. Alban amended it; and he procured them a Charter from the King and his Council, for to hold counsel together, and gave it the name of Assembly, and thereat he was himself, and helped to make men Masons, and gave them a Charge, as ye shall after hear.

BUT it happened soon after the death of St. Alban that there arose great wars in England, which came out of divers nations, so that the goodly rule of Masonry was well nigh destroyed until the days of King Athelstan,<<Query, Edwd., and Athelstan (suggested by Bro. W. H. Upton, P.G.M., of Washington).  May admit of interpretation as Edwd. the elder, and his sons Athelstan and Edwin (see IV. and V.)>> who was a worthy King of England, and he brought the land into good rest and peace, and {555} builded many great works, as abbeys, castles, towns, and other buildings, and loved well Masons; and he had a son named Edwin,<<Query, Edwd., and Athelstan (suggested by Bro. W. H. Upton, P.G.M., of Washington).  May admit of interpretation as Edwd. the elder, and his sons Athelstan and Edwin (see IV. and V.)>> that loved Masons, much more than his father, and he was a great practitioner in geometry, and delighted much to talk and commune with Masons and to learn of them skill and cunning, and afterwards for the love he bore to Masons and to their science, he was made a Mason, and he procured for them of the King his father a Charter and Commission to hold every year an Assembly, wheresoever they would within the realm of England, and to correct within themselves all defaults and trespasses that were done within the Craft, and he himself held an Assembly at York, and there he made Masons and gave them the Charges and taught them the manners and commanded that rule to be kept ever after, and also gave them the Charter to keep, and also gave orders that it should be renewed from king to king.  And when the Assembly was gathered together he made proclamation, that all Masons who had any writings or understanding of the Charges and manners concerning the said science, that was made before in this land or any other, that they should bring them forth, and when they were viewed and examined, there were found some in French, some in Greek, some in English, and other languages, and the intent and meaning was found all one. [<<Added from "Tew MS." W. R. Co. York; also clauses 19 to 25.>> And these Charges have been gathered and drawn out of divers antient books and writings, as they were made and confirmed in Egypt by the King and the great Clerk Euclid; and by David and Solomon his son; and in France by Charles Martel who was King of France; and in England by St. Alban; and afterwards by Athelstan and Edward his son,<<Query, Edwd., and Athelstan (suggested by Bro. W. H. Upton, P.G.M., of Washington).  May admit of interpretation as Edwd. the elder, and his sons Athelstan and Edwin (see IV. and V.)>> that was king after him.]  And he had made a Book thereof, how the Craft was founded, and he himself counselled that it should be read when any Masons should be made, and the Charge given to them.  And from that day to this the manners of Masons have been kept and observed in that form, as well as men might observe and govern it.

ADD furthermore at divers Assemblies there hath been added certain Charges more by the best advice of Masters and Fellows.  Tunc unus ex senioribus teneat librum ut ille vel illi potiat vel potiant manus sup librum et tunc precepta deberent Legi.

EVERY man that is a Mason, take right good heed to these Charges, and if any man find himself guilty of any of them, let him amend himself before God.  And in particular, ye that are to be charged, take good heed to keep them right well, for it is perilous and great danger for a man to forswear himself upon "a book" (the Holy Scriptures).

1st -- The first Charge is that you be true man to God, and the Holy Church, and that you use neither error nor heresy, according to your own understanding, and to discreet and wise-men's teaching.

2nd -- You shall be true liegemen to the King of England without any treason or falsehood, and if you know of any that you amend it privily, if you may, or else warn the King and his Council of it by declaring it to his officers.

3rd -- Ye shall be true to one another, that is to say to every Mason of the Craft of Masonry that be allowed Masons, and do unto them as you would they should do unto you.

4th -- You shall keep truly all the counsel of Lodge and Chamber, and all other counsel, that ought to be kept by way of Masonry.

5th -- Also that you use no thievery, but keep yourselves true.

6th -- Also you shall be true to the lord, or Master, that you {556} serve, and truly see that his profit and advantage be promoted and furthered.

7th -- And also you shall call Masons your Brethren, or Fellows, and no foul name.

8th -- And you shall not take in villainy your Fellow's wife, nor desire his daughter, nor servant, nor put him to any discredit.

9th -- And also that you pay truly for your meat and drink where you go to table, and that you do not anything whereby the Craft may be scandalised, or receive disgrace.

THESE be the Charges in general that belongeth to every Mason to keep both Masters and Fellows.  NOW come I to rehearse certain other Charges singularly, for Masters and Fellows: --

1. That no Master take upon him any lord's work, or any other man's work, except he know himself to be of sufficient skill and cunning to perform and finish the same, that so the Craft receive no slander, but that the lord be well served, and have his work truly done.

2. Also that no Master take any work at unreasonable rates, but so that the lord, or owner, may be truly served with his own goods, and the Master live honestly thereby, and pay his Fellows truly their wages, as the manner is.

3. And also that no Master, nor Fellow, shall supplant another of his work; that is to say, if any Master or Fellow have taken any work to do, and so stands as Master of the said work, you shall not put him out of it, unless he be unable of skill and cunning to perform the same to the end.

4. Also that no Master nor Fellow, take any Apprentice under the term of seven years, and that such apprentice is sufficiently able of body and sound of limbs, also of good birth, free-born, no alien, but descended of a true and honest kindred, and no bondsman.

5. Also that no Mason take any apprentice unless he have sufficient occupation wherein to employ two or three Fellows at the least.

6. Also that no Master or Fellow take any lords' work (in task) that was wont to be journey work.

7. Also that every Master shall give wages to his Fellows according as his work doth deserve, that he be not deceived by false work.

8. Also that none shall slander another behind his back, whereby he may lose his good name, or worldly riches.

9. Also that no Fellow, within the lodge or without it, shall misanswer or reprove another, without cause.

10. Also that every Mason shall reverence his elder brother, and put him to honour.

11. Also that no Mason shall be a common player at cards or dice, or any other unlawful game, or games, whereby the science may be slandered and disgraced.

12. Also that no Fellow at any time go from the Lodge to any town adjoining, except he have a Fellow with him to witness that he was in an honest place, and civil company.

13. Also that every Master and Fellow shall come to the Assembly of Masons, if it he within fifty (1, 5, 7, 10) miles about him, if he have any warning of the same.

14. And if he or they have trespassed or offended against the Craft, all such trespass shall stand there, at the award and arbitration of the Masters and Fellows there (present); they to make them accord if they can, or may, and if they cannot agree then to go to the common law. {557}

15. Also that no Master, nor Fellow, make any mould, rule, or square for any layer, nor set any layer (with) or without to hew any mould stones.

16. And that every Mason shall cherish strange Fellows, when they come out of other countries and set them on work if he can, as the manner is, viz. -- if he have no stones, nor moulds, in that place, he shall refresh him with money to supply his necessities until he come to the next Lodge.

17. Also that every Mason shall perform his work truly and not sleightly, for his pay, and serve his lord truly for his wages.

18. Also that every Master shall truly make an end of his work, whether it be by task or journey, viz., by measure or by days, and if he have his pay and all other covenants performed to him by the lord of the work according to the bargain.

19. Also that no Mason shall be a common ribald in lechery to make the Craft slandered.

20. Also that every Mason shall work truly upon the work day, that he may truly deserve his pay, and receive it so he may live honestly on the holiday.

21. And also that you and every Mason shall receive weekly (meekly) and godly (the) pay of your paymaster, and that you shall have due time of labour in the work, and of rest as is ordained by the Master's counsel.

22. And also if any Fellows be at discord you shall truly treat with them to be agreed, shewing favour to neither party, but wisely and truly for both, and that it be in such time that the lord's work be not hindered.

23. And also if you stand Warden, or have any power under the Master whom you serve, you shall be true to him, and a true mediator between the Master and your Fellows, to the uttermost of your power whilst you be in care.

24. Also if you stand Steward either of Lodge, Chambers, or common house, you shall give true accounts to your Fellows, at such time as they have accounts.

25. And also if you have more cunning than your Fellow that stands by you, and see him in danger to spoil his stone, and he asketh counsel of you, you shall inform and teach him honestly, so that the lord's work be not damaged.

          THESE Charges that we have now rehearsed to you, and

       to all others here present, which belongeth to Masons, ye

       shall well and truly keep to your power.  So help you

       God, and by ye contents of that book.  Amen.  (by your

       Haly-dome, Hali-dame, etc.).

 

V.

 

"A SOUTH COUNTY VARIATION."

  .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .

Afterwards, soon after the decease of St. Alban there came divers wars into England, out of divers nations, so that the good rule of Masonry was destroyed and put down, until the time of King (Knight) Althelstan.<<Query, Edwd., and Athelstan (suggested by Bro. W. H. Upton, P.G.M., of Washington).  May admit of interpretation as Edwd. the elder, and his sons Athelstan and Edwin (see IV. and V.)>>  In his time there was a worthy King of England that brought this land into good rest, and he builded many great works and buildings, therefore he loved well Masons, for he had a son called Edwin,<<Query, Edwd., and Athelstan (suggested by Bro. W. H. Upton, P.G.M., of Washington).  May admit of interpretation as Edwd. the elder, and his sons Athelstan and Edwin (see IV. and V.)>> the which loved Masons much more than his father did, and he was so practised {558} in geometry that he delighted much to come and talk with Masons, and learn of them the Craft; and after for the love he had to Masons and to the Craft, he was made Mason at Windsor,<<Query -- Winchester.>> and got of the King his father a charter and commission, once every year to have Assembly where they would within England, and to correct within themselves, faults and trespasses that were done touching the Craft, and he held them at Assembly at York, and there he made Masons.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .

 

  VI.

  "THE NEW ARTICLES AND APPRENTICE CHARGE."

   (Harleian MS., etc., early 17th Century).

 

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .

     

(THE NEW ARTICLES).

  (1) 26. No person (of what degree soever) bee accepted a Free-Mason unless he shall have a lodge of five Free Masons; at least where of one to be a Master or Warden, of that limitt or devision, wherein such lodge shall be kept, and another of the trade of Free Masonry.

(2) 27. That noe p'son shall be accepted a Free Mason but such as are of able body, honest parentage, good reputation, and observers of the laws of the land.

(3) 28. That noe p'son hereafter be accepted a Free Mason, nor shall be admitted into any Lodge or Assembly until hee hath brought a certificate of the time of accep'con from the Lodge yt accepted him, unto the master of that limitt and devision where such Lodge was kept which say'd Master shall enrole the same in parchment in a role to he kept for that purpose, to give an account of all such Accep'cions at every general Assembly.<<See the acct. of such Roll at York, Ch. X.>>

(4) 29. That every person whoe now is Free Mason shall bring to the Master a note of the time of his accep'tion, to the end the same may be enrolled in such priority of place of the p'son shall deserve and to ye end the whole Company and Fellows may the better know each other.

(5) 30. That for the future the say'd Society, Company, and Fraternity, of Free Masons shall be regulated and govern'd by one Master, and Assembly, and Wardens, as ye said Company shall think fitt to chose at every yearly general Assembly.

(7) 31. That no p'son shall be accepted a Free Mason, or know the secrets of the said Society, until he hath first taken the Oath of secrecy hereafter following: -- I, A.B., doe in the presence of Almighty God and my Fellows and Brethren here present, promise and declare that I will not at any time hereafter, by any act or circumstance whatsoever, directly or indirectly, publish, discover, reveale, or make knowne, any of the secrets, priviledges, or counsells, of the Fraternity or Fellowship of Free Masons, {559} which at this time, or at any time hereafter, shall be made knowne unto mee.  So helpe mee God, and the holy contents of this booke.

 

 

(THE CHARGE BELONGING TO AN APPRENTICE).

1. You shall truly honour God and his Holy Church, the King, your Master, and Dame, you shall not absent yourself but with the license of both, or one of them, from their service by day or night.

2. You shall not purloin or steal, or be privy, or accessory to the purloining or stealing, to the value of sixpence, from them, or any of them.

3. You shall not commit adultery, or fornication, in the house of your Master, with his wife, daughter, or maid.

4. You shall not disclose your Master's or Dame's counsels, or secrets, which they have imparted to you, nor what is to be concealed, spoken, or done within the precincts of their house, by them or either of them, or by Free Masons.

6. You shall reverently behave yourself to all Free Masons, not using cards, or dice, or any other unlawful games, Christmas excepted.

7. You shall not haunt, or frequent any taverns, alehouses, or such as go into any of them, except when your Master's business, or Dame's, their, or any of their affairs, or without their or any of their consent.

8. You shall not commit adultery or fornication in any man's house, where you shall be at table or at work.

9. You shall not marry or contract yourself to any woman during your Apprenticeship.

10. You shall not steal any man's goods, but especially your said Master's, or any of his Fellow Masons', or suffer any one to steal their goods, but shall hinder it if you can, and if you cannot, then you shall acquaint your said Master, and his Fellows presently.

 

VII.

"ADDITION TO "NEW ARTICLES," IN" 1663. 

6th. That noe p'son be accepted a Ffree Mason, except he be one and twenty yeares old or more.

 

GRAND LODGE MS. No. 2, "circa" 1650. 

32. The 6th. p. 559. (Hence the omission from Harleian MS., and some others may be an error by accident. No date.)

 

THE END.

 

{560}

 

 

 I N D E X.

  ______

   

A

 

Abel, 18.

   Arch Guilds, 390, 419, 422, 447

Aberdeen, a Templar Seat, 429.

Architecture: --

Adoptive Masonry, 493.

---- Anglo-Norman, 306, "et seq."

Agrippa, Cornelius, 209.

---- Anglo-Saxon, 261, 267.

"Agrouchada Parikshai," 73.

---- Cyclopean, 37.

"Ahiman Rezon" of Dermott, 452, 510.

---- Early Christian, in Britain, 250, 252.

Ainsarii, the, 187.

---- Egyptian, 54.

Alchemy, 179, 344, 346, 430.

---- Perpendicular Style, 333. {561A}

Alexandria, a centre of the Mysteries, 97, 154.

---- Pointed Gothic, in Britain, 321, 322.

Alli Allahis, 182.

---- Renaissance Style, 365.

Allied Masonic Degrees, Grand Council of, 491.

---- Tudor Style, 354.

Almuseri, the, 138.

Arthur, King, Romances, 194, 254.

America, Arch Degree in, 457.

Aryans, Origin of the, 5, 69.

American Masonry, early 18th Century, 401.

  their Colonies and offshoots, 21, 68.

Ancient and Accepted Rite of 33 degrees, the, 485.

Ashmole, Elias, 215, 383, 391, 407

Ancient and Primitive Rite, the, 489.

Assassins, the, 186.

Ancients "versus" Moderns, 419, 421, 517.

Astronomical Symbolism, 43.

Anderson, Dr. Jas., 404, 495.

  its connection with Masonry, 413. 414

Andrea, J. V., 212.

Athelstan Constitution, 276.

Anglo-Norman influence on the Saxon System, 244, 286.

Atlantis, 6.

Anti-Papal Secret Societies before the Reformation, 199, 424.

---- Plato's Account, 8.

Arcane Discipline of the Church, the, 138, 158, 159, "et seq".

---- References in the "Popul-Vuh," and in the "Troano MS.," 9.

Arcane School, a primitive, 67.

Aubrey, "History of Wiltshire" quoted, 391.

 

 

B

 

Babylon, Traces of Masonry in, 34, 46, 222.

Brethren of the Golden Rosy Cross, 212. {561B}

Bacchic Rites, 89.

Brotherhood of the Trowel, at Florence, 209.

Bacchus, 79, 86.

Brothers of Purity, 184.

Bacon, Francis, 373.

Bruder von Reif und Hammer, Die, 313.

Baptism, a Mystic Rite, 80.

Bibliographical List of Masonic Literature of the 18th century, 498-515.

Bardisanians, 170.

Bogomiles, the, 176.

Basilideans, 168.

"Book of the Dead" quoted, 53.

Benai Ibraham, 182, 300.

Brethren of the Golden Rosy Cross, 212. {561B}

    Besant, Mrs. Annie, 486, 534.

Brotherhood of the Trowel, at Florence, 209.

Bibliographical List of Masonic Literature of the 18th century, 498-515.

Brothers of Purity, 184.

Bogomiles, the, 176.

Bruder von Reif und Hammer, Die, 313.

"Book of the Dead" quoted, 53.

 
   

C

 

Cabala, the, 155, 431.

Clermont Chapter, 473.

Cabiri, the, 29, 36, 222.

Compass Brothers of Lubeck, the, 208.

Cabiric Mysteries, 42, 65.

Constitutions, Ancient, 272, "et seq."

Cagliostro, Rite of, 471.

Constitutions of 1723, 498.

Canon of Proportion in Egypt, 241

---- of 1738, 507.

Carpocrations, the, 167.

Cooke MS., the, 348, "et seq."

Caste Initiation, Hindu, 72.

Copts, Masonic traditions amongst the, 88.

Caste System in India, 22, 70.

Corpus Christi Guild, 369.

Caste Guilds in India, Modern, 225.

Cross, the, a symbol in Egypt, 9.

Catechisms, old, 408, "et seq."

Cross, in Yucatan, 9.

Cathari, the, 176.

---- St. Andrews, 132.

Cerenthians, the, 168.

---- Svastica, 132, 142.

Cerneau, Joseph, 482.

---- Templar, 197.

Charges, Ancient, 270, 273, 276.

---- The Triple Cross, 11.

---- Anglo-Norman, 323.

---- various forms of, 29.

---- Cooke and Watson MSS., 347, "et seq."

Crucifixion, in the Mysteries, 134.  {562A}

---- Modern Guild, 367.

Crucifixion in Masonry, 294.

---- Saxon "versus" Norman, 340.

Cryptic Rite, the, 491.

Charter of Cologne, the, 210.

Crux Ansata, the, 70.

Chaucer, a Mason, 338.

Cube, the, an early symbol in Yucatan, 9.

Children of Master Jacques, 290.

Cube, an important Masonic symbol, 145.

China, Traces of early Freemasonry in, 32, 220.

Culdees, the, 27, 164, "et seq.", 251, 275, 327.

---- Secret Societies in, 216.

Culdees, their connection with the Druids, 254, 270.

Chrestos "versus" Christos, 134, 172.

Culdees, traces of, at York, 268.

Christian Architecture in Britain, early, 250.

Cycles, Hindu, 2.

Circle, the, its Symbolism, 142.

Cyclopean Architecture, in India, 23.

   

D

 

Dante, his Templar connection, 201.

---- their origin, 176.

D'Assigny, Dr., 450.

Desaguliers, J. T., 495.

Death, symbolic in the Mysteries, 135.

Dionysian Artificers, 41, 91.

Dee, Dr. John, 215.

Dionysian Rites, 89, 226, 227.

Deluge Traditions, 2.

Druids, the, 26.

Dermott, Laurence, 452, "et seq.", 510, 511.

Druses, their Ceremonies of Initiation, 138, 186.

Dervish Sects in Islam, 188.

Dunckerley, Thos., 455, 466.

   

E

 

Easter Island, Cyclopean remains on, 6.

Egyptian Mysteries of Isis, and Osiris, 83.

Eastern Star, Order of the, 493.

Epoptae, the, 151.

Ebionites, the, 158

Equinoxes, Precession of the, 2, 56.

Ecossaisisme, in France, 468.

Esoteric Budhism, 175.

Egypt, early Masonic Symbolism in, 53, 88, 221.

Essenes, the, 156.

Egypt, Greco-Egyptian fraternities, 237.

Euclid, 131, 239.

Egyptian Chronology, 6.

 
   

F

 

"Fame and Confession of the Rosy Cross," the, 211.

Freemasonry, early English, of Greco-Roman origin, 240.

Female Principle in Nature, worship of the, 71

Freemasonry in Saxon England, 245, 272.

Fendeurs, or charcoal burners, 292. {562B}

Freemasonry in Norman England, after the Conquest, 295, "et seq."

Flamel, Nicholas, 205.

Freemasonry in the 18th century, 433, "et seq."

Fludd, Robert, 214, 430.

Freemasonry, Modern, 495, "et seq."

Four Crowned Martyrs, the, 277.

Freemasonry, traditions and legends, 238, "et seq."

Fraternitas Rosae Crucis, 206.

French Companonage, 288.

Frederick II., King of Sicily, 200.

Freund vom Kreuz, die, 353.

"Free" Mason, theories as to the meaning of "Free," 329.

Friends of the Cross, 211.

Freemasonry, theories of origin, 237, "et seq."

Friends of God, 205.

   

G

 

G, the letter, 410.

---- connected with the Culdees, 254.

Geomatic versus Domatic, 382, 408, 423.

Grand Lodge of 1717, 417, 495.

Geometry, 88, 127.

Greater Mysteries, the, 111, "et seq.", 119.

---- a mathematical discipline, 139, 145.

Greece, Aryan invasion of, 223, 225.

---- necessary in ancient Masonry, 285.

Guilds: -- Coptic, 132, 233.

---- used in a symbolic sense, 139.

---- Early Anglo-Saxon, 263,334.

Glastonbury cup, the, 194.

---- in Egypt, 237, 391.

Gnostics, the, 166.

---- in India, 76, 132.

Gnostic Secret Schools, later, 424.

---- in Japan, 34. {563A}

Gobi desert, 5.

Guilds in Normandy, 311.

Gormogons, the, 438.

---- Jewish, 92, 233, 298, 303.

Gould, Robt. Freke, 528.

---- Saxon "versus" Norman, 336.

Graal Legend, the, 177, 191, "et seq.", 293.

Guild Ceremonies, at the present day, 392, "et seq.", 534.

   

H

 

Hackbruderschaft, die, 353.

Hermetic Schools, their connection with Masonry, 429, 431.

Harleian MS., 386, 387.

Hermetic Rites in Masonry, 470, "et seq."

Harodim, the, 398, 421, 439.

High Grades, the, 424, "et seq.", 433.

Harodim-Rosy-Cross, the, 441.

Hiram, 45, 414.

Hercules, the twelve labours of, 7.

Homunculi, 472.

Hermes Trismegistus, 131.

House of Wisdom at Cairo, 184.

   

I

 

IAO, in the Serapian Mysteries, 149.

---- Indian, early rites, 24.

Illuminati, the, 216.

---- Japanese, 13.

Inigo Jones, 363, 379, 421.

---- Guinea, negroes of, 14.

Initiation, advantages of, 103.

---- Huseanawer of Virginia, 13.

---- definitions of, 135.

---- Maori, 14.

Initiation, various Ceremonies of: --

---- Mythraic, 78.

---- Areoiti of Polynesia, 14.

---- Parsee, 72.

---- Assyrian, 50.

---- Samothracian, 45.

---- Brahminical Rites, 71.

Iona, a Druidical centre, 252.

---- Egyptian, 54, 85, 96.

---- later, a Culdee seat, 251.

---- Eleusinian, 106.

Ireland, early Masonry in, 400, 406, 499.

  ---- Arch Degree in, 457.
   

J

 

Japanese Initiation, 13.

Jewish Rabbinical School, their connection with the Magi, 26.

Jehovah, 49.

J.H.V.H., and the lost word, 84.

   

K

 

Knights of Christ, 197.

   Knight Templar Degree, 459. {563B}

Knights of the Swan, 198.

 

 

 

  L

 

Landsdowne MS., 372.

"Leviticon," a French Templar gospel, 198.

Language, Symbolic, 426.

Lilly, William, 215.

Language, the primitive monosyllabic, 20.

London Company of Mason established, 332.

Layer Masons "versus" Mason Squarers, 332.

Livery Companies of London, their origin, 335 "et seq."

"Les Quatre Fils Aymon" quoted, 299, "et seq."

"Long Livers," Preface to, 433.

Lesser Mysteries, the, 111, "et seq.," 119.

Lost Word, the, 84.

   

M

 

Madre Natura, 68.

Mayaux of Yucatan, their mysteries, 12.

Magi, the, 25, 78.

Melrose Abbey, its Masonic symbolism, 330.

"Magister de Lapidibus vivis," 314.

Memphis, Rite of, 489.

Magical Union of Cologne, 203.

Meru, Mount, 3.

Man, Prehistoric, 4.

Militia Crucifera Evangelica, 210.

Manichaeans, the, 171.

Mishna, the, 235.

Maranos, a Jewish Secret Society, 182.

Mizraim, Rite of, 487.

Marconis, J. Etienne, 489.

Moors in Spain, the, 297.

Mark Master Degree, the, 490.

Morin, Stephen, 479.

Martin, Henry, 480, 482.

Mystae, the, 151.

Martinist Order, the, 491.

Mysteries of the Ancients, 2, 32.

Masons' Marks, Antiquity of, 98, 147.

---- Eleusinian, 104.

---- in Egypt, 53, 89.

---- in Egypt, 65, 83. {564A}

---- in England, 340, 378.

Mysteries of the Ancients in Greece, 103.

Masonic Jewels, their symbolism, 190.

---- their doctrines, 115, "et seq.", 136.

Masters' Assemblies, or Fraternities, 180, 319, 423.

Mythraic Mysteries, 78.

Masters' Incorporations in Scotland, 358.

Mythraic Temple in Northumberland, remains of, 248.

Matter, primordial, 70.

 
   

N

 

Naasene, the, 170.

Neo-Platonism, 97.

Nabatheans, the, 159.

Norman Conquest, and Its influence on Anglo-Saxon Masonry, 285, 295.

Namas Graecus, 296, 298, 302, 368.

Numbers, Hebrew numbers, and letters, 7.

Nazarenes, the, 158.

Numbers, Pythagorean, 125.

   

O

 

Oliver, Geo., D.D., 524.

Order of Ishmael, the, 183.

Ophites, the, 169.

Order of Light, the, 492.

Order of Elijah, the, 156.

Osiris, 84.

   

P

 

Para-Brahm, 70.

Plato, 122, 126.

Paracelsus, 208.

Platonic Academy at Rome, the, 209.

Pasqually, Martinez, 470.

Plot's "History of Staffordshire," 391.

Paulicians, the, 176.

"Polychronicon" compiled, the, 333.

"Perfect Man," the, 133.

Portman, Maurice Vidal, 492.

Perfection, Rite of 25 degrees, 479.

Private Lodges prior to 1717, 402.

Phallic Symbols, in India, 23.

Prometheus, 132.

---- in the Mysteries, 103.

Pyramids, in Babylon, 47.

---- in Samothrace, 37.

---- in Egypt, 54.

Phallus, the, 70.

Pythagoras, 105, 123.

Pillars, the two, 15, 47, 129, "et seq."

 
   

Q

 

Quatuor Coronati, the, 277.

Quatuor Coronati Lodge 2076 founded, 530.

 

---- its literary importance, 533.

   

R

 

Ramsay. Chevalier A. M., 468.

Rosicrucianism, 203, 469.

Red Cross Degree, 444. {564B}

---- in Denmark in 1484, 210.

Red Cross of Constantine, 491.

---- in Holland, in 1622, 213.

Roman Collegia, 229, "et seq.", 256.

---- and Freemasonry, 431, 437, 476.

Roman Remains in England with Masonic Marks and Emblems, 246, "et seq."

Rosy Cross Degree, 444.

"Romance of the Rose," the, 204.

Roslyn Chapel, the Prentice pillar legend, 346.

Rose as a symbol, the, 207, 445.

Royal Arch Degree, its origin, 446, "et seq."

Rosicrucian Order, the Modern, 491.

Royal Order of Scotland, 443.

   

S

 

Sadler, Henry, 530.

St. George and the Dragon, 87.

"Salute" Masons, 293.

St. Paul's Guild, 392.

Samber, Robert, 433.

St. Mark's, Venice, the builders of, 240.

Sat Bhai, the, 492.

Steinmetzen of Germany, the, 352, "et seq."

Scottish Rite of 33 degrees, the primitive, 479.

Stone Circles, 4o.

Secrecy of Masonic Rites, the reason for, 284.

Stonehenge, 41.

Secret Doctrine in India, a, 3.

Strict Observance, Rite of the, 474. {565A}

Secret Signs in the Mysteries, 113.

Sun-God, 44.

Serapis, Mysteries of, 95, 134.

Swalwell Lodge, 439, 504.

Serapian Temple at York, remains of, 248, 268.

Swedenborgian Rite, 490.

Serpent Symbols in Babylon, 47.

Sybilline Oracles Quoted, 133.

--- in Yucatan, 10.

Symbols in Freemasonry: --

Seven, a sacred number, 48.

---- Arcane, 172, "et seq."

Seymour, Harry J., 486.

---- in Anglo-Norman times, 322, 341.

Socinius, Faustus, 427.

---- in Scotland, 361.

Solomonian Legends introduced after the Crusades, 242.

---- their meanings and affinities, 146.

Solomon's Temple, 242.

---- traces of, in church architecture, 343, 344, 357.

Solomyi, the, 4.

---- traces of, in early Britain, 266.

Square, as a symbol in Egypt, 62.

Syria, traces of Masonry in, 232.

---- the oblong, in Yucatan, 12.

Syrian Masons, 297, 298.

   

T

 

Tarot, the, 87.

Templar Priest Degree, 459.

Tauler, John, 205.

Theosophical Society of Agrippa, 209.

Taurabolium, Rites of the, 122.

Theraputae, the, 157.

Templars. the, 189, "et seq.", 313, 426.

Thibet, a centre of the Mysteries, 175.

---- in Denmark, 460.

Trance, induced in the Mysteries, 137.

---- in France, 462.

Trinity, the, in Egypt, 54.

---- in Ireland, 464, 465

Troubadours, the, 198.

---- in Scotland, 459, 462.

---- the Poets of the Albigensian heresy. 202.

---- known as "Knights of Christ" in Portugal, 197.

Tubal Cain, 17, 30.

---- traces of Gnostic influence, 195.

Turanian Race, the, 20.

   

U

 
     United Grand Lodge of 1813, the, 518, 521, "et seq."  
   

V

 

Valentine, Basil, 207.

Vesica Piscis, 62, 148.

Valentinians, the, 170.

Vielle Bru Rite, 474, 476.

Vaughan, Thomas, 215, 431.

Virgil on the Mysteries, 109.

Vehm Gerichte, the, 178.

Visvakarma, Hindu Sect of, 74. {565B}

   

W

 

Watson MS., the, 348, "et seq."

Wren, Sir Christopher, 392, 431.   

Weishaupt, Professor, 216.

 
   

  Y

 

Y, symbolism of the letter, 141, 147.

Yoni, 70.

Yezids, the, 63.

York Assembly, 338, 365.

"Yh-King," the, 32. {566Atop}

York Masters' Ceremonies, 415.

   

Z

 

Zodiac, the Egyptian, 7.

Zuni Indians, their Mysteries, 13.  {566Btop}

Zoroaster, 25.

 

 

   

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