General History of the

     Order of the Eastern Star















Past Grand Patron of Indiana, and first Right Worthy Grand Secretary

of the General Grand Chapter of the Order






Willis D. Engle, Publisher




This History of the Order of the Eastern Star is




By the author to his co‑laborers in the early days of the Order, whose

eyes have seen the crowning of their labors; and to the memory

of those faithful ones among them who have passed on

to the larger life, and entered upon rest nobly won.





TO BE the first to enter an unexplored field, and attempt to map out before the understanding of one's readers its various characteristics; to delve below the soil and thus endeavor to discover the hidden sources from which has sprung that which appears upon the surface; and thus to add to the store of knowledge, is no easy task, and requires patient, persevering labor. Although the writer of this book has been an active worker in the Order of the Eastern Star for twenty‑eight years, and during all that time has been a diligent gatherer of material and facts concerning it, and has, by the favor of his fellow‑members been placed in positions of trust and responsibility, which have given him rare opportunities to learn much of the workings of the order, yet he had no idea, when he undertook the production of this history, how great the task would prove, for he has undertaken to be doubly sure of the facts stated and has spent days in running down some particular item that, perhaps, when secured, would not add a dozen lines to the work. That it is perfect, and that every essential fact that it is possible to ascertain in regard to the order is contained in it, he would not pretend to say; but he does say that he has made an honest effort in that direction flow far he has succeeded perhaps time only can demonstrate. Although there have been brief historical sketches of the order written, they have been produced generally for a purpose other than a simple development of the truth, and



4                                                                                                                                  PREFACE.


the writer knows of none, however brief, that has not contained more or less inaccurate statements, even as his may be found to do, but none have been knowingly made, and he has tried to present every fact in an unbiased manner. That his book will meet with favorable criticism, he hopes; that it will also receive some unfavorable comment, he expects. If he succeeds in adding something to the common stock of knowledge and understanding, and in rescuing some facts from being lost, and is privileged to be an instrument in adding a little to the glory and luster of the order, he will be satisfied. In the history it will be found that while he has made no direct quotations from the present authorized ritual, with one or two minor exceptions, he has quoted, sometimes quite copiously, from rituals that are now obsolete, but in doing so he has carefully avoided incorporating therein anything that might throw any light upon what is the real secret work of the order, and in this respect he believes his work will be found to compare favorably with the Masonic encyclopedias. He has endeavored, at the same time, to convey to the enlightened reader as full knowledge of the subject in hand as was possible with these limitations. Many months of continuous labor have been bestowed upon it, and as he indites these words as his task is drawing to a close, it is with the desire that his readers will consider how hard it is for one to write unbiasedly of his own times, and of events in which lie has been an active participant, so that if the fiat person singular is sometimes singularly prominent, it is simply because a full recital of essential facts rendered it necessary, as he, has no desire to use both ends of the trumpet of fame. He would be singularly remiss if he did not express his deep sense of obligation to the many brothers and


PREFACE.                                                                                                                            5


sisters who have given him material assistance in se‑curing information that has helped to make the work both valuable and interesting; and he would also give expression to his sense of obligation to those more numerous sisters and brothers who have so generously confided in his ability to create a work worthy of their encouragement, and have manifested that confidence by subscribing in advance of its production, and thus rendered its publication possible. He trusts that none of them will be disappointed in its perusal, and that they will by kindly words, en‑courage, others to purchase it, that he may receive at least some return for his months of labor. He will be grateful, also, to any one who may be able to add any facts concerning the order that will be of interest, that can be used in a second edition of the work. He will always be glad to know of any copies of old rituals that can be purchased, and he will also be pleased to supply to his fellow Eastern Star bibliomaniacs copies of any rituals of which he may have duplicates.


It will be noticed that in this work the Eastern Star degrees are sometimes spoken of in the singular, and sometimes in the plural. This will be understood when it is stated that when the secrets were given by communication the singular number was used in the early days, but when given in constellations or Chapters, they were spoken of in the plural, and I have followed this custom.


                                                                                                WILLIS D. ENGLE.


Indianapolis, Ind., February 9, 1901.

This material originally scanned by Ralph Omholt, Kirkland Chapter 176, Washington.


                BON VOYAGE.


Go, " History of the Eastern Star,"

Where e'er its wandering children are;

Recall to those who hailed its birth

Their toilsome struggle 'mid the dearth

Of cheering words, or sunny ways;

And tell to those of later days

How great the triumph it has met

Lest they forget - lest they forget.


Go gladly forth, and may thy pages

Suffice to keep for future ages

The record of the care and strength

Which nursed and fostered, till at length

The Order of the Eastern Star

Is known and loved the world afar.

With naught set down in malice vile,

E'en unkind facts wear friendship's smile,

For, though our order had its battle,

It's grown above war's din and rattle,

And charity's broad mantle red

Is cast about those days, instead.


To those who labored, loved, and - fought,

The guerdon was not dearly bought,

For our great order moves to‑day

Untrammelled in its upward way.


To those who helped with heart and hand

To make this true; that knightly band;

Those women brave; we ask the fame

Too often grudged each early name.

No easy task for woman lone

To stand as target; many a stone

Was hurled 'gainst such whose word and deed

Helped in our order's hour of need.

They're now forgotten, yet that hour

Gave birth to all its present power.


Now, in these days of proud progress,

Forget not those of storm and stress,

Encourage the same zeal and truth

Which marked our order in its youth,

And let the future years reveal

The same desire for its best weal;

Then shall its record grow and blaze

With the refulgence of its rays,

Till earth, illumined, near and far

Reflects the light of Bethlehem's star!



























AN organization would hardly be entitled to the designation Masonic whose origin was not shrouded in mystery, and in this respect the Order of the Eastern Star is the peer of any of the branches of Masonry. We know that androgynous Masonry (so named from two Greek words signifying "man" and "woman,") was established in France in 1730, under the name of Adoptive Masonry, and that its Lodges were called adoptive Lodges. These flourished and gained steadily in both numbers and influence until, in 1774 the Grand Orient of France established the Rite of Adoption, and set forth rules and regulations for its government. Among other requirements was one that each Lodge should be placed under the charge and held under the sanction and warrant of some regularly constituted Masonic Lodge, whose master, or his deputy should be the presiding officer, assisted by a woman president or mistress. We are unable to learn whether the ritual used from 1730 was continued in use, or a new one adopted. It is probable that the earlier ritual at least furnished the basis for the later work, which consisted of four degrees, viz.: The first, or apprentice degree was introductory in its character, in which the candidate was pre‑pared to appreciate the emblematic lessons inculcated in the degrees that were to follow.


The second, or companion degree represented emblematically, in its ceremony of initiation, the



10                                                                                            THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.


temptation in Eden, and, in the lecture, or catechism (of which there was one to each degree), the candidate was reminded of the unhappy results of woman's first sin, culminating in the universal deluge.


The third, or mistress degree was based upon the legend of the building of Babel's tower, the confusion of tongues, and the dispersion of the human race. This was made to symbolize a badly regulated Lodge, in which disorder and confusion reigned, while the ladder of Jacob was introduced to represent the various virtues which a Mason should possess, and the concord and obedience that should exist in a well regulated Lodge.


The fourth, or perfect mistress degree was founded upon the passage of the children of Israel through the wilderness, which was made to symbolize the passage of men and women through this to another and better world, and the officers represented Moses, Aaron, and other characters in that history.


There is no evidence, so far as, known, that the French rite ever obtained in this country. A French edition of its ritual, under the title: "La Vraire Maconnerie D'Adoption," (144 pp.) was printed in Philadelphia in 1768; a Spanish translation was printed in Havana in 1822, and, about 1874, Albert Pike published an English translation of it, revised and amplified, but efforts to establish Lodges proved entire failures, the ritual being altogether too lengthy and sombrous to command success.


But side degrees to be conferred upon women in an informal manner, in the form of lectures, seemed to be in demand, and the demand was supplied. Under the title of "Ladies' Masonry," William Leigh, Past Grand Master of Alabama, in 1851 set forth the degree of the "Holy Virgin," and the de‑



 THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.                                                                                       11


gree of the "Heroine of Jericho." In 1866, under the title of the "Ladies' Friend," G. W. Brown, of Michigan, published the "Eastern Star," "Mason's Daughter," "Kindred Degree," "Good Samaritan," and "Heroines of Jericho." Other degrees bore the titles of "Ark and Dove." "Maids of Jerusalem," "Sweet Brier," "Daughter of Zion," "Daughters of Zelophadad," "Daughters of Bethlehem," "Cross and Crown," and "Lady of the Cross." Of the origin of these degrees little is known. The Heroines of Jericho is said to be the oldest of them all, and to have been the production of David Vinton, of Rhode Island. While these other degrees are somewhat analogous to the Eastern Star, it is not the design of the writer to attempt to set forth their various peculiarities, but to confine his history to the Eastern Star.


If confidence could be placed in certain statements of Rob Morris, whose labors in bringing the order into prominence exceed those of any other person, we could easily ascertain the truth as to its origin. But these statements are made without corroborative proof, and have been contradicted by the brother himself. In A Monument of Gratitude (1884), brother Morris said:


“Some writers have fallen into the error of placing the introduction of the Eastern Star as far back as 1775, and this they gather from my work, "Lights and Shadows of FreeMasonry," published in 1852. What I intended to say in that book was, that the French officers introduced adoptive Masonry into the colonies in 1775, but nothing like the degree called the Eastern Star, which is strictly my own origination. By the aid of my papers, and the memory of Mrs. Morris, I recall even the trivial occurrences connected with the work, how I hesitated for a theme, how I dallied over a name, how I wrought face to face with the clock that I might keep may drama within due limits of time, etc. The name was first settled upon,

This material originally scanned by Ralph Omholt, Kirkland Chapter 176, Washington.


12                                                                                            THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.


the Eastern Star. Next the number of points, five, to correspond with the emblem on the masters' carpet. This is the pentagon, "the signet of King Solomon," and eminently proper to adoptive Masonry.”


What brother Morris did say in "Lights and Shadows," was in part as follows:


“The five androgynous degrees, combined under the above title (The Eastern Star Degrees), are supposed to have been introduced into this country by the French officers who assisted our government during the struggle for liberty. The titles, Jephthah's Daughter, Ruth, Esther, Martha, and Electa, sufficiently denote the histories comprehended in the degrees.


*  *  * The following extracts from the published ritual, translated into English, are in point: "The Sisterhood of the Eastern Star is manifest, to the world by its adoring virtues - five. Honor in bright loneliness is the sanctity and moral guarantee of all the obligations of the Eastern Star. This is read by the enlightened in the cabalistic motto of the order. Upon that foundation (honor) stands the following pillars: - to be true; to be aiding; to be counseling; to be loving; to be secret; to be the servant of Jesus Christ. Sweet in its fragrance is the memory of the worthy dead. It comes up from the recollection of happy hours passed in their companionship; it comes down in faith's joyful anticipations of reunion in the home of the Savior. The members of the Eastern Star will follow to the grave's brink the forms of those who have preceded them to a world of glory. *  *  *


The following verses are offered by the writer as an humble testimonial of gratitude to those who kindly instructed him in the mysteries of these beautiful degrees.”


Whether this can be explained as meaning what brother Morris said he intended to say I leave to my readers to judge. It will be noted that he makes an extract, translated into English, from a ritual, which was, presumably from his previous statement,



THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.                                                                                        13


in the French language, and it is certain that the quotation is not embodied in any ritual now known to exist, except that in the Thesauros there appears to be a reference to, and amplification of a portion of it.


In an open letter, dated Lagrange, Ky., October 2, 1877, brother Morris said:


“I am justified in speaking on this subject. I wrote every word of the original lectures, and composed the songs. For twenty‑eight years I have been communicating it as my own origination. I am the founder of the system, and no one can show any proofs of its existence prior to 1849.”


And yet brother Morris, in the Voice of Masonry, May, 1862, said:


“My first regular course of lectures was given in November, 1850, at Colliersville, Tennessee. *  *


At Colliersville, likewise, I conferred the degrees of the Eastern Star and Good Samaritan. Both of these I had received some years before, the latter by brother Stevens, the same who presided at my passing and raising. The restrictions under which the Eastern Star was communicated to me were "that it should only be given to master Masons, their wives, widows, sisters and daughters, and only when five or more ladies of the classes named were present;" these rules I have always adhered to.”


In the first ritual published under the auspices of brother Morris, The Mosaic Book, 1855, it is stated:


“In selecting some androgynous degree, extensively known, ancient in date, and ample in scope, for the basis of this rite, the choice falls, without controversy, upon the Eastern Star. For this is a degree, familiar to thousands of the most enlightened York Masons and their female relatives; established in this country at least before 1778; and one which popularly bears the palm in point of doctrine and elegance over all others. Its scope, by the addition of a ceremonial and a few links in the chain of recognition, was broad enough to constitute a graceful and consistent system,



14                                                                                            THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.


worthy, it is believed, of the best intellect of either sex.”


In the Macoy Manual, 1866, it is stated that


"the Order of the Eastern Star was established in this country during the year 1778,"


and this statement is repeated in Adoptive Rite, 1868, but in the Macoy Ritual, 1876, it is changed to read:


"during the year 1850."


In Adoptive Rite appears the following note:


"A. O., Anno Ordinis - Year of the Order. To find this date subtract 1778 from the present year." In "The Adopted Mason, the organ of the American Adoptive Rite," (August, 1855,) of which brother Morris was M. E. Grand Luminary, it is stated:


“We seek to effect our purpose by adapting an ancient system to a modern use. The degree upon which the American Adoptive Rite is built is very ancient, more so by far than any other, save the York Rite, and one that carries on its very face indubitable marks of antiquity. It exhibits all the furrows of age. Its voice, solemn and impressive, comes up like the deep tones of the veteran, who, from the treasures of four score, enriches the lap of youth.”


In the Adopted Mason of January, 1856, it is stated:


“The Heroine of Jericho, which is so strangely made a standard of adoption, is in itself the offspring of the present century, and one of the youngest of the androgynous degrees; while the five degrees of the Eastern Star, the basis of the American Adoptive Rite, exhibit internal evidences of great age, and they were always considered the property of master masons, their wives, sisters and daughters.”


The fact is that brother Morris received the Eastern Star degree at the hands of Giles M. Hillyer, of Vicksburg, Mississippi, about 1849.


While recognizing the abilities and labors of



THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.                                                                                        15


brother Morris in the various branches of Masonry and more particularly in the Eastern Star, and his many noble qualities, it must be acknowledged that, as to the history of the order his evidence is too conflicting to be accepted as conclusive, and we must turn to other sources of information, although they may prove equally unsatisfactory.


If we could accept it for what, it at first appears to be, "The Thesauros of the Ancient and Honorable Order of the Eastern Star as collected and arranged by the committee, and adopted by the Supreme Council in convocation, assembled May, 1793," an octavo pamphlet of eighteen pages, the property of brother Alonzo J. Burton, Past Grand Lecturer of New York, and the author of the Floral Work, which purports to have been "Printed for the use of the fourth division U. S. By order of the G. L. 1850," we would have conclusive evidence of the existence of the order in this country in the eighteenth century. The writer regrets that he has been unable to obtain a sight of this pamphlet, although he has offered to make the trip from Indianapolis to New York for the purpose of doing so, as, having seen it, he would be enabled to give affirmative testimony. A reprint, no matter how carefully made, does not enable even an expert to judge of its age or authenticity. The style of type; quality and finish of the paper; the manner of binding; the arrangement of matter on the pages; the spelling of words; and many other things would reveal, to one experienced in that line, many points that another, not up in such matters, might overlook. However, brother Burton has kindly furnished him a carefully edited reprint of it. Of it, he says: "I copied the work myself, not omitting a single word, nor even a punctuation mark." It purports to be the fifth edition of the work, the first



16                                                                                            THE, ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.


printed in 1793, the third in 1819, the fourth in 1845, and the fifth in 1817. This pamphlet was purchased at a sale by Barker, 63 Bleeker street, New York, November 15, 1896, and the writer freely admits that he knows of no motive that would induce its publication for the purpose of deception merely, and there are some internal evidences that would indicate that it may be will be noted that on the Constellation and on the Book of Instructions, gloves, and collar are mentioned as proper regalia to be worn by each lady.



Each point of the star in the seal and signet referred to also contains a five pointed star to which no reference is made in any other ritual, while in the Thesauros the stars are each referred to as representing something, and each of the five classes of regalia has a significance. In the signet the name in the first point is given as Jephthah's laughter, as in the Thesauros, although in all the Morris rituals it is given as Adah. These variations between the seal and signet and his rituals would seem to indicate that brother Morris, in revising the authentic, e. g.: It seal of the Supreme Morris signet (vide illustration, facing title), there are emblems between the points of the star, but these emblems are not in any way referred to in any other ritual of the order extant, except that in 1861, the apron,



THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.                                                                                        17


older ritual omitted some of the emblematical teachings, but did not omit the emblems from the seal and signet.


On the other hand there are several things that would throw doubt upon the authenticity of the Thesauros, e. g.: In it, extracts from the prefaces to the first and third editions are inserted in the fifth. The first is dated Boston, Mass., May 17, 1793, and is signed by John Mayhew, L. R. C. Jones, and Robert Lennox, and attested by James S. Morton, S. C., as "Unanimously adopted by the Supreme Council in session, at Boston, May 18, 1793." A thorough examination of the Boston newspapers of the time fails to disclose any reference to such a meeting; the city directory of the city of Boston of that year does not show any of the persons whose names are given; and the records of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts do not contain any of the names among the list of members of the Lodges in that jurisdiction.


The legal money in the United States in 1793 was the present decimal system, but the "money of accounts" was in a transition state, the papers of the day giving quotations sometimes in decimal, and sometimes in sterling, money. In the Thesauros it is provided "The membership fee shall not exceed ten nor be less than two shillings sterling." Is it supposable that a national body, meeting at a time when, to say the least, sterling money was passing into disuse, would have established the fee in that money, rather than in the decimal, which was the legal money, and which its members must have known, would come into exclusive use very soon? In the Thesauros it is also stated:


The Districts according to the distribution of 1845 was as follows: District 1, New England and New York; District 2, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela‑



This material originally scanned by Ralph Omholt, Kirkland Chapter 176, Washington.


18                                                                                            THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.


ware, Maryland, Virginia; District 3, Ohio, Iowa, Michigan, Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi; District 4, Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina. The several Territories to accompany the States to which they are contiguous.


Whatever excuse there may have been for such a provision in 1793, it could certainly not have existed when the fifth edition was endorsed in 1847, "for the use of the fourth division U. S." in a large proportion of which territory sterling money had never been used.


The preface to the fifth edition is dated New York, Dec. 12, 1847, and is signed "H. H. Sandifer, Secretary." December 12, 1847 was Sunday, and neither the city directories of New York from 1840 to 1850, nor the records of the Grand Lodge of New York for the same period display the name of H. H. Sandifer. The genealogical records in the libraries of Indianapolis and Chicago have been searched, but, although members of the Jones, Lennox, Morton, and other families named, have been discovered, no trace has been found of those whose names appear. The city directories of the forty principal cities in the country have been searched, but in only two of them, Indianapolis and Denver, does the name of Sandifer appear, and investigation has discovered that they are either colored people or Carolinians, with no knowledge of an Eastern branch of the family.


As to the orthography of such words as honor, honorable, Savior, and labor, in the reprint they are all spelled without a "u". I regret that inquiry of brother Burton upon this point has elicited no information other than that the reprint is an accurate reproduction of the original, for, if the "u" is omitted it would be strong evidence that the pamphlet was not printed as early as it purports to have been.



THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.                                                                                        19


The adoption of the Thesauros in 1793 is attested by James S. Dorton, S. C., while the regulations provided for no such officer, the chief being Grand Luminary, and the letters S. C. are specifically interpreted therein as standing for Supreme Council.


According to the Thesauros the Supreme Council consisted of "a great luminary and four deputy luminaries," while the committee that reported the Thesauros was composed of three members, who reported to themselves and two others! The title page says "Copyright secured," without giving date of same, or stating by whom copyrighted, although the law of congress required that both should be given, and the universal form found in all copyrighted books before the revision of the law, about 1870, was "Entered according to the act of Congress, in the district court for the ____ district of ____ , by ____, 18___." I am assured by Thorvald Solberg, Register of Copyrights: "The record of copyrights in the district of Massachusetts for 1793 does not contain any entry of Thesauros of the ancient honorable Order of the Eastern Star," and that "The indices of the copyright records of the Southern district of New York do not show any entry of the book either in 1847 or 1850." All the facts obtainable that would throw any light upon the Thesauros have been set forth, and the reader will have to judge for himself as to what weight is to be given to it. Authentic or not, it is an interesting document, and in this history it will be further referred to.


After reviewing all the facts it must be concluded that brother Morris did not originate the ritual of the order, but that, receiving the degrees by communication, as above stated, and taking the ritual as used before he took up the occupation of a Masonic lecturer,



20                                                                                            THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.


he embellished and adorned it, and started the order toward systematic organization. Certainly, as it at present exists in this country, brother Morris was the master builder.


S. Baring Gould has written a very interesting volume on the myths of the middle ages, but the myths of Masonry are still awaiting the touch of a master hand. The paper, "The Eastern Star," in its issue for December, 1900, had a communication signed "A Sister," wherein it was stated:


“Order of the Eastern Star, the English name given to adoptive Masonry in England and this country, was introduced into this country in 1780. George Washington and Lafayette constituted the first Chapter. The ritual was, however, so dramatic, and required such gorgeous robes, that it gradually lost its hold upon the people until our late brother, Robert Morris, revised the ritual, reinstituting the order, bringing it to a point of perfection unknown in the past.”


While the writer could hardly credit the statement that Washington and Lafayette had found time and opportunity, in 1780, even if they had the disposition, to introduce the English rite of adoption, he could not let such a positive statement go without investigation, in consequence of which the publication of his history had been delayed a month. Through the courtesy of sister Ransford, the editor of The Eastern Star, he was furnished the address of "A Sister," who kindly responded to his inquiries, and referred him to a "Dictionary of Masonic Lore," in the Masonic library at Colorado Springs, Colorado, for confirmation of her assertions; but investigation failed to discover a Masonic library in that city, or any one there who had knowledge of such a book; nor could any trace of it be found by inquiry of the most noted Masonic librarians in the country. His inquiries of the brother



THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.                                                                                        21


who loaned the sister the publication brought the information that it was loaned to an unknown party, and could not be found, and it has not been thought best to delay the publication of this history for further chasing of this Iguis fatuus. Should it prove anything more substantial, the writer will be glad and surprised.


Lafayette, the bearer of information of the most momentous character to Washington, from France, arrived at Washington's headquarters, May 10, 1780, and remained four days, going from thence to Philadelphia, to communicate with congress, returning to Morristown, May 31, where he remained until July 22. During this time, we are told that the Continental army was in a most terrible; condition, and suffering every privation, going often five or six days without bread, and two or three days without either bread or meat, Washington saying that the men had eaten every kind of horse feed except hay. August 7, Lafayette returned to the army, and occupied himself in organizing and equipping a battalion of light infantry with which he led the advance guard of the army. September 6, he participated in a council of general officers, and on the 18th went with Washington to Hartford for a conference of war; on the 25th, the knowledge of Arnold's treason burst upon them, and on the 29th Lafayette sat as a member of the court martial that condemned Andre. He was busy with military plans and operations until the army went into winter quarters in November, when he obtained leave of absence, went to Philadelphia, and remained away the balance of the year. During all this time Washington was carrying a burden of responsibility such as few men have ever borne, and was sleeplessly vigilant in his efforts to continue Clinton cooped up in New York. Can we believe that in the



22                                                                                            THE ORIGIN OF THE ORDER.


busy weeks when Lafayette was with the army these two men organized an Eastern Star Chapter "with gorgeous robes," when the army was going half‑clad in rags? The investigation thus far made only confirms me in the assertion made when penning the first paragraph of this Chapter, months ago, that the Eastern Star is the peer of any Masonic organization in the mystery surrounding its origin.









ACCORDING to the Thesauros, the entire government of the order was vested in the Supreme Council, which consisted of five persons "holding their stations during good behavior." It was to meet "quintennially at such times and places as may be previously designated." Through its deputy luminary it granted authority to confer the degrees, and provided that five or more worthy sisters might petition for a charter in the manner following:


To the D. L. of            District:


We the undersigned members of the Ancient and Honorable Order of the Eastern Star, have seen the rays five, and are enlightened by the glory thereof. They have advocated the claims of the Order in public and in private; yielded their first fruits to charity, according to the commandment; and now that they may gain increased ability for the good work of the Order, do offer this petition, that a charter may be is‑sued, enabling them to unite their rays into a Constellation, to be entitled the_____ Constellation, No.


State of _____ . They promise obedience to the Constitutional requirements of the Order and to frame their By‑Laws in accordance with the Ancient Constitution. The following officers to hold their stations until others are elected according to the Constitution and By‑Laws, to‑wit : S. P.; V. P.; R. B.; R. O.; R. W.


Dated at ____ the ____ day ____ A. D.


A, B,

C, D, &c.


Vouched for by N. R., A. D. L.




24                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


 It was further provided that upon the receipt of the above petition "a charter will be issued under the great seal of the Supreme Council, countersigned by the deputy luminary in the form and style following, to‑wit:


"Light is sorrow for the righteous, and gladness for the upright in heart."


To all to whom these presents shall come, the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Honorable Order of the Eastern Star sendeth light, peace and love. Know ye, that on the petition of the worthy Sisters A, B, C, D, &c., resident at F, and on the avouching of Brother G. H., acting D. L. of _____ District, who guarantees the illumination and the worthiness of the petitioners, the S. C. has granted and by these presents doth grant to the sisters aforesaid this Charter, authorizing them to form a Constellation of the Eastern Star at or near the town of F, to be opened by any A. D. L., duly authorized and to be governed by the following officers until others are regularly elected, to‑wit: S. P.; V. P.; P. B.; It. O.; R. W.; R. G.; R. R.; T.; S. And we further ordain and declare that this Constellation shall be known and held as _____ Constellation No. ___ of the State of _____ Hereby authorizing the Sisters aforesaid, in the capacity of a Constellation, to elect members; enact By‑Laws subordinate to the Ancient Constitution of the Order; to suspend or expel unworthy members; and do such other acts and things as tend to the good of Order and the interests of the religion of Christ. They to be obedient to rule; attached, the one to the other; pure in heart and life; faithful to Him whose Star in the East they have beheld; and hospitable to all who love the truth; and so conducting, this Charter to them and their successors is perpetual.


Signed at the seat of light and authority, to‑wit: the ___ day of    A. D.


____                                                                                       _____ G.L.


[Locus Semillon.]                                                                   _____ D. L.


                                                                                    _____ District U. S.



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          25





In 1855, Rob Morris inaugurated a Supreme Constellation, claiming that "no such attempt upon a national basis has heretofore been made in America." The Mosaic Book stated that


The Supreme Constellation was, at the organization of the rite, a self‑assumed body, and will so continue during a period sufficiently protracted to test the merits of the American Adoptive rite, and afford experience as a basis of its improvement. The constitution and edicts of this body constitute the supreme law of the order, both to individual members and to constellations; and its acts will establish precedents for the parliamentary usages, &c., of the order.


Of this body Rob Morris was Most Enlightened Grand Luminary; Joel M. Spiller, Delphi, Indiana, Right Enlightened Deputy Grand Luminary and Grand Lecturer, Jonathan R. Neill, New York, Very Enlightened Grand Treasurer; John AV. Leonard, New York, Very Enlightened Grand Secretary; and Very Enlightened Deputy Grand Luminaries were appointed as follows:


New Jersey, and pro tem for New England - James B. Taylor, Newark.


New York - Thomas C. Edwards, Elmira.


Indiana - Joel M. Spiller, Delphi.


Iowa - L. D. Farmer, Muscatine.


Kentucky - John Scott, Flemingsburg.


Georgia - M. B. Franklin, Atlanta.


Missouri - M. J. F. Leonard, at large.


Right Eminent Deputy Grand Luminaries were also named:


Illinois, Fourth district - Harmon G. Reynolds, Knoxville.


Kentucky - James G. Gorsuch, Portland; W. C. Munger, Covington.



26                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


The form of petition for a charter, to be signed by at least five master Masons, was as follows:


To the M. E. Grand Luminary of the Supreme Constellation of the American Adoptive Rite: We, the undersigned, affiliated master Masons, members in good standing of the Lodge whose title is affixed to our names, being desirous of associating ourselves with a constellation of the American Adoptive Rite, do pray your Most Eminent body to grant us a charter for that purpose, under the title of _____ Constellation No. _____  to be holden at _____. We pledge our Masonic faith, if the prayer of our petition is granted, to submit to the requirements of the Supreme Constellation in all things relative to this rite; and should the constellation herein prayed for fail to be organized, or at any time hereafter be dissolved, we will return the charter and hue books to the V. E. Grand Secretary.


The charter, which, together with five hue books, cost ten dollars, was lithographed in colors in the highest style of the art then known, by Sarony & Co., of New York, and is herein reproduced in facsimile. The significance of the emblems in the border will be found explained under the head: "The Mosaic Book."


The body of it reads as follows:


"We have seen His Star in the East and are come to worship."


In the name and by the authority of the Supreme Constellation of the American Adoptive Rite.


To all to whom these presents may come and especially to our well beloved and enlightened Stellae and Protectors everywhere.




Whereas a petition has been presented to our M. E. Grand Luminary of the American Adoptive Rite by ____ affiliated Master Masons and Members in good standing in their respective Lodges residing at or near the town of ____ , praying that they may be authorized to



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          27 


organize and work as a Constellation of the American Adoptive Rite, under the title of _____  Constellation No. ____ and it appearing for the interest of Adoptive Masonry that their petition should be granted now


Know Ye that We the Supreme Constellation of the American Adoptive Rite invested with full power and authority over all Stellæ and Protectors and the Supreme Court of Appeal in all cases relative to adoption, do hereby authorize and empower our well beloved and enlightened Pillars _____ Heleon; _____ Philomath; _____ Verger; _____ Herald; and  _____ Warder; to open and hold a Constellation by the name of _____ Constellation No.  _____ the said Constellation to be holden at _____ or within five miles of the same. And we do likewise authorize our said Pillars to associate with them in the work and discipline of Adoption in said Constellation the following Correspondents to‑wit: _____ Luna _____ Flora _____ Hebe _____ Thetis and  _____ Areme. And we do further authorize and empower our said Pillars to confer the five degrees of the American Adoptive Rite, according to the ceremonial and lectures approved by the Supreme Constellation, upon all worthy applicants possessing the constitutional qualifications for the same. And we do further authorize and empower our said Pillars, and their legal successors in office, to hear all and singular matters and things relative to the American Adoptive Rite, within the jurisdiction of said Constellation.


And lastly we do further authorize, empower, and direct our said well beloved and enlightened Pillars, to elect and reject applicants at their discretion; to elect and instruct their successors in office subject to our approval and confirmation; and to perform all matters and things pertaining to and provided in the American Adoptive Rite.


Provided always that the above named Pillars and their successors: do pay and cause to be paid, due respect and obedience to the M. F. Supreme ConsteI‑



28                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


lation of the American Adoptive Rite, and to the by‑laws, rules, regulations and edicts, thereof, otherwise this Charter to be of no force or virtue.


                                    Given under the hands of our Grand

                                    Officers and the seal of our Supreme

                                    Constellation at the City of _____ this       

                                    _____ day of _____ Anne Domini 18__

                                    _____ Grand Luminary       

                                    _____ Grand Secretary


A constellation was composed of five or more of each sex, but no more than twenty‑five of each sex, in addition to the Pillars and Correspondents, could be members of the same constellation at the same time, but two or more constellations could be connected with the same Lodge. Vigorous work was done in disposing of charters, so that by December 25, 1855, seventy‑five had been granted, as follows:


Alabama - Venus No. 11, New Market.


Arkansas - livening Star No. 16, Morristown.


California - Morning Star No. 44, Grass Valley; Orion No. 57, Mariposa.


Connecticut - Morning Star No. 48, Fair Haven.


Florida - Electa No. 11, Tallahassee; Flora No. 21, Uchee Anna.


Georgia - Virgo No. 4, Woodstock; Magnolia No. 5, Hillsboro; Rose No. 39, Whitesville; Electa No. 58, Cedartown.


Indiana - White Rose No. 3, Crown Point; Jessamine No. 8, Moore's Hill; Cassiopeia No. 28, Cam‑bridge City; North Salem No. 36, North Salem; New Albany No. 160, New Albany; Newman No. 161, Milton.


Illinois - Griggsville No. 10, Griggsville; Orion No. 15, Sycamore; Flora No. 18, Pecatonica; Pittsfield No. 56, Pittsfield; Friendship No. 65, Knoxville; Rose of Sharon No. 67, Tipton.








SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          29


Iowa - Electa Morris No. 66, Muscatine; Violet No. 68, Iowa City.


Kentucky - Purity No. 1, Lodge; Vesta No. 7, Burlington; Covington No. 60, Covington.


Louisiana - Cassiopeia No. 32, Lisbon.


Maine - Moriah No. 19, Denmark; Corona No. 22, Waterville.


Michigan - Buchanan No. 20, Buchanan; Western Star No. 61, Litchfield.


Missouri - Flora No. 13, New Madrid; Hesperus No. 17, Charlestown; Lyra No. 24, Arcadia; Morning Star No. 25, Caledonia; Cassiopeia No. 26, Potosi; Eastern Star No. 30, Frederickstown; Evening Star No. 31, Franklin; Western Star No. 33, Pauldingville; Prudence No. 34, Marthasville; Pleiades No. 37, Mexico; Mary Washington No. 38, Florida; Martha No. 40, Madison; Robert Bums No. 42, Fulton; Astrea No. 43, Fayette; Rob Morris No. 45, Spring Hill; Esther No. 46, Pattonburg; Ruth No. 47, Gallatin; Nannie No. 49, Windsor City; Mary Anna No. 50, Roanoke; Mary Washington No. 52, Haynesville; Martha Washington No. 54, Richmond; Rose No. 59, Clinton; Louisa No. 162, Dekalb; Lucinda No. 164, Ridgeley; Hobe No. 167, Rochester; Lafayette No. 168, Palmyra; Hannah No. 169, Trenton.


Mississippi - Concordia No. 6, Tallaloosa; Ripley No. 41, Ripley; Hebron No. 55, Hebron.


New York - Orion No. 9, Evans; Purity No. 27, Spencer; Speedsville No. 29, Speedsville.


North Carolina - Hookerton No. 63, Hookerton.


Pennsylvania - Towanda No. 166, Towanda.


Texas - Lavacia No. 23, Hallettsville; Lily No. 35, Sabine Pass; Pleiades No. 51, Texana; Mount Horeb No. 165, Gabriel Mills.


Vermont - Irene No. 53, Swanton Falls.



30                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


Wisconsin - Lake Mills No. 171, Lake Mills.


Some time in 1857, James B. Taylor succeeded to the office of V. E. Grand Secretary; and, in all, nearly three hundred constellations were organized, the records of which are not at hand, but they included in addition to those named above: Mendias No. 1, Wyandotte, Kansas, July 28, 1856; Alpha No. 1, New London, Connecticut, chartered January 15, 1857, organized March 9; Acacia, Clifton, Tennessee; Decatur, Indiana, 1866; Stevenson, Alabama.





It was claimed by the members of the Supreme Constellation that brother Morris pledged himself to desist conferring the Eastern Star degree, except in constellations, but that within two weeks after making this pledge he issued a circular, which he sent over the country, offering to forward to any master Mason in good standing, the necessary information to enable him to confer the degree, upon his remitting to him a fee of three dollars, and that the Supreme Constellation, on discovering what it deemed to be a lack of good faith on the part of the M. E. Grand Luminary, repudiated him, and attempted a reorganization under the name of Supreme Council of the Ancient Rite of Adoptive Masonry for North America, and adopted rituals adapted from an European system, in which there were two branches, consisting of constellations and temples of enlightenment. In justice to brother Morris it should be mentioned that the Mosaic Book, which was the ritual of the Supreme Constellation, specifically stated that "the inherent right which master Masons possessed, to communicate the degree remains forever unchanged, nor does the Supreme Constellation presume to interfere with it." Of the Supreme Council, James B. Taylor be‑



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          31


came Grand Secretary. If the Supreme Constellation was a self‑perpetuating body, the Supreme Council was more. Not only was it self‑perpetuating, but its membership was unknown to any but the chosen few, and all communication with it had to be through the Grand Secretary, who would not even disclose the number and location of its subordinate bodies. Although it attempted to maintain an existence as late as 1876, it is not believed that it really had any substantial being.





Upon the disruption of the Supreme Constellation the records and seal remained in the hands of the former V. E. Grand Secretary, but the supply of very elaborately lithographed charters was in the possession of brother Morris, who, in 1860, set about organizing families of the Eastern Star, issuing to them charters of the old form, the reason for which he gave as follows:


The use of the old form of charter is continued although the association governed by the Supreme Constellation has ceased to exist. This is done to show that the two systems of "constellations" and "families" are identical in spirit, the latter having taken the place of the former. It serves further to show that the thousands of ladies who were introduced to the advantage of adoptive Masonry under the former system retain their privileges under the latter.


In the family, under this charter, Helion was Patron; Philomath, Conductor; Verger, Treasurer; Herald, Recorder; Warder, Watchman; Luna, Patroness; Flora, Conductress. Under this system, if it can be called a system, the charter was signed by Rob Morris as M. E. Grand Luminary, and, concerning the signature of the V. E. Grand Secretary it was stated:


The Recorder of the family is authorized to sign



32                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


his name as Grand Secretary at the bottom of the charter, adding "p. t." (pro tempore) to his signature.


And it was required that the names of all ladies and gentlemen receiving the degree in the family  *  * must be entered on the records by the Recorder, and certified lists promptly forwarded to the Grand Patron.


From the above it will be seen that there was really no organization; that the only head was brother Morris; and that there was little or no cohesiveness to the order. Something over one hundred families were organized between 1860 and 1867, but no complete record of them has been preserved, if one was ever made.


I know of only the following: Rose of Sharon No. 4, "held at T. B. Dunigan's House," Annapolis, Indiana, organized January 15, 1861; Plymouth, No. 41, Plymouth, Indiana, organized June 25, 1864; Friendship No. 103, Brooklyn, New York, organized January 25, 1866; Sunbeam No. 83, Mt. Vernon, Indiana, organized April 19, 1866; Miriam No. 111, Chicago, Illinois, organized October 6, 1866; Orion No. 102, Rensselaer, Indiana, organized February 27, 1867; and families of Davenport, Iowa, and Hazleton, Indiana, the numbers and dates of organization of which are unknown. The numbers, it will be seen, are no guide as to order of organization.





In 1868, brother Morris resolved to devote the balance of his life to Masonic explorations in the holy land, and, as was claimed by Robert Macoy of New York, turned over to him the prerogatives he had assumed in the order. Previous to this, in 1866, brother Macoy had arranged a Manual of the Order of the Eastern Star, which was published by the Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing Company, and was



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          33 


not copyrighted; in this he styled himself "National Grand Secretary." Brother Macoy attempted to keep up the semblance of a supreme body, calling the same a Supreme Grand Chapter, of which he styled himself, in the Adoptive Rite, copyrighted and published by the Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing Company of New York, in which he was a partner, the "Grand Secretary." This title he retained in published rituals emanating from that company up to 1876, when he assumed the title of "Supreme Grand Patron." Petitions for charters, as prescribed in Adoptive Rite, were addressed to the M. E. Grand Patron of the Supreme Grand Chapter of the Adoptive Rite of the Order of the Eastern Star, and the charters issued were in the following form:





"We have seen His Star in the East and are come to worship Him."


To all to whom these presents may come  Greeting:


In the Name and by the Authority of the Supreme Grand Chapter of the Adoptive Rite, known by the distinctive title of the Order of the Eastern Star. Whereas, a petition has been presented to us by Sisters _____ who having received, in a legal manner, all the degrees of the Order, and being the ____ of master Masons in good standing in their respective Lodges, praying for a Warrant authorizing them to establish a Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star, under the title of ____ Chapter No. ____ to be held in   County of ____ State of ____ and it appearing for the interest of the Adoptive Rite that their petition should be granted; Know ye, that we, the M. E. Grand Patron and Grand Secretary, by authority of the Constitution of the Supreme Grand Chapter, do hereby grant the prayer of said petitioners, and that the organization may be complete, do appoint brother ____ a master Mason, Worthy Patron; sister ____ Worthy




34                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


 Matron, and sister ____ Associate Matron of said Chapter.


And we do further authorize and empower our said Patron and sisters to confer the five degrees of the Adoptive Rite, according to the ceremonial and lectures approved by the Supreme Grand Chapter, upon all worthy applicants possessing the constitutional qualifications for the same. And we do further authorize and empower our said sisters, and their legal successors, to do and perform all and singular matters and things relative to the Adoptive Rite within the jurisdiction of said Chapter. And they are further authorized to elect and reject applicants at their discretion; by and with the consent and assistance of a majority of the members: of the said Chapter present upon such occasions, duly summoned, to elect and install the officers of the said Chapter, as vacancies may happen, in manner and form as is or may be prescribed by the constitution of the Supreme Grand Chapter.




Given under our hands and the seal of the Supreme Grand Chapter, this ____ day of _____ in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ____.



M. E. Grand Patron.



Grand Secretary.


[Research Comment: Note the “1778” date in the seal]


These charters were issued for some seven hundred Chapters, located in part as follows:


Alabama                                    1                              Minnesota,                   11


Arkansas                                    5                              Nevada                           1


California                                 11                              Nebraska                     12


Colorado                                    2                              New Hampshire            4


Connecticut                              12                              New Jersey                    5


Dakotah                                     2                              New York                      20


District of Columbia                  1                              North Carolina             12



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          35


Florida                                        1                              Oregon                           4


Illinois                                     181                             Ohio                                1


Indiana                                      25                              Pennsylvania                 3


Iowa                                          54                              South Carolina              9


Kansas                                     82                              Texas                             8


Kentucky                                    2                              Tennessee                     3


Massachusetts                          5                              Virginia                           2


Michigan                                    2                              Vermont                         6


Mississippi                                7                              Wisconsin                      1


Missouri                                 144                             Washington Territ'y       1


Maine                                                     1                                          __________

                                                                                                Total    641


The foreign market was also cultivated, as will appear from the following:


In 1868, Bro. Andres Cassard, with authenticated powers as Deputy Grand Patron for the South American countries, made an extended tour through Ratiana, Cuba, New Grenada, Venezuela, Chili, Uruguay, Brazil, portions of Mexico, and other parts of South America, where he successfully established many Chapters. *  *  Through the active exertions of Bro. Henry J. Shields, Deputy Grand Patron for England, Ireland and Scotland, three Chapters have been organized.


- Robert Macoy's Report on Correspondence, Grand Chapter of New York, 1876.


On the 8th of March last (1877), Bro. Andres Cassard appointed, with our concurrence, Pr. David E. Dudley , a Deputy Grand Patron, with ample authority to confer the degrees upon worthy and qualified persons, and establish Chapters in Egypt, China, Japan, Philippine Islands, Singapore, Calcutta, Bombay, and several of the chief towns on the island of Java.


- Robert Macoy's Correspondence Report, Grand Chapter of New York, 1877.


In Macoy's Standard it is asserted:


More than fifty Chapters were organized by brother Andres Cassard, Associate Grand Patron, in Cuba, Mexico, Central and South America, in 1871.


While Edward O. Jenkins was Grand Patron of New York (1871), as well as before and subsequent



36                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


to that time, he signed charters in blank, as M. E. Grand Patron, which were countersigned by brother Macoy as Grand Secretary, and he disposed of them, sometimes through his agents, who were styled Deputy Grand Patrons, and whom he appointed for different States, and supplied with blank charters, rituals, and other supplies, and who, in some instances, traveled constantly, and did a flourishing business. At other times he sold them directly to petitioners, at from ten to thirty dollars each. The charters signed by brother Jenkins were, sold as late as 1873. Not desiring to do injustice to any one, even by implication, I quote from a letter of brother Jenkins: All business matters were attended to by the Grand Secretary, Robert Macoy. I never received one penny in any shape or form for charters, or anything else, nor desired to.


Subsequently, as early as 1876, and as late as 1880, the charters were signed by brother Macoy as M. E. Grand Patron, and Rob Morris as Grand Secretary, but on most of them the name of Rob Morris was in the disguised handwriting of brother Macoy.


In 1879 and 1880 the Grand Chapter of New York issued three charters, on the blank forms of the Supreme Grand Chapter, to Alpha Chapter No. 1, located at Baltimore, Maryland, Arcadia Chapter No. 3, Bowling Green, Kentucky, and Alpha Chapter. No. 1, located at Laramie, Wyoming, which are believed to be the only instances in which a State Grand Chapter has issued a charter for the organization of a Chapter outside its territorial jurisdiction, with the exception of Mississippi, which chartered a Chapter in Florida, 1876, previous to the organization of the General Grand Chapter, and California, which has chartered Chapters in Nevada, the General Grand Chapter having turned the three Chapters chartered by it in that State over to the care of the Grand



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          37


Chapter of California. This was three years subsequent to the organization of the General Grand Chapter, which has jurisdiction over all territory not within the immediate jurisdiction of some Grand Chapter. These charters were filled up in the handwriting of brother Macoy.


According to brother Macoy the constitution of the Supreme Grand Chapter was never printed, and the only indication we have that such a document existed is found in the proceedings of the Grand Chapter of Indiana at its meeting for organization, in which appear some "Extracts from the constitution of the Supreme Grand Chapter, United States, Order of the Eastern Star." It will be noticed that this publication was in 1874, a year after the alleged organization of the Supreme Council No. 3, in provisional form, and the extracts were undoubtedly furnished to brother Leach, who was the deputy of brother Macoy, and who was chosen the first Grand Patron of Indiana, by brother Macoy himself. The efforts made by the officers of Grand Chapters to obtain copies of the entire document met with failure; and it is evident that the existence of the Supreme Grand Chapter was purely imaginary, the whole work, authority, and emoluments being done and enjoyed by brother Macoy. These extracts were as follows:





To give cosmopolitan extension and practical uniformity to that branch of the adoptive rite which is embodied under time title of the Eastern Star; to redeem it from the hands of empirics and irresponsible persons; and that its scriptural and traditional landmarks may be rendered more attractive and better understood; the Chapter Order of the Eastern Star is hereby established under the following constitution:




Article I. - Primary Source of Government.


Section 1. The primary source of government of



38                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


 the Chapter Order of the Eastern Star rests in the Supreme Grand Chapter of the United States, whose times and place of meeting are regulated at the Grand Assemblages.




Sec. 2. The meetings of the Supreme Grand Chapter shall occur triennially, on the first Monday in September, at such place as may be designated at a previous meeting. At such meeting all the affairs of the adoptive rite shall be regulated, its rituals revised whenever experience renders it expedient, its officers elected and installed, and measures taken suitable to the dignity and importance of the order, for its dissemination into all parts of the country.


Article II. - State Grand Chapters.


Sec. 5. In each State jurisdiction, when not less than five Chapters are regularly at work, a Grand Chapter may be organized by the concurrence of the representatives of five such Chapters of the order.


*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *


Sec. 10. The rituals to be used under authority of the Supreme Grand Chapter shall be those now in use, prepared under the supervision of the Supreme Grand Secretary, and no changes, additions or emandations shall be made, except by the direct authority of the Supreme Grand Chapter, in regular convention assembled.




Sec. 11. Charters shall be issued, rituals distributed, and the general direction of the order exercised during the recess of the assemblages of the Supreme Grand Chapter, by order of the M. E. Grand Patron, through the Grand Secretary.


At the time of the publication of these extracts brother Macoy was acting as chairman of a committee of the Grand Chapter of New York to revise the ritual, in violation of the tenth section. Evidently he did not deem it of any force.




June 14, 1873, there was a meeting in New York for the purpose of forming the General



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          39 


Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters, at which there were in attendance several brethren interested in the Eastern Star, and, at a conference held by them, preliminary steps were taken looking to the organization of a Supreme Grand Council of the order for the World, and a provisional organization was had, with Robert Macoy as Supreme Grand Patron; Frances E. Johnson, of New York, Supreme Grand Matron; Andres Cassard, Associate Supreme Grand Patron; John I. Power, of Mississippi, Deputy Supreme Grand Patron; Laura L. Burton, of Mississippi, Deputy Supreme Grand Matron; W. A. Frail, of Missouri, Supreme Treasurer; Rob Morris, Supreme Recorder; P. M. Savery, of Mississippi, Supreme Inspector. Other officers included E. E. Edminston, of Tennessee, and Julian K. Larke, of New York. Concerning this provisional organization brother Savery said, in 1875:


The committee on constitution and regulations were to report at an adjourned meeting to be held in New York in September, in 1873. *  * As the committee failed to report, the provisional Grand Council was, at New Orleans, December, 1871 (the time and place at which the organization was to have been completed), pronounced dead.


Brother Power, Grand Patron of Mississippi, March 13, 1875, said: I have the honor to be Deputy Supreme Patron for all this continent, and as I see no prospect of ever having a meeting of the Supreme Council *  * I consider myself functus officio. Indeed the matter of dissolving the Supreme Grand Council was discussed and agreed upon in New Orleans in December last by several whose names figure in the organization of 1873.


That no attempt was made to give brother Macoy even the semblance of authority, until after the question of organizing a legitimate governing body for the



40                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


order was raised, is evident from the fact that, in an article emanating from him in 1878 it is stated: The appointment of Supreme Patron was conferred at a convention of delegates from several states, held in the city of New York, June 14, 1873, by unanimous election, letters patent, and subsequent installation.


The "subsequent installation," as appears by the same article, was not because he had been elected at a convention of delegates," but by authority of a letter from Rob Morris, dated Lagrange, Kentucky, April 29, 1575, addressed to Prof. Andres Cassard, New York, authorizing him to install "Very Illustrious Robert Macoy as my successor in the position of Supreme Patron of the World, Adoptive Rite," which it was claimed was done May 3, 1575, nine months after the beginning of the movement to organize a legitimate governing body.


During this period, the laws and jurisprudence of the order were in a chaotic condition. 'here was no written law, outside the little contained in the ritual then in use, and this lack had given rise to various modes of action on the same subject. It was almost the universal rule that "males" should pay at least double the fees and dues that "females" did. Notwithstanding this, there was, with many, a disposition to deprive them of any rights in a Chapter. A considerable number of sisters insisted that they shout not vote, either on petitions, or for officers, and the exercise of what he deemed his right to the ballot by the writer, in December, 1873, created some discussion, and when the Grand Chapter of Indiana was organized, in May, 1874, sixteen so‑called landmarks were incorporated into its constitution, fifteen of which were reproduced, with slight verbal changes, from the ritual then in use (Adoptive Rite), while a sixteenth was added, as follows:


Master Masons, when admitted to membership,



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          41


shall have all the rights and privileges of the Chapter when convened, except that of balloting for candidates, for membership, and voting for officers.


This was adopted by a vote of twenty‑three to five. This was the fuse that started the fire that resulted in the total destruction of the Supreme Grand Chapter and brother Macoy's control of the order. Through the Masonic Advocate and other journals I made direct assault upon the alleged landmark. In another section of the constitution it was required that "Every member present must vote" on petitions. The, inconsistency of the two provisions was pointed out. With no laws accessible I obtained the addresses of those active in the work in other States and opened correspondence with some twenty of them, asking if they knew of any landmark or law depriving the brethren of the right to vote on any subject, and answers from Massachusetts to Oregon, from New Hampshire to Alabama, were that no such law was known.





The first definite proposition to strike at the root of the matter, and put everything upon a reasonable basis by forming a legitimate supreme body, was made by me in the New York Courier of August 30, 1874, as follows:


Two things, it seems to me, are needed immediately: first, a Supreme Grand Chapter composed of representatives from the several Grand Chapters; second, revision and general boiling down and finishing up of the ritual, which is now defective both in style and language. Let us all buckle on our armor, and enter in earnest on the work of improving and extending the order, and a very few years will place it in a very enviable position. But as long as it is made merchandise of by any one, to gain a livelihood, and persons are put in positions of honor and trust, not because they are qualified for them, but simply because they are not able to make a living otherwise, they will, like Othello, soon find their occupation



42                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


gone; it will drag out a miserable existence for a time, and finally fall to the ground of its own weight.


 Beginning in October, 1874, the writer contributed regularly to the Masonic Advocate of Indianapolis, communications relative to the order, and, filled with the zeal and fire of youth, he wrote some very pointed articles relative to its needs and management. It was a time when the future of the order could be made or marred very easily, and although the judgment of his matures years cannot fully approve the strong language employed in clothing his thoughts, he recognizes the fact that had he not pursued the course lie did the subsequent history of the order might have been far different from the brilliant record of the last quarter of a century.



His contributions were not appreciated by all, among those by whom they were not, was the Grand Patron of Indiana, who, in his address to the Grand Chapter in 1875, said:


It has been suggested that the ritual should be revised for the reason that it is a botch and disconnected and ungrammatical. It is a little singular that all the intelligent men who love received and worked the ritual have failed to make the discovery, and it has been left to Indiana in the seventy‑fifth year of the nineteenth century to furnish the man who though "Young and of small experience,"            young and of small experience makes the remarkable discovery, and suggests the remedy.



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          43 


At its meeting in 1875 the Grand Chapter of Indiana, its members being ignorant of the true status of the Supreme Grand Chapter, adopted the following:


Resolved, that this Grand Chapter will not declare her independence of the Supreme Grand Chapter, but we hereby empower the Worthy Grand Patron, so soon as fraternal relations have been established with four or more State Grand Chapters, to join with them in a request to the officers of the Supreme Grand Chapter to convene the same immediately and perfect its organization, and on failure or neglect to do so, to call a general convention for the good of the order, to form a General Grand Chapter of the Eastern Star.


At its organization, October 13, 1875, the Grand Chapter of Missouri adopted this resolution verbatim, but no action was taken under it by either Grand body. The Grand Patron of Missouri wrote me concerning it: I cannot, and with present purpose, will not join in any such request, thereby recognizing the existence of what does not exist. *  * The thing called a S. G. C. is a myth.


The writer of this history, from 1874 to 1876 carried on an extensive correspondence with sisters and brothers prominent in the work of the order in the several States, agitating the question of organizing a legitimate supreme body. P. M. Savery, Grand Lecturer of Mississippi, under date of June 26, 1875, said: Dear Brother Engle: Yours of 24th to hand and its contents noted. There has never been a Supreme Grand Chapter or Council of the Order of Adoptive Rite, or of the Eastern Star, de facto. * * The Grand Chapter of Mississippi will meet at Tupelo on 14th of July next. I do not desire to bring up the subject (of forming a representative Supreme Grand Chapter) before them, but presume brother



44                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


 Power, Grand Patron, will do so, if you request it - which you write you have done.


J. L. Power, Grand Patron, in a letter dated July 7, 1875, said:


Dear Brother Engle: Your favors of the 9th and 24th ult. duly received. have been absent, hence delay in answering. *  *  * Our Eastern Star Grand Chapter meets on the 14th inst. It is my purpose to recommend action looking to the formation of a Supreme Grand Chapter - a legitimate Grand body  - that shall meet triennially, or as may be agreed upon. Your letter on the subject is most opportune.


In harmony with these letters, the recommendation was made by the Grand Patron, and the matter being referred to a special committee of which brother Savery was chairman, the Grand Chapter adopted the following:


WHEREAS, we deem uniformity of ritual and lectures essential to the present and f Lure prosperity of the order; therefore, we respectfully recommend that a committee, consisting of seven members of this Grand Chapter, of which committee the Grand Patron and Grand Matron shall be members, shall be appointed to confer with like committees that may hereafter be appointed by other Grand Chapters of the order in the United States, or elsewhere, whose duty it shall be to take under advisement., and present, if practicable, some feasible and judicious plan for the organization of a Supreme Grand Chapter; which said supreme body shall, when organized and recognized by two‑thirds of the Grand Chapters in the United States, have absolute and supreme control over the ritual and lectures of the Adoptive Rite. We also recommend that said committee shall be the accredited delegates from this Grand jurisdiction to a convention of the order wheresoever and whensoever convened, and they shall have all power and authority to do any and all acts necessary and lawful to be done in the premises; and they shall report their doings to this Grand Chapter at each annual Grand convocation.



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          45 


My correspondence with John M. Mayhew, Grand Patron of New Jersey, commenced in February, 1875, and in his fourth letter, dated August 21, following, he said: I look forward with considerable anxiety to the time when a supreme body shall be organized, under whose authority alone a ritual and other ceremonies and form of documents of the order shall be published, and from whom alone all such documents shall be procured. * * I am in hopes of receiving communications from Mississippi and Indiana on the subject before our Grand Chapter meets on October 13th.


And in his next letter, August 29th, he said:


Brother Engle: *  * Your letter conveys some glad information, viz.: That the subject of a Supreme Grand Chapter is to come before the Grand Chapter of California in October. I shall also embody the subject in my address to our Grand Chapter. I am, however, in hopes that I shall receive something official from Mississippi in season. Can you assist me in the matter by writing them? Subsequent letters discussed details of plans, and, in accordance with his letters, he presented the matter to the Grand Chapter at its meeting, October 13, 1875, and the following was adopted: Resolved, that five delegates be selected to represent this Grand Chapter at any meeting or convention that may he called for the purpose of organizing a Supreme Grand Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star.


My correspondence with George J. Hobe, Grand Patron of California, began in February, 1875, and in his ninth letter, dated August 18, 1875, he wrote: I am in receipt of yours of the 10th and 12th of July, as also the August number of the Masonic Advocate, for which many thanks. I see by the Advocate that Mississippi has taken the initiatory step



46                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


 toward forming the so‑called Supreme Grand Chapter of the United States. If we should receive a communication from them before the session of our Grand Chapter, October 18th, it will, of course, come up in its regular order; if not, I think I shall bring it before them myself.


Which he did, and at its meeting at Vallejo, October 19, 1875, the following was adopted:


Resolved, that the Grand Chapter constitute a committee of seven, of which the Worthy Grand Patron and Worthy Grand Matron shall be members, to confer with like committees that may hereafter be appointed by the other Grand Chapters of the order of the United States. It shall be their duty to take under advisement, and present, if practicable, some feasible and judicious plan for the organization of a Supreme Grand Chapter, which supreme body shall, when organized and recognized by two‑thirds of the Grand Chapters of the order in the United States, have absolute and supreme control over the ritual and lectures of the order.


Resolved, that said committee be the accredited delegates from this Grand jurisdiction to a convention of the order wheresoever and whenever convened, have power to do any and all acts necessary and lawful to be done in the premises, and report their doings to this Grand Chapter at each annual communication.


Resolved, that the Grand Patron be requested to submit, or cause to be submitted, the action of this Grand Chapter to each and all sister Grand Chapters in the United States, and respectfully solicit their zealous cooperation.


At a meeting of the Grand Chapter of Indiana, in April, 1876, the Grand Patron said, in his address: Several of the State Grand Chapters have passed similar resolutions to the one adopted by our Grand Chapter upon the subject of a Supreme Grand Chapter. As no definite action, however, has been taken upon this subject, I would recommend the. repeal of the aforesaid resolution, and that you, by suitable



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          47 


action, fix a time, select a place, declare who shall be entitled to seats in the proposed Supreme Grand Chapter, and invite all other State Grand Chapters to unite with you in the work. The first Wednesday in November, and Indianapolis, would be a suitable time and place, in my judgment.


 In pursuance of this recommendation the following was adopted:


WHEREAS, uniformity of work, modes of recognition, and regulations governing eligibility to member‑ship are not only desirable, but absolutely necessary to the permanent growth and prosperity of our order, now so rapidly increasing in numbers, and advancing in the estimation of the Masonic fraternity; and


WHEREAS, several Grand Chapters recognizing this necessity, have appointed committees to represent and act for theme in a convention to. be thereafter called to organize such a body, but have failed to take ally steps which will lead to the calling of such a convention, and this Grand Chapter, realizing the importance of speedy and definite action which will lead to so desirable an end; therefore, be it Resolved, that all Grand Chapters of the order be invited and requested to appoint seven delegates of which the Grand Patron and Grand Matron shall be, ex‑officio, two, with full power to do any and all acts necessary to be (lone in the premises, for and in behalf of their respective Grand Chapters, to meet in convention, for the purpose of organizing a Supreme Chapter, at Indianapolis, at 10 o'clock on Wednesday, the 8th day of November next.


Resolved, that the Grand Patron appoint a committee of three brothers and two sisters to act in conjunction with the Grand Patron and Grand Matron, as delegates from this Grand Chapter to such convention.


Resolved, that the said delegates be appointed the committee of this Grand Chapter to submit a copy of the foregoing preambles and resolutions to all sister Grand Chapters, and request their prompt and zealous cooperation.



48                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


Resolved, that said committee be instructed to make all preliminary arrangements necessary for the accommodation of said convention.


Resolved, that the necessary expenses of the said committee, not to exceed one hundred dollars, be paid out of the Grand treasury: provided, no part thereof shall be expended for mileage.


The Grand Chapter of Nebraska, on June 19, 1876, elected delegates to the convention, with full power to act for it.


At its meeting in Chicago, October 4, 1876, the Grand Chapter of Illinois accepted the invitation of the Grand Chapter of Indiana and elected four delegates to represent it.


The Grand Chapter of Missouri, at its meeting in St. Louis, October 9, 1876, resolved to accept the invitation, and appointed seven delegates to represent it.


New Jersey supplemented her former action, on October 11, 1876, by accepting the invitation, and elected seven delegates to represent the Grand Chapter.


And on October 17, 1876, the Grand Chapter of California took additional action, as follows:


Resolved, that this Grand body cordially accepts the invitation of the Grand Chapter of Indiana to send seven delegates to a Supreme Grand Chapter to be holden in the city of Indianapolis in November next.


Resolved, that the delegates present at such Grand council cast the votes of absentees.


As the original date fixed for the assembling of the convention was very near the date of the presidential election, it was concluded to postpone it one week, and notice to that effect was issued by the delegates from Indiana. On November 15th the convention met and on the following day completed the organization



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          49 


of the General Grand Chapter. The Grand Chapters then in existence were those of New Jersey, New York, Mississippi, California, Vermont, Indiana, Connecticut, Nebraska, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas and Arkansas; five of which were represented, and two others were committed to the movement.


The position of Rob Morris relative to this matter is indicated by the following extracts from a letter dated Nevada, California, June 26, 1876:


Dear Brother Engle: * * I am free to say that I think your plans are entirely practical, and that by judicious and prudent establishment of correct principle, a Supreme Chapter of the world may be formed at your November meeting, which will command universal respect. Your personal exertions to this end are, in all respects, meritorious, and will se‑cure to you the permanent honor and respect you have so well earned. I have accepted the general invitation to be present as "Father of the Order," and shall be glad to correspond with you fully and confidentially upon all questions that lie at the root of this subject. Under no circumstances will I permit my name to be used for any office in the supreme organization. I have read most of your articles in the Advocate, and generally can endorse your views.


In answer to this I called brother Morris's attention to the fact that while all members of the order would be heartily welcomed at the convention, it was to be composed of delegates from Grand Chapters only, and on July 15, 1876, he wrote: I will, ere long, advance my opinions upon the subjects named. At present can only say your opinions coincide with mine.


He then made inquiries as to the cost of organizing Chapters, his idea being to organize enough Chapters in Kentucky to establish a Grand Chapter. On July 22d, following, he wrote: I will aid you all I can. I can get up four or five




50                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES 


subordinate Chapters very readily, but would not like to pay fees for charters. If your Grand Patron could see his way clear to reduce the terms, and so have the eclat of introducing the Chapter system into this State, it might be mutually advantageous.


The design of brother Morris to organize the order in Kentucky was not pushed to success, and he did not attend the convention as proposed, and, evidently forgetful of our correspondence, he wrote, in an open letter dated Lagrange, Kentucky, October 2, 1877: When the project of a General Grand Chapter originated I was not consulted, and although the organizing meeting was held within four hours' travel of this place, I was not invited, but learned that, not having joined any Chapter in the Eastern Star, I was not entitled to enter.


To this I responded in the Masonic Advocate for November following: Whatever omission was made that should not have been was probably owing to an oversight on the part of the committee which made the original call. Certainly it was not in the province of any individual to extend the call beyond the original limits. Certainly no member of the order would have been excluded, and, in fact, the convention passed an order "that all members of the order be entitled to seats and to speak in the convention." In 1880 the Most Worthy Grand Patron said, in his address to the General Grand Chapter: I have informally invited to be present upon this occasion, one whom the order will ever remember as the founder of the Order of the Eastern Star - brother Robert Morris, LL. D., of Lagrange, Ky. Our brother is not a Chapter member, nor is he in the ordinary sense a member of the order; but as its founder he alone may occupy the exceptional position of membership in the order universal. I am assured by the brother that the has watched with deep interest the progress of the order through the several stages



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          51 


of its growth, and regards the organization and success of the General Grand Chapter as evidence of the Eastern Star's ultimate complete triumph. He bids us Godspeed, and assures me that he will be only too glad to aid us in any way in his power. Such being the case, I am sure that time, will only increase the honor with which a grateful order will remember its founder.


Brother Morris was at that meeting elected an honorary member of the body, and his natal day, August 31st, was made the festal day of the order. In an address acknowledging these honors, he said: I am satisfied with what has been done by the officers of this body in the last three years, and that the basis on which the order now rests is a permanent one. Second - I have always felt the warmest friendship for brother Macoy, and friendship is a thing not to be broken for slight cause. This friendship has existed for thirty years, and it would take a great deal to break it. I disapprove the course he has taken, and have labored unavailingly to restrain him. I would never suffer a hard word to sever true friendship, which is of inestimable value, but would bear many things from friends. Others have borne with my faults, and I will bear with theirs. Brother Macoy's course I have disapproved from the first, although I do not think he was properly treated at first; yet, that does not justify him in they course he has since pursued. '' * * If any Grand Chapter has any idea of withdrawing from your body, as Grand commanderies did from the General Grand Encampment, I would say to them, don't do it; I beg of you. Wait fifteen or twenty years and let the General Grand Chapter have a chance to demonstrate the good that I am sure is in it, and which will result in such a Grand success that the Masonic fraternity will accept it as a helpmeet for it, and be surprised that it did not take it up sooner; for, properly worked out, it will form a Grand attachment to free Masonry. This I felt years ago, and I trust the day will come when every Lodge will have in connection with it a



52                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


Chapter of this order. The more there are the cheaper they can be run, and the more good can they accomplish. I am sorry today that I have not given my own personal attention for thirty years to this matter, and it is with sincere regret that I realize it is too late for me to do the good in it that I could have accomplished if I had begun years ago, but I am glad to know that younger men and women have taken hold of the work with a zeal and wisdom which will assure success; and I say to you: Preserve the order in unity; frown down all secession; keep the Grand Chapters in rank, for in union there is strength.


Brother Morris was in attendance at the meeting of the general body in St. Louis, in 1886, and was loyal to the interests of it up to the time of his death, July 31, 1888.


The position assumed by brother Macoy was one of most bitter opposition to the movement, the motive of which may not be far to seek when it is remembered that from the sale of charters at from ten to thirty dollars each, from the sale of rituals at from one to five dollars per copy, and from the sale of jewels at fifty‑six dollars for a set of fourteen, similar to those that can now be bought for sixteen dollars, he had enjoyed an income of several thousand dollars a year. One of the principal causes of dissatisfaction was the numerous changes made in the ritual. That in use in 1874 was revised and materially altered in 1875, so that previous editions were useless when the later was used, and, in 1876, he issued another differing still more from previous ones; even the different editions of the syllabus gave radically different directions as to the manner of giving the signs, so that it was found that, if Chapters were to keep up with the order, annual expenditures must be made for the purchase of new editions of the ritual. When Grand Chapters which were using the 1875 ritual applied to the Masonic Publishing Company for additional



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          53 


copies of it, they were informed that it was out of print, and that copies of it could not be purchased.


The following is from the address of the Most Worthy Grand Patron in 1880:


Soon after the publication of the ritual in November, 1878, each member of your committee, and the printers, received a letter from a legal gentleman in New York, saying that he had been retained by Mr. Robert Macoy to prosecute us individually for forfeiture and damages, for violation of his copyright upon the ritual published by him in 1876. The letter stated that, "Failing to hear from you within ten days, I shall proceed against you in the United States Court." * * * Our counsel's reply in our behalf was such that nothing further has been heard from the threatened suit. Thwarted in his effort for your injury in this direction, Mr. Macoy soon after published a work, containing less than one‑half of our ritual, and falsely advertised it as an edition of the ritual published by the General Grand Chapter, copies of which were for sale at one‑half the price of the authorized work. * * *


The opposition of brother Macoy was not only manifested in a legitimate way, but assumed the shape of virulent personal attacks upon individuals and committees of the General Grand Chapter. It is not deemed necessary to incorporate herein the worst of these, as they would soil the pages too greatly.


Many of his expressions were in letters and postal cards sent to members of the order, but I will present only a few extracts of the least obnoxious nature from his printed articles. The following is from a postal card sent generally to members of the order in January, 1879: The new ritual, sent forth by the committee of the G. G. C. (Gen. Gulling Catchpenny), consisting of a blessed tom lamb (Mary's pet, whose fleece was white as snow), and two others of equal obscurity, being a thorough failure, except for mischief, is now appropri‑



54                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


 ately known as The Lamb's Fry. This unskillful parody and unjust plagiarism on the recognized standard ritual can be had, postage prepaid, at 10 to 50 cents a copy, on application to the G. S. of the above body. Address D. W. Jengles, Indianapolis, Ind.



Only once did brother Macoy approach to wit in his enamations in the matter, which was in a two‑page circular issued in 1881, headed with the accompanying cut, which he labeled "A starry caudal appendage." The following extracts are taken from it: The hybrid concern known as the G. G. Circus, will pitch its tent, erect the ring, and spread the saw dust for special exhibition, for a few days only, at San Francisco, Cal., in August, 1883. The company will be fresh and unique, consisting of aesthetics, acrobats, gymnasts, champion bareback riders, strong minders, &c. Signor Funnieman, captain of the gang, who writes ridiculous reports for G. C. of Mo., will handle the whip as ring master. Mr. Jengles, G. S., the nice young man, whom all the women want to marry, will appear in his original character as clown. "Our Willis" will be on hand, as heretofore, to collect the revenue and appropriate the funds. "Our noble order," as some of the F. F. F. (Fair, Fat and Forty), fraternity proclaim it, is passing, with notable rapidity, into "Our school for scandal," and will, under the auspices of the circus managers, soon pass into the region of oblivion.


*           *           *           *           *           *           *           *           *


In the year 1876, a few persons, having in view their own pecuniary interests, organized the concern known as G. G. C. (Grand Gossiping Circus) of the O. E. S. They saw "millions in it." Having no ritual they plagiarized one already made and claimed it as their own, and are now reveling in the fruits of their dishonesty.


*           *           *           *           *           *           *           *           *

Hops and Hoppers. - An item is going the rounds



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          55


of the press that the Chapter at Indianapolis has inaugurated a series of social hops for the season. The order was not organized for the purpose of dispensing hops, gratifying hoppers, or any sort of indecent gyratory and gymnastic displays. For what base purpose is the order being used. Shame! It was this and similar kinds of immoral exhibitions that brought upon the order in Chicago and other places an opprobious title.

*    *    *    *    *   *    *    *    *    *    *   *    *    *    *    *    *   *   






Dear friends,

If you wish to keep your title clear

For a mansion in the skies.

And of Boss Female Stars have no fear

Avoid Fast ones - and be wise.


The columns of the New York Dispatch teemed with productions of brother Macoy's pen, of which this is a sample: Three years ago a few nervous and inconsiderate individuals met in a Western city and without lawful authority conglomerated a body which they termed G. G. C., which, being translated into good English, signifies General Grand Circus. This spurious organization is now led and presided over by a very feeble Lamb, assisted by a few unknown stray sheep.


The advocates of the concern admit that it possesses no authority, and is a non-entity, therefore its qualities are so flat, stale and puerile that it does not rise to the dignity of an ordinary fraud, and it should be treated accordingly. The result is that either we should recognize this fraud as having a claim upon our fealty, or that we should at once and unanimously denounce it as what it really is - a fraud. If we love the order as it is, let us stand by it and ever be its friends: if we do not, let us help to forward the ideas of this fraudulent imitation.


Immediately after the issuance of the ritual authorized by the General Grand Chapter brother Macoy issued extracts from it, containing the opening, closing, and initiatory ceremonies, which lie not only



56                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


offered to sell, as he always had sold his rituals, to all that would buy, whether Masons or not, but he sent copies of it gratuitously to leading Masons, who were not members of the order, in all parts of the country. In addition to these extracts he appended what he called "Critical and Explanatory Notes," in which he ridiculed some of the changes made in the ritual, and reiterated his claim to ownership of the same. If brother Macoy had any legitimate grievance, it was in the infringement of his copyright, and for that there was no basis. Concerning this, Thomas M. Lamb said in his address to the General Grand Chapter in 1880:


If Mr. Macoy's preposterous claims of ownership of the ritual work of our order should be sustained, the Eastern Star would be thrown powerless into the hands of one man. A copyright is of no value unless the party claiming its benefits is wholly or substantially the author of the work copyrighted. The ritual and its several revisions, published and copyrighted by Robert Macoy, are almost entirely the work of other brains than his own. The revisions were mostly the work of committees regularly appointed by the Grand Chapter of New York. The latest revision by that body was made by a committee appointed in 1875.  *  *  * The ritual published by the General Grand Chapter has more original matter than has appeared in all the rituals published by Mr. Macoy, and it is well known that we had access to all the original sources used by him in the compilation of the books he claims to own. * * * The various rituals published, and all the facts known to us, were submitted to able counsel, and it appeared, as the result of his examination, that Mr. Macoy's claim is as void in law as in moral right.


As will be seen by readers of this history, the first manual issued by brother Macoy was in 1866, and it was not copyrighted, but, on issuing a subsequent edition in 1867, that was copyrighted, but any one at



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          57


all familiar with the copyright laws knows that, in order to have it protected, a work must be copyrighted before it is issued; that it must bear the imprint of copyright; and that the copyright only protects original matter never before published. But brother Macoy did not own the copyright of any ritual issued before 1876, so that he had no right to raise his voice in objection to the action of t1: General Grand Chapter in publishing its ritual, so far as his individual rights were concerned, for it contained nothing that was original in the ritual of which he was the owner of the copyright. The Mosaic Book, the Ladies' Friend, the Tatem Monitor, the Adoptive Rite, and other works, containing in one form or another the work of the order, were the sources from which brother Macoy and the General Grand Chapter alike drew the substance of their rituals. After brother Macoy failed in his attempt to intimidate the committee of the General Grand Chapter which had charge of the publication of its ritual, he took refuge under the assertion that, "1. I am not fond of a law‑suit, and the parties do not reside in the judicial district with me; 2. They are pecuniarily worthless." To this response was made in "A review of the critical and explanatory notes," by the writer, as follows: The strong arm of the law, with all the force of the United States government will protect Mr. Macoy in the possession of all the property to which he can prove a legal title. Though he may insinuate publicly as he has already done privately, that the reason for his not putting his threat of legal proceedings into execution was on account of the financial irresponsibility of the members of the committee, it lacks the elements of credibility, as, no matter how irresponsible financially the members of the committee may be, if Mr. Macoy has any title to the "property" he so generously claims, the courts will grant a perpetual injunction prohibiting them from publishing the rit‑



58                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


ual of the General Grand Chapter, and Mr. Macoy can live off of the profits from future sales of the ritual as long as the life of the order can be maintained under his dictatorship.


Even as late as 1892 brother Macoy kept up the claim of the existence of a governing body, the title and authority of which he stated in Macoy's Standard: The Supreme Chapter by the inherent authority of possession and right of eminent domain, has exclusive authority to establish Chapters in jurisdictions domestic and foreign, where no Grand Chapter of the rite exists; to establish a uniform system of work and lectures; has jurisdiction over all subjects of legislation, and appellate powers to hear and decide all questions of law and equity that may be brought before it; and to do each and everything appertaining to the good and perpetuity of the rite, in accordance with its constitution.


And of this body he claimed to be Supreme Patron. And yet in his critical and explanatory notes he had said: I opposed the proposition of a General Grand Chapter because I had seen for thirty years the uselessness of the two national Masonic organizations, and the waste of immense sums of money obtained substantially under they guise of charity, for their maintenance. * * * I feared that such an organization in the Adoptive Rite would meddle with the rights of State Grand Chapters, deprive them of their sovereignty, independence, and absolute authority in their respective jurisdictions.


A comparison of the very limited authority of the General Grand Chapter, composed of the representatives of the various Grand Chapters, with that claimed for the Supreme Chapter, which consisted solely of brother Macoy, will demonstrate, at least, his lack of sincerity. It was further claimed that Grand Chap‑



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          59


ters could only be formed by "the sanction of the Supreme Chapter or the Supreme Patron." This brief reference to the violent and bitter persecution which those prominent in the movement for the upbuilding of the General Grand Chapter, and the establishment of the order upon a substantial foundation underwent, is set down in no spirit of malice. It only serves as an index to point to the great mass of such material emanating from the same source, aimed principally at the then Most Worthy Grand Patron, Thomas M. Lamb, and myself, as Right Worthy Grand Secretary, but some of the bitterest shafts were directed at sisters who were also Past Grand Matrons. I have an abundance of such material, which was sent through the mails in utter violation of the postal laws against the transmission of obscene matter, which I could not be induced to put in type. In his milder moments he wrote of the members of the General Grand Chapter as thieves, and its ritual as a bawdy one, and if he ever alluded to either the General Grand Chapter or its active promoters, save in terms of opprobrium, I am ignorant of it. Were it possible to set down the history of the order, and to convey even a faint idea of the trials through which it has passed to its present high estate without reference to this disagreeable feature, it would have been passed by. Brother Macoy's mind was naturally warped by personal interests, and his nature was such that he could not view, unbiased, a subject in which he was so deeply concerned. The order owes much to his efforts toward systematizing and arranging it, and if he could have disabused his mind of the conviction that both the order and its ritual were his personal property, and have welcomed the movement that was designed to more thoroughly systematize and organize it, and induced the Grand



60                                                                                                        SUPREME BODIES.


Chapter of New York, which was thoroughly under his influence, to accept the invitation to participate in the convention which organized the General Grand Chapter, and attended the same, as a representative of his Grand Chapter, he would have been received with the highest honor, and might have handed down a name unsullied by the mistakes of his later years. He has passed beyond the reach of censure, or reproach, into a region, let us hope, where, with clear vision he can see the unselfishness of the labors of those he opposed, and can realize that the welfare of the order, which was really near his heart, was also dear to them.


The General Grand Chapter in 1895 adopted the following, reported by a committee of which the writer was chairman: Robert Macoy, Past Grand Patron of New York, although never connected with this body, but rather opposed to it, rendered most valuable service to the order by his talent and great executive ability, giving it the Chapter form of organization which has resulted in its present highly prosperous condition. We gladly then cover what we deem his failings, believing that be honestly held and battled for his views, with the broad mantle of charity, and express the sense of loss we must feel as an order, and inscribe his name upon the General Grand Chapter memorial scroll.


Many Masons who held positions of prominence had a very intolerant spirit toward the order, which found expression in many ways; sometimes, as in Ohio, in excluding Chapters from Lodge rooms, under all circumstances; and sometimes by severe attacks in the columns of the Masonic press. Numerous as these were, we will mention only one.


One of the most reputable of Masonic journals, the Philadelphia Keystone, in a three‑column article



SUPREME BODIES.                                                                                                          61 


upon the address of Mattie A. Yost, Grand Matron of Missouri, had this to say: We are pronouncedly opposed to "hair pin" Masonry. We do not think that a tyled Lodge or Chapter is the place for males and females to congregate, and we know that freeMasonry, in its institution, its inherent character, and its present purpose, has no affiliating elements that render it homogenous with a female secret society. Masonry was not made for all men, and certainly it was made for no women.


And shall it ever he that ancient craft Masonry will officially recognize "hair pin" Masonry, and take it to its arms? Shade of King Solomon, forbid the banns! * *  * Let those individuals who created this order alone recognize and take care of their illegitimate offspring.


Sister Yost was denied the columns of this Masonic journal by its valiant editor, to make reply to his ungentlemanly assault, but she found an equally reputable Masonic journal, the Masonic Advocate, that gave her the opportunity to castigate the gentleman in such a way that he had nothing more to say.








THE following is a complete list of rituals of the Eastern Star extant, arranged alphabetically by the names by which, for the sake of brevity and convenience, they are designated in this history.


Adoptive Rite. - Adoptive Rite. A Book of Instructions in the Organization, Government, and Ceremonies of Chapters of the Order of the Eastern Star. Arranged by Robert Macoy, Grand Secretary of the Supreme Grand Chapter. New York, Masonic Publishing Company, 626 Broadway. 1868. Copyrighted, 1868, by the Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing Company.


Adoptive Rite Revised. - Same as above. (1874.) Adoptive Rite Ritual. - Adoptive Rite Ritual. A Book of Instruction in the Organization, Government and Ceremonies of Chapters of the Order of the Eastern Star, arranged by Robert Macoy, Past Grand Secretary of the Supreme Grand Chapter. Revised Edition. New York: Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Co., 34 Park Row, N. Y. 1897. Copyrighted, 1868, by the Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing Company, and in 1897, by J. G. Barker.


Book of Instructions. - F. A. T. A. L. Book of Instructions. 1861. No imprint. Not copyrighted.


California Ritual. - Ceremonies for opening the Chapter, Conducting Business, the Form of Initiation, Closing the Chapter, and Installation of Officers, for the use of Subordinate Chapters under the Jurisdiction of the Grand Chapter of California, of the Order of the Eastern Star. Printed by Authority. (1873.) Not copyrighted.




RITUALS.                                                                                                                              63 


California Revised. - Same as above. San Francisco. Spalding & Barto, Book and Job Printers, 414 Clay street. 1877. Not copyrighted.


Critical and Explanatory Notes. - Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star, as "set forth and established" by the General Grand Chapter. With Critical and Explanatory Notes. By Robert Macoy, 33d Degree, Past National Grand Secretary and Past Grand Patron of New York, and Grand Patron of the Order. "Uniformity of Ritual is Desirable." New York: Macoy, Publisher, 4 Barclay Street. 1878. Copyrighted, 1878, by Robert Macoy.


Crombie's Ritual. - Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star. Revised by Brother John Cronibie, 33d Degree, 90th Degree, 96th Degree, Past Grand Warden, Grand Lodge of Scotland; Past Provincial Superintendent of Aberdeenshire; Past Provincial Grand Master for Aberdeenshire, &c., Royal Order of Scotland; Sovereign Grand Master General for Scotland, Royal Masonic Rite, &c., &c., &e. Aberdeen: Gibson & Thompson, 8 Gaelic Lane. 1889. Not copyrighted.


General Grand Chapter Ritual. - Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star, Published by Authority of the General Grand Chapter. Printed for the General Grand Chapter. (1878.) Not copyrighted.


General Grand Chapter Revised. - Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star. Published by Authority of the General Grand Chapter. First Revised Edition. Copyrighted, 1890.


Ladies' Friend. - The Ladies' Friend, Containing all the Lectures and Exoteric Ceremonials, made use of in Conferring the Adoptive Degrees of Masonry, Consisting of the Eastern Star, Mason's Daughter, Mildred Degree, Good Samaritan, and Heroines of Jericho, by G. W. Brown, M. A. Ann Arbor. Press of Dr. A. W. Chase, Main Street, 1866. Copyrighted by G. W. Brown, 1866.


Lowe's Exposé. - Adoptive Masonry Illustrated. A full and complete Illustrated Ritual of the five degrees of Female Masonry, comprising the degrees of Jehpthah's Daughter, Ruth, Esther, Martha



64                                                                                                                                RITUALS.


and Electa, and known as the Daughter's degree, Widow's degree, Wife's degree, Sister's degree, and the Benevolent degree. By Thomas Lowe. Ezra A. Cook, Publisher, 1881. Copyrighted by Ezra A. Cook, 1881.


Macoy's Manual. - Manual of the Order of the Eastern Star, containing the Symbols, Scriptural Illustrations, Lectures, etc., adapted to the System of Adoptive Masonry. Arranged by Robert Macoy, National Grand Secretary. "I have seen His Star in the East and have come to Worship Him." Beautifully Illustrated. New York, Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing Company, 430 Broome Street. Chicago, J. C. W. Bailey. 1866. Not copyrighted. Subsequent editions copyrighted.


Macoy's Ritual. Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star. A Book of Instruction for the Organization, Government and Ceremonies of Chapters of the Order in every department, by Robert Macoy, Supreme Grand Patron, and Past Grand Patron, Grand Chapter of New York. Illustrated. New York, Robert Macoy, Publisher, 4 Barclay Street, 1876. Copyrighted by Robert Macoy, 1876.


Macoy's Standard. - The Rite of Adoption. The Standard Rituals of the Degrees of the Eastern Star, the Queen of the South, and the Amaranth. To which is added that of the Matron's Administrative Degree. A complete Book of Instruction for the Organization, Government and Ceremonies of the Rite of Adoption, in every Department. By Robert Macoy, 33d degree, Supreme Patron of the Eastern Star, and Vicar‑General of the A. and A. Scottish Rite of Adoption, Southern Jurisdiction. New York: Robert Macoy, Publisher, 1887. Copyrighted by Robert Macoy, 1876, 1887. Later edition copyrighted by Robert Macoy, 1891.


Michigan Ritual. - Without title. 1875. Not copy‑righted.


Morris's Manual. - Manual of the Eastern Star Degree+ as arranged by competent authority. 1860. No imprint. Not copyrighted.



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              65 


Mosaic. Book. - The Mosaic Book of the American Adoptive Rite, in three parts. Part I. General Instructions. Part II. The Ritual. Part III. Constitution, By‑Laws, etc. First Edition. Published under the authority of the Supreme Constellation of the American Adoptive Rite. New York, John W. Leonard & Co., 383 Broadway. 1855. Copyrighted by John W. Leonard, 1855.


Mosaic Second. - The Mosaic Book of the American Adoptive Rite. In two parts. Part I. General Instructions. Part. II. The Ritual. Second Edition. Published under the Authority of the Supreme Constellation of the American Adoptive Rite. New York: J. B. Taylor, V. E. Gr'd Sec'y, 335 Broadway. 1857. Not copyrighted.


New York German. - Ritual des Ordens vom Ost Stern. Lehrbuch zur Leitung von Kapiteln, geordnet and zusammengestellt von Robert Macoy, Gross‑Patron des Gross‑Kapitels im Staate New York. L`nberseszt fuer den Gebrauch in Deutschen Kapiteln fuer Concordia Kapitel von Simon Lambert. New‑York, Druck von "Der Fuehrer." 1898. Not copyrighted.


New York Ritual. - The Authorized Standard Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star in the State of New York. A system of forms and ceremonies, with necessary instructions for Chapters. As revised by a committee at the annual session of the Grand Chapter, held in June, 1897. New York: Published by the Grand Chapter, 1900. Copyrighted by Robert Macoy, 1876, 1887, 1891; by Clara Clark, 1895; by Grand Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star, State of New York, 1896, 1899, 1900.


Rosary. - The Rosary of the Eastern Star, comprising the Lectures, Odes, Emblems, Scriptural Readings, and General Directions appertaining to the popular and elegant system of Adoptive Masonry, by Rob Morris, LL. D., Masonic Writer. Chicago, John C. W. Bailey, Printer and Publisher, P. O. Box 1439, 1865. Copyrighted by Rob Morris, 1865.



66                                                                                                                                RITUALS.


 Scotch Ritual. - Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star. Aberdeen: Printed by W. Milne Gibson, S Gaelic Lane. 1900. Not copyrighted. Same as Crombie's ritual except title page.


Tatem's Monitor. - The Monitor of the Eastern Star, containing the Ritual of Adoptive Masonry embraced in the Eastern Star Degree, consisting of the Initiation, Degree Work, Ceremony for Opening, and Closing a Lodge, Installation Services, etc., Together with forms and rules for the government of Lodges, compiled and arranged by John H. Them, Adrian, Michigan. Holmes, Cook & Bruner, Printers, Adrian, Mich. Copyrighted by J. IL Tatem. 1867.


Thesauros. - Thesauros of the Ancient and Honorable Order of the Eastern Star as collected and arranged by the Committee and adopted by the Supreme Council in Convocation, assembled May, 1793. Copyright Secured. Printed for the use of the fourth Division, U. S. By order of the G. L. 1550.


The following account of the various rituals published takes them in the order of their publication, so that the reader can trace the development of the work of the order, and note its various changes. It has been deemed best to give in this Chapter only a general outline of them, reserving to a subsequent Chapter the explanations of the various emblems, and grouping the different explanations of each emblem or class of emblems together, so that the changes may be more easily noted without critical study.


I am aware that criticism may be made that too copious extracts have been inserted herein from rituals which are now obsolete, but it must be remembered that Macoy's Manual and Adoptive Rite Ritual can be purchased in the open market by any that will buy, and that only the initiated can know what changes have been made, and wherein the former work is similar to that now in use. Those who have



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              67


no idea of the loose manner in which former rituals have been kept, or of their complete accessibility by any one caring to read them, may criticise the author for thus quoting from them, but, secure in his belief that he has divulged no new facts he has chosen thus to present the evolution of the ritual. The various efforts, largely unavailing, on the part of the various Grand Chapters, to restrict the circulation of the ritual, emphasizes strongly the necessity of that which was prayed for in the memorial of the Grand Chapter of Texas to the General Grand Chapter in 1898, on which a committee will report in 1901, viz: the publication of a manual to contain the lectures and other non‑secret portions of the ritual for general sale, re‑serving the secret work for communication in another way. In this history will be found nothing that, even if it had been quoted from the present ritual, would not properly find a place in such a manual. Reference is made in the Preface to this subject, to which the reader's attention is called.





In Chapter 1, the authenticity of this ritual is discussed. In the preface of 1819 it is said of the order: During the revolutionary war, and the last war with England, it tended greatly to soften barbarous strife by bringing to the aid of the wounded, the gentle charity of enlightened sisterhood.


In the. ritual it was stated that "no officer of the Supreme Constellation receives any fee or reward for services rendered in that capacity, nor can the council itself establish any treasury or permanent fund whatever in connection with the order." or was any officer of a constellation to be allowed any fee or emolument for services. Meetings were to be held quarterly. The officers of a constellation were



68                                                                                                                                RITUALS.


Principal; Vice Principal; five sisters of the rays, viz: Ray Blue, Ray Orange, Ray White, Ray Green, and Ray Red; Treasurer, and Secretary.


In the charges accompanying the several degrees the candidate was thus addressed:


At initiation. - May your obedience be as exemplary as that of Jephthah's daughter. May your honor be in your hands a weapon of might to cut asunder all unholy ties, and prove the sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God. May your apron caution you to keep your garments unspotted from the world, and your emblematical color, blue, advise; you constantly of that cerulean hue which appears in the clear heavens, to win us upwards to those still higher mansions, not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. So mote it be * *


At passing. - May your attachment be like that of Ruth, both to the service and the people of God. May your sheaf of wheat move you to produce an hundred fold of the peaceable fruits of righteousness. May your glove warn you of those thorns and asperities which will everywhere be found until "He that cometh shall come." May your emblematical color, orange, continually suggest to your mind amidst the Spring and Summer of life, that when its Autumn cometh on and the Winter of death draweth nigh, your ripened sheaves shall be: acceptable, and the Lord of the harvest giveth you an eternal rest among those pronounced worthy, good and faithful servants. So mote it be *  *


At raising. - May the spotless purity of your hearts be like that of virtuous Esther. May your golden crown entice your thoughts to that brilliant company that encircles the throne of God. May your band serve to connect you in spirit with the pure of all ages who have gone up to their kindred heaven; and your emblematical color, white, awaken devout aspirations, that after death shall have released you from the soiled raiments of the flesh, your souls washed white in the blood of the Lamb, may you be presented for acceptance of your Redeemer, without fault before the throne of God. So mote it be.



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              69 


At exalting. -  A solemn union, while we contemplate the scene described by a faithful John. An open sepulcher, and a triumphant God! Weeping to joy and tears to smiles! The Redeemer, touched by human grief, and the dead, that died in the Lord called again to life. And can a member of the Eastern Star ever banish such thoughts from the heart? May your faith in God's promises be like that of Martha, the sister of Lazarus, whom Jesus loved. May your opened sepulcher admonish you of the end of life, and the resurrection of those that follow the Conqueror through the valley of the shadow. May your brooch be as the urim and thummim of the old dispensation whose mysterious lights called to enquire the will of God, and your emblematical color, green, speak aloud to him that said: "Whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die." Where the spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty. Greenness springs never from the barren sand, but warmed by the sunshine of his favor, and counseled by his whisperings of love, you shall be planted as trees in the garden of the Lord, and dwell in the house of the Lord forever.


So mote. it be *  *


At perfecting. - The circle is complete. The colors five have met your eyes and you have been enlightened by the glory thereof. The Star in the East is before you in all its rays. Signals and symbols, traditions and ancient tokens have yielded their treasures to your perseverance and I hail you members and brothers, protectors of the Eastern Star, worthy and true. Let the labors through which I have cheerfully led you, yield blessings of consolation in the hour of need. As daughters, widows, wives, sisters and sister‑in‑laws, who obey faithfully the precepts of this order, you will ever be under the protection of one who will spread the mantle of his love around you when the storm beats furiously. As brother protectors you will be a wall to these defenseless ones and shed your blood, if need be, that no evil approach them. So let your light shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven. You have seen His Star in the East! Come ye then and worship him! May the



70                                                                                                                                RITUALS.


obedience of Jephthah's daughter, and the attachment of Ruth, and the purity of Esther, and the faith of Martha, and the hospitality (truth) of Electa. adorn the circle of your virtues, and stand forth, of all the brightest. May your grasping hands warn you that in life we are but the stewards of a master who has commissioned us to dispense His bounties without grudging. May your collar with its array of symbols tell to the suffering and the needy, that you are of those whose first fruits were an oblation to the Lord; and your emblematical color, red, recall you to those drops of blood that fell to the ground for your sake. In that blood, as the Alpha and Omega of the Eastern Star, our labors gain their sanction, as Christian works.


To those red drops falling as heavy rain from a pierced side of Messiah, may you ever turn with perfect hope, and so may you live, sisters and brethren, that your obedience, attachment, purity, faith, and hospitality (truth), may survive your enduring monuments on earth, long after you shall have gone to your glorified and eternal rest.


So mote it be *  *


No portion of the lectures or secret work was given.       





In the Mosaic Book the officers of a constellation were designated by symbols as noted, the symbols being found also in the border of the charter (see illustration), and were as follows: Brothers: Heleon the first and chief Pillar; president of council; personator of Jephthah. - Lion. Philomath, the second Pillar; lieutenant to Heleon; personator of Boaz. - Coiled snake.


Verger, the third Pillar; personator of Ahasuerus; Treasurer. - Raven.


Herald, the fourth Pillar; personator of St. John; Secretary. - Eagle.


Warder, the fifth Pillar; keeper of portals. - Dove. Sisters: - Luna, the first or chief Correspondent; personator of Adah. - Violets.



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Flora, the second Correspondent; personator of Ruth.  - Sunflower.


Hebe, the third Correspondent; personator of Esther. - Lilies.


Thetis, the fourth Correspondent; personator of Martha. - Pine branch with cones.


Areme, the fifth Correspondent; personator of Electa.  - Poses.


The other emblems found in the border of the charter were used in the Mosaic Book as follows: Five stars in a blue circle represented the constellation.


The gavel represented the five Pillars.


The heart, the five Correspondents.


The perfect ashlar, the landmarks.


The ring, the memorial, "the semi‑annual passport communicated by the V. F. Grand Secretary to the subordinate constellation for traveling purposes only."


The sun, the Luminaries, "the governing officers of the Supreme Constellation."


The Pillars alone had power to appoint the Correspondents, elect candidates, nominate their own successors, and appoint times and places of meetings. Stated meetings were to be held weekly, semi‑monthly, monthly, bi‑monthly, or quarterly as the bylaws should specify. Three Pillars were necessary for the opening of a constellation, and five of each sex were essential for work. Before opening, the membership board was purged by the Pillars and Correspondents, and the names of any not entitled to attend were erased therefrom. Then, only the Pillars and Correspondents being present:


Heleon addresses Warder: - Sir and Pillar. The constellation is about to be opened for the purposes contemplated in this charter. Your duties will require you to remain without, guarding with all diligence, the entrance to this place and suffering neither



72                                                                                                                                RITUALS.


fear nor favor to influence you in admitting improper visitors. Will you perform this trust in truth and vigilance ?


Warder - What guarantee have I that, in my absence, the work of the constellation will be performed agreeably to the constitution of the Supreme Constellation and the usages of the American Adoptive Rite?


Heleon - The honor of a Mason.


Warder - It is well, - I accept it - and, if you will furnish me with the means of security, I will guard you in truth and vigilance while here assembled.


Heleon - Receive the key. - He presents him with the key of the room whereupon the Warder retires to the anteroom, locks the door on the outside, and thenceforth, until the close of the meeting, the security of the constellation is under his sole and peculiar care.


Heleon - Ladies and Sirs. The hour of meeting has arrived. The precautionary measures of security, both within and without, have been duly taken, and it is now my will that the Christian star be formed for the purpose of improvement and social pleasure.


The officers then assumed their stations, (See illustration of labyrinth, Chapter IV,) and members were admitted two at a time. "When convenient they should be one of each sex, the lady walking on the right." They then passed the labyrinth. "The lady should take the left of the gentleman when they pass Philomath. As each chair is passed (except 5), they make the initiation sign and receive from its occupant the responsive sign. Arriving before Heleon, each presents a Tessera to that officer, who examines it and, if found correct, invites them to proper seats." After Scripture readings (Isa. lxiii, 1‑6; I Peter, ii, 21‑25,) and prayer, Philomath said: Let us attend to the instructive lessons of our order. We have five degrees, named respectively, Jephthah's Daughter, Ruth, Esther, Martha, and Electa. In these we contemplate certain exalted virtues in their relationship to the history of our Lord Jesus Christ, that



Rob Morris


RITUALS.                                                                                                                              73 


perfect exemplar of all virtues. In His eventful and blessed life we view Him resigning his blessed life to fulfill His Father's oath that the soul that sinneth shall die; forsaking his princely mansion in heaven to dwell in a humble place on earth; offering Himself a victim to rescue His people from impending and eternal death; relying, with unswerving faith, upon the promises of God; and, finally, sacrificing all things, fame, power, friends, and life, in testimony of the religion He came to establish. Was there ever love like His?


Which was followed by a rehearsal, by the Correspondents, of the signs, meaning of emblems, etc., each followed by a response by Philomath, of which the following is a specimen:


It is well. And when a sister in distress hails us with that sign, we will recall the merits of Electa and of you, my sister, her representative; be reminded of our covenant of adoption, and, responding with the pass of this degree, afford her prompt relief. Brothers, shall it be so? All reply, Even so.


The closing ceremony was very brief, but embraced the prayer, "Holy and merciful God."


At the time of initiation, the Herald thus addressed the candidate in the anteroom:


The objects for which we are banded together, are to comfort, protect and aid each other through the labyrinth of human life, and make its hardships light by means of cheerful companionship, and social pleasures. *  * We are tongue tied against slandering any member of this order; and bound with chains and fetters against doing one of them any manner of wrong. You will in like manner be placed under restraint. We are all of us, in faith, Christians; and it is a large part of the business of this society to rehearse the life and doctrines of Christ, and endeavor to imitate and practice upon his example. In this faith and in these works you, too, will be expected to participate.


This material originally scanned by Ralph Omholt, Kirkland Chapter 176, Washington.


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After her entrance, Thetis, acting as Conductress came forward, took the candidate by both hands, and thus addressed her:


Welcome, my dear friend, to our constellation. The recommendations you bring us have convinced us that you are a proper subject for the light of adoptive Masonry. We trust the lessons that we shall teach you here, will both please and instruct you. Human life is a labyrinth through which we wander, too often, alas! blindly and in ignorance. It is good for us to have a friendly form by our side who has trod this way before us, and a friendly hand that can guide us with infallible certainty and safety through its most intricate mazes. Such a companion may be found in Jesus Christ; who lived as we are living, (lied as we must die, and went before us to heaven to prepare a place for us. Permit me, however, on the present occasion to act as your guide through a labyrinth, which otherwise you could not pass, and to lead you to the presence of our enlightened chief officer. But receive first of all this copy of the divine guide of life.


A small bible was then presented to the candidate and the labyrinth passed, a halt being made before each officer, when a dialogue took place of which this will give an idea: Herald - What bringest thou?


Thetis - I know not.


Herald - You know not?


Thetis - But I have a hope.


Herald - What hopest thou, then?


Thetis - Affection.


Herald - It is well. Pass, Affection.


The several "hopes" were Amiability, Charity, Constancy, Delicacy, Discretion, and Faith.


Arriving at her station Thetis said:


This is the seat that I have vacated for a tune, that I may assist your wandering steps through our labyrinth. We are taught in the lessons of adoptive



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              75 


Masonry to resign at times, our comforts and ease, that by so doing, we can benefit our fellow‑creatures. Be seated. Soon may you be enlightened, my dear friend, to fill this or some other station in our order. Whenever wearied on the journey of human life, may you always find, as now you do, a friend who has a place and a heart to refresh you. Rise now, and let us be going.


Arriving at Heleon, he repeated the covenant of adoption, which consisted of five ties, covering 1, secrecy; 2, obedience to laws; 3, advice, sympathy, and aid; 4, avoiding unkindness; 5, to model life upon example of Jesus Christ. It being assented to, he said: It is well. We readily accept the pledge you make us. We share with you in this covenant and do now accept you into our band. Herald, make record that sister ____ , the ____ of brother ____ , an affiliated master Mason, is now initiated into the American Adoptive Rite.


After an intermission, the signs were repeated, and Heleon further addressed the candidate:


My sister, we hail with true pleasure your coming amongst us. The work of adoptive Masonry is amply sufficient for us all, and we shall rejoice to find you excelling in your zeal that of the most devoted members of our society. We are laboring to increase our own happiness and to promote that of others. Our experience and the wisdom we gain from the scriptures alike teach us that this world is a harsh, unfriendly scene, poorly adapted to impart felicity; and that it is chiefly by combining the efforts of the good and true, in the work of morality and religion, that happiness is to be acquired and extended. The greater our ability to do good, the more pleasure we shall enjoy. We meet in private, that we may arrange our plans for the good work in which we are engaged, without interruption from those who can riot understand or sympathize with in. In our meetings, we strive to learn our duty as beings who possess an immortal part, and



76                                                                                                                                RITUALS.


when we return home it is our care to perform them. We cultivate a spirit of harmony that the enemy of souls may acquire no advantage over us. And as a large portion of our work as adopted Masons lies in acquiring the doctrines and temper of Jesus Christ, whom truly to know is everlasting life, we often unite to address the heavenly throne and to plead with God that the very spirit of faith and wisdom may descend upon us and make our meeting place a place like heaven. In such a prayer let us now with cheerful faith combine.


Then followed the prayer, "Source of all Wisdom."


Both stellæ and protectors might pass through the initiatory ceremonies, but the five degrees were only conferred upon stellæ, and in conferring them one of the Correspondents represented the candidate. The degrees, with the exception of that of Martha, were given in dramatic form, and, it will be seen, required considerable talent.




In the degree of Jephthah's daughter, the candidate being announced as in readiness, the five Correspondents retired to receive her, when she was addressed:


Luna - My dear sister! you are about to represent Adah, the devoted woman, the daughter of Jephthah, the Gileadtie, who resigned her life to fulfill the oath of her father. Carefully observe whatever passes under your notice, my dear sister, and let the impressive lessons of this degree sink deeply into your heart.


The covenant of adoption was rehearsed and assented to, after which the ladies entered and remained by the door. Behind a curtain which divided the hall, a sound as of trampling feet and music was heard.


Luna - Hosanna! they come they come! The prayer of my father has prevailed with God. He has



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              77 


given him the victory. Hosanna! they come! they come! Oh the raptures of this hour! For this have I waited; for this my prayers have ascended day and night to heaven. Hosanna! they come! they come! Soon I shall meet my father, no more to be separated. Soon I shall crown him with this wreath of triumph and my nation will hail him as their deliverer. Hosanna! they come! they come! On the brow of yonder hill I already see their banners and the glitter of their spears. I hear their music echoing from the mountain side. Oh God of Israel! thou alone art God, and there is none other! The curtain is now drawn aside, and Heleon, who represents Jephthah, enters with a sword in his hand, accompanied by the other Pillars.


Heleon - Once more I see my native village and the dwelling place of my child. Soon I shall greet her, and, in the history of my exploits and the joys of victory, forget all the dangers to which I have been exposed. Beloved Adah! how must your gentle heart now bound with joy. But, here I pause to recall the solemn vow I made when last I stood upon this spot. As I went forth, in the might of Israel's God, to repel the hosts of Ammon, I swore with uplifted hand, when I returned home in peace, whatsoever should come forth from the doors of my house to meet me, it should be the Lord's and I would offer it up for a burnt offering. Now I pause to learn what shall be the victim. The pet lamb of my beloved Adah was wont to run and meet me when I returned from the mountain chase. It were a harsh welcome to my daughter to slay her gentle favorite; yet my oath is registered in heaven. I am becoming anxious. Trumpets, sound again! that Adah may know of my approach and send out some messenger to meet me.


The trampling of feet and music are renewed. The ladies who have remained near the door now move slowly toward Heleon. As his eye falls upon them, he starts in anguish, cries aloud: Alas! my daughter! and then, falling upon his knees, buries his face in his hands. The ladies approach him, and


Luna - My father, why this distress?


Heleon - Alas! my daughter!



78                                                                                                                                RITUALS.


Luna - What has thy daughter done to distress thee?


Heleon - Thou hast brought me very low!


Luna - Father, father, what cruel words are these?


Heleon - Thou art one of them that trouble me; for I have opened my mouth to the Lord, and I can not turn back.


Heleon arises, and after a short pause continues slowly and solemnly:


Daughter! beloved and only child! when I went forth at the head of the army of Israel, I felt that in God alone could I hope for victory. Therefore I consecrated myself in solemn prayer to Him. And I vowed a vow that should I return victorious and in peace, whatsoever should come forth to meet me should be the Lord's - a victim - a burnt offering! Oh my daughter! how little did I anticipate this result! How much better had I perished by the sword of Ammon! Alas, my daughter! my vow is registered in heaven. My soul is perjured. I shall be miserable both in this world and in the next; for I can not, can not take thy life.


Luna - My father, if thou hast opened thy mouth unto the Lord, do to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy mouth. Better that I should die, dear father, than that thou lose thy soul. Yea, rather a thousand deaths. I will die, and our people shall see that Adah was worthy to be the daughter of Jephthah, the deliverer of his people.


She takes the sword from her father's hand and examines the blade. Then, with a pathetic impulse, she adds: But oh, my father, in this first hour of your return, while the nation is exulting in your victory, it is hard to die, today! I can not submit my neck to this sword today. Give me a little time to contemplate this awful change and prepare for it. I ask for two months to fit my mind for death. Let me go in the mountains in the company of these maidens, for two months, and I will surely return.


Heleon - Go, my daughter, and the God of truth go with thee.


The ladies return to the door, while Heleon



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              79 


remains in Misplace. After a few minutes' separation, they return, Jephthah's daughter being crowned with a wreath:


Luna - Father, I am come again, agreeably to my pledge. In the caves of the mountains, in answer to my earnest prayers, I have found resignation and peace. I am come, willingly, I trust, to fulfill your vow, and give myself a victim. For this purpose, with this wreath that I prepared to celebrate your victory, I am crowned. My father, do not afflict your heart too much at my sacrifice. Be resigned to the will of God. And when you think of me, and remember how willingly I suffered this, to save you from dishonor, do not forget, in your anguish at my loss, the splendid triumph God granted you in answer to your vow. Father - friends - life - farewell. A long, a last farewell.


She folds her hands resignedly, and casts her eyes upward:


Do not delay the fatal blow.


Heleon - My daughter! there is another world, where the errors of this life shall be forgiven, and sorrow lost in universal joy. I will meet you there.


Casts the veil over her face. All present cover their faces with their veils. She instantly throws her veil back upon the floor, they imitating her, and speaks with great resolution:


Luna - Nay, father, I did not consent to this. I can not permit my eyes to be covered. I will die in the light.


She again folds her arms, and looks upward. He picks up the veil, and, while again casting it over her face, says:


Heleon - My daughter, I can not strike you while your eyes are fixed upon mine.


She throws it off as before, but with more determination, and says:


Luna - Then I will turn them away from you; I will fix them upon yonder mountain tops, where I found peace. But you shall not put me to death in the dark.


Turns from him and folds her arms as before. He



80                                                                                                                                RITUALS.


regains the veil, and going behind her says, while he covers her face the third time: Heleon - Do not disobey me thus, my daughter! It is necessary you should consent to this.


She throws it from her face, but retains the end of it in her hands, grasping it with much force. Turning toward him, with a firm and steady look and voice, she says:


Luna - I declare to you, my father, I will never consent to this. To die with my face covered, like a criminal, would be a mark of perpetual infamy and disgrace - a stain upon my memory. This multitude, who have come to witness my death, would be persuaded that I am suffering the penalty of my own crime. I will not thus be debased, and my name go down to the future dishonored. I die innocent. I die not for myself, but for another, even for you. I die to maintain your integrity - and if you will not suffer me to preserve my good name, upon your head be the penalty, for I will not submit to death at all.


She casts her eyes upward.


Heleon - Let it be so then. Have your desire. Here ends the ceremony. Heleon invites the candidate to be seated.




After an introduction similar to the preceding, and the repetition of the covenant of adoption, Areme, who represents Naomi, addresses Flora, who represents Ruth:


Areme - My daughter, we have nothing left us now, but to trust in God. Our money is expended; - our last morsel of food is consumed; - I have called at every house where a friend or relative once resided, and have sought relief, but in vain. My friends do not recognize my claim. My relatives are dead, or the few who survive have forgotten me. All my humiliation has been in vain. The Almighty bath dealt very bitterly with me. I pray you, then, my daughter, no longer attempt to share my cheerless lot, but rather return to your own princely home and friends, and be happy there. You have already sac‑



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              81 


rificed too much for me. Go, dear Ruth, and leave me to my fate.


Flora - Intreat me not to leave thee or to return from following after thee; for whither thou goest I will go, and where thou Lodgest I will Lodge; thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God; where thou diest will I (lie, and there will I be buried; the Lord do so to me and more also, if aught but death part thee and me! I will go, my mother, into the barley fields and glean. It can not be, but that some liberal man among this people may yet take compassion upon our distress, and afford me the means of maintaining you; while I have the strength to toil for your subsistence, you shall not suffer want. Give me your blessing then, my mother, and let me go.


Areme - Nay, my daughter, I will go. Such hardships are not for you. Our long journey from Moab has already exhausted your strength, and you could not endure it. So delicately nurtured as you have been, the hot sun in the barley fields would overpower you; I am more accustomed to toil, and I will go.


Flora - The strength of a good resolution will support me. Give me your blessing and let me go.


Areme - The Lord recompense thy work, and a full reward be given thee of the Lord God of Israel, under whose wings thou art come to trust.


The ladies now move toward the curtain, which is thrown aside, and they behold a representation of a barley field, in which workmen and gleaners are engaged. Upon the floor appear sheaves and loose straw. The Pillars are observed to be arranging the sheaves  - one of them, the overseer, having a sickle in his hand. Flora picks up a few bits of straw with apparent fatigue, and then rising, speaks, as if to herself:


Flora - I feel that Naomi spake truly. The sun glares upon my head like a sheet of flame. The stubble scorches my feet like coals of fire. My heart begins to sink within me. I feel that I must faint. I will return to Naomi. Oh, God of Israel, for whom I have forsaken all things, witness my distress, and hear the widow's cry! Give me help! Goes near the door and reclines against the wall as



82                                                                                                                                RITUALS.


 if exhausted. Philomath, who represents Boaz, and who has been thus far in the background, out of view, now comes among the reapers with a basket in his hand, and speaks to the overseer:


Philomath - It is well. The workmen have done a good task today. Call them around me now, and let them partake of the refreshments I have provided, - Observes Ruth; - But what - who - whose damsel is this?


Herald - It is the Moabitish damsel who came back with Naomi, out of the country of Moab - and she said to me, I pray you let me glean and gather after the reapers, among the sheaves. So she came, and bath continued here, even from the morning until now.


Philomath - She appears to be fatigued. She is quite exhausted.


Herald - Sir, it is plain she has not been accustomed to hardships like these. I observed early this morning, how painfully the stubble scorched her feet, and with what difficulty she gathered up the gleanings. And as the sun came over us, she has drooped more and more, ‑until, like a stricken lily, she bows her head, and can do no more. Sir, observe her with those two handfuls of barley; it is all she has gathered today.


Philomath - God has sent her to us that she may find relief. I will invite her to partake of these refreshments.


He advances towards her. As she observes him approaching, she raises her head, and looking towards heaven, speaks as if to herself:


Flora - It is the owner of the field. What should he want of me but to insult and reproach me? O cruel people! shall I not find one friendly soul among you? He takes me to be an intruder - peradventure a thief  - and he will drive me from the field. Oh, God of Israel, for whom I have forsaken all things, witness now my distress, and hear the widow's cry! Give me help!


Holds up her two handfuls of barley to show him that she is but a poor gleaner, and gazes intently



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              83 


towards heaven. Philomath comes before her and speaks: Philomath - Ruth, it has been fully showed me all that thou hast done unto thy mother‑in‑law since the death of thine husband, and how thou hast left thy father and thy mother, and the land of thy nativity, and art come unto a people that thou knewest not heretofore. The Lord recompense thy work, and a full reward be given thee of the Lord God of Israel, under whose wings thou (lost trust. Come with me, and partake of the refreshments which I have provided for my reapers.


They all gather around the basket and partake, accosting one another with cheerful words. After a minute or two Philomath addresses Herald:


Philomath - Let her glean, even among the sheaves, and reproach her not; and let fall also some of the handfuls of purpose for her; and leave them, that she may glean them and rebuke her not.





After introduction and rehearsal of the covenant of adoption:


Hebe (who represents Esther) - All is now in readiness for the effort. I have done all I could to prepare for this trial, and nothing remains but to make the attempt. By prayer and fasting, for three days and nights I have endeavored to secure the favor of God. For is it not for his dear sake that I am thus imperiling all that I hold dear? In this cruel edict my life is not attempted; nor should I personally suffer this dreadful penalty. But, oh my people! the hunted exiles of Judah! doomed nation of God! to what a fate are you exposed? How can I live and see you destroyed? Better that we all perish together, and the faithfulness of death seal the friendship cemented in life. This is the last day that remains for me to accomplish my purpose, and even now it is full late. I will go in unto the king, which is not according to the law, and if I perish, I perish. Maidens, robe me for the sacrifice. Give me a garb of purest white, and the golden crown upon my head. Peradventure,



84                                                                                                                                RITUALS.


when the king beholds me thus arrayed, he will be reminded of the solemn vow which, in years gone by, he made me, and I shall accomplish my purpose.


The attendants tie the white scarf over her left shoulder, so that it crosses her breast to the right side, and place the crown upon her head.


Hebe - Now, my maidens, let us move forward, and while we approach the gate of the palace in which life or death awaits us, let your hearts, with mine, be directed to that throne whence cometh all our help.


They move slowly forward.


Hebe - Be pleased, oh Lord, to deliver me: oh Lord make haste to help me. Withhold not thou thy tender mercy from me, oh Lord; let thy loving kindness and thy truth continually preserve me. Why art thou cast down oh my soul? and why art thou disquieted within me? hope thou in God: for I will yet praise him who is the help of my countenance and my God.


Marching two and two they approach the guards, who are seated in front of the curtain. The guards rise, cross their swords before her, and:


Philomath - Back! you can not pass here! Back! I say. Do you not know that this is the king's palace and that we are his guards?


Hebe - Stand aside! I command you. I am your queen, and will enter! Guards, stand aside!


Philomath - Madam, I recognize you, and respect you, both for your station and your character. Your kindness and affability to all your subjects have endeared your memory throughout the nation. I know that your word here is law. Yet it is at your peril if you enter this place. Today is the Grand council of the nation. With the king are assembled the princes and rulers of the land, and his majesty will on this occasion, more than all others, he offended at your intrusion. I pray you, royal madam, do not pass.


Hebe - Stand aside, I have estimated the peril and I will undertake it. Let me pass!


Herald - Royal madam! it is an inviolable law of the palace, that no person shall enter unless summoned by the king, under penalty of death. I entreat



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              85 


you to be warned before your blood stains those walls. If you enter, it is to certain death.


Hebe - Let me pass, and no longer delay my enterprise. The responsibility be upon my own head.


Herald - Pass then, and may God protect you! The curtain is here drawn aside and exhibits the Grand council. The king is seated; the other officers are standing on his right and left; he wears a crown upon his head, and bears in his right hand a scepter; as the ladies enter, he is speaking to those around him:


Verger - As to this accursed nation, let their destruction be sharp and sure. See that no lingering slaughter or protracted death makes their fate uncertain; but in one day, yea, if it be possible, in one hour, let the sword reach them, old and young, until not one be left. Then shall my kingdom ___


At this instant his eye falls upon Hebe, and he abruptly pauses. He rises to his feet, his countenance expressing the greatest surprise and anger.


Verger - What means this intrusion? Guards, upon your lives be this act. Are my strictest orders thus to be disregarded? Were it my mother, she should die. Take her at once to the courtyard and put her to death.


The guards rush upon her and seize her by each hand to lead her away. She accompanies them a few paces, then snatches her hands from theirs, turns towards the king, and * * * The king speaks quickly, and in a softened tone:


Verger - Stop guards, release her. Return to your posts. Esther, my queen, approach hither and receive my pardon.


She advances to him Verger - What wilt thou, Queen Esther? and what is thy request? it shall even be granted thee to the half of the kingdom.





This degree is communicated without ceremonial; and to all the candidates simultaneously. This was found necessary, as the principal male character in the dialogue would necessarily have represented the Lord



86                                                                                                                                RITUALS.


 Jesus Christ, whom to attempt thus to personate would be blasphemous.




In this Heleon represented St. John, and Areme, Electa.


Herald, who is on the inner side of the veil, is heard as if reading from a letter he has just received:


That the new religion be crushed out of every nation where the Roman rule prevails; that its votaries, one and all, be required to renounce it or be mercilessly sacrificed; that the Roman soldiers - ah, cruel band - visit the dwelling of every suspected Christian, and see that he acquit himself of the suspicion by trampling upon the cross. Take notice, Most Worshipful Grand Master, and govern yourself accordingly.


Ah, cruel Emperor! Ah, hapless people! Alas, the persecuted church of Christ, what will avail you now? people of the living Savior, whither now will you flee? Is there no rest but the grave for the friends of Jesus? And you, pious Electa, true‑hearted sister of Christ, delight of all who love the Lord, what will be your fate now? How will you sustain this dreadful trial? Many will deny in these latter days of persecution, and purchase a miserable life by denying Him who gave his life as a ransom for many. Will your name be added to that traitorous band? I tremble to consider it. Yet, how many, who have been devoted to him, in the day of ease and quiet, afterward, when affliction or persecution ariseth for the Word's sake, are offended. I am oppressed with anxiety concerning this woman. If Electa is found to shrink under this calamity, who, then, will be faithful? Aged and infirm as I am, under the yoke of five score years, I will arise and go to her dwelling, to satisfy my mind that she is faithful. And that she may not easily recognize me until I have communicated this message, I will disguise myself in the garb of a Roman soldier, the bitterest enemy of the cross, and thus present myself at her door.


The curtain is now drawn aside and exhibits Herald



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              87 


armed with a sword. He walks slowly, as if with weariness and pain, towards the door of entrance. Arrived there, he halts and soliloquizes:


The task is more than I reckoned it. Had the distance been a little greater I could not have accomplished it. Five score years have done their work too faithfully for such journeys as these. I will apply for admission. - He knocks. - Dusty and disguised as I am in this garb, Electa will surely be unable to recognize me. I am quite exhausted.


He leans upon the sword in his left hand, by the side of the door. The ladies approach him. Areme, who represents Electa, observes him narrowly and halts. She soliloquizes:


A soldier! A Roman soldier! The butchers of Christ, and the insatiable ravagers of his flock - what does he here? Why has he chosen to call upon me? But my duty is plain, whatever may be his motives, and I will dispense to him Christian hospitality. I perceive he is very aged and infirm. He appears overcome with heat and fatigue. I will hesitate no longer. Perhaps God has sent him here for his sours good. - She goes to him and takes him kindly by the hand. - My aged brother, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, welcome to my dwelling. Let it be your home while you tarry here. Enter. The liberal hand of Providence has endowed me richly with the means of hospitality. Enter, and, as if sent by Him, partake freely of his benefits. - She leads him a little way and seats him. - Let me refresh you with water. - She brings him water, of which he drinks. - The day is hot, the roads are hard and dusty, your journey has been too great for you. It was often so with our blessed Savior, who, in his ministry, used to pass this way when I was but a child. Hungry and thirsty and weary as you are, he has often realized in this very dwelling how hitter is the lot of man. Now, my brother, you seem refreshed; the color mounts to your cheek and light comes again to your eye. Does the name of Christ bring such animation to your soul? ah, I have experienced its benefits. Cheer up, then, cheer up, aged friend. There shall be nothing wanting for your comfort here. The love of Christ con‑



88                                                                                                                                RITUALS.


straineth me, and whatever I have is your own. Speak, brother, and command me what I shall do for You.


Herald - I am hungry. Since the morning watch I have not broken bread. Yet a few crusts will suffice me, and I will be thankful.


Areme - No crusts from me. While Electa has an abounding Providence for her own support, the wayfarer whom Christ may direct hither shall not have crusts. ‑ She presents him a dish covered with food. - Take of the best my house affords and welcome. - After a few minutes she brings him a cup of wine. - Accept this cup of the richest wine my house affords. May its generous flavor give you new strength and prove, at least, the earnest of your welcome. ‑ After he has drank she continues. - But what further token of hospitality can I offer you? Speak, brother, and command me, what I shall do for you.


Herald draws forth an empty purse and hands to her. - My purse is empty. My home far away. I have but little strength to labor for money. Give me a few farthings to enable me to reach the next village and I will be thankful.


Areme - Nay, not a few farthings. - She fills the purse as if with gold. - But rather let me furnish you the means for your entire journey. And when you shall once again reach that distant home, may you find its loved ones all in health and prepared to greet you. - She returns the purse. - But all your wants are not yet supplied. Speak again, brother, and command me, what shall I do for you?


Herald - My raiment is old and worn. Yet I shall not much longer need a covering, therefore, if your husband or servants have any cast‑off garments you would bestow upon me, I would be thankful.


Areme - Not so, my brother, I will deal more bountifully with you than you ask. - She presents him with a bundle, as if filled with clothing. - Here is the best in our wardrobe, and may they give you comfort and warmth until you reach your distant home and friends. But is there not something further I can do for you? Think: I should feel loth to know 



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              89 


that any left me in distress while: I have the means for their relief.


Herald - No, kind lady, nothing further. All that I was in want of has been supplied me, and for your generous bounty believe me I am thankful. But now, that I am refreshed and able to deliver my message, I will inform you what is my business in this part of the country. The Emperor of Rome has been pleased to issue an edict to the effect "that the new religion be crushed out from every nation where the Roman rule prevails; that its votaries, one and all, be required to renounce it or be mercilessly sacrificed; that the Roman soldiers visit the dwelling of every suspected Christian, and see that he acquit himself of the suspicion by trampling upon the cross." I have, therefore, come to enquire of you,, as of one who is best acquainted throughout this region, are there any Christians among your neighbors, and, if so, to demand their names. - He looks her steadily in the face. She returns his look with a surprised air, but makes no reply. After a brief pause he continues: - Madam, there is something suspicious in your silence. Why should you hesitate to reply? Are there any Christians in your family? Your manner would seem to indicate it. Give me their names, or you will suffer the penalty as though you were one in person. - He again pauses and looks in her face as before; but she makes no reply. He rises and continues: - Madam, can it be that you are a Christian? one so wealthy, so accomplished, so hospitable. Can it be possible that you have subjected yourself to such a horrid doom? But no, there is a means of escape; there is a method, easy and sure, by which this terrible punishment may be avoided. Madam, you have been kind to me in my hour of distress, and I will show you that I am grateful. - He draws from his pocket a small black cross. - According to the terms of the law, whoever is suspected of being a Christian, may acquit himself of the suspicion by trampling on the cross. You will preserve your life, your property, and the lives of your husband and children by casting this upon the floor and putting your foot upon it. Then



90                                                                                                                                RITUALS.


I will go forth and declare that you have submitted to the law and renounced the Christian religion. Take it.


All this time site has not ceased to look him sternly and indignantly in the face. But now she takes the cross from his hand, her countenance changes to tenderness, she presses the cross ardently to her lips and bosom; then she speaks: - Sir, are you a demon in the form of humanity, that you strive to imperil my soul with these allurements? and think you I am terrified with your threats? why, what is there in all you have said to move me? have I not lived fifteen years daily expecting, waiting, desiring this message, and shall it shake me now? You ask me, too, if I am a Christian, and you profess to be astonished to discover that I am a Christian; did I not meet you at my threshold and welcome you in the name of Jesus Christ? Have I not fed you and tended upon your wants for the sake of Jesus Christ? What was there in you or me independent of my faith in the Crucified One, which should prompt me to such actions? Cease, then your allurements, and spare me the further recital of my perils. I am a Christian. This family, one and all, are Christians. One and all we have long been prepared to render up all things for the sake of Him who gave all things to us; go on then, and do your duty. Spare no part of it for the remembrance of my hospitality, and God, for Christ's sake, will enable me to do mine. - She places herself in the position         * *  *.


Herald lays aside his sword and speaks kindly to her: - Electa, my sister, tried and true, look upon me again. Do you not know me? I am John.


Areme ‑ John ! It is indeed! Oh sir, how could you try my feelings in this cruel manner?


Herald - That I might learn the strength of your religions character. I confess, my dear sister, that I feared this alarming and most unexpected intelligence might shake your faith, and I disguised myself in this manner to try you unobserved; but all is clear now, your gold is altogether pure; you are the fairest among ten thousand and altogether lovely. Electa, in a few days you may expect this scene, which has tried you so, will he realized. The soldiers will come, and the rest will follow. I see in store for you a ter‑



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              91


rible sacrifice and a cruel death. But you need no pity. Your reward is in heaven, and soon shall I meet you there to rehearse the events which are now nigh at hand. Electa, we will Masonically embalm your religious fortitude and your triumphant death. As Grand Master of Masons I will institute a degree to be entitled after your name, which shall perpetuate your history among us while there is a woman's eve to weep or a man's heart to feel for the sorrows of suffering virtue.


Accompanying the degrees were lectures much longer than those contained in the present ritual, which were all given by Heleon. Jephthah was described as "a pious man, a devoted father, and exemplary Mason;" Mahlon, "a devoted freeMason," and in the same category came Boaz, Ahasuerus, and Lazarus; while the husband of Electa was said to be the successor of St. John in the Grand mastership.





This was substantially a reprint of the Mosaic Book, words being substituted for symbols, and allusion to Part Three omitted, as were, also the Tuilleur, and the illustrations of the manner of giving the signs.





This was prepared solely for communicating the degrees, and opened with an explanation of freeMasonry and its benefits to woman; the obligation administered being one of secrecy only. The signet was explained, together with the signs, followed by the lectures, which were adapted from those contained in the Mosaic Book. Each was followed by an explanation of the appropriate signs, emblems, and colors, which were fully described in the manuscript accompanying it.





This was to be used in connection with Morris's Manual, and provided for the communicating of the



92                                                                                                                                RITUALS.




degrees in families, concerning which see Chapter II. The opening ode was:



O, that in this world of weeping,

Widow's tear and orphan's cry,

Hearts their term of trial keeping,

Would but melt in sympathy.

O, that we, each sister, brother,

Traveling on the self-same road,

In our love for one another,

Would but love the love of God.


For that love would surely teach us

Ne'er to crush a burdened heart,

By the tender thoughts that reach us

When we see a tear-drop start;

And the lonely, poor and saddened,

In their almost cheerless grief,

By our liberal bounty gladdened,

Would acknowledge the relief.


Here, then, met in social pleasure,

Here before the Word divine,

While our life contains the treasure,

Let us in this covenant join—

Tears to dry, to comfort sighing,

Gentle words and smiles to strew—

By the sick, and by the dying,

Patient, Godlike love to show.



Then, though we must part like others,

And the dead be joined among,

In the hearts of sisters, brothers,

We shall be remembered long.

Those that speak of us shall name us

As the dead to memory dear,

And the page of friendship claim us

Worthy of a grateful tear.




This was followed by Scripture reading, it being recommended that passages be selected which refer to the histories of Jephthah's daughter, Ruth, Esther and Martha; also the more pathetic passages from tie gospels, such as the raising of the son of the widow of Nain, Christ's agony in the garden, Christ blessing little children, the crucifixion, etc.





RITUALS.                                                                                                                              93



In this work a social grip and family hail were used, but I have been unable to find that any one now living has a knowledge as to what they were. The membership board (see illustration), was filled up by writing on the under side, about half way from the center to the circumference, thus: "Mary A. Carneal," in plain round hand, taking great pains to spell each name correctly. Directly over each lady's name, upon the upper side of the ray write the name of the gentleman through whom she is adopted as a sister in adopted Masonry, thus: "John A. Carneal." This being done, write in the broad part of the ray near the center of the picture, the class of ladies to which each lady belongs, viz.: "Wife, widow, sister, or daughter."


The Patron and Patroness were the sole judges as to the candidates, both for the Eastern Star degree and for membership in the family, although they were compelled to recognize an objection from a member. The Eastern Star degree was first communicated as per Morris's Manual. The conferring of the Family degree commenced by the introduction of the candidate by the Conductress, as follows:


Enlightened Patron: It becomes my pleasant duty to introduce to you our sister in adoptive Masonry, Mrs. A ___ B ____ . This lady has received the degree of the Eastern Star, having first made an inviolable pledge of secrecy according to our rules. She has heard with emotion the painful yet glorious history of Jephtha's daughter; she has contemplated the noble self-devotion of Ruth and Esther; she has witnessed the tears of the faithful Martha, and has paid the tribute of her own generous sympathy to the martyrdom of the Christian Electa; she desires now to make one of this family of the Eastern Star, where such histories are studied and such virtues emulated, and she has entered amongst us, determined to bear her part in this good work.



94                                                                                                                                RITUALS.


To this the Patron responded in much the same style as Heleon addressed the candidate in the Mosaic Book: "We hail with true pleasure," etc.


Every female member of the family was requested to select an emblem, and the Recorder was required to keep a book in which the emblems were recorded.


The ceremony of selection was as follows:


Esteemed sister, the language of flowers has been studied and applied in all ages. The earth is vocal with the praises of God from the tongues of unnumbered blossoms in vale and meadow, by the brookside and upon the mountains; and these voices are heard and echoed in the hearts of all who in every nation have learned to adore him. In our society the graces of Jephthah's daughter, Ruth, Esther, Martha and Electa, are inculcated by means of emblems selected from the fields of nature.


The character of Jephthah's daughter is illustrated by the blue violet. This beautiful modest flower, in its bashful timidity, conceals itself amidst foliage from the face of the sun. Of the blue violet the poet has happily said:


I know thou art oft

Passed carelessly by,

And the hue so soft

Of thine azure eye


Gleams unseen, unsought, in its leafy bower,

While the heartless prefer some statelier flower,

That they eagerly cull, and when faded fling

Away with rude hand, as a worthless thing.

Not such is thy fate; not thy beauty's gift

Alone, bids thee from thy bower he reft; -

Not thy half‑closing dewy and deep blue eye,

But the charm that doth not with beauty die;

'Tis thy mild, soft fragrance makes thee so dear,

Thou loveliest gem of the floral year!



Such was the character of the Israelitish maiden, Jephthah's daughter. Modest and bashful, shrinking from the gaze of men, her life had been passed in the retirement of her father's dwelling until the sublime occasion called her forth which is so beautifully



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              95 


explained in our tradition. The blue violet therefore is sacred to the memory of Jephthah's daughter.


The character of Ruth is illustrated by the sunflower. This broad and stately blossom, which steadily faces the sun from his oriental to his occidental course, is an emblem of lofty and pure thoughts.


As the poet expresses it:


Herein will I imitate the sun;

Who cloth permit the base contagious clouds

To smother up his beauty from the world,

That when he please again to be himself,

Being wanted, he may be more wondered at

By breaking through the foul and ugly mists

Of vapors that seem to strangle him.


Such was the character of the Moabitish damsel, who came "from Moab's hills to Bethlehem's gates." In her days of prosperity her wealth and rank had but gilded the bright purity of her soul; and in her poverty and desertion, when toiling, a poor gleaner in the fields of Boaz, the unalloyed graces of Ruth shone out with the halo of lofty and pure thoughts. The sunflower, therefore, is sacred to the memory of Ruth.


The character of Esther is illustrated by the white lily. All nations agree in making this flower the emblem of purity, and its beauty and delicacy have ever been the theme of admiration from the time of Solomon to the present day. Even the divine Savior points to it with admiration, saying, "Behold the lilies of the field; I say unto you that Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these." The poet has happily declared:


Fair white lilies having birth

In their native genial earth:

These in sweet and queenly grace,

Match the maiden's form and face.


Such was the character of Esther, the matchless queen of Persia, fairest among the women of the land, pre‑eminent in intellectual gifts, the pride of the down‑trodden people of God, exposed to all the temptations of pride, rank and a corrupt court, she still



96                                                                                                                                RITUALS.


retained that purity of character which had elevated her at the first, and when the time of trial came, her heroism and self‑devotion gained the favor of the king and saved her people from destruction. The white lily, therefore, is sacred to the memory of Esther.


The character of Martha is illustrated by the pine sprig. This, in Masonry, reminds us of the immortality of the soul and the resurrection of the, body, the two sublimest lessons the mind of man can con‑template. The history of Martha, as given in our traditions, is that of a young woman whose faith in Christ enabled her to resist the despondency that death had thrown around her, and to believe that her brother would rise again under the Almighty voice. Her faith was duly rewarded and her heart was made happy in the reunion. The pine sprig, therefore, is sacred to the memory of Martha.


The character of Electa is illustrated by the red rose. In producing the rose, nature appears to have exhausted herself by her prodigality in attempting to create so fine a specimen of freshness, of beauty in form, of exquisite perfume, of brilliance of color and of grace. The rose adorns the whole earth as the commonest of flowers. It is the emblem of all ages, the interpreter of all our sentiments, it illustrates alike our happiness and our sorrows. Its lessons are sung by the poet when he says:


'Tis not alone in the flush of morn,

In the cowslip‑bell or the blossom‑thorn,

In noon's high hour or twilight hush,

In the shadowy stream of the floweret's blush,

Or in aught that beautiful nature gives,

That the delicate spirit of beauty lives.


Oh, no, it lives and breathes and lies

In a home more pure than the morning skies;

In the innocent heart it loves to dwell,

When it comes with a sigh or a tear to tell,

Sweet visions that flow from the fount of love,

To mingle with all that is pure above.


Such was the character of Electa, combining all the meek domestic virtues with the highest and noblest heroism that is recorded in the books of history. In



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              97 


the pursuit of what she deemed her Christian duty, she cheerfully surrendered all things, sealing the covenant she had made with her heart's blood. The red rose, therefore, is sacred to the memory of Electa.


Choose then, my esteemed sister, which of these emblems, the blue violet, the sunflower, the white lily, the pine sprig, or the red rose you will adopt as yours.


The choice seemed to be deemed a weighty one, as the lady was allowed three months in which to make her selection. This ceremony does not seem to have any points of union with the rest of the work and was rather meaningless.


For an additional ceremony of the family see the heading, Banquets.





This was a revised form for communicating the degrees, a pledge of secrecy only being required. The welcoming ode was as follows:


A welcome and a greeting now,

To gentle friends and sisters true,

Around the place where Mason's bow,

And pay their homage due;

On checkered floor, 'neath starry sky,

Welcome sweet friends of Masonry.


To her who finds a father here;

Or brother's strong and trusty hand;

To her who mourns the lost and dear,

Once cherished in our band;

To her who husband's love doth own,

Greeting and welcome, every one.


Welcome the light our emblems shed;

Welcome the hope yon volume gives

Welcome the love our covenants spread,

The wages each receives;

And when is past life's toilsome week,

Welcome the home that Masons seek.


The several lectures as in the manual were revised and somewhat shortened, and the subjects of the degrees were given as "The Tradition of the Veil;"




98                                                                                                                                RITUALS.


"The Tradition of the Barley Field;" "The Tradition of the Crown, Robe and Sceptre;" "The Tradition of the Uplift Hands," and "The Tradition of the Martyr's Cross." Each degree had a Christian application which was fully explained. The evening was closed with the following valedictory:


Good night! the spirits of the blest and good

From these dear halls go with you and abide:

In hours of sorrow, hours of solitude,

Or when the hosts of melancholy brood

And cloud your minds, may angel spirits glide

From the white throne and give you great delight

            Dear friends, good night'


Good night, good night! and joy be with you all!

May sickness never blight, nor poverty:

May slander's breath your spirits ne'er appall,

May no untoward accident befall,

But all things prosperous and joyful be:

May morning suns rise on you fresh and bright -  

            Dear friends, good night!


Good night! in dreams, may faithful Martha come

To tell of her Beloved, high in heaven:

And Ruth, the gleaner, from the harvest home,

And Adah, maid immortal, from her tomb,

Esther and true Electa, spirits bright,

            And say, Good night!


Good night! and when the shadows of the grave

Close in around you - when the parting breath

Draws heavily, and unto Him who gave

You yield the spirit, be He strong to save

Who is our Guide and Savior unto death:

Then may dear friends and heavenly hopes unite,

            To say, Good night!




This was almost an exact reprint of the Morris Manual, the secret work being given by initial letters, each of which was numbered, and a Vocabulary which accompanied it, being referred to by letter and number, indicated the word.



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              99




This was compiled largely from the Mosaic and Morris Manual, much new matter, in the shape of opening, closing, and installation ceremonies being formulated; and, in this was first inaugurated the manner of communicating the cabalistic word and motto substantially as at present. Much of the work, both original and reprint, was given by initial letters only, without any other key as to what it was. The vacant chairs, as in the Mosaic Book, were retained, and also the dialogue as there introduced, although in an abbreviated form. In this was first included the instruction that a Mason seeing one of the signs given, should write his name on a card, or slip of paper, together with the pass belonging to the sign given.


The officers were styled Worthy President (Matron), Vice President (Patron), First Patron (Adah), Second Patron (Ruth), etc., Secretary, Treasurer, Conductor, Guard, and Sentinel. In 1872 the ritual was amended so that all of the five signs were used in the opening and closing ceremonies of the Lodge.





This was for the communicating of the degrees under a pledge of secrecy only, and was illustrated with a rather too suggestive picture for each degree, and the motto: "‑We have seen his Star," etc., was changed to the first person singular. A grip was introduced for the first time. Concerning the origin of this grip the Masonic department of a New York weekly newspaper in 1877, gave the following: After diligent inquiry we learn that the grip was invented by accident at a meeting held in Concord, New Hampshire, when brother W. S. Wolf, now of New York city, was conferring the degree as a lecture, in 1862, prior to which time there had been no grip. A lady, whose husband was a Mason, "rose in meetin'," and said aloud, "Brother Wolf, you have




100                                                                                                                             RITUALS.




forgotten to give us the grip." It was a dilemma, but brother Wolf was equal to the emergency, and gave the grip which is now so generally used; a council of Eastern Star lecturers having adopted it in 1863.

This material originally scanned by Ralph Omholt, Kirkland Chapter 176, Washington.





This was the first ritual providing for the Chapter form of organization. Jewels were prescribed for the officers, that for the Patron being a duplicate of the Matron's. Provision was also first made for a floor star. Sisters only were to be initiated; brothers, if elected, being only required to pledge their honor as master Masons, in open Chapter, to conform to the rules and regulations of the order. Concerning the initiation of brethren, provided for in the General Grand Chapter ritual, brother Macoy subsequently said, in Critical and Explanatory Notes:



The ceremonies originally "set forth" in the Eastern Star Order were intended for ladies only. The attempted innovation of requiring gentlemen to pass through these ceremonies will have the effect of illustrating that there is "but a step from the sublime to the ridiculous." We hope no Chapter will enforce the suggestion of the committee, and no gentleman will allow himself to be the subject of mirth by being so used. The ceremony might be appropriate for the committee, but not proper for a gentleman.



In declaring the Chapter open, the Matron said:



In the name of the departed heroines whose virtues we emulate; in the name of our great sisterhood, knit together in bonds of charity and sincere friendship; and in the name of our heavenly Master, who has declared that He "Loved' a cheerful giver," I declare _____ Chapter No. ___ , of the Eastern Star, open and in due order for the dispatch of business.



The covenant of adoption, which was printed in full, contained but four ties: 1. Secrecy; 2. Obedience to law; 3. Advice, sympathy and aid; 4. Avoid-


Robert Macoy
RITUALS.                                                                                                                              101


ing acts of injustice and unkindness. The point; lectures bore the same characteristics as those of the Manuals, the candidate being seated in the point chairs during their delivery. Some infelicitous expressions marred this work, e. g.: the Conductress stated that "first impressions made upon a candidate are permanent *  * and it depends greatly upon the  manner of conducting her * * to make those impressions lasting," and this is found in all the Macoy rituals and the New York ritual.


Forms for installation, for a Chapter of sorrow and funeral services were also included, most of which were performed by the Patron. These were undoubtedly original with brother Macoy.


The Chapter of sorrow was a most harrowing service; the room, altar, and official stations were to be draped in black; on the altar was an urn covered with a black pall fringed with silver, or white silk, on which were painted or embroidered the names of the departed; at each point of the star was a lighted white wax candle; a floral star was also introduced, from which the various colored flowers were withdrawn by the proper officers, and deposited in the urn of 'remembrance. Much of the language of the Macoy funeral service; was incorporated into it, and like that, it was entirely under the direction of the Patron, the Matron's part consisting of six lines; while in the funeral service she had no part whatever.





This was an arrangement of the work for the use of the order in Scotland and was made up from the Morris Manual, and Adoptive Rite, and was not well adapted to the work in an organized body, as it included much of the address of the Patron that was contained in the Manual, which was written solely for the communicating of the degree in lecture form.



102                                                                                                                             RITUALS.


Nor was it adapted to the communicating of the degree, as the other portions of the work were arranged to be rendered by the star officers. The only original matter worthy of note was the lecture of Martha, which followed more nearly and completely the scripture account. We make the following excerpts:


The family, composed of Martha and Mary, with their brother Lazarus, seemed to have possessed all things needful for a happy life. Bound up in the love of each other, and blessed with the friendship of Him whom to know is everlasting life, the little group were distinguished from their neighbors by a name that proved how thoroughly their hearts were occupied with divine things. They were "the beloved of the Master, the happy household of Bethany." * * Amazing faith! heroic spirit of confidence in her friend! though her brother had been four days in the embrace of death, and the subject of its corrupting influences - though the weight of watchfulness and sorrow rested heavily upon her spirit as she knelt, her hands wildly raised to heaven - there was a spirit of prophecy in her words which gave them a. value altogether their own.





In this Adoptive Rite was closely followed, there being introduced a five‑sided altar, the sides of glass in colors, the proper emblems being painted on them, which were illuminated by a lamp or candle placed inside the altar; around which was a five‑sided cushion in the five colors; in the East was an illuminated five‑pointed star. In this was first introduced the square and compass as the Patron's official emblem. Provision was made for collars of the five colors to be worn by eight officers; the star officers were to wear sashes and aprons of the appropriate colors, while all other sisters were to wear five‑sided white aprons, each side measuring twelve inches, with a bib, the point of which was to reach the center of the apron; these



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              103


were trimmed around the edges with the five colors. The complete Chapter was made, for the first time, to require fourteen officers, and the Patron was mentioned first. Many other additions and verbal changes were made in the initiation ceremony, to make it more complete, and the candidate for the first time was caused to kneel at the altar and to repeat they vow of adoption. A special form was provided for the initiation of gentlemen, which included the vow of adoption, and the explanation of the signs, passes, grip, and cabalistic motto, but did not include any lectures. Some additions were made to the initiation ceremony, but the lectures were as in Adoptive Rite, the candidate, however, not being seated. An installation ceremony, differing somewhat from Adoptive Rite, completed the volume.





In this brother Macoy availed himself largely of the matter embraced in the California ritual, e. g.: the number of officers for a complete Chapter was made fourteen, but the Patron was mentioned last. Provision was made, for the first time, for the officers to march in before the opening, and responses from the star officers were incorporated in the opening ceremony, in Adoptive Rite the meaning of the point emblems being incorporated in the Matron's work. Otherwise the book was unchanged.





In this the jewel of the Patron was made the square and compasses, as in California, and many of the minor additions and verbal changes in that ritual, including the ceremony for initiating gentlemen, were incorporated. It was provided that the Conductress was to ascertain if all sisters present were members of the order, and The Patron will assure himself that the gentlemen present are entitled to seats in the Chapter. * * If



104                                                                                                                             RITUALS.


there should be any master Masons present who have not been obligated, that ceremony should be performed immediately after the Chapter shall be declared open.


The golden chain was introduced, and for the first time in a Macoy ritual, the initiation ceremony was concluded by a lecture by the Patron, in which the signs, passes, etc., were explained. This was the work of B. T. Burnham, Grand Lecturer of New York, and was published in pamphlet form by the Grand Chapter of New York, in 1875, without being copyrighted. Forms were also provided for constituting Chapters and dedicating halls, and it also contained a revised burial service, which was largely performed by the Patron; although the Matron was given a small part.





A committee was appointed by the General Grand Chapter, in 1870, to prepare a ritual, of which Jeremiah F. Whitcher, of California, was a member. A committee of the Grand Chapter of Massachusetts, of which Thomas M. Lamb, afterward Most Worthy Grand Patron, was chairman, presented for the consideration of the committee, a new set of lectures, and the committee of the Grand Chapter of California, which prepared this ritual, availed itself of many of the suggestions of the Massachusetts committee. The special form for the initiation of gentlemen was dropped. With these exceptions the ritual was much like the first California ritual.





This was a revision of the Tatem Monitor, in which much of the secret work, especially in the opening ceremonies, was represented by asterisks, while the point lectures were an exact reproduction of those in the Tatem Monitor. It was printed by the Grand



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              105


Lodge for the use of its subordinates, the original work being out of print.





This ritual was prepared by a committee appointed in 1876, consisting of John M. Mayhew, of New Jersey; Willis D. Engle, of Indiana; Thomas C. Heady, of Missouri; Jeremiah E. Whitcher, of California; Elizabeth Butler, of Illinois; Mary A. Comstock, of Indiana; and Mattie A. Yost, of Missouri; which submitted its report in 1878, when it was amended, adopted, and placed in the hands of a committee consisting of brothers Lamb, Mayhew and Engle, for arrangement and printing, and the proclamation of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, authorizing its use, was issued November 16, 1878, the second anniversary of the organization of the General Grand Chapter, and it was immediately accepted by all the Grand Chapters except New York and Vermont. By it the Patron was made the second officer of a Chapter, and provision was made for a Chaplain, if desired. Jewels were prey gibed for the officers, and it was provided:


Collars, and other regalia in addition, may be worn by Chapters that desire them the General Grand Chapter only prescribing the minimum. All the members of the order shall, during Chapter session, wear upon the left breast a five‑pointed star, three inches across, and having the five colors of the order.


This, however, never attained general acceptance in practice.


The alarm as now in use was herein first introduced, as were also the Grand honors, and the giving of the signs and the responses in the opening ceremony, similar to the Mosaic Book. A new opening prayer was inserted, and a closing prayer, for which no provision had been made in the preceding Chapter rituals,



106                                                                                                                             RITUALS.


was adapted from the Mosaic Book. The use of scripture recitations (luring the weaving of the labyrinth was authorized, and the Patron's address was greatly changed, and entirely new lectures were furnished for Ruth, Esther, and Electa, while Martha's was materially lengthened, and greatly beautified. The Patron's lecture, including the explanation of the floral emblems, was entirely recast, and forms for installation of officers and Grand officers, the latter entirely new, and a new funeral ceremony completed the volume.





This was a publication made by brother Macoy, and embraced portions of the General Grand Chapter ritual, with the brother's comments and criticisms thereon. In it was reiterated the claims that brother Morris was the originator of the order, and the transfer of his assumed authority to brother Macoy; and it was stated that "when the Chapters had sufficiently increased in each State, Grand Chapters were formed, first in New York, then in other States;" that he had "openly and candidly" opposed the organization of the General Grand Chapter "because I dreaded that the spirit of innovation would destroy all that to which so much labor had been devoted to build up;" that the General Grand Chapter ritual was "tautological and farcical, monotonous and puerile. It may possibly be used by a few, and by reason of its innovations, will produce confusion and discord in the order."





 This work, which was written by a man who claims that


As I received these "Adoptive Degrees" from their inventor and "Grand Patron," Rob Morris himself, the public may rest assured I here give them correctly. Certain it is that I give them not only as 



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              107


I received them, but as, under a commission from the "Grand Patron," Morris, I conferred them upon several hundred men and women in different parts of the State of Michigan. For the sketch of the origin and character of the order and the analysis of the different degrees the public are indebted to the publisher instead of the author.


Any one perusing the aforesaid sketch and analysis will not be surprised that even a man who claimed to be thus violating his most solemn pledge of secrecy, desired to escape the responsibility for such diatribe. With a sanctimoniousness characteristic of all such self‑accusing perjurers, he says:


That this little volume may be blessed of God in opening the eyes of many to the real character, not only of this order, but of freeMasonry and kindred orders is the prayer of the author.


When it is remembered that at the time of the publication of this book the work of the order, correctly given, with the exception of the secret work, could be had at any bookseller's by purchasing Macoy's Manual, it is evident that the object of its publication was either to make mono y; to mislead those who had no knowledge of the real character and work of the order; or simply to carry the vile misrepresentations of the order, and of Masonry. We will give some extracts from the sketch and analysis; those of a milder nature only, and will also reproduce some of the illustrations of the manner of giving the signs, which will certainly be amusing if not profitable to members of the order. They are inserted here so that should a person ask admission to a Chapter, and give the signs after this manner, the source from which they attained their knowledge might be known.


A careful investigation of the subject must convince every candid person that secret societies play a very important part in the devil's economy.



108                                                                                                                             RITUALS.



 It certainly is not that I have any personal quarrel with any of the managers of the order or that I seek pecuniary profit or notoriety thereby, but that the Christian women of America may see for themselves what a sham and cheat is provided to close the mouths of the female relatives of freeMasons from protesting against an order which is a standing insult to every true woman, in that it not only classes all women with minors, madmen and fools, but would repeal the law of God which pronounces husband and wife one, by swearing the husband to perpetually conceal from his wife matters concerning his relations with five hundred thousand other men, to each of whom he may confide what he dare not mention to his wife.



The first degree is evidently a shrewd, yet desperate attempt to justify Masonic oaths, even when such oaths lead to murder. The second aims to prove that freeMasonry inculcates piety, though Masonic authors sneer at the Decalogue as narrow and declare that the Masonic moral law is the law of nature only. The object of the third degree is somewhat similar to that of the first degree, and though professedly a tribute to true friendship is plainly designed to teach that freeMasons are justified in aiding and defending each other in both right and wrong conduct. What the object of the fourth degree is, unless it be by wholesale lying to deceive the uninformed as to the charac-



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              109


ter of the order, seems difficult to imagine. The fifth degree is a lame attempt to convey the impression that freeMasonry teaches "patience and submission under wrongs" and that freeMasons are a noble band of martyrs for the truth; and further, that benevolence is a prime characteristic of the order.



We call attention to the fact that all master Masons in good standing in the Masonic order, however immoral their character, may demand admission to the women's Lodge.



The lightning changes of costumes between the first and second positions in the widow's and wife's signs must have been of a sleight of hand nature and we are certain that the correctness, with which the sins are delineated is only exceeded by the artistic execution of the engravings. The decided change in Esther's countenance will also fix attention.





This was substantially a reprint of the original General Grand Chapter ritual, although it contained many minor changes. It was provided that any Chapter could have a Marshal and an Organist if it so desired. The greatest change was in the lecture of Electa, which was entirely recast, and somewhat shortened. Another change was in the rearranging and shortening of the Patron's lecture.





In this, following the arrangement of the General Grand Chapter ritual, the Patron was made the




110                                                                                                                             RITUALS.


second officer of the Chapter, and other regulations were adopted from the same source. The opening, closing and initiation ceremonies were an exact reprint of the Macoy ritual. One of the purposes of this publication was to engraft upon the order the "higher degrees" of the Amaranth and Queen of the South, but so far as the latter is concerned it was a complete failure. I do not know that it has been used by any one. These remarks are not applicable to our colored friends, who delight in its royal titles. As the ritual was sold in the open market, they largely availed themselves of it. The book closed with an historical sketch from the pen of W. J. Duncan, now a Past Grand Patron of New York, which contains many facts of a valuable nature, but he could not but let his friendship for brother Macoy bias him so that some things are only partially stated, as e. g.: "The order was introduced into *  *  * Michigan, at Rockland, March, 1870 (during 1867, '68, and '69 there was a system called `Lodges of adoptive Masonry');" the reader being left to infer that that system had died out, and that there was no Grand Chapter in that State, as, in every other instance, he gave the date of the organization of the Grand Chapter. Rob Morris's writings in 1877 are copiously quoted as in opposition to the General Grand Chapter, and the impression conveyed that he was unalterably opposed to it, the fact that lie gave it his endorsement during the last eight years of his life, being entirely ignored.





This is a revision of the Macoy ritual, containing opening, closing, and initiation ceremonies for both women and master Masons. To it are also appended the floral work as composed by brother Burton, and a form for organizing Chapters. The following changes are noted: The Associate Matron is provided with 



RITUALS.                                                                                                                              111


a gavel, but no use is specified for it; the point lectures are slightly changed, and in some places abbreviated; the duties and badge of the Patron are introduced into the opening ceremony, and are given by that officer; the prayer in the opening is changed, and a form for prayer in closing is supplied where, in the Macoy ritual, provision was made for an extemporaneous prayer; the question: "Do you believe in the existence of a Supreme Being?" is introduced into the work; and certain portions of the secret work which were in the Macoy ritual, are omitted.





This was a translation of the New York ritual into German for the use of Concordia Chapter, New York city.





In 1896 the Grand Chapter of New York purchased from the heirs of Robert Macoy his copyright of the Macoy Standard, but as brother Macoy was never the owner of the copyright of any previous ritual, Adoptive Rite having been copyrighted by the Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing Company, the owners  of that copyright did not pass to the Grand Chapter, but is now claimed by J. G. Barker, as the successor to that company, and this ritual, which includes not only the Eastern Star, but also the Queen of the South, Matron's Administrative degree, forms for installation of officers and Grand officers, constituting and inaugurating Chapters, dedicating halls, Chapter of sorrow, and funeral service, is upon the market, for sale to whomsoever will buy. This ritual is a combination of Adoptive Rite revised and Macoy's Ritual, such alterations as were introduced into the work by brother Macoy before he sold his interest in the Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing Company in 1875 being included in it, as is also the form of the initiation of master Masons.









THESAUROS set forth the objects of the order as follows: The objects of this organization are to relieve the distressed, cultivate the social virtues; guard the good fame and character of the membership; and promote the interests of the Christian religion.


In the Mosaic Book:


1, To associate in one common band, the worthy wives, widows, daughters, and sisters of freeMasons, so as to make their adoptive privileges available for all purposes contemplated in Masonry;


2, to secure to them the advantages of their adoptive claims in a moral, social, and charitable point of view; and


3, to gain from them the performance of corresponding duties. The benefits of this rite are mainly for the female sex. For them this temple has been reared, these walls set up. They are its glory and crown. For a wider diffusion of the Masonic scheme of teaching morality and religion by significant emblems; for inclining the influence of females toward the York rite; for increasing social enjoyment by the Masonic tie, for ameliorating the condition of widows and orphans; and for affording increased facilities in relieving distressed travelers, the American Adoptive Rite has been framed. To secure successful results it is necessary that its votaries should apply its rules in a rigid sense; maintain its landmarks valiantly; affiliate into its bonds only those calculated, by temperament and principle, to understand and appreciate it, and work out patiently and untiringly its Grand designs.





OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.                                                                                      113


            Adoptive Rite added:


The wives, mothers, widows, sisters and daughters of Masons cannot, from the immutable laws of the order, be permitted to share in the Grand mysteries of freeMasonry; but there is no reason why there should not be a society for them, which may not merely en‑able them to make themselves known to Masons, and so to obtain assistance and protection, but by means of which, acting in concert through the tie of association and united obligation, they may co‑operate in the great labors of Masonry, by assisting in, and, in some respects directing, the charities, and toiling in the cause of human progress.


In his address to the General Grand Chapter in 1880, Thomas M. Lamb, Most Worthy Grand Patron, said:


What Masonry does for the Masonic brother, the Eastern Star shall do for the Mason's wife, daughter, widow, mother and sister. They also shall become companions in the pilgrimage of life, and walk with the brother by the light of the blending rays of their own and the brother's order. Together they shall enter the temples of the Eastern Star, and consecrating themselves to a pure and useful life, become bound in the bonds of charity and loving kindness. The brother, kneeling at such an altar, will feel stronger the obligation resting upon him to walk uprightly, worthy of such companionship. The light that emanates from our central star, shall lead them to virtues that blossom into true manhood and woman‑hood. Electa shall teach them loyalty to the truth, and though suffering the wrongs of persecution in its behalf, to despair not of its final triumph - the eternal years of God are hers. They shall learn fidelity to convictions of right from Adah, who in the morning of life surrendered to the grave the brightest of earthly hopes, that she might prove faithful to her convictions of right, and preserve her father's honor. The constancy of the humble gleaner Ruth shall teach them that there is loveliness among the lowly, and




114                                                                                         OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.


that in every station of life we should be faithful to the demands of honor and justice. They shall learn of that burning love for kindred and friends, that led Esther to risk the loss of crown and life, that she might give life and joy to a despised and captive race. When sore bereavement shall cast them into the valley of sorrow, they shall see Martha beside the grave of her brother, inspired with trustful faith and hope of immortal life. The broken column shall be entwined with evergreen, an emblem that leads the sorrowing heart through the shadow of the tomb to the open portals of eternal day, where faith is lost in sight, and hope crowned with celestial fruition.


A later writer has said: Its purposes are to enlarge the acquaintance, increase the friendships, and cultivate sociability among the brotherhood and their families. The brotherhood have many and frequent opportunities of sociability at the meetings of the Lodge, Chapter, council and commandery, from which their families are excluded. The Eastern Star supplies this long felt want to those who should of right share with the brotherhood its labors and its enjoyments. It is a worthy helpmeet, and has proved a most helpful auxiliary to the venerable order of freeMasonry. Its purposes are high and ennobling, and its lessons teach the purest morality and a consistent Christianity. While it seeks to encourage and cultivate the social element among its members, it aims to practice that charity which suffereth long and is kind. From the time of its conception, it has not only been a social institution, but one of charity and benevolence as well. All along, its past has been marked by deeds of charity, and kindness, and mutual goodwill to man, giving aid to the unfortunate, advice to the troubled, and sympathy to the sorrowing. With these noble deeds, making the pathway of many a life brighter and purer, the cause of the Eastern Star has ever been onward and upward, rising higher and still higher toward the zenith of perfection, whence its beneficent rays will permeate every Masonic home in the land.



OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.                                                                                      115





In Mosaic Book they were nine in number:


I. The Star of Christ, or Eastern Star, is the basis of the five degrees of the American Adoptive Rite.


II. This rite contains nothing in its ceremonies and lectures of any other rite.


III. Its lessons are eminently scriptural and Christian.


IV. Its obligations are based on the honor of the female sex; and framed upon the principle that what‑ever benefits are due by the Masonic fraternity to the wives, widows, daughters, and sisters of Masons, corresponding benefits are due from them to the Masonic fraternity.


V. The control of the rite lies in a central head, styled the Supreme Constellation.


VI. The Supreme Constellation delegates its authority to form subordinate constellations respectively, to five affiliated master Masons of the York Rite, associated together for that purpose, and responsible to the Supreme Constellation alone.


VII. An intimate periodical relationship is maintained between each subordinate constellation and the central b sad.


VIII The ceremonial and lectures of this rite are communicated by the joint instrumentality of both sexes.


IX. The entire ritual of this rite, both esoteric and exoteric, is reduced to writing and intrusted, under due precautions, to the heads of constellations.


Adoptive Rite increased the number to fifteen, embracing, practically I, III, IV, V, and VI of the above, substituting Supreme Grand Chapter for Supreme Constellation, and adding


4. A belief in the existence of a Supreme Being, who will, sooner or later, punish the willful violation of a solemn pledge.


5. The modes of recognition, which are the peculiar secrets of the rite, cannot, without destroying the foundation of the system, be changed.



116                                                                                         OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.


6. That a covenant of secrecy voluntarily assumed is perpetual; from the force of such obligation there is no possibility of release.


8. That the ballot for candidates for membership must be unanimous, and is to be kept inviolably secret.


9. The right of every Chapter to be the judge of who shall be admitted to its membership, and to select its own officers; but in no case can the ceremonies of they order be conferred unless a master Mason in good standing in the Masonic fraternity presides.


10. Every sister is amenable to the laws and regulations of the order, and may be tried for offenses, though she may permanently or temporarily reside within the jurisdiction of another Chapter.


11. The right of every sister to appeal from the decision of her associates in Chapter convened, to the Supreme Grand Chapter, or to the M. E. Grand Patron.


12. The prerogative of the M. E. Grand Patron to preside over every assembly of the rite wherever he may visit, and to grant charters for the formation of new Chapters.


13. That every Chapter has the right to dispense the light of the adoptive rite and to administer its own private affairs.


14. Every Chapter should elect and install its officers annually.


15. The right of every sister to visit and sit in every regular Chapter, except when such visitor is likely to disturb the harmony or interrupt the progress of the Chapter she proposes to visit.


They were the same in Macoy's ritual except that the word "Supreme," and the letters "M. E." were omitted from 7, 11, and 12, and the words "and to grant dispensations for the formation of new Chapters within the territorial jurisdiction," were added to 12. Although there were two or three incidental allusions to a Supreme Grand Chapter and a Supreme Grand Patron, in this ritual, this change in the landmarks was a practical abandonment of the pretense



OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.                                                                                      117


of the existence of such a body, and, as this ritual was first issued in 1876, just at the time when the movement for the organization of the General Grand Chapter was taking definite shape, and brother Macoy was preparing to attack it on the ground of the uselessness of such bodies, the reason of the change is apparent. Failing in his purposes, when he issued Macoy's Standard, in 1887, he, inserted the words "Supreme Council," and "Supreme Patron, or executive officer," in 7, and changed 11 and 12 to correspond.


The General Grand Chapter reduced the number to twelve, embracing practically all of Macoy's except those referring to the control of the rite, and 12, 13, and 14, and changing the word "sister," to "member." This latter change was also embodied in the New York ritual, and "Matron" was substituted for "Patron" in number twelve.





The Thesauros provided that "at least one annual, public procession of this body shall occur, that the light of the order may prove a city upon a hill, not to be hid." The universal practice in the order in later days has been to forbid public displays, outside of funerals, Chapters of sorrow, and public installations, thus being in harmony with the spirit and practice of Masonry. In most jurisdictions any display beyond those mentioned, is prohibited.




Thesauros provided that the degrees could only be conferred by the officers of the Supreme Council, or their authorized deputies. The Deputy Luminaries were authorized to appoint "as many Assistant Deputy Luminaries as the good of the order may require," each of whom was empowered "to receive petitions, decide upon merits, and confer the five degrees in the



118                                                                                         OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.


original mode wherever within the State of _____ his journeyings may bring him," and they were to serve until the next convocation of the Supreme Council, which was to meet quintennially. "The Supreme Council at Philadelphia, 1845, directs each Deputy Luminary to offer an Assistant Deputyship to each Master and Past Master of a Lodge throughout his division." Under the Morris regime every master Mason who, had the right to receive the degree, had an equal right to communicate it, provided there were not less than five ladies present, together with as many gentlemen as might be convenient. Master Masons could not communicate the degree to one another, save in the presence of five ladies.


Under the present system the degrees can only be conferred in regularly organized Chapters, save that, in most jurisdictions, the Grand Patron, or his deputy, duly authorized so to do, has power to communicate them at sight upon petitioners for the organization of a Chapter in a town or city where no Chapter exists, but, in one or two jurisdictions, the Grand Matron is clothed with this power.





At the present time all affiliated master Masons, their wives, widows, mothers, sisters, and daughters, over eighteen years of age, are eligible to membership, and in many jurisdictions, including that of the General Grand Chapter, the term daughters is interpreted to include legally adopted daughters; but during the development of the order, other regulations have obtained.


In Thesauros, dimitted master Masons, and the wives, widows, sisters, daughters, and the sisters of the wives of such, were admitted of "fifteen years of



OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.                                                                                      119


age and upwards, of matured intellect and good understanding." In constellations, applicants for membership were required to be affiliated master Masons, or the relatives of such, and were to be recommended by five members, and "a unanimous vote (save two) shall be required to elect. They must also be of sound mind, and capable of acquiring a knowledge of the rite." Under the Morris regime (1860‑1868), all master Masons, whether affiliated or not, and the wives, widows, sisters, and daughters of such were admitted, "provided the unmarried ladies were eighteen years of age or upward," but step‑sisters, step‑daughters, and divorced widows, were specifically excluded. It was further provided that Daughters and sisters who have married persons not Masons can receive the degree at the discretion of the lecturer; but, in general it is advised that they should not.


The same rule was laid down in the Macoy Manual, without the exceptions. Under the Tatem Monitor only affiliated master Masons, and their wives, widows, daughters, and sisters were eligible. The first recognition of the mothers of master Masons was in Adoptive Rite, and since that, the present rule has generally prevailed.


In the states of New York and New Jersey it has always been the practice to admit all master Masons to the meetings of Chapters, as visitors, upon their assuming an obligation of secrecy, but this is not believed to have been done in any other jurisdiction.


Thesauros declared: The Order of the Eastern Star is impregnable to the profane, the vicious, and the skeptics of Christian faith. The Order of the Eastern Star is a Christian association of females in aid of ancient freeMasonry.



120                                                                                         OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.


The Mosaic Book:


It will be observed that this order, like the encampment order of Masonry, is a Christian system; and that none can consistently become its members, whether male or female, save those who at least believe in Jesus Christ.


Morris's Manual:


The Eastern Star degree is not adapted to the Jewish brethren or their female relatives, though they may receive it if they choose. If any offer to attend they ought to be informed that it is purely Christian.


According to Adoptive Rite and Macoy's rituals, including the Standard, and Adoptive Rite Ritual, "A belief in the existence of a supreme being, who will, sooner or later, punish the willful violation of a solemn pledge," was one of the landmarks. By the General Grand Chapter and New York rituals the candidate was required to declare a belief in the existence of a Supreme Being. All other rituals are silent as to religious belief.


The Mosaic Book provided:


Whatever physical deformities or deficiencies, that would render a person incapable of giving and responding to any of the means of recognition, are a bar to initiation.


No other ritual alludes to physical qualifications, that matter being usually dealt with by decisions of the several Grand Chapters, which are generally in accord with the above, although the blind, and the deaf and dumb have been initiated in some jurisdictions. For particulars of these decisions reference should be made to the index.


In Thesauros sisters were called members, and brothers protectors; in the Mosaic Book, sisters were stellæ, and brothers protectors. Under the family regime they were called simply sisters and brothers,



OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.                                                                                      121


and this custom has prevailed ever since, although, by decisions in some jurisdictions, the use of the terms have been confined to the precincts of the Chapter room.





Under Thesauros membership was forfeited by great dereliction of duty, violation of the obligation, or transgression of the laws of the land, and the excinded member should be held as such until full reformation is evident.


By the Mosaic Book a protector forfeited his membership:


1, by absence, from the sessions of the constellation for twelve consecutive months (except on account of protracted journeying, or ill‑health,);


2, by demitting from the Masonic Lodge in which he is affiliated;


3, by suspension or expulsion from said Lodge;


4, by suspension or expulsion from the constellation.


The membership of a stella is forfeited 1, by absence from the sessions of the constellation for twelve consecutive months (except on account of protracted journeying, or ill‑health,); 2, by suspension or expulsion from the constellation; 3, by the dimital, suspension or expulsion of the individual through whom she was adopted, upon her original petition, provided that, if she can prove adoption through another master Mason, affiliated, and in good standing, the Pillars of a constellation are at liberty to substitute his name on the membership board for the one originally entered there.


In Book of Instructions provision was made for the forfeiture of membership only after "a fair trial, conducted on a patient and equitable basis," except that


Any master Mason, a member of the family, suspended or expelled by his Lodge, shall receive the same penalty from the family, without trial; nor can he be reinstated in the family until he has been reinstated by his Lodge, or the Grand Lodge.



122                                                                                         OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.


Under Adoptive Rite and Adoptive Rite Ritual a brother's membership was forfeited "by suspension, expulsion, or dismission from the Masonic Lodge of which he was a member; or from the Chapter;" while the membership of a sister was forfeited: 1, by absence from the sessions of the Chapter for two years; 2, by suspension, expulsion, or dismission from the Chapter; 3, by the suspension, expulsion, or dismission of the brother through whom she was adopted upon her original petition; provided that, if she can prove adoption through another master ma‑son, affiliated, and in good standing, the members of the Chapter are at liberty to substitute his name on the original petition.


In Macoy's ritual and Macoy's Standard the same rule obtained, except that the third specification in regard to a sister was omitted, and this is the rule that now universally exists, although the exempting of a sister from dependence upon the good standing of the brother through whom she obtained membership was strenuously opposed by brother Morris. In 1877 he said: In my judgment nothing so effectually destroys the very aim and purpose of the order as the legislation adopted in some of the Grand Chapters, which changes the relationship of woman to the order. It has been decided in California, New York, and possibly else‑where, that if a master Mason is ever expelled from Masonry this will not affect the standing of his wife, daughter, or sister in the order. What object can a Chapter have in retaining ladies in membership whose husbands are expelled? Will a modest lady come to the Chapter at all under such circumstances? Are they not exposed at every meeting to he wounded by the lectures, and remarks made upon the subject of immorality and unworthiness? Can a master Mason conscientiously sit in a Chapter with ladies whose husbands and fathers he has helped to expel for gross crimes? What principle in the Eastern Star is un‑



OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.                                                                                      123 


changeable if this one is not, which enters into the very origin and philosophy of the order I do not wonder so many intelligent master Masons look with suspicion upon the operations of Grand Chapters of the Eastern Star, when, by a single vote, they can thus remove the foundation stone of the whole order.


Time and experience seem to have vindicated the views that brother Morris deemed so dangerous to the very existence of the order.


Under the present system no penalty attaches to absence from Chapter meetings in any jurisdiction, except that in Wisconsin an officer forfeits office by unnecessary absence from four consecutive meetings.


The General Grand Chapter ritual provided:


Membership can only be forfeited by dismission, suspension, or expulsion from a Chapter, excepting that the suspension or expulsion of a brother from a Masonic Lodge for any other cause than nonpayment of dues, deprives him of all the rights of membership in the order until reinstated by the Masonic body.


In most jurisdictions the laws do not make the exception in regard to nonpayment of dues, while the Grand Chapter of California has decided that the suspension of a brother from his Lodge for any cause does not affect his standing in the Chapter.





The Most Worthy Grand Patron in 1880 decided that


The floral work, and other rhetorical exercises, are useful when the Chapter seeks diversion, or means of culture, but they should in no case be introduced as a part of the initiatory ceremony.


This was supplemented, in 1889, by the adoption of the following:


Resolved, that it is the sense of this General Grand Chapter that the rendition of what is known as the floral work, or floral addenda is not prohibited, if the candidate is fully instructed that it does not constitute any part of the initiatory ceremony.




124                                                                                         OBJECTS, LANDMARKS, ETC.


In 1879 the Grand Chapter of New York declared that So long as our ritual and landmarks of our order are not interfered with, we shall hail with joy any work that will add to the solemnity and interest of our ceremonies.





In his address to the General Grand Chapter in 1889, the Most Worthy Grand Patron said:


I call your attention to a recently published memorial service, entitled Chapter of Sorrow of the Order of the Eastern Star, composed and arranged by sister Addie C. S. Engle. As indicated by its name, it is intended as a service, "supplemental to the prescribed funeral ceremonies, in commemoration of those who, year by year, are taken by the stern reaper, death," and is designed for use in the Chapter room. It is a very beautiful form of service, and is worthy of being used in every Chapter, when it is desired to do honor to the memory of our deceased members. I most heartily commend it to you, and recommend its use in every Chapter of the order.


The committee on revision of ritual reported as follows, and it was adopted:


We have reviewed the memorial service, Chapter of sorrow of the Order of the Eastern Star, as arranged by Mrs. Addie C. S. Engles. We do most heartily indorse it as being all we could desire, both in beauty and expression, and take pleasure in recommending its use to the order.


For particulars as to these, and other similar ceremonies, see Chapter V.







IN ALL rituals the first four degrees are uniformly called Daughter's; Widow's; Wife's; and Sister's. The fifth is called in Thesauros, the Mason's Wife's Sister's; and in subsequent rituals, until Adoptive Rite, in which they are not named, the Christian. In Macoy's Ritual, and subsequent ones, it is called the Mother's. In Thesauros they are further called Initiatory; Passing; Raising; Exalting; and Perfecting.





The names of the five heroines are the same in all rituals except Thesauros, in which Jephthah's daughter is the only designation for the first.





The colors are the same in all rituals except Thesauros, in which the second is given as orange. In the esoteric work presumably accompanying Thesauros, which is not known now to exist, those things which the various colors represented, and the different emblems, were explained.


In Mosaic Book the colors were thus explained:


Blue, which is the hue of distant mountains under Judah's fair sky, reminds me of they two months' stay made by Adah in the mountains, while fortifying her mind against the terrors of a violent death.


Yellow, which is the hue of the barley fields on the plains of Judah, reminds me that, in that place of harvest, all her prayers were answered, her faith re‑warded, and her trust in God vindicated.


White, which is the hue of the silken robes of Esther, reminds men that, in the spotless purity of Christ alone I can expect to find favor at the throne of God.





126                                                                                         DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.


Green, which is the hue of Spring, and covers every grave as with a mantle, reminds me that as Lazarus came forth at the breath of the Lord Jesus Christ, so shall I, in the spring time of the resurrection, be summoned from my grave by the same commanding voice.


Red, which is the hue of blood and wine, reminds me to dispense with my temporal means to the poor, even as the Redeemer gave his heart's best blood to save me from eternal death.


In Morris's Manual:


Blue alludes to the blue appearance of the mountains in whose caves she abode for two months while preparing for death.


Yellow alludes to the color of the ripened barley in the harvest fields of Boaz.


White alludes to her silken apparel as a queen.


Green alludes to the resurrection of Lazarus.


Red alludes to her liberal and boundless hospitality.


In Rosary:


Blue alludes to the mountains of Gilead, among which was her romantic home in Mizpeh. Seen under the clear sky of Palestine, the ranges and peaks of the mountains are intensely blue, and this suggests the application to Jephthah's daughter.


Yellow alludes to the golden late of the barley fields in which Ruth was gleaning when she met with favor at the hands of Boaz.


White alludes to the royal robe of whitest silk worn by Esther when she entered the audience chamber to make known to the king her petition.


Green alludes to the resurrection of her brother Lazarus from the sepulcher where he had lain four days dead.


Red is an emblem of fervency in the exercise of the moral virtues, and alludes to the admirable generosity of Electa displayed particularly toward the poor and persecuted of her faith.


In Macoy's Manual:


Blue alludes to the cerulean hue of the mountains in whose solitude Jephthah's daughter passed two months while preparing herself for death.



DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.                                                                                           127 


Yellow alludes to the ripened grain that composed the barley sheaves of Boaz among which Ruth was gleaning.


White alludes to the silken robes of Esther, emblematic of the spotless purity of her character.


Green alludes to the resurrection of Lazarus, and by direct inference, that final and Grander resurrection at the last day. Never does freeMason cast the evergreen sprig into the open grave of his brother but the coming event is thus beautifully foreshadowed.


Red symbolizes fervency, and alludes to the noble generosity of Electa displayed toward the poor and persecuted of her faith.


Adoptive Rite and Macoy's Ritual:


Blue, which we symbolize (sic) by the azure and hazy atmosphere that enveloped the mountains of Judea, in whose caves and solitude Jephthah's daughter dwelt, with her companions, two months while preparing for death. It also symbolized fidelity, and should teach us to be faithful to all our obligations.


Yellow, which symbolizes the ripened grain in the field of Boaz, in which Ruth was an humble gleaner.


White alludes to the white silken robes in which Esther was dressed when she appeared before the Ling in the court of Persia. It is emblematic of the spotless purity of her character, and teaches us to be ever mindful of our rectitude of conduct in the affairs of life so as to be above the tongue of reproach.


Green, emblematical of the immutable nature of truth and its victory. The evergreen is the symbol of our faith in the immortality of the soul, and the realization of an everlasting happiness beyond the grave.


Red symbolizes fervency, and alludes to the noble generosity of Electa displayed toward the poor and persecuted of her faith.


In the opening ceremonies other explanations were given, some of which seem somewhat strained and inconsistent: The blue ray represents the clearness of the sky,



128                                                                                         DEGREES; EMBLEMS, ETC.


when all clouds have vanished, and symbolizes chastity, loyalty, fidelity, and a spotless reputation.


The yellow ray symbolizes constancy, purity (!), and the lustre of great brightness.


The white ray symbolizes light, purity, and joy.


The green ray, the purity and freshness of which are emblems of delight, and the beauty of nature, and symbolizes hope and immortality.


The red ray, symbolically representing ardor and zeal, which should actuate all who are engaged in the holy cause of benevolence.



California Ritual:


Blue is the color to which popular usage has assigned the representation of that which is true and faithful. When the blue ray is made to fall for some time on the needle it acquires polarity and points time to its mysterious attraction in the chambers of the north. It teaches us to be true and faithful to all our obligations as members of the Eastern Star.


Yellow or gold, one of the primitive colors, and reflecting the most light, after white, is used to signify something pleasing or valuable, as a "heart of gold," or "the golden chain of friendship." To us it is symbolical of the ripened grain in the field of Boaz, in which Ruth was an humble gleaner.


White is the color which has ever been regarded as an emblem of purity and innocence. It is the result of a union and reaction of all the primary rays of light, hence it is metaphorically used to signify a collection and reflection of those graces and virtues which adorn and dignify the character. To us it is emblematical of the spotless purity of the character of Esther.


Green is the most widely diffused of all the tints which adorn the material world, and is the symbol of memory and eternity. The evergreen which lifts it‑self over the grave of some loved one, seems to respond to our sighs with an instructive language: "He is not dead, but sleepeth - thy brother shall rise again." To us it is a symbol of the immortality of the soul.



DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.                                                                                           129


Red, one of the primary colors, is the one by which fervency and love has ever been represented. In the prismatic spectrum the red ray is the most calorific, and the least refragable of all. It teaches us that our covenant of love should be ardent, and never turn from its purpose, and is symbolical of the fervency of Electa in her noble generosity toward the poor and persecuted of her race.





First point. The sword only, is given in the Thesauros, Mosaic Book, Ladies' Friend, and Tatem, while in Morris's Manual the veil is added, but without any explanation. In all other rituals the sword and veil.


Second point. The sheaf is all except Rosary, in which "two barley parcels" were prescribed.


Third point. "The crown" only, in Thesauros, Ladies' Friend, and Ta tem. In Rosary, "the crown, robe and sceptre." In Morris's Manual, the crown and scepter are specified, but the crown only explained. All others, "the crown and scepter."


Fourth point. In Thesauros, "the open sepulchre;" Mosaic Book, "pillar rent;" Rosary, "shattered shaft and green sprig." All others, "broken column."


Fifth point. Thesauros, "grasped hands;" Mosaic Book, "clasped hands;" Morris's Manual, Ladies' Friend and Tatem, "joined hands;" Rosary, "clasped hands, cup and cross;" Macoy's Manual, "cup and clasped hands," but cup only explained. All others, the "cup."




130                                                                                         DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.


The explanations were:


In Mosaic Book:


The sword which in the hands of her own father, became the instrument of her death.


The sheaf, which in the field of Boaz became the means of preserving her life, and exhibiting the benevolence of a faithful bother.


The crown which, denoting royalty, is the measure of that vast sacrifice so cheerfully made by Esther for the preservation of her people.


The pillar rent, which denotes the sudden death of Lazarus.


The joined hands, which, denoting ardent hospitality, teaches that, though the Christian saint could not render to God the benefits received from Him, she neglected no opportunity to dispense charity to His people.


Morris's Manual:


The sword alludes to that by which she was slain.


The sheaf alludes to the sheaves of barley amongst which she was gleaning.


The crown alludes to her royal state as a queen.


The broken column alludes to the death of Lazarus.


The joined hands allude to the rich generosity of her character.


Macoy's Manual:


The sword reminds us of the instrument of her death.


The sheaf reminds us of the liberality of Boaz, who, from his sheaves, commanded that portions be taken and cast in Ruth's way, that she might gather an abundance.


The crown reminds us of the queenly state of Esther, and of the manner in which she hailed the notice of the king.


The broken column is an emblem of the death of a young man in the vigor of life.


The cup reminds us of the ardent hospitality of Electa, excited by the view of poverty and distress.



DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.                                                                                           131 


Adoptive Rite:


By the sword in the hands of the father was the daughter slain. The veil alludes to the firmness with which Adah adhered to her determination to die in the light, suffering no stain to rest upon her memory after death.


The sheaf is an emblem of plenty, which, from its distinct and minute parts, teaches us that by patient industry, gleaning here a little and there a little, we may accumulate a competency to support us when the infirmities of age unfit us for the fatigues of labor.


The crown and scepter united is an emblem of royalty and power. It reminds us of the dignity of the king and the meek submission of the queenly petitioner.


The broken column is an expressive emblem of the uncertainty of human existence, and the outward evidence of the decease of a young man cut down in the vigor of life.


The cup reminds us of the generous hospitality of Electa excited by the view of poverty and distress.


In the opening ceremonies of Adoptive Rite and Macoy's Ritual, two of these explanations were varied: The sword and veil, emblematic of the heroic con‑duct of Jephthah's daughter.


The cup is the emblem of the bitter draught, of which we are constantly partaking through life; but, however distasteful, will, in the end, overflow with blessings, rich, abounding and eternal.


In the opening ceremonies there were different lessons:


By the sword and veil we are reminded of the filial piety of the heroic daughter of Jephthah; by the sheaf, that to please God is worthy of our greatest sacrifices; by the crown and scepter, that true friendship refuses no pain or cross for the object of its affection; by the broken column, that times of the deepest sorrow and loneliness are often enlightened by the brightest graces of God; by the cup, that the cup



132                                                                                         DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.


which our heavenly Father gives us to drink, though bitter and distasteful, will, in the end, prove to overflow with blessings, rich, abounding and eternal.


It will be noticed that the Macoy rituals had a superabundance of symbolic teachings.





In Adoptive Rite, Macoy, California and New York rituals the candidate was made to wear a thin white veil over her face, which was removed by the Conductress after the obligation. The writer was initiated thus veiled, but in the New York ritual only women candidates were to be thus veiled. In the latter ritual, which is the only one that gives any explanation of this ceremony, the candidate is thus addressed: In removing the veil from your eyes, my sister, we bring you into the full light of the beauty of our Chapter room. In the ancient ceremonies of initiation the veil was used as a symbol to teach the candidate that as he advanced in knowledge, he was enlightened by the spirit of education. That he was led from the darkness of ignorance into the marvelous light of truth, and we desire that the glory of the bright Eastern Star shall be clearly seen by you with no veil to dim its lustre.


The veil used by Adah is variously designated: Mosaic Book, "heavy black;" California Ritual, "blue;'" in all others except the General Grand Chapter Ritual, "a thick mourning veil." In General Grand Chapter Ritual, "a veil."


The Grand Chapter of Vermont, in 1896, decided that a black veil should be used, while the Grand Chapter of Maine, in 1897, decided on blue, which is the color usually employed, although, with the above exceptions, there has been no legislation on the subject. It would seem that, considering the harmonies, black would be preferable to blue.



DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.                                                                                           133




The first mention of them was in Morris's Manual, where they were specified, as also in Rosary : "1. Violet; 2. Sunflower (heliotropes)," - helianthus was probably meant - "3. White lily; 4. Sprig of Pine; 5. Red rose." With this agrees Macoy's Manual, save 4 is "a pine leaf."


In the Chapter of sorrow in Adoptive Rite the blue flower was said to teach the lesson of undying love; the yellow, unending possession; the white, heart purity; the green, undeviating sincerity; and the red, unfading beauty.


In the funeral service in the same, the blue flower was to symbolize universal friendship; the yellow, disinterested kindness; white, truth and innocence; the green, immortality; and the red, fervency.


Macoy's Ritual had no explanation of the floral emblems.


In General Grand Chapter Ritual they were: "1.Violet; 2. Yellow jasmine; 3. White lily; 4. Fern; 5. Red rose."


The Rosary explanations were that the flowers were severally selected on account of their colors, but brother Morris had evidently associated the thought of these flowers with the several points before he incorporated them in the Rosary, as in 1855, he had written in a poem entitled "The Flowers of the Order:"


Gleaned from plain and hill and valley,

            Grouped in mystic tie,

Maidens read me, - gladness, sadness,

            Ev'ry tongue have I; -

Violet, sunleaf, lily white,

            Pine eternal, - rose, delight.


Macoy's Manual:


Violet. Its retired, shrinking nature is emblematical of Jephthah's daughter, the devoted maid of Mispeh.



134                                                                                         DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.


Sunflower. Emblematical of the ripened grain gleaned by Ruth, the pious widow of Moab.


White lily. Emblematical of the white robes of Esther, the noble hearted queen of Persia.


Pine leaf. Emblematical of Martha, the faithful sister of Bethany.


Red rose. Emblematical of the unbounded charity and hospitality practiced by Electa.





These emblems are explained in Mosaic Book, Morris's Manual, Rosary, Ladies' Friend and General Grand Chapter Ritual, but are not mentioned in Thesauros, Tatem, or either of Macoy's. In the first four mentioned the explanations were elaborate, and connected each with one of the mottoes found in the border of the signet, of which the following brief summary embraces the salient points:


They all allude to Christ, Who is the light and key to the Eastern Star, and Who is the Word of God; the Lily of the Valley; The Sun of Righteousness; the Lamb of God; and the Lion of the Tribe of Judah. Brother Morris put their objects in poetic phrase as follows:


By that form of innocence,

By that Bud of Peace,

By that Word unbroken, spoken

By the Son of Grace,

Judah's Terror, - emblems five,

Read we Him, and reading, live!





The labyrinth as in Mosaic Book, together with the stations of the officers and members, is represented in the accompanying illustration. It will be noticed that the single point of the star is up, or toward the east. In adapting the Mosaic Book for use in Lodges of adoptive Masonry Tatem dispensed with the Pillars, who occupied the outer points of the star (1, 2, 3, 4,



DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.                                                                                           135




and 5), and left the sisters, who formed the inner angles of the star in the same stations, thus changing the position of the star, so that, practically, two points were toward the east. Some discussion has been had



as to the origin and propriety of the latter position, as mythological teaching is that the star with one point up is an emblem of good, while with two points up it is an emblem of evil. Brother Morris was, per‑



136                                                                                         DEGREES. EMBLEMS, ETC.



haps, not lacking in mythological lore when he penned the directions for forming the star with one point toward the east, but it will be easily seen that by the later development, in doing away with the outer points, the mythological significance of the star was altered without design, and probably by persons that were ignorant of the fact, and that it stood for the goat of Mendes.



But in this particular, as in many others, brother Morris was not consistent, as in the tessera he placed the star with two points up. The changes in the work made by Tatem left the stations in order the reverse of the present usage. In the Tatem labyrinth the candidate entered at the southwest door, passed north in front of the Vice President's station in the west, was seated in the chair of the Conductor in the north, then passed the stations of the five patrons (Adah, Ruth, Esther, Martha, and Electa), from east to west, then south and east, then was seated in the banner chair southeast of Electa, and then east and north to the President's chair, from which place she was instructed and welcomed.



Adoptive Rite was the first to delineate the star with two points toward the east. In that and Macoy's Ritual the candidate, after entrance, was stationed in the west, facing east, in which position the covenant of adoption was assumed; she then made a circuit around the altar to the first point; then to the second point by passing to the left of the altar; then round the altar to the third point, and so to the fourth and fifth points; then directly to the east.


The General Grand Chapter Ritual was the first that provided a labyrinth of any particular significance, weaving out, as it does, a complete double star.








DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.                                                                                           137


The Mosaic Book had this lecture:


The pathway of human life meanders like this labyrinth, and the most prudent pilgrim upon the journey fails to accomplish the plans with which he set out. He may go swiftly and prosperously forward a little ways, but suddenly his course is checked by obstacles he does not understand, and powers that he can not overcome. Again he attempts to move in the right line, to some new goal of his desires; again all for awhile may seem to conspire to accomplish his ends, when, unexpectedly as before, his way is stopped - and so all through his life, he drives from point to point, baffled and astonished at every turn, until wearied and disgusted with repeated disappointments and failures, and craving something that is not subject to change and disaster, he stands, at last, before the Great Light of all, and is accosted by the judge of quick and dead.





The cabalistic word is referred to in all rituals, and appears on all signets, as well as upon the seal of the Supreme Constellation. See illustration, Chapter I.


"We have seen His Star in the East and are come to worship Him," is on all signets except Macoy's.


The Morris signet (see frontispiece), had the additional mottoes: "The Bright and Morning Star;" "The Rose of Sharon, and the Lily of the Valley;" "The Star out of Jacob;" "The Sun of Righteousness;" "The Word;" "The Lamb of God;" "The Prince of Peace;" "The Lion of the Tribe of Judah;" and "The Day Star."





Thesauros designated the regalia for the several degrees as follows: 1. apron; 2. glove; 3. band; 4. brooch; 5. collar; and the virtues: 1. obedience; 2. attachment; 3. purity; 4. faith; 5. truth; were each represented by a five‑pointed star on each point of the larger star, all of which are found on the Morris signet, and the seal of the Supreme Constellation.



138                                                                                         DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.





The various signets that have been used by the order are reproduced in facsimile, in reduced size. The Morris Signet was used under the family organization and was inserted in the Rosary. The Macoy Signet was used by Chapters working under the Supreme Grand Chapter. The Engle Signet was designed by the author in 1879 and is used by all Chapters working under the General Grand Chapter.





In the Mosaic Book, the banner exhibiting "the head of the lion" was set up at one point of the star. (See diagram of labyrinth.) This was also used in the Addenda published by the Grand Chapter of Connecticut.




The Mosaic Book said:


The tessera is a metallic object in the form of a five‑pointed star, the points being so disposed that one is directed downwards, in the front of which appears the lion, the symbol of this order, - on the back the name of the stella (or protector) who presents it, and the name and number of which she (or he) is or was last a member. The theory of the American Adoptive Rite is that every stella and protector is provided with a tessera, to answer as a visible token of membership, in traveling, and to present to Warder at the door of the constellation, as a testimonial of qualification. In such cases, however, as the loss of the tessera, or its being absent, or the party not having provided herself (or himself) with one, Warder will provide in its stead a slip of card, or paper containing the name, locality, &c., of the party, and this may be exhibited to Heleon on entering, as a substitute. No person, member or visitor, can, under any circumstances, enter a constellation without exhibiting the tessera or its substitute to Warder and Heleon.





The Mosaic Book provided that "Votes in a constellation may best be taken by raised hands; this is



DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.                                                                                           139 


where the ballot is not required." The General Grand Chapter adopted the same method for the government of itself only, in 1878.





In Mosaic Book the Pillars and Correspondents sat facing the bible. In California the star officers faced the east. In General Grand Chapter Revised the chairs were to be placed facing the east, or inclined toward the altar. The other rituals did not specify how these officers should face.





In Thesauros, at her initiation, the candidate was admonished:

The first lesson taught you in this order was obedience to the word of God. He has bade us remember the poor and afflicted. You should exhibit your faith by your works, and I now request you to select some object of charity, and bestow upon it at your first opportunity such an amount as your heart and means dictate. This will be reckoned the first fruits of your obedience, according to the word of God. "As for the oblation of the first fruits, you shall offer them unto the Lord."


In the Mosaic Book, after having received the initiatory degree


No preparation of the candidate, save a willing and obedient spirit, is demanded for this (Jephthah's Daughter), or subsequent degrees. But, as a means of ascertaining the feelings which prompt the applicant to advance, it is recommended that she be solicited to devote a sum, small or great, according to her ability and disposition, to the widow's fund of the constellation, as the first fruits of her adoption. Moneys so received must be set apart in strict accordance with the wishes of the donor.





In Mosaic Book and Adoptive Rite, at the time of initiation, some one was required to be responsible for the good faith of the candidate.



140                                                                                         DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.






The Mosaic Book provided that at an examination of a visitor a declaration should be made which answered the purpose of a test oath, and the examination consisted of thirty‑five questions, covering colors, signs, and all the emblems and their allusions.





In the Book of Instructions, the directions as to dating documents of the order were as follows: "1861, 97th day; implied, April 17, 1861; 1863, 310th day; October 11, 1863;" etc.


In Adoptive Rite, the year A. D., was supplemented by "A. O. -  Anno ordinis, - year of the order. To find this date subtract 1778 from the present year."





The Mosaic Book contained an ode appropriate to each degree, the production of brother Morris: "Father! father, the joyful minstrel sang;" "From Moab's hills;" "Queen of Persia's broad domain;" "Low in the dust;" and, "Her gentle hand." In the second edition "The Dirge of the freeMason's daughter;" and "Love and light," were added. The first five were also in Morris's Manual.


The family bylaws contained the five first above mentioned, and three others, including:


Alas! my daughter, why these tears?

Who is this so sad appears?

What wilt thou of thy sorrowing friend?

Believest thou this grief will end?

Love one another and thou'lt prove

From all these tears an angel's love.


Macoy's Manual introduced, "Here around the altar meeting," to the tune of "Just before the battle, mother;" and his subsequent publications contained substantially the same odes, with the addition of several familiar hymns.



DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.                                                                                           141


When the General Grand Chapter ritual was first published, at the request of the chairman of the committee on publication, Addie C. S. Bario (Engle), Past Grand Matron of Connecticut, wrote three odes, which were published in the collection issued by that body under the name of "Odes with music," viz.: "With earnest hearts and willing hands;" "Of Thee, Supreme Grand Power above;" and "Called from labor to repose." In 1882 Lorraine J. Pitkin, and Jennie E. Mathews, now Past Most Worthy Grand Matrons, issued a collection of odes entitled "Gems of Song for Eastern Star Chapters;" and in 1899, Carrie F. Bradford, Past Matron, of Indianapolis, published, under the title of "The Musical Star," a collection of odes, and a complete arrangement of musical marches, etc., for the entire ceremonies of the Chapter.





The Mosaic Book provided for "a memorial, communicated semi‑annually by the Supreme Constellation to Heleon, and by him to all Pillars and Correspondents, and such stellæ and protectors as may contemplate traveling."


The Book of Instructions:


The Patron, immediately after his installation, selects one of the twenty‑five words engraved around the border of the membership board, according to his own judgment, and communicates it to the members. This remains as the peculiar countersign of the family for twelve months.


In California ritual an annual password was taken up at the opening of the Chapter.


The practice now prevails in at least half a dozen jurisdictions of taking up a password at the opening of both Grand and subordinate Chapters, but there is no authority in the ritual for such a custom, and the



142                                                                                         DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.


General Grand Chapter in 1895, decided that a password was not necessary.


Formerly, in Connecticut, and possibly in other states, it was the practice for the Matron to announce, before the opening of the Chapter: We will open with the pass of Adah; - or one other of the five points, and the pass designated was taken up by the Conductress and Associate Conductress; and the Grand Chapter of Michigan, at its meeting in 1900, passed a resolution allowing this to be done, as does also the Grand Chapter of Wisconsin.






The tuilleur which was printed in the Mosaic Book gave specific directions as to the manner of giving all the secret work, and the signs were illustrated by artistic engravings of each movement, which agree substantially with those prescribed in Morris's Manual, the Macoy syllabus, and with those now in use save that the fourth sign was given kneeling; and the third movement of the third sign was as here illustrated.


The directions for a responsive sign were:


Place the right hand upon the center of the breast, then move it slowly upward and forward to the full length of the arm. This was said to point out the source from whence adoptive Masonry receives its illumination.


The passes remain unchanged from the beginning. The words "ten" and "and," were dropped from the motto by the General Grand Chapter.


In Mosaic Book the bible was to be opened at Isaiah lxiii.


Thesauros prescribed white and green as "the mourning colors of the order from time immemorial."



DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.                                                                                           143 


Masons' sisters were given the precedence in a funeral procession, followed in order by daughters; widows; wives; and sister‑in‑laws; "brought up in the rear by the brother protectors."





The Mosaic Book recommended that "Every meeting, whether stated or called, should be concluded, when practicable, with a social repast."


In the Book of Instructions a ceremony was provided for the opening of a banquet, behind tyled doors, beginning with an invocation:


Source of every earthly pleasure,

Bounteous Author of all good,

To Thy mercy's largest measure,

Bless this meeting and this food.

Grateful hearts will then adore Thee,

Grateful lives Thy mercy own,

Till in heaven we stand before Thee,

Till we worship by Thy throne.


Then each of five officers held up a pasteboard letter, about an inch in height, representing the cabalistic word, and alternately repeated a word of the motto.


Then five other officers and members (not visitors), commencing with the Recorder and going around on his left, hold up the stars (biscuits baked very hard and dry, cut in the form of a five‑pointed star, about the size of a silver dollar), and as each breaks off one point, he or she repeats the explanation as follows:


Recorder - Remember the birth of Christ! Remember the life of Christ! Remember the death of Christ! Remember the resurrection of Christ! Remember the ascension of Christ!


Then all present, officers, members, and visitors, hold up their bouquets (of flowers of the five colors) and repeat the following invocations, the Patron leading the way, and the rest responding in unison:


Break off a blue flower and repeat:


Blessed are the poor in spirit; for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.


Then followed four other beatitudes in a similar manner. Toward the close of the banquet five regular



144                                                                                         DEGREES, EMBLEMS, ETC.


toasts were given, with another ceremonial breaking and eating of a star biscuit. They were of a stereo‑typed character of which the following will serve as a specimen: Lasting honor to her - and whosoever resembles her who cheerfully resigned her life to vindicate the honor of her father.





Thesauros declared "The Order of the Eastern Star embraces five degrees and no more, nor can further degrees ever be legally accumulated upon it." Macoy's Standard: The rite of adoption was never designed to be wholly embodied within the limits of one degree, but like that great institution into whose fraternal organization it was intended to be adopted, it should teach its lessons step by step, each advancing ceremony to be higher, and more instructive in principle and design.


The Grand Chapter of New York adopted the Worthy Matron's degree in 1873, the Floral Work in 1882 and the Sisterhood degree in 1895.


In 1877 the Grand Chapter of Mississippi authorized its subordinates to confer the Mason's Daughter; Heroine of Jericho; Queen of the South; and Cross and Crown.


The General Grand Chapter in 1595 approved the action of the Most Worthy Grand Matron in refusing to recognize any so‑called higher degrees; and in 1898 it


Resolved, that there are no degrees connected in any way or manner with our order other than those provided for and taught in the ritual.


Resolved, that any member willfully representing to any one that there are side degrees, higher degrees, or any degrees other than those taught and provided for by our ritual, shall be guilty of conduct unbecoming a member of the order, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be suspended or expelled from the order.







THERE have been issued in limited numbers works containing arrangements of ceremonies to he used in lieu of portions of the work, or as additions thereto, the oldest being two issued by the Grand Chapter of Connecticut, viz.: "Short Specimen Dramas, founded on Scripture subjects." This embraced the four degrees of the Mosaic Book, revised, which Chapters were allowed to use in plate of the regular ritual, and they are still so used, occasionally, by at least one Chapter in Connecticut.


"Addenda." This supplied many things that were needful to round out the work under Adoptive Rite.. It was largely adapted from the Mosaic Book, and included explanations of the colors, emblems, etc.


"Monitor of the Exemplified Work," was printed by Minneapolis Chapter No. 9, Minneapolis, Minnesota, the use of which was made the groundwork for the beginning of what was popularly known as the Minnesota muddle. It was an attempt to inject into the degrees, as in the General Grand Chapter ritual, certain dramatic effects, substituting for portions of the lectures, dramatic action. It was much briefer than the Mosaic Book, and lacked the Grandeur that that contained. There was nothing in common between the two, and it is evident that the authors of the latter work had never seen the former.





Chapter of Sorrow, by Addie C. S. Engle. This service, written in 1888, and approved by the General

            10                                                                    (145)



146                                                                             MINOR RITUALS, CEREMONIES. ETC.


Grand Chapter, has found wide acceptance with the order, and has been officially adopted by many Grand Chapters, both for their own use and that of their subordinates. It embraces opening and closing ceremonies with parts for all the officers, and provides for the forming of a floral star surrounded by a wreath, which, with other emblems, are deposited upon a memorial shrine. There are also original hymns, and the dedication is to, Rob Morris, who passed beyond this life a few months before it was written, in these lines:


The harp which late so sweetly rang

Hangs stringless now and still;

The master wakes its chords no more

Obedient to his will.


O, who shall wake again that lyre

And sing our order's weal?

Who follow in his steps, and to

Our vows be ever leal?


The cause he loved he honored well,

Its light he followed far;

Death's gloomy vale was all illumed

By Bethlehem's holy Star.


To chant with joy redemption's song

May voice to him be given,

The song of Moses and the Lamb,

The melody of heaven.


It is designed for public use, and is calculated to make the very best impression upon non‑members.





In 1886, Charles. C. Dike, Past Grand Patron of Massachusetts, published an edition of the Macoy Chapter of sorrow, with very slight changes, the principal one being the giving of certain portions of the ceremony that in the Macoy were performed by the Patron, to the Matron.



MINOR RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.                                                                                    147





About 1876, Golden Gate Chapter No. 1, of San Francisco, published a funeral ceremony, which was an adaptation of that contained in Adoptive Rite. Provision was made for the rendering of the first portion of it in the Chapter room, instead of at the grave; all of it was rendered by the Matron instead of the Patron; and the star parts were entirely left out, the floral star being deposited in the grave with these words: This floral emblem of the Eastern Star, framed from Nature's loveliest materials, is emblematical of that pure life to which our sister has been called, and reminds us that as these children of an hour will drop and fade away, so we too shall soot follow those who have gone before its. I now deposit this emblem of our order in the grave of our departed sister. Mere may she sleep in peace, where the murmurs of the winds and trees will chant their eternal requiem, and the fairest flowers affection's hand can plant will cover her grave with perpetual bloom.





This was an adaptation by brother Macoy of a degree arranged by brother Morris, probably from some form in which he had received it orally, and it is one of the crudest productions that was ever published as a degree from the pens of these brethren. Al‑though it was incorporated in some editions of Macoy's rituals, it never was rendered with any regularity, that I can learn of, in any Chapter. In fact I do not know that it was ever worked more than once or twice. It enlisted all the fourteen officers of a Chapter, and was rendered in the royal palace of King Solomon, on mount Zion who is seated upon his great throne of ivory, overlaid with pure gold, surrounded with his officers and courtiers, and the kings of foreign nations, ambassadors, philosophers, and others who had come to gather wisdom from his lips.



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The purpose of the degree was well set forth in an address to the court: In this beautiful allegory we have considered the objections urged against the admission of ladies into the knowledge of Masonic principles. Those objections advanced by king Solomon were so easily answered and refuted by the queen of the South, that it was impossible even for the wisest of men to maintain them.


The argument referred to was carried on between King Solomon and the officers of the Chapter as proxies for the candidate, who represented the queen of Sheba.





Brother Macoy's original plan, which he worked out, on paper, in 1875, was to make the Queen of the South the second, and the Cross and Crown the third degree in the Adoptive Rite, but the latter was no more suited to enlist the interest of intelligent persons than was the former, and if anything it was cruder and more lacking in unity. It was to be worked by Chapter officers in a body called a court, the point officers forming a cross instead of a star. The degree consisted of the brief mention of five American women who had been foreign missionaries; the presentation of five objections to Masonry on be‑half of the women, and their refutation by the Patron; the mention of four great crosses in human life: ingratitude, poverty, sickness and death, which may culminate in the crown of life; and the application of five religions graces: piety, friendship, resignation, truth and constancy. The ritual was illustrated with banners for the five divisions of the degree which covered the baptism, temptation, agony, crucifixion and ascension of the Savior. It would require a wise ritualist to take this abundance of incongruous material and work it all into one harmonious degree. It is no wonder that the attempt was a failure.



MINOR RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.                                                                                    149





This was a production of brother Macoy, and was to be conferred upon Matrons before their installation, or as soon thereafter as possible in an administrative council, made up of Past Matrons and Past Patrons, and was founded upon the scripture narrative of Deborah and Barak, and was intended "to explain and dignify the powers, duties, and responsibilities of the presiding officer of a warranted Chapter." The object was to show "what strong faith in a single woman may do for a whole nation."





This was by S. Clark, Past Patron of Radiant Chapter No. 35, of New York, who dedicated it to John J. Sproull, Past Grand Secretary of New York, and was published in 1876. It consisted solely of scripture recitations, and marches. To it was appended a lesson of purity, with a suitable introduction. Its purpose was stated in the preface.


"With the restoration of the adoptive rite under the names of the Eastern Star the figure of the Savior. was presented in the symbol of the Star of Bethlehem, but the teachings of the Great Master were omitted. It resembled the clay image ere immortal breath had quickened it. This little work which is added, are the words and teachings of him of whom the star is the symbol, and is calculated and intended to prepare the mind of the initiate for a proper reception of the ritual. * *  * It not only, by due solemnity, prepares the mind for a proper reception of the main work, but is also calculated to impress it with the beauty and truth of the sacred scriptures, by planting the germ which will only require culture to ultimate in purity of life, by leading the votary the true path to heaven and a blessed immortality."





This was intended by brother Macoy as the third and highest degree in his revised system of adoptive



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Masonry, and the "Court" consisted of the same number of officers as a Chapter, but they were given more exalted titles. The Matron and Patron were "Royal," while all the others had "Honored" prefixed to their titles. After assuming the obligation, the candidate was caused to partake of salt and bread with the officers, "'To share bread and salt with another is to exchange confidence and pledge hospitality." "By this act we, in behalf of this Chapter, seal and make perpetual our mutual bond of friendship." The lessons at the points were Truth, Faith, Wisdom, and Charity. One of the most beautiful passages was at the fourth point, Charity: There is a beautiful thought conveyed in the legend, that on the shores of the Adriatic sea the wives of the fishermen, whose husbands have gone far off upon the deep, are in the habit, at eventide, of going down to the sea‑shore and singing the first verse of a favorite hymn. After they have sung it, they listen till they hear, borne by the winds across the desert sea, the second verse, sung by their husbands as they are tossed by the gale upon the waves, thus rendering happiness to all. Perhaps, if we listen, we too may hear, in the desert world, some whisper borne from afar, to remind us that there is a heavenly home; and when we sing a hymn upon earth, it may be we shall hear its echo breaking in sweet melody upon the sands of time, cheering the hearts of those who, perchance, are pilgrims and strangers, looking for a city that hath sure foundations. (When possible to do so, a choir of ladies and gentlemen will sing two verses of a familiar hymn; the ladies, being in a distant part of the Chapter room, will sing the first verse, and the gentlemen, in an adjoining room, with the door ajar, will sing the second verse.) The candidate arriving in the East the Royal Matron said


The ceremony by which Knighthood is conferred is called the accolade. Conforming to this custom,



MINOR RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.                                                                                    151  


and by the authority vested in me, I receive you (places a sword on the left and right shoulders, and on the head of the candidate), and confer upon you the dignity of a Lady of the Royal and Exalted degree of the Amaranth; and as the Amaranthine flower is typical of undying friendship and eternal truth, so with this right Band accept our pledge of an abiding trust, and 'a cordial reception into our fellowship.


Conducted to the West she was crowned with a wreath: This is no diadem of gold; no cinture of pearls; no regal tiara; no frame‑work of gems, velvet lined, like that which so often presses upon the aching brows of royalty. That is a badge of power; frequently empty, unsubstantial, and delusive. But our crown and our act of coronation have a higher and a nobler meaning. We crown you as being eminent for virtue, zeal, and well‑doing; showing charity to the destitute, and faithful in every walk of life. May all your footsteps fall upon flowers. May all your good intentions he fraught with success. May your last days be your best. We crown you in the hope of immortality. There is no death to the pure and loving. May your admission to the land celestial and everlasting be sure, and your entrance full of delight. And as the years rill along and bring about the great consummation for which we all hopefully wait, may your ransomed spirit he crowned with the never‑ceasing favor of Almighty God.


The candidate was then made to bear the banner of the order which embraced the Eastern Star within which was a circle bearing the letters H. E. B. A. S. while in the center was an Amaranthine wreath.





This was the work of brother Alonzo J. Burton, of New York, in which the candidate is presented with appropriate flowers by each of the point officers, and



152                                                                             MINOR RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.


the Associate Conductress. A full programme of vocal music usually accompanies it, as well as the rendering of the floral march, in which figures and letters are formed by the officers participating. This work has been officially adopted and published by the Grand Chapter of New York, and the work as arranged by John N. Bunnell, Past Grand Patron of New Jersey, has been adopted by some other Grand Chapters, and is widely used; few of those who have enjoyed witnessing it probably know who its modest author is.


It includes some of the secret work, and should only be given in private, but several jurisdictions allow its public use, the secret parts being, of course, omitted. Ten officers participate in its rendering.





This was the invention of brother Alonzo J. Burton, and was adopted by the Grand Chapter of New York, but we believe was never printed. It was intended to follow the degrees of the Eastern Star, and the officers were entitled Honored Matron, Associate, Deaconness, Preceptress, Treasurer, Secretary, Warder, Sentinel, Faith, Hope and Charity. The life of Mary, the mother of Jesus, formed the foundation of the degree, although the ladder of Jacob was brought in to support the lessons of faith, hope and charity. The lessons of the degree were beautiful, as witness the following:


Through the darkness of doubt and gloom we advance toward the light and truth; through the clouds and shadows of the night of death we pass into the realms of immortality. The afflictions and calamities of life which are its darkness, and the gloom which broods over the precincts of the grave, not the light of health and the enjoyment of prosperity, chasten us and fit us for eternal life.



MINOR RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.                                                                                    153 


The birth of the Savior is rehearsed, but there is a confounding of the Shepherds with the Wise Men which is so common and so strange In many ways the degree is of superior merit, and is worthy of wider use than it has attained, as an addenda to the work.





This is by Addie C. S. Engle, and was written for, and first rendered by the Past Grand Matrons of Michigan before that body in 1890. It is not, as many infer from its title, a musical production, although music, both vocal and instrumental, can be very profitably introduced into it, but it is an attempt to give the star of our Chapter a voice as well by types and symbols, by emblems and flowers, as by words. Its object is briefly summarized in its introductory:


In the inception of the Order of the Eastern Star some imagery was used in its ritualistic work which has not been retained in the present initiatory ceremony. Those who remember the well‑loved symbolism, and regret its omission, will welcome this attempt to preserve some of it from oblivion, and the author cheerfully acknowledges her indebtedness to the old Mosaic work; to the ritual of Adoptive Masonry as formerly used in Michigan; to the Connecticut addenda, and to the first ritual of the General Grand Chapter, whose explanation of the resemblance between the language of the emblematic flowers and the heroines they represent, had been too carefully made to be entirely lost. The balance is original with her who, being earnestly engaged in the work when these various figures were used, has treasured them in her heart through many changes, and with a simple arrangement of her own, now offers them for the enjoyment of others.



154                                                                             MINOR RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.


The work is usually accompanied by the vocal star march, in which various letters and figures are formed, the voice of the star closing with these words:


Accept now, dear friends, as we part here to‑night,

Our wish that the bright Vocal Star

May cheer you through life with its radiance bright;

And pierce every gloom from afar.


The Star in the East with its lesson fraught ray,

If taken at once for our guide;

Shall lighten each lab'rinth we meet on life's way,

And comfort, whatever betide;

Its five radiant beams earth's dim pathway shall gild,

Its blue shall combine with its gold,

Its red and its green with rich treasures be filled,

All teaching the same gospel old;

And when their rich lessons, our spirits shall con,

We then learn this truth (strangely odd);

That all of the colors our souls must put on,

To make up the white light of God!

Accept then our wishes for happiness blest,

As "forth in the world," we all go;

"Not knowing what trials," but leaving the rest

With Him who "upholds" as we go.


God grant that we meet, where our Star shall await,

When earth robe and staff are laid down,

And pass through the entrance of that pearly gate,

Where cross is exchanged for the crown.





This is a ceremony for the reception of Grand officers, and other distinguished visitors, by Acidic C. S. Engle, and enlists sixteen officers. It includes the formation of marches, of the star, cross, and square, and brings out the teachings of the jewels of the order. After the presentation of flowers for the guests the mystic chain is formed, and the ceremony closes with :


Dear members of the mystic tie,

Walk as beneath the All‑seeing Eye.


Live true the vows we've uttered here,

And prove we hold them sacred, dear.

Our jeweled links should each proclaim

Our truth in deed as well as name.



MINOR RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.                                                                                    155 


Thus, from our earthly life‑work fair,

The outside world can vision there

All of the love, relief and truth

Which we now hold as highest ruth.


Then, when our links, quick broken, fall

And each one hears the angel‑call,

May no far scattered tie be lost,

From out the Grand celestial host,

But our fraternal chain of love

Still brighter glow in realms above.


God grant we form this severed chain

And meet these broken links again

Within the golden sunrise land

Where Love divine shall clasp the band.





This, by Ella A. Bigelow, of Massachusetts, is largely in verse and musical, and requires five officers and seven pilgrims, the latter entering, clothed in black and presenting offerings to the Matron, who crowns each, and communicates to her a password. It can be rendered publicly.





This is a poetical production with parts for the various officers, by Julia C. Tenney, of Orange, Massachusetts, and is a very pleasing ceremony, reiterating in new form the lessons of the order.





The proper title of this is "A ceremonial for observance at the resting places of our beloved dead," by Julia C. Tenney. The title gives a good idea of its purpose. Provision is made for forming several evolutions, and the text breathes the poetic spirit of the author, as


We cone not in sable garb, we bear no cypress wreaths to place above the sleeping dust beneath us; but the fresh, fragrant flowers of love and trust we scatter here: and unto the freed ones who now walk in wider fields, gathering richer bloom, and who may, even now, be listening unto us, with tender voice we cry, "Mizpah," Beloved.



156                                                                             MINOR RITUALS. CEREMONIES, ETC.





This is an addenda by Julia C. Tenney, principally in verse, and into it are woven several marches, and considerable music, both vocal and instrumental. The formation of a floral, star‑crowned cross is impressively done. The following will give an idea of the style:


We bind them in chaplets snowy,

And their crimson petals strew

O'er the hearts who fondly loved us

In the days of long ago.


And often a tender memory

Is born of their rare perfume,

And a sweet‑voiced mother whispers,

Our pathway to illume.


'Twas there, by the dear old cottage,

From the porch above the door,

We gathered the old‑time beauties,

In the days that are no more!

'Twas there, in the dusky twilight,

When the night dropped softly down,

She told us the old, old story,

Of the Star - the Cross - the Crown!





This was an arrangement by Kimball Sedgwiek, of Sunbury, Ohio, by which the lantern slides illustrating the work of the order, were explained by a beautiful lecture made up largely of excerpts from the poems of brother Morris, sister Engle, Susanna C. Russell, and selected hymns. In the publication of his work brother Sedgwick included the portraits of many of the leading members of the order in the country, and particularly in his own state.





Most of the Grand Chapters have at different times set forth forms for instituting and constituting Chapters, and some of them ceremonies for opening and closing Grand Chapter, but they are drawn upon par‑



MINOR RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.                                                                                    157


allel lines, and do not demand separate or special mention.





This was a review of the critical and explanatory votes of Robert Macoy, of the ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star as published by authority of the General Grand Chapter, by Willis D. Engle, and was published in 1879, soon after the publication of "Critical and Explanatory Notes," and contained all of said notes, with a specific answer to each of them. It was intended to set before the members of the order its true status at that time, and was gratuitously circulated by the General Grand Chapter. It was a  book of forty pages. All the essential facts are covered by this history, and yet the little book must ever prove of interest to Eastern Star antiquarians as presenting nearer view of the matters in controversy than it would have been advisable to incorporate herein.





To illustratrious sisters and brothers, officers and past officers, of all Eastern Star Chapters; to Grand and past Grand officers of all governing bodies of the rite; finally, to all members of the Order of the Eastern Star, and all who respect long and faithful service, this appeal for a thank offering to Robert Morris, founder and Patriarch of the Eastern Star order, is lovingly and hopefully presented by the committee."


Such was the title of a thirty‑two page pamphlet issued by brother Morris in 1884, the object of which was to raise a fund, in shares of five dollars each, to be permanently invested in interest‑paying securities for the sole benefit of brother Morris and his wife.


An elegant, engraved certificate, and an elegant medal in bronze, were to be presented to each shareholder. The money was to be sent to the Grand Pa‑



158                                                                             MINOR RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.


tron having jurisdiction, or direct to brother Morris, and a full list of contributors, with the amounts, etc., was to be published, and a copy sent to each subscriber, but it is believed that this effort was not successful, and that neither the certificates nor medals were ever issued. In the pamphlet was contained a seven‑page history of the origin of the order, by brother Morris, which embraced many erroneous statements, a few of which have already been noticed. Some which have not been were the statements that the Mosaic Book was prepared in 1856; and the Morris Manual in 1859, while the correct dates were 1855 and 1860 respectively.





In 1886 the Most Worthy Grand Patron made a special report to the General Grand Chapter on matters connected with the order in Minnesota, which was published before the meeting of that body, that its members might have a full statement of the case in type, but the body did not deem it advisable that it should he incorporated in the proceedings. The Most Worthy Grand Matron had not been in accord with the Most Worthy Grand Patron in his actions in the premises, and presented her views in her address, but after the body had passed upon them, the following request was granted:


The M. W. Grand Matron requests the privilege of eliminating from her address such portions as refer to the personal differences between herself and the M. W. Grand Patron in relation to the Minnesota case, as she has no desire, neither does she deem it proper, that such matters should be brought to the attention of the outside world, yet she felt it to be justice to herself that she he permitted to call the attention of this Grand body to the facts alluded to in that portion of her address.



MINOR RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.                                                                                    159


As the address of the Most Worthy Grand Matron had not been previously printed, it was lost to the order, but copies of the special report of the Most Worthy Grand Patron are preserved as valuable mementoes.





This was a pamphlet of twenty‑nine pages set forth by Grand Chapter No. 2, March 25, 1890, and intended to show the ease as seen from its standpoint, and contained much information not embraced in the printed proceedings of either Grand Chapter.





This was a document of eighteen pages issued by the principal officers of Grand Chapter No. 1, July 15, 1890, in response to the document named above, and was  incorporated in the proceedings of the body for that year.




In a "Monument of Gratitude," brother Morris had quite an extended article on the names given to Chapters, which he classified. Any one giving attention to the subject will be struck with the contrast that exists between the nomenclature of the order and that of the Masonic. The divided the names of the Chapters as they then existed, into classes, as follows: 1, Heroines of the order and other ladies; 2, Solar, stellar and celestial terms; 3, Terms from field, forest and garden; 4, Names of sacred and memorial localities; 5, Names of gems and objects of ornament; 6, Names derived from freeMasonry; 7, Miscellaneous. The best rule, under ordinary circumstances, is to name the Chapter after its location, thus identifying it at once and avoiding confusion. Thus Minnesota has Jasper Chapter at Rush City, and Taylor Chapter at Jasper; Oregon, Elgin at Myrtle Point, and Blue



160                                                                             MINOR RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.


Mountain at Elgin; Washington, Fern at Tacoma, and Ivy at Fern Hill; Indiana, Clinton at Frankfort, and Jerusalem at Clinton; Liberty at Sylvania, and Violet at Liberty; Illinois, Victoria at Patoka, and Vera at Victoria; Virginia at Ashmore, and Ada Robinson at Virginia; Eureka at Louisville, and Doric at Eureka; Normal at DeNalb, and Felicity at Normal. Some good opportunities it would seem have been missed: e. g., the Chapter at Morris, Minnesota, is named Corinthian; that at Hope, North Dakota, is named Fidelity; that at Eldorado, Kansas, Andrina, and at St. Johns, Henry Rohr. The Chapter at Lakeview, Arkansas, is called Carden's Bottom; that at Morris, Illinois, is Laurel. Some felicitous departures are: Celestial City, at Pekin, Illinois; Merry Meeting, at Fairfield, Maine; and Happy Home, at Holdenville, Indian Territory. Vermont is the only jurisdiction, we believe, in which none of the Chapters is named after the place in which it is located.





There have been a number of exclusively Eastern Star monthlies published in different parts of the country, but we believe only three survive. Most of the Masonic journals devote space to the news and interests of the order. The oldest exclusively Eastern Star journal is The Eastern Star, now in its thirteenth year, published by Nettie Ransford, Past Most Worthy Grand Matron, at Indianapolis, at one dollar per year. The next is The Signet, now in its eighth volume, published by Inez Jamison Bender, at Decatur, Illinois, at fifty cents per annum; and the third Mizpah, in its seventh volume, published by Ella A. Bigelow, at Marlborough, Massachusetts, at one dollar per year. They are each monthlies of sixteen pages, and should command larger support than they receive. Nothing more tends to promote inter‑



MINOR RITUALS, CEREMONIES, ETC.                                                                                    161


est in the order than the regular perusal of such periodicals, as they tend to keep the members in touch with the order generally, and to give them a better idea of its growth and work.





Brother Morris, "the poet Laureate of FreeMasonry," wielded a graceful pen, and his poems in connection with the Eastern Star were valuable additions to its literature, and were, perhaps, the most numerous of any writer. The widest used poem is that of H. T. Stanton, "In Mason's hall," as it was also among the first, after the productions of brother Morris. Addie C. S. Engle, has written some twenty poems in the interest of the order, while Hattie E. Parmelee, of Iowa, has written one for each point of the star, and one entitled, "Our Altar." Other writers who have made valuable contributions in this line, include Bessie R. Hastings, Past Grand Matron of Ohio, L. Timmerman of Michigan, Susannah C. Russell of Indiana, Clarissa B. Curtiss, Past Grand Matron of Connecticut, Charles McCutcheon, Past Grand Secretary of Washington, Mary L. Paine, Past Grand Matron of Vermont, Giles P. Brown of Michigan, and J. E. H. Boardman. Many of these poems are familiar to the members of the order, as they are frequently used to promote the interest of the Chapter meetings, under the head of "The good of the order."


























THIS part is first presented a list of the various Grand bodies of the order in the order of their organization; which is followed, first by a history of the General Grand Chapter, and then by histories of the different Grand Chapters in alphabetical order. In these sketches the aim has been to give the essential facts, and to record such things of note as are of general interest, or out of the ordinary. In most of them, under the general head of decisions, are noted, in brief form, the actions had on various legal points. These actions may have been in the form of decisions of the presiding officer, approved by the Grand Chapter; by resolution of a Grand Chapter; or by a law adopted by it. There is a general trend toward uniformity; the jurisprudence of the order is fast crystallizing, and the General Grand Chapter has done much toward securing uniformity in this direction, as it has secured absolute uniformity, so far as the same can be hoped for, in the ritualistic work. It is not possible, if indeed it were desirable, that the work should be rendered in absolutely the same manner in every Chapter. Some Chapters have greater means and ability than others, and will employ them toward the embellishing of the ritualistic work, and will find material profit in the use of robes, marches, and addendas, that other Chapters, of more limited opportunities, can not employ. In that branch of the Catholic Church in which the writer has the privilege to minister, the motto of the undivided church has practical illustration: "In essentials, unity; in nonessentials, liberty; in 



166                                                                                         GRAND CHAPTER HISTORIES.


all things charity;" and the order can find no better lines on which to regulate its rendition of ritualistic work. Whatever will add to the impressiveness of the work, without involving a departure from the forms laid down in the established ritual, should be hailed with pleasure by all who love the order, but nothing should find acceptance that is a departure in a serious way from the wording and spirit of the ritual. We do not believe that our ritual has attained that degree of perfection that it can not be improved, but frequent changes should be avoided, and should not find place until they have been seriously and maturely considered, and, indeed they must be under the law of the General Grand Chapter governing the subject. The ritual today is exactly as adopted in 1889; some alterations have been approved by the General Grand Chapter, but none of them have had final action in that body, so that those Grand officers who have announced to their Grand Chapters that it has been changed in any particular have labored under a wrong impression.


While the decisions and actions of the General Grand Chapter, on subjects other than the ritual, are binding only on the subordinate Chapters under its immediate jurisdiction, they have had their influence upon most of the Grand Chapters, as e. g. the adoption of a test oath by it in 1895 has been generally followed, although but two or three Grand Chapters used one before that time; the ruling that the brother on an investigating committee must report before a petition can be balloted upon, has been generally followed, as has also the acceptance of the raised right hand as a voting sign.


As to the eligibility of step‑daughters to the degrees the General Grand Chapter and most of the Grand Chapters have decided against it, although Counecti‑



GRAND CHAPTER HISTORIES.                                                                                     167


cut, Massachusetts, Montana, and Texas admit them. The general practice is to admit half‑sisters and adopted daughters, although New Jersey, New York, and some other Grand Chapters do not. Iowa admits a deaf and dumb person, and Illinois and Wisconsin admit the blind. The General Grand Chapter and several Grand Chapters draw the line on one‑armed persons, while Illinois and some others admit them. Nebraska admits an adopted mother, and Massachusetts an adopted sister. Michigan admits the daughter of a dimitted Mason, if he belongs to the Royal Arch Chapter and commandery. In the early days, married women were admitted under eighteen years of age, such decisions being made in Illinois, Kansas, and Texas in the later eighties, and in Indiana in 1895 and New York in 1896. In Mississippi it was decided that such an one was eligible "provided her husband is willing, and is not unfriendly to Masonry," and a lady lacking a few months of sixteen but "about grown," was admitted by dispensation. Though not a law, the practice is almost universal for the sisters to remove their hats and wraps during meetings of the Chapters.


The taking up of a password is practiced some five or six jurisdictions. The question of the age at which children should be excluded from the Chapter has been ruled on many times, the rulings varying from the exclusion of them at any age, up to three years. The general law of a quorum is seven members, including one of the three principal officers, although in some jurisdictions the total is as low as four, and in others a Past Matron or Past Patron can act in the absence of the three principal officers, as in Minnesota and Michigan.


In many jurisdictions auxiliary societies, being organizations composed of sisters of the order, whose



168                                                                                         GRAND CHAPTER HISTORIES.


objects are, generally, to add to the social features, and by entertainments, sewing, and other means to procure funds for charitable and other needs, flourish. They are sometimes called by the name of the Chapter, e. g. "Queen Esther Auxiliary," and sometimes by other names, as "Areme Society," "Electa Social," or "Emera Club." They have often proved of great assistance in the field of work they have chosen, but like every effort toward the accomplishment of any object worth attaining, care and common sense are necessary in their formation and government, so, that there may be no conflict or jealousies engendered by them.


In recent years there has grown up in many Chapters the practice of advancement in office, beginning with the Associate Conductress, and following up the line to Worthy Matron. In the earlier days of the order this did not obtain, and it would now seem that the order would be better served if it was abandoned, where it is the practice. It is very often the case that a sister may have the ability to fill the office, say, of Conductress, with honor to herself, and to. the benefit of the Chapter, who may be entirely lacking in those qualities that are needful for an efficient Matron. If this practice were not in vogue the members would feel at liberty to act solely as the best interests of the Chapter seemed to require, and to select from any of the officers, or from the floor, the particular sister that is best fitted to discharge the duties of Matron or Associate Matron. It is not wise to spoil a good Conductress to make a poor Matron.


It would have pleased the author to have presented the portraits of the many distinguished sisters and brothers that have by their zeal and labors, made names for themselves in the order, but their number is legion, and if he had undertaken to incorporate them


This material originally scanned by Ralph Omholt, Kirkland Chapter 176, Washington.


GRAND CHAPTER HISTORIES.                                                                                     169


all herein it would have swelled the book and the cost of its production far beyond what could have been afforded at the modest price at which he has undertaken to sell it, and he did not see how he could venture to make distinctions without running the serious risk of a charge of favoritism, so that he concluded to insert only those of the three eminent brethren, Morris, Macoy, and Lamb, who have passed from this life, together with the portrait of sister Pendleton, by many years, the oldest surviving Grand Matron, and that of the author.


The following is a list of the Grand Chapters in the order of their seniority:


Michigan, as Grand Lodge of Adoptive Masonry, October 30, 1867.


New Jersey, July 18, 1870.


New York, November 3, 1870.


Mississippi, December 15, 1870. Ceased in 1877.


California, May 9, 1873.


Vermont, November 12, 1873.


Indiana, May 6, 1871.


Connecticut, August 11, 1874.


Nebraska, June 22, 1875.


Illinois, October 6, 1875.


Missouri, October 13, 1575.


Arkansas, October 2, 1876.


Kansas, October 18, 1876.


General Grand Chapter, November 16, 1876.


Massachusetts, December 11, 1876.


Minnesota, June 28, 1878.


Iowa, July 30, 1878.


Ontario, May 3, 1882. Ceased in 1883.


Texas, May 5, 1884.


Minnesota No. 2, May 12, 1884. Merged, 1894.


Washington, June 11. 1888.


South Dakota, July 11, 1889.



170                                                                                         GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.


Indian Territory, July 11, 1889.


Ohio, July 24, 1589.


Oregon, October 3, 1889.


Montana, September 25, 1890.


Wisconsin, February 19, 1891.


New Hampshire, May 12, 1891.


Colorado, June 7, 1892.


Maine, August 24, 1892.


North Dakota, June 14, 1894.


Pennsylvania, November 22, 1894.


Rhode Island, August 22, 1895.


District of Columbia, April 30, 1896.


Wyoming, September 14, 1895.


Maryland, December 23, 1898.


Louisiana, October 4, 1900.


Tennessee, October 18, 1900.


Arizona, November 15, 1900.





The preliminary steps leading to the organization of this body have been fully given in Chapter II. The convention for its organization was held in the Masonic temple, Indianapolis, Indiana, November 15, 1376, when the Grand Chapters of California, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and New Jersey were represented. James S. Nutt, Grand Patron of Indiana called the convention to order, and John M. Mayhew, of New Jersey, the senior Grand Patron present, was chosen President, and John II. Parson, of Missouri, Secretary. A committee of one from each jurisdiction, of which Willis P. Engle, of Indiana, was chairman, reported a form of constitution, which was adopted, and the General Grand Chapter organized. A committee to prepare a ritual was appointed, and the Most Worthy Grand Patron was authorized to issue dispensations to all subordinate Chapters holding charters purporting to emanate from a Supreme Grand Chap‑



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.                                                                                       171 


ter, upon their surrendering the same, without expense. The meeting closed with a public installation of officers. The Most Worthy Grand Patron was made the executive head, and the powers and authority of the body were thus prescribed:




Section 1. The General Grand Chapter shall possess no other power than is expressly delegated to it. It can exercise no doubtful authority or power, by implication merely. All Eastern Star authority not hereby granted to it, is reserved to the Grand Chapters, subordinate Chapters, and their members individually.


Sec. 2. It shall have and maintain jurisdiction over all Chapters established by itself in any section of any country where there is no Grand Chapter established, and have disciplinary power over such Chapters until a Grand Chapter shall be legally organized and recognized by this General Grand Chapter, and no longer.


Sec. 3. It shall have power to decide all questions of Eastern Star law, usage and custom which may arise between any two or more Grand Chapters, or in any subordinate Chapter under its own immediate jurisdiction; and all that may be referred to it for its decision by any Grand Chapter, and its decision so made shall be regarded as the supreme tribunal of the Eastern Star in the last resort.


Sec. 4. It shall be the judge of the qualifications of its own members.


Sec. 5. It shall adopt and prescribe a uniform ritual of work, and formula for installation of its own officers, as well as the officers of Grand and subordinate Chapters.


Sec. 6. All amendments, alterations or additions to the ritual that shall be promulgated by this General Grand Chapter, must be submitted in writing at a stated meeting, when, if approved by a majority of the members present, shall lie over until the next stated meeting, when, if adopted by a two‑thirds vote, shall become a part of the same.



172                                                                                         GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.




Sec. 2. The General Grand Chapter may levy such contributions as in its judgment shall be required, which shall always be uniform in proportion to membership, and which shall not exceed five cents per annum for each paying member.



No tax has ever been levied by the General Grand Chapter upon any Grand Chapters, except that the five Grand Chapters, which were represented at its organization were requested to advance to it two and one‑half cents for each member of its subordinates, the same to be applied on their dues, which they cheerfully did, the same aggregating $148.43.


At the second meeting, held in Chicago, Illinois, May 8‑10, 1878, seven Grand Chapters were represented, and Past Grand Matrons of Connecticut and New York were present as visitors. Five Chapters had been organized, and five Macoy Chapters had exchanged their charters.


The third meeting was also held in Chicago, August 20‑21, 1880, eleven Grand Chapters were represented, and visitors were present from fourteen states. Rob Morris, who was present was made an honorary member, and his birthday, August 31, was made the festal day of the order. Eleven Chapters had been organized, and one Macoy charter and two issued by the Grand Chapter of New York to Chapters in Maryland and Wyoming, exchanged. Fourteen Chapters had been released to form two Grand Chapters.


The fourth meeting, was held in San Francisco,



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.                                                                                       173


August 17‑23, 1883, when twelve Grand Chapters were represented. Twenty‑seven Chapters had been organized, and two Macoy charters exchanged. Five Chapters had been released to form a Grand Chapter. The withdrawal of the Grand Chapter of New Jersey from the General Grand Chapter in October, 1880, and its return in October, 1881, were reported. A committee was appointed on revision of ritual.


The fifth meeting was held in St. Louis, Missouri, September 23-25, 1886, ten Grand Chapters being represented. Twenty‑nine Chapters had been organized, and one Macoy Chapter reorganized. Thirteen Chapters had been released to form a Grand Chapter. The Most Worthy Grand Patron reported that he had, in behalf of the General Grand Chapter, assumed jurisdiction over Mississippi, the Grand Chapter of that state having ceased to exist; and that recognition had been withdrawn from the Grand Chapter of Minnesota, on account of gross violations of law, and that a new Grand Chapter bad been organized and recognized. This was a matter that provoked much controversy, extending over ten years, and occupied the attention of the General Grand Chapter at three of its meetings. The salient points of it are epitomized as follows:


The address of the Most Worthy Grand Patron, in 1886, was largely taken up with a statement of the troubles and his action in the premises, which attempted the abolition of the old Grand Chapter, and assumption of jurisdiction over the order in that state, and the subsequent organization of another Grand Chapter. The trouble doubtless had its origin in undue ambition for office and power, but its first official manifestation was in a criticism by the Grand Patron, in his address to the Grand Chapter in 1883, of the work as exemplified in Minneapolis Chapter



174                                                                                         GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.


No. 9, which resulted in a declaration by the Grand Chapter that the work was not an infraction of the ritual, which was the only action in the matter ever taken by the Grand Chapter. The following year the matter was presented by the Grand Matron, in her address, but before action was taken, and before the election and other routine business had been disposed of, the Grand Chapter adjourned sine die. Then came an edict from the Grand Matron, dated March 30, 1885, suspending all the officers and members of Minneapolis Chapter from all the rights and privileges of the order until the next meeting of the Grand Chapter. The Grand Secretary being a member of No. 9, on April 7, the Grand Matron issued a notice relieving her of the duties of that office, and appointing another sister to fill the vacancy. Following this came a call for a special meeting of the Grand Chapter, which was held May 13, and at which all the acts of the Grand Matron were approved, and a new corps of officers elected. At this stage, the Most Worthy Grand Patron issued his edict, and, when the matter was presented to the General Grand Chapter, it took action as follows:


Resolved, that in his edict of withdrawal of recognition of the Grand Chapter of Minnesota, the Most Worthy Grand Patron was justified by the exigencies of the case, and this General Grand Chapter confirms his action.


Resolved, that the Most Worthy Grand Patron he authorized to call a convention of all the Chapters in Minnesota, claiming to work under the authority of both the so‑called Grand Chapters of the state, and that he, in person or by deputy, proceed to that convention and organize a new Grand Chapter, consisting of all the Chapters willing to become members of this new Grand Chapter, and that no other body but the one thus organized be recognized by this General Grand Chapter.


The newly elected Most Worthy Grand Patron is‑



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.                                                                                       175 


sued a call as directed, but, before the time fixed for the meeting, he cancelled the same, and subsequently issued an edict requiring all Chapters to recognize the original Grand Chapter, and restoring recognition to the same as a constituent part of the General Grand Chapter. At the meeting of the General Grand Chapter in 1859, this action was confirmed, and all Chapters in the state were ordered to make report and pay dues to said Grand Chapter under penalty of forfeiture of all rights, and the Grand Chapter was ordered to receive such Chapters as made reports and paid dues, into full membership, under penalty of a withdrawal of recognition of the Grand Chapter. The Grand Chapter failing to comply with the conditions, recognition was withdrawn, April 14, 1891, and at the meeting of the General Grand Chapter in 1892, what was known as Grand Chapter No. 2, was recognized as the "own and only" Grand Chapter of Minnesota, and by the subsequent conservative action of the leading members of the order in both divisions, a consolidation of all the bodies under one head, and the recognition thereby of all Chapters and past Grand officers, was effected May 10, 1894, since which time peace and harmony have prevailed.


Among those present at the St. Louis meeting was brother Morris, who read a poem as follows.




[Composed for the triennial assembly of the General Grand Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star, St. Louis, Mo., September, 1880, and fraternally inscribed to Mrs. A. C. S. Engle, by Rob Morris, Poet Laureate.]


If to our world dear lost ones would descend

If Ruth and Martha would in kindness bend.

With Esther and Electa from the sky

And sanctify our harmony and joy,

I think while in these roseate bonds we meet,

Our happiness this morning were complete.



176                                                                                         GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.


So hard is life, so anxious and unsure,

So much there is to combat and endure,

We need a greater than an earthly hope,

To buoy our dull, despondent spirits up;

Oh God, Thou fountain of all‑perfect love,

Send messengers of comfort from above.


So shall this conclave of the Eastern Star,

Be like the gatherings where the angels are;

So shall one purpose occupy each heart

And give full consolation ere we part;

While every evil thought shall fade away

And naught remain but one perpetual day.


It was ordered that


The jewels of a Grand Chapter be the emblems within a star or a triangle, within a pentagon; and that the jewels of the General Grand Chapter be the emblems within a star or a triangle, within a circle.


By the adoption of the revised ritual, in 1889, the jewels of the General Grand Chapter were made the jewels of a Grand Chapter within a circle.


The sixth meeting was at Indianapolis, September 25‑27, 1889. Twelve Grand Chapters were represented, including two delegations from Minnesota; and one subordinate Chapter. Twenty‑eight Chapters had been organized, and twenty‑seven had been released to organize four Grand Chapters. The Grand Chapter of Ontario having become dormant, the General Grand Chapter assumed jurisdiction over its territory, August 8, 1889. New Jersey was reported as having again withdrawn from the General Grand Chapter, in which condition it still remains. The death of Rob Morris having occurred July 31, 1888, and that of William M. Hack, who had been Worthy Grand Sentinel from the organization of the General Grand Chapter, August 9, 1887, suitable action was taken relative thereto. The Most Worthy Grand Matron was made the executive head of the body, the business of granting charters and organizing Chapters









GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.                                                                                       177


still remaining in the hands of the Most Worthy Grand Patron. The committee on revision of ritual reported, .and its report was adopted, giving the order the ritual as it now is.


The seventh meeting was held in Columbus, Ohio, September 15‑17, 1892, sixteen Grand Chapters and two subordinate Chapters being represented. Fifty‑seven Chapters had been organized, while fifty‑four Chapters under its jurisdiction had been released to. organize six Grand Chapters.


The eighth meeting was in Boston, Massachusetts, August 29‑30, 1895, when twenty‑four Grand Chapters and nine subordinate Chapters were represented. Fifty‑eight Chapters had been organized, while eighteen had been released to organize. two Grand Chapters. The Right Worthy Grand Secretary reported shaving maintained a very successful Eastern Star corner at the World's. Fair, which did much to bring the order to the attention of Masons and their relatives. The Worthy Grand Conductress and Worthy Grand Associate Conductress were made elective officers, they having theretofore been appointive.


The ninth meeting was in Washington, District of Columbia, September 27‑30, 1895, when twenty‑six Grand Chapters were represented, besides representatives of the Grand Chapters of Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York, not members of the body, and a committee was appointed to confer with them, and subsequently it submitted a report opening up the way for their affiliation with the General Grand Chapter. Sixty‑five Chapters had been organized, and eleven Chapters released to form two Grand Chapters. A memorial was presented front the. Grand Chapter of Texas asking for the publication of the esoteric work in a separate volume, and that a monitor, containing the balance of the work, be published and sold




178                                                                                         GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.


to members generally, and a committee was appointed to report details for carrying out the suggestion.


Being the only person that has been a member of the General Grand Chapter from its organization who has attended all of its meetings, and having had an intimate knowledge of its workings, I am, perhaps, as well able as one to speak of its great success, from many points of view. Consisting, as the order did at the time of its organization, of but thirteen Grand Chapters (two of which had been organized the previous month), with a membership of possibly thirteen thousand, in two hundred and seventy‑five Chapters, how great is the contrast with its present flourishing condition, with its thirty‑six Grand bodies, nearly thirty‑two hundred Chapters, and upwards of two hundred thousand members; and increasing at the rate of two hundred and sixty Chapters, and over twenty thousand members per annum. Truly, the General Grand Chapter has, by the test of its fruits, proven the wisdom of its projectors, and has placed the order en a basis of permanency, harmony, and prosperity that could not otherwise have been attained. But any sketch would he incomplete that did not mention the social reunions that its meetings afford, when sisters and brothers from one end of the land to the other clasp the cordial hand of friendship. The gatherings leave been made most pleasant by the hospitalities that have been extended to its members by the Chapters here its meetings have been held, whether they have been in the beautiful summer land of California, under the eaves of Faneuil hall, or within the shadow of the nations capitol.


Financially the General Grand Chapter has been a success, never having levied any tax upon the Grand Chapters other than the small contributions made by the Grand Chapters that organized it, to pay its initial



GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER.                                                                                       179 


expenses. Tip to 1898, the date of the last printed report, the receipts had been approximately: For charters, $4,977; dues, $8,050; merchandise, $37,200. Total, $50,227. Disbursements, expenses, $27,512 merchandise, $17,200. Balance, cash and credits, $5,500.


Decisions. - A person who has lost an arm can not be received into our order. 1886.


The rituals of the Queen of the South and Amaranth degree cannot be used in any Chapter in a jurisdiction under the General Grand Chapter. 1895.


All printed matter between the covers of the ritual shall be considered as law, and binding upon all Grand Chapters. 1898.


The prayers in the ritual are as much a part of the regular work as the lectures, and they may not be changed in the opening or closing ceremonies, any more than in the initiation or installation ceremonies. 1895.


M. W. G. Matron. - 1876, Elizabeth Butler, Illinois; 1878, Elmira Foley, Missouri; 1880, L. J. Pitkin, Illinois; 1883, Jennie E. Mathews, Iowa; 1886, Mary A. Flint, California; 1889, Nettie Ransford, Indiana; 1892, Mary C. Snedden, Kansas; 1895, Mary E. Partridge, California; 1898, Hattie E. Ewing, Massachusetts.


M. W. G. Patron. 1876, John D. Vincil, Missouri; 1878, *Thos. M. Lamb, Massachusetts; 1880, Willis Brown, Kansas; 1883, *R. C. Gaskill, California; 1886, J. S. Conover, Michigan; 1889, Benj. Lends, Missouri; 1892, Jas. R. Donnell, Arkansas; 1895, H. H. Hinds, Michigan; 1898, N. A. Gearhart, Minnesota.


R. W. G. Secretary. - 1876‑1889, Willis D. Engle, Indiana; 1889‑1900, Lorraine J. Pitkin, Illinois.





180                                                                                                     ARIZONA‑ARKANSAS.




The first Chapter chartered by the General Grand Chapter was Golden Rule, at Prescott, February 6. 1882, and subsequently eleven other Chapters were organized, there being eight live Chapters at the time of the organization of the Grand Chapter, November 15, 1900, the convention held at Phoenix, assembling in the reception room of the Commercial hotel, five Chapters being represented. The members indulged in a banquet, in connection with the other Masonic Grand bodies, in the evening, and completed the organization by the installation of officers on the following day.


Grand Matron, Annie L. Tilton; Grand Patron, George E. Kohler; Grand Secretary, Lizzie D. Armstrong.




The first Chapter in this state was Enola No. 1, organized at Mt. Vernon, in July, 1870. The Grand Chapter was organized October 2, 1876, the convention assembling on the call of W. B. Massey; and held its first annual meeting at Searcy, November 8, following, six Chapters being represented. As the proceedings of this body for its earlier meetings have not been printed, particulars that would be of interest and valuable, are not accessible, while its earlier printed proceedings are lacking in statistics. At the second meeting, in 1877, but four Chapters were represented; Past Matrons, Past Patrons, and Past Associate Matrons, were made members of the: Grand Chapter for one year after their term of office had expired; the Grand Matron was made the executive head of the Grand Chapter; dues were fixed at 10 cents per capita, but were raised to twenty cents in 1882, and to twenty‑five cents in 1886. "A scarf of five colors, three inches wide, with a rosette on.



ARKANSAS.                                                                                                                                    181


the shoulder, the breast, and at the crossing, to be worn from the right shoulder to the left side," was adopted as the distinctive regalia of the order. At the third meeting there were but four Chapters represented.


In 1879 a Grand Orator was elected whose duty it was to deliver an address at the installation of the Grand officers at each annual communication, on the objects of the order.


In 1880 allegiance was acknowledged to the General Grand Chapter, and its ritual adopted; a committee was appointed to visit the Grand Lodge and lay the claims of the order before it, and ask it to recognize the order; and an edict was issued forbidding any member of the order conferring the degrees in any other way than in the manner prescribed by the constitution.


In 1886 the state was divided into eighteen districts, and a Deputy Grand Matron and a Deputy Grand Patron appointed for each, and in 1891, district schools of instruction were inaugurated. The number of districts was reduced to ten, in 1899.


In 1889 a brother was suspended by the Grand Chapter for conferring the degrees in an illegal manner.


In 1893, the Grand Chapter, by special invitation, attended the dedication of the Masonic temple, in Little Rock.


In 1898 the use of the Grand Lodge hall was, by resolution of the Grand Lodge, tendered to the Grand Chapter at such times as the Grand Lodge does not require it.


There have been two hundred and fifty‑six Chapters organized in this state, ninety‑one of which made returns in 1900.


Decision. - The voting sign of the order is raising the right hand.



182                                                                                                                 CALIFORNIA.


Grand Matron. - 1876, Kiddy A. Neal; 1877, Ann F. Beavers; 1878, Kiddy A. Neal; 1879, Mary F. McCain; 1880, N. M. Maddox (Nelson); 1881‑1882, Leila B. McBride; 1883‑1886, S. Alice Cox; 1887, Hettie E. Penn; 1885‑1890, Sallie E. Reynolds (Conner); 1891‑1892, Ida M. Beloate; 1893‑1894, Mattie C. DeVaughan; 1895‑1896, Jennie B. Hopkins; 1897, Alma C. Strong; 1898, Frances M. Stark; 1899, Jane A. Dixon; 1900, Julia M. Gill.


Grand Patron. - 1876, J. M. Mallett; 1877, N. K. Dobbins; 1875, Rev. G. A. Dannelly; 1879, ‑*W. B. Massey; 1880, N. J. Chance; 1881‑1885, Rev. G. A. Dannelly; 1886‑1887, *James Al. Harkey; 1888‑1889, J. R. Donnell; 1890, J. F. Hopkins; 1891, John G. Holland; 1892‑1893, Rev. E. L. Massey; 1894, J. F. Hopkins; 1895‑1896, *R. R. Lewis; 1897, George Thornburg; 1898, George W. DeVaughan; 1899, Dr. J. B. Ellis; 1900, M. T. Brisco.


Grand Secretary. - 1876‑1880, B. B. Bradley; 1881‑1885, W. B. Massey; 1886‑1890, J. C. Higgs; 1591‑1896, Hettie E. Penn; 1897‑1900, Jennie B. Hopkins.




The degree of the Eastern Star was first conferred in this State, in San Francisco, in April, 1860. The first Chapter organized was Golden Gate No. 1, San Francisco, May 10, 1869. The Grand Chapter was organized in San Francisco, April 9, 1873, by representatives of seven of the ten Chapters then organized in the state. Of these ten Chapters, six still survive. A constitution was adopted which did not provide for Grand officers at the points of the star, but these were added in October, 1873. In addition to the three principal officers, and Past Matrons and Past Patrons, each Chapter was given an additional representative for each twenty‑five members, and one





CALIFORNIA.                                                                                                                       183


for each fraction of twenty‑five, more than seven‑teen, but the additional representation was abolished in 1875. The Grand Patron was made the presiding officer, and executive head of the Grand Chapter, and so continues, this being the only Grand Chapter in which the Grand Patron is the executive. On this subject, a committee in 1886 said: The labor of presiding over the deliberations of the Grand Chapter for several days in succession is very onerous, and can better be endured by a brother than a sister, as a general proposition, admitting the qualification of each, mentally, are alike. Notwithstanding the Grand Matron may preside in most, or even in all other Grand jurisdictions. The Grand Chapter of California has not indulged very largely in the practice of going to other jurisdictions to learn how to conduct her own affairs.


At the meeting for organization a committee was appointed to prepare a ritual, which was adopted and published.



(California Ritual.) In 1875 a committee was appointed "to revise the ritual, and abbreviate the ceremonies of initiation so far as it can be done without impairing the sense or value of the same, and that the responses for the points found in the New York ritual (Adoptive Rite Revised) be adopted by subordinate Chapters." This committee reported in 1877, the report being adopted, and the ritual published. (California Revised.)




184                                                                                                                 CALIFORNIA.


The Grand Chapter was represented at the organization of the General Grand Chapter, but in 1877 it was


Resolved, that the Grand Chapter of California will not recognize any authority in the General Grand Chapter until it puts forth the form of ritual that it may adopt, and the Grand Chapter of California have time for the examination thereof, and that the members of the General Grand Chapter who are members of this Grand Chapter are not to feel themselves at liberty to pledge this Grand Chapter in any respect.


It was also ruled


That it would be in order for our Grand Chapter to grant a dispensation for the formation of a Chapter in any adjacent state, or territory where there is no Grand Chapter.


In 1878 "All resolutions, motions, and orders passed by this Grand Chapter relating to the adoption of ritual, and the form thereof to be used in this jurisdiction," were rescinded, and the General Grand Chapter ritual adopted.


In 1873 "a password system" was adopted, and continued in force until 1878.


In 1882 the state was divided into districts with a Deputy Grand Matron for each, and this was continued until 1898. The printed proceedings for all these years contain specific and interesting reports from the district deputies, giving information in regard to the condition of each Chapter. In 1898 the operation of the law was suspended for a year, and a system of schools of instruction under the direction of the Grand Matron was substituted, and was so successful that it was continued in 1899. Concerning them the Grand Patron said:


I hold that the visits of our Worthy Grand Matron to the centers of population of each district and the schools of instruction held there by her have been



CALIFORNIA.                                                                                                                       185 


a Grand success, and that at no time in the history of our existence has the interpretation of our work has been so uniform and so much unity of purpose exhibited throughout the jurisdiction.


A Grand Chapter of Sorrow was held in 1880, when Abbie E. Wood (Krebs) delivered a memorial address; and in 1888 a like service was held by the Chapters of San Francisco in memory of Rob Morris, the Grand Chapter attending the same, and the program being included in the printed proceedings.


The Grand Chapter most royally entertained the General Grand Chapter in 1883, at an expense of $1,465.68.


At the request of some of the Chapters in Nevada working under charters from the General Grand Chapter, they were transferred to the jurisdiction of California, the population of Nevada being so sparse that there seemed no probability of a Grand Chapter being organized in that State.


The following was adopted in 1888:


Resolved, that while we recognize the lamented Rob Morris as the author and founder of the order, we recognize brother Robert Macoy as the master builder, who systematized the work of the order, and through whose instrumentality the order has assumed its present Grand proportions; and that we are proud to hail brother Macoy as the Patriarch of the order, and hope that his useful life may be spared many years to adorn and dignify the Order of the Eastern Star.


In the matter of other degrees the Grand Chapter Resolved, that it is the sense of this Grand Chapter that it is not conducive to, the upbuilding of our order, and opposed to the well established rules, regulations, and edicts of this fraternity, that any of the so‑called side degrees not prescribed by the ritual of our order, be conferred by our Chapters as such, at any time, or in the Chapter room during the evenings of our meet‑



186                                                                                                                 CALIFORNIA.


ings, or under the auspices or countenance of our fraternity, but that it is the sense of this Chapter that all entertainments of an exclusively social nature be reserved for a time subsequent to the close of the Chapters, to the end that maters of a fraternal nature be not rendered secondary to social festivities.


In 1898 the Grand Patron issued a warning to members of the order against recognizing the Amaranth degree, as connected with the order, in which he said:


Robert Macoy wrote the degree of the Queen of the South, and the Amaranth, and conferred the same on many persons during his lifetime, but said Macoy was not a member of an Eastern Star Chapter for several years before his death, nor was he a member when he wrote this degree. * * The Macoy ritual can be purchased by any one desiring it at any of the large book stores; and is used exclusively by the colored Chapters, they working all the degrees as written by Macoy.


The Grand Patron was in error; brother Macoy was, at the time of his death, a member of Wyona Chapter No. 77, of Brooklyn, and the funeral ceremonies of the order were conducted by that Chapter at his burial. The Queen of the South was, like the Eastern Star, adapted by brother Morris from a form that had been in use before his day, and, as with the Eastern Star, brother Macoy revised the Morris form of conferring it, but his ritual was first published in 1876, when he was certainly an active member of the order.


In reporting upon this, the committee to which was referred that portion of the Grand Patron's address said: The Court of the Amaranth may be, and no doubt is, a good thing of itself, and worthy of countenance when permitted to stand alone on its merits; and we see no harm in making a prerequisite to joining it,



CALIFORNIA.                                                                                                                       187


that the applicant be a member in good standing in the Order of the Eastern Star. * * Any order of a social nature requires advertising and holstering up by building on the foundation and strength of another order of known beauty and merit, should be viewed with suspicion, and held at arm's length. Let it flourish or decline upon its own merits alone, unaided by borrowing from, or preying upon kindred orders, and then only, will it free itself from unkind remarks or well deserved censure.


A committee on Masonic home was appointed to cooperate with the Grand Lodge, and the Grand Chapter pledged $500 toward the object. Owing to financial depression, and the suspension of the bank in which some $1,100 of the fund were deposited, the movement languished, but recently the home has been acquired, and the interest of the order in it revived, about $2,500 being contributed toward it, by the order in 1898, and in 1899 the committee reported that a total of $6,388.45 had been received, and that no less than $6,000 was added to the building fund by the efforts of members of the Eastern Star, the amounts contributed through the Grand Chapter being toward the furnishing of the building.


The bills presented for the expenses of the trial of a Matron aggregating $886.95, the Grand Chapter ordered that Hereafter, when the members of a Chapter desire to prefer charges against the Worthy Patron or Worthy Matron, they shall deposit with the Grand Patron or Grand Matron a sufficient sum to cover the expenses of a trial, before the commission is appointed.


In 1899 a proposition to amend the constitution so as to make the Grand Matron the executive head of the Grand Chapter, failing to receive five‑sixths of the votes cast, was laid over for a year. By a unanimous vote the following proviso was added to the section of



188                                                                                                                 CALIFORNIA.


the constitution relative to the membership of the Grand Chapter: There is hereby created the title of Venerable Past Grand Patron, with all the rights and privileges of membership, to be conferred upon our beloved brother William S. Moses, of Golden Gate Chapter No. 1, in view of the fact that he was the first Deputy Grand Patron, and as such organized the first Chapters in this state.


The following memorial prepared by H. Augusta Hobe is of such general interest as to justify its insertion here: Sister Maria Anderson was born February 3, 1821. She received the degrees of the order of the Eastern Star by communication April 23, 1869. At that time she was the wife of brother James Everard, an actor by profession. As an actress sister Everard had acquired an education in early life which qualified her to become an efficient instructor in the new order, and on account of her public experience she was considered to be the better fitted than any other sister to make the enterprise a success, and yet she had no easy task. "Separated by thousands of miles from any other Chapter of the order, without the advice or assistance of any one capable of instructing the members in the work or ceremonies of a Chapter; surrounded by influences which, if not positively antagonistic, were nevertheless injurious to the prosperity of the order, it required a hard struggle against difficulties and opposition" to manipulate the crude material into proper form; but sister Everard proved to be an able assistant to the devoted little band of zealous workers, who had raised our standard colors on this far off western shore, and their united labor of love reached its fruition on the 23rd day of August, 1869, when the first Eastern Star Chapter was opened in regular form for the transaction of legitimate business, with sister Everard in the chair. Previous to this date fifty‑eight had received the degree by communication. In less than four months afterward thirty‑five members were regularly initiated.



CALIFORNIA.                                                                                                                       189 


December 27, 1869, sister Everard had the honor of being first elected and installed Worthy Matron in this state. At the close of her year's service, in December, 1870, she had received one hundred and twenty petitions, and initiated one hundred and three members; ten others came into the Chapter later on, making a record unsurpassed in the annals of the order in California. When she retired from office she received the collar and jewel of a Past Worthy Matron and also a handsome case of silver, but she cherished most, as a precious memento of the past, the practical proof that she was loved and honored by the members of her beloved Chapter, for when death invaded her happy home in June, 1871, and she was left without kindred, alone in her widowhood, the Chapter members were called together to show their sympathy for her bereavement. The Worthy Patron escorted the sisters in a body from their Chapter hall on Post Street to the Masonic temple, where seats had been reserved for them, which was at that time a great innovation. At the Masonic cemetery, when Mount Moriah Lodge No. 44, F. & A. M., had finished the sad funeral rites for their Master, brother James Everard, they stepped aside, and the sisters of the Order of the Eastern Star gathered around the weeping widow with kind words of love and tenderness, and while quietly covering the mound which contained the mortal remains of her loved one with their floral offerings, "instilled hope into her heart until site looked beyond the river and saw the glory of the farther shore."  March 10, 1872, sister Everard was duly installed Worthy Matron of Alameda Chapter No. 7, and from her saddened home she continued to work for the interests of the order. Some time after she married L. C. Andersen, a brother actor and an old‑time friend of her late husband. April 7, 1873, when the delegates from the several Chapters in this state met to organize a Grand Chapter, sister Anderson received her reward as the pioneer sister worker in the order by being elected and installed the' first Worthy Grand Matron of California. She occupied her seat of honor at the first annual communication. The body then represented nine subordinate Chapters, and



190                                                                                                                 CALIFORNIA.


a membership of over five hundred, as a result of the nucleus formed by fourteen members April 8, 1869.


The Grand Secretary is paid annually $900, the Assistant Secretary $3300, and $250 is paid for office rent. The retiring, and oftentimes the incoming Grand officers are presented tokens of regard and affection by their friends.


The Grand Chapter in 1899 was attended by sixteen Grand officers, fifty‑one past Grand officers, one hundred and eighty‑five representatives of Chapters, and two hundred and fourteen Past Matrons and Past Patrons, a total of four hundred and sixty‑six. The receipts, general fund, including balance were $9,037.05, and the total balance of cash on hand was $3,939.95. Home fund, receipts $2,635.55; balance $826.55.


Decisions. -  The floral work may be given in public. 1891.


Being neither business nor work of the order the floral work should not be given in open Chapter. 1896.


A brother's suspension or expulsion from his Lodge does not affect his membership in a Chapter. 1875 and 1881.


A Past Matron from another state affiliating with a Chapter of this state, is entitled to her rank as past officer, and to membership in the Grand Chapter. 1889.


It is not in keeping with the dignity of this Grand Chapter to pass upon the merits or demerits of any work or production, nor to approve or disapprove the same. 1896.


A bylaw providing that "no applicant for charity shall be relieved out of the funds of the Chapter except females, and orphan children in some way connected with freeMasonry," is void, because it is in direct conflict with the foundation principles of the order. 1898.


A Chapter cannot appear in public processions, celebrations, festivities, or fairs of any kind, without a



CALIFORNIA.                                                                                                                       191


special dispensation from the Grand Matron, except to attend the funeral of a member of the order. 1898.


The Chapter shall determine who among the qualified sisters and brothers shall act as installing officer. 1899.


Grand Matron. -1871. Maria Anderson; 1873, Mary E. Gillespie; 1874, 1enrietta Whitcher; 1875, Emily Rolfe: 1876, Ada A. Libber: 1577, *Annie E. Douglas; 1878, Fena W. Ford; 1879, Nellie N. Owens; 1880, S. Jennie Mann; 1881, Frances E. Ryder; 1582‑1883, Mary A. Flint; 1884, Mary J. Young; 1885, A. E. Wood (Krebs); 1886, Mary B. Moore; 1857, G. S. Freeman; 1888, Mary E. Partridge; 1889, Annie E. Briggs; 1890, Mary J. Parker; 1891, Mattie A. Farnum; 1892, "Georgia A. Matfield; 1893, Emma Hapgood; 1894, Augusta D. Wilson; 1895, Carrie A. Peaslee; 1896, Ella T. Hall; 1897, Eva M. Porter; 1898, Maria A. Pierce; 1899, Fannie T. McCowen; 1900, hand E. Bowes.


Grand Patron. - 1373‑1574, George J. Hobe; 1875, *J. E. Whitcher; 1876, Jerome Spalding; 1877, *R. C. Gaskill: 1578, I. J. Rolfe; 1579, *Charles L. Thomas; 1s80, *Jerome Banks; 1881, Edward S. West; 1582, Rev. A. F. Hitchcock; 1883, A. C. Hartley; 1884. F. W. G. Moebus; 1885, *E. W. Roberts; 1886, John N. Young; 1887, John H. Gray; 1888, Thomas Flint; 1889, Jesse B. Fuller; 1890, Fred L. Button; 1891, C. C. Bush; 1892, J. F. Boller; 1893, A. B. Lemmon; 1894, Thomas Flint, Jr.; 1895, Joseph B. Merritt; 1896, James R. Tapscott; 1897, Harrison D. Rowe; 1898, J. M. Lawrence, M. D.; 1899, George L. Darling; 1900, Ernest W. Conant.


Grand Secretary. - 1873. *Henrietta Whitcher; 1874, Anna M. Elliott; 1875‑1881, Abbie E. brood (Krebs); 1882‑1900, Kate J. Willats.





192                                                                                                                 COLORADO.




Chapters were chartered by brother Macoy, at Black Hawk and Silver Cliff, about 1877, but neither of them survived. The first Chapter chartered by the General Grand Chapter was Trinidad No. 1, at Trinidad, January 7, 1881. The convention to organize the Grand Chapter was called by Romona No. 11, of Colorado Springs, and met at Colorado Springs, June 6, 189, when ten of the thirteen Chapters in the state were represented by thirty‑four representatives and past officers. Instead of completing the work of organization in one day, as most of such conventions have done, it continued in session three (lays, but those who have visited Colorado Springs, and know of the sights that may be seen there, need not be told the reason. The Chapter at Leadville presented the Grand Chapter fifty dollars toward paying the expenses of organization; Past Matrons and Past Patrons were made permanent members of the Grand Chapter, and the Grand Matron its executive head; per capita dues were fixed at twenty‑five cents per annum.





The floral work was rendered before the Grand Chapter for the first time in 1893. The printed secret work was recalled in 1895, audit was ordered that it be communicated orally. The retiring Grand Matron in 1894 was presented a diamond ring, and it was ordered that from thenceforward, the retiring Grand Matron should be presented a Past Grand Matron's jewel by the Grand Chapter, at an expense of twenty‑five dollars. The word "session"



COLORADO.                                                                                                                        193 


was adopted to designate the meetings of both Grand and subordinate Chapters.


In 1897, Union Lodge No. 7 extended greetings to the two Chapters in Denver, as follows:


Resolved, that these relatives of our Masonic brothers are deserving of the fraternal regard, endorsement, and sympathy of this Lodge, and that the same is hereby extended to them, with our good will and earnest desire for their welfare and prosperity.


In 1900 the Grand Matron in her address said:


Whereas the order of the Eastern Star has become well established in Colorado, and as one of they principal objects of the order is charity, I would suggest that a special committee be appointed by the incoming Grand Matron, looking to the formation of some plan whereby this Grand Chapter or the subordinate Chapters in connection with the Masonic brotherhood, might accumulate a fund for the organization of a Masonic home for indigent master Masons, their widows, orphans, and Eastern Star members. And as our ritual teaches, "the order exists for the purpose of giving practical effect to one of the beneficent purposes of freeMasonry, which is to provide for the welfare of the wives, daughters, and widows of master Masons," now let us show "that woman's heart beats responsive to the same inspiration that prompts man to noble deeds!" During the past year I have seen the need of a home or some temporary shelter for those who were worthy and who had a right to look to us for assistance, and it seems to me quite appropriate that this Grand Chapter should at this time take some action in the matter.


This recommendation was approved by the Grand Chapter, but proceedings do not show the appointment of the committee.


The total number of Chapters chartered in the state is forty‑eight, of which four have surrendered their charters, while the forty‑four others are actively at work.




194                                                                                                                 CONNECTICUT.


 Decisions.  - The Worthy Patron of a Chapter must be an affiliated master Mason. 1894.


The word ritual can only be construed to mean the opening, closing, initiation, and funeral ceremonies. 1896.


The floral work contains no secret work, but is in the nature of an entertainment. 1897.


A member of a defunct Chapter can not visit a Chapter. 1899.


Grand Matron. - 1892‑1893, Carrie Reef; 1894, Eva J. Aldrich; 1895, Mary N. Potter; 1896, Mary E. Peirce; 1897, Mary L. Carr; 1898, Lizzie B. Shreyer; 1899, Mary Barry; 1900, Sarah E. Calvert.


Grand Patron. - 1892‑1893, *Henry D. Hathaway; 1894, Calvin E. Reed; 1895, Jethro C. Sanford; 1896, George D. Greenfield; 1897, D. R. Callaway; 1898, Newton D. Owens; 1899, L. D. Crain; 1900, James B. Sherman.


Grand Secretary. - 1892‑1900, Eliza S. Cohen.





The first Chapter organized was Orient, Bridgeport, April 22, 1869. The convention to organize the Grand Chapter was called by Chauncey M. Hatch, who had served as deputy for brother Macoy, and who had been the active agent in the organization of all the Chapters in the state, and met in New Haven, August 11, 1874, when eleven of the twelve Chapters were represented. The Grand Patron was made the executive head of the Grand Chapter, but this was changed in 1876, by placing the authority in the hands of the Grand Matron. Grand Chapter dues were fixed at fifty cents for each member admitted during the year, with no per capita dues, but in 1878 dues were levied of two and one‑half cents per capita, which was increased in 1880 to five cents, and to ten cents in 1899.


In 1878 Rob Morris's birthday was "set apart as




CONNECTICUT.                                                                                                                 195


a day of recreation, and social greetings by the members of the order in this state," and, commencing in 1886, an annual picnic of all the Chapters has been held, usually at some convenient seaside resort.


In 1889 the Chapter of sorrow by Addie C. S. Engle was adopted, the committee reporting that "after careful examination we found nothing we would wish erased, and could think of nothing we could add to improve it." In 1897 the Grand Matron made an appeal for the erection of a monument to the first Grand Patron, Chauncey M. Hatch, in response to which the Chapters contributed $238.10, and the monument was erected at a cost of $223.30, the balance being turned into the Masonic home fund. The monument was unveiled with appropriate ceremonies, under the direction of the Grand Matron, September 1, 1898.


In 1876 the Grand Chapter decided that "the present condition of our finances is such that we should be unable to bear our proportion of the legitimate expense attendant upon the formation of a supreme Grand Chapter," and there the matter rested until 1897, when a committee was appointed to visit the General Grand Chapter, in 1898, which made its report in 1899, recommending affiliation therewith, but the matter was at that time indefinitely postponed, but was taken up in 1900, and the recommendation of the committee concurred in.


In the matter of ritual, in October, 1874, "A committee on uniformity of work was appointed to pre‑pare a system of work and ritual," which reported at a special session, held February 1, 1875, the ritual as ordinarily practiced (Adoptive Rite), with some additions taken from the ancient ritual (Mosaic), which was adopted, and is known as the Connecticut Addenda. Excelsior Chapter, of New Haven also


196                                                                                                                 CONNECTICUT.


exemplified portions of the dramatized work (Mosaic), and it was ordered that "Chapters in this jurisdiction are permitted to dramatize such portions of the work as they may choose, provided the same be in accordance with the text and ceremonies as exemplified at this time," and Short Specimen Dramas were printed by the Grand Chapter for the use of Chapters desiring to avail themselves of the permission.


In her address in 1876 the Grand Matron said: In the brief time that the Chapter at Meriden has been in existence it has used three varieties of rituals, and I have just seen a fourth, the revised work recently adopted by the Grand Chapter of New York (Macoy's Ritual). *  *  * This Grand body adopted a ritual - sending for more copies, we are informed they are not in print, thus forcing us to adopt the new one for any new Chapters we may form.


In 1877 it was


Resolved, that uniformity of ritual in the various jurisdictions is desirable, and we will place no obstacle in the way of securing that end by the General Grand Chapter.


In 1878 the General Grand Chapter ritual was adopted, and the Grand Chapter recognized "the General Grand Chapter as a sister body, and will cooperate with it in such matters as in our judgment will advance the interests of the whole order." In 1890 it was Resolved], that the ritual of the General Grand Chapter (General Grand Chapter Revised) be adopted as the ritual of this Grand jurisdiction.


In the Masonic home matter the Grand Chapter in 1592 appropriated one hundred dollars and received contributions amounting to twelve dollars for that purpose; and in 1894 it appropriated two hundred dollars, while the subordinate Chapters contributed $564.12, besides many gifts of articles, which went



CONNECTICUT.                                                                                                                 197


to the complete furnishing of the assembly room in the home at Wallingford, and in 1896 a board of visitors composed of sisters was appointed.


Connecticut has performed two feats unexampled elsewhere in the order; transacted all its business in a one day's meeting each year; and sustained itself on a per capita tax of five cents or less, and a fifty‑cent tax on initiations. Perhaps no Grand Chapter can show a better record for permanency of Chapters. Of the fifty‑three organized in the state, including the Macoy Chapters, forty‑six survived in 1900. How much of this is due to the fact that almost from the beginning, the communicating the degrees "at sight" for the purpose of organizing a Chapter, which has largely prevailed in other jurisdictions, was discontinued, it would be impossible to say.


Grand Matron. - 1871, *A. C. Thorpe; 1875‑1877, A. C. S. Bario (Engle); 1878‑1879, Sarah A. Cullum; 1550, Eliza A. Landon; 1881, Lizzie S. Hotchkiss; 1882, Marian R. Drake; 1883, C. E. Billings; 1884, H. C. Holaday; 1885, Julietta Walker; 1886, Helen E. Battey; 1887, '`Carrie‑ B. Konold; 1888, Frances E. Holroyd; 1889, Sarah U. Wright; 1890, Clarissa B. Curtiss; 1891, *Hannah S. Harvey; 1892, Julia A. Granniss; 1.893, A. E. Leeds (Stebbins); 1894, Mary C. A. Perkins; 1895, Annie C. L. Wolcott; 1896, Ida A. Fisk; 1897, Minnie E. Willis; 1898, Clara M. Georgia; 1899, Ruth Huntoon; 1900, Harriet I. Burwell.


Grand Patron. - 1874, C. M. Hatch; 1875, *W. H. Ford; 1876‑1877, Wm. W. Lee; 1878, C. J. Buckbee; 1879, T. H. L. Tallcott; 1880, Charles H. Fowler; 1881, *Chester Tilden; 1882, "John N. Ensign; 1883, George B. Whitney; 1884, Clark Buckingham; 1885, James M. Dow; 1886, J. M. Page; 1887‑1889, Frank G. Bassett; 1890, Elizur B. Parsons; 1891, *Deceased.



198                                                                                         DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.


James B. Pellett; 1892, Jay C. Holden; 1893, Dr. F. M. Ripley; 1894, Wm. M. Gage; 1895, Merle C. Cowles; 1896, Wm. B. Hall; 1897, S. G. Redshaw; 1898, Wm. H. Pierpont; 1899, Edward M. Platt; 1900, Henry W. Atwood.


Grand Secretary. - 1874‑1884, Kate L. Tuttle; 1885‑1892, *Frances R. Martin; 1893‑1894, Sarah U. Wright; 1895‑1900, Amelia E. Leeds (Stebbins).