by the late Dr. E.H. CARTWRIGHT

Barrister-at-Law;  D.M., B.Ch. (oxon,);  Past Grand Deacon.




First Edition 1947  


Published by Fenrose, Ltd.,  21 Mount Ephraim Road,   Tunbridge Wells, Kent Cover design by Ronald Burch Studio  Typesetting by Amigo Graphics Centre, Ltd.


            Printed photolitho in Great Britain by  Ebenezer Baylis & Son Limited,  The Trinity Press, Worcester, and London   ©1973 Lyn Hepworth ISBN 0 903879 00 X  CONTENTS            Introduction to the Second Edition ..         .. Vii    Other Works by Dr. Cartwright .. ..  .. x       Author's Preface .. .. ..          .. xi      1 Introductory .. .. ..       .. 15     2 Rituals Referred to in the Ensuing Chapters      .. 39     3 Some Matters of General Concern                  Simultaneity of Action .. ..     47        Opening, Closing and `Resuming' ..           48             Knocks, Reports and Alarms ..        50        Sps., Sns. and Salutes .. ..   54        Attitude during Prayers and Obs. ..     56        Standing to Order .. ..           58        Passing round the Lodge .. ..           58        S...g, i.e. Shielding .. ..  58        L...g or H...g .. .. ..      60        The First Joint .. .. ..   60        A Detail in the Second Degree Preparation    61        The Bible Openings .. ..        61        The Lesser Lights .. ..           62        The Columns of the Officers .. 65        Gloves .. .. ..   67        Masonry or Freemasonry .. ..           69        Master Elect or Worshipful M.E. ..      69        Initiate and Brother Initiate ..            70        The Number that Constitutes a Quorum            70        The Number of Perambulations ..   70        "As happily we have met" .. 71        The Status of the I.P.M. .. ..        72        The Ballot for Candidates .. ..          72 A* 4 The Work of the Tyler .. .. ..           - 73     5 The Work of the Inner Guard .. ..      .. 82     6 The Work of the Deacons .. .. ..    .. 90     The First Degree .. .. ..            .. 94     The Second Degree .. .. ..    .. 101 The Third Degree .. .. ..         .. 107 Deacons - other Duties .. .. ..       .. 110 7 The Work of the Junior Warden .. ..         .. 112 The Ceremonies .. .. ..          .. 118 Calling Off and Calling On .. ..     .. 122 8 The Work of the Senior Warden .. ..        .. 124 The Ceremonies .. .. .. ..       .. 127     9 The Work of the Master .. .. ..        .. 133 Openings and Closings .. .. ..           .. 135 The Questions before Passing .. ..    .. 140 The Questions before Raising .. ..   .. 143

            The Ceremony of Initiation .. ..         .. 144 The Charge .. .. .. ..    .. 162 Tracing Board of the First Degree .. ..     .. 165 The Ceremony of Passing .. .. ..      .. 166 Tracing Board of the Second Degree ..     .. 174     The Ceremony of Raising .. .. ..       .. 177 The Traditional History continued .. ..          .. 190 Tracing Board of the Third Degree .. ..         .. 193 The Signs .. .. ..          .. 194 The Ceremony of Installation .. ..     .. 197     The Inner Working .. .. ..        .. 200 The Concluding Addresses .. ..       .. 207 The Investiture of the Immediate Past Master        .. 209 The Installation of a Past Master .. ..           .. 209 10 The Lectures .. .. .. ..            .. 210 11 Information for Candidates .. ..   .. 212 Appendices - A The Working Tools of the Second Degree           .. 215 B Explanation of the Second Tracing Board         .. 216 C Explanation of the Third Tracing Board           .. 219 D Address to the I.P.M. .. ..  .. 220 Notes and References .. .. .. ..         .. 223 E. H. Cartwright - A Biographical Note .. ..     .. 229 Index .. .. .. .. ..            .. 237





Secretary and Editor of the

Quatuor Coronati Lodge


Here is an extremely interesting book on a subject which is important to all who are concerned with the ritual of Craft. Nobody has written anything better in this particular field. Commendation in such terms needs to be justified and that can best be done by a brief survey of the circumstances which led Dr. Cartwright to his favourite branch of Masonic study.


            In the lodges under the United Grand Lodge of England there are hundreds of different `workings' in use today, which, with only a few rare exceptions, are all descended from the ritual that was `approved' at the Union. So far as is known, no detailed record of the approved forms was permitted to be made or published. Certain it is that the earliest printed post-Union rituals were far from perfect. In the century that followed, the most popular versions were printed and reprinted frequently and, in due course, new versions began to appear. It seems likely that all of them had suffered at some stage, perhaps from the vagaries of individual Preceptors, and almost certainly from careless or illiterate editors.


            None of these 19th century publications displayed major changes in the words of the rituals, or in the procedures, 'floor-work' etc., but the language had become slovenly and was marred in many cases by faulty grammar.


            Undoubtedly these defects must have been noticed, times out of number, by the Officers who recited the words and by the Brethren who heard them. But the manner in which the ritual was taught (and still is taught) in Lodges of Instruction, with their fanatical stress on the printed word, has tended to give the pages of the `named' rituals an aura of sanctity,so that the Officers, struggling to master their allotted tasks, begin to believe that every word of their particular ritual has come down to them directly from Heaven, and that even the slightest alteration would be a Masonic crime.


            Cartwright was a ritualist, not a historian. His published writings do not reveal any specialised interest in the early history of the ritual and he was no advocate for any particular working. His first and principal care was grammar. In Bro. Cartwright's argument, no matter how strongly a Mason might cleave viii            Introduction to a particular `working' because that was the one used in his Mother Lodge, or for any other good reason, nothing could ever justify the use of ritual framed in language that was ungrammatical.


            He was forthright, too, in his condemnation of `psittacism', i.e., the parrot-like repetition of words without thought of what they really mean - a disease encouraged and fostered - all unwittingly, by our Lodges of Instruction, because their work-programmes are designed primarily for rehearsal, leaving little or no opportunity for discussion or explanation. Cartwright wanted to ensure that the spoken word should convey the speaker's meaning precisely. For him, in a well conducted ceremony, every word was something precious, every phrase a pearl, and he was merciless in attacking passages in any `working' of the ritual which did not conform to the high standard that he deemed essential.


            Quick to notice a grammatical error, or the faulty construction of a sentence that conveyed the wrong meaning, and always ready to clarify or correct, he was, nevertheless, firmly opposed to the idea of the sanctity of the printed word or of a particular `working', an idea that had been sedulously fostered at first by the advocates of Emulation and which grew quite naturally among the adherents of the many later workings as the printed versions began to appear with increasing frequency.


            In 1926, Dr. Cartwright, aged 61, had already retired from his professional duties and he began to write articles on his favourite subject for the Masonic press. His papers usually began with a brief note on the evolution of the printed post-Union rituals and an attack on the Emulation officials who, in those days, claimed superior authenticity for their `working'. His critical approach to the ceremonies was virtually a word-by-word analysis of every defective passage. He condemned errors forthrightly when that was justified, and after comparing the passages with other workings he would recommend the best version, or the requisite changes. The list of his Masonic writings is not particularly long, but they all attracted attention from Preceptors and specialists in this field.


            To level criticisms of any kind against `named workings' was a courageous undertaking, no matter how justly they were founded. There can be little doubt that his views deserved a sympathetic hearing, but that was rarely forthcoming. Indeed he made enemies, but he pursued his mission and it was only the zealous attachment to the printed word, or the inherited word, so long fostered by the different `workings', that tended to set limits on his success.


            In addition to his work on the words of the ritual, he turned his attention to the ceremonial procedures, the duties of the individual Officers, the Knocks, Steps, etc., etc. In this field, too, because of ingrained customs, he was treading equally dangerous ground and the hazards were not diminished Introduction ix when he based his arguments continually on what he called `Freemasonic Theory', as though those theories had been officially codified into Craft Law, when, in fact, his arguments, often loosely stated and not subjected to test, might better be described as 'Cartwright's Theory'. In similar vein, he referred to various signs as `landmarks', without any definition of what a `landmark' is, or should be, and without any statement of the principles on which he classified those procedures as such. Yet, in all fairness, it must be acknowledged that his arguments arose from deep conviction and an overwhelming desire to explain, to justify and amend.


            In 1936 he published The English Ritual, based admittedly on The Perfect Ceremonies which represented the `working' that he had attacked most continuously. Undoubtedly he chose that work as his basis, because it contained the greatest number of faults. It is possible, too, that in choosing the most widely used ritual for his pattern he was aiming to make the greatest possible impact with his own amended version. He published a revised edition of The English Ritual in 1946, which, after a lapse of ten years, would seem to suggest that it had had only a moderate success.


            In 1947, he published his Commentary on the Freemasonic Ritual, virtually a collection of the materials in all his earlier papers in a new and well-ordered arrangement and, in this form, it attracted much wider attention. The book was very well reviewed in A QC Vol. 59, pp. 84/5, though not without some well-merited criticism, inevitable in a controversial work of this kind. Too many of Cartwright's views were based on ideas and arguments which needed rather more of explanation and supporting evidence than he had given them.


            As a set-off against these faults, his catalogue of the numerous `named' versions of the ritual that form the basis of his work is extremely instructive and valuable to every reader. His critical analysis of words and phrases, practices and procedures is always of the highest interest, and although the reader may find cause on every page to disagree with Cartwright's views, he will be rewarded, throughout the book, by the force and freshness of his approach and by the many instances in which our ritual procedures, and many of the things we say and do unthinkingly, simply because we inherited them from our predecessors, are examined, explained and often criticized in a provocative manner that stimulates thought and debate.


            The adjective "provocative" is perhaps the ideal summary of the book and is its principal characteristic. For the reader who loves his ritual and is eager to know more about it, Cartwright's Commentary is essential - and it is never dull. Whether the reader accepts Cartwright's rulings or not, he will know a great deal more about our ceremonial practices when he has finished reading it, and the words and procedures will have acquired new dimensions and a wider and deeper meaning.


            X OTHER WORKS BY Dr. CARTWRIGHT BOOKS: The English Ritual of Craft Freemasonry published primarily for the use of the Pellipar Lodge, No. 2693 (Lewis, London, 1936) - 2nd Edition (1946) A Commentary on the Freemasonic Ritual, with Notes on the Ceremonial Work of the Officers (Hepworth, Tunbridge Wells, 1947) PAMPHLETS AND ARTICLES: A Note on Browne's Master Key A.Q.C. xlv (1932) pp. 90-96. A Chronicle of the Pellipar Lodge No. 2693, 1898-1933 (1934) "The Ritual of the Union & the Ritual of Today" Trans. Manchester Assn. forMasonicResearch (1928/9) pp. 19-51 "Some Notes on the Appurtenances of the Lodge Room" Ibid (1932) pp. 71-99 "Some Further Notes on the Ritual" Ibid (1938) pp. 67-94 "Some Notes on the Ritual, and Criticisms of Certain Details of the Working as Practised in many Lodges Today" Trans. Somerset Masters' Lodge (1940/41) pp. 149-179 "Knocks, Reports and Alarms" Misc. Lat. Vol. xix (1935) pp. 113-119 "The Ceremony of Opening and Closing a Board of Installed Masters" The Freemason, (Feb. 1932) pp. 518-9 & 536 Unpublished Papers in the Library of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge: A Summary of the History of the Mark Degree, and its present Relationship in other Countries (Undated) Notes on the Ceremonial Opening and Closing of the Board of Installed Masters (Undated) Summary of the History of the Craft prior to the Union (read to the Lodge of Unity, No. 69 - May 1935) A Translation (decoding) of Browne's Master Key (April 1931)

 [N.B. The list does not include Bro. Cartwright's comments on Papers by other writers in A.Q.C., and it omits the shorter notes contributed at intervals to Misc. Lat. in response to queries..... Harry Carr, London, 19731





The raison d'e"tre of this book is explained in the first chapter. The sections on the work of the several subordinate officers are reproduced from a series of typescript notes drafted many years ago for the use of one of my own Lodges and, save for the excision of repetitions (for in their original form each part was designed to be complete in itself) and a few recently added notes and comments, are almost exactly as they were first written in, or about, 1910.


            The rest of the book has been in contemplation (lack of time and then the interruption of the war years having prevented its completion until now) since 1929, when I read to the Manchester Association for Masonic Research a Paper which contained the germ of the subject and which was printed in their Transactions, Vol. XIX (1929-30), pp. 19 et seq.


            Further Papers by myself on the subject of ritual &c. will be found in the Manchester Transactions, Vol. XXII (1932) and Vol. XXVII (1937), in the Transactions of the Somerset Masters' Lodge, Vol. 7 (1940), and in The Freemason, February, 1932, pp. 518 and 536.


            By a coincidence, about the same time that I read my first Paper at Manchester, Brother H. Hiram Hallett, of Taunton, independently prepared a Paper on somewhat similar lines which he read to The Somerset Masters Lodge and which has been published as a pamphlet entitled A Short Account of the Lodges of Promulgation, Reconciliation, Stability and Emulation.


            The duties of the Director of Ceremonies, important as they are, have not been given a place in this book because they have been so thoroughly and efficiently dealt with by the late Brother Algernon Rose in his The Director of Ceremonies. On almost every point, except the matter of the Junior Warden's column, I am in entire accord with his views.


            In this volume I am not concerned with the history and antiquarianism of the Craft or with the interpretation to be attached to its symbols. Those whose interests lie in such directions can have recourse to the plentiful literature on the subjects including the older books by Paton and Oliver, and the more modern ones by Hughan, Vibert, Knoop, Jones and Poole on the one hand and by Ward, Newton, Wilmshurst and Waite on the other, as well as to the multitudinous papers in the Transactions of the several Lodges and Associationsiofresearch and study, of which the Quatuor Coronati Lodge is the most important and the Correspondence Circle of which all those whose interest in the Craft goes beyond the mere repetition of ritual formularies should join. Such brethren would do well also to become subscribers to Miscellanea Latomorum, a periodical freemasonic `Notes and Queries'. Herein I merely submit a commentary on the ritual as we have it now, postulating that - whatever may be its origin and esoteric meaning - if it is to enlist the intelligent interest of reasonably cultured brethren, whether novices or seniors, it must at least be rendered logically and grammatically.


            I would, however, express my opinion that every Brother, as soon as he has been raised, should be induced to read the late Bro. Vibert's small volume, The Story of the Craft.


            Eighty years or so ago, when printed rituals were still generally looked at askance, it would probably have been thought undesirable to write on the subject in such detail as is here done; but now that they are ubiquitously - though naturally not officially - recognised and can be bought by anyone, and the details of the ceremonial (esoteries, of course, excepted) are freely discussed in Masonic books and periodicals, no objection can be taken to yet another critical survey, in which the matter is treated in a way that it is hoped may eventually have the result of increasing the appeal of our ceremonies to those better educated brethren in whose minds the illiteracy of their present rendering in many Lodges tends to bring them into contempt.


            I am indebted to the Secretary of the Manchester Association for permission to quote freely from my Papers in their Transactions, and to the Editor of Miscellanea Latomorum for leave to reprint the article on `Knocks, Reports and Alarms' and to quote from other contributions to that periodical.


            I would also record my indebtedness to Brothers H.H. Hallett, R.R. Conway, F.A.F. Cole, Sydney Race, G.Y. Johnson and R.H.B. Cawdron for sundry items of information regarding details of practice in their respective Lodges or localities.




            May, 1947.


            Since 1959, (A.Q.C Vol. 72) 'Notes and Queries' has been embodied with the annual volumes of Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 2076, London. [Ed.] THE SECOND EDITION FENROSE was fortunate in allying the services of Harry Carr, well-known as the Secretary and Editor of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. He has not only written the Introduction and Biographical Note, but also given much skilled advice in the preparation of this volume.


            Our thanks to Raymond Lawson, whose critical eye saved many technical errors.


            Lyn Hepworth, friend and original publisher of Dr. Cartwright, has long hoped for and encouraged this Second Edition. We hope its publication will be his best thanks.


            There have been numerous enquiries for copies of the Commentary, but the book has been out of print for many years. This edition has been compiled from an annotated copy of the book containing a large number of manuscript paragraphs to be added or substituted, together with various amendments, all in Cartwright's own miniscule handwriting, which he had prepared in readiness for a hoped-for second or revised edition. All this new material has been embodied in this new publication.


            References to Cartwright's source volumes and other bibliography are indicated by superior figures, and these are listed together by chapters commencing on p. 223.


1 Introductory


Before dealing with the details of the ritual as now practised, it is desirable to remind the reader of the main facts concerning its history at the period of the Union (1809-1816) and during the years that have elapsed since then.


            We have little definite knowledge of ritual details prior to the Union, but it would appear that about the 1760s the actual ceremonies were brief - probably not performed in any set form of wording save in a few portions such as the obligations - and that instruction in the theory and principles of the Order was subsequently conveyed to the novices through the medium of catechetical `lectures'.


            By the end of the century, however, the ceremonial ritual had become much better ordered and more formalised, especially under the Antients, whose working in the years immediately preceding the Union probably approximated very closely to what we follow today.


            It is common knowledge among us that certain vital differences existed between the Antients and the Moderns. For example, with the Moderns the Wardens both sat in the west, the Ws. of the First and Second Degrees were used in the reverse order, and the P.%. had acquired a position of importance apparently superior to that of the Actual Ws? But it seems probable that, except for such variations as were consequent on those fundamental differences, the ceremonial formularies of many Moderns Lodges - as a result of intercommunication and adoption - in the early years of the 19th century ran on very similar lines to those of the Antients.


            It was in effect a condition precedent to the Union that the moderns should bring their working into accord with that of the rival dispensation, and to do this they set up the special Lodge of Promulgation which recommended the changes necessary for the purpose.


            Among the points they dealt with were the ceremonies of opening and closing in the several Degrees. We know exactly what were the Moderns' formularies for these; they are set out in Browne3 and they were very crude 16




and rudimentary, while those of the Antients had attained a higher degree of development. The members of Promulgation availed themselves of the services of a Brother of the Antients to teach them those forms.' They were also taught the ceremony of Installation which hitherto was almost unknown among the Moderns.s When Promulgation had completed its work, the Grand Lodge of the Moderns ordered all its subordinate Lodges to adopt the alterations, and the Master and other members of Promulgation undertook expeditions into all parts of the country to teach them to the Provincial Lodges. This no doubt explains the fact remarked on by Tuckett7 that when the Union was accomplished the workings of the Lodges under the Antients and the Moderns were in many localities already so nearly in accord that no further adjustments of the ritual were necessary.


            The Union was consummated on December 27, 1813, and the Lodge of Reconciliation, composed of representatives of the two previously rival bodies, was formed, ostensibly to draw up and promulgate a ritual that would be acceptable to both parties, though Vibert was of opinion that `it is not likely that the original intention was to prescribe a complete, or insist on an exact, rendering in which every word and every gesture was immutably laid down'.' Many brethren are imbued with the idea that our ritual in its present form originated with the Lodge of Reconciliation and that that Lodge drew up an entirely new formulary in full detail. But nothing is farther from the truth, and, as Hextall has said of that Lodge, `the effect of its existence and working upon the general body of English Masonry was more academic than real, amounting to much less than was anticipated by the framers of the Articles of the Union, or has since been attributed to it'. 9 The members, or some of them, must have met for discussion between the date of the Union and August 4, 1814, though no records exist of any such meetings. At all events on the latter date they were ready to begin the formal teaching of the so-called new ritual; and from then to May, 1815, they held 26 meetings for demonstration, which were attended by representatives of Lodges both metropolitan and provincial. They also sent accredited emmissaries (Broadfoot, McCann, Satterley and others) all over the kingdom to instruct the more distant Lodges. Thus Broadfoot was in Yorkshire in June, 1815, and was teaching at the Northern Lodge of Promulgation on the Sunday on which the battle of Waterloo was fought! o Peter Gilkes (seep. 21) also visited some parts of the country about this time, but not as a representative of Reconciliation of which he was not a member, nor was he ever given official authority of any kind as a teacher of the ritual (cf p. 33).


            That Reconciliation made some modifications in the existing methods is Introductory            17 obvious since they had something to teach. That these can have been but few and of no material complexity - mainly, indeed, relating to practical, rather than verbal, details - is evident from the fact that they could all be learnt by one or two attendances at the demonstrations.* They probably dealt with the general arrangement of the ceremonies - the order of events and so on; and they may have systematised such details as the knocks of the Degrees and the perambulations. They no doubt paid a certain amount of attention to some parts of the verbal formularies, for instance, the obligations; but at no time can they have debated, or decided on, ultimate verbal details throughout the whole ceremonial; still less can they have formulated a ritual de novo. To do so without a written or printed draft for reference would be practically impossible; to attempt it without having permission to make notes of their decisions would have been futile; and we know that not a word was allowed to be written down." Fancy - as the writer has said elsewhere' 2 - a Bench of Bishops meeting to debate the wording of a religious formulary, such as a Prayer Book, without having a tentative proof of the material before them or being allowed to record the results of their deliberations! They apparently instituted the office of Inner Guard, for although there is no reference in the Minutes to a decision to that effect, a holder of the office suddenly appears (the first known mention of it) in the list of officers present on August 23, 1814, and the office was filled at all subsequent meetings.


            It would seem probable that it was now that the Christian references, which were still retained in the working although non-Christians had long been admitted to the Order, were deleted. Curiously, however, one of these seems to have been overlooked and it still remains in most versions, though even now many brethren fail to realise its significance. This is the reference to Christ as `that bright and morning star' (a quotation from Revelation, xxii, 16, but often misquoted as `bright morning star' (see p. 192).


            Otherwise they virtually adopted in toto what had been the working of the Antients which - as the outcome of the labours of Promulgation - was now being followed everywhere, though undoubtedly there were many local peculiarities and differences in unessentials.


            It may be worth remarking that Reconciliation, in reporting to the Grand Master, said that they were `most anxious that the general harmony of masonic arrangement should not be disturbed by a pertinaceous adherence to mere forms which are in themselves of minor import'.


            When Reconciliation had completed its teaching throughout the country (it is to be noted that it was not until after that completion), it exhibited before Grand Lodge on August 23, 1815, `the forms and ceremonies for the *           Of the 555 representatives of Lodges who attended the demonstrations in London, 340 came only once and 115 but twice; 37 came three times, and 29 four times; so that those who came more often were very few.


            18 Introductory Openings and Closings in the three Degrees'' 4 and these were ordered to be used and practised by all dependent Lodges. At the same meeting the Obligations of the First and Second Degrees were recited (the former by the Grand Master himself), and it was resolved that they should be `the only pure and genuine obligations'. It must, however, be borne in mind that memory alone was relied on for the preservation of the verbal details.


            Possibly the reason why special attention was thus paid to the Openings and Closings was that there must have been some slight modification of the forms previously in use in consequence of the introduction of the office of Inner Guard.


            On February 26, 1816, Reconciliation held a special meeting at Freemasons' Hall at which they demonstrated the Installation ceremony, which, as already stated, was of quite recent introduction in most Moderns' Lodges.


            Finally, on May 20, 1816, Reconciliation rehearsed before Grand Lodge the Openings and Closings and the three degree ceremonies, and at the Quarterly Communications on June 5 the working received the `approval' of Grand Lodge, but (save for the formal pronouncements already made on August 23 of the previous year and resolutions now passed regarding two matters of practical detail*) `it was not enjoined, although the contrary is frequently asserted'.' s Nor did Grand Lodge proscribe any of the immaterial differences in detail, or additional items of verbal or other ceremonial, that might exist in various Lodges or localities; so that to this day `many Lodges jealously preserve special variations of their own, and rightly so'." `Rightly' because, in the words of Wonnacott, `some of the most interesting differences in working, if pruned away, would be lost to us as valuable historical evidences of former Customs,. 17 It is impossible that at the rehearsal on May 20, 1816, the audience can have been expected to carry in their minds the whole of that lengthy performance with sufficient accuracy to give critical attention to minor verbal details. The utmost they could do would be to regard broad outlines and the general order of procedure. Anyone will realise this who has ever attended a ceremony in which he has expected to hear petty differences in wording from * One of these appears to have been the adoption of both the former words of the Third Degree as alternatives. The other had to do with the Master's light, but what the terms of the decision were - or, indeed, whether there really was a definite decision - appears to be uncertain. Until recently a letter written in 1839 by Bro. White, one of the Joint Grand Secretaries, had been generally accepted (even by Grand Lodge itself in 1934) as giving the exact terms of a resolution that was passed, but a recently published letter of Broadfoot, written in 1816, only a few weeks after the event, throws considerable doubt on the accuracy of White's statement. (See Hanson's The Lodge of Probity, No. 61, pp. 210-213; and Miscellanea Latomorum, XXIX, 113; XXX, 17.) Introductory         19 what he is accustomed to. He will probably have noticed the variants as they occurred, but when he has tried to recall them afterwards, he will have found it impossible to remember more than a few of the specially striking ones.


            Nobody now knows, nobody ever can know, exactly what verbal formularies were used in the Reconciliation demonstration before Grand Lodge, for, as Robbins has said, `everything was entrusted to human memory passing through differently disposed minds'." And the opinion of the late Brother Hextall (`that eminent and respected Masonic historian', as Inman justly terms him)" is undoubtedly true, namely, that `any claim made at the present time to a precise acquaintance with the ceremonies as they were settled and approved at the Union is illusory'.' ° After the meeting on June 5, 1816, the Lodge of Reconciliation lapsed and the duty of carrying on, and preserving, the agreed ritual fell to the Regular Lodges throughout the country. The statement that has been made that `the propagation of the newly arranged Reconciliation ritual devolved upon the Lodges of Instruction which came into being at that period','' if it is meant to imply either that Lodges of Instruction were a new development or that, whether new or old, they were regarded as in any sense the officially recognised repositories of the ritual, is contrary to fact.* Equally fallacious is Rankin's statement that `for making known to the Craft generally those Reconciliation Ceremonies that Grand Lodge had authorised, a system of Lodges of Instruction was set up under Regulations issued by Grand Lodge'." That Grand Lodge made Regulations is true, but they were simply to ensure the proper conduct of Instruction Lodges, both old and new, and none were set up officially, or specifically for the purpose stated. Every Lodge of Instruction is set up by, and works under the sanction of, a Regular Lodge.


            It is, perhaps, regrettable that the members of Reconciliation did not take advantage of the opportunity that then presented itself to settle a definite form of ritual in the same way as religious formularies are settled by the leaders of the Church. But owing to the then rooted prejudice against committing any part of the ritual to writing it was clearly impossible to do so.


            The position to-day is that, notwithstanding many local variations in unessentials - variations that it is hoped will always be studiously preserved - every Lodge in England (including those of the Province of Bristol which have more distinctive features in their working than any others) works the ritual that was `approved' at the Union, and no one of them has the right to claim that its mode of working rather than any other has had such approval. The present writer, however, is strongly inclined to except certain * The first edition of Browne's Master-Key (1798) contains a list of 29 Lodges of Instruction then working (all but three of them in London or the suburbs) with their places and times of meeting. Nearly two-thirds of them met on Sunday evening.






Lodges in so far (but only in so far) as, following the present practice of the Emulation Lodge of Improvement they use and teach a bastard form of the E.A.'s sign and adopt an utterly irrational and innovationary attitude for the last of the f. p. o. f. (see pp. 116 and 156), for these, as it seems to him, cannot but be regarded as `landmarks', and if that is so, the alterations, made since early post-Union days, that those Lodges adopt cannot but be regarded as unconstitutional.


            Although the large majority of Lodges accepted the terms of the Union and took their assigned places on the roll of United Grand Lodge, there is no doubt that the rituals they practised continued to differ considerably, as they had previously, in unessential details, and many pre-Union incidents were still retained here and there. In fact, as Wonnacott put it,2 3 `There was much give and take in matters of ritual and many Lodges stubbornly refused to conform to official regulations'.


            Some such relics of pre-Union practice are still to be met with; for instance, the writing test in Bristol and certain Cheshire Lodges; the circle of swords in Bristol; the wearing of a hat by the Master in the Newstead Lodge, Nottingham (see p. 136), and the Third Degree working in All Souls Lodge, Weymouth.


            It must not be forgotten that some Lodges in various parts of the country, apparently not realising how little the formalities that had taken place in London really affected them and resenting alterations in the working that they thought were being unduly forced on them, for varying periods stood aloof from the new Grand Lodge. But after a short time most of them fell into line. A number of such Lodges, however, in a northern area co-operated in setting up in 1823 the independent Wigan Grand Lodge, the history of which was written in 1920 by Bro. E.B. Beesley. * Its constituent members gradually deserted it in favour of the metropolitan Grand Lodge and its last meeting was held in 1866. One only of its Lodges, that of Sincerity,- No. 1 on its roll, was obstinately recalcitrant and maintained an isolated existence until 1913, when at last it, too, came into the fold as No. 3677.


            Shortly after the lapse of the Lodge of Reconciliation two new Lodges of Instruction were started which soon came to be regarded as the two principal Lodges of Instruction in London and which are still in being.


            The first of these was sanctioned in 1817 by the Lodge of Stability, and three of its founders had filled offices in the final demonstration by Reconciliation, namely, Brothers Broadfoot,24 McCann and Satterley, who * Further information regarding this body has been unearthed by Bro. Norman Rogers, A.Q.C. lxi, p. 170. He also discovered the record of a short lived seceding Stockport Grand Lodge that started in 1837.


            t           This Lodge was warranted by the Moderns in 1786 as No. 402. It became No. 486 at the Union, but in 1823 seceded to Wigan.


Introductory    21


had acted respectively as Senior Warden, Senior Deacon and Junior Deacon. Moreover, the Rev. Dr. Hemming who had been the Master of Reconciliation, and the Joint Grand Secretaries, Brothers Harper and White, who had been respectively Secretary and Treasurer of that Lodge, shortly afterwards joined it.25 It `preserves an unbroken record of Preceptors who have handed down the Reconciliation working'.2 s The second was - to give it its full designation - the Emulation Lodge of Improvement for Master Masons Lodge of Instruction, which popularly is, and will be here, styled briefly `Emulation'. It was sanctioned in 1823 by the Lodge of Hope. There was a technical break in the continuity of its existence in 1830 when its original sanction was replaced by one granted by the Lodge of Unions under which it has worked ever since. This break occurred immediately after an application by Emulation to Grand Lodge for `especial licence and authority' had been refused, but whether there was any direct connexion between the two incidents it is impossible to say, though Sadler's account certainly gives the impression that there was.


            Emulation was founded, according to Sadler,28 for the purpose of `working the lectures only, on a new system'. The present writer has advanced the view that this `new system' may have consisted in the incorporation in the then existing lectures of the whole of the ceremonial formulary 2 9 Apart from these interpolations the lectures of the First and Second Degrees as now worked by Emulation are virtually identical (except for the omission, or alteration of the Christian allusions) with the pre-Union lectures of the Moderns which are given in full in Browne30 and which are believed either to have been composed by Preston or to be older lectures rearranged and elaborated by him, perhaps as early as 1772. In the Emulation lectures, as worked now and as they were worked in, or about, 1840,-the whole of the former Third Degree lecture (except the Eulogium on the f. p. o. f) is omitted and is replaced by their ceremonial ritual of that Degree cast into catechetical form.* Both of these instruction Lodges at first, like others at that time, worked only the lectures, but later they adopted the practice of also rehearsing the ceremonies. When this took place in Stability is not known. In Emulation it was, according to Rankin, `round about 1830'.31 About eighteen months after its inception Emulation was joined by the famous Peter Gilkes, who quickly became its autocratic leader (or `Preceptor', as Fenn termed him32 ),'a position he retained until his death in 1833. Sadler tells US33 that at first Gilkes had refused to join it, thinking `that a Lodge of Instruction restricted to Master Masons and working the lectures only, on a new system, could not succeed'.


            *           In All Souls Lodge, No. 170, Weymouth, the Third Degree is still worked on the lines indicated by the Lecture of that Degree in Browne.






From what is known of Gilkes one is inevitably led to the conclusion that he was probably a natural son of Lord Petre, at one time Grand Master of the Moderns; but neither this conjecture, nor the statement that he was a man of but little education, is advanced with the slightest derogatory intent, for he is most certainly to be numbered among the Freemasonic worthies of the past. Gould includes him among several whom he names as being `noted in their day as Masonic preceptors'34 Born in 1765 and initiated in a Moderns Lodge in 1789, he was an enthusiastic ritualist, and, on inheriting from his mother a small competence, he thereafter devoted himself entirely to the Craft and spent all his afternoons in the gratuitous teaching of the ritual to Masters and others who cared to avail themselves of his services. In those days printed rituals (except certain `spurious rituals' which byGfkes's time, although still being regularly reprinted - as, indeed, they are to this day - were already so out of date as to be useless for practical purposes) did not exist, so that the work could only be learnt from oral instruction, necessarily a slow and laborious process.


            Gilkes was engaged in this work for a good many years before the Union. What form of ritual he then used is, of course, unknown. He attended some of the meetings of the Lodge of Promulgation and was one of the three brethren who attended the Reconciliation demonstrations ten times ,3 s and he undoubtedly brought his working into accord in all essentials with that agreed on by those two special Lodges. He died in December, 1833.


            After Gilkes's death, George Claret printed a ritual which, with a degree of probability amounting to virtual certainty, presented Gilkes's working. The earliest edition now known (a copy is in Grand Lodge Library) is dated 1838 and is priced at a guinea, but from a reference in Sadler (p. 18) it seems likely that it first appeared in 1836. Save for a `spurious ritual' of 1825 by Richard Carlile, (originally published in the columns of a periodical and reprinted in book from in 1831), it is the earliest complete record of any post-Union working that we have.


            As a member of Emulation, Claret had worked with Gilkes for years; he was evidently an enthusiast, for he attended six of the Reconciliation demonstrations, at some of which he acted as candidate. He was a Past Master of Lodges 12 and 228.


            The present writer is indebted to Bro. Arthur Saywell, P.A.G. St.B., for the information that `Gilkes and Claret used to come to the Percy Lodge of Instruction. If one was in the chair, the other was S.W., and the evening was spent in Masonic catechism'. Even though Bro. Saywell thinks that 1829 was the earliest date when a ceremony was performed in that Lodge of Instruction. it is to be remembered that the whole ceremonial formulary of Gilkes had already been incorporated in the Lectures as worked by Emulationists, so that Claret had ample opportunity of learning Gilkes's working accurately.




Introductory 23


Although Claret's Ritual was not actually published until after Gilkes's death, it is not unfair to assume that it was no hurried production but had been in manuscript for some years - even in Gilkes's lifetime - before being put into print.


            For these reasons Claret's Ritual may reasonably be accepted as giving the working of Gilkes and therefore that of Emulation at the time, and in the subsequent pages of this book it will be so regarded.


            An 1840 edition of Claret contains diagrams illustrative of the `advances' in the three degrees which indicate the same fantastically absurd modes of procedure that are followed by Emulationists today. What is denoted as his second edition' is dated 1841, and his `third edition' 1847.


            Mention must be made of another ritual published about the same time, namely, The Whole of the Lodge Ceremonies as taught by the late P. Gilkes. It is to all intents in verbatim accord with Claret and indeed at one time was thought by some to be his first edition, since his `second edition' was then the earliest known. But when the 1838 Claret came to light, this view was exploded. Moreover it was then noticed that the ritual in question bears internal evidence of not having been issued before 1844.


            It would appear that one or two other rituals were printed about the same period (e.g. one quoted in The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 84) but they do not seem to have attained any great publicity and very few, if any, copies of them now exist.


            Claret's Ritual and its numerous subsequent editions were effectively brought to the notice of the Craft at large and, the usefulness of a printed ritual being quickly recognised, they found their way to all parts of the country. There can be no doubt that quite a number of provincial Lodges, where copies had been introduced, brought their workings into accord with the version therein presented, in many cases pretty certainly at the cost of dropping old and perfectly legitimate variants. It was thus that Gilkes's rendering of the ritual became so widely known and adopted.


            In some lodges, however, comparatively soon after the Union, manuscript notes of the working, were made and were passed on from one Master to another. They had the effect of stabilising the ritual in those lodges, so that some of their special characteristics were preserved. On such manuscripts certain recently printed rituals are based, for example, the Unanimity Ritual and the Humber Use (see pp. 39 and 42). It may be that the Bristol Ritual (see p. 40), which has never been printed but is still preserved in manuscript, was so stabilised at an early date, but we have been given to understand that no one now knows when it was first written down. In Cornwall notes of certain parts of the ritual were made as early as 1819 and all Lodges of the Province were then ordered to copy them. The old Lodges there are said still to adhere punctiliously to those forms.






After Claret's death in 1850 his ritual was for a time sold by his widow,'' but in 1870 it was superseded by The Perfect Ceremonies (seep. 36), which professed to give the then Emulation working, though it is somewhat doubtful if the claim was entirely justified in regard to the first edition inasmuch as in nearly all particulars it is in accord with the Claret Rituals. A second edition was published in 1874 which contains many alterations of details that had been made in Emulation since its early days under Gilkes, and it is unlikely that they were all made between the dates of those two editions.


            Later editions have been brought into complete accord with the Emulation working and the publishers take the utmost trouble to ensure that any petty alterations that have been made in it, whether by accident or design, since the last edition was issued are incorporated in a fresh one.


            Emulationists are wont to take the absurd attitude of either affecting ignorance of the existence of this ritual or pretending that it neither gives, nor ever did give, their working accurately; but it has just been said that `Everyone knows that the Emulation ritual published by Lewis is identical with that taught at Emulation.... It is probably not too much to say that all the present members of the Emulation Committee learnt the words of the Ceremonies from the book they decline to recognise and have a copy in their possession for the purpose of reference. Naturally the Committee cannot give the publication official recognition, but it is something akin to foolishness to pretend that it does not exist'.' 8 Although Gilkes's working was, like all other versions practised since the Union, the `approved' working, it had the unfortunate blot that it was couched in the most lamentable English, and this was no doubt due to his lack of education. The present writer has always felt that if anyone had pointed out to him his errors of grammar, he would readily have corrected them. Naturally, Claret, in printing his formularies, reproduced all his faults, and unhappily Gilkes's successors in Emulation have not only studiously retained them but have even added to them.


            Some would have us believe that Gilkes's formulary exactly reproduced that used by Reconciliation; but it is inconceivable that the learned Doctor of Divinity who was the Master of that Lodge and who presided at the final rehearsal should have used such atrocious grammar, or that, even if he and those who filled the other offices on that occasion were guilty of such lapses, it was intentional and that illiteracy was meant to be a permanent characteristic of the ritual for ever afterwards.


            As already mentioned, in respect to two details, which the writer regards as `landmarks', definite variations from the general usage of the early post-Union period have been at some time or other introduced in Emulation working (see p. 20). When this was done cannot be ascertained, but it may well have been in the time of Gilkes's immediate successor, Wilson (seep. 33), Introductory 25 for in 1849 Emulation was criticised in the Masonic Press as being `neither correct, orthodox nor grammatical' ,39 and the changes referred to are just such as would rightly be termed `not orthodox'.


            It is true that whenever one speaks of differences between the present Emulation formularies and those of the 1830s, as evidenced by Claret's Ritual, Emulationists maintain that they have not altered a word but that Claret's Ritual did not give their then working correctly. But surely any rational being would prefer the evidence of a contemporary printed record to that of notoriously fallible oral transmission through all the intervening years on which alone they profess to rely.


            As is well known, the principle of Emulation is a punctilious adherence, word by word, and action by action, to their particular version of the ritual and one cannot but admire the keen enthusiasm which its members bring to bear on their rehearsals of the ceremonies and their zealous, and often successful, endeavours to achieve word-perfect renderings. So long as they restrict their efforts to their legitimate sphere, carrying out their objects within their own walls, no one, save only the Lodge of Unions by whose sanction, and at whose pleasure, they exist, has any right to cavil at, or adversely criticise, the style of their English or the Freemasonic solecisms and irregularities that they perpetrate.


            But it is a different matter when their devotees attempt to impose their methods and principles on all and sundry, as they have systematically done in recent years. Criticism and plain speaking then become permissible.


            The fact that Emulation meets at Headquarters (as it has virtually done since 1839 when it first went to the Freemasons' Tavern) tends to give it a spurious cachet of authority. But it must be remembered that it has no special position, nor any official recognition or approval. Its status differs in no way from that of any other Lodge of Instruction. Its members have no more right to attempt to impose their own peculiarities of working on any Regular Lodge than a Lodge of Instruction set up today by the youngest Lodge on the roll would have. As Hextall has written, `No Lodge of Instruction possesses the right to prescribe, or place its imprimatur upon, any mode of working outside its own membership; and no official authority attaches to the working or procedure of any Lodge of Instruction, and to this there is no exception or qualification'.' ° Formerly Emulation comported itself in a decorous and constitutional manner, not pretending to be anything but an ordinary Lodge of Instruction, nor claiming that its working had had any special mark of approval or authority.


            For many years they were in perfect amity with Stability and until 1879 each body entertained representatives of the other at their annual festivals, recognising that they presented, as Sadler puts it, `two distinct systems of 26


Introductory working ... both acknowledged to be equally correct'4 1 To call them `two distinct systems' is an exaggeration; they are the same system, differing only in immaterial details. But the statement of the definitely pro-Emulation, Sadler that they are `equally correct' is to be particularly noted in view of the attitude now taken up by certain Emulationists that they, and they alone, work a `correct' ritual.


            It is worth recalling that in 1869 the then Grand Registrar spoke of the working of Stability as being `the correct ritual of the Craft'." Seeing that the Stability Lodge of Instruction was started by some of those who actually took part in the final demonstration by Reconciliation, it might be expected that that body would follow more closely the wording used on that occasion than did the other body whose working was that of the freelance, Gilkes.


            While, however, we know exactly what was the Emulation formulary in its early days, we have no such record of that of Stability at the same period. As the Stability ritual was never printed until 1902, but was ostensibly handed down orally, it is impossible to know how closely its original form has been adhered to. Nevertheless certain similarities between it and 'the Unanimity Ritual (see p. 34) and other old records suggest that in some points the present Stability is more nearly in accord with Reconciliation working than is Emulation.


            In 1867 a proposal was mooted for the unification of the Stability and Emulation workings43 but, though it was under consideration for several years, it came to nothing. Some maintain that the fact that such a scheme was contemplated proves that the differences between the two workings were less marked then than they are now. There are no grounds whatever for such a conclusion, and the present writer is of opinion that the differences (which, except in respect of the explanation of the First Degree Working Tools, are all trivial) are probably less now than they were in the 1850s. No doubt petty variations in the formularies have been introduced into both versions since then.


            But it matters not whether either of them does, or does not, reproduce the ipsissima verba of Reconciliation. They are both equally the `approved' mode of working. But, in the writer's view, the working presented in the Claret Rituals, besides being the most widely known and used, is - except for its palpable blemishes of illiteracy and certain other solecisms which it is part of the object of this book to point out - fundamentally the most satisfactory and appealing of all the extant versions, with the proviso, however, that the Bristol Ritual (see p. 40) is not included in this comparison because, while just as much the `approved' form as the others, it has so many features, both in method and wording, that are peculiar to itself, that it is really not comparable with them. It is purely a matter of personal predilection whether Introductory 27 it or the type exemplified by Stability, Emulation, etc., is preferred. Nor is it intended to decry any of the numerous local variants or additions that are met with, provided that they conform with the conditions that are hereinafter advocated.


            In addition to The Perfect Ceremonies there are many other printed versions based on Gilkes's working, but of all that are known to the writer there was until recently not one that was free from grammatical and other errors. As a rule, however, what is faulty in one is found to be correct in others. The Oxford Ritual (seep. 40) was by far the best but even it is not perfect. On the other hand, The Perfect Ceremonies, which embodies the present-day Emulation working, contains almost every error that is to be met with anywhere, and for that reason it serves as a useful text on which to base the critical commentary that follows. In a few instances the rendering of The Perfect Ceremonies is preferable to that of most of the other versions and such cases will be duly noted.


            Some of us feel very strongly that our ceremonies ought to be rendered intelligently and logically; that the language should be unexceptionable on the score of English; and that both words and actions should be strictly in accord with the underlying theory they are intended to express and illustrate, so that it may appeal to, and engage the intelligent interest of, our candidates and be free from anything that tends to evoke adverse criticism from cultured and attentive hearers such as would divert their minds from the sense and tenor of the proceedings.


            That was in effect the view held by the author of The Etiquette of Freemasonry to which further reference will be made later (see p. 30). Those conditions nowadays too often fail of being fulfilled and during the last fifty years the position has grown progressively worse as the result of the wide extension of Emulation influence.


            Fifty years ago Emulation was unknown outside its own circles in London. Although its ritual, The Perfect Ceremonies, which has long been the most generally used book, bore its name on the title page, that conveyed nothing to most of those who bought it. In those days, in Provincial Lodges especially, an educated brother, whatever printed ritual he used for the learning of the work, customarily corrected in his own delivery the errors, grammatical or Freemasonic, that he noticed, or had been taught to recognise, in it, well knowing that he was under no obligation to follow verbatim what was an entirely unofficial production.


            But for some years past it has been increasingly the practice with those who use The Perfect Ceremonies to adhere punctiliously to the printed formulary and ignore all questions of grammar. This is the result of a systematic campaign of propaganda in favour of the Emulation working and the Emulation principle, which was started about 1890 by certain devotees of 28


Introductory that Instruction Lodge whose zeal for the only working they knew outran their knowledge of Freemasonry and their acquaintance with the English language. In furtherance of their object they are wont to take advantage of the natural ignorance of young brethren by impressing them with the idea that Emulation has been granted special recognition and authority and that anything but a strict adherence to its particular formulary is `irregular', a proposition which is absolutely untrue.


            As the result of this campaign the Emulation principle has now become very widely spread, so that from a literary point of view the rendering of the ritual has markedly deteriorated, and Emulation, instead of providing (as it might have if it had been controlled by educated and Freemasonically knowledgeable persons) a permanent standard of perfection in ritual working, has become a decidedly debasing influence.


            One would, indeed, greatly like to know what warranty Letchworth had for the extraordinary statement attributed to him by Inman, that `the records of Grand Lodge conclusively proved that the Emulation Lodge of Improvement was looked upon as the standard of Masonic perfection'!" It may safely be said that nowhere in those records will any support be found for the assertion quoted.


            An interesting side-light on the literary attainments of at any rate one regular Emulation worker is to be found in Sadler,45 where a Brother Parkinson is reported to have said of the Emulation working that, `as a mere matter of literary style, next to the Sacred Volume and the English Prayer Book, he knew of no ritual and no variety of language in which the tongue was set before them so purely and so grandly'! Since the recent spread of strict Emulation working, letters have from time to time appeared in the Masonic Press criticising the bad grammar in which, as a result, the ritual is now rendered in many Lodges. Thus there was one from the late brother Fighiera, P.G.D., in The Freemason of January 23, 1932, in which he complained of `the atrocious grammar in which Emulation - and other workings derived from it - indulge', and he added that `one is increasingly meeting with men of education who decline to perpetuate these grammatical outrages'. And the following week Brother Rockliffe PA.G.D.C., wrote, `[Though my Lodge worked Emulation,] as I declined to give my initiates the impression that one ignorant of the rudiments of the English language was communicating to them the principles and tenets of Freemasonry, I refused to sully my tongue with its "atrocities". It was clear to me that, as the candidate before me knew nothing of Emulation or its "claims", he could not but feel "outraged", as an educated person himself, at the perpetration of those ungrammatical crimes; and that the beauty of the ceremony would not only be marred, but the impression sought to be created in the mind of the candidate hopelessly lost thereby'.




Introductory 29


It is indeed extraordinary that well-educated brethren, when reciting the ritual, can bring themselves to use faulty English that they would not think of using in any other connexion and that they would certainly not allow their secretaries to use in their correspondence. They would surely think better of it if they would for a moment consider what effect a similar perversion of the language of the prayers of the Church would have on its hearers.


            When the systematic pro Emulation propaganda was first inaugurated, the officials of the Instruction Lodge affected to stand aloof and, when challenged, were wont to assert that it was merely individual enthusiasm run wild, excusable on the ground of ignorance and entirely contrary to their desire, as they had no wish to impose their working in others. So lately as 1894 Brother Sadlow, then the Emulation leader, speaking at their annual festival, actually deprecated general uniformity of working a s His successor, however, adopted a very different view and himself took an active part in the propagandising campaign, not only in England but abroad. In 1921 Brother Rankin embarked on the project of a tour round the world, which he is reported to have described as his `inevitable pilgrimage for Emulation' .4' Before he started he was presented with the proceeds of a subscription which had been raised by supporters of Emulation under the organisation of its then Secretary, `for the purpose of enablini him to undertake his tour', and `which realised a very substantial sum'.4 He was also given an album containing the signatures of contributors to the Fund, many hundreds in number, which is now in the Grand Lodge Library.


            The supplement to The Masonic Record of December 1922 contains the report of a meeting of Emulation, held on November 3rd of that year, at which Brother Rankin, who had returned on September 4th, gave an account of his travels, in the course of which he said: `On the eve of my departure you and some friends of Emulation ... most generously subscribed a gift towards the expenses of my journey, so that a considerable part of the weight of the undertaking was lifted off my shoulders'.


            A later incident in this connexion affords an interesting instance of the fallibility of human memory, for when, in 1929, a jocular reference was made to his tour and the fund raised in aid of it49 Bro. Rankin, taking umbrage at the suggestion that his travels had been subsidised, had apparently so completely forgotten the receipt of that useful present that he authorised Bro. Beagley to publish on his behalf in the pamphlet mentioned in the preface to this book, the following statement: `No fund has ever been raised to enable me to go anywhere. Whatever travelling I have done, and I have done very much, has been paid for entirely out of my own pocket'.5 ° It is rather surprising that, although his attention was publicly called, in the Masonic Press, to this lapse, he never saw fit to express regret for having inadvertently been guilty of it.






On account of its subsequent history, this is, perhaps, an appropriate place to mention The Etiquette of Freemasonry, a small volume published anonymously in 1890, but now known to have been by Franklin Thomas" It was from a perusal of this book, which came out two years after his own initiation and was then recommended to him by Bro. Colville Smith, that the present writer first derived his interest in the ritual. The author held practically the same views that are advanced in this volume namely that, the ritual should be rendered in good English and should accord with the theory on which it is based. He mentioned many details in which, on that assumption, Lodges erred and he was able in almost all cases to quote the practice of other (usually older) Lodges as exemplifying the correct form. In a few matters he tripped from insufficient historical knowledge or an incomplete appreciation of the theoretical aspect, but his main contention is incontrovertibly sound. He made - what nearly everyone regarded as - the mistake of advocating one or two definite new departures in nomenclature as distinct from purely corrective restorations. These he afterwards incorporated in The Revised Ritual (see p. 43).


            The Etiquette ran to a second edition, but after the author's death in 1907 in his 90th year, the copyright was acquired in the interests of Emulation propaganda, and in 1919 what was virtually an entirely new book appeared under the name of Freemasonry and its Etiquette, though the title page bears the addition, `with which is incorporated "The Etiquette of Freemasonry" '. It is got up in specious imitation of the real Etiquette but the `incorporation' consists of barely a quarter of the original matter and that merely such portions as were in general terms and had little or nothing to do with the actual ritual. Everything that was in the slightest degree at variance with strict Emulation practice is omitted and the exclusive use of that working is advocated, while its claim to being the only `approved' form of ritual is supported by unwarrantable implications and actual mis-statements.


            The original book, The Etiquette of Freemasonry, will be frequently quoted in the course of this volume and will be referred to simply as The Etiquette (or occasionally as Et.) and the reader is asked to bear in mind that by this reference it is the original publication (the 1890 edition) that is intended. Among Freemasonic students the later book is familiarly known as the `spurious Etiquette'.


            We must beg for the reader's indulgence while we traverse some of the claims by which the Emulation devotees attempt to further their scheme of propaganda in favour of the ubiquitous adoption of their own special version, and point out the fallacies on which they are based.


            They are wont to maintain that their present working is in accord verbatim with that of Gilkes and that therefore it reproduces, also verbatim, the formulary used in the final Reconciliation rehearsal.




Introductory 31


It is true that in the main they follow Gilkes closely, but, as already stated (see p. 25) and as will be shown later in connection with some of the details, the accord is not exact in all particulars. But even if it was so, to claim that it therefore follows that they are equally in verbatim accord with the Reconciliation working is to beg the question, because not only is there no possible proof that Gilkes's working was word for word that of Reconciliation, but there is every reason to believe that that was by no means the case.


            In Brother T.W. Hanson's history of The Lodge of Probity, No. 61 (1939), certain letters written by Broadfoot in 1816 are for the first time published. They contain a few excerpts from the ritual which give definite proof that in some details neither Gilkes nor the present-day Emulation is in exact accord with Broadfoot's working which must clearly be taken as that used in Reconciliation. If this is the case in respect of even a few points, all ground for the Emulation claim is swept away. As a matter of fact the letters show that, as regards the fragments of ritual contained in them, none of the present-day versions are in exact agreement with Reconciliation (see p. 25).


            Again, on the assumption that the above claim on their part is justified, Emulationists assert that it is an offence against the Constitutions to alter one word or `even a comma'* (the absurdity of altering `a comma' in a working that they pretend has never been printed does not seem to occur to them) of their present working. That this assertion is unwarrantable is evident from what has been said previously in this book.


            They do not hesitate to assert that their working is the only working that can be regarded as that which was `approved' by Grand Lodge at the Union and that all others are irregular. This claim is absolutely groundless. It is, moreover, a definite departure from their former attitude when, as Sadler tells us (see p. 26), they recognise Stability as `equally correct' with their own working. In support of it they are fond of quoting a letter from the late Brother Letchworth, Grand Secretary from 1892 to 1917, to the author of `the spurious Etiquette', which it is desirable to give at length: 'While it is true that no edict has ever been issued by Grand Lodge as to any particular working being accepted, nor is it compulsory that Lodges should conform to what is termed the "Emulation" system of ritual, on the other hand' it is an historical fact that Grand Lodge in 1816 definitely adopted and gave its approval to the system of working submitted to it by the Lodge of Reconciliation, and it is also a fact that this is the system which the "Emulation" Lodge of Improvement was founded in 1823 to teach, and which is taught by that Lodge today.


            The late Bro. Fenn ... always held the opinion that the "Emulation" working was authorised, and that opinion is also held by Bro. Sudlow, his *  See `the spurious Etiquette', pp. 120 and 131.






successor ... Certainly no other system of ritual has received at any time the official approval of Grand Lodge'.


            This letter is a curious mixture of fact and fable. The writer begins by controverting the modern Emulationists' claim that it is obligatory for everyone to follow Emulation working verbatim.* He says with truth that Grant Lodge approved the system of working demonstrated by Reconciliation; but that Emulation was `founded to teach' that - or any other - system of ceremonial working is contrary to fact (see p. 21). No one denies that Emulation, in its rehearsals of ceremonies, works the approved ritual (except possibly in regard to the two `landmark' items previously referred to), (see p. 20), but while it is true that `no other' working has received specific approval by name, that is equally the case with Emulation itself, the fact being that every present-day working is the `approved' working. The letter, of course, expresses merely the personal opinion of its writer. Letchworth, although an efficient and picturesque Grand Secretary, was devoid of any knowledge of, or interest in, the historical aspect of the Craft or its ritual (of which indeed, the letter contains internal evidence) and his opinion in that respect carries no weight. The letter is in fact a specious bit of special pleading, and bears the stamp of having been written to order for that purpose, with one or two truths inserted to salve the writer's conscience.


            Emulationists are prone to lay stress on two letters written by former Grand Secretaries in answer to enquiries, wherein the writers say that Gilkes was `fully master of the ceremonies' and taught `the correct method adopted since the Union'." While those statements are true, there is no ground whatever for reading into them the implication that Gilkes used the ipsissima verba of Reconciliation or that nothing but a verbatim reproduction of Emulation working constitutes the `approved' form.


            Those letters certainly do not provide any proof, as Fenn pretended that they do, of the truth of the statement, attributed by him to Wilson, that Gilkes was authorised by Reconciliation to teach its workings. 5 3 Still less do they warrant the augmentation that `Gilkes was officially acknowledged by Grand Lodge as the exponent of the ritual of the Lodge of Reconciliation'. As Golby says, `No trace of any such official acknowledgement is anywhere to be found'. 14 Then, as an attempt to answer those who argue that, as Emulation was not founded until six years after the lapse of Reconciliation and did not begin the practice of working ceremonies until even later, there was not an uninterrupted connexion between the two, Emulationists call attention to the short-lived Perseverance Lodge of Instruction which was established in January, 1818,'5 and several members of which became founders of * Lord Ampthill's statement that 'no Lodge is compelled to conform to Emulation working'. `Preface to Rankin's Some Account of the Ritual etc.) Introductory 33 Emulation, `thus forming a strong chain of connexion between the two Lodges [of Instruction]' and `reducing the gap' to only eighteen months. 16 They gratuitously assume that Perseverence used the exact Reconciliation formulary and that it necessarily follows that Emulation did the same. But there are no grounds for that assumption. Although, like other Instruction Lodges, `formed chiefly for the purpose of working the Lectures','' Perseverence did work ceremonies at thirteen of its 130 recorded meetings, but, according to Fenn, as Gilkes was present (and was then elected a member) on the first occasion of the working of a ceremony, `a reasonable inference would be that if Gilkes did not actually do the work it was done under his direction.' $ If so, it was presumably his working and not that used by members of Reconciliation, that was followed.


            In support of their pretence that their working had been handed down by purely oral transmission and that nevertheless, in spite of the unreliability of such a mode of perserving verbal details,' 9 their formulary accurately reproduces that of Gilkes, they stress the point that no one member of their body has ever been responsible for maintaining the invariableness of their working but that the responsibility is, and always has been, shared by a Committee, of whom `each has to serve a lengthy apprenticeship"' and who provide an effective check on one another so that no variation has ever been p ossible.


            Theoretically that may be so, but Gilkes was notoriously an autocrat and would certainly have brooked no correction .e' His immediate successor, Wilson, probably did need assistance in his early days because he became `leader' only three years after his initiation, and his `lengthy apprenticeship' in Emulation extended to but fifteen months! Indeed, it puts considerable strain on one's powers of credence to accept it as fact that after such a brief novitiate he had attained by oral reception only the proficiency that is supposed to be essential for a `preceptor'.


            According to all reports Fenn was as great an autocrat as Gilkes, and no one who knew Sudlow would have the slightest doubt as to what his reaction would have been if anyone - even a fellow member of the Committee - had ventured to correct him.


            It is difficult to reconcile the claim of a joint responsibility with Sudlow's own statement, `that upon one member of the Committee rests the responsibility for the teaching of our system. You have heard from our departed Bro. Fenn that four brethren have since the foundation of the lodge in 1823, accepted the supreme responsibility. You know their names - Bro. Peter Gilkes, Bro. S.B. Wilson, Bro. Thomas Fenn and myself.


            Incidently, it is to be noted that it was obviously not until Fenn's time that the hide-bound principle of ne varietur was adopted in Emulation, because during Wilson's reign the question of an assimilation of the workings 34


Introductory of Emulation and Stability was for several years under contemplation, 13 although in the end - probably owing to Wilson's death - it came to nothing. Sudlow himself told the present writer that, when he succeeded Fenn in 1893, the latter had made him take an oath that he would never alter a word of the working as he (Fenn) had rendered it. A somewhat rash undertaking had not a printed record of the formularies then been in existence! As a matter of fact the writer, in view of the universally admitted fallibility of oral transmission, is strongly of opinion that the Emulation working would not have been maintained since 1823 with so little variation as has been the case, unless the leaders had - surreptitiously no doubt - availed themselves of either manuscript notes or the printed book as a check on their memories.


            Some of the unwarrantable claims put forward by Emulationists are set out on pages 131 et seq. of `the spurious Etiquette', which may justly be described as a tissue of nonsense. Thus it is said that Emulation claims `that it works now, [and] always has worked ... without variation ... of a letter, character or figure', the Ritual settled by Reconciliation `and that alone'; while `whatever the Ritual was settled to be by Grand Lodge in 1816, so it must remain, word for word and letter for letter, until Grand Lodge should see fit to alter it'. Seeing that no one knows exactly what the verbal details of the Reconciliation working were, the remarks above quoted reach the acme of absurdity.


            We may fairly apply the author's own words to the very opposite proposition to his and say that `many causes have contributed to' the unfortunate success that has attended the pro-Emulation propaganda `and among them may be mentioned: (1) Apathy of Masons generally.


            (2) Want of knowledge or remembrance of past history. (3) Failure to instruct incomers.


            (4) Bad advice on the subject'.


            He adds a reference to `Modesty on the part of Emulation', the most appropriate comment on which is a series of notes of exclamation! ! ! ! ! The reader will naturally want to ask those of us who advocate the emendation of some of the details of the various present-day versions of the Gilkes working, by what criteria we would judge of the correctness or otherwise of any particular rendering. We would reply that, firstly, in regard to mere points of syntax there can be no difference of opinion among educated persons. At the same time it must be remembered that there are cases where a phrase which on the surface seems bad grammar to us was perfectly good grammar at the time when it was introduced into our ritual. In such cases we should not think of modernising the form, save only in one or two cases, such as those dealt with on pages 159 and 169, where a change in Introductory 35 the accepted usage has resulted in the old form jarring unpleasantly on the modern ear. It is very different when a phrase that is bad grammar now, never was anything else in the whole history of English literature. Similarly, we should not suggest the alteration of a word merely because its meaning has, in the course of years, become somewhat modified.


            Secondly, in a case of doubt evidence may be available as to what was the early post-Union form, and we should advocate the resumption of that form. In some such cases the practice of old provincial Lodges may be helpful, because, like Dring, we `should expect to find ... a purer ritual in an out-of-the-way village, where the lodge has been adamantine against modern attempts to [obtain] uniformity of working'. Crowe, too, held that `Provincial custom is quite likely to be as correct as that of London'.6 s Thirdly, where there is no definite evidence as to which of two or more alternatives is the older form, there is the appeal to the Freemasonic theory. One may fairly assume that the Union revisers did not purposely introduce anything that was at variance with that theory but on the contrary meant it to be illustrated rationally and logically as it had been theretofore.


            Lastly, seeing that but little change was made at the Union in the accustomed phraseology, there are some cases where it is quite legitimate to consider the evidence of pre-Union rituals and other publications.


            By acting on the above principles there will be no differences of opinion among those who have seriously and intelligently studied the subject; and by making such modifications in present-day formularies as are thereby required, we shall not only attain the nearest approach now possible to carrying out the work as the Lodge of Reconciliation intended it to be carried out, but we shall be taking the best course to secure the abiding interest of well-educated recruits to our Order. Surely when such persons here the ritual.performed as it too often is (more especially in London Lodges), and give it their critical attention, they cannot be favourably impressed; and when they are told (as they often.are with a forceful air of authority) that the bad English and the illogical inconsistencies between theory and practice are actually obligatory, can we be surprised if some of them become imbued with contempt for the whole esotery of our system? It should be noted that there are not a few instances where two existing versions are equally logical and where there is no reason to prefer one to the other on the ground of antiquity or otherwise. In such cases it must clearly be left to each individual exponent of the working to use whichever form he likes, and he will probably use the one which obtains in the particular version of the ritual on which he has been brought up.


            Some brethren, though admitting the faulty English of the Emulation ritual, will have it that that is a matter of no moment because the candidates are rarely in a state of mind to be critical of the language in which they are 36


Introductory being addressed. That may be so in many - perhaps even in most - cases, but there are exceptions. And after all it is not the literary susceptibilities of candidates only that should be considered. Brethren of mature standing have to hear the work over and over again, and if they have any reasonable degree of education they cannot fail to grow more and more painfully conscious of its illiteracies, until it becomes actually distasteful to them as it is to the present writer, to sit through a ceremony conducted on strict Emulation lines.


            The groundless claims and false statements made by Emulationists unfortunately impress and deceive many young and freemasonically ignorant brethren who blindly accept them, and they are constantly reiterated by those who are too untutored or too indolent to think for themselves. They have even had effect on some Provincial Grand Masters, who might have been expected to know better, and who have actually ordered their Lodges to adopt Emulation working in all its details, an action which is utterly ultra vires and in regard to which the late Sir Alfred Robbins, then President of the Board of General Purposes, wrote as follows: `I have long striven to combat the fetish that any particular sanctity attaches to Emulation and from the time of Sudlow, whom I knew well and personally liked, I have laboured to show that, while admiring the pious, though occasionally pompous, zeal of its chief advocates, I could in no way countenance their pretensions; and whenever Provincial Grand Masters have striven to impose this particular working upon their Lodges, I have fought hard and with a deal of success against any such arbitrary interference with the independence of the Lodges and the individual brethren'.


            It is often advanced that most brethren nowadays buy The Perfect Ceremonies and that however much one may feel disposed to render the work in English, it is difficult to learn from a faulty book and make the necessary corrections in the course of learning from it. Such brethren could always have bought the Oxford Ritual, in which, as already stated, most of the really serious faults are amended. There is, however, now available a ritual issued by Lewis under the title of The English Ritual - for the publication of which the present writer is mainly responsible - which is essentially The Perfect Ceremonies put into grammatical English and in which, in the few cases where that book differs verbally from Gilkes's working and where definite alterations in practical details have been made since Gilkes's time, the early post-Union forms have been restored either in the text or by rubrical directions. It is based throughout on the principles enunciated in this volume and it is believed that its English is unexceptionable .6 7 It might, perhaps, be thought that, in view of the existence of that ritual, it would be needless to publish the critical commentary presented in the Introductory ,37 following chapters. But the writer has found that, in spite of the vaunted education of the present day, many brethren fail to realise why some of the alterations from the formulary of The Perfect Ceremonies are necessary. Therefore a detailed explanation seems desirable.


            It is sometimes said that, even though its working may be open to criticism on the score of bad grammar or on other grounds, a Lodge of Instruction like Stability or Emulation, which professes to maintain an unvarying formulary, is of value in that it provides a standard for comparison and thus serves as a check on undue variations involving possibly not only alteration of wording but even changes of sense which, since there is no authoritative version, might otherwise creep into the working of ordinary Lodges to an unlimited extent. There may have been something in that view in the immediately post-Union period when purely oral transmission had to be relied on. But as soon as printed rituals came into being, or manuscript versions began to be made in individual Lodges, the basis of such an argument was swept away. In any case it is difficult to see that any real good can result from a so-called `standard' unless it is a worthy and unexceptionable one, grammatically rendered and correct in its Freemasonic details; and both Emulation and (though to a slightly less degree) Stability fail to comply with those conditions.


            Lodges of Instruction undoubtedly provide a useful training ground for those who, being of somewhat sluggish mentality, find that they can only master the ceremonial working by parrot-like repetition, but it is to be regretted that the methods of such bodies are not more in accord with what is fitting than in the vast majority of cases they are.


            The following remarks of W. Bro. David Flather, P.A.G.D.C., are worthy of quotation: - `In the large majority of Lodges little more than the working of the three degrees is communicated to the Brethren. The young Mason of today ... wants to know more. Lodges of Instruction fall far short of their duty in this respect. Most of them are mainly, if not exclusively, concerned with the learning of the particular brand of Ritual they affect and repeating it with meticulous accuracy of detail and action, generally speaking with an entire absence of understanding. Fortunately many Lodges have, of later years, begun to include Lectures and Addresses on Masonic subjects in their Agenda, and this is a move in the right direction, especially if these Lectures are of a sufficiently elementary character to interest and attract the young Mason'.6 e There is one further observation to be made before this chapter is concluded. In `the spurious Etiquette' it is implied at page 137 that variations in ritual details are mainly of modern introduction and it is also stated that `these "Workings" are utterly unauthorised'. The truth is the exact opposite of this. In the years immediately following the Union there were far more B• 39


Introductory variations in working than there are now. The publication, and the wide-spread use, of the several successive editions of Claret's Ritual resulted in the disappearance of a large number of the old workings and a much greater degree of uniformity ensued. It is true that technically the workings referred to are `unauthorised' but, as has been shown, the same is the case with Emulation working itself, since there is no such thing as an `authorised' working at all. Provided that it follows the system adopted at the Union and observes the `landmarks', every `working' in use today can rightly claim to be the `approved working'. And - to quote Crowe - `Many old Lodges have traditional usages and would rather surrender their Warrants than give them up, and it adds greatly to the pleasure and interest of "Visiting" that there is not a dead uniformity of working all over the country ... as long as the essentials remain the same no one need complain'.6 9 2 Rituals Referred to in the Ensuing Chapters In the succeeding portions of this volume reference will frequently be made to certain of the more important or more interesting rituals and, for the sake of brevity, the reference will often be by a single word or a contraction. A list of these is therefore given here, together with some particulars of the rituals that have not been mentioned in the previous chapter.


            CLARET Claret's various editions have been mentioned on pages 22, 23 and 38. The later ones have a few petty variations but the earlier ones (of 1838 and 1840) are herein regarded as giving Gilkes's working accurately.


            UNANIMITY (or Unan.).


            This is a MS. ritual belonging to the Lodge of Unanimity, No. 102, North Walsham. It was written in 1838 by the then Secretary and was copied by him from an earlier MS. In 1814 Bro. C.J. Williams became Secretary of the Lodge and in the following year he was made Senior Warden of the Apollo Lodge, Beccles, in order that he might be qualified to attend the Reconciliation demonstrations in London. The records of Reconciliation show that he did so attend on six occasions.' It is thought that the earlier MS. mentioned above was probably penned by him after he had been present at those demonstrations. But as this - however probable it may be - is no more than supposition, the ritual cannot be regarded as of earlier data than 1838. It is interesting not only as being contemporary with the earliest Claret but because in many details it resembles the present Stability working and in more than one instance the Bristol system. It was printed by the Lodge in 1907. Incidentally the Lodge itself has an interesting history. An account of it will be found in Hamon le Strange's History of Freemasonry in Norfolk and further particulars in a paper printed in the Transactions of the Norfolk Installed Masters Lodge, Vol. VII, 1931, by W. Bro. Sorrell, of Lowestoft, to

 whom the writer is indebted for the gift of a copy of the ritual.


            Bro. le Strange, who was Provincial Grand Master of Norfolk from 1898 to 1918, wrote of the Lodge and its ritual as follows: 2 `This old established Lodge has preserved certain old-fashioned ways of working that give it a character of its own, which it would be a pity to disturb for the sake of an ideal and impossible uniformity. So long as the real landmarks are preserved, the retention of these little peculiarities is much to be commended as evidence of what the working of our craft was in days gone by'.


            Bro. Chetwode Crawley, reviewing le Strange's History, remarked of the foregoing sentence: `These are words of wisdom, born of reflection, and ripened by experience. Our brethren in the English jurisdiction run some risk of aiming at an acid uniformity that deprives our ritual of vitality and can only be attained by that psittacism, which the metaphysicans tell us is the begetter of mental atrophy. Memory is not everything in Freemasonry'.

 BRISTOL The Bristol working is probably the oldest that survives in this country. While, of course, it conforms in all essentials with what was `approved' in 1816, it retains certain incidents of pre-Union working (e.g., the circle of swords and the writing test), which have generally been dropped, though one or more of them are still met with in individual Lodges in various localities.


            In many ways the Bristol working, especially that of the Third Degree, is more dramatic than is the usual present-day practice.


            The ritual has never been printed but manuscript copies are obtainable by brethren who desire them. It is unusually free from grammatical errors, there being only about a dozen altogether. It does not necessarily follow that it was always so nearly grammatically correct; the writer suspects that, as it was never crystalised in print, the faults in the early days may have been more numerous but have from time to time been amended as attention was called to them.


            OXFORD (or Oxf.).


            The Oxford Ritual did not arise, as some seem to think was the case, in connexion with the Apollo University Lodge. It was compiled by Franklin Thomas- a member of Alfred Lodge, a Pr.S.G.D. and Pr.G.Reg., who was afterwards the author of The Etiquette of Freemasonry (see p. 30) in the early 1850s, when he was in business in Oxford. He probably collaborated in the work with a fellow tradesman, Alderman Spiers, who was for many years the Deputy Provincial Grand Master. It is based directly on Claret's Ritual, but many - though by no means all - of the grammatical faults of that version are corrected. It may be noted that the investiture address by the Senior Warden in the First Degree and the Explanation of the Working Tools Rituals 41 of the Second Degree are given in full instead of in the curtailed forms in which they appear in Claret and which are used in the present-day Emulation working.


            The ritual was at first printed locally but the date of its first issue cannot now be ascertained, though it was probably in the 1860s. More than one subsequent edition was produced locally but shortly after 1870 the publication was undertaken by Lewis.


            It is used in most of the Lodges of the Province and was at one time, if it is not still, used by some Lodges in the adjoining Provinces as well as very generally in South Wales. It is also still used in some Lodges in East Lancashire, its introduction there being obviously due to the influence of Thomas, who had removed from Oxford to Blackburn, where he became Senior Grand Warden of East Lancashire.


            In 1904 a ritual, in waistcoat-pocket form, entitled Ritus Oxoniensis, was produced by Bro. Horlock in collaboration (but pretty certainly only nominally so) with Lord Valentia, then the Deputy Provincial Grand Master: but although it claims to be the ritual `as antiently practised in the Province' and in the main accords with the Oxford Ritual, it differs in some particulars so materially from that book and from what had until then been the accepted local practice, that it cannot be regarded as correctly representing the Oxford working and in our present connexion it may be ignored.' For example, it makes the Master open, and the Senior Warden close, the several degrees `in the name of the Deity, which is entirely at variance with the Oxford Ritual and it also regards summary openings as permissible. (See pages 49 and 137).


            THE PERFECT CEREMONIES (or P.C.).


            This publication which claims to give the Emulation working at the dates when its numerous successive editions were issued, has already been mentioned (see pp. 24 and 27). When any particular edition is referred to, the date will be given, thus the first edition will be quoted as `P.C(1871)'. Where no date is attached the edition quoted is that of 1920, the issue current when the production of this volume was first under consideration.


            Actually, it was first published in 1870, but only one, or perhaps two, of the books with that date are believed to be now in existence. Further impressions were published during 1871, and in the present connexion the issues of these two years may be regarded together as the first edition. The volume was in large 8vo and is an interesting production as the pages have a series of elaborate decorative frameworks with illustrations of the Dance of Death. A second edition was published in 1874 with the same `Holbein borders', as they were termed in the advertisement pages at the end of the book. Later editions were in small 8vo without the borders.


            In 1890 it was first issued in the popular and excellently printed 'waistcoat-pocket' form.


            In most of the editions there are given in footnotes the more extended forms, or in some cases variants, of certain items of the ceremonial that, although not used in Emulation, were formerly more generally practised than they are now.


            It may be mentioned that in 1874 The Perfect Ceremonies of the Mark and Royal Arch Degrees was published. Like the Craft Ritual of 1871, it was in large 8vo with marginal decorations, but the designs are smaller and, though on the same lines, are somewhat different from those of the Craft book.


            There are several other Rituals of the Gilkes type, besides The Perfect Ceremonies, used in London Lodges, but they are of no real interest or importance because they only differ from the present-day Emulation working in a very few immaterial points. Among these are the West End Working, the Logic Working, Taylor'sRitual* and the Universal Ritual.


            HUMBER The Humber Use is the ritual used in the Humber Lodge, No. 57, Hull. Although not printed until 1922, it claims to be the ritual exercised in that Lodge for over a hundred years. It is based largely on MS. notes of the middle of the last century and earlier, the existence of which has obviated the risk of variation, at any rate since that period. It is noteworthy that there are in it many phrases and expressions which are similar to those of the Bristol Ritual but which, so far as the writer is aware, are not now met with elsewhere. These similarities in places so far apart suggest that they may both contain relics of a working that, before the Gilkes version had-become so wide-spread, was in very general use.


            A point of interest in the publication is a prefatory note on the historical literary aspect of a number of words and phrases that are of common occurrence in our ritual.


            The writer is indebted to the kindness of Brother Easingwood, the Secretary of the Humber Lodge, for possession of a copy of this most interesting and important ritual.


            YORK The York Working of the Masonic Ritual, for the possession of which the writer has to thank Brother G.Y. Johnson, Librarian of the York Masonic Library, is the formulary used in the York Lodge, No. 236 (formerly, and * This was originally issued by Hill as the North London Working. After Hill's death his foreman printer, Taylor, continued to issue it but without any specific descriptive title.


            until 1870, The Union Lodge, York). It is based on several mid-nineteenth century MSS., of which the principal one dates from the 1840s. In essence it is the Gilkes version but there are certain noticeable differences of detail.


            THE REVISED RITUAL (or R.R.) This ritual was compiled by Franklin Thomas and was first issued in 1888, running through several subsequent editions. It obtained for a time considerable vogue, especially in Lodges in India and the East. In the main it follows the Oxford Ritual but the compiler introduced a few alterations in the accepted terminology which most of us would certainly regard as both unnecessary and undesirable. Thus he employs the term `novice' (in the 1°) and `probationer' (in the 2° and 3°) as applying to candidates who have been obligated but have not yet been entrusted with the secrets. There are, however, a number of footnotes throughout the book, many of which are decidedly apposite and informative, and it is chiefly in connexion with these that the ritual will be referred to.


            STABILITY (or Stab.) As already stated, the Stability Ritual was never printed until 1902, having been - ostensibly at any rate - handed down since the Union by purely oral transmission. It differs from the Gilkes version in a numbe= of minor details, and markedly so in the Explanation of the Working Tools of the First Degree and to a less extent in that of those of the Second Degree, the forms of which there given are still found in the practice of some of the older Lodges. As previously mentioned (see p. 26), there is evidence in existence that in some particulars its phraseology is more in agreement with that of the Reconciliation workers than was that of Gilkes.


            Stability is the mother of a number of daughter Lodges of Instruction and its working is used in many Lodges in London and elsewhere. There are also several London workings that are derived from it, of which Golby mentions' the Domatic, the South London, the East London and the West London workings and the so-called Metropolitan working.


            CARLILE 1825 By this contraction reference will be made to the Ritual of 1825 mentioned on page 22. Although, as a `spurious ritual', it is theoretically unreliable, there is no doubt that in some points it does present the contemporary practice of regular Lodges and provides useful evidence in regard to some of the details.


            THE EXETER RITUAL This, although not printed until 1932, claims to `vary little, if anything, from the version taught in Exeter about the year 1817' and worked in St. John the Baptist Lodge, No. 39. It is used by all but one of the Lodges in the city and by several in the surrounding districts. In the ceremonial of the three Degrees it presents nothing that calls for special remark here, though occasional reference will be made to it later on. But the chief interest in the book lies in the fact that it contains the full opening and closing of the Board of Installed Masters which had been for long handed down orally in the above-named Lodge, and it was that Lodge that, when trouble arose in Grand Lodge in 1926 in connexion with this item of ceremonial, was able to provide evidence of its use for over 150 years, evidence which was a potent factor in bringing about the ultimate decision on the matter (seep. 201). A second edition was issued in 1936, but as all the stock and type thereof were destroyed in the air-raid of May 1942, a third edition was printed in 1944 in which a few emendations of faults in unessential details have been made. The writer is indebted to Bro. F.A.F. Cole, P.A.G.D.C., for the gift of copies of the second and third editions.


            Numerous details in this ritual indicate that the editor of the first printed edition was to some extent influenced by the P.C. That no doubt accounts for the fact that in the 3° they now teach the Emulation `Sign of G. & D.' referred to on page 194 infra, this being the only ritual in England, except P.C., known to the writer, in which this sign is mentioned.


            BRITANNIA (or.Brit.) This ritual is used by the Sheffield Lodges. Although it bears merely the imprint `Sheffield', it is generally known as the Britannia Ritual, apparently because it is published mainly under the aegis of the Lodge of that name, No. 139, which is the senior lodge in the city. In presents a few variants that are probably peculiar to it and it is moderately, but by no means entirely, free from grammatical and other solecisms.


            THE ENGLISH RITUAL This is described on p.36 and will be cited on occasion, sometimes simply by the initials ER. It was first published in 1936. Unfortunately that edition was disfigured by numerous typographical errors and by the accidental omission of two lines in the obligation of the First Degree. A revised edition was published by Lewis in 1946 which is believed to be free from mistakes.


            There are a few other rituals known to the writer, mention of which may be of interest. There are probably many more in use that he has not met with. In recent years a number of lodges have had their workings printed for 45 their own individual use. Among these are the Veritas Lodge, No. 4983, and the Authors Lodge, No. 3456. It might have been thought that this development indicated a growing distaste for the `atrocities' of Emulation, (see p. 28), but unfortunately most of these rituals - including the two just named - retain many, if not most, of the faults of that version; so it may merely express an antipathy to the pushful pertinacity by which the devotees of Emulation endeavour to impose everywhere the use of their own particular system.


            The Authors Lodge is of interest in that it is one of the few London Lodges that open and close the Board of Installed Masters ceremonially. Incidentally, it has embroidered its Inner Working by the presentation of `the Working Tools of an Installed Master' (the trowel, the plumb-line and the plan of the work) adopted from a small volume by J.S.M. Ward.' As the writer had never heard of these until they appeared in Ward's book, he consulted Bro. Vibert, who gave it as his opinion that they were previously unknown and owed their origin to Bro. Ward's inventive faculties.


            Another Lodge that works its own rendering of the ritual is the Benefactum, No. 5231. Its ritual has not yet been published but it probably will be in the near future and the writer has been privileged to peruse the typescript copy.* It appears to be entirely free from any details of diction open to adverse criticism, but it has one marked peculiarity in regard to which opinions will doubtless differ, namely that - on the ground that we habitually speak of an Entered Apprentice Freemason and a Fellow Craft Freemason- it systematically uses the term `Master Freemason' in place of the usual `Master Mason'.


            All Souls' Lodge, Weymouth, No. 170, has a working some details of which date back to the 18th century and one or two incidents in which will be referred to later (see pp. 142 and 211).


            Then there is the curiously-named Common Sense Ritual which was compiled by the late Bro. Crowe, P.G. Org., for the use of his Lodge at Plymouth. Afterwards, when he went to Chichester as organist to the Cathedral, he introduced it into the Lodge there, where we believe it is still in use.


            Mention may also be made of the Robinson Ritual which for a fairly long series of years was used in certain Lodges in the Maidstone area but was, about 1910, discarded in favour of The Perfect Ceremonies under pressure from the then Deputy Provincial Grand Master, Bro. John White, who was a bigoted Emulationist. It was compiled by a well-known parson in that locality whose name is perpetuated in the Robinson Lodge, and it was virtually the * This interesting Ritual was published in c. 1928. [Ed] Oxford Ritual with a few variants and interpolations.* Occasional reference will be made to a Scotch ritual issued as Volume XIX of The Masonic Miscellany.' The writer does not know how closely it accords with the common usage in Scotland, but from its publication in that series it may be presumed to be of fairly general adoption in Scotch Lodges. Strictly speaking it is of no concern in a book that deals with the ritual in England, but it comprises a few items that in this connexion have a certain interest.


            This chapter cannot be closed without a reference to one other recent production, the Nigerian Ritual (1944). It is part and parcel of the proEmulation campaign of propaganda and aims at securing the exclusive use of that working throughout the Freemasonic District of Nigeria. One gathers from the preface that a Bro. Tasker made a tour through the District in the interests of Emulation, which reminds one of Bro. Rankin's similar `pilgrimages' (see p. 29). The volume claims to have been drawn up by the Deputy District Grand Master and to be a verbatim presentation of Emulation working, and the rubrical directions of The Perfect Ceremonies are considerably elaborated. It is actually issued under the auspices of the District Grand Master who contributes the Preface, in which he advises every brother in his jurisdiction to buy a copy and recommends its general use. In so doing he sails very near the wind, all but rendering himself subject to Bro. Robbins's stricture on `arbitrary interference with the independence of the Lodges and the individual brethren' (see p. 36). The compiler actually makes the unwarrantable statement that `Emulation' is a guide and authority on Ritual! On the eve of going to press the writer received a copy of The Bury Ritual, which he knew of but had not previously seen. In many details it distinctly shows the influence of the Oxford Ritual. Some of its other details are unusual and interesting, and may or may not be peculiar to it. It gives the opening and closing of the Board of I.M.s.


            * There was also a Robinson Royal Arch Ritual, similarly based on the Oxford working, which contained some useful and instructive interpolations in the Lectures of the Principles. It met the same fate, and about the same time, as the Lodge,ritual, being supplanted by a version newly compiled by Bro. Sudlow and a few of his Emulation friends.


            3 Some Matters of General Concern SIMULTANEITY OF ACTION In the interest of simultaneity of action, which adds so greatly to effectiveness, we would advocate a practice that the late Grand Secretary, Sir Colville Smith, always followed when he was in the chair and the habitual adoption of which he insisted on in his mother lodge, the Apollo University Lodge, Oxford, of which he was Secretary down to the time of his death.


            After opening the Lodge, in whatever degree, the Master (and, naturally, everyone else) remains standing until the Deacons have attended to the Tracing Board and have returned to their places. In the Third Degree the G. and R. Salute will now be given.) Then the Master says, "Be seated, Brethren', and all present sit down simultaneously with him.


            This is much to be preferred to the more usual custom of the Master sitting down without a word, while the other brethren sit down more or less at once, but practically in a sort of `dropping fire'.


            The same practice is followed when the Lodge is closed `in full' in the Third and Second Degrees, and also at certain a point in the course of the Third Degree Ceremony.


            Another matter, also bearing on simultaneity of movement, may here be mentioned. At certain places in the openings and closings we take concerted action; thus, at the Master's command we stand to order as E.A.s., F.C.s or M.Ms. Now if the Master, who leads, or should lead, the movement, performs his part deliberately - not necessarily slowly - and distinctly, and the brethren are taught from their earliest days to keep their eyes on him and to `take the time' punctiliously from him, we secure that impressive concurrency of action that is probably seen at its best in military Lodges. The same procedure would obtain when the Master drops his sign in the course of declaring the Lodge open.


            In the Second and Third Degree openings, when the Junior Warden orders the brethren to prove themselves, the Senior Warden becomes the leader. He should be as carefully deliberate and distinct as the Master previously, and now everyone should watch him and move in unison with him.


            48        Matters of General Concern It may be noted that in the Carlde 1825. when the Junior Warden calls on the brethren to prove themselves, he is made to add, `and to prevent confusion observe the Senior Warden'. And in Unanimity he says, `to prevent confusion take the Sns. from the S.W.' Exeter has the same usage. It has been rightly advanced against this addition that the hypothetical cowan, by watching the Senior Warden, would learn and could copy, that which he does not know. Whereas if he has not been thus specifically told to watch that officer it would not occur to him to watch him in particular, and he would be more likely to attempt to copy those near him or directly opposite to him; and then the very fact that, in addition to his being a little behindhand in his `time', his eyes are not directed towards the west, would render him even more likely than in the other case to arouse the suspicions of an observant Junior Warden.


            Similarly, when the Senior Warden declares the Lodge closed; he is again the leader and everyone should watch, and act with, him.


            Of course, when a Principal Officer takes a step his feet are not visible, but he can easily make his movements so obvious that his `time' can be accurately followed.


            OPENING, CLOSING, and `RESUMING'.


            A Lodge once closed cannot be re-opened on the same day (Rule 140, B. of C.), but the Second and Third Degrees may be opened and closed at any one meeting as often as is necessary for the convenient performance of the work.


            It has long been a practice of Lodges of Instruction to open up to the Third Degree at the beginning of the meeting and thereafter to jump about from one degree to another by the mere declaration-of the Master that he `resumes' the Lodge in such and such a Degree. That procedure may be permissible in a Lodge of Instruction where those present all know one another intimately and only meet informally for practice; indeed, in such circumstances there is no real necessity to go through any formal openings and closings at all unless it is particularly wished to rehearse them, just as it is unnecessary to do so when the officers of a Lodge meet privately to rehearse a ceremony.


            But there is no justification to import the slipshod method of an Instruction Lodge (however venial it may be there) into a Regular Lodge, and it must be remembered that the word `resume' has no place in our ritual. It is an innovation inthe ceremonial and should never be used in Lodge. A Lodge, or a Degree cannot be `resumed'. It can only be `opened' or `closed'. When a Lodge is closed (whether in `full' or `summarily') in the Third Degree, it is then ipso facto open in the Second. And, it is to be noted, it is not permissible to skip a Degree; that is to say, it is irregular to declare the Lodge, Matters of General Concern          49 by a single act, closed in the Third Degree and open in the First. It can only be brought down to the First by passing through the Second. Moreover, it is absolutely contrary to the principles of the Craft, and therefore irregular, to open, or re-open, a Degree `summarily' without the formality of proving that those present are qualified in that Degree. It does not matter in the least whether the Lodge has been in the Degree earlier in the evening or not. An unqualified brother may have entered while it was in the lower Degree, and we certainly ought in theory and practice to take all precautions against the presence of a cowan or of a brother who has not heard or has disregarded the direction to withdraw. It is on record' that this was the opinion of Bro. Hughan, an acknowledged authority on matters of ritual. The editor of The Freemasons' Magazine in 1861 took a similar view' and Bro. Hextall, over his customary signature of 'D.C., expressed his opinion to the same effect.' Hughan also held that skipping a Degree was not permissible.


            If the Lodge has previously been opened in the Third Degree and it is necessary to return to that Degree (as when a Raising is followed by an Installation), a shortened form may be adopted for the re-opening, namely, omitting the questions after the essential proving of the brethren and the Junior Warden's report thereon. Thus: W.M. - I acknowledge the correctness of the proof* and declare the Lodge again open on the c. for the purposes of Freemasonry in the Third Degree. A similar shortened form may be used if it is necessary to re-open the Second Degree.


            In the writer's young days it was the invariable custom in the Apollo University Lodge, Oxford, and in the other Lodges of that Province, if a Degree had to be opened a second time, to do it with the same full formulary that had been used on the first occasion., Some few years ago the writer took an Irish brother to a London Lodge where the objectionable practice of summary opening was followed and the visitor was horrified at what he regarded as a gross irregularity, as, indeed, it was. Not only so, but he regarded us as unduly careless in our ordinary full openings, for in Ireland they never begin the opening ceremony in any Degree (the First not excepted) until the Deacons have gone round the room and taken a password (in the First Degree a phrase) in a whisper from each person present.


            A note in Ritus Oxoniensis (see page 41 supra) says that the Second and Third Degrees may only be opened once in a day, but that after they have been opened the Master may jump the Lodge up and down summarily into any degree as often as he pleases, using the word `resume' when doing so. This statement is absolutely unwarranted and is entirely contrary to the principles and practice of the Oxford Ritual.


            * P.C. has `of the Sns.' but Oxford and Bury have the more rational words, `of the Proof'. cf. p. 138.


            50        Matters of General Concern KNOCKS, REPORTS AND ALARMS.


            (R eprinted from Miscellanea Latomorum, XIX 113.) In theory everyone who seeks admission to the Lodge (with the exception of a candidate for initiation) gives the knock on the door himself and, obviously, if he is a qualified brother, he will, on learning from the Tyler the Degree that is open,* give the knock that appertains to that Degree to intimate to those within that he is qualified for admission. Although modern custom ordains that the knocks are actually given by the Tyler, it is surely obvious that that Officer should give the same knock that the brother himself would have given.


            A cowan would not know the proper knock and would, presumably, give some other form of knock (e.g., a single rap or a rat-tat-tat), which would constitute an alarm to the brethren that some one unqualified was trying to get in. It is clear, therefore, that the practice prevalent in many Lodges today, whereby the Tyler gives a single stroke when members or visitors seek admission is quite irregular.


            The knocks for candidates are also regulated in strict accordance with the theory. Thus a candidate for passing theoretically knocks for himself and gives the best knock he knows, which is that of the First Degree. In the Second Degree Lecture, Section 1, we find the question, `How did you gain admission?' and the answer, `By the knock of an E.A.' Similarly a candidate for raising gives the best knock he knows, which in his case is that of the Second Degree. It will be remembered that one of the usual Master Mason's * It would appear that with the Antients in the immediately pre-Union time the brother had to glean this for himself. In the Minutes of the Lodge of Promulgation, January 26, 1810, it is recorded that `The W.M. explained the means by which in future the Brethren would be enabled by the Great Lights at the entrance of the Lodge to ascertain the Degree in which it was then open'. (Misc. Lat. IV, 79). Although thus adopted by Promulgation and consequently no doubt ordered to be followed by all Moderns Lodges, the practice was afterwards dropped. It had long been forgotten and the reference to it in those Minutes had puzzled many of us in recent years until Bro. Meekren, a well-known American Freemasonic student, threw light upon it. He tells us (Misc. Lat., XVHI, 33) that in some old country Lodges in New England, where many of their uses are derived from the ritual forms of the Antients, it is the custom (one, he says, which seems to be a genuine survival of old usage) to place a duplicate set of the Three Great Lights on a shelf or stand outside the Lodge door. The Tyler changes their arrangement as he is officially informed (to wit, by the knocks of the Inner Guard on the door) of any change in the status of the Lodge, and the brethren wishing to enter have to learn from their relative positions which Degree is open, so that they may know how to knock to gain admission and which salute to give after entering. This is with a very great degree of probability the clue to the puzzle. Bro. Meekren adds that in the Lodges where this custom prevails a stranger, in the course of being `proved', is almost always asked to demonstrate the arrangement of the 'Lights in one or more Degrees, for which purpose use is made of another duplicate set in the preparation room, where the examination is carried out.


            Matters of General Concern 51 test questions is, `How did you gain admission?' and the reply, `By the knock of a F.C.' A candidate for initiation could not, of course, give for himself any knock but that of a cowan, which would not avail him. But our theory is that he is brought into the Lodge by his proposer, who knocks to gain admission for himself and consequently gives the first Degree knock. Hence, in the First Degree Lecture, Section 2, we have the following colloquy: Q. - Who brought you to be made a Freemason? A. - A friend whom I afterwards found to be a brother. Q. - How did you gain admission? A.- By t. d. k.* It was formerly the custom (and happily is still so in those Lodges where a little elementary Freemasonic knowledge obtains) for the Inner Guard, when making the announcements to the Junior Warden, to distinguish between a ,report' (i.e. a correct knock, or the knock of the Degree open) and an'alarm' (i.e., an incorrect, and therefore a warning, knock). And, of course, the Junior Warden, in forwarding the announcement to the Master, uses the same term that the Inner Guard has used to him. Nowadays it has become customary in most London Lodges to use only the word `report' in all cases. This being an attenuation or improverishment of ritualistic formality, as well as contrary to Freemasonic theory, is much to be regretted.


            The writer knows one Lodge where, although they still retain the distinction between the two words, they commit the very curious solecism of using them in the inverse sense, calling a correct knock an `alarm' and a wrong knock a `report'. This irrational practice can only have arisen through lack of appreciation of the reason underlying the use of the words. It is an interesting example of how an error, once committed through ignorance, can become stereotyped and persistently continued by unthinking brethren.


            In the case of a candidate for initiation the announcement can only be of a ,report', because, as already explained, the correct knock of the Degree open is given. It is, however, customary for the Tyler (in order to let the Lodge know that it is for the candidate and not for an ordinary member or a visitor) to give the knock rather more loudly and more deliberately than usual.


            A faulty custom has grown up in some Lodges, when closing `summarily' in the Third or Second Degree, of giving the knock of the Degree into which the Lodge is lowered, i.e., the knock of the Second Degree when closing the Third and that of the First when closing the Second. This is utterly irrational. When we close `in full' we always give the knock of the Degree that is being closed, and there is no reason to do otherwise when we close the Degree summarily; in fact to do so would theoretically mislead the Tyler. When the Tyler hears the knock of a particular Degree `go round' (i.e., hears the series of *            In 1730 `admittance' was by `three great ks'.


            52        Matters of General Concern four knocks by the W.M., and S.W., and J.W. and the I.G., which series he himself has to complete by a fifth knock on the door), he knows that the Lodge has been opened in that Degree. It continues in that Degree (and he informs anyone who desires to enter of the fact) until he hears the same knock `go round' again, which occurs when the Degree is closed. Suppose that the Lodge has been opened in the Third Degree and that in closing it summarily the knocks of the Second Degree are given. It is the second time that the Tyler has heard the series of Second Degree knocks and this is an intimation to him that the Second Degree has been closed. It is true he has not heard the Third Degree knock go round a second time (to intimate the closing of that Degree), but he can only presume that either he has forgotten it or that he failed to hear it and the Master did not wait for his final knock to complete the series. It is, therefore, obvious that when closing `summarily' the Master should give (being followed by the Wardens and the I.G.) the same knock that he would have given if he had done the closing `in full'.


            Some Masters have a way of saying, `By virtue of the power vested in me, I close the Lodge in the Third Degree and resume it in the Second'. Apart from the irregularity of the word `resume' (see p. 48), the last six words are unnecessary. The Lodge has become automatically open in the Second Degree when it was closed in the Third and it is pointless to announce the fact.


            Very occasionally one hears a Master, when closing summarily, proceed as follows: He says, `By virtue of the power vested in me, I close the Lodge in the Third Degree [He then gives the knock of that Degree which goes round] and resume it in the Second [and then gives the Second Degree knock which also goes round]'. This is irregular as being contrary to theory and is misleading to the Tyler who gathers, or should gather from the second round of knocks, that the Second Degree has been closed.* In the course of the Installation ceremony the Installing Master is often heard to direct his successor thus: - `You will now close the Lodge in the Third Degree or [sic] resume it in the Second'. But as already shown, these are not possible alternatives. All he can do is to close in the Third Degree. He cannot get into the Second without doing so. The direction that should be given is: `You will now close the Lodge in the Third Degree, which you may do in full or summarily, as you please'; and whichever course the Master decides to adopt, he should give the Third Degree knock.t The curious practice of the Master giving the closing knock with his left hand may here be mentioned. The late Bro. Hextall, P.G.D., in his pamphlet on Craft Ritual (1902), wrote of it as follows: * This solecism is actually prescribed in the Exeter Ritual (1944). pp. 33 and 36.


            t           The Exeter Ritual has the phrase, `You will now close the Lodge in the Third Degree and [sic] open it in the Second': and the same mutatis mutandis when the Second Degree is to be closed. This is even worse than the more common formula.


            Matters of General Concern 53 `A practice which seems to prevail in some Lodges induces me to express a decided opinion that the final knock given by the Master in a closing ceremony should be given with the right, and not with the left, hand. If the left hand is used, it gives an awkward appearance, as well as personal inconvenience, to the Master himself, and is also an infringement of that strict observance of squares, levels and perpendiculars which was enjoined upon each of us at Initiation. I suppose the idea prompting the use of the left hand has been that until the Senior Warden has actually pronounced his words of closing the Master should retain the sign; but his part in the ceremony is at an end when he has given the command, and there is no reason why he should give the knock otherwise than with his right hand. It is obvious that if the Master were to retain the sign in closing in the Second Degree it would be physically impossible for him to give any knock until the Senior Warden's duty was performed'.


            In the copy of this pamphlet that Bro. Hextall gave to the present writer he has written in the margin, `I feel strongly about this. The knocking with the left hand appears to me nothing less than atrocious; and it is quite a modern innovation of comparatively recent date (as is the habit of the Can. standing with legs crossed in part of the 3° ceremony)'. It is not mentioned in the Claret Ritual, which at any rate suggests that it was not Gilkes's practice, for if the awkward and unnatural action had been adopted by him, it is most unlikely that it would not have been specially mentioned in the printed exposition of his working.


            It may be added that in 1914 Hextall again referred to its as an `objectionable innovation' that `originated in the inventiveness of some Preceptor of a Lodge of Instruction'.


            Although the writer entirely agrees with Bro. Hextall's strictures on the practice, it does not seem to be of quite such recent introduction as he thought, for the left hand knock is actually prescribed in the Oxford Ritual, though, curiously enough only in respect of the First Degree closing.


            It is interesting to note that the Bristol custom (a custom which, like all their practical ceremonial, has undoubtedly been handed down unchanged since the time of the Union) is really rational. The Master, when he has delegated to the Senior Warden the duty of closing the Lodge, drops his sign, gives the knock (with the right hand) and sits down. He has finished his job and retires from the command, leaving the Warden in charge. Everyone else naturally remains standing and retaining the sign. The Senior Warden then does his part and when he drops the sign all the others do so simultaneously. In Lodges elsewhere it is obviously not advisable for the Master to sit down after giving his knock, for some of the brethren might unthinkingly copy him and so confusion would result, but he should certainly discharge his sign and knock with his right hand.


            54        Matters of General Concern It may be noted that in Carlile 1825, after the Master has commanded the Senior Warden to close the Lodge, a rubrical note directs that he `Gives the knock and sits down'. And the Senior Warden is similarly directed after he has declared the Lodge closed.


            Occasionally one sees the Senior Warden also give the knock with his left hand. There is no possible excuse for this gaucherie, though it is only carrying the absurdity a step further. Perhaps the next thing will be for the Junior Warden and the Inner Guard to use the left hand too. This left-handed innovation cannot be too strongly deprecated.


            We conclude this section by a reference to the curious custom introduced into certain circles in comparatively recent years, of the Master giving a resounding double knock (which is not repeated by the Wardens) when the presence of the Tyler is required in the Lodge, for instance when he is about to be invested on Installation night. The custom is, strictly speaking, irregular. In the first place it is a knock that has no freemasonic significance. Secondly, the fact that the Wardens do not repeat it contravenes the old-established rule that every knock given by the Master should be `answered' by the Wardens. Further, while the obvious reason for the knock being given so loudly, as is invariably the case, is that the Tyler may hear it and take it as a summons to enter, that Officer cannot possibly act upon it until the Inner Guard opens the door to admit him. Although, in view of the wide prevalence that the practice has now obtained, the writer is not prepared incontinently to condemn it, it does appear to him that it is an unnecessary innovation and that it would be more seemly for the Master, instead of knocking, simply to request the Inner Guard to call in the Tyler, which is customary when - as is the practice in some Lodges - he is brought in to recite his own duty (seep. 80).


            SPS., SNS., and SALUTES It is the rule that whenever a sn, qua sn., is given, it should be preceded by a sp. Thus the sp. is taken when we are called to order, and when we prove ourselves in the openings and closings; when we show the sn. to demonstrate our qualification on entering the Lodge; when we leave the Lodge; and when a brother addresses, or is addressed by, a superior.


            But when the sn. is used as a salute - a gesture of courtesy, as it were - there is no need to preface it by a sp. Therefore, when the E.As. `greet' their newly installed Master, the sn. by which they do it is not preceded by a sp. Similarly, when the F.Cs. are called to order in readiness for their salute, they do not take the sp. And, obviously, when brethren salute the Master as they go in procession round the Lodge, or when a candidate in his perambulations merely passes a Principal Officer, there is no preliminary Matters of General Concern 55 sp. To halt in order to take a formal sp. on such occasions would be as ludicrous as for a soldier, when passing an officer, to halt and come to attention before saluting. But, naturally, the person saluting will turn his head towards the officer as he gives the salute.


            A brother addressing a superior in the course of the ceremonies invariably gives the sn. and keeps it up while speaking. But opinions differ as to whether an officer who is addressed by a superior should rise and stand with the sn. or should remain motionless. There is little doubt that the old custom was for him to show due deference to his superior by rising with the sn., but in some Lodges today this courtesy is habitually omitted.


            Opinions also differ as to whether a brother who has occasion to address the Master on a matter of Lodge business should retain the sn. all the time he is speaking, or should give and complete it before begining to speak, and give it again when he has finished. This detail has been discussed on two occasions in Miscellanea Latomorum. 6 On the whole the latter practice would seem to be preferable.


            As there has never been any authoritative ruling on either of the points just mentioned, it is open to every Lodge to follow whichever custom it likes. On entering a Lodge it is sufficient to take the sp. and give the sn. of the Degree then open, and the same applies to withdrawal from the Lodge. A knowledge of the sn. of a higher Degree necessarily implies a knowledge of that of a lower and therefore it is needless to give the latter as well as the former. It is generally those who are prone to `show off' or to give themselves airs, who, if they enter a Lodge in the Third Degree, make a practice of going through the whole series of sns.


            With regard to the `three regular sps.', one of which is taken in each degree as a preliminary to the sn., many a Brother can recall a certain feeling of surprise when, as a candidate, he was taught that the three are identical in the mode of performance. Yet, incongruous though it seems, there is no doubt that such is the case nowadays in the vast majority of Lodges. It is however, interesting to know that in the Bristol and Humber workings the first sp. is taken in the usual way, but the second is the exact reverse as regards the movements of the parts concerned, while the third, though begun like the first, is concluded by coming h. to h. The same method of taking the second is prescribed in the Unanimity Ritual; the third is not mentioned therein but it is not an unfair presumption that the practice accords with the other two workings just cited. This agreement in places so far apart certainly suggests that their method was general in early post-Union days, and it is at least possible that Gilkes may have been responsible for the alteration to the system that is now commonly followed.


            In the Installation ceremony it falls to the Director of Ceremonies to direct the salutes given to the newly installed Master in the several Degrees.


            56        Matters of General Concern In giving that of the First Degree he should be punctilious in performing it, and seeing that it is performed, in three distinct movements which may be indicated by the letters p. 1. r. The first motion, the `p', should on no account be omitted or slurred.' In the Second Degree salute, a comparatively modern innovation met with in some Lodges, and presumably introduced by someone with a perverted sense of humour, is to end the direction with the words, `in time with the knocks of the Degree'. This is pointless and nearly always results in such confusion as to render the procedure ludicrous. The motions should be made at regular intervals. The part of the badge referred to is in its lower right hand corner. Occasionally one sees the D.C. and the brethren hitting themselves on the epigastrium instead of on the thigh.


            It may be noted that in Bristol working the order of the movements is h., b...t, b...e, and this certainly has a more seemly effect than the method adopted in most other Lodges.


            In the Third Degree salute also Bristol differs slightly from the general mode in that they do not, as most of us do, use for the purpose the Sri. of J. and E. purely and simply but the downward motion thereof is interrupted. Their method will probably be understood if we say that the movements may be indicated in the same way as those of their Second Degree salute but in this case both arms are employed similarly and simultaneously.


            It need hardly be said that when coming `to attention' preparatorily to giving a salute, the D.C. should not slap his thighs any more than does a soldier when assuming the attitude. This is a gaucherie too often in evidence nowadays.


            THE ATTITUDE TO BE ASSUMED DURING PRAYERS AND OBLIGATIONS s It was formerly the custom to stand during obligations with the `S ... g. Sn. or Sri. of F.', everyone thus silently reaffirming his own adherence to the solemn undertaking that is being recited. During prayers the brethren stood to order with the sn. of the Degree.


            But in comparatively recent years a considerable number of Lodges have altered this rule and now use the sn. of the Degree during obligations (in some cases in the Second Degree the Sri. of F. only) and in prayer adopt what they call the Sign of Reverence or of Prayer, which they say differs from the Sri. of F. in the position of a digit. In fact, however, there is no such sign as the latter in Freemasonry. It is not taught in any of the three ceremonies and it is, therefore, patently irregular to use it in a Lodge.


            In a discussion of the subject some years ago in Miscellanea Latomorum a brother actually admitted that `the sign of prayer is not taught in any Lodge but in Lodges of Instruction'!' That stultifies his support of its use, for no Matters of General Concern 57 Lodge of Instruction has the right to invent, and to teach, any sign that is not taught in the course of the recognised ceremonies.


            The attitude of this so-called Sign of Reverence or Prayer is not even suggestive of either the quality or the act. It is suggestive of fidelity and secrecy and is, indeed, used in that sense as part of a sign in the Royal Arch.


            Present-day practice varies so much that one must be content to copy the action of the members of the Lodge in which one finds oneself. But undoubtedly the correct (as being the rational and certainly the older) method is to use the sign of the Degree during prayers and that of F. during obligations, the latter being of course, retained until after the formal `sealing'.


            It is to be observed that in the Bristol Ritual a note directs that `during the Obs. the Brethren stand making the Sn. of F. until after it is sealed'. This is good evidence of the antiquity of the practice. The Exeter Ritual directs the Sn. of F. to be used during all Prayers and Obs.


            Exception is sometimes taken by the punctilious to the exhibition of the Sn. of F. during the obligation in the First Degree, but they forget that it is invariably used by all the brethren when the I.P.M. recites his closing tag in that Degree. Such an idea was evidently in the minds of the early Emulationists, for in Claret's Rituals (as well as P. C. (1871) and P. C. (1874) ) the rubrical direction before the First Degree obligation is simply, `The Brethren rise and place the r...t h...d on the l...t b...t'. But even if the candidate could see it, or if an E.A. were present, the Sn. of F. is such a natural position in the circumstances that neither of them would suspect that it had any esoteric import. It was apparently at some later date than 1874 that Emulation adopted their present practice of using the sign of the Degree instead of that of F. during obligations.


            It had similarly been argued that it is wrong to let the candidate see us standing to order during the prayers at the beginning of the ceremonies of passing and raising. But, as in the case previously mentioned, the attitudes have as yet no esoteric meaning for him, and even if he should suspect that they may have some such import and the ceremony should have to be interrupted on account, say, of his sudden illness, he is precluded by his former obligations from disclosing them.


            It may be desirable to emphasise the point that the dictates of good manners require a visitor to conform with the custom of the Lodge in which he happens to be in regard to any details of practice in which he may know, or notice, that it differs from the custom of this own Lodge. Nothing looks worse in, say, a Lodge which has adopted the innovation of standing to order during obligations with the sign of the degree than to see visitors from Lodges that follow the older practice standing - often somewhat ostentatiously so -- with the Sn. of F.; and vice versa. This applies equally to the position of the hand in the H. Sn. of the Second Degree mentioned at page 171.


            58        Matters of General Concern STANDING TO ORDER.


            It is thought well to include a reference to this subject because of a tendency that the writer has occasionally noticed on the part of individuals, and even of Lodges, to adopt a procedure that is at variance with long established practice.


            When `coming to order' in the 1° the first two movements of the sn. should be made and the position then attained held for as long as is required. The arm should, of course, be held well up and the hand kept flat with the fingers extended. Any sagging should be avoided, though perhaps some little licence in this respect may be allowed to aged brethren to whom the ideal position is somewhat of a strain if it has to be retained for any length of time. In assuming this position the first movement of the sn. is too often slurred or even - as in those Lodges where the sn. is wrongly taught (see pp. 20, 25 and 138) - entirely omitted. When the time comes to determine the `orderly' posture, the sn. is completed by its third movement and the hand is dropped to the side.


            In the 2° the S. of F. and the H.S. are made and the position is retained. In dropping it, the H.S. is dismissed and the P.S. is given before bringing the hand to the side.


            The faulty practice mentioned above consists, in the 1°, in completing the sn. and then reverting to the position at which the movement should have been arrested. In the 2° the P.S. is given (but without dropping the H.S.) and then the S. of F. is re-assumed (see p. 172).


            When we are called `to order as M.Ms.' (as in the 3° closing) no sn. is given, but the position that is ordinarily arrived at in the `recovery' after the P.S. has been given is directly assumed. The hand should, of course, be kept in the position described at page 196. In due course the hand is simply dropped to the side without any preliminary horizontal movement.


            PASSING ROUND THE LODGE No doubt in theory, on the `squares, levels and perpendiculars' principle, everyone passing round, or moving about, the room should `square the Lodge', that is, should follow the periphery of a rectangle whose sides just clear the pedestals and the Secretary's table (and of course, any seats for the brethren that may project beyond those pieces of furniture), or, if he has occasion to go nearer the centre of the room, lines parallel to those sides, making every turn a right angle.


            S ... g, i.e., SHIELDING Possibly in olden times that rule was always followed, but nowadays it is usually considered sufficient if it is strictly adhered to by the Deacons when Matters of General Concern

 59 in charge of candidates, by the Wardens when they `make trial' at a certain part of the Third Degree ceremony, and by the brethren when they go in procession round the Lodge at an Installation. In other cases a brother need not punctiliously follow straight lines and make right-angled turns, but he should, of course, always go round `with the sun' and not `withershins'. Thus in the Bristol Ritual in the instruction, `Those brethren wishing to proceed to seats in the S. (when the Lodge is open) should do so by way of the N. and E.* Yet even to this rule exceptions are generally permissible in the case of short journeys. Thus, when the Senior Deacon fetches the Minute Book from the Secretary's table and takes it to the Master for signature, he may go to and fro by the short direct route. If he were to go right round the room in order to reach the Secretary and again round it when returning the book, it would savour of undue, and even unseemly, pedantry. This applies also to the Senior Warden when he returns to his chair after investing a candidate. But with longer journeys the rule ought to be strictly observed. The Senior Deacon, when going to the door to receive a candidate, should invariably go across the east, down the south and across the west; and similarly, the D.C., in going to receive distinguished visitors, should proceed down the south side of the Lodge and not down the north.


            Deacons when in charge of a candidate should at all times make him square the Lodge formally and should never lead him diagopally across the room, a slovenly practice sometimes seen today that probably results in copying the slipshod method of an Instruction Lodge.


            When `squaring the Lodge' a brother should not halt at each corner and make play with his feet like a sentry turning at the end of his beat. This habit, which is often witnessed, introduces an undesirable element of comedy into the procedure (cf. p. 91).


            In connexion with the placing of the newly passed F.C. at the S.E. part of the Lodge, Exeter has the curious rubrical direction that "the S.D. conducts him to the S.E. by way of the S. Note: - This is the only occasion in Craft Masonry when the advancement to the E. is by way of the S." It is difficult to imagine how such an utterly pointless variation from normal practice can have arisen. Let us hope that it does not obtain anywhere else.


            It is probably unnecessary to say that whenever anyone has occasion to pass the Master, he should salute (but see pp. 95 and 102), but, of course, without halting while he does so (see p. 54). Formerly it was the custom - a custom still kept up in some old Lodges - similarly to salute each Warden.' ° * Quite recently the writer actually saw a Past Provincial Warden, whom one would have expected to set a better example, on entering the Lodge proceed to his seat, among the Past Masters by way of the west and south! 60            Matters of General Concern L...GorH...G.


            In regard to the cautious reciprocal interchange of certain secrets in the First and Second Degrees in the manner indicated in the heading of this paragraph, may unintelligent Wardens, and even some Masters, seem to think that because their printed book puts (as the PC does merely by way of example) into the mouth of the officer the words, `Which you please, and begin', no other formula is permissible, and we hear it repeated ad nauseam. It is much better for the officer to give the candidate definite instructions as to which of the several possible variations he is to adopt (e.g. `h. it and begin' or `I. it and I will begin'), and it is well to ring the changes; that is to say, the Junior Warden should notice which mode the Master uses in his catechism in the course of the `entrusting' and should himself adopt a different form. Similarly the Senior Warden will in his turn select a third variant.


            It must be observed that after the I...g or h...g, the secret ought not to be repeated `at length', as is too often done, because the procedure is designed for the education of the candidate in the mode of `probation' that is available for use outside the Lodge. In such circumstances it would not be permissible to utter the secret in full (to do so would virtually be a violation of one's obligation) and therefore it is better not to do so in this rehearsal, notwithstanding that it is actually taking place in open Lodge where the utterance in full is really allowable.


            As the result of the common practice in this respect the writer has more than once been present when a stranger was being tested in the anteroom and, after the interchange of the secret, it was given in full by both parties, neither of whom realised that he was contravening the injunction laid on him when it was originally communicated to him.


            The only ritual, other than the English, known to the writer in which this point is specifically mentioned is the official Ritual of the Grand Lodge of New Zealand, where on each occasion that the interchange occurs, a rubric directs that, `The w... is 1... or h... , but not given in full'.


            THE FIRST JOINT.


            We often hear Masters, in a certain connexion, refer to `the first joint of the hand' or sometimes to `the first knuckle joint'. The former expression is meaningless. To the anatomist it conveys nothing, because there is no joint to which the term can be applied. If forced to give an opinion as to what it might mean, he would undoubtedly say that it could only be the joint between the bones of the wrist and the upper ends of the metacarpels (the bones of the palm). The second term is a definite anatomical locality but it is not what we intend to refer to. The knuckle joint is, in the average man's hand when the fingers are flexed, a full half inch along the finger from the Matters of General Concern 61 knuckle. What is meant, and what should, therefore, be said, is simply, `the first knuckle'. It may be added, although it is impossible to explain the point here, that at one time in our past history the mention of the knuckle joint was probably correct, but it has not been so since as far back as 1730, when the word `knuckle' was properly used." A DETAIL IN THE SECOND DEGREE PREPARATION.


            It is not known when the formality of preparation in the several Degrees came into vogue, but, if we accept Vibert's view that the Second Degree was originally evolved by a division into two of the old `Apprentice's Part', we should naturally expect the preparation in that Degree to be the exact opposite in each particular to that in the First Degree, and that, therefore, in the Second Degree the right b. should be made b. That actually is the case in nearly all the old workings - in Unanimity, Bristol, Exeter and York, as well as in Carlile 1825. But in Claret the left b. is prescribed as it is in the Oxford Ritual which is based directly on Claret. Practically all workings today except Emulation and Oxford' 2 (and also, rather curiously, Humber) make b. the right b. and it seems at least possible that Gilkes himself made the alteration to left. P.C. (1871) and P.C. (1874) have `right', which suggests that Emulation had by then fallen in with the older and usual practice, though since the latter date they have, as indicated by the modern P. C. , and confirmed by Inman" reverted to `left'. In this book, and in the E.R., it is assumed that the older, and still the more general practice, is followed. It may be observed that in Stability working no distinction is drawn between right and left, and in each Degree `the B.' (i.e. both bs.) is made b.




            The practice in regard to this detail has varied from time to time and is not uniform now. In a ritual of 1762 a note directs that the Book should be opened at 11 Peter in the First Degree, at Judges xii in the Second, and at I Kings vii in the Third. According to another ritual of the same period it was - with the Moderns at any rate - to be opened at the Gospel of St. John during the First Degree obligation.


            But since quite early in the 19th century (possibly even before that, for we have no indication when it started) the practice in London Lodges has been to keep the book open at 11 Chronicles ii throughout the meeting. We find evidence of the long standing of this custom in the dirty state of the leaf on which this chapter occurs in old Lodge Bibles.


            No place for the opening was prescribed in the Gilkes Ritual nor until lately in P.C. ; and one gathers from Inman' a that in Emulation the Book is opened haphazardly at no particular chapter. But in recent editions (1918) C 62            Matters of General Concern and after) P. C., II Chronicles vi is prescribed. We do not know by whom this alteration was inspired.


            In Yorkshire (at least in the older Lodges in that county) it appears to be the custom to open the volume in the First Degree at Psalm cxxxiii; in the Second Degree at Amos vii; and in the Third at Ecclesiastes xii. That practice is believed to obtain also in America, where it is, or was, a frequent usage for the Master to recite that chapter of Ecclesiastes, or for the brethren to sing a metrical version of it, while the candidate for raising perambulates the Lodge. In this country, as the reader doubtless knows, it is often recited at a later point in the course of that ceremony.


            Bristol Lodges adopt openings which are possible peculiar to themselves. Moreover it is there the practice for the Master, immediately before declaring the Lodge open, to recite the verse or verses that are about to be exposed. In the First Degree the reference is Ruth ii, 19; in the Second, Judges xii, 5 and 6; and in the Third, Genesis iv, 22. This may be a relic of the pre-Union Moderns' practice, when with them the P.Ws. had acquired a greater importance than the `words' (cf. p. 15).


            Except where there is some good reason for adopting particular openings (for instance that which obtains in Bristol, or the existence of an old-standing custom in the Lodge), the writer agrees with the Emulation view that a haphazard opening will suffice, though on the whole he is of opinion that, if the same opening is to be retained throughout the meeting, II Chron. ii is probably the most appropriate and this is prescribed in the English Ritual.


            Whether the Book should be placed so that the Master can read it or so that the candidate could do so, does not greatly matter, but it is more rational, as well as the generally accepted practice, that it should be placed for the Master to read. If, however, it lies on a separate support, close up to, but at a lower level than, the pedestal, and practically beyond the reach of the Master's vision, it is more appropriate that it should be the other way round, so as to be readable by the candidate, as was the practice when it lay on an altar in the centre of the room. In either case the S. and Cs. should be so situated that the arms of the former, if produced, would include the candidate between them.* THE LESSER LIGHTS In the earliest days of our modern speculative Craft, that is at the beginning of the 18th century, the Lodge was said to have three lights representing `Sun, Moon and Master Mason', and these were three large candles. Exactly where they were placed is not recorded. There were also three `fixed lights', * The view is strongly held nowadays that whichever way the V.S.L. is facing, the points of the compasses should be towards the foot of the page and this is the practice in Grand Lodge. [Ed].


            Matters of General Concern 63 which were said to be situated East, South and West, and whose purpose was `to light men to, at, and from their work'. These we are told were three actual or imaginary windows on those sides of the Lodge Room.


            Subsequently, the two triads of lights were evidently merged into one, the three candles which were known by the Moderns as `The Three Great Lights' but by the Antients as `The Three Lesser Lights', for the latter body applied the term `Great Lights' as we do now. The candles stood on the east, south and west sides of the Lodge Board, as they still do in Bristol, in Cornwall, in at least one London Lodge, the Lodge of Antiquity, No. 2, and perhaps elsewhere.


            From quite early days the candlesticks were in the form of columns of the three principal Orders of Architecture, and Heiron gives an illustration' 5 of three such candlesticks that were bought in 1739. When the Orders first became associated with the abstract qualities of Wisdom, Strength and Beauty (which in 1730, as now, were said to be the hypothetical Three Great Pillars that support the Lodge) does not appear to be known. They were certainly so associated by the Moderns in 1789 and probably earlier, and it would seem that Wisdom, Strength and Beauty were then represented respectively by the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian Orders. This supported by the fact that in several of the old Tracing Boards illustrated by Dring in his papers on the subject' 6 the initials of the qualities placed on the pillars indicated that allocation.


            When they are regarded as representing the Sun in the successive parts of his daily course, the situation of the lights is rational. But difficulty arises when we regard them as typifying the Sun, the Moon and the Master of the Lodge, as in our ritual they are now said to do.


            So long as they were, or are, in the Centre of the Lodge it does not really matter which represents which, and probably it was tacitly assumed that the east light, on the Doric column, symbolised the Sun, the south light, on the Ionic column, the Moon, and that in the west, on the Corinthian column, the Master.


            Then came the time when the candles were in most English Lodges moved to the places they now occupy, namely, close to the Principal Officers. When this was done is not definitely known, but it was probably coincident with the introduction of pedestals for the Wardens, that is, shortly after the Union. It seems likely that at first the candlesticks, which in most cases were of comparatively small size, were put on the pedestals, but, as they were found to be somewhat in the way there, they were subsequently provided with special bases so that they could, without being dwarfed by the pedestals, stand at the side. Which side they were put on was a pure matter of chance. There is no symbolical or other reason to prefer one side to the other. Some Lodges, as those of Oxfordshire, put them on the Officers' left. In the old room of the Apollo University Lodge, which was furnished in 1863, the 64    Matters of General Concern candlesticks screwed into sockets let into the floor on that side. London Lodges appear to have generally put them on the right. When they are on that side, however, they are often very decidedly in the way of a Deacon in the course of his perambulations with a candidate. A very little clumsiness on his part, or even a quite unavoidable accident, may easily result in a shower of wax on his coat (see below). On the other hand, if they are on the left, there is no `Boxing Up' of the Deacon and candidate when going through a `probation by the Warden, and that is by far the more convenient side on which to have them. No Lodge that has ever tried them on the left will want to revert to the other side.


            The change of place has given rise to a very obvious difficulty in regard to the symbolism. In our present ritual the only reference to the lights is when they are pointed out as being `situated east, south and west' and as representing the Sun, the Moon and the Master. This undoubtedly implies that it is the light in the west, the one by the Senior Warden, which typifies the Master, and this must appear, even to- the candidate, distinctly incongruous. Moreover, if it be true that at the Union it was decreed by Grand Lodge that the Master's light was never to be extinguished while the Lodge was open (see p. 19) that can hardly have referred to anything but the candle that is regarded as representing the Master. If the lights were still round the Board, there would be no striking inconsistency if it were the western light that was so regarded; but when they are placed by the chairs it would surely seem that `the Master's light' ought to be the one that stands by him.


            At first it might appear that we could easily get over the difficulty by saying that the Lights `are situated south, west and east', and, as a matter of fact, this is done in the Bristol working, although there they are in the centre of the Lodge, and it is also the order given in the Britannia ritual. But this is not entirely satisfactory, because if the light that represents the Master is placed in the east which is clearly the premier position, the Sun and Moon, represented by the other two lights, though they are surely of greater importance than the Master, are relegated to the inferior positions.


            There seems to be no possible way of satisfactorily circumventing the inconsistency. The symbolism is hopelessly confused and we must put up with it. The best course for a Master to adopt when dealing with these lights is to point to them successively when he tells the candidate that they are in the east, south and west, but in the next part of the sentence to refrain from pointing at all, leaving it to the candidate to allot them as he likes. It may not occur to him to attempt any definite allocation, and, if so, all the better." It is greatly to be regretted that in some Lodge Rooms the Lesser Lights are now represented by electric bulbs, for they are comparable to the liturgical candles on a Church altar and it is inconceivable that those should Matters of General Concern 65 be electric. If electric candles are to be suffered at all, they should at any rate be of as low a power as an actual candle. Those usually fitted are far too bright, so that a single one of them is enough to illuminate the whole room and thus the symbolism and effectiveness of a certain part of our ceremonial is appreciably discounted. One would not have expected to find these electric abominations in the Lodge rooms of the new Freemasons' Hall, but unhappily they actually are in evidence there, a lamentable failure on the part of those responsible for the furnishing of that building to evince a sense of what is fitting.




            Here we meet with differences of practice and some confusion. In most Lodges only the Wardens have columns, and in such cases they are obviously meant to represent the Two Great Pillars and are surmounted by the celestial and terrestial globes. But in most of the sets supplied by the purveyors of Lodge furniture the solecism is committed of putting the globes on the top of a Doric and a Corinthian column for the Senior and Junior Wardens respectively. This seems to have been done even in pre-Union days. The classical Orders are entirely out of place in connexion with the pillars of the porch. If any kind of ornament is displayed, it should in some way suggest the capitals, or `chapiters', as described in the Bible and as usually depicted in the sketches on the Tracing Board. In any case the two columns should be identical.


            Some old Lodges (and a few modern ones have copied them), instead of two columns, have three, one for the Master and one for each Warden. These clearly typify Wisdom, Strength and Beauty and are of the three principal Orders, none of them, of course, having globes but each being finished with a flat square entablature.


            The author of The Etiquette referred to the columns at some length' $ and one gathers that in his day the sets of three were proportionately more common than they are now. If they were used before the Union it was probably by the Moderns, because there seems no doubt that with the Antients the Wardens held in their hands (they had no pedestals in those days) representations of the pillars of the porch. It is certain that the columns were at one time allotted, the Doric to the Master, the Ionic to the Senior Warden, and the Corinthian to the Junior Warden. Then, as The Etiquette records, a discussion arose `as to the qualities assigned to each' of the Orders, and it was argued `that the Doric column, in its sturdy proportions and its spare ornamentation, represents Strength in a far greater degree than the more slender and more ornate Ionic column'. Undoubtedly the Corinthian most appropriately indicates Beauty.


            Although some opposed any variation. of practice as being the alteration of 66          Matters of General Concern a Landmark, the proposed change was generally made, and thereafter the Doric column was assigned to the Senior Warden, whose characteristic is Strength, because, as an old ritual expresses it, it is his function `to pay the hirelings their wages, which is the strength and support of all business'. The Corinthian was allotted to the Junior Warden, who `stands in the south at high twelve, which is the beauty of the day, to call men off from work to refreshment'; while the Ionic, which, by a process of exclusion, must signify Wisdom, was given to the Master whose province it is to `give instruction to the Craft to carry on their work in a proper manner with good harmony'.


            A similar change was made, no doubt at the same time, in regard to the distribution of the candlesticks, and with them the new arrangement is now practically ubiquitous.


            It may be noted that whereas in Claret's rituals Wisdom, Strength and Beauty are said to be represented by the `Doric, Ionic and Corinthian' Orders (in that sequence), the present Emulation working, if correctly expressed by the P. C, puts them in the sequence, `Ionic, Doric and Corinthian'.


            It is curious that in the alternative addresses to the Officers that are, or used to be, printed in the P.C., which include a formulary for the presentation to the Master of his Ionic column, it seems to be presumed that each Warden has two columns, or, as it is put, a pillar and a column. That this ritual contemplates the set of three, shows that it must have been in fairly common use at one time, otherwise a publication intended to appeal to the Craft at large would hardly have considered it. But it is scarcely conceivable that the Wardens were ever burdened with two columns each and one can only suppose that the apparent duplication arose from the confusion of two independent practices.


            The column of the Master (when he has one) should, of course, be erect all the time that the Lodge is open. The same rule applies to that of the Senior Warden, save that it is lowered during such time as the Lodge is `called off' to refreshment. The Junior Warden's column should never be erect except when the Lodge is called off, during which time it is just as much `open' as while work is progressing.


            In recent years it has become the practice in most Lodges for the Tyler, when preparing the room for the meeting, to place the Junior Warden's column upright and for the Junior Warden himself to raise it on the closing of the Lodge. This is obviously wrong.


            In 1913 the late Bro. Hextall (over the initials 'D.C.) mentioned' 9 that as long ago as 1885 a writer has called attention to `the common error entertained by many, that before opening and after closing the J.W. should place his column in a vertical position. Unless the Lodge be at work or at refreshment in open Lodge, there is no J.W. officiating, and therefore no emblem of office. His column is at all times lowered except at refreshment'.


            Matters of General Concern Hextall said, `Although the usual practice is otherwise, and the J.W.'s column is placed vertically as part of the Tyler's preliminary arrangements, and so necessitates adjustment when the Lodge is declared open, I think the right method is the one suggested'.


            In the York Lodge, No. 236 (see p. 42), the Junior Warden's column is never raised except when the Lodge is `called off. That is fair evidence of the antiquity of this, the theoretically correct, practice.


            It is true that in these days we often leave the Lodge room when we are ,called off, and some have argued that on such occasions the JW.'s column should not be left standing. But the brethren of old would not have gone out. They would have partaken of their refreshment in the Lodge room itself, the Tyler still remaining on guard outside, and in theory we do the same and therefore the column should be left erect.


            Frequently nowadays the Master and Wardens are seen to remove their right-hand gloves prior to communicating, or testing a candidate's knowledge of, a token. This should not be done. Gloves are part of our formal clothing and if we are not wearing them we are not `properly clothed'. It would be no more illogical to take off one's apron while giving a G. than it is to remove a glove.


            The practice of so doing appears to have arisen from the increasingly prevalent modern idea that it is impolite to shake hands while gloved. How often do we find that a brother whom we are about to greet in the anteroom with a handshake, hastily removes his glove or, if he cannot quickly do so, murmurs `Excuse my glove'! Let us not forget that in France, the birth-place of la politesse, it is (unless the social custom has altered in quite recent years) an appalling gaucherie for a man to shake hands with a lady with his hand ungloved.


            Sometimes a Master also removes his glove before administering an Ob., apparently because he thinks that to touch the Bible (which he customarily does at an early point in the Obs. of the Second and Third Degree*) with a gloved hand is a degradation of, or is disrespectful to, the Holy Book. In view of old customs that is an entirely erroneous conception. To touch a sacred object, such as an altar, with the naked flesh was to defile it, save only in the case of one taking an oath.


            The candidate takes his Ob. with a bare hand touching the Book not * See p. 151. In the First Degree Ob. one occasionally sees the Master touch the Book at the word `hereon', just as he does in the othbr Degrees; but the action is pointless since the candidate is necessarily unaware of it and so it conveys nothing to him. In this Degree the Master should simply place his hand on that of the candidate and keep it there while he says, `hereby and hereon'.


            GLOVES 67 68         Matters of General Concern because it is sacrilegious to touch it with a gloved hand, but because from times of the remotest antiquity it has always been regarded as essential to the binding quality of an oath that some part of the swearer's bare flesh should be in contact with the sacred object. In ancient times, before the days of books, the sacred object on which the oath was taken was the stone altar itself, and the person taking the oath knelt at it with either his bare knee or his bare breast touching it. When an oath is taken in a Court of Law the Book must be held in the bare hand.


            The candidate for initiation naturally does not wear gloves. But an E.A. or a F.C. does so when he is in Lodge but is not the subject of a ceremony. When he is about to be passed or raised he is without gloves, partly because he is about to take an Ob., but also because gloves would be obviously out of keeping with his then condition of technical preparedness. But that is no reason for the Officers to remove a glove when exchanging the G. with him.


            Fifty years ago the degloving habit was unknown, at any rate in Provincial Lodges, where ritual formalities are more rigorously preserved than in the metropolis, the source of most of the modern innovations.


            Occasionally an Officer is obliged to remove a glove, e.g., the Master when signing the Minutes. If he happens to be wearing a `gauntlet', he should remember to remove it also. The gauntlet is virtually part of the glove, and to remove one without the other is incongruous. Owing to failure to appreciate this fact we often see photographs of brethren in Freemasonic costume wearing gauntlets but holding their gloves in their hands! * The reader will realise that this section was written before the wartime relaxation of the rule as to the wearing of gloves was promulgated, but as their use will no doubt in due time be made obligatory it is unnecessary to modify what has here been said.


            In a paper on `Masonic Clothing' in the Pansactions of the Master's and Past Masters' Lodge, No. 130, New Zealand, May 1949. V.W. Bro. Norman B. Spencer, P. Pres. B.G.P., writes: `The gloves worn by our ancient brethren had large cuffs or gauntlets attached to them. These have been separated in modern times, and now form an entirely distinct article of Masonic Clothing, and are only worn by officers of Lodges and officers and past officers of Grand Lodge. They usually follow the colour of the apron which the brother is entitled to wear and are ornamented with the emblem of the office which the brother holds or has held'.


            Although I have hitherto argued that `gauntlet' and `glove' are still a single article of clothing and that, therefore, when a glove is not worn or is temporarily taken off, the gauntlet should also be doffed. I think that, in view of the fact that it seems probable that the wearing of gloves in our Lodges will be dispensed with for some time to come, we might well accept Bro. Spencer's view that the `glove' and the `gauntlet' may now be regarded as having become two separate items of clothing and that consequently the gauntlet may now continue to be worn even though gloves are not de regle, and even if gloves are worn the gauntlet need not be taken off if the glove is for any reason removed.


            Matters of General Concern MASONRY OR FREEMASONRY Although the Craft is generally referred to as `Masonry' and the brethren are called `Masons', our modern purely speculative fraternity is properly `Freemasonry' and its members are `Freemasons'. The author of The Etiquette devotes a chapter to a discussion of the subject2 ° in the course of which he relates an instance where the use of the less specialised term led to a rather amusing misunderstanding. He strongly advocates the use in the performance of our ritual of the words `Freemason' and `Freemasonry' wherever possible, in preference to the more common terms. Most persons who give the matter serious consideration will probably agree with that view. There are, however, a few instances where the reference covers not only the modern organisation but also the ancient operative craft from which we are presumed to derive, and there `Masonry' is a more appropriate word than `Freemasonry'.


            Even those who are wont to adhere almost consistently to the forms `Mason'and `Masonry', invariably speak of a `Fellow Craft Freemason' and never of a'Fellow Craft Mason'.


            The Principal Journal of the Craft is The Freemason, and The Etiquette pertinently asked, `would it commend itself to the notice of the brethren if its title was `The Mason'?'" The official term for the ruler of a Lodge, as used in the Book of Constitutions, is `Master'. Therefore, strictly speaking, he should not be described in a list of members, or of officers, or in the heading of a summons, as `Worshipful Master' or `W.M.' but simply as `Master' or `M.', though of course he would be correctly named as `W. Bro. So-and-so'. Similarly his elected successor is strictly `Master Elect'.


            But it is a common practice, justified by the prescription of long usage, to refer to the office as that of `Worshipful Master', and so to describe it on the summons. When this is done, it stands to reason that his successor, prior to his installation, should be termed `Worshipful Master Elect', that is to say, he has been elected to the office of `Worshipful Master'.


            In the Bristol working of the Installation ceremony the `W.M. Elect' is consistently so described.


            It matters little which form is used but they should be used consistently. If, on the Installation summons, the ruler is termed `Master', his successor * For example - In the 10 prayer, `our Masonic art'; in the 2 Tracing Board (ER. version), `Geometry ... on which Masonry is founded' in the 30, `the annals of Masonry' (thrice); and `the worthy Mason'; and in the Installation (E.R. version), `a Master of the art and science of Masonry'. (see pp. 146, 183, 203).




            69     70          Matters of General Concern should be called `Master Elect', and this is probably the preferably practice. But if the former is described as `Worshipful Master', the latter should certainly be `Worshipful Master Elect', To call the one `Master Elect' and the other `Worshipful Master' is inconsistent and, therefore, incorrect, fully as much as would be the conjunction of `Master' and `Worshipful Master Elect'.


            It is rather curious that those who maintain most rigorously that the term `Worshipful' appertains only to the person and is inapplicable to the office, habitually act in contravention of their own principles when working an Installation, for in the course of that ceremony they invariably proclaim 'Bro. A.B.' as `Worshipful Master of the Lodge', whereas, if they were consistent, they would proclaim `W. Bro. A.B.' as `Master of the Lodge'.




            These expressions, now so often heard in the course of the proceedings after Lodge, may be here adverted to. They are of quite modern introduction and their use cannot be too strongly deprecated.


            The term `initiate' does not apply specially to one who is newly initiated. Since it means one `who has been admitted to an esoteric society', it applies equally to us all. We are all initiates of the Freemasonic mysteries.


            Moreover, the new member of our Order has become entitled to have the word `brother' prefixed to his name and we should make a point of bringing that fact home to him by so addressing him. He should invariably be referred to, and toasted, as `Brother So-and-so', and the toast should be designated in the toast list as that of `The newly Initiated Brother', not as that of "The Initiate'.




            A Lodge may be opened and may transact all its ordinary business if five (of whom the Tyler outside the door may not be counted as one) be present. These must be the Master (or a Past Master acting for him) and his Wardens (or two Master Masons deputising for them); the other two need not be of higher status than Fellow Craft. Rose 22 erroneously says that seven are necessary to open a Lodge.


            An initiation may not be performed unless two more, who need only be Entered Apprentices, are present, making seven in all.


            A passing may be worked by five and, theoretically, a raising by three only, though the latter would in practice be somewhat difficult and would certainly be far from effective. 2 3 THE NUMBER OF THE PERAMBULATIONS.


            It may be of interest to mention that although in the large majority of Lodges the candidate makes one, two and three perambulations in the First,     RESOLVE WITH MATERIAL BELOW -     70   Matters of General Concern should be called `Master Elect', and this is probably the preferably practice. But if the former is described as `Worshipful Master', the latter should certainly be `Worshipful Master Elect', To call the one `Master Elect' and the other `Worshipful Master' is inconsistent and, therefore, incorrect, fully as much as would be the conjunction of `Master' and `Worshipful Master Elect'.


            It is rather curious that those who maintain most rigorously that the term `Worshipful' appertains only to the person and is inapplicable to the office, habitually act in contravention of their own principles when working an Installation, for in the course of that ceremony they invariably proclaim 'Bro. A.B.' as `Worshipful Master of the Lodge', whereas, if they were consistent, they would proclaim `W. Bro. A.B.' as `Master of the Lodge'.


            These expressions, now so often heard in the course of the proceedings after Lodge, may be here adverted to. They are of quite modern introduction and their use cannot be too strongly deprecated.


            The term `initiate' does not apply specially to one who is newly initiated. Since it means one `who has been admitted to an esoteric society', it applies equally to us all. We are all initiates of the Freemasonic mysteries.


            AA...-...._.__   t           --I- -_ _r ___   -.-         i.          ,           ...+ Q.


            A.        The late Bro. Dr. Cartwright was a man of very decided views and as Bro. Harry Carr wrote in his Introduction to the Second Edition of this work, `The adjective "provocative" is perhaps the ideal summary of the book and is its principal characteristic'.




            7 J THE NUMBER THAT CONSTITUTES A QUORUM Bro. E. H. Cartwright in A Commentary on the Freemasonic Ritual states: "A Lodge may be opened and may transact all its ordinary business if five ... be present. An initiation may not be performed unless two more, who need only be Entered Apprentices, are present, making seven in all. A passing may be worked by five and, theoretically, a raising by three only. . . ." (page 70.) On what is this statement based and is it correct? Bro. Cartwright may have had in mind either the Lectures of the Three Degrees in Craft Masonry or the Explanation of the Second Degree Tracing Board-'Three rule a Lodge, five hold a Lodge, seven or more make it perfect, etc.' but Bro. Cartwright, on this occasion, was in error.


            The present position in any Lodge under the jurisdiction of the United Grand Lodge of England, irrespective of the Degree to be worked, is that a quorum is five (excluding the Tyler and the Candidate) of which two must be members of the Lodge and one an Installed Master.


            (Vide Masonic Year Book 1974 (U.G.L.E.) p. 834.) C. N. Batham         Matters of General Concern            71 Second and Third Degrees respectively, variations in this practice are met with. Thus in Bristol and York there are three perambulations in each Degree; while in the Humber working there are three in the First Degree but only one in each of the other two; and in Unanimity there are two in each of the First and Third Degrees but only one in the Second Degree. In Carlile 1825 the numbers are one, three and three respectively.


            `AS HAPPILY WE HAVE MET'.


            This tag is nearly always recited by the Junior Warden at the end of the closing of the Second Degree. Since Brethren often wonder why it should have its place there, rather than at the final closing which would seem more rational, the following may be of interest.


            The writer is indebted to Bro. H. Hiram Hallett for the information that the late Bro. J.T. Thorp , in a paper published in 1924, stated that `This is an adaptation of one of the oldest Folk-songs in the English language, which runs somewhat as follows: Merry have we met, merry have we been, Merry may we part, and merry meet again: With our merry sing-song, happy, gay and free, And a merry ding-dong, happy may we be.' paper on `Bristol Freemasonry' Bro. Cecil Powell mentioned that the Freemasonic version was included in a Collection of Catches and Glees arranged by Robert Broderip of Bristol in 1791. This suggests that at that time the brethren may have sung it as a glee either in Lodge or at the subsequent supper.


            Although the verse is not, so far as the present writer knows, found in any of the 18th century rituals, spurious or otherwise, it occurs to him that, since it is an adaptation of such an old song, it may possibly have been the custom in the early years of that century - in some Lodges at any rate - to sing it after working the `Apprentice's Part'. When that `Part' was divided, as Vibert believed was the case, to form the germs of our first two degrees, the glee, which has now degenerated into a mere spoken tag, may well have been retained in its original place which would bring it to the end of the Second Degree.


            In the Exeter Ritual the tag, though rendered in the imperfect form, Happily have we met, Happy may we part, And haply [sic] meet again, has been appropriately transferred to the end of the First Degree closing. The same practice obtains in Bro. Hallett's Lodge, No. 261, Taunton, where it takes the 18th century form given on page 117 infra.


            In the Humber Use the verse is to be found only at the end of the book as In a 72        Matters of General Concern `The Parting Toast' in the form, Happy have we met, Happy have we been, Happy do we part, and Happy meet again.


            For more detailed information the reader is referred to an article by Bro. Hallett in Miscellanea Latomorum,XXVI, 113, and to further notes at IV, 98 and 136, and XXVIII, 125, of that periodical.


            THE STATUS OF THE I.P.M.


            Although this is a matter that concerns the Director of Ceremonies and is not really connected with ritual, we mention it here because the position has materially altered since the publication of Bro. Rose's book.


            From what may almost be called `time immemorial' it has been customary for the I.P.M. to sit by the Master, no doubt because, being fresh from office, he is presumably the most likely to be au fait with the business of the chair and the details of the ceremonial ritual. But although some years ago he was accorded quasi-recognition in the B. of C. (Rule 141 of the code), his rank in the Lodge was merely that of the junior Past Master. In the revised B. of C., however, which was published in 1940, his position is formally recognised and he now takes rank in Lodge immediately after the wardens. (Rules 104 and 119.) Consequently, although not an officer, he is entitled to a place among the officers in the processions into, and out of, the Lodge-room.




            When announcing the result of a ballot for candidates for initiation or joining, the Master should not fall into the habit of saying - even though that be the fact - that it is `unanimously' favourable, for on some future occasion if 'he should, either unthinkingly or because there are one or more black balls - but not enough to involve rejection - omit the adverb, the brethren will naturally presume that the election was not unanimous and the new member is then inevitably prejudiced in the minds of some.


            If there should be more than one candidate it is permissible to take a collective ballot, but if one black ball is cast individual ballots must be taken. It is sometimes thought that, even if there be one or more black balls in a collective ballot but an insufficient number to exclude even one candidate, an individual ballot is unnecessary. But the Board of General Purposes, in its wisdom or otherwise, has ruled that if there be but one black ball individual ballots must be taken. [The present ruling of the Board (Masonic YearBook 1969) only requires an individual ballot if there has been "a sufficient number of black balls to exclude a Candidate". Ed.] 4 The Work of the Tyler The Tyler's first duty is to set out the Lodge Room. The chairs for the Principal Officers and the pedestals, if not already in position, have to be put in their proper places.


            In practically all Lodges nowadays each principal officer has in front of him a pedestal. The introduction of these cannot be definitely dated. It is probable that before the Union the Master had one, which may have been merely a table or, as indeed is still the case in No. 20, Chatham, may have been the actual altar which had formerly - at any rate with the Antients - stood in the middle of the room and was afterwards moved to the east. The provision of pedestals for the Wardens appears to have been a post-Union development. In Miscellanea Latomorum, V, 135, there is quoted from the Minutes of No. 26 in 1817 the decision to buy pedestals for the Wardens, which would seem to suggest that the Master already had one.


            The pedestals, as usually made by the Lodge furnishers, have some resemblance to the pedestals, or plinths, of columns, and the Exeter brethren maintain that they are actually to be so regarded and that, as such, they are intended to represent, and suggest the presence of, the three pillars of Wisdom, Strength and Beauty. The present writer ventures to doubt whether they were originally designed with that object and he regards the Exeter view as more likely to be an ex post facto argument.


            As regards the candlesticks, some Lodges have them on the right of the pedestals, others on the left. It has been pointed out (see p. 64) that the latter is much to be preferred, but the Tyler must, of course, conform to the L;istom of the particular Lodge. If then are columns of the three principal Orders, the Ionic is placed by the Master, the Doric by the Senior Warden and the Corinthian by the Junior Warden.* As a rule the Tyler will light the * For the benefit of any reader who is not familiar with the characteristics of the Orders it may be said that the Ionic column has spiral scrolls at each corner of a square capital immediately below the entablature. The Corinthian has a Capital decorated with acanthus leaves. The Doric capital is quite plain.


            candles shortly before the brethren begin to assemble, but in some Lodges this is done ceremonially by certain of the Officers either just before, or immediately after, the opening of the Lodge.


            On the Master's pedestal is placed the cushion and upon it the closed V.S.L., on which are laid the S. and Cs., the latter with its points shut together. To the right of the cushion are placed the Master's gavel and (where three columns are provided) the Ionic column - of course recumbent.


            In some lodges the h... m...  is also put here but usually it is kept out of sight until it is required for its special purpose.


            The Book of Constitutions and a copy of the By-Laws, together with the Warrant of the Lodge, should be put on the left side of the pedestal.


            Some Lodges, who meet in their own premises, have the Warrant framed and hung on the wall, but that practice is most strongly to be deprecated. The Warrant should remain in the custody of the Master (who is primarily responsible for its safe keeping) or of the Secretary and except when required for a Lodge meeting should always be kept in a safe.


            The box of Working Tools may be put in any convenient spot within easy reach of the I.P.M.


            When there are three Officers' columns, that of the Doric Order goes on the Senior Warden's pedestal and that of the Corinthian Order on the Junior Warden's. If there are only two columns, one for each Warden, their chapiters, or capitals, should be identical and it matters not how they are allotted. They should both be laid horizontally on the pedestals (seep. 66).


            The Warden's gavels, the Senior Warden's level and the Junior Warden's plumbrule are also placed on their respective pedestals.


            In rooms that are restricted to Freemasonic purposes we generally find that the ashlars are sizeable models of some nine or- ten inches wide. The rough ashlar then lies on the floor in front of the Junior Warden's pedestal, while the perfect ashlar, suspended from its tripod, is generally placed in the south-west, sufficiently towards the centre of the room to leave space for the Deacons and candidates to pass outside it.


            In Lodges that do not meet in their own premises and whose apparatus have, therefore, to be packed away after each meeting, the ashlars and the tripod are necessarily very much in miniature and are then placed on the Warden's pedestals.


            It may be mentioned that the tripod, although it had come into use - in London at any rate - before the Union, is by no means ubiquitous. Thus in Manchester neither it nor the lewis is in evidence, the stones lying on the north-east and south-east corners of the small area of tesselated pavement in the middle of the floor. Nor is there a tripod in Bristol Lodges where the stones are placed on the easterly corners of the low table that supports the Tracing Boards.


            The Tyler 75 It may be of some slight interest to mention that in New South Wales the Grand Master has directed that the ashlars shall be placed in the N.E. and S.E. corners at the foot of the dais, but clear of the gangway. Also that with them the perfect ashlar is right down in the First Degree, drawn half way up in the Second, and up to the top of the tripod in the Third.' As the Tracing Boards are directly descended from the old drawing on the floor, they should lie in the centre of the room and are to be regarded as theoretically fixtures. That they are sometimes raised above the floor level by being placed on a dwarf table (as in Bristol), or on top of the box in which they are stored, is in no way at variance with this principle. Nor is the fact that they have to be changed according to the Degree open, this being in effect the erasure of one design and the drawing of another. Since they are fixtures, it is incongruous, contrary to theory, and therefore wrong, for a Board to be carried to the Master's chair to be there `explained' by him as is so often done in London Lodges.


            The Tyler must be careful to arrange the Boards so that they are properly placed for their manipulation by the Deacons when the Lodge is opened. He should turn each Board face down, that of the Third Degree at the bottom, then that of the Second, and that of the First on top, all being, of course, properly oriented. The ends of the First and Third Boards are usually marked to indicate the directions towards which their ends should lie. The Second Board is generally not so marked.' It should be so placed that when exposed with the First Degree Board. The Third is to be seen the right way up by the Master.


            The late Bro. Dring pointed out that these Boards would more properly be called Lodge Boards than Tracing Boards 3 and, indeed, the former term was used by the Reconciliation workers, as in evidenced by the recently published letters of Broadfoot.4 However, we are too wedded to the name Tracing Board to make any change in nomenclature either desirable or possible now; but the true purpose and origin of the Boards should always be borne in mind.


            The Secretary's table usually stands about the middle of the north side of the Lodge. Pens, ink and blotting paper must be provided. The receptacle for charitable contributions is generally put on the table, and the ballot-box either on the table or beneath it.


            Chairs are to be set for the Senior Deacon (either on the Master's immediate right or at the north-east corner - most frequently below the dais if there is one - according to the custom of the Lodge); for the Junior Deacon (at the right of the Senior Warden); for the Inner Guard (either by the door or on the Senior Warden's left); and for the Director of Ceremonies. The position of the last named Officer varies in different Lodges. In some he sits on the right of the Junior Warden; in some at the south-east corner, balancing the Senior Deacon; sometimes in other situations. When an Assistant Director of Ceremonies is appointed he most commonly sits just west of the Secretary's table.


            The wands of the Deacons and Directors of Ceremonies will be placed by their respective chairs (usually in some form of supporting socket) unless it is the practice of the Lodge for the Officers to enter the room in procession.


            The seats for other Officers and brethren will be arranged according to custom.


            The s... i..., the S. and the Cs., required at certain times by the Inner Guard, may be placed on the floor by, or underneath, his chair or in some other convenient spot. In some Lodges they are hung on a board fixed to the Wall just inside the door. In some other Lodges they are kept on the Master's pedestal whence the Inner Guard or (preferably) the Senior Deacon takes each one as it is required.


            If the Officers and the I.P.M. do not enter in procession, the collar of each one will be placed on his chair. The Treasurer sits at the table on the Secretary's left. The Past Master's collar that is provided in most Lodges for the use of the I.P.M. is put on the chair on the Master's left. The chair next beyond him is for the Chaplain.


            While the Lodge is open the Tyler must be on the qui vive to repeat on the door every knock given by the Inner Guard. Nowadays it is the custom in most Lodges for the Inner Guard, when ordered as a preliminary to the opening in each Degree to `see that the Lodge is properly tyled', to give on the door the knock of a Degree. It is, however, to be noted that in early post-Union times that was not the common practice but the Inner Guard opened the door and satisfied himself by ocular evidence that the Tyler was at his post. Some Lodges still follow this- theoretically the more correct - method (seep. 84).


            It is the Tyler's duty to see that every brother, whether member or visitor, signs the book before entering the Lodge. In the case of visitors we have unfortunately become somewhat careless in regard to their admission, a carelessness that cannot be too strongly deprecated. The ideal practice undoubtedly is that, when the visitor has signed, his host should sign his own name in the space provided, as evidence that he vouches for his guest. The present less desirable custom is for the visitor himself to fill in the name of his host. This obviously affords no evidence whatever that he is duly vouched for. Unless, therefore, the host is in the anteroom and is seen by the Tyler to recognise the stranger, the Tyler is placed in a difficult position. The present writer's own view is very definitely that if the host has already gone into the Lodge, the Tyler should send a message to him by the Inner Guard and ascertain whether he knows the visitor and vouches for him, before the latter is allowed to enter. If the host has not arrived, the guest (unless someone else The Tyler 77 can vouch for him) should be asked to wait in the anteroom until his host comes. If he avers that his host is likely to be late and he is not known to any other member, he can, if he is desirous of going into Lodge without delay, ask for the Junior Warden, or a past Master, to be called out to prove him. The writer on one occasion went to a Lodge and, arriving before his host, was prepared to wait for him. Nevertheless, although he was unknown to anyone present, he was incontinently ushered into the Lodge room in spite of his remonstrances and without any questions being asked or any attempt made to prove him. Such procedure he regards as utterly irregular and its danger must be obvious. No brother, if a worthy Freemason, can possibly object to the taking of all due precautions, even though these may entail a short delay in his entering the Lodge or may involve his undergoing a probation.


            In any case the Tyler, when the Inner Guard comes to the door after a report, should make a point of giving the name of every visitor; on no account should he include anyone but members of the Lodge among the ,other brethren' in his announcement. If several visitors are about to enter together, he should write their names and respective ranks on a slip of paper and hand it to the Inner Guard who can then read from it when making his announcement to the Master. In some well-worked Lodges it is the custom for the Tyler to add to the announcement of each visitor's name the words, ,vouched for by Brother So-and-so'.


            It is essential that the Tyler should thoroughly understand the theory by which the knocks are regulated,since modern custom ordains that he should actually give them in all cases. As the matter has already been dealt with at length (see p. SO et seq. ),it will suffice here to give a summary of what should be done.


            In the case of a member of the Lodge, or of a visitor of whose qualification he is satisfied, the Tyler will give the knock of the Degree that is open. The custom (so prevalent in London Lodges today, though we have been assured that it is not the practice in Emulation) of giving only a single knock for qualified entrants cannot be too emphatically condemned (cf, pp. SO and 224). For a candidate for initiation he will give the knock of the First Degree*, but with slightly more emphasis and deliberation than usual, in order that those within may recognise its import. For candidates for passing and raising he will give the knocks of the First and the Second Degrees * For the reason of this see p. 51. In Oxford, however, two knocks are given and in Exeter only one; yet in both cases the normal three are given when shortly afterwards the candidate is brought to each of the two hypothetical `doors' guarded by the Wardens. It is difficult to see how this inconsistency arose unless it was due to the mistaken idea that the knock on the Lodge-room door should constitute an `alarm'. It may be mentioned that in Benefactum working a single knock is given at each of the theoretical `three doors', and they defend that practice by the argument that it is to such three separate knocks that the phrase 't.d.k.' refers.




            When he has knocked for a candidate the Tyler must be prepared to give correctly and unhesitatingly the replies to the questions of the Inner Guard. For the sake of completeness the catechisms are here set out in full.


            (1)       In the case of a candidate for initiation: - I.G. - Whom have you there? Ty. - Mr. A.B. a poor candidate in a state of d., who, having been well and worthily recommended, has been regularly proposed and approved* in open Lodge, and now comes of his own free will and accord, properly prepared, humbly soliciting to be admitted to the mysteries and privileges of ancient Freemasonry.


            I.G. - How does he hope to obtain those privileges? Ty. - By the h. of G. and the t.o.g.r., being free.


            In almost all rituals the Tyler's first answer in the above colloquy reads, `who has been well and worthily recommended, regularly proposed and approved in open Lodge, and now comes [or and who now comes] etc.' This is an example of what Fowler terms `Bastard Enumeration',' of which he says, `There is perhaps no blunder by which journalistic and other hasty writing is so commonly defaced'. Hastiness can hardly be advanced as an excuse for the illiteracy in a ritual.


            For the benefit of the unliterate we may point out that the fault lies in the fact that `has been' is common to the first two components of the phrase but has no relation to the third, so that the sentence really says, `who has been ... recommended, has been regularly proposed and approved ... and has been now comes etc. The insertion of `and' before `regularly' would make it correct English, but the modification given about is more euphonic.


            Humber has, `who, having been well and worthily recommended, regularly proposed, balloted for and accepted in open Lodge, now comes etc. At first sight it might seem that the editor had noticed the usual faulty syntax, but, even if so, he has failed to correct it by saying, as he ought to have, either `and regularly' or - and perhaps preferably - `has been regularly ... and now comes'.


            In PC (and presumably, therefore, in Emulation working) the Tyler's second answer is, `By the h. of G., being free and of g. r.', but in view of the words of the Master when this answer is repeated to him (viz, `the t. of g. r. has already been heard etc.') it is obvious that the form given above (which is that of Unanimity, Bristol, Oxford and Humber) is preferable. It may be added - though the point cannot be fully explained here - that if a brother Both Claret and PC. (1871) have `approved of, but P.C. (1874) has `approved' simply. It is immaterial which form is used, but `approved', as in modern P.C. and practically all other rituals, is probably to be preferred. It may be noted that Brit. has ,approved of.


            The Tyler 79 desires to visit an Irish Lodge he will find it necessary to know the phrase as in the above catechism and the P. C. version will not avail him.


            The Claret wording is the same as that of P. C. except that it has `freeborn' in place of `free'. On this point see page 144.

 (2)      In the case of a candidate for passing: - I.G. - Whom have you there? Ty. - Bro. A.B., who has been regularly initiated into Freemasonry and has made such progress as he hopes will recommend him to be passed to the Second Degree, * for which ceremony he comes properly prepared.


            I.G. -- How does he hope to obtain the privileges of the Second Degree? Ty. -- By the h. of G., the assistance of the S. and the benefit of a P.G. and a P.W.


            I.G. - (to Cand.) Give me that P.G. and P.W. [Done.] What does ... imply? [Cand. answers] In P.C. no mention is made here of the P.G. and consequently in many Lodges it is not referred to. But it ought to be mentioned and asked for by the Inner Guard, because the candidate has (or should have) been previously told by the Master that without both it and the P.W. he will `be unable to gain admission to the Lodge when opened in a superior Degree'.


            When the Inner Guard makes his demand of the candidate, the latter must, if it is necessary, be prompted by the Tyler. But should he hesitate, the Tyler ought not at once to dictate the P.W. He should try to make him recall it for himself by saying, for example, `Give the P.W. you receive in Lodge'; or `Don't you remember the P.W. that the Master gave you?' (3)           In the case of a candidate for raising: - I.G. - Whom have you there? Ty. - Bro. A.B., who has been regularly initiated into Freemasonry and passed to the Second Degree, and has made such further progress as he hopes will entitle him to be raised to the sublime Degree of Master Mason.-{ for which ceremony he comes properly prepared.


            I.G. - How does he hope to obtain the privileges of the Third Degree? Ty. - By the h. of G., the united aid of the S. and Cs. and the benefit of a P.G. and a P.W.


            I.G. - (to Cand.) Give me that P.G. and P.W. [Done.] What does ... denote? [Cand. answers] The remarks previously made as to the Tyler's prompting apply equally here.


            When a brother who has withdrawn to restore himself `to personal *     This is the Oxford formula. P.C. has `to the Degree of a F.C.', as to which see p. 167.


            t It should not be, as in P.C, 'of a M.M.' See p. 167.


            comfort' is about to re-enter the Lodge, the Tyler should not announce him as `the candidate on his return', a comparatively modern innovationary practice. He is no longer a candidate, and therefore should be announced as `Brother So-and-so', with or without the addition of the words `on his return'.


            It is a not uncommon custom (one that is both harmless and useful) for there to be an understanding that if the Tyler wants to communicate informally with the Inner Guard (for instance, to send a message to someone in the Lodge or to obtain some necessary information) he either scratches on the door or gives a very gentle single or double tap. On hearing this the Inner Guard, as soon as a suitable opportunity occurs, comes to the door without first announcing any `alarm'.


            In many Lodges the Tyler is called in to prepare the Lodge for the ceremony of raising. In doing this he first places the `sheet' (see p. 179), taking care to leave room between it and the stool for the `last f. b. or m ... g s ... s', which the candidate will have to perform, though in many cases somewhat in miniature. In a small room it may be necessary to remove the Tracing Boards a little back, i.e., westward. As he withdraws after carrying out his duty, he will, of course, go via the south and west, and as he passes the Wardens he will attend to their lights.


            In some Lodges, however, the Tyler is not called in for this purpose and in such case he must place the required appurtenances beforehand in an agreed spot (inside one of the pedestals or elsewhere) so that the Director of Ceremonies, on whom will then fall the duty of arranging them, may know where to find them.


            Prior to a raising the Tyler must not forget to adjust the belt of the candidate's new apron to the proper length before putting it on the Senior Warden's pedestal in readiness for the ceremony. Nothing looks worse than to see the Warden fumbling to adjust the strap in the course of the investiture.


            In a few Lodges, in the opening ceremony, after the Junior Warden has stated the situation of the Tyler, that Officer is called into the Lodge and asked to define his duty. This he should do in the following terms: `Being a. with a d. s., to keep off all cowans and intruders from Freemasonry, and to see that the candidates come properly prepared'.* Needless to say, when the Tyler is brought in for this, or any other, *            See pp. 84, 113, 136. A writer in Misc. Lat (XXXI, 29) mentions a Lodge in which `before the Lodge is opened, the Tyler's sword lies on the pedestal in the East. When the Tyler is summoned into the room to answer regarding his position and duty, after he has replied the Master hands to him the sword, and as he does so repeats the serious injunction which is frequently given at the termination of the investiture of the Tyler'. At XXX, 139, we are told that in Lodge No. 311 `the Tyler, armed with a drawn sword enters the Lodge at the end of the formal procession, stands within the closed door, announces the nature of his duties in reply to a question by the W.M.. . . and then withdraws'.


            The Tyler 81 purpose, the Inner Guard will temporarily take his place without.


            As the Tyler has to prepare the candidates, the following note will be a useful reminder of certain details in the first two Degrees: - First Degree. R.A., L.B., L.K., R.H.


            Second Degree. L.A., R.B., (see p. 61) R.K., L.H.


            Whenever an Entered Apprentice is about to enter the Lodge, the Tyler should make sure that the flap of his apron is turned up (see p.129).


            Many a Tyler, after having been invested on Installation night, commits a serious solecism when saluting before he goes out, namely, by holding his sword in his right hand as he gives, or purports to give, the sn. It should be obvious that if he does so he cannot possibly give the sn. correctly. He ought to transfer the sword to his left hand, holding it either against his hip, as if it were hanging there in its scabbard, or pointing forwards and towards the ground, while he makes the sn. in proper form with his unencumbered right hand. Some Tylers like to follow this by a salute with the sword. There can be no objection to that harmless gesture.


            When the Lodge has been closed it is the Tyler's duty to pack up and put away all the appurtenances that have to be so dealt with.


            At the conclusion of the repast that usually follows a Lodge meeting, the Tyler is called on to propose the timehonoured `Tyler's Toast', which he does in these words: - 'To all poor and distressed Freemasons, wherever dispersed over the face of earth or water, wishing them a speedy relief from all their sufferings and a safe return to their native country, if they desire it'*. Then, repeating the words, `To all poor and distressed Freemasons', he and the brethren drink the toast, after which he leads the Tire'.


            Occasionally one still meets with instances of `silent fire' being given after this toast, but that should never be permitted. The only appropriate time for silent fire is when we drink to the memory of a departed brother. Happily, many, if not most, Provincial Grand Masters have formally called attention to the erroneous practice and discountenanced it. As was well said by a writer in 1885, when deprecating `the recent absurd innovation for which no authority can be found ... the wish expressed is for "relief from suffering" and "safe return", and is not at all in the nature of sorrowful regret unmixed with hope. Sympathy for present circumstances should be accompanied with cheerful anticipations and best wishes for future prosperity; not with despondent condolences and grieving lamentations'. One Provincial Grand Master, in condemning silent fire, said, `It is quite bad enough for them to be in distressed circumstances, we do not want to bury them'.' *            Oxford says `if they desire and deserve it'! In some lodges this toast is proposed by the Junior Warden.


            5 The Work of the Inner Guard Prior to the Union this office did not exist, the duty of attending to the door devolving in the First Degree on the junior Entered Apprentice, who wore as his badge of office a silver trowel appended to a collar, and the trowel was long regarded as the special mark of an Apprentice. Lodge Union, No. 52, Norwich, still invests the newly initiated brother with that jewel.


            Shortly before the Union some Lodges appointed an `Inner Tyler' to guard the door within. This was done in 1808 by Love and Honour, Falmouth, and it was decided that the brother so appointed should wear a trowel as his badge of office. In that Lodge the trowel to this day designates the Inner Guard' The office of Inner Guard would seem to have been instituted by the Lodge of Reconciliation. Although there is no reference to it in the Minutes, an officer with that title suddenly appears (the first known mention of it) in the list of officers at the meeting on August 23, 1814,2 and is regularly included in the subsequent lists.* The present jewel of the Inner Guard, two swords in saltire, was first authorised in 1819.


            The office, though a subordinate one, is none the less important. The duties are simple and yet, only too frequently, we find them performed in a slovenly manner, either from carelessness or from lack of native acuteness on the part of the holder of the post. For the credit of the Lodge the Inner Guard should do his utmost to discharge his duties with strict formality and punctilious correctness, for the way in which he does his work contributes in no small measure to the impression gleaned by visitors of the working of the Lodge as a whole.


            The Inner Guard's chair should obviously be placed within easy reach of * A still earlier mention of the office is found in a paper by Bro. Norman Rogers on "200 Years of Freemasonry in Bury" published in A.Q. C., Vol LVIII, in which he tells us that in the Anchor and Hope Lodge (a Moderns Lodge) an Inner Guard was appointed in 1799. Apparently it was only done in that one year. In Relief Lodge, which sprung from it, there was no Inner Guard until the Union.


            The Inner Guard         83 the door. In many Lodges it is customary to set it on the immediate left of the Senior Warden. This is quite an appropriate situation (and the advantage that he `balances' the Junior Deacon), provided that he is then reasonably near the door. But when the door is some distance away, it is better that the Inner Guard should sit close to it. This is especially the case when, as sometimes happens, the door is at the south-west corner of the room. When that is so it is well for him to make all his announcements from his place by the door. Nothing is more awkward, more annoying to the onlookers, or more absurd, than the practice of the Inner Guard, every time he has to make a report, walking to and fro behind the Senior Warden, more than half the width of the room, in order that he may stand on the Senior Warden's left while speaking.


            When the brethren have entered the Lodge Room and it is evident that the Master is about to open the Lodge, the Inner Guard closes and locks (or bolts) the door.


            In due course the Junior Warden orders the Inner Guard (addressing him by name) to carry out `the first duty', namely, to `see that the Lodge is properly tyled'. The Inner Guard thereupon goes to the door, opens it and sees that the Tyler is in his place. After closing the door he advances to a point level with, and on the left of, the Senior Warden (unless, as already mentioned, the position of the door makes this undesirable), stands `to attention' facing the Junior Warden and reports to him, using his name, `Brother A., the Lodge is properly tyled'. For obvious reasons he gives no sn. on this occasion.


            Some would have it that he should not face the Junior Warden when addressing him but, on the ground of following the principle of `squares, levels and perpendiculars', should face due east, only turninghis head towards the Warden. And yet the very people who insist on this, when the candidate is placed in the north-east corner put him in such a position that he faces the diagonal of the room! It is not a matter of any great import, but it is surely more natural, more courteous, and more seemly that he should face the person to whom he is speaking.


            In many Lodges it is now the practice for the inner Guard, instead of opening the door and seeing the Tyler at his post, to give the knock of the First Degree on the door, which the Tyler answers by the same knock. Although that was the practice in Gilkes's working, it is entirely at variance with our theory. When we have not yet proved that only Freemasons are present we carefully refrain from showing any sign and even from using the titles of our officers. Under these circumstances it is clearly inconsistent to make use of the secret knock of the Degree. According to Carlile 1825 the Tyling in the First Degree opening was proved by a single rap given by the Inner Guard and answered by the Tyler. Thus the esoteric knock was not 84         The Inner Guard revealed.


            There is good evidence that in former times the practice of many Lodges accorded strictly with theory and, indeed,the very fact that the words used in the instruction to the Inner Guard differ in the openings and closings (`see' in the former; `prove in the latter) is in itself suggestive of this. The following quotation from The Etiquette (p. 82) bears on the point: "In many well-worked Lodges ... it is the invariable custom in the opening in each of the three degrees, when the I.G. receives the instructions from the J.W. to "see that the Lodge is properly tyled", for him (the I.G.) to open the door and actually to "see" that the Tyler is in his place ... He is told to see, etc.; he opens the door and sees. On the other hand, in the closing the J.W. instructs the I.G. to "prove", etc., so he gives the k ... k and thus proves.... In the opening in each degree, before the brethren have proved themselves, the k ... k of the degree is not given on the door, lest it should improperly become known to the problematical cowan.. . . The difference, so clearly marked, between the order given in the opening and the one given in the closing, is strong presumptive evidence that the custom in earlier times corresponded with that just described.... In corroboration of this presumption, w2 may take the evidence of a very early copy of the Ritual in the possession of the writer. The passage runs thus: "The I.G., after seeing that the Tyler is in his proper place, turns round, and says to the J.W., `Brother A.D., the Lodge is properly tyled....... In the closing of each of the three degrees, the words are: "The I.G. gives the k ... s, which are answered by the Tyler"; thus showing that no accident or carelessness has caused the difference in the orders given respectively in the openings and closings, because they are each three times repeated, and always respectively in the same form of words'.


            It may be observed that although, as above indicated, the old custom was to carry out the proving in the Second and Third Degree openings on the analogy of that followed in the First Degree (and, in view of the ubiquitously accepted use of the word `see' in every case, it is probably best that it should be so), it is in no way at variance with theory to prove the tyling in the opening of the higher Degrees by giving the knock, because the knock given would be that of the Degree open at the time and therefore no secret would be in danger of being divulged.


            After addressing a question to the Senior Warden and receiving his answer -the-Master commands the brethren to stand `to order in the First Degree'. The Inner Guard then takes -the sp. and stands to order. In doing this he - as should everyone - keeps his eye on the Master so that simultaneity of action may be secured. The position now assumed is maintained until the Master The Inner Guard 85 declares the Lodge open, when all present complete and drop the sn. synchronously with him.


            When the Master has received the Senior Warden's reply to his enquiry as to `the situation of the Inner Guard', he addresses the latter with the words, `Brother Inner Guard, what is your duty?' The Inner Guard answers, `To admit Freemasons on proof, to receive candidates in due form., and to obey the commands of the Junior Warden'. The P.C. has, since 1871, interpolated `the' before `candidates'; the word does not appear in Claret, Oxford, Bristol, York or Stability, though it does in Carlile 1825, Humber and Exeter; but, as it is superfluous, the phrase is certainly better without it. Exeter concludes with the addition, `and to be of assistance to the Junior Warden'.


            In some Lodges it is the custom for the Master to ask the Wardens to recite the duties of the Assistant Officers, but this is only excusable if the Master has reason to suspect that those Officers are incompetent to do it for themselves.' Sometimes it is customary for the Assistant Officers to be asked to define their situations as well as their duties.


            An occasional variant is for each Officer to be asked to give the situation of the next senior Officer, who is then asked to state his duty. Thus in Britannia working, the I.G., after giving the place and duty'of the O.G. and of himself, is asked the situation of the J.D., who in his turn is asked that of the S.D., and so on, the question as to the Master's place being addressed to the S.W. (seep. 136).


            In a few Lodges the practice obtains of the Tyler, after the Junior Warden has stated his situation, being called in to recite his own duty (see pp. 80, 113 and 136). When this is done, the Inner Guard should, on admitting the Tyler for the purpose, take his place outside the door until the Tyler returns to his post. It may be added that the same rule applies whenever the Tyler is brought into the Lodge room, e.g., when he comes in to prepare the Lodge for the Third Degree ceremony, or to be invested on Installation night.


            When the remaining formalities have been carried out, the Master declares the Lodge open and as he does so he dismisses the sn., all the other brethren, keeping their eyes on him, doing the same simultaneously.


            The Master then gives the knock of the First Degree, and the Inner Guard at once goes to the door in readiness to knock immediately after the Junior Warden. He waits there until the Tyler has repeated the knock and then returns to his place, standing `to attention' until the Master directs the brethren to `be seated'. In some Lodges the Master sits down as soon as the knocks have `gone round' and the brethren then resume their seats without awaiting specific instructions to do so. In such cases everyone will probably be seated by the time the Inner Guard reaches his place and he will then, of course, sit down at once.


            In the openings in the Second and Third Degrees the work of the Inner 86       The Inner Guard Guard is on the same lines as in the First Degree, save that he is not called on to recite his duty and that when addressing the Junior Warden he uses the latter's Freemasonic title instead of his name. He also takes the sp. and stands to order when he makes his report. When ordered to `see that the Lodge is properly tyled', he ascertains the fact either by opening the door and observing the Tyler at his post or, if such be the custom of the Lodge, by giving on the door the knock of the Degree then open.


            In the closings the Inner Guard's work is practically the same as in the openings, but the difference in the wording of the instructions is to be carefully noted. The Junior Warden now commands him to prove `the Lodge close tyled', and when he has done so by giving the knock of the Degree open, he reports (of course with sp. and sn.), `Brother Junior Warden, the Lodge is close tyled', or, as in some workings (e.g., Brit.), `the Lodge proves close tyled'. It does not in the least matter which word is used, `is' being, perhaps, the more common, `proves' the more logical.


            When the Lodge has been closed in the Third or the Second Degree and the closing knocks have gone round, the Inner Guard returns to his place and either sits down (if the Master has done so by then) or awaits the general order to `be seated', as the custom of the Lodge may be.


            Sometimes the Master will close the Third or Second Degree `summarily' and not `in full'. In that case the Inner Guard is not called on to prove the tyling but will merely have to do his part in the round of knocks.


            When the First Degree has been closed and the I.P.M. has pronounced his concluding formula, the Inner Guard will open the door widely for the brethren to pass out of the room. If, however, a procession is formed, he will not open the door until the procession begins to advance for its exit.


            Whenever the Tyler knocks on the door, the Inner Guard (waiting, of course, for a convenient moment when he can do so without interrupting the business of the Lodge) announces it to the Junior Warden either as a `report' (if it is the knock of the Degree open), or as an `alarm' (if it is a wrong knock (see p. 51). In both cases he takes the sp. and stands to order before speaking.


            The Junior Warden (who, if he has not been authorised to take reports, will first pass the announcement on to the Master) in due course directs the Inner Guard, by word or gesture, to see who seeks admission. The Inner Guard then ascertains from the Tyler the name of the would-be entrant and, after closing the door, with sp. and sn. announces it directly to the Master who, if satisfied that he is known or properly vouched for, orders his admittance (see also pp. 76, 77).


            Formerly it was the custom for the names to be passed from the Inner Guard to the Master via the Junior Warden, just as is done with the announcement of reports and alarms, and the order for admittance followed the reverse route. This is still the practice in at least one The Inner Guard 87 Lodge, namely No. 20. We shall now consider entrance of candidates.


            To take first the case of a candidate for initiation. Here the knock is theoretically in no way differentiated from that given for a brother but, as has previously been noted, (see p. 77) the Tyler generally gives this knock with somewhat greater emphasis and in rather slower time than on ordinary occasions.


            The Inner Guard announces the `report' as usual, and when he has been told to `see who seeks admission' he opens the door a little and stands in the doorway, or goes just outside leaving the door half open, and a colloquy takes place between him and the Tyler. This has been set out in full on page 78 and need not be repeated here.


            The colloquy ended, the Inner Guard shuts the door, goes to the spot from which he ordinarily reports, and, with sp. and sn., announces, `Worshipful Master, there now stands at the door of the Lodge Mr. A.B., a poor candidate etc.,' using the same words as did the Tyler.


            Claret, P.C., and Stability omit the words prior to 'Mr.-A.B.' in the foregoing sentence spoken by the Inner Guard; but without them the beginning of the announcement is unpleasantly bald, and they appreciably add to the effectiveness of the speech. They (or equivalent words) occur in Carlile 1825 and are used in Unanimity, Bristol, Oxford, York, Humber and Exeter.


            Then comes the following series of questions and answers: - W.M. - How does he hope to obtain those privileges? I.G. - By the h. of G. and the t.o.g.r., being free (see p. 78).


            W.M. - The t. of g.r. has already been heard in his favour; do you, Brother Inner Guard, vouch that he comes properly prepared? I.G. - I do, Worshipful Master.


            W.N. - Then let him be admitted in due form.


            The Inner Guard completes and drops the sn. and returns to the door, remembering to possess himself of the implement that he will require. He waits until the Deacons have arrived and are ready to receive the candidate. He then opens the door and the Deacons lead the candidate in and halt him. After closing the door the Inner Guard comes in front of the candidate and applies the s ... i ... to his l. b., asking him, `Do you f.aY On receiving an affirmative reply he raises the implement above his head as an indication to all present that the necessary formality has been observed. He moves aside to allow the Deacons and candidate to pass and returns to his place. He must not forget to give the s. i. to the Senior Deacon, who will take it to the east and put it on the Master's pedestal.


            In some Lodges the I.G. himself takes the implement to the Master and in detail the procedure connected with the 88           The Inner Guard sometimes he even fetches it from the East when he requires it for use, but such practice is strongly to be deprecated. On no account should the I.G. leave his post except only when he has temporarily to take the Tyler's place outside (see pp. 81 and 85).


            In some old Lodges the Inner Guard, after receiving the candidate's affirmative reply to his question, addresses him thus: `As this is a prick to your flesh, so may the recollection of it be a prick to your conscience should you ever be tempted improperly to reveal the secrets of Freemasonry'.


            A peculiarity of Gilkes's working, which was copied into the Oxford Ritual where it still remains, was that the implements were applied to the candidate, not by the Inner Guard, as in Unanimity, Bristol, Humber and Stability, but by the Deacons - the Junior Deacon in the First Degree and the Senior Deacon in the Second and Third. In the latter two the candidate was made to advance and salute before the application. The directions in P. C. (1871) are as they were in Claret, but in PC. (1874) the duty has been transferred to the I.G. Emulation now conforms with the general - and certainly the more convenient - practice, but when they first made the alterations we do not know.


            The admission of candidates for passing and raising is conducted on the same lines as in the case of initiation, except that, as the knock is not that of the Degree then open, the Inner Guard will announce it to the Junior Warden as an `alarm'.


            The questions and answers that pass between him and the Tyler in each case are set out on pages 78 and 79. He must not omit to take the P.G. from the candidate as well as the P.W.


            After shutting the door the Inner Guard makes his announcement to the Master, prefacing it as before with the words, `Worshipful Master, there now stands at the door of the Lodge Brother A., etc.' The catechism is repeated and the Master orders the admission of the candidate.


            In the Second Degree the Inner Guard applies the external angle of the S. to the candidates' r.b. (seep. 61) and raises it up in evidence of its use. According to Inman4 present-day Emulation practice is to apply the arms of the S., but this is an innovation since their early days, for a rubric in Claret specifies that the Senior Deacon `applies the external angle of the s ... e to his b ... t', and in P. C. (1874) the I.G. does the same. York and Exeter also specify the angle of the S.


            In some Lodges, on the analogy of what is done in the First Degree, the Inner Guard, after using the S., says to the candidate, `You are now admitted into a Fellow Craft's Lodge on the S. and this should teach you that you are to act on the S. with all mankind, more especially with your brethren in Freemasonry'. This address, somewhat extended, appears in Carlile 1825 and its use is, therefore, no modern innovation.


            The Inner Guard         89 In the Third Degree b. ps. of the Cs. are applied to b. bs. and sometimes the following address is given: `You are now admitted on b. ps. of the Cs. applied to b. your bs., and as between those parts he the vital parts of man, so are the most valuable tenets of Freemasonry comprehended between the ps. of the Cs'.


            With regard to the re-admittance of the brother after his withdrawal to ,restore himself' see page 80. Even if the Tyler makes the mistake of referring to him as `the candidate on his return', the Inner Guard should announce him as `Brother X'.


            It must be added that the Inner Guard should never carry the s ... i ... except when he is using it at the reception of a candidate for initiation. On no account should he commit what has justly been termed the `atrocious and ignorant mistake" of holding it in his right hand when he stands to order or gives a sn. As is remarked on the page that has just been quoted, `In the 2° and the 3° other implements are used in the admission of candidates; so that if it were correct to use the s ... i ... in giving the sn. in the 1°, it would be equally correct to use the other implements respectively in those degrees'. Moreover, if anything is held in the hand it is physically impossible to give a sn.'correctly.


            6 The Work of the Deacons Next to the Master the Deacons are, in the ceremonial working, the most important officers in the Lodge and on the manner in which they perform their functions depends very much the impressiveness of the various ceremonies and the effect that they have on the candidates.


            The Deacons must know accurately their respective duties as formally prescribed and must be prepared to recite them when asked by the Master to do so in the course of the opening ceremony; though, as has been previously mentioned (see p. 85), in many Lodges where the working is slovenly the Deacons are not trusted to answer for themselves and the questions are put to the Wardens.


            In almost all the printed rituals the statement of the Junior Deacon's duty ends, `and to see that the same are punctually obeyed'. No fault can be found with this on the score of grammar, and a hundred years ago no exception need have been taken to it; but, although `the same', used as here, occurs in both the Bible and the Prayer Book, in recent times it has become so essentially a characteristic of the form of language known as `commercialese' (and has even obtained a vogue with a certain type of lawyers) that it jars unpleasantly, not to say offensively, on educated ears; so that Fowler has pilloried it among the `illiteracies'.* Therefore the J.D. will be well advised to adopt the Oxford formula, `and to see them punctually obeyed'; or even better, `to see that they are punctually obeyed', which is the Unanimity wording.


            In A.Q.C., xlix, p. 120, a brother expresses his preference for the formula of the Ritual of 1825, viz.: `that the same may be punctually obeyed', on the ground that the form now usual implies `that the J.D., a junior officer, is to see that one of the Principal Officers performs his duty properly'. In the light * `As the working man puts on his Sunday clothes to be photographed, so the unliterary adorns himself with "(the) same" when he is to appear in print; each seems bent on giving the worst possible impression of himself. Modern English Usage sv. SAME and ILLITERACIES. See also A.P. Herbert's What a Word! pp. 83-4.


            The Deacons 91 of the above note on `the same', those who agree with this criticism should, of course, say, `that they may be punctually obeyed'.


            In the openings and closings in each Degree the Deacons must be on the qui vive, ready to advance and attend to the Tracing Board (seep. 75), at the proper moment. Some Masters prefer that they should not move until the series of knocks has been completed, but there is no reason whatever why they should not step forward as soon as the Junior Warden has given his knock. The Master should not direct the brethren to `be seated' until the Deacons have attended to the Board and have returned to their places.


            The Deacons must be particularly careful to avoid any clumsiness in manipulating the Boards, and with this object they should, before the proceedings begin, satisfy themselves that the Boards are properly arranged, each one face downwards, the Third Degree Board at the bottom and that of the First on top, all being correctly oriented (see p. 75). When the Lodge is opened the top Board is turned over on its long axis; in the Second Degree the two upper Boards are turned over together; in the Third Degree all three are turned over at once. In the closings the same processes are carried out in the reverse order. Thus everything goes smoothly; there is no hesitation, no tentative peeping such as is so often witnessed; and the face of a Board of a higher Degree than the one open is never exposed.


            In a few Lodges the Boards are too large and unwieldy to be manipulated in this ideal manner and can only be dealt with one by one. But even then care should be taken that the Third Degree Board is not exposed to the view of one who is but an E.A. or a F.C.


            Reference may here be made to a minor detail of practice which was introduced by the late Grand Secretary, Sir Colville Smith, in his mother Lodge. The effect, adding as it does to the formality of the procedure, is decidedly good. When they have adjusted the Boards, the Deacons come `to attention' and make a slight bow to one another before returning to their places.


            As a general rule a Deacon, when moving about the Lodge, should go `with the sun', though in practice certain exceptions to this rule are permitteds in most Lodges; and if this course takes him past the Master he should salute. Whenever he is in charge of a candidate he will be careful to `square the Lodge' (see p. 58), but a warning must here be given in regard to a fault on the part of some Deacons that is far too often in evidence and the commission of which introduces an unseemly element of the ludicrous into what should be a solemn and reverent ceremonial. When the Deacon and candidate make the rightangled turn at a corner, the Deacon should on no account step back, an action which - especially if accompanied, as it frequently is, by a sort of forward peck - inevitably calls to mind a certain trick of gait that used to be not uncommonly affected by low comedians on the Music Hall stage.


            92        The Deacons On the contrary, the Deacon must remember that, being on the inside, he forms the pivot on which they turn and he should simply `mark time' without taking any backward step while he guides the candidate to wheel round him.


            When a candidate is about to be admitted, the Senior Deacon will go to the door via the east, south and west*. As he passes the chair of the Junior Deacon the latter will join him and they go on together walking side by side, the Junior, of course, on the left. Before the candidate is admitted they must see that the stool is duly placed in position. In some Lodges it is the custom for the Deacons to attend to this; in others the duty, is allocated to the D.C. or the A.D.C. In the latter case the same brother who has placed it will also remove it at the proper time; otherwise the removal will be effected by whichever Deacon is not in immediate attendance on the candidate.


            On the candidate's entry, the Deacon who is to have special charge of him during the ceremony (i.e., the J.D. in the First Degree, the S.D. in the other two) will stand at his right hand, the other Deacon on his left.


            Although it is now usual for the Master, when he has ordered the admittance of a candidate, to call on the `Brothers Deacons' to perform their office, it should be mentioned that some of our older brethren of long experience take strong exception to this call on the ground that, by implying some suspicion as to the readiness of those officers, it casts a reflection on their alertness. Hextall quoted' with approval the following remarks of a writer of nearly sixty years ago: `There is no occasion to use the two words [Brothers Deacons.] In the first place, it sounds as though a direction were given to officers to perform an act not within the scope of their duty, and it is the absolute duty of the officers you address. In the second place, Deacons who are worth anything are ready to take charge-without being called to attention'. The present writer's opinion is that the Deacons should spring to action the moment the Master has ordered the admittance of the candidate and that the call to them is only justifiable if they are asleep when wanted. In Stability working the Master does not call either to the Deacons here or to the Wardens at a certain point in the ceremony of raising.


            During prayers and obligations it is now the general custom for the Deacons to cross their wands above the candidate, and in these notes it will be assumed that the rule obtains. The practice, however, is by no means obligatory and, so far as can be ascertained, it never had any symbolical meaning. In fact Hextall has expressed the opinion 2 that `the crossing was at first accidental, and passed into a custom without any significance attaching to it'. He added that it `was not of importance or insisted on' in his early *      In Lodges where the implements used by the I.G. are customarily kept on the Master's pedestal, the S.D. will, as he passes, pick up the one required on the occasion and convey it to the I.G.


            The Deacons 93 days in the Craft and he regarded it as comparable to the `similar fashion ... of making an arch of (e.g.) swords or scouts' staves at weddings. Whether, therefore, in any particular Lodge the practice is adopted or not will depend on custom or the wishes of the Master for the time being. In a few Lodges it appears to be customary for the D.C. to join the Deacons and add his wand, thus `making a sort of tripod over the candidate's head'.


            Claret (4th edition) has a footnote to the First Degree prayer which reads, `While the prayer is being given, the two Deacons join hands over the head of the Candidate, holding their wands with the other'. Perhaps that was the accepted practice before the crossing of the wands was introduced.


            The supervision of the various `probations' to which candidates are subjected by the Wardens in the course of the ceremonies calls for some adroitness on the part of the Deacons. The practical purpose of these examinations is not merely to instruct the candidate but also to serve as tests of his apprehension and knowledge of what he has been taught and to exercise him in the art of `proving' himself and of applying the test to others. Obviously, therefore, he should be encouraged to go through them as far as possible without assistance. In the probations proper (i.e., the examinations in the technicalities of Degrees which he has previously taken) the candidate ought not to require any prompting at all, though this ideal is not always attained. In the examinations that deal with details he has only just been taught, more or less prompting will be necessary according to his mental acuity and habits of observation; but even here the Deacon, while carefully supervising his every action and word and correcting any mistake, should at least allow him the opportunity of showing his intelligent interest in, and attentiveness to, the ceremony by answering for himself as far as he can. If from the start he finds that full dictation is the rule, he will never make any attempt to act on his own initiative. To insist, as is usually done nowadays in London Lodges, on his repeating all his answers disjointedly, two or three words at a time and only as they are dictated to him, not only defeats the theoretical object of the examination but is bad for the candidate and detracts appreciably from the interest of the proceedings. Nothing is more deadly dull for the audience than this mechanical dictation and repetition. No doubt in the case of an unusually stupid or nervous individual dictation in full may be required throughout, but intelligent Deacons will gather at the outset of each candidate's career what line it will be advisable to take with him in order to serve best all the interests concerned. The custom of the Deacon dictating every one of the candidate's answers in full and aloud results from the importation into Regular Lodges of the practice of Lodges of Instruction. In them the rehearsal is essentially for the benefit of the Deacon himself and, naturally, to evince his knowledge he is made to dictate the answers at length to the acting candidate. But in Lodge he should surely let the candidate give D 94   The Deacons for himself, if he can, the answers he has just been taught and he should only prompt (and then sotto voce) when it is really necessary. As a consequence of the unfortunate prevalence of the custom here deprecated, we find Bro. Cecil Powell relating4 that visitors to Bristol often remark with apparent surprise that there they do not prompt the candidates but make them answer for themselves! We shall now proceed to deal with the work of the Deacons in the several ceremonies and in doing so shall give directions in somewhat elaborate detail, not with any suggestion that they must necessarily be followed in all particulars punctiliously (or as the modern unliterary journalist and third-rate novelist would probably say, 'meticulously')', for some Lodges will have their own peculiar time-honoured variants but simply because they form a system which a practical experience of nearly sixty years has shown the writer will ensure an effective result. It is important that the working throughout should give to the onlookers an impression of smoothness; it is still more important, nay, absolutely essential, that it should strike the candidate as intelligently rendered and logical, and that the language employed should be such as would be used by an educated person. It is in the last particular that the working of many Lodges today is woefully lacking. Bad English, unwarrantable mis-statements (e.g., the blasphemous suggestion so often made that the Ob. is not binding without the `sealing' of it on the V.S.L.) and uncouth actions cannot inspire the candidate with any great respect for our Order.


            These notes should be read in conjunction with one of the printed rituals. Which one, of the score or more that are procurable, does not greatly matter, but the one that most nearly exemplifies the practices and wording advocated by the present writer is, as has been already stated, The English Ritual (see p. 36).


            THE FIRST DEGREE.


            When the candidate enters he is led by the J.D. to the appropriate spot where, after a question has been asked and answered, he is told to kneel. The J.D. should guide him into position, and should whisper to him that a stool is in front of him. During the prayer the Deacons cross their wands. No attempt should be made to place the hand, or hands of the candidate in any particular position; he should be left to dispose of them as he likes. (This applies equally to the corresponding incidents in the other Degrees.) The answer to the ensuing question must, of course, be quietly prompted by the J.D.


            After an announcement by the Master, the J.D. leads the candidate round the Lodge. In this Degree he obviously cannot salute the Master as he passes him, even if it be the custom of the Lodge for the Deacon to do so in the The Deacons    95 other Degrees. (The S.D. follows them up the north and then, after putting on the Master's pedestal the s ... i ... that he will have received from the I.G., resumes his seat.) The J.D. brings the candidate successively to the two hypothetical doors guarded by the Wardens, at each of which he makes him give the `report either on the Warden's shoulder or, as in Oxford, on his out-stretched closed fist. The Deacon has to give certain answers which he should enunciate clearly in a voice audible throughout the room. In the progress he must take special care to avoid contact by the candidate with any piece of furniture.


            When they have passed the second `door', the J.D. takes the candidate to the Senior Warden's left, and if in doing so he circles round him he will be able to bring him to the exact spot required (where he will be made to stand facing east) without having to push him back into position as would otherwise be necessary. The J.D. then gives the candidate's right hand to the Senior Warden who `presents' him.


            The action of the Deacon in thus circling round the candidate, though herein recommended both on this and on subsequent similar occasions, is in some Lodges - particularly in Benefactum - deprecated on the ground that it entails an anti-solar movement. Although the objection is logical, it seems to the writer that the movement is so unobtrusive that it may be condoned as being preferable to the altenative of bringing the candidate to a halt facing east and then pushing or drawing him backwards into his correct place in relation to the Warden. It is particularly useful, as tending to smoothness of the procedure, when there are two or more candidates.


            There follows a series of questions, the answers to which should not require prompting, and the J.D. is then directed to instruct the candidate to advance to the E.


            This advance is often most ineffectively performed on account of an insane adherence to a measurement given in the rubric of the P. C. A `yard' is much too short, for in that limited space it is absolutely impossible for the required movements to be properly executed. A suitable distance is five feet, and if this be divided into sections of about 1, Ph and 2'h feet the final position will be exactly attained. Any contact with the furniture must be most carefully precluded.


            Having brought the candidate to the starting point, the J.D., still holding his hand, explains to him aloud: `The proper method of advancing to the E. is by t. i. s.; the f. s., and s. 1. and the t. l. s.*; beginning with the 1. f.' He then goes behind the candidate and whispers to him the details of the instruction seriatim. He will find that if he grips both the candidate's arms above the elbows he will be able to control his every movement to a nicety and the result will be entirely effective. Should he be doubtful of his ability to * i.e., ". . . three irregular steps, the first short, the second . . . and the third ... [Ed] 96     The Deacons manage his wand while thus engaged (though there should be no difficulty about it), he may arrange with the S.D. for the latter to come forward a little earlier than he would ordinarily do and hold the wand temporarily.


            As the final position is reached, the S.D. comes forward and takes his place on the candidate's left.


            In connexion with the s ... s it may be observed that the practice varies in regard to two points. In most London Lodges - and nowadays probably elsewhere too - the candidate is made to come h. to h. between each s. Too often, when this method is adopted, he is so directed in the placing of his f. that his progress is virtually sideways or crablike. In any event that mode of progression should be avoided; the candidate should face due east all the time, with his f. equally averted when they are h. to h. Formerly in most Provincial workings the advance was by ordinary s... s, with no intercalated h. to h., as is still the Oxford practice, and this would appear to be more nearly in accord with the Freemasonic theory in that the advance is intended to be emblematical of the uncertain and irregular progress of an unguided person in the then condition of the candidate. In the Humber Use the s ... s are described as `sliding'.


            The other point where difference in practice occurs is in the order of the s ... s. According to Gilkes's working, and still in some Provinces (e.g., Oxfordshire) the order is the reverse of that usual in London and described above. Since the essential characteristic is merely the irregularity, and no theoretical significance attaches to any particular sequence, it is really quite immaterial in what order they are taken and any Lodge is free to adopt whichever order it prefers. We would, however, remark that to end with the shortest of the series has the advantage that it entails less risk of a painful contact with the k ... s ..., an unfortunate contretemps that sometimes occurs with an inexperienced Deacon when the candidate straightens himself up after a long s ... carried rather too far forward.


            In Exeter working no instruction as to the form of the s ... s is given to the candidate who is allowed to take them in whatever way he likes which may be as ordinary walking s ... s, a Deacon on each side of him merely keeping him on a straight course.


            It may be noted that Claret's Ritual prescribes that `The J.D. states to the Cand. that the method of advancing from W. to E. is by three irregular s ... s, and after leading him about a yard from the W.M., he first directs him to take a short pace of about 15-in. with his 1 ... t f ... t bringing his r ... t h ... 1 into the hollow thereof, one of about 12-in., and another about 9-in., . . .' This shows that, although in modern Emulation practice the J.D. gives the candidate no preliminary hint as to what he is about to be made to do, in Gitkes's time he did so. It is most desirable that he should do it, for then the candidate better appreciates the nature of the procedure. It will also be The Deacons            97 observed that with Gilkes the individual s ... s had a character which is clearly wrong in that it is anticipatory and therefore contrary to theory. It appears to be unknown when Emulation altered the Sequence of Gilkes's time to that which they now adopt.


            The direction in P. C. (1874) is curious in that each s ... is to be `with his I ... t f ... t bringing the hollow of the r.f. to h. of 1.' One wonders whether this correctly expresses the Emulation practice of that date or whether an accidental interchange of `hollow' and `h' occurred in the print.


            Just before the Ob. the candidate is asked a question. If he hesitates too long before replying, the J.D. may in a quiet whisper prompt him to give his answer or may even suggest the words thereof. Recently in some Lodges an unpleasing custom has grown up whereby the Deacon loudly ejaculates `Answer', the moment the question has been put, without giving the candidate time to speak, or even to think. This should never be permitted. It unnecessarily startles the candidate and distracts his attention.


            In the Master's directions as to the candidate's attitude during the Ob., reference is generally made to the r. f., and one sees Deacons making all sorts of extraordinary endeavours to put it in the position suggested, usually with the result that the subject is placed in a posture of such discomfort as to distract his mind from the words that he has to repeat. If it be remembered that the k. s. is a modern luxury, that the r. f. should be flat on the g ... d, and that only one limb is concerned in the formation of the r. a., it will be realised that the correct position is only capable of attainment with a small k.s., or if the candidate is at the extreme end of a long one. If neither of these conditions obtains, it is best for the Deacon to pay no attention to the reference, or at most merely to indicate the site of the r. a. by a light touch on the front of the a ... e, leaving the rest to chance. Much of the doubt and difficulty on the point will be avoided if the Master slightly amplifies the usual direction by saying, `Your r. f. at r. a. to the leg in the form of a S' (see p. 148).


            The S.D. must help the master to adjust the Cs. (or, in Oxfordshire working, the s.i.), and while doing so he will be well advised to get the J.D. to hold his wand.


            With regard to the employment of the candidate's left hand, see page 149. The preparation for the act of `restoration' requires some savoir faire in order that it may be effected instantaneously at the right moment and a little preliminary practice on the part of the J.D. is desirable.


            After the `restoration' a curious solecism is often witnessed.


            The J.D. has been so impressed with the necessity of checking any tendency of the candidate to gaze about him that, even when there is not the slightest indication of such an inclination, he presses down his head to so extreme a degree as to make it actually impossible for him to see certain 98      The Deacons objects to which at this point the Master draws his attention. A modicum of intelligence or common sense on the part of the J.D. should obviate this really serious fault. Unless the candidate shows a decided intention to gaze around, the J.D. need not touch him at all; but if he thinks it advisable to do so, he will be content to check any turning of the head without depressing it.


            When this part of the ceremony is concluded, the S.D. returns to his seat and the candidate is placed by the J.D. at the Master's right. He is often placed too close. If the Deacon will bear in mind that when two persons shake hands they naturally stand fully three feet apart, he will realise exactly where the candidate should be put so that he may reach the correct spot when the `communication' is to be made. When the Master gives instructions as to certain details of posture and action, the J.D. must see that the candidate carries them out correctly.


            There follows a short catechism. Two different methods of conducting this are met with in practice. Sometimes - and perhaps more frequently - the J.D. stands behind the candidate who is made to repeat the answers as the J.D. dictates them to him. In this dictation the Deacon should avoid cutting up the sentences into too small portions, since to do so renders their sense more difficult of apprehension. Thus, it is better to say straight off, `At my initiation I was taught to be cautious' than to subdivide the phrase into two or more sections, and similarly with the second half of the answer. According to the other mode - practised in Oxfordshire and elsewhere - the J.D. stands in front of, and facing, the Master and recites the answers freely, the candidate not being made to repeat them. In the writer's experience this has always seemed to him the better plan, because the candidate appears to take in the meaning more readily and is then better prepared to give the replies in due course to the Wardens than he is when the first method is adopted, and especially so if the Master has said (as it is desirable that he should in this case), `the Junior Deacon will now dictate the answers that you will then have to give for yourself.


            In Exeter, both here and in the 2°, the examination is rehearsed between Master and Deacon and is more complete than usual.


            It must be remembered that at the end of the 1 ... g or h ... g, the W. should not be given `at length' (seep. 60).


            In Oxf. and Exeter the candidate is taught to say, `but with you I will 1. or h. it', which is patently erroneous, for it emphasises the wrong point. That wording stresses the `you' and means, `I will 1. or h. it with you, though I wouldn't do so with anyone else'. What is intended is, `I will not give it in full but I am prepared to 1. or h. it with you or anyone who so asks me for it'. The PC. formula, `I will 1. or h. it with you' is the correct one.


            The candidate is now conducted to the Junior Warden to whom he is presented `on his initiation' and at whose hands he undergoes a `probation'.


            The Deacons 99 The J.D. should only prompt when it is necessary and then in an undertone (see p. 94). Some judgement is required in doing this; so much depends on the acumen of the candidate; if he is moderately intelligent, he will probably need little or no prompting.


            Sometimes one sees the Deacon adjusting the G. given by the candidate. That is not his duty; in fact, if the G. is properly `covered' by the Warden, as it should be (see p. 119), it is impossible for the Deacon to know whether it is being given correctly or not. Any adjustment should be made by the Warden.


            They next go to the Senior Warden. Here the J.D. must carefully direct the advance which is now made piecemeal. He must also dictate in full the first few answers, as they are fresh to the candidate. In doing so, he should avoid unduly splitting up the sentences.


            This examination concluded, the J.D. takes the candidate to the left of the Senior Warden, circling round him so as to bring him to the required spot without any pushing back (see p. 95). He gives the candidate's right hand to the Warden who `presents' him for a mark of the Master's favour (cf. p.128).


            The J.D. will give any assistance that may be needed in the investiture and - should the Warden overlook this detail - must see that the flap of the badge is turned up (see p. 129).


            The Deacon is now directed to place the candidate in the north-east. A curious and altogether undesirable pose has been adopted in many Lodges which has no allegorical or symbolical foundation and is simply absurd. The following quotation explains the point: - `When in the north-east corner the candidate represents the foundation stone [laid at the north-east corner of the building] and should, therefore, stand `square with the Lodge', that.is to say, facing due south. He should, of course, be placed as nearly as possible level with the Master, towards whom he can then look with a minimum turning of his head; but sometimes the arrangement of the seats for the brethren in the east prevents the attainment of this ideal. In some Lodges he is told to stand with his l.f. across the Lodge and his r.f. down the Lodge, and to `pay attention to' [which he naturally interprets as `look towards'] the Master.


            In this position he faces approximately along the diagonal of the room, and in order to look towards the Master he has toturn his head over his left shoulder. When it happens that he has to be placed at an appreciable distance west of the line of the Master's pedestal, his attitude is not only ludicrous, but is one of such discomfort and strain that it can hardly fail to distract his attention from the words addressed to him. I have heard this position defended on the ground that he is supposed to be standing on the corner stone with his heels at its outermost angle, and one foot along each of its sides. But he is not supposed to be standing on the stone. He figuratively is the stone. Consequently his only logically correct position is 100       The Deacons to stand square with the Lodge'.' That is the position in which the candidate is placed in Oxford working. The explanation of the adoption of the absurd attitude just mentioned is probably as follows. Formerly the newly initiated brother was made to stand on the north-east corner of the `Lodge' drawn on the floor or of the painted `floor cloth' that succeeded it, certain that he then stood `square', i.e., facing full south. When the cloths were replaced by framed paintings on canvas (the modern `Tracing Boards')* he could not stand on the Lodge, but, in order that he might be as nearly as possible on its corner, he was placed with each foot in contact with a side of the frame, thus practically facing along the diagonal of the Board. That is still his position in Stability. Some years ago, but `within living memory', Emulation moved him to the north-east corner of the room,' but retained the illogical diagonally-facing posture, which has been copied by many Regular Lodges.


            It appears that in some Lodges, e.g., most of those in Oldham, the rough ashlar is placed in the N.E. corner and the candidate is made to stand on the floor with his feet against its northern and eastern sides. In the 2° he similarly `squares' the perfect ashlar in the S.E. corner. 8 Having posed the candidate, the J.D. possesses himself of the receptacle that he will presently require. When the time comes he puts his questions audibly. They will be as follows: - Have you anything to give in the cause of c Were you d. of e. v. previously to entering the Lodge? If you had not been so d., would you g. f.? The candidate's answers being satisfactory, the J.D. reports, `Worshipful Master, our newly made brother affirms that he was d. of e. v. previously to entering the Lodge; otherwise he would g. f.' In some Lodges (e.g., Benefactum), the solicitation is made by the Almoner.


            When the succeeding address is concluded, the J.D. places the candidate in front of the Master who presents and explains the Working Tools, after which the J.D. conducts the candidate via the south and west to the door and sees that he salutes properly (first taking the sp.) before leaving the Lodge.


            The Etiquette utters a warning agains `any informality or slovenliness in the performance of the salute. A mere raising of the hand to the appointed position should not be allowed; the hand should be thrown out boldly to the front.... A perfunctory or slovenly manner of giving the salute is a breach of Masonic Etiquette'.9 * It will be remembered that at a consecration, when the elements are scattered or poured `on the Lodge', it is what we ordinarily call the `First Degree Tracing Board' that receives them.


            The Deacons 101 THE SECOND DEGREE.


            The J.D. alone has charge of the candidate while he undergoes his examination by the Test Questions of the First Degree, and on its completion, without waiting for any command, he takes him to the right of the Master who communicates the P.G. and P.W. He then conducts him via the south and west to the left of the Senior Warden where he directs him to salute,. and then leads him to the door.


            Sometimes, both here and in the corresponding place in the next ceremony the Deacon is seen to bring the candidate down the north side of the Lodge. This should never be permitted. His progress is a formal one and therefore the-rule of always going round `with the sun' should be strictly adhered to. The question is sometimes asked whether they should salute the Master as they pass in front of him. Obviously they should not, just as they do not salute a Warden when passing his pedestal after a probation with him. They are not in fact `passing' him at all, but are merely leaving him. This will be clear if it is realised that it is only for convenience that the candidate on these occasions is brought to the side of the Officer instead of being placed directly in front of him, as is, indeed, still done in some Lodges. Usually the large modern pedestals are obstacles to that mode of procedure.


            The Deacon should bear in mind that the word `approbation', given in the P.C. in the answer to one of the Test Questions, is incorrect. The word should be 'probations' (seep. 141).


            The Lodge having been opened in the Second Degree, the candidate seeks admission by the knock of an E.A. On his entry he is received by the two Deacons, the S.D. (who will have charge of him during the ceremony) being on his right and the J.D. on his left. When the implement has been applied by the Inner Guard, he is led to the left of the Senior Warden and halted about 18 inches short of the kneeling stool,where the S.D. directs him to take the sp. and to salute.


            After the prayer, during which the Deacons cross their wands, the J.D. removes the stool and then returns to his place, which he may do by the direct route across the west.


            The S.D. now conducts the candidate through the perambulations. It is in these perambulations that Deacons often appear lacking in savoir faire, with the result of conveying, not only to the onlookers but to the candidate himself, an impression of slovenliness. A careful reading of the following detailed instructions should obviate any risk of slipshod working.


            The S.D., taking the candidate by the right hand, leads him up the north. When about half-way up the room he instructs him aloud, `Salute the Worshipful Master in passing as a Freemason (see pp. 56 and 69). It is best to give this order while still in the north because, except in a very large room, there is not time to do it properly and for the candidate to absorb it, between V Ds 102  The Deacons the turn at the north-east corner and the Chair.


            As they approach the pedestal the Deacon drops the candidate's hand and transfers his wand to his own left hand and they both salute as they pass the Master.* There should be no pause in their progress nor any turning of the body towards the Master (see p. SS). To avoid this the Deacon should, when giving the instruction, emphasise the words, `in passing'; and if the candidate still shows a tendency to check his progress as he salutes, the Deacon can tell him in a whisper immediately afterwards that he ought not to do so. He will then know how to comport himself on similar subsequent occasions (cf. p. SS).


            Having saluted, the Deacon replaces his wand in his right hand and resumes hold of the candidate with his left.


            Immediately after turning the south-east corner he begins the next direction, `Advance to the Junior Warden as a Freemason, showing the s. and communicating the t. and w.' Regrettably often one hears this direction worded, `Advance to the Junior Warden as such, etc'. As a rule that conveys nothing to the candidate and the Deacon has to explain further. It says little for the intelligence of some of our brethren that this phrasing should ever be used in the Lodge working! It is quite appropriate and unexceptionable in a printed rubrict (and in the Lecture, where also it occurs), because there the word such' comes in the same sentence as, and only a few words after, its correlative word and therefore its meaning is evident. But in the practical performance of the ritual the two parts of the rubrical instruction become absolutely dissociated. The first part is completed and, as it were, erased from the surface of the candidate's conscious mind as soon as he has saluted and passed the Master. When the Deacon begins to give the next instruction it comes to him as an entirely fresh subject, having no obvious connexion with what has gone before. Consequently, when he is told to `advance as such', he inevitably asks himself, `What on earth is a such, and how does a such advance?' That this absurd formula is ever heard in Lodge is the outcome of the unintelligent use of printed rituals.


            (The above remarks apply equally to corresponding incidents in the Third Degree).


            * As already stated some Lodges have in recent times adopted the rule that when in charge of a candidate the Deacon himself does not salute the Master or Wardens. This has a certain advantage in the case of an inexperienced Deacon who is thus free to give all his attention to the candidate.


            In the P.C., as lately at any rate as the 1909 edition, the instruction was given, as in all other rituals, in a rubric, but in the 1918 edition, and all subsequent editions, this has been altered and now some of the words of the former rubric are actually prescribed to be spoken by the Deacon. Unthinking users of the book are thus misled into committing a piece of stupidity.


            The Deacons 103 The S.D. halts the candidate at the appropriate distance from the Junior Warden and lets go of his hand in order that he may carry out the instructions. He should correct him if he does anything wrong, and during the examination should prompt him if necessary, but otherwise should not interfere.* When he has finished the probation the Junior Warden, saying, 'Pass... ', hands the candidate over to the Deacon who leads him on and, while still in the south (unless the room be of unusually palatial dimensions), gives the direction, `Salute the Senior Warden in passing as a Freemason'. This salute is effected in the same way as the previous one in the east, namely, without any check or turning round.


            The candidate is then halted in the north-west. The corner there is negotiated by an ordinary right-hand turn. It is unnecessary for the Deacon to walk round the candidate on this occasion as it is not needful to bring him westward into a position level with the Senior Warden, and the halt is made directly after the corner has been turned. This remark will apply to the similar turns at the end of the first two perambulations in the Third Degree ceremony.


            The Master now calls the attention of the Brethren to the forthcoming second perambulation. This is carried out exactly on the lines of the former. When about half way, or a little more, up the north side the Deacon directs the candidate, to `Salute the Worshipful Master in passing as a Freemason'. This is done and he then directs him to `Salute the Junior Warden in passing as a Freemason'. The next instruction (which, in an ordinarily sized room, should be begun immediately after passing the Junior Warden's pedestal) is, 'Advance to the Senior Warden as a Freemasont showing the s. and communicating the P.G. and P.W. that you received from the Worshipful Master previously to leaving the Lodge'. If the candidate is fairly intelligent he should be able to give the answers with little or no prompting. In any case the Deacon should not prompt more than is absolutely necessary and then, as on other occasions, sotto voce. It is to be hoped that the candidate will have been taught by the Master to say, `near a f. of w.' and not `near to a f. of w.' (see p. 143 and cf. p. 125).


            After the examination the candidate is handed back to the Deacon with the words, `Pass, ... '. He is then taken to the left of the Senior Warden (the Deacon this time walking round him in order to manoeuvre him into his proper place) and his right hand is given to the Warden by whom he is formally `presented' to the Master. The latter then orders instructions to be given for the `advance to the E.' * At some time or other after his initiation and befove his passing, one or other of the Deacons should make an opportunity to impress on the candidate that the sp. taken prefatorily to a sn. should always be a short one, six inches being ample.


            t Not `as such'. See p. 102.


            104     The Deacons It is difficult to explain in writing exactly how this advance should be executed but the following hints may serve to clarify it. It must be remembered that the are of the hypothetical w. s. is a quadrant.' ° A glance at the design on the Tracing Board (if it be of the usual modern pattern) will make this clear. That design came into being after the adoption of the present mode of advance and was almost certainly intended to conform with, and illustrate, it." The candidate should be taken to the appropriate spot, which in a smallish room will probably be on the line of march up the north, but in a wider room will be somewhat nearer the central line of the Lodge, and he is there made to stand facing due south. The S.D., standing in front of, and facing him, and a couple of yards or so from him, addresses him thus: `The proper method of advancing to the E. in this Degree is by ... ... , emblematical of a ... a w ... s ... , beginning with the 1. f. For your instruction I will go through them and you will afterwards copy me'. He then takes his stand immediately in front of the candidate and demonstrates the procedure, after which he signifies to him to do the same. According to his apparent intellectual alertness, the candidate may be guided or may be allowed to go through the performance alone; but probably it will generally be better for the Deacon to take his hand. Except in the case of a phenomenally dense candidate, it is, according to the writer's experience, very rarely that any appreciable mistake or muddle occurs, provided that the Deacon has effectively secured the candidate's attention and has made his demonstration clearly and correctly.


            A warning may here be given to the Deacon that, when he arrives in front of the pedestal at the end of his demonstration of the mode of advance, he should not perpetrate the gaucherie - all too often committed - of bowing to the Master. This remark applies also to the corresponding- place in the Third Degree.' z A reference must here to made to an extravagantly absurd mode of performing this advance which is sometimes witnessed and which is believed to have originated as a vagary on the part of some member of a Lodge of Instruction. In this method the starting point is located at the head of the Tracing Board and, as that is in the central line of the Lodge, the course followed purports to be a semi-circle instead of a quadrant, though in actual practice it is usually more suggestive of the attempt of an inebriate to negotiate a straight line. Moreover, the candidate, when at the starting point, is placed in an extraordinary attitude which can only have been evolved by someone either devoid of all sense of the ludicrous or desirous of making the procedure ridiculous. He is instructed to stand with his 'I. f. pointing to the J.W. and his r. f. to the S.W.', so that he practically turns his back to the Master. Not only is this position of the f. lacking in any symbolical meaning (and therefore unnecessary) but the whole posture is an utterly unreasonable The Deacons 105 one in which to put a whole person prior to his a ... g a w ... s ... in the direction proposed, unless, indeed, it were desired that he should trip and perhaps fall in the process!' 3 Bury Ritual is the only version known to the writer in which it is directed that the steps of this advance, instead of being straightforward steps as usual, are `each to be taken with the 1. f., bringing the r. h. into the hollow thereof. Moreover, it would appear that the candidate at the start of his advance, though he is made to face south, stands in the central line of the room and so, presumably, traverses a semi-circle as in the method mentioned above.


            We must now hark back a little in order to describe the procedure of the Junior Deacon. When the S.D. and the candidate leave the Senior Warden after the latter's examination as to the P.W., the J.D. rises and follows them. During the `presentation' he stands on the candidate's left. Then he follows the other two up the Lodge* and while the candidate is being instructed in the advance he again stands on his left, remaining there until the advance has been accomplished, when he moves up to his appointed place on the candidate's left during the Ob.


            The candidate now takes up his position for the Ob.


            The remarks previously made (see p. 97) regarding the r. f. in the Ob. of the First Degree apply here to the 1. f. and to the action of the J.D.


            The Etiquette contains the following comment on a detail of the posture: `A mistake is often made in placing the 1. a. in the proper position; the a. should rest in the angle of the S. and not the elbow on the S. with the 1. h. elevated. That position of the 1. h. comes in a later stage of the proceedings"' Bro. Thomas was, however, certainly wrong in calling it `a mistake'. Without doubt the elevation of the 1. h. is an old-established practice. Nevertheless, it is a position of strain, and as such tends to divert the candidate's attention from the words of the Ob. For that reason, and then only because the position is at the moment of no special import, the writer is in favour of the adoption of Bro. Thomas's suggested modification. The 1. h. may then be allowed to rest on the edge of the pedestal.t This effectually obviates any distracting strain or discomfort.


            During [i.e., throughout. Ed.] the Ob., the Deacons cross their wands. When the Ob. is over, the J.D. retires to his seat (going thither down the south side of the Lodge) and the S.D. places the candidate at the Master's right, a little further away from him than at the corresponding point in the former Degree, to allow for the two sps. that have now to be taken.


            With regard to the catechism that follows the communication of the s ... s, the same observations apply that were made in reference to the similar * If there is not a sq. in readiness on the Master's pedestal the J.D. must remember to carry with him the one that was used by the I.G. at the candidate's admission.


            t [This implies that the 1. a. is to be held horizontally throughout the Obligation. Ed.] 106        The Deacons incident in the First Degree (see p. 99). As there stated, the writer is very decidedly of opinion that when the answers are recited freely by the Deacon (the S.D. in this case), the candidate assimilates their wording and sense much better than when he only hears them in disjointed segments which he does not readily connect together in his mind. The Deacon must, naturally, arrange beforehand with the Master which method is to be adopted.


            On the conclusion of the catechism the S.D. takes the candidate to the J.W., to whom he presents him `on being passed to the Second Degree'. The Deacon must carefully supervise his advance, correcting any mistake and, if it seems advisable, making him repeat the movements.


            They next go to the Senior Warden, where more detailed instruction and dictation will be required in the earlier part of the examination, as was the case in the First Degree. It should be noted that the correct appellation of the first part of the sn. is, `the S.S. or S. of F.' (see p. 170).


            After this probation the candidate is led (the S.D. walking round him to bring him into position) to the left of the Warden who, taking him by the right hand, presents him to the Master for some further mark of favour, and he is then delegated to invest him. The Deacon should at once remove the E.A. badge, afterwards helping the Warden to adjust that of a F.C. Nothing is more atrocious than to put the second badge on top of the first; and yet one occasionally sees it done.


            The Deacon is now directed to place the candidate in the south-east, and he conducts him thither via the north and east.* The ideal spot is one on a level with the Master's pedestal, but he will probably have to be a little west of that. His posture should be similar to that which he assumed when in the north-east in the previous Degree. The Deacon places him facing due north and tells him, in an undertone, to stand erect with his feet at right-angles, that is, with each foot equally everted to 45 degrees. He should not be made to stand with `one foot across the Lodge and one foot down the Lodge' (cf. p. 99).


            After a brief charge has been delivered, the candidate is placed in front of the Master for the presentation of the Working Tools. Finally, he is led, via south and west, to the left of the Senior Warden where he salutes (with the sp. and sn. of the Second Degree only) before withdrawing.


            When the newly passed brother re-enters the Lodge, the S.D. receives him at the door (or course going thither down the south side), tells him to salute as a Fellow Craft, and then at once leads him up the north until they are on a level with the Tracing Board. Then, making a right-hand turn, he takes him to the Board, placing him either at its side or at its west end, as the Master may desire. He hands his wand to the Master for use as a pointer. Some Masters *        On the curious solecism that obtains in Exeter practice see p. 59.


            The Deacons like the Deacon to remain by the candidate during the `explanation'; otherwise he will go to his chair, remaining on the alert to come forward and conduct the brother to a seat as soon as the Master has finished.


            THE THIRD DEGREE It is presumed that the foregoing notes on the Previous Degrees have been read, so that some remarks may here be omitted which otherwise it would be necessary to set out in full.


            While the Lodge is in the Second Degree the candidate for raising undergoes his test examination under the charge of the Senior Deacon, who then takes him to the Master for the communication of the P.G. and P.W. Then he is led (by way of the south and west) to the left of the Senior Warden, where he salutes as a F.C. and is conducted to the door.


            The Lodge is opened in the Third Degree and the room is made ready. In due course the candidate seeks admission `by the knock of a F.C.' He is received by the Deacons* (the S.D. being on his right) who, when the Inner Guard has fulfilled his duty, lead him near the kneeling stool where the S.D. directs him to salute as a F.C. He should not first salute as an E.A. (cf. p. 228).


            After the prayer, during which the Deacons cross their wands, the S.D. takes the candidate by the right hand and embarks on the first of the three perambulations, the J.D. following behind them.t On their way up the north the S.D. gives the order, `Salute the Worshipful Master in passing as a Freemason'. This is done, and the next direction (begun at the south-east corner) is, `Advance to the Junior Warden as a Freemason,$ showing the sn. and communicating the t. and w.' The candidate ought to be able to achieve this probation without any prompting. While still in the south, the S.D. directs, `Salute the Senior Warden in passing as a Freemason', which is done. Immediately after turning the north-west corner they halt momentarily and then enter on the second perambulation.


            As they go up the north, the S.D. tells the candidate to `Salute the Worshipful Master in passing as a Fellow Craft' and, that having been accomplished, to `Salute the Junior Warden in passing as a Fellow Craft'. He next instructs him to `Advance to the Senior Warden as a Fellow Craft,§ The lighting must not be adjusted until immediately before the actual entry of the candidate.


            In some Lodges it is the custom for the three to walk abreast, but that is undesirable except in a very large room. If, however, it is done, they must remember that when they turn the corner the S.D. forms the pivot on which they turn and the other two wheel round him. Also that, when the candidate is about to pass, or advance to, one of the Principal Officers, the J.D. should temporarily fall behind.


            $ As has been previously emphasised, not `as such'., § Again, not `as such'.


            107 108          The Deacons showing the sn. and communicating the t. and w. of that Degree'. When the probation has been effected, they go on to the north-west corner and after turning it halt while the Master calls attention to the ensuing third perambulation.


            As in the second round, the candidate is ordered to salute, first the Master, and then the Junior Warden, `in passing as a Fellow Craft'. Having passed the J.W., the S.D. gives the final instruction, `Advance to the Senior Warden as a Fellow Craft, showing the sn. and communicating the P.G. and P.W. that you received from the Worshipful Master previously to leaving the Lodge'. The amount of prompting here required will vary according to the candidate's degree of acumen.


            The S.D. now takes the candidate to the left of the Senior Warden, bringing him into position by walking round him, makes him face east and gives his right hand to the Warden, who 'presents' him. Thereupon the Master gives orders for the advance to the E.


            For that purpose the candidate is led by the S.D. to a spot level with the head of the o. g. and is turned to face south. Then the Deacon, standing opposite to him, explains: `The proper method of advancing to the E. in this Degree is by ... . . ., the f. t. as if s. o. an o g.;* the 1. f. b. or m. s. For your instruction I will go through them and you will afterwards copy me'. He demonstrates the method and then sees that the candidate, whom he had better take by the hand, accurately follows his example.


            Because the wording of the PC (now in the text but until lately a mere rubric) does not specifically mention the latter part of the advance, it often happens nowadays that the Deacon fails to refer to it in giving the instruction to the candidate, who is thus incompletely informed as to the procedure and does not realise that the last f. sps. are part of the formality. This omission should not be permitted. Claret, Oxf., Stab., Exeter and York give the directions in full.


            The movements involved are often attempted in a manner that renders the whole performance little short of farcical. It is impossible on paper to give a lucid criticism of the faulty method referred to, but it may suffice to say that at two points in the early part of the progress such an extravagant eversion is inculcated as no one, unless he is actually deformed, can possibly execute without rotating on his heel or risking the dislocation of his knee. It is related that an irreverent spectator, witnessing this exhibition, was once heard to remark that the Deacon might well have interpolated the words, `as though you were skating on the outside edge'' s The result is that what is attempted *        A recent innovation is to omit the word represented by the second 'o', but to do so is a gross error. Hextall refers to it in Misc. Lat., IV, 59, and points out that 'in the absence of the particular condition imported by the missing adjective all reason for the advance taking its emblematical form would be absent'.


            The Deacons 109 is not accomplished and that a good deal of extraneous movement and unseemly shuffling takes place.


            It may be helpful to say that at no single moment during V           his progress should the candidate face in any direction other than due east. The annexed diagram may, perhaps, supply a ' ~           hint as to the correct consecutive positions of the first t. ss.* [The lines commence each step; the dots complete it. Ed.] \.'            The J.D. in the meantime has remained in the position he took up on the candidate's left prior to the advance. He now comes to the east in readiness for the Ob. which follows and during which the Deacons cross their wands.


            On the conclusion of the Ob. the Deacons move the candidate back so that he stands just clear of the o.g., the S.D. telling him in a whisper to stand erect with his feet squared. He must not be made to cross his feet (see p. 184).


            Having so placed him, the Deacons at first stand close to, and a little behind, him. As the Wardens now approach, the Deacons each move a full pace outwards so that the Wardens may take the places they previously occupied. As soon as the Wardens have reached their stations the Deacons quietly proceed to their chairs. In some Lodges it is the custom for them to move back and remain standing on a line a little eastward of the Senior Warden's pedestal.


            Later on, when the master is about to tell the candidate that he may withdraw, the S.D. comes forward, timing his approach so that he reaches the candidate just as the Master finishes. It is unnecessary for the J.D. to take part here unless there should be two candidates.


            When the Master has dismissed the candidate, the S.D. takes him by the       g hand and conducts him down the south and across the west to-the left of the S.W. and there directs him to `Salute as a Master Mason', adding in a whisper, `Take the sp. and give the three sns. that you have just been taught'.


            The Master should have explained to the candidate that these three sns. are always to be given on entering a Third Degree Lodge, but that ordinarily the p. s. alone is enough on leaving such a Lodge. On this occasion the three are given in order that the candidate may have the opportunity of practising them under supervision, but the S.D. may remind him, before he goes out, that in future he need give the p. s. only.


            When the newly raised brother returns, the S.D. receives him, takes him to the left of the S.W., and directs him to salute the Master as a Master Mason, seeing that he does so correctly. He must be careful on this occasion not to let him go so far forward that he has to be pushed back just afterwards.


            The Deacon gives the candidate's hand to the Warden who presents him, *    Regrettably in Oxford Working there is no representation of the o.g., and the sps. are taken somewhat differently.


            110     The Deacons and the Master then orders the investiture. The Deacon removes the F.C. badge and assists the Warden in the adjustment of the new badge.


            Directly the Master has finished his short address to the candidate, the S.D. leads him up the Lodge, makes a right-angled turn at the appropriate spot and places him in front of the Master a few paces from the pedestal.


            Some Masters like the Deacon to remain by the candidate for the rest of the ceremony. Others prefer him to resume his seat. In the latter case he must be ready to come forward and conduct the candidate to the Tracing Board when the Master is about to leave his Chair for the explanation of the Board. During this most Masters like the candidate to be placed on the north side and near the foot of the Board, the Master himself standing opposite to him. The Deacon hands his wand to the Master and stands behind the candidate.


            It is, we trust, unnecessary to repeat that under no circumstances should the Board be carried to the Master for the explanation. It is of the very nature of the Board (consequent on its evolution) that it should lie on the floor of the Lodge (see p. 75). Almost equally objectionable is the use of a miniature sketch of the Board for the purpose (seep. 193). The Master should go down to the Board when he explains it just as he does in the other Degrees.


            After the explanation, the Master returns to his chair and the S.D. again places the candidate before him. Here, too, he should have ascertained beforehand whether the Master wishes him to resume his seat or to stay by the candidate.


            On the conclusion of the ceremony the S.D. conducts the late candidate to a seat in the Lodge.


            Should there be two candidates for the Degree, the Deacons will have to act as assistant Wardens, and directions as to the procedure in that case will be found at the end of the Chapter on the Work of the Senior Warden (see p. 131).


            DEACONS - Other duties Besides the ceremonial work certain other items of duty fall to the Deacons which, for the sake of completeness, may here be mentioned.


            In most Lodges the S.D. carries the Minute Book to the Master to be signed by him, though in a few lodges it is customary for the Secretary himself to do this. In returning he need not punctiliously go round the Lodge, but may return directly to the Secretary's table (seep. 59).


            The Deacons also have to conduct the ballots. In the case of a ballot for a candidate the J.D. distributes the balls, going first to the Master and then round the Lodge `with the sun'. The S.D. then takes the ballot-box to the Master - approaching him on his left side - who satisfies himself that the drawer is empty (usually getting the I.P.M. to confirm the fact) and then casts his own vote. The S.D. then collects the other votes and returns to the Master The Deacons       III who, in conjunction with the I.P.M., examines the drawer.


            In the case of a paper ballot, the J.D. distributes the papers, beginning, as before, with the Master. When he has done so, the S.D. proceeds to collect them and takes them to the Master.


            One or other Deacon may be called on at any time if a principal officer wishes to send a message to someone in the Lodge or to the Tyler. In carrying such a message he will, of course, as a general rule follow the sun.


            The Work of the Junior Warden In the main the work of the Wardens is set out in fairly full detail in the various printed rituals, but additional notes on some points are desirable. In dealing with the work of each Warden we shall first consider the openings and closings and afterwards the ceremonies proper.


            Whenever the Junior Warden enters his chair, whether prior to the opening of the Lodge or when returning to his place after a temporary absence in the course of the work, he should do so from its eastern side; and when he has occasion to leave it he should move out towards the west.


            It will be remembered that the J.W.'s column should be erect only when the Lodge, though still open, is `called off' seep. 67). If, therefore, the Tyler has in error set it up when preparing the room, the J.W. must lay it down before the opening ceremony is begun. He must not raise it on the closing of the Lodge.


            Opening of the 1 ° Until the brethren have `proved' themselves and it has been thereby shown that no cowans are present, the officers taking part in the ceremony address one another by name, with the simple prefix of `Brother'. The reason for this is that, although the outer world know that we call each other `Brother so-and-so', they are presumed not to know that there are any distinctions among us (in the sense, that is to say, of some being office-holders), what the titles of our offices are, or who at the moment hold them. Therefore the Master, in putting the first question to the J.W., addresses him by name as `Brother A.' Similarly the J.W., in directing the I.G. to `see that the Lodge is properly tyled', addresses him as `Brother B.' When the I.G. has ascertained that the tyling is effective, he reports to the J.W. in the words, `Brother A., the Lodge is properly tyled'. The J.W. passes on this report to the Master, also addressing him by name, `Brother C., the Lodge is properly tyled'.


            In the P.C. (the only ritual known to the writer in which the peculiarity occurs) it is directed that the J.W., in making the report, should use `no The Junior Warden name'. This is at variance with the Freemasonic theory, because the making of even this slight difference in the mode of address implies some distinction between the brother so addressed and the others.* That is the Emulation form and it is an innovation in their working since their early days, for Claret of 1838 and PC (1871 and 1874) direct that the J.W. shall report to the Master `calling him by name'. When and how this curious and illogical variant was introduced in this one working is unknown. It may possibly have resulted from the misreading as `no' of an indistinctly printed `by' in some edition; or it may have been brought in, as some other variants would seem to have been, merely for the sake of differing from other workings.


            As has been stated (see p. 84), the I.G. ought to satisfy himself as to the tyling by opening the door and seeing the Tyler at his post; but sometimes nowadays he does it by giving a knock on the door which the Tyler answers. Whichever method the I.G. employs, the J.W. should on no account preface his report to the Master by a knock on his pedestal. Not only is it meaningless and therefore unnecessary, but it is a time-honoured rule that the Wardens should never use their gavels except in answer to a knock by the Master, save only in the case of `Calling off and `Calling on', when the J.W. initiates the series of knocks which then passes upwards to the Master.


            The above remark applies equally to the J.W.'s corresponding reports in the openings of the 2° and 3° and in the closings, as well as to his announcements of Reports and Alarms.


            It need hardly be said that the J.W. gives no sn. when reporting as to the tyling in the 1 ° opening, though in the other Degrees and in the closings he will do so.


            Except in the few Lodges where the Tyler is brought in to do it for himself, it falls to the J.W. to recite the Tyler's duty. This he will do in the following words: `To keep off all cowans and intruders from Freemasonry and to see that the candidates come properly prepared'. The earliest known post-Union printed ritual, namely Rit.1825, has, `To keep off all cowans and listeners from Masonry and to see that the candidates for admission come properly prepared'; this is still the formula of the York Ritual and is unexceptionable. The Claret Ritual has, `To keep off all cowans and intruders to Masonry', which might pass if `to' was replaced by `into', for the latter preposition, but not the former, can legitimately follow `intruders' to which alone it would then apply. The modern P.C., by inverting `cowans' and `intruders' in the above, has made nonsense of it, for one does not `keep off a person `to' a place or thing; and it cannot be argued that the `to' merely links `intruders and cowans' with the word that follows, because one can no more speak of `a cowan to Masonry' than one can of `a gate-crasher to a party'.


            *           West End, Taylor's and Logic Club rituals, though in most details they copy P.C., direct the J.W. to address the Master by name.


            114     The Junior Warden Some may think that, as so few ever notice the incongruities of the P.C. version, it is a small matter to which the rule of de minimis non curat might well apply. But we should be false to our own principles if we failed to call attention to the faulty English.


            It may be added that occasionally one hears - emanating from some of our less intelligent brethren - a criticism of the word `come' in the above answer. They seem to think that it implies that the candidates come to the Tyler already `prepared'! It does not occur to them that the wilfully obtuse could read exactly the same meaning into `are', which in Claret and P.C. replaces `come'. The only way to satisfy such critics would be to alter the whole phrase into `and to prepare the candidates'. As a matter of fact, `are' is peculiar to the versions just named and Exeter. Every other ritual (Unanimity and Rit.1825 included) has `come', and the obvious meaning is that the Tyler must be careful in carrying out his duties so that the candidates leave his hands and come to the Lodge `properly prepared'.


            If the Master follows the modern slovenly practice of asking the Wardens to recite the duties of the Assistant Officers (as if, forsooth, he did not expect them to know, or to be capable of defining, their own duties), the J.W. will also have to state the duty of the Junior Deacon. In doing so he will, if he has any sense of seemliness, end it, `and to see that they are punctually obeyed' (see p. 90).


            In the recitation of his own duty the educated J.W. will, of course, recognise that in nearly all the printed versions a necessary conjunction is omitted. English requires that the wording should be, `To mark the Sun at its meridian and to call the brethren etc.' The omission of the conjunction is one of the errors classified by Fowler as `Bastard Enumeration'.' Occasionally we hear a criticism of `at its meridian', on the ground that it should be `on the meridian'. No doubt an astronomer would use the latter - the technically correct - form; but, as we find in Jane Eyre (ch. 37) a reference to the sun and `its meridian', we may take it that that expression was accepted in the ordinary language of the first half of the 19th century and need not go out of our way to be pedantic. (See also page 123).


            Openings of the 2° and 3° There is little that calls for special remark in connexion with these, save, perhaps, to note that when the J.W., having `proved' the brethren, proceeds to demonstrate the proof to the Master, he drops the first sn., and takes a sp. before putting up the other sn. The space at his disposal will probably prevent his taking an actual sp., but he can make certain movements that will render it evident that he is ostensibly taking it.


            With regard to the answer to the question, `Whence come you?' Claret and P.C. give it baldly as, `The E.' That is unpleasantly curt and uncouth and it is The Junior Warden    115 preferable to conform to the wording of all other rituals and say, `From the E.' This remark applies equally to the S.W.'s answer to the next question (which all the other rituals give as either `Towards the W.' or 'To the W.') and to the J.W.'s reply to the similar question in the closing, which should be, `From the W., etc.' For the reason given in The Etiquette 2 it is desirable that the J.W. should say that the g. s. were lost `by the u. d. of our ancient G.M., H.A.' Unanimity and Exeter have `our G.M., H.A.' `Our M.', as in P.C., is too indeterminate.


            The wording of the first question and answer relating to the centre varies in different workings. Two forms are equally rational, namely, that of Unanimity, Bristol and Humber, which run: Where do we [or you] hope to find them? Within [or in] the [or a] centre.


            and that of Oxford, Exeter and York, which have: How do we [or you] hope to find them? With a centre.


            The formulary of Claret and P. C. is quite illogical: Where do you expect [or hope] to find them? With the centre.


            Each individual Lodge may use the form it prefers, but clearly, if the question begins with `Where', the answer must begin `In' or `Within'. The answer `With etc.' is only appropriate after a question beginning `How'.* It is to be noted that the J.W.'s definition of a centre, as usually printed, is not English, since a single item (namely, `every part') cannot possibly be `equally' anything, for there is nothing for it to be equated with. It should be `from which all parts of the circumference are equally distant'. t Most of the rituals have the unpleasantly stilted word, `equidistant', no doubt originally introduced by someone desirous of parading his `little learning'; `equally distant' (the form of Gilkes and Oxford) is a far more euphonious ending to the sentence.


            Closing of the 3° Sometimes the I.G. in his report to the J.W. ( e.g., in Britannia) says, `the Lodge proves close tyled', which is logical; though most rituals have, `the Lodge is close tyled'. But whichever form is used by the I.G.. the J.W. should, of course, pass the message on to the Master in the exact words in which he has received it. As already pointed out (see p. 113), he should not use his *          See also p. 138. It should, however, be stated that Benefactum workers defend the P.C. conjunction of `Where' and 'With', taking `with' to signify 'in the company of or 'at the abode of instead of the more natural 'by means of'.


            Unanimity has the entirely satisfactory definition, `That point within a circle from which all straight lines drawn to the circumference are equal to one another'.


            116     The Junior Warden gavel before reporting. This applies also to the other closings.


            In the J.W.'s reply to the question, `Whence come you?' the words `whither we have been', although they appear in almost every ritual, are not, and never were, grammatical English. To conform to that standard they must be either, `where we had been' or - and perhaps better - `whither we had gone'.


            When the Wardens leave their chairs for the purpose of communicating the s ... s ... , the J.W. will move out to his left and stand there until the S.W. has come level with him. They then proceed to their respective stations just east of the Tracing Board.


            Strictly speaking, by passing up the south side of the Lodge, the J.W. contravenes the general rule of going `with the Sun' (see p. 59), but a little consideration will make it obvious that an exception, both here and when he goes to the east in the course of the 3° ceremony, is not only permissible but desirable.


            The directions for the communication are badly worded in the P. e rubric, because a careless reading gives the impression that the J.W. is first to give the three sns., then to give the P.G. and P.W., and finally to repeat the sns. What is meant, however, is that he should begin with the P.G. and P.W., then take the sp., and lastly give the sns.


            In the Oxfordshire and Exeter workings the J.W. advances as an E.A. and as a F.C. before he gives the P.G., but this is an unnecessary and pointless elaboration.


            Attention may here be called to a curious error in regard to the last of the f. p. o. f. which has grown up in many London Lodges in recent years and which is believed to have had its birth in the Emulation Lodge of Improvement. It is not only. contrary to the early post-Union practice but is entirely at variance with the hypothetical origin and symbolical meaning of the attitude. In the method referred to, the h. is held aloft waving in the air, whereas it ought to be in actual contact with the b. Although it is now customary to term the position `h. over b.', we find from old allusions that the formula used to be `h. to b.' Moreover, Rit.1825 definitely specifies the contact, as does a note in the Bristol Ritual and a rubrical direction in Exeter. The innovation is surely the alteration of a `landmark', and consequently irregular.


            Closing of the 2° We often hear the J.W. give his answer to the question, `To whom does it allude?' in the words, `To G., the G.G.O.T.U.' The first `G.' is a needless tautological interpolation found in several rituals, including Brit. and Exeter. The P. C. correctly omits it.


            The only other note necessary is to call attention to the ineffective form The Junior Warden of the closing tag spoken by the J.W. that is printed in the P. C. The 18th century wording was: Happy have we met, Happy have we been, Happy may we part And happy meet again.


            In those days adjectives were habitually used adverbially, so no exception can fairly be taken to the use of this archaic form. In the Claret Ritual, however, the grammar is modernised, but unfortunately the second line is entirely omitted, so that it runs: As happily we have met, So happily may we part, And happily meet again.


            The same version appears inP.C (1871), but P C (1874) and subsequent editions revert to the old form, still leaving out, however, the second line, the result being crude and vapid.


            Since we have the example of Gilkes for modernising the grammar we might as well follow it and secure effectiveness by using the version of the Oxford Ritual: As happily we have met, As happy we have been, So happily may we part And happily meet again. This, as the author of The Eqiquette remarks,' `has the merit of being at once metrical and grammatical'.


            The verse does not appear in either Rit. 1925 or Unanimity, nor does it occur in the ceremonial part of the Humber Use. Bristol- uses the 18th century wording given above (see fuller notes on p. 71).


            After reciting the above tag, the J.W. concludes with the words, `and it is closed accordingly'. He then gives the knock.


            Closing of the 1° The J.W. must remember to have the date of the next meeting clearly in his mind in view of his final sentence. For the reason previously given (see p. 67), he should not raise his column on the closing of the Lodge.


            In the opening in each Degree the Wardens (as well as all the other brethren should keep their eyes on the Master so as to dismiss the sn. simultaneously with him. In the closings the time will be set by, and taken from, the Senior Warden (see p. 48).


            Every report and alarm given by the Tyler while the Lodge is open will be announced by the Inner Guard to the J.W., who at once passes it on to the Master. He must never use his gavel before doing so. As a rule, after he has 118            The Junior Warden passed on one or two reports, the Master will instruct him to `take reports for the rest of the evening'; but until he has been so instructed the J.W. has no authority to refrain from passing them on.b When he has received this authorisation he will, on the announcement by the Inner Guard of a report, at once (or after a short delay if the moment is not an appropriate one) direct that officer to see who seeks admission. On no account should he commit the solecism of conveying this order by a stroke of thegavel, but probably in most cases an inclination of the head or some other gesture will serve instead of a spoken direction.


            It must be noted that the authorisation to `take reports' does not cover `alarms', nor does it apply to the `report' of a candidate for initiation, if the J.W. recognises it as such.


            Although it is preferable that the Master, on receiving the announcement of a report or an alarm, should direct the J.W. to `Enquire who seeks admission' (see p. 144), some Masters use the words, `wants admission'. The J.W. must always pass the order on to the Inner Guard in the same words in which the Master has given it. Whatever his own views may be as to the preferable word, he has no right to vary the terms of an order given to him by his superior officer.


            It is an accepted practice (or, perhaps, one should say, used to be so, for slovenly working has led to it being dropped in some Lodges in recent years) that whenever the Master stands (save only when he does so in the course of the ceremonies proper) the Wardens should also rise. They will, therefore, stand when the Master, towards the end of the proceedings, rises thrice to enquire as to propositions. It is because of the existence of this rule, which has obtained from time immemorial, that the custom exists of the Wardens standing when the Master rises to propose a toast after dinner.


            Even where the Wardens no longer stand at the 'risings' in Lodge, one still almost invariably hears the Master's call, `Brothers Wardens, upstanding', if they do not get up when he is about to propose a toast. This shows ignorance of the origin of their standing with the Master during the proposal of a toast, for if the practice is given up in Lodge it is pointless to continue it at the dinner table.


            THE CEREMONIES There is not much that needs remark in connexion with the First and Second Degree ceremonies. The only duties that fall to the J.W. are the challenging of the candidate for initiation at the hypothetical door, the preliminary testing of candidates for passing and raising and the `probation' of the E.A. and F.C. after the secrets have been communicated to them. In the first of those duties it is quite unnecessary for the Warden to rise as he bids the candidate to `enter'.


            The Junior Warden   119 In the other cases custom ordains that he should rise to receive the g. from the candidate. He should not remove his glove for this purpose, a breach of etiquette too often seen in recent years (see p. 64). He must be careful to `cover' the g. with his 1. h. `to hide it', as Exeter says `from the eye of the cowan or insidious', and should remind the candidate of the importance of doing so. In the Bristol, Exeter and Humber workings this cover is termed the `due guard'* and its necessity is specifically emphasised. In many Lodges in England today slovenly working has led to its being altogether ignored.


            The Warden must remember that it is his duty, and not that of the Deacon, to make any necessary adjustment to the g. as given by the candidate (seep. 99).


            Whenever a Warden directs a candidate to give the W. `freely and at length', he should invariably interpolate the words, `and on this occasion, being in open Lodge, freely and at length'. Otherwise the candidate, having been previously schooled in the principle of never giving it in full, and possibly forgetting for the moment that in Lodge it may be so given, is apt to be startled and to incline to hesitate.


            As to the procedure in the exchanging of the W. in the probations proper, see page 60.


            The Deacon in charge is, of course, primarily responsible for seeing that the candidate takes the sp. and gives the sn. correctly, but the Warden also should pay attention to those details and should have them repeated if he thinks it advisable. It is particularly advisable that he should carry out this supervision with thoroughness if the Deacon happens to be Freemasonically young or lacking somewhat in self-confidence.


            In the early part of the Third Degree ceremony the only thing that falls to the lot of the J.W. is the brief test in the First Degree. But after the Ob. the Wardens have a very important duty to perform and the effectiveness of the ceremony depends materially on their bearing and expertness.


            A custom has unfortunately grown up in many Lodges (a custom which probably has its origin in a liability to somnolence on the part of the officers concerned) whereby the Wardens wait to be called up by the Master at the last moment. This is a most undesirable practice if we regard it in the light of its effect on the candidate; and, after all, the essential object is to make the ceremony as impressive as possible from his point of view.


            To quote from The Etiquette: `It will be found convenient, immediately after the candidate has been bidden to rise (i.e., after the Ob.) for the Wardens to leave their places ... and silently to take the places of the Deacons. If the change is made at a * In America the term `due guard' is used in a different sense, and it is so also in Scotland where it is termed 'Dieu garde' and is explained as `being the position your hands were in when you were taking the obligation'.


            120     The Junior Warden later stage - as is often done - when the Master breaks off in the narrative and with almost startling suddenness says, "Brother Wardens", there ensues a certain degree of movement which the candidate cannot understand and which to a great extent distracts his attention from the Master's address and the narrative of the Traditional History. This is altogether undesirable, entirely purposeless and consequently unnecessary'.' The writer personally feels very strongly on this point. If the Master is delivering his matter well, he will, during the `Retrospect', secure the candidate's attention wholly; the latter's mind becoming riveted almost hypnotically on what is being related to him. It is an appalling mistake suddenly to snap that bond of rapt attention by stopping the recital and calling to the Wardens. The candidate's mind is thereby taken off the narrative; he is, as it were, brought back to earth; he hears people moving about and begins to wonder what is going to be done to him. When after the interruption the narrative is resumed, he has largely forgotten the sense of what he has already heard and he can never again satisfactorily pick up the thread of the story. In a word, the effectiveness of the ceremony is for him utterly ruined.


            No one who has seen the ceremony worked without the unseemly interruption, as it is in Stability and in a number of regular Lodges, is ever in doubt as to which is the preferable mode.


            Although The Etiquette suggests that the Wardens should replace the Deacons immediately after the candidate has risen at the end of the Ob., the present writer, as the result of long experience, considers it better that they should so time their movements that they do not reach the east until the Deacons have adjusted the candidate in his place at the foot of the o. g. The Master will, of course, not begin the `Retrospect' until they have come up.


            When the Deacons have placed the candidate their relative positions may be thus indicated: CAN.


            J.D.     S.D.


            The Wardens leave their chairs (not forgetting to carry with them the necessary implements), the S.W. walking up the north side of the Lodge, and the J.W. remaining by his pedestal until the S.W. comes level with him when he too proceeds eastwards. As they approach, each Deacon takes a step outwards and the Wardens take their stands on the spots that the Deacons previously occupied. The Deacons then retire to their seats, unless it is the custom of the Lodge for them to remain standing (seep. 110).


            The Junior Warden   121 On no account should the Wardens touch the candidate until it becomes necessary later on. The candidate should not be made to cross his feet (cf. p. 184), a procedure which (besides being a public confession of incompetence on the part of the Wardens) only serves to distract him and cause nervousness as to coming events. Hextall has stated that the practice was started within his recollection,' and rightly terms it `unnecessary and inappropriate'.9 A rubric in P.C., which expresses Emulation working, says that the Wardens are to `direct' the candidate `to c ... his f ... ', which means `to cross his feet'. In some Lodges, however, this is interpreted as `to calm his fears'.' o In Stability the feet are not crossed.


            The writer has been told that in Ireland the candidate is placed in an attitude of which crossed feet form a part, but that has a special significance which cannot be explained here.


            When the Master reaches the point where he describes the action of the first of the three mythical personages, at the words, `glanced on his r. t.' (the last of those words being his cue for action), the J.W. gives a light glancing stroke (from before backwards) on the site referred to, having previously stepped a little forward so as to stand on the candidate's right front. At the words, `s. on his 1. k.', the S.W. takes the candidate from behind by both upper arms, whispers the instruction, `k. on your 1. k.', and guides him in carrying out the required movement. He will find that by thus holding him he can easily and effectively control him.


            The candidate retains the posture until the Master utters the word, `Recovering', on which the S.W., with a whispered `Rise', again places him erect.


            The next action is taken by the S.W. who, stepping forward and turning towards the candidate, illustrates the Master's words, `a. v. b. -on the 1. t.' (he must not make his stroke a glancing one); after which, at the words, `brought him to the g. on his r. k.', the J.W. takes the candidate's arms from behind and, whispering, `k. on y. r. k.', makes him take the appropriate action and then immediately bids him rise. Note the immediate rising here, since there is no verbal cue to wait for as there was on the first occasion.


            Then comes the culmination when, at the proper moment, both Wardens take hold of the candidate and place him in the requisite position. The S.W. may, if he thinks fit, give him a whispered hint to be passive; but if the Wardens are moderately competent, this is never really wanted. `The simple silent action of the right foot of the S.W..... renders a step back impracticable'." Occasionally one sees the candidate's feet crossed at this point, but such a posture is absolutely inappropriate.


            The Wardens now take their stands about a yard behind the candidate and about two yards apart.


            122     The Junior Warden When in due course the J.W. is ordered to `make trial', he passes behind the S.W., turns sharply to the right and proceeds as far east as is necessary; then, making another right-angled turn, he goes southwards until he is immediately in front of the candidate. He performs his duty and then returns to his place via the south, taking care to make his turns right angles. When he has reached his former place (on a level with the S.W.) he faces the Master and, standing to order as an EA., reports.


            The S.W. then makes trial, squaring the corners in his progress and passing behind the J.W. to regain his place, where, standing as a FC., he makes his report.


            The two Wardens now assist the Master in his action, after which they are directed to resume their seats, and all the brethren are directed to `be seated'. The S.W. goes down the north and the J.W. down the south, the two keeping abreast. When the J.W. reaches his pedestal he stands at its east side until the S.W. has arrived at the south side of his pedestal and they then take their chairs simultaneously. In the interests of effective working attention to these small details is well worth while.


            CALLING OFF AND CALLING ON A curious solecism is commonly in evidence in the working of these minor ceremonies. When the J.W. is asked, `What time is it?' he is generally heard to reply, `High time, Worshipful Master' in the Calling Off, and `Past high time' in the Calling On. `High time' is an utterly meaningless expression, save in such a colloquialism (said, indeed, to have been seriously cited in explanation of the use of the phrase here) as `It is high time for some refreshment'. The logical term is `high twelve' and old rituals show that this was formerly used in the working.* Thus in 1730 we have: Q. - What's a clock? A. - High twelve. and in 1797: Mas. - What o'clock is it, Brother? Ans. - High twelve.


            Mas. - Call the men off from work to refreshment.


            And, again, we find a reference to the J.W. who `stands in the south at high twelve ... to call the men off from work to refreshment'.


            It ought not to be necessary to explain that `high twelve' is a well known archaic term for noon which was used in `low twelve' or midnight. According to the more elaborate version of our legend that was in vogue shortly before the Union, the body of the ancient G.M., who had been slain at high twelve, * We still have the term in the Third Degree ceremony where it is related that the ancient G.M. was wont to go to worship 'at the hour of high twelve'.


            The Junior Warden   123 was hidden in the Temple until low twelve, when it was secretly removed to its first burial place.


            The writer strongly suspects that the erroneous form `high time' was originated by some uneducated exponent of the ritual who had recourse to a note in which the term was camouflaged as `High t. ... '. Not knowing the expression `high twelve', he filled the blank with the same word that occurs in the question, and the error became crystallised.' s In support of this the writer has a copy, made by himself, of a MS., believed to date from the 1790s, that belonged to the late Bro. Tuckett, in which occurs: What..., is it? High t ..., R.W. Sir.


            What is to be done at H ... T ...? To call the workmen from L ... to R ...


            Here `t ... ' in the second line obviously represents `twelve', but an uneducated person might quite conceivably think that it was meant to indicate the same word that occurs in the previous line. And similarly in regard to `T ... ' in the third line.


            The error of `high time' actually occurs in Browne's Master-Key' 3 a fact that may possibly have conduced to its dissemination.


            It is, of course, well known to those interested in archaisms that old-time workmen called the period of their mid-day recess `the high time of the day',' a and a correspondent of Miscellanea Latomorum actually claimed that it was this that gave origin to the term `High time' in the modern Calling Off formula. But that contention is put out of court by the habitual pre-Union use in this connexion of `high twelve', as in the instances quoted above. It is most unlikely that our brethren in the early 19th century would have gone out of their way to substitute for the hitherto accepted term an expression that had long since become obsolete and that probably few, if any, of them had ever heard. Even if they had done so, they would obviously have said `the high time' and not simply `high time'.


            It may be of interest to note that in the Scotch working the answers, in Calling Off and Calling On respectively, to the question, `What is the time?' are: `The Sun is at his meridian', and `The Sun has passed his meridian'.


            8 The Work of the Senior Warden On the assumption that the preceding chapter has been read it will be unnecessary to repeat the references that have there been made to some of the duties of the Senior Warden.


            Whenever the S.W. enters his chair he should do so from the south side; and whenever he leaves it he will move out towards his left, i.e. northwards. It has already been pointed out that (see p. 59), although it is the general rule that anyone moving about the Lodge should `follow the sun', seemliness dictates certain exceptions to that rule. Thus, it would be absurdly pedantic for the S.W., after he has invested a candidate, to go all the way round the room in order to regain his chair. It suffices that he should simply pass across in front of his pedestal to reach its southern side. So, too, after the Wardens have performed their functions in the 3° ceremony, it is more effective that, in returning to their places, the J.W. should go down the south and the S.W. down the north. On the other hand, in the 3° closing, when the S.W. has communicated the s.s. to the Master, there is no reason why he should not comply with the rule and return to his chair via the south side of the Lodge.


            Opening the 1 ° If the Master, in his first question to the J.W., used (as it is to be hoped he did) the word `Freemason' and not the more usual `Mason', the S.W., in answering the next question, will of course say, `To see that none but Freemasons are present'.


            Incidentally, a brother once queried the correctness of the above answer on the ground that it should be `is present'. But such a form would be `journalese' and due to faulty education. Those who are addicted to that type of language are referred to Fowler's Modern English Usage, s.v. None.


            In reply to the Master's question as to how many Assistant Officers there are, the S.W. should say, `Three besides the Outer Guard or Tyler, namely, etc.' The P.C. makes him say, `the Tyler or Outer Guard', which is illogical, because one would naturally give his general descriptive appellation first and The Senior Warden          125 then our technical term for him. In Claret the S.W. makes the same mistake, but the Master just afterwards puts it correctly, `Outer Guard or Tyler'. Every other ritual except Exeter has the proper form, `Outer Guard or Tyler', in both cases.


            Where slovenly working prevails, the S.W. will be asked to state the duty of the Inner Guard. This he should do in the words, 'To admit Freemasons on proof, to receive candidates in due form, and to obey the commands of the Junior Warden'. Modern editions of the P.C. interpolate a superfluous `the' before candidates' (see p. 85).


            The S.W. is next asked the situation of the Senior Deacon. In answering this let him say, 'At, or near, the right of the Worshipful Master'. Alone of all the rituals, except only R.R.., (it is not in Claret or P.C. (1971)* the modern P. C. has, 'At, or near to, the W.M.', a form of expression which, since it is contrary to the mode of speech of the educated, strikes a stilted and dysphuistict note. If one were asked, `Where will you sit?' he would not reply, 'I will sit near to you', but would say, `near you'. There is no need to speak in unnecessarily uncouth English in our working, especially when even the excuse of old-time ritual formulary cannot be adduced. $ The S.W. may also have to recite the duty of the Senior Deacon and should, therefore, always be prepared to do so.


            In stating his own duty the intelligent S.W. will notice that in the PC. a needed conjunction is omitted and he will not fail to insert it. Without it we have a case of Fowler's `bastard enumeration'. The answer should be, 'To mark the setting sun and to close the Lodge etc. This error occurs in Claret, Unan., Stability and Exeter, but is corrected in Oxford, R.R., Humber, York and Britannia.


            In the absence of a Past Master, the S.W. will have to state the Master's situation and the reason therefore. The Etiquette points out' that in some Lodges it is the practice to word the second answer thus, 'To mark the rising Sun, for as the Sun rises in the east to open and enlighten the day, so the W.M. is placed in the east to open his Lodge etc.' This appropriately carries on to its logical conclusion the sequence that was begun in reference to the Wardens,§ and it would be well if it were generally adopted. P.C., following Gilkes, has `enliven' for `enlighten'. It is a minor point, but the writer, as the result of careful investigation, is satisfied that the latter was the word most * P.C. (1874) has simply, 'At the right of the W.M.' f This word does not appear in O.E.D. It may be translated as 'a bad style of speech or writing'. [Ed] Cf. the word 'like'. In the Bible we occasionally find `like to' (e.g. 1 Sam., xxvi, 15) and 'like unto' (e.g. Exod., xxxiv, 1), but the use has long been eschewed as an awkward archaism.


            § In the Scotch ritual the Master is said 'to represent the rising Sun'.


            E 126  The Senior Warden generally used in early post-Union times, and it certainly seems to him the preferable term. This view is supported by Bristol, Unanimity, Oxford, Stability, Bury and York, where `enlighten' is the word used. A reference by Oliver points to the same conclusion.


            When the Master declares the Lodge open, the S.W. will dismiss his sign simultaneously with him (see p. 48). In the closings it is the S.W. from whom everyone will `take the time' for the dropping of the sns. and he should, therefore, make his movements deliberately and very distinctly.


            Opening of the 2° Nothing in connexion with this calls for animadversion.


            Opening of the 3° With regard to the answer to the enquiry, `Whither directing your course?' see page 115.


            In giving his last answer in this opening ceremony, the S.W., if he desires to speak the language of educated people, will not use the words put into his mouth by the modern P.C. and all too frequently heard in Lodges, namely, `That being a point from which etc.' This is an example of the unattached participle and, as The Etiquette remarks ,3 `is inchoate and incomplete'. As therein pointed out, whenever a question begins with `Why', the answer must begin with `Because'. It does so in Claret and in every other ritual except P.C., Humber and Exeter. The answer should be, `Because that is a point from which a Master Mason cannot err'. The writer feels strongly on the point, since he is always conscious of an unpleasantly jarring sensation whenever he hears the uncouth form which he has criticised.


            Closing in the 3° When the Wardens leave their chairs for the communication of the s.s., the S.W. will go up the north until he is a little east of the Tracing Board when he turns south to face the J.W. from whom he receives them (see p. 116). Then, when the J.W. has gone back to his chair, he turns to the east and requests the Master to receive them. The Master comes down and stands in front of his pedestal for the purpose, and the S.W. communicates the s.s. in exactly the same manner as that in which he received them from the J.W. He then salutes and returns via the south to his chair, keeping up the sn. as he goes.


            As regards the practice of the S.W. closing the several degrees `in the name of the Deity, see page 136.


            Closings of the 2° and 1° These call for no remark, save to remind the S.W. that his reply, when he is asked why he is placed in the west, differs slightly from his corresponding answer in the opening. As given in practically all the rituals the sentence starts The Senior Warden            127 somewhat baldly. Effectiveness will be served if it is begun like the similar answer in the opening ceremony, thus, `To mark the setting Sun, for as the Sun sets in the west to close the day, so the S.W. is placed etc.' THE CEREMONIES First Degree The S.W. challenges the candidate at the last of the three `doors' and almost immediately afterwards presents him to the Master as `a candidate properly prepared to be made a Freemason'. As nearly everywhere in the ritual, `Freemason' is to be preferred to `Mason' (see p.69).


            He is then ordered to direct the Deacon to instruct the candidate to advance to the E., and custom ordains that he should sit down before addressing that officer.


            Both here and in the other Degrees he should remember that the advance is symbolically to the E. But if the Master through ignorance, or misled by a faulty ritual, commits the solecism of describing it as `to the pedestal', the S.W. has no alternative but to use the same formula, for, of course, he must pass on the command in the same words as those in which it has been given to him.


            In the 1838 Claret the Master is made to say `to the E.', but the S.W. transmutes it into `to the pedestal'. In the modern P.C. both Master and Warden say `to the pedestal' in this Degree, though in each of the other Degrees they both say correctly, `to the E.' (see p. 147).


            Rituals vary as to whether the advance is described as being `in due form' or `by the proper sps.' The Master can please himself as to which form he adopts, but whichever he uses, the S. W. should use the same (see p.147).


            After the candidate has had the ss. communicated to him and has undergone a probation at the hands of the J.W., he is brought to the S.W. for a more detailed probation. When towards the end of this the Warden rises to receive the g. from the candidate, he should not remove his glove (see p. 68). With regard to the interchange of the W. see p. 60.


            On the conclusion of the probation, the candidate is led to the left of the S.W. who takes his hand and presents him to the Master for a mark of favour and is thereupon delegated to invest him.* For this purpose the Warden leaves his chair and, standing in front of the Candidate who remains facing east, he proceeds, with any assistance from the Deacon that he may require, to tie on the badge. He must remember that the According to some rituals (e.g. Brit.) the S.W. here presents the candidate `for some further mark' of the Master's favour and the word `further' is often adversely criticised. But there can be no theoretical objection to it since the Master has already conferred on him a striking mark of his favour by initiating him and the investiture is surely a `further mark' thereof.


            128     The Senior Warden flap of the badge is to be turned up (see p.129). Nothing looks more slovenly or ineffective than for the Warden to attempt to perform the investiture without leaving his chair, and yet the practice is sometimes followed.


            Having affixed the badge, the S.W., standing in front of his pedestal (so as not to be between the candidate and the Master), delivers his address. It is regrettable that in many Lodges today it is customary to give the curtailed version of this address that appears in the P. C. The final sentence of the form there printed is unpardonable. `If you never disgrace that badge, it will never disgrace you', implies the corollary, `but if you do disgrace it, it will disgrace you', a proposition that is surely unthinkable! What is intended, and what should, therefore, be said, is, `Let me exhort you never to disgrace it, for you may be well assured that it will never disgrace you'.' In the hope the Senior Wardens who read these notes will see their way to give the address in its older, and complete, form, we here set it out in full.


            Brother A., by the Worshipful Master's command I invest you with the distinguishing badge of a Freemason. It is more ancient than the Golden Fleece or Roman Eagle, more honourable than the Garter or any other Order in existence, being the Badge of Innocence and the Bond of Friendship; and I strongly exhort you ever to wear, and consider, it as such. You will observe that this apron is made from the skin of a lamb; and, as the lamb has been from time immemorial the universally acknowledged emblem of Purity and Innocence, you will be thereby reminded of that purity of life and actions which should at all times distinguish a Freemason, and which is essential* to your gaining admission to that Grand Lodge above where the blessed ever rest in eternal peace. I trust that you may live many years to wear that badge with pleasure to yourself, usefulness to the Craft, and honour to the Lodge in which you have this day been initiated. And let me further exhort you never to disgrace it, for you may be well assured that it will never disgrace you.


            The practice, sometimes witnessed, of the Warden taking hold of the badge towards the end of his address and smacking it, besides being disrespectful to the badge itself, is ineffective and therefore undesirable.


            Having given the address, the Warden re-enters his chair from its south side.


            Two of the rituals known to the writer are actually guilty of the gross irreverence of investing the Candidate with his badge `in the name of the Deity, namely Bury (in each degree) and Exeter (in the 1° and 2°). W. Bro. Baker (Dep. Prov. Grand Mark Master, Kent) states that they do the same in the Canterbury Lodges, Nos. 31, 972, 1449, and also, he thinks in 6338 (cf.


            * The usual formula has `most essential' but `most' is incongruous and should be omitted. There can be no degrees of essentialness.


            The Senior Warden  129 p. 137).


            Vibert has pointed out that the reference to the Golden Fleece and Roman Eagle probably has a mediaeval, rather than a classical connexions It may be of interest to note that in some rituals, both post and pre-Union the reference is to `the Star and Garter'. The explanation of this is that, after Charles I, in 1629, had added a star to the insignia of the Order,b his example was followed on signboards, and nearly every inn which had previously been `The Garter' became `The Star and Garter', 7 and that name was applied by the populace to the Order, although it was never its official title. It was natural, therefore, that it should be used by some of our uneducated predecessors. The modern P C has rightly corrected the reference to `the Garter'. Some workings have the `Star, or Garter, or etc.' as to which see Miscellanea Latomorum xxx, 131, where it is stated that an Order of the Star was actually instituted in France in 1352 but that it soon ran into disrepute and ceased to exist. It is most unlikely that the name of that Order was ever familiar to our predecessors in the Craft or that the phrase `Star and Garter', when it came into the ritual in the 18th Century, implied any reference to it.


            Many brethren take so little interest in our ceremonial procedure that they do not know why the flap of the E.A.'s badge should always be turned up.


            The Freemasonic apron represents the apron of the old operative mason, such as is still worn in part of the Mark Degree ceremony. It reached nearly to the ankles. It was fastened by two thongs passed round the waist and tied in front, the tassels of the present Master Mason's badge being the vestigia of their dependent ends. The upper part covered the chest and was held up by a loop round the neck. By such an apron the apprentice, doing rough and dirty work, protected his clothing.


            `The more expert Craftsmen' (cf. p. 161), engaged on more delicate and cleaner work, and not needing so much protection for his upper garments, for coolness or show (i.e., to mark his superior status), did not trouble to adjust the chest-piece of his apron but let it hang down.


            The flap of our modern apron is the equivalent of the old `fall' and is therefore turned up by the E.A. but allowed to hang down by the F.C. Formerly that was the only distinction between the grades. The two rosettes now placed on the F.C. apron, although prescribed in the Book of Constitutions, are an arbitrary and meaningless ornamentation, possibly introduced at the instigation of the purveyors of clothing in order that two aprons should have to be bought by a Lodge where previously one sufficed. It must be remembered that in the 18th century - at any rate in the early part thereof - the only apron used was the plain lamb's-skin such as the E.A. now wears, and it was customary for the Lodge to keep a supply of them for the use of the brethren who did not, as nowadays, each possess his own apron.


            130     The Senior Warden Second Degree In the candidate's second perambulation the S.W. receives from him the P.G. and P.W. He should not ask him how the P.W. is `usually depicted', but merely, `How is it depicted in a F.C.'s Lodge?' because it is never depicted but in the one and only accepted manner.


            The S.W. next presents the candidate to the Master and is told to direct the Deacon to instruct him to advance to the E., either `in due form' or `by the proper sps.' When in due course he has been entrusted with the ss., the candidate undergoes his probation by the Wardens. The remarks previously made in connexion with these are to be carefully noted (see pp. 60, 99, 102, 103 and 119).


            It seems desirable to mention a ridiculous solecism too frequently committed, not only by Wardens but even by some Masters. Over and over again one hears the instruction given, `Advance to me as a F.C. first as an E.A.' With an intelligent candidate this may pass muster on the first occasion on which he hears it, for it naturally occurs to him that the officer, after telling him to advance as a F.C. has suddenly remembered that he should have begun by directing an advance as an E.A. and has thereupon corrected his instruction. But when the same example of apparent forgetfulness is repeated time after time, it becomes ludicrous and the candidate can hardly fail to smile. Moreover, if he is alert, he begins to respond the moment he hears the command, `Advance to me as a F.C.' and when that command is altered, as it were by an after-thought, he has to check his movement when it is half performed and try to start afresh, with the inevitable result of a muddled execution. This silly and unintelligent mode of _giving the direction cannot too strongly be condemned. All instructions ought to be given in the order in which they are to be carried out. Thus, instead of using the absurd formula quoted, the S.W. should first direct the candidate to `advance to me as an E.A.', and when that command has been obeyed (but not until then) he may continue, `and now as a F.C.' The S.W. next presents the candidate for some further mark of favour and he is delegated to invest him, to do which he leaves his chair and, when the Senior Deacon has removed the E.A. badge, ties on that of a F.C. 'then, standing as before in front of his pedestal, he gives the short address, after which he returns to his chair.


            Third Degree In the course of the second perambulation the S.W. briefly proves the candidate as a F.C. When asking him for the W., he should be careful to say, `Give me that W. and, on this occasion, being in open Lodge, freely and at length' (seep. 119).


            The Senior Warden In the third perambulation he receives from the candidate the P.G. and P.W., and afterwards presents him, whereupon he is told to direct the Deacons to instruct him in the advance to the E., which he does.


            In connexion with the P.W. the P C. represents the S.W. as asking, `What was ... ?' It is a detail of little moment, but the Oxford form, `Who was ... ?' seems more rational and certainly sounds better.


            The duties of the Wardens after the Ob. have been fully detailed in the account of the Junior Warden's work to which the reader is referred (see p. 120 et seq). It is only necessary to add that when the Master mentions ,a. v. b. on the 1. t.' the S.W. must wait for the cue-word, `t.', before taking action.


            When the newly raised brother, having restored himself to comfort, returns to the Lodge, he is placed on the left of the S.W. who takes his hand and presents him for some further mark of the Master's favour. The S.W. is delegated to invest him and does so in the same manner as on previous occasions, the S.D. rendering any help that may be required.


            A note must be added on the procedure to be adopted after the Ob. when two candidates are being given the Degree together, since it involves a slight modification of the ordinary arrangements.


            The Deacons, who during the earlier part of the ceremony have each been in charge of a candidate, will now have to act as assistant Wardens. As before, at the end of the Ob. they move the candidates back to the foot of the o. g., where they make them stand erect about a yard apart with their feet squared.


            At this point the D.C. should come forward and relieve the Deacons of their wands.


            Each Deacon takes his place immediately behind his own man and they remain there when the Wardens come up, the latter taking their positions in line with, and outside the Deacons.


            Their relative positions will be: CAN.          CAN.


            S.W. J.D.        S.D. J.W.


            As the Wardens in turn have to carry out certain actions in relation to both candidates, it will be best, in the interests of smooth and effective working, that it should be left to the Deacons each to direct and guide the movements of his own particular charge after a Warden has performed his function upon him. In doing his part each Warden in his turn will move forward, operate first on the candidate nearer to him and then step across in front of him to reach the other candidate.


            The Deacons must remember that after the first incident the candidate remains in the posture he has been made to assume until the Master speaks 132         The Senior Warden the cue-word, `recovering'. But after the second incident, the recovery is effected immediately, before the Master proceeds, since there is now no cue-word to wait for.


            When the time comes for the Master himself to take action, the S.W. and J.D. will attend to the candidate on the left, the S.D. and J.W. to the one on the right. Their duty accomplished, the Wardens and Deacons fall back and stand in line a yard or so behind the candidates; the Deacons, as before, occupying the median stations and taking no further part in the formalities until their assistance is again required at the final moment, when they and the Wardens distribute themselves between the candidates as they did previously. A Past Master will, of course, be called in to act as Master in relation to the second candidate.


            When the Wardens are ordered to resume their seats, the Deacons will do so likewise, first recovering their wands from the D.C.


            9  The Work of the Master  We shall now go through the ritual, taking the 1920 edition of The Perfect Ceremonies as a text for reference, and comment on those details that call for animadversion and that have not already been dealt with in the foregoing pages. Any further notes that seem desirable will be added and thus we shall in effect treat fully of the Master's work and complete the series of chapters on the work of the Officers.


            Were it not that experience has proved the contrary, it would have been thought unnecessary to say that however anxious a Master may be to achieve a word-perfect rendering of whatever ritual he has learnt, he should realise that, when doing the work in Lodge, if a word or phrase escapes his memory, it is far better to substitute a synonym, or express the sense in some alternative wording, than to pause and try to recall the elusive formulary and wait for a prompt if he fails to do so. This course, we believe, has always been advocated by the leaders of Emulation but unfortunately it is not always acted on by their disciples, with the result that the effectiveness of the ceremonial and the impression made on the candidate is all too often entirely spoilt.


            The following hint may be useful to beginners. Not infrequently, when one is learning the work and repeatedly rehearsing it in private, some particular word or sentence persistently eludes one's memory. In such a case it is a good plan for him to think out, and decide on, an alternative form of expression which will then be ready in his mind for use if the lapse should occur in Lodge. To feel that he is thus prepared against the accident will so give him confidence and relieve the nervousness that has inevitably developed that in nearly every case he will find that `on the night' the alternative will not be called for.


            In view of Rule 101, B. of C, it is the practice in some Lodges for the Master, before he begins the opening ceremony, to exhibit and call attention to the Warrant. It would be well if this custom were more generally followed. The Master should remember that whenever he puts up, or dismisses, a sn.


            E* 134            The Master that the brethren have to copy, he ought to be distinct and deliberate in his movements so that simultaneity of action may be secured (see p. 47).


            He should also bear in mind that, under the arrangements found in most English Lodges today, his pedestal has a dual character. It is a combination of altar and table. Formerly the Three Great Lights lay on a small altar which stood in, or near, the centre of the room as is still the case in many jurisdictions. Then the altar was moved eastwards and was placed immediately in front of the Master's pedestal, an arrangement that still obtains in some of our northern Provinces' and in a few Lodges elsewhere, including at least one Kentish Lodge. But in the large majority of English Lodges the Three Great Lights are now placed on a cushion which lies on the pedestal, the area covered by the cushion being in effect the altar, while the wooden surface that extends beyond that area is a mere table on which the Master may lay his gavel, agenda paper and other odds and ends, and on which will stand his column when he is provided with one.


            Under no circumstances whatever should the Master place anything on the altar, that is to say, on the Bible or the cushion. Too frequently he is seen to put his agenda on the Bible, or temporarily the Working Tools in the course of explaining them. Occasionally he even lays the Minute Book on it while signing it.


            In one Lodge known to the writer the objectionable practice obtains of the Deacons pouring out the voting papers, in the ballots for Master and Treasurer, upon the Bible. No excuse for this sacrilege is conceivable.


            The one possible exception to this rule is in the case of the Tyler's sword. In some Lodges it is the custom for the Tyler, when he comes in to be invested, to lay the sword on the Bible, whence in due course the Master takes it up and gives it back into his charge. This is excusable because the act is a ceremonial and solemn one, to which a rational symbolical meaning can readily be attached, and it in no way savours of irreverence or degradation.


            With regard to the positions of the Three Great Lights, see page 62.


            As most brethren probably know, in pre-Union days - at any rate until about the middle of the 18th century and perhaps later - the Master wore his ordinary tall hat in Lodge, removing it only while he pronounced the words of declaring the Lodge open, a custom from which arose one of the old ,catch-questions', `Where does the Master hang his hat?', the proper wording of the answer to which only a brother would know. This no doubt was derived from the Jewish practice of being covered during religious observances, just as the present-day Jew puts on his hat when taking an oath. The custom still obtains in some American jurisdictions. Relics of the practice in this country are mentioned at page 20 supra, but it is of interest to note that in the Newstead Lodge, where the Master wears his hat during ceremonies, he nowadays removes it during prayers and obligations; this, although at variance The Master with the Hebraic origin of the custom, doubtless arose as a concession to modern religious sentiment.


            This is an approriate place to remind the reader that when a Master vacates the Chair for a P.M. to perform a ceremony he must not transfer his collar to his substitute, but the latter must be clothed according to his rank, that is to say, if he is not wearing a garter-blue Past Master's apron and collar, he must wear a light-blue Past Master's collar.


            When he thus temporarily vacates his place the Master should sit on the immediate right of the Chair* unless one or more of his superiors (i.e., those who have authority to supplant him, such as his Provincial Grand Master) be present, in which case he will sit on his, or their, right.


            Past Masters of the Lodge sit on the dais to the left of the Chair, the I.P.M. next to the Master and the others immediately beyond the Chaplain. Where punctiliousness obtains they sit in order of their seniority as Past Masters without regard to the style and colour of their clothing.


            Visiting Grand Officers (as well as present and past Provincial or District Grand Masters of other areas even if they are not Grand Officers) and visiting Provincial (or District) Grand Officers of the Province (or District) to which the Lodge belongs (in London Lodges visiting holders of London Grand Rank) will be seated in order of seniority on the Master's right, chairs being, of course, reserved for any of the Master's superiors who may be expected, and one for the Master himself if he has arranged to delegate any part of the work to a Past Master.' If the Master agrees with the view expressed in The Etiquette (seep. 69), his first question to the J.W. will be, `What is the first care of every Freemason?' and the S.W.'s reply to the next question will be, `To see that none but Freemasons are present'.


            *           [The Board of General Purposes has ruled that `when some other qualified Brother is presiding' in Lodge, `The Master should sit on the immediate left of the Brother presiding, the I.P.M. on the immediate left of the Master, and the Chaplain on the immediate left of the I.P.M. See Masonic Year Book, 1969, p. 834. Ed. l It should be noted - since misunderstanding on the point is prevalent - that, with the exception of present and past Provincial or District Grand Masters, Provincial or District Grand Officers, (although they are permitted to wear their distinctive clothing) have no precedence outside their own Province (or District), and holders of London Grand Rank have no precedence outside the London area. (B. of C., Rules 60 and 72). Consequently such brethren when visiting a Lodge outside their own area are not to be accorded any formal courtesy, as regards reception or seating, beyond that given to any other visitor. Obviously, therefore, at the dinner the toast of Provincial (or District) Grand Officers (or in London Lodges the toast of holders of London Grand Rank) must not be taken by those of another area to include themselves.


            THE OPENINGS AND CLOSINGS 135 136         The Master The Master may fairly expect each of his Assistant Officers to be capable of defining his own duty and should therefore ask him to do so. Unless he has good reason for so doing, he should not cast a slight on them by putting the questions to the Wardens. As previously stated (see pp. 80, 85), in some Lodges the Tyler is brought in to recite his duty.* `The Master's place?' The question, as thus worded in the P.C., is unpleasantly, almost offensively, bald and curt. Gilkes himself was almost as crude. The formula of Oxford and Bury is far more ceremonious and impressive. The Master turns to the I.P.M. and says, `Worthy and Worshipful Past Master X., what is the situation of the Worshipful Master?' It is appropriate that the P.M., in giving his reply, should say, `To mark the rising Sun, for as the Sunrises in the east to open and enlighten (see p.125) the day, so the Worshipful Master is placed etc.' In Britannia working (see p. 85) the question as to the Master's place is addressed to the S.W.; the next question, as to why he is placed there, to the I.P.M.


            `let us invoke the assistance of the G.A. 0.T. U. in all our undertakings.' This phrase is peculiar to the P.C. (from 1874 onwards) and is weak and ineffective. Surely `invoke a blessing from the G.A.O.T.U., do all our undertakings', as in Claret, RC (1871). and all other rituals, except only Unanimity, is far preferable. The writer feels strongly that thus to ask, and obviously expect, the Deity to take an active adjuvant part in the performance of our ceremonies savours of undue presumption and cannot but be regarded as lacking in reverence (cf. p. 145).


            `be conducted in peace and closed in harmony'.


            One occasionally meets with brethren who take the view that the words `peace' and `harmony' should be interchanged, as indeed they are in Brit. and presumably, therefore, in the working of the Sheffield Lodges. The two words, as used here, are virtually synonymous (absolute synonyms probably do not exist) so that each is equally appropriate in either place, and there is no good reason to alter the customary, and time-honoured, phrase.


            `in the name of TG.A.0.T U.


            The Etiquette 3 deprecates the custom of declaring the Lodge (in any Degree) open or closed `in the name of the Almighty under His various designations. It would appear that in the 1760s the Antients opened the Lodge `in the name of God and Holy St. John', but the Moderns `in the name *     A note in the Scotch ritual says that in some Lodges, when the Master has given the k. preliminary to opening the Lodge, the Tyler is called in, `reminded of his duties, has the emblem of his office handed to him and returns to his post'.


            The Master     137 of Holy St. John' only. In 1802, however, the Moderns opened it `in the name of the Grand (sic) A.O.T.U.,4 and it is quite likely that the practice was adopted by the Reconciliation workers, but in those days people were less averse to* taking the name of God lightly and in vain than we are now. In the Oxfordshire working the Master simply declares the Lodge open without pretending to have the authorisation of the Supreme Being to do so. No doubt, if a Master feels that he has such inspired authority, he is justified in saying so, but the writer never has been and never will be, guilty of what in his view is a gross irreverence. It is not done by the Grand Master when opening Grand Lodge, which is opened and closed `in the name of the Royal Solomon' only. These remarks apply equally to the case of the S.W. in closing the Lodge.


            In the first edition of The English Ritual the words in question were placed in brackets to indicate that they might be used or not according to individual preference. But in the second edition they have been omitted entirely, as in Oxford: though it is, of course, still open to any Master using the book to introduce them if he feels justified in so doing. It need hardly be said that if the Master does not use them in the openings, the S.W. should not use them in the closings. Their omission slightly affects the wording of the prayers in the 2° and 3° ceremonies. (see pp. 166 and 178). It may be noted that in Benefactum working a compromise is adopted, the degrees being opened and closed `in the presence of ' the Almighty under His several appellations.


            It may be mentioned here, that the Bury working contains an incident which, as far as the writer's experience goes, is found nowhere else. When the Master before the Opening of the Lodge, gives the Tyler his sword (see p. 80n.), he adds, `I also entrust you with the Pass-word, and charge you to let none in without my consent, and none without the Word.' When the Tyler has gone to his post, the Master `calls the I.G., and gives him his sword and the Pass-word.' It would seem that this Pass-word either varies with the degree, or is changed on different evenings, for when a Candidate for Passing or Raising - after answering the test-question - has been given the P.W. to the higher degree, and is about to go out, a rubric says, `The Master then gives the Lodge password to the Candidate'.


            `By what instrument in architecture will you be proved?' It is more correct to say, `instrument used in architecture'. This applies also to the corresponding question in the 3° opening.


            In regard to the proving of the brethren in the 2° a point arises from the PC. formulary which curiously seems hitherto to have escaped notice. The J.W. has just previously elected to be proved by `the sq.' (the method by which that process would be carried out is, in the present connexion, * Any unclassical reader, who may be tempted to criticise `averse to' is referred to Fowler'sModern English Usage, s.v. AVERSE.


            138     The Master immaterial). When, immediately afterwards, he is given an unqualified order to `prove the brethren Craftsmen', one would naturally expect that proof also to be effected `by the sq.' Yet the brethren act as if the Master had directed the J.W. to prove them `by sns.', as he does in the 3°. Obviously the Master should order the proof to be `by sns.' in both degrees.


            Et. and R.R. suggest that in the 2° the Master should direct the proof to be `by the threefold sn.' (but merely on the ground that it makes the formulary analogous to that of the 3°) and these words are, indeed, used in both Rit. 1825 and Unanimity. But a fallacy lies therein, for the proof is accepted by the J.W. (and afterwards by the Master) before the threefold sn. has been completed.


            Some have argued that it is wrong to say `sns.' (plural) in the     because in that degree there is only one sn. But in fact it is a threefold sn. made up of three separate sns., the S. Sri., the H. Sri., and the P. Sri., of which the first two are given in the proof, though, as just pointed out, the third is not given until later when the sn. is dropped. Therefore it is perfectly correct to order a proof `by sns.' in both degrees, though in fact in the 2° the E.R. has `by the sn.


            V acknowledge the correctness of the sn.' The J.W. has been told to `prove' the brethren and it is the correctness or otherwise of their mode of proof on which the Master has to adjudicate. It is, therefore, more logical that he should say, as in Oxf. and Bury, `I acknowledge the correctness of the proof '. This applies equally to the 3°.


            In the opening prayer in the 2° the formula of Claret, Stab., Oxf. and Bristol, `may the rays of heaven shed their benign influence over us', is more impressive than the curtailed version of modern Emulation as given in the P. C.


            With reference to the last three questions and answers in the 3° opening, see pages 115 and 126. It is obvious that if the Master has begun in the first of these questions with `Where', and has, therefore, received the answer, `In (or within) a C' he must phrase the last question, `Why in (or within) a C?' But if he began the first with `How', and had (or should have had) the answer, `With a C.', his last question must be, `Why with a C.?' (but see p. 11Sn.).


            `may Heaven aid our united endeavours In view of what has been said at page 136, this should be `may Heaven bless etc.' or `may the M.H. bless etc.' or, as in Unan., `may Heaven prosper our endeavours'.


            In many Lodges nowadays, when the Master and brethren give the G. and R. Salute at the end of the 3° opening, the Master alone utters the accompanying ejaculation, `All Glory etc.' It ought to be spoken by everyone present, as was formerly the ubiquitous practice. According to Claret (1838) The Master 139 `the brethren exclaim All Glory to the Most High'. In P. C. (1874), however, the rubrical direction reads, `then all give the Grand and Royal s ... n, and the W.M. says, All Glory to the Most High'. This is a definite indication that by that time Emulation had altered their original custom and had adopted the innovation of letting the Master alone enunciate the ejaculation; and that is still their practice today, a practice which is peculiar to them, for in all other workings everyone who gives the salute also speaks the words. Their innovation in this respect is probably responsible for the present frequency of the error. In P.C. (1918) the rubric has, `then, as the W.M. says, All Glory to the Most High, all give the Grand or Royal Sri.' In the current edition of the P.C. the wording is slightly different but is to the same effect. In some workings (e.g. Bristol, Exeter, Brit. and York, as well as in Rit. 1825) the salute and the ejaculation are given three times, first by the Master alone, then by the Master and the Wardens, and finally by all present.


            In regard to the communication of the s ... s ... in the closing of the 3°, see page 116 and 126.


            `sanction and confirm with my approbation' This is bad English. One can confirm a thing, or accord it one's approbation; but to confirm with approbation is nonsense. The words `with my approbation' were not used by Gilkes but have been inserted since his time in Emulation working. The wording should be, `the s ... s ... of a M.M.. . . I, as Master of this Lodge.... do sanction and confirm, and I declare that they shall designate you and all M.M.s throughout the world until time or circumstances shall restore the genuine ones'.


            P C. has `throughout the universe'; but, as The Etiquette says,s `This is a gross error and an absurdity'. It should surely suffice that we confine ourselves to this planet, as do Oxf. and Stability. The last named version has `sanction, confirm and declare etc.', an instance of bastard enumeration.


            A possibly moot point is whether in the closing ceremony the Grand and Royal Salute should be accompanied by the words, `All gratitude to the M.H.', or, as in the opening, by `All glory to the M.H.' P. C, and Exeter have the former, but Bristol, Oxford, Brit. and York the latter. It certainly seems that, although an expression of gratitude to the M.H. is fitting at this place, it is not appropriately accompanied by the Salute. Gratitude to the M.H. would be more suitably expressed in the same attitude as it is in reference to the Master. If desired this might be done, the Salute, with its appropriate verbal accompaniment, following immediately afterwards.


            In Bristol, Exeter and Brit. the salute and its accompanying ejaculation are given three times in the closing as in the opening. In York it is only given once in the closing.


            It should be noted that all present ought to join in the salute and in the ejaculation, as they should do in the opening.


            140     The Master With reference to the unseemliness of the Master giving his closing knock with the left hand, see page 53.


            In the 2° closing we have in P. C.


            `In this position what have you discovered? A s ... s...'.


            It is not within our province to discuss the implication of the symbol. Suffice it to say that it is generally taken to be the letter `G' and to refer to the G.G.O.T.U. (see p. 177). But it is questionable whether `position' is the right word to use. Its exact significance here is uncertain. Exeter uses it but Brit. and Benefactum say, `In this degree', which is, perhaps, preferable, though ER. retains the more usual `position'.


            It may be noted that Exeter adds a further question, `And why to Him?' with the answer, `Because His all-seeing eye ever beholds us'.


            The wording of the prayer in the 1° closing varies in different rituals. Claret, Oxf. and PC. (1871) have, `may He continue to preserve our Order by beautifying and adorning us with every moral and social virtue'. Bristol has, `may He continue to cement and adorn our Order with etc.' and Unanimity has virtually the same. P. C. (1874) and all subsequent editions have, `may He continue to preserve the Order by cementing and adorning it with etc.' Etiquette remarks,' `It would certainly seem that the "moral and social virtues"' belong to the Members rather than to the Order', and quotes another version to which the author gives preference, namely `may He continue to preserve our Order by adorning its members with etc.' This is practically the Exeter version. There is not much to choose between the various forms and the present writer on the whole favours the formula of the modern PC.


            It may be noted that Oxford has, `for the favours we have received', which is perhaps preferable to `for favours already received', (as in P.C., Exeter and Brit.) since the latter tends to call to mind the well-known definition of `gratitude' as `a lively sense of favours still to come'.


            `in a safe repository' Gilkes said simply `a safe repository'. It seems better to define the repository as in Unanimity, Oxford and other old rituals, and say, `in the safe and sacred repository of our hearts'. Some old Lodges' still refer to the putting away of appurtenances, jewels, etc.


            THE QUESTIONS BEFORE PASSING The third answer in P.C. begins, `I was d. of m ... 1', the underlying idea being that in prehistoric times all such substances were of value and that when deprived of them the candidate would be veritably p ... r and p ... s. Formerly it was a common practice to provide special garments, free from all m ... c s ... s, for the candidates; e.g., see Hanson's The Lodge of Probity, pp.


            The Master     141 108 and 166. This is still done in some old Lodges. But since in these days he is seldom absolutely deprived of m ... 1, and in view of the material of our modem currency, it is surely better that the answer should be, `d. of m ... y and v...em...s'.$ The next part of the description in the P.C. is faulty in that it does not specify which `k'. is to be m. b. Oxford avoids any possibility of doubt by saying, `my r. a., l. b. and 1. k. were m. b.' PC has, `and a c. t. placed about m. n.' English requires the insertion of `was' before `placed'.


            'When the Sun was at its meridian' (see p. 114).


            `which at first view appears a paradox' A paradox is that which appears to be a contradiction, but which is not so in reality. Therefore, to say, `that which at first view appears a paradox' is as bad as saying `appears an apparent contradiction', and that is absurd. The wording should be, `how do you explain this paradox?' or even better, `how do you explain this remarkable paradox?" `repeated trials and approbations' The word `approbations' is obviously incorrect. The proper word is `probations', which is used in Oxford (and also in the Scotch working), although most English rituals have the erroneous `approbations', while Exeter has `approvals', which is equally bad. Our technical term for testing a brother's qualification is `proving' and the noun for the act of proving is `probation'. Thus we have, `Try me and prove me'; that is to say, `submit me to trial and probation'. It is by passing successfully through `repeated trials and probations' that a brother knows himself to be a Freemason. The only occasions when the sense of approve is apposite in our ritual are when a prospective candidate is said to have been `properly proposed and approved in open Lodge' and in the eulogium on Charity.* The term `approbation' in reference to the technical test examination is utterly out of place. It can only have crept in through the mistake of some uneducated brother (possibly Gilkes himself) who, not being acquainted with the word `probation', thought it was wrong and substituted the nearest approximation that came within the limits of his vocabulary.' o It is not forgotten that in P.C. the word `approbation' does occur in one other place, namely, in the 3° closing; but, as has been pointed out (see p.139), it is just as incongruous there as it is in the present connexion.


            In accordance with the views expressed in The Etiquette it is desirable that throughout the Test Questions, as in most other places in the ritual, `freemason' and `freemasonry' should be used in preference to `mason' and `masonry' (see p. 69).


            *           Also in the 30 closing when the s...d s...s are submitted for the Master's approval.


            142     The Master At the end of the Test Questions the P.C. represents the Master as offering to put other questions if desired. There is no indication of this in Claret or in any other ritual. Hextall referred to it as `An innovation now in vogue.... a practice of recent origin'." Another brother wrote that `it is common knowledge to old members of the Craft that no mention or suggestion of "other questions" was ever made until comparatively recent years'." The practice is in fact unwarrantable, because we make the candidate learn the answers to a certain set of questions with the definite implication that his knowledge thereof will fully qualify him for advancement. It is manifestly unfair to ask him something further that we know he has not been taught; it puts him in a false position and can only make him feel uncomfortable. If any Lodge thinks that the `usual questions' are not enough, it has merely to adopt the practice of All Soul's Lodge, Weymouth - a practice that dates from early post-Union days - and teach him 36 questions and answers as an E.A. and 64 as a F.C., all of which are there put to him in Lodge.


            Without going to the extreme of the Weymouth Lodge, there are a few additional details that might well be included among those taught to the candidate in the test catechisms. Thus, since the usual M.M.'s Test contains the question, `How did you gain admission?' (i.e., to the Lodge for your raising) and the answer, `By the k. of a F.C.', it would be only logical that the F.C.'s Test should include the question and answer, `How did you gain admission to the Lodge?T 'By the k. of an E.A.' And similarly in the E.A.'s Test there should be interpolated as the fourth question and answer, `How was admission to the Lodge obtained for you?T 'By t. d. k.' Further, the E.A.'s Test usually ends baldly with a reference to the `P.Ps. of my E.' but he is not enlightened as to what they are and it may be years before he learns them from the Lecture. It is surely desirable that the explanation should be given to him now, as is done in Brit. and E.R. For instance.


            Q. - What are the Ps. of your E.? A. - O., a. and o.


            Q. - O., a. and o. what? A. - O. my own f. w. and a.; a. t. d. o. t. I.; and o. m. l. k. b. and b.


            It may be remarked that in the Emulation Lecture the old form of the last P., as given above, has been altered to `O. the p. of a s. i. presented to m. n. l. b.' In Brit. it is given more briefly as `O. the p. of the s,' the s. standing for `sword'.


            In Exeter, although the candidate is not taught these Ps. as part of the test, after he has answered his questions the Master explains them to him. In that working, however, the Ps. are unusual and are thought to be peculiar to it. They are, `In my h. I first conceived the desire to be made a M.; at t. d. o. t. I., I sought admission; on the V.S.L. I was obligated'.


            The Master     143 A correspondent of Miscellanea Latomorum (XXX, 57) informs us that in some Lodges it is the custom for the candidate,. when answering the test questions, to be called on also to recite the Ob. of his previous degree.


            In some workings, e.g. Brit. and Exeter, an excellent custom obtains whereby, after the conclusion of each ceremony, the Test Questions that appertain to the degree are rehearsed for the instruction of the newly qualified brother, either by the Master and Wardens or by the Master and the appropriate Deacon.


            In communicating the P.W. the Master should remember that it does not denote (if that word is to be taken in the sense of `mean') P ... y. It has two distinct meanings: (1) an e. of c. and (2) a s. of w. The statement that it is always (not `usually') depicted . . . by an e. of c. near a f. of w. must seem quite pointless to the candidate who, unless he is told at the same time that it is the actual meanings of the word that are thus illustrated, cannot possibly see how those drawings can be said to `depict' the word. The growth of grain in a well-watered soil suggests the implication that we attach to the word and so we are justified in saying that it implies, though not that it denotes, P ... y.* The educated Master will, of course, avoid the dysphuistic `near to' and will say, `near a f. of w.' (or `near a w ... 1') (cf. pp. 103,125).


            The needless interpolation of `to' is peculiar to the modern Emulation working.. It is not in Claret, Rit. 1825, Stab., Oxford or York.


            The following is probably the most suitable formulary for the Master to use in his explanation: The Hebrew word, ... , has two meanings, an e. of c. and a s. of w. It is always depicted in a F.C.'s Lodge by an e. of c. near a w ... 1, and from this conjunction of its two meanings we, in Freemasonry, regard the word as implying P ... y.


            It must be remembered that the P.G. as well as the P.W. is necessary for admittance to a Lodge in a higher Degree, and therefore the Master should say, `you must be particularly careful to remember this P.W., as without it and the P.G. you will be unable to gain admission to the Lodge when opened in a superior Degree'. The P. C. omits reference to the P.G. in this connection, nor is it mentioned, as it should be, when the candidate seeks admission to the Lodge.


            THE QUESTIONS BEFORE RAISING In the P.C. and most other rituals the answer respecting the preparation is imperfect. Obviously, after `h. w.' there should be inserted - as is done in Exeter - the words, `nor was a c. t. placed about m. n.' And the P.C. version * See Rosenbaum's Masonic Words and Proper Names, p. 11. The Scotch ritual adds that, `It teaches us that while we have bread to eat and water to drink we have all that nature requires'.


            144     The Master is ambiguous as to which b. is referred to, although those who use the working always interpret it as meaning the left b. However, as pointed out on page 61, the right is more logical and has the support of old, and still general, usage. The answer, therefore, should be `. . . . my 1. a., r. b., and r. k. were m. b. and my 1. h. was s ... d'.


            With regard to the word `porchway', see page 158; and as to the phrase that is frequently given in the guise of a Biblical quotation, see page 172. The reference to the P.G. made above applies here also.


            THE CEREMONY OF INITIATION `inquire who wants admission' ' Thus the P.C.; but practically every other ritual has `seeks admission', which seems definitely preferable in that it conveys a sense of humility, whereas `wants' verges on the idea of `demands'. But whichever word the Master uses, the J.W. must, of course, use the same.


            'Bro. Deacons' As already stated on page 92, many of our older brethren strongly object to this call, holding that it casts a slur on the alertness of the Deacons. In any case, if the call is made, it should be in the correct plural form, `Brothers Deacons'.


            ,as no person can be made a mason unless he is free' Formerly a candidate was required to be free by birth, and in the declaration that he signed prior to his initiation he was made so to describe himself. But after the passing of the Emancipation Act of 1834 it sufficed that he should be a free man and the declaration was altered accordingly. In some workings, however (e.g., Bristol, York and Humber), the term `freeborn' or `free by birth' is still retained though it is obviously now incorrect. In the Emulation First Lecture, Sect. 1, the condition of being freeborn is still assumed to be requisite.


            The following wording seems to be slightly preferable to that of P. C, `As no person can be made a Freemason unless he is free and of mature age, I demand to know if you are a free man and of the full age of twenty-one years'. Save for the substitution of `Freemason' for `Mason' that is the Oxford wording.


            The Prayer then follows during which all should stand to order as E.A.s. (see p. 56 et seq. ).


            This prayer usually begins with the words, `Vouchsafe Thine aid ... to our present convention'. As stated at page 136 in reference to the opening prayer, it is surely more seemly to say, `Vouchsafe Thy blessing ... on our present convention', the form which is used in the Scotch ritual and is adopted in the E.R.


            The Master

 145 'that ... he may the better be enabled' The phrase `that he (or you) may be the better enabled' occurs four times in the course of the ritual* and we find it in that form in the pre-Union Browne, in Claret, Unan., Oxf, Bristol, Stab., York and P.C. (1871); in fact in every ritual but Humber and the modern PC In the last two it has been changed, for some unfathomable reason, into the incorrect form quoted in the heading of this paragraph, which has quite a different meaning. The difference is, perhaps, somewhat subtle, but on a little consideration it will be evident to anyone of moderate intelligence. For the benefit of those who cannot appreciate it, we may point out that the usual, and correct, form means, `that he may be rendered more capable' (in the present instance by the aid of divine wisdom and a knowledge of our masonic principles), whereas the P. C. form can only mean, `that by some better process than heretofore (better than what not being specified) he may be rendered equally, but in no degree more, competent.' The same criticism applies in each case where the phrase occurs. This is an example of the debasing effect that the influence of uneducated practitioners has had on our ritual.t 'to unfold the beauties of true godliness' Rit. 1825, Claret, Unan., Oxf., P.C. (1871), Stab., Bristol and York all have `to display the beauties'. Probably most people will think that the alteration made in their working by Emulation since their early days is, on the whole, an improvement, inasmuch as `unfold' carries the suggestion of a progressive development. Humber has, `to show forth the beauties'. It may be noted that in the earliest known form of this prayer, namely that in Pennell's Constitutions of 1730, the wording is, `to unfold the Mysteries of Godliness and Christianity'.' 3 `follow your leader' Etiquette says,' 4 `an objectionable form of words is found in some rituals, and as a consequence is often heard in Lodge, ". . . . and follow your leader". This is too suggestive of the child's game of "Follow my leader"'. The criticism is justified. Both Unan. and Oxf. have `follow your guide', which is decidedly preferable, as is the Bristol form, `follow your conductors'; some workers, however, prefer to say, `accompany your guide'.


            `with a firm but humble confidence' The article before `firm' is incongruous and should be omitted. This becomes obvious if we consider the phrase without the adjectives. No one would think * Namely, in the 10 prayer; in the 20 investiture address by the W.M.; in the 3" `Retrospect'; and in the Installation (Inner Working) prayer.


            The same curious error appears in the new Book of Constitutions, Rule 163, where we find, `the better to enable the Brethren to exercise their discretion', although what is certainly intended is, `to enable the Brethren the better to exercise their discretion'.


            146     The Master of saying, `You may go forward with a confidence'.


            `The brethren from [sic] the North, East, etc. ' Nothing but sheer imbecility could ever have allowed this absurd error to creep in and be perpetuated. Etiquette mentions it' s but the quotation is too long for reproduction. Briefly it may be said that the reference is obviously to the course followed by the candidate in his progress round the Lodge. As stated in the First Lecture, Sect. 2, `he [the J.D.] took me ... and led me up the north, past the W.M. in the east, down the south, etc.' It is the brethren sitting in these successive quarters of the room whose attention is called by the Master to the forthcoming perambulation of the candidate. It does not matter in the least where they come from; the point is what places they are now in. Almost every ritual but Claret and PC. has it correctly, `The brethren in the north, east, etc.', Brit. alone having the curious variant, `of the north, etc.' The very order in which the points of the compass are named indicates the originally intended meaning, for if it had been desired to refer to the assemblage of brethren from all directions, the order would naturally have been, `from the north, south, east and west'.


            'to show that he is the candidate' This should be `a candidate', as in Claret. Hextall adverts to the point.' e Many of the brethren do not know the candidate personally and they could not possibly be certain as to his identity (i.e., that he is the candidate whom they have elected), especially in view of his then condition which makes identification well nigh impossible. The object of his perambulation is to show that he is a properly prepared candidate. In the Bristol working the Master directs the Deacons to `conduct the candidate three times round the Lodge, that the brethren in the N., E., S. and W. may observe as he passes before them that he presents himself properly prepared'.


            The PC adds, `and a fit and proper person to be made a Mason'. That was rational enough in the days when the doctrine of physical perfection obtained, for the brethren could see whether he was whole in his limbs; but they cannot possibly judge by seeing him walk round whether he is `fit and proper' in the only sense that we now require. The words appear in Rit. 1825, but Gilkes did not use them and Emulation has apparently introduced them into its working since 1871. Stability and Exeter are the only other present-day rituals that have them.

 It may be noted that P. C. makes the S.W., after the perambulation, present the candidate to the Master correctly as `a candidate properly prepared'.


            your presentation shall be attended to, for which purpose I shall address, etc. ' That is very doubtful English. The Oxford formula is much to be preferred, `shall be attended to, but I must first address a few questions etc.' The Master   147 This criticism applies on several subsequent occasions (see pp. 167 and 178).


            `offer yourself a candidate' Good English demands, `as a candidate.' act and abide by the ancient usages and established customs' One cannot `act by usages and customs'. To render it into English the reading should be, `act in accordance with, and abide by, the ancient usages etc.,' or, as in Brit., `act up to, and abide by, etc.' `instruct the candidate to advance to the pedestal' It is regrettable that the Master is so often heard to speak of the advance as being `to the pedestal'. The pedestal (except that part of it on which rests the V.S.L. and which represents the altar) is merely an accessory and unessential piece of furniture of no esoteric import (see p. 134). The word can have in the mind of the candidate nothing but purely mundane associations. Symbolically the advance is to the East, the abode of light, and the Master should so describe it. It may be noted that in Claret the Master is made to say, `to the east', though the S.W., in passing on the order, says, `to the pedestal'. That is also the case in Stability. A subordinate officer should always pass on a command of his superior in the same words in which he receives it. In Oxford it is correctly `to the east' with both officers. In the other Degrees P.C. and Oxford agree in making both Master and Warden say `to the east' in each case (cf p. 127).


            In Exeter, in each degree, the advance is directed to be `to the pedestal in the E.', and they apparently affect to justify this on the ground that the advance is really to the pillar of Wisdom which hypothetically stands on the pedestal before the seat of the Master (seep. 73).


            `in due form' Rituals vary (and sometimes the same ritual varies in the different Degrees) as to whether the advance is to be `in due form' or `by the proper sps.' In Rit. 1825 we find `in due form' or `by the proper sps.' In Rit. 1825 we find `in due form' in every instance; while in Claret, Stab. and P. C. (1871 and 1874) in each Degree the Master says, `by the proper sps.' but the Warden passes it on as, `in due form'. In the modern P. C. both Master and Warden say `in due form' in the 1° and 2°, but `by the proper sps.' in the 3°, Unan. and Oxf, have `by the proper sps.' in every case, while Exeter has, `in due form and with the proper sps.' It matters not in the least which wording is used, but a slight preference may, perhaps, be accorded to `by the proper sps.', in the First Degree at any rate, on the ground that those words give a hint to the candidate of the nature of the formality he is about to go through and therefore he is able to take a more intelligent interest in the procedure. But whichever formulary the Master uses, it is essential that the Warden should pass the 148 The Master command on to the Deacon in the identical words in which he has received it (cf p. 127).


            `It is my duty to inform you that masonry is free' The phraseology of the R.R., which is also that advocated in Etiquette," is decidedly preferable, namely, `It is my duty to inform you that the speculative masonry which we practise is essentially free, and requires etc.' `that in those vows there is nothing incompatible' The Oxf. phrase, `that those vows are in no way incompatible' is slightly more euphonious. Claret has simply `those vows are not incompatible'.


            In the directions as to the candidate's posture during the Ob., the P.C. omits the words, `and your body erect within the S.', which should follow, as they do in Oxf., `your r. f. f. in a S.' It will be found that in the Lectures, as used in Emulation and printed in a companion volume to the P.C., the phrase is correctly included.* For the reason explained at page         97, it is in most cases desirable that the Master should slightly amplify the direction and say, `your r. f. at r. a. to the leg in the form of a S.' On account of the difficulty of complying strictly with the prescribed position when the now usual long stool is provided, Benefactum, perhaps wisely, omits entirely the reference to the r. f.


            A custom - one of comparatively recent introduction - has grown up in some Lodges whereby the Master sounds his gavel in the middle of his preliminary instructions to the candidate. Obviously he should, as formerly he always did, complete these before, by the knock, he calls on the brethren to rise. As the faulty direction appears in the modem editions of the P.C., the innovation probably originated in Emulation. In P.C. (1874) the rubric correctly directs the knock to be given after the instructions have been completed and immediately before the Master begins to dictate the obligation. This, of course, applies to all the subsequent similar occasions.


            Repeat your name at length, and say after me' This wording of the instruction is not satisfactory. If the candidate strictly obeys it he at once enunciates his name, so that either the name precedes the pronoun `l', which makes nonsense, or the `I' is not spoken at all. The Oxford form is more effective in securing the desired result, `say after me, substituting your name in full for mine'. It has been suggested that in this case there is a danger of the candidate repeating the Master's name instead of substituting his own. The writer has only once heard this happen, and if it does it is easily set right. An alternative mode, frequently adopted, is for the Master to say, `say after me, inserting your name in full'; he then begins, `1', and pauses for the candidate to repeat his name before he proceeds. When * Lecture 10, Sect. 2.


            The Master 149 this plan is followed the candidate often has to be prompted to give his name. The Oxford method is, in the opinion of the writer, undoubtedly the best. These remarks apply, of course, to all the Obs.


            On rare occasions a Master, although having only a single candidate, is heard to say, `repeat your several names'. Therefore it is desirable to point out that the word `several' both here and elsewhere* in our ritual has its old-time meaning of `separate' or `individual', so that in the present connexion it is only applicable when there are two or more candidates. Curiously the illiteracy is to be found in the official ritual of the Installation ceremony in the Mark Degree. A striking commentary on the qualities of the editors of that volume! Although with the Moderns in pre-Union days, on the evidence of Browne,'8 the left hand was employed during the Ob. of the First Degree as it customarily is now, it would appear that that was not the case among the Antients, for with them the V.S.L. was held upon the left hand (a small book being, of course, provided for the purpose), as is still the practice in Ireland. A relic of the latter usage persists in Bristol, where the candidate is made to push his left hand under the large Bible that lies on the pedestal.


            In Oxfordshire, instead of the Cs., a s ... i ... , similar to that used earlier by the I.G., is held in the left hand.


            As the Master finishes the sentence ` . . . substituting your name in full for mine', he gives a gavel stroke, which the Wardens repeat, and he and all the brethren stand with the S. of F. (or at any rate, as prescribed in Claret's fourth edition, `place the r. h. on the 1. b.'), a position they retain until the Ob. has been sealed (see p. 56 et seq.).


            The Obligation The dictation of the Ob. is one of the most difficult parts of the Master's work and on his manner of doing it will largely depend the candidate's appreciation of the sense of what he is made to repeat. In each case the Master should practise his dictation beforehand until he knows exactly where he is going to make the divisions.


            A common fault is to split the matter up into unduly small sections. Very rarely do we find the opposite fault. It has been said that each section should consist of five or six words; but strictly to follow such a rule must result in unintelligent dictation. Where the wording is simple and straightforward a considerably longer section may be given and the meaning will be better taken in than if it were subdivided. On the other hand, there are places where a word, or a succession of words, must be given singly. The divisions throughout must be regulated according to the sense, and the Master's method will * E.g., in the phrase `these several points' that occurs in the Obs. Cf. the stage direction so frequent in the Shakespeare plays, 'Exeunt severally'.


            150 The Master afford a good criterion of his own degree of intelligence.


            He must be particularly careful to regard the relationships of prepositions. We too often hear such fatuous mistakes as, `the secrets or mysteries - of or belonging - to ancient Freemasonry' and'contrary to and subversive - of our ancient Institution', where in each case the preposition in the last section should have been included in the preceding section. And, as instances of the contrary error, we may hear, `in the presence of - the G. A. O. T. U.' and `unless it be to - a true and lawful brother', where (if a division is made at all, which it should not be) the prepositions belong to the succeeding sections.


            The Installation Obs. can generally be given with advantage in rather longer sections than the Obs. of the Degrees.


            `this worthy, worshipful and warranted Lodge..... regularly assembled and properly dedicated' The attributes of the Lodge thus given in P.C. in the Ob. of the First Degree are in that ritual slightly varied- in the corresponding places in the other Degrees. In fact the P.C. is nearly in accord with Rit. 1825. In some of the other rituals (Oxf, Humber and York) there is no variation in the several Degrees, nor, save for the omission (possibly accidental) of `worthy and' before `worshipful' in the 1°, is there in Unanimity. In Stab. the first group is the same in all the Degrees (`worthy, worshipful and warranted'), but the other group differs slightly in each case, though only in the 1° is it in exact agreement with P. C.


            Oxf in each Degree has, `this worthy and worshipful Lodge ... regularly held, assembled and properly dedicated'.


            In Unan. and Humber the second group in all three Degrees reads, `duly constituted, regularly assembled and properly dedicated to His service'. York has simply `duly constituted and regularly assembled' in every case.


            In Bristol we have in each Degree, `this worthy and worshipful Lodge', but the second group varies, viz.: 1°, `duly constituted, regularly assembled and properly dedicated'; 2° `regularly assembled and open on the sq.' 3°, `regularly assembled and open on the centre'.


            It really does not matter which of the various permutations a Master likes to adopt and, although there is no logical reason for the variation in the several Degrees (except, of course, when the Bristol version is followed), there is equally no reason why it should not be made. It does, however, add somewhat to the labour of memorising if the Master is anxious to be wordperfect in the text he has selected, and, therefore, if he finds any difficulty in the matter, he will be well advised to use the same formulary in each Degree.


            `hereby and hereon' While he enunciates these words the Master lays his left hand on the candidate's hand. In this degree he should avoid the solecism of moving it on The Master to the book at `hereon', an action that would be pointless since the candidate would necessarily be unaware of it (see also p. 67).


            `hele' This word should be pronounced `heel' and not as if it were spelt `hale', as, indeed, it sometimes was phonetically in 18th century rituals, though in other cases it was spelt 'heal'.' 9 It is an everyday word among gardeners, who are accustomed to `hele in' plants (i.e., cover their roots lightly with soil pending their transference to their permanent beds). In Sussex one is often told that a cottage requires `heling', i.e., thatching. A reference to the O.E.D. will make it clear that, at any rate for the last hundred years or so, the pronunciation has been consistently `heel'. It is true that in the 18th century the word was habitually pronounced `hale'; but then `conceal' was pronounced `consale' and reveal `revale'. If, therefore, a Master likes to affect the archaic form of `hele', he should at least be consistent and say, `hale, consale and never revale', thus preserving the jingle that with little doubt had its attraction for our predecessors of two hundred years ago.


            The grammar in this part of the Ob. is indefensible. The wording as it stands really says, `I will always hele the secrets to anyone, I will always conceal them to anyone, and I will always never reveal them to anyone'! To be correct English it should read, `I will always hele and conceal any part or parts, point or points, of the secrets ... communicated to me, and will never reveal them to anyone in the world, etc.' The phraseology, however, is undoubtedly old, dating back to the early years of the 18th century, from which time it has been everywhere retained practically unaltered. Therefore, as the intended meaning is obvious, it will probably be agreed that in this instance and in the corresponding places in the Second and Third Degree the faulty syntax, which is not flagrantly obtrusive, may well be condoned. In the Scotch ritual the bad grammar is corrected.


            `under no less a p ... y' Attention may be called, by way of a warning, to the un-English phraseology not infrequently heard and actually printed in some rituals (e.g., West End and Stab.) `under the no less p ... y' or `under the no less a p ... y'. The P. C. wording is correct.


            In the first alternative p ... y a somewhat important variation is found. It is a question whether, in connexion with the final disposal, the reference should be to the whole person or only to a small part. Of the two principal 18th century rituals, one makes it definitely the part only, while the other is ambiguous. But if we regard the probable source of the formula 2 ° it would seem that the reference should apply to the whole; and this is borne out by the well-known publication of 1730, by Carlile 1825, by Bristol, Exeter, and by most English workings, as well as by the rendering in American circles 152 The Master and - as the writer is informed - in Scotland and Ireland. In fact Emulation is the only extant working where the small part alone is disposed of in the manner specified.


            The Bristol MS. reads, `a. m. b. b. i. t. s. o. t. s. a. c. l. f. t. s.' In Emulation working the words represented by the second and third letters are omitted. Emulationists punctiliously restrict the term applied to the base of the part in question to the singular number, but, though it is more natural to use the plural, the point may be dismissed with the remark that it does not matter in the least which number is used. Nor does it matter a jot whether the Master says `sand', as in Em., or `sands', as in Exeter.


            The Oxford version of the Ob. in the 1° differs in a few minor details from that of the P.C. and the writer definitely prefers it. Without quoting the whole of it, these differences may be indicated as follows: I......... and of this Worthy and Worshipful Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons, . . . point or points of the secrets or mysteries of or belonging to ancient Freemasonry.... communicated to me, to anyone in the world, unless it be to a true and lawful brother or brethren ... strict examination, or full conviction that he or they are worthy of that confidence, or in the body of a Lodge, just, perfect and regular ... may become legible or intelligible,* so that our secret arts and hidden mysteries may improperly become known, and that in or through my unworthiness ... or the less horrible, but no less effective,t punishment of being b ... as ... totally unfit to be received into this, or any other, warranted Lodge, or any society of men who prize ... in this my G. and S. Ob., being that of an E.A.F.' In regard to the procedure on the conclusion of the Ob., The Etiquette says, `The Ob. ends with the words, "So help me God and keep me steadfast in this the G. and S. Ob. of an E.A.F.", and yet some of the rituals make the Master say, "What you have repeated may be considered but a serious promise". What then mean the words, "so help me God" and "the G. and S. Ob. " which the Master has just caused the candidate to repeat? It is a case of stultification perfect and complete; a solemn obligation which the Almighty * P.C. and most other rituals (not Claret) insert, 'to myself, or any one in the world'. There must be very few brethren who have taken the Ob. in that form who have not at some time or other violated it! Actually the printed text has `less h- but more effective'; but, at any rate 40 or 50 years ago, it was the invariable practice in that Province to use the words given above, which are undeniably more rational. Humber has, `the less horrid but no les§ certain punishment'; Bristol `the less dreadful (but equally effectual one to an honourable mind)'; Stab. has simply, 'or the equally effective punishment'; Brit. has `the no less effectual'; Exeter, `the less horrid but no less effective'. The Emulation form, `the more effective', and Gilkes's `the more effectual' are absurd.


            The Master 153 is invoked to help the candidate to keep is "but a serious promise!" . . . Imagine the functionary who administers the oath in a Court of Law telling a witness that "what he has repeated may be considered but a serious promise." One would like to hear what the Judge would have to say to that official .... A serious promise forsooth! What then constitutes a solemn oath? 21 The present writer feels very strongly on the subject. He maintains that no one has the right to tell a person who has just repeated the words of our Ob. that he has merely made a serious promise which (impliedly) may be broken at will without any great blame attaching to the violation. The phraseology is no doubt old, but it dates from a time when the vulgar idea obtained that the whole virtue of an oath lay in the kissing of the Book. Most of us know better now and the kissing of the Bible has been abolished altogether in our Law Courts. Surely, then, we should eschew the terrible blasphemy - for it is nothing less - of the wording under consideration by simply saying, `As a pledge of your fidelity to this S. O., I call on you to seal it w. y. 1. on the V.S.L.'* The above remarks apply equally to the somewhat similar words after the other Obs. It is obvious that it does not require the kissing of the Book to ,render it a S.O.' It should be unnecessary to say that the Master (and, of course, everyone else) should maintain the S. of F. until the Ob. has been sealed (see p. 57).


            `Having been kept ... in a state of d., what is etc.?' This is not English. It is an example of the hanging or, as Fowler, terms it, unattached, participle." To give the sentence a grammatical construction we must say, `As you have been kept . . . in a state of d., what is etc Y `what ... is the predominant wish of your heart?' It is, perhaps, a minor point, but if the candidate's answer (which, will, of course, be prompted) is to be the monosyllable, `L ... ' `wish' is the wrong word to use. One cannot `wish L...', but must `wish for L... '. The word would be quite in order if the answer is to be in the Humber form, `To be restored to L... ', or the Exeter form, `To see L ... ', but if the monosyllabic reply is to be retained, `desire' must be substituted for `wish'.


            `let me point out to your attention' This is atrocious. One can call a person's attention to a thing or one can point out a thing to him; but to point it out to his attention is arrant nonsense. The Master should say either, `let me point out to you what we consider etc.,' or (as in Claret and Oxf.) `let me direct your attention to etc.' * It may, however, be noted that the blasphemous suggestion is not found in the pre-Union Browne, where in the course of the Lecture (p. 15) we have the answer, `As a pledge of my fidelity and to confirm the Ob. I had then taken, he [the Master) desired me to seal the Holy Writings with my lips' etc. And similarly in the other Degrees (pp. 51 and 72).


            154     The Master The Restoration It is a grievous pity that the old-time procedure of the brethren at the moment of `restoration', as prescribed in Claret,* Oxf. and PC. (1871) and still customary in Oxfordshire, has to a large extent been replaced by the clapping of hands and banging of gavels, noises the source of which is readily recognised by the candidate. The older method causes a curiously eerie sound which never fails to intrigue the candidate. The writer has never forgotten the impression that it made on him at his initiation in 1888. To one who has been brought up on the old practice the hammering and clapping usually heard nowadays always seems most objectionable.


            It may be of passing interest to mention that in Bristol the candidate, prior to his `restoration', is led to the west and is placed between the two great pillars that there stand in front of the S.W.; also that the `circle of swords' is still a feature of that working, as it was in some London Lodges in the 18th century.


            `Rise, newly obligated brother' `Newly', which is peculiar to Claret, P.C. and Stab., is simply puerile, though it appears in Browne from which it was possibly adopted. Oxf, Humber, York, Brit. and Exeter have the logical word, `duly'. The phrase is not used at all in Unan. or Bristol. Some unintelligent people argue that he is not a duly obligated Freemason because he is not yet in possession of the secrets. But he most certainly is so, since he has taken the Ob. of a Freemason in the duly prescribed form. That he is newly obligated is patent to everyone and there is no need to emphasise the fact. What we desire to emphasise, and to impress on him, is that he has been duly obligated, i.e., has taken the Ob. in the due and proper manner.


            It may be remarked, as being pertinent to the point, that in the Mark Ritual, an official publication, the Master Elect is formally acknowledged as `a duly obligated master of a Lodge' immediately after he has taken the Ob. and a considerable time before the 'secrets of an Installed Master are communicated to him.


            The Lesser Lights The difficulty that exists in regard to their symbolism has been referred to at page 64, and the best procedure of the Master when dealing with them is there suggested.


            *           Claret says 'The Brethren raise their hands above their head [sic] the W.M. utters the w .. s one, two, three, on the last w .. d they simultaneously bring them down and strike the thigh.' Ed.


            The Master 155 ,on your entrance ... this P. was presented to your n. 1. b.' The use of the foreign word `poignard' is to be deprecated. In the Lecture (1° S.2), we find the question, `On what were you admitted?' and the answer is, `On the p. of a s. i. presented to my n. 1. b.' Surely, then, we should use the same technical term here, as in Oxf. and most other workings. Although the s. i. is now usually a dagger, formerly it was a sword, which was the implement originally borne by the I.G., as is indicated by his jewel. In Exeter and Brit. workings the sword is still used and the Master names that weapon in this address.


            `equally fatar One ought to add, `by s. tr ... g'; otherwise the implication (however foolish it may seem) is that the fatality would have been caused in the same way as in the previous case, namely, by st. b ... g. Oxf. puts it correctly and so do Carlile 1825, Stability and Britannia.


            `the danger which will await you etc.' In referring to this `danger' practically all the rituals that mention the dangers (Unan., Bristol and Humber do not), except Carlile 1825, and PC. from 1874 onwards, having words to the effect that it `is the p ... y of your Ob., wherein you swore that you would rather etc.' Such a statement is unwarrantable, for the candidate did not so swear. The only unexceptionable wording is that used in the P. C. and ER. (cf. p. 157).


            `Having taken the G. and S. O. of a M., I am now permitted' This can only mean `Now that I have taken the Ob., I am permitted', which clearly is not what is intended to be expressed. To explain his meaning in English the Master must say, `Now that you have taken the G. and S.O. of a Freemason [that term being preferable to `Mason'] , I am permitted etc.' A similar error occurs in a number of places in the P.C. and they should be carefully amended as are most, if not all, of them in the Oxford Ritual. It may be observed that the phrase used a little previously, `Having been restored to the blessing of m.l., let me point out', is perfectly correct English, because the participle, `having', relates to the subject of the imperative verb, `let', namely `you'.


            `I shall therefore proceed to entrust you' This is a non sequitur, since the candidate has not yet given any indication of his merit and ability. Oxf. has the same error. It should be simply `I shall now proceed'.


            `those marks' should surely be `those means.' `but must premise' Euphonious English requires the insertion of a pronoun, `I`, before `must', as is done in Oxford. P.C. (1871) has `must first premise' and we still occas- 156     The Master ionally hear that solecism in Lodge ( Brit. and Exeter), but the modern PC. has rightly excised `first'.


            `proper Sns. to know a Mason by' This is often adversely criticised by the unliterary as being bad English purely on account of the terminal preposition. Those who, from lack of knowledge, think that that is necessarily the case, are recommended to read the admirable Fowler on the subject.23 Nevertheless the form is unsuitable here, not owing to the mere fact of the place of the preposition, but because nothing is gained, either in clarity or conciseness, by having it there, and the classical form, `by which to know a Mason [or preferably, a Freemason]', is no more involved and is, to the ears of most educated persons, decidedly more euphonic.


            `your body being thus considered an emblem of your mind, etc.' The writer vastly prefers the more extended version used in some Lodges and found in R.R., namely, `your body, in its erect posture, being considered emblematical of the uprightness of your mind, and your feet, in their rectangular position, of the rectitude of your actions'. This gives the candidate a better grasp of the intended symbolism than does the elliptical form generally adopted.


            `Place your hand in this position' To preface the giving of the s. by these words and to make the candidate begin by taking the corresponding action taught in Emulation, is wrong because it entirely omits the first motion of the s., namely that which is denoted by the `p.' when we preface the `fire' after a toast with the words, `p. 1. r.' This omission can only be regarded as the alteration of a landmark and it is, therefore, irregular (cf. pp. 20 and 24).- The most satisfactory wording by which to teach it may be thus indicated: `The sn. is given in three movements, first stretch forth the r. h. with t. t. i. t. f. o. a. s. (this will always remind you of the taking of your Ob. with your r. h. etc.); then bringing it to t. l. o. t. t.; and lastly dr ... g it sharply across from 1. to r. After thus completing the sn. you will drop the h. to the s.' Exeter, after showing the first movement, interpolates, `This is the first regular Sri. in Freemasonry, and alludes to the position of your h. on the V.S.L. when you were ob ... d'. A number of other old Lodges, especially in the North, insert the same allusion, some adding that the position is called `the Sri. of Faith'. This term is possibly a relic of pre-Union practice but is not now generally recognised.


            If the writer were called on to prove a claimant to membership of our Order and the claimant gave the s. in the bastard form mentioned above (and all too often seen and even taught in many Lodges today), he would refuse to acknowledge it, because it is not our s. It is what many people who are not of The Master 157 the Craft think is our s. and it is, therefore, all the more important to be punctilious in giving our s. correctly and to be chary of recognising any s. that is given in an incomplete manner. No one who so gives it should be accepted as a brother until he has been put through a very searching further examination.


            `implying that ... you would rather etc.' At the communication of the p.s. the wording in Carlile 1825 and in all editions of the P.C. is as above. Claret and all the other rituals, except Exeter, have the same error that was mentioned at page 157 in connexion with the third `danger', namely, of saying that the s. alludes to the p ... y of the Ob. `wherein you swore that ... you would rather etc.' This is patently wrong, for no such oath is embodied in the Ob. The formula of the P.C., in which merely in implication is advanced, is the only one that is justifiable. The same criticism applies to the corresponding occasions in the other Degrees, where Oxf. commits the same error as the majority.


            It is curious that although in each Degree at the communication of the sn. Exeter uses the correct formula, in the rehearsal of the catechism with the Deacon that almost immediately follows, and again a little later in the probation by the Warden, it falls into the common error.


            The G. or T.* The Master will bear in mind that he should not remove his glove when giving it (see p. 67). He should also be careful to `cover' the G. with his 1. h. (see p. 119) and to impress on the candidate the necessity of always doing so, at any rate when out of Lodge. This remark applies equally in the 2°.


            A curious solecism has recently become prevalent and, if the claim of the Nigerian Ritual to present verbatim the Emulation working is well founded, it would appear to have been adopted in that Instruction Lodge. It consists in describing the token as being given by a d.p. of the part concerned on the spot referred to. The absurdity of this becomes obvious if we slightly alter the order of the words and say, `a d.p. on the (spot) of the (part)'. No one would say, `I'll give you a hit of my fist on the head' anymore than he would, `I'll give you a hit on the head of my fist'. Clearly the correct word is `with' and not 'of, and those who have unintelligently fallen into the error should revert to the word that until lately was always used. This criticism applies to the same usage in certain other places. The erroneous form occurs in Claret.


            `it should never be given at length, but always' The Master should invariably insert after `at length' the words `except in open Lodge . Otherwise the intelligent candidate is much puzzled when, later on, he finds himself asked to give it `freely and at length' although he has been *     Seep. 61.


            F 158  The Master told that he must never so do.


            In regard to the colloquy at this point between the Master and the Deacon and to the interchange of the W., see pp. 60, 99 and 106.


            `the p. or e. of K.S. T.' Emulationists use the word `porchway' instead of `porch'. On the analogy of `door' and `doorway', `porchway' presumably means the intangible passage through the architectual feature known as a `porch'; and here it is certainly the latter, and not the former, to which our reference applies. It is true that Gilkes himself actually used the term `porchway', and it is interesting that he did so, for the O.E.D. has no knowledge of a word prior to 1884, at which date it ostensibly quotes its first occurrence from an American magazine. Apart from the fact that the word does not indicate the structure to which we intend to refer, in these days it falls on the ear as a definite Americanism. Present-day American writers have a curious habit of tacking `way' quite irrationally on to all manner of words. Thus they speak of a `driveway', a `hallway' and a `kitchenway', where we should say `drive', `hall' and `kitchen'. Since what the ritual refers to is the actual porch, is it not well to use that word rather than the inaccurate porchway, and thus speak good English? Some workings speak of the `porchway entrance' and their users explain it as meaning the entrance at which there was a porch, as opposed to the other entrances that were not so furnished. But then why not call it the `porch entrance'? If they desired to specify an entrance before which there was a verandah, would they denote it as the `verandahway entrance'? It is noteworthy that those who speak of a `porchway' here and in the 2°, do not use that inaccurate term when referring to another porch in the course of the Explanation of the Third Tracing Board `should you be about to visit a Lodge' To `enter a Lodge' (as in Brit. and Exeter) is preferable, since the possibility of the occurrence of the difficulty in question is not confined to occasions when one may be visiting. It might happen in one's own Lodge.


            `it were better that one or both of you retire' English demands the insertion of `should' before `retire'.


            ,our new-made brother' The term 'new-made' has an unpleasing sound. It is true that it was used in the 18th century, when adjectives were commonly employed adverbially; and we still retain the old-time expressions, `a new-laid egg' and `a new-born babe'. In Gilkes's working the Master directed the J.D. to `place the noviciate at the N.E. part of the Lodge,' but the Oxford term `newly initiated' is probably preferable.


            It may be noted that although Emulation has adopted the archaic 'newmade' at this point, a little later it has, `newly admitted', and not 'new- The Master   159 admitted', which, if it were consistent, one would expect. An instance of the old usage is found in Smith's Pocket Companion of 1735, where the Charge is headed, `To be given to new admitted Brethren," and Goldsmith, in his Life of Richard Nash (1762), p. 153, writes of `some of the new-admitted ladies' to a social coterie.


            The Address to the Candidate in the ME, As to the candidate's position during this, see page 99.


            `newly admitted into Masonry' Here, as in so many other places, it is more rational to say `Freemasonry' (seep. 69).


            `from the foundation' Many criticise this and maintain that the preposition should be `on' or `upon'. But, as is rightly pointed out in the Preface to The Humber Use, `the use of from rather than upon was common in the works of 18th century writers'. Therefore no exception can be taken to the P.C. form.


            `You now stand .... a just and uprightMason' Every other ritual, except only Carlile 1825, has `man and mason', which, as the more general and time-honoured form, seems preferable, though `man and Freemason' is even better, notwithstanding that it sacrifices the alliteration which may have an attraction for some. Exeter and Brit. have `Freemason'.


            `I give it you in strong terms of recommendation' Thus P.C. and Carlile 1825. Claret and Oxf, have 'terms -of strong recommendation'. Both are equally awkward and unpleasing. Far better is the formula used in Oxf. at the corresponding place in the 2° (seep. 173), namely, `I earnestly recommend you ever to continue and act as such'. Bristol has, `I exhort you in the most emphatic terms ever to etc.' Either of these, or the simpler `I strongly exhort you' of The English Ritual, is less harsh to the ear than the P C phrase. Stab. has merely, `may you ever maintain that character'.


            `excellencies' Both here and elsewhere in the ritual `excellences' is more correct. Although in the 18th century `excellence' and `excellency' were used more or iess indifferently, there is, as Fowler points out, 25 a distinction between them, the former word being used in the general sense and the latter having a special application, as in `Your excellency'. In the present connexion both Claret and Oxf. have `excellence' and `excellences', and Emulation would have done well to adhere to that form.


            160     The Master ,no doubt it [i.e., Charity] has often been felt and practised by you' How can one `feel Charity'? If we desire to speak English we must say, `no doubt its impulse has often been felt, and acted on, by you'.


            and like its sister, Mercy, blesses him who gives, etc.' Somewhat more dignified is the Oxford formulary which introduces the Shakespearean quotation, thus, `and, like its sister, Mercy, "is twice bless'd, it blesseth him that gives and him that takes" '.


            `the thousands who range under its banners' This is not English, unless it were meant to imply that they `rove at large' or `wander to and fro', which are the only meanings that can attach to the verb `range' when used intransitively. What is clearly intended is `range themselves under its banners', i.e. fall in in their ranks, and, therefore, it should be so expressed.


            Some years ago the writer came across a very old version (the reference to which he has unfortunately lost) which had `rank under our banners'. That was perfectly correct, since `rank' can mean `to stand in rank, take up a position in rank' (see the OX.D.), and one cannot help wondering whether that may have been the original word which someone in ignorance altered to `range', the error then becoming crystallised. Nevertheless, `range themselves' is probably preferable.


            `lowest ebb of poverty' This is an unsatisfactory expression because `ebb' suggests a merely temporary depression from which an early recovery is inevitable. `The lowest depth' is better, though `the lowest state', as in Claret, Oxf. and P. C. (1871), is almost equally good. It is a pity that Emulation should have altered their word.


            `it is our usual custom' Formerly `usual' meant `habitual' (i.e., in effect, `invariable'), but now its sense has become so weakened that it is generally understood to connote merely `on most occasions but far from always'. That being so, it would seem preferable to substitute here the word `invariable'.


            to awaken the feelings of every new-made brother' What feelings? Contempt? or disdain? They should most certainly be specified, as in Oxf. which has, `to awaken the sympathy of every newly initiated brother'. Claret has `to awaken the feelings of every new initiate'.


            The Solicitation.


            In Benefactum the duty is alloted to the Almoner. This seems an appropriate variation from normal practice.


            The Master     161 far be from us any such intention' It is better, and more euphonious English to say, `far from us be', as in Carlile 1825 and Oxf.


            `first, as I have already premised' There is a double mistake here. It should be `firstly', i.e., the adverb, in conformity with the `secondly' and `thirdly' that follow. And `already premised' is tautological and therefore not good English. It is enough to say, ,as I have premised'.


            `to evince ... that you had neither ... nor ... substance' The last gap is usually filled in by the one word, `m ... c'. That was all right in the days when the candidate was entirely d ... d and clad in a special garment; but, in view of the condition that is more common nowadays, it is safer to say, `neither m ... y nor v ... e m ... c substances'.


            ,a Brother in distressed circumstances' Exeter has, `a poor and distressed, but worthy, Brother'. Although `but worthy' is probably a comparatively recent interpolation, there is - in view of present-day conditions - much to be said for it.


            `practising that virtue you have professed to admire' The wording of Gilkes, which is retained in Oxf. is somewhat better, 'practising towards him that virtue you now profess to admire'. But it is a minor point.


            The Working Tools `I now present to you the working tools' Some Masters habitually say, `present to your notice', apparently with the idea that to present a thing to anyone means that it is to be given to him as a permanent possession. But such a view is the outcome of the accident that `present' has acquired that additional meaning in modern times. Properly it means simply `to set before' or `to exhibit to view' and therefore the P.C. form, `present to you', is unexceptionable.


            `the chisel to further smooth' The un-English split infinitive should be eschewed. The correct rendering is, `the chisel further to smooth'. Oxf. regrettably retains the error.


            `fit for the hands of the more expert workman' Obviously this should be, `the more expert craftsman' (i.e., a Fellow Craft), as in Oxford and other rituals.


            `but as we are not all operative masons, but rather free and accepted, or speculative' This preface to the explanation of the moral application of the working 162        The Master tools is unsatisfactory. The `rather', unless very carefully enunciated (and it rarely is), seems to carry the sense of `somewhat free'. Infinitely better is the formula, `but as we are not operative, but, on the contrary, free and accepted or speculative, masons'. That `we are not all operative' is manifestly absurd, because under our modern constitution none of us are operatives. As The Etiquette points out,2 6 even if some brethren happen to be operative masons by trade they have qua operatives no status in the Lodge, where they are purely speculatives like the rest of us. Therefore the word `all' should in any case be omitted.


            The above remarks are applicable also to the same phrase in the 2° and 3°.


            we apply these tools to our morals' Thus the P.C., and there seems no reason to take exception to the phrase. Some, however, do dislike it and we would suggest to them as suitable alternative wordings, either `we apply these tools to the inculcation of certain moral lessons' or, as in Brit., `it is the moral conveyed by these implements [that] we are more particularly to regard'.


            `without detriment to ourselves or connections' This formula could only express what is clearly intended if it were possible to regard, and to spell, `ourselves' as two separate words. Since our language does not permit of that, the phrase is imperfect, for it does not state what, or whose,`connections' are referred to, that word having no adjectival adjunct. The desired meaning can only be properly conveyed by saying, `ourselves or our connections'.


            `to restore yourself to your personal comforts' This is not a happy phrase. `Personal comforts' connote such things as a comfortable room and easy chairs, etc. What we mean here is, `restore yourself to personal comfort' and therefore we should say so, asBrit. does.


            THE CHARGE The germ of this Charge is to be found in Smith's Pocket Companion of 1734.2' It was afterwards elaborated by Preston and printed in his Illustrations of Masonry. In the post-Union editions of that book a greatly improved version, virtually identical with what we now use, is given in a footnote and is there said to have been `recommended by the late Lodge of Reconciliation'. The version given in PC differs form the Reconciliation form in a few unimportant details. Since, like the Explanations of the Tracing Boards, it is not part of the ritual proper, it may legitimately be varied considerably at discretion. Nevertheless most of us naturally prefer to adhere as closely as is reasonable to the Reconciliation form. There are, however, a few points which call for criticism.


            The Master 163 `ancient no doubt it is' The expression `no doubt' has acquired such a greatly attenuated sense, to the extent of being practically equivalent to `possibly but by no means certainly', that the Oxford form, `ancient undoubtedly it is', seems decidedly preferable. It puts the intended meaning beyond question." as, by a natural tendency'

 It is an unimportant point, but `because' (the word of the original and of Oxford) is slightly more expressive and euphonious than `as'.


            `exchange the sceptre for the trowel' Since the Charge was composed, the trowel has been entirely eliminated from our speculative symbolism as communicated to an E.A., for whom it has, therefore, a purely operative significance. For that reason it would appear desirable to replace it here by the `gavel', the speculative use of which has been brought to the candidate's notice. This substitution was recommended in Etiquette z 9 and is adopted in the R.R., in Bury and in the E.R.


            It will be remembered that formerly the trowel was the jewel of an E.A. and when the newly initiated brother was invested with it, its speculative application was explained to him. He is still so invested in Lodge Union, No. 52, Norwich. Probably the only other place where a reference to the trowel is retained in the course of our ceremonial is Bristol, where it is included among the Working Tools of the Third Degree.


            In view of what has been said at pp. 136 and 145 in connection with the prayers, the writer advocates the wording: `. . . by imploring His blessing on all your lawful undertakings'.


            In E.R. the terms of the Golden Rule are slightly amplified to counter the captious criticism sometimes directed against it that - the mutual relationship between you and your neighbour being what it is - it by no means necessarily follows that an action that you would desire to receive from him will at that time be equally welcomed by him as coming from you. It is, perhaps, safer to advocate `doing to him in all things as, if your respective positions were reversed,you would wish him to do to you'.


            `attachment towards' This is not English. The original has the correct `attachment to'.


            `those truly Masonic ornaments, Benevolence and Charity' R.R. suggests as a preferable wording, `Be especially careful to maintain in unsullied brightness that truly Freemasonic Jewel which has already been amply illustrated, namely, Charity'.* A note in that ritual points out that Charity, in its true Scriptural and Freemasonic sense, comprises Benevolence * The Scotch ritual reads, `maintain in its fullest splendour that truly Masonic Jewel which has been so amply illustrated, namely Charity'.


            164     The Master (wishing well) and Beneficence (doing well). Charity may, and often does, evince itself by the giving of alms; but that alone does not constitute Charity. (See I Cor., xiii, 3).


            It is also there remarked that a a strong objection lies against the use of the word `ornaments' in this connection.`The Ornaments of the Lodge, as clearly defined in the First Tracing Board, are the Mosaic Pavement, the Indented Border and the Blazing Star',whereas Charity is described in the First Degree Lecture as `the brightest jewel that adorns our Masonic profession'." `excellencies' As previously noted (see p.159), this should be 'excellences'.


            `which may inadvertently lead you so to do' Although this is the wording of the original, it is nonsense, because it implies that the imagined inadvertence would be on the part of the `occasions', whereas it would really be on the part of the person addressed. Unquestionably it ought to be, `which may lead you inadvertently so to do'. Exeter has it correctly.


            `Your fidelity must be exemplified by a strict observance of `Your obedience must be proved by a strict observance of The repetition of the last three words is banal. In the Reconciliation formulary the former sentence runs, `Your fidelity must be exemplifed by a close conformity to the Constitutions etc.', which avoids the repetition.


            `by refraining from recommending' The original has, `by refraining to recommend' which was perfectly good English at the time, as is pointed out in the Preface to The Humber Use, and nothing is gained by modernising the form.* The usage seems to be still current in the United States.


            Some of the unliterary similarly advocate the modernising of `strong grounds to believe' into `strong grounds for believing', which is equally unnecessary.


            `by abstaining from every topic of religious or political discussion' It is very desirable to insert (as is done in Oxford and Bury) the words, `while there', after `abstaining'. Otherwise the new brother is liable to be disturbed in his mind by the fear that he is being told that as a Freemason he is debarred from ever discussing such subjects, whereas it is only in Lodge that such discussions are forbidden.t * Cf. `we left off to bum incense', Jeremiah xiiv, 18; and `prevent the walls to wail', Richard II, iii, 3, 179.


            j- One of the By-laws of a King's Lynn Lodge in 1824 was to the effect that, `If any member shall start a political argument during Lodge hours, he shall drink a half-pint bumper of salt and water'.


            The Master ,as may at once enable you to be' In that position `at once' can only mean `immediately'. The intended meaning is clearly `at one and the same time' and therefore the words should follow `enable you to be', as they do in the original. If only two aims were mentioned instead of three, `both' would be used in place of `at once'. The words `at once' are not really necessary. Carlile 1825 puts them correctly after `enable you to become'.


            `respectable in life' Those who only know the word `respectable' in the weakened and rather colourless sense attached to it in modern usage occasionally question its appropriateness here, but it should be remembered that at the time when this Charge was composed it was equivalent to our `respected' or `highly esteemed'. The orginal has `to become respectable in your rank of life'. In Em. as elsewhere, this has, probably with advantage, been altered to `to be respectable in life'.


            It has been suggested that when the Initiate is of more mature years than usual, and has already attained a well respected position in life, the following slight variation in the wording may be thought appropriate: And as a last general recommendation let me exhort you not only to aim at securing the respect of all those with whom you come in contact, but also to take every opportunity to render yourself useful to mankind at large, and an ornament to the Society of which you have today become a member: to study ... etc.


            Except for the alterations of certain definitely Christian allusions, this is virtually as we find it in the pre-Union Browne.31 Nothing need be said about it save to remark that it is regrettable that the explanation is so seldom given in Lodges nowadays, and to record a protest against the use of the word `parallelepipedon' which presumably appears in the P C because it has been introduced into Emulation working by some would-be clever ignoramus since Gilkes's time. The word is inapplicable for the following reason. A parallelepipedon* is a solid figure of which the common brick is a perfect example. Now the hypothetical Lodge, as described in the Explantion of the Tracing Board, is a pyramid of infinite height, whose apex is at the centre of the earth and whose cross-section at any point is an oblong rectangular paral * Those who use the word in Lodge nearly always pronounce it wrongly, namely with a long `i' on which they lay the main stress, in the P. C. it is wrongly spelt with the ninth letter `o' instead of `e'. The chief stress should fall on the `ep' and the secondary stress on the first syllable. The `epi' is the ordinary Greek preposition. All the vowels in the word are short.


            F' 165 THE EXPLANATION OF THE TRACING BOARD 166   The Master lelogram, a plane figure. It is this cross-section that is connoted by `the form of the Lodge', which, therefore, cannon possibly be a solid figure such as a parallelepipedon. In Browne `the form of the Lodge' is said to be `a parallelogram'. This is an incomplete definition, since that figure need not be rectangular. In Claret and Oxf. it is said to be `an oblong square', which, although strictly speaking a contradiction in terms,conveys the intended meaning well enough to the ordinary person.f The punctilious may, if he prefers, call it `a rectangular oblong' (as Exeter does) or `an oblong rectangle'. But it is not a parallelepipedon.


            It should also be pointed out that under the head of `the jewels of the Lodge' the P.C. prints part of the expanation of the Second Degree Working Tools. This is entirely out of place here and therefore the words, `Among operative Masons . . . life and actions' should be omitted.


            In the corresponding place in the Emulation Lectures (1°, S.5) the full explanation of the speculative use of these Working Tools is given, but some of the wording is omitted and the English is decidedly faulty (see p. 174).32 1t should, or course, be relegated to the Second Degree Lecture.


            Although the differences between them are small, the writer has a slight preference for the version of the Explanation of this Tracing Board which is given in the Oxford Ritual (and in The English Ritual) over that of the P. C.


            THE CEREMONY OF PASSING `the benefit of a P. W.' Since knowledge of the P.G. is an essential part of the qualification for admission and the I.G. demands (or should demand) it of the candidate, it would be only rational that the wording should be `the benefit of a P.G. and a P.W.' The Master would then enquire as to the candidate's possession of the P.G. as well as of the P.W.


            The Prayer.


            During it the brethren should stand to order as F.C.s (see p. 56 et seq. ). For the reason given on page 136 it is preferable that the prayer should begin, `we supplicate the continuance of Thy blessing'. And those who agree with the writer's objection to opening the Lodge `in the name of the Deity will, of course, use some such wording as, `may the work begun in prayer to Thee'. These emendations are made in the new edition of the ER.


            After the Prayer, according to Oxford working the Master says, `Let the candidate rise and perambulate the Lodge'. It is most desirable that he should use that, or an equivalent, formula because it gives the candidate an in t   Goldsmith in his Life of Nash describes the King's Bath at Bath as `an oblong square'.


            The Master 167 dictation that he is about to make a formal passage round the Lodge. Otherwise, when he is led on by the Deacon, he does not realise that his progress is part of the ceremonial, but thinks that he is merely being taken to some place in the room where the ceremony will be proceeded with. A dislike has occasionally been expressed for the word `perambulate', but it is difficult to see on what grounds, for not only does it mean `to walk through, over, or about (a place or space)',* but `perambulation' is our technical term for these formal progresses. But those who do entertain this dislike may adopt the Exeter formula, `Let the candidate rise and be conducted round the Lodge', or that of Brit., `be led round the Lodge'.


            `The brethren will take notice' In Stab. and Oxf. and also in Brit. and Exeter the Master here (and again at the corresponding place in the 3°) calls the attention of the brethren in the successive quarters of the Lodge (`in the N., E., S. and W.') to the candidate's forthcoming perambulation, just as he did in the 1°. There is no reason why it should not be thus done in each case.


            `the candidate properly prepared' As in the previous Degree (see p. 146), this should be `a candidate'. Claret, Oxf. and Stab. have it correctly. Curiously enough the P.C. a little later makes the S.W. correct the Master's error and say, `a candidate'. This note applies to the corresponding place in the 3° ceremony.


            `to be passed to the Degree of a F. C.' It should be obvious to the proverbial meanest intelligence that the Degree is that of F.C., not of a F.C. This error, which can only have originated in uneducated circles, is found in other rituals besides P.C. A university man does not take the degree of a B.A.; and when his alma mater desires to honour distinguished strangers, it confers on them the degree of, say, D.C.L., not of a D.C.L. The solecism is repeated elsewhere and occurs more than once in the 3°, or `the degree of M.M.', as it should properly be termed; it is not `the degree of a M.M.' your presentation shall be attended to, for which purpose you will direct etc. It is better English to say, `your presentation shall be attended to; you will therefore direct (cf. p. 146).


            The Advance It will be noticed that in this Degree, and in the Third, P.C. correctly makes the Master direct the advance `to the E.' and not, as in the First Degree, `to the pedestal'. Actually P.C. has `from W. to E.'; the interpolation of `from W.' is harmless but unnecessary.


            * Concise O.E.D. E.g., `he was wont to perambulate the garden'.


            168     The Master As in every case the Dgs. in Fy. are to be kept separate and distinct' The Oxf. wording seems preferable, namely, `as the Ss. of each Degree in Freemasonry are to be kept separate and distinct'.


            The Posture during the Ob.


            What was said at pages 97 and 148 regarding the position of the r.f. in the I°, applies mutatis mutandis to the l.f. here.


            As was mentioned at page 105, The Etiquette objects to the La. being upraised and the reader is referred to what is there written on the subject. During the Ob. the Master and brethren assume the S. of F., retaining it until the `sealing'(see p. 56 et seq.).


            `any more than 1 would either of them to the uninstructed and popular world who are not masons' `Either of them' is inappropriate since we cannot say that the subjects of concealment are neither more nor less than two in number. The writer prefers the Oxford phraseology (with the substitution of `freemasons' for `masons'), namely, `any more than I would to the popular and uninstructed world who are not freemasons'. It is difficult to see why, in the P.C., the effect of the common phrase `popular and uninstructed' should be spoilt by the inversion of the adjectives, an inversion which is not in Oxf. The combination is peculiar to the versions named. Carlile 1825 has `the uninitiated or the popular world' and York `the uninitiated or popular', while Claret and Stab. have `uninstructed' only, and Bristol has `the popular world' only.


            `my S.O. of a FC.Fn. ' As in the I° the Oxf. form of the ending, namely, `my G. and S.O., being that of a F.C.Fn.', is more formal and more fully explanatory and therefore to be preferred. This applies also to the ending of the 3° Ob.


            `which might otherwise be considered but a serious promise' See the remarks on page 152 as to this profanity.


            `Your progress in Masonry is marked by the position of the S. and Cs.' It is better to say `the relative positions of the S. and Cs.' because that at once draws the candidate's attention to the exact point at issue. And `Freemasonry' is preferable to `Masonry'.


            `both p. were hid' `Hid' as the past participle was quite in order 150 years ago, though it was already being supplanted by `hidden', so that we find the latter in Carlile 1825, the compiler of which was a practised writer. But, pace Fowler,* `hid' now jars so obtrusively and unpleasantly on the ear that it has a distinctly distracting effect on the mind. Its retention is therefore undesirable and *         Sub voce hide. `the pp. hid is "still not uncommon".' The Master   169 `hidden' should be substituted both here and in the corresponding place in the Third Degree, as is done in Brit.* The changes in this and similar past participles are interesting. Formerly we used hid, bid, rid (the p.p. of ride)t and trod, but now we say, hidden, bidden, etc. On the other hand we used to say `gotten', whereas now it is `got', except in the compounds, `begotten' and `forgotten', though in the U.S.A. `gotten' is still the accepted form.


            'in the midway of Freemasonry' This expression may have been used by the Reconciliation workers since it is in Unanimity, though it is unlikely. It is, however, the term used by Gilkes. It is an Americanism and carries the sense, not of `half way' but of 'in the very heart and centre', and therefore implies that `you are now a full-blown Freemason', which is patently not the case. What we mean to express is, `you are now midway in Freemasonry', which is a very different thing, and that is what the Master should certainly say. PQ1871) and P.Q1874) both have `midway in Freemasonry', so it is evidently since 1874 that Emulation has reverted to the erroneous phrase.


            `superior to an EA., but inferior to that to which I trust you will hereafter attain' In the P. C. rendering the adjectival `that' is 'in the air', there being no noun to which it can be attached, unless possibly `Apprentice', in which case the meaning must be that in the future he will become some other kind of Apprentice than an `Entered' Apprentice. To express in English what is evidently intended we must say, `superior to an E.A., but inferior to that Degree to which I trust etc.' R.R. corrects the error in slightly different wording.


            Rise, newly obligated' See the note on this at p. 154.


            `Having taken the S. O. of a F. C. I shall.... entrust you' As in the similar phrase in the I° (see page ISS), this construction is faulty because, since the antecedent of `having' is clearly 'I', it implies that it is the speaker himself who has just taken the Ob., and not the person whom he is addressing. The formula must be either, `Now that you have taken the S.O., I shall etc.,' or (as in Oxf ),'As you have now taken etc.' * It may be noted that both here and in the similar connexion in the 30 (see p. 183) Oxf. has `concealed' instead of 'hid' or `hidden'. Can it be that the compiler of that version was doubtful which of the latter words was correct and cut the Gordian knot? t E.g., in Jane Austen's NorthangerAbbey (1818), ch. 10, we find, 'he has rid out with my father'.


            170     The Master `The first part of the t. s. is called the S. of F. ' It is unfortunate that, owing to an omission in the P. C, the full name of this s. is in many Lodges now never heard. `S. of F.' is really its secondary appellation. The proper form is, `the S.S. or S. of F.', and it is explained as being `emblematically to shield the repository etc.', the first `S' standing for `s ... g'. Oxf. prints it correctly. This remark applies equally to the later examination by the S.W. who should see that the candidate is made to give the full, and ancient, name of the s.


            `the H.S. or S. of P. ' A number of variants of the explanation of the hypothetical origin of this sn. are found in the different rituals. Some ascribe the position to Moses, others to Joshua. The site of the incident is variously given as `the valley of Jehosophat [sic] ' (Claret and Unan.); `before the city of AV (Stab.); `the valley of Rephidim' (Bristol); `the valley of Ajalon' (Humber); and `the going down to Beth-horon' (Oxford and Exeter).


            There has been evident confusion between the stories given in Exodus xvii, 8-13, and inJoshua x, 6-14. The valley of Jehoshaphat is mentioned in Joel iii, 2 and 12, but it has no connexion with either of the above narratives. Nowhere in the Bible is there a reference to a valley of Rephidim, though the Exodus battle took place `in Rephidim'.


            It is further to be noted that there is no Biblical authority for saying either that `Moses prayed fervently for the overthrow of the Amalekites `or that Joshua `prayed fervently to the Almighty to continue the light of day'. In neither case is there any mention of praying.


            It is difficult to see why the two battles should have been brought into Freemasonic tradition at all. One is tempted to think that the sn. may have come into use first and that subsequently an effort was made to find in the Bible something that could be applied as an imagined explanation of its origin. The two battles were then called to mind and were adopted without critical consideration of the text and the resulting confusion between them.


            It is worth noting that in the version given in the earliest known post-Union printed ritual (Carlile 1825) both battles are mentioned and there is a further allusion to `Moses when he came down from the mount', which we find also in the York working. This would suggest that at first both the battle incidents were used in explanation of the sn., and that in the subsequent attenuation of the ritual formularies, which we know occurred in later years, especially in London, here one of them, and there the other, was dropped out.


            Another point may be mentioned. In many old Provincial workings the sn. in question is called that of Prayer and not of Perseverance which is the more common term for it nowadays. In view of some of the explanations of its origin, `prayer' would certainly seem more natural than `perseverance', and, The Master            171 indeed, that is the term used in Unanimity, as well as in Carlile 1825. Exeter, it may be noted, calls it the Sn. of Prayer and Perseverance. One cannot help wondering whether `prayer' was the original name and that Emulation may have been responsible for altering it to `perseverance' when they invented (as there is little doubt they did) the sn. that they now call the `sn. of reverence' or `of prayer', which is not a recognised sn. at all and is nowhere taught in the course of the ceremonies in the working of any Regular Lodge. (sce p. 56).


            Of all the various traditional origins of the sn. that are met with in different rituals,' 3 the writer prefers-mainly because it does accord with a Bible record but also on the ground of impressiveness of diction-the Oxford version, which (subject to the interpolation of the italicised words) is as follows: It is said to have taken its rise from the time that Joshua fought the battles of the Lord in the going down to Beth-horon, when, according to our traditions, it was in this position that he used those memorable words, `Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon'. And we read in the sacred volume that `the Sun stood still and the Moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies'.


            This is the form adopted in ER.


            Those who are interested in the matter will find a rational explanation of the Joshua incident as recorded in the Bible in Maunder's The Astronomy of the Bible, p. 351.


            Before leaving the subject of this sn., one must refer to a practical detail in connexion with it, namely the position of the h. Should it, when viewed from in front, be seen flat or edgewise? Without doubt the former aspect was the original and the edgewise position is really an innovation.-This is supported by the Bristol ritual which specifies, `the h. p...m to the f...t'. That is the mode met with nowadays in most Provincial workings while the other is general in London Lodges and in those places to which Emulation influence has extended. The writer knows of no theoretical argument that can be advanced in favour of one mode rather than the other. That being so, it cannot be said that either of them is incorrect. Courtesy suggests that a brother should conform to whichever position appears customary in the Lodge in which he happens to be.* The P.S.


            In a few Lodges it is directed to be given with the hand `in the form of an eagle's claw'. We have never come across any evidence that this is of old-time *          In Misc. Lat., XXIC, 61, an argument is adduced in favour of the `p. to the f.' mode; but its value is somewhat discounted by the fact, already mentioned, that neither Moses nor Joshua are said to have `prayed'.


            172     The Master origin as applied to this sn., though the phrase occurs in another Freemasonryc dispensation in a different connexion. Emulationists, we have been told, now stress the point that in giving this sn. the fingers should be kept fully extended, no flexion being permitted-a procedure not very easy of perfect achievement. Exeter working is characterised by a `recovery' on the I.b. after giving the sn. This is almost certainly peculiar to that working and the variant possibly arose through copying the procedure of the 3°.


            Moreover, the Exeter brethren in coming `to order' in the 2° give the P.S. and then `recover'. It is difficult to believe that this practice can be of old standing (see p. 58).


            In communicating the W., it is of importance that in this, as in the previous, Degree, the Master should say, `never at length, except in open Lodge (seep. 157).


            for God said' This preface implies that we are quoting from the V.S.L., but in fact there is no such passage in that Book as the one given in the P.C. Some versions (e.g. Oxford) use a text from I Chron. xvii, 12, `He shall build me an house and I will stablish his throne for ever'. That is certainly not so apposite as the P.C. sentence. The best way of circumventing the difficulty is that adopted in R.R. and advocated in Et.,34 namely, to say, `for, according to our traditions, God said, "In strength I will establish etc."', using the words of the P. C.


            In the Master's address anent the badge, P.C. has `that you may the better be enabled'. This should be `that you may be the better enabled'(see p.145).


            The Address to the candidate in the S.E.


            The candidate should face due north, standing `to attention' with his feet squared. He should not, as he is sometimes made to do, stand with one foot pointing north and the other west so that he faces almost along the diagonal of the room (cf. pp 99 and 106), Masonry being a progressive science ... you were placed at the N.E. part of the Lodge, to show that you were newly admitted,' This-the opening phrase of P.C., which is virtually the same as that of Carlile 1825, Claret, Unan. and York-embodies a non sequitur. He was placed in the N.E. in the I° not because our science is progressive but because it is customary to lay the foundation stone at that corner of the building. That Masonry (or Freemasonry) is a progressive science is the reason for his being in the S.E. in the 2°. Therefore the wording should be, as in Oxf. (with which Bristol, Humber and R.R. are in virtual agreement), namely, `When you were made an E.A. you were placed in the N.E. part of the Lodge to show that you were newly admitted; but, Freemasonry being a progressive science, you are now placed in the S.E. part to mark the progress you are making', to The Master   173 which the words, `in the Craft' (Bristol), or `in the science' (Claret), may appropriately be added if the Master wishes.


            7 give it you in strong terms of recommendation' Reference has previously been made to this cacophonous phrase. The Oxford form, `I earnestly recommend [or exhort] you' sounds far more pleasant as well as being better English. Broadfoot's (and therefore the Reconciliation) wording was even simpler, `You stand to all external appearance a just and upright man and F.C.M. and I hope you will always maintain that character' 35.The similarity of Stab. to this will be noted (see p. 159).


            `the import of the former Charge neither is, nor ever will be, effaced It is better English to say, as in Exeter and E.R., `neither has been, nor ever will be, effaced'. Claret reads, never has or ever will be effaced' and Oxf , `neither has nor ever will be effaced', in both of which the necessary `been' after `has' is omitted.


            `the principles of moral truth and virtue' This is the form used in practically all existing versions, but it may be noted that the Reconciliation wording was `truth and moral virtue' .3e The Working Tools.


            In connexion with both the S. and the P.R. it is better to say, `to try and to adjust' than `to try and adjust'. The latter, unless enunciated intelligently, is liable to convey the sense of `to try to adjust', as in the colloquialism, `l1l try and do it'. Exeter and ER. seem to be alone in adopting this precaution. Regarding the introduction to the speculative application, see page 161.


            It is deplorable that, following the attenuated working of Emulation, many Masters now omit practically the whole of the account of the speculative uses of the tools of this Degree. 37 It is (or was until recently) printed as a footnote in the PC, but in many details that version (which is taken from the Emulation Lecture of the First Degree) is not unexceptionable on the score of English and, moreover, some of the wording is omitted. It is certainly old and has probably been corrupted since it was first composed. Following the literary fashion of the time, the sentences are long and involved and it would be impossible to put it into good modern English without more alteration than one likes to make,* but the version given in Appendix A infra, which is that of The English Ritual and differs only slightly from Oxf., is probably the best that can be arrived at. If it be collated with the P. C. version, it will be seen what the differences are, and the reasons for them will be obvious to the educated reader.


            *           Probably the worst version to be found anywhere is that in the Exeter ritual, where the section relating to the Plumb Rule seems to be a series of sentences strung together without regard to sense or syntax.


            174     The Master THE EXPLANATION OF THE TRACING BOARD.


            The `Pillars of the Porch' have an antiquarian interest for us on account of allusions to them in certain pretended `rituals' of the early and middle 18th century, and because they are depicted on our `Tracing Board', which is fundamentally a relic of that period. It is still usual to give a brief description of them, ostensibly based on the biblical records.


            Our present `Explanation' of the Board dates from pre-Union times and the version in Claret is practically identical with that in Browne,3 a which is generally believed to have been Preston's compilation. The Oxford rendering still follows that of Claret, but at some time Emulation has changed (and not with advantage) the order of the earlier paragraphs and has (apparently since 1847) altered the figure given for the height of the pillars from 35 cubits to 17'h, for which there is no biblical authority whatever.


            The Oxford Ritual says that `Every Freemasons' Lodge has, or ought to have, two columns, one on each side of the Master's chair' to represent those pillars. Many Provincial Lodges outside the home counties have such columns, of varying sizes, placed either as specified in Oxf., or, as in Bristol and in many other Lodges in the west country and in some of the northern Provinces, a little eastward of the Senior Warden. When they are in the latter situation it is customary for brethren entering the Lodge to stand between them as they salute the Master. In the metropolis and the adjoining Provinces they are now seldom represented, though it is probable that in early post-Union days they were generally in evidence. In Bristol the candidate for initiation kneels between them at his `restoration' and he is then at the centre of the `circle of swords', an incident which in nearly all other Lodges has been dropped since the Union (cf. p. 154).


            The biblical accounts of the pillars are to be found in I Kings vii; II Chron. iii and iv; and Jeremiah Iii. The chapter first cited contains the fullest description, but it is sb confused that it is impossible to gather from it any reasonable conception of their supposed appearance.


            Various commentators have given what purport to be detailed descriptions of them (and some have even presented us with sketches of them!), but these are necessarily fanciful and to a large extent the product of fertile imaginations or inspired by the designs of known pillars of a somewhat similar nature. Examples will be found in A.Q.C.- xii, p. 135, and xxi, p. 6.39 One such commentator Lee (1659), whose account is quoted in full in the first of the above references, takes the `chapter' to have been a ball (not a spherical, but an elliptical ball, whose greatest horizontal diameter was four-fifths of its vertical height) placed on top of the pillar and on which the decorative items mentioned in the Bible were displayed. But he says nothing about what are called in Browne40 ,a representation of the celestial bodies' and `a map of the The Master 175 terraqueous globe'. When these accretions were first added is not known. All that the Bible says is, `And upon the top of the pillars was lilywork; so was the work of the pillars finished' (I Kings, vii, 22). Therefore the statement that `they were said to be finished when the network was thrown over them"' is arrant nonsense, although in most of the models nowadays set up in Lodges this `network' is represented by the atrocity of string-bags encasing the globes that surmount the pillars.


            The globes are, of course, an anachronism, since the. idea of a spherical earth was first conceived by Pythagoras some 500 years after the time of Solomon. Therefore, if they are referred to at all in our discourse on the Board, it should be made clear (as is done in the E.R.,) that they are a purely Freemasonic embellishment. 2 To the person of ordinary intelligence reading and comparing the several biblical accounts (without entering into the question of the correctness or otherwise of the translation), it would seem obvious that the `bowl' in I Kings vii, 41, means the same as `belly' in verse 20, and `pommel' in 11 Chron., iv, 12 and 13, that is to say, they all signify the rounded swelling of the capital or `chapiter' of the pillar, and that on it was exhibited the ornamentation, including the `chains' or `wreaths' (II Chron., iii and iv) and the `networks' or ,nets of chequerwork and wreaths of chain work' (I Kings, vii, 17, 18, 41) to which the pomegranates were affixed.


            The height of the pillars is given as 18 cubits in Kings and Jeremiah, and as 35 cubits in Chronicles. It is an error to mention the circumference of 12 cubits in conjunction with a height of 35 (or 17'2) cubits, since it is only given in conjunction with a height of 18. The diameter is nowhere stated in the Bible, but if the circumference were 12 cubits, it could not possibly be 4 cubits, as both Oxf. and P .C. say it was! It is only in Jeremiah that we are told that the pillars were hollow. The statement that they were so formed in order to `serve as receptacles for the archives' (P.C. has `the better to serve as archives to Masonry'!) is as ludicrous as it is unwarrantable.


            Many brethren have wondered as to the origin of the figure of 1T2 cubits for the height, as given in modern Emulation working. There seem to be two possible sources: (1) The Geneva Bible of 1560 has a marginal note at 11 Chron., iii, 15, to the effect that each pillar was 18 cubits high but the top half-cubit was overlapped by the chapiter, so that the column appeared to be only 17'2 cubits. (2) in Dodd's Commentary on the Bible (1765) a note to I Kings, vii, 15, reads: `It is said in Chronicles that these pillars were 35 cubits high which relates to the height of both of them together'; as though we should say that the facade of a building displayed six columns 180 feet high when we meant that each one was 30 feet in height! In view of all this vagueness and confusion, it is well that we should limit 176        The Master ourselves to the few particulars that are given definitely and intelligibly in the biblical descriptions, and the present writer ventures to think that the rendering of the English Ritual is more satisfactorily in accord therewith than that of any other extant version. (See Appendix B).


            The P.W.


            With regard to its signification, see p. 143.


            `forty and two thousand' It is probable that by this phrase the translators of the AN. meant forty plus two thousand, that is, 2040, and not 42,000 which it is generally taken to mean. If they had had the latter figure in mind, they would almost certainly have rendered it `two and forty thousand', just as we say `four and twenty' (putting the smaller component first), but never `twenty and four'. Even allowing for the exaggeration usual in the accounts of such incidents, 42,000 is an absurd figure for it is several times larger than can have been the total population of Canaan in those days.


            When, some years ago, the present writer evolved the foregoing proposition which he had never previously come across, he thought that he was the first to propound it, in a Freemasonic connexion at any rate, unless possibly the fact that in the MS. rituals supplied to Bristol brethren it appears to be customary to write `40 and two thousand' indicated that his view already obtained there. But some time afterwards he found it expressed in the Scotch ritual mentioned at page 41, where a note says, `We read in Holy Writ that forty and two thousand were slain that day ... the number was not, as we may surmise, 42,000 but two thousand and forty. The rendering given in the Bible being a Hebrew method of expressing numbers'. With regard to the last sentence of that note the writer consulted a Hebraist and was told that in the Hebrew text no definite figure is stated, the word used signifying vaguely `a multitude' or `groups'. It would seem, therefore, that the English translators (or possibly the LXX) were responsible for the introduction of a specific number.


            `the winding staircase, consisting of 3, S, 7, or more steps' It seems better that this should read: `the winding staircase. Our traditions divide it into three flights, of three, five and seven steps respectively'.


            `five hold a Lodge' Formerly the five who hold a Lodge were sometimes said to allude not only to the Orders of Architecture but also to the five senses, namely, "sight, that we may see a brother and observe the signs; feeling, that we may feel the token; hearing, that we may hear the word; and smelling and tasting that we may enjoy the refreshments that the Master of his bounty provides for us when he calls us from labour".


            The Master     177 `without scruple or diffidence, etc.' The version of this that we find in Browne43 is not without interest. According to it the Craftsmen received their wages `without diffidence or scruple', and the answer to the question, `Why in so careless a manner?' is, `Without diffidence, knowing that they had earned them and without scruple [because] they put such confidence in their masters in those happy days, they received their rewards without counting'.


            `the letter G., denoting God' Here the letter G. is not primarily the initial of the word `God', as so many seem to think. It is the initial of `Geometry', the science on which operative masonry is based, and so it brings to our mind, or `refers to us', the Grand Geometrician of the Universe. In Prichard (1730) we have: Why were you made a Fellow Craft? For the sake of the letter G.


            What does that letter G. denote? Geometry, or the fifth science.


            And again in Browne:44 When they were in the middle chamber what most materially struck their attention? The letter G.


            What does that letter G. denote? Geometry, or the fifth science, on which masonry is founded.4 s Obviously, therefore, the actual word `God' ought not to be introduced in this Explanation. It is not in Claret or in Oxford but it was introduced in P.C. (1871), and it is used in Exeter.


            In many London Lodges it is the custom for the I.P.M., at the reference to T.G.G.O.T.U., to bang the gavel and call on the brethren to stand to order; an unseemly interruption which utterly mars the effectiveness of the concluding words of the Explanation.


            In some Lodges all the bre thren are made to stand during the Explanation of the Board-an entirely pointless and unnecessary procedure. Occasionally it is the practice for all the brethren to crowd round the Board. It is quite sufficient if the ex-candidate, and any others who have not yet heard the Explanation, stand round, the other brethren remaining seated in their places.


            THE CEREMONY OF RAISING The first few paragraphs relating to the Second Degree (p. 166) apply also here.


            178     The Master The lighting of the room should not be altered until just before the admission of the candidate, and it must not be again altered until he has withdrawn.


            The Prayer.


            During this all stand to order as M.M.s (see p. 85 et seq. ).


            ,assembled in Thy Holy Name' Unless the Lodge has been opened `in the name of the M.H.', these words must, of course, be omitted.


            `offers himself a candidate to partake with us the mysterious secrets of a MM.' There are two faults in the English here. It should be `offers himself as a candidate'; and one cannot partake a thing any more than one can take part a thing. We take part in or of a thing, and similarly partake in, or of, it.


            Claret and all other rituals have, `who now seeks to partake [or, as in Stab. and Humber, participate] with us [in] the etc.' One can only think that Emulation must have, since Gilke's time, altered their original form to a phrase which is peculiar to them merely for the sake of being different from others.


            Not infrequently one hears exception taken to the concluding words of this prayer on the ground that it is a nonsensical simile. The makers of that criticism are referred to Daniel, xii, 3.


            `Let the candidate rise' As in the 2°, it is well that the Master should say, `Let the candidate rise and perambulate the Lodge' (see p. 166), or use words to that effect.


            `The brethren will take notice etc.' As stated at page 167, it is rational that the Master should call the attention of the `brethren in the N., E., S. and W.' to the coming perambulation, as he does in the 1° and should do in the 2°.


            `to show that he is the candidate' It should be `a candidate'. See pp. 146, 167.


            `the sublime degree of a MM.' The article, `a', should be omitted. See p. 167.


            `your presentation shall be attended to, etc.' See the reference on p. 146 to the same phrase in the Second Degree.


            The advance to the E.


            See p. 168.


            The Master The Third Degree Sheet.


            The article generally supplied is absurdly large for the purpose of most systems of working, though in a few, such as that of Bristol, the large size is essential, but in those cases it rarely, if ever, requires any differentiation of the central part. Et., in criticising it, remarks that the central area as usually designed is wrongly shaped for the thing signified which is an o.g.46 ; but that is a mistake, for what is represented is quite as often of that shape as rectangular. The main error in the sheet usually provided is that it has certain emblems embroidered on it which are utterly out of place because they are in effect floating in mid-air without any support. The emblems, either embroidered on a piece of material or, preferably, real ones, should lie on the floor a little westward of the sheet, leaving room for the candidate to stand clear of them before beginning his advance. Et. suggests that the representation of the g. should have a narrow white border to show it up. But that is really unnecessary, and the simplest, and at the same time the most satistactory, device is a plain rectangular piece of black cloth 66 by 21 inches without any border. If it is larger than those measurements a person of less than medium stature will have difficulty in clearing it as he advances, that is to say he will be liable ostensibly to fall into what is represented. The cloth should be kept rolled round a stick or a cardboard tube to prevent the development of creases.


            It may be of interest to mention that a few Lodges in England still have a practicable o.g., in which the candidate is made to take his place at the appropriate time.


            `It is but fair to inform you etc.' The phraseology of the P.C. is unsatisfactory. Far better is the Oxford version, 'it is but fair to inform you that another S.O., as well as a more serious trial of your fortitude and fidelity than any you have yet experienced, now await you. Are you prepared to meet them as you ought?' The Obligation During this all the brethren assume the S. of F. which they retain until it has been sealed (see p. 56 et seq. ).


            `signs and summonses sent to me from a MM. 's Lodge' Quite recently a curious perversion of the sense had gained currency in certain circles. It consists in making a definite pause after `signs', so as to dissociate that word from the rest of the sentence. Those who do this argue that a `sign' cannot be `sent from a Lodge'. They evidently take the word ,sign' in its purely Freemasonic limited sense. But `sign' may mean `a word, gesture symbol or mark', and there is no reason why a message should not be sent by means of a word, symbol or mark according to a pre-arranged code, 179 180       The Master as, for instance, in the case of the well-known `paper missive'. 4' The formula of the Oxford Ritual, `signs and summonses, when sent to me from a M.M.'s Lodge', shows that in the mid-19th century the words were taken in the sense they naturally bear, and so it has been until a very few years ago when some innovator thought fit to originate the alteration. It was, we believe in P.Q1918) that a comma was first inserted after `sns.' It was not there in the 1909, or any previous, edition. This suggests that the absurdity mentioned had its birth in Emulation. One wonders what was the reaction to this innovation of the writer who tells us that it is their principle to regard the alteration of `even a comma' as unconstitutional! It is, however, only right to say that some have argued that the word ,signs' was added to the phrase in imitation of the words, `answer signs, obey summonses', that occur in the Ob. of the 2°. In support of this is the fact that the Unan. formulary is, `that as a M.M. I will answer all summonses sent through the body of a M.M.'s Lodge', no reference being made to `signs'. On the other hand the two best known rituals of the 18th century have the same form as that of the P.C. in both 2° and 3°, namely, `that I will answer all signs and summonses sent to me from a Lodge of Crafts', and in the 3° `from a Lodge of Masters'.


            The Revised Ritual, in a footnote ,48 advocates the omission of the whole sentence on the ground that, if it is used, `a MM. for the remainder of his life is bound by solemn oath to attend every M.M.'s Lodge to which he may be summoned', no ordinary excuses being valid. `This part of the Ob.', the note continues, `is (perhaps thoughtlessly) violated by thousands of our members every month'. The author, however, fails to realise that, as Masters' Lodges no longer exist as separate entities, no summons now ever emanates from such a body. All summonses in these days issue from an Apprentices' Lodge. The sentence, therefore, may be regarded as a harmless survival of an old form. If any Master does take exception to it, there is no reason why he should not omit it, since it is nowadays really pointless.


            It may be noted that in Bristol, although the phrase under consideration is not included in the 3° Ob., a similar one is used in that of the 2°, namely, `I will attend and obey all signs and summonses, that may be sent to me from a F.C. Lodge of which I may be a member, if within the length of my c. t., unless prevented by sickness or the pressing emergencies etc.' While in Humber the same phrase is used in each of the three Obs., that in the 1° being `I will answer and obey all true signs and summonses duly sent to me from the body of a just and perfect Lodge, without pleading any excuse-the pressing emergencies of my own ... being at all times most especially excepted'. It will probably be agreed that the criticism of the R.R. is distinctly pertinent to its use in this degree.


            The Master     181 `that my F: shall... unite with his in forming a column etc.' It may be a minor point, but the writes does greatly prefer the following wording of the RR. `that my F. shall travel through dangers and difficulties to unite with his in forming a base on which to erect a column of mutual defence and support'. As is said in a footnote to that version ,4 9 `The F. cannot form a column; they may form a base upon which two brethren standing shoulder to shoulder may be said to "form a column of mutual defence and support" '.


            In the above quotation PC. andR.R. have `travel through dangers etc.,' and ER. adopted the same verb. But every other ritual (except Bristol which uses a different phrase), from Carlile 1825 and Claret to P.C. (1874), York, Exeter and Brit., has `traverse through'. No doubt to the present generation `traverse' seems wrong, but that is only because its use intransitively has become virtually obsolete, though according to the O.E.D. it was current as lately as 1897. Formerly it was perfectly good English in the phrase under discussion, but since it does jar on the modern ear-just as does the past participle `hid' (see p. 168)-it is probably well to follow the example of Emulation and substitute the word `travel'. Nevertheless it is amusing to hear people inveighing against `traverse' as an illiteracy who will listen time after time to a split infinitive or a bastard enumeration with (to avoid a colloquialism, let us say) undisturbed orthotrichy! `that the posture of my daily supplications shall remind me of his wants' Here, too, the rendering of the R.R. is preferable to that of P.C.; it is, `that my K., bent in daily prayer to the M.H., shall remind me of a M.M.'s wants and dispose my heart etc.' In PC the K. is not specifically mentioned at all, but is only referred to by implication.


            `without detriment to myself or connections' This repeats the similar error in the Explanation of the Working Tools of the 1° (see p. 162). To put the meaning into English the wording must be, `without detriment to myself or my connections'.


            `murder, treason, etc.' A point of great importance arises here. The English is not at fault and the phrase would be unexceptionable if it were intended to be read by the candidate; but as it is dictated to him in sections for repetition it is decidedly objectionable. After the candidate has undertaken to keep a brother's secrets, he is made to go on, `murder, treason ... being ... excepted'. But he does not get it all at once, and when he hears the first few words he inevitably fears that he is about to be made to promise to conceal any knowledge of such crimes committed by a brother Freemason that may come to him, just as he has done in regard to other secrets. His doubt is very soon relieved, but he has none the less been startled, his attention has been distracted, and he does 182       The Master not immediately recover his equanimity. The writer feels strongly about this. Some years ago he was told of a case where a candidate, at the words, `murder, etc.', was so upset at the idea of possibly involving himself in an undertaking to become an accessory to such crimes, that he refused to go on, would listen to no explanation, insisted on leaving the room, and dropped entirely out of the Craft. He has asked many brethren what their reactions were at this point and they have almost invariably said that the dictation in that form had struck a distinctly unpleasant and disturbing note. All possibility of trouble is avoided by saying, as in Bristol `always excepting murder, etc.'; or, as in Oxford `save that murder ... shall be at all times most especially excepted'. The `save' at the beginning indicates that an exception is about to be made.


            ,no trace or remembrance' The last word is absurd. The procedure referred to could not possibly prevent `remembrance'. It is better to use the Oxford formula, `so that no trace of so vile a wretch as I should be may remain etc.' Bristol is virtually the same as Oxford. It is true that it has been argued that `the term "remembrance" was formerly applied to a token, relic, or other visible object, whereby a person or fact would be recalled to one's memory',' o but its use in that sense is most unlikely to be present to the mind of the candidate, who can hardly fail to be struck by the incongruity of the word here.


            `my S. O. of a M.M.' See note on p. 168 as to that ending.


            After the Ob. the Master's words should be, `As a pledge of your fidelity to this S.O., which is binding upon you for so long as you shall live, you will seal it w. y. l. t. on the V. of the S.L.(see p. 153).


            `Let me once more call yourattention etc.' The following formula is preferable to that of the P.C.: `Let me once more call your attention to the relative positions of the S. and Cs. When you were made an E.A. b. p. of the Cs. were hidden (seep. 168); in the Second Degree one was exposed; now both are exhibited, implying etc.' `Rise, newly obligated' Seep. 154.


            The Exhortation         (Sometimes, and preferably, termed `The Retrospect'.) The desirability of the Wardens coming up before the Master begins the recital of this Exhortation, instead of waiting to be called later on, has been mentioned at p. 120. It is only if they fail to move when they should that the Master should call to the `Brothers Wardens'.


            The Master 183 `that you may the better be enabled' Another instance of the error to which attention has been previously called at p. 145.


            `it instructed you, etc.' A few minor verbal alterations in the P.C. formulary are requisite in order to make sense and correct English. The reading should be: `It instructed you, acting on the principles of universal beneficence and charity, to seek the solace ... hour of their affliction; but above all ... T.G.A.O.T.U.; and to dedicate ... passion and fitted etc.' The italicised `but' is, perhaps, not absolutely necessary, though it is desirable. The two italicised `ands' are both necessary. They were used by Gilkes, and Oxford and Brit. are thus worded.


            `to trace it from its development' Clearly this should be `in its development', i.e., in the course of its development, as in practically all other rituals from Unanimity onwards.


            `the closing hour of existence' Obviously it should be `of your existence'.


            `the peculiar objects of the ThtYd Degree in Freemasonry; they invite you etc. ' This is a patent error. It is not the `objects' that invite you, but it is the Third Degree that invites you. Consequently the wording should be, `It invites you to reflect ... and teaches you to feel that etc.' Claret has, `Such, my brother, is the peculiar object of the Third Degree in Masonry, it invites you etc.' Evidently at some later period an Emulation worker thought that it would be an improvement to pluralise `object','and then, failing to recognise that the subsequent `it' referred to the Third Degree, he pluralised that also.


            `that awful subject' One occasionally hears objection raised to the word `awful' by those who only seem to know it in its modern colloquial use. But in its proper sense of `inspiring respect or reverential awe'* it is surely the appropriate word here. The Master should be careful to avoid a hurried enunciation and should picture it to himself, and speak it, as if it were spelt 'awe-full'.


            `the annals of Masonry' Although the writer agrees with Et. that generally the word `Freemasonry' is preferable to `Masonry', this instance is an exception to the rule because the reference includes not merely the modern era of purely speculative masonry but also the operative masonry of ancient days. Two similar instances occur a little later, namely, `the worthy mason' and `one of the brightest characters recorded in the annals of masonry' (see p. 69).


            *           Cf. `to pay their awful duty to our presence'. Richard II iii, 3, 76.


            184 The Master `ourMaster, H.A.' It is more fitting and more formal to refer to him as `our ancient G.M., H.A.' in the subsequent narration, and in the second part of the Traditional History, he should be consistently termed `the G.M.' rather than `our Master' (see p. 115).* `he was, as no doubt you are well aware' It is most unlikely that the candidate is so aware. He can only be so if he has obtained some surreptitious acquaintance with the legend. Therefore one ought to say, `he was, as our traditions inform us, the principal architect'.


            Crossing the Feet This practice, though now often seen, is a most objectionable one and, unless the Wardens are almost inconceivably incompetent and stupid, utterly unnecessary. Its effect on the candidate is to put him in an unstable posture and so to distract his attention from the narrative. It also interferes with the movements that he has to make prior to the culmination (seep. 121).


            ,conspired to obtain them by any means, even to have recourse to violence' Obviously this should read, as in Oxf. , `by any means, and even, if necessary, to have recourse to violence'.


            `planted themselves respectively at the E., N. and S. entrances' If we use the word `respectively', it stands to reason that we should name the entrances in the order in which they are to be dealt with later, namely, `at the S., N. and E. entrances'. The word `planted' is an unpleasing colloquialism; `posted' or `stationed' would be preferable.


            ,startled at the firmness of his demeanour, it missed his f.' This can only mean that the violent b. was startled, which is absurd! What is clearly meant and should, therefore, be said is, `but, being startled by the firmness of his demeanour, he missed his f. and the weapon only glanced on his r.t.' That is the Oxford formula. Claret has, `being startled ... he missed his f. but glanced with such force on his Lt. as to cause him to sink on his r.k.' The reversal is curious, but possibly due to oversight. The same sides are given in connexion with the second incident.


            `Here the W .M. may touch Can.'s F. with M.' Thus a rubrical note in the P.C. It ought to read `must,' not `may'. Merely to make a feint from a distance, as some Masters do, is not only futile and slovenly but fails to illustrate symbolically the legend. As the candidate is necessarily placed beyond his reach from the chair, it is absolutely essential that the Master should come down at the appropriate moment and stand before the candidate in order to perform his action properly.


            When the Master has discharged his duty, all the brethren should rise and See also The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 156.


            The Master     185 remain standing until the raising has been accomplished, when the Master will direct them to `be seated'.


            During that period part of the 12th chapter of Ecclesiastes is often recited by the Chaplain or a P.M. It is particularly effective when, at the same time, the Organist plays a subdued running accompaniment (see also p. 62).


            `I hope this will make a lasting impression on his and your minds, should you ever be placed in a similar state of trial'.


            That is nonsense. It expresses the hope that when the `state of trial' eventuates, then-but not until then-an impression will be made on the mind! Surely the desire is that the impression shall be made now, so that it may be already ingrained and present to prompt the mind to action, when, if ever, the time of trial or temptation comes. That being the intended meaning, the wording should be, `I hope this will make such a lasting impression on both his and your minds that you will evince the same fortitude should you ever be placed in a similar state of trial'. That is virtually the Oxford rendering.


            `the representative of ourMaster' As before this should be `the representative of our ancient G.M.' (see pp. 119 and 183).


            'Bro. Ws., having both failed in your attempts, there remains etc.' Beginning as it does, the sentence ought to continue with a verb and its subject in the second person, whereas it irrationally shifts into the impersonal construction, leaving the participial phrase, `having ... attempts', in the air and unattached to anything (cf. p. 153). To express the intended sense in English we must make it read, `Brothers Wardens [note the correct form of the plural] , although you have both failed in your attempts, there remains etc.'; or, alternatively, if preferred, `Brothers Wardens, you having both failed in your attempts, there remains etc.', i.e., using the nominative absolute (or, as Fowler terms it, the absolute construction), which is the correlative of the classical ablative absolute. The latter is the Oxford formulary.


            `by taking a more ... ... of the ... of the...' As the ceremony is worked in Emulation, and nowadays in many Regular Lodges, there is no reference to the L.'s G., which has been a Freemasonic symbol from time immemorial. The old homilies on our symbolism repeatedly allude to it. A brother at whose raising the term has been ignored will, if he ever reads Freemasonic literature, fail to appreciate such references. Nor would he realise that the Lion's Paw Clubs, that exist in so many American cities are Freemasonic institutions. Happily it is still mentioned in most of our Provincial workings. At this point in the ceremony the Oxford Ritual prints, `by taking a firm and &c. of the &c,', and in the working the first `&c.' is rendered `1...-like G.' 186    The Master `which with your assistance I will make trial of Some would maintain that this is bad English because of the terminal preposition and that it must necessarily be altered to, `of which I will make trial'; but see the note on the construction at p. I S6 above. Although the writer prefers the latter form here, he sees no reason to take exception to that of the P.C.


            `The f. p. off' With regard to the position of the h. in the last of these points, see p. 116. `it is thus all MMs. are raised' It is better English to say, as in Oxf., Exeter and most other rituals, `it is thus that etc.' It is, however, a minor point.


            `the former companions of their toils' Claret and Humber have `the companions of their former toils'. There is not much choice between the two forms but, as a matter of purely personal preference, the present writer inclines to the P.C. version. The hypercritical might, perhaps, advocate the more extended, `those who were their companions in their former toils'.


            The Master now directs the Wardens to resume their seats and must not forget to add, `Brethren, be seated'.


            `continue to listen to the voice of nature' Should it be `nature' or `reason'? P.C. has the former; Oxf. and Bristol the latter. The point may be open to argument, but the writer, personally, prefers ,reason', though perhaps mainly because it is the word to which he became accustomed in his early days. Yet, after all, surely nature does not inspire a belief in immortality, which is rather a doctrine that we have arrived at by the process of reasoning.


            `that bright morning star' It should, of course, be `that bright and morning star', the phrase being a quotation from The Revelation xxii, 16. The reference is definitely to Christ and is a relic of the time when the Craft was purely Christian. The allusion apparently escaped the notice of the revisers at the Union, when the Christian references generally were excised. Some hold that, as we are not now exclusively Christian, but admit Jews, Moslems and others who, though monotheists, are not Christians, this reference should be deleted, as others of a like nature have been. If the phrase be objected to, the R.R. provides an appropriate alternative rendering, namely, `and lift our eyes to Him in whose hands are the issues of life and death, and to whose mercy we trust for the fulfilment of His gracious promises of Peace and Salvation to the faithful etc.'s' In some Lodges it used to be the custom at the word `star' to expose, or switch on, a luminous star over the Master's chair. This practice can only have arisen from a complete failure to recognise the Christian significance of the allusion.


            The Master A little previously in the same address we occasionally hear the exhortation to `perform your allotted task while it is yet day' followed by, `the night cometh when no man can work'. This quotation from John ix, 4, may possibly be another relic from Christian times. On the other hand, it may be merely a modern interpolation suggested by the words `while it is yet day', which in the Gospel immediately precede the phrase.


            It need hardly be said that no change in the general lighting of the room should be made until after the candidate has withdrawn.


            At this point in the ceremony the Master turns the candidate round preparatorily to communicating the secrets. The movement should, of course, be made clockwise, that is to say, `with the sun'. Some have argued against the clockwise turn that the candidate then turns his back to the east, but if there was any objection to his doing so, he would have to be made to walk backwards whenever he passes down the Lodge in the course of his perambulations. Others advance the childishly futile proposition that he should not be allowed to pass between the Master and his chair. The accepted rule of always following the sun sufficiently determines the correct procedure.


            When the candidate has been turned round, he should be placed fairly well back towards the south and the Master should take his stand level with the north side of his pedestal, so that when the actual communication begins they are both directly in front of the pedestal.


            If the candidate, in his successive advances, tends to make his paces too long, the Master should check him and insist on their being repeated and made sufficiently short. Otherwise there is a danger that, as the candidate approaches him, the Master will have to step back in a somewhat undignified manner, until-as sometimes happens-he is driven towards the extreme north side of the Lodge. If the S.D. is in attendance, as some Masters like him to be during the communication, he will see that the length of the paces is kept within reason. 52 `advance to me as a F.C. first as an E.A.' See the note on this idiotic direction at p.130. and is given from the FC.'s ... by dropping etc.' A curious misconception has arisen from the use of these words and the location of the stresses and pauses often adopted in enunciating them. Some have even propounded the view the the sn. in question ought never to be given without first coming `to order as a F.C.' It would be interesting to see how such a one comports himself when, as a Warden, he communicates the sns. in the 3° closing. Does he, after given the P.G. and P.W., revert to the F.C. position before giving the Sn. of H.? Even the great panjandrums of Emulation have fallen into the trap, for, if they enter the Lodge when it is in the 3° (they adopt the `showing off custom of saluting in all three degrees), 187 188 The Master as they go from the 2° to the 3°, they hold the sn. of the 2° until the third step is taken and then drop from that position into the Sn. of H. It does not seem to occur to them that by so doing they have not really given the 2° sn. at all but only the first two component parts of it! Of course no one but their sanctioning Lodge can object to their acting thus within their own walls, but regular Lodges should be careful not to copy them. All that the wording quoted above really means is merely that if one should be standing as a F.C. (as the ancient Craftsmen may be imagined to have been doing at the time when hypothetically the sn. originated) one can fall easily and naturally into the required attitude in the manner described. There is no need to strain the words into the meaning above mentioned. To prevent any misunderstanding the Master, when communicating the sns., would be well advised to say that the Sn. of H. `may be given from the F.C.'s'.


            Not infrequently a Master is heard to say that the Sn. of H. is given `by dropping the l.h. to the rear'! To do that would stultify the whole posture, for obviously, in order to effect its purpose, the l.h. must be in front of the body so as to be interposed between the eyes and the object that is to be shut out from view53 which is supposed to be lying directly in front of the person making the sn.


            `The second casual sn. ' Three variant forms of this obtain in different parts of the country. There is no doubt that in the metropolis in the early post-Union time it consisted in a single contact made by the extremities of the parts applied. In some places a series of three similar contacts is made, and in others the contact involves an appreciably larger area. As these variants may all date from the same period it cannot be said of any one of them that it is either right or wrong, and every Lodge will naturally adhere to the mode to which it has been accustomed.


            `Place your hand in this position' The demonstration of the P.S. is frequently prefaced by these words, though they are not in Claret, or any other ritual known to the writer, except only the P.C. They are unnecessary but there is no objection to them, provided that the correct `position' is adopted. The error is often made of placing the hand at a point that suggests only a semi-section. It should be placed at the left side of the body.


            Too often nowadays one hears the description of the P.S. concluded by the words, `recovering on the navel'! Some years ago it was stateds 4 that that was the form then used in Emulation, but it is difficult to credit it. The writer has always regarded it as a mere vulgarity, originating in facetiousness and continued in ignorance. Nothing but harm can be done to the cause of ritual solemnity by adopting such innovations in the established working. The time-honoured formula is `recovering on the C.' The Master           189 Mention has already been made of the unfortunate omission in many Lodges today of all reference to the L.'s G, (page 185). When the G. is taught to the candidate it should be accompanied by the words, `The G. or T. is known among Freemasons as the L.'s G. and is given thus. [It is then given.] This G. is the first of the f. p. o. f., which are etc.' Regarding the last of them, see p. 116.


            It should be noted that the first of the alternative Ws. in this Degree is a quadrisyllable, not a trisyllable as it is frequently made by the uneducated. To make it a trisyllable is as bad as to read the writing on the wall, `mean, mean, etc.' or to call Salome, Salom, and the father of David, Jess.* At quite an early date (probably as the result of seeing the word printed in `spurious rituals', which were undoubtedly used freely, if surreptitiously, in the 18th century) the habit arose among the illiterate of pronouncing it as a trisyllable. Then, not appreciating the fact that a non-English word can have any reasonable meaning at all, but knowing the legend, somebody devised the fanciful interpretation of the word as `the flesh from the bone' or `rotten to the bone'. This, of course, was only current in absolutely uneducated circles, though it was actually printed in certain publications of the period. Nevertheless the pronunciation did become very general and was retained among the uneducated after the Union, so that even today it is heard in many Lodges in London and the neighbourhood. In most Lodges in the north and west of England, as well as in the Lodges of Ireland, Scotland and the Dominions generally, it is pronounced correctly. And so, we believe, it is in American Lodges. In some London Lodges we hear the word ignorantly pronounced not only as a trisyllable but with the third syllable made to rhyme with `men' or `main'.


            Of the second alternative word it may be remarked that in the meaning ascribed to it the participle is usually `smitten'. Exeter, however, renders it ,slain'.


            For an interesting note on these words the reader is referred to Rosenbaum's Masonic Words and Proper Natnes, where we are told that the alternatives might quite possibly be the same word, one in Hebrew form and the other in the Aramaic dialect.


            In some Lodges it is customary for the candidate, after the ss. have been communicated to him, to be made to undergo probations by the Wardens on the analogy of those in the previous Degrees, and then to be invested with the badge before he withdraws. This practice, which certainly has something to recommend it, is described in detail in the Revised Ritual. In Exeter working the Master invests the candidate immediately after he has communicated the secrets.


            *           The writer has actually heard the last solecism committed by a Provincial G.Sc. N. when reading I Samuel, xvi.


            G 190 The Master In Bury, when the Master has communicated the ss., the S.D. conducts the Candidate to the left of the S.W. who presents him to the Master and is delegated to invest him (which, unhappily, he does `in the name of the M.H.') (cf. p. 128). The Master then directs him to retire. When the Candidate returns he is at once placed in the West at the head of the T.B. facing the master.


            Before the Master gives the candidate leave to withdraw he should inform him that `on entering a Lodge open in the Third Degree, you will take the sp. and salute with the three sns. that you have just been taught. You will do the same on leaving the Lodge on this occasion, but ordinarily it is enough when leaving to give the P.S. only'.




            `the d. of our M., H.A.' As already stated, `our ancient G.M., H.A.' is preferable (see p.183).


            `could not fail of being... severely felt' One occasionally hears the criticism that this phrase is not good English and should be corrected to `fail to be'. Although nowadays most writers would probably prefer the latter form, the criticism is ill-founded because the construction `fail of being' was formerly the accepted usage. It is found in Thackeray and Jane Austen,s s and in a toast in one of Preston's Lectures.s 6 It is not entirely obsolete even now for it occurs in Pollock's The Popish Plot (1903), p. 176.


            :The Menatschin' The word is so spelt in the P.C. and one often hears it pronounced Meri ashin (the accent on the first syllable). It should be spelt Menazchm and accented on the second syllable. The final `m' is a normal Hebrew plural termination, as in Cherubim, Seraphim, etc. The `ch' should be given the sound of that combination in the Scotch `loch'." Occasionally, as in the printed Stability Ritual, we meet with the double error `Menaschins'. Claret (1838) prints Menatschim's! `down to the time of withdrawing themselves' English requires the insertion of `their' after 'of. The word `themselves' is not really needed. It is enough to say, `down to the time of their withdrawing from etc.' Claret reads, `up to the time of their having withdrawn themselves'; Oxf , has, `up to the time that they withdrew themselves'. Both are equally correct, though `down' would, perhaps, be preferable to `up'.


            `a stated day having been appointed' This is a stupid pleonasm. The day could not be appointed unless it were ,stated'. It is better English to say simply, `a day having been fixed', as in Oxf.


            The Master     191 `departed from the three entrances' The meaning is more clearly expressed by, `departed severally from the three entrances'.


            ,one class returned'; and later, `it only remains to account for the third class' Why introduce the word `class'? They were originally denoted by our technical term `Lodges' and it is only rational to relate that `one Lodge returned' and `to account for the third Lodge', the terminology used in Oxf. One ritual uses the word `party'.


            `without having made any discovery of importance' Surely the implication is that they made no discovery at all. Otherwise what they did discover would be mentioned. The words, `of importance' are a gloss and should not be used. They do not occur in Unan., Oxf. or Humber.


            ,a second, however, were more fortunate' Neither `class' nor `Lodge' can be regarded as a noun of multitude that may take a plural verb. It must, therefore, be, `a second, however, was more fortunate', as in Carlile 1825, Unanimity, Stab, and York. And a little further on we must say either, `It only remains to account for the members of the third Lodge who . .. were meditating their return to Jerusalem', or, as in Oxf, `for the third Lodge of Craftsmen who ... were'. York has, `the third class of Craftsmen who ... were', which is grammatically correct.


            `after having suffered ... one of the brethren ... caught hold' This signifies that only the brother who `caught hold' had suffered privations and fatigues, the antecedent of `having' being `one'. The obviously correct reading is that of Carlile 1825, `after they had suffered ... one of the brethren'. Unan. phrases it somewhat differently, namely, `on the evening of a certain day one of them being weary laid himself down to rest and in order to facilitate his rising caught hold etc.' ,a shrub that grew near' Exeter has, `a shrub which appeared to grow near'. This is no doubt punctiliously correct, since the shrub, having been previously uprooted, would not, strictly speaking, be still growing. Nevertheless it sounds awkward and almost suggests the idea of a spectral shrub that wasn't really there at all. The P.C. wording may be allowed to pass, or, alternatively, the words `that grew near' may be omitted, as in the E.R.


            `he therefore hailed his companions and with their united endeavours re-opened the ground' This is not English. As the sentence stands the subject of the verb 'reopened' is `he'; but how could he alone do it `with their united endeavours'? It should read, `and by their united endeavours they re-opened the ground'. The Oxf. wording is slightly different but is unexceptionable, namely, `and 192            The Master with their united assistance succeeded in re-opening the ground.' `very indecently interred' Some object to the word `indecently', as inappropriately coarse because they only know it in its modernly acquired sense of `offensive to modesty (with a sexual implication)' or `obscene'. But its meaning in the. 18th century was merely `in an unseemly or undignified manner'. Bristol exactly expresses the real meaning here by `rudely buried'. No exception, however, can be taken to `indecently', which is the word generally used. In fact the sense that attaches to `indecently' here is antonymous to that of `decent' as used in the Prayer Book rubric which directs that `a decent bason' shall be provided for the collection of alms.


            `a sprig of acacia' It is absurd to suggest the use of a mere `sprig' to mark a spot in the (presumably) open country! It would never be seen when they returned to locate the site. Exeter and the R.R. read, `branch of acacia', which is logical. Actually we have adopted the `sprig of acacia' merely as a memento, or miniature representation, of the branch that would naturally have been used for the purpose mentioned in the legend. According to the Bristol working the shrub `which came easily out of the ground' `proved to be the acacia'. The same shrub was used `to mark the spot' and the discoverer brings a `sprig' of it to the Master.


            `whilst paying this last sad tribute of respect etc.' In the P.C. rendering the only possible subject of `paying' is `whatever casual Sn., T., or W.' It is, however, not these that were `paying this ... tribute', but the brethren. To convey the intended meaning the wording must be, `while they were paying this last sad tribute etc.' `and on re-opening the ground, one of the brethren, looking round, observed etc.' Here the antecedent of 're-opening' is `one of the brethren', so that the sentence states that one brother by himself opened the ground. To express what is obviously intended we must say, `and, on the re-opening of the ground, one of the brethren etc.' `others, viewing the g... w...' Nowadays one frequently hears the `g...' rendered as `grievous', but the earlier rituals (Unan., Claret and Carlile 1825), as well as Humber, PC. (1871 and 1874) and present-day Stability have `ghastly', which is, therefore, presumably the correct word. P.C. prints `g... w...' and so gives no indication as to which word Emulation now uses.


            `descended the g.' An unnatural phrase. One would always say, `descended into the g', as in The Master            193 Oxf. , Brit. and Exeter.


            `having both failed in their attempts, a zealous ... Brother took etc.' Here we have the same faulty English as in the similar phrase mentioned at pages 000 and 000. The participle `having' is in the air without any subject. To render it into English we must say either, `when they had both failed' or 'they having both failed'. The former is, perhaps, slightly the more euphonious, but both are equally correct.


            The omission to mention the L.'s G. again calls for notice (see pp. 153 and 185).


            `while others, more animated, exclaimed etc' It is extraordinary how few brethren who' learn their work from the P C. are sufficiently intelligent to notice the obvious omission here of part of the sentence. The attentive listener, be he a M.M. or a candidate, cannot fail to wonder why those whose only activity was the ejaculation of a word, should be described as `more animated' than certain others who had been going through somewhat strenuous physical exertions. The explanation is found if we consult other workings, e.g., Oxford, where we fi:44 the complete phrase, `and while some looked on in speechless h...r, others, more animated, exclaimed etc.' The restoration of those few words, which at some time must have been carelessly dropped out, makes sense of the whole.


            ,all MMs. throughout the universe' `Universe' is rather a large order! Is it not enough to confine King Solomon's empire to this planet and say, `throughout the world'? It is so in Oxf. and Stab. (cf. p. 139).


            ,restore the genuine' Although a minor point, it is worth noting that the phrase, with the adjective thus left in the air at the end of the sentence, is disagreeably elliptical; `the genuine ones', as in Claret, Oxf. and other versions would be more euphonious.


            THE EXPLANATION OF THE TRACING BOARD On no account should the Board be carried to the Master's chair to be there explained by him. It is theoretically a fixture on the floor and the Master should come down to it as he does when explaining the Boards of the other Degrees (see p. 75). The correct procedure is specifically directed in the Exeter ritual.


            The use of a miniature print of the Board by the Master when giving the Explanation-a recent innovation met with in some London Lodges-is strongly to be deprecated. It suggests indolence on the part of the Master, is a slip-shod way of working, and is nearly as bad as having the actual Board 194 The Master carried up to his chair.

 Early in the Explanation the modern P.C. has the inelegant `near to the S.S.' The omission of the `to', as in Claret, Carlile 1825, Oxf. and P.C. (1871), renders the phrase decidedly more pleasing (cf. pp. 125 and 144).


            Immediately afterwards P.C. reads, `there in a G.', which sounds awkward; the word `there' is unnecessary and is preferably omitted, as in Oxf. Carlile 1825 has `and there' which is slightly less awkward than the bald `there'.


            `clothed in white aprons and gloves' The hypothesis that they wore white aprons is at least a possibility. The reference to `white gloves' is an anachronism and Oxford rightly omits it. Later on an objection may be raised to the expression, `the window that gave light to the same', similar to that which was advanced in connexion with the Junior Deacon's answer in the opening of the Lodge (page 90).511 It is preferable to say, `the window that gave light thereto'.


            At the end of the P.C. version some prefer to say, `three thousand years after the date commonly assigned to the creation of the world.' It is a pity that, although the sprig of acacia is always prominently pictured on the Board, no reference is made to it in the P.C. explanation. A slightly extended version of the explanation, adapted from an old version used in a Wiltshire Lodge, in which the symbolism of that item is mentioned, will be found in The English Ritual*.


            The following extract from the Scotch ritual mentioned at page 46 is interesting because of the similarity of part of it to the Wiltshire version: "The acacia is an evergreen plant or shrub which grows in abundance in the vicinity of Jerusalem. Masonic tradition informs us that it was used as a means of marking the temporary grave of H. Ab. It is represented by a little sprig of evergreen which every brother deposits in the grave of a member who is buried with Masonic honours. Freemasons esteem it as an emblem of tender Sympathy and undying Affection, and, as it is an evergreen, regard it as emblematical of the soul that never dies, and that, when the cold winter of death shall' have passed and the bright summer morning of the resurrection appears, the Son of Righteousness shall descend, and send forth his angels to collect our ransomed dust. Then if we are found worthy, we shall enter into the celestial Lodge above".


            THE SIGNS The mistake is frequently made of giving the alternative name of the sign of J. and E. as `the grand or royal sign'. It is properly `the grand and royal salute'. Oxf. has it correctly.


            In connexion with the first alternative sign of G. and D., the PC. omits * See Appendix C.


            The Master     195 part of the descriptive sentence which Oxf. rightly retains, namely, `exclaiming in the language of the country in which you happen to be, etc.' It is so in Claret.


            With regard to the other alternative sign that is nearly always taught in London Lodges and is described in the P.C., and is there stated to be used in `Scotland, Ireland and the States of America', it-is certainly not known in either of the two countries first named, and the writer has never met with an American who knows it. It would seem, therefore, desirable to refrain from mentioning it. Nothing is said of it in the Oxford or Britannia workings, nor did Gilkes refer to it.* This is an appropriate place for the insertion of a note about a detail which some brethren seem to have a surprising difficulty in understanding.


            They know the rule that when giving the P.S. of the Third Degree they should `recover' before finally dropping the hand, but they are puzzled by certain apparent exceptions to the rule. Actually they are not exceptions at all.


            The occasions in point are: 1. When dropping the sn. as the Lodge is declared open in the 3°. In that case the `recovery' has already been made, namely, at the time of `proving' ourselves. Having then `recovered', we maintain the position until the end of the opening ceremony and then simply drop the hand. Obviously there is no reason to repeat the `recovery' which has already been made.


            2. In the closing of the 3°. Here we are called 'to order' as M.Ms. and thereupon we assume a position with a digit on `the centre', but we do not * Since this book was first published in 1947, a friend (Bro. Preston) has told me that he was recently at a Lodge in Eire where they gave the sign exactly as it is given in Emulation working. It is well. therefore, that I should put on record my authority for saying that it is not known in Scotland or Ireland.


            (1) Some years ago a 3° was worked at Pellipar Lodge and the sign was shown as it usually is in London Lodges. The Dep. G. Master of Scotland was present. After Lodge he asked me where we got that sign because, he said, it is not known in Scotland. He added, 'We have a sign that slightly resembles it', but, when I asked him what it was, he said, 'I can't show it to you now because it may only be given in open Lodge'. Obviously, therefore, whatever it is, it is not a Sign of G. & D.


            (2) Some time in the 1920s., Bro. Bryan (Pr.G.Sec., Kent) and Bro. Hobbs (now P.As.Pr.G.M., Kent) were members of a deputation who went to Ireland and, at a meeting presided over by the G. Master of Ireland, demonstrated the Emulation working of the 30, in the course of which they showed this sign. On its conclusion the G.M. told them that that was no sign of theirs and called on the G.D.C. to 'show our English Brethren what our Sign of G. & D. is'. On a subsequent occasion Hobbs and Bryan showed me that Irish sign. It is somewhat like the Emulation sign but is definitely not the same.


            Obviously, therefore, when Bro. Preston saw the Em. sign given in an Eire Lodge, it was given under some misunderstanding, and probably, it would seem, as the result of some Emulation connection or influence in that particular Lodge.


            196     The Master arrive at it by first giving the sn. (see p. 58). Consequently there is no `recovery' at this point. Neither is there a `recovery' when, at the end of the closing ceremony, simultaneously with the S.W., we drop the posture. A `recovery' is only made in connexion with the sn., and there has been no sn. And even if there had been a sn. when we were called to order, the `recovery' would have been made then and would not be required at the dropping of the position.


            Some brethren seem to think that, when they give the sn. prefatorily to addressing a superior and remain `on the centre' while speaking they should `recover' when they drop the position at the end of the speech. A little consideration will make it evident to anyone of even moderate intelligence that it is not so. When giving the prefatory sn., the first motion indicates, or should indicate, a complete section, not a semi-section, and in order to get back to the `centre' a `recovery' is necessary. It is true that at such times the `recovery' is often made in a hurried and slipshod manner, the hand being brought back without ever having gone below the horizontal line; but the fact that it is thus slurred, instead of being carried through, as it should be punctiliously in the full form, does not make it any the less a `recovery' and it would be irrational to repeat it.


            When standing `to order', whether the sn. has been first given or not, the hand should be kept horizontal and the fingers should be extended and not allowed to sag into the slovenly position that is too often affected by some who ought to know better and might fairly be expected to set a good example.


            The Working Tools.* The Reconciliation workers spoke of `the skirret line', the line being the real symbol and the skirret merely a convenient accessory on which to wind it.t But the skirret itself has now become so generally accepted as the symbol that it would be futile to advocate a reversion to the old formula 59.


            In this connexion there has been a confusion of ideas, for some of the early post-Union workers-no mention of the skirret is known before the Union- used the phrase (which, in some rituals is still extant), `whence a line is drawn, chalked and struck', evidently having in mind the chalked string that a carpenter stretches tightly along a plank in order, by slightly lifting its middle point and letting it spring back, to make a straight white line on the board along which to saw. Actually what we call a skirret is a gardener's implement, and when the operative mason is marking out a foundation he * Seep. 161.


            Actually Broadfoot wrote `skivit line', as to which form of the word see The Lodge of Probity, pp. 210 and 214. In Probity at the present time the implement is presented as `a skirit or skivit line'. Unanimity has `skirrett line'.


            The Master     197 uses a cord drawn taut between two `plotting pins' along which he makes a line of nicks with a spade.


            It will probably be of interest to quote in full Broadfoot's rendering of the moral application of these Working Tools, which was obviously that used by the Reconciliation workers and which is to be found in a letter of his dated September 24, 1816, and reproduced in facsimile in Hanson's The Lodge of Probity (1939). It is as follows: The Skivit Line represents the strict and undeviating line of duty marked out for our pursuit in the Volume of the Sacred Law. The pencil points out that all our actions are observed and recorded by the Almighty Author of our Being to whom we must be accountable for our conduct in this Life-the compasses remind us of his impartial and unerring Justice which having accurately defined the limits of good and evil will reward or punish us according as we have obeyed or disregarded his divine commands. Thus the Working Tools of a instruct us to bear in mind and act upon the Laws of our divine Creator, so that after being called from this Sublunary Scene we may ascend to that bright sphere where the World's Grand Architect lives and reigns for ever.


            If this be collated with the other versions (e.g. Carlde 1825, Claret, Unan., P.C., Oxf , Bristol, Humber, and Stab.) it will be seen that, while they all run on similar lines, not one of them is in exact agreement with the Reconciliation formulary.


            The pencil is almost invariably represented by the old-fashioned portecrayon. All too often one sees it disfigured by having bits of common lead pencil fixed in its jaws. No addition is necessary at all; but if anything is used it should be a real crayon or a piece of ebony or blackened -wood shaped to represent a crayon. Rather than exhibit the hybrid monstrosity mentioned, it would be better to scrap the portecrayon and unblushingly use an ordinary modern pencil.


            According to the Bristol Ritual the Working Tools in this degree are four, the trowel (by which the cement is spread) being added to the usual three.


            THE CEREMONY OF INSTALLATION On the score of diction the P.C. version of this ceremony is markedly superior to the other ceremonies in that ritual, and there are comparatively few details that call for criticism. It probably follows the revision of the ceremony that was made in 1828. The Oxford ritual still retains the older formulary as it is given in the early editions of Claret, which was probably the then working of Emulation.


            G* 198            The Master It is, one may hope, hardly necessary to say that on no account should the Master at any point `declare all offices vacant', a practice still occasionally met with, though not in the Emulation working. If the offices were ever all vacant the meeting could not continue. That is why the Wardens' chairs are temporarily filled by P.Ms. As regards the minor offices, each officer, even though after a certain point not actually in his place, technically fills the office until the moment when his successor is inducted.


            your presentation shall be attended to, for which purpose etc.' As in the case of the sirnilar phrase elsewhere (pp. 146, 167, 178) it is better English to say, `your presentation shall be attended to, but I shall first address etc.' `he must have been regularly elected ... and presented to a Board of Installed Masters' The words `have been' are clearly wrong because they imply that before the brethren proceed to `select' him he must not only have been already ,elected' but must also have been presented to a Board of I.Ms., whereas in fact the election is the mode by which the selection is effected; and, moreover, according to the usual present-day practice, the presentation does not take place until later. The only wording that expresses the facts is, `he must be regularly elected by the Master, Wardens ... and must subsequently be presented to a Board of Installed Masters'.


            `that he may receive from his predecessor the benefit etc.' This suggests that no one but his immediate predecessor can instal him which is not the case. Some put it right by inserting, `or some other duly qualified brother'. But it is simpler to say, `that he may receive from one of his predecessors etc.', that is, not necessarily his immediate predecessor, or even one who has occupied the chair of his own Lodge, but one who has filled the chair in some Lodge.


            `you having been so elected and presented' This wording dates from the time when (as is still the case in a modified form in Bristol) the new Master was obligated and given the secrets in a Board of Installed Masters before being brought into the Lodge.* Under the usual modern practice it is patently untrue, because he has not yet been presented to a Board. The text should be modified to accord with present practice. The West End working has, `you having been so elected and being about to be presented'. This serves the purpose though not very euphoniously. Much better is the formula that the late Pro. Grand Master, Lord Ampthill, habitually used, `you, having been so elected, are about to be presented to a Board of Installed Masters, but I must first claim your attention while I recite * For an instance of this at an Installation in 1843, see Powell and Littleton's Freemasonry in Bristol, p. 206.


            The Master     199 to you etc.' It is said that a few Lodges-apparently with the object of making the phrase `you having been so presented' appear a correct statement-have adopted the practice of holding an informal meeting of I.Ms. on some occasion prior to the Installation and `presenting' the Master Elect to them for approval. But such an artifice in no way constitutes the required presentation to a `Board of Installed Masters', which, under the conditions now obtaining, can only be held in open Lodge, even though-as in Bristol-its proceedings may be conducted in an adjoining room.


            `1st. Every candidate' It is a small point, but English requires correspondence with the adverbial numerals, preface the succeeding paragraphs.


            `well skilled in the Ancient Charges' Although a very unimportant detail, somewhat awkwardly sounding repetition used shortly before, can be avoided by Ancient Charges'.


            you will signify by the S. of F.' Oxf. has, `you will signify by an inclination of the head and the S. of F.' The writer has a preference for that formula, though, as a matter of fact, the inclination of the head is so natural an action that it is generally made even without the specific instruction. Claret specifically directs it.


            `contrary to, or subversive of, our ancient Institution' One often hears this criticised, and even altered, on the ground that `Institution' is a mistake for `Constitution', and, indeed, the latter word is used in Oxford and most other printed rituals. But it should be remembered that formerly `Institution' carried the meaning of `a system of rules' or ,established law' (cf. The Institutes of Justinian) and therefore it correct here. Gilkes used `Constitution'.


            is perfectly `those excellent Rules and Regulations' The word `excellent has an altogether too condescending and patronising flavour. Let us rather say, `Ancient Rules and Regulations'.


            `to render this a S. O.' As previously pointed out (page 153) it should be, `As a pledge of your fidelity to this S.O., you will seal it etc.' `Rise, newly obligated' As shown on p. 154, it should be `duly obligated'.


            that it should be `Firstly', in `Secondly' and `Thirdly' that it may be remarked that the of `well skilled', which has been saying here, `well versed in the 200        The Master We must here mention a practice that is becoming increasingly common in London Lodges and about which the writer feels very strongly, namely, that of making the Master Elect sit down while the Lodge is opened in the Third Degree. Since the whole ceremony centres on him, he should be (and he has a right to be) in the limelight, so to speak, all the time. To say to him (as in effect we do if we push him aside temporarily), `Get out of the way for a bit while we proceed with the ceremony', is a slight that ought not to be put upon him. He should remain standing in the centre of the Lodge, i.e. at the foot of the Tracing Board.b o As soon as the Lodge is opened in the Third Degree all below the rank of I.M., except the Master elect, are requested to withdraw. The officers' collars must be left in the room but the mode of dealing with them varies. In the writer's opinion the most desirable plan in the interests of smooth and sedate working is for the Master to direct the officers to leave their collars on their respective chairs. When the time comes for the investitures, the A.D.C., as each name is announced, collects the required collar and any other appurtenance from that officer's place and takes them to the Master, while the D.C. leads up the recipient of the office. If there is no A.D.C., the D.C. himself will pick up the collar &c. before fetching the officer.


            In some Lodges, however, the D.C. either collects the collars before the brethren leave, or stands at the door and receives them from the officers as they pass out. All too often,as he then walks up the Lodge with the whole tale of collars hanging on his arm, he gives the impression of expecting his capability and importance to be assessed by the onlookers in proportion to the amount of noise that he can elicit from the jangling of the clustered jewels. Moreover, in this case further time is taken up, and needless delay caused, by the collars having to be sorted out and arranged in the order in which they will be called for-usually with the result of still more unseemly jangling.


            THE INNER WORKING It is greatly to be regretted that the formal opening and closing of the Board of Installed Masters, which in early post-Union days was very generally practised in London as elsewhere, has now largely fallen into disuse. It is more common in some of the northern and western Provinces than in the neighbourhood of the Metropolis, but an increasing number of London Lodges now again practise it. Some years ago certain Emulation fanatics-simply because it was no longer used in their Instruction Lodge -attempted to make out that it was irregular and even induced two successive Grand Secretaries to issue a circular letter to that effect. The matter came to a head in 1926 when one of them brought it before the Board of General Purposes in an endeavour to have it officially forbidden; but, as the result of The Master            201 investigation and discussion and the production of evidence of a continuous user of over 150 years (see p. 44), it was eventually decreed by Grand Lodge on December 1, 1926, that any Lodge that likes may practice the ceremonies, provided only that it be made clear by the Installing Master `that no further Degree in masonry is being conferred' and that a knowledge of the additional signs involved, and of the P.W., is not obligatory, that is to say, no one may be refused admission to a Board of Installed Masters solely on the ground that he is not acquainted with those extra secrets. 61 In spite of this some advocates of attenuated working, through either ignorance or guile, still persist in uttering the unfounded statement that Grand Lodge has forbidden the use of the ceremonial in question.


            Many brethren appear to be still unaware of the occurrence in Grand Lodge of the incident of 1926, and, even of those who know of it, very few seem to realise how easily it might have resulted in a serious cleavage throughout the Craft in England. That such a disaster was happily averted was due entirely to the wisdom and strength, the impartiality, and the painstaking investigation of the then President of the Board of General Purposes, the late Bro. Sir Alfred Robbins, who, like many other great men in the past, did not hesitate to revise his opinion when he found that, by the machinations of self-assertive schemers with the support of ill-informed persons in important positions, he had been led unwittingly into error. 62 The text of the formal opening and closing of the Board of I.Ms. was until recently printed in the P.C., but it is now omitted.* It will be found in the Exeter Ritual, the ritual of the Authors' Lodge, the Bury Ritual and the English Ritual, in all of which there are a few minor differences in details. For instance, in Exeter working two alternative P.Ws. are used and in the ER. there is no reference to a P.G.


            The version in the E.R. is what was taught some fifty years ago to the compiler of that ritual by a then septuagenarian brother as having been the form commonly used in his young days in the circle of London Lodges with which he was intimate. He was most regretful that since thattime the practice of the ceremonial had been allowed gradually to die out.


            I was told recently of a New Zealand Brother, a guest at an Installation meeting in London, who said that during all his years in the Craft he had never until then seen an Installation at which the Board of I.Ms. was not opened and closed with the proper ceremonial. Its omission on that occasion he regarded as slovenly working.


            It may be added that Lodges in the Province of Bristol follow a form that is peculiar to themselves and is somewhat akin to that of the opening and closing of Grand Lodge. Moreover, what with them corresponds to the Board * That it was printed in that ritual (though with the note that it was `not used in Emulation') suggests that it must then have been still fairly commonly practised.


            202     The Master of Installed Masters is held in a separate room-no doubt a relic of old-time more general practice-that opens out of the Lodge-room, all the other brethren remaining in the latter under the control of the Junior Warden (the Senior Warden being usually the Master Elect) who sits on the stool in front of the Master's chair. In their working there is no P.W. and only one extra sign is involved.


            The Prayer At this point we witness too frequently the appalling gaucherie of bringing forward an ordinary chair for the Master Elect to kneel on. He should be given a proper kneeling stool or a cushion. Failing either of those-though it is hardly conceivable that one or other of them should not be available-it were better that he should kneel on the floor than on a chair.


            For the reason stated on page 136, it is preferable that the prayer should begin, `Vouchsafe Thy blessing ... on this our solemn rite.'.


            The older form has certain adjectives that are now omitted in the PC. version but that seem to add appreciably to the impressiveness of the diction. The concluding sentence as printed in the PC. (and in most rituals) is meaningless. Can anyone explain the signification of `consecrate this our mansion'? The ending in the R.R. is undoubtedly preferable. Adopting the aforesaid beginning, and including the adjectives above mentioned, the prayer will be as follows: Vouchsafe Thy blessing, ... enforce obedience to, Thy Holy Laws. Sanctify him with Thy heavenly grace, strengthen him with Thy mighty power, and enrich his mind with true and genuine knowledge, that he may be the better enabled to enlighten the minds of his brethren and perform the duties of his high office in such a manner as to please Thee and to promote the welfare of the Lodge over which he is called to preside.


            It will be noticed that in the P.C. version there is an instance of the error ,may the better be enabled' which has been referred to at page 145.


            The Obligation, during which the W. Brethren stand with the S. of Fy.


            `secrets restricted to the Master's chair' Since the secrets appertain to the Master and not to the piece of furniture in which he sits, the R.R. advocated the wording, `restricted to a Master in the chair'; but surely `restricted to an Installed Master', is to be preferred.* The following wording of the earlier part of this Ob., which is slightly modified from that of the R.R., is used in the English Ritual as being more apposite and better English than that of the P.C.: `I ... swear that I will for ever conceal the secrets and mysteries *           In the first edition of the ER. the former phrase was used but in the revised edition the latter has been substituted.


            The Master     203 restricted to an Installed Master and will never divulge them to any individual whomsoever, unless it be to one who, having served the office of Warden for a full year in a regular Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, has been duly elected and is about to be installed as Master of a regularly warranted Lodge, and then only in a lawfully constituted Board of three or more Installed Masters duly assembled for the purpose.' A footnote in R.R. (p. 289) says, `The old form is "except it be to an Installed Master or to a candidate duly elected." Firstly, the Ss. of an I.M. cannot be revealed to one who is an Installed Master and who, consequently, is already in possession of them; and, secondly, one "duly elected" is no longer "a candidate".' As R.R. says, this Ob. need be sealed only once. Thrice is unnecessary.


            A pointless and altogether undesirable practice is on rare occasions witnessed when the Installing Master, as he dictates the penalty, touches and then moves the Master Elect's limb as if in illustration thereof. It tends to distract his attention from the recital of the wording and is strongly to be deprecated. If it is done here it would be only logical to use similar illustrative movements in corresponding cases, for instance in the obligation of the First Degree.


            The practice referred to cannot even be speciously defended on the ground that it is Emulation, for it is not, and, as far as one can tell, never has been, done in that Instruction Lodge.


            The Traditional History The following version, which is virtually that of the R.R., is decidedly more impressive than that of the P.C: It is traditionally reported ... went to view it. On entering the building, observing the chief master mason, Adoniram, at a distance, he beckoned him thus. [Makes a single motion only.] Adoniram, either because he misinterpreted the gesture, or from that humility which so often accompanies true genius, hesitating to advance, the King beckoned him again, thus; [Again a single motion.] and yet a third time, thus [Makes the third motion]. Adoniram then approached the illustrious monarch and was about to kneel, but the King prevented him, taking him thus [with the G.1, and saying "Rise, ...". The signification which we attach to that word is ... ... . When the royal party were about to retire, Adoniram saluted them thus, in token of humility. Hence are derived the G. and W. of an Installed Master, and the sn. and s...n of a Master of the Art and Science of Masonry.* The P.S. of an I.M. is given thus. It alludes to the p. of your * This, which is the form of the West End working, is preferable to the usual phrase which is too suggestive of an ordinary 'Master of Arts'. Exeter has the equally satisfactory 'a Master of our Masonic arts and sciences'.


            204     The Master Ob., implying etc.


            Attention must be called to an unnatural mode of beckoning occasionally seen whereby the master extends his arm in a sideways direction while he continues to look to the front where the person to whom he wishes to beckon is presumably standing. The absurdity of this should be obvious.


            It may be mentioned that a former pro Grand Master, Lord Ampthill, after he returned from his sojourn in India, adopted the practice of beckoning in the eastern manner, that is to say, with the palm downwards and making a downward motion, of course directed towards the person supposedly in front of him.


            It appears to be customary in Emulation working not specifically to show the new Master the P.S., but to leave him to glean it from the words of the Ob. This is a great mistake, because it by no means follows that what those words suggest does constitute the sn. The writer himself suffered from this undesirable omission when, just after he had been installed in a London Lodge by an Emulation worker, he went to Oxford to be installed as Third Principal of a Chapter. When called on to prove himself an I.M., he had not the remotest idea how to do so, since he had never been shown. Not a person present actually knew that he was an I.M., but fortunately for him they took his word for it! `I now invest you with the badge and jewel of your office' This is erroneous because the badge is not special to the office of Master. It is the badge of an Installed Master, whether an actual, or a Past, Master. The wording should be, as it is in Exeter, `I now invest you with the badge of an Installed Master and with the collar and jewel of your office as Master of this Lodge'.


            `is well applied by Master Masons' Surely this should be, `by Installed Masters' as in Exeter.


            `with the G. and W , ..., of an LM., I now place you in the chair' It is far more effective to say, `with the G. of an I.M., I now place you, ..., in the chair etc.' In Emulation working that part of the G. which is given with the l.h. is ignored and-apparently merely to prevent the installee from hanging back at arms length-the Installing Master places his left hand on the other's left shoulder. As a result many brethren have come to think that this position of the left hand constitutes a part of the G.; an entirely mistaken view.


            feeling fully satisfied [that] your etc.' This conclusion of the instalment is simply bathos and a distressing example of `the art of sinking'. Far more solemn and impressive is the Oxford formula, `and may the M.H. endue you with a goodly portion of that The Master       205 monarch's wisdom to enable you to peform the duties of your offices aright'. The Bristol wording is almost identical.


            `to preserve order in the Lodge, especially in the E.' It was formerly customary to add the following words which are certainly appropriate and might well be again generally adopted, `whenever you use it, it will be answered by your Wardens in the W. and S. respectively'.


            `You will now invest the LRM' These words are in the P.C. put into the mouth of the Installing Master. When he is, as is usually the case, the out-going Master, that is most inappropriate. It is more seemly that the D.C. should step forward and request the new Master to `invest your immediate predecessor with the insignia of a Past Master.' It must be remembered that the collar and jewel with which the I.P.M. is invested are not special to him qua I.P.M., but are the marks of a Past Master, which he now becomes entitled to wear for the rest of his life (see further note at p. 209).


            `greet our newly installed Bro. as LMs.' In some Lodges, especially in London, a custom has recently grown up of using the G. and R. Salute for this purpose. But that is the salute of a M.M. and not of an I.M. Therefore if it is intended that it should be used, the direction should be to `greet our newly installed Master as Master Masons'. It is, however, more logical,besides being in accord with time-honoured practice, to salute as I.Ms., i.e. with the salute derived from the P.S., the motions of which may be indicated by the letters, w., s., b.


            As some of our younger readers may be unaware of the fact, it should be mentioned that formerly the Traditional History stated that at the visitation of the Temple, King Solomon was accompanied by the Queen of Sheba. This was so in the early Emulation working' 3 and almost certainly in all others. The reference to her presence is still retained in Exeter, Bury and Bristol, and probably elsewhere; but generally `of late there has been a marked tendency to eliminate her as far as possible'.


            This is not the place to discuss the question of her introduction into Freemasonic ritual, but those who are interested are referred to Ward's book from which we have just quoted, particularly to Chapter XVI of that work.


            When the brethren, having been readmitted, are directed to proceed round the Lodge and salute the Master, the Installing Master should be careful to emphasise the words, `in passing'. Nothing looks more ludicrous than for each brother to halt and turn towards the chair while giving the salute (see pp. 54, 102).65 A succession of brethren so comporting themselves inevitably reminds one of the ineffably silly little figures of the famous Strasburg clock.


            206     The Master When the Installing Master proclaims the new Master in the three Degrees, he will, of course, anndrunce the several proclamations as being respectively, `for the first time and in the East', `for the second time and in the West', and `for the third time and in the South'.


            `I am sure that in delivering it into your charge it will lose none of its former splendour' This is an unparsable construction. What is meant is, `in delivering it into your charge, I am sure that it will lose etc.' The Master should, of course, stand to receive the warrant.


            `there is scarcely a case of difficulty can occur' This again is not English. The word `that' is needed after `difficulty'. But it is really better simply to omit `there is', when the English becomes correct.


            `which I recommend you to have read at least once in the year' It is extraordinary that one still hears this recommendation recited year after year, just because it happens to be in the printed book. It was quite reasonable in the old days when the By-Laws were not circulated among the brethren; but now that we are obliged by the B. of C. (Rule 136) to have them printed, it is unnecessary and absurd. Under present conditions it is enough, and better, to say, `these are the By-Laws of your Lodge, of which every member must receive a printed copy, 66 in order that etc.' In the case of a Hall Stone Lodge, the Hall Stone Jewel and collarette are, in accordance with a ruling of the Board of General Purposes, to be transferred to the new Master immediately before the investiture of the Officers.


            `The Addresses to the Officers' Although these are no part of the ritual and are only intended to be suggestive, they are now so generally delivered as printed in the P. C, that it is desirable to call attention to a few errors in them.


            Senior Warden `i therefore place in your hand this gavel' Here we have a non sequitur. It is not because the level symbolically inculcates the adoption of a certain line of conduct that the gavel is handed to the S.W. Accordingly, the word, `therefore', should be omitted.


            `to mark the setting sun' is not part of his `duty'; that he does so is simply incidental to his situation. The wording should be `Your place is in the West where you mark the setting sun, and your duty is to close the Lodge etc.' Junior Warden.


            `the brethren be thereby innocently led to violate etc.' If he is so negligent as to lead the brethren to violate their Ob., he is The Master  207 certainly not innocent in doing so. The innocence does not attach-as that wording implies that it does-to the person who misleads them but to the brethren who are misled, and the formula must therefore be, `and the brethren be thereby led innocently to violate etc.' The error is similar to one in the 1° Charge (seep. 164).


            As in the case of the address to the S.W., the phraseology towards the end should be, `Your place is in the south where you mark the sun at its meridian, and your duty is to call the brethren etc.' Senior Deacon ,near to my right' See page 125 regarding the unnecessary and awkwardly sounding `to'.


            'I therefore intrustyou with this wand' As in the address to the S.W., `therefore' introduces a non sequitur and should be omitted.


            Junior Deacon See note at page 90 respecting `the same'.


            And here, again, we have the introduction of a non sequitur by `therefore'.




            The Master It is usual for this address to be delivered from a spot on the left of the S.W. It may be of some slight interest to mention that the late Lord Ampthill whenever, as Pro Grand Master, he gave it stood on the S.W.'s right as though he regarded it as a prerogative of his rank to adopt that side.


            Some Provincial Grand Masters hold that when they (or -their Deputies) deliver this address the Master should stand. Others do not require him to do so. It certainly seems that the courtesy due to a superior entails his rising.


            `you having been installed in the chair etc.' To begin the opening sentence with `you', and thus lay undue emphasis on the word, makes the phrase as a whole convey more than is intended, for with the pronoun in that position the implication is that `since it is you who are in the chair, you cannot be insensible etc., whereas, if anyone else had been in your place, he would have been insensible'. What it is desired to express is merely that `having been installed in the chair ... you cannot be insensible etc.' and it should be so spoken.


            As was pointed out in connexion with the statement in the opening of the Lodge regarding the Master's place (page 125) it is only logical to complete the sequence that was begun in reference to the Wardens and to say (as Oxf. does), `You are now placed in the East to mark the rising sun, and as a 21)8            The Master pattern for imitation I exhort you to consider that glorious luminary of nature etc.' Since we have `the burdened heart may pour forth its sorrows', it is more euphonious to continue in the singular and to say, `to whom the distressed may prefer his suit'.


            `by a strict observance of the By-laws etc.' Here we have in the RC another instance of Fowler's `bastard enumeration' (see p. 78). The sentence should run, `by a strict observance of the By-laws of your Lodge and the Constitutions of Freemasonry, but above all by the use etc.' ,to lay up a crown' What is intended, and what should be said, is surely, `to lay up for yourself a crown', not to prepare a diadem for some unspecified wandering soul. Oxf , Exeter, and other rituals put it correctly.


            Towards the end of the address P.C. has a rubrical direction: `here the I.M. stands to order with the sign of R.' This is interpreted by Emulation workers to mean the `sign of Reverence', but, as has been said elsewhere (page 56),6' this so-called sign is not a recognised sign, at any rate so far as the Craft Lodge is concerned. The attitude is suggestive neither of reverence nor of prayer and in the present connexion it is meaningless. At the point in question the I.M. may make any gesture he thinks suitable (or may make none), but the one referred to is the most inappropriate that could be chosen. Exeter directs that here `The I.M. and Brethren stand to order with the Sn. of F.' which is equally inappropriate. Probably the most fitting gesture is to raise the arm and hand above the head, an attitude that is expressive of either blessing or an appeal to the Almighty.


            To the Wardens This should be delivered from the north side of the Lodge. Not only is that the most obvious spot from which to speak directly to the two officers concerned, but it is only rational that each address should be given from a different place, thus keeping up the triadic system that pervades our ceremonial. It is the custom to give it from the north everywhere but in Emulation circles. The Wardens should, of course, stand while being addressed.


            The closing words of the address, as given in P.C., are bathos-'the gratifying testimony of a clear conscience'! Far better is the Oxford version, `From the zeal you have already manifested for our ancient Institution and the desire you have consistently evinced to promote its interests, I am confident that your future conduct will be such as to merit the esteem of the brethren and to secure to yourselves the lasting satisfaction of having conscientiously discharged your duty' (see p. 220).


            The Master     209 To the Brethren `I therefore trust that we shall have but one aim in view, that of being happy and communicating happiness' As a footnote in the R.R.68 points out, that wording `is poor and quite unworthy of the occasion'. Much more effective is the alternative there suggested, `but one aim in view, that of working together in love and harmony to promote the peace, the prosperity and the permanent welfare of the Lodge'.

 THE INVESTITURE OF THE IMMEDIATE PAST MASTER Attention has previously been called to the fact that the out-going Master is not invested qua Immediate Past Master (page 205), but with the insignia that are common to all Past Masters. For his newly acquired status in the Lodge see page 72.


            His investiture generally takes place in the Board of Installed Masters, but there is nothing esoteric about it and in some Lodges it is the practice not to carry it out until the ordinary brethren have been readmitted, and then to do it just before the investiture of officers. This is especially apposite if the Master decides to give a brief explanation of the symbolism of the jewel, which should be of general interest.


            The address to the I.P.M. that is printed in the P.C. is not quite satisfactory. What the writer ventures to think is a more fitting one (it is condensed from Paton69) will be found in The English Ritual and is given in Appendix D infra.


            It must be noted that when the out-going Master was previously a Past Master, it is out of place to `invest' him with insignia that he is already entitled to wear and with which he was invested at the end of his former year of office. In that case the D.C. may appropriately address the Master in some such words as the following: `W.M., your immediate predecessor being already a Past Master, it does not fall to you to invest him with the insignia of that rank; but you will no doubt wish him to wear his Past Master's collar and jewel and sit on your left during your year of office, that he may give you any assistance that you may require'. The Master may then attire him with a Past Master's collar and this will give him the opportunity of explaining the jewel for the benefit of the brethren.




            When a P.M. is installed in the chair of a Lodge a good deal of the Inner Working may be omitted. The English Ritual contains a formulary suitable for use on such an occasion.


            10 The Lectures A brief mention ought, perhaps, to be made of the Lectures. Probably most Lodges, or Lodges of Instruction, that work them nowadays use the version printed in a companion volume to The Perfect Ceremonies and generally known as the Emulation Lectures.


            In the main these Lectures are identical with the pre-Union version of the Moderns which is set out in full in Browne's Masonic Master Key' and which is believed to have been compiled by Preston or elaborated by him from pre-existing forms. The Lectures of the First and Second Degrees (that of the Third Degree will be dealt with later) are in great part in verbatim agreement with that version, but there are certain differences: 1. The fundamental alterations in the Moderns' working that resulted from the labours of the Lodge of Promulgation have, of course, been made. 2. Practically all the Christian allusions are now deleted or altered.


            3. The whole of the post-Union ceremonial working is interpolated in the Lectures and that almost entirely in oratio recta, whereas in Browne there is very little of the ceremonial and what there is is in nearly every case in oratio obliqua.


            The present writer has expressed his surprise 2 that this complete inclusion of the actual wording of the ceremonies constituted the `new system' of working the Lectures, the adoption of which was thought by the originators of the Emulation Lodge of Instruction `might be the means of effecting much improvement'? The Lectures are not printed in the 1838 edition of Claret, but they are in his edition of 1840, where they are exactly the same as the present Emulation Lectures except that, naturally, the ceremonial wording is slightly different in those minor details which Emulation has altered since Gilkes's time.


            The Lectures are printed in the Oxford Ritual and are there taken directly from Claret; they are also printed in the Bury Ritual; but, of course, in both of these the ceremonial interpolations follow the formularies of the respective ritual workings. These are the only current rituals known to the writer in Lectures which the Lectures are included.


            The Third Degree Lecture in Claret and in the modem Emulation Lectures is, save for the Eulogium on the F.P. of F. in Section 3, entirely different to Browne, consisting of nothing but the ceremonial formulary cast into question and answer form, whereas Browne relates the legend, describes how it is practically illustrated to the candidate, and gives a detailed account of the proceedings subsequent to the loss, dealing at considerable length with the apprehension, trial and punishment of the malefactors. The Third Degree is still worked in accordance with this form of the legend in All Souls' Lodge, Weymouth.


            It may be added that in Browne we find what are there called Explanations of the Hieroglyphics in each Degree. These consist in the main of a series of extracts from the preceding Lectures and, save for the alterations that have since been made in the latter, are substantially identical with what we now call the Explanations of the Tracing Boards. The section that belongs to the Third Degree contains, in addition to the short portion that corresponds to our explanation of the Board, a repetition of a good deal of what one may call the post mortem part of the Lecture.


            These `Explanations' are of considerable interest because Bro. Rankin has stated 4 that `The Explanation of the Tracing Boards is made entirely by putting together excerpts from the Emulation Lectures', thus conveying to his readers the impression that those explanations were not compiled until after the establishment of that Lodge of Instruction and the adoption of its Lectures in their present form. The fact is that these dissertations were originally composed certainly as far back as 1802 and probably much earlier.


            11 Information for Candidates Although this matter is not directly connected with the subject of ritual, yet it is of such great importance that a reference to it can hardly be out of place in a book which treats of present-day Freemasonry.


            It is to be feared that many have sought to join our fraternity under the mistaken idea that it is in some sort a benefit society, or under the equally mistaken impression that membership will be of direct material advantage to them in their business or profession. These erroneous expectations, when they do exist, ought to be eradicated before such persons are proposed as candidates, but unfortunately this is not always done.


            Moreover, many brethren, especially if they are, freemasonically speaking, young, when approached by prospective candidates, are doubtful how much they may legitimately tell them about the principles and objects of the Craft.


            For these reasons it seems desirable that a concise statement of those principles and objects should be available for communication to everyone who has conceived a wish to join us.


            The Universal Book of Craft Masonry, (Toye, 4th Edn., London, 1939) contains an interesting Preface under the title "Information for Candidates". The following formulary, which is based thereon and which has for some years been used in one of the writer's own Lodges, is here appended in the hope that our readers may see their way to induce their Lodges to adopt it or something equivalent thereto, thus insuring that no one shall be admitted under any such misapprehensions as those mentioned above.


            Information for Candidates Freemasonry consists of a body of men banded together to preserve the secrets, customs and ceremonial handed down to them from time immemorial, and for the purposes of mutual intellectual, social and moral improvement; they also endeavour to cultivate and exhibit brotherly love, relief and truth, not only to one another but to the world at large.


            Freemasonry offers no pecuniary advantages whatever, nor does there Information for Candidates            213 exist any obligation or implied understanding binding one member of the Order to deal with another, or to accord him any preferential treatment in the ordinary business relations of life.


            Freemasonry enjoins a perfect loyalty to the Sovereign of one's native land and emphatically deprecates any attempt to subvert the peace and good order of society, nor is it based upon any calculations that would render this possible. The charities, whose available funds are barely sufficient to meet the demands that are now made on them, were founded solely for the relief of those who, having been in good circumstances, have been overtaken by misfortune or adversity.


            Freemasonry distinctly teaches that a man's first duty is to himself, his family and his connexions, and no one should join the Order who cannot well afford to pay the initiation fees and subscriptions to his Lodge, as well as to make occasional or periodical donations to the Freemasonic Charities of amounts that he considers reasonable in view of his means, and this without detriment in any way to his comfort, or to that of those who have any claim to his support.


            Freemasonry recognises no distinctions of religion, but no-one should attempt to enter who has no religious belief, as faith in God must be expressed before anyone can be initiated, and prayers to Him form a frequent part of the ritual.


            Freemasonry, therefore, demands that everyone, before offering himself as a candidate, should be well assured in his own mind: (1) That he sincerely desires the intellectual and moral improvement of himself and his fellow creatures, and that he is willing to devote of his time, his means, and his efforts in the promotion of brotherly love, relief and truth.


            That he seeks no commercial, social or pecuniary advantage.


            That he is able to afford the necessary expenditure without injury to himself or his connexions.


            That he is willing to enter into solemn obligations in the sight of God, such obligations being in no way incompatible with his civil, moral or religious duties.


            (2) (3) (4) APPENDICES A THE WORKING TOOLS OF THE SECOND DEGREE (As given in The English Ritual) W.M.-I now present to you the working tools of a F. C. Fn. They are the S., the L., and the P.R. The S. is to try, and to adjust, rectangular comers of buildings and to assist in bringing rude matter into due form; the L. is to lay levels and prove horizontals; the P.R. is to try, and to adjust, uprights when fixing them on their proper bases. But as we are not Operative, but, on the contrary, Free and Accepted or Speculative, Masons, we apply these tools to our Morals.


            In this sense the S. teaches us to regulate our actions by the freemasonic line and rule, and so to correct and harmonise our conduct in this life as to render us acceptable to that Divine Being from whom all goodness emanates and to whom we must give an undisguised account of our lives and actions.


            The L. demonstrates that we are all sprung from the same stock, are partakers of the same nature, and sharers in the same hope, and that, although distinctions among men are highly necessary to preserve due subordination, and to reward merit and ability, yet no eminence of station should cause us to forget that we are Brethren, and that he who is placed on the lowest spoke of Fortune's wheel is equally entitled to our regard with him who has attained the highest; for a time will most assuredly come (and the best and wisest of us know not how soon) when all distinctions save those of Piety and Virtue will cease, and Death, the destroyer of all human greatness, will reduce us all to the same level.


            The infallible P.R., which, like Jacob's Ladder, forms a line of union between Heaven and Earth and is the criterion of Moral Rectitude and Truth, teaches us that to walk with humility and uprightness before God, turning neither to the right hand nor to the left from the strict path of Virtue, is a duty incumbent on every Freemason. And that not to be an enthusiast, persecutor, slanderer, or reviler of religion, nor to bend towards avarice, injustice, malice, or envy and contempt of our fellow-creatures, but, giving up every selfish propensity that might tend to injure others, to steer the barque of this life over the rough seas of passion without quitting the helm of 216          Appendix B rectitude, is the highest degree of perfection to whichhuman nature is capable of attaining.


            As the Operative Mason raises his column by the level and the plumb-rule, so every Freemason ought to carry himself in this life in such a manner as to observe a due medium between avarice and profusion; to hold the scales of justice with an equal poise; to make every passion and prejudice coincide with the strict line of his duty.; and in every pursuit to have Eternity in view. Hence the S. teaches Morality, the L. Equality, and the P. R. Justness and Uprightness of life and actions. So, by square conduct, level steps and upright intentions, we hope to ascend to those Ethereal Realms* where the Just will assuredly meet their reward.


            EXPLANATION OF THE TRACING BOARD OF THE SECOND DEGREE (As given in The English Ritual) At the building of K. S. T. a vast number of artificers were employed, consisting of E. As. and F. Cs. The E. As. received their wages in corn, wine and oil. The F. Cs. were paid in specie, and went to receive their wages in the M. C. of the Temple. They arrived there by way of a p...h, at the entrance of which stood t. g. ps.; that on the ... was called ..., which denotes ...; that on the ..., was called ..., which denotes ..., the two conjoined signify ..., for, according to our traditions, God said, "In ... I will establish this mine house to stand firm for ever".


            Every Freemasons' Lodge has, or ought to have, two columns, one on each side of the Master's chair, or, as in many Lodges in the western and northern Provinces, placed a little in advance of the Senior Warden's pedestal. They are intended to represent the ps. at the entrance of the Temple.


            We learn from the Bible that those pillars were in height 18 cubits and in circumference 12; that they were hollow; and that the casing of their shafts, which was of molten or cast brass, was four fingers in thickness. They were cast in the plain of Jordan, in the clay ground between Succoth and Zarthan (or Zeredathah), where King Solomon ordered them and the holy vessels to * As The Etiquette (p. 257) points out, the term `immortal mansion's' that is commonly used is illogical; `ethereal realms' is clearly to be preferred. It may be well to add that the term `enthusiast' in the above bears its old meaning of a fanatic, especially a religious fanatic.


            Appendix B    217 be cast. The superintendent of the casting was H. A., the son of a widow of the tribe of Naphtali. They were adomed with two chapiters of molten brass, each five cubits high and enriched with network, lilywork, and rows of pomegranates, all of brass. Network, from the connexion of its meshes, denotes Unity; lilywork, from its whiteness, Peace; and pomegranates from the exuberance of their seed, denote Plenty. And we read in the Sacred Volume that, "upon the top of the pillars was lilywork; so was the work of the pillars finished' .


            In a Freemasonic connexion they are (and have been since the earliest days of our Speculative Craft) always represented as surmounted by a celestial and terrestrial globe; these being supposed to symbolise the ubiquity of Freemasonry, which is spread over every part of the Earth's surface beneath the canopy of Heaven.


            They were set up as a memorial to the Israelites of the happy deliverance of their forefathers from their Egyptian bondage, and in commemoration of that miraculous pillar of fire and cloud which had two wonderful effects, namely, of being a light to the Israelites and a cloud of darkness to their enemies. King Solomon ordered them to be placed at the entrance of the Temple as the most proper and conspicuous part of the building, that the Children of Israel might have that happy event continually brought before their minds as they went to, and returned from, Divine Worship.


            After passing those two great pillars the Craftsmen arrived at the foot of a w. s., when their ascent was opposed by the ancient Junior Warden, who demanded of them the P. G. and P. W. of a Fellow Craft. The P. G. you are in• possession of. The P. W. I trust you recollect is ... . The Hebrew word, ... has two meanings; it means an e. of c. and also a s. of w. It is depicted in our Lodges by an e. of c. near a w...1, and from the conjunction of its two meanings we, in Freemasonry, regard the word as implying P...y.


            Its use as a P. W. dates from the time when an army of Ephraimites crossed the Jordan in hostile array against Jephtha, the renowned Gileaditish commander. The reason they gave for this hostile visit was that they had not been called on to take part in the honour and glory of the Ammonitish war, but their real reason was that they might become partakers of the rich spoils, with which Jephtha and his victorious army were in consequence of that war then laden. The Ephraimites were always an unruly and turbulent people. They now broke into open violence and, after many insulting taunts to the Gileadites in general, threatened to destroy their victorious commander and his whole house with fire. Jephtha tried every lenient means to appease them; but, finding these ineffectual, he drew out his army, gave the Ephraimites battle, defeated them and put them to flight. And to render his victory complete and to secure himself from all such attacks in the future, he placed detachments of his guards at all the passages of the Jordan, which he knew 218 Appendix B the fugitives must cross over in order to retain their native land, giving strict injunctions to the soldiers that, if anyone approached and owned himself an Ephraimite, he should immediately be slain; but if he said, Nay, or prevaricated, a test should be applied, which was to pronounce the word, ... . Now the Ephraimites, from a defect in aspiration, peculiar to their dialect, could not do this aright, but said, ...; which small variation at once disclosed their country and cost them their lives. And we read that there fell that day, on the field of battle and at the passages of Jordan, two thousand and forty Ephraimites. And as the word, ..., was used on that occasion to distinguish friend from foe, King Solomon ordered it to be the P. W. of a F.C., to prevent any unauthorised person from gaining access to the w. s. that led to the M. C. of the Temple.


            Our ancient Brethren then communicated the P. G. and P. W. to the Junior Warden, who, on receiving these convincing proofs, said, Pass ... . They then passed up the w. s., consisting of fifteen steps. Our traditions divide them into three flights, of three, five and seven steps respectively. Three rule a Lodge, five hold a Lodge, and seven or more make it perfect.


            The three who rule a Lodge are the Master and his two Wardens; the five who hold a Lodge are the Master, his two Wardens and two Fellow Crafts; the seven who make it perfect are two E. As., or other Brethren, added to the former five.


            Three rule a Lodge because there were three Grand Masters who jointly bore sway at the building of the first Temple at Jerusalem, namely, S.K. of I., H.K. of T., and H.A. Five hold a Lodge in allusion to the five noble Orders of Architecture, namely, the Tuscan, the Doric, the Ionic, the Corinthian and the Composite. Seven, or more, make a Lodge perfect because King Solomon was seven years and upwards in building, completing and dedicating the Temple at Jerusalem to the service of T.G.A.O.T.U. They have a further allusion to the seven liberal Arts and Sciences, namely, Grammar, Rhetoric, Logic, Arithmetic, Geometry, Music and Astronomy.


            When our ancient Brethren had gained the summit of the w. s., they arrived at the door of the M. C., which they found close tyled by the ancient Senior Warden, who demanded of them the G. and W. of a F. C. After they had given him these convincing proofs that they were F. Cs., he said, Pass...* * The following notes from an address to a Lodge by Lionel Vibert, may perhaps be worth including at this point: "The winding Staircase points out that the path of life, of duty, of knowledge, of morality and virtue is ever an upward striving. It represents the laborious progress of the enquiring mind and the toil which intellectual study and the acquisition of knowledge entail. But all honest work and noble endeavour is certain of recognition in the end. Being winding, its end is invisible from the beginning, so that the end is unknown until it is reached; but the patient striving soul knows that with every step, one approaches nearer to God." Appendix C          219 They then passed into the M. C. to receive their wages, which they did without scruple or diffidence; without scruple, well knowing that they were justly entitled to them; and without diffidence, from the great reliance they placed on the integrity of their employers in those days.


            When they were in the M. C. their attention is said to have been particularly arrested by certain Hebrew characters, which are now represented in a F. C.'s Lodge by the letter G., which, being the initial of Geometry, the fifth of the liberal Arts and Sciences and the one on which Masonry is founded, refers us to T.G.G.O.T.U., to whom we must all submit and whom we ought most cheerfully and gratefully to adore.


            EXPLANATION OF THE TRACING BOARD OF THE THIRD DEGREE (As given in The English Ritual)

 (The WM. comes down to the S. side of the Board, the Can. being placed opposite to him.) W.M.-The G.M. was ordered to be re-interred as near the S. S. as the Israelitish law would permit, and in a g., from the centre three feet E. and three feet W., three feet between N. and S., and five feet or more perpendicularly. He was not buried in the S. S. because nothing common or unclean was allowed to enter there except the High Priest, and he only once a year, when, after many washings and purifications, he entered on the Great Day of Atonement, and stood before the Ark of the Covenant to make expiation for the sins of the people, for by the Israelitish law all flesh was deemed unclean. The fifteen trusty F.C., who had assisted in the search for the b. of the G.M. and in bringing it to Jerusalem, were ordered to attend the obsequies, clothed in white aprons as emblems of their innocence.


            You have already learnt that the W. Ts. with which the G.M. was s...n were the P. R., the L. and the H. M. The C., S. and C.-B., being emblems of m., allude to the untimely d. of H. A., who was s...n some three thousand years after the date commonly assigned to the creation of the world.* The ornaments of a M.M.'s Lodge are the Porch, the Dormer and the Square Pavement. The Porch was the entrance to the S. S., the Dormer the window that gave light thereto, and the Square Pavement for the High Priest to walk on. The High Priest's office was to burn incense to the honour and *    This is the phrasing used in the Bury Ritual.


            220     Appendix D glory of the M. H. and to pray fervently that the Almighty, of His unbounded wisdom and goodness, would be pleased to bestow peace and tranquillity on the Israelitish nation during the ensuing year. The Pavement was chequered to remind him of the vicissitudes and uncertainty of human life, and the necessity of purifying himself before imploring the M. H. by prayer and sacrifice to cleanse the people from their sins. It teaches us also that, as we tread the chequered path of this mortal life, we ought to purify our hearts from all malignant passions, that our prayers may be acceptable to Him who sitteth on His throne for ever and ever.


            The Sprig of evergreen A. (a representation in miniature of the branch that was used to mark the site of the G. M.'s first b...I place) is emblematical of the immortal soul of man. And when the cold night of death has passed, and the bright morning of the resurrection dawns, may we be found worthy to be entrusted with the password that will enable us to gain admission to the celestial Lodge, and there see the King of Kings in the beauty of Holiness, and with Him enter into eternal happiness. Let us, then, learn from the S. of A. to practice all Freemasonic virtues, so that, after passing through our period of probation here on Earth, we may meet with our reward in the better life that is to come.


            (In the working of the Wiltshire Lodge of Fidelity, No. 663, from which part of the above is taken the Explanation of the Board is somewhat longer and is customarily given, like that of the Second Degree Board, either after the completion of the ceremony or on a separate evening).


            D ADDRESS TO THE I.P.M.


            (See pages 205 and 209 supra) W.M. -Bro. C., having faithfully served for a full year in the Chair of this Lodge, you have attained not only the rank of P.M., but also (for so long as you continue to subscribe to a Regular Lodge) permanent membership of Grand Lodge; and you are entitled to wear at all Freemasonic assemblies the collar and jewel of a PM. with which I now have the pleasure to invest you. I shall be glad if you will, during the coming year, sit on my left and direct a watchful eye and an attentive ear to your successor, so as to correct and assist him when necessary, that the work of the Lodge may not suffer.


            The Jewel (taking hold of it) of a P.M. is the Square combined with the Appendix D 221 figure of the 47th Proposition of the First Book of Euclid, a theorem the discovery of the truth of which was one of the most important ever made. Without it we should have no trigonometry; it is essential to the calculations of the astronomer, the navigator, the architect, the engineer. Little wonder, then, that Pythagoras, to whom the discovery is attribute'; is reported, when the truth dawned upon him, to have exclaimed `EUREKA`, amp to have sacrificed a hecatomb.


            This symbol serves to remind us of the value of the study, not only of geometry, but of all the Arts and Sciences. With this figure before us w8 should be animated with gratitude for the knowledge we enjoy and the progress that has been made; and at the same time we should be incited to desire continued progress and stimulated to endeavour, each according to the measure of his attainments, to contribute something to the further advancement of the human race.


            Notes and References Chapter 1 1. The reader will find much interesting information on this period in Heiron's Ancient Freemasonry and the Old Dundee Lodge, No. 18 (1921).


            2. A. Q. C., xxiii, 46. See also Browne'sMasonic Master-Key (1802). 3. Masonic Master-Key, pp. 5, 41, 43, 63, 65, 79.


            4. A. Q. C, xxiii, 38. 5. A. Q. C, xxiii, 44. 6. A. Q. C, xxiii, 256. 7. A.Q.C., xxxvii, 87.


            8. The Story of the Craft, p. 81. Accounts of the proceedings of the two special Lodges of Promulgation and Reconciliation will be found in A. Q. C, xxiii.


            9. A.Q.C., xxiii, 306.


            10. A.Q.C., xxiii, 258, and Hanson's The Lodge of Probity, No. 61, p. 209. 11. See A.Q.C., xxiii, p. 243.


            12. Trans. Manchester Association for Masonic Research, Vol. XIX. (1928-9), p. 22. 13. A.Q.C., xxiii, p. 262.


            14. Minutes of Grand Lodge.


            15. Vibert, Prestonian Lecture for 1925, p. 4. 16. Vibert, The Story of the Craft, p. 81. 17. A.Q.C., xxiii, p. 306. cf. p. 35 infra.


            18. English Speaking Freemasonry, p. 100.


            19. Inman, Emulation Working Explained, p.30. 20. A.Q.C., xxiii, p. 306.


            21. Emulation Working Explained, p.27. 22. Some Account of the Ritual etc., p. 8. 21. A.Q.C., xxiii, p. 306.


            24. For further information as to Broadfoot, see A.Q.C., iv, p. 59, and xxiii, pp. 242 and 282; Golby's A Century of Stability, p. 23; and Hanson's The Lodge of Probity No. 61, p. 193.


            25. Golby, A Century of Stability, p. 12. That book gives a detailed account of the Stability Lodge of Instruction and should be read by everyone interested in the history of the ritual.


            26. Vibert, The Story of the Craft, p. 81.


            27. Sadler, History of the Emulation Lodge of Improvement, pp. 9-11. 28. Op. cit., p. 16.


            29. A. Q. C., xlv, p. 91.


            30. Masonic Master-Key (1802).


            224     Notes and References 31. Some Account of the Ritual etc., p. 14. 32. Sadler, History of Emulation, p. 106. 33. Op. cit., p. 16.


            34. History of Freemasonrv, iii, p. 13. Unless otherwise stated all references to Gould'sHistorv are to the 3 vol. edn., of 1886.


            35. A. Q. C, xxiii, p. 290.


            36. A. Q. C, xxiii, pp. 258-260.


            37. According to Vibert the last edition of Claret was issued in 1866. (Prestonian Lecture for 1925, p. 3.) For further notes on the various Claret editions see Miscellanea Latomorum, XI, 72; XVI, 72 and 87; XXIII, 29.


            38. The Masonic News, February 7, 1931. See also Inman, Emulation Working Explained, p. 18.


            39. The Freemasons'Quarterly Review, 1849, p. 384. 40. Hextall, Craft Ritual, (1902) p. 18.


            41. History of Emulation, p. 59.


            42. Golby, A Century of Stability, p. 100.


            43. Golby, A Century of Stability, pp. 88, 97, 100. 44. Emulation Working Explained, p. 35.


            45. History of Emulation, p. 86. 46. History of Emulation, p. 119. 47. The Masonic News, April 25, 1931, p. 298.


            48. The Masonic News, February 28, 1931, p. 152.

 49. Trans.ManchesterAssociation for Masonic Research, Vol. XIX (1928-9), p. 32.


            50. The Freemason, January 31, 1931, p. 484. See Also The Freemasons' Chronicle, April 11, 1931, and The Masonic News, April 4, 1931.


            51. A biographical notice of the author will be found inA.Q.C, xxix, p. 101. See also p. 233 infra.


            52. Sadler, History of Emulation, pp. 15 and 16. 53. Sadler, op. cit., p. 107. See also page 16 supra. 54.A Century of Stability, p. 18.


            55. Sadler, op. cit., p. 112. 56. Sadler, op. cit., p. 81. 57. Sadler, op. cit., p. 112. 58. Sadler, op, cit., p. 113. 59. Without the 'artificial help' of written records `the human memory ever dissipates or corrupts the ideas entrusted to her charge'. Gibbon's Decline and Fall, i, p. 353, quoted by Gould in his History of Freemasonry, p. 1. And cf. Ward, Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods (1926), p. 364.


            60. InmanEmulation Working Explained, p. 33. 61. Inman,Emulation Working Explained, p. 33. 62. Sadler, op. cit., p. 143.


            63. Golby, A Century of Stability, pp. 88, 97, 100. 64. A.Q.C., xxix, p. 324.


            65. A.Q.C., xxiii, p. 65.


            66. Quoted in The Freemason, May 9, 1931, p. 716.


            67. For further particulars of this version see Trans. Manchester Association forMasonic Research, Vol. XXVII (1937), p. 67 et seq., and TransSomerset Masters' Lodge, Vol. VII (1940), p. 149.


            68. A. Q. C, Av,p.305. 69. A.Q.C., xxiii, p. 65.


            Notes and References         225 Chapter 2.


            1. A. Q. C. , xxiii, p. 267. 2. Op. cit., p. 130.


            3. A. Q. C, ix. p. 127.


            4. See Miscellanea Latomorum, XXI, 75.


            5. A Century of Stability, pp. 134 et seq. [It seems that Dr. Cartwright misread Golby's workonthis point. The latter did not mention aDomatic Craft Working, and there is no trace of its existence. Ed.] 6. A Complete Ritual of the LM. (The Baskerville Press). 7. Published by Winter & Son, Dundee.


            Chapter 3 1. Miscellanea Latomorum, O.S., 84. 2. November 23, 1861, p. 401.


            3. Miscellanea Latomorum, I, 7.


            4. Miscellanea Latomorum, O.S., 84. 5. Miscellanea Latomorum, I, 68. 6.111,69,93, 105;IV, 75, 88,116;XVI, 38, 76,136' 7. See The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 134. See also p. 156 infra.


            8. See Miscellanea Latomorum, I, 75; II, 100, 115, 131; III, 19, 52; V, 71, 109; VI, 59; IX, 17, 124; XI, 84; XII, 144; XIII, 92; XX, 55, 106.


            9. Misc. Lat., II, 115.


            10. See Miscellanea Latomorum, )XIII, 141; XXIV,12, 26.


            11. See Knoop's Early Masonic Catechisms, pp. 115 and 116, and 2nd edn., pp. 165 and 166.


            12. The Bury Ritual, despite its Oxford basis has `right'. 13. Emulation Working Explained, p. 101.


            14. Emulation Working Explained, p. 235n.


            15. Ancient Freemasonry and the Old Dundee Lodge, p. 17. 16. A. Q. C., xxix.


            17. Cf. Trans. Manchester Association, XXII (1932), p. 87. 18. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 42.


            19. Miscellanea Latomorum, 1, 19. See also 11, 90.


            20. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, Chapter II, and also pp. 79-81. 21. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 80.


            22. The Director of Ceremonies, p. 21.


            23. Cf. Miscellanea Latomorum, III, 58;V, 102, 112,120.


            Chapter 4 1. Miscellanea Latomorum, XVIII, 124.


            2. For the probable reason for this omission see Trans. Manchester Association, Vol. XXII, p. 82 (1932). Art., `The Appurtenances of the Lodge Room'.


            3. A.Q.C., xxix, pp. 244 et seq.


            4. The Lodge of Probity, No. 61, pp. 211, 215, 216.


            5. Modern English Usage, s.v.And cf. pp. 114 and 208 infra. 6.,Miscellanea Latomorum, O.S., 70, 84, 89; XVIII, 136.


            Chapter 5 1. A.Q.C., vii, 70. Misc. Lat., XX, 26. 2. See A. Q. C, xxiii, p. 262.


            Notes and References 226 3. Cf Ward, Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods (1926), p. 364. 4. Emulation Working Explained, p. 101.


            5. Miscellanea Latomorum, XXIII, 142.


            Chapter 6 1. Miscellanea Latomorum, VII, 25. 2. Miscellanea Latomorum, VII, 62. 3. Miscellanea Latomorum, VI, 133. 4. A. Q. C, xlix, p. 157.


            5. Cf. Fowler, Modern English Usage, s.v. Meticulous. 6. Miscellanea Latomorum, IV, 120.


            7. Miscellanea Latomorum, IV, 134. 8. Miscellanea Latomorum, XXX, 89. 9. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 134, cf. p. 56.


            10. See The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 138 [w.s., i.e., winding staircase. Ed] 11. See Trans. Manchester Association, Vol. XXII, p. 71 (1932).


            12. See MiscellaneaLatomorum, VII, 26.


            13. Cf.Trans.ManchesterAssociation, Vol. XXII, p. 84 (1932) 14. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 139.


            15. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 149.


            Chapter 7 1. Modern English Usage, s.v. And see also p. 78. 2. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 155.


            3. Cf. p. 184 infra, and see The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 156. 4. See Miscellanea Latomorum IV, 65; V. 7; and pp. 20 and 25 supra. 5. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p.104.


            6. See The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 160. 7. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 151.


            8. Miscellanea Latomorum, VI, 58. 9. Miscellanea Latemorum, VII; 55. 10. Miscellanea Latomorum, VI, 58, 103, 135. See also VII, 7, 25, 40, 66, 70, 87, 119. The articles signed 'D.C.' are by Hextall.


            11. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 152. See also Misc. Lat., VI, 58. 12. See Miscellanea Latomorum, XIII, 137.


            13. Masonic Master-Key (1802), p. 40.


            14. See, for example, a letter of 1684 quoted in Gough's The Mines of Mendip, p. 217.


            Chapter 8 1. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 84.


            2. The Theocratic Philosophy of Freemasonry (1840), p. 325. 3. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 78 4. Cf. Miscellanea Latomorum, XXIII, 26.


            5. See Miscellanea Latomorum, XXIII, 90; XXIV, 81. 6. See Memorials of the Order of the Garter, Beltz.


            7. The History of Signboards, Larwood and Hotten, p. 410. See also Misc. Lat., IV, 111, 125, 144,; V, 112,123.


            Notes and References         22'7 Chapter 9 1. SeeMiscellanea Latomorum, IV, 113;V,24.


            2. See Decisions of the Board of General Purposes printed at the end of the Masonic Year Book. 1969, p. 834.


            3. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 88. See also The Revised Ritual (1888), p. 16. 4. See Browne's Master-Key (1802), p. 5.


            5. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 103. 6. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 105. 7. e.g., those in Bury and Oldham.


            8. Cf. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 244n. 9. The Revised Ritual (1888), p. 37n.


            10. Cf. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 154.


            11. Miscellanea Latomorum, II, 13. See also A.Q.C., XXIII, p. 42. 12. Miscellanea Latomorum, VI, 95.


            13. See A. Q. C, Iv. p.12.


            14. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 119. 15. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 120. 16. Craft Ritual (1902), p. 22.


            17. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 125.


            18.Masonic Master-Key (1802), pp. 14 and 81. Cf. Prichard and other 18th century rituals.


            19. SeeEarly Masonic Catechisms, Knoop and others, pp. 127 and 133.


            20. See Andrews's Old-Time Punishments (1890), p. 212, which is quoted in Miscellanea Latomorum, VI, 24.


            21. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 127. 22. Modern English Usage, s.v. Participles. 23. Modern English Usage, s.v. Preposition at end. 24. See A.Q.C., lv, p. 8. _ 25. Modern English Usage, s.v. -ce, -cy. Cf. Twelfth Night, ii, 3, 166.


            26. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 133. See also The Revised Ritual (1888), p. 65. 27. See A.Q.C., lv, p. 8. And cf. Early Masonic Catechisms, Knoop and others, p. 23. 28. Cf. Fowler, Modern English Usage s.v. Doubtless, no doubt.


            29. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 250. 30. The Revised Ritual (1888), p. 71.


            31. Masonic Master-Key (1802), p. 87.


            32. Cf. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, pp. 143 and 144.


            33. For details of these see Miscellanea Latomorum, XXIV,17. 34. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 142.


            35. Hanson's The Lodge of Probity, p. 210. 36. The Lodge of Probity, p. 210.


            37. Cf. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, pp. 143, 144. 38. Masonic Master-Key (1802), p. 93.


            39. See Trans. Manchester Association, Vol. XXII (1932), p. 76. 40. Op. sup. cit., p. 93.


            41. Browne, op. cit., p. 94. Claret and P.C. have `network or canopy'. 42. Cf. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 238.


            43. Masonic Master-Key, p. 63. 44. Masonic Master-Key, p. 63. 45. Cf. Castells The Geometry of Freemasonry. Also Miscellanea Latomorum, XXIII, 107.


            46. See The Etiquette of Freemasonry, pp. 148, 149.


            228 Notes and References 47. See Miscellanea Latomorum, XV, 73; XVI, 40,56. AIsoA.Q.C, Vol, L, p. 8. 48. p. 97n. And cf. TheEtiquette of Freemasonry. p. 258.


            49. The Revised Ritual, p. 97. Cf. The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 259. 50. Miscellanea Latomorum, XXIII, 23.


            51. The Revised Ritual (1888), p. 105.


            52. See The Etiquette of Freemasonry, p. 153. 53 Cf. Misc. Lat., XXX, 55, 75.


            54. Miscellanea Latomorum, IV, 34, 59, 60, 131. 55. E.g., Esmond bk. iii, ch. 7; Persuasion, ch. xii. 56. See A. Q. C, xli, p. 179.


            57. Rosenbaum, Masonic Words and Proper Names.


            58. With regard to 'the dormer'see Misc. Lat. XXXI, 39, 61, 74.


            59. See Miscellanea Latomorum VII, 44, 96; XII, 25; XIX, 93; XX, 86; XXIII, 7. 60. Cf. Rose, The Director of Ceremonies, p. 45.


            61. See Proceedingsof Grand Lodge, December 1, 1926.


            62. A useful summary of the history of the dispute and of the proceedings in Grand Lodge in connection therewith will be found in Miscellanea Latomorum, XXV, 49. 63. See Claret.


            64. J.S.M. Ward, Who was Hiram Abifp, p. 1.76. 65. Cf. Rose, The Director of Ceremonies, p. 48. 66. !J. of C. , Rule 138.


            67. See also Miscellanea Latomorum, VI, 59. 68. The Revised Ritual (1888), p. 320.


            69. Freemasonry: Its Symbolism, etc. (1873), p. 197.


            Chapter 10 1. See A. Q. C. xlv. pp. 90 et seq. 2. A. Q. C,loc. sup. cit.


            3. Sadler, History of Emulation, pp. 6 and 16.


            4. Some Account of the Ritual etc., p. 15.See also Inman. Emulation Working Explained p. 58.


            ADDENDUM It has been drawn to our attention that despite Cartwright's comment on page 107, he contradicts himself in his own English Ritual, instructing the candidate to ,salute the W.M. as an E.A. and then as a F.C.' E. H. CARTWRIGHT A Biographical Note by HARRY CARR Secretary and Editor of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge Education and Professional Ernest Henry Cartwright was born on 20 June 1865, the eldest son of Sir Henry Edmund Cartwright, Knight Batchelor, Barrister at Law, J.P. for Co. of Londonderry, High Sheriff 1884, a Member of the Royal Irish Academy, by his wife Mary, daughter of the late Harrison Woodson Esq., J.P. of Stanhope, Co. Durham.


            He matriculated at Exeter College, Oxford, on 18 October 1883, and became a scholar also in 1883. Awarded B.A., in 1887; M.A. in 1892; M.B., B.Ch., 1892; L.R.C.P. London, M.R.C.S. Eng., 1892; M.D., 1894; Barrister at Law (Middle Temple) 1895, but did not practise. Diploma in Public Health of the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, Eng., 1898 (Oxf., Guy's, King's Coll.).


            Mem. Opthalm. Soc., and Brit. Astronom. Assn; Fellow of the Royal Institute of Public Health, late Hon. Surg. Kent Co. Opthalm. Hosp; Lect. and Demons. State Med. Laborat. King's Coll; Deputy Commissioner of the Medical Services, (the former Ministry of Pensions before it merged with the Ministry of National Insurance) Wilts.


            The Medical Directories record that he was the author of the following papers: "On the Relationship between Idiopathic Pleurisy with Effusion and Tuberculosis". (Thesis).


            "Case of Congenital Postlental Opacity". Trans. Opth. Soc. 1896 "Case of Retinal Detachment ending in Recovery". Ib. 1902 "Treatment of Lacrymal Obstruction". Treatm. 1898 "Practical Hygiene for Students". Sanit. Record. 1899 "Rep. on an Outbreak of Diphtheria". J1. State Med. 1899.


            A glance at the dates and details in his educational and medical record, above, will show something of the zeal and determination with which he H• 230 E.H. Cartwright approached the fulfilment of his professional career. At the age of thirty-two he had been a scholar at Oxford and had not only qualified with the highest degrees in Medicine and in Opthalmic Surgery, but had also taken his Bar Exams and been called as a Barrister-at-Law to the Middle Temple. That was probably achieved simply to please his father, also a Barrister, because it is evident that young Cartwright never intended to practise Law.


            During most of this time - apart from his student period at Oxford, he had lived at the family home, his birthplace, 13 Boyne Park, Tunbridge Wells, Kent, but from 1896 to 1901 he lived at 1 Courtfield Gardens, London, S.W., because of his work at Guy's and King's College Hospitals. On 7 December 1899, he married Dorothy, youngest daughter of the late Richard William Giles, of London, and there followed five years, 1901-1906 at 1 Bower Terrace, Maidstone, Kent, for duties at the Kent County Opthalmic Hospital.


            In 1906, and now aged forty-one, he moved to Mistyns,Ticehurst, Sussex, where he lived for fifteen years until 1921. This is a difficult period for the historian, because no details are available of professional or any other activities that might have taken him into Sussex and kept him there for so long. The only records available for that period - and indeed for the rest of his long life - are of his Masonic activities in numerous Craft Lodges and in other Degrees, and of his lectures and writings in the field of Masonic study which he made so particularly his own.


            Masonic Records Bro. E.H. Cartwright was initiated in 1888, aged twenty-three, in the Apollo University Lodge, No. 357, Oxford. Three years later, still resident at Oxford, and before he had reached the Chair in any Lodge, he was appointed Prov. Grand Steward. (Oxf.) and was promoted to Prov. G.-Pursuivant, in 1892. In 1893, he joined the Lodge of Unity, No. 69, London, became W.M. in 1896, and served again as W.M. in 1925. In 1898 he was a Founder and First Master of the Pellipar Lodge. No. 2693, (the Lodge associated with the Skinners Company of which he was Master in 1914). He was Master of the Pellipar Lodge again in 1907. In 1901, at the beginning of his sojourn at Maidstone,he joined the Douglas Lodge, No. 1725, in that town. In 1908 he joined Charterhouse Deo Dante Dedi No. 2885. In 1926 he was Founder and First I.P.M. of Lowy of Tunbridge Lodge, No. 4834 and became W.M. in 1928.


            In 1908, aged only forty-three, he was appointed Senior Grand Deacon and, in the same year, Principal Grand Sojourner in the Royal Arch. He became an Honorary Member of the Wiltshire Lodge of Fidelity, No. 663 and having served as consecrating J.W. at the constitution of the Corium Lodge, No. 4041, in 1919, and the Old Tonbridgian Lodge, No. 4151 in 1920, he was elected to Honorary Membership in both.


            His Royal Arch career also began at an early age. He was Exalted in Apollo E H. Cartwright 231 University Chapter, No. 357 in 1889, appointed P.P.A.G. Soj. (Oxf.) in 1893. He became M.E.Z. in 1898 and was promoted P.P.G.S.N. (Oxf.) in that year. He also joined St. Mary's R.A. Chapter, No. 63 in 1901 and served in it as M.E.Z. in 1906.


            He also greatly enjoyed the Mark Degree and after his advancement in the Wiltshire Keystone Mark Lodge No. 178 he became a founder member of the Public Schools Lodge of M.M.M., No. 791 in 1923 and was its Master in 1927. He joined King Charles the Martyr Lodge of M.M.M. No. 267 in 1928 and was Master of that Lodge three years later. He was appointed Grand Junior Deacon in Mark Grand Lodge in 1932.


            In K.T., he was Installed in the New Temple Preceptory No. 117, in 1893, and became Preceptor in 1901.


            Dr. Cartwright's later Masonic career is almost entirely a record of his Masonic studies, lectures and writings which deservedly brought him to a much wider Masonic public. He had joined the Correspondence Circle of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1891, only three years after his Initiation - and although he was a keen student it was not until the 1920s that his articles began to appear in the Masonic journals and in the Transactions of various Research Lodges. (A list of his Masonic writings is given on page x).


            In September 1926, when Grand Lodge stood on the brink of ratifying an ill-advised decision to abolish the "Extended Working of the Board of Installed Masters" (Installation ceremony), Bro. Cartwright was invited - as an expert -- to join the deputation to Sir Alfred Robbins, then President of the Board of General Purposes of Grand Lodge and, as a result of their efforts, the President was persuaded to reverse his views. At the following quarterly Communication in December 1926, that ancient ceremony was decreed a regular part of English Masonic ritual with permission to any Lodge to work it subject only to the addition of certain explanatory clauses and safeguards at the commencement of the work. Dr. Cartwright published an excellent account of the whole affair in Misc. Lat. Volume XXV, December 1940.


            As a writer on subjects of Masonic interest, the late 1920s were his most prolific years. At about this time, too, he planned the publication of his English Ritual which made its first appearance in print in 1936 with a second edition ten years later.


            His obituary notice in AQC Vol 66, p. 40, stated that he was invited to become a full Member of the Quator Coronati Lodge in 1939, the supreme accolade of Masonic scholarship, but for reasons unknown he was unable to accept. He must surely have been the only Brother who ever refused that invitation, but he was nominated again in 1947, and was elected in May of that year, at the age of 82. At that date he had been a member of the Q.C. Correspondence Circle for 56 years! E.H. Cartwright In that same year, he published his Commentary on the Freemasonic Ritual (the first edition of the present work) which embodied virtually the best of his Masonic writings during the two preceding decades. Almost immediately he must have started to make copious notes of amendments and expansions, in readiness for a second edition. Unfortunately he did not live to see that hope fulfilled, more especially as the book certainly deserved a far larger Masonic circulation than it had at first.


            One extremely valuable service that he rendered the Q.C. Lodge was in decoding Browne's Master Key, of 1802, a very lengthy and important ritual work of that period. That meticulous work in typescript is a valuable tool for all who are engaged in the study of English pre-Union ritual and it is a much used work in the Q.C. Library.


            Upon his selection to membership of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge at the age of 82 it was not to be expected that he could possibly write very much for the Q.C. Transactions. Despite his age, he attended the Lodge meetings for several years, but apart from one useful paper on Browne's Master Key, his contributions were restricted to comments on the papers that interested him particularly, comments that were always brief, very much to the point and sometimes pungent.


            Cartwright, the man.


            Early accounts of Cartwright as a youngster are simply non-existent. Today, indeed, there are few men living who knew him at all except in his middle and old age. Yet, the details already noted of his early years and professional training enable us to draw some fairly safe conclusions.


            Born, as he was, into a good family with an extremely comfortable and probably wealthy background, it is certain that young Cartwright never needed to worry about a career. He might easily have become a sporting playboy or a scholarly dilettante, but those paths were not for him. Nobody could have worked harder or achieved better satisfaction and rewards from his studies and from the career he chose for himself.


            Nor was his career all work and no play: he was a man of many interests and they throw a useful light on his character. Bro. Lyn Hepworth, his publisher, recalls that Cartwright was a more than adequate performer on the violin - and even in late middle age he was still an enthusiastic amateur actor.


            He collected a valuable library (in addition to his Masonic books) and by his will arranged for the London Library to receive whatever books it might need from his collection. His interest in the "Bacon-Shakespeare problem" led to another useful collection. "These together with all his Masonic chattels, books and papers, were bequeathed to the Provincial Grand Lodge of Bristol. The "Bacon-Shakespeare" question seems curiously out of keeping with what is known of Cartwright, but it displays yet another aspect of his range of EHCartwright 233 interests.


            In a completely different field, he acquired what seems to have been a rather choice collection of pewter, of sufficient quality to attract the attention of the Victoria and Albert Museum and he generously bequeathed to the Museum all the items they cared to select.


            All efforts to trace a portrait of Dr. Cartwright have failed. Bro. R.H.B. Cawdron and Bro. L.F. Hepworth describe him as "very thin, above average height, of sandy complexion, with a Victorian moustache and always wearing gold-rimmed spectacles". In the course of my conversations with each of them, separately, on several occasions, both used almost identical words in their summing-up of the man as they knew him, "a devout Christian, Victorian in outlook and a true gentleman in every sense of the word" and each of them laid stress on the word `gentle'.


            That point needs to be remembered when we consider Cartwright the ritualist! Bro. Hepworth writes: "He was strict in Lodge insisting that every small detail should be correct, and on many occasions I have seen Brethren cringe under his severe look if even a small mistake were made, but he would correct privately in the most kindly manner afterwards...." "Out of Lodge he was gentle and generous in the encouragement he gave to young and interested Brethren...." "I worked very closely with him throughout the production of The Commentary and, great man that he was, he sought my opinion on several points on many occasions..." Anecdotes are scarce, but Bro. Cawdron, compiler of the Benefactum Ritual, was his close friend since the 1930's, and he delighted to tell the story of an evening when he attended the Pellipar Lodge as guest of Bro. Cartwright who had been in the Chair and had conducted two Degrees followed by Installation - all without a single hesitation. At dinner afterwards Bro. Cawdron was called upon to reply to the Toast of the Guests. Here is the story in his own words: Remembering that Cartwright in his English Ritual (2° Working Tools) had used the words "highest degree of perfection" I decided to tease him with a compliment, so I described his work that evening with emphasis as "the nearest approach to perfection that human nature can attain". Cartwright laughed out loud, but soon began to blame himself."`Fancy my not seeing that". Then he turned to Bro. Charles Preston, a close friend - and colleague in the preparations for the English Ritual. "Fancy neither of us seeing that in all these years". But Preston kept contradicting and saying that it was not a mistake and that there was nothing wrong with the 234 EH. Cartwright words. So I asked him "What is the lowest degree of perfection then?" and like a flash the answer came back, "Benefactum". The Skinner's Company's Hall had never heard so much laughter in a single evening - but Cartwright readily agreed his error!"

 In a memoir compiled by one of Dr. Cartwright's colleagues, W.Bro. W.G. Thompson, Secretary for many years of the Pellipar Lodge, there is evidence that the worthy Doctor possessed at least one of the essential characteristics of a true sense of humour. He wrote: ... further acquaintance reveals ... that the austere disciplinarian of the Lodge merges into an extremely human personality .. and no one enjoys a joke at his own expense more than Bro. Cartwright." One of the many generous bequests in Dr Cartwright's Will suggests that he was very proud of the honour of being entitled to bear Heraldic Arms. He left a legacy of £4,000 to Exeter College, Oxford for an annual Exhibition, Scholarship, or Prize, to the lawful son of an arrinigerous parent - i.e. entitled to Heraldic Arms. A somewhat rare form of selection! We are indebted to Bro. Harry Mendoza of London, for the following details, interpreted from A.C. Fox Davies' Armorial Families, (1st and 7th editions).


            Dr. Cartwright's Arms, in the language of Heraldry, were as follows: Or, gutte-de-poix, on a fess nebuly gules between four bombs fired, three in chief and one in base proper, an escallop between two catherine wheels or.


            and the Crest: On a wreath of the colours a wolf's head erased or gutte-de-poix, gorged with collar nebuly gules between on either side three cinquefoils slipped vert.


            It is not easy to describe the above in non-heraldic terms, and it is hoped that the following may serve.


            The shield has a background of gold with markings of black droplets, like tear-drops (with bulge downwards). Horizontally, across the middle of the shield, is a broad red band, its upper and lower edges made up of rising and falling ovals, i.e., a broad wavy band. In the chief or upper section of the shield are three flaming bombs or cannon-balls and there is a fourth in the base section. In the centre of the red band (the less) is a scallop shell, the traveller's or pilgrim's emblem, in gold, set between two catherine wheels also in gold.


            The Crest is set in a wreath of the same colours, marked with black droplets. Its central theme is a Wolf's Head in gold (with a jagged edged throat) wearing a wavy-edged red collar. On either side are three green EH. Cartwright 235 five-leafed devices with stems (cinquefoils). The Motto is: "Defend the fold".


            It is interesting to note that Dr. Cartwright's Arms differed from those of his father, but only in minor details.


            Dr. Cartwright and his wife were both great supporters, during their lifetime, of the Masonic Charities. Both were Patrons of the Girls School, and of the Benevolent Institution. Mrs. Cartwright was also a Life Governor of the "Boys" of which her husband was a Patron. Among many bequests already noted in his will was one of £2,000 to his Mother Lodge, Apollo University Lodge, No. 357, for `premises, repairs or alterations' with a further £1,000 as a contingent bequest. There was a £300 gift to the almhouses of the Skinners' Company and legacies of £100 each to several of his Lodges.


            After a long, full and worthy life, he died, aged 87, on 22 February 1953, at 7 Lonsdale Gardens, Tunbridge Wells, Kent, without issue.


            Unfortunately, the present writer never had the opportunity to meet Dr. Cartwright, who died some twenty years ago, and the few old men now surviving who knew him well have only faint memories of him as he was in his prime. As a result it proved extremely difficult to obtain the personal information, the family stories and anecdotes which are so important in building up a biographical sketch. For the personal memories used in this Biographical Note, I am indebted mainly to Bro. Lyn Hepworth, his friend and publisher, and to the late Bro. Reginald H.B. Cawdron who was also a friend for many years.


            For professional Medical and Legal records I quote official publications and express my thanks to the various institutions that made them available to me. I am likewise grateful to Bro. A.R. Hewitt, the former Librarian to Grand Lodge, and to Bro. W.G.H. Browne on the staff of Grand Lodge, who have been most helpful with Masonic records.


            Finally, however, the fullest picture of Dr. Cartwright emerges from a survey of his writings, which must have formed his major Masonic interest - hobby is too light a word - during more than half of his long and busy life. [end]




            Introduction to the Second Edition ..           .. Vii

            Other Works by Dr. Cartwright .. ..  .. x

            Author's Preface .. .. ..          .. xi

            1 Introductory .. .. ..    .. 15

            2 Rituals Referred to in the Ensuing Chapters      .. 39

            3 Some Matters of General Concern         

            Simultaneity of Action .. ..     47

            Opening, Closing and `Resuming' ..           48

            Knocks, Reports and Alarms ..        50

            Sps., Sns. and Salutes .. ..   54

            Attitude during Prayers and Obs. .. 56

            Standing to Order .. ..           58

            Passing round the Lodge .. ..           58

            S...g, i.e. Shielding .. ..          58

            L...g or H...g .. .. ..      60

            The First Joint .. .. ..   60

            A Detail in the Second Degree Preparation          61

            The Bible Openings .. ..        61

            The Lesser Lights .. ..           62

            The Columns of the Officers ..         65

            Gloves .. .. ..   67

            Masonry or Freemasonry .. ..           69

            Master Elect or Worshipful M.E. ..   69

            Initiate and Brother Initiate ..            70

            The Number that Constitutes a Quorum     70

            The Number of Perambulations ..   70

            "As happily we have met" .. 71

            The Status of the I.P.M. .. ..  72

            The Ballot for Candidates .. ..          72


            4 The Work of the Tyler .. .. ..           - 73

            5 The Work of the Inner Guard .. ..   .. 82

            6 The Work of the Deacons .. .. ..    .. 90

            The First Degree .. .. ..          .. 94

            The Second Degree .. .. ..    .. 101

            The Third Degree .. .. ..         .. 107

            Deacons - other Duties .. .. ..           .. 110

            7 The Work of the Junior Warden .. ..         .. 112

            The Ceremonies .. .. ..          .. 118

            Calling Off and Calling On .. ..          .. 122

            8 The Work of the Senior Warden .. ..        .. 124

            The Ceremonies .. .. .. ..       .. 127

            9 The Work of the Master .. .. ..        .. 133

            Openings and Closings .. .. ..           .. 135

            The Questions before Passing .. ..  .. 140

            The Questions before Raising .. ..   .. 143


            The Ceremony of Initiation .. ..         .. 144

            The Charge .. .. .. ..    .. 162

            Tracing Board of the First Degree .. ..        .. 165

            The Ceremony of Passing .. .. ..      .. 166

            Tracing Board of the Second Degree ..     .. 174

            The Ceremony of Raising .. .. ..       .. 177

            The Traditional History continued .. ..          .. 190

            Tracing Board of the Third Degree .. ..       .. 193

            The Signs .. .. ..          .. 194

            The Ceremony of Installation .. ..     .. 197

            The Inner Working .. .. ..        .. 200

            The Concluding Addresses .. ..       .. 207

            The Investiture of the Immediate Past Master        .. 209

            The Installation of a Past Master .. ..           .. 209

            10 The Lectures .. .. .. ..        .. 210

            11 Information for Candidates .. ..   .. 212

            Appendices - A The Working Tools of the Second Degree        .. 215

            B Explanation of the Second Tracing Board         .. 216

            C Explanation of the Third Tracing Board  .. 219

            D Address to the I.P.M. .. ..  .. 220

            Notes and References .. .. .. ..         .. 223

            E. H. Cartwright - A Biographical Note .. .. .. 229

            Index .. .. .. .. ..            .. 237





Acacia, Sprig or branch of ...................................... 192, 194, 220

Address to candidates in the S.E.  ........................................ 172

to the Master ......................................................207

the the Wardens        .................................................... 208

to the Brethren           ....................................................209

Advance `in due form' or 'by the proper steps........................... 127,147

To the E., The (or'to the Pedestal') ......................... 127, 130, 147, 167

in the 1°,The....................................................... 95

in the 2°,The...................................................... 104

in the 3°,The...................................................... 108

`Aid', `assistance' or `blessing............................ 136, 138, 144, 166, 202

Alarms .........................................................50,118

`All Glory etc.'to be spoken by all ..................................... 138-9

All Souls' Lodge, Weymouth .................................. 21, 45, 142, 211 Altar, The.......................................................... 134 Ampthill on Emulation ................................................ 32 Antients,The .....................................................15,16 `Approbation'...................................................139,141

Apron ....................................................... See Badge 'As happily we have met' ........................................... 71, 71,117

Ashlars, The .........................................................74

Attributes of the Lodges in the Obligations, The   ............................ 150

`Awaken the feelings' .................................................160

Badge, Address on investing an E. A. with the ............................... 128

Flap of the E.A's to be turned up ................................. 99, 128-9

Ballot for Candidates ..................................................72

Bastard enumeration ................................... 78, 114, 125, 139, 208

`Better enabled........................................... 145, 172, 183, 202

Bible Openings, The ................................................... 61

Board of Installed Masters, Opening and Closing of the  .................... 44,201 'Bright and morning star, The..........        ............................. 17, 17,186 Bristol, the custom in closing the Lodge at .................................. 52 Bristol Ritual, The      ........................................... 23, 26, 40, 56 Broadfoot....................................................16,20,197 Letters of...................................................... 31,197 `Brother Initiate'......................................................70



Browne's Master-Key           .............................................. 19,211

By-laws, Reading of the       ...............................................206

Call to the Deacons, The............................................ 92,144 to the Wardens, The............................................. 119,182 Calling Off and Calling On .........................................113,123 Candidate, `A' or `The......................................... 146, 167, 178 `Candidate on his return, The.......................................... 80,89 Candidates, The knocks for.............................................. 77

The Tyler's colloquy on announcing .................................. 78-80 Candles, Electric, deprecated            ............................................ 65 Candlesticks, The position of the .................................... 63-4,73 Carfle'sRitual, 1825 ...............................................22,43 Centre, Definition of a ................................................115 Charge after Initiation, The ............................................. 162 Christian allusions .............................................. 17, 21, 186 Circle of Swords, The         ........................................... 20, 40, 174 Claret's Rituals     . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-6,38,39 `Class'or'Lodge'.....................................................191 Closing ofthe3...................................................... 126 Closing summarily, The knocks on            ........................................ 51 Closings............................................................135 Column of the Junior Warden, The .................................... 66, 66,112 Columns of the Officers, The    ............................................ 65 `Correctness of the proof' or `of the signs'  ................................. 138 Covering the G................................................ 99,119,157 Crawley, Chetwode, on Uniformity  ....................................... 40 Criteria of correctness ................................................ 34-5 Crossing of Deacons' Wands, The .........................................92 Crossing the feet     .............................................. 53,121,184 Crowe on Uniformity ...............................................35,38

Deacons, The call to the       ............................................. 92, 92,144 The Work of the..................................................... 90 in 1°............................................................94 in 2°...........................................................101 in3°...........................................................107

Degree of F.C. (or M.M.), the. (Not `of a F.C.' or `a M.M.')           .................... 167

Differences between the Antients and the Modems         ........................ 15, 15,16

in working       .................. ................................. 19,20,21 Dring.........................................................35,63,75 Due Guard, The     ..............................................99,119,157

`Duly obligated'         ......................................... 154, 169, 182, 199

Emissaries of Promulgation .............................................. 16 Emissaries of Reconciliation ............................................. 16 Emulation, Alteration of Landmarks in    ......................... 20, 24, 116, 156 Its claim to work Reconciliation verbatim ................................. 34 Fighiera's letter about ................................................ 28 Robbins'letter on ...................................................36 No one member said to be responsible for the working ....................... 33

The Principle of .................................................25,133 Unwarrantable claims made for ................................... 25, 34,36 and Stability 'equally correct' .......................................... 26 and 7he Perfect Ceremonies ............................................ 24 Lectures,The...................................................21,210 Propaganda ............................................. 26-9,34,36,46 Emulation Lodge of Improvement, The ..................... 21, 25, 28, 31, 33, 37 Emulationists' claim that their's is 'the only approved working' ................ 31-2 English Ritual, The ................................................. 36,44 'Enlighten' .................... ...........................125 Entering Lodge, Salute of the Degree is enough when .......................... 55 'Equally fatal'.......................................................155 Etiquette, The Spurious         .......................................... 30, 31, 34 Etiquette of Freemasonry, The ........................................... 30 Excellencies         .................................................... 159,164

Exeter Ritual  ............................................ 44, 171, 189, 201

'Fail of being' .......................................................190 Fenn,Thomas.....................................................31,33 Fighiera, Letter of .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 'Fit and proper person, A'..............................................146 'First as an E.A................................................... 130, 187 First Joint, The....................................................... 60 Five P. of F., The           ................................................ 116,186 'Follow your leader ................................................... 145 'For God said ........................................................ 172 'Former companions of their toils........................................ 186 'Foundation, from the', or'on the........................................ 159 Free or Freeborn..................................................78,144 Freemason or Mason ............................................... 69, 69,141

G., The letter .......................................................177 Garter,The..........................................................129 Grand and Royal Salute in closing, Use of the .......................... 138, 139 Gilkes,Peter .................................................16,21,314 Gloves........................................................67-8,157 Golden Fleece, The................................................... 128 Great Lights, The three .......................................... 5063, 134

Hailing Signs,The....................................................170 Hat, The Master's            ................................................. 20, 134 Hele  .............................................................. 151 Hextall  ................................................. 19,25,53,66,92 'Hid'or'hidden'.....................................................168 'High time' or 'High Twelve............................................. 122 Humber Use, 77 re   .................................................. 23, 23,42

I.P.M., Address to the           ................................................. 220

Investiture of the        ............................................... 205, 209 Rank in Lodge of the................................................. 72 'In due form'....................................................127,147

'in the name of the (Almighty)'          ................................... 128,136-7 `Initiate, The' ........................................................70 Initiation, The Ceremony of ............................................ 144 Inman            ........................................................... 19,61 Inner Guard, The Duty of the ........................................... 125

Institution of the Office of      ......................................... 17, 17,82 The Work of the..................................................... 82 Inner Working,The...................................................200 Installation, The Ceremony of  .......................................... 197 Ward's Ritual of the.................................................. 45 Almost unknown among the Moderns .................................... 16 demonstrated by Reconciliation            ........................................ 18

of a Past Master        .................................................... 209 `Institution' or'Constitution............................................ 199 Instruction, Lodges of ............................................ 20,26, 37 'Instrument used in architecture'            ........................................ 137 Investiture by the Senior Warden, The       ................................ 128, 128,131 of Officers, The ....................................................206

Junior Warden, Use of the gavel by the ................................ 113,118 The taking of reports by the            .......................................... 118 The column of the   .............................................. 67, 112 The duty of the ....................................................114 The Work of the.......................          ............................112

Knock, The double, for the Tyler ......................................... 54 before obligations, The .............................................. 148 given with the left hand ........................................... 53, 53,140 Knocks, Reports and Alarms ............................................. 50 given by the Tyler .................................................76-7

L...'s G., The ................................................ 185, 189, 193 L...g or H...g  .......................................................... 60 Landmarks, Alteration of, by Emulation      ........................ 20, 24, 116, 156 'Lasting impression, A................................................. 185 Lectures, The .................................................20,210-11 le Strange on Unanimity ................................................39 Lesser Lights, The ............................................... 62-4, 154 Letchworth's letter to author of the Spurious Etiquette ...................... 31-2 Lights, The three great ............     .            ............................ 62-4, 134 'Lodge Boards' .......................................................75 Lodge Password in Bury Ritual .......................................... 137 'Lowest ebb of poverty, The............................................ 160

'Mark the rising sun, To.....   . . ........................................ 125 'Marks'or'means'....................................................155 'Masonry is free ...................................................... 148 Masonry of Freemasonry     ...............................................69 'Master Elect' or 'Worshipful Master Elect................................ 69-70 Master, The Work of the ........................................... 133-209 Master'shat,The..................................................20,134



light,The.......................................................18,64 place, The reason for the.................,...,.,.,.,.„„..„„„125,136 Menatzchim ........................................................190 'Midway in' or 'in the midway of ........................................ 169 Moderns, The ........................................................ 15 `More expert Craftsmen, The............................................ 161 `Myself or connections....................................... 181 and cf. 162

`Near' or `near to'      ........................................ 125, 143, 194, 207 `New-made'.........................................................158 `Newly obligated'   ........................................ 154, 169, 182, 199 North, East, etc., `From the' or `in the..................................... 146 North-east corner, Position of candidates in the .......................... 99-100 `Not all operative..................................................... 161

`O.G.'; omission of the word `o'       ......................................... 108 Obligation of the 1°, Posture of candidate during the ...................... 97, 97,149 of the 2°, Posture of the candidate during the ....................... 104-6, 168 of the 3°.......................................................... 179 Obligations recited before Grand Lodge .................................... 18 Oblong square.......................................................166 "Offer yourself a candidate.............    ............................... 147 Offices not to be declared vacant        ........................................ 198 Opening summarily .................................................... 48 Openings and closings ............................................ 48-9, 135

ordered by Grand Lodge ..............................................18 of the Modems ...................................................... 15 `Other questions'.....................................................142 `Our ancient G.M.'           ....................................... 115, 183, 185, 190 Oxford Ritual, The    ....................................................40

Parallelepipedon ...................................................165-6 Passing, The Ceremony of ............................................... 166 Passing on of orders, The ..................................... 117-8, 127, 147 Passing round the Lodge ...............„.,.„,..,.„,.„...„„.,.,58,205 Past Master, The Installation of a           ........................................ 209 `Pedestal, Advance to the................................ See Advance to the E. Pedestal, The dual character of the Master's ............................ 134, 147 Pedestals, The ........................................................73 Perfect Ashlar in New South Wales, The .................................... 75 Perfect Ceremonies, The  .......................................... 24, 27,41 `Perambulate', The word      ............................................... 167 Perambulations, The number of the ....................................... 70 Perseverance Lodge of Instruction. The       .................................... 32 `Personal comfort' or `personal comforts................................... 162 `Poignard'..........................................................155 Points of Entrance, The        ............................................... 142 Porchway ..........................................................158 Prayers, The  ........................................ 136, 145, 166, 178, 202 Prayers and obligations, The attitude during ................................. 56 Preposition at the end of a sentence .................................. 156, 156,185

`Probation' or `Approbation............................................. 141 Probations,The..............................................119,127,130 `Promise, A serious...