Note:  This material was scanned into text files for the sole purpose of convenient electronic research. This material is NOT intended as a reproduction of the original volumes. However close the material is to becoming a reproduced work, it should ONLY be regarded as a textual reference.  Scanned at Phoenixmasonry by Ralph W. Omholt, PM in May 2007.








































































ILLUSTRATIONS VOLUME IV R.‑. W.‑. Brother Colonel William Jarvis, First Provincial Grand Master of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Upper Canada Frontispiece PACING PAGE Bow River Lodge, Calgary 2 Twenty‑fifth Anniversary of the Grand Lodge of Alberta 2 Masonic Temple, Calgary 4 Masonic Temple at Edmonton, Alberta 6 Old Hudson's Bay Block House at Nanaimo 10 Masonic Hall, Barkerville, British Columbia 16 Old Fort Garry, Winnipeg 20 Hon. Edward Cornwallis, Governor of Nova Scotia, 1749‑1753 28 Petition for the First Lodge of Halifax, 1750 34 Old Clock Tower and Harbor, Halifax, Nova Scotia 3 8 H. R. H. Prince Edward, Duke of Kent 40 A Certificate of 1807 of the Lodge of Harmony, Placentia, Newfoundland 64 Masonic Temple, St. John's, Newfoundland 66 The Bay at Kingston in 1838 72 Chairs Presented by H. R. H. the Duke of Kent 92 The Masonic Temple, Regina, Saskatchewan 96 The Masonic Temple, Gouan, Saskatchewan 98 ''The West," Gouan, Saskatchewan 98 The Masonic Temple, Port Lemon, Costa Rica 120 Entrance to Masonic Temple, Port Lemon 120 Masonic Lodge at Sagua la Grande, Cuba 126 A Certificate, Port au Prince, Haiti 130 Masonic Temple at Kingston, Jamaica 138 Masonic Temple, Ponce, Puerto Rico 142 Xl ILLUSTRATIONS PACING PAGE Masonic Temple, Bridgetown, Barbados 148 Masonic Temple, St. George's, Bermuda 152.


Simon Bolivar 156 Regalia Worn by Bolivar 158 Masonic Temple, Buenos Aires 170 The Caves of Solomon 196 Masonic Grand Lodge, Madras, South India 2‑16 Curious Masonic Apron, Johannesburg, South Africa 2‑2.8 The First Masonic Temple in Egypt, at Port Said 2‑34 The Ordeal of the Egyptian Initiation 2‑36 Reception of the Thirty‑third Degree of the Scottish Rite 310 Warrant for Massachusetts College page 315 Statesmen and Patriots, Members of the Masonic Fraternity William J. Bryan, Edmund Burke, Henry Clay, Stephen A. Douglas, Oliver Ellsworth, Alexander Hamilton, Patrick Henry, John Jay, Henry Laurens, Edward Livingston, Robert R. Livingston, William Pinkney, and Edmund Randolph At end of volume GOULD'S HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY THROUGHOUT THE WORLD VOLUME IV A HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY THROUGHOUT THE WORLD VOL. IV CHAPTER I FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND ALBERTA CANON S. H. MIDDLETON A VENTURE, exploration, commercial enterprise, empire‑building and missionary endeavour all played their several parts in bringing Freemasonry to the Province of Alberta. The early traders, Northwest Mounted Police and others, meeting as they ofttimes did around the camp‑fire, trading‑post, and barrack square, made themselves known to each other by sign, token, or symbol.


In the late '7o's and the early '8o's the frontier post of Edmonton was already famous as a meeting place for all sorts and conditions of men. That some were members of the Craft was obvious, for in 1882 a Lodge, under the caption of Saskatchewan, No. 17, was organised and received its Charter from the Grand Lodge of Manitoba. This was subsequently surrendered about the year 18go. Meanwhile, the Masonic urge for a Lodge and official recognition was strongly felt in Calgary, where in May 1883 a notice was issued calling upon all Masons there to meet in Bro. George Murdock's store, which was then situated on the east bank of Elbow River. Although the meeting was held, as had been planned, only five Masons were present. They were: Bro. George Murdock, Bro. E. Nelson Brown, Bro. A. McNeil, Bro. George Monilaws, and Bro. D. C. Robinson. Although Bro. James Walker and Bro. John Walker had hoped also to attend, they were unable to do so. At this meeting the Brethren expressed the unanimous opinion that the time was not opportune for the formation of a Lodge; there being no suitable meeting place available; that the population was too scattered; and that there was not yet a sufficient number of Masons in Calgary to warrant such a venture.


After a few months, however, with the advent of the railway, people began to arrive in greater numbers. On August 15, 1883, the Canadian Pacific Railway track was laid through the site of what is now the city of Calgary. A few days z FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION later the first freight train arrived, bringing with it the first printing plant of what was to become The Calgary Herald. The initial issue of that paper carried a notice calling upon all Masons interested in the formation of a Masonic Lodge to meet in George Murdock's shack, east of the Elbow River. A photograph of this Masonically historic building is still preserved in the archives of Bow River Lodge, No. i. To the surprise of all, a large number of Masons assembled. R. W. Bro. Dr. N. J. Lindsay, at that time District Deputy Grand Master for No. i. (Essex) District of the Grand Lodge of Canada, was elected Chairman, R. W. Bra. George Murdock, Secretary. From then on meetings were held regularly every Friday night, an attendance Register was kept, and Minutes of all proceedings were recorded. No Masonic Work was done and no examinations were made, however, until the Petition for a Dispensation was about to be signed. This Petition was forwarded to the Grand Lodge of British Columbia.


After waiting for a period of from six to seven weeks for a reply, the Petitioners then sent a second application, this time to the Grand Lodge of Manitoba. A favourable reply was received from both Grand Lodges about the same time. Communications between Calgary and British Columbia at that time had to go from Calgary to Winnipeg, from there to Omaha, thence to San Francisco, and from that seaport to Victoria three times weekly. Under such troublesome conditions of transit, it was therefore considered advisable to accept the Dispensation offered by the Grand Lodge of Manitoba. Accordingly, the Dispensation was received on January 12, 1884, and the first meeting held on January 28 of that year.


R. W. Bro. Dr. N. J. Lindsay was designated first Worshipful Master. Subsequently he attended a meeting of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba, held in Winnipeg on February ii, at which Communication he was elected junior Grand Warden. At that meeting a Charter was granted to Bow River Lodge, at Calgary, recorded as No. 28 on the Register of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba. On the Grand Register of Alberta this Lodge is now known as Bow River Lodge, No. 1. At the same Communication of the; Grand Lodge of Manitoba in 1884, Charters were also granted to Lodges at Regina and at Moosomin. These three newly Chartered Lodges, together with the Lodges at Edmonton and Prince Albert, might legally have formed a Grand Lodge for the Northwest Territories, which at that time comprised the Districts of Saskatchewan, Assiniboia, and Alberta, all of which were ruled by one territorial government. But even at that date it was considered probable that Provincial formations were not far distant, and it was recognised that a Territorial Grand Lodge might eventually be broken by the ultimate division of the Territories into Provinces. It was accordingly decided to leave the matter in abeyance. The events which later transpired proved that those early Masons had been right, the three Districts which then formed the Northwest Territories have since been divided into two Provinces, Alberta and Saskatchewan, the District of Assiniboia having been absorbed by the latter.


Until the formation of the Grand Lodges of Alberta and Saskatchewan, the Grand Lodge of Manitoba claimed jurisdiction over all the Northwest Terri‑ OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 3 tories, although the first Masonic Constitution of the Territories declared that the Grand Lodge was formed in and for the Province of Manitoba. The Constitution also provided that in the absence of the Grand Master the Officer next in rank should assume the duties of that Office. In 1893, Dr. Goggin, of Winnipeg, was elected Grand Master, and Thomas Tweed of Medicine Hat, in what was then the District of Assiniboia, was elected Deputy Grand Master.


During that year, Dr. Goggin was appointed Superintendent of Education for the Northwest Territories; thereupon he removed to the capital city, Regina. This circumstance occasioned a peculiar situation. The Grand Master had left the jurisdiction, and the Deputy who had been elected lived outside the Province. To add further to this anomalous position, the Grand Lodge had decided to hold the Communication of 1894 at Banff, Alberta. Finally, to overcome the difficulty, an amendment to the Constitution was proposed, whereby the Grand Lodge of Manitoba would add the Northwest Territories to its jurisdiction, thus making it the largest Masonic Jurisdiction in America and the only Grand Lodge ever to extend its boundaries after being once Constituted. Although the proposal was at first opposed, it finally passed.


The political changes which culminated in the division of the old Northwest Territories into the Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, on September 1, 19o5, also precipitated the division of Manitoba Grand Lodge. Hitherto, though it had long been considered by many Brethren that the large number of Masonic Lodges in the Canadian Northwest, and their separation by hundreds of miles from the central authority, demanded a change, the spirit of loyalty to Manitoba had proved so strong that nothing short of absolute necessity could change it. This necessity arose, however, when Alberta became an autonomous Province. The event had been more or less anticipated and in consequence thereof, on March 21, 19o5, Wor. Bro. the Rev. G. H. Hogbin, then Master of Bow River Lodge, with Bro. Dr. George Macdonald as Secretary, received a letter from W. Bro. Kealy, who was then Master of Medicine Hat Lodge, suggesting that a Petition be made to the Grand Lodge of Manitoba, requesting recognition as a Grand Body, at their next annual meeting in June.


The Lodges in the Territory that was assumed to be Alberta were circularised to meet in Calgary on May 24. At that meeting, nine Lodges were represented by a total of twenty‑nine Delegates. After prolonged discussion, however, it was decided to postpone definite action, since the Autonomy Bill had not yet been passed, and might possibly become a law on the following July 1. Nevertheless, the whole matter of the formation of a Grand Lodge was discussed, and a Committee composed of Bro. Dr. Lindsay, Bro. Thomas Tweed, and Bro. E. N. Brown was appointed to consider the question of procedure. At that time Bro. Dr. Lindsay was the First Worshipful Master of Bow River Lodge, and Bro. E. N. Brown was also a Master of Bow River Lodge, while Bro. Tweed was Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba. The latter would undoubtedly have been chosen as first Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Alberta had it not been for his deeply regretted death. Consequently, the meeting was adjourned until July 6, when only eight Lodges were represented. As the Au‑ 4 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION tonomy Bill was still being debated in Parliament, it was decided to adjourn the meeting again, until one month after the Autonomy Bill came into force. This Act was passed, some time previous to, and became effective on, September i, i9o5, and the adjourned meeting called for October I2, on which day the Grand Lodge of Alberta came into being. At that time there were eighteen Lodges in the Province of Alberta and seventeen of these were represented by seventy‑nine Delegates, who were responsible for forming and constituting Grand Lodge by adopting the following resolution: " TO THE BRETHREN WHERE'ER SCATTERED O'ER LAND AND SEA " Whereas it has been made to appear by many Brethren of the Ancient Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons in the newly formed Province of Alberta, Canada, that it is most expedient and desirable for the proper government of the Craft that a Grand Lodge of Masons shall be formed in the said Province of Alberta.


BE IT KNOWN, That at a convention held in the City of Calgary in the said Province on the i2th. of October, Anno Lucis, S9os, in the sixth year of the reign of His Majesty King Edward VII, for the purpose of taking into considera tion a proposition from the Medicine Hat Lodge No. 31, A. F. & A. M. (Grand Register of Manitoba) with this object in view, it was unanimously enacted as follows Whereas, it is the unanimous opinion of the Masonic Lodges of Alberta that a Grand Lodge shall be formed for the said Province, it is hereby RESOLVED, That the Delegates now assembled shall, and do hereby constitute themselves as a true and lawful Grand Lodge for the Province of Alberta, under the Ancient Landmarks existing from time immemorial, to which adhesion is hereby given. The formation of the said Grand Lodge of Alberta being sanctioned by the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Manitoba, under whose jurisdiction the said Lodges have been constituted.


Such is the direct statement, pregnant with thought, wisdom and understanding, regarding the genesis of the Grand Lodge of Alberta, A. F. and A. M. Proclamation was then made by the Grand Director of Ceremonies In the Name and by the Authority of the "Ancient Charges and Constitutions of Masonry " and the proceedings of a Convention duly called in accordance with the same‑I now proclaim this Grand Lodge by the name of " THE MOST WORSHIPFUL THE GRAND LODGE OF ALBERTA, ANCIENT, FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS " duly formed and constituted.


The first election of Grand Lodge Officers, which took place immediately thereafter, resulted as follows R. W. Bro. Dr. George Macdonald (28), Grand Master. R. W. Bro. H. C. Taylor (3), Deputy Grand Master. R. W. Bro. T. F. English (66), Senior Grand Warden.


OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 5 R. W. Bro. O. W. Kealy (31), unior Grand Warden.


R. W. Bro. J. T. Macdonald (6;~, District Deputy Grand Master. i. R. W. Bro. C. E. Smyth (31), District Deputy Grand Master. z. R. W. Bro. A. R. Dickson (83), District Deputy Grand Master. 3. R. W. Bro. E. N. Brown (z8), Grand Treasurer.


R. W. Bro. J. J. Dunlop (78), Grand Secretary. R. W. Bro. J. Hinchliffe (73), Grand Registrar.


R. W. Bro. Rev. J. S. Chivers (4I), Grand Chaplain. Bro. J. Finch (6o), Grand Tyler.


The following appointments were made by the M. W. Grand Master: R. W. Bro. M. J. Macleod (65), Senior Grand Deacon. R. W. Bro. R. Patterson (37), junior Grand Deacon.


V. W. Bro. C. H. S. Wade (78), Grand Director of Ceremonies. V. W. Bro. G. Murdock (z8), Grand Organist.


W. Bro. H. W. Evans (4z), Grand Steward. W. Bro. S. J. Currie (58), Grand Steward. W. Bro. F. J. Bennett (76), Grand Steward. W. Bro. A. M. Kay (85), Grand Steward.


R. W. Bro. Rev. G. H. Hogbin (z8), Grand Pursuivant.


The election of Officers over and appointments made, Most Worshipful Bro. W. G. Scott, Grand Master of Manitoba, then assumed the Chair, the Grand Lodge being in Ample form, assisted by Most Worshipful Bro. E. A. Braithwaite, Past Grand Master of Manitoba, he proceeded with the Installation of the Most Worshipful the Grand Master of Alberta and the other Grand Officers. At the close of that ceremony, M. W. Bro. Dr. George Macdonald, Grand Master of Alberta, thanked the assembled Delegates for the great honour they had conferred by electing him to be the first Grand Master of the Craft in the Province. He also expressed appreciation to the M. W. the Grand Master of Manitoba and to the Brethren of the Mother Grand Lodge for their Fraternal support and presence at the inaugural meeting. A resolution was then moved by V. W. Bro. C. H. Stuart‑Wade and R. W. Bro. J. Hinchliffe to confer the rank of Past Grand Master in the Jurisdiction of Alberta upon M. W. Bro. W. G. Scott, Grand Master of Manitoba, and M. W. Bro. E. A. Braithwaite, Past Grand Master of Manitoba.


During the meeting an application for Dispensation to form a new Lodge was presented by a number of Brethren from High River, with the request that its name be chosen by the Grand Lodge. The Application was granted and it was decided that the Lodge should be called Cornerstone Lodge. On the receipt of its Charter the following year, Cornerstone Lodge became Lodge No. i9 on the Register of the Grand Lodge of Alberta.


The first Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of Alberta was held in Medicine Hat on Tuesday, February zo, 19o6. During his address, the M. W.


6 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION the Grand Master, Dr. George Macdonald, gave voice to the following sentiments The Grand Lodge of Alberta, A.F. and A.M. is at last a Body in effect and recognised by our Mother Grand Lodge and the fraternity as a trustworthy offspring, capable of ruling and governing, and, we hope and trust, capable of adding generously to the wealth of our Masonic teachings. As far back as the year 1888 several of our Brethren were looking forward to the dawn of this our Grand Masonic Body, and some of them are still s~ ared to join with us in welcoming the existence of a new star in the Masonic fiprmament. May it soon in its symbolic teachings reach its zenith, paralleling the brilliancy of the mid‑day sun, and may it long continue so, and though at times its brightness may dim as fleeting clouds obscure its lustre, may it ever resume its brilliant path and never find a setting.


During this first Annual Meeting of the Grand Lodge, a special Committee on Benevolence was appointed by the M. W. Grand Master to consider ways and means to establish a Masonic Home and School. M. W. Bro. Kealy was elected Grand Master, and R. W. Bro. Rev. George Hogbin, Deputy Grand Master. An interesting sidelight on the history of the Grand Lodge at this stage is shown by the following statement made by M. W. Bro. James Ovas, the revered Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba, in his Freemasonry in the Province of Manitoba: At the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba, Held in June 19o6, Fraternal recognition was extended with the most kindly greetings and the wish that success and prosperity would attend them, to the first daughter Grand Lodge of this Grand Body, the Grand Lodge of Alberta.


It was decided to have an authoritative system of " Work " in the jurisdiction. Accordingly, during the 1907 Annual Communication the Special Committee on Ritual made the following recommendation Resolved, That this Grand Lodge recognises and authorises for use in subordinate Lodges either of the methods of conducting the Work usually spoken of as the " Canadian Work " or the "Ancient York Work " according to the rituals hereafter issued by it.


This proposal received unanimous support, and from that date until the present both Rites, " Canadian " (Emulation) and "Ancient York " (WebbPreston), have been officially recognised throughout the jurisdiction.


Benevolence has always been a cardinal virtue in Alberta. To prove that the Founders were thoroughly imbued with true Masonic principles and traditions, we may point to the Report made to the Grand Lodge in 19o6 by a special Committee regarding the establishment of a Masonic Home. Just as the bursting of the " South Sea Bubble " had aroused our ancient Brethren of England to alleviate the distress caused by it, so were the Masons of Alberta eager to help others in distress. The San Francisco disaster of 1907 and the Hillcrest, Alberta, OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 7 mine tragedy of four years later, which almost wiped out the Officers of Sentinel Lodge, No. 26, weighed upon the Brethren with such overwhelming force that they felt a great need for a benevolent fund. In fact, the mine disaster was probably more responsible than any other cause for the beginning of the present Benevolent Fund. From the inauguration of the Grand Lodge to the year 1915 four Benevolent Funds were established, each dealing with a specific necessity, as the occasion demanded. Then, in 1919, these four funds were amalgamated. In order to meet the increasing demands made upon its resources, the Grand Lodge in 192o adopted a yet more definite policy towards enlarging the Capital Benevolent Fund by assessing its members on a per capita basis. Ten years later the amount paid to beneficiaries had been trebled, thus indicating the wisdom of that enactment. Moreover, the policy of administering benevolence has always been one of serious reflection in Alberta. This was forcibly expressed by the Chairman of the Benevolence Committee in his Reports of 1925 and 1927. In these he said in part: From a review of the Proceedings of foreign jurisdictions we learn that many of them take ride, and justly so, in the expensive and comfortable homes they have created for their unfortunate members. Your Committee are, however, of the opinion that our system, for the present at least, is better for us.


Our beneficiaries are left in their homes, when practicable, so that the families may be kept together and the children under their parents' care and interest. Those unattached are residing with relatives or in families of Masons to whom the money paid for their lodging is acceptable, and the unfortunates in this way escape the stigma of pauperism, and their opportunities for becoming again independent are greater, should they be restored to health. A feeling of confident self‑respect is at all times preserved, and due care is exercised that the recipient of our bounty is not humiliated in any way. Your Committee feel we are working the right way with the right kind of policy, by which the cost of administering the fund is reduced to a minimum, where every dollar is working, and, if not being used for benevolence, is earning interest against the inevitable rainy days which will come. In doing this, in assisting to do this, Masonry in the Province of Alberta has more than justified its existence, and as the years go by, with increasing numbers, greater responsibilities will be ours and we have no doubt if we fulfil our duties, the Masons of those future years will assuredly fulfil theirs.


During the stress of the Great War, Masonry in Alberta responded nobly to the cause. At least ten per cent of her membership joined the colors, and the Lodges as a whole contributed generously to the Patriotic Fund, which was created in 1915. The Work of the Lodges, however, was seriously impeded, owing to the absence of so many leaders overseas. In many cases the Lodges became so depleted that the older members resumed Office, as an expediency, and to reciprocate for the heroic endeavours of their younger Brethren at the front.


Hostilities ceased, and a feeling was developed that the advent of peace would somehow, in some way, clear away the wreckage of the past; that hence‑ 8 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION forth the pathways of life would be straight and simple; that every man would have equal opportunity and equal share in the best things of life. At this time an abnormal influx into all the Lodges took place. The men who sought admittance were representative citisens from legislative halls, from hospital boards and school boards, from churches and civic enterprises, in short, from every walk of life. To meet the need of these new members, Charters were granted, Masonic Halls were dedicated, and Temples were erected throughout the length and breadth of the jurisdiction. At no time before in its history had it been possible for Masonry to play so great a part in moulding public opinion and in exerting an influence for good upon the body politic. It was here that the teachings of the Craft were sublimated. Perhaps their splendid influence in this field is responsible for the maintenance of the unique and high prestige of the Fraternity throughout the Province in general.


Among the Brethren connected with the Grand Lodge were two of outstanding merit. One of these was M. W. Bro. Dr. George Macdonald, the first Grand Master, who subsequently held the position of Grand Secretary for ten years during the early days of formative policy. The other was M. W. Bro. S. Y. Taylor, who was Grand Master in 1915 and Grand Secretary during the period from 1917 to 192.8. Bro. Taylor was still Grand Secretary at the time of his death in March 192‑8. Of this esteemed Brother it has been justly said: A fine scholarship enabled him to apply with telling force the supremely spiritual values of our Masonic idealism. In consequence of his untiring zeal and efforts in the exposition of these ideals there was developed a high moral tone throughout the whole Craft in this jurisdiction which will remain as a fitting and enduring monument to his memory.


On Saturday, October 11, 1931, a Special Communication of the Grand Lodge to celebrate the twenty‑fifth anniversary of its founding was held in Calgary. Twelve Past Grand Masters, Representatives of four neighbouring Grand jurisdictions, and several hundred Brethren from all parts of western Canada were in attendance. At this unique meeting the first Grand Master, M. W. Bro. Dr. George Macdonald, received a stirring ovation as he rose to address the gathering. The Grand Master, M. W. Bro. Dr. S. N. Sneddon, addressed the Brethren as follows I must, on behalf of myself and the Grand Lodge of Alberta here assembled, express our deep sense of the honour accorded to this Grand Lodge by the presence here to‑day of the distinguished Representatives of the Grand Lodges of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and British Columbia, who are here as our guests to celebrate our twenty‑fifth Anniversary. This is an historic occasion, and from the large attendance from distant points in the province, I think that feature of this gathering is uppermost in our minds: but to me our meeting here to‑day should be more in the nature of an act of homage and honour to those who after all are really responsible for this great occasion. I am referring to those members who had the courage and foresight to form a Grand Lodge in what was then OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND sparsely settled country, of whose possibilities little was actually proved, whose development had scarcely begun, communication was difficult, and the Lodges to which these members belonged were widely scattered.


I venture to say that if the spirit of the pioneer can be transmitted to this splendid gathering, we need have no fear either for the future prosperity of our Order in Alberta or for the future of this great Province.


At the formation in 1905 there were 18 Lodges with 12o5 members. Thirty years later there are 157 Lodges with 12,576 members. Benevolence has always been a cardinal virtue with Alberta, and this is strongly emphasised at the present, with its century mark of beneficiaries receiving assistance. During this time a Library of no mean order has been gradually established, which greatly facilitates the spread of Masonic education. In addition to this a system of holding Annual District Meetings has been evolved, at which the Grand Lodge Officers attend and impart first‑hand information. The Grand Lodge of Alberta is comparatively young, yet withal lusty and strong, and bids fair for an expanding and greater future.


BRITISH COLUMBIA R. L. REID N 1858 a veritable city of shacks clustered about the big fort of the Hudson's Bay Company on the southern end of Vancouver Island. There it had grown up almost in a single night, as did Jonah's gourd. It already had a little weekly newspaper, however, and in the issue of July io the following item appeared: The members of the Ancient Order of F. & A. Masons in good standing are invited to meet on Monday July 12th at 7 o'clock P.M., in Southgate & Mitchell's new store, upstairs. The object of the meeting is to consider matters connected with the permanent interests of the order in Victoria.


The meeting so convened was attended by seven Masons who drafted a Petition to the Grand Lodge of England asking for a Charter for a Lodge in their new city. So far as we have any record, this was the beginning of Freemasonry in British Columbia.


The Colony of Vancouver Island was formed in 1849, and by 1856 it had been granted a representative assembly. But until 1858 the settlement had very few inhabitants aside from officers and employees of the Hudson's Bay Company, which had made Victoria its headquarters on the Pacific coast. The mainlandNew Caledonia as it was then called‑had no organised government until November 1g, 1858, when it became the Colony of British Columbia.


News went abroad in 1857 that gold had been discovered in the sands of the 10 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION Fraser River and the following year thousands of goldseekers came in search of the New Eldorado. Since it was necessary to pass through Victoria in order to reach the mines, the little village so far from the busy world was immediately transformed from a quiet trading‑post into a noisy, bustling metropolis. Vancouver Island and British Columbia were united under the name of the latter in 11866, and five years later this territory became one of the Provinces of the Dominion of Canada.


Once, in 11859, before any regular Lodge had been Constituted, an " Occasional " Lodge was held. It did not come exactly within the meaning of the term as defined by Mackey, for it was not called by a Grand Master; but it did come within the Century Dictionary's definition of " occasional," in that it was " called forth, produced, or used on some special occasion or event." The " special occasion " of this " Occasional " Lodge was the funeral of a Mason. Early in September of that year, S. J. Hazeltine, chief engineer of the Hudson's .Bay Company's steamer Labouchere, died in the city hospital at Victoria. Since he was a Freemason, the resident Brethren decided to honour his memory by a Masonic funeral. An advertisement in The British Colonist, a local newspaper, called a meeting of Masons to take place at the Royal Hotel on September 7. A large number of Masons responded. Several California Masons able to vouch for one another formed the nucleus of the assemblage and examined others who claimed the Master's rank. This done, they exercised their ancient prerogative and formed themselves into a Lodge. Having chosen Bro. John T. Damon as Acting Worshipful Master, and Bro. B. F. Moses as Secretary pro tempore, they made arrangements for the funeral Rite. Next day they again assembled, donned white gloves, and aprons made for the occasion by a tentmaker on Yates Street, formed a procession, and marched to the hospital, and thence to the cemetery, where they interred the body of their departed Brother with due Masonic honours. Following that, they closed the Lodge in due form.


The Grand Lodge of England was ready to grant the Charter asked for in 11858, but technicalities delayed its issuance. The reason commonly assigned for this delay is that the Charter sent out proved to be defective and in consequence had to be returned to London for correction. The probable reason, however, to some extent supported by credible information, is that the application was defective in form, and that it had to be returned for amendment before a Charter could be granted. However this may be, it was not until March i86o, that the Brethren in Victoria received their Charter. Further delay was occasioned at the time by the necessity for obtaining and fitting up a suitable Lodge room and for acquiring necessary furniture and fittings.


Not until August 28, 1186o, was Victoria Lodge, No. 11o85 E. R. ready to begin work. On that date the premier Lodge of British Columbia was duly Constituted on the second floor of the Hibben and Carswell Building at the south west corner of Yates and Langley streets. The ceremony, which included the Installation of the first Officers, was performed by Robert Burnaby, Past Master of Lodge, No. 6611 E. R., of Surrey, England, a prominent merchant of the little From a photograph by Underwood and Underwood.


Old Hudson's Bay Block House at Nanaimo, Vancouver Island, B. C.


OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 11 city. He was assisted by H. Aquilar, R. N., commander of the gunboat Grappler, then lying in Esquimalt harbour, a few miles from Victoria,who was Past Master of Good Report Lodge, No. 159 E. R. The new Lodge numbered eleven Charter members. During 186o nine Masons became members by affiliation, including W.‑. Bro. Burnaby himself. John Malowansky, a Russian news agent and tobacconist, was the first person to be made a Mason in the Jurisdiction by Initiation. This popular young man soon rose to be J. D. of the Lodge, but some five years later he left for the Cariboo gold fields and in 1866 he went to Kamchatka for the Alaska Commercial Company. In 1875 Bro. Malowansky took his demit in order to join a Russian Lodge in Petropavlovsky. No word was ever afterwards received from him. In 1931 Victoria Lodge had 420 members on its Roll. One of its traditions is that the Grand Master for the time being shall Install its Officers. On only one or two occasions since the organisation of the Grand Lodge has this failed to take place.


The example set by Victoria was soon followed by New Westminster, then capital of the Colony of British Columbia. In 186o the Masons there applied to the Grand Lodge of England for a Charter. It was granted, and in December 1861, Union Lodge, No. 12o1 E. R. was duly Constituted.


The Lodges at Victoria and New Westminster used the English Ritual. This was unfamiliar to many Masons who had come from the United States where a different Ritual was in use. Consequently, some of the American Masons residing at Victoria, who wished to use the Work to which they were accustomed, applied to the Grand Lodge of Washington Territory for a Charter in 1861. Victoria Lodge protested that since the Colony of Vancouver Island was British, no Masonic Body other than the Grand Lodges of the mother country had any right to grant either a Warrant or a Dispensation for a Masonic Lodge in the Jurisdiction. It was further declared that any Lodge so established would be treated as clandestine. Foreseeing the difficulties which might arise if their Petition were successful, the applicants withdrew it, and joined by some other Masons they applied to the Grand Lodge of Scotland for a Charter for Vancouver Lodge, No. 421 S. R.


Nine Lodges had been Chartered in the two colonies by 1871. The Grand Lodge of England had established Victoria Lodge, No. 1o85, later .re‑numbered 783, and British Columbia Lodge, No. 1187, at Victoria; Union Lodge, No. 12oi, later re‑numbered 899, at New Westminster; and Nanaimo Lodge, No. logo, at Nanaimo. Besides Vancouver Lodge, No. 421, the Grand Lodge of Scotland had authorised Cariboo Lodge, No. 469, at Barkerville; Caledonia Lodge, No. 478, at Nanaimo; Mount Hermon Lodge, No. 491, at Hastings, now part of the City of Vancouver. At Victoria it also established Quadra Lodge, which should have been numbered 5o8, but which was still under Dispensation when the Grand Lodge of British Columbia was established. In May 1867, the Grand Lodge of Scotland appointed Dr. Israel Wood Powell, a prominent physician of Victoria, as Provincial Grand Master, and in December 1867 the Grand Lodge of England appointed Robert Burnaby of the same place as District Grand Master.


11 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION As the number of Lodges increased, the advisability of forming an independent Grand Lodge was much discussed by members of the Craft. There was every reason against the existence of two organisations in a country having such a small population. Consequently, Dr. Powell and Mr. Burnaby, close personal friends, were anxious to see the Craft united. In December 1868 a meeting was held by Vancouver Lodge, No. 411 S. R., at which a number of visitors from other Lodges were present. At that meeting members introduced a series of resolutions reciting the condition of Freemasonry in the Colony, the desirability of forming a Grand Lodge of British Columbia, and the advantages to be secured by doing so. These resolutions were again considered at a meeting held on January 2, 1869. At that time they were adopted and forwarded to the other Lodges for consideration: All the Scottish Lodges, except Caledonia Lodge, No. 478, at Nanaimo, approved them. Except Victoria Lodge, No. io85, the English Lodges disapproved them. The resolutions were then transmitted to the Grand Lodges in England and Scotland. The latter made no reply, but the Secretary of the English Grand Lodge acknowledged the receipt of the resolutions and expressed his regret that the Brethren in British Columbia should " take any step which might lessen their own influence. As a District Grand Lodge of the Grand Lodge of England, the Brethren in Vancouver Island enjoy a far more influential position than they could possibly do if they formed themselves into an independent Grand Lodge, whose paucity of numbers would simply render it ridiculous." Undismayed, Vancouver Lodge, No. 411 S. R., went on with its work. It submitted its plan to the Grand Lodges in Canada and the United States in order to ascertain what reception the proposed Grand Lodge might expect. The result was so encouraging that, at a meeting on January 18, 1871, it was able to announce that all the Grand Lodges to which it had submitted its plan had signified their approval.


Various proceedings resulted in the meeting of a Committee from Vancouver Lodge, No. 411 S. R. They met with other members on March 18, 1871, to elect a Grand Master and other Officers and to declare a Grand Lodge of British Columbia duly formed. M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Elwood Evans, Past Grand Master of Washington Territory, was invited to Install the Officers of the new Grand Lodge on March Zo, and he accepted the invitation. Notice of the proposed Installation was given to District Grand Master Burnaby of the English Lodges only one hour before the Installation was to take place; he put in a written protest. District Grand Secretary Thomas Shotbolt attended; protested orally; then took off his apron and retired. What happened after he left the Lodge is not known, but the Installation did not proceed and for the time the matter was dropped. Later, R.‑. W.‑. Bro. Powell, and R.‑. W.‑. Bro. Burnaby had a conference about the affair with the result that they agreed to submit the matter to the vote of the Brethren of the various Lodges. This was then done. It resulted in polling 194 votes in favor of the proposal, and 28 votes against it.


Since the majority in favor of establishing an independent Grand Lodge was OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 13 so large, a meeting to be held in Victoria was called for October Zi, 1871, to form a Grand Lodge of British Columbia. All the Lodges in the Province, except Union Lodge, No. 899, at New Westminster, sent Representatives. The Grand Lodge of British Columbia was duly formed, M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Israel Wood Powell being elected as first Grand Master and M.'. W.‑. Bro. Robert Burnaby being given the rank of Past Grand Master. All Lodges within the Jurisdiction, except Union Lodge, No. 899, surrendered their Charters to receive others granted by the new Grand Lodge. Their respective numbers on the Grand Lodge Roll were as follows: Victoria Lodge, No. i; Vancouver Lodge, No. 2; Nanaimo Lodge, No. 3 ; Cariboo Lodge, No. 4; British Columbia Lodge, No. S ; Caledonia Lodge, No. 6; Mount Hermon Lodge, No. 7; Quadra Lodge, No. 8.


The absence of Union Lodge, No. 899, from the Convention, and its failure on that account to receive the number on the Grand Lodge Roll to which it was entitled by reason of its seniority‑No. 2‑was due to the determined opposition of Hon. Henry Holbrook, of New Westminster. He took the stand taken by the Secretary of the Grand Lodge of England, namely, that the organisation of a Grand Lodge having such a small number of Lodges was ridiculous. In 1872, however, this Lodge saw the light, surrendered its Charter, and became Union Lodge, No. 9, B. C. R.


By the close of 1872 all other Grand Lodges in Canada and all those in the United States, except that of Indiana, which awaited " the action of the Grand Lodge of England in the matter," had recognised the new Grand Lodge. The Grand Lodge of England gave full recognition and a kind and fraternal greeting in 1874. The Grand Lodge of Scotland granted conditional recognition in 1880, but reserved the right to Charter Lodges in British Columbia if it saw fit. This action was followed by unconditional recognition, granted in 1883. Indiana recognised the Grand Lodge of British Columbia in 1881.


From 1870 to 1880 British Columbia was not prosperous. The output of gold from the mines of the Cariboo diminished year by year. The proposed transcontinental railway that was to connect the Province with her eastern sisters was still a matter of negotiation and exploration. Business of the region was nearly at a standstill, and many who had come there during the Cariboo gold excitement of the 6o's were now leaving. As the population decreased, the number of Lodges did likewise. Nanaimo, the coal‑mining town on Vancouver Island, first felt the strain. Since two Lodges were more than it could maintain, in 1873 Nanaimo Lodge, No. 3, and Caledonia Lodge, No. 6, united as Ashlar Lodge, No. 3. Victoria presently discovered that it could not support four Lodges, and in 1877 Victoria Lodge, No. 1, and British Columbia Lodge, No. S, united under the name of Victoria‑Columbia Lodge, No. 1. That year Vancouver Lodge No. 2, and Quadra Lodge, No. 8, united under the name of Vancouver and Quadra Lodge, No. 2. The decrease in the number of Lodges went no further and when the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway caused a revival of business, applications for Charters began to come in. In 1881, residents of Yale, at that time a centre of construction at the Pacific Coast end of the railway, though 14 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION now only a name and a memory, asked for the Charter of a Lodge to be known as Cascade Lodge, No. io. Owing to fires in the town and to changes in railway construction plans, the application was withdrawn within the year and before the Charter was granted. Five years later a Charter was granted to Kamloops Lodge, No. 1o. In 1887 a Charter was granted to Mountain Lodge, No. ii, at Donald, though this Lodge, with the population of the town itself, later removed to Golden, on the Columbia River. In 1888 Cascade Lodge, No. iz., at Vancouver, and Spallumcheen Lodge, No. 13, at Lansdowne (now Armstrong), were Instituted. Since that time the Grand Lodge of British Columbia, whose mere nine Lodges were likely to make it appear " ridiculous " to the Masonic world, according to the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of England, has steadily grown. In 1931 it comprised 115 Lodges having a membership of 15,577 It early became the custom of the Grand Master for the time being to nominate Brethren of standing to visit Lodges and report to him. In 1888 this course of action received the official approval of the Grand Lodge and the Province was divided into four districts: District, No. 1, Vancouver Island; District, No. z., New Westminster; District, No. 3, Yale‑Kootenay; and District, No. 4, Cariboo. In 1931 there were eighteen such districts with a District Deputy Grand Master for each.


The Grand Lodge of British Columbia has never officially used any set form of Ritual. In his address at the first meeting of the Grand Lodge M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Powell pointed out that ... our Grand Lodge is formed by the Union of the English and Scottish crafts of the Province, each of whom are wedded and are partial to, their own particular work. Hence, under any and all circumstances, Lodges taking part in the formation of this Grand Lodge, should have full permission to continue the work they now practise so long as they desire to do so. But I would even go further, and for the present at least ... allow any Lodge that may hereafter be formed, to choose and adopt either ritual at present practised in the Province.


This matter was again considered in Grand Lodge in 1893 and it was then decided that Lodges might select either the English Work, as exemplified by Victoria‑Columbia Lodge, No. i ; the Scottish Work, really the American Work, as exemplified by Ashlar Lodge, No. 3 ; or the Canadian Work, as exemplified by Cascade Lodge, No. 12. The latter, which is that form of English Work used by the Grand Lodge of Canada in Ontario since 1868, should properly be called the Ontario Work.


Though the English Work generally used in British Columbia is the Emulation Work, two Lodges use the Oxford Ritual and one, the Revised Ritual. Another Lodge, Southern Cross Lodge, No. 44, whose first Master was R.‑. W.‑. Bro. J. J. Miller, at one time prominent in Masonic circles of New South Wales, uses the Canadian Work with some of the modifications of the Ritual accepted in that part of the British Empire where the Lodge's first Master formerly resided.


Union Lodge, No. 9, of New Westminster, having been originally Chartered OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 15 by the Grand Lodge of England, at first used the English Ritual. Since, however, a majority of the members were better acquainted with the Scotch, or American, Work, that form was adopted in 1877. It is said that W.,. Bro. William Stewart, who had been Initiated in Scotland during the early part of the nineteenth century and at different times a member of Union Lodge, No. 9, and of Ashlar Lodge, No. 3, first gave the name " Scotch " to the American form of the Ritual. He probably did so because all Lodges which had been Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Scotland used it.


Cariboo Lodge, which was No. 469 on the Register of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, and is now No. 4 B. C. R., merits special mention here. It was the outlying Lodge of all early Lodges. So far out was it, indeed, that a trip of 540 miles had to be made in order to reach it. One had to go seventy‑five miles by steamer from Victoria to New Westminster. Another seventy‑five miles by river steamer took one to Yale, the head of navigation on the Fraser River. From there to Barkerville was a stagecoach trip of 390 miles. The journey required so much time and was so difficult to make that Provincial Grand Master Powell never visited the Lodge. When it received its Charter it began to function without assistance from any but its own members. No Provincial Grand Master or Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of British Columbia ever visited this Lodge until Grand Master William Downie made the trip to Barkerville in 1892.


It was no small community which at that time existed in the heart of the Cariboo Mountains. Gold was the magnet that drew men there. From the mountain streams of that region more than seventy million dollars' worth of precious metal was taken. In the mid‑6o's, so it is claimed, Barkerville had a larger population than any other place on the Pacific coast except San Francisco. Even in 1872, when the population of the Province had greatly decreased, Cariboo Lodge, No. 469, was the second largest Lodge on the Register.


Headed by W.‑. M.‑. Jonathan Nutt, a zealous Mason who on account of his service to Freemasonry was given the rank of Past Senior Grand Warden in 1877, Cariboo Lodge, No. 469, got under way, bought a lot, and built a Masonic Hall. Its membership increased rapidly. Nationality or religious faith was no obstacle to membership, for Swedes, Jews, French‑Canadians, Italians, and others were to be found among its members. During its early years the Lodge was financially prosperous. On September 16, 1868, however, just as the prosperity of Cariboo was beginning to decline, a disastrous fire burnt the whole town of Barkerville to the ground. Only one building escaped destruction. The Masonic Hall was destroyed but the Records of the Lodge were saved. The Lodge immediately began to rebuild its quarters, and on February 2‑o, 1869, it met in a new Hall that it still uses. Despite generous donations from outside sources, the Lodge had difficulty in financing the erection of its new Hall. Mining claims were being worked out and the population was dwindling. After a time, however, the Lodge overcame all its difficulties.


In those early days Barkerville was by no means a peaceful village, as no prosperous mining town far removed from civilisation could be. Because of a 16 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION clever ruse to which members of Cariboo Lodge, No. 469, resorted, we are led to believe that some residents of the settlement, when in their cups, tried to find out what Masons really do in Lodge. In order to prevent any illicit seeker after truth from succeeding in his quest, some resourceful brain suggested an ingenious " silent " or " mechanical " Tyler when the new Hall was built. The stairs to the Lodge room were hinged in the middle. By means of a mechanical contrivance the lower part of the stairway could be raised and held suspended in mid‑air while the Brethren were at Labour. Besides this interesting piece of handiwork massive and handsome furniture was also made and carved by early members of the Lodge.


The Jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of British Columbia is not confined to the Province alone but also includes the Yukon Territory. The Grand Lodge of Manitoba, whose jurisdiction extended over the whole of the Northwest Terri tories of Canada before the Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were formed, originally constituted Lodges in Dawson and White Horse. It proved more convenient, however, for those Lodges to communicate with British Columbia than with Manitoba. With the consent and approval of their Mother Grand Lodge, the Jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of British Columbia was extended to include Yukon Territory and in 1907 those Lodges became No. 45 and No. 46, respectively, on the Register of the Grand Lodge of British Columbia.


As has been the case in other jurisdictions, the Grand Lodge of British Columbia has had to deal with clandestine Bodies. In 1914 a Representative of the so‑called American Masonic Federation was prosecuted and heavily fined for his illegal acts. Since that time there has been no other trouble.


In 1921 this Grand Lodge celebrated its fiftieth anniversary in fitting style. Representatives from many other Grand Lodges‑England, Canada, and the United States‑were in attendance. Many of the pioneers in the Craft who were present were fittingly introduced to members of the Grand Lodge. Addresses made by the visitors in the Lodge and by the speakers at the anniversary banquet were worthy of the occasion and of the reputation of the Ancient Craft.


As the years go on the Grand Lodge of British Columbia prospers and increases. Many of the Lodges are, of course, in the larger centres of population, but many others, not less worthy of mention, are in settlements tucked away among far‑off mountain mining camps, or along shores of the great inlets that deeply pierce our long seafront. Others are in lumber towns and in the hamlets of agricultural districts. All are working out the great principles of Freemasonry with interest and profit to themselves and with benefit to the communities in which they carry on.


The benevolent and charitable work of the Fraternity is by no means neglected in the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of British Columbia. From that September day in 1859 when the Masons of Victoria gathered together to inter the body of Bro. S. J. Hazeltine according to Masonic custom, up to the present, those duties have been carried on unceasingly. Charity has unstintedly been extended to those in need. Among the earliest records of Cariboo Lodge, No. 4, OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 17 far up in the Cariboo Mountains, is the casual mention of a Committee that was appointed to inquire into the case of Bro. Miserve, of Mount Moriah Lodge, Washington Territory.. While digging for gold along Mosquito Creek, he had fallen into bad health, so the report said. Yearly Records of the Lodges in this jurisdiction show large sums expended for relief. A benevolent fund, begun in 1872, has been built up by the Grand Lodge from the donations of individuals and constituent Lodges. In 1931 this fund amounted to $326,849.69. Income from it is used to supplement charities of the various Lodges where necessary. In both Vancouver and Victoria, a Masonic service bureau is maintained by the local Lodges. These bureaus look after and assist Masons and their dependents from other jurisdictions while they sojourn here. During the Great War a special relief fund was raised for the assistance of soldier Brethren and their families. This fund was of special value in those troublous times. All such work is carried on quietly, in true Masonic fashion. Few persons know either the extent of Masonic bounty or the names of those who are succoured.


Though British Columbia may not have among its members of the Craft those who are world‑famous, nevertheless many pioneers of the Province who took leading parts in laying the foundations of our Commonwealth were faith ful disciples of the Square and Compasses. Many leaders of bench, bar and church, distinguished business men, and members of the press have been among our members. In the early days, J. J. Southgate, a well‑known merchant, inserted in The Victoria Gazette the advertisement set out in the first paragraph of this article and so initiated the Masonic organisation that has become what it is to‑day. The splendid services to Freemasonry of M.‑.W.‑. Bro. Robert Burnaby, a merchant, and M.'. W.‑. Bro. Israel W. Powell, a medical practitioner, have been in part described earlier in this article. Another distinguished Mason of British Columbia, a man or probity and profound learning, was John Foster McCreight, Deputy Grand Master in 1871, afterwards a judge of the Supreme Court of the Province. Among the well‑known journalists were Amor de Cosmos and David W. Higgins, both at one time residents of Victoria and both men of outstanding ability. The former, regarded by many as a somewhat eccentric person, had his earlier name, W. A. Smith, changed to that given here by an Act of the California Legislature while a member of that body in 1854. De Cosmos was editor of The British Colonist, of Victoria; a member of the Provincial Legislature; and one of the leaders in the movement that resulted in bringing about the union of the two colonies and the subsequent admission of the Province into the Canadian Confederation. He was also a member of the Canadian House of Commons for some years. David W. Higgins was also an editor of The British Colonist. He published two volumes containing stories of early life in British Columbia. These books, The Mystic Spring and The Passing of a Race, are rather fact than fiction. Though long out of print and now scarce, they are still much sought after and eagerly read. Hon. Henry Holbrook, father of Union Lodge, No. 899, at New Westminster, was for many years one of the most influential men in the political life of the mainland colony.


18 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION Major William Downie was another early Mason of British Columbia who can not be forgotten. Born in Glasgow, Scotland, and brought up in Ayr, he was one of those men who have an itching foot, one of those who heard " The Whisper " sung by Kipling Something hidden. Go and find it. Go and look behind the RangesSomething lost behind the ranges. Lost and waiting for you. Go! Upon the discovery of gold in the North, he came to British Columbia in 1858. For several years he explored the coast for Governor Douglas, a fellow Scotsman. He visited the Queen Charlotte Islands, passed up the Skeena River to the Fraser, then back to the coast. From 1861 to 1873 he mined in various parts of the Cariboo Country. As late as 1886, at the request of Hon. John Robson, then finance minister in the government of British Columbia, he visited Granite Creek, in the Similkameen District, and later reported on the region. He was in Panama and Costa Rica in 1874 and 1875, and at one time he was on the Yukon River in Alaska. Bro. Downie was the first person Initiated into Vancouver Lodge, No. 2, of Victoria. He became a member of that Lodge in 1862. In his application he gave his occupation as " major and miner." The Records of the Lodge show that he visited it nearly every winter, but never in summer. Thirty years after becoming a Mason at Victoria, Bro. Downie affiliated with Ashlar Lodge, No. 3, at Nanaimo. He died there in 1894 at the age of seventy‑four years.


In later years many leading men of the Province have been zealous members of the Craft. There have been Representatives on the bench of the Court of Appeal, the Supreme Court of the Province, and the county courts. Many clergymen have taken part in our work, among them His Grace, Archbishop A. U. DePencier, of the Anglican Church in British Columbia. Rev. E. D. McLaren and Rev. C. Ensor Sharp have been Grand Masters. Among the men prominent in political life who also occupied the position of Grand Master were Hon. Simeon Duck, E. Crow Baker, M.P., Ex‑Premier W. J. Bowser, and J. H. Schofield, M.L.A. Among the journalists was F. J. Burd, of The Vancouver Province. Among the medical men were Dr. R. E. Walker and Dr. Douglas Corsan. Among the railroad men were Lacey B. Johnson and William Downie, founder of Cascade Lodge, No. 12, at Vancouver (not the Major William Downie mentioned above). Among members who were leaders in business life were A. R. Milne, Angus McKeown, R. B. McMicking, Alexander Charleston, Frank Bowser, H. H. Watson, E. E. Chipman, H. N. Rich, John M. Rudd, William Henderson, James Stark, W. C. Ditmars, John Shaw, and W. S. Terry. David Wilson, E. B. Paul, and S. J. Willis, superintendent of education for the Province in 1931, were among the educators that were Grand Masters.


It is a matter of great pride to the Masons of British Columbia that the OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 19 present Grand Secretary, Dr. W. A. DeWolf‑Smith, is numbered among our prominent Masons. During his thirty years of Office, first as Grand Historian and later as Grand Secretary, Dr. DeWolf‑Smith has been a tower of strength to the Officers and members of the Craft. In carrying out his duties as Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Correspondence he has become well known in all jurisdictions as an erudite Masonic scholar and a brilliant and witty writer.


MANITOBA JAMES A. OVAS HE first Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons to organise in what is now the Province of Manitoba was authorised by M.‑. W.‑. A. T. C. Pierson, 'Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Minnesota, under a Dispensation dated September 13, 1863. It reached Canada by way of Pembina, Dakota Territory, and Fort Garry, now Winnipeg, in what was then known as the Red River Settlement in the Canadian Northwest. In his address to the Grand Lodge of Minnesota at the eleventh Annual Communication held at St. Paul on October 2], 1863, M.. W.‑.Bro. Pierson, Grand Master of Minnesota, made the following statement: "About the middle of last month I received an Application signed by W.‑.Bro. C. W. Nash, Bro. J. L. Armington, Bro. A. T. Chamblin, Bro. Charles H. Mix, and eight others, who were en route for Pembina, Dakota Territory, for a Dispensation authorising them to open and Work a Lodge. Pembina is the most northern point in the territory of the United States, a great central point where concentrates a large amount of emigration and of travel between the two oceans. The want of a Lodge at that place has been long felt and often expressed; and as the Brethren named were active, well informed, and discreet Masons, the first two, former Masters, and the latter, Wardens of Lodges within this jurisdiction, and as they expected to remain in that hyperborean region for at least two years, I granted a Dispensation to establish a Lodge at Pembina." Prior to holding the first meeting, it was discovered, however, that no name had been given the Lodge in the Dispensation. " How it was settled," says M.‑.W.‑.Bro. William G. Scott, Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba, in his article " Early Masonry in Manitoba," " I will leave Bro. Nash to describe." The following description was then given " I wrote to the Grand Master calling his attention to the omission, and took occasion to suggest what I thought would be a proper and very appropriate name, and in case it met with his approval to so advise me and direct that I insert it in the Dispensation. The name that was suggested met with his cordial approval and was thus named. It came about in this way: It was at night that I was writing the Grand Master, and going out of my quarters I observed the grandest display above me that it was ever my pleasure to Zo FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION behold. I never witnessed such grandeur of this character before, and I never expect to again. It was an exhibition of Northern Lights. The celestial globe was grand and beautiful in the extreme, and for a long time my eyes feasted upon the sight with delight. It was witnessed by many in our cantonment. On returning to my quarters to complete my letter to the Grand Master, I narrated the circumstances; hence the name, Northern Light Lodge, was given." The Lodge held its first meeting about the middle of January 1864. During the few months that it remained active in Pembina, several residents of Fort Garry and the vicinity made applications for membership, were accepted, and received the Three Degrees of Freemasonry. Among those who became members at that time were Bro. A. G. B. Bannatyne, Bro. W. B. Hall, and Bro. William Inkster. Then, in the early part of that year, application was made to M.‑.W.‑.Bro. Pierson, Grand Master of Minnesota, for a continuance of the Dispensation and for authority to transfer it to Fort Garry. This request was granted. In his address to the Grand Lodge at the twelfth Annual Communication held in St. Paul on October 12, 1864, the M.'. W.‑. the Grand Master reported as follows: " I also renewed the Dispensation of Northern Light Lodge, removing it to the Red River Settlement." The first meeting of the Lodge in Fort Garry was held on November 8, 1864, in a room over the trading‑house of Bro. A. G. B. Bannatyne. In a letter to the Grand Lodge of Manitoba, written in 1895, W.‑.Bro. Schultz described that meeting in the following words And a novelty it was, indeed, in this country at that time! It was spoken of far and wide, and the descriptions, which did not decrease in detail or increase in accuracy, as to what was done therein were listened to with much curiosity, and in some cases, with awesome wonder, which was enhanced by the jocoseness of Bro. Bannatyne's clerks, who spoke knowingly of the whereabouts and propulsive propensities of the goat, and who pointed out from the room below (to wit, the trading‑house), exactly in what part of the upstairs room the W.‑. M.‑. hung his hat while the Lodge was at Work. The Lodge Room itself was made as tasteful as the circumstances of that day would admit, and it may interest the curious to know the exact cost of some of its furniture, as given in a memorandum which I happen to have near me, in the sterling money of the day, namely: tables, &/19/6; inner door, 15/; altar, 19/6; wall‑paper, 39/, 24 black beads, 1 /6; 24 white beads, i /; loo copies of the by‑laws, 40 /. And it may be inferred that the Craft were not always at Work, for I find the following on the same list: 15 tin plates, 15 iron tablespoons, 15 teaspoons, 12 cups and saucers, 1 tin pan, 4 cans of pickled oysters, 1 pound of butter, 1 pound of coffee, and 2 pounds of sugar. This would seem to show that there were intervals for refreshment. The jewels were borrowed ones from the Pembina Lodge; they were used until the following January, the Lodge having commenced Work in November 1864. They were then replaced by finer ones from Chicago, through the good offices of N. W. Kittson.


W.‑. Bro. John Schultz was the first Worshipful Master; Bro. A. G. B. Bannatyne was Senior Warden, and Bro. William Inkster was junior Warden.


OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 21 The three principal Officers mentioned above remained in their respective Offices until December 23, 1867, when Bro. A. G. B. Bannatyne was elected Master; Bro. Thomas Bunn, Senicr Warden and Bro. Juhn Bunn, Junior Warden. I am unable, however, to find any record of their Installation.


The Dispensation was continued year by year by the Grand Lodge of Minnesota, until the year 1867; then a Charter was granted and the Lodge was registered as No. 68. At that time the Committee on Lodges, U. D. reported as follows: " From Northern Light Lodge U. D., located at Fort Garry, no late Returns or Records have been received. In this the Committee deem it proper to present the following facts: Fort Garry is situated on the northern confines of the State, several hundred miles from St. Paul, and far outside the usual mail or transportation facilities, the mails being carried by dog trains through the intervening wilderness, at long intervals and often lost in transit. Transportation is mostly confined to the spring months. These facts may reasonably account for the non‑representation of the Lodge and the non‑receipt of the Records and Receipts of the Lodge. The Lodge was originally organised under letters of Dispensation granted in 1863 to our present M.‑.W.‑.Grand Master and others by Grand Master Bro. A. T. C. Pierson, and has been continued by Dispensation of successive Grand Masters to the present time. It would seem that now the time has arrived when the Lodge should be relieved from its anomalous position. The Committee have had the fullest assurance from responsible sources that the Brethren comprising Northern Light Lodge, U. D. are men of excellent character, of good Masonic attainments, and of undoubted ability to carry on the Work of the Order. After considering these facts they have arrived at the conclusion that it is wrong to make the remote position and consequently inability of these Brethren to communicate with the Grand Lodge at its Annual Communication a reason for depriving them, of the benefit of a Charter. They therefore recommend that a Charter be granted to them, to be issued as soon as they have made their Returns to, and settled their accounts with, the Grand Secretary, to the satisfaction of the Grand Master." The Lodge was never constituted under the Charter, however, for during the troublesome times of 1868‑1869, the members became so scattered that it eventually ceased to exist. In his address at the Annual Communication in 1869, M.'. W .'.Bro. C. W. Nash, Grand Master, made the following reference to this Lodge: " The Lodges which were Chartered at the last Grand Communication have all been properly constituted and the Officers installed, either in person or by proxy, except in the case of Northern Light Lodge, No. 68 located at Fort Garry, British America. The Charter of this Lodge remains in the possession of the Right Worshipful Grand Secretary. The great distance of Fort Garry from an organised Lodge has rendered it impracticable to constitute the Lodge and install its Officers." At the same Sessions, R.‑. W.‑. Bro. William S. Combs, Grand Secretary, also reported as follows: " The Charter issued by the Grand Lodge to Northern Light Lodge, No. 68, at its Session in 1867, has not 22 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION been called for by the proper Officers. I anticipate, however, that the same will be attended to very soon, as I have been in correspondence with the Brethren at Fort Garry." Thus the pioneer Lodge of the great Canadian Northwest, which during the four years of its activity had added to its membership the foremost men of the settlement, terminated its existence.


On November 21, 1870, a Dispensation was issued by M .'. W.‑. Bro. Alexander A. Stevenson, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Canada, to Bro. Robert S. Patterson, Worshipful Master; Bro. Norman J. Dingman, Senior Warden, Bro. William N. Kennedy, Junior Warden, and six others, to form and hold a Lodge which was designated as Winnipeg Lodge but which, by permission of the Grand Lodge, afterwards changed its name to Prince Rupert's Lodge. The Lodge was located in Winnipeg, Province of Manitoba. It was Instituted on December 1o, 1870, and its Charter was granted on July 13, of the next year. At that time the Lodge was regularly constituted and consecrated as Prince Rupert's Lodge, No. 240 G. R. C., and the Officers were Installed. As Senior Warden, Bro. William N. Kennedy succeeded Bro. Norman J. Dingman, who had removed from the jurisdiction, and Matthew Coyne succeeded Bro. William N. Keenedy as junior Warden.


On January 4, 1871, a Dispensation was issued by M:. W .'. Bro. Alexander A. Stevenson, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Canada, to Bro. John Frazer, Worshipful Master; George Black, Senior Warden; Thomas Bunn, Junior War den, and four others, to form and hold a Lodge to be designated as Manitoba Lodge, at Lower Fort Garry, in the Province of Manitoba. The name of this Lodge also was afterwards changed, by permission of the Grand Lodge, to Lisgar Lodge. The Lodge was Instituted on February Zo, 1871, a Charter was granted on the following July 13, and the Lodge was regularly constituted and consecrated as Lisgar Lodge, No. 244 G. R. C. Then the Officers were Installed. Bro. George Black succeeded Bro. John Frazer as Worshipful Master, Bro. Thomas Bunn succeeded Bro. George Black as Senior Warden, and William J. Piton succeeded Bro. Thomas Bunn as junior Warden. Permission for the removal of the Lodge from Lower Fort Garry to Selkirk, Manitoba, was subsequently granted.


On April 19, 1871, a Dispensation was also issued by M.'. W.'. Bro. Alexander A. Stevenson, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Canada, to Bro. Frederick Y. Bradley, Worshipful Master, Bro. W. N. Drew, Senior Warden, Bro. James G. Milen, Junior Warden, and six others, to form and hold a Lodge to be designated as International Lodge, at North Pembina in the Province of Manitoba. This Lodge was never Instituted, however, but when the Dispensation was issued to Emerson Lodge, No. 6, in 1876 Bro. Bradley was named Master.


On September 19, 1872, a Dispensation was issued by M .'. W.‑. Bro. William M. Wilson, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Canada, to Bro. James Henderson, Worshipful Master, Bro. Arthur H. Holland, Senior Warden, Bro. Walter F. Hyman, Junior Warden, and six others, to form and hold a Lodge OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND z3 to be designated as Ancient Landmark Lodge, at Winnipeg, in the Province of Manitoba. This Lodge was Instituted on December 16, 1872, a Charter was granted on July 9, 1873, the Lodge was regularly constituted and consecrated as Ancient Landmark Lodge, No. 288 G. R. C., and its Officers were Installed.


After that no other Lodges were Instituted until 1875, but during that year a far more important step was decided upon, for it was then that the formation of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba was planned. The preliminary steps toward that goal were taken on April 28, 1875, when the following circular was issued: To the Worshipful Masters, Past Masters, Wardens, Officers, and other Brethren of the several Lodges of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons in the Province of Manitoba:‑Brethren, at an influential meeting of the Brethren hailing from the different constitutionally Chartered Lodges of the Province, held in the City of Winnipeg, on the twenty‑eighth day of April, A. D. 1875, it was, after mature deliberation, unanimously resolved that a circular be forwarded to all the Lodges in this Province, requesting them to be duly represented at a Convention to be held in the Masonic Hall, in the City of Winnipeg, on Wednesday, the twelfth day of May, 1875, at three o'clock P.M., for the purpose of taking into consideration the present state of Masonry in this Province, and to proceed, if decided, to the formation of a Grand Lodge for the Province of Manitoba.


No doubt this undertaking was entered into with much misgiving on the part of many Masons. For 3 Lodges, having a combined membership of only 21o, to sever their connection with such a strong organisation as the Grand Lodge of Canada in order to undertake the direction of the affairs of a Grand Lodge in a new country sparsely settled, must have seemed to many a stupendous undertaking. But their action in this matter serves to show the character of the men who carried the project out to a successful issue. There is no finer accomplishment known to mankind than to gain the honour and respect accorded to those who rise above adverse and obscure conditions, and win. From the Proceedings of the Convention held on May 12, 1875, I quote the following resolutions, all of which were carried unanimously: Resolved, That we, the Representatives of the three Warranted Lodges being all the Lodges in this Province, in Convention assembled, Resolve, That " The Most Worshipful the Grand Lodge of Manitoba, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons " be, and is hereby, formed upon the Ancient Charges and Constitution of Masonry.


Resolved, That in severing our connection from the Grand Lodge of Canada we desire to express our most profound gratitude to that venerable Body for the kind consideration and attention they have always displayed towards us, both as Lodges and individually, and we most ardently desire that the same parental feeling may always be entertained towards us by our mother Grand Lodge, our connection with which we will remember with the greatest pride and affection.


2‑4 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION Resolved, That the Lodges in the Province be numbered on the Grand Register according to their seniority, viz: Prince Rupert's Lodge to be No. i, Lisgar Lodge to be No. 2, Ancient Landmark Lodge to be No. 3.


Resolved, That a Committee of three be appointed to assist the M.. W.. Grand Master in preparing the address to sister Grand Lodges, and that R... W... Bro. James Henderson, Grand Senior Warden, R.‑. W.‑. Bro. John Kennedy, Grand Treasurer, and R.‑. W.‑. Bro. the Reverend Canon O'Meara, Grand Chaplain, be that Committee.


Then in his address before the Grand Lodge at its first Annual Communication held on June 14, 1876, M.‑. W.‑. Bro. W. C. Clarke, Grand Master, made the following approving statement: " the usual address to the sister Lodges was sent to all the Grand Bodies on the American continent, that to the European Grand Bodies being deferred till after this Communication, and I am happy to inform this Grand Lodge that in no single case has any fault been found with the constitutionality of our proceedure, but that in some instances I have been congratulated on behalf of the framers of the Grand Lodge by high Masonic authorities on the entire correctness of the steps which have been taken and the result attained. It is my pleasing duty to congratulate you upon the marked success which has so far attended your efforts in the interest of the royal Craft." The mother Grand Lodge of Canada was first to extend Fraternal intercourse with the newly‑formed Grand Lodge of Manitoba, under date of July 14, 1875. As the region became settled, other Lodges were formed in the dif ferent towns throughout the Province and throughout the Northwest Territories, the Grand Lodge of Manitoba having extended its Jurisdiction over the Districts of Alberta, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, and the Yukon Territory. By October 12, i9o5, there were 104 Lodges on the Grand Register, and there was a total membership of 5725. On that date 18 Lodges of the Province of Alberta met at Calgary and formed the Grand Lodge of Alberta. M.‑. W.. Bro. William G. Scott, Grand Master, who was present to Install the Officers of the new Grand Lodge, was elected an Honorary Past Grand Master. At the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge, held in Winnipeg on June 13, 19o6, Fraternal recognition was extended, together with the most kindly greetings and the wish that success and prosperity would attend the new Grand Lodge, the first daughter Grand Lodge of the Grand Body of Manitoba. Then, on August 9, 19o6, 29 Lodges of the Province of Saskatchewan met at Regina and there formed the Grand Lodge of Saskatchewan, the second daughter Grand Lodge. At that meeting, M.''. W.‑. Bro. John McKechnie, Grand Master, and M.‑. W.‑. Bro. James A. Ovas, Past Grand Master and Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba, who were present to Install the Officers of the new Grand Lodge of Saskatchewan, were elected Honorary Past Grand Masters. At the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba, held in Winnipeg on June 12, 1907, Fraternal recognition was also extended to the new Grand OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 25 Lodge of Saskatchewan and the same good wishes were expressed for its future well‑being as had been extended to its sister Grand Lodge of Alberta. At this Communication, Yukon Lodge, No. 79, of Dawson City, and White Horse Lodge, No. 81, of White Horse, in the Yukon Territory, applied to the Grand Lodge of Manitoba for permission to surrender their Charters and to be allowed to apply to the Grand Lodge of British Columbia for affiliation. The principal reason advanced for wating to make the change was stated as follows: " The Province of British Columbia is adjacent and contiguous to the Yukon Territory and bound to it by Commercial and other relations which cause continual intercourse between the residents of both Districts." Upon its receipt, this Petition was duly considered by the Board of General Purposes, and upon their recommendation it was granted by the Grand Lodge of Manitoba.


No history of Masonry in western Canada would be complete without an account of the life of M.‑. W .'. Bro. James A. Ovas. This faithful and distin guished Mason was born near Toronto, Ontario, Canada, on July Zo, 18 He was Initiated in Manito Lodge of Collingwood, Ontario, in 1877, and shortly afterwards he turned his steps to the Great West at that time little known. For some years his business activities were centered in Souris, Manitoba, and in Rapid City. In both places his name appears in the local Masonic histories as an active member, an Officer, and a Worshipful Master. On June 13, 1900) the Grand Lodge of Manitoba elected him to be Grand Secretary, and on June 11, 1934, he was re‑elected for the thirty‑fifth consecutive term.


Bro. Ovas's interest in Masonic lore and activities has taken him into practically every branch of Masonic organisation. He was elected Grand Master of Manitoba in 18go. He reached the Thirty‑third Degree of Scottish Rite Masonry in October, 191o. To enumerate all the other Offices and memberships which he has held would occupy more space than is permitted in this brief review.


Among the honours which have been showered upon Bro. Ovas, one is represented by a Certificate which hangs framed above his desk in the Masonic Temple. It proclaims M.‑. W.‑. Bro. James A. Ovas to be a Grand Representative of the Grand Lodge of England. Combining as it does his wide Fraternal interests and friendships and his fervent loyalty to the land of his forefathers, of all his honours this one is most treasured.


When Bro. Ovas was Grand Master, and later when he was elected to be Grand Secretary, his jurisdiction was the largest in area in the world. It extended from Ontario westward to the Rocky Mountains, and from the United States boundary northward to the limits of life. To‑day three Grand Lodges cover this territory. Of them all, Manitoba is numerically smallest. Bro. Ovas remains an inspiring figure, linking the pioneer past with the present, and projecting into a future whose horizon is limited only by his eighty‑one years, an influence and broad‑minded brotherhood which can never know decay. Passed away March 9, 1935.


 END PAGE 25  26 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION MARITIME PROVINCES REGINALD V. HARRIS* HE territory commonly known as the Maritime Provinces of Canada, which comprises Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, is to‑day under the jurisdiction of three Grand Lodges. Never theless, until some sixty years ago, the Masonic histories of those three jurisdictions were more or less closely interwoven, and it seems advisable therefore, at least in the earlier pages of this article, to consider as a single unit the entire territory now covered by the three jurisdictions.


The reader is doubtless familiar with the chief facts of the early history of the Maritime Provinces‑the early voyages and explorations of DeMonts and Champlain, and of other adventurers and colonisers; the founding of the first settlement at Port Royal, now Annapolis Royal, in 1604, and the numerous sieges of that place; the period of the French regime, which ended in Nova Scotia in 1710, fifty years before its termination in 1759‑176o; the two sieges of the great French stronghold of Louisbourg, the one in 1745 and the other in 1758; the founding of Halifax in 1749; the expulsion of the Acadians in 1755; the establishment of representative government in 1758; the period of the American War for Independence and the coming to Canada of the Loyalists in the period between 1775 and 1785; the setting off of the Provinces of New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Cape Breton; the struggle for responsible government; the Confederation of most of British North America into the Dominion of Canada in 1867; and the subsequent economic and political development of the country to its present status. The story is intensely interesting, as all readers of Parkman, Murdock, and other capable historians can testify. Interesting though the complete history be, this article must, nevertheless, be confined only to the story of Freemasonry in the Maritime Provinces, a story which covers approximately two hundred years. Although some writers claim to have discovered evidence of Masonic activity dating back still farther, their alleged evidence is only inferred from known facts, or is based only on tradition. In fact, fiction and false hypotheses account for much of it.


In any history of the Craft in the Maritime Provinces, reference must first be made to the so‑called Annapolis Royal " Masonic Stone of 16o6. In 1827 the eminent geologist, Dr. Charles T. Jackson, of Boston, discovered a flat slab of trap rock on the shores of Annapolis Basin, In Nova Scotia. This stone which bore the Masonic Square and Compasses together with the date 16o6, was given to the Honourable Justice T. C. Haliburton, distinguished author of Sam Slick the Clock Maker. Then, about 1887 it was turned over by justice Haliburton's son to the Canadian Institue, in Toronto, for the purpose of being * In the reparation of the following article on Freemasonry in the Maritime Provinces, the writer gratefully ackowledges the he p and co‑operation of M.'. W:. Bro. James Vroom, Past Grand Master of New Brunswick, since deceased, and M::W..Bro. George W. Wakeford, Prince Edward Island.


OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 27 inserted, with the inscription exposed, in the wall of the Institute's building. Unfortunately, however, some of the workmen stupidly plastered the Stone over and embedded it in the wall of the building! It has since been completely lost. Although it would seem that the Stone once marked the grave of some early Brethren, exhaustive investigation by the writer leads him to believe that the Stone originally marked the grave of either a mason or stone‑cutter, or possibly of a carpenter, who died at Annapolis Royal, then called Port Royal, on November 14, 16o6, and that it was in no way connected with a Speculative Mason.


After the destruction of Port Royal by Argall of Virginia in 1614, the refugee inhabitants returned to the settlement, rebuilt their homes, and continued there until the advent of Sir William Alexander of Menstrie and his Scotch Colony, about 1628. Alexander had become the proprietor and grantee of the Colony under a patent from King James I (James VI of Scotland) in 1621. His powers and privileges were, therefore, virtually regal over the territory now comprising the Maritime Provinces and parts of what is now known as the State of Maine in the United States and of Quebec in present day Canada. This vast territory was designated Nova Scotia in the patent. Associated with Sir William in this '' undertaking were Sir Alexander Strachan of Thornton, Sir Anthony Alexander and his son, and William, Earl Marshall. After exploratory expeditions and j financial difficulties which threatened to destroy the venture, Sir William sent { out his son, also known as Sir William, with four vessels and seventy‑two set tlers. In the spring of 1628 these men took possession of the old French fort. After two years of struggle, Sir William the Younger returned to Scotland, leaving Sir George Home (or Horne) in charge of the Colony. But the Scotch j rule of the Colony was destined to be short lived. With the Peace of St. Germain en‑Laye, made in 1632, the whole of Nova Scotia was restored to France, and a majority of Alexander's settlers returned to Scotland, though some joined the Puritan Colony at Boston, in Massachusetts Bay Colony, and others settled in the French settlement at La Havre, in Nova Scotia. As partial compensation for his losses, the elder Sir William was created Viscount Stirling and Viscount Canada. His son thereupon assumed the honorary title of Lord Alexander.


This bit of history is given by way of introduction to the statement that in the Minutes of the Lodge of Edinburgh is found a Record which states that on " the 3rd day of Joulay, 1634," Lord Alexander the Younger, Sir Alexander Strachan, and Sir Anthony Alexander, who was at the time " Master of the Work " to Charles I, were " admitet felowe off the Craft." Inasmuch as no other Record of Lord Alexander's Masonic career has been found, it has been suggested that he may have been Initiated into the Craft during his stay in his Nova Scotia Colony.


As the reader may know, the Records of Freemasonry in Scotland show that the Speculative element was introduced into the Lodges of that country at a somewhat earlier date than it was into the English Lodges, and it would, of course, be equally possible for a Lodge to have existed in the Scotch Colony as to have existed in Scotland itself. Other than what has been stated here, s s a i 28 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION however, the theory of Lord Alexander's Initiation in Nova Scotia has nothing to support it. It is dismissed by most trustworthy writers as being mythical. It is unnecessary here to follow the fortunes of the settlement at Port Royal through the vicissitudes of the next hundred years. Nevertheless, it should be recalled that the main events of the century were the capture of the fortress by Colonel Sedgewick, in 1654; its cession to France by the Treaty of Breda, in 1667; its capture by Sir William Phips in 16go; the various other sieges of it from time to time, both before and after its capture by Colonel Nicholson in 171o, at which time it was renamed Annapolis Royal; and its cession to Britain by France according to the terms of the Peace of Utrecht in 1713.


Although it is unlikely that Freemasonry existed among the French or English settlers in the Colony during this early period, there are some who argue that it did. There is in the library of the Grand Lodge of Massachu setts a work entitled Ahiman Rezon: A Concise of Account of the Rise and Progress of Freemasonry in the Province of Nova Scotia from the First Settlement of It to This Present Time‑1786, in which the following statement is made: "From Europe the Royal Art crossed the Atlantic with the first emigrants and settled in various parts of America. It is said to have been known in Nova Scotia while that region was in the hands of the French. This statement could not have been based upon knowledge of the " Masonic Stone " of 16o6, or upon the theory regarding Lord Alexander's Initiation, however, for the " Masonic Stone " was not discovered until 1827, and the evidence of Alexander's membership was not made public until long after 1786, the year in which the statement was published. In fact, research has so far failed to corroborate the statement that Freemasonry was known among the French settlers. It is not impossible, however, that generations may discover and bring to light evidence to support the supposition of the author of Ahiman Rezon.


In this same work, it is also stated that " it is certain that as soon as the English took possession ` of the Colony ' they took care to encourage this charitable institution (Freemasonry)." Just what " certain " evidence in support of this statement existed in 1786 is not known, but there is a sort of corroboration in a statement of M.'. W.‑. Bro. Major‑General J. Wimburn Laurie, Grand Master of Nova Scotia. In his address to the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia in 1884, Bro. Laurie referred to the receipt of a photographic copy of the Ledger of St. John's Lodge, at Philadelphia, dated 1731, which had been sent to him as evidence that the Lodge at Philadelphia was the first Masonic Lodge to be organised in America during the Colonial period. But we know that Bro. Laurie was not completely convinced by the evidence, for in the same address he went on to say that " from circumstances that have come to my knowledge, I believe it to be quite within the bounds of possibility that evidence will in due time be forthcoming that a Masonic Lodge regularly met and transacted Masonic business at a much earlier date than 1731 in our own Province. I have been for some time promised the documents by a gentleman who is not a member of the Craft, and I trust his disinterested efforts to obtain OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 2.9 them will be successful. I may be disappointed either in obtaining the documents or in their authenticity, so I hesitate to say more." Bro. Laurie had previously made a similar statement when addressing the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts in 1883. At that time he stated that " certain antiquarians " had " recently discovered what they. were inclined to believe were the vestiges of a Masonic Lodge which had existed in Nova Scotia very early in the eighteenth century." In any case, any Masonic activity in Nova Scotia prior to 1731 must have been either at Annapolis Royal, then the capital, or at Canso, a good‑sized settlement, especially during the fishing season when as many as 2.000 New Englanders made it the base of operations. Since the population of Canso was not permanent, however, the social life there was meager in comparison with that of Annapolis Royal. Furthermore, since the military detachment at Canso was a detail from Philipps' Regiment, which was quartered at Annapolis Royal, we strongly incline to the belief that any Lodge which may have existed in Nova Scotia prior to 1731 was located at Annapolis Royal and not at Caiiso.


From its capture in 1710, until 17So and afterwards, the closest sort of intercourse, military, civil, commercial, and social, existed between Annapolis Royal and Boston. The Council of the Province of Nova Scotia was composed almost entirely of Boston men, and it is a curious fact that all those men from Boston were closely identified with King's Chapel, where tradition says a Lodge was held about 172.0 or 172.1. With all these facts in mind, and after making exhaustive investigation, the writer believes that there was a Masonic Lodge, or at least Masonic activity, at Annapolis Royal between 1720 and 172.6, and that this activity ceased some time between 1726 and 1738. In the latter year a Lodge was established there by Major Erasmus James Philipps, who was one of the soldiers of Philipp's Regiment.


This regiment, known later as the 40th Foot of the British Army, was organised at Annapolis Royal in 1717 with the governor, Colonel Richard Philipps, as its commanding officer. Major Erasmus James Philipps, a nephew of Governor Richard Philipps, was made a Mason in Boston, Massachusetts, while he, together with William Sheriff, Dr. William Skene, and Colonel Otho Hamilton, was in Boston to serve as one of the Commissioners chosen to establish the boundaries of Massachusetts Bay and Rhode Island. The Records of " The First Lodge of Boston " show that the date of Bro. Philipps' Initiation was November 14, 1737. At that time Bro. William Sheriff also affiliated with the Boston Lodge. Since Sheriff had been a resident of Annapolis Royal continuously from 1716 until 1737, it is evident that he must have been made a Mason in that place.


In The Boston Gazette of March 13, 1738, a notice states that Henry Price, of the Boston Lodge, had appointed Major Philipps to be Provincial Grand Master of Nova Scotia. On the occasion of his next visit to Boston, in April 1739, Philipps' name is accompanied by that title in the Minutes of St. John's Lodge there. On returning to Annapolis in June 1738, Philipps took with him 30 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION a Deputation from Henry Price empowering him to form a Lodge at Annapolis Royal. The Record says that " Mr. Price granted a Deputation at Ye Petition of sundry Brethren at Annapolis in Nova Scotia to hold a Lodge there." This statement leads us to believe that the Petition was undoubtedly signed not only by Philipps and Sheriff, but also by Colonel Otho Hamilton, who had resided continuously at Annapolis Royal from 1717, and by Dr. William Skene, a resident there since 1715. These facts establish the existence of Masonic activity in Annapolis Royal prior to 172‑7, when Philipps joined the little garrison there. The Lodge established in 1738 was in reality a Military Lodge attached to Philipps' Regiment. Therefore, when the regiment left the town in 1758 to participate in the second siege of Louisbourg, the Lodge left with it. This Lodge is frequently referred to in the Proceedings of the St. John's Grand Lodge, of Boston, between the years 1738 and 1767. Soon after leaving Annapolis Royal, the regiment participated in the siege of Quebec in 1759, and in the capture of Montreal in 176o. Although we know little about the Lodge's activities, we do know that it became dormant before 181o, for in that year the Brethren, then engaged in the Peninsular War in Spain, applied for an Irish Warrant. This was granted as No. 2‑04. Later, in 182‑1, while the regiment was stationed in Ireland, Masonic members of it applied for a second Warrant. This Warrant, issued as No. 2‑84, was surrendered in 1858. The regiment, now known as the South Lancashire Regiment, has seen gallant service in every part of the world; it is notably distinguished for its part in the Great War.


By the Treaty of Utrecht, made in 1713, it was provided that, with the exception of Cape Breton, all Nova Scotia should be ceded to Great Britain. The French at once took possession of the island and renamed it Isle Royale. Then they removed a number of families from Placentia, Newfoundland, which had been ceded to Great Britain, to Havre a 1'Anglais, which they renamed Louisbourg. Immediately afterwards they set about to fortify Louisbourg. For the next twenty‑five years or more, the French spent huge sums of money on fortifications, thus rendering the fortress there one of the most inaccessible strongholds in the world. In the opinion of military strategists of the day, the natural position of the fortress, strengthened as it was by all the arts and devices of military science, made it well‑nigh impregnable and justified its title‑" The Dunkirk of America." During the period of construction a great deal of commerce developed among the French and English colonists. To feed the great army of builders and to transport the vast supplies of building materials required was no small task, for supplies were imported from French Canada, the Island of St. John, now Prince Edward Island, the French West Indies, and from Boston and other New England settlements.


It is significant that at about this time the Register of the Grand Lodge of England records that the Earl of Darnley, Grand Master, appointed Captain Robert Comyno (or Comins) to be Provincial Grand Master for Cape Breton and Louisbourg. The entry in the Register is repeated under date of 1738, with the additional words, " excepting such places where a Provincial Grand Master is OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 31 already appointed." Comins was one of the New England traders, and since at that time there were no Masonic Lodges among the French in Cape Breton, the appointment must have been made with a view to benefiting the hundreds of New Englanders who frequented both Louisbourg and Canso, at which latter place at least a nucleus for a Masonic meeting existed among the officers of Philipps' Regiment.


On March 18, 1744, France declared war against Great Britain, and word was immediately sent to Louisbourg by a fast sailing vessel. At once the French governor fitted out an expedition for the purpose of capturing Canso. The ex pedition was successful, and Canso surrendered to the French forces on May 24, 1744. Among the vessels engaged in this expedition was one commanded by Lewis Doloboratz (or Delabraz), who had charge of its ninety‑four men. After the capture of Canso, Doloboratz then cruised along the coast of New England, searching for evidence of the enemy's commerce. In course of time he encountered Captain Edward Tyng, in the Prince of Orange, Massachusetts' first man‑of‑war. After a spirited running fight which lasted from nine o'clock one morning until two o'clock the following morning, Tyng overhauled the French vessel, compelled Commander Doloboratz to lower his colours, and brought ship and crew into Boston as a prize of war. While there, Doloboratz was allowed a great deal of liberty, and on October io, 1744, Bro. Henry Price proposed him as a candidate for Masonry in the " First Lodge of Boston. " On that occasion, Bro. Price " acquainted the Lodge " that Doloboratz was " a gentleman, who, being a prisoner of war, was thereby reduced, but as he might be serviceable (when at home) to any Brother whom Providence might cast in his way, it was desired he might be excused the expense of his making, provided each Brother would contribute his cloathing, which the Rt. Worsh'1 Mas'r was pleas'd to put to vote when it was carried in affirmative by Dispensation from the Rt. W. Master & Warder. Upon acct. of his leaving the Province very soon, he was ballotted in, introduced, & made a Mason in due form. Bro. P. Pelham moved that the Sec'r grant Bro. Delabraz a letter of recommendation. " The French raid on Canso and their attack against Annapolis aroused the most intense feeling against France in the New England colonies, where the accounts, brought by traders and other travellers, had already caused no small amount of alarm. Believing that Louisbourg would be made the base of operations again the British colonies in America in the coming war, the New Englanders at once adopted the bold course of making an effort to reduce the great stronghold. For this purpose a force of some 4300 men was raised in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut. This force was then placed under the command of Colonel William Pepperell, who was to undertake the enterprise in co‑operation with a British squadron under the command of Commodore Warren. Among the officers in the New England forces was a surprisingly large number of Freemasons, several of whom were to win distinction in the Craft later on.


32‑ FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION The transports left New England in March and gathered at Canso, the place of rendezvous. There the troops were drilled, and a junction was made with the squadron under Warren. Then on April 29 the British forces left Canso, and the next day they landed some few miles from the city of Louisbourg. In attempting to prevent the landing, the French sent a small detachment under the command of Anthony de la Boularderie, son of the grantee of Boularderie Island, in the Bras d'or Lakes, Cape Breton, and a former lieutenant in the regiment of Richelieu. Boularderie had taken part in the Canso expedition in May 1744, and upon hearing of this British attack on Louisbourg, he had offered his services to Governor Duchambon. The French party, hopelessly outnumbered by some ten to one, soon lost six members. After exchanging a few shots, they turned and fled, leaving behind them, besides their dead, some six or seven prisoners, including Boularderie, and several wounded.


The sequel to this little sortie by the French is to be found in the Minute Book of St. John's Lodge, of Boston. The gallant officer and his comrades, being prisoners of war, were removed in due time to Boston, where they were allowed considerable liberty, and where they made a good impression on the authorities and the people in general. It is not surprising, then, that on August 14, 1745, Anthony de la Boularderie and Peter Philip Charles St. Paul, another French prisoner of war, were made Masons in St. John's Lodge. This fact is stated in the Record of the Lodge in the following words: " Wednesday, August: 14th 1745, being Lodge Night, Bro. Price propos'd Mr. P. S. S. Paul and Bro. Audibert propos'd Mr. Anton: D. Laboulerdree as Candidates & were Ballotted in, and by reason the Candidates were but sojourners they were made Masons in due form." Subsequently, Bro. Boularderie was sent to France with a certificate stating that he had behaved like a gentleman and had been of great service to the other prisoners of war placed in his charge. This certificate had been signed and sealed on September 2, 1745, by various distinguished citizens of Boston, among whom were members of the governor's council, and Benjamin Pemberton, its secretary.


During the next three years the British kept nearly 4000 troops in the garrison at Louisbourg. Although the New Englanders were gradually relieved of military duty, their places were taken by British regiments of regular sol diers. Fuller's Regiment (29th), three companies of Franpton's (30th), Regiment with Lodge No. 85 (Irish Registry), and Warburton's (45th) Regiment arrived in 1746. At about the same time, two other regiments, Shirley's (50th) and Pepperell's (66th), were raised in the American colonies. But the Peace of Aix‑la‑Chapelle, signed in October, 1748, ceded Louisbourg and Cape Breton to France. Consequently, in July, 1749, Shirley's and Pepperell's regiments were disbanded, and Hopson's (29th) and Warburton's (45th) were transferred to the new British settlement of Halifax.


During this disturbing period from 1745 to 1749, Freemasonry was undoubtedly active at Louisbourg. For example, it was during this time that the appointment of Captain Robert Comins as Provincial Grand Master for Cape OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 33 Breton and Louisbourg was renewed by Lord Cranstoun, Grand Master of England. Furthermore, on January 14, 1747, Comins affiliated with the " First Lodge of Boston," also known as " St. John's Lodge." Among the New England forces there were also scores of Masons, among them Captain Henry Sherburne and Captain Joseph Sherburne, of the New Hampshire forces; David Wooster and Nathan Whiting, of the Connecticut forces; and Richard Gridley, Estes Hatch, Benjamin Ives, John Osborne, and Joshua Loring, of the Massachusetts regiments.


During this early period Placentia, in Newfoundland, was garrisoned by a detachment of the 40th Regiment from Annapolis Royal. It is significant that on December 24, 1746, " at the Petition of Sundry Brethren residing at in Newfoundland," the Grand Master of Massachusetts, Thomas Oxnard, '` granted a Constitution for a Lodge to be held there." For the next twentyone years the name of the Lodge appears in the Records of the St. John's Grand Lodge of Boston, as having been " not represented " at meetings of the Grand Lodge.


In 1749 the British Government resolved upon the establishment of a British settlement in Nova Scotia. Several thousand families, under the leadership of Hon. Edward Cornwallis, were therefore settled on Chebucto Bay, and the present city of Halifax was laid out. Cornwallis had already been the founder of a Masonic Lodge among the soldiers of the Zoth Foot Regiment. This Lodge was afterwards known as Minden Lodge, having been named after the battle of that name in which the regiment had played a conspicuous part. It was in this Lodge that Major‑General James Wolfe, the hero of Louisbourg and Quebec, is believed to have been made a Mason. Early in 1750, Cornwallis and a number of other Brethren applied to the St. John's Grand Lodge at Boston for a Deputation. They were, however, referred to Erasmus James Philipps, Provincial Grand Master, and to him they next presented their Petition. A copy of that Petition, in the handwriting of Philipps, is now to be found in the Archives of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts.


The Lodge, known as the First Lodge of Halifax, was organised on July 19, 1750, when " Lord Colville and a number of Navy Gentlemen were Entered Apprentices of the Lodge.'' Later, Lord Colville received his other Degrees in St. John's Lodge, of Boston. After that he was for several years closely identified with Boston Masonry, at one time becoming Deputy Grand Master there. Cornwallis, the first Master of the First Lodge of Halifax, was succeeded in 1752 by Governor Charles Lawrence, who presided until his death in 1760. In March, 1751, a second Lodge was formed at Halifax, but it was probably short lived, for we find no record of it in the Proceedings of either the Grand Lodge of England or of the St. John's Grand Lodge of Boston.


In 1757 the Brethren of Halifax, all members of the " First Lodge " and all owing allegiance to Modern principles, Petitioned and received from the Ancient Grand Lodge of England, a Provincial Grand Lodge Warrant. This Warrant, No. 65, was the first of its kind ever issued by the Ancients. At the 34 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION same time, Warrants were also received for two subordinate Lodges. These were numbered 66 and 67. The Grand Lodge, thus Warranted, functioned under the leadership of Philipps, who served as Provincial Grand Master until his death in 176o, and then under the leadership of the Hon. Jonathan Belcher, chief justice, until his death in 1776. On receipt of these Warrants, in 1758, the " First Lodge," which had been founded by Cornwallis, was divided into three Lodges. Two of these Lodges Worked under the new Warrants‑No. 66 of the Ancients of England (No. z on the Provincial Register), and No. 67 of the Ancients of England (No. 3 on the Provincial Register), and Warrant No. 4 on the Provincial Register. Two other Warrants‑No. 5 issued (before 1768) and No. 6 (issued in 1769)‑were granted to Lodges in the 59th and 64th Regiments while they were stationed at Halifax. In 1768, Lodge No. 4 and Lodge No. 5 were registered on the Ancient English Register as Lodge No. 155 and Lodge No. 156, respectively. Lodge No. 4, part of the original " First Lodge," has continued uninterruptedly to the present time and is now known as St. Andrew's Lodge, No. i, on the Grand Register of Nova Scotia, the oldest Lodge not only in Canada but also in the British Empire overseas.


In 1758 the British Government again resolved to reduce Louisbourg in Cape Breton. For that purpose a large fleet of transports, conveying military forces under Major‑General Amherst and Major‑General Wolfe, was assembled at Halifax. The siege lasted from June 2 to July 26, when the French forces surrendered and the stronghold passed forever into the possession of the British. The troops engaged in this memorable siege were the 1st, 15th, 17th, ZZd, 28th, 35th 4oth, 45th, 47th, 48th, and 58th Foot Regiments; two battalions of the Royal American (both) Regiment, and Fraser's (78th) Highlanders. Of those regiments, all but four are known to have had Lodges attached to them at the time of the siege. It is also known that within a short time after the siege, Lodges were also attached to the four exceptions.


In passing it should be noted that the Lodge attached to the 1st Foot Regiment, Lodge No. 11, was the first Military Lodge ever established. It remained in existence until 1847. It is also interesting that Lodge No. 74, at tached to the Zd battalion of this regiment while at Louisbourg, later wintered at Albany, New York, and while there " granted a Deputation " to form the Lodge which is now listed as Lodge No. 3 on the New York Registry.


The Lodge in the ZZd Regiment, while wintering at Louisbourg, Worked under an Irish Warrant. This Warrant, we are told, " was lost the following year in the Mississippi." Then, in 176o, the regiment was stationed at Crown Point, New York. Shortly afterwards the Brethren applied for a Scottish Warrant under the title of Moriah Lodge, No. 132. In 1782 the ZZd Regiment was stationed at New York City and there united on December 5 of that year, the Lodge attached to it with eight other Lodges to form the Grand Lodge of New York.


The Warrant for the Lodge in the 28th Regiment was granted on November 13, 1758, by Colonel Richard Gridley, Junior Grand Warden of the St. John's OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 35 Grand Lodge of Boston, and a member of the British expeditionary forces. In the following year the regiment and its Lodge were at Quebec.


Immediately after the surrender of Louisbourg, Lord Rollo, himself a distinguished and enthusiastic Scottish Freemason, was sent in command of a force to take St. John's Island, now known as Prince Edward Island. There is good ground for believing that Lord Rollo's soldiers may have conferred Masonic honours during their sojourn on the island.


In the course of its long history as a garrison city, Halifax has been visited by nearly every regiment of the British Army. Furthermore, from 1749 to 1800, Lodges flourished in practically all the many regiments which visited the city.


From a Masonic point of view, the period of the American War for Independence, from 1775 to 1785, was an especially active era in Halifax. At that time many of the Lodges Worked under Irish Warrants. For example, the Lodge attached to the 46th Foot Regiment, No. 227, Working under an Irish Warrant, was established in 1752. Known as the Lodge of Social and Military Virtues, it was located at Halifax in 1757 and 1758, during which time it is recorded as having been " very active, doing good and effective Work, while associated with the Brethren throughout the Province." From this Lodge the presentday Lodge of Antiquity, No. 1, of Montreal, claims descent.


Lodge No. 58, attached to the 14th Foot Regiment, and Lodge 322, attached to the 29th Foot Regiment, were in Halifax from 1765 to 1768. Proceeding thence to Boston, the regiments later took part in that unfortunate affair known as the Boston Massacre. Notwithstanding the intense excitement prevailing in Boston at the time, the members of those two Lodges seem to have fraternized with the Boston Brethren and actually to have assisted them in organising a Provincial Grand Lodge under Scottish authority.


Lodge No. 136, attached to the 17th Regiment, was at Annapolis Royal from 1756 to 1758, whence it proceeded to Louisbourg, and later to Quebec, where it took part in the capture of that city in 1759. The next year it was lo cated at Montreal. On returning to England, the Lodge, under the title of Unity Lodge, took a new Warrant, which was registered as No. 169. At that time the Lodge's other two Warrants were reported as having been lost through " the Hazardous Enterprises in which they (the Lodge's members) had been engaged." As a matter of fact, one of those earlier Warrants, together with the Lodge jewels, funds, and Records, and the baggage of the regiment, had been captured by the Americans in 1777, while they were being transferred by sea from New York to Philadelphia. Soon afterwards the Brethren had applied for, and obtained, from the Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, another Warrant, No. 18. The Lodge actually'continued on the Roll of the Pennsylvania Grand Lodge throughout the remainder of the war. In 1779, during the fighting at Stony Point, this Warrant was also captured. Later, however, it was returned by General Parsons, of the American Army, under a flag of truce. It was also accompanied by a fraternal letter. The regiment served throughout the war until peace was declared in 1783. At that time it removed to Shelburne, 3 6 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION Nova Scotia, then only a garrison town. There it remained until 1786. To‑day there are in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia a number of letters which were exchanged between the Brethren of that Military Lodge and the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, all of the most friendly and fraternal nature.


Many of those early Military Lodges, especially those possessing Irish Warrants, conferred many of the higher Degrees, the variety of the Degree being limited only by the Lodge's knowledge of the ceremonies connected with it. Chief among the Degrees were those of the Royal Arch and of the Knights Templar. The earliest record of the former's having been conferred in Halifax dates back to 1760, which makes it one of the earliest on the American continent. Besides, there is good ground for believing that the Degree was conferred in Halifax at even an earlier date, perhaps as early as 1757, and probably even before that. In fact the 14th, 29th, and 64th Regiments were stationed at Halifax during the period from 1765 to 1768 before their transfer to Boston, where in 1769, they organised St. Andrew's Royal Arch Chapter, and where in the same year they conferred the Royal Arch and the Knights Templar Degrees. This is usually regarded as being the first time the former Degree was ever conferred anywhere in the world. Undoubtedly the regimental Lodges conferred the Excellent, Super‑Excellent, Royal Arch, and Knights Templar Degrees in Halifax during the period of their stay there.


We may be sure that the candidates on whom those Degrees were conferred continued the Work, for there are in existence today the Minutes and Records of meetings of a Royal Arch Chapter at Halifax, dating from 1780 to the present. This Chapter is now known as Royal Union Chapter No. 1. There are also Minutes and Records of the meeting of a Knights Templar Encampment, dating from September, 1782 to 1806. This Encampment was revived in 1839, and is still working. Now known as Antiquity Preceptory, it is probably the oldest Preceptory outside the British Isles. In fact, if it is antedated at all, it is antedated only by the Baldwyn Encampment of Bristol, England, the earliest reference to which goes back to January 25, 1772. Halifax also possesses the earliest Records of the Mark Degree on this continent; these date back to 1780.


On the death of the Hon. Jonathan Belcher, Provincial Grand Master, in 1776, the Provincial Grand Lodge became dormant, leaving St. Andrew's Lodge, then Ancients Lodge, No. 155, and a Modern Lodge, which had succeeded Lodge No. 2 on the Provincial Registry, the only Lodges in the Province. The latter died out about 1781, owing largely to aggressiveness of the rival Lodge, which had assumed the authority of a Grand Lodge.


In 1780 through the efforts of this remaining Lodge, and with the assistance of Loyalist Brethren who had recently arrived from New England and New York, St. John's Lodge, now Lodge No. 2 on the Grand Register of Nova Scotia, was established. Shortly afterwards St. John's Lodge received a Warrant from the Ancients‑Warrant No. 211. Later, this Lodge, acting jointly with St. Andrew's Lodge, granted a Dispensation for Union Lodge, an offshoot of St. Andrew's. Beginning in 1781, these three Lodges held Quarterly Communica‑ OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 37 tions for the welfare of the Craft in the Province. The beginnings of Masonry in Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick, at that time forming part of Nova Scotia, were originally derived from this Body and its constituent Lodges.


In 1778, because of an attack which had been made on the settlement on St. John's Island in 1775 by American privateers, the British authorities sent four provincial, or independent, companies of infantry from New York to Charlottetown, under the command of Major Timothy Hierlihy. Among the officers and men of those companies were a number of Freemasons, and in May 1781 a Petition was presented to St. Andrew's and St. John's Lodges, in Halifax, praying for a Dispensation for a Lodge in the corps, to be known as St. George's Lodge. This Lodge, the first on the island, was most active until October 1783 when the corps was transfrred to Halifax and merged with the Royal Nova Scotia Regiment. The Lodge was then disbanded. Its Records are now preserved in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia.


On January 21, 1782, St. Andrew's and St. John's Lodges issued a Dispensation to form Virgin Lodge " in Major Anthony Farrington's Company in the Fourth Battalion of His Majesty's Royal Regiment of Artillery." The Lodge Worked under this Dispensation until October 1784, when it was granted a Warrant by the newly‑formed Provincial Grand Lodge. It was then registered as No. 2, and its name was changed to Artillery Lodge. Sixteen years later the original name was resumed by authority of the Grand Lodge. To‑day this Body is Lodge No. 3 on the Grand Register of Nova Scotia.


Later in the same year a Dispensation was also granted by the Lodges forming a Quarterly Communication for a Lodge to be formed in the 82d Regiment, known as the Duke of Hamilton's. Later, in 1783, its‑ return from par ticipation in the War for American Independence, the regiment was disbanded at Halifax and the men were settled at Pictou Landing. It is interesting to know that prior to the issuance of the Dispensation for Thistle Lodge, Captain John Moore of the 82d Regiment was made a Mason in St. John's Lodge, No. 211. Captain Moore had greatly distinguished himself in the Penobscot expedition of 1781. In later life he became " the finest trainer of men the British Army has ever known." He died in i8o9 in the masterly retreat on Corunna during the Peninsular War in Spain. As a result of the Loyalist emigration from New York in 1783 the Province of New Brunswick was the next year set off from Nova Scotia. This was followed by the incorporation of the city of St. John in 1785. The first trace of Masonic activity in New Brunswick dates from 1783. On January 29 of that year the Provincial Grand Lodge of New York granted a Warrant to Samuel Ryerse and others to form a Lodge to be known as St. George's Lodge, No. 2, in the 3d Battalion of the New Jersey Volunteers, also known as DeLancey's Regiment because it was commanded by Colonel James DeLancey. The Rev. William Walter, Grand Master of New York, was chaplain of this regiment. When the regiment was disbanded in that year many of its members settled along the St John River, either at, or near, Maugerville. Here the Brethren continued their Work under their New York Warrant until OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 39 and Virginia; such relations were also established with the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland. The first project undertaken by this Provincial Grand Lodge was the erection of a building for its own accommodation and for the accommodation of the local Lodges which up to then had met in various taverns. Progress was slow at first, but finally, in 18oo, H.R.H., Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, Provincial Grand Master for Lower Canada, laid the cornerstone of the new building on the site still occupied by the Craft's Temple. As a memento of this occasion, a punch‑bowl, emblazoned with the arms of the ' Ancients," was presented by the Prince to St. Andrew's Lodge. This punchbowl is still preserved as one of the valuable treasures of the Provincial Grand Lodge. At this celebration the two Lodges in the Prince's Regiment, the Royal Fusiliers, took part in the procession. From then on. St. John's Day, in June, was invariably celebrated with a Grand Lodge procession to historic St. Paul's Church, while St. John's Day, in December, was marked by the Installation of Lodge Officers and a Grand Lodge banquet. Participation of the Craft in the public celebrations of the time are frequently noted in the Minutes of the Provincial Grand Lodge. Among the events celebrated were the victories of Lord Nelson at Copenhagen, at the Nile, and at Trafalgar; the laying of the corner‑stone of the Province House in 1811, and of Dalhousie College in 1820; and the completion of the Shubenacadie Canal in 1826.


During the forty‑five‑year period of this Provincial Grand Lodge's existence, only six men held the Office of Provincial Grand Master. John George Pyke, who served in 1784 and 1785 and again from 1811 to 1820, was one of the original settlers of Halifax. He represented the city many years in the Legislature and also served as its police magistrate. He was made a Mason in the " First Lodge." His apron, which he wore as Provincial Grand Master, now hangs in the Grand Lodge Museum. The Hon. John Parr, who served from 1786 to 1891, had been governor of Nova Scotia from 1782 to 1786. Later, from 1786 to 1791, he was lieutenant‑governor of Nova Scotia. The Hon. Richard Bulkeley, who served from 1792 to 18oo, was aide‑de‑camp to Governor Cornwallis in 1749, secretary of the Province from 1759 to 1793; and judge in admiralty and master of the rolls. He died in 18oo at the age of eighty‑three years. Dr. Duncan Clark who succeeded him, and served during 18oi, was a prominent physician of his day, and a member of a literary group which included the Duke of Kent and other social leaders of Halifax. Sir John Wentworth, Bart , Provincial Grand Master from 1802 to 1810, was born at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1737. Several years after graduating from Harvard, he became governor of New Hampshire, an office which he held from 1767 to 1776. He succeeded the Hon. John Parr as lieutenant‑governor of Nova Scotia, and served from 1792 to 1808. John Albro, Provincial Grand Master from 1820 to 1839, was a prominent Halifax merchant. He held the highest Office in the Provincial Grand Lodge for nineteen years. He also represented Halifax in the Legislature from 1818 to 1822.


Many of the Lodges forming the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia have exerted 40 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION an important influence on the Craft. Reference has already been made to several of them. St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 155, successor to the First Lodge of Halifax which was established in 175o, and is now known as Lodge No. 1, Grand Register of Nova Scotia, is the Mother Lodge of Masonry in the Maritime Provinces. During the middle years of the eighteenth century it took a leading part in the Grand Lodge's activities, contributed generously to the project of erecting the Masonic Hall, and had the support of the leading merchants of the town. St. John's Lodge, No. 211, now Lodge No. z, Grand Register of Nova Scotia, had on its Rolls a brilliant list of distinguished names, chiefly military, naval, and professional. This Lodge vied with St. Andrew's Lodge in taking a prominent part in the Grand Lodge affairs. Union Lodge, No. i, Provincial Register of Nova Scotia, was recruited from the naval officers of the warships which frequently visited Halifax. It never exerted any marked influence on Masonic affairs, and finally encountered such difficulties that it became dormant about 1835. Virgin Lodge, later Artillery Lodge, No. 2, and now Virgin Lodge, No. 3, on the Grand Register of Nova Scotia, was originally established in the Royal Artillery in 1782, but almost immediately thereafter it became a civilian Lodge. Throughout this Lodge's long history, its membership Roll is equally as distinguished as is that of St. John's Lodge, No. 2.


Other Halifax Lodges of this period were Cornwallis Lodge, No. 15, which was established in 1786 and ceased Working in 18o2‑ Royal Navy Lodge, No. 18, which existed between 1787 and 1804, and provided a Masonic Home for numerous men; Royal Nova Scotia Regiment Lodge, No. 24, which existed between 1793 and 18o2 and was composed of officers of the regiment belonging to the leading families of the town. Sir John Wentworth, the commanding officer of the regiment, acted as Worshipful Master. The disbanding of the regiment, however, terminated the Lodge's career; Trinity Lodge, No. 30, which was established in 1803 and closed its Lights in 181o; and Royal Standard Lodge, No. 39, which was organised in 1815 in the 9th Battalion of the Royal Artillery, and has continued to the present day. It is composed principally of military and naval men. This Lodge has held an English Warrant since 1829. Its members, like those of St. Andrew's Lodge, No. i, enjoy the distinction of being entitled to wear the Centennial Jewel of the Grand Lodge of England. Royal Standard Lodge, No. 39, and St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 1, are, indeed, the only two Lodges in the New World to hold that honour.


Freemasonry in Sydney was organised in 1786 under the Warrant for Sydney Lodge, No. 16. This Lodge lasted until 1798, when owing to dissension within the Lodge, the Grand Lodge withdrew the Warrant. Two years later, however, the Grand Lodge issued a new Warrant for Harmony Lodge, No. 28. This new Lodge was composed of part of the membership of the older Lodge. Then, in 18oo, the rival portion of the old Lodge also obtained an English Warrant and formed a Lodge known as Cape Breton Lodge, No. 326. In 1818 Harmony Lodge, No. 28, joined its rival, and the merged Lodge continued active until 1830. Then followed a period of dormancy which lasted OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 41 thirteen years, at the end of which time the Lodge was revived and an English Warrant applied for. This Warrant was granted under the name of the St. Andrew's Lodge of Cape Breton, and was registered as No. 732.. The Lodge is now Lodge No. 7 on the Grand Register of Nova Scotia.


Another present‑day Lodge which dates from this period is St. George's Lodge, No. 2.o, of Wolfville, organised at Cornwallis, in 1784, as Lodge No. i 1. Still another Lodge of this period was New Caledonia Lodge, No. 35, estab lished at Pictou in 18io. This Lodge can be traced until 1838, when it seems to have become dormant. Then, in 1849, it was revived, and at that time it received an English Warrant registered as No. 82.6. It is now Lodge No. 11 on the Grand Register of Nova Scotia. Unity Lodge, No. 44, established at Lunenburg in 182.1, has also continued to the present day. Now known as Lodge No. 4 on the Grand Register of Nova Scotia, it is one of the most influential Lodges in the Province.


During the period from 1781 to 1790, the city of Shelburne, formed by Loyalists from New York, was the centre of a good deal of Masonic activity. During that time several New York Lodges were virtually transplanted to the new settlement, and there they continued their Work under Nova Scotia Warrants. Among these was Parr Lodge, No. 3, which was Instituted by the Rev. William Walter, Provincial Grand Master of New York in 1784. It was composed largely of members of Lodge No. 169, of New York. In spite of the later decline of Shelburne, the Lodge continued to Work until 18og. Likewise, Lodge No. 4, also of Shelburne, was composed of members of Lodge No. 169, of New York. Because of local dissension, this Lodge was never Instituted, however. Almost equally short lived was Solomon Lodge, No. 5, which was organised in New York in 1783 under the " sanction " of Lodge No. 2.12. This Lodge later Worked at Shelburne from 1784 to 1786. The history of Hiram Lodge, No. 1o, likewise located at Shelburne, is very different, for it had a long and noteworthy record and outlived all difficulties until 182‑9. Since Shelburne was at that time also a garrison town, Military Lodges were at Work there from time to time. Chief among the Military Lodges active there were those attached to the 6th and 17th Regiments. None of the Military Lodges has survived to the present day.


In 1794 the Grand Lodge considered the Petition of Brethren residing in the town of Boston, in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, " praying for a Warrant " to form a new Lodge to be named the Melchesideck Lodge," to meet at the Green Dragon Tavern. The Grand Lodge, however, felt unable to comply with that request " for good and substantial reasons." Three years later an application was also received from Brethren in St. George's, Bermuda. Again the Grand Lodge felt obliged to decline, but in this case it agreed to recommend the Petition to the Grand Lodge of England (Ancients). As a result, the Lodge was Warranted as St. George's Lodge, No. 307. In 181o this Lodge, the oldest in the Bermuda Islands, was removed to Hamilton, Bermuda. There it still flourishes under the name of Atlantic‑Phocnix Lodge, No. 22‑4, E. C.


42 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION Other Lodges on the Provincial Grand Register of Nova Scotia, all of which have lapsed, were: Digby Lodge, No. 6, at Digby, established in 1784 and continuing till 1829; Temple Lodge, No. 7, at Guysboro, also established in 1784, by William Campbell, afterwards Sir William Campbell, chief justice of Upper Canada, and lasting till 1832; Hiram's Lodge, No. 8, of Sheet Harbor, which continued from 1784 to 1797; Chester Lodge, No. 9, of Chester, from 1784 to 1809; Concord Lodge, No. 12, of Fort Cumberland, 1785 and 1786; Windsor Lodge, No. 13, of Windsor, from 1785 to 1795; Walmsley Lodge, No. 14, of Pictou, from 1785 to 1794; Union Lodge, No. 2o, of Sissiboo, now Weymouth, from 1790 to 1793; Annapolis Royal Lodge, No. 25, of Annapolis Royal, from 1795 to 1827; Hibernia Lodge, No. 27, of Liverpool, from 1798 to 1817; and Wentworth Lodge, No. 32; of Yarmouth, from 1805 to 1818. Into this group of Lodges also falls Royal Welsh Fusiliers Lodge, No. 33, which was attached to the 23d Foot Regiment while it was quartered in Nova Scotia in 1808. The Lodge was also active while the corps was stationed at St. John, New Brunswick. In 1810 the regiment returned to Halifax, whence it later embarked for Portugal. Still other Lodges of this group were Newport Lodge, No. 36, later Sussex Lodge, No. 834 and finally Lodge No. 563, of Newport, Nova Scotia, from 1812 to 1834; Musquodoboit Lodge, No. 40, of Musquodoboit, from 1815 to 1826; Regent Lodge, No. 41, at Dorchester, now Antigonish, from 1816 to 1834; Fort Edward Lodge, No. 45, of Windosr, from 1821 to 1831; and Moira Lodge, No. 47, of Rawdon, from 1823 to 1831, an offshoot of Newport Lodge, No. 36.


Still other Lodges which were established early in the nineteenth century, only to lapse later, were Colchester Union Lodge, No. 48, of Truro, which was Instituted in 1823 and continued until 1831, when it was suspended by the Grand Lodge for non‑payment of Grand Lodge dues and failure to make Returns; Concord Lodge, No. 49, of Barrington, from 1823 to 1829; Cumberland Harmony Lodge, No. 51, of Amherst, which was established in 1822 and continued until 1831. Then, through inability to pay the fees for the English Warrant issued at that time, it was suspended. This Lodge seems, however, to have been revived for a short period about the year 1839; and Royal Albion Lodge, No. 53, a Military Lodge established in 1826 in the 1st Battalion of the Rifle Brigade. The battalion was stationed at St. John and at Halifax until 1836, when it was transferred to England. Oxfordshire Light Infantry Lodge, No. 54, also a Military Lodge, was Instituted in 1826 in the 52d Regiment, now the 2d Battalion of the 43d Monmouthshire Regiment. This Lodge was especially active until the departure of the regiment from Halifax in 1831. The Lodge seems to have continued its Work until 1862. St. Mary's Lodge, No. 55, of Digby, from 1827 to 1862, was the successor to Digby Lodge, No. 6, mentioned above. Rising Sun Lodge, No. 56, at Great Village and Londonderry, was organised in 1827 but was suspended in 1831 " for neglect to make returns." All these Lodges did good Work in their day. They prepared the way for the revival of Masonry in the Province following the depression of the OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 43 period from 1825 to 1840. The few which managed somehow to continue existence after 1829 met only infrequently, their numbers dwindled almost to the vanishing point, and only the heroic efforts of men whose names are now mostly forgotten kept the Light burring. The story of the revival is an intensely interesting one.


As has already been stated, the Provincial Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia originally exercised jurisdiction over Prince Edward Island. After the removal of the Independent Companies from Charlottetown to Halifax in 1782, how ever, we find no trace of Masonic activity until 1790. In that year a Petition was presented to the Provincial Grand Lodge by the Hon. Peter Stewart, chief justice, the Hon. Thomas Desbrisay, late lieutenant‑governor, and others " for a Warrant to form a Lodge." Although their efforts were encouraged, it was not until 1797 that any real progress was made. In that year St. John's Lodge, No. 26, was Chartered with Dr. Ebenezer Nicholson acting as first Worshipful Master. The first Initiate was Lieutenant‑Governor Edmund Fanning, a Loyalist judge of the Supreme Court of New York, and colonel of the " King's American Regiment." The Lodge still has a Bible presented to it by him in 1797. This Lodge is the Mother Lodge of " the Island Province," having received English Warrant No. 833 in 1829. It is now Lodge No. 1 on the Registry of the Grand Lodge of Prince Edward Island. Sussex Lodge, No. 821, an offshoot of St. John's Lodge, was Warranted by the Grand Lodge of England in 1828 but ceased to Work in 1837. Some reference has already been made respecting Masonic activity in New Brunswick during the years 1783 and 1784. The story is here resumed. Hiram Lodge, No. 17, of St. John, to which reference has been made before, was composed in part of former members of the famous Lodge No. 169, of New York. The Rev. John Beardsley and Elias Hardy were its most active leaders. After they withdrew the Lodge fell into other hands, and trouble developed over certain civil charges brought against the employer of the Master of the Lodge. The Lodge evidently thought that the Master should have shielded his wrong‑doing employer, who had been dismissed from the civil service as the result of the charges against him. Accordingly, the Lodge deposed the Master " for violating his Masonic obligation " ! After due investigation, however, the Grand Lodge ordered his reinstatement, and demanded an apology, but the Lodge refused to rescind its action. As a result, the Grand Lodge, in 1796, recalled the Lodge's Warrant and expelled its twenty‑two members for " apostacy. " This Lodge had a Royal Arch Chapter attached to it and Working under its Warrant.


Although not on the Provincial Register, reference should here be made to a Lodge established at Fredericton, New Brunswick, in 1789. Among the officials of the new government set up at Fredericton, the capital of the new , Province, were Masons whose associations and inclinations led them to favour the Moderns. Through the agency of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Quebec, those Brethren obtained a Warrant dated April 2, 1789, for New Brunswick Lodge, No. 541. All its members were Loyalists, the first Master being the 44 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION Hon. Daniel Bliss, chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas. In 1792 the Lodge was renumbered as Lodge No. 45o. This Lodge, which did not long continue its Labours, was the only one ever Warranted in New Brunswick by the Premier, or Modern, Grand Lodge of England. St. George's Lodge, No. 19, on the Provincial Register of Nova Scotia, located at Maugerville, has already been referred to. It was composed of prominent Loyalists residing along the St. John River. The Lodge was active until about 181o and possibly later. It conferred the Mark and Royal Arch Degrees as well as the Craft Degrees. Sion Lodge, No. 21, Warranted at Kingston, New Brunswick, in 1792, was removed in 1799 to Sussex Vale. Its history can be traced to the year 1829. It seems to have met occasionally between that date and 185o, at which time it resumed activity. In 1863 the Lodge obtained a new Warrant from the Grand Lodge of England, by which it was known as Zion Lodge. In 1868 this Warrant was exchanged for a new one issued by the newly‑organised Grand Lodge of New Brunswick. At that time, by a curious coincidence, the Lodge was registered as No. 21. To‑day the Lodge is active and flourishing. Solomon's Lodge, No. 22, of Fredericton, was an offshoot of St. George's Lodge, No. 19, and was active from 1792 until 1829. Mount Moriah Royal Arch Chapter was attached to this Lodge. Hiram York Lodge, No. 23, also of Fredericton, established in 1793, was virtually a Military Lodge, being composed largely of officers in the King's New Brunswick Regiment. On the removal of the regiment to St. John in i8oo, the Lodge ceased Working. St. John's Lodge, No. 29, of St. John, New Brunswick, was formed in 18oi and has continued to the present day. It has exerted a dominant influence on the development of the Craft in New Brunswick. Its full history was written by Bro. W. F. Bunting in 1895. It is now Lodge No. 2, on the Grand Register of New Brunswick. Midian Lodge, No. 31, was formed at Kingston in 18o5 to replace Sion Lodge, which had removed in 1799 to Sussex Vale. The Lodge was active until 1841. Then followed five years of inactivity, after which the Brethren obtained an English Warrant, No. 770. From then on the Lodge continued to meet at Kingston until 1859, when it removed to Clifton. In 1867 it exchanged its English Warrant for a New Brunswick Charter and became known as the Midian Lodge, No. 9. It has been dormant since about 189o. Orphan's Friend Lodge, No. 34, at St. Stephen, the next Lodge Warranted in New Brunswick, had an interesting origin. At the close of the American War for Independence, a company of New Englanders known as the Cape Ann Association settled on the banks of the St. Croix River on a tract of land reserved for them. In 18og the Masonic Brethren among them Petitioned the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts for a Warrant, and were referred to the Grand Lodge at Halifax. Their Warrant, No. 34, was granted, and Oliver Shead, Deputy District Grand Master for the Eastern section of the District of Maine, was deputed to hold a Session of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia and to Institute the new Lodge. Orphan's Friend Lodge, No. 34, had a most active history, and its members lived harmoniously throughout the troublous times of 1812‑1815. The Lodge ceased Work, however, in 1825.


OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 45 Eastern Star Lodge, No. 37, of St. Andrew's, New Brunswick, was Warranted in 1812. Recent discoveries in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia indicate that the notorious William Morgan, whose so‑called disappear ance in 1826 nearly wrecked Freemasonry in the United States and Canada, was made a Mason in this Lodge in 1815. The Lodge itself became extinct in 1833, probably owing to the anti‑Masonic agitation which followed the alleged murder of its disreputable Initiate. Union Lodge, No. 38, the third Lodge to be Constituted in St. John, began its existence in 1814 and Worked in close harmony with St. John's Lodge. It continued its activities until 1831, when it became extinct, undoubtedly as a result of the " Morgan excitement " and the demands of the Grand Lodge of England. Fortitude Lodge, No. 42, at Miramichi, established in 1818, had only a brief existence because of financial troubles. It ceased Work in 1824. St. Lawrence Lodge, No. 43, of Richibucto, which lasted from i82o to 1828, had a similar experience. Morning Star Lodge, No. 46, of Woodstock, in existence from 182o to 1830, included among its members many residents of Houlton, Maine, and met occasionally in that town. Monument Lodge, at Houlton, is said to have been an offshoot of Morning Star Lodge. The withdrawal of many members of the latter is said to have been one of the causes of its dormancy. Golden Rule Lodge, No. 50, of Hopewell, was established in 1823 and continued until 1831. When the Grand Lodge of England required all Provincial Lodges to exchange their Warrants for English Warrants, Golden Rule Lodge declined to do so, evidently hoping for the establishment of an independent Grand Lodge in New Brunswick. It continued to Work under its Nova Scotia Warrant until 1833, when it was forced to close through the stress of the prevailing anti‑Masonic excitement. Albion Lodge, No. 52, the fifteenth and last Lodge to be established in New Brunswick by the Provincial Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia, was Warranted in 1825. In 1829 it obtained an English Warrant under which it continued to Work until 1868. At that time it became Lodge No. 1, on the Grand Register of Nova Scotia.


All these Lodges have an interesting history of their own, and the Masonic Labours of most of them left an impress upon the history of the Craft in the Province. The prevailing anti‑Masonic agitation of the decade from 1830 to 1840 accounted for the decline of the majority of them. All were at the disadvantage of being at a great distance from the guiding hand of the Grand Lodge, a circumstance which contributed in no small way to the difficulty of existence. Few continued into the new era of 1829‑1868.


In 1797 the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia decided that because of the inconvenience of administering Masonic affairs in New Brunswick, a Deputy Grand Master should be appointed for that Province. The resolution was not acted upon, however, for twenty years. During that interval the Grand Lodge constantly had the advice in all matters of William Campbell, Provincial District Grand Master of St. John, a former resident of Halifax. In 1817 the Hon. Thomas Wetmore, who was attorney‑general of New Brunswick from 1809 to 1828, was appointed District Grand Master. In 1826 Benjamin Lester Peters was 46 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION appointed Deputy District Grand Master for St. John and St. Andrew's. In 182.8 representatives of the Lodges in New Brunswick met to consider the propriety of forming a Provincial Grand Lodge. After difficulty in finding a Provincial Grand Master, and because of the demands of the Grand Lodge of England noted below, the effort to establish independence failed the following year.


The formation of the United Grand Lodge of England in 1814, by the union of the two rival Grand Lodges of England, was the beginning of long years of correspondence which, in 182.9, terminated the existence of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia and left it virtually an independent Body. The demand of the Grand Lodge of England that registration fees be paid to it by all members of Lodges in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, that all Lodges exchange their Nova Scotia Warrants for English Warrants, paying for the exchange a fee of five guineas, and that the Provincial Grand Master be appointed by the Grand Master of England, coupled with the effects of the prevailing anti‑Masonic agitation and the depression following the close of the Napoleonic wars, forced numerous Lodges to surrender their Warrants and close their Great Lights. In fact, only a small number of Lodges were left in the three Provinces to continue under the new regime.


Under a Patent dated April 2, 1829, from H. R. H. Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex and Grand Master of England, John Albro convened and formally organised the third Provincial Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia. This Grand Lodge, organised on November 4, 1829, was destined to continue for the next forty years. The names of the Lodges which continued to Work under the new regime are listed on the following page. In the majority of cases, there was little or no activity apparent. Lodges whose names are followed by the word Erased became dormant early in the period, probably about 1832.


During the period from 1830 to 1837, Masonic affairs in the Province were at low ebb. With the exception of electing and appointing Officers and receiving Lodge Returns, little business was transacted by the Grand Lodge. Usually four Lodges in Halifax participated in the Grand Lodge meetings. Sometimes, however, an occasional transient Military Lodge joined the four permanent Lodges. Then, in 1837, a brighter outlook prevailed. A revival of fraternal relations with the Grand Lodges of the United States took place. These relations had been interrupted during the anti‑Masonic excitement. " A Humble and Loyal Address " was presented to Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, on the occasion of her accession and coronation. About that time, too, the Deputy Grand Master, the Hon. Alexander Keith, undertook to visit the Lodges in the Province. That visit had much to do with reviving the Craft there. Furthermore, it was largely through Bro. Keith's efforts that Albion Lodge, No. 692., was established at New Glasgow in 1838.


In 1839 Grand Master Albro died, and the Duke of Sussex, Grand Master, appointed the Hon. Alexander Keith to be his successor. To Bro. Keith more than any other Craftsman was due the revival of the Fraternity in the Maritime Provinces. For twenty‑nine years he held the position of Provincial Grand OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 47 Master. From the day of his appointment he was untiring in his efforts to further the interests of the Craft in his jurisdiction. Some idea of Grand Master Keith's activity and energy may be gathered from the Record of new Lodges established in Nova Scotia during his regime. They were as follows: Royal Sussex Lodge, No. 704, of Halifax, established in 1841; St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 732, of Sydney, Cape Breton Island, was revived in 1844; Zetland Lodge, No. 821, of Liverpool, established in 1847; Hiram Lodge, No. 868, of Yarmouth, LODGE PLACE OLD NUMBER 1829 1832 1 1863 St. Andrew's Lodge....... . St. John's Lodge.......... Union Lodge.............. Virgin Lodge............. Temple Lodge............. Hiram Lodge............. St. George's Lodge........ St. John's Lodge.......... Sussex Lodge.............. Royal Standard Lodge..... Unity Lodge.............. Fort Edward Lodge........ Moira Lodge.............. Colchester Union Lodge. .. Cumberland Harmony..... Albion Lodge.............. Royal Albion Lodge....... St. Mary's Lodge.......... Rising Sun Lodge..........


Halifax................... Halifax.................. Halifax.................. Halifax.................. Guysboro................ Shelburne................ Cornwallis ............... Charlottetown, P. E. I.... Newport ................ Halifax.................. Lunenburg....... :....... Windsor..:.............. Rawdon................. Truro................... Amherst................. St. John, N. B............ Halifax.................. Digby.................... Londonderry.............


ISS 2II I 2 7 Io 11 26 36 39 44 45 47 48 51 5253 SS 56 188 265 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 137 118 187 161 557 Erased 558 396 559 ~ Erased 56o Erased 561 849 562 1397 563 Erased 564 1 398 565 399 566 Erased 567 Erased 568 Erased 569 Erased 570 400 571 Erased 572 Erased 573 Erased established in 1848; New Caledonian Lodge, No. 826, of Pictou, revived in 1849; Keith Lodge, No. 911, of Hillsburgh, now Bear River, established in 1851; Acadia Lodge, No. 888, of Pugwash, established in 1853; Union Lodge, No. 994, of Halifax, established in 1855 and composed of Negro Masons; St. George's Lodge, No. 561, of Cornwallis, which had been dormant since 1832, but was revived at Lower Horton in 1858 as Lodge No. 1151; Keith Lodge, No. 1172, of Albion Mines, now Stellarton, established in 186o; Westport Lodge, No. 1225, of Westport, established in 1861; Welsford Lodge, No. 1226, of Windsor, established in 1861; Widow's Friend Lodge, No. 1255, of Weymouth, established in 1861; Scotia Lodge, No. 1263, of Canning, also established in 1861; Prince of Wales Lodge, No. 1266, of Milton, established in 1861; Annapolis Royal Lodge, No. 1047, of Annapolis Royal, established in 1862; Thistle Lodge, No. i io9, of Block House, Cow Bay, now Port Morian, established in 1865 ; Cobequid Lodge, No. 119o, of Truro, established in 1867; Tyrian Youth Lodge, No. 1234, of Glace Bay, also established in 1867; and Rothsay Lodge, No. 1245, of Bridgetown, 48 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION established in 1868. In short, a total of twenty Lodges, all but four of which survive to the present day, and one other of which, Mariner's Lodge, of Granville, has amalgamated with Annapolis Royal Lodge, were established during Grand Master Keith's term of Office. In 1846, Hon. Alexander Keith was advised that his jurisdiction had been enlarged to include New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland. Reference is made elsewhere to the great influence which the indefatigable Grand Master exerted in this additional territory.


The Grand Lodge of Scotland invaded Nova Scotia in 1827, when Thistle Lodge, an offshoot of Virgin Lodge, No. 2, was Warranted as Lodge No. 322. The Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia refused to have any intercourse with this Lodge and treated it as though it were clandestine. The Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia resented the invasion of its jurisdiction. In 1839 the members of Thistle Lodge, No. 322, organised St. Andrew's Royal Arch Chapter under the Supreme Grand Chapter of Scotland, and revived the dormant Knights Templar Encampment with a Scottish Warrant. The Encampment then became known as St. John's Priory.


In 1844 the Grand Master of Scotland appointed the Hon. J. Leander Starr, then junior Grand Warden of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia, to be Provincial Grand Master of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. Bro. Starr thereupon resigned his Office in the Provincial Grand Lodge, which protested his appointment, though nothing came of the objection. During his Provincial Grand Mastership, Acadia Lodge, No. 345, Register of Scotland, was organised at Dartmouth. Shortly afterward, in response to the invitation of the Hon. Alexander Keith, Provincial Grand Master, the Masters and Brethren of Thistle Lodge, No. 322, and Acadia Lodge, No. 345, were present at a meeting of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia. Thenceforth, harmony and cooperation existed. Soon after that Bro. Starr resigned, and the Grand Master of Scotland took the unusual course of appointing the Hon. Alexander Keith, then Provincial Grand Master under the English authority, to act also as Provincial Grand Master under the Scottish authority.


In 1848 Burns.Lodge, now Lodge, No. io, on the Grand Register of Nova Scotia, was Warranted, and on May 17, 1849, a Provincial Grand Lodge was convened and formally organised with the Hon. Alexander Keith acting as its head. This was the first and only Provincial Grand Lodge of Scotland ever formed in Canada. Another noteworthy fact is that, from 1846 to 1866, Provincial Grand Master Keith also served as Provincial Grand Master of Nova Scotia under English authority.


In 1851 " C," the Deputy Master of Thistle Lodge, No. 322, then Senior Grand Warden of the Provincial Grand Lodge, joined with " F," the Deputy Grand Master, in circulating a letter criticising the Provincial Grand Master for granting a Warrant under English authority for Union Mark Lodge. At the next Provincial Grand Lodge meeting the Provincial Grand Master withdrew the commissions of " C " and " F," as Senior Grand Warden and Deputy Grand OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 49 Master, respectively, and appointed others in their places. Bro. " C " and Bro. " F " then tried to interfere with the proceedings, and for some time they refused to relinquish their Regalia. Before the next meeting, Bro. " C '' even purloined the Warrant and Jewels of Thistle Lodge, No. 32‑2‑. The Provincial Grand Master then declared the Warrant of the Lodge to be suspended, and issued his Dispensation to the Brethren to continue their meetings and to adopt the name Keith Lodge. In due course the Brethren received a Charter from Scotland Registered there as No. 365. Keith Lodge continued as an influential Lodge, and in 1866 took a leading part in forming the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia. To‑day it is Lodge No. 17, on the Grand Register of Nova Scotia. Dating from 182‑7, it is " the oldest Lodge of Scottish origin in the British Empire overseas." In 1851, Athole Lodge, No. 361, Register of Scotland, was established as an offshoot of Acadia Lodge, No. 345, which shortly afterwards returned its Warrant. Other Lodges Warranted under Scottish authority during this period were as follows: Royal Albert Lodge, No. 379, at North Sydney, established in 1857; Virgin Lodge, later Davies Lodge, No. 425, at Wilmot, established in 1859; Scotia Lodge, No. 411, at Halifax, established in 186o; Concord Lodge, at Clarke's Harbor, established in 1861; Albert Lodge, at Shelburne, established in 1862; Scotia Lodge, No. 43o, at Yarmouth, established in 1863; Eldorado Lodge, No. 434, at Wine Harbor, established in 1865; Queens Lodge, at Shelbrooke, established in 1864; St. Marks' Lodge, at Baddeck, established in 1865; and Acadia Lodge, of Bridgewater, established in 1865‑a total of ten Lodges, of which two have since amalgamated with other Lodges, and one of which has surrendered its Charter.


During this period the greatest harmony and co‑operation existed between the Lodges under the two jurisdictions. In 185o, on the occasion of the centenary of the founding of the " First Lodge " in Halifax, a joint Grand Lodge was convened by the Provincial Grand Master, and the corner‑stone of an addition to the Masonic Hall was laid. This ceremony was followed by a Grand Lodge banquet. Similar ceremonies marked the laying of the corner‑stones of the City Market in 18 and the Hospital for the Insane in 1855. Joint Masonic ceremonies of the Lodges were a feature of the opening of the Industrial Exhibition in 1854, the unveiling of the monument to Captain Parker and Major Welsford, two Brethren killed in the Crimean War, and the visit of the Prince of Wales, who later became King Edward VII, in 186o. In 1865 the two Provincial Grand Lodges joined in congratulating their chief upon having presided over English Masonry in the Province for a quarter of a century.


Despite much progress, a large exercise of Masonic charity, and a great deal of pleasant fraternal intercourse, the growth and energies of the Craft in Nova Scotia were greatly hampered by inexplicable official neglect on the part of the Grand Lodges of England and Scotland, to whom all Masons in the Province then paid homage. This neglect existed for many years. Letters and communications of all sorts were either unanswered or dealt with so tardily that the 50 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION replies were useless. Remittances were unacknowledged, and Warrants and Diplomas urgently required were not issued. In short, all business matters were neglected, and the existence of the Craft in Nova Scotia was practically ignored. Then, in December 1861, Bro. Robert D. Clarke made a motion in the Provincial Grand Lodge, requesting the appointment of a Committee to inquire into the present state of Masonry in the Province. At the same time the Provincial Grand Lodge under Scottish authority was " invited to unite in such inquiry." The report of the joint Committee, adopted by both Provincial Grand Lodges, favored an independent Grand Lodge. This report was forwarded to the Grand Lodges at London and Edinburgh, where it received no encouragement.


During the next few years the Canadian Brethren remonstrated, vigorously enough at times, against this state of affairs. Then finally, in 1865, they sent a Delegation to lay their grievances before the Grand Lodge of Scotland. But even this action brought no satisfactory result. It is little wonder, then, that as a last resort to rehabilitate the dignity and substantial status of Masons subject to that Grand Lodge, the Brethren in the Province finally asserted their independence by forming the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia. After preliminary meetings and regular procedure, this action was taken on Tuesday, February lo, 1866, at the Freemasons Hall in Halifax. Grand Lodge Officers were elected, and on March zo, they were Installed. The new Body consisted of ten subordinate Lodges, which had until then been under Scottish authority. These Lodges were as follows: Burns Lodge, Athole Lodge, Keith Lodge, and Scotia Lodge, all of Halifax; Virgin Lodge, of Wilmot; Albert Lodge, of Shelburne; Eldorado Lodge, of Wine Harbor; Concord Lodge, of Barrington; St. Mark's Lodge, of Baddeck; and Queens Lodge, of Sherbrooke, to which was soon added the newly‑organised Lodge of St. Mark, of Halifax. Dr. William H. Davies was the first Grand Master, and Charles J. MacDonald was Grand Secretary. In June 1866, those Officers, together with others, were re‑elected for the ensuing Masonic year. The Grand Officers so elected were Installed by Most Worshipful Col. W. Mercer Wilson, Past Grand Master of Canada.


During the next twelve months excellent progress was made by the new Grand Lodge. At the Communication held in June 1867, the Secretary reported that a number of Lodges under the new jurisdiction was then seventeen, an in crease of six. Official recognition had come from most of the Grand Lodges in America, as well as from several other Grand Lodges in other parts of the world. It was also reported that members of the local Lodges under English jurisdiction were beginning to show interest in the new organisation. The six new Lodges were Ophir Lodge, of Tangier; Eureka Lodge, of Sheet Harbor; Acadia Lodge, of Amherst; Truro Lodge, of Truro; Harmony Lodge, of Barrington; and W. H. Davies Lodge, of Wilmot. At the Quarterly Communication held on December 1867, Scotia Lodge, of Yarmouth, was added to the Roll.


At an Emergent Meeting of Grand Lodge held on May 15, 1868, a Communication was received from the District Grand Lodge under English authority, requesting that a Committee be appointed by the new Grand Lodge of Nova OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 51 Scotia to confer with it regarding a union of the two Bodies. Although this conference took place, nothing definite resulted at the time. R.‑. W.‑. Stephen R. Sircom was elected Grand Master in June 1868. During that year the following Lodges were added to the Roll: Royal Albert Lodge, of North Sydney, Solomon Lodge, of Hawkesbury, Acadia Lodge, of Bridgewater, Philadelphia Lodge, of Barrington, Poyntz Lodge, of Hantsport, Widow's Son Lodge, of River Philip, Orient Lodge, of Richmond, Western Star Lodge, of Westville, and Eastern Star Lodge, of Dartmouth. Union with the Lodges governed by the District Grand Lodge of England continued to be the burning question, however, and finally the time for action arrived. An Emergent Meeting of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia was therefore held on January 8, 1869. At that time a proposal to this end was approved and submitted to a Committee of the English Lodges. With one exception, Royal Standard Lodge, No. 398, of Halifax, still (1935) under the English Constitution, the proposal was accepted by all the English Lodges.


The happy consummation of these efforts took place in the Masonic Hall on June 23, 1869, when 'the Officers and members of the District Grand Lodge were formally admitted into the membership of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia. Union, peace, and harmony reigned supreme. On that occasion several most eminent Brethren from Canada and New Brunswick were present. One of these, M.'. W.‑. Bro. Colonel A. A. Stevenson, of Montreal, took the Grand East during the election and Installation of new Officers; R.'. W.‑. the Hon. Alexander Keith, the most honoured man in the jurisdiction, was unanimously elected Grand Master and Installed with the other Officers on the morning of June 24. After this ceremony the Craft formed in Grand Lodge procession and marched in state to St. Paul's Church, where an eloquent and appropriate sermon was preached by the Grand Chaplain, the Rev. Dr. D. C. Moore. This happy union brought the strength of the Craft up to fifty‑two Lodges. Of those, after due revision of the seniority list and numbers, St. Andrew's Lodge, of Halifax, became No. i, and Harmony Lodge, of Aylesford, No. 52. The total membership was slightly over Zooo. Since 1869 there has been a steady growth, both numerically and financially. The number of Lodges is now (1935) 82, and the membership is io,ooo. Most of the Lodges own their own buildings and are in a sound financial condition.


On August 31, 1875, the corner‑stone of a new Freemasons' Hall at Halifax was laid with great ceremony and full Masonic Rites. Its occupation and use in the following year was another and most important step in the path of progress. In 1925 this Hall was rebuilt and enlarged as a fine modern structure valued at over a quarter of a million dollars. It is now the home of the Grand Lodge Masonic library and museum, of the ten Lodges of the City of Halifax, two Royal Arch Chapters, Antiquity Preceptory of Knights Templar, three Scottish Rite Bodies, Chebucto Council, No. 4, of the Cryptic Rite, a Provincial Grand Lodge of the Royal Order of Scotland, and Philae Temple of the Mystic Shrine.


The duty of charity and the pleasure of benevolence have not been overlooked by this Grand Lodge. In 19o8 it opened at Windsor a Home‑bright and 52 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION comfortable in all respects‑for the aged and distressed Masons and their wives or widows. Though this involved a heavy financial outlay, the Craft has nobly met all claims and expenses, and by the maintenance of this Home has relieved distress and made bright and happy the declining days of many worthy Brethren and their dependents. In 1930 splendid additions to the buildings were made.


The Masonic museum and library at Halifax contain many books, thousands of priceless documents, ,Jewels, Regalia, and other mementos bearing not only on the history of the Craft in the Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland, but also on the history of it in the older portions of Canada and the United States. During the past ten years steady progress in classifying this material, with a view to publishing an authoritative history of Freemasonry in the Maritime Provinces. During these latter years the onerous task of directing the Craft has been in able hands, and its steady advance has been largely due to the energy and wisdom shown by the various Grand Masters of the ,Jurisdiction. A list of those who have filled that high Office in this jurisdiction is given below. Names of members who are deceased are marked with an asterisk.


*Dr. W. H. Davies.............................................. 1866‑1867 *S. R.Sircom................................................... 1868 *Honourable Alexander Keith .................................... 1869‑‑1873 *Major‑General J. W. Laurie..................................... 1874‑1879 *A. H. Crowe.................................................. 1880 *William Taylor................................................ 1881 *Major‑General J. W. Laurie..................................... 1882‑1885 *L.Johnstone..................................................1886‑1887 *Reverend D. C. Moore.......................................... 1888‑1889 *Colonel C. J. Macdonald........................................ 1890‑1891 *Honourable D. C. Fraser........................................ 1892‑1893 *W. F. MacCoy, Q. C........................................... 1894‑1895 *J. W. Ruhland.................................................. 1896 *Honourable T. B. Flint, K. C.................................... 1897‑1899 *T. A. Cossman................................................. 19oo *Dr. Thos. Trenaman............................................ 1901 *L. B. Archibald................................................ 1902 *Honourable Wm. Rose......................................... 1903 Charles R. Smith, K. C......................................... 1904‑1908 *William Marshall Black ........................................ 1909‑1910 *A. J. Wolff.................................................... 1911 *William M. Christie, K. C...................................... 1912‑1914 Don F. Fraser.................................................1915‑1917 *John Hay...................................................... 1918 George D. Macdougall......................................... 1919‑1920 *J. Murray Lawson............................................. 1921 J. H. Winfield.................................................1922‑1924 A. J. Davis....................................................1925‑1926 J. C. Mackay..................................................1927‑1928 M. L. Fraser..................................................1929‑1931 OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 53 Among the many distinguished names on the Rolls of the Craft in Nova Scotia that have not already been mentioned, are those of Major‑General Paul Mascareno, colonel of the 40th Regiment and lieutenant‑governor from 1740 to 1749 Major‑General John Bradstreet, later the captor of Fort Frontenac; the Hon. Edward Cornwallis, founder of Halifax and governor from 174.9 to 1572.; Admiral Lord Colville, the first Initiate in the " First Lodge," of Halifax, later " Deputy Grand Master of North America;" General Charles Lawrence, who served in Flanders, the West Indies, and at Louisbourg, and was governor of Nova Scotia from 1754 to 1760; Sir William Campbell, first attorney‑general of the Province of Cape Breton and later Chief Justice of Upper Canada; MajorGeneral John Despard, Commandant in Cape Breton about the year 18oo; RearAdmiral Robert Murray, Commander‑in‑Chief on the Halifax Station; the Hon. Richard John Uniacke, founder of the Charitable Irish Society and attorney‑general of the Province from 1797 to 1830; and his son, a judge of the Supreme Court from 1830 to 1834; Sir Brenton Halliburton, chief justice of Nova Scotia from 183 3 to 1860; Robert Field, one of the most eminent portrait painters of his time; the Right Rev. Robert Stanser, D.D., second Bishop of Nova Scotia from 18 c6 to 182.4; Major F. A. Thesiger, of the Rifle Brigade, afterwards Baron Chelmsford, and Commander‑in‑Chief in the Zulu War; Vice‑Admiral Sir Houston Stewart, K.C.B., Admiral of the Fleet in 1872‑; the Hon. James MacDonald, minister of justice from 1878 to 1881 and chief justice of Nova Scotia from 1881 to 1904; Sir Charles J. Townshend, chief justice from 1907 to 1915; Sir Stanford Flemming, one of the greatest men in Canadian history; Sir John Eardley Wilmot Inglis, probably the greatest military genius in Canadian history and hero of the Relief of Lucknow; Sir Robert Weatherbe, justice of the Supreme Court from 1878 to 1905 and chief justice from 1905 to 1907; Major‑General J. W. Laurie, Grand Master from 1874 to 1879, and again from 1882 to 1885; Sir Edward A. Inglefield, Admiral of the North American Station in 1879; the Hon. D. C. Fraser, lieutenant‑governor of Nova Scotia from 1906 to 1910 and a justice of the Supreme Court from 1904 to 1906; Sir Frederick W. Borden, minister of militia and defence; and Sir Robert L. Borden, wartime Prime Minister of Canada from 1911 to 192.0. Scores of other names might be added‑illustrious in the annals of the Province and of Canada and distinguished in military, naval, legal, judicial, religious, political, and commercial life.


We have already referred to the fact that the Royal Arch and Knights Templar Degrees were conferred in Halifax as early as the period between 1760 and 1770; that the present‑day Royal Union Chapter, No. 1, dates from 1780, that our Records of the Mark Degree date from the same year, and that an organised Knights Templar Encampment was formed in 1782. Under the English and Irish systems, each Craft Lodge conferred the Mark Degree, and nearly all enjoyed the privilege of forming a Royal Arch Chapter. In our archives are scores of Royal Arch and Knights Templar Certificates of the period from 1780 to 1830. In fact, the Provincial Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia promoted a knowledge of the Royal Arch and Mark Degrees everywhere throughout its jurisdiction.


54 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION In Halifax, Royal Union Chapter, then known as the General Royal Arch Chapter, Working under the Warrant of St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 155 (also known variously as No. 188 and No. 137), functioned for all the Craft Lodges. The Knights Templar Body became dormant about 181o. In New Brunswick, Carleton Royal Arch Chapter began Work in i8o5 under the Warrant of St. John's Lodge, No. 29. Then, in 1815, it transferred its allegiance to Union Lodge, No‑ 38. Six years later it obtained a Warrant No‑ 47, from the Supreme Grand Chapter of Scotland. It Worked under that Warrant until 1887. In 1826 a Grand Chapter was formed in New Brunswick under the authority of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia. It continued for a few years. Then came the decade of stress from 1827 to 1837, when the Craft in the Maritime Provinces suffered severely, and Royal Arch Masonry became inactive everywhere.


In 1839, as has already been stated, the Brethren of Thistle Lodge, No‑ 322 (Register of Scotland), of Halifax, formed St. Andrew's Royal Arch Chapter, No. 55, and revived the dormant Knights Templar Encampment under the name of St. John's Priory, No. 47. This was also under Scottish authority. New life was then injected into the rival Chapter which was Working under the Warrant of St. Andrew's, No. 118 (Register of England). In 1863, Alexandra Chapter loo (Register of Scotland), was formed in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. Then followed Shannon Chapter, No. 579 (Register of England), at St. John's Newfoundland, in 1864; Union Chapter, No. 1o8 (Register of Scotland), at Yarmouth, in 1865; St. John's Chapter, No. 130 (Register of Scotland), at Pictou, in 1869; and Hiram Chapter, No‑ 33, on the Register of Canada, founded in August 1869, at Goldenville.


On October 14, 1869, Hiram Chapter, No‑ 33, together with Royal Union Chapter, Halifax Chapter, and St. Andrew's Chapter, No. 5 5 (Register of Scotland), united to form the Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia, with the Hon. Alex ander Keith, acting as Grand High Priest. Between 1875 and 1878, the other four Chapters came in and four others were formed, thus making a total of eleven Chapters.


To‑day there are 22 Royal Arch Chapters, all bearing allegiance to the Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia, and aggregating about 26oo members. The Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia exercises jurisdiction over that Province as well as over Prince Edward Island, which has three Chapters, and over Newfoundland, which has one, Shannon Chapter. The Ritual of Royal Arch Work adopted in 1869 and still in use in all subordinate Chapters is similar to that in use in the United States, wherever the Grand Chapter has jurisdiction over the Mark, Past, Most Excellent, and Royal Arch Degrees.


The Order of High Priesthood was formed at a Convention held on June 17, 1870, at which time the Hon. Alexander Keith was elected first President of the Grand Council of the Order. The Order remained independent until 1889, when the Grand Chapter assumed control of it. Until 1922 the Degree was optional. In that year, however, the Grand Chapter legislated to make the Degree compulsory for all High Priests, within three months after election to that Office.


OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 55 St. John's Priory, No. 47, which was formed in 1839, continued to be active until 1854, when it became dormant. In 1858, however, it was revived under an English Warrant. It was then known as Nova Scotia Encampment, No. 58 (Register of England). The Hon. Alexander Keith acted as Eminent Commander. Then, in 1870, a Provincial Grand Priory was constituted for Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland under the Grand Conclave of England and Wales. This Grand Lodge also had the Hon. Alexander Keith as Provincial Grand Commander. On the death of Bro. Keith in 1873, the territory was claimed by Colonel W. J. B. MacLeod Moore, who had previously been granted a Patent as Grand Prior of the Dominion of Canada. This claim was conceded by the Grand Conclave of England, which two years later authorised the formation of a National Grand Priory of Canada. In 1876 the Nova Scotia Encampment became Nova Scotia Preceptory, No. 5, on the Roll of that Body. On the establishment of the Sovereign Great Priory of Canada in 1885, a new Warrant was issued bearing the former number.


Since 1885, other Preceptories have been formed. These are as follows: Malta Preceptory, No. 27, at Truro, established in 1885, through the efforts of Sir Knight L. B. Archibald, Past Grand Master, Past Grand High Priest, and Supreme Grand Master of the Knights Templar of Canada in 19o9 and 191o; Yarmouth Preceptory, No. 31, at Yarmouth, founded in 1892; Prince Edward Preceptory, No. 35, at Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, established in 1895; Cape Breton Preceptory, No. 43, at Sydney, founded in 19o5; Beausejour Preceptory, No. 57, at Amherst, established in 1911; and Champlain Preceptory, No. 71, at Bridgetown, established in 1928.


At a meeting held in 1923, the year 1782 was recognised by the Sovereign Great Priory of Canada as being the date of the origin of Nova Scotia Preceptory, No. 5, and as a memorial of this, its members were authorised to wear a distinctive gold‑star decoration. In 1929 the name of the Preceptory was changed to Antiquity Preceptory. With the possible exception of Baldwyn Encampment, at Bristol, England, this is the oldest Knights Templar Body in existence.


Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island form a District under the Sovereign Great Priory of Canada, having at this time (1935) a Provincial Grand Prior supervising seven Preceptories. Newfoundland, also under the jurisdiction of the Sovereign Great Priory, has no Knights Templar Body. The Orders conferred are the Red Cross, Knight Templar (three sections), Mediterranean Pass, and Knight of Malta, all in accordance with the Canadian Ritual.


Keith Rose Croix Chapter of the Scottish Rite was organised in Nova Scotia in 1870, under a Patent from Illustrious Bro. Robert Marshall, Thirty‑third Degree, Inspector‑General for New Brunswick under the Supreme Council of England and Wales. In 1872 this Chapter was under the authority of the Grand Council of the Thirty‑third Degree for the Maritime Provinces, formed in that year at St. John. Then, in 1874, it was under the jurisdiction of the independent Supreme Council of Canada. Until then the English Ritual was in use.


56 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION In 1877, a Lodge of Perfection was organised under the name of Victoria Lodge of Perfection. A Warrant for this Body was granted in 1867. Nova Scotia Consistory was constituted in 1884. Royal Oak Lodge of Perfection was active at Kentville from 1889 to 1892, and Cumberland Lodge of Perfection at Amherst from 189o to 1894. In addition to supervising the activities of the three Bodies mentioned, the Illustrious Deputy for Nova Scotia, Illustrious Bro. J. H. Winfield, Provincial Grand Master, exercises jurisdiction over Albert Edward Lodge of Perfection, at Summerside, Prince Edward Island.


In 1926 a Provincial Grand Lodge of the Royal Order of Scotland was formed, with Illustrious Bro. J. H. Winfield acting as Provincial Grand Master. This Grand Lodge has jurisdiction over Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland. Its membership, numbering fifteen in 1931, is restricted to Consistory members of the Scottish Rite who have rendered noteworthy service to Masonry in the Jurisdiction.


The Ancient Accepted Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine is represented in Nova Scotia, in Prince Edward Island, and in Newfoundland, by Philae Temple, at Halifax, which was formed in 1911. It now (1935) numbers nearly 5oo members.


In March 1858, the Grand Lodge of Scotland invaded Prince Edward Island, and Victoria Lodge, No. 383, was Warranted at Charlottetown. This Lodge is now Lodge No. 2, on the Register of Prince Edward Island. At about the same time, other Lodges were called into being under the xgis of the Grand Lodge of England. They were as follows: King Hiram Lodge, No. 1123, of St. Eleanor's, Warranted on June 4, 186o; St. George's Lodge, No. 1168, of Georgetown, Warranted on June 4, 1861; Alexandra Lodge, No. 983, of Port Hill, Warranted on August 28, 1863; Mount Lebanon Lodge, No. 984, of Summerside, Warranted on September 2, 1863; Zetland Lodge, No. 12oo, at Alberton, Warranted on November 6, 1867; and True Brothers' Lodge, No. 1251, at Tryon, Warranted on January 28, 1869. During this period the Island Colony was under the jurisdiction of the Hon. Alexander Keith, Provincial Grand Master of Nova Scotia, of English authority. Bro. Keith also held a similar position under the Provincial Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia, of the Scottish authority.


In 1869, on the establishment of the present Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia, the Marquis of Ripon, Grand Master of England, appointed Adam Murray as District Grand Master for Prince Edward Island. Four years later, June 23 and 24, 1875, Delegates representing the eight above‑mentioned Lodges met at Charlottetown, organised the Grand Lodge of Prince Edward Island, and elected the Hon. John Yeo as Grand Master. Bro. Yeo served from then till 1888. He was Installed by the Hon. John V. Ellis, Grand Master of New Brunswick. The Constitution of the Grand Lodge of New Brunswick was adopted mutatis mutandis. At that time the total membership of the eight Lodges in the Jurisdiction was 496. Since 1875, 1o new Lodges have been Chartered, 2 have surrendered their Charters, and 2 others have been amalgamated, leaving 15 Lodges on the Rolls. These fifteen Lodges report a total membership of 125o.


OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 57 Several of the founders of St. George's Lodge, which was established in 1781, and of St. John's Lodge, No. 26, established in 1797, were Royal Arch Masons, and there is some evidence that the Royal Arch and Mark Degrees were conferred prior to the year 1839. Alexandra Chapter, No. loo, of Charlottetown, was Chartered by the Supreme Grand Chapter of Scotland on December 16, 1863. It joined the Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia in 1878, as Chapter No. 1i, on the latter's Registry. Prince Edward Chapter, No. 12, at Summerside, was Chartered on June 2, 1885, by the Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia. In 19o6 was removed to Kensington, where it has since remained. Mount Akron Chapter, No. Zo, at Montague, Prince Edward Island, was Chartered on June 8, 192o, by the Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia.


Prince Edward Island has been represented in the Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia by the following Grand High Priests: An asterisk stands before the names of those Brethren who are deceased. Years of tenure, and number of the Chapter with which each Brother was affiliated stand in parentheses. (1889‑189o) George W. Wakeford (No. 1 i); (1895)* Simon W. Crabbe (No. 1 i); (1897)* D. Darrach (No. 12); (1915) Walter P. Doull (No. 11); (1922) Edward T. Carbonell (No. 11); (193o) Laughlin M. MacKinnon (No. Zo).


Kensington Council, No. 11, of Royal and Select Masters, Supreme Grand Council of the Maritime Provinces, was Chartered in 1899, but has not functioned for many years. Prince Edward Preceptory, of Charlottetown, was estab lished under a Dispensation from the Sovereign Great Priory of Canada, dated November 12, 1895. It was established principally through the efforts of Dr. Roderick MacNeill. The Institution of the Chapter was at the hands of Sir Knight J. B. Nixon, of Toronto, and others. Warrant No. 35 was granted to the Chapter on September 6, 1896.


The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite was also established in the same year through the efforts of Dr. Roderick MacNeill, Thirty‑third Degree, who was appointed a Deputy for the Province. On September 23, 1896, Albert Edward Lodge of Perfection was Constituted at Charlottetown by Illustrious Bro. John A. Watson, Thirty‑second Degree, of St. John, who acted as Special Deputy under a Dispensation from Most Puissant Sovereign Grand Commander J. W. Murton. The Warrant of this Lodge was dated August 1o, 1896. This Body was transferred to Summerside in 1926. At present, Keith Rose Croix Chapter and Nova Scotia Consistory, both of Halifax, and the Illustrious Deputy for Nova Scotia, exercise jurisdiction over Prince Edward Island.


From 1829 to 1855 there was in New Brunswick no resident authority over the Lodges under the English Constitution. All business had to be done by correspondence with the Provincial Grand Lodge at Halifax. Then, in 1855, at the suggestion of the Hon. Alexander Keith, the W.‑. M.‑. of Albion Lodge invited the various Lodges of the Province which were Working under English authority, to appoint a Committee for the purpose of selecting and recommending some worthy Brother to be appointed Deputy District Grand Master for New Brunswick. The Lodges in the Province at this time were as follows: Albion Lodge, 5 8 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION No. 570, at St. John; St. John's Lodge, No. 632., at St. John's; Sussex Lodge, No. 705, at Dorchester; St. Mark's Lodge, No. 759, at St. Andrew's; Solomon's Lodge, No. 764, at Fredericton; Carleton Union Lodge, No. 767, at Carleton; Midian Lodge, No. 770, at Kingston; Union of Portland Lodge, No. 78o, at St. John; Woodstock Lodge, No. 811, at Woodstock; Union Lodge, No. 866, at Milltown; St. George Lodge, No. 912., at St. George; Corinthian Lodge, No. 918, at Hampton; and Keith Lodge, No. 92‑7, at Moncton.


Ten of these thirteen Lodges convened on August 15, 1855, and unanimously recommended Alexander Balloch, Past Master of Union Lodge of Portland. Bro. Balloch was duly appointed by a Patent dated September 9, 1855, and was In stalled into Office at Halifax on the following October 1o. Shortly afterwards, a Deputy Provincial Grand Lodge for New Brunswick was organised, Officers were elected and appointed, and a Code of rules and regulations was adopted for its government. Quarterly meetings were held each year on the first Wednesday of March, June, September, and December.


After four years in this position of being subordinate to Nova Scotia, the New Brunswick Lodges expressed a desire to form a Provincial Grand Lodge of their own. This suggestion was supported by the Provincial Grand Master and was acceded to by the Earl of Zetland, Grand Master of England, who by a Patent dated July 4, 1859, appointed Alexander Balloch to be Provincial Grand Master of New Brunswick. The new Provincial Grand Master was Installed into Office by the Hon. Alexander Keith, at St. John, on October 3, 1859.


During Bro. Balloch's tenure of Office, five new Lodges were added to the Roll of Lodges under English Register. These were as follows: Alley Lodge, No. 962, at Upper Mills, St. Stephen; Howard Lodge, No. 966, at Hillsborough; Northumberland Lodge, No. 1003, at Newcastle; Miramichi Lodge, No. 1077, at Chatham; and Salisbury Lodge, No. iiio, at Salisbury. In addition to these, Brunswick Lodge, at Moncton, Worked two years under a Dispensation. A Warrant for Queen's Lodge, No. 932, of Gagetown, was also issued, but the Lodge was never constituted under it.


In 1866, owing to the failure of Bro. Balloch's health, Bro. Robert T. Clinch was appointed Provincial Grand Master to succeed him. Bro. Clinch was Installed into Office by the Hon. Alexander Keith, at St. John, on September 5, 1866.


The British North America Act confederating the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario as the Dominion of Canada came into force on July 1, 1867. As a result, the movement for the formation of indepen dent Grand Lodges in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Quebec, which had been started some years previously, received considerable impetus. On August 16, 1867, a meeting of Delegates from the Lodges in St. John resolved to summon a Convention of Representatives from the twenty‑six Lodges of the Province which were on the English, Scottish, and Irish Registers. At this Convention, held on October 1o, 1867, fourteen of the nineteen Lodges present declared themselves ready to form the M .'. W.‑. Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 59 Accepted Masons of New Brunswick. Bro. R. T. Clinch was elected Grand Master, but since he had at that time not yet resigned his Office as District Grand Master, he declined the Office. Bro. B. Lester Peters was then unanimously‑elected as Grand Master, and his Installation took place on January 22, 1868. Within a comparatively short time all the Lodges in the Province adhered to the new movement, a result that may be attributed to the wisdom and tact of the first Grand Master.


A few of the distinguished names connected with the Craft in New Brunswick since the formation of the Grand Lodge in 1867 are as follows: the Hon. William Wedderburn, member and speaker of the Legislature, provincial secre tary, judge of the county court, and Grand Master from 1870 to 1872; the Hon. John V. Ellis, publisher and journalist, senator, Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite in Canada, Grand Master from 1872 to 1875 and again from 1884 to 1887; the Hon. Robert Marshall, Grand Master from 1878 to 1881, member of Parliament, Grand Master of the Cryptic Rite in 1867, and a founder of Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in Canada; William F. Bunting, first Grand Secretary from 1867 to 1882, author of a history of Freemasonry in New Brunswick which was published in 1895, and Grand Master in 1883 and 1884; Dr. Thomas Walker, Grand Master from 1889 to 1894 and again in 1897 and 1898; and His Honor J. Gordon Forbes, judge of the county court and Grand Master in 1899 and i90o.


The Grand Lodge of New Brunswick consists to‑day of about 6ooo Masons organised in 43 Lodges.


In 1850, the Rev. Jerome Alley, D.D., of St. Andrew's, was appointed Provincial Grand Superintendent of English Royal Arch Masonry in the Province. In 1856, he formed a Provincial Grand Chapter at St. Andrew's. At that time there was but one English Chapter in the Province, St. Mark's Chapter, at St. Andrew's. The Rev. Dr. Alley died in 1861, whereupon the Provincial Grand Chapter's existence came to an end. Then, in 1877, St. Mark's Chapter transferred to the Grand Chapter of Canada. It ceased Work, however, about 1890.


In 1849 Alexander Balloch was appointed Provincial Grand Superintendent of Scottish Royal Arch Masonry in New Brunswick. He held the Office until 1859, when he resigned. No new appointment was then made. The Chapters under Scottish authority formed prior to 1869 were as follows: Charleston Chapter, No. 47, which has already been mentioned; Fredericton Chapter, No. 77, at Fredericton, formed in 1857; Union Chapter, at Carleton, formed in 1859; Corinthian Chapter, No. 85, at Hampton, formed in 1859; Mount Lebanon Chapter, at Chatham, formed in 1864; and St. Stephen Chapter, No. 125, at St. Stephen, formed in 1868. Corinthian Chapter, No. 85, ceased Work in 1863.


In addition to the English and Scottish, two other Royal Arch jurisdictions were represented. These were those of Ireland and of Canada. The former was represented by three Chapters. Of the three, Hibernian Chapter, organised in 1834 and attached to Hibernian Lodge, No. 318, of St. Andrew's, was organised in 1830 and ceased Working in 1862. Sussex Chapter, No. 327, of St. Stephen, 6o FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION was Constituted in 1851, and surrendered in 1864. Hibernian Chapter, No. 301, was Constituted at St. John in 1858. In 1864 it changed its name to New Brunswick Chapter of Canada, becoming Chapter No. io on the Canadian Registry. The Grand Chapter of Canada was also represented by Botsford Chapter, No. 39, of Moncton, which was formed in 1870, and by Woodstock Chapter, No. 89, of Woodstock.


Upon the formation of the Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia in 1869, the various Royal Arch Chapters in New Brunswick continued their allegiance to the Grand Chapters of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Canada, and it was not until 1887 that The Grand Royal Arch Chapter of New Brunswick was formed. In that year there were seven Chapters in the Province. These were as follows Carleton (Register of Scotland), at St. John, Chapter No. 1; Fredericton (Register of Scotland), at Fredericton, Chapter No. z; New Brunswick (Register of Canada), at St. John, Chapter No. 3 ; Union (Register of Scotland), at Carleton, Chapter No. 4; St. Stephen (Register of Scotland), at St. Stephen, Chapter No. 5; Botsford (Register of Canada), at Moncton, Chapter No. 6; and Woodstock (Register of Canada), at Woodstock, Chapter No. 7. These Chapters formed the Grand Chapter of New Brunswick, with B. Lester Peters, Provincial Grand Master, acting as first Grand Principal.


Mt. Lebanon Chapter, of Chatham, remained out of the new organisation for some years, but is now Chapter No. 5, of New Brunswick. Chapter No. 3 has dropped out, and Chapters No. 5, No. 6, and No. 7 are now Chapters No. 6, No. 7, and No. 8, respectively. Chapters at Sussex, Edmundston, and Campbellton have since been Chartered, making 1o (in 1935) Chapters on the Roll. The total membership numbers about 16oo.


Cryptic Masonry in New Brunswick was propagated as early as 1828. In 1867, three Councils were formed in St. John, and a Grand Council was formed, having Illustrious Companion Robert Marshall acting as Most Puissant Grand Master, under authority from the Grand Council of Maine. From this new Council, Cryptic Masonry in Canada originated. St. John is now the headquarters of the Grand Council for the Jurisdiction of Eastern Canada, which comprises Quebec and the Maritime Provinces.


Knight Templarism in New Brunswick seems to have begun with the formation of Hibernian Encampment, No. 318, at St. Andrew's, under a Warrant from the Supreme Grand Encampment of Ireland. This Encampment ceased Working in 186o. In 1856 the Encampment of St. John, No. 48, was established at St. John under Dispensation from the Grand Priory of Scotland. A second Encampment, known as that of Union de Molay, under English authority, was established at St. John in 1868. In 1915, these two Bodies were merged under the name of St. John de Molay Preceptory, No. 3A, on the Roll of the Sovereign Great Priory of Canada. Other Knight Templar Bodies in the Province are as follows: Ivanhoe Encampment, No. 36, at Moncton, established in 1895; Woodstock Encampment, No. 41, at Woodstock, established in 1904; Fredericton Encampment, No. so, at Fredericton, established in 19o8; and Trinity Encamp‑ OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 61 ment, No. 67, at Campbellton, established in 1924. St. Stephen Encampment, formed in 1872 at St. Stephen, remains under the Grand Conclave of Scotland. A Provincial Grand Lodge of the Royal Order of Scotland was established in 186o, but in recent years it has become inactive, as has also Moore Conclave, No. 1, of the Order of Rome and Constantine, which was Constituted in 1869. The Scottish Rite was introduced in 187o by the organisation of Moore Chapter, Rose Croix, at St. John, under Warrant from the Supreme Council of England and Wales. In 1871, New Brunswick Sovereign Chapter, Rose Croix, and New Brunswick Council and Consistory of Kadosh‑Thirty Degrees‑were constituted at Saint John under Scottish authority. In 1872, the English Supreme Council Constituted Harington Sovereign Consistory‑Thirty‑second Degreeand a Grand Council‑Thirty‑third Degree‑for the Maritime Provinces. After the organisation of the Supreme Council for Canada in 1874, the several rival Bodies entered into negotiations which resulted in reorganisation. New Brunswick Consistory and Harington Sovereign Chapter of Rose Croix then took the place of the existing Bodies. In 1878 St. John Lodge of Perfection was added. To this day all three Bodies continue under the Supreme Council of Canada. Luxor Temple of the Ancient and Accepted Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, at St. John, is the only Shrine Body in the Province.


We have now sketched the history of the Craft in the Maritime Provinces for approximately two hundred years. The Fraternity in this, the cradle of Freemasonry in Canada, has advanced steadily throughout all that long stretch of time, and even in the face of difficulties. With the exception of one county in Nova Scotia, there are to‑day Lodges in every section of the Maritime Provinces. Furthermore, there is a steady yearly increase in membership. So long as freedom and good government exist, Freemasonry will exercise its benign influence on men's minds and will lead them to higher thoughts, nobler deeds, and greater achievements. Men do not know, nor will they ever know, the great good that has been accomplished by the plain, simple lessons of our Fraternity. And that great good is still being accomplished. While withdrawing ourselves from the gaze of the active world‑asking nothing of its favors, being independent of its powers and opinions‑Masonry lives as a law and a power within itself. This law and this power have directed and preserved it for ages. Yet, still, under the moral and civil law of the country in which it exists, obedient to that civil and moral law, Freemasonry will continue to fulfill its mission so long as the world exists‑so long as Christianity prevails as its best form of government.


The immense and growing army of Freemasons should be ever ready or should be made ready to promote international friendship and world order as the only hope of saving our civilisation from complete destruction. If not ready to do that, then Freemasons should be made ready to do so. Inculcating into Masonic hearts a greater love of the Fraternity as an international brotherhood is the first step in that direction.


All Freemasons do well ever to keep in mind the wise saying of Dermott: " To cultivate and establish the true system of Ancient Masonry, Unity, and 62 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION Brotherly Love, is the only point in view." Dermott's prophetic vision saw this unity and brotherly love extending to men of every race and language, to men of every class and calling. He saw the possibility of Freemasonry's serving as the disruptor of all barriers of class and creed and color, as the cement of the Brotherhood of Man.


NEWFOUNDLAND REGINALD V. HARRIS* HE history of Newfoundland is of great interest, for it dates back to the earliest days of American discovery. In 1497 John Cabot, sailing from Bristol, England, appears to have made landfall at what is now known as Bonavista, Newfoundland. He claimed the country for King Henry VII of England. Three years later, Gaspar Corte‑Real discovered and named Conception Bay and Portugal Cove. In recognition of his achievement he was soon afterwards appointed Portuguese governor of Terra Nova. During the first half of the sixteenth century an extensive and lucrative fishing industry was developed in the region by English, Portuguese, Spanish, Basque, and French fishermen. Later attempts at colonisation by Sir Humphrey Gilbert, John Guy, and Lord Baltimore are the picturesque incidents which mark the history of Newfoundland between 1583 and 1632. Still later, in 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht ceded the region to England. Nevertheless, the treaty also reserved to the French certain fishing rights on the western and northern coasts, which were for many years a source of international trouble. In fact, it was not until 1728 that a settled form of government was established in Newfoundland, under Captain Henry Osborne, and even then progress continued to be slow until the period of the wars between England and France following the French Revolution. At that time, development of the fishing industry brought great prosperity to the Colony. Then, in 1832, representative government was established, and provision was made for education. Responsible government was inaugurated in 1855. Newfoundland did not join the confederation known as the Dominion of Canada, which was formed in 1867 by other colonies of British North America.


The earliest record of the practise of Masonry in Newfoundland is found in the Records of St. John's Grand Lodge, of Boston, under date of December 24, 1746. There appears the statement that " at the Petition of Sundry Brethren residing at in Newfoundland, our Rt. Worshipful Grand Master (Thomas Oxnard) granted a Constitution for a Lodge to be held there and appointed the Rt. Worshipful Mr. to be their first Master." From then on, for the next twenty‑one years, we have no record of the " Lodge in Newfoundland " except * In the preparation of the following article on Freemasonry in Newfoundland, the writer gratefully acknowledges the help and co‑operation of V..W..Bro. W. J. Edgar, District Grand Secretary, District Grand Lodge of Newfoundland, English jurisdiction OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 63 that which states that the Lodge was " not represented " at meetings of the Grand Lodge at Boston. Under date of July 25, 1766, however, a second Lodge, designated as St. John's Newfoundland Lodge, is listed in the Records of that Grand Lodge.


It is the writer's opinion, though this does not accord with local tradition, that the first Lodge was a Military Lodge held in the garrison at Placentia, where for many years a detachment of Philipps' Regiment was stationed. Masonry was undoubtedly active in the regiment at that time, for it is known that all the officers commanding at Placentia during the period bewteen 1746 and 1758 were members of the Craft.


On March 24, 1774, the Athole Grand Lodge of England Warranted St. John's Lodge, No. 186, at St. John's, Newfoundland. The Lodge met at the London Tavern there, and its first Officers were Thomas Todridge, Worship ful Master; Thomas Murphy, Senior Warden; and Peter Snyder, Junior Warden. Later at the union of the rival Grand Lodges of England, this Lodge was renumbered Lodge No. 226, and still later, in 1832, as Lodge No. 159. In the latter year, however, its Regalia and Records were destroyed by fire, and the Lodge ceased Work, although its name was not erased from the English Register until 1859.


On December 27, 1785, Lodge No. 213 (Ancients), established on July 3, 1781, in the Fourth Battalion of the Royal Artillery while the battalion was quartered in New York, granted a Dispensation for a Lodge to Brethren in Major Huddleston's Company at St. John's, Newfoundland. In December 1782, Lodge No. 213 had taken an active part in the formation of the Grand Lodge of New York, and at that time had been voted the special privilege of " trimming their Masonic hangings with gold in conformity with the uniform of their regiment." Part of the regiment was transferred to Newfoundland shortly after Great Britain acknowledged the independence of the United States. Later, the whole regiment was transferred to Woolwich, England. Then, in 1790, the regiment was transferred still another time, this time to Quebec. There, in course of time, the Lodge became permanent. It is now known as Albion Lodge, No. 2, G. R. Q. Of its Masonic activity during its stay in Newfoundland, very little is known except the few facts that can be gleaned from correspondence and returns found in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia.


In 1784 the Premier Grand Lodge of England Warranted the Lodge of Placentia, No. 455 (Moderns). This Lodge was renumbered in 1792 as Lodge No. 367. Its name was erased from the Register, however, in 1813. On April 30, 1785, the same authority Warranted another Lodge in Newfoundland, this one at Harbor Grace, Conception Bay. It was known as Lodge, No. 470 (Moderns). This Lodge was renumbered in 1792 as Lodge No. 381. Its name was also erased from the Register in 1813. Whether or not these Lodges continued their Work for any lengthy period is a matter of doubt.


In 1788 the rival Grand Lodge of England renewed its interest in Newfoundland and Warranted three Lodges in the Colony: The first of these was 64 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION Lodge No. 247, at St. John's, Warranted on March 31. In 1804 this Lodge was named Benevolent Lodge. Then in 1813, at the time of the union of the rival Grand Lodges of England, it was renumbered as Lodge No. 312. In 1832it was again renumbered as Lodge No. ZZo; its name was erased in 1853. Lodge No. 249 was also Warranted on March 31, 1788, at St. John's. This Lodge lapsed about 1804. Lodge of Harmony, No. Z5o, was Warranted at Placentia on May 2, 1788. A Certificate or demit, issued by this Lodge to Francis Bradshaw, under date of August 7, 1807, still exists. It is signed by Daniel Hodgson, Worshipful Master, Joshua Blackburn, Senior Warden, and Edward Larkin, Junior Warden and Secretary. The Lodge met in the building which had been used as officers' quarters while Placentia was occupied by the French, and later tenanted by the Bradshaw family. Francis Bradshaw was surgeon to H. R. H. the Duke of Clarence, afterwards King William IV. Tradition says that during his stay at Placentia the Duke was also a member of the Lodge there. At that time he presented a silver communion service to the church at Placentia. This is now in the possession of the Anglican Cathedral at St. John's. Although the Lodge was renumbered in 1814 as Lodge No. 317, it probably lapsed about 1810. Its name was erased from the Register in 1815.


As has been shown then, at the time of the union of the rival Grand Lodges of England, Freemasonry in Newfoundland was represented by only two Lodges: St. John's Lodge, No. 186, later renumbered as Lodge No. 226, and Benevolent Lodge, No. 247, later renumbered as Lodge No. 312, both of Ancient origin and both located at St. John's. Shortly after the union, however, a new start was made. On September 21, 1817, Union Lodge, No. 698 was Warranted at Trinity, Conception Bay. This Lodge was renumbered in 1832 as Lodge No. 451, but in 1859, its name was also erased from the Register. The jewels of this Lodge are now preserved in the Masonic Temple at St. John's. Seven years later, on November 15, 1824, Freemasonry was revived at Harbor Grace, when the Lodge of Order and Harmony was Warranted. It, too, was short lived, however, and its name was erased in 1832. The period from 1832 to 1848 is virtually a blank in the Masonic history of Newfoundland: In the former year, St. John's Lodge, No. 226, ceased Working, and it is doubtful whether Benevolent Lodge, No. 312, at St. John's, and Union Lodge, No. 451, at Trinity, continued their Labours. Neither record of their Work nor tradition of it has come down to us, but it is certain that by 1848 Masonic activity had ceased in Newfoundland.


Nevertheless, in 1846, the jurisdiction of the Hon. Alexander Keith, Provincial Grand Master of Nova Scotia, was enlarged to include New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland. Immediately thereafter Bro. Keith addressed himself to the task of reorganising and reviving the Craft throughout the large territory assigned to him. Fortunately, his efforts were everywhere successful.


On October 3, 1848, a notice appeared in The Morning Post, edited by William J. Ward and published at St. John's, stating that a letter had been received from the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia relative to the re‑establishment of a Masonic OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 65 Lodge in St. John's, and asking all Master Masons favourable to such action to meet on the following evening. On October 31 the same paper announced that a Dispensation for a new Lodge had been received from the Hon. Alexander Keith. On the following November 29, the St. John's Lodge was Consecrated at the Albert Terrace. Although no details of the ceremony have come down to us, we do know that the first principal Officers of the Lodge were: Samuel G. Archibald, Master; William Jenkins, Senior Warden; John Stuart, Junior Warden; D. J. Henderson, Treasurer; and William J. Ward, Secretary.


The Lodge Worked under its Dispensation until 185o, when a Petition for a Charter was recommended by the Hon. Alexander Keith, Provincial Grand Master, and was forwarded to the Grand Lodge of England. The Petition was granted, and a Charter numbered 844 was issued on June 5, 185o. This Charter is still in use by the Lodge although it was renumbered in 1863 as No. 579The Charter bears an endorsement, stating that " a Dispensation for holding the Saint John's Lodge, having been granted by the Provincial Grand Master bearing date the , the Proceedings of the said Lodge from that date are accordingly ratified." St. John's Lodge, the senior Lodge in Newfoundland, has had a long and highly interesting history. Its Rolls contain many notable names, among them, that of Oliver Goldsmith, who served as Worshipful Master in 1849, while in Newfoundland as an officer in the British Army. Still other famous members of this Lodge were the Right Hon. Sir William V. Whiteway, P.C., K.C.M.G, first Worshipful Master of Avalon Lodge, second District Grand Master from 1878 to 1908, and for many years Prime Minister of the Colony; Patrick Tasker, Worshipful Master in 1853, 1856, and 1857, and Deputy Provincial Grand Master from 1858 to 186o; Captain Alphonse Duchesne, of the French steamship Vesta, a Chevalier of the French Legion of Honour; the Hon. James Shannon Clift, second Deputy Provincial Grand Master from 186o to 1869, and first District Grand Master from 1861 to 1877; Sir Terence O'Brien, governor of Newfoundland and Past Grand Deacon of the Grand Lodge of England, who accepted honorary membership in the Lodge in 18go; the Hon. Moses Monroe, founder of the Masonic Mutual Insurance Company, an active and enthusiastic Craftsman; the Hon. James A. Clift, K.B., C.B.E., third District Grand Master from 1908 to 1923; and Sir John R. Bennett, K.B.E., fourth District Grand Master, who was appointed in 1923.


In 1853 Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, in command of the American expedition in search of Sir John Franklin, the lost Arctic explorer, and his gallant men, were welcomed and entertained by the Lodge. At that time Dr. Kane was presented with a silk flag. Copies of the address made in his honour and of Dr. Kane's reply are preserved in the archives of Kane Lodge, No. 454, of New York City.


In January 1861, as a memorial of the esteem felt by the Craft for their late Brother, Patrick Tasker, Deputy Provincial Grand Master, St. John's Lodge established a fund " for the purpose of educating the children of de‑ 66 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION ceased Brethren who had been in full communion with this Lodge." The scope of the object of the fund was later so enlarged as to permit the co‑operation of other Lodges, and to‑day the Tasker Memorial Fund is the proud heritage of not only the Lodges in St. John's, but also of other Newfoundland Lodges outside the city. The fund has a splendid record of service, hundreds of children having been helped through its agency.


In November 19o8, the Lodge celebrated its sixtieth anniversary with a service of Thanksgiving held in the Congregational Church, followed by a meeting of the Lodge and a banquet at the Osborne House. Then, in 1923, the Lodge celebrated its seventy‑fifth anniversary, at which time it was honoured with a visit by Lord Ampthill, Pro Grand Master of England; Sir John Ferguson, Grand Treasurer; Lieutenant‑Colonel H. Hamilton Wedderburn, P.D.G.D.C.; A. E. Carlyle, P.A.G.D.C.; James H. Winfield, Grand Master of Nova Scotia; and J. C. Jones, Grand Secretary, all of whom were at that time made honorary members. On November 29 a banquet was given, and on December 2 a service of Thanksgiving was held at St. John's Cathedral.


In 1858 the Hon. Alexander Keith, Provincial Grand Master, granted a Dispensation to form a second Lodge at St. John's, to be called Avalon Lodge. Sir William V. Whiteway, who with several other members of St. John's Lodge became its founders, was named its first Master. Subsequently, a Charter for the new Lodge was issued under date of January 28, 1859. It was entered on the Register as Lodge No. 1078, but in 1863 it was assigned No. 776, its present number. Avalon Lodge has co‑operated with its sister Lodges in providing the Tasker Educational Fund and in every other worthy undertaking.


On June 24, 1858, it was announced that the Hon. Alexander Keith, Provincial Grand Master, had appointed Patrick Tasker to be Deputy Provincial Grand Master, and on August 6, Bro. Tasker was duly Installed. Avalon Lodge was organised during his term of Office.


In 186o, H. R. H. the Prince of Wales, afterwards King Edward VII, visited Newfoundland. At his official landing, the Masonic Body of Newfoundland, consisting of St. John's Lodge and Avalon Lodge, was given the post of honour, and the Deputy Provincial Grand Master made an address of welcome on its behalf. On November 2, i86o, Bro. Tasker, the Deputy Provincial Grand Master, died at the early age of thirty‑seven. Thereupon, St. John's Lodge and Avalon Lodge nominated Bro. James S. Clift to the vacant Office, and on June 24, 1861, he was duly Installed.


In 1869 a Dispensation was granted for the formation of Hiram Lodge, at Burin, and on September 7 of that year a Charter was granted by the Grand Lodge of England. The Lodge was entered on the Register as No. 1281.


In 1866 the Grand Lodge of Scotland invaded Newfoundland, and Tasker Lodge, No. 454, Warranted by that Grand Body, was established at St. John's. This Lodge has exerted a dominant influence in the development and extension of Scottish Freemasonry in Newfoundland. Largely through its energies and those of District Grand Masters serving under Scottish authority, the follow‑ OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 67 ing Lodges have since been Warranted: Harbor Grace Lodge, No. 476, at Harbor Grace; Carbonear Lodge, No. 1043, at Carbonear; Northcliffe Lodge, No. 1086, at Grand Falls; MacKay Lodge, No. 1129, at Bay Roberts; St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 1139, at St. John's; and Heart's Content Lodge, No. 1275, at Hearts' Content. Among the Lodges under the English authority and those under Scottish authority the utmost cordiality and co‑operation have always existed. The following Brethren have served as Masters under the Scottish authority: the Hon. A. M. Mackay, James Gordon, John Cowan, C. R. Duder, and the Hon. Sir Tasker Cook, the present incumbent.


Upon the formation of the present Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia, in 1869, the English Lodges in Newfoundland, that is, St. John's Lodge, Avalon Lodge, and Hiram Lodge, were without a District Grand Master. Consequently on June 3, 1870, a memorial was forwarded to the Grand Lodge of England, praying that Newfoundland be made a District, with the Hon. James Shannon Clift acting as its first District Grand Master. This Petition was granted and Bro. Clift was appointed to the Office on August 29, 1870. Then, in the following May, a District Grand Lodge was formally organised, and its Officers were appointed and Invested. At the same meeting preliminary steps were taken for the formation of the present Benevolent Fund. The first Lodge formed under the new regime was Victoria Lodge, at Fortune Bay, which was Chartered on November 27, 1871, as Lodge No. 1378. Later, on December 13, 1876, a second Lodge was established at Grand Bank, under the name of Fidelity Lodge, No. 1659.


In 1876 an effort was made to establish a Grand Lodge of Newfoundland, the leaders in the movement being Bro. A. J. W. McNeily and the Hon. Moses Monroe. Delegates from St. John's Lodge, Avalon Lodge, and Victoria Lodge, all Working under the District Grand Lodge, and from Tasker Lodge and Harbor Grace Lodge Working under the Scottish Constitution, met in conference and reported favourably. The report was then adopted by all the Lodges and later was presented to the Grand Lodge of England by the Hon. William V. Whiteway, who happened to be visiting the motherland at that time, but it was not approved, for the advisors of the Grand Master felt that the time was inopportune and the District too weak successfully to support the dignity of a Grand Lodge. As a consequence, the proposals were dropped and they have not since been revived.


On the death of the Hon. James S. Clift, in 1877, the District Grand Lodge nominated the Hon. William V. Whiteway to succeed him as District Grand Master. In May 1878, Bro. Whiteway was appointed, his Installation taking place on the following June 12.


In 1880 the Masonic Mutual Insurance Company was formed, the Hon. Moses Monroe, its first President, being the prime mover in its establishment. Through its Work it has been of great benefit to its members.


On April 22, 1881, Notre Dame Lodge, No. 1907, at Bett's Cove, was Chartered by the Grand Lodge of England. Five years later the Lodge was trans‑ 68 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION ferred to Little Bay, where it is still active. A new Temple was dedicated at Little Bay in September 1931.


On June 1i, 1885, a new era in the Masonic history of Newfoundland was inaugurated. On that day the corner‑stone of the first Masonic Temple in St. John's was laid with fitting Rites. The ceremony was performed by the Dis trict Grand Master, the Hon. Sir William V. Whiteway, who was assisted by the Provincial Grand Master, the Hon. A. M. Mackay. Six months later, on December 29, the Temple was dedicated to Freemasonry. Here in 1887 the jubilee of Queen Victoria was fittingly celebrated. The celebration concluded on August 9, with a Grand Masonic ball, at which H. R. H., the Prince of Monaco was a guest. Here, too, in October 1889 Twillingate Lodge, No. 2364, at Twillingate, was Consecrated by the District Grand Master, Sir William V. Whiteway. Three years later, the great fire which swept away half the city of St. John's destroyed the beautiful Temple and with it many valuable Records which can never be replaced. This necessitated the building of a new Temple. On August 23, 1894, therefore, the corner‑stone of the present Temple was laid, the Lodges Working under both the English and the Scottish Constitutitions taking part. This second Temple was formally dedicated on St. George's Day, April 23, 1897.


At a joint meeting of St. John's Lodge and Avalon Lodge, held on November Zo, 19oo, the Right Hon. Sir William V. Whiteway, who had completed fifty years of Masonic Work, was memorialised with an address and presented with a golden loving cup.


In 1903 a meeting of the city Lodges was held to welcome the Deputy District Grand Master's Association of Massachusetts, which paid a visit to Newfoundland at that time.


In 19o8 on the death of the Right Hon. Sir William V. Whiteway, the Hon. James A. Clift, K.C., was appointed District Grand Master. He was Installed in May i909. During his term of Officeńwhich lasted from 1909 to 1923, three Lodges were added to the Roll, and the membership was more than doubled. The three Lodges were Whiteway Lodge, No. 3541, at St. John's, Botwood Lodge, No. 3542, at Botwood, and Clift Lodge, No. 3694, at Bell Island.


In July 1914, H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, Grand Master of England, visited St. John's and attended a meeting of the District Grand Lodge. On that occasion addresses were presented by both District Grand Lodges. His Royal Highness also visited Botwood Lodge, at Botwood. Connaught Hall, later erected by that Lodge, was so named by permission of the Grand Master. The part played by Newfoundland members of the Craft during the Great War was a very real and practical one. The call for volunteers found a ready response among the Brethren, and the farewell meetings for the departing soldier Brethren were inspiring occasions long remembered by those who took part. During that struggle the Craft undertook the support of ten cots in the Newfoundland and Freemasons' Ward in the hospital at Southport, England, OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 69 and contributed generously to many other patriotic appeals and undertakings. In 1923 upon the death of James A. Clift, K.C.C.B.E., John R. Bennett was appointed to succeed him as District Grand Master. Bro. Bennett was Installed by the Right Hon. Lord Ampthill, M.‑.W.'. Provincial Grand Master of England, who in company with other distinguished English Brethren paid a visit to St. John's on July 1o, of that year. In 1926 the dignity of Knight of the British Empire (K.B.E.) was conferred upon the District Grand Master. It was in 1926 under the regime of Sir John Bennett, that Corner Brook Lodge, No. 4832, at Corner Brook, was established.


Clift Lodge, at Bell Island, and Botwood Lodge, at Botwood, own their own Lodge buildings. In July 1927, the Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia held its Annual Convocation at St. John's, the home of Shannon Chapter, No. 9 which is under its jurisdiction.


The District of Newfoundland is the only one under the United Grand Lodge of England that has had the honour and privilege to welcome both the M.‑.W.‑.the Grand Master and the M.‑.W.‑.the Pro Grand Master of England.


The year 1923 is memorable in Newfoundland Masonry, for it marks the first occasion on which a Grand Officer (the M.‑. W.‑. the Pro Grand Master) crossed the ocean to perform the ceremony of Installing a District Grand Master.


In May 1931, the Scottish Constitutions of Newfoundland were honoured by a visit from the Grand Secretary of Scotland, R.‑. W.‑. Bro. Thomas G. Winning.


To‑day (1935), the Craft of Newfoundland is organised in eighteen Lodges, eleven of which are under the District Grand Lodge (English Constitution), with Sir John Bennett as District Grand Master; and the remaining seven of which are under the District Grand Lodge (Scottish Constitution), of which Sir Tasker Cook is District Grand Master. The total membership of all these Lodges is approximately Zooo Masons. Between the two jurisdictions there is the closest co‑operation. Both unite in supporting Shannon Royal Arch Chapter, No. 9, G.R. of Nova Scotia, the Tasker Educational Fund, and all other relief and patriotic funds and undertakings. The two jurisdictions vie with each other in service and good works only.


ONTARIO WALTER S. HERRINGTON HE history of Freemasonry in Ontario naturally resolves itself into several periods corresponding more or less with the political changes of the Province. The one did not always follow closely upon the heel of the other, yet we find that every change in the political status of the country, as a rule, sooner or later manifested itself in the Constitution of our Order.


70 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION During the French regime up to the fall of Quebec in 1759, there were no Lodges in any part of the Province: in fact, there were no white men within its present boundaries except the garrisons and traders in and about the trading posts along the line of travel to the hunting grounds west of the Great Lakes. Our next period extends from the taking over of Quebec by the British in 1759 to the division of the Province into Upper and Lower Canada in 1792. It must be remembered that the Quebec Act of 1774 extended the boundaries of that Province to the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, and included a great deal of territory now forming a part of the United States and of the ten Lodges Warranted during this period four were located at points beyond the present limits of our Province. Most of these Lodges were originally what we might term Military Lodges, the members of which were chosen from the regiments stationed at the various posts. It is true that after the Treaty of Paris following the revolution there was a great influx of United Empire Loyalists among whom were many Freemasons sincerely devoted to the Craft, but they were too busy hewing out their homes in the forest to devote much time to organising themselves into Lodges. Of these ten Lodges three were Warranted by the Provincial Grand Lodge of Quebec, one by the Provincial Grand Lodge of New York, five by the Grand Lodge of England and one by the Provincial Grand Lodge of Lower Canada. They were scattered over a vast extent of territory, the two extremes being over 5oo miles apart and up to 1792 no attempt had been made to bring them under one central authority.


Although the United States Empire Loyalists had by their sacrifices in the British cause justly earned their title, it must not be supposed that they were contented with their lot simply because they were once more under the British flag. The Quebec Act among its other terms guaranteed to the French subjects the free exercise of their language and religion and the preservation of the French Civil Code. While it was regarded by them as their Magna Charta, it found little favour with the Loyalists. To remedy this and other grievances the Constitution Act was passed in 1791 dividing the Province into Upper and Lower Canada and giving a separate Legislative Assembly to each. John Graves Simcoe was the first lieutenant‑governor of Upper Canada which afterwards became the Province of Ontario and with his arrival in 1792 there was ushered in a new era of Freemasonry. He was accompanied by one William Jarvis who in addition to his appointment as Secretary to His Excellency had previous to his sailing for Canada been Constituted by the Athol Grand Lodge of England Provincial Grand Master of Upper Canada. The Grand Lodge recognising the political separation into two Provinces treated them as separated also in their Masonic jurisdiction and under the same date, the 7th of March 1792, appointed H. R. H. Prince Edward, afterwards the Duke of Kent and father of Queen Victoria, Provincial Grand Master of Lower Canada. While the two offices were created at the same time, the authority granted to the respective incumbents differed in one respect. The prince was authorised to issue Warrants to Lodges, but R. W. Bro. Jarvis was simply given power to grant Dis‑ OF CANADA AND NEVvrvul,,_.__ pensations. The Grand Lodge reserved to itself the authority to issue the Warrants in Upper Canada. The latter disregarded the restriction placed upon him and much confusion resulted therefrom in after years. He could scarcely be said to possess any superior qualifications for the Office, as his appointment followed one month after his Initiation. He does not appear to have been very deeply impressed with the responsibility assumed by him in accepting the position as he made no effort to organise his Provincial Grand Lodge until July 1795. Five Lodges responded to the summons and the necessary Officers were regularly elected and Installed.


The seat of the government was changed in 1797 from Niagara to York, now the city of Toronto, and the Provincial Grand Master changed his residence accordingly. Up to that time he was so engrossed in his duties as secretary to Governor Simcoe that he paid very little attention to the affairs of Grand Lodge which were carried on by a number of zealous Brethren at Niagara who deeply resented the removal to York of the Charter and Jewels of Grand Lodge. In the absence of the Provincial Grand Master and the Warrant and Jewels the Brethren at Niagara continued to function as best they could and all efforts to induce R. W. Bro. Jarvis to attend the meetings or return the Warrant and jewels to Niagara were of no avail. Finally a peremptory demand was made upon him in i8oi to attend a meeting at Niagara called for the purpose of putting the affairs of Grand Lodge in order accompanied with a warning that in the event of his failing to attend he would be deposed from office and a successor elected in his stead. There was of course no constitutional authority for such a high‑handed proceeding but the Brethren were driven to desperation and were prepared to take matters in their own hands regardless of the consequences. He ignored the threat and in December i8oz the rebellious Brethren, true to their promise, formed a schismatic Gran d Lodge, elected a Grand Master of their own, and immediately set to work t o extend their field of operations by issuing Warrants to new Lodges. R. W. Bro. Jarvis was finally goaded into action and summoned a meeting of the Lodges at York in February 1804. The object of the meeting was to stamp out the seditious movement at Niagara.


Of the eighteen regular Lodges in the jurisdiction only eight sent Delegates to York. All of these were quite outspoken in their loyalty to the Provincial Grand Master and declared war against the Naigara Brethren and summoned them to appear at York to answer for their alleged un‑Masonic conduct. This was the beginning of a long and bitter strife culminating in a feeling far removed from the true spirit of Freemasonry, which continued until the death of the Provincial Grand Master in 1817. The jurisdiction was thus divided into two factions both animated by the best of intentions and at this distance it is difficult to place upon either of them the responsibility for the unfortunate position in which they found themselves. The marvel is that any of the Lodges survived the test to which they were subjected. Each Body denounced the other in letters and Petitions to the Grand 72 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION Lodge of England with the result that R. W. Bro. Jarvis received a severe reprimand, but this had little effect upon him. He continued his indifferent attitude towards the Craft and called no further meeting of the Grand Lodge until 1811. At this meeting very little was done beyond denouncing the Niagara Brethren. The latter Body held regular Communications, took an active interest in the Lodges recognising its authority, kept up a correspondence with the Grand Lodge at London, which neither rebuked them for presuming to arrogate to themselves the authority of the Provincial Grand Lodge nor acknowledged their right to do so. The war of 1812‑15 put the finishing touch upon the efforts of the Provincial Grand Lodge to maintain some semblance of organisation and also seriously interferred with the operations of the schismatic Body at Niagara. The Provincial Grand Master died on the 13th of August 1817 and with him passed the last hope of reviving Freemasonry through the organisation that he had brought into being.


The Niagara Brethren took full advantage of the opportunity that presented itself to extend their influence and with renewed energy sought to win over the Lodges which up to that time had declined to recognise them. Al though they had, after the death of R. W. Bro. Jarvis secured the original Warrant appointing him Provincial Grand Master the majority of the Lodges, while recognising the zeal and good intentions of the rebellious Brethren felt that their position was unconstitutional and untenable. It was in this crisis that the Brethren at the other end of Lake Ontario conceived the idea of inviting all the Lodges to a Conference in order to devise some means of placing the Provincial Grand Lodge upon a sound basis and establishing harmony throughout the entire jurisdiction. In fact the plan was set on foot before the death of the Provincial Grand Master by the Brethren of Addington Lodge at the village of Bath, but the meeting was not convened until two weeks after his death. This meeting resulted in bringing into being what is known in our Masonic chronicles as the Kingston Convention. Without arrogating to themselves the title of a Grand Lodge or designating their Officers by the regular Masonic appellations, the Lodges participating in the movement performed all the functions of a Grand Lodge, infused new life into the Lodges which had lain dormant for a number of years, and actually formed seven new Lodges. For five years they kept the Masonic fires burning and during this period used every effort to induce the United Grand Lodge of England to appoint a new Provincial Grand Master. They were frustrated in their efforts through the opposition of the Niagara organisation and the apparent inability of the English officials to understand the actual state of affairs in the Province. This confusion in England was largely due to the neglect of R. W. Bro. Jarvis to make the necessary returns during his term of Office. To the Kingston Convention Freemasons in Canada owe a great deal. But for the untiring efforts of the few zealous Brethren who devised the organisation and so successfully managed its affairs the Craft would have become a hopeless wreck. Their efforts were ultimately crowned with success, and there was great OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 73 rejoicing in June 1822 when notice was received from the Grand Lodge of England of the appointment of Simon McGillivray as Provincial Grand Master. The choice of the new incumbent of the Throne was a happy one. He was a shrewd business man, a genial companion and an ardent lover of the Craft. He was a nephew of Simon McTavish, famous in the fur‑trading operations of the North West Company. He had visited Canada as a mere boy in 18oo and ten years later became a partner in the company and became so proficient in the business that he was eventually chosen to negotiate the fusion between the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company. He was peculiarly fitted for the task in hand if he could have found it convenient to devote his time to the duties of his Office. He could be firm without appearing to be autocratic and persuasive without loss of dignity. As it was he brought order out of chaos and reconciled the opposing factions, including the Niagara Brethren, who for eighteen years had maintained their own schismatic Grand Lodge. His first report to the Grand Lodge of England showed Dispensations granted to twenty Lodges, and a hopeful prospect of bringing the remaining sixteen within the fold, Unfortunately his business interests called him out of the country for long intervals and he was obliged to entrust the guidance of Grand Lodge to deputies who failed to rise to the occasion. While a few individual Lodges manifested a deep interest in Masonry during the eighteen years that he presided over the destiny of the Craft, yet throughout the Province there was after the first few years a gradual decline in the activities of many others. No small portion of this lack of interest may be attributed to the unfortunate Morgan incident. Simon McGillivray died in i84o and Freemasonry in the Province was once more without a head. By a strange coincidence there was another political change in our history, but the two events are in no way related to each other. Matters had not been going well in either Upper or Lower Canada. They each had many grievances which culminated in open rebellion in both Provinces in 1837. After a thorough investigation by Lord Durham a solution of the difficulties was sought by adopting his recommendation of a union of the two Provinces, which was effected by the British Parliament in the same year that Freemasonry in Upper Canada for the second time was set adrift. For four years the Grand Lodge of England took no steps to fill the vacancy and the selection, when made, fell upon a man who had not yet received his Master's Degree. In the meantime the Brethren in the eastern part of the Province broke out in open revolt. In 1842 R. W. Bro. Ziba M. Phillips, of Brockville, by virtue of his rank as Past Deputy Provincial Grand Master, an honour conferred upon him by McGillivray twenty years before, took it upon himself to call a meeting of Delegates from all the Lodges to take into consideration the state of the Craft and the necessity of forming a permanent Provincial Grand Lodge. Only four Lodges responded to the summons. The outcome of the meeting was the forwarding of a Petition to the Grand Master in England praying that the Hon. Robert Baldwin Sullivan be appointed Provincial Grand Master. No reply to the Petition was received. Undeterred by this cold recep‑ 74 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION lion of their prayer the Brethren in response to another invitation from R. W. Bro. Phillips met again in 1843 and went through the form of organising an independent body. The Grand Lodge of Free Masons, Canada West, had elected Bro. Phillips Grand Master. For eleven years this Body continued to function but its sphere of influence was limited to a small portion of the eastern part of the Province. Sir Allan Napier McNab was the first Canadian to be appointed Provincial Grand Master by the Grand Lodge of England. Although he received his Warrant in 1844, for some reason known only to himself, he did not disclose the fact until the following year when his Mother Lodge in conjunction with other Lodges was on the eve of petitioning England to appoint W. Bro. T. J. Ridout. A happy compromise was effected by reorganising the Provincial Grand Lodge on the 9th of August, 1845, with Sir Allan in the Grand East supported by Bro. Ridout as Deputy Provincial Grand Master.


With the advent of this, the Third Provincial Grand Lodge, the spirit of Freemasonry received a new impetus and there was every indication that the Jursidiction was entering upon an era of prosperity it had never before attained. By 1852 there were no less than thirty‑four Lodges affiliated with the new Grand Lodge, which held its regular semi‑annual Communications and led an active existence in striking contrast with the former provincial bodies. The otherwise clear Masonic firmament was marred by only two clouds. The one was the spurious Grand Lodge, still presided over by R. W. Bro. Phillips, which, however, was losing its influence and was doomed to an early extinction. The other was of a more serious nature. There was a growing feeling that the Provincial Grand Lodge should be permitted to elect its own Grand Master and to have absolute control of the working and operation of the Craft within its jurisdiction‑the United Grand Lodge of England still retaining and exercising a superior and governing power. This state of feeling was brought about by the delays in forwarding Certificates and Warrants, and the absorption of the surplus funds of the Canadian Lodges for the benevolent purposes of the Mother Grand Lodge, which was at the same time sending to our shores many emigrants who, sooner or later, became a charge upon the Masons here. At the meeting held in June 1852 the first step was taken which eventually led to the creation of our independent Grand Lodge. A notice of motion was given that at the next regular meeting a resolution would be introduced that the Grand Lodge of England be memorialised to permit the Provincial Grand Lodge to exercise control over the affairs of Masonry in this Province.


Accordingly, at the next meeting a Committee was appointed to draft a Petition which in due course was presented for adoption in the following May. It was couched in the most friendly terms and while it professed the most " fraternal feelings of gratitude and respect and esteem " for the United Grand Lodge of England it made it quite clear that it was the desire, and, we might read between the lines, the determination of the Provincial Grand Lodge to elect its own Grand Master and to have control of its own affairs subject to the governing power of the United Grand Lodge. Six months OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 75 elapsed and no reply had been received to the Petition. At the meeting in October 1853 the Canadian Brethren went one step further. A notice of motion was given that at the meeting in the following May a resolution would be presented calling for the forwarding of a Petition for power to establish an independent Grand Lodge. In the meantime it was learned that there had been some delay in forwarding the first Petition, so no further action was taken at that time further than the forwarding of a letter to the Grand Master in which the complaints of the Provincial Grand Lodge were clearly set forth. Meetings were held in October 1854 and May and July 1855 and still no satisfaction had been obtained from the mother country. At the July meeting an attempt was made to submit a resolution calling for the formation of an independent Grand Lodge, but the Deputy Grand Master ruled it out of order. A large number of Delegates resented this action and after adjournment called an informal meeting and unanimously passed a resolution that a meeting be called for the loth of October in Hamilton to take into consideration the advisability of establishing an independent Grand Lodge of Canada.


Forty‑four Delegates assembled at the appointed time and place representing Lodges all the way from Montreal to Windsor, for it will be observed that the resolution embraced Lower as well as Uppper Canada. It was a very anxious time for all concerned. In the hearts of all there was a strong attachment to the Old Country. The efforts to establish in Canada any stable form of government had not up to that time been very successful. There was a tendency to lean heavily upon the motherland, to look to her for support and guidance, to place implicit confidence in her counsels and that same dependent attitude largely prevailed in matters Masonic. On the other hand, they felt that their grievances were real and that the only remedy was complete independence. After the usual preliminaries a resolution to that effect was presented and met with only one dissenting vote. William Mercer Wilson, judge of the County Court of Norfolk, was elected the first Grand Maste rof the Grand Lodge of Canada. To him Freemasonry in Canada owes more than to any other man. His scholarly attainments, amiable disposition, exemplary life, gentlemanly instincts and judicial training peculiarly qualified him for the position. He was at the outset confronted with two very difficult problems, viz. to secure recognition by the other Grand jurisdictions including the Grand Lodge of England, and what promised to be a much more difficult one, to reconcile and bring within the fold those Lodges that had not approved the step that had been taken.


Matters were not moving very smoothly at this time with the Provincial Grand Lodge, M. W. Bro. Wilson had approached it with a view of union of the Grand Lodges but a deadlock ensued. Negotiations with the Grand Lodge of England had proven unsatisfactory. The only alternative that remained was to form another independent Grand Lodge of Canada which was accordingly done. This brought about the undesirable condition of two independent Grand Lodges assuming concurrent jurisdiction over the same territory, a condition tantamount to a declaration of war by the new Grand Lodge. It was 76 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION in this crisis that M. W. Bro. Wilson displayed his consummate skill and diplomacy. Although the two Grand Bodies hurled invectives at each other he did not despair of effecting a union, as he realised and bent all his energies towards convincing both belligerents that Freemasonry could not thrive in such an atmosphere. In this endeavour he had an able assistant in the person of R. W. Bro. J. D. Harington, Provincial Grand Master of Quebec and Three Rivers, a member of the Provincial Grand Lodge and, after the union, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Canada for four consecutive years. Committees were appointed by the respective Grand Lodges, conferences were held under the guidance of these two distinguished Brethren and a basis of union was finally reached satisfactory to both parties. The union was consummated on 14th of July 1858. It was at this gathering that M. W. Bro. Wilson, whose memory is honoured and revered throughout the entire jurisdiction, presented in his address his conception of the essential qualifications of a Master of a Lodge. We tender no apology for presenting it in full, as he himself was a living exemplication of the ideal Master.


" To become the model Master of a Lodge should be the ambition of every Brother: and to discharge with efficiency and zeal the duties of that important Office should be his most anxious desire. These duties are not confined to the mere repetition of a few phrases, learned by rote, but he should be enabled to instruct the Craft, not only as to the meaning and origin of our ceremonies, but also to explain to them the philosophy which is veiled in its allegories and illustrated by its symbols. He should be able, also, to convince his Brethren, that all science and all art, legitimately directed, are but lines that radiate towards the great ` I AM,' that the sciences are the media by which we are led to contemplate the goodness, greatness, wisdom and power of the Great Architect of the Universe: and that the arts are the modes we have developed of expressing our sense and admiration of the wondrous glories of an Almighty Father which are scattered around us. The Master of a Lodge should also, in his life and in his conversation, be a model for his Brethren to admire and imitate, and should himself practise virtues which he inculcates within its walls. He should be punctual and methodical in all things, and, both by his character and conduct, command the respect, the esteem, and good will of all men for, as the Master is supreme in his Lodge, and distinguished by his position in the Craft, so should he also be distinguished as the possessor of an irreproachable character, a dignified demeanour, an expanded intellect, and a liberal education. Happy and prosperous must those Lodges be which are governed by such men!‑Their time of meeting is looked forward to by the Brethren with the most pleasing anticipations. Prompt at the hour, every Brother is at his station, and the Work is carried on with pleasure and profit. The Worshipful Master who presides over his Lodge with ability, firmness, and decision for without force of character there can be no force of impression, whose manner is courteous yet dignified: whose decisions are consonant with reason and Masonic law: and who dispenses light and information among the Craft, will ever OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 77 be regarded by his Brethren as one who is entitled to their highest respect and their most fraternal regard." The union of the two Grand Lodges of Canada having been happily effected there was still wanting recognition by the Grand Lodge of England. Although there had been some heated correspondence over the action of the Canadian Brethren, there was never a time when they lost their respect and reverence for the Mother Grand Lodge. Nearly all of the other Grand jurisdictions had gladly extended recognition and it was quite apparent that the Grand Lodge of England could not consistently decline much longer to extend fraternal greetings. The main difficulty was the desire of the English Grand Lodge to protect a few Lodges it had Warranted, and which had not affiliated with the Canadian Grand Lodge. To M. W. Bro. Wilson is due the credit of bringing about a settlement of this problem. On the first of June 1859 an agreement was reached acknowledging the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Canada, but reserving the rights and privileges of private Lodges and individuals still holding firm in their allegiance to the Grand Lodge of England. It was further provided that no more Warrants for new Lodges in any part of Canada would be granted by the English Grand Lodge.


M. W. Bro. Wilson ruled the destinies of the Grand Lodge for the first five years of its existence. After this period he was re‑elected from time to time, serving in all ten years in the Grand East. When he first assumed Office there were 41 Lodges owing allegiance to the Grand Lodge of Canada. When he surrendered his gavel at the end of his first term of five years there were 136 holding Warrants and two Working under Dispensations. He had piloted the Craft through threatening storms and treacherous waters and brought it safely into port. It was with a heart filled with emotion and gratitude to the Great Architect of the Universe that he used the following words in his valedictory address in 186o " To God and to Him alone, are we indebted for the peace, happiness and prosperity which has attended our efforts and blessed our labours. With gratified hearts and due solemnity, we do therefore earnestly entreat our heavenly Father to continue to us His protection, blessing and guidance." That prayer has been answered in full measure. Complications have arisen and difficulties have presented themselves, but all these problems have been solved and at no time since that prayer was uttered has Freemasonry in the Province of Ontario sustained any serious injury from internal dissensions or strained relations with foreign jurisdictions. The total membership at that time was 3664 but by a steady growth the number has increased to about 116,ooo at the present time.


The question of benevolence must sooner or later force itself to the front in every jurisdiction and the Grand Lodge of Canada was not exempt from this perplexing problem of caring for the indigent Brethren and their dependents. In a moment of excessive optimism Grand Lodge committed itself in 1861 to a scheme for the erection of an asylum for the aged and indigent Masons. It 78 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION was proposed to raise $io,ooo by voluntary subscription which as soon as raised was to be supplemented by another $io,ooo from the general funds. For forty years the question was kept dangling before Grand Lodge. Committees were appointed from time to time to report upon the feasibility of the scheme and although the fund with accumulated interest had passed the $io,ooo mark by 1884 Grand Lodge could not see its way clear to undertake the erection of the building. As early as 1867 M. W. Bro. Wilson, who was again the occupant of the Throne expressed himself as decidedly opposed to the undertaking.


In commenting upon the attitude of those who were at the time receiving assistance from their respective Lodges or from Grand Lodge he said: " I am convinced that very few of them, if any, would accept your bounty if coupled with the condition that before they could become the recipients of it, they must become the inmates of a Masonic asylum." This was the keynote of the objections presented every time the question was brought forward. It remained for the Committee of Audit and Finance to devise in igoo an ingenious method of disposing of the money which at that time amounted to over $16,ooo, by getting Grand Lodge to adopt its report which gave expression to the opinion that unless Grand Lodge at its next Annual Session otherwise ordered, the Asylum Fund should merge into the General Fund. No action was taken at the next meeting so the merger was automatically effected. Had the subject been introduced it is quite possible that the result might have been different. Entirely apart from any sums expended by individual Masons and constituent Lodges, Grand Lodge paid out during the past year, 1934, in benevolence the sum of $i22,149.oo, and this annual expenditure is likely to increase in the future. The fund is administered very satisfactorily by a Committee of Benevolence assisted in the larger centres by Boards o˙ Relief. The question of a Masonic Home was again introduced in 192‑2, and a Committee was appointed to enquire into the desirability of establishing one. After a thorough enquiry extending over two years the Committee reported that they did not consider it advisable or practicable to entertain the proposal to build a hospital, home or school.


On the first of July 1867 our Province underwent another political change followed very quickly by a demand for a change in the jurisdiction of our Grand Lodge. On that date Upper and Lower Canada, Nova Scotia and New Bruns wick were united under one federal government with a local legislative assembly for each Province. Lower Canada resumed its former name as the Province of Quebec while Upper Canada entered the federation as the Province of Ontario .


In the month of October 1869 after some unpleasant preliminaries a Convention of Delegates from the Quebec Lodges went through the form of organising an independent Grand Lodge for that Province. The reason assigned was that Quebec and Ontario had become separate Provinces and should be separate Masonic Jurisdictions. Owing to some alleged irregularities or what we might charitably term misunderstandings between the leaders of the move‑ 8o FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION its reports are very rarely rejected or amended. The Board, of course, has no power to suspend or amend the Constitution and can act independently in only such matters as it is given power to do by Grand Lodge. The Deputy Grand Master is ex‑officio President of the Board and presides at its meetings.


Our Ritual is modelled after that of the United Grand Lodge of England. There are a few verbal changes but the casual observer would not be able to detect any difference. Our first Grand Masters spent many anxious moments in their endeavours to overcome the lack of uniformity in the Work. Slight inaccuracies would creep in at one part or another of the ceremonies. These might have been produced through a defective memory or a failure to grasp a correct rendering of the part. For the past quarter of a century very little difficulty has been experienced along this line. Each of the thirty‑four District Deputy Grand Masters is expected, during his term of office, which is for one year only, to visit every Lodge in his District, and to see that every Officer is proficient in his Work. For over twenty‑five years a veteran Grand Master, a recognised authority upon the Ritual, has taken the District Deputy Grand Masters in hand immediately after their election and thoroughly instructed them in the duties of their Office and in the secret Work. This course, extending over a period of years, has produced a remarkable uniformity throughout every part of the jurisdiction. No levity of any kind is tolerated in conferring the Degrees, but on the contrary every effort is put forward to impress upon the candidate that he is embarking upon a serious undertaking, and that he will be expected to observe faithfully the lessons presented to him for his consideration.


Grand Lodge has been deeply concerned in recent years over the question of Masonic Education. There was a conviction that the newly‑Initiated candidates were not receiving the attention that they had a right to expect from the Lodge. In the course of the ceremonies they were repeatedly enjoined to pursue certain courses of study, but nothing was done to guide them in their pursuit of knowledge, with the result that in many instances the members became discouraged, indifferent and irregular in their attendance, with the inevitable suspension for non‑payment of dues. The question of seeking a remedy for this unfortunate state of affairs was first brought to the attention of Grand Lodge by M. W. Bro. Martin at the Annual Communication in 192‑9. His appeal received a sympathetic hearing, and a Committee was appointed to investigate the whole matter and to report at the next Annual meeting. The Committee entered energetically upon their duties, but finding the task assigned to them much more complicated than was anticipated they were not in a position to report until 1931‑ In view of the fact that fewer applications for membership were being received the time seemed particularly opportune for devoting some of the spare time to Masonic Education. To secure uniformity of procedure steps were taken to prepare manuals of instruction. These have now been completed for the first and second Degrees. The Committee is now one of the standing Committees of Grand Lodge, and to it is committed the full control through‑ OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 81 out the entire jurisdiction. Competent instructors have been appointed in every District. Each Lodge is expected to introduce some educational topic in the programme of at least two meetings each year. Lectures are delivered or papers read, followed by a question drawer and discussion of the subject brought before the Brethren. The result has been most gratifying. The members have displayed an eagerness to acquire more knowledge of the history of the Craft and its mysteries and symbolism. The attendance at the regular meetings has been increased and a keener interest is manifested in all the proceedings of the Lodge. While the system is still in an experimental stage the consensus of opinion is that it will eventually be put upon a permanent basis, and will go a long way towards solving the vexed problem of the too‑prevailing lack of interest in the proceedings of the Lodge.


Selected statistics covering the entire period from the formation of our Grand Lodge to the present time showing the number of Lodges, membership, finances, and benevolent work are shown on the following pages.


QUEBEC W. W. WILLIAMSON HE ancient city of Quebec, crowded with historical interest and romance from the day of its foundation up to the very present, and from within whose walls came those hardy explorers who were so largely instrumental in opening up a new world, possesses a peculiar interest for the Masonic Fraternity for the northern half of the North American continent. It was there that the first governing body of Freemasonry was created in Canada, immediately after the capture of the city by General Wolfe.


From time to time various claims have been advanced that some form of Masonry had been brought over from France long before the fall of Quebec. While we are not in position to disprove those claims, at the same time we can confidently assert that there is no existing proof that such was the case. In support of these claims, attention has been drawn to the finding in Quebec, in the year 1784, of a Cross of St. John of Jerusalem. On it was sculptured a Templar's shield having the shape of a keystone. The cross bore the date 1647. It is more than likely, however, that the Knights Hospitaller of Malta, or some similar organisation, once maintained the establishments in both Quebec and Montreal, and that this cross may have come from the ruins of one of their asylums. The cross has been preserved and is now embedded in the gateway that leads to the principal entrance of the Chateau Frontenac.


At the outset it may be stated that so soon as civilian Lodges had been established in Quebec, the French Canadians of that day formed a good part of the membership. They were apparently very enthusiastic in spreading Masonry over the then known portions of the region. Indeed on important occasions 82 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION YEAR NUMBER OF LODGES MEMBERSHIP REVENUE AMOUNT SPENT FOR BENEVOLENCE 1856 41 1,179 L93 /5 1857 1858 1859 49 113 123 1,581 3,042 3,341 b54/II/2 $1,381.00 4093 i86o 140 3,664 3,947 $75 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 151 154 158 164 172 172 184 195 209 3,993 4,368 4,750 5,249 5,792 6,380 7,000 8,o22 8,797 5,466.oo 4,182.00 4,881.oo 5,o68.oo 5,695.00 6,65o.oo 6,92‑3‑00 8,02‑3‑00 8,612.oo 15.00 30.00 150.00 495 ‑00 33000 401.00 46o.oo 9io.0o 1,245.00 1870 229 9,99, 9,683 2, I9o 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 253 281 297 276 288 303 319 324 334 10,500 12,168 13)750 14,530 15,934 16,719 17,220 17,418 17,587 9793 10,346.oo 11,698.oo 13,532.00 14,070.00 14,130.00 17,013.00 16,945 16,570‑00 3,481.00 4, Ioo.oo 4,870‑00 4,64o.oo 5,6o5.oo 5,925.00 6,o66.oo 7,42‑5.00 g,18o.oo 188o 340 17,474 I5,46o 6.870 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 189o 189i 1892 1893 1894 346 347 349 350 356 357 357 355 354 354 348 347 348 349 17,635 17,967 18,442 18,9II 18,983 1925 6 19,450 19,740 19,818 20,499 2‑o,892 2‑1,42.8 22,o64 2‑2,530 21,499‑00 16,gI3.OO 18,044.00 16,478.oo 16,742.00 16,482.oo 15,604.00 18,673 ‑00 17,007.00 18,4o8.oo 19,477‑00 19,796.oo 21,522.00 18,991.oo I I , o80. oo 8,710.00 9,370.00 9,000.00 9,800.00 9,26o.oo 9,625.oo 9,840.00 9,770‑00 9,61o.oo 5,070‑00 7,07500 8,085.00 9)500.00 OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 83 YEAR NUMBER OF LODGES MEMBERSHIP REVENUE AMOUNT SPENT FOR BENEVOLENCE 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 Igoo 1901 1902 1903 1904 11905 Igo6 1907 Igo8 11909 1910 IgII 1912 19113 1914 1915 IgI6 11917 1818 1919 1920 1921 1922192‑3 192‑4 1925 1926 1927 1928 192.9 11930 1931 19321933 11934 351 357 360 361 361 362 362 372375 383 391 395 397 406 411 413 4113 421 432442445 449 453 458 472 486 501 527 537 538 545 555 559 563 564 567 568 568 568 568 22,705 23,351 23,398 23,996 24,957 25,922 26,939 28,421 30,485 32,708 34,965 37,728 39,795 41,180 43,908 46,40 48,394 50,721 53,699 56,787 58,983 61,062 63,477 66,457 72,029 8o,92o 84,285 91,879 98,036 Io2,o96 105,339 107,676 1110, 549 112,401 114,237 115,981 116,998 116,166 II3,II8 108,887 18,710.00 20,215.00 2o,828.oo 19,798‑00 21,040.00 22,413.00 2‑3,499‑00 25,3411.00 26,724.00 30,263.00 33,01111.00 34,377‑00 37,359.00 38,954‑00 37,446.oo 4I,362.oo 42.,383‑00 43,1144‑00 44,696.oo 47,241.00 47,233‑00 46, 5 6o.oo 65,799‑00 85,34000 95,116o.oo 114,330.00 143,508.00 139,718.oo 1137,794.00 141,43400 143,768.oo 143,74100 153,723.00 153,59200 1155,543‑00 163,142.00 173,482..oo 16g,304‑00 161,419.00 I5o,868.oo 8,570‑00 9,830.00 8,46o.oo Io,0oo.00 10,150.00 io,6oo.oo 11,340.00 II,565.oo I1,88o.oo 12.,905.00 13,94000 22.,I10.00 20,150.00 23, I66.oo 26,372‑00 2.6,774‑00 30,1195 .00 311,89700 33,835 33,7o8.oo 34,745 36,o7o.oo 36,48500 38,705 40,130.00 51,030.00 66,577‑00 78,410.00 102,275.00 I07,86o.oo 103,005.00 100, 500.00 Io7, Ioo.OO 111,803.00 105,370.00 117,075.00 117,86i.oo 119,025.00 122,149.00 Masonic services were held in Roman Catholic churches, This interest of the French Canadians was maintained for nearly a century, or until the decade from 1860 to 1870. At that time they withdrew from membership for reasons best known to themselves.


84 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION During the last century and up to the present time, many ardent Masonic historians have made increasing efforts to delve into the past, and though they have added many valuable and indisputable facts to our knowledge of Masonic history in Canada, there are still many links in the chain still missing. Many of these are believed to exist in some form or other, although they are at the moment hidden from view. The Province of Quebec is no exception to this almost universal condition. Perhaps no more striking instance of the recovery of valuable Masonic documents is recorded than the recent discovery of the original Minute Book of the first Grand Lodge of Canada, which had lain in darkness for over a century and a half. Found in a village hundreds of miles from any Masonic centre, it had apparently remained all these years in the possession of the descendants of some noted Mason of the eighteenth century. Happily it was brought to light some ten years ago.


The discovery of this precious Record enables us to correct errors made in former Masonic histories of the jurisdiction of Quebec. It can be considered as an authoritative guide to our Masonic past. The writer has been able to verify all the contents of the book by examining the Records in the library of the Grand Lodge of England. As may be readily surmised, the Minute Book is hand‑written, and is partly a Minute Book and partly a Correspondence Record. From it we learn that soon after the fall of Quebec, on September 113, 1759, the members of the Military Lodges, thinking that they would doubtless be stationed in Quebec for quite a length of time, felt the necessity of having some form of supervision, since there were at the time so many Masonic Warrants in possession of the various regiments stationed in or about Quebec. With that love for law and order which has always characterised the Anglo‑Saxon, a meeting of a few of the Military Lodges was therefore called. This resulted in the creation of the Grand Lodge of Canada. Because of the importance of that meeting, the Minutes of it are given here. They are as follows Quebec on the 28th day of November 11759 and of Masonry 5759, which was as soon as convenient after the Surrender of this place to His Britannic Majesty's Arms.


The masters and wardens of the following Lodges, viz: No. 1192 in the 47th Regiment, No. 2118 in the 48th Regiment, No. 245 in the 115th Regiment, Dispensation 1136 in the 43rd Regiment, Dispensation 1195 in the Artillery, all of the Registery of Ireland, and No. 11, of Louisbourg warrant: Mett in form at 6 o'clock in the evening when it was consulted and agreed upon, as there were so many Lodges in this Garrison, That one of the brethren present of the Greatest Skill and Merritt shou'd take u on him the Name of GRAND MASTER from the Authority of the above Loges untill such time as a favourable opportunity shou'd offer for obtaining a proper sanction from the Right Worshipful and Right Honourable the Grand Master of England and in consequence thereof our True and faithful Brother Mr. John Price Guinnitt Lieutenant in his Majesty's 47th Regiment was unanimously and to the Great satisfaction of the whole fraternity assembled Proclaimed GRAND MASTER for the En‑ OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 85 suing year, when being properly installed in the chair he chose our worthy Brother Thomas Augustus Span Esq. Captain in the 28th Regiment his Deputy who was thereupon proclaimed as such, and Brothers Huntingford and were Chosen Senior & Junior Grand Wardens and Brother Paxton Grand Secretary.


Thus the first Grand Lodge of Canada was launched in good faith and the constituent Lodges at once proceeded to build up a permanent and representative organisation which has continued uninterruptedly to the present time.


The first Grand Master did not retain his Office more than six months, for we find that on June 24, 176o, Bro. Simon Fraser, Colonel of the 78th Regiment, was elected Grand Master and that again on November 24 of the same year, Bro. Augustus Span was elected. Thus we discover that that early Lodge had the unique experience of having three Grand Masters in less than one year! On December 27, 1761, Lieutenant Milburne West was elected Grand Master and then on October 30, 1762, he was re‑elected. At the latter Communication a Bro. Walker produced a Warrant from the Grand Master of England empowering him to form and hold a Lodge by the name of Merchants Lodge, No. i. The Grand Lodge of England, not having been advised of the creation of the Grand Lodge of Canada, was quite justified in its action. The confusion which naturally arose brought the fact very forcibly before the local Grand Lodge that it had not been authorised by either of the existing Grand Bodies to erect a governing Body in Canada. At this Assembly seven Lodges were present, and it was immediately decided to appoint a Committee to obtain the sanction of the Grand Lodge of England to convene and hold a Grand Lodge in the city of Quebec.


Accordingly the Committee lost no time in preparing a Petition an exact copy of which follows To the Right Worshipfull and Right Honourable Grand Master and Right Worshipfull the Grand Wardens of True & accepted Masons of England etc., etc, etc., The Memorial of the Masters and Wardens of the several Lodges at present meeting residing in Canada, formed into a Grand Lodge, Humbly sheweth; That your Memorialists having nothing more at heart than the Good and well‑being of the Royal Art, having thought it proper (agreeable to these our Sentiments) to transmitt unto you the enclosed Exact and faithfull abstract of our proceedings under the above appellation.


We beg leave also to acquaint you that we should not have been this long neglectfull of Transmitting our proceedings, but that we had reason to hope as many Worthy Brothers, particularly Brother Dunkerly of His Majesty's ship the Van Guard, and our late Right Worshipfull Guinnett who so long ago as the year 176o left this place for England, promised to recommend our case to your consideration, but not having the satisfaction of hearing from you by either of them, we take this method of acquainting you that altho' we have been thus convened and done all that in us lay for the benefit of our particular 86 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION Lodges & the Good and well being of Masonry in General, we should think our roceedings more on the square and agreeable to the Rules of the ancient Craft if we acted under your Immediate Sanction and sublime Instruction.


And shou'd your Superior Wisdom Disaprove of our prior proceedings we flatter ourselves that that Charity which is inherent in every Masons breast (and so particularly shines in yours) will attribute it not to want of Respect for your Honourable Body, but to our particular zeal for the Good of the Craft which must have Greatly Suffer'd in this distant part of the world but for the methods we took upon us to transact.


For these reasons we have confided in our Worthy Brother Collins to present this our Memorial and to accompany it with Twenty pounds as a small token of our Respect for you and our Distress'd Brethren, hoping you will excuse our not Enlarging it at present, having had frequent opportunities of Extending our Charitable Collections not only to Distress'd Brethren and poor Widows of Brethren who have fallen in the fields of Battle but even to relieve the distresses and miserys of some hundreds of poor miserable Canadians During the Course of a long and Severe Winter, so that our present fund will not admitt of it, but we trust we shall have future opportunities of continuing our Respects.


Requesting you will take our situation under your mature consideration and answer our petition as in your Superior Wisdom you shall deem meet.


And should it be the case that we shou'd merritt your approbation and be found worthy your particular sanction, we beg leave to recommend our true and faithfull Brother Milburne West (Lieut. in His Majesty's 47th Regiment) at present acting as our Grand Master to your notice to be by you appointed as Provincial Grand Master for the Conquered Country of Canada under your Sanction and protection, shou'd you think him and us worthy that honour, with such power as to you may seem requisite, such as Granting Warrants & nominating a Successor should he unluckily be removed from us.


And your Memorialists as in duty Quebec, 8th November bound shall ever pray, &c, &c. &c. 762.


Accompanying this Petition was a list of the Lodges under the supervision of the Grand Lodge. The list consisted wholly of fourteen Military Lodges, only eight of which were then sojourning in Canada. The total membership numbered about iso.


It may here be noted that at the meeting held in October 1762, the submission of a Warrant to establish Merchants Lodge, No. 1 was the start of the first civilian Lodge in Canada, and that the Warrant was promptly recognised as such. The only modification made was changing from No. 1 to No. 9 on the Register of the local Grand Lodge.


It may also be noted that in the foregoing letter the name of Bro. Dunckerley is mentioned. The activities of that eminent Brother in later years are fully dealt with in Bro. Sadler's valuable Work, Thomas Dunckerley: His Life, Labours, and Letters, published in 1891. Attention is here called to the reference in the above letter merely to show that as far back as 1762 Bro. Dunckerley was a OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 87 Mason of some importance. Indeed, a letter from Bro. Gawler to the Grand Lodge of England under date of February 9, 1769, explaining in detail the situation in Canada, states, " and Brother Dunckerley of His Majesty's ship Vanguard, who was possessed with a power from the Grand Lodge of England to Inspect into the State of the Craft wheresoever he might go honoured them with his approbation of their Proceedings and Installed Brother Fraser in his high office." The Bro. Gawler who wrote this letter was a member of a Military Lodge at the time of the capture of Quebec. Later he took up his residence in England. He was a man of much literary merit, as a reading of his interesting letters will prove.


The Petitioning letter was duly received in England, and on May S, 1764, Lord Ferrers signed a Deputation in favour of Bro. West. Meantime, however, Bro. West had returned to England. The Deputation was forwarded to him at his English address, but he never acknowledged the receipt of it, nor did he ever return to Canada. Thus the much‑expected confirmation was again delayed. Then, under date of June z3, 1763, the Provincial Grand Secretary advised the Grand Secretary of England that Bro. West had never returned to Canada, and that since he had never sent any communication to his Brethren in Canada, they therefore Petitioned the Grand Master of England for a Deputation in favour of Bro. John Collins who had been carrying on the duties of the Office of Provincial Grand Master.


Thanks to the assistance of Bro. Gawler, who proved an excellent medium for the adjustment of all the difficulties encountered in England by the Canadian Brethren, another Deputation was forwarded to Canada, but it, too, was des tined never to arrive. Under date of October 14, 1766, the Grand Secretary of England advised his Canadian Brethren as follows: " we were greatly chagrined at our being Disappointed therein by their being lost in coming up to this town from Cape Torment in the ship's Pinnace." It was not very clear whether the words " their being lost " referred only to the papers or whether it meant that the passengers, too, had been lost. But a subsequent letter to the Brother who was commissioned to make still another request to the Grand Lodge of England made it certain that not only was the Deputation lost but also the Brethren, who happened to be on board the pinnace referred to. Part of that letter made the following statement: " . . . as they fear the former one is lost with their unfortunate Brethren that were Drown'd in Coming up here last spring." Bro. Gawler then saw to it that another Deputation was at last sent forward on March 18, 1768, and so that phase of a troublesome question was finally settled definitely. It was found, however, that even when the Deputation did at last arrive, it did not give the Provincial Grand Lodge of Canada the right to elect its own Grand Master, a privilege which the members ardently desired, since all previous Grand Masters had been drawn from Military Lodges. The uncertainty of their place of residence of military Masonic Grand Officers made it necessary for the Provincial Grand Lodge to have such power unless it was able to appoint a civilian to the Office. The question was then submitted to 88 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION the Grand Lodge of England, and the Grand Master of that Grand Body pointed out quite firmly and courteously that the Office of Provincial Grand Master was not elective, and that his appointment was one of the prerogatives of the Grand Master and was effective only during his pleasure or until his death. The Grand Master of England also stated that he was not agreeable to surrendering his power.


During these early years, nothing had been heard of the Masons at Montreal, if such there were, although the city had capitulated in 176o. Nevertheless, on December 11, 1767, a Communication was received from a Bro. Antill. It drew attention to the neglected members of the Craft in Montreal, and stated that there were many Brethren there who were aimlessly drifting along because they had no recognised head to lead them. This communication brought forth an immediate response, and Bro. Antill was appointed Deputy Provincial Grand Master with full power to organise the Fraternity in Montreal. The outcome seems to have been the starting of two Lodges, one of which, No. 374 on the Register of the Grand Lodge of England, still exists.


At about this time one or two minor difficulties also arose. One of them questioned the right of the Provincial Grand Master to Warrant new Lodges. Another questioned his power to authorise Lodges to dispense with certain regulations in connection with the admission of members. When an amicable submission of these questions was made to the Grand Master of England, he fully sustained the Provincial Grand Master in his decisions. Following this, nothing else of importance occurred during the next few years, except the production of a Warrant from a Grand Body in France authorising Bro. Pierre Gamlin to open Lodges in the Province of Canada. The Warrant was never used, but it seems that Bro. Gamlin was taken in as a member and later was deputed, with other Brethren to form a Lodge in Detroit. This incident gave considerable colour to the claim made that " Masonry was practiced in Quebec under authority of a governing body of France long before the capitulation of that City." It is recorded that in 1777 only five Lodges were then in obedience to the Provincial Grand Lodge. This was most likely caused by the Military Lodges having left the locality and the coming of the American War for Independence, with the consequent slowing down of activities. Soon after the departure of the American colonial troops from Canadian cities, however, the Craft again became fairly active, new Lodges were instituted, and the old ones revived their interest.


The arrival in Quebec of H.R.H. Prince Edward, later Duke of Kent and the father of Queen Victoria, who had been made an honorary Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns) in August 1791 aroused much in terest in Masonic circles. This interest became pronounced when the Prince received a Deputation (Commission) from the Grand Lodge of England (Ancients), appointing him Provincial Grand Master of Canada.


How he became " healed " from the Moderns to the Ancients is not re‑ OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 89 corded, but the change had great consequences. Only a few of the Lodges in Canada had been Chartered by the Ancients; most of them were of Modern origin. Nevertheless the influence of a Prince of the royal blood was sufficient to cause those Lodges of Modern origin to be healed from the Modern to the Ancient Register, and at the time of the amalgamation of the two rival English Grand Lodges in 1813 not one Canadian Lodge remained under the Modern Register. This is all the more remarkable when one considers that the Prince was resident in Quebec only until January 1794, when his regiment, the 7th Fusiliers, of which he was the commanding officer, was ordered to the West Indies, thus removing him from the active duties of his Masonic Office after a little more than three years.


But the Prince's absence from the jurisdiction did not prevent the Provincial Grand Lodge from " electing " him every year up to and including 181o. Then, in 1811, the Hon. Claude Denechau was '' elected," apparently without any authority from the Grand Master of England. This " election " was notable in that it chose the first civilian to hold the Office of Grand Master. It was the outcome of a great deal of discontent at not having a Grand Master on the spot to govern the Craft.


In 18o9, fifty years after the Provincial Grand Lodge was organised, considerable progress had been made, perhaps the most important change having been the gradual displacement of army and naval Lodges by civilian Lodges. At the close of 18o9 there were twenty Lodges under the jurisdiction of Quebec. Of those, only seven were attached to the military. Fifty years before all Canadian Lodges had been attached to the various regiments, and were, therefore, Military Lodges.


From 1812. to 1814 Masonic peace and harmony were again disturbed by the second war between the United States and England, and although Masonic progress was not thereby seriously impeded, yet Masonry did feel the effects of the many invasions to which Canada was subjected at that time. After the close of this war, and after the final victory of the British at Waterloo, in 1815, Canada settled down to developing its resources. This attracted a large number of immigrants from the Old World, most of them British. As a result, the Craft benefited largely by this peaceful invasion.


After waiting for a number of years to secure a confirmation of the appointment of judge Denechau, who had been carrying on the duties of Provincial Grand Master, a Deputation was issued in his favour on January 3, 182o. This gave him authority only over the Territory of Quebec and Three Rivers, and thus divided the Province into two Districts. This division was not effective, however, until 1823, when the District of Montreal and William Henry was Constituted, with Bro. William McGillvray as its first Provincial Grand Master. This division was inevitable because of the growing number of Lodges in and around Montreal and the inconvenience of their being so far away from the seat of government.


The year in which judge Denechau's Deputation was received, 182o, saw go FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION eighteen civilian Lodges under his jurisdiction. In addition there was one Military Lodge. It may be noted that the original Deputation granted to judge Denechau is now in possession of the Grand Lodge of Quebec. It was discovered in Quebec some few years ago. There it had reposed in darkness for more than a century. It is signed by Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, and is also signed by the two joint Grand Secretaries, Bro. White and Bro. Harper. It is in as good condition as on the day when it was written; not a blemish mars its surface! After 182.o, much material progress was made, the only disturbing element having been the " Morgan affair " which so effectually disrupted the Craft in the Eastern part of the United States. Because of the proximity of Canadian border Lodges to the seat of trouble, the anti‑Masonic agitation had some deterring influence upon Masonic life in Canada. Fortunately, however, it was not particularly felt in the Province of Quebec. Indeed, several new Lodges were instituted there during that unsettled period, among them the present Lodge of St. George, No. 1o, which was Warranted in 182.9 and has prospered ever since.


Continued accessions to the population of Quebec for the next twenty‑five years brought in their train a corresponding increase in the number of Lodges and a great increase of membership. Nevertheless, it was not until the decade from 185o to i86o, that anything of particular note occurred. Then commenced the agitation for a Grand Lodge of Canada, brought about especially because of grave complaints of neglect on the part of the Grand Lodge of England. Delays in Canadian affairs were caused, of course, by the region's being so far distant from the seat of government, and by the lack of speedy communication in those days. Too, the Canadian Lodges claimed that they were not only contributing to the upkeep of their Provincial Grand Bodies (Scottish and Irish Lodges were at this time governed by their own Provincial Grand Lodges), but also to the funds of the mother Grand Bodies without enjoying any compensatory advantages. The agitation culminated in a Convention that was held in the city of Hamilton, Ontario, on October 1o, 1855, in which considerably fewer than half the Lodges of Canada took part. Only forty‑one Lodges were represented, of which twelve were from Quebec. After much deliberation, the Grand Lodge of Canada was founded. At once it proceeded to obtain recognition from other Grand Bodies. In this it was only partially successful.


This rather bold step met with vigorous opposition from the Lodges that had not been represented, and particularly from the Grand Lodge of England, which denied the charges that had been brought against it. Much bitterness ensued. The majority of the Canadian Lodges remained true to their Mother Grand Bodies for quite a length of time, but finally, in 1857, a Committee of seven Brethren was appointed to meet a like Committee from the Provincial Grand Lodge of Canada West. They met on August 5, 1857, and considered the question of union, but since they could not agree on some essentials, they separated with the understanding that they would report to their respective Grand Bodies.


In September 1857, the Provincial Grand Lodge dissolved and at once de‑ OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 91 clared itself to be the " Ancient Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of Canada." As may be imagined this action did not tend to promote any union of the Brethren. Nevertheless, the negotiations for union were continued by both sides, and finally, on July 14, 1858, the long‑expected union occurred. Thus all differences between the rival Grand Lodges disappeared and much rejoicing resulted.


Not all the Lodges of Quebec took part in the establishment of either of these Grand Bodies. Some remained loyal to their Provincial Grand Lodge, and during the next nine years nothing of importance arose to change conditions. Then, in 1867, the Masonic serenity of Canada was disturbed by the political change of that year, which brought into existence the Dominion of Canada. Since this event brought forth a strong feeling that independent Masonic jurisdictions ought to be coterminous with the boundaries of the various Provinces, the Masons of the Province of Quebec carried into execution this praiseworthy idea. On October 2.o, 1869, therefore, the Representatives of an unstated number of Lodges met and formally declared the Grand Lodge of Quebec to be duly Constituted. For some unknown reason, the Lodges represented at that meeting were not listed in the first Annual Report, but we do know that there were Representatives of twenty‑eight Lodges present at the meeting held in 1870. At the time of the institution of the Grand Lodge of Quebec, there were fortyfour Lodges in the Province. Thus more than half of them threw in their lot with the newly erected Grand Lodge. The Grand Lodge of Canada bitterly opposed the formation of an independent Body in Quebec. This seems to have been a strange attitude, when one recalls that that Lodge had been bitterly opposed when it took similar steps in 1855. So strong was its disapproval that its meeting of 1873 was held in Montreal, four years after the formation of the Grand Lodge of Quebec! After five years of somewhat acrimonious dispute, wiser counsels prevailed, and in 1874, twenty‑five of the Lodges under the Grand Lodge of Canada came under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Quebec, and it was not until 1881, that the three Scotch Lodges became obedient to the Grand Lodge of Quebec. This left the three English Lodges still owing allegiance to their Mother Grand Lodge of England.


Following events of 1874, nothing was then left to hinder the peaceful progress of the Grand Lodge of Quebec. In fact, the only disturbing episode was the attempt to bring into the fold the three English Lodges. This brought about an unfortunate edict of non‑recognition between the respective Grand Bodies, but it was of short duration and harmony has since characterised their relations. Slowly but surely the Masonic structure in Quebec was erected, new Lodges being opened all over the Province, particularly in Montreal. This satisfactory progress continued up to the time of the Great War, when 600 members served under the flag for right and justice. Of that number, nearly ioo never returned.


Immediately following the close of the war, the jurisdiction of Quebec, like 92 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION many others, received a great accession of members. Many new Lodges were Constituted, and places until then almost unheard of made requests for Lodges, so that in ten years' time, the number of new Lodges increased 4o per cent. This very satisfactory progress has since continued. This brings our account of Freemasonry in Quebec down to the year of Grace 1934. During the past four years this jurisdiction has experienced a loss in membership in common with all the Grand Bodies on the North American Continent although not serious enough to shake the confidence of the members in the continued progress of the Craft. The loss covering the period named is slightly over 5 per cent and already there is seen a turn for the better. Although we have endeavoured to record authentic matters as distinctly as possible, there are many interesting events which we have necessarily had to omit.


Arising out of the unselfish efforts of those military pioneers of the latter days of 1759, there has been established a stable and ever increasing circle of Masonic influence in the Province of Quebec. This has been accomplished not withstanding the many difficulties encountered at various periods, each set‑back having been only the prelude to greater achievements. This fact may be better emphasised by giving a brief statement of the actual progress that has been made. When the Grand Lodge of Quebec was founded in 1869, the total membership was about 135o. At present, it numbers nearly 16,ooo members, represented by ninety‑five Lodges, ninety‑three of which are constituents of the Grand Lodge of Quebec and two of which still remain under the xgis of the Mother Grand Lodge of the world.


Having thus far dealt with Symbolic Masonry in Quebec, it is fitting to say that all the legitimate branches of Masonry have progressed with equal success in the Province. It is difficult to determine when the Royal Arch Degree was first Worked separate from the Symbolic Degrees, but the Minutes of St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 2, of Quebec City, record that at the funeral of Bro. F. Anderson, held away back in 1783, the pallbearers were " six Royal Arch Masons in Regalia." Too, many references are made to the Work of the Royal Arch before the end of the eighteenth century, all of them in some wayconnected with the Master Mason's Degree. On April 17, 1821, a Royal Arch Chapter was opened at Stanstead. After some lapses, this became Golden Rule Chapter, No. I, which is still in existence.


An interesting item of news to Royal Arch Masons, and indirectly to all members of Symbolic Lodges, has been brought to light by the discovery of old Minute Books which apparently were furnished by the Grand Lodge of England to all Lodges and which contained a full set of Rules and Regulations. These books were set in curious but attractive type, and seem to have been hand‑made. Space was left for showing dues, the date of meetings, and so on. Also bound in these books is a circular, the heading of which is as follows RULES AND REGULATIONS/ for the/ INTRODUCTION to and GOVERNMENT / Of the/ HOLY ROYAL ARCH CHAPTERS/ under the protection and support by/ THE OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 93 ANCIENT GRAND LODGE OF ENGLAND/ made at several times. / Revised and corrected at a General Grand Chapter held at the/ CROWN and ANCHOR TAVERN In the STRAND, LONDON, October 1st, 5794 / CONFIRMED IN GRAND LODGE, DECEMBER 3, 1794.


As indicated by the heading, this circular gives full and concise instructions regarding the formation of Chapters and the granting of admissions to them. It is of interest to members of the Craft because it contains a form which each appli cant for the Royal Arch Degree was required to obtain from his Symbolic Lodge. This form was to show that the unanimous consent of all the applicant's Brethren was necessary before he could be Exalted! This document had to be certified and signed by the Worshipful Master, the two Wardens, and the Secretary. The circular thus shows that in those early days the Grand Chapter was under complete subjection to the Grand Lodge.


All the Chapters in Canada were under the government of the Grand Chapters of the motherland until the time was ripe for exercising supreme power. This was realised in the Province of Quebec on December 12, 1876, when seven Chapters met and organised the Grand Chapter of Quebec.


The Order of Knights Templar as exemplified in Canada came to us from the Great Priory of England and Wales, a Provincial Grand Conclave having been organised in Kingston, Ontario, on October 9, 1855. In 1868 the name was changed to the " Grand Priory of Canada," and again in 1876 it was changed, this time becoming the " National Great Priory of Canada." On July 8, 1884, the Provincial Bodies ceased to exist, and a supreme organisation was established under the name of the " Sovereign Great Priory of Canada." This is the present title. In Quebec there are four Preceptor.ies, with a membership of about a thousand.


The Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite for Canada was established as a Supreme Body on October 16, 1874, after some years of obedience to the Sovereign Body of England and Wales. It was found that their rules and regulations were totally unfitted to the work in Canada; in fact, that they amounted almost to prohibition. Hence the Canadians asked and were graciously granted permission to organise a Sovereign Body for Canada. There are now two Rose Croix Chapters and one Consistory in the Province of Quebec, each having a substantial membership.


The Cryptic Rite of Masonry has long been in evidence in Quebec, mostly however, as a side Degree to the Royal Arch. It was so considered until 1867, when the governing Body of Maine granted the necessary power to the Com panions of the Maritime Provinces to erect a Supreme Grand Council of the Cryptic Rite there. This then assumed jurisdiction over the Province of Quebec. It was not until igo1, however, that those Degrees made formal entry into the Masonic life of Quebec. Then a Council was Chartered. There are two Councils in the Province, having about Soo members. The controlling Body is known as the " Supreme Grand Council of the Eastern Jurisdiction of Canada, Royal and Select Masters." 94 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION Thus, briefly, have all the recognised Bodies of the Craft built on the Symbolic Body been dealt with, so far as the jurisdiction of Quebec is concerned. In closing this history, it may be pointed out that the more epoch‑making events treated were as follows: The start of Masonry in 1759; the advent of the Duke of Kent in 1791; the granting of Provincial authority to a French‑Canadian in 182o' the establishment of the first independent Grand Lodge in 1855; and the general establishment of independent Grand Lodges in all the Provinces, following the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867.


SASKATCHEWAN REVEREND GEORGE H. GLOVER N its origin, Saskatchewan Masonry,is closely related to that of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba and the Grand Lodge of Canada. The early settlers of Manitoba gradually spread westward along the Saskatchewan River to wards Prince Albert. This was in the days of hunting and early settlement. Since many of those settlers came from the region now known as the Province of Manitoba, their Masonic affiliations naturally were with Lodges there. Thus we can look upon the Grand Lodge of Manitoba as our Masonic Mother, although it is, in turn, linked with the Grand Lodge of Canada.


On May 2_o, 1864, a Dispensation was granted by the Grand Master of Minnesota for the Institution of a Lodge in the Red River Settlement. The first meeting of this Lodge was held at Winnipeg on November 6, 1864, the principal Chairs being filled by Sir John Schultz, Hon. A. G. B. Bannantyne, and William Inkster. This Lodge, known as Northern Light Lodge, was held under its Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Minnesota for more than four years. Then, owing to political changes and other changed conditions in the Red River Settlement, and owing to the existence of doubts on the part of the Grand Lodge of Minnesota as to the propriety of its claim to jurisdiction, the Dispensation was recalled and this pioneer Lodge ceased to exist. It had never acquired the status of a Constituted Lodge.


After the Northern Light Lodge passed out of existence there was no Lodge of Freemasonry in the Red River Settlement until 1870. Then a Petition was sent to the Grand Lodge of Canada, which resulted in the granting of a Dispen sation to Winnipeg Lodge in the town of Winnipeg, at that time a village of fifty buildings, by actual count, located just outside the palisades of old Fort Garry. This Dispensation was received and entered upon on December io, 1870. As the Riel Rebellion of 1869 and 187o had by this time been put down, a new era of prosperity and expansion began in this section of Manitoba and the West. For several reasons, Western communities, especially those along the Saskatchewan River, sprang into existence, and settlement both for hunting and agriculture rapidly developed. In the course of this development many Masons who found OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 95 themselves scattered about in what we should now call Northeastern Saskatchewan still looked to the East for their Masonic affiliations. Winnipeg Lodge afterwards had its name changed to Prince Rupert Lodge. In 1871 it was duly Constituted on the Grand Register of the Grand Lodge of Canada as Prince Rupert Lodge, No. 244. It must be borne in mind, however, that the term "Grand Lodge of Canada " then referred only to the Grand Lodge having jurisdiction over what is now known as the Province of Ontario. This is still the case. The term "Grand Lodge of Canada " does not relate to a Grand Lodge having jurisdiction over the entire Dominion. Prince Rupert Lodge, No. 244, though not the pioneer Lodge of Manitoba, was the first regularly Chartered Lodge in that Province. It may be recorded as the first legally Constituted Masonic authority in Manitoba, and, incidentally, in the Province of Saskatchewan.


In 1871 a Manitoban Lodge, now known as Lisgar Lodge, was organised at Lower Fort Garry (Selkirk), and in December 1872, Ancient Land Mark Lodge was Instituted in Winnipeg. These two Lodges, together with Prince Rupert Lodge, No. 244, Worked under the Grand Lodge of Canada until 1875. On May 12 of that year they formed themselves into the Grand Lodge of Manitoba and so became the supreme Masonic authority over a vast territory extending from the western boundary of the Province of Ontario to the eastern boundary of the Province of British Columbia. All the territory included within those confines lay north of the international boundary line. Except for a short period of dispute in 1878, the Grand Lodge of Manitoba continued its exercise of Masonic authority without opposition. Meanwhile the great West rapidly became the home of thousands of settlers.


Among those settlers were hundreds of Masons. As they gathered at certain points, they soon began to be interested in the formation of local Lodges where they might enjoy the privilege of fraternal relationships. In the territory west of Manitoba the first Masonic centre to organise into a Lodge was at Prince Albert. Within the territory now known as the Province of Saskatchewan it had the honour of being the premier Lodge in point of age. It is known as Kinistino Lodge. The Institution of this Lodge in 1879 marked the beginning of Freemasonry in the Province. Consequently the Lodge merits prominence from the point of view of both history and Masonic interest. The Dispensation for Kinistino Lodge was issued by the Grand Lodge of Canada on May 22, 1879. It was not received and acted upon, however, until October 13, five months later, owing to difficulties of transportation. The only means of communication with the outside world at that time was by ox‑cart, pony‑cart, or stagecoach, to Winnipeg, some 700 miles distant. Since a Grand Lodge was in existence in Winnipeg at the time, one would think that the Petition would have been made to that Grand Body. Because of lack of harmony in Manitoba at that particular time, however, the Prince Albert Brethren thought it advisable to offer their allegiance to the older and more stable Grand Lodge of Canada. It seems that in those days demarkation of jurisdiction was not very closely observed, so the request for a Dispensation as Kinistino Lodge, No. 381 GRC, was accepted. The 96 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION Lodge Worked until the latter part of 188o under this Dispensation. The date of the Institution of this Lodge, October 13, 1879, is of historic importance to the Saskatchewan Masons as having been the natal day of Freemasonry within the territory. The number of Brethren who were responsible for the event was small, but their indefatigable exertions in the face of great difficulties entitles them to an important place in our annals and to high honour in our memories. Major Charles F. Young was Worshipful Master; John McKenzie was Senior Warden; George Ridley Duck was junior Warden.


The question of separation from the Grand Lodge of Canada with a view to affiliating with the Grand Lodge of Manitoba was raised on April 6, 188o, with the result that on September 3 of that year the following motion was made by Bro. Duck, recorded in the Minutes, and later acted upon: WHEREAS, Difficulties have arisen with the Grand Lodge of Canada in consequence of the distance we are from our Mother Grand Lodge, and WHEREAS, The Grand Lodge of Manitoba, in whose District we are, privately recommends that we affiliate with the Grand Lodge of Manitoba, therefore be it Resolved, That we enter into correspondence with the Grand Secretary, with the object of withdrawing from the Grand Lodge of Canada and affiliating with the Grand Lodge of Manitoba.


As a result of negotiations with the two Grand Secretaries, the question was brought to a solution. Kinistino Lodge, No. 381 GRC, located at Prince Albert, met for the last time as a constituent of the Grand Lodge of Canada on April 21, 1882. On November 3 of that year it held its first Communication under Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Manitoba. Thus the territory now known as the Province of Saskatchewan was definitely merged into the jurisdiction of the Mother Grand Lodge of Manitoba.


The completion of the Canadian Pacific Railroad and the consequent great influx of settlers and establishment of towns created a condition favorable to the Institution of many new Lodges. During the first few years following the open ing of that railroad, Lodges sprang up in many places, and especially throughout the southern part of the Province. On March 6, 1883, Wascana Lodge was Instituted at Regina, Assiniboia District; in due course it was Chartered as Lodge No. 23. On October 9 of the same year, Moose Jaw Lodge, No. 26, was Instituted. The following Lodges were also Instituted on the dates mentioned: Qu'Appelle Valley Lodge, No. 32, at Fort Qu'Appelle, on September 24, 1886; Indian Head Lodge, No. 33, at Indian Head, on April 3, 1886; Qu'Appelle Lodge, No. 34, at Fort Qu'Appelle, on April 12, 1886; Moosomin Lodge, No. 35, On April 21, 1886; Ashler Lodge, No. 47, at Whitewood, on July 16, i89o; Maple Leaf Lodge, No. 56, at Maple Creek, on July io, 1893; Evening Star Lodge, at Grenfell, on October io, 1893; Northwest Mounted Police Lodge, No. 61, at Regina, on September 5, 1894; Yorkton Lodge, No. 69, on July 4, 1899; Duck OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 97 Lake Lodge, No. 72, on July 27, 1899; Sintaluta Lodge, No. 8o, on February 4, 1go2; Amity Lodge, No. 88, at Carnduff, in 1903; Saskatchewan Lodge, No. 89, at Saskatoon, on January 2, 1904; Carlyle Lodge, No. g1, at Carlyle, on April 17, 1904; Melfort Lodge, No. 95, at Melfort, on January 28, 1905; Battle Lodge, No. 96, at Battleford, on November 15, 1904; Weyburn Lodge, No. 103, at Weyburn, on May 9, 19o5; Arcola Lodge, No. 1o5, at Arcola, on July 18, 1905; Brittania Lodge, No. 1o6, at Lloydminster, on October 30, 19o5; Wolsley Lodge, No. 107, at Wolsley, on November 27, 19o5. The following Lodges were under Dispensation in 19o5 and 1go6: Estevan Lodge, Swift Current Lodge, Alameda Lodge, Hanley Lodge, and Heward Lodge.


It must be remembered that on July 1, 19o5, the Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were formed, thus organising into the two Provinces the old Districts of Assiniboia, Athabasca, and Alberta, together with considerable other territory to the north. This change of political administration naturally led Masons to the thought of organising the Masonic jurisdictions with the same boundaries as those of the Provinces. To Wascana Lodge, then No. 23 GRM, goes the honour of having first acted upon this principle. The following telegram was sent on May 1, i9o6, to Kinistino Lodge, No. 16, of Prince Albert: Wascana Lodge has unanimously decided, after serious consideration, that the time has arrived to form a Grand Lodge of Saskatchewan. Number of lodges, twenty; membership, about one thousand. Desire that you, being the oldest Lodge in jurisdiction, call Convention at some central point at earliest possible date so that action may be taken before June meeting of Grand Lodge. Please advise.


This telegram resulted in calling a Convention to be held at Prince Albert on May 25, 19o6. At that Convention W.‑.Bro. W. M. Martin, of Wascana Lodge, No. 23, made the following motion. It was seconded by R.‑. W.‑. Bro. McLennan, and heartily carried.


Resolved, That in the opinion of this meeting, the time has arrived that, for the benefit of Masonry, we should form a Grand Lodge in the Province of Saskatchewan. And that said Grand Lodge shall have full control over all Lodges within the Province. And be it further Resolved, That we appoint a deputation to wait on the Grand Lodge of Manitoba at its next meeting, to lay the matter before said Grand Lodge. And be it further Resolved, That this deputation have power to add to its numbers.


The Committee appointed to bring the matter before the Grand Lodge of Manitoba consisted of R.‑.W.‑., now M.‑.W.‑.Bros. W. B. Tate and William Fawcett. In the following June the Committee presented the case to the Grand Lodge of Manitoba and received the consent of that Body to proceed in the organisation of a Provincial Jurisdiction for the Province of Saskatchewan.


98 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION Accordingly, a Convention of the Representatives of the Masonic Lodges of the Province of Saskatchewan was called to be held in the Masonic Hall at Regina, on August 9, 1go6. Of the twenty‑nine Lodges within the Province, twenty‑one were represented by their officials and four by proxies. At this Session all details necessary to complete the organisation were carried out. A Constitution based on that of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba was adopted. The first Grand Master was M.‑. W . . Bro. H. H. Campkin; the Deputy Grand Master was M.‑. W .'. Bro. C. O. Davidson. This Grand Lodge of Saskatchewan began with goo members. Instead of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba insisting that monies be paid to it, it very liberally made an allowance of a thousand dollars from its own funds to those of the Grand Lodge of Saskatchewan.


The first Annual Communication of the Saskatchewan Grand Lodge was held at Prince Albert on June 18, 1907. The Body reached its majority in 1927, and the Communication of that year is regarded as its coming of age. For many years after the organisation of this jurisdiction a tremendous settlement of this new Province took place. New railroads and new towns sprang up as though overnight. Settlers from the East, from across the sea, and from the South, gathered here. Railway stations became villages, and villages became towns. Those were days of happy expansion and tremendous faith. Along with other institutions, Masonry had a rapid and harmonious period of growth. In 1879, Kinistino Lodge organised with 9 members. In 1906, the Grand Lodge organised with some goo members and 29 particular Lodges, while on February 28, 1930 there was a membership of 14,867 and a total of 196 particular Lodges. Through all this period there had been a state of healthy growth and development. Harmony had been evident throughout, no schism had ever taken place, and no forward step had ever to be retraced.


Four outstanding phases in the development of Masonry in the Province of Saskatchewan are worthy of particular mention. The first is the development of the Constitution. At the inception of the Grand Jurisdiction, Saskatchewan naturally accepted the Constitution of Manitoba without notable change, and then followed it with few variations until 1912. At the Annual Communication of that year, a Committee was named to revise the Constitution. That Committee took to its task seriously. In 1913 it reported to a special Communication, and as a result we obtained the basis of the present Constitution.


The second important matter in the development of the Saskatchewan Grand Lodge has been the growth of the Benevolent Fund. When the Saskatchewan Grand Lodge became independent in 1go6, it received from the Grand jurisdic tion of Manitoba $looo in lieu of the payment of funds to that Body by the various Lodges within the boundaries of the Saskatchewan jurisdiction, as has been explained. This money was at once placed in a savings account as the nucleus of a Benevolent Fund. Amid the rush of doing other things, however, this aspect of the work was left in abeyance. In 1gio, though, the members became concerned about the lack of growth, for in the Proceedings of 1gio the following statement appears: " Our Benevolent Fund does not grow as rapidly as OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 99 we should like to see it. Now is our time to build a up strong fund for future contingencies." Later, trustees for this fund were appointed and a definite campaign was started with the aim of putting the fund on a sound financial basis. This great campaign received splendid response. Many Lodges far exceeded their allocations. Each Lodge and each Brother was given special opportunity to contribute toward this worthy cause. A statement in the report of 1918 sets forth the interest taken in augmenting the fund. The report of 192.9 tells that the fund had already been increased to the sum of $2.54,645. Though the fund is still (1931) growing, demands made upon it are rapidly increasing, so it will need to be further increased in order to meet future needs. The Masons of Saskatchewan cannot ever too highly appreciate the benevolent phase of our work, and it is to be hoped that every member, new and old, will be kept in touch with so worthy a movement, and that the fund will be constantly augmented.


The third outstanding phase of Masonic development in Saskatchewan was the development of the Masonic scholarship movement. This idea originated with Dr. Weir, M.‑. W.‑. Grand Master. It was generally believed that the Fra ternity should do something that would be beneficial in moulding into a high standard of Canadian citisenship those people who came from other lands to make Saskatchewan their home. The Fraternity recognised the importance of the public school in unifying citisenship and establishing ideals. Accordingly, it was felt that if teachers of high moral standing, fine training, and splendid ability could be sent out to teach in districts of predominately foreign citisenship, their influence would have a lasting effect. A fund was raised by voluntary contribution, and this was used for paying the expenses of selected students who entered upon the normal school courses. In return for the assistance, the students promised to teach for a year at least in new Canadian settlements. Their only obligation was to teach the true ideals of Canadian citisenship well. Such students were asked to give a report upon the work done, but they were not obliged to do so. Results of this scholarship work have been highly satisfactory and in many instances the object of the movement has been attained. One striking result of the scholarship movement was the work done by Robert England, M.C., who has investigated the problem of immigration. His book entitled Central European Immigration into Canada, is a splendid treatment of this vital Canadian problem.


The fourth phase of the development of Saskatchewan Masonry is that of Masonic education and research. This has been continued with growing interest for several years. Each year a Provincial Masonic Committee is appointed, whose duty it is to prepare a course for the season and send a monthly outline to each Lodge within the jurisdiction. This work has created an increase of interest among the Lodges, and has deepened a knowledge of the Fraternity among the members.


Though histories always stop, history itself keeps moving ever onward. And with the growth of our Province, Masonry will make an ever‑increasing contribution. The Masonic Fraternity stands for unity, for understanding, for 100 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION mutual confidence, and for brotherhood. It is just these qualities that a growing country needs. Saskatchewan Masonry has, therefore, a real opportunity. One can readily foresee in what ways the Masonic Fraternity will make its mark in the upbuilding of a greater and fairer Dominion.


THE GRAND CHAPTER OF ROYAL ARCH MASONS OF SASKATCHEWAN Wascana Chapter, No. 121, took the initiative in forming the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Saskatchewan. After much corresponding, an informal meeting of the Chapters concerned was called to take place in Regina on June 21, 1922, at the time when the Session of the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons was being held. Forty‑seven members signed the Register, and after a luncheon provided by Wascana Chapter, the Companions proceeded with their business. Companion J. C. Moore, First Principal of Wascana Chapter, No. 121, was elected Chairman, and R.‑. E.‑. Companion F. B. Reilly was chosen to be Scribe. After the purpose of the gathering had been stated by the Chairman, the following motion was made by two members: " Resolved, That a committee of six be appointed, two from each District in Saskatchewan, with a view to looking into the advisability of forming a Grand Chapter, and if, in the opinion of the committee, it is practicable, that they take the necessary steps." The following members formed the proposed Committee: Bro. F. B. Reilly (Chairman) Bro. J. O. Clarke, Bro. W. J. Smith, Bro. G. A. Turner, Bro. W. R. Redington, and Bro. C. A. Needham. After much corresponding, the Committee concluded that the time was opportune for the formation of a Grand Chapter, and at once they sent out the necessary Petitions. These were duly signed by the First Principal and by Scribe E of twenty Chapters. Later they were presented to the Grand Chapter of Canada at its sixty‑fifth Annual Convocation, held in Toronto from February 28 to March 1, 1923. The Grand Chapter granted the request and asked that the M.‑. E.‑. Grand Z personally convey fraternal regards to this newly organised Grand Body.


For the purpose of the first election, each Chapter was granted three votes. It was agreed that, should any Chapter find it impossible to be represented by its Officers or Past Principal, then any member of the Chapter might give the vote and act as proxy if duly authorised to do so. In accordance with the call of the Committee, the first Convocation of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Saskatchewan was held in the Masonic Temple at Regina on June 12, 1923. Among those present were many who are still active in Capitular service. At about ten o'clock in the morning on that day, the Chapter was called to order. Acting upon a motion made by M.‑. E.,. Companion A. S. Gorrell and E.‑. Companion J. C. Underhill, M.‑.E.‑.Companion R. H. Spencer, Grand Z of the Grand Chapter of Canada, was placed in the Chair, and R.‑. E.‑. Companion F. B. Reilly was made Grand Scribe pro tempore. M.'. E.‑. Companion Spencer then stated that the purpose of the Convocation was to form a Grand Chapter of OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 101 Royal Arch Masons in the Province of Saskatchewan, according to permission granted by the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Canada. Accordingly it was moved by M .'. E.‑. Companion A. S. Gorrell, seconded by R.‑. E... Companion C. A. Smith, and Resolved, That the Royal Arch Masons of the Province of Saskatchewan do now form and establish the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Saskatchewan, and that the Constitution, usages, and ceremonials of the Grand Chapter of Canada be adopted pro tempore with such modifications and adjustments as are necessary for the convenience of the said Grand Chapter of Saskatchewan.


The first Officers were then duly elected. After the Installation, happy felicitations regarding this historic occasion were given and received. Then the Grand Chapter closed at four o'clock in the afternoon of that day to begin its first year of fraternal activities.


The first Annual Convocation of the Grand Chapter was held in the Masonic Temple at Saskatoon on February 2o, 1924. The address of the Grand Z revealed a membership of 2522, a net increase of 35 members for the year just passed. Actual admissions and restorations totalled 174. The Committee appointed to investigate the condition of Capitulary Masonry reported a healthy state, and an increase of three Chapters during the year. Grand Scribe E's report showed that the former Charters had been cancelled and returned to the Chapters. Meanwhile, a Dispensation had been issued to each Chapter. New Charters were ready and a new Seal had been provided for each. A Crest and a Seal for the Grand Chapter of Saskatchewan had also been adopted. Since all forms and office supplies had already been provided, the equipment was nearly complete. At this Convocation the six Grand Superintendents gave splendid reports that showed great progress.


The second Annual Convocation of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Saskatchewan was held in the Masonic Temple at Moose jaw on February 18, 1925. Reports submitted at this meeting showed that three new Chapters were under Dispensation. Those were Acacia Chapter, at Lancer, Kincaid Chapter, at Kincaid, and Cypress Chapter, at Gull Lake. The financial report of the year showed a substantial balance on hand. There had been a notable increase in membership and complete harmony had prevailed.


The third Annual Convocation of the Grand Chapter was held in the Masonic Temple at Weyburn on February 17, 1926. The report given at that time showed that four Chapters had been Constituted during the preceding year. Those four consisted of Sheba Chapter, at Kamsack, and the three that had been under Dispensation the year before. At this meeting the Grand Scribe told of a slight decline in membership due to the prevailing financial depression. At the time he suggested that some sort of study course be devised for the purpose of developing interest and holding members.


The fourth Annual Convocation of the Grand Chapter was held in Regina on io2 FREEMASONRY IN THE DOMINION February 16, 1927. His Worship, Mayor McAra, extended the welcome of the city. M.‑. W .'. Bro. W. J. Smith, Grand Master; M.‑. W.‑. Bro. W. B. Tate, Past Grand Master and Grand Secretary, and M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Gilbert Swain, Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Saskatchewan, were welcomed and felicitated by the Grand Chapter. The annual report submitted at this meeting showed a substantial net increase in membership and a good bank balance. There were many signs of healthy growth throughout the entire jurisdiction.


On November io, 1927, a special Convocation of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Saskatchewan was held in the Masonic Temple at Regina to receive M .'. E.‑. the Right Hon. the Earl of Cassillis, First Grand Principal of the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Scotland. On that day 104 Grand Officers, Officers and Companions, signed the Register. The Grand Chapter conferred upon the distinguished guest honorary life membership in the Grand Chapter of Saskatchewan. At the banquet following the Earl of Cassillis spoke on " Masonry in Many Lands." At the fifth Annual Convocation, held in the Masonic Temple at Saskatoon, on February 29, 1928, the Executive Committee which had met on November io, 1927, adopted an important recommendation made by the Custodians of the Work. The recommendation provided for the adoption of the new Ritual that had recently been issued by the Mother Grand Chapter of Canada. It did, however, also provide for certain minor changes to be made in that Ritual. The Grand Chapter of Saskatchewan was instructed to obtain a supply of the Rituals and to distribute them. At this meeting a net gain in membership was reported for the preceding year, and regret was expressed that so many suspensions had been recorded.


The sixth Annual Convocation was held in the Masonic Temple at Regina on February 2o, 1929. At this time an increase of membership was again made known, and it was reported that the Work was continuing in a healthy and prosperous fashion. Only a few days before the opening of this sixth Annual Convocation, on January 21, to be exact, Prince of Wales Chapter of Regina was Instituted under Dispensation. It was Constituted on the following October 11.


The seventh Annual Convocation was held in the Masonic Temple at Moose jaw on February 26, 1930. The Sessions were marked by harmony and good fellowship and by an intense interest in the progress of the institution.


The eighth Annual Convocation convened in the Masonic Temple at Saskatoon on February 18, 1931. Reports read at the time showed satisfactory progress and a membership increase greater than that of the previous year. In spite of financial difficulties generally existent throughout the country, a favorable bank balance was reported.


The Jurisdiction of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the Province of Saskatchewan is divided into five Districts. District No. 1 embraces six Chapters; District No. 2, five Chapters; District No. 3, five Chapters; District No. 4, six Chapters; District No. S, five Chapters. In 1931 the Grand Chapter OF CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 103 had a membership of 2663, which indeed indicated a gradual and consistent increase from the date of the Institution of the Body in 1923. During 1931 M .'. E .'. Companion His Honor Judge H. M. P. de Roche was Installed as Grand Z for the period 1931‑1932. R.'. E.'. Companion F. B. Reilly continued to serve efficiently in the Office of Grand Scribe E.


At the time of writing this brief account there seems to be no doubt that in the future harmony and progress will prevail in this Grand Body. With the coming years the increased power of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the Province of Saskatchewan will make it even a mightier influence for good not alone within the confines of the Province, but also throughout the vast extent of the whole Dominion.


CHAPTER II FREEMASONRY IN MEXICO HE so‑called " Scottish Rite " was introduced into Mexico‑then the principal colony of Spain‑by civil and military officers of the Monarchy during the year 1813. After this, Lodges were erected by the Grand Lodge of Louisiana at Vera Cruz and Campeachy in 1816 and 1817 respectively and the example thus set was followed by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, under which body a Lodge was established at Alvarado in 1824. A period of confusion next ensued, during which Masonry and politics were interwoven so closely as to render quite hopeless any attempt at their separate treatment.


Soon the entire population of the country became divided into two factions, the Escoceses and the Yorkinos. The former, who represented the aristocracy, were in favour of moderate measures, under a central government, or a constitutional monarchy. The latter were the advocates of republican institutions and the expulsion of the " old " or native Spaniards.


The Escoceses‑originally the " Scots Masons "‑numbered among their members all who, under the ancient regime, had titles of nobility; the Catholic clergy, without exception; many military officers ; together with all the native Spaniards of every class.


The republican party, according to one set of writers, viewing with dismay the progress of their opponents, resolved " to fight the devil with his own fire " and, therefore, organized a rival faction, on which they bestowed the name of Yorkinos, the members of which were supposed to be adherents of the York Rite. It was in 18zo that Apodaca endeavoured to overthrow the Constitution of Mexico and Bancroft, in his History of Mexico, says that the resolve was hastened by his knowledge of the influence Freemasonry was already exercising in Mexico. There were but few Masons in the country before the coming of the expeditionary forces and these had preserved strict secrecy from dread of the Inquisition. (The first to bring them together was the oidor of Mexico, Felipe Martinez de Aragon. The chief Masons were Fausto de Ahuyar, the mineralogist, two Franciscans and a few others, all of them Spaniards, who belonged to the Order). The Field and nearly all the Company Officers of those troops, as well as of the navy, were members of the Order and it was whispered that Apodaca was one of them, though this was not divulged. He was, however, sure that Masons had effected the Revolution in Spain and feared that those in the army of Mexico had been directed to promote one in the Colony. The instructions received from the Court were therefore rigidly carried out.


io6 FREEMASONRY IN MEXICO Shortly after the coronation of Iturbide in 1822 the Freemasons joined with the Republicans in the furtherance of the latter's plans and, according to Bancroft (op. cit., vol. iv, p. 793), were engaged in secret intrigues with Iturbide's generals and the influence in the Lodges over the military members was preponderating.


Mackey informs us that authority was obtained in 1825 from the Grand Lodge of New York for the establishment of three Lodges in the city of Mexico. These Lodges, according to the same writer, were formed into a Grand Lodge of the York Rite by Joel R. Poinsett (American Minister), a former Grand Master of South Carolina. Bancroft, commenting on this, says About this time a number of political clubs which wielded great influence began to be organized under the name and forms of Masonic Lodges of the York Rite. Their creation has been ascribed to Poinsett, the American Minister (Zavala pronounces it a pure invention of the aristocrats and of some European agents, who meddled with Mexican affairs much more than Poinsett ever did. After five Lodges had been organized Poinsett was requested to procure a Charter. This step and the installation of the Grand Lodge was all the part Poinsett ever took in the matter. That author declares besides that he, Zavala, was invited to join a Lodge and did so without any political design), but the real founder was the clergyman, Jose Maria Alpuche, rector of a parish in Tabasco and senator from that state. (He is represented as a restless spirit, a sort of Danton, without his brains. In the senate he worried the ministry with questions and bitter reproaches. To his political opponents he gave no rest and they, in their turn, gave him a bad character. His death was sudden.) To Poinsett also was attributed the formation of a plan to do away with the somewhat aristocratic character of the government, which was still influenced by the old families, the clergy and the army and of replacing it, not with a pure democracy, but of introducing a class of men who were merely ambitious office‑hunters, less respectably connected. Alaman has fathered on Poinsett this absurd charge. He would also have us believe that the president had been assured by members of the Scottish Rite Lodges, that though they had opposed his candidacy, they cheerfully bowed to his authority, in which assurance he placed no faith. (For information on origin, political principles and action of the Escoceses party, from 1813 to 1826, see Afora, Pap. Sueltos, I, pp. xii‑xiv.) In these Scottish Lodges were affiliated Barragan [Mexican general, sometime acting president], Negrete, Echavarii, Guerrero [Mexican soldier who displaced Pedraza as president in 1828], Filisola and other prominent generals and colonels, besides many regular and secular priests and civilians of social and political standing. Several deputies and the minister Estava had been officers of such Lodges and seceded to join the new Societies. After the overthrow of Iturbide [Mexican revolutionist and emperor], due in a great measure to the action of the Ancient Rite Lodges, it is true that many of their members forsook them to join the York Lodges, but the Escoceses still had for a time much influence with the government and congress. Later, however, the desertion became so general and simultaneous that some Scottish Lodges held meetings with the object of placing themselves with their archives under the new Order, leaving the Scottish sect or party with the assertion that they could no longer be affiliated with a society that wished to restore the monarchy. Gomez Pedraza [elected president of Mexico FREEMASONRY IN MEXICO 107 i8z8] retired from the old society without joining the new one, but said that the Escoceses desired a foreign dynasty. Victoria [president of Mexico 1825‑1828], Estava and Alpuche at once saw that if a society bearing the name of federal could be formed, it would counteract the labours and plans of the Escoceses. The president wanted the support of such an organization, but did not foresee that the pretensions of a popular society knew no limit. (Copious information in Cor. Fed. Mex. 1826, Nov. i and Dec. 4 ; Gomez PedraZa, Alanif. 32‑3 ; Monteros, Esp. de Jos. Inf. Masones ; Bustamante, VoZ de la Patria, ii, no. 15, 8 ; Mex. Informe Prim. Sac., 22., 25 ; PaZ. Doloroso Rec. A!Ztecas, 4‑5 ; Mora, Obras Sueltes, i, xiv, xvi ; Suarez y Navarro, Hist. Mj. io.) It is said that he had never been partial to secret societies and particularly abhorred the logias escoceses, because of the men belonging to them, particularly his rival Nicolas Bravo; and that he now lamented having patronized the logiasyorkinos, as the government had been belittled by them. Some attempts were made in the congress, weakly supported by minister Espinosa, to prohibit secret societies ; but nothing was then accomplished.


The two Societies were now like two armies, facing one another in battle array. Such was the origin of the Yorkino Lodges or, rather, clubs (Minister Esteva was the Grand Master and Arizpe, Master, of one of the Lodges. General Bravo was Grand Master of the logias escoceses) whose sudden development and increased power soon awed their authors and whose subsequent divisions gave a bloody victory to their foes, the old Escoceses. At the elections towards the end of 1826, the Yorkinos were victorious in the Federal District‑the municipal authorities of which possessed great interest‑in the State of Mexico, of which Lorenzo de Zavala was elected governor in March 1827 and in most of the States. The important city of Vera Cruz, however, went against them. Both these societies were strongly represented in the press.


However established, the so‑called York Rite, or, in other words, pure English Masonry, flourished and, towards the end of 182.6, there were 2s Lodges, with a membership of about 7oo. The Escoceses, or Scots Masons, finding their Lodges deserted, regarded the Yorkinos as renegades and traitors and, with a view to counterbalance the fast‑increasing power of the latter, they formed the Novenarios, a kind of militia, which derived its name from a regulation requiring each member to enlist nine additional adherents. These ingratiated themselves with the clergy, who, after having been the most embittered enemies of the Craft in past years, now joined the Escoceses almost in a body. The name Novenarios was assumed because each member of the Grand Consistory had to catechize nine men and bring them into the society ; each of these nine had to procure nine others and so on. The members of the Escoceses party also bore the names of Hombres de bien, chequetas, borbonistas, aristocratas, defensores de la constitucion (Bancroft, op. cit., vol. v, p. 37).


The Yorkinos, becoming aware of these proceedings, tried to outdo their rivals by recruiting their own Lodges upon the plan of receiving all applicants without distinction, provided they belonged to the federal, i.e. the patriotic party. Thus, the system of Masonry very soon degenerated into a mere party question and, at last, all the adherents of one side styled themselves Escoceses and of the other 108 FREEMASONRY IN MEXICO side, Yorkinos. In 1828 the two parties resorted to open warfare, with a view to deciding the question at issue by the sword and the civil war then commenced lasted for more than a generation. At the conclusion of one of the battles in this civil war, Alaman (Hilt. 11‑1 j., v. 837) alleges that he saw the communication signed by Guerrero, as Grand Master and Colonel Mejia, as Secretary, of the Yorkino Grand Lodge, to the Lodges in the United States, wherein he detailed the triumph, not as that of the government against rebels, but as that of one Masonic sect against its rivals.


Somewhere about this time, whilst Dr. Vincente Guerrero‑Grand Master under the York Rite‑was President of the Republic, a law was enacted by which all Masonic Lodges were closed. The Yorkinos obeyed their Grand Master and discontinued their meetings. The Escoceses went on working, but some of their most influential Lodges were suppressed and the members banished. Subsequently all native Spaniards were expelled from Mexican territory.


This internecine strife seriously affected the Fraternity in general and gave birth, during the darkest hours of the struggle for supremacy, to an organization called the Mexican National Rite, formed by Masons and composed of distinguished men, but containing innovations and principles so antagonistic to Masonic usage and doctrine, that it was never accorded recognition, even in Mexico, by any Masonic body of acknowledged legality.


This new school of Masonry was established by nine Brethren of both Rites, who had belonged to the highest grade of either system, in 183o. To guard against the intrusion of unworthy members and the revival of political antagonism, they resolved to create a Rite which should be national, in the sense of not depending upon any foreign Grand Lodge for its Constitution and to obviate by safeguards and precautions of an elaborate character, the dangers to be apprehended from the reception of either Escoceses or Yorkinos.


The Mexican National Rite consisted of nine Degrees, which, omitting the first three, were‑4, Approved Master (equal to the 15 " Scots ") ; S , Knight of the Secret (equal to the 18 " Scots ") ; 6, Knight of the Mexican Eagle ; 7, Perfect Architect (or Templar) ; 8, Grand judge ; and 9, Grand Inspector General. All these Degrees had their equivalents in the grades of the A. and A.R. 33. With the " St. John's " (or purely Craft) Degrees certain special signs were associated, which, however, were not required from foreigners unless they had acted as auxiliaries in any of the party contests.


A Grand Orient, composed of members of the 9, was supreme in matters of dogma or ritual. There was also an administrative body or National Grand Lodge, whose members were elective and met in the metropolis. The Provincial Grand Lodges had their seats in the State capitals and were formed by the " three lights " of at least five St. John's Lodges.


But, although still preserving a nominal existence, the several Grand Bodies, owing to political convulsions, were virtually dormant for many years after 1833. A Lodge‑St. Jean d'Ulloa‑was constituted at Vera Cruz, by the Supreme Council FREEMASONRY IN MEXICO log of France, in 1843 ; and another‑Les Ecossais des Deux Mondes‑at the city of Mexico, by the Grand Orient of the same country, in 1845.


The Mexican National Rite appears to have somewhat recovered from its torpor in 1863. At that date we find in the metropolis a National Grand Lodge with six working Lodges, though of these one‑belonging to the A. and A.R. was constituted by the Grand Lodge of New Granada and consisted chiefly of foreigners; in Toluca a Provincial Grand Lodge with five Lodges; in Vera Cruz and Guadalajara two Lodges each; and in five other cities single Lodges.


In i 86o a Supreme Council was established in the City of Mexico by authority of the Supreme Council of the A. and A.R., U.S.A. Southern jurisdiction, of which Albert Pike was the Sovereign Grand Commander, which claimed jurisdiction over the three Craft Degrees. Shortly afterwards there was a secession when the Supreme Grand Orient of the Scottish Rite was organized, which confined itself to the three Degrees and claimed to be the supreme authority in Symbolical Masonry in the republic, a claim not recognized by the Supreme Council. Some of the Lodges of each section amalgamated and formed Grand Lodges in a number of the districts, with the result that there were Grand Lodges of the Federal District, Jalisco, Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, Vicente Guerrero, Lower California, Morelos, Tlaxcala, Aguas Calientes and others, all claiming to be sovereign Masonic bodies, some of which were recognized by a few of the American Grand Lodges.


After this came the invasion of Mexican territory by a foreign foe, the establishment of the Maximilian Empire, its overthrow and, finally, the war of reform. In vol. ii of the Authors' Lodge Transactions, the late Hamon le Strange, Provincial Grand Master for Norfolk, 1898‑ig2o, relates how, when he was attache to H.M. Legation in Mexico in 1865‑6, he became a joining member of a Spanish Lodge, named the Union Fraternal, which had for its Master a German‑American, named Lohse. This Lodge was working " under the Grand Orient [presumably the A. and A.R.] of the Southern Jurisdiction of the U.S.A." and, at the annual banquet held on June 24, 1865, which he attended, two children were baptized in open Lodge, which ceremony gave them a right ever after to the fraternal protection of the Lodge. Hamon le Strange then goes on to say A meeting was held a few days later to consider the question of forming an independent Grand Lodge for the whole of Mexico and of splitting up Union Fraternal into three Lodges, to work respectively in the Spanish, French and German languages. Action was promptly taken ; Union Fraternal, working in Spanish, became No, i of the new jurisdiction and I was present at the consecration, on July i, of a French Lodge, denominated Les Emules de Hiram, No. 2 ; and, on July 3, of a Lodge working in German and called Eintracht (Unanimity), No. 3. As there were fewer German‑speaking Brethren than French or Spanish, I joined Eintracht and was immediately elected Treasurer thereof, probably because a member of the British Legation was looked upon as unlikely to run away with the bag. The office was no sinecure, as I had to collect a silver dollar from each Brother at each monthly meeting and to keep the amount; we had no bank 110 FREEMASONRY IN MEXICO account and there were no bank‑notes and little gold in Mexico in those days, so the mere carrying home of, say, thirty or forty dollars a meeting made a heavy pocketful, Our meetings took place under somewhat different conditions to those which prevail in London. They were usually held at 8 p.m., i.e. after dark, as in Mexico, even at midsummer, it is never light after 7 p.m. The streets, despite the French garrison, were not over‑safe from chances of casual robbers and everyone going out at night carried a revolver and walked up the centre of the roadway, so as not to be rushed unawares. Our meeting‑place was a large disused convent, of which there were many in the city, as the monks had been turned out of their possessions ! in some previous revolution of the Republic. The Emperor Maximilian, who was a Liberal at heart and well disposed towards Freemasonry, had granted to the Craft the use of an unoccupied convent, approached by a single massive door from the street and containing three large courtyards, one behind the other. A porter gave admission after scrutinizing one through a hole and you then had to walk through the three courts, lighted only by the moon, to a staircase at the extreme end. Ascending this, a door, guarded efficiently by a Tyler, gave admission to a fairsized ante‑room, the principal furniture in which consisted of a large table, on which each Brother, on entering, deposited his loaded revolver. There was no dinner, nor any sort of refreshments, at the monthly meetings, except at the Annual Festival of St. John's Day in Summer. After Lodge was closed we walked off in twos and threes to see each other safely home.


Meanwhile the Grand Lodge o˙ the Yorkinos had ceased to exist and the Scots Rite, which by this time had become divested of its political colouring, had erected‑December 27, 1865‑a Supreme Council 33 This is the date which has generally been given and accepted, but, according to Hamon le Strange (op. cit., p. 81), it is incorrect. Perhaps it will be better to give his story in detail In July [1865] a Portuguese Brother, Sefihor Manuel B. da Cunha Reis by name, arrived in Mexico as a Deputation from the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Rite of the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, for the purpose of forming an independent Supreme Council for Mexico and, as I already possessed the 3 oth Degree, he officially invited me to take the 3 3 and to become a member of the new Supreme Council. With the object of helping the Craft I accepted the offer, in ignorance of the fact that by taking a higher Degree under a foreign juris diction I was violating the regulations of our own Supreme Council. On my return to live in England some years later, I reported the facts to our Council and was informed that they could not recognize me as a member of the 3 3 ; however, they placed the words " 33' of Mexico " after my name in the official register and, shortly afterwards, promoted me by successive steps to the 33 of the English Jurisdiction.


The first meeting of the Mexican Supreme Council was held on August 9 and I was entrusted with the formation and working of a Rose Croix Chapter under it., I got up the Ritual in Spanish and worked the Chapter for nearly a year, under some difficulties as to language, as in all Masonic work the real second person, with FREEMASONRY IN MEXICO III which I was by no means familiar, was made use of in place of the usual third person invariably employed in colloquial talk. The utmost courtesy was always shown to me by ignoring my mistakes and shortcomings.


His Majesty the Emperor had been invited to become Grand Master, but he sent his private secretary to a meeting of the Supreme Council, held on August 3, 1865, to say that he must decline being Grand Master so long as the Roman question remained unsettled. He thanked us for the offer and sent $loo to each of the three Lodges in the capital.


During the winter of that year several meetings of the Council were held, at which an elaborate code of General Statutes for the Government o˙ the Craft was worked out. I was appointed to the office of Grand Chancellor (Guarda‑Sellos) and my name as such appears at the foot of the printed copy of the Estatutos Generales which was published in Mexico on June 24, 1866.


It may be that December 27, 1865, was the date on which these General Statutes were adopted, which would explain the discrepancy.


In 1868 this General Council joined, or was absorbed by, the Supreme Council of i 860 and, in the same year, the amalgamated body effected a fusion with the National Grand Lodge‑one of whose highest officials at the time was Benito Juarez, President of the Republic. The latter union, however, was not of a thorough nature, but rather assumed the features of a friendly pact, as it left each Rite independent of the other with regard to ritual and internal government. In 1870 the National Rite numbered thirty‑two Lodges and the Ancient and Accepted Rite twenty‑four.


It would seem as if the authority of Juarez alone held these Rites together, since at his death in 1872‑although he was succeeded as President by his chief follower, Sebastian Lerdo de Tejeda, also a prominent Freemason‑dissensions arose and they fell asunder, Alfredo Chavero becoming Grand Master of the Grand Orient and Jose Maria Mateos of the National Grand Lodge. In 1876 a Lodge of Germans left the Grand Orient and joined the National Grand Lodge, but in the following year, with the consent of the latter, affiliated with the Grand Lodge of Hamburg‑under which body there was also in 1886 another Lodge at work in Vera Cruz.


So far as evidence is forthcoming, upon the re‑establishment of peace and order in Mexico, the Lodges under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Council throughout the Republic organized State Grand Lodges. A Central Grand Lodge was established in the capital, with jurisdiction over them and, though the Supreme Council made no formal abdication of its authority over Symbolism, this was interfered with very little, save by the Central Grand Lodge. In 1883 there were the following State Grand Lodges :‑Vera Cruz and Jalisco, each with seven Lodges; Puebla, Yucatan and Guanajuato, with six; and Morelos and Tlaxcala, with five; thus making a total of seven Grand and forty‑two subordinate Lodges, exclusive of the Central Grand Lodge and the metropolitan Lodges.


It will be seen that at this period there existed at Vera Cruz a State Grand 112. FREEMASONRY IN MEXICO Lodge, but from the fact that it was subordinate to the Central Grand Lodge, it was not deemed by the Grand Lodge of Colon to exercise legitimate authority over Symbolism in that State. Indeed, the whole of Mexico was regarded by the lastnamed body as "unoccupied territory" and it therefore proceeded to charter three Lodges, which, in January 1883, formed themselves, at the city of Vera Cruz, into the Mexican Independent Symbolic Grand Lodge.


Two of the Lodges taking part in this movement had originally held Mexican Warrants, but, having quarrelled with their superiors, solicited and obtained Charters from the Grand Lodge of Colon (afterwards Colon and Cuba), shortly after which the third Lodge was formed and then, finally, the Grand Lodge, although the Supreme Council of Mexico had formally protested against the invasion of its territory. Indeed the step thus taken by their former superiors appears rather to have accelerated the action of the three Lodges, as in the record of their proceedings it is stated, " that they hasten to constitute themselves into an Independent Grand Lodge, pending the protest of the Supreme Council of Mexico, to relieve their friend and mother, the Grand Lodge of Colon, from any further unpleasant complications 1 " The Supreme Council of Mexico, in a Balustre numbered XXX and dated April 25, 1883, renounced its jurisdiction over the Symbolical Degrees and promulgated a variety of regulations with regard to Grand and subordinate Lodges. This threw the Craft into the utmost confusion and might have ended in the destruction of the greater number of Mexican Lodges, or, at least, in the establishment of some half dozen Grand Bodies, all claiming supremacy, had it not been for the skill and address of Carlos Pacheco, who succeeded Alfredo Chavero as Sovereign Grand Commander 33'.


The former Balustre was revoked and by a new one (XXXII), dated May 27, 1883, the Supreme Council renounced, in favour of the State Grand Lodges then existing, or which might afterwards be formed, the jurisdiction over Symbolism conferred upon it by the Constitutions of the A. and A.R. 33. The transmission of powers was to take effect from June 24 then ensuing. The Lodges having no Grand Lodge were to remain under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge nearest to them, or the oldest if two were equi‑distant, until they organized their own in accordance with Masonic usage and precedent. The Lodges of the Federal District, however, were directed to form and inaugurate their Grand Lodge on June 15 then following. Balustre XXXII was signed (inter alios) by Carlos Pacheco, Mariano Escobedo, Alfredo Chavero and Porfirio Diaz.


On June 25, 1883, twelve Lodges at the capital, all belonging to the Scottish Rite, met and established the Grand Lodge of the Federal District (or city) of Mexico, with Porfirio Diaz as the first Grand Master. The event was announced to the Masonic world in two circulars, the first of which is in Spanish‑an immense document of 18o pages ! The second is in English and its only noticeable feature is a declaration that the American system of State Grand Lodges, each with exclusive jurisdiction, has been adopted. Grand Lodges were afterwards established on the FEEEMASONRY IN MEXICO 113 same plan‑i.e. in conformity with the edict of the Supreme Council, as promulgated in Balustre XXXII‑in the States of Vera Cruz, Tlaxcala, Morelos, Puebla Campeachy and Lower California. The complications, however, already existing in the Republic, were still further increased in 1882 by the action of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, in granting a Charter to the Toltec Lodge, in the city of Mexico, which had been provisionally established at the close of the previous year under a dispensation from the Grand Master.


On December 24, 1889, a treaty was made, by virtue of which the Supreme Council relinquished all claim of jurisdiction over the first three Degrees, whilst the Supreme Grand Orient of the Scottish Rite and several of the State Grand Lodges went out of existence, in order that they might reorganize under one supreme governing body. This took place at a grand assembly of representatives or Deputies from nearly all the state and subordinate Lodges in the republic, held, after due notice, in the City of Mexico, on February 5, i8go. The Convention remained in session for ten days and the formation of the Grand Symbolical Dieta of the United States of Mexico was the result, the office of " Most Respectable Grand Master " being filled by General Porfirio Diaz, President of the Republic; that of Grand Secretary General by Dr. Emilio G. Canton, Clerk of the Supreme Court of the United States of Mexico. On June 1o following, the General Constitution of the Gran Dieta was adopted and promulgated, to be composed of one Deputy from each State Grand Lodge and one from each subordinate Lodge. All Charters for subordinate Lodges were to be issued by the Gran Dieta. In every State there was to be a State Grand Lodge, consisting of five delegates from each subordinate Lodge within its jurisdiction Fifteen Grand Lodges and 125 private Lodges assisted in the formation of the Gran Dieta. The only exception from the usage of the Scottish Rite was Toltec Lodge, No. 5 Zo, in the city of Mexico, chartered, as stated, in 1882, by the Grand Lodge of Missouri.


On December 27, 18go, the Supreme Council 330 issued a decree creating a new body for the government of Symbolic Masonry, to be known as the Grand Symbolical Scottish Diet of the Republic of Mexico, which body came into existence in February 18g1.


By the Treaty of Monterey, signed at the Mexican city of that name on October 26, 1801, by G. W. Tyler, Grand Master of Texas and Porfirio Diaz, Grand Master of Mexico, each recognized the other as the only supreme and exclu sive Masonic power in their several districts respectively, conditionally on the treaty being submitted to the members of the two contracting Grand bodies and it was agreed that, upon ratification, representatives would be exchanged. Such approval was immediately forthcoming, though afterwards regretted. Protests against the formation and recognition of the Gran Dieta were published by the Mexican National Rite, formed in 1825, of which Francisco P. Gochicoa, Postmaster‑General, was the head, the members of which were nearly all officials in the post‑office ; the Reformed Scottish Rite, instituted in 1871, of which Joaquin Pefia was the Sovereign Grand Commander; and the Grand Lodge of the Federal FREEMASONRY IN MEXICO District, of which Benito Juarez, son of the great Juarez, Mexican president, was Grand Master.


Richard E. Chism, who was Master of the Toltec Lodge, to which reference has already been made, at the time of the formation of the Gran Dieta, published a pamphlet entitled An Inside View of Alexican Alasonry, in which he stated that the organization of the Gran Dieta was not the outcome of any Convocation or Convention of Masons, but was brought into being by the Supreme Council of the A. and A. Rite and, therefore, could not claim jurisdiction over Masonic units belonging to the York Rite. Immediately upon its formation, however, the Gran Dieta had claimed jurisdiction over everything which called itself Masonic, even to the Rite of Memphis. Toltec Lodge stood aloof from the Gran Dieta, but was afterwards compelled to join it, in consequence of the action of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, to which it owed allegiance, which coerced it into the action by withdrawing its Charter as it " considered it unwise to continue the exercise of Masonic authority in Mexico." Toltec Lodge is now No. i on the roster of the York Grand Lodge, to be mentioned later.


With three exceptions all the Lodges transferred their allegiance to the Gran Dieta, which was constituted by i zz out of the 125 Lodges in the republic. One of the first acts of the Gran Dieta was to provide for the initiation of women and to issue Charters for female Lodges, but, in the Report on Foreign Correspondence by T. S. Parvin in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Iowa for 1896, it was stated that the Gran Dieta had repealed the law under which women were authorized to be made Freemasons and the Charters of women Lodges were withdrawn under pressure from American Freemasons. This step was taken at a session of the Gran Dieta Simbolica held on August 24, 1895, when it was decreed that all Charters for these Lodges should be withdrawn, that no recognition of women as Freemasons should be continued and that the Holy Bible and the Square and Compasses should be placed on all Masonic altars of the Symbolical Lodges in the republic of Mexico. This step was hastened by the formation on June 24, 1895, of the Grand Lodge Valle de Mexico, No. i of the Federal District of Mexico, in the presence of several women, said to be members of female Masonic Lodges. This action caused the withdrawal of Anahuac Lodge, No. 141, which made a protest to the Gran Dieta, which, accordingly, suspended the Grand Lodge Valle de Mexico, along with several members who had committed the irregularities.


The Gran Dieta, however, was not received generally with favour in the Grand Lodges of the United States of America and its recognition by the Grand Lodges of New York and Texas was very generally condemned by the Reporters on Cor respondence in several American jurisdictions. In 1894, Dr. Joseph Robbins, Past Grand Master, making his Correspondence Report to the Grand Lodge of Illinois, said The most startling event of the year is the recognition by the Grand Lodge of New York of the Gran Dieta Simbolica of Mexico, in the face of disclosures FREEMASONRY IN MEXICO 115 as to what passes for Masonry in that republic, that, to say the least, have yet far from having been wholly discredited by proof and which, if true, ought to ensure the repudiation of the body or congregation of which they are found to be true, not only by the Grand Lodge of New York, but even by the most careless and least informed Grand Lodges. In our review of New York we called attention to one of these disclosures only‑the admission of women to the Lodges owing allegiance to one of the constituents of the Mexican Gran Dieta, the Grand Lodge Valle de Mexico. We there referred to 11 Clio," the Master of Lodge No. 27, who, Brother Chism says (to the Grand Secretary of Missouri) is in private life Dr. Matilda Montoya, the only female physician ever accredited by a Mexican college.


The other two women appointed to office in that Grand Lodge were 11 Caliope," who was Mrs. De Kleinhaus, mother‑in‑law of Emilio G. Canton, the Grand Secretary of the Gran Dieta and 11 Amonia," who was the wife of the Grand Secretary.


The York Grand Lodge of Mexico, which is the only Mexican Masonic body in fraternal communications with the Grand Lodge of England, originated in October 1823, also as the Grand Lodge Valle de Mexico. It started as a York Rite Grand body, but afterwards changed into Scottish Rite. In 1911 it reverted to the York Rite and the name was then changed to the York Grand Lodge of Mexico. There were a few members who objected to the change and they remained behind and formed an independent Grand Lodge, retaining the old name. According to the latest returns, the York Grand Lodge of Mexico consists of thirteen Lodges with 907 members. A document sent out in June 1934 announces the formation of the Mexican Masonic Council, with member Grand Lodges as follows Gran Logia Benito Juarez Apdo. Num. 87 Torre6n, Coah. Gran Logia Indep. Cosmos Apdo. Num. 171 Chihuahua, Chih. Gran Logia del Estado de Chiapas Apdo. Num. 7o Tapachula, Chis.


Gran Logia del Estado de Nuevo Leon Apdo. Num. 309 Monterrey, N. L. Gran Logia de Tamaulipas Apdo. Num. 419 Tampico, Tamps.


Gran Logia Occidental Mexicana Apdo. Num. 9 Guadalajara, Jal. Gran Logia El Potosi Apdo. Num. 265 San Luis Potosi, S. L. P. Gran Logia Unida Mexicana Apdo. Num. 56 Veracruz, Ver. Gran Logia Oriental Peninsular Apdo. Num. 61 Merida, Yuc. Gran Logia Valle de Mexico Apdo. Num. io Mexico, D. F. Gran Logia Guadalupe Victoria Apdo. Num. 1o8 Durango, Dgo. Gran Logia Restauracion Apdo. Num. 26 Villahermosa, Tab. Gran Logia Campeche Apdo. Num. 17 Campeche, Camp.


ADMITTED PROVISIONALLY Gran Logia del Distrito Norte de la Baja California Apdo. Num. 81 Ensenada, B. C.


ADMISSION INCOMPLETE Gran Logia del Pacifico Apdo. Num. Zo Guaymas, Son.


Gran Logia del Estado de Oaxaca Apdo. Num. 1o Oaxaca, Oax.


116 FREEMASONRY IN MEXICO Of these there are several concerning which but little is known. Requests for information produced the following: The Grand Lodge of Coahuila, " Benito Juarez," was founded in Saltillo, Coahuila, in 18go, under the auspices and jurisdiction of the " Gran Dieta Simbolica " of the United States of Mexico.


In 1896, Worshipful Brother Dr. Lorenzo Cantu was elected Grand Master and the residence of the Grand Lodge was transferred to Ciudad Porfirio Diaz, Coahuila. It worked with regularity as an integral part of the " Grand Dieta Simbolica " until July 1, 19oi, when, upon the receipt of a circular announcing the dissolution of that Grand Body, it assumed its independence and sovereignty in the State of Coahuila, pledging itself to uphold the Ancient Charges and Landmarks as laid down by Dr. Anderson, in 172‑1, and acknowledging the complete independence of the Symbolic Degrees.


This Grand Lodge shows a list of 31 Lodges with 12‑76 members in 1935Grand Lodge La Oriental Peninsular of the State of Yucatan was formed from three Lodges working under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge Unida Mexicana of Vera Cruz, in the year 1913. It was organised to exercise jurisdiction over the State of Yucatan, Campeche and Quitana Roo. It is the only Grand Lodge operating in this territory. It has adopted the British standards. Its statement is as follows II. Since the date of its Constitution this Grand Lodge has been the only Governing Masonic Body in the territory that was granted to her, and her authority has not been nor is at present divided with any other Grand Lodge or Supreme Council.


III. That the Laws of this Grand Lodge are formed in strict compliance of the Ancient uses of the Fraternity approved at Stationers Hall, London, England, on June 2‑q., 172‑1, the main parts being: a. Acknowledgement of a belief in God. b. That it makes Masons of men only. c. Secrecy.


d. The Symbolism of Operative Masonry.


e. The division of Symbolic Masonry in three Degrees, universally known. f. The legend of the Third Degree and ways of recognition, which are unchangeable.


g. Controversial politics and sectarian religion strictly excluded from all activities under its auspices.


b. The Book of the Sacred Law shall always be open while a Lodge is working.


i. That it will not try to interfere in the territory of another Grand Body.


Grand Lodge El Potosi of the State of San Luis Potosi was established in the year 1896. It covers the territory of the State of San Luis Potosi and had its headquarters in the city of San Luis Potosi.


The Grand Lodge El Potosi works strictly in conformity with the standards of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina. Like many of its sister Mexican Grand FREEMASONRY IN MEXICO 117 Lodges, it has felt that the Masonry of the United States frowns upon things Mexican, and for that reason it has refrained from begging any American Grand Lodge to extend recognition; the Spanish‑speaking Masonic world has been driven to a self‑contained isolation to a great extent by the attitude of the English‑speaking Grand Lodges, who neither cared anything about them nor knew anything about them.


Bro. Juarez tells us then when his Grand Lodge received a copy of Past Grand Master Peter T. Wilson's address to the Conference of Grand Masters, in Spanish, the document created widespread interest and seemed to mark the be ginning of a new era of good feeling. It is desired that he shall express to our Grand Lodge the sincere thanks of the Grand Lodge El Potosi in us, and the hope that this may be the beginning of the best of fraternal relations.


This Grand Lodge Works the three Degrees, using the Ritual of the Scottish Rite which is the same that is used in practically all of Latin‑America; it requires the Volume of the Sacred Law on its Altars and a profession of faith in a Diety. It is sovereign and independent and shares its jurisdiction with none other.


The following is from the report of the Committee on the Grand Lodge Del Pacifico The chairman made a trip to Mexico for the particular purpose of examining into the merits of the application for recognition of the Grand Lodge of the Pacific and visited several of the cities where are located subordinate Lodges of that Grand Lodge. He had the privilege of inspecting several Lodge rooms and of meeting officers and members of a majority of the Lodges. He also conferred with the Grand Master Octavio A. Serrano, Past Grand Master R. H. Fernando F. Dworak, and other officers of the Grand Lodge. His impression was most favourable. He found those Masons with whom he came in contact to be mostly men of prominence and standing in their respective communities and his inquiries and observations induced him to believe that they were good Masons and that they were loyal to the tenets of our profession and were doing a splendid work in their jurisdictions. At Nogales, Hermosillo, Mazatlan, Los Machis, Navajoa, Culiacan and Cuidad Obregon he found Americans who had been raised in the United States and had cast their lot with the Masons of the Grand Lodge of the Pacific and without exception the expressions of, these Masons were commendatory of the work and the spirit of their Mexican brethren and their lodges. There is a strong American spirit on the west coast of Mexico and the influence of the American Masons there is evident.


The Grand Lodge of the Pacific confines its authority to the states of Sonora and Sinaloa and the central district of Lower Cafifornia. It exercises its right and authority over the three degrees of symbolic Masonry only. It requires of its initiates a belief in God and the immortality of the soul and displays the Great Light upon its altars. In 1923 the Grand Master Dworak represented to this Grand Lodge that the then newly created Grand Lodge of the Pacific had no treaty or other connection with the Supreme Council of Mexico, nor any other Masonic body, but that it was sovereign and absolutely independent. The application for recognition has been before us from that time until this and the same representations have been repeatedly made to us.


118 FREEMASONRY IN MEXICO We find that the Grand Lodge of the Pacific has 14 Lodges with more than 1400 members, and that all of the Lodges in its territory are of its obedience except a Lodge at Cananea, which is a subordinate of the York Grand Lodge of Mexico. Recognition of the Grand Lodge of the Pacific has been deferred until this time because the York Grand Lodge of Mexico, with which we are in amity and concord, claims exclusive jurisdiction throughout the Republic of Mexico and we were not disposed to take any action that might be objectionable to that Grand Lodge. It appeared to your committee that the only reason for denying the application for recognition would be an objection from the York Grand Lodge and that otherwise the Grand Lodge of the Pacific was justly entitled to our fraternal regard and recognition. With this in mind, we asked the Grand Master of the York Grand Lodge to give us a frank statement of his disposition in this matter, assuring him of our desire to work in full harmony and accord with the York Grand Lodge of Mexico and its members. We have now a reply to our inquiry made by the Grand Master through Bro. M. A. Loeby, Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the York Grand Lodge, in which we are advised that it cannot and will not embarrass or hurt York Grand Lodge for the Grand Lodge of California to enter into fraternal relationship with the Grand Lodge of the Pacific.


In 1926, the United Grand Lodge of Mexico at Vera Cruz sent out a request for recognition in which the following history, description and declarations occur: We have at all times and places tried to render obedience to those ideals notwithstanding the numerous difficulties and obstacles we have met with from the year 1883 in which our Masonic life began, as a body named " Gran Logia Simb6lica Independiente " (Symbolic and Independent Grand Lodge of Veracruz), with a regular jurisdiction upon the whole territory of the Mexican Republic and adjacent islands in both oceans, according to the cession made in our favour of the said territory by the Very Respectful Grand Lodge of Colon and that of Cuba; and at the same time, by the resignation of the Supreme Council in the city of Mexico to its pretensions to govern all the Masonic Lodges in this country.


In order you may have a clear and wide knowledge as to the origin, organisation and rights concerning our Grand Lodge we beg to send you herewith two enclosures or copies, one of the recognition granted to us as far as legitimacy and regularity correspond, by the Grand Lodge of Cuba, and another of the treaty by means of which the Supreme Council in Mexico resigned what they called their rights, recognised and agreed to cultivate and maintain a perpetual friendship with our Grand Lodge, being this also recognised by the Grand Lodges of the States of Alabama, Arizona, Iowa, Louisiana, Nebraska and District of Columbia in the United States of America, and by those of Edinburgh (Scotland), Manitoba and Nova Scotia (Canada), New South Wales and Victoria (Australia) and some more English and Spanish speaking lodges.


It is our duty to clear up that, notwithstanding that the jurisdiction of this Grand Lodge embraced the territorial extension mentioned above, it willingly engaged itself, as it has done, to grant the territory of the various federal states of this country to the Grand Lodges which might be established in a regular FREEMASONRY IN MEXICO 119 form and transmitting them the necessary jurisdiction, so they could practise there complete authority as sovereign powers in their respective territories, with the reservation for this Grand Lodge of the right to recover its whole personality upon the granted territories whenever one of those Grand Lodges might abdicate or divide its sovereignty in favour of another power.


The Gran Logia Unida Mexicana admits within its circle only free and honourable men (this is why it emphatically rejects as an irregular body any lodge which accepts women within itself).


We do recognise the existence of God, and our doors are completely closed for those who do not keep the same thought in their mind; and all the lodges pertaining to our control are instructed to keep open upon the altar the Sacred Book of the Divine Law. It exercises the secret, the Symbolism of the Operative Masonry, the division of the Symbolic Masonry into three degrees and the custom of reading the third one. Its aims are charities and the intellectual and moral education without accepting, at any rate, whatever sectarian controversy either political or religious.


Mr. Oliver Day Street in 1922 reported to the Grand Lodge of Alabama as follows Early in January 1882, the Grand Lodge of Colon and the Island of Cuba chartered three Symbolic Lodges at Vera Cruz. On January 28, 1883, these three lodges formed a Grand Lodge at Vera Cruz under the name of the Independent Symbolic Mexican Grand Lodge, claiming jurisdiction over Symbolic Masonry throughout the Republic. So far as we can ascertain its organisation was in strict accord with the rules for the erection of an independent Grand Lodge of Ancient Craft Masonry.


FREEMASONRY IN CENTRAL AMERICA 121 Four conclusions were agreed upon: the formulation of a definite programme of Masonic studies to be participated in by all the Brethren (i) for a clear understanding of the meaning of the Symbolic Degrees; (z) the desirability or undesirability of continuing or reducing the number of Lodges in the Capital and at Quezaltenango ; (3) the reorganization of the finances of the Craft in Guatemala. Much good is expected to result from an intensive discussion of the three problems. Two Lodges‑Garibaldi, No. i z, at Retalhuleu and Progreso, No. 14, at Coatepeque‑were deprived of their Charters because of internal difficulties.


A new Lodge was instituted (U.‑. D.‑.) at San Felipe under the title of Ideal Orientacion and is working most satisfactorily. The Lodge Estralla de Oriente (Star of the East) was constituted in December 1928, at Asuncion Mita, in the Department of Jutiapa and is reported to be working under favourable auspices and excellent condition, thanks to the enthusiasm of its members and their determination to adhere strictly to the laws of the Craft. Tenidas blancas (public meetings) were held by the several Lodges in a spirit of broad toleration and with carefully prepared programmes of entertainment and information to let the cultured public get a clearer conception of the character and altruistic purposes of the Fraternity. Grand Lodge organized three similar meetings: One in celebration of the annual patriotic festival on September 15‑1a Fiesta de la Patria ; the second in celebration of the twenty‑fifth anniversary of the establishment of the Grand Lodge of Guatemala, the third in memory of the,Brethren who have " travelled to the Eternal East, . . . preceding us in the completion of human destiny." These meetings, too, have been of inestimable value as a means for dispelling doubts and misconceptions and diffusing the principles of Freemasonry for the good of the country and the world at large.


With reference to the Fiesta de la Patria the Grand Master issued a decree calling upon the Lodges to arrange annually, on either the fourteenth or fifteenth of September, a dignified celebration of the anniversary of the Independence of Central America, so as to record and exalt the patriotism of the Masons of Guatemala, demonstrating their love of their country and their constant solicitude for her prosperity.


The Grand Lodge of Guatemala is recognised as regular by an impressive list of British and American Grand Lodges.


HONDURAS There is in Honduras a Grand Lodge, recognized by several of the American jurisdictions, which, according to the latest return, has six Lodges, composed in membership of native Honduranians, almost every Lodge having among its members some of the best minds of the Republic. There are also in Honduras four Lodges chartered by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, viz. Tela, No. i 196, at Tela ; Ceiba., No. 1266, at La Ceiba ; Puerta Castilla, NO. 1793, at Puerto Castilla ; and Cortes, No. 1315, at Puerto Cortes.


122 FREEMASONRY IN CENTRAL AMERICA On May 15, 19zz, representatives of the three Lodges in Honduras then existing‑Iqualidad, No. i, at Tegucigalpa; Eureka, No. z, at San Pedro Sula ; and Augustin Disdier, No. 3, at La Ceiba‑all then subordinate to the Supreme Council of Central America at Guatemala, met in consultation at Tegucigalpa to take preliminary steps towards the formation of an Independent Grand Lodge of Symbolic Masonry. It was resolved to found such a body and Fredrico C. Canales was appointed Grand Master and Ernesto Fiallos V as Grand Secretary. Notice was given the Supreme Council of the resolution thus passed and that body rendered the necessary assistance by releasing the three Lodges from all obedience to it. On July 9 of the same year the Sovereign Symbolic Grand Lodge of the State of Honduras of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite was duly formed and constituted. This body demands a declaration of belief in the Supreme Being and the Bible is displayed on the altars of the Lodges.


The Lodges under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Scotland are composed entirely of English‑speaking people, most of whom are Americans. The Lodges under the Grand Lodge of Honduras work in the language of the country.


Its standards are substantially those of the Grand Lodges of New York, North Carolina, Massachusetts, and others. It is recognised by Alabama, Arkansas, California, Kansas, New Jersey, North Carolina, Cuba, Costa Rica, Panama.


PANAMA A very good historical account of Freemasonry in what is now the Republic of Panama, presented by judge Oliver D. Street to the Grand Lodge of Alabama in 1922, is reproduced herewith This republic was a part of Colombia until November 3, 1903, when it declared its independence and set up a government of its own. It was promptly recognised by the leading nations of the world, due no doubt to the chaotic conditions in Colombia and the desire of the world to see the Panama Canal constructed. The republic is 430 miles long and 118 miles at its widest point, its area being 32,38o square miles. The population is about one‑half million and exhibits various degrees of admixture of Indian, Negro and Spanish blood. Of course, the relatively small pure white element is the predominating influence.


Apparently the first Masonic Lodge in Panama was " Union Lodge," at Panama City, founded by the Grand Lodge of Texas in 1850. It probably became dormant about 1852. In 1866, Massachusetts established at Panama ' Isthmus Lodge '' which continued to work till i88o when it surrendered its charter. It is probable that these two Lodges left little impress upon the people of Panama as their membership consisted chiefly of sojourners.


There is little doubt that the present Masonry of Panama owes its existence in the first instance to the Supreme Council of Colombia (formerly New Granada, at Cartagena), though by 1903, it had become completely disorganized. When about 1907 the process of reorganization began it was necessary on account of the unfriendly political relations then existing between Panama and Colombia for the Masons of Panama to apply to the Supreme Council of Venezuela, at FREEMASONRY IN CENTRAL AMERICA 123 Caracas, for a charter. Between 1907 and 1913, six Lodges were chartered by Venezuela in Panama.


The Grand Lodge of Panama was formed by these six Lodges and one Lodge chartered by the Supreme Council of Colombia, at Cartagena, on August i9, 1916. Its jurisdiction extends throughout the Republic with the exception of the Canal Zone. It may not establish Lodges in this Zone but may receive the petitions of citizens of the Re ublic of Panama residing or doing business in the Zone. It has been recognize by the Masonic powers of the world generally. Latest statistics (192o) credit it with 6 Lodges and Soo members.


NICARAGUA In 1932‑ the Grand Lodge of Nicaragua sent out the following account of itself, signed by T. F. Guliener, Grand Master, and Antonio Ortega B., Grand Secretary: With the object of having our foreign relation as completely as possible to fulfil the purposes of our Great Fraternity we hereby apply for official recognition from your Grand Lodge.


For your guidance we are submitting you the following information: I. The Grand Lodge of Nicaragua occupies exclusively its territorial jurisdiction and was lawfully formed on 27th November, 1907, by the following Lodges Progreso, No. I, Managua. Luz, No. 2, Leon. Estrella Meridional, No. 3, Rivas.


Furthermore the following lodges have been Chartered: Isis, No. 4, Matagalpa. Veteranos, No. 5, Managua. Diriangen, No. 6, Leon.


2. It is a responsible independent self‑governing organization with sole undisputed and exclusive authority over all symbolic Lodges in Nicaragua. Is not in any sense subject to nor dividing its authority with any Supreme Council nor any other Power claiming ritualistic or other supervision or control. Its legal standing has been recognized by the Nicaraguan Government.


3. Its membership is composed of men exclusively and do not entertain any Masonic relation with mixed lodges or bodies admitting women into their fellowship.


4. It adheres in principle to the Ancient Landmarks, traditions, customs and usages of the Craft, as set forth in the Constitutions adopted by the Grand Lodge of England in 1723.


S . The Grand Lodge of Nicaragua meet in particular the following essentials: I. Acknowledgement of a belief in God the father of all men. 2. Belief in immortality.


3. Presence of the Three Great Lights of Masonry in the lodges while at work, chief among them the Sacred Book of the Divine Law.


SAN SALVADOR Masonry obtained a footing and the Craft flourished for a time in this State, but in 1882 the Lodges were closed and the members dispersed. In that year, 124 FREEMASONRY IN CENTRAL AMERICA however, some zealous Masons, supported by the then President of the Republic‑Rafael Zaldivar‑succeeded in reuniting the scattered Brethren and founding a Lodge. Excelsior, No. 17, was established by Charter of the Grand Orient of Central America (Costa Rica), at San Salvador, the capital, March 5, 1882 and, a little later, another Lodge‑No. 18, Caridad y Constancia‑under the same sanction, at Tecla, a neighbouring town.


SPANISH HONDURAS We obtain from the report prepared for the Grand Lodge of Alabama in 1922 by Hon. Oliver D. Street, the following account of Freemasonry in the Republic of Honduras This state is only a little smaller than Guatemala, but its population is only about one‑fourth as large. Those of pure European blood are very small in number, the mestizos (mixed Indian and Spanish) and the full‑blooded Indians con stituting the great bulk of the population. As a rule the people are industrious. Of course the prevailing religion is Roman Catholicism but no religion is supported by the state and religious freedom is secured by the constitution.


As late as June Io, 1922, there were only three Lodges of Masons in Honduras, namely, ' Igualidad " No. 1 at Tegucigalpa; '' Eureka " No. 2, at San Pedro Sula; and " Augustin Disdier " No. 3, at LaCeiba, all subordinates of the Supreme Council of Central America at Guatemala. On May 15, 1922, representatives of the Lodges met in convention at Tegucigalpa to take preliminary steps towards forming an independent Grand Lodge of Symbolic Masonry. It was at once resolved to found such body and the election of officers was proceeded with, resulting in the election of Fredrico C. Canales as Grand Master and Ernesto Fiallos V. as Grand Secretary. Notice was at once communicated to the Supreme Council of Central America of their action, and on the loth day of June that supreme body released these Lodges from all allegiance to it in order to facilitate them in their plans.


On July 9, 1922, the " Sovereign Symbolic Grand Lodge of the State of Honduras of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite '' was solemnly constituted. We have been furnished with a full set of documents relating to the formation of this Grand Lodge. From them we learn that all official connection between the Lodges of Symbolic Masonry and the " higher " bodies of the Scottish Rite is completely severed; that this Grand Lodge is an independent, selfgoverning body owing no allegiance to any other body or system; that this Grand Lodge practices and controls only the first three degrees and that the Supreme Council of Central America has surrendered claim over these degrees within the Republic of Honduras; that all the Lodges in Honduras participated in the formation of this Grand Lodge and that it is formed ' in conformity ' to the laws which govern our Institution." We are unable to detect irregularity whatever in the formation of this Grand Lodge except (if it be an irregularity) that it is Scottish Rite origin. A declaration of a belief in Deity is exacted and the Bible is displayed on the altar of the Lodges.


CHAPTER IV FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES BY the expression West Indies is understood the large group of islands lying east of Central and north of South America. Of these the nothernmost are the Bahamas or Lucayos‑a long archipelago. South‑west of them stretches the vast island of Cuba, the most important of the whole group as well as the principal member of the Greater Antilles, within which are also comprised Jamaica, Hayti, Porto Rico and several smaller islands.


East of Porto Rico begin the Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbee Islands, by navigators again subdivided into the two groups of the Windward (or South Caribbees) and Leeward (or North Caribbees) Islands, so‑called in accordance with the direction in which they lie with regard to the prevailing easterly trade wind. With a single important exception all these islands belong to European nations, being shared between Great Britain, Holland, Sweden, Denmark, France and Spain. The solitary exception is Hayti, which is divided into two independent native states. Some few also of the Leeward group belong to the South American Republic of Venezuela.


Much confusion has arisen from the same name being given to different islands and from the same island having different names. Thus, there are Barbadoes and Barbudo, whilst the Saintes (three of the Caribbee Islands) were at one time called Barbata. St. Christopher is commonly termed St. Kitts ; Porto Rico was formerly known as San Juan‑the proximity of the latter to St. John naturally introducing a new element of uncertainty. Then we have Cariacou, one of the Grenadines and Cura~oa. The Bahamas were likewise the Lucayos. Hispaniola, San Domingo and Hayti are all appellations for one island, while San Domingo is also the name of the principal city in the Spanish part of it. Two islands arc called Anguila ; there is a New as well as an Old Providence‑and the latter was also known as St. Catherine. The island of Samana occasionally comes in conflict with the peninsula of the same name in Hispaniola. Three islands in the West Indies were called Santa Cruz and the same name is borne by a the South Pacific and by the capital of the Canaries. There is Tortuga and the Tortugas and the following very puzzling names of towns : Basseterre, the capital both of Guadeloupe and St. Kitts; St. Pierre, a town in Martinique, also in Reunion (or Bourbon) ; St. Louis, common to Guadeloupe and Senegal; St. Denis, a town in France, as well as the capital of Reunion; Port Louis, a seaport of France and the capital of the Mauritius; St. George, the name of towns in Grenada and Bermuda; and, lastly, Santiago, the most familiar title of all, which occurs not 17‑5 i26 FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES only in Old and New Spain (Hispaniola), the Cape Verde Islands, Cuba and Jamaica, but is also met with both in Central and South America.


It will be seen, therefore, that a study of the Masonic history of the West Indies is beset with a new class of difficulties, differing materially from those which have been already encountered in the previous researches. A great part of the information is contained in old Calendars where the name of a town or an island is, as often as not, given without any real approach to exactitude. Less uncertainty prevails, as we gradually sail down the river of time, but even when approaching our own times, the references to Lodges in foreign parts (en pays strangers) under Continental jurisdictions, by the most discursive of writers, are, in too many instances, both vague and misleading.


CUBA Le Temple des Vertus Theologales, or Las Virtude1 Teologales, No. 103 ‑with the notorious Joseph Cerneau as first Master‑was chartered at Havana by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, December 17, 1804. During the progress of the Negro Revolution, three Lodges originally constituted in Hispaniola‑Reunion des Ceeurs (French), Concorde and Perseverance (Pennsylvanian) ‑were reorganized at Santiago de Cuba in 1805‑6. Again dispersed in 1808, many of the members removed to New Orleans in 1809, where‑October 7, 1810 ‑the two Lodges first named amalgamated, as No. 117 (Concord), under the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, by which body a Charter‑No. 118, Perseverance ‑was also granted the same day to certain petitioners, " chiefly refugees from San Domingo and Cuba." Other Lodges were erected under the same sanction ‑Nos. 157, 161 111 1818 ; 166, 167 111 1819 ; and (at Santiago de Cuba) 175 in 1820 and 181 111 1822. All, however, but the last two had died out by 1822 and, in 1826, the Charters of Nos. 175 and 181 were revoked, because the Lodges had failed to meet for more than a year. The privilege of warranting Lodges on the island was next assumed by the Grand Lodges of Louisiana and South Carolina, under the former of which bodies sprang up Nos. 7, 1815, 11 and 14, 1818 ; and, under the latter, Nos. 5o‑La Constancia, 1818 and 52‑La Amenidad, 1819. Then followed the Grand Orient of France with a Lodge and consistory (32), 1819 ; and two further Lodges‑La Constante Sophie and L'Humanite (at Saint Yago, ? Santiago de Cuba), 1821. In the year last named a circular was received by the Grand Lodge of South Carolina from the Grand Lodge of Ancient Freemasons in Havana, stating that a Grand Lodge had been organized there, to which Lodge La Amenidad requested permission to transfer its allegiance. A favourable answer was of course returned, but the Grand Lodge of South Carolina retained on its roll La Constancia for a few years, when the Warrant was surrendered by the members " in consequence of the religious and political persecutions to which they were subjected." For many years Masonry languished in the " Pearl of the Antilles," its votaries FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES 127  practising their rites in secret, but not daring to indulge in any overt acts, which might entail not only expulsion from the country, but also confiscation of their property. At length, however, a faint revival set in and a Warrant was granted, November 117, 18 5 9, by the Grand Lodge of South Carolina to St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 93, " for the purpose of establishing, with two other Lodges (Albert Pike and Josiah H. Drummond concur in the belief that these were Spanish Lodges, i.e. holding Warrants from some Peninsula authority) already existing on the island, a Grand Lodge," which was accomplished on December 5 of the same year.


An independent Grand Lodge of Colon was thus established at Santiago de Cuba and‑December 27, i 8 5 9‑a Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Rite 33 was founded in the same city by Andres Cassard, under the sanction of the Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdiction of the U.S.A., "for the Masonic Jurisdiction of Cuba and other unoccupied West India Islands." At this time, it must be recollected, the practice of assembling as Freemasons was forbidden by the Spanish laws, which laws, moreover, though destined to become‑after the dethronement of Queen Isabella (i868)‑innocuous in the Peninsula, remained for a long time in full force in Cuba.


Several, indeed, of the Captains General and other officers who ruled the island were Masons and, therefore, from time to time the Craft was tolerated, but its members being always compelled to work to a great extent in the dark, found it necessary to observe the most inviolable secrecy, even to shield themselves under " Masonic names," lest by the discovery of their own, they might incur the most grievous penalties. Among the names given in an official report dated August 6, 1873, of the officers of the Supreme Council of Colon are " Bismark " and " Josaphat," but a paragraph states‑" the real names of the officers you will find in the enclosed slip, they are not stated here, to prevent their being divulged should this communication come to print " (New England Freemason, February 1874, p. 8o). For the same reason the Supreme Council and the Grand Lodge, which soon after united in forming a Grand Orient, found a convenient title for the amalgamated body in the name of Colon‑the Spanish for Columbus‑it being desired above all things to conceal from the public ken the seat of the " Grand East " of the Society.


At the formation of the Grand Orient of Colon, a Constitution published at Naples in 1820, was adopted as that of the new organization. By this the Supreme Council necessarily became a, section of the Grand Orient. In 1865 a new Constitution was promulgated. The Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council became‑ex officio‑Grand Master of the Grand Orient, but the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge was still required to submit himself for election. All Charters for Lodges were issued by the Grand Lodge, but had to be confirmed and vised by the Supreme Council. According to Lecerff, however‑" in Naples a Grand Orient was founded, which in 1830 [not 182o] enacted its Constitution and By‑laws, entitling the book General Statutes of the Scottish Bite ; these came to America and happened to come to hand of (sic) Brother Andres Cassard, 128 FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES the propagator of Masonry in South and Central America ; in establishing Masonry in those countries, he gave the General Statutes as the universal laws of Masonry and the Grand Orient system with the allegiance of all to the thirty‑third Degree was provided for therein " (Proceedings Grand Lodge of Cuba, 1870.


In 1867 the Grand Lodge promulgated a Constitution of its own, in which, while recognizing its continued membership of the Grand Orient, it claimed the exclusive power to enact its own By‑laws, issue Charters, constitute and regulate Lodges. Their right to do this was denied by the Supreme Council. In 1868 ‑September 3o‑the Grand Lodge suspended its Constitution until a meeting took place of the Grand Orient, convoked for November 3o. But before that time the revolution broke out and Freemasons, being regarded by the Spanish government as revolutionists, the Grand Orient could not meet. The Grand Lodge, so far as it was possible, resumed labour. But the times were unpropitious. In the winter of 1869, at Santiago de Cuba, by order of Gonzales Bret, an officer of the government, eighteen persons were seized without warrant and immediately shot, without a trial, for being Freemasons‑one of them the Grand Master of Colon‑and many others were arrested and committed to prison for the same offence.


The number of Cuban Lodges, which, in 1868, was about thirty, had fallen in 1870 to about seven and, in the latter year, the Supreme Council organized a Provincial Mother Lodge at Havana, against which the Grand Lodge very naturally protested. The Warrant to this Mother Lodge was soon after recalled, but the dispute between the Supreme Council and the Grand Lodge continued. In 1873‑April ii‑the Grand Lodge resumed work openly and, in the following year, entered into a compact with the Supreme Council, whereby it was agreed that the former should have exclusive jurisdiction over Symbolic Masonry, with the sole right of chartering Lodges and that it should establish a Provincial Mother Lodge (instituted in April and dissolved in July 1875) in the western section of the island to govern the Lodges there, but in submission to the laws of the Grand Lodge. After this compact it is contended that the Grand Lodge, though still nominally a section in the Grand Orient, had full jurisdiction over Symbolical Masonry. Nevertheless, it is quite clear that there was a divided authority and, apparently, great Masonic confusion on the island.


The Grand Lodge of Colon held five meetings in August 1876, on the last of which‑August z6‑it declared itself free from all other authority, a sovereign body, with full and unlimited powers over its subordinates.


This action, however, was accelerated by an event which had taken place on August i, when the representatives of nine chartered Lodges (six chartered before and three after 1865), together with four under dispensation from the two Provincial Mother Lodges, met at Havana and formed the Grand Lodge of Cuba. This body from the very first kept itself free from the blighting influence of the (so‑called) High Degrees, which it willingly consented‑December 31, 1876‑should be ruled in Cuba by the Grand Orient of Spain. In a circular of September 4, 1876, the FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES 12.9 Grand Lodge of Colon claimed to have on its register 36 Lodges and 8,ooo members ; whilst its newly formed rival, the Grand Lodge of Cuba, in 1877, possessed an apparent following of 17 Lodges. In the latter year‑June 3‑a second Grand Lodge of Colon (or Columbus) at Havana was added to the two existing Craft Grand bodies.


Thus we find three organizations, each claiming to be the regular Grand Lodge. From a circular of the Grand Lodge of Cuba, we learn that, in 1879, the three Lodges which formed the Grand Lodge of Colon at Santiago de Cuba in 1859 and four others, adhered to that body; but that the remaining Lodges‑excepting those under the Grand Lodge of Cuba‑were subject to the control of the Grand Lodge of Colon at Havana. To local jealousies must be attributed this multiplication of Grand Lodges. The representatives of some of the Havana Lodges seceded from the old (or original) Grand Lodge of Colon at Santiago de Cuba, met as the Grand Lodge and decreed its removal to Havana.


Eventually, however, the Grand Lodges of Colon (at Havana) and Cuba formally united, and‑March 28, 188o‑the Grand Master of one body became Grand Master and the Grand Master of the other body Deputy Grand Master. The title assumed by the new organization was the United Grand Lodge of Colon and the Island of Cuba and it entered upon its career with a roll of 5 7 Lodges and between 5,ooo and 6,ooo Masons. The Lodges under the original Grand Lodge of Colon at Santiago de Cuba remained true to their allegiance.


In 1885, the number of Lodges under the United Grand Lodge had apparently increased to 82, with Provincial Grand Lodges at Santiago de Cuba and Porto Rico ; but from the official List of 1886, there were then only 58 Lodges in all upon the roll. Of these, 30 were at the capital, or in its vicinity, and 28 in other parts. It is possible that further schisms may have disturbed the peace of Cuban Masonry; and it is somewhat remarkable that the Provincial Grand Lodge of Porto Rico‑with the 14 subordinate Lodges on that island, shown in sundry Calendars for 1886‑wholly disappeared in the later official List.


To‑day there are in Cuba 186 Lodges with 13,178 members, a net gain during the year of 349. Order has been brought into quarters where temporary differences had produced dissension. Honesty and business‑like administration of finances is insisted on and a special commission appointed to look after this matter and supply standard models for book‑keeping transactions and the keeping of Minutes. Discipline is upheld with a firm hand. The Grand Master (Antonio Iraizoz de Villar) holds that it is better to have fewer Lodges and fewer members than men who cannot or will not submit to Masonic law and co‑operate to maintain the high reputation which Cuban Masonry has won after years of struggle against attacks and misinterpretations by opponents outside of the Lodges, A Commission is to be created to act as a Supreme Court of Masonic justice; this will be composed of magistrates of established prestige and authority.


During igzg a number of new Temples were dedicated and a uniformed National Masonic Band was formed. The Government has conceded to Grand 130 FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES Lodge a valuable piece of property in the city of Havana, in recognition of its help in providing a school for children and a public library. A Masonic Temple (Palacio de la Masoneria) will be built on this property, which will be the headquarters of Grand Lodge. The property was obtained through the influence of Dr. Antonio Bosch, who is not a Mason.


One Lodge helps to maintain a dental dispensary for children in the city of Camaguey. Another gave an ambulance to a hospital. ˙687 were sent to Porto Rico for relief in the devastated regions there; 16,171 pairs of shoes were given to an equal number of children, enabling them to attend school. This undertaking is known as El Zapato Escolar. It was founded on January 6, 19zo, the day which commemorates the visit of the Magi to Bethlehem. La Misericordia (the National Masonic Home) has, at present, 180 residents.


This Grand Lodge appears to be recognised practically universally among Masonic Grand Lodges, the Grand Lodge of South Australia being the only one whose statement of fraternal relations with it appears not to have been found.


HAYTI AND SANTO DOMINGO This island is divided into the republics of Hayti in the west and San (or Santo) Domingo in the east. It was originally a Spanish possession, but the western portion was ceded in 1697 to the French, under whom it prospered rapidly and, in 1789, contained 793 sugar plantations, 3,117 coffee plantations, 789 cotton plantations and 18z establishments for making rum, besides other minor factories and workshops.


But the conflicting diversity of race and monopoly of political power by the whites, led to a rupture on the outbreak of the Revolution in the mother country. After fierce revolts of the mulattoes and negroes and inroads of the English and Spanish, all the inhabitants of the colony were declared free and equal in 1793, the command of the army being given to Toussaint l'Ouverture, who expelled the hostile intruders and restored peace to the island.


English troops arrived in Hayti from Jamaica in 1793 and, afterwards, were poured into the country; but they came to die. The 8znd Foot, numbering 880 men, lost all but 50 in ten weeks. Another regiment, in the same time, lost 700 men out of 1,ooo ; and it is stated that the 96th Foot perished to a man (Bryan Edwards, History of the Vest Indies, vol. iii, p. 411). Major‑General Sir Adam Williamson (Provincial Grand Master for Jamaica under the Grand Lodge of England‑Moderns‑1793‑8), who succeeded the Earl of Eflingham (Acting Grand Master of England, under the Duke of Cumberland, 1782‑9) as Governor of Jamaica, ultimately followed the troops sent from that island, with the title of Governor‑General of San Domingo. At the close of 1798, however, when the colony was evacuated, millions of treasure had been wasted, twenty thousand a soldiers and sailors had perished, whilst there never had been any reasonable prospect of conquering the island. The loss of the English has been estimated at 45,000 men and twenty millions sterling.


FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES 131 The Spanish territory was ceded to France in 1795, but Napoleon attempted to re‑establish slavery in 18oi and the inhabitants shook off the French yoke in 1803, San Domingo in that year declaring itself an independent republic. A period of confusion then ensued, there being no fewer than five distinctive governments upon the island in 18io. The whole of it passed again under a single republic, that of Hayti, in 1822, but, in 1844, the Dominicans reasserted their independency and the two districts have since remained separate. The territory comprised within the republic of San Domingo was ceded to Spain in 1861, but again declared free by an act of the Cortes, March 3, 1865.


Of the later condition of San Domingo, Hazard, a traveller, gave a deplorable account. The fertile plains were untilled ; the rich mines unworked. There was not a plough in the whole island; and the only steam engine ever set up was destroyed by the Spaniards in 1865.


In the republic of Hayti, on the western side of this beautiful island, the state of things was even worse than in the eastern or Dominican part. All traces of the old French civilization vanished. There were no manufactures and the government was bankrupt; the towns were in ruins and the men spent their time in idleness, living on the industry of the women.


Two Lodges‑St. Jean de Jerusalem Ecossaise and Concorde‑were formed on the island, under the Grande Loge Anglaise de France in 1749. Others soon followed‑Freres Reunis, 1763 ; Amitie Indissoluble, 1765 ; Verite, 1767; Freres Choisis, 1772 ; and a Provincial Grand Lodge‑under the Grand Orient‑October 1, 1778. These were doubtless established on French territory, in the district now known as Hayti, though the term San Domingo is alone used in the lists.


The remaining Lodges, constituted under French authority prior to the Revolution were‑L'Unanimite, Petit Goave, 1774; Les Freres Zeles, Cavaillon, 1775 ; Raison Perfectionnee, Petit Tron, 1779 ; Reunion Desiree, Port au Prince, 1783 ; Choix des Hommes, Jacmel, 1784 and Freres Discrets, Cayes, 1785 (Nos.


292, 291, 456, 466, 521 and 591).


Besides the Degrees of the Craft, the Rite of Perfection had been introduced into the island by Stephen Morin in 1761 and, doubtless, continued to be worked until swept away‑like all other vestiges of French domination‑by the great political cataclysm, in which that remarkable personage is himself believed to have perished. We have seen that during the closing years of the eighteenth century Hispaniola had become the headquarters of the newly invented American Rite, called‑but without any valid reason‑the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite 330 and that, on the expulsion of the French colonists, the Rite in question had been introduced into France. Both De Grasse‑Tilly and Hacquet‑who so far anticipated him as to be first in the field with the revived Rite of Perfection‑the former a planter, the latter a notary, were residents in the French (or western) side of San Domingo, i.e. on the part now known as Hayti.


The Dominican, or to speak with precision, the Haytian Lodges, which had served as the basis of the Rite, in most cases closed their doors during the political 132 FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES troubles and Freemasonry, which was strictly confined to the white inhabitants, became almost, if not quite, extinct.


A Warrant was granted from Pennsylvania, in 1786, on the,application of " a Lodge held at Cape Frangois, directed to General Washington as Grand Master of all America." A second Lodge, under the same jurisdiction, was established at Port au Prince in 1789, which continued to meet regularly throughout the political convulsions of 1791 and, at the close of 1798 (as related in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania), " after having been obliged by reason of the disturbances in the island, their Lodge being burnt, etc., to suspend their Masonic operations, had again begun and were carrying on their works." In 1793‑December 4‑sundry French Brethren, " driven from the island of San Domingo," were granted a dispensation by the Grand Lodge of New York to meet as a Lodge in that city for the period of six months. This, which was named La Tendre Amitie Franco‑Americaine, surrendered its acting Warrant, June 4, 1794; but the money and papers of the Lodge were delivered‑by order of the Grand Lodge‑to L'Unite Americaine, which took its place, May 19, 1795, The latter received a regular Charter in 1797, becoming No. i z on the roll and, in the same year, was concerned in a series of irregularities which are not without interest in the present inquiry. From internal bickerings dissensions had arisen in the Lodge, it decided to return the New York Warrant and revert "to the authority of their natural Grand Lodge of France." Accordingly, a French Lodge L'Union Fran5aise was established in New York, December 6, by Huet Lachelle, a Deputy Grand Master under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of France and Provincial Grand Master for San Domingo. L'Unite Americaine after this made submission, was accorded grace, but split into two parts, one remaining the old Lodge, the other becoming L'Union Frangaise, No. 14 on the roll of New York. With the subsequent history of these bodies we are not concerned ; it will suffice to have learnt from authority that a large number of Haytian Brethren found an asylum in New York; also, that the Provincial Grand Master of San Domingo and four of his Grand Officers were included in the number of these refugees.


In 18oz, owing to the arrival of 30,000 veteran French troops, the negro forces of Toussaint 1'Ouverture were compelled to retire to the mountains and the survivors of the colonists who had fled to different countries returned in great numbers, but in 1803 were for the second time expelled. Meanwhile, however, the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania had extended its jurisdiction in Hayti. Several Lodges were erected as follows : Nos. 46, Cape Fran5ois, February 3, 1786; 47, Union of Franco‑American Hearts, Port au Prince, December 18, 1789; 87, Freres Reunis, the Cape, December 15, 18oo ; 88, Concorde, St. Marc, May 4, 1801‑reinstated September 15, 1806‑surrendered September 4, 18og ; 89, Freres Sincerement Reunis, Cayes, May 4, 1801 ; 95, Humilite, Luse a Veau, December 6, 180z ; 97, Parfaite Harmonie, San Domingo, September 5, 1803 ; 98, Perseverance, Abricots, September 5, 1803‑reinstated March zi, 1808‑finally vacated October FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES 133 27, 18io ; 99, Temple du Bonheur, Arcapaye, December 5, 1803. All the above, except No. 46 (extinct in 1790), were erased (or " vacated ") April 7, 1 806 and those only reinstated which are specifically mentioned. Nos. 95 and 97‑9 were established in the first instance by the Provincial Grand Lodge of San Domingo.


A Provincial Grand Lodge of San Domingo was established January 9, 1802. This was vacated (apparently in error) April 7, but reinstated September 15, 1806 and the jurisdiction extended to the island of Cuba‑whither, with two of his Lodges, the Provincial Grand Master had retired.


In 1806, in the portion of Hayti ruled by President Pethion, some of the French Lodges revived and negotiations were set on foot by one Trichet, which resulted in the erection of two Lodges under the (older) Grand Lodge of England in 1909, La Loge de l'Amitie des Freres, Reunis and La Loge de 1'Heureuse Reunion. This was followed up by the appointment of a Provincial Grand Master‑John Goff‑in 1811 and by the formation of two further English Lodges in 1817, Loge La Reunion des Ceeurs and Loge Parfaite Sincerite des Coeurs Reunis. All four were erased in 1824. Meanwhile the efforts of the Grand Orient of France to obtain the upper hand were frustrated by the action of the Government.


About the same time‑1810‑in that part of the island under the sway of the Emperor Henry I, there was also a revival and a vast number of so‑called Degrees, with pompous and unmeaning titles, were introduced by a charlatan named D'Obernay, which were accepted with avidity at the Imperial Court. After this came a pause, owing to the political convulsions which disturbed the peace of the island. In both of the existing Republics‑mulatto and black‑one revolution seems to have followed another, the only variation being the wars that from time to time broke out between the two States. But, after the establishment of a single Government (1822), the English Provincial Grand Lodge was transformed‑May 23, 1823‑into an independent Grand Lodge of Hayti, with President Boyer as patron, with his Prime Munster, General Ingignac, as Grand Master. The Constitutions were settled January 24, 1824 and the Grand Lodge was established on precisely the same basis as the United Grand Lodge of England. For many years the Craft prospered and pursued the even tenor of its way, until about 1830, when a certain St. Lambert, an envoy of the Supreme Council of France, began to stir up strife by again attempting to propagate the High Degrees.


Five Lodges in all were erected under the authority of the Ancient and Accepted Rite ; whilst the rival French jurisdiction, that of the Grand Orient, has only warranted a single Lodge on the island during the last century. This, Les Mages du Tropique, was established at Cayes in 1831 and has long since disappeared from the roll of the Grand Orient, though as an Areopagus distinguished by an identical title, meeting at the same place, was shown in the Tableau Des Ateliers, Supreme Council of France, from which it is natural to suppose that there must have been a transfer of allegiance.


In 1836 the Grand Lodge, with a view to terminating the confusion which 134 FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES prevailed, transformed itself into a Grand Orient. This alteration, of course, involved the institution of a Supreme Council 33', which duly claimed the allegiance of all fluctuating bodies under the obedience of any branch of the Ancient and Accepted Rite.


In 1843, owing to an insurrection of the blacks, Boyer‑the mulatto President ‑was displaced. A few years of turmoil then ensued and the Craft once more languished. In 1845 a new envoy of the French Supreme Council, Fresnel, having obtained the protection of President Santana, almost overthrew the National Grand Orient, but was himself ultimately expelled for political intrigue. After his departure the Grand Orient of Hayti revived, entered into a compact with the Grand Orient of France and, in 18 51, ruled over no fewer than thirty‑one Lodges, besides forty‑nine associations of Masons which met under varied titles for the communication of the so‑called High Degrees.


In 1844‑February 2‑7‑total separation from Hayti was declared by the Dominicans and the eastern (or Spanish) portion of the island formed itself into the republic of San Domingo. In 1861, as already related, it once more placed itself under the government of Spain. A revolt, however, broke out in 1863 and Spain finally relinquished its changeful child.


A Grand Orient of San Domingo was organized at the capital of the same name December 11, 18 5 8. The Lodges taking part in this proceeding were originally warranted, 1830‑4, by the Grand Orient of Hayti (Port au Prince), at the time when the whole island was under an undivided rule. Falling, however, into a state of somnolency during the wars, 1844‑7, they were suppressed, or erased, in 1849. The Grand Orient of San Domingo, thus formed by these resuscitated Lodges, appears never to have had more than some half‑dozen daughters on its roll.


During the reunion with Spain, 1861‑5, Masonry either died out or was practised in secr‑‑t, but a Grand Lodge of the Dominican Republic was organized ‑January 2‑6, 1865‑under Benito Perez as Grand Master. This was followed ‑October 2z‑by a Supreme Council for the High Degrees and the two bodies united‑January 1, 1866‑in re‑establishing a National Grand Orient.


In January 1867 Thomas Bobadilla presided over the Grand Orient, with Castro as Deputy Grand Master; whilst the Lodges were ten in number, with a total membership of about 2‑,ooo. In 192‑8, the Dominican National Grand Lodge sent out the following This, our Great Lodge, was established the year 1858, and actually cultivates good friendly relations with a great majority of the Great Lodges of the world.


The lodges under our obedience are eighteen, distributed in the principal cities of this country, working regularly and according to our rules. They practice the Scottish Rite and our legislation is as progressive as that of other Grand Lodges.


Our Grand Lodge in its decisions is independent from the High Philosophic FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES 735 Bodies, with which we hold brotherly relations. We take heed not to admit in our relationship any Lodge or Masonic Body that may not have been acknowledged as regular, and in order to admit Brothers from foreign countries, we require the presentation of documents that may prove that they are Masons in good standing.


We only initiate in our lodges free men, with at least an average education, good habits and religious feelings, being an indispensable condition, belief in God, Great Architect of the Universe and regulator of all things.


Our by‑laws are severe in their provisions for punishment, and whenever judging a Brother, we want justice to shine, making punishment certain when necessary, the only way to keep the prestige and good reputation of our Order.


We have before us many documents of different sorts concerning the Grand Orient of Hayti. First is an article in the Bulletin of the International Office for Masonic Intercourse, for January 1907. The article is by Dathan de St. Cyr, Grand Representative of Hayti to the Grand Orient of France. He states that Freemasonry was started in Hayti at the time of the proclamation of the independence of Hayti in 1804, but made only slow progress. It seems at almost all times to have been closely associated with the political powers. Thus it is stated that the approval of the President of the Republic of Hayti, Alexandre Petion, was given to a project to have Haytian Masonry obtain " the patronage of the Grand Lodge of England " through a man who was going on a mission " to the Cabinet of St. James "; and that he " succeeded in obtaining the favour." Soon afterwards two more Lodges were Constituted, and an " English Provincial Grand Lodge for Hayti " was created.


Then came the wars between Napoleon and England. Communication with England was very slow and difficult. Masonry in Hayti was not flourishing. The principal members resolved to issue a Masonic Declaration of Independence in Hayti, it is stated, which was done on January 25, 182‑4. The Grand Orient was thus formed. This Grand Orient was accompanied by the Degrees of Past Master, Royal Arch, " R. C.," whatever that means, and of the " Templ. Kadosch." This was called the Haytian Rite, and lasted about ten years. Then there is in the Record the statement that to end the schism, the Grand Orient of Hayti " resolved to concentrate within its bosom the regular exercise of the Scottish Rite." A Supreme Council was formed in 1835‑36, and continued with little incident that we can discover until 1886, doing good work.


It was in 1886 that the next schism took place. There was the Grand Orient of Hayti and there was the National Grand Orient of Hayti. Good Masons lost interest, and it is stated that the Institution " was, perhaps, about to disappear," when a fusion occurred, and a single organisation for all was effected on July 9, 1899, with " the very illustrious Bro. F. R. Luxembourg Cauvin as Grand Master." The documents agree that the " Head of the State is ex officio the grand protector of Haytian Masonry." 136 FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES For more than a decade after the fusion, the Grand Orient grew after its own way, with some elements of weakness which it could not control. The Foreign Correspondence Report of New York for 192‑7 states that " there has been considerable confusion during the past two or three years. Many complaints reached the office of our Committee." This same book tells of the election of J. Lelio Joseph as Grand Master and Grand Commander for a three‑year period beginning in January 1927. He is described as " a young man who has been very active in Masonic affairs‑and has won the respect of the Grand Lodge and of American Masons in Hayti.


The Report has this to say about Haytian Masonry in the 192‑8 report of his Grand Lodge 19 Lodges. About L,ooo members.


Since M.‑. W .'. Bro. J. Lelio Joseph became Grand Master remarkable progress has been made towards the elimination of elements that have been detrimental to the Craft for many years. The younger element has come to follow the Grand Master as an effective leader who will abolish abuses and enforce Masonic discipline fearlessly. As a result of the change there has been more or less confusion, caused by disreputable elements seeking to get back into power by spreading dissatisfaction with the existing regime. All of this was brought out at the Annual meeting of July and August, without any mincing of words. All through the report is recognizable the strong hand at the helm of the Craft. The fundamental principles of Masonry are firmly insisted upon. Violation of the laws of morality and honest dealings are severely arraigned.


The Grand Master in reporting on the work of the year 1926‑2‑7, in his address at the Communication, reviews briefly the history of the difficulties which had been accumulating. He says that for more than a quarter of a cen tury the vital principles of Freemasonry had been disregarded more or less and certainly had not been applied as they should be to the detailed affairs. As a result Haytian National Masonry of these latter times presented a disheartening spectacle. He traces the origin of the trouble back to the schism of 1886‑1889, when the Lodges were invaded by men incapable of ever comprehending the mysteries of Masonry, ever being an easy prey to intriguing and concupiscent self‑seekers. These men worked their way into official positions to the disgust of the better element who lost interest, withdrew or at least took no further active interest in the affairs of the Craft. Merchandising of all sorts of side degrees added another difficulty. " The Temple of Masonry was made a trafficking and recruiting centre," the Grand Master declares. Men were made Masons without any regard to law and procedure. Anyone who paid the price could find someone to initiate him and enter him as a member of a Lodge. The condition was limited to the capital City, and there the disorder produced anarchy. The Lodges outside adhered firmly to the laws and the best traditions.


After this very severe arraignment, the Grand Master goes on to point out how a new condition was worked out at last. He says that a new generation has come to the fore. Young men, inspired by the ideas of Masonry which they had heard exhibited in oratory and then seen trodden down in practice, began to look into the history of the Craft and learned of what the Craft was doing FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES 137 elsewhere. They began to dream of a re‑establishment of sound discipline and a renewal of the splendor which once hung around the name of Masonry in the Island. They saw the standard of the Craft in the hands of indifferent guides; they decided to see it in more worthy keeping. So, on December 12‑, 192‑6, they appeared in force at Grand Lodge and seized the government. Since then they have been working together with the Grand Master for the renewal and progress of Masonry. The moral reform was pushed with the same determination as the improvement of the material conditions. " We proceeded with kindness," says the Grand Master, " but when the case required it we did not hesitate to take disciplinary measures, even the most severe." That this was needed is evident from the general change of atmosphere in the Masonic life of the jurisdiction.


JAMAICA No documentary evidence has yet been found to show that Freemasonry existed in Jamaica, in a regularly organized condition, before April 14, 1739, when the Mother Lodge of Kingston was warranted as No. i8z by the Grand Lodge of England. It did not adopt that name until 1766 and it ceased to meet in 1796, although it was retained on the register until the union of the two Grand Lodges in 1813. It, however, paid no dues to Grand Lodge after 1791. The island of Antigua appears to have had the precedence of Jamaica by more than two years, but no other colony in the West Indies can claim priority o˙ introduction, whilst Jamaica received the light of Freemasonry before Switzerland, Frankfort, Denmark, Rotterdam, or Amsterdam. In 1742 the Port Royal Lodge, No. 193, was established at Port Royal and continued working until 1770, being erased in 1772. It is probable that the number of Freemasons in Jamaica at that period was much larger than might be inferred from these particulars, as there were io,ooo white people resident on the island in 1741, while, in the same year, the harbour of Port Royal was crowded with twenty‑nine line of battleships and a large number of frigates, sloops and transports, containing in all 15,000 sailors and 1z,ooo soldiers. On a previous expedition sent out under Admiral Hozier it is related that within a couple of years two admirals, ten captains, fifty lieutenants and four thousand men had perished.


According to the Constitutions of 1756 (P. 333), between 1742 and 1744 Ballard Beckford, George Hynde and Alexander Marriott Crawford were appointed Provincial Grand Masters for Jamaica, but there are no means of determining the exact dates of their appointments. The Masonic Year Book gives the year 174z for each.


On April 29, 1746, a Lodge, No. 208, was constituted at St. Iago de la Vega (now Spanish Town), but it did not appear in the Lists until 1751 and it was erased in 1773. St. Mary's Lodge, No. gig, was established at Port Maria on February 17, 1757. It was off the List from 1773 to 1778, but reappeared in 1779, for the first time with its name. It made its last payment to Grand Lodge in 1900 and was 138 FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES erased at the Union in 1813. In October 177 1 four Lodges appear to have been established at Kingston : the first, known as the Junior Lodge, No. 418, ceased to meet in 1796; the second, the Lodge of Harmony, was erased in 1813 ; the third, the Lodge of St. Tames, received a Warrant of Confirmation on November 23, 1808, but also was erased in 1813 ; and the fourth, the Lodge of Union, No. 421, met at St. James and was struck off the register at the same time. On April 23, 1773, two Lodges were established at Kingston ; one, the Union, the other, the Beaufort, both being erased on November zo, 1782. Green Island Lodge and the Lodge of Lucea, the latter bearing the number 485, were founded in 1775 ; both were erased in 1813. The latter also bore the name of Hanover Lodge. The Sociable Lodge, No. 486 and the Union Lodge, No. 487, which met at Savannala‑Mar, were also founded at the same time, the first being erased on November zo, 1782, and the second in 1813. Apparently in those days the custom was to issue certificates in manuscripts for each of the three Degrees. In The Freemason of August zo, 1881, W. F. Lamonby reproduced a copy of one of such certificates, which he had seen. It was written on a half‑sheet of foolscap, at the head of which were pen‑and‑ink sketches of the square and compasses in the centre, with a plumb rule and level on either side. The certificate read as follows From the East, where shines ye Great Light. Lux ex Tenebris.


These are to certify that Simon Miller was made an Enter'd Apprentice in the Union Lodge, at Savannah La Mar, in the Island of Jamaica. We, therefore, pray all respectable Brethren to receive our dear Brother Simon Miller in his respectable Qualitys and to entertain him in everything relative to them. We promise to have the same regard to those who shall present themselves to our Lodge, furnished with proper and Authentic Titles. To which we have subscribed our names and affixed our seal, this 19th day of the month Sevan of the year 7775, of the Restoration 2305, and of the Vulgar Era the 17th day of June, 1775, (Seal) WILLIAM HENRY RICKETTS, MR. JOSEPH WILLIAMS, SENIOR WN. JAS. ROB. TOMLINSON, JUNIOR WN. JAMES BAIN, P.MR.


Lamonby adds that the second certificate, recording the Second and Third Degrees, is also very interesting, but it so happens that those stages were acquired in another part of the globe and at a long interval of twenty‑eight years.


La Loge les Freres Reunis, No. 638, was founded in 1813 and continued in the Lists until 1832.


In succession to A. M. Crawford, the following Provincial Grand Masters appear to have been appointed by the Grand Lodge of England‑Thomas M. Perkins (appointed " for the Mosquito Shore "), 1761 ; William Winter, 1770 ; FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES 139 Jasper Hall, 1772; Sir Peter Parker, 1778 ; and Adam Williamson, 1793.


The Atholl Grand Lodge was not unrepresented in Jamaica. On October 1, 1763, it issued a Warrant for a Lodge to meet at Old Harbour, which was numbered 121. This is all that is known of it and Lane, in Masonic Records, thinks that probably it did not pay for its Constitution, as there is a note " Six Guineas was due to Dermott, G.S." It was, however, retained in each of the Lists in Ahiman ReZon, for 1804, 1807 and 1813, as " Old Harbour, Kingston, Jamaica." On October 22, 1772, the Atholl Masons also established a Lodge at Green Island, numbered 177, of which there are no records after November 1773, although it is continued in Ahiman ReZon for 1804, 1807, and 1813. At neither of these places had any Lodge been established by the original Grand Lodge, but in 1775 it established the Green Island Lodge, No. 483, which the Atholl Masons looked upon as an invasion of their jurisdiction. They, therefore, regarded themselves as being at liberty to constitute Lodges where others already existed under the original Grand Lodge, which they had not done heretofore. Accordingly, on February 7, 1786, an Atholl Warrant was issued for a Lodge to meet at Kingston, numbered 233, which dropped off the Jamaica Roll before 1795, alts ough it was mentioned in Ahiman ReZon for 1804, 1807, and 1813. Another Lodge‑also called Unionwas founded in 1789 as No. 257, which ceased to meet about 1816. The Artillery Lodge, No. 262, was formed on August z8, 1790, in connexion with the Royal Train of Artillery at Port Royal, which lapsed about 1805 ; and, on May io, 1794, the Antients warranted the Royal Lodge, No. 283, at Kingston, which is still in existence under the same name, as No. 207. In February 1795, also the Lodge of Amity, No. z88, was warranted by the Atholl Masons to meet at Kingston. On December 12, 1797, the Friendly Lodge, an offshoot of the Union Lodge, No. 257, was constituted under the Atholl Grand Lodge. It now bears the number 239, given to it in 1863. Returns and other documents showing the existence of the Friendly Lodge before the date of its Engraved Warrant of 18og‑to which reference is made below‑were discovered by E. X. Leon in the Grand Secretary's Office in June 1889.


In 18o6 the Atholl Masons, finding themselves sufficiently numerous, petitioned their Grand Master, John, fourth Duke of Atholl, for a Provincial Grand Master and, in response to their petition, Dr. (afterwards Sir) Michael Benignus Clare was duly appointed. So soon as this Provincial Grand Lodge was formed, many of the Lodges under the mother Grand Lodge ceased to work, whilst others accepted Provincial numbers under it. Sir Michael Clare continued his office after the Union, receiving his patent of confirmation in 1816. He retained the office until 1831, when he resigned and returned to England, where he passed away in the following year. At the time of the Union it was discovered that almost all, if not, indeed, all of the Lodges chartered by the original Grand Lodge, had fallen into abeyance, whilst the Atholl Lodges were nearly all in working order. At least nineteen Lodges were ranged under the Provincial banner within a few years 140 FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES of 18o6. The first Lodge to be warranted after the establishment of the Provincial Grand Lodge was the Friendly, No. 342, Kingston, the Warrant being dated January 31, i8o9. This is still in existence as No. 239. It was followed by nine others, which were quickly established in various parts of the island.


In 176o the Lodge of St. Andrew, No. ioz, was chartered by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, which Lodge remained on the Roll until 1816, though it was probably inactive for a great number of years prior to that date. Jamaica is first mentioned in the records of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, when a Provincial Grand Master appears to have been appointed by that body.


With regard to Ireland, Crossle and Lepper, in their History of the Grand Lodge of Ireland (vol. i, p. 243), state Jamaica was responsible for the issue of four Warrants : No. 456 (1767) ; No. 699 (1789) ; No. 733 (1791) ; No. 738 (1791). Barbadoes had No. 62z in 1783 and No. 649 in 18oo. Martinique was granted No. 69o in 18oi. The fact may be recalled that in those days the town of Cork was the usual last port of call for British vessels bound to the West Indies and it was only natural that one or two Irish Warrants should find their way across the Atlantic together with the salted beef and whiskey which, from the days of Raleigh onwards, had formed no inconsiderable portion of the cargo of ships outward bound from our southern forts.


At the present time the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Ireland is unrepresented on the island of Jamaica.


In 1782, of all our former possessions in the West Indies, Jamaica, Barbadoes and Antigua alone remained Jamaica would next have fallen had it not been for the victory of Lord Rodney over the Count de Grasse on April 1z of that year. In that case the later Masonic history of Jamaica would have formed a part of that of the Grand Orient of France. The whole of the battering cannon and artillery intended for the attack on the island was on board the ships then captured. Thomas, third Earl of Effingham, Pro or Acting Grand Master of England from 178z to 1789, resigned that appointment when given the office of Governor of Jamaica. He arrived in the colony in 179o, but died on November i 9 of the same year. The mortality among all ranks at that time was very heavy. From Commissary Sayer's regimental returns we learn that, of 19,675 soldiers England to the West Indies in 1796, before March 18oz no fewer than 17,173 died of complaints incidental to the climate.


In 1817 the Grand Orient of France issued Charters to the French refugees in Kingston to erect three Chapters or Consistories. The first was called the Sublime Lodge and conferred the so‑called " Ineffable Degrees " ; the second was a Council of Princes of Jerusalem, and the third was a Grand Council of the 33'But, says H. J. Burger, in the Handbook of Jamaica, issued in 1881 the members of these bodies soon wearied of these diversions and, becoming FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES 141 desirous of working legitimate Masonry, applied, in 1818, to the United Grand Lodge of England for a warrant to open La Loge La Benignite. The result was that the so‑called High Degrees rapidly declined, yet, as no more refugees arrived from Haiti and La Benignite worked always in French, this Lodge lingered out a questionable existence till 18zg, when it finally collapsed.


There is no mention of a Lodge of this name in Lane's Masonic Records.


On December 9, 1818, according to the Proceedings of the United Grand Lodge of England, the Board of General Purposes, as the result of letters received from the Grand Lodge of Ireland and from the Provincial Grand Master for Jamaica relative to some proceedings in that island, recommended that a deputation from the two Grand Lodges should be appointed to confer on the subject, i.e. that certain regulations common to the Grand Lodges of England and Ireland should be established for the government of the Lodges abroad and in military corps; and that the Grand Lodge of Scotland should be invited to join in the conference. On March 3, 18 i g, the Board reported the receipt of a letter from the Grand Lodge of Ireland and the matter was left in the hands of the Grand Master, the Duke of Sussex.


The year 1833 witnessed the passing of the Act for the Abolition of Slavery, which, says H. J. Burger (op. cit.), affected very considerably the progress of Freemasonry.


Active members who entertained the opinion that a terrible financial catastrophe had overtaken both the agricultural and commercial interests of the country, hastened away to other fields of enterprise and left the Lodges there to languish.


Few or no new Lodges were constituted, whilst several old ones, such as the Seville, Concord, St. Elizabeth, Cornwall and Union, of Falmouth, closed their doors ; nor did any reaction set in until about the end of 1844, when a number of Colombian patriots, who had taken refuge in Kingston, opened a Lodge under a Charter from the Grand Lodge of Carthagena to work Symbolic Masonry in that city. As this proceeding was, however, in violation of Masonic international law, those Brethren were informed that they and their initiates would not be recognized in the island and they were advised to apply for a Warrant from England to legalize their work. On this advice they acted and, as they were recommended by the other Lodges in Kingston, a Warrant was obtained from the United Grand Lodge for the Union et Concordia Lodge, No. 754.


This Lodge, which was warranted on May 20, 1845 and consecrated on July 28 of the same year, continued working until 1868, although it was not erased until September 21, 1885.


In 1843 the Rev. W. P. Burton was appointed Provincial Grand Master for Jamaica by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, but, as in the parallel cases of Colonel Young in the West Indies and Dr. Burnes in the East Indies, he at first held the office in partibus infidelium. To‑day there are five Lodges in the Scottish Provincial 14z FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES Grand Lodge of Jamaica. The zeal of Scottish Masons, says Burger, provoked a laudable spirit of emulation amongst the English Freemasons, and this new‑born zeal was first manifested by a desire to work the Higher Degrees. The old Royal Lodge began by reopening their long‑dormant Royal Arch Chapter and this was the signal for the other English Lodges in Kingston to do the same, if they possessed Charters and, if not, to apply for them.


The appointment by the Grand Lodge of Scotland of a Provincial Grand Master led the English Brethren to emulate them and seek to revive their dormant Provincial (or District) Grand Lodge. They petitioned for the appointment of the Hon. Robert Hamilton, M.D., in that capacity. He was a wealthy landed proprietor and a very zealous member of the Craft. On November 5, 1858, he was appointed District Grand Master for East Jamaica and the Lodges north of Kingston, who had declined to subscribe to the petition because of their distance from Kingston, were permitted to continue in direct communication with the United Grand Lodge in London. Dr. Hamilton passed away in 188o, but his successor, Lieutenant‑Colonel John Charles Macglashan, was not appointed until 1886. His successors have been Sir Henry Arthur Blake, Surgeon‑General the Hon. Charles Benjamin Mosse, William Duff, the Hon. Sir John Pringle and the Hon. Henry Isaac Close Brown. At the present time the English District of Jamaica has thirteen Lodges and four Royal Arch Chapters.


Poxro Rico The chief authority for statements regarding Porto Rico is Fred D. Flagle, who has made a close study of the conditions in that country and contributed an article to the Freevnason's Chronicle on the subject in September 1q22.


The early history of Freemasonry in Porto Rico is closely connected with similar movements in Cuba and it is known that the first Lodge in Cuba was organized in 1804, under the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.


In 1751, Ferdinand VI had placed the death penalty on Freemasons, because he considered them dangerous to the government. Joseph Buonaparte reestablished Masonry, but Ferdinand VII again prohibited it and, in 1824, death was made the penalty of belonging to a Masonic Lodge.


The oldest‑known Masonic document in Porto Rico is a letter constituting a Chapter of Rose Croix, under the name of Minerva, in San German, dated April io, 1824. This Chapter was established under the auspices of the Southern Juris diction of the United States, located at Charleston, which, later, chartered the Grand Lodge of Cuba, in 1859. The establishment of this Chapter indicates that there were members of similar Chapters in Porto Rico before this date, but exact data in regard to these Chapters is lacking.


The decree of Ferdinand VII, in 18z4, doubtless stopped Masonic work in Porto Rico, as it did in Cuba. It was not until 18 5 8 or 18 5 9 that Masonry was FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES 1143 revived. At about that time the Grand National Orient of the Republic of Venezuela created a Lodge in Pueblo Viejo, which, afterwards, was transferred to San Juan. All the members were Master Masons and the Master was a member of the eighteenth Degree. This Lodge was named Borinquen and held its meetings in a building which was located in front of the Cathedral of San Juan. It was fronted by two columns and from this it has been asserted that it was built for Masonic purposes. At the same time other Lodges were working in the island under letters from the Grand Lodge of Cuba but, as the Masonic records date back only to 11884, when the Grand Lodge of Porto Rico was established, at Mayaguez, it is impossible to say how many there were. There is still in existence one Lodge, Estrella de Luquillo, which was active at that time, having been chartered March 2.1, 1867.


Suspicion was directed toward the Masons at the time of the Revolution of Lares and, though it was never proved that they had any part in that affair, persecution continued to follow them. Don Jose Perez Moris, writing of the revolution of Lares, has the following to say regarding the Masons Although the revolutionary bands have been represented as being Masons, we have no knowledge that there is any reasonable connexion between them. However, as it is difficult for the profane to distinguish between them, it would be wise not to permit Masonic Loges to work in the West Indies, especially since the signs used by both the conspirators and the Masons in making themselves known to each other are very similar.


In 1871, the Spanish Masonic authorities decided to introduce Masonry into Porto Rico, though, as already shown, it had previously existed there since the beginning of the century. As a matter of fact, Senor Coll y Toste affirms that Lodges existed there as early as 18o5. This agrees with the idea previously expressed that, in order to establish a Chapter of Rose Croix in San German, in 1824, Symbolic Lodges must previously have existed on the island.


In the Ritual of the Master Mason, which was approved by the Supreme Council of the 33 of the Grand Orient of Spain, occurs the following: Various Porto Rican Brethren, who had been initiated in Madrid, in the Lodge Puritanos, under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of Spain, introduced Masonry into the island of Porto Rico in 1871.


As a matter of fact, in that year, under the direction of Don Manuel de Mendoza, the Grand Delegate of the National Orient of Spain, various Lodges were established in the island, one of these being the Aurora Lodge of Ponce, which sus pended its labours in 1874 and, later, reorganized, incorporating under the United Grand Lodge of Cuba, which had legal Masonic authority in Porto Rico at the time, since the Lodges founded under other auspices had disappeared.


144 The Freemasons of the Spanish Orient have argued much over their jurisdiction in Porto Rico, but their own documents show that, when the National Grand Orient of Spain (at that time the Grand Orient of Spain did not exist), founded Lodges in Porto Rico, it was in 1871 and that Masonic Lodges had already existed there for more than fifty years.


Coll y Toste, in the work already cited, states FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES Masonry gave good services in Porto Rico in 185 z, also in 1850.


Although he does not state the nature of those services, it is known that the Lodges, at that time, as well as later, helped to unite men who had become separated on account of political opinions and provided means of defence and protection for those who were being persecuted by the government, who would have fallen into the hands of the authorities and died in prison if it had not been for this assistance.


Although the fact that the Grand Orient National of Spain had instituted Lodges in Porto Rico and that a large number of Spaniards had joined, should have removed the cloud of suspicion on the part of the government, this was not the case, for persecutions increased from day to day; the Freemasons in the island could not work openly, but had to hold their Lodge meetings in secret places, generally in the country ; even thus, they did not escape entirely the persecutions of the authorities.


At that time there existed a Lodge in Mayaguez, named Conciliation, which worked under the Grand Orient of Spain. The meetings of this body were held in the house of Don Pedro Tolosa, a man whom no one could accuse of conspiring against the government. Among the members who were accustomed to gather there were Don Antonio Aramburn, a man of progressive and liberal ideas, who was Master of the Lodge; Dr. Claudio Frederico Block, of Danish lineage, an enthusiastic Mason and a strong supporter of the Spanish government ; and others. One night, on leaving the Lodge, they found the chief of police and twenty‑five men stationed around the place. The fact that a majority of them were Spanish and above suspicion, saved the situation, because the police did not dare to arrest anyone. In San German a Lodge named Prudencia, No. z8, was in session in April 1874, in a private house. It was the moment for the initiation of the candidate in the mysteries of Masonry, when a knocking was heard at the door, the civil guard entered and arrested those present, who were sentenced to terms of imprisonment. Some of the prominent Freemasons of the island undertook the defence of their Brethren and their pleas were published later in the Paris newspaper, Le Courrier de 1'Europe, though no newspaper in Porto Rico dared to print them. This Paris publication began a campaign in favour of the imprisoned Freemasons and interested English Freemasons in the matter. No fewer than 1,7oo English Lodges sent petitions to Lord Beaconsfield, who, using his influence and that of English FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES 145 Masons, succeeded in having the prisoners set free. As a sign of their gratitude, the Freemasons presented the editor of Le Courrier with a gold watch suitably inscribed.


In the meantime Lodges were also established in other parts of the island which had more or less the same experiences and difficulties as those already mentioned. One of the best‑known Freemasons of that period was Don Aristides Simon Pietri, of Ponce, who was several times elected Master of Aurora Lodge and reorganized that Lodge under the Grand Lodge of Cuba. He was the first to publish any \Iasonic literature in Porto Rico ; in 1873, he published a work covering the first three Degrees, together with the funeral and baptismal ceremonies and the explanation of the origin of the symbols of those Degrees. He also published, in 1885, a book entitled Historical Resume of Ancient and Modern Freemasonry.


By 1868, several other Lodges had been organized and were working. The attitude of the government had changed somewhat by this time and it is said that Lodges had even met in the governor's palace. The political changes of 1874‑5, however, caused the suspension of all Masonic work in the island.


On October 11, 1884, on the initiative of Santiago R. Palmer, the Provisional Grand Lodge of Porto Rico was established by authorization of the Grand Lodge of Cuba, ten Lodges joining in the formation. In the following year it became a sovereign. Grand Lodge, mainly through the efforts of Palmer, in the face of tremendous difficulties. It was strongly opposed by the Roman Catholic Church and the civil authorities. The members were said to have revolutionary tendencies and were refused Christian burial at death. Eventually Palmer was arrested and imprisoned in El Morro and it was not until the Prince of Wales (afterwards Edward VII) and other prominent European Masons interested themselves that tranquillity was restored and the Freemasons could meet without danger of arrest. In 1888 the Ley de Asociaciones was published, when the various Masonic Lodges registered themselves as legal societies. This law, however, gave the mayors of the various towns the right to attend the meetings of any of these societies thus registered, Masonic Lodges included and, although advantage was not generally taken of the permission‑notwithstanding it was emphasized by a government order‑except by Mayors who were Freemasons, many of the Lodges closed their doors in consequence. A general stoppage of Masonic work was ordered by the Grand Lodge on December 27, 1896, until April z, 1899, when work was resumed and Palmer was re‑elected Grand Master for the fifth time and remained in office until 19o6, when he passed away and Antonio Cordero was appointed in his stead. Since that date Freemasonry in Porto Rico has gone from strength to strength and the latest return states that there are nearly forty Lodges on the island. A belief in God is demanded from all candidates and the Bible'is displayed on the altars.


THE VIRGIN ISLANDS This name is given to an extensive group of small islands lying between Porto Rico and the Lesser Antilles‑Tortola, Virgin Gorda, St. Thomas, St. John, 146 FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES Santa Cruz (or Sainte Croix), and Culebra‑which has an area of only ten square miles. The islands changed hands very frequently up to 1815, when their political position was defined.


TORTOLA AND VIRGIN GORDA.‑‑Lodges were established in these islands by the Antients in 176o and 1763 and by the original or legitimate Grand Lodge of England‑in 1765. Each of the three Lodges was continued in the Lists until the Union (1813), when they one and all disappeared.


SANTA CRUZ, Or ST. CROIX. A Lodge on this island, dating from 1756, obtained a temporary footing on the English roll in the Engraved List for 1758, as No. 224 and, ten years later, was advanced to a higher niche corresponding with its actual seniority, as No. 216. This was afterwards (in 1781) described as the Lodge of St. George and is shown in the Lists until 1814, but it apparently became subject to Danish jurisdiction in 1776 and died out in 1788. John Ryan was appointed Provincial Grand Master under England in 1777, but no English Charter has since been granted to the Masons in Santa Cruz, though a Scottish Lodge‑Eureka, No. 6o5‑was erected at Christianstadt in 1877, but has since been erased.


ST. THOMAS. ‑A dispensation " to hold a Lodge for six months " was granted for this island, by the Grand Master of Pennsylvania, in 1792. Next comes La Concorde, borne on the register of the Grand Lodge of Denmark, 1798‑1823, but whether of Danish or English origin there is no evidence to show. The Harmonic Lodge, No. 7o8, still in existence as No. 3 5 6, was founded by the Grand Lodge of England in 1818. After this, in the year. 1855, came Les Cceurs Sinceres, No. 141, under the Supreme Council for France. Not content, however, with these two jurisdictions, some Masons on the island requested Andrew Cassard of New York to procure them a Warrant from the Supreme Council for the United States, Southern jurisdiction, but, at his suggestion, they eventually applied to the Grand Lodge of Colon‑at Santiago de Cuba‑and were constituted as a Lodge‑Star in the East under the authority of that body by Cassard u1 1871. But the Supreme Council for Colon claimed that as the Grand Orient had not met, the Grand Lodge was still " in recess " and, in 1872, passed a formal decree censuring Cassard for his action at St. Thomas. In the same year the members of Star in the East applied, though without success, to the Grand Master of South Carolina for a Dispensation to enable them to continue their labours, alleging that the other Lodges on the island would not recognize them, on the pretext that the Grand Lodge of Colon was not known to be in existence. In 1873, however, they were more fortunate, as a Charter and not merely a temporary Dispensation was granted them by the Grand Lodge of Louisiana‑from which body the circumstance of a prior application having been made to the Grand Master of South Carolina had been carefully withheld. But the petitioners were in no better position than before, for they were neither recognized nor allowed to visit by the other Lodges of St. Thomas and the Warrant which had been so imprudently granted by the Grand Lodge of Louisiana was at once withdrawn when the actual circumstances of the case were brought to the notice of that body.


FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES 147 THE LESSER ANTILLES, OR CARIBBEE ISLANDS ANTIGUA.‑The earliest Lodges in the West Indies were established in this island, which is the most important of the Leeward group. No fewer than three holding English Warrants were in existence in 1739 and a fourth is said to have been established in the previous year by the authority of the Provincial Grand Master for New England. A little later the Freemasons in the colony built a large hall for their meetings and applied to the Grand Lodge of England for permission to style one of their Lodges (No. 192), the Great Lodge at St. John's in Antigua, which favour was granted to them in April 1744.


The Leeward Islands were constituted a Province under England in 1738 and, under Scotland, in 1769. The first Scottish Lodge in the Lesser Antilles was erected in the latter year at St. Kitts, by which name the Province was designated in 1786. But in 1792, the old title‑Leeward Caribbee Islands‑was restored, again altered in 1837 on the appointment of Dr. Stephenson of Grenada, to be Provincial Grand Master of the Province comprehending the Caribbee Islands. Lieut.‑General James Adolphus Oughton was appointed Lieut.‑Governor of Antigua, December 18, 1772, but the presence on the island of a former Grand Master of Scotland was destitute of any Masonic result, as the earliest Scottish Lodge in the colony was not established until 1787. The only Lodges since erected are the two now existing, both of which are on the roll of the Grand Lodge of England, No. 492, St. John's and No. z8zq, Caribbee.


The following extract from a long‑forgotten work will show the exceptional difficulties against which the European residents in the West Indies had to contend and may serve to excite surprise‑not that more Lodges were not constituted, but that any survived at all in the pestilential climate where the Lodge work had to be carried on. According to this authority The 68th regiment was sent to Antigua in 1805, with its ranks sadly reduced by the climate. It had arrived in the West Indies about five years before, with two battalions each 1,zo0 strong ; and I have understood from their officers that they had buried in those five years 2,400 men and 68 officers‑the regiment had, of course, received repeated drafts of men from England during that period (Lieut.Colonel J. Leech, Rough Sketches of the Life of an Old Soldier, 183 I, p. 18).


BARBADOES.‑Masonry was early established in this the chief of the Windward Islands and the residence of the Governor‑General of the group. It was constituted a Masonic Province in 174o and, in the same year, the first of a long series of Lodges under the Grand Lodge of England came into existence. None of these, however, was carried forward on the Union roll in 1814, though oneNo. 186, St. Michael's Lodge‑was, a few years later, restored to the List, but again left out at the next change of numbers (1832), to be a second time restored (1841) and finally erased, March 5, 1862. It is singular that the first five Lodges established in Barbadoes bore saintly appellatives.


148 FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES Three Lodges were warranted in the colony by the Grand Lodge of Ireland in the eighteenth century and there was a Provincial Grand Lodge in existence in 1804, but this having become a lapsed jurisdiction, its further consideration may be dispensed with.


The Atholl or Antient Masons obtained a footing on the island in 1790 and a Lodge constituted in that year still exists. Three others were afterwards erected but, though carried forward at the Union, were dropped out at the change of numbers in 1832.


The Grand Lodge of Scotland is now represented in the colony by three Lodges, the first‑Scotia, No. 340‑chartered in 1799 ; the others being Thistle, No. 1014 and St. John's, 1062. , CURA~OA.‑Lodges under the Grand Lodge of Holland appear to have been established on the island in 1757, 1773 and 1787‑L'Amiti6, L'Union and De Vergenoeging. In 1807 it was taken by the English, but restored to the Dutch in 1815. During the British occupation, Nos. 346, Union and 627, Content and British Union, were warranted in 1810 and 1811 by the Atholl and Original Grand Lodges of England respectively. Both were carried forward at the Union, but are now extinct, the latter not surviving the closing up of numbers in 1832, the former being struck off the roll, March 5, 1862. The close resemblance between the names of the early Dutch and English Lodges might almost suggest that in some instances there was a divided or dual allegiance.


DOMINICA.‑The Lodge of Good Friends was formed at Roseau by the Grand Lodge of England in 1773. In the same year a Warrant was granted (though not issued) for the Colony by the Atholl Masons and, in 1785, a second, under which a Lodge was constituted, also at the capital, Roseau. But neither of the bodies thus established survived the union of the two societies, which is not to be wondered at when it is remembered that the island was captured by the French in 1778, restored to England in 1783, again surrendered to France in 18oz and finally received back as a British possession in 1814. A revival took place in 1823, when the Lodge of Chosen Friends, No. 777, was established, which remained on the roll until swept away‑in company with eighty‑eight other foreign or colonial Lodges‑by order of the Grand Lodge of England, March 5, 1862.


GRENADA.‑In 1763‑October 8‑Brigadier‑General Robert Melville was appointed Governor of Dominica. Grenada, the Grenadines, St. Vincent and Tobago were included in his government‑a new one‑which was styled that of Grenada. This officer received three patents as Provincial Grand Master(I) for Guadeloupe‑when Lieutenant‑Governor of Fort Royal on that island, Lieut.‑Colonel 38th Foot, 1759‑6z ; (z) for the Caribbee and Windward Islands, 1764; and (3) for Grenada, 1780. The year following Melville's appointment to this new government, Lodges were formed on the island by the Grand Lodges of England and France. Three in all were constituted under the former, two under the latter jurisdiction in the last century; `vhilst the Atholl Masons, who were five years later in obtaining a footing in the colony, chartered one military and two stationary Lodges within the same period.


FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES 1149 None of the English Lodges was carried forward at the Union and the next evidence of Masonic activity is presented by the erection of an Irish LodgeNo. 252‑in i8i9, which, however, surrendered its Warrant in 11825, another of later constitution‑No. 224, formed 1848‑has also ceased to work.


Scotland was next in the field (11820) and four Lodges have been warranted under that jurisdiction, the three latest of which are in existence at this day. A year later (11821) the Masonry of England was again represented and, shortly after wards, by a second Lodge, but both the bodies thus constituted are now extinct, G. G. Munro was appointed Provincial Grand Master under the same sanction in 11825 and Felix Palmer in 11831.


The latest foreign jurisdiction by which the colony was invaded would appear to have been that of the Grand Orient of France, if by Grenade we are to understand Grenada, where a Lodge‑La Bienfaisance‑was established December 211, 1828.


GUADELOUPE.‑In this, the chief West Indian possession of France and its dependency Marie‑Galante, the following Lodges are shown in the lists as having been constituted by the Grand Lodge or Grand Orient of France: Antigua, 11766 ; La Vraie Fraternite (Marie‑Galante) and St. Jean d'Ecosse, 11768 ; La Bonne Amitie and L'Humanite, 1770; St. Louis de la Concorde, 1772; La Paix, 1784; Les Philalethes [under a Warrant from the Mother Lodge of the Scots Philosophic Rite], 18o6; L'Amenite, 1807; La Fraternite (Marie‑Galante), 1829; Les Desciples d'Hiram, 11835 ; and Les Elus D'Occident, 11862. The Lodges still existing are shown in italics, the two of earliest date being at Pointe‑a‑Pitre, the remaining one at Basse‑Terre.


Although Guadeloupe was in the hands of the English, 11759‑63, again occupied by them in 118113 and 11815 this‑as already related‑was attended by no other Masonic result than the grant of a Provincial Patent to Lieut.‑Colonel Melville, one of the officers of the British garrison, 11759‑62.


MARTINIQUE.‑Masonry, in this magnificent island, appears to have been introduced almost as early as in France itself. Thus, by the Grand Orient, or by the several Grand Bodies which preceded it, we find there were chartered‑La Parfaite Union, 11738; St. Pierre des Freres Unis, 1176o; La Tendre Fraternite, 11765 ; La Sinc6rite des Coeurs, 1777; Les Freres Choisis, 17811 ; Le Zele et la Bienfaisance, La Parfaite Amitie and La Paix (au Marin), 1786.


From 1794 to 118o2 and, again, 118og‑115, the island was in the possession of the English. During the first period a Lodge was established under the Grand Lodge of Ireland‑No. 69o, in I8oi ; and, during the second, another under the Antients‑No. 359, Lodge of Chosen Friends, 11813. The former of these was transferred to Trinidad, 18 11 and cancelled 1858. The latter, which bore the last number issued by the Antients, was carried forward on the Union roll, but died out before the year 11832.


The later Lodges constituted by the Grand Orient of France were L'Harmonie, 11803 ; Les Freres Choisis, 1814; La Concorde, I82o ; and La Bienfaisance, 118211.


150 FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES MONTSERRAT AND Nevis.‑Although the earliest Lodges in the West Indies sprang up with a luxuriant growth in Antigua, to Montserrat belongs the distinction of having been constituted the first Masonic Province either in the Greater or the Lesser Antilles. This occurred in 1737 during the administration of the Earl of Darnley ; and, thirty years later, December z, 1767, a Provincial Grand Lodge for Montserrat and Nevis‑No. 151‑was set up by the Atholl (or Antient) Masons. Up to this time, however, there appears to have been no Lodge on either island; but in 1777 one was erected‑No. 507‑at Nevis by the original Grand Lodge of England; whilst the Evangelists' Lodge, established at Antigua in 1753, shifted its place of meeting to Montserrat shortly before 178o. These two Lodges were continued in the Lists of the older Society until the Union, when they disappeared and, apparently, no others have since been in existence in either island.


ST. BARTHOLOMEW.‑A Lodge‑Sudermania‑under the Grand Lodge of Sweden, existed on this island from 1797 to I8zo.


ST. CHRISTOPHER, or ST. KITTS.‑Four Lodges were warranted in this colony by the Grand Lodge of England in the eighteenth century. The first in 1739, the last in 1768. The latter did not survive the change of numbers in 1770, but all the other Lodges were carried forward until the Union and one‑the Clarence, originally No. zo6‑only disappeared at the renumbering in 183z, though a Lodge of the same name was warranted on the island in the following year‑which lived until 1865‑and may have been a revival. A Provincial Grand Master was appointed, January z7, 1798, a second, the Hon. John Garnett, November z3, 18o8.


A Scottish Lodge was erected on the island in 1769, others in 1786 and 1791. These are now extinct ; also a fourth, No. 407, Mount of Olives, 1835. During the years 1786‑92 the island was the seat of the Scottish West Indian Province.


ST. EusTATIUS.‑Masonry in this island appears to have increased pari passu with its material prosperity. Three English and four Dutch Lodges were at work during the eighteenth century, the earliest of the former having been erected in 1747, of the latter in 1757. Edward Galliard was appointed Provincial Grand Master of St. Eustatius and the Dutch Caribbee islands by the Grand Lodge of England in 1754‑5 ; and R. H. de Plessis held a similar commission‑extending over St. Eustatius, Saba and St. Martin‑under the Grand Lodge of Holland in 1777.


The settlement was taken by the British, February 3, 1781. All the merchandise and stores were confiscated, the naval and military commanders‑Admiral Rodney and General Vaughan‑considering it their duty " to seize for the public use, all the effects of an island inhabited by rebellious Americans and their agents, disaffected British factors, who, for base and lucrative motives, were the great supporters of the American rebellion." At. that time, except for warlike stores, St. Eustatius had become one of the greatest auctions that ever was opened in the universe. " Invitation was given," says Southey " and protection offered to purchasers of all nations and of all sorts " (History of the West Indies, vol. ii, PP. 484, 492).


The English Lodges continued to appear in the Lists until the Union, but FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES 151 were probably extinct for many years before that period. In 1813, it must be added, a Lodge‑No. 30‑was established in the settlement by the Atholl Grand Lodge, but this, like the others, failed to secure a place on the Union roll.


At the general peace the island was finally ceded to Holland and some of the Dutch Lodges survived until within recent memory. It is possible, also, that others may have been established, of which no record has been preserved. At present there are no Lodges on the island.


ST. LuciA.‑Two Lodges, Le Choix Reuni and L'Harmonie Fraternelle, were established by the Grand Orient of France in 1784. In 1814 the island was ceded to England, under whose sanction a Lodge‑No. 76z‑was formed in 1845 and erased in 186z.


ST. MARTIN.‑There are at present no Lodges either in the settlements of the French or the Dutch, between whom the island is divided; but one was formerly in existence‑Unie, No. 3, under the Grand Lodge of the Netherlandsconstituted in 18oo.


ST. VINCENT.‑An Irish Warrant‑No. 733‑was granted to some Brethren in this dependency in 18o6, which was surrendered in 1824. Two Lodges were afterwards established by the Grand Lodge of England, but are now extinct.


TOBAGO.‑A Scottish Lodge‑No. 488‑was erected at Scarborough, the capital, in 1868.


TRINIDAD.‑A Charter was granted‑No. 77, Les Freres Unis‑by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in 1798, to some Brethren at Port D'Espagne, who had formerly been members of a Lodge at St. Lucia, under a Warrant from France. After this, in 1811, No. 69o, under the Grand Lodge of Ireland, was transferred from Martinique to Trinidad, but passed out of existence in 1858. Scottish Masonry obtained a footing in 1813 and there are now five Lodges in all under that jurisdiction, which form the present Province. The first English Lodge on the island had its origin in 1831. This was followed by four other Warrants from the oldest of Grand Bodies and four Lodges are in existence at this day, viz. Royal Philanthropic, No. 405, that founded in 1831 ; Royal Prince of Wales, No. 867, founded in 1861 ; Royal Connaught, No. 3266, founded in 1907; and St. Andrew, No. 3963, founded in icgig. In 19z3 a handsome Masonic Temple was built in Alexandra Street, St. Clair, Port of Spain, for the Royal Prince of Wales Lodge, on a site presented by George Frederick Huggins, Master of the Lodge in 19oz and again in 1923. There are no English Royal Arch Chapters in Trinidad, but there are three under the Scottish Constitution. The first Royal Chapter in Trinidad was warranted in 1804 by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, which then exercised powers over Royal Arch Masonry. The second Chapter was founded in 1814, by the Royal Grand Conclave of Scotland, under H.R.H. the Duke of Kent. The third was started in 18zz and was known as the Jerusalem Royal Arch Chapter. It was working in 1836, but there are no records of movements later than this. The previous foundations have also ceased to exist. There was formerly a Chapter attached to the Royal Philanthropic Lodge, No. 405, under the 15 Z FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES English Constitution, but it had ceased functioning in 1876. Another was formed in connexion with the Royal Prince of Wales's Lodge. No. 867, in x875, was dormant for thirteen years, revived in 1896 and finally ceased to function in 19o4. The Chapters at work to‑dayunder the Scottish Constitution are Trinidad Kilwinning, No. 126, established in 1868, dormant twice, for seven and twelve years respectively, but revived in 19o6, since which time it has been in active operation; Harmony, No. x84, established in 188o, which also was dormant for eight years in three periods ; the King's, No. 34, is the largest numerically and the most vigorous and active Chapter in the island; and Unity, No. 61o, which is in a large measure identified with the Brethren of Lodge Arima, No. 899, Scottish Constitution.


Trinidad became a Province under the Grand Lodge of England in 186o, but ceased to be one in 1876.


THE LUCAYAS, OR BAHAMA ISLANDS The Masonic history of this group begins with the appointment of Governor John Tinkler as Provincial Grand Master in 175z, who was succeeded by James Bradford in 1759. But they had apparently no Lodges to control, neither do we hear of any having been established either before or after under the jurisdiction of which they were the representatives, viz. the Grand Lodge of England.


In 1785, however, a Warrant for the Bahamas‑No. zz8‑was issued by the Atholl Grand Lodge of England. The Lodge thus established died out before the Union, but a second‑No. z4z‑under the same jurisdiction, established at Nassau, New Providence, in 1787, survived the closing up of numbers in 1814, though its vitality was exhausted before the repetition of that process in 1831.


A Scottish Lodge was erected at Turk's Island in 1803, now extinct, but other were formed in New Providence and Inagua in 18og and 1856 respectively. Lodges under the United Grand Lodge of England were established at Nassau, x837 (still in existence as the Royal Victoria, No. 443) ; at Grand Turk, x855 (now Turk's Island Forth, No. 647) ; and at Harbour Island in 1869, no longer in existence. The first and last of these formed part of the District of the Bahamas and places adjacent, formed in 175z, but this District is no longer in working and the first two Lodges are responsible directly to the United Grand Lodge of England.


THE BERMUDAS, OR SOMERS ISLANDS This group, like the Bahamas, was provided with a Provincial Grand Master long before there were Lodges for him to supervise. Alured Popple received a patent as such from Lord Strathmore in 1744 and William Popple was similarly commissioned during the administration of the Earl of Aberdour (1758‑6z). The first Lodge under the older (English) sanction was formed in 1761 and the second in 17c92. Five years later (1797) the Antients gained a footing and, in 18oi, possessed like their rivals, two Lodges. At the Union, however, the former succumbed FREEMASONRY IN THE WEST INDIES 153 to destiny, whilst the latter were carried forward and still survive. The Lodge founded in 1797, is known now as the Atlantic Phcmix, No. 224‑it has a Royal Arch Chapter attached; that founded in 18oi, also under the Antients, is working as the Prince Alfred, No. 233‑ In 18 i g, Loyalty Lodge, No. 712 (now 358) was founded and, in i88o, Broad Arrow, No. 18go, thus making a total of four, which report direct to the Grand Lodge of England, as the succession of Provincial Grand Masters ceased with the appointment of William Popple in 1758‑62. In 1928, however, a Grand Inspector was appointed, so that in all probability Bermuda may, again, become a District.


Lodge St. George‑No. 266 (now No. Zoo)‑under the Grand Lodge of Scotland was erected in 1797 and the Bermudas became a Scottish Province in 18o3. This was followed, however, by no increase of Lodges until 1885, when a Warrant was issued to No. 726 (Lodge Civil and Military), which, with St. George, forms the thirty‑fourth Province on the roll of Scotland, though there is now no Provincial or District Grand Master.


Three Irish Lodges have been established at St. George's Island: No. 220 in 1856 (Warrant surrendered in 186o) ; No. 224 in 1867, still in existence ; and No. 2ocg in 1881 (no longer on the register). There are two now working at Hamilton, Bermuda; No. 123, founded in 19o8 and No. 58o, founded in 1924.


CHAPTER V FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA jHE Minutes of the Grand Lodge of England inform us, that Randolph Tooke, Provincial Grand Master for South America, was present at a meeting of that body held April 17, 173 5. Of that worthy nothing further is known beyond the bare fact that, in 1731, his name appears on the roll of Lodge No. icy, at the Queen's Arms, Newgate Street, London, of which two persons holding similar appointments‑Richard Hull and Ralph Farwinter together with Sir William Keith, Ex‑Governor of Pennsylvania and Benjamin Cole, afterwards Engraver to the Society, were also members.


The next Provincial Grand Master who received an English patent empowering him to exercise Masonic jurisdiction over any part of South America, was Colonel James Hamilton, who was placed at the head of the Province of Colombia in 1824. Political changes of subsequent years left their mark on the nomenclature of the existing States of the continent. New Granada, like all the adjacent portions of the New World, was for some centuries a colony of Spain. Upon the assertion of their independence by the Provinces of Spanish America, in the early part of the last century, it formed, with Ecuador and Venezuela, the Republic of Colombia. In 1831, each of the three States became autonomous and, in 1857, New Granada assumed the title of the United States of Colombia. The other parties, however, to the Federal Union, which was dissolved in 1831‑Ecuador and Venezuela‑adhered to their original appellations. This it is necessary to bear in mind, because whilst a Scottish, as well as an English, Masonic Province of Colombia was created during the existence of the earlier republic of that name, the two Lodges under these jurisdictions were established at Angostura in Venezuela. The first Provincial Grand Master under Scotland, Don Jose Gabriel Nunez, the date of whose appointment is not recorded, was succeeded‑May 6, 185o‑by Senor Florentino Grillet and, on February 3, 1851, the designation of the Province was changed from Colombia to that of Guayana in Venezuela.


The evidence, therefore, so far as it extends, points to Venezuela, rather than New Granada, as having been the centre of Masonic activity‑at least, in the first instance‑while they were both component parts of the (older) Republic of Colombia.


There was in existence a Grand Orient of Colombia at Bogota in New Granada, shortly after the time when the two Lodges were established at Angostura, under British Warrants. The exact date of formation of this body it is not easy to deter mine. One of the two Grand Orients of what was formerly New Granada, but is now Colombia, which meets at Bogota, claims 1827 as its year of origin; while 154 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 155 there is independent evidence of the exercise of authority in Peru, by a Grand Orient of Colombia at Bogota, in 18 z5. On the whole, the explanation which seems the most reasonable is, that the Grand Orient of 1827, was preceded by a Supreme Council, armed with, or at all events, exercising, the same authority as the hydraheaded organization of later date.


VENEZUELA It was in 1865 there was formed the National Grand Orient of Venezuela. Judge Street quotes Gould as saying in 1886 that " The Grand Orient is divided into a Grand Lodge, Grand Chapter, Grand Consistory, and a Supreme Council, each having its own chief and possessing entire authority over its own Degrees." In 1916 the Grand Orient voluntarily dissolved, there being formed from it a Scottish Rite Supreme Council, as well as a Grand Lodge of Symbolic Masonry, which called itself " The Grand Lodge of the United States of Venezuela." Each proclaimed itself completely independent and autonomous in its own part of the Masonry of Venezuela. It is expressly declared by agreement between the bodies that " The Grand Lodge of the United States of Venezuela is the Supreme Masonic authority of Symbolic Masonry in Venezuela," being made up of Delegates elected by the Lodges.


In 192.1, possibly remembering the withdrawal of certain Lodges from the Grand Lodge in two separated sections to form organisations of their own, the Scottish Rite Supreme Council promulgated, as a part of its decrees, the following The Grand Lodge of the United States of Venezuela governs independently, as it has heretofore done, the first three degrees, or, in other words, the Symbolic Order of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite: and, therefore, it exer cises the prerogatives which Article 19 of the present Constitution concedes to it as well as the powers and dignities inherent in its high Masonic authority, without the Supreme Council or any of the bodies of its dependence having any right to interfere in its deliberations.


While there is a close tie of friendship between Grand Lodge and Supreme Council, we do not believe, and indeed there is no reason for believing, that there is any insincerity in the decree quoted above.


The Lodges which withdrew formed a "sovereign Grand Lodge '' of " Free and Accepted Masons of Venezuela," at Caracas, with seven Lodges; and the next year, 1919, three more formed the " Symbolic Grand Lodge of the East." Both of these are independent of the Scottish Rite.


Judge Street makes the following illuminating comment on the history of Masonry in Venezuela: This Grand Lodge is entirely independent and works only the first three 156 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA degrees. It exacts a belief in Deity and requires the display of the Bible on the altar.


This Grand Lodge and the Sovereign Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Venezuela, above, recognise each other and are in fraternal correspondence. It does not however, recognise the Grand Lodge of the United States of Venezuela, claiming that the latter is under the domination of the Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite.


At first blush, these eruptions in the Masonry of Venezuela appear discouraging, but after more mature consideration we conclude that they are manifestations of a desire and purpose on the part of the Masons of that country to liberate Blue or Symbolic Masonry from the dominion of the Scottish Rite. All North American Masons should be in sympathy with these movements, as we know how very beneficial such separation and independence have proved to both Rites wherever they have been put into full operation.


It must be remembered that Venezuela, like our own country, is composed of a number of States, in either one of which theoretically, under Masonic law, there might be a separate Grand Lodge. The presence of three separate Grand Lodges in that country does not involve a violation of the wholesome doctrine of exclusive territorial jurisdiction. On the whole we consider the outlook for independent Symbolic Masonry in Venezuela as rather favorable, though we are not prepared to recommend recognition at this time.


The following is the basis of recognition of the Grand Lodge of the United States of Venezuela by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts (From Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, I92I, p: 438) M.‑. W.‑. Melvin M. Johnson, Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Grand Lodges, presented the following report: In Grand Lodge, Boston, December 14, 192‑1 To the Most Worshipful Grand Master, Wardens and Members of the Grand Lodge Your Committee on Foreign Relations begs leave at this time to report concerning Masonic conditions in Venezuela.


About a year ago our Most Worshipful Grand Master received a fraternal communication from Enrique Doval Castillo, Grand Master of the body known as " Gran Logia de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela," seeking an exchange of fraternal representatives. This is a custom which Massachusetts Masonry has not adopted, for which reason we cannot grant the request in terms. Inasmuch, however, as we have never officially recognised this body as a Grand Lodge, your Committee treats the communication as a request for recognition. At least it brings this Grand Lodge to our attention and calls for a determination upon our part whether or not it should be recognised. Much time and correspondence have been required to make a full investigation.


The investigation discloses that there are two bodies now claiming jurisdiction over symbolic Masonry in Venezuela namely (i) " Gran Logis de los Estados Inidos de Venezuela,'' which being translated is '' The Grand Lodge of FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 157 referred Grand Lodge of Venezuela," and (2‑) " Gran Logia Soberano de Libresey Acceptados Masone's de Venezuela," which being translated is " The Sovereign Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Venezuela." For convenience the . Grand o...


Grand Lodge which is recognised by England and which also finds place in the Swiss Year Book is the Schismatic Grand Lodge. The other body, however, is generally recognised throughout South and Central America.


HISTORY Venezuelan Masonry has passed through many vicissitudes of war and rebellion which have been responsible for the destruction of its earlier archives. Enough remains to give every indication of probability to the traditions.


Through tradition, coupled with more or less authentic fact, we learn that Venezuelan Masonry had its origin from Spain, which in turn received it from England in 1726. The Spanish Lodges worked under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of England until 1779, at which date a local governing body was formed. This latter was severely persecuted by the Inquisition, but notwithstanding continued to work, and in 18og three Lodges formed the National Grand Lodge of Spain, which body, so reports state, celebrated its sessions in the very same place in which the Inquisition formerly held forth.


In 18o8 Masonry was introduced into Venezuela from Spain. In 1811 the National Grand Lodge of Spain changed its title to the Grand Orient of Spain and the Indies and under the jurisdiction of this body Lodges were working at that date in Venezuela.


From 1813 to i82o the Grand Orient was inactive, this being the period following the French invasion of Spain when the Bourbons returned to power and all liberals were severely persecuted, a persecution ending with the Revolution of i82o. Beginning also in 1811 the movement for independence from Spain was initiated in Venezuela. Naturally the local Masonry was thrown into confusion. Notwithstanding the trials and tribulations through which Masonry was passing, a governing body was formed in 1824 which referred to itself as the Grand Lodge with the name of " Grand Orient of Venezuela.'' On November 8, 1828, the great liberator, Simon Bolivar (who, according to report, was a Master Mason), issued a decree by which he prohibited meetings of all secret societies including Masonic Lodges. Bolivar died in 183o and Masonry again began to work openly. Many Lodges were founded. Among them one, according to tradition, was constituted by the Grand Lodge of Maryland. In the same year, 1830, Venezuela became an independent State. In 1835 the Grand Lodge of the United States of Venezuela was formed. It has existed uninterruptedly ever since, and it is this body which has applied to us for an exchange of representatives.


This Grand Lodge of Venezuela has been since its start the sovereign governing organisation of Symbolic Masonry in Venezuela. It has ruled and governed the Craft under its jurisdiction without acknowledgement of or submission to higher authority. It has always been composed of delegates elected by the Lodges, and these in turn have elected the Grand Officers. Its decrees and sta‑ .C II 158 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA u ii tutes have always been promulgated in the name of the Grand Lodge and have p, not been attested by the Supreme Council as has been the case in so many Latin jurisdictions. Indeed the Supreme Council of Venezuela was not established a. until 1840.


At one time or another for the purpose of preserving the continuity of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, the Grand Lodge of Venezuela has confederated itself with the Supreme Council, but it has never united with or become a part of the Supreme Council. This position is in a way analagous to the recognition of the Supreme Council by many of the Grand Lodges of the United States including Massachusetts. The Grand Lodge, however, has not at any time yielded its sovereignty to the Supreme Council.


In 1851 there were sixty Lodges under the Grand Lodge of Venezuela, but in that year there was a schism. Forty‑three Lodges remained faithful; thirteen joined schismatic Grand Lodge. In 1865 the schism was healed and schismatic Lodges returned to the obedience of the Mother Grand Lodge.


In 1882 the Supreme Council attempted to place itself at the head of a symbolic Masonry in Venezuela. The Grand Lodge refused to enter into any such agreement and so successfully maintained its own sovereignty that in 1884 the Supreme Council receded from its position and a new constitution was promulgated. In 1916 the constitution was revised. Article i9 of this constitution provides that The Grand Lodge of the United States of Venezuela is the Supreme Masonic authority over the symbolic degrees and it is constituted by elected representatives named by the Lodges in the manner laid down in the statutes." In 1918 a difference of opinion arose over internal matters. There was a certain amount of money in the Treasury of the Grand Lodge dedicated to a certain purpose. Being short of funds at the time, the Grand Lodges voted to borrow from this fund. This action in Venezuela met with the disapproval of certain of the prominent members of the Grand Lodge with the result that they withdrew and formed a schismatic Grand Lodge, upon which the Schismatic Lodge immediately made the claim that the Grand Loge of Venezuela was not a sovereign and independent body but was rather dependent upon the Supreme Council and as such not entitled to rank as a Grand Lodge. The documents in evidence, however, seem to show conclusively that such a claim is not sound and that the Grand Lodge of Venezuela has always been sovereign and independent in Symbolic Masonry. While it is true that the Grand Lodge had entered into an agreement of confederation with the Supreme Council, such a confederation is amply proved to have been solely for the preservation of the Rite as a whole, and was not a yielding up of the powers of the Grand Lodge. Shortly after the schism the Grand Lodge repaid the money which it borrowed, above referred to, but whatever may have been done in this regard, it was only an internal matter of business administration. It was done by a majority vote of the Grand Lodge. It did not authorise a schism and it has no interest to any outside jurisdiction. It is mentioned here only to show the starting point of the present schism.


On March 15, 1921, the Supreme Council of Venezuela passed a resolution setting forth that the Grand Lodge of Venezuela has always been the supreme governing power in Symbolic Masonry, that the Supreme Council will not act in any way or manner with the Grand Lodge and that the Supreme Council recognises and concedes that now, as formerly, the Grand Lodge is the only authority FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 159 of any kind in Symbolic Masonry. In other words, in order to clear up any misunderstanding as to the former agreement between the Grand Lodge and the Supreme Council, the Supreme Council now has formally and publicly acknowledged the absolute and complete autonomy of the Grand Lodge of Venezuela.


RITUAL The Ritual of the Grand Lodge of Venezuela is that of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. It does not pledge allegiance to any body other than the Grand Lodge, however. It is as truly Masonic, and it adheres as closely to the Ancient Landmarks and customs of the Craft as many of our own Grand Lodges. It is far closer to the working of the Grand Lodge of England and Scotland than many of our Rituals in the United States. The difference is mainly in the lectures. There is an absence of the innovations which Preston and Webb made in the English working.


We have filed in the Grand Secretary's office documents verifying the major statements hereinbefore made, viz.: a. A resume of the Masonic History of Venezuela. b. Historical Masonic documents of the year 1842.


c. A copy of the Masonic constitution of the confederated Grand Lodge and bodies of the Supreme Council for the year 1884. This confederation was known as the Grand Orient and therefore, perhaps, it is wise to point out certain of the provisions. Article 1o is as follows: " The Symbolic Order is composed of all the Symbolic Lodges already established, or which may be established under the jurisdiction of the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge in the jurisdiction of the National Grand Orient." Article 17 defines the functions of the Grand Lodge " The attributes of the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge are I. To legislate with absolute authority in all that concerns the Symbolic Order, making such statutes, regulations, resolutions and reports as may be judged necessary for the successful advance of the Lodges of its dependence, in conformity with the general principles stated in this Constitution.


4. To sanction the rituals for all the workings of the Symbolic Lodges." The above seem to us to be sufficient to show the authority of the Grand Lodge.


d. The 1916 edition of the Masonic Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of the United States of Venezuela. Annexed to it is a declaration and appeal by Grand Master A. Benchetiy to all the Lodges and Masons within his jurisdiction.


The Grand Orient underwent substantial alterations on July 26, 1893, but the so‑called Grand Lodge remained subordinate to the Scottish Rite bodies. The Grand Orient continued in this form until August 18, 1916, when it volun tarily dissolved and out of its fragments was formed a Supreme Council of the Scottish, and a Grand Lodge of Symbolic Masonry under the name " The Grand Lodge of the United States of Venezuela," with seat at Caracas. These two bodies, thereupon, by mutual consent announced that each was sovereign and independent of the other within their respective spheres. Latest statistics give the Grand Lodge 9 Lodges and Zso members. Address Sus. 5, No. 78, Caracas. On December 4, 1916, the Supreme Council and the Grand Lodge con‑ r i 6o FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA jointly adopted the " Masonic Constitutions of the United States of Venezuela," ` Pact of Confederation," in the caption of which they are referred to as " United Constituent Bodies of Freemasonry " in Venezuela. In Article i9, it is declared that " the Grand Lodge of the United States of Venezuela is the Supreme Masonic authority of Symbolic Masonry " and that it is composed of delegates elected by the Lodges. Article 25 further says The Supreme Council and the Grand Lodge are under duty of mutually protecting, supporting and assisting each other by every legal means within their power in every case in which the general interests of the Institution require it, respecting as between themselves their respective jurisdictions, thereby recognising each other as Masonic Powers sovereign and independent in their respective Orders.


On January 9, 1921, the Supreme Council issued the following decree: In view of the Grand Circular of the Grand Lodge of the United States of Venezuela of date the 4th day of the present month and having heard the conclusions of the Grand Minister of State, and in conformity with Article VI of the Grand Constitutions of 1786, the organic law of the Rite, IT IS DECREED, Art. I. The Grand Lodge of the United States of Venezuela governs independently, as it has heretofore done, the first three degrees, or, in other words, the Symbolic Order of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite: and therefore, it exercises the prerogatives which Article i9 of the present Constituent concedes to it as well as the powers and dignities inherent in its high Masonic authority, without the Supreme Council or any of the bodies of its dependence having any right to interfere in its deliberations.


COLUMBIA, FORMERLY NEW GRANADA The Grand Orient of New Granada was formed at Carthagena on June i9, 1833. On July 11, 1851, the Grand Orient of France passed unanimously the following resolutions I. That a body of Masons, having founded in the Valley of Carthagena in the Republic of New Granada in 1833 under the title of the Grand Orient and Supreme Council of New Granada for the purpose of exercising the Scottish Rite of Ancient and Accepted Masonry; z. That that authority has advised its existence and formation to all Masonic bodies and, in particular, to the Grand Orient of France, which has acknowledged receipt of its communication and invited that body to make known its titles and constitution ; 3. That, according to its documents that have been received and deposited in the archives of the Grand Orient of France, proves that the Grand Orient and Supreme Council of New Granada has been founded like all Supreme Councils and, in virtue of such rights, according to the Grand Constitution of 1786, attributes to Frederick II of Prussia, the constitution of Lodges, Chapters, Councils, Areopagos, Tribunals and Consistories, exercising the work of the Ancient and Accepted Rite; FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 161 4. That the above authority has decreed a new Masonic Constitution on August 4, 1849 and the Grand Orient of France declares the Supreme Council of New Granada to be a legal Constitution from April 19, 18 with the right to exercise jurisdiction over all the territory of New Granada.


The Supreme Council. had been exercising its rights uninterruptedly, during its existence, over what was then known as the Republic of New Granada, which consisted of the Republics of Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador. As these Republics formed themselves into distinct nations, they each formed its own Supreme Council, leaving Colombia with the title of New Granada, now known as the Republic of Colombia.


In May 1864, General T. C. Mosquera, Valero F. de Barriga and Francisco Villal formed a Grand Central Orient of Colombia, with the object of controlling Freemasonry in the southern part of the Republic, with Bogota as the capital. They argued that, owing to the lack of communication with the several towns in the interior of the Republic, there was justification for another Supreme Council. The Supreme Council of Colombia protested and declared the new body to be illegally formed and the two Supreme Councils of the United States declared it to be illegal. The new Supreme Council, however, continued on its way, partly owing to the fact that General Mosquera was the President of the Republic, although his opponents declared that he was not a member of the 33. In 1871 Juan de Dios Riomalo succeeded Mosquera as Grand Master.


In 186o the original body had nineteen Lodges on its roll, among them being Lodge La Mas Solida Virtus at Jamaica. Francisco de Zubirias was Grand Master in 1865 and Juan Manuel Grau in 1871. Four years later‑according to the somewhat fragmentary evidence available‑the latter appears to have given way to, or to have been superseded by, Juan N. Pombo, whose name is shown in the Calendars as Grand Master from 1875 to 1878. In 1879, however, the name of Juan M. Grau again figures in the lists, whilst that of Juan N. Pombo disappears. Full details are given in the Calendars with regard to the Masonic dignitaries of Colombia during the supremacy of either; and, as Grau is not mentioned, whilst Pombo was uppermost, and vice versa, it is probable‑considering the manner in which Masonry and politics blend together in the Spanish Republics‑that they were rival candidates for power in more ways than one.


Apparently the two bodies patched up their differences for, in 1879, Juan M. Grau was at the head of both, with the title of Sovereign Grand Commander and Sublime Grand Master of the Order. The Secretary Generai (or Grand Secretary) was also for a time the same for the two bodies, though there was always a separate Lieutenant Grand Commander (or Deputy Grand Master) at Carthagena and Bogota. In 1883, Leon Echeverria was elected Grand Master of the Order, an office which he continued to hold, according to the Calendars of 1886, where, however, his name was also shown as Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council at Bogota, " founded in 1827," whilst that of Juan M. Grau is similarly shown as the head of 162 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA the Supreme Council of Carthagena, "founded in 1833." An English LodgeAmistad Unida, No. 8o8‑established in 1848, existed at Santa Martha. Other foreign jurisdictions were formerly represented. Lodge Les Philadelphes, No. 15 1, was erected at Colon‑Aspinwall by the Supreme Council of France in 18 S 8 and the Isthmus Lodge by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts in (or before) 1866. Both these Lodges, however, have ceased to exist.


Several attempts were made to form a Grand Lodge of Colombia and the initiative was taken by the Freemasons of Barranquilla, on the coast of the Republic, where there is more liberty and less clerical influence. On July zo, 1917, four Lodges, two of which had their Charters from the Supreme Council of New Granada (Colombia) and two from the Supreme Council of Bogota, formed the Provincial Grand Lodge of the Department of the Atlantic, Calle of Barranquilla ; and, later, on January io, it declared itself as the National Grand Lodge of Colombia, notwithstanding protests from the Supreme Council of Colombia.


This Grand Lodge has become stronger with the passing years and is recognised as regular by the British Grand Lodges of Arkansas, Louisiana, Kansas, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, North Carolina and the Philippine Islands.


On November 30, 1919, several who had until then been loyal to the Supreme Council of Colombia, formed the Grand Lodge of the Republic of Colombia, maintaining that the National Grand Lodge was not legally Constituted and that the territory was unoccupied. This step was also opposed by the Supreme Council of Colombia.


The Grand Lodge of the Republic of Colombia at Bogota is growing in strength. It is recognised by the British Grand Lodges and by New York, Oregon, North Carolina and Massachusetts.


Later, the Supreme Council at Carthagena invited a few Lodges there to form a Grand Lodge under its auspices, which event took place on January 1, 192o. The Grand Lodge of Colombia at Carthagena continues to grow stronger. It is recognised by the British Grand Lodges and by Louisiana, New York, and North Carolina.


In 193 S the Foreign Correspondence Report of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina contained the following: We have a formal announcement of the formation, on December 16, 1934, of the fourth Grand Lodge in Colombia, South America. There had been some confusion in this Republic, in Masonic circles, for quite a while, the nature of which confusion it is not profitable to attempt to analyze here. In the South American and Central American countries means of communication are none too good between distant cities and towns; and when Grand Lodges meet, their acts often receive scant consideration from some of the more remote Lodges. Then somebody wants to know why these Lodges have not done so and so, and the Lodges are liable to censure for matters in which they are not interested or which they do not understand‑and trouble starts.


FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 163 Grand Lodge. There was one Grand Lodge in Cartagena, another in Bogota, and a third in Barranquilla; so why‑ should they not have theirs? We read that there are also four '' Trianges," one at Jerico, one at Sonson, a third at Puerto Berrio, and a fourth at Rio Negro. We suppose these will ere long become Lodges, too.


The Grand Lodge of Medellen adopted the North Carolina Standards.


ECUADOR The following is taken from the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Ecuador and is by an official writer, Bro. Fichtenfels: The earliest information that we gather of Ancient, Free, and Accepted Masonry in the Republic of Ecuador, is found at the end of the eighteenth century, when, still under the Spanish Regime, Jose Perez, born in Guayaquil, was accused before the Royal Government of being a Mason. According to the judicial documents, kept by the " Biblioteca Nacional de Lima." It is known that, fortunately for him, he could not be found; it being stated that Perez escaped into Brazil, through the Amazon forests.


It is equally known, through the writings of Emilio Gondron in his detailed narration of the part played by Masonry in the independence of the American Continent, that in the year i8o8, fourteen years before the battle of Pichincha was fought, a victory that gave Ecuador its independence from Spain, there was in Quito a Lodge, under the name of " Ley Natural " under the authority of the Masonic Body of Neuvo Reino de Granada.


In 1821, a few months after the Province of Guayaquil had proclaimed its independence, the first Guayaquil Lodge was founded.


Thirteen years later, in 1843, a new Lodge was founded in Guayaquil, also under the jurisdiction of Neuva Granada working under the name of " Centro Filantropico.'' In the year 1857 the Grand Orient of Peru organised a Lodge in Guayaquil, under the Scottish Rite, a Symbolic Lodge and a Chapter of eight degrees as stated by Brother Albert Galatin Mackey, M.D., 33, in his " Encyclopedia Masonica y su relacion con las Ciencias. " The works of these bodies had to be stopped on account of the persecution of the catholic priests. The Lodge worked under the name of " Filantr6pia " as the previous one; its worshipful master being Brother Jose Maria Molestina Roca 18.


Knowing of the existence of this Lodge, Gabriel Garcia Moreuo sought admission, but as he pretended to be admitted as a master mason, his request was refused. Taking the refusal as an offense, it is clearly understood why, later on, when he was President of the Republic, he issued a decree .. that all Masons be courtmartialed." During the Government of Garcia Moreno, the Church ruled, and all the priests were his closest friends. As a result masonic activities in this period were nil.


Only in the year 1878, when General Ignacio de Veintimilla started the liberal transformation, several masons, mostly foreigners, obtained a permit 164 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA from the Grand Orient of Peru to open a Lodge in Guayaquil. This Lodge worked under the name of " Redenc16n,'' and its existence was known to the President, but later, in order to be on the side of the Church, and to satisfy social demands, he made it known that unless masons would close the Lodge, he would have to close it. In order to prevent a fatal result, seeing that the President had lost his Liberal faith, and the energy to permit them to continue with the Lodge, the brethren had to abandon their work.


Masonry was at a standstill during the period of the Conservative Party, until the fall of the same in 1895. Masonic activity started with the return of the Liberal Party headed by Brother General Eloy Alfaro 30, the " Great Fighter,'' who played a most important role in the history of Ecuador. The Lodge " Luz del Guayas " was formed on January 31, 1897, and received its charter from the Grand Lodge of Peru April 2, 1897. This worshipful Lodge has been active ever since up to the present time. From its members, two other Lodges were founded later.


It is in this period that Brother Colonel Gaspar Almiro Plaza, at present an active member of the Supreme Council of the 33, one of the most prominent Masons in Ecuador, gathered the many Masons in the city and organised several bodies of the Scottish Rite, all under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Council of Peru.


Continuing his good work, Brother Plaza selected several Masons, and obtaining the necessary permission established, in Guayaquil, the Lodge '' Filantropia del Guayas " No. 2, in commemoration of the old Lodge of i86o. At the same time there was in Quito a Lodge '' Luz del Pichincha " that was conducting work in an irregular manner, because of not having fulfilled all the requisites. Brother Plaza obtained from the Supreme Council of Peru the regularisation of all the members of the Quito Lodge in the year 19o6. Being in Quito, Brother Plaza founded another Lodge, giving it the name of '' Ley Natural," in commemoration of the one founded in 18o8. This further progress in Masonry, in a city completely overrun with priests, took place the 31st of December, 19o6.


After a long transitation, the Supreme Council Confederated 33 , of Peru, invested with this degree several prominent Masons and organised the Supreme Council Confederated 33 of Ecuador, which was duly installed the 24 July, 1910.


All other Supreme Councils in the world have recognised the Supreme Council of Ecuador, and are in fraternal relations with it.


The Supreme Council Confederated, 33 of Ecuador, being duly constituted and its authority recognised, took over into her jurisdiction all the Simbolic Lodges established in Ecuador, and working in the Scottish Rite: except Lodge " Luz del Guayas " No. io, dependent of the Grand Lodge of Peru.


Two new Charters were granted by the Supreme Council in 1917. The first one was '' Eloy Alfaro Lodge,'' No. 5. The other Lodge was " Luz de America." Since 1916, it was felt the necessity of founding the Grand Lodge of Ecuador and subordinating to it the three symbolic Lodges, leaving the degrees 4 to 32 to the jurisdiction of the Supreme Council of Ecuador. Several members of the Lodge " Sucre,'' No. i, worked enthusiastically to obtain this end, and obtained that the Lodges '' Filantropia del Guayas '' No. 2, '' Eloy Alfaro '' No. 5, and '' Luz de America " No. 6, support their intention. Also '' Lodge Bolivar " No. 4, was founded in Quito in the year igo9, under the auspices of the Spanish FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 165 Modern Rite, which was not recognised by the Universal Masonic Bodies. Unfortunately, the work started by this newly organised Grand Lodge did not last, because of certain irregularities, which were not at first perceived. As a result, the subordinate Lodges lost the enthusiasm of its work, and were closed. The only survivor was " Luz del Guayas '' lodge under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Peru.


This failure did not discourage the good brethren who desired to obtain the benefits of a well organised Grand Lodge of Ecuador, and the recognition of the Universal Grand Bodies. Taking into‑consideration the previous experience, the Masonic Members, headed by the '' Luz del Guayas,'' appealed to the Grand Lodge of Peru, for its patriotic desire. The Grand Lodge of Peru, recognising the justice of it, promised to support the Ecuadorian Masons. Toward this end, they granted permission for two new Lodges to be founded, under their jurisdiction, and sent Brother Mauel Perez Rosas, the Grand Secretary of Peru, to organise the work regularly.


Shortly after, the Grand Lodge of Peru granted the Charters to these two Lodges, and in March 6, 192‑1, they delegated the several members to meet in Convention with the purpose of organising the Grand Lodge of Ecuador, inde pendently of the Grand Lodge of Peru, and to have jurisdiction over all the Lodges in its Territory.


In an extraordinary meeting of The Grand Lodge of Ecuador, on March 25th, 192‑2, a petition from Masons of the city of Quito was received to found a Lodge in that city. They named it '' 2.4 de Mayo in commemoration of the battle of Pichincha, deciding battle in the Independence of Ecuador.


On September 6, 1922, the Government of Ecuador presided by Dr. Jose Luis Tamayo, by its degree No. 92‑6 approved the Constitution and Statutes of the Grand Lodge of Ecuador, and recognised it as a legal institution.


In 1896, there was formed at Guayaquil, under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Peru, the Lodge '' Luz de Guayas," No. 1o, there being at that date no Grand Lodge in Ecuador. This Lodge received its charter on April 2, 1897.


As the years passed its membership increased slowly and it gradually drew to itself, despite the opposition of the clericals, many of the leading merchants, financiers, journalists, professors and army and navy men.


Within the last few years, the Grand Lodge of Peru sent a special deputy to Guayaquil to counsel the Masons there as to the proper procedure for the formation of a Grand Lodge. He advised the creation of two new lodges under char ters from the Grand Lodge of Peru. Accordingly Lodges " Cinco de Junio,'' No. 29, and " Oriente Ecuadoriano," No. 30, were formed. It is stated that these three were then the only " regular " Lodges in Ecuador. We presume there were Scottish Rite Symbolic Lodges subordinate to the Supreme Council, but it is in all probability true that these were the only independent Lodges or the only Lodges subordinate to a regular Grand Lodge. They were, therefore, the only ones necessary to be invited to participate in the formation of the Grand Lodge.


Accordingly these three Lodges selected delegates to a General Assembly which convened at Guayaquil on March 5, 1921, 8 p.m., with full representation from each Lodge. Juan Molinari was chosen president and Miguel E. Rabascal, Secretary.


The Assembly then adopted and dispatched to the Grand Lodge of Peru a 166 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA Petition praying its consent to the formation of a Grand Lodge of Ecuador and asking that a Deputy with full authority to act be sent to constitute the new Grand Lodge. In this Petition, the Assembly declared that the Grand Lodge would '' teach the people to depart from fanaticism and superstition." The constitution, By‑Laws and Ritual of the Grand Lodge of Peru were temporarily adopted. The Grand Lodge of Peru cheerfully and promptly released the Lodges from allegiance to it and unanimously consented to the formation of the new Grand Lodge, and commissioned a Deputy to constitute it.


Accordingly, on June i9, 192.1, the '' Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of the Republic of Ecuador '' was solemnly constituted with jurisdiction over the three Symbolic Degrees only, viz.. Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master, throughout the territory of Ecuador.


On July 2.9, 192.1, another Lodge, '' Pacific," No. 4, in which the work is carried on in English, was regularly installed under a charter from the new Grand Lodge, giving it 4 Subordinate Lodges, with 77, So, 48 and 8 members respectively, or a total of 183 members. This Grand Lodge was recognised by Louisiana at its 192.2‑ Annual in February last.


This is, of course, a weak body in point of numbers, but we have carefully read all the proceedings leading up to its formation and its printed constitution, laws and regulations, and we can see no reason why it should not be recognised.


PERU It is traditionally asserted that Freemasonry was introduced into Peru about the year 1807, during the French invasion, that several Lodges were at work until the resumption of Spanish authority and of Papal influence in 1813, when their existence terminated. But the authentic history of Peruvian Masonry cannot be traced any earlier than 1825, when the independence of the Republic, declared in 1820, was completely achieved. In that year, General Valero, a member of the Grand Orient of Colombia at Santa Fe de Bogoti (New Granada), visited Lima and, as the representative of that body, proceeded, in the first instance, to legitimate the Lodges and Chapters which had already been established in the new Republic, afterwards to found and organize others. At this time there appear to have been four Lodges at the capital, and nine others were soon after erected in the provincial towns: Lima‑PaZ y Perfecta Union, 182.1 ; Orden y Libertad, 18z2; Virtud y Union, 1823 ; and Constancia Peruana, 18z4; Cuzco‑Solde Huayna Ccapac, 18z6; Lambayeque ‑Union Justa, 182.6 ; Pinra‑Conslancia Heroica, 18zg ; and Ica‑Filosofia Peruana, 1829. Five other Lodges were also formed about the same time in Arequipa, Trujillo, Cajamarca, Puno and Huamachuco respectively, but their names and dates of constitution have passed out of recollection. Thus the course of descent of Masonry in Peru was from Spain to Venezuela, from Venezuela to Colombia, thence to Peru. Its base is, therefore, Spanish, yet, from an early date, English and American Freemasonry have influenced very strongly that of Peru.


A Supreme Council of the A. and A.R. 33 was instituted at Lima in 183o by FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 167 the senior (local) member of the rite, Jose Maria Monson, Roman Catholic Chaplain in the Army of Independence, afterwards a Canon in the Cathedral of Trujillo. In the following year June 23‑Deputies from the Supreme Council 33, the Consistory 32, the Areopagus 3o and the Chapters 18, together with the Masters and Wardens of the Lodges, assembled in the capital under the presidency of the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Scottish Constitution and established a Grand Lodge, with Thomas Ripley Eldredge as Grand Master. The Constitutions were settled on August i i, 1831, when it was unanimously resolved to substitute for the title Grand Lodge, that of Grand Orient of Peru. Shortly after this, owing to the political disturbances, there was an entire cessation of Masonic labour.


In 1845, after a recess of some twelve years, a few metropolitan Brethren, members of the Lodge Orden y Libertad and of a Rose Croix Chapter, met and continued to work regularly until November 1, 1848, when a General Convention of Masons was held and the Grand Orient was revived. In 1850 the Grand Orient again assembled and sanctioned a Constitution for the government of the Lodges. Marshal Miguel San Roman‑afterwards President of the Republic‑was Grand Master of this Grand Orient until 18 52, but the Supreme Council 3 3 not only held aloof from its proceedings, but apparently ignored even its existence.


On July 13, 18 52, the supreme Masonic body was reorganized under the title of Grand National Orient of Peru and the members of the so‑called high Degrees recovered their supremacy. At this meeting twenty‑five Brethren represented the Supreme Council, Consistory, Areopagus and the Rose Croix Chapters. There were also present the Masters and Wardens of three Lodges‑Ordeny Libertad and Estrella Polar, of Lima; and Concordia Universal of Callao. Of these, the first named was founded in 1822, the second (by the Grand Orient over which Marshal San Roman presided) in 1850‑‑2, the third (by the Supreme Council of Peru) in 1852.


In the same year (1852) a Royal Arch Chapter‑Estrella Boreal‑No. 74 on the roll of the Grand Chapter of Scotland, was established at Callao. This, however, was not recognized by the Supreme Council of Peru, nor was it allowed a voice in the deliberations of the Grand National Orient.


In 18 5 5 a new Lodge under an old title‑ Virtud y Union‑was erected at Lima by Charter of the Supreme Council 3 3'.


New Statutes were promulgated by the Grand Orient May 5, 1856. These were very defective, consisting only of some disjointed extracts from the laws of the Grand Orient of Venezuela and placed the government of the Fraternity entirely in the hands of the Supreme Council 33. At this time there were seven Lodges holding Warrants from the Supreme Council‑acting on behalf of the Grand National Orient. Of these five were in Peru, one each in Ecuador and Chile. Additional regulations, framed with the especial object of restraining certain irregularities which‑it was alleged‑‑had penetrated into the Lodges, were enacted in May 18 5 7. The new Statutes caused the cup of indignation to overflow and three Lodges‑Concordia Universal, Estrella Polar and Virtud y Union‑‑on June 3, 6 and io respectively ensuing, declared their independence. These were joined by others 168 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA to the number of fifteen and a Grand Lodge was erected at Lima, November Zo, 18 5 9. In i 86o there was another schism in the Supreme Council and the seceders, with the Grand Lodge, formed a Grand Orient and Supreme Council under a Charter from the Grand Orient of Colombia (New Granada). In 1863, however, dissensions arose in this body and it passed out of existence.


Irish Lodges were established at Lima in 1861 and 1863 and several foreign jurisdictions soon after became represented. Among these Scotland is entitled to the first place, having chartered no fewer than thirteen Lodges. Under the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts a Lodge was formed by dispensation at Arica in 1866, but is now extinct. The Grand Orient of Italy and the Grand Lodge of Hamburg each had a Lodge at Lima, the Italian Lodge bearing the name Stella d'Italia and the German one Zur Eintracht (Concord).


The Supreme Council reorganized the Grand Orient, but again suppressed it in 1875 and sentenced the opponents of this summary proceeding to " perpetual expulsion." The sentence was revoked in 1881, the Grand Orient once more revived and the Lodges placed under it. This gave umbrage to the latter, who contended that even if the Supreme Council was justified in separating itself from the Lodges, it could not possess the right o˙ turning them over to any other body. Ultimately, in March i88z, five Lodges met in Convention at Lima and organized the Grand Lodge of Peru. Four out of the five Scottish Lodges at the capital are said to have given in their adhesion on May 31 and, shortly after, a Lodge was established at Guayaquil in Ecuador. This Grand Lodge is entirely independent, controls only the first three Degrees and works them according to the York ritual. It denies the right of the Supreme Council to form Symbolic Lodges where a regular Grand Lodge exists. It exacts of its initiates a belief in the Deity and displays the Bible on the altar. It does not seem, however, to have made great growth and is still weak in numbers and influence.


On June 13, 1897, Grand Master Christian Dam promulgated a decree substituting the Book of Constitutions on the altar in place of the Bible. Quite a furore was raised by this action in Peru and abroad. Many Grand Lodges severed relations with Peru, an action which, in some instances, has continued to this day. However, those in Peru, who objected to the action of the Grand Master, were able just one year later‑June i2,1898‑to reverse it and a decree was promulgated abrogating the decree of 1897. In March 1899, England repealed her resolution of non‑intercourse and other Grand Lodges took like action.


The Grand Lodge of Peru is now recognized by the Grand Lodges of England, Alabama, California, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, Montana, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Vermont, North Carolina, Massachusetts, Cuba, Costa Rica, Canada, Philippine Islands, Victoria.


FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 169 BOLIVIA In 1875 a Lodge was Chartered by one of the competing jurisdictions in Lima and is possibly included among the four Lodges in Bolivia under the Grand Lodge of Peru.


On November Zo, I929, there were in Bolivia seven Masonic Lodges under the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Chile. On that date, the Grand Lodge of Chile granted to these seven Lodges a special Dispensation to organise the Grand Lodge of Bolivia, which Dispensation was transmitted to them and they proceeded to act upon it in due course.


On June 24, 1931, the Grand Lodge of Bolivia was formally organised by the Installation of its Officers under the patronage of the parent Grand Lodge of Chile, the constituent Lodges therein being the seven Lodges referred to, of the Chilean Constitution.


The Grand Lodge of Chile is duly recognised by the Grand Lodge of North Carolina. The Grand Lodge of Bolivia in beginning its Masonic life has adopted the standards of Masonic regularity which North Carolina set up ten years ago, and which were translated into Spanish soon afterwards and were broadcast throughout South America and exerted a profound influence in all Latin America.


The Grand Lodge of Bolivia requires that all of its Lodges exact of every member thereof unqualified belief in the Grand Architect of the Universe. It requires that all candidates be obligated upon the Volume of the Sacred Law. It makes Masons of men only, and forbids intercourse with all bodies alleged to be Masonic which admit women.


This Grand Lodge is a sovereign and independent body, having exclusive and undisputed control over the Symbolic Lodges within its jurisdiction, and it does not divide or share its authority with any other organisation or body claiming to be Masonic. It exercises supreme control over the Degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason in its jurisdiction, and it thus divides the work of the Degrees and teaches the legend of the Third Degree.


The Grand Lodge in its declaration asserts that the Three Great Lights are always displayed in Lodge when open, and that the discussion of politics or religion is strictly prohibited in Lodges. What it sets out as the Ancient Landmarks is not stated, but these are strictly observed.


ARGENTINE REPUBLIC, or CONFEDERACY OF LA PLATA The Province of Buenos Ayres, after forming for some years a distinct State, re‑entered, in I86o, the General Confederacy of La Plata, or Argentine Republic, of which it constitutes the head. The Masonic history of the allied States down to the year named may very briefly be summarised. A Lodge‑No. Zos, Southern Star‑was chartered at the city of Buenos Ayres by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, September S, 182.5. This capital, as the largest town and the outlet of all 169 170 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA the trade of the Republic, has always exercised a preponderating influence in the formation and execution of the intrigues, conspiracies and insurrections, which constitute the political history of the Confederation. From the close connexion, therefore, between Masonry and politics, found subsisting in all parts of South America, save in the Lodges under the English Constitution, it will excite no surprise that, without exception, all the early Lodges in La Plata, of which any trace exists, were held at Buenos Ayres. Some were in existence there in 1846, but, about that time, the political aspect becoming gloomy in the extreme, their labours were suspended.


Two Lodges bearing the same name‑L'Amie des Naufrages‑were established by the Grand Orient of France in Buenos Ayres and Rio de la Plata respectively in 185z. The example thus set was followed by the Grand Lodge of England, under whose authority the first of a series of Lodges was erected in 1853, viz. Excelsior Lodge, No. 617. In 1856, there seems to have been in existence a body claiming the prerogatives of a Grand Lodge. It practised the Ancient and Accepted Rite, but was never recognized by the family of Supreme Councils and soon ceased to exist. Two years later‑April zz, 1858‑a Supreme Council and Grand Orient of the Argentine Republic was established at Buenos Ayres by the Supreme Council and Grand Orient of Uruguay, at Monte Video.


About this time‑so at least it is gravely related‑" the Roman Catholic Bishop [at Buenos Ayres] fulminated a Bull against all Masons within his bishopric; he went the length of declaring the marriage contract dissolved and absolving the wife a vinculo matrimonii, in all cases where the husband refused to renounce Masonry. Some parties, as high in temporal authority as the Bishop was in spiritual, appealed from this decree to Pope Pius IX at Rome. After waiting a long time for a reply or decision upon the appeal and receiving none, an inquiry‑ was instituted as to the cause of the delay, when it was found, to the great satisfaction of the Roman Catholics of La Plata, who were unwilling to bow to the behests of the Bishop, that in 1816, the venerable Pontiff then a young man‑received the Degrees, and took upon himself the obligations of Masonry ! " The full story is told in Dudley tiWright's Roman Catholicism and Freemasonry, pp. 171‑4. See also the World Ride Register, p. 5z8. A statement of similar character was made long before by J. L. Laurens in his Essai historique, with regard to Pope Benedict XIV, of whom it is related that, being himself a Freemason, he, not unnaturally, mitigated in some slight degree the rigour of the Papal edict against the Craft, which had been launched by his immediate predecessor, Clement XII.


In 1861 a treaty was concluded between the Grand Lodge of England and the Grand Orient of the Argentine Republic. This empowered the former to establish Lodges in La Plata and to appoint a District Grand Master to rule over them. The Rev. J. Chubb Ford presided over the English District Grand Lodge until 1867, when he was succeeded by R. B. Masefield, who was followed by Dr. George John Ryan, C. Trevor Mold and F. H. Chevallier Boutell. In 1914, the name of the District was altered to that of South America, Southern Division, and F. H.


FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 171 Chevallier Boutell retained the position until 1977, when he resigned and W. E. O. Hazell was appointed his successor.


Some trouble was caused in 1868 through the establishment of a Lodge under the name of Italia and the authority of the Grand Orient of Masonry in Italy located at Florence. Protest was at once made by the Supreme Commander of the Argentine Republic against this violation of long‑established Masonic law, to which no reply was made. The worst feature of the proceedings was that one of the members to whom the Charter was granted was an expelled member from one of the city Lodges, while other rejected candidates or expelled members generally were admitted into the Italia Lodge (see The Freemason, July 17, 1869).


During the fatal cholera epidemic‑December 1867 to February 1868when more than four thousand persons became victims, the Freemasons formed the Sociedad Masonica de Socorros, under the presidency of Daniel Maria Cazon, Sovereign Grand Commander of the Ancient and Accepted Rite. Over z6,ooo dollars was subscribed by the Order and the Committee visited over 300 families, furnishing them with medicine, medical advice, food and clothing and burying the dead: they also sent funds and assistance to several towns in the country where the epidemic was raging (see The Freemason, July io and 17, 1869).


About 1877, the invariable rebellion of the Lodges against the domination of the Supreme Council 3 3', which is always met with in the histories of Grand Orients, occurred in Buenos Ayres. There appears to have been both a protest and secession, but without in this case culminating in any definite result.


There were some 13 Lodges under the Grand Orient of La Plata in x 86o, 39 in 1878 and 6o in 1886. There are 13 Lodges under the Grand Lodge of England in Buenos Ayres and the same number in other parts of the District.


PARAGUAY When this country proclaimed its independence of Spain, the reins of government were seized by Dr. Francia, a well‑meaning despot, who, during his long administration, carried into effect his ideas of advancing the material interests of the state by shutting it off from all communication with the outer world. Under his government Paraguay was, for a long period, as effectually closed as Japan had been before it. The same exclusive policy, though without carrying it quite so far, was pursued by his successor, Don Carlos Antonio Lopez. The latter was followed in turn by his son, Don Francisco Solano Lopez, whose action involved the country in the disastrous war of 1864‑70 with Brazil, Uruguay and the Argentine Republic. This war cost Paraguay nearly one‑half of its territory and reduced its population from nearly a million and a half to about zzo,ooo, of whom only zcg,ooo were men. If, conjointly with this, we bear in mind that Paraguay is the only country in South America without any seaboard, it will occasion no surprise that the traces of Masonry in the existing Republic are so faint as to be almost indistinguishable. The population of Asuncion, the. capital, had fallen after the war from nearly So,ooo to about io,ooo of whom 3,0oo belonged for several years 172 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA to the Brazilian army of occupation. The Masonic Calendars of 18 8 i‑z show a Lodge under the Grand Orient of Brazil as existing at Paraguay, but whether composed of natives or of the Brazilian garrison is a point upon which statistics leave us wholly in the dark.


The following is quoted from the report of Bro. John H. Cowles, Past Grand Master of Kentucky, who made a personal investigation of conditions The life of Masonry in Paraguay has been as hectic as the life of the country. Its early introduction as to authenticity is much mixed with legend, memories of the elder generation, and a few documents now known of. While proof is lacking, it is undoubtedly true that Lodges functioned in Paraguay before its war of 1866‑1870, using both the French and Italian languages, but no knowledge is extant as to what Grand Masonic power established them, maybe Brazil. There were Lodges also using Portuguese which had their authority from Brazil. While in Asuncion I was presented with several documents of interest and to which reference is now made, viz.: A circular issued November, 1871, by the " Grand Orient and Supreme Council '' of Paraguay, announcing its own establishment, and stating that the Grand Orient of Brazil had instituted " Fe " (Faith) Lodge in Asuncion in May 1869; that in July 1871, a Rose Croix was created from members of this Lodge. They declared themselves independent and divided Fe Lodge into four Symbolic Lodges. In Humaita, another Lodge was at work, said to be irregular; but no explanation given about it, and it was made regular, or healed as to membership while at Cerrito, another Lodge existed, presumably regular, but nothing said about how it originated. Three Lodges were organised out of the one at Humaita which made a total of eight, and these were formed into the '' Grand Orient and Supreme Council '' of Paraguay. Another is a printed balustre, dated November 15, 1871, giving the names of the officers of all the bodies, Grand and Subordinate, which include those of the eight Lodges mentioned. These papers are signed by Jose Garcia y Picos, Grand Secretary General, and Joaquin Jose Mondes Sampaio, Grand Chancellor and Keeper of the Seal. The name of Dr. Juan Adrian Chaves is printed as Sovereign Grand Commander; also printed is the name of Rev. Padre (Priest) Maestro Benedicto Conti as Grand Hospitaler. Another document is a written certificate with a red seal, stating that this priest, a chaplain in the Navy, is a member of the Supreme Council. There are three patents, or diplomas, of Joaquin Jose Mendes Samjoaio, one issued by a Lodge under the Grand Orient of Brazil, stating that he was made a Master Mason in 1865, age of twenty‑two years; the second stating he was given the 30, September 1872. This was issued by the Supreme Council of Paraguay, and signed M. Juan Adrian Chaves, Grand Master, Sovereign Grand Commander; the third issued by the Supreme Council to him as receiving the 33, dated September 1874, signed the same way; still another document is a printed one, with a heading of the Grand Master Grand Commander of the Order of Masonry in Paraguay, and signed officially by Dr. Juan Adrian Chaves. Written authority is given in a letter to Sampiao by the Grand Commander to confer the 31st, 32nd and 33rd Degrees on Christian Heisicke, January 26, 1895, whose name appears as Grand Commander in 1896 and 1901 on a typewritten balustre of officers, for what is designated as the four periods in Para‑ FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 173 guayan Masonry, 1870‑1874, 1896‑igoi. Another document is a patent, issued 1874, to a Brother whose name is undecipherable, by the Lodge Cruz under the obedience of the '' Supreme Council and Grand Orient of Paraguay." Note that the words '' Supreme Council '' appear in this name before the words '' Grand Orient.'' In 1887, Aurora del Paraguay Lodge was established in Asuncion by authority of the Grand Orient of Uruguay. Later the second one was instituted, named Sol Naciente. Then three Lodges were created, authority doubtful, maybe un der different authorities, Universo, Libertad and Frederick the Great, and they formed the Grand Orient against the protest of Uruguay, which considered them irregular, as they probably were. Sol Naciente Lodge joined with them voluntarily in this organisation. Afterward, though, the Grand Orient of Uruguay made them regular and then Fe Lodge united with them and this is the present Masonic Grand authority of the country. The date of this action by Uruguay was in 1895 and on January 3, 1896, it declared it regular with recognition. About 19o6 Sapaena Pastor was Grand Master and Grand Commander. Anyway, it was during his occupation of that double office he decreed that the Bible should be removed from the altars and the decree was generally followed. One Lodge, which works the York Rite Blue Degrees, and instituted in recent years, requires the Bible on its Altar. In 1923, the name was officially changed from Grand Orient to Grand Lodge, and the Supreme Council and Grand Lodge were henceforth to be each sovereign and independent. This was originally to be the case but was not actually put into effect until the above date.


The Supreme Council has 13 Active Members at present and 9 Thirty‑thirds; that is, those who have received the degree. They have the same standing as our Honorary Thirty‑thirds, but they are not so designated. Their Honorary Mem bers are those of other jurisdictions they have elected as Honorary Members, and it is difficult to explain why we call our own members Honorary. There are only about loo members in all grades above the fourth. Of course they use the Scottish Rite in the Blue Lodges, and there are not over 15o altogether in the 6 Blue Lodges, 4 of which are 1n Asuncion. They estimate, however, that there are some two or three thousand Masons in Paraguay who have been made in these Lodges from time to time and have dropped out. The field is very limited, and not a great deal of activity, besides dissensions continually disturb them, dissensions arising usually over trivialities. This is not so strange, for very few Paraguayans are Masons and the membership is English, Scotch, Dutch, German, Boer, Agentine et al, and each wants to follow the customs of Masonry in the countries they come from. There are a few American Masons in the country, but as the Grand Lodge is not recognised by any American Grand Lodges, they do not participate. The Grand Lodge of England is in relation of amity though, and exchanges Representatives.


An official document sent out by the Symbolic Grand Lodge of Paraguay, in 1934, contains a declaration of principles from which the following is taken: The inviolability of human right in all its forms.


The existence of one great Creator whom we worship under the name of The Grand Architect of the Universe. We recognise as the three great lights of I74 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA Masonry, the Volume of the Sacred Law, the Square and the Compass, which must be on the altar when the Grand Lodge and its subordinate lodges are working.


. . . It prohibits the discussion in its lodges when at labour, of religious controversy or militant politics. It combats ignorance in all of its forms. .


It is essentially philosophical and philanthropic. . . . It works for the amelioration of humanity morally, intellectually and socially.


La Gran Logia Simbolica Del Paraguay practices the Scottish Rite Ritual (but) admits under its obedience Lodges of other Rites regularly recognised.... It is sovereign and independent of any other Masonic body but holds the power to make pacts and concordats with other regular Masonic Powers. It reserves to itself exclusively the prerogative to legislate concerning Symbolic Masonry in all of the territory of the republic of Paraguay as the sole Symbolic Masonic Power concerning the usages, customs and ceremonies transmitted since antiquity concerning the Landmarks called Ancient Landmarks of the Fraternity proclaimed and recognised by Freemasonry.


URUGUAY Masonry‑if we may credit Dr. Mackey‑was introduced into this Republic in .1827 by the Grand Orient of France, which in that year chartered a Lodge called the Children of the New World. But there is no trace of any such Lodge in the French Masonic Calendars and it is important to recollect that the independence of Uruguay, or, as it was formerly called, Banda Oriental, " Eastern Side," as a Republic, was only definitely established by a treaty dated August 27, .1828. The country prides itself on possessing one of the finest political constitutions in South America. It sounds, therefore, almost like irony to be obliged to add that this Republic has been cursed with more frequent revolutions than any other in the New World. In one respect, however, Uruguay is decidedly in advance of the Indian Republic oă Paraguay. It has a large, well‑built and pleasant capital, Monte Video, of which one‑third of the residents are foreigners. A LodgeNo. 2.17, Asilio de la Virtud‑was chartered in this city by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, February 6, .1832. After this the Masonic history of Uruguay is a complete blank until the year .184.1, in which year, also at Monte Video, Les Amis de la Patrie‑ultimately a Lodge, Chapter, Areopagus and Consistorywas established by the Grand Orient of France. Further Lodges are said to have been erected under Warrants from Brazil, but of these no exact record is forthcoming. The next event of any importance occurred in .185 5, when authority was obtained from one of the then existing Grand Orients at Rio de Janeiro to establish a governing Masonic body and the Supreme Council and Grand Orient of Uruguay were formally constituted at Monte Video.


Besides Les Amis de la Patrie, under the Grand Orient of France, which still exists, foreign jurisdictions are represented at Monte Video by the following Lodges‑England, No. 876, Acacia, .186.1 and No. 3389, Silver River, .1 gocg ; Spain (Becerra's Grand Lodge), No. 28.1, Paz y Esperanza ; and Italy, I. Figh Dell' FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 175 Unit! Italiana and I. Liberi Pensatori. A Lodge, Avenir et Progres, No. 18z, was formed‑also at the capital‑under the Supreme Council of France in 1865, but is now extinct.


In 1927, Sir Alfred Robbins, President of the Board of General Purposes, went as a Deputation to South America from the United Grand Lodge of England, when he succeeded in effecting an agreement between the United Grand Lodge of England and the Grand Orient of Uruguay. After the foundation of the Silver River Lodge in i gocg it was found that the Grand Orient was unable to accord official recognition to the Lodge, although there was constant inter‑visitation but, as the result of the visit of Sir Alfred Robbins, all difficulties were overcome.


Masonry, by the end of 1856 seemed to be well established and regularly so, and ready for work. It was not long in coming, true Masonic work outside of natural and routine Lodge business. The following year, 1857, a terrible epi demic of yellow fever swept the country. Masons volunteered, nursed, doctored and buried the dead, hundreds losing their own lives in the sacrificial work. Again, in 1873, the dread disease ravished the country and the Lodges again sent forth their members to perform their merciful mission. Then, in 1887, the cholera appeared and, Moloch‑like, claimed its victims, yet again the Masons were in the forefront of relief. After Argentine had suffered from war's devastations, Bro. Paullier was sent with a sum of money and other necessaries as aid to those stricken people. After the disaster at Carnation in Paraguay, the Masons of Uruguay lent aid and assistance to their fullest abilities. On other occasions, help was given Brazilian immigrants in 1894, a revolution in Quebracho, the grippe epidemic, and always the Mason of Uruguay has kept the faith. He can be credited with other altruistic work. An Orphans' Home for boys was reported by Bro. Goodall, of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, U. S. A., in 1856 when he visited here, which Home had Zso boys it was rearing and educating; the celebrated Escuela Filantropica (Philanthropic School) which may be the one Goodall wrote about, from which graduated many who afterwards became prominent in their country; other schools, some claim as many as four, and continued for sixteen years when the government adopted compulsory education laws.


RESPONSIBLE FOR MASONRY'S GROWTH The Masonic powers in Uruguay are largely responsible for introducing Masonry into Argentina and Paraguay, which has resulted in the spread of our Institution, a thing always desirable.


In General Pike's day, the National Grand Orient of Uruguay appeared on the scene but from where it is long since dead. The Grand Orient of Italy established some Lodges from time to time, one of which it named Garibaldi, in 1879, but, receiving no recognition, applied in 1881 to the Grand Orient of Uruguay to be made regular, and was admitted to its fold and is now a very strong Lodge with a large Italian membership. In 1888, another Lodge was Instituted by Italy and it later withdrew and joined Uruguay, since which the Italian Grand 176 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA Orient seems to have behaved itself, at least it has no Lodges in Uruguay now. Lastly, there was founded in 182‑7 a Lodge, Les Enfants du Nouveau Mond, by French immigrants, under authority of the " Grand Orient of the Rio Grande," irregular itself. In 1842 it changed its name to Les Amis de la Patrie and the Grand Orient of France gave it a Charter in 1844. It is claimed by some that Garibaldi was a member of this Lodge. Until 1867, the Grand Orient of France was generally recognised in the Masonic World as regular, but in that year it removed the Volume of the Sacred Law from its Altars, and, of course, ceased to be regular Masonry. This Lodge claims continuous existence sipce its reorganisation in 1844, but other information (not proven) is that it ceased to exist for quite a period along in the So's or 6o's. Be that as it may, the fact remains that it acknowledges allegiance now to the Grand Orient of France and hence is outside the pale. Neither the Grand Orient of Uruguay nor the English Lodges in Montevideo have aught to do with it.


The Fraternal Correspondence Report of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina for 1933 contains the following: We are in receipt of a bulletin in Spanish setting forth the separation of the Grand Orient of Uruguay from the Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite of the Country, a condensed translation of which is as follows TREATY OF PEACE AND ALLIANCE Consummated Between the Supreme Council and the Grand Orient of Uruguay, August 24, 1931 The Supreme Council of Inspectors General 33 of the Scottish Rite of Uruguay and the Grand Orient of Uruguay (Grand Lodge) in accordance with an agreement of June 2, 1931, have assembled to work out an agreement of Peace and Alliance and to establish clearly and definitely the status of each of the contracting parties and the relations between them, as complete independence of symbolism, and unalterable and sincere friendship.


I. The contracting parties establish a treaty of friendship perpetually between the Supreme Council of the Inspectors General of the Scottish Rite of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay and the Grand Orient of Uruguay (Grand Lodge).


2. The Supreme Council recognises as an independent and sovereign organisation legally Constituted in accordance with the Symbolism, in the said jurisdiction, the Grand Orient of Uruguay (Grand Lodge).


3. The Grand Orient of Uruguay (Grand Lodge) sole proprietor of symbolic degrees in this jurisdiction, recognises the Supreme Council referred to as a free and complete governing body, sovereign and independent, occupying the territory of the national government, to govern the Masons of the degrees from the fourth through the thirty‑second.


4. Both Bodies pledge mutually to use in behalf of each other co‑operation both in perpetuity and to the greatest extent possible.


FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 177 6. The Grand Orient of Uruguay (Grand Lodge) for itself declares a. That in its capacity as an exclusive governing body, independent and sovereign, for the government of the symbolic work, in the jurisdiction of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, it divides authority with no other Masonic body.


b. That it requires secrecy in its ritualistic work.


c. That it practices and will require the symbolism of the division of Masonry into three degrees, viz., Apprentice, Fellowcraft and Master Mason.


d. That its work is to accomplish greater fraternity, respecting tolerance, benevolence and charity.


e That it controls symbolic masonry in the jurisdiction of the Republic and does not pretend to extend its acts to any other territory occupied by any other regular Grand Orient or Grand Lodge.


f. That its members acknowledge belief in one God, Grand Architect of the Universe.


That it accepts the ancient landmarks of the Masonic Order. . That only men of legal age are accepted in its lodges.


i. That political and religious discussions are prohibited in the lodges.


7. The High Powers contracting, obligate themselves to communicate to each other officially the amendments to laws, initiations, raises or decreases of salaries, suspensions, and other details of importance, which come to pass in their respective jurisdictions.


BRAZIL The earliest record of the Craft in Brazil dates back to I8zo and has reference to a Lodge at Rio de Janeiro, in the then kingdom of Brazil, which is claimed to have been established under a French Warrant in 1815, but of which there is no proof. In 18zi this Lodge was split up into three units, apparently for the purpose of founding the first Grand Orient of Brazil. Under this body the modern French Rite of seven Degrees, already in use, was continued and this, taken in conjunction with the parentage, real or assumed, of the original Lodge, secured speedy recognition from the Grand Orient of France. In the same year, Dom Pedro, the Regent, afterwards Emperor, of Brazil, was initiated in one of the Lodges, but in which particular Lodge is not recorded. He was, however, proclaimed Grand Master almost immediately and very shortly exercised his authority as Regent and Grand Master to close all Masonic Lodges on the ground that they were really political concerns.


On November 17, I8 23, Loge Le Boucher de 1'Honneur Franrgaise was founded at Rio de Janeiro under the authority of the Grand Orient of France, but this met with no better fate than its forerunners, because it was ordered to cease work almost immediately and, indeed, all Lodges were in suspended animation until 1831, when the Emperor Dom Pedro left for Europe. The abdication of this monarch led to the establishment of the Grand Brazilian Orient and, at once, the original Grand Orient of Brazil was revived under its first Grand Master, Jose Bonefacio de 178 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA Andrada e Silva. Both worked the modern French Rite, but they were of opposite tendencies and political aims, the elder being despotic and the younger democratic, with the result that each anathematized and hurled defiance at the other.


In 1832 Montezuma, Viscount Jequitinhonha, who had served as Ambassador at several European Courts, returned to Brazil with authority from the Supreme Council of Belgium to establish a branch of the Ancient and Accepted Rite. In November of that year he set up a Supreme Council of Brazil. This, however, put the two Grand Orients on their mettle; and each erected a Supreme Council and began to issue Warrants for Chapters and Consistories. Further dissensions occurred and, by 1835, there were in activity two Grand Orients and four Supreme Councils.


The situation was not helped by the fact that, in December 1834, an Englishspeaking Lodge‑the Orphan, 616‑had been founded in Rio de Janeiro, under Warrant from the United Grand Lodge of England (it ceased working in 1842 and was erased from the register in September 1862), while the peace of the Craft was further harassed by political disturbances in Pari, the last Brazilian Province to declare its independence of the mother country and acknowledge the authority of the first Emperor. According to H. W. Bates (The Naturalist on the River Amazon, 1863), the native party in Pari was much enraged with the Portuguese and the former, in an evil hour, called to their aid the ignorant and fanatic mongrel and Indian population; and he adds (op. cit., p. 39) : " The cry of death to the Portuguese was soon changed to that of death to the Freemasons, then a powerfully organized society, embracing the greater part of the male white inhabitants." In 1834, Viscount Albuquerque succeeded Andrada e Silva as Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Brazil (No. i), holding the office until 1850, when he was succeeded by the Marquis d'Abrantes. On July 6, 1841, the second English speaking Lodge‑St. John's, No. 703‑was founded in Rio de Janeiro. This also was erased on September 3, 1862. In 1842, the Grand Brazilian Orient (No. 2) rejected the modern French Rite and transferred its allegiance to the Ancient and Accepted Rite and a union was thus effected between the Grand Brazilian Orient and the second Supreme Council, thus reducing the number of Masonic organizations in Brazil to three, viz. two Grand Orients, each with a Supreme Council and the original Supreme Council under Montezuma.


On December 26, 1847 (see History of Craft Masonry in Bra.Zil, Peter Swanson, ig28), the Grand Orient issued orders to Lodge Commercio to expel the English Lodge working there " contrary to the stipulations of Article 22 of the Constitutions." In the following year the Grand Orient followed this up by issuing a circular to all Lodges within its jurisdiction " prohibiting any of their members from visiting the English Lodge referred to, which had been illegally installed in the Orient of this Capital, under the auspices of a foreign Masonic Power." Further, they were prohibited from receiving any members of the English Lodge as visitors or joining members and ordered to expel immediately any who might have become affiliated to the Brazilian Lodges. This may account for the fact that there are no records of FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 179 St. John's Lodge after 1849, up to which time it had, apparently, been in a very healthy condition, but Swanson thinks it not impossible that the members found the opposition of the Grand Orient too much and gave up the struggle.


On April 25, 1856, the third English‑speaking Lodge‑Southern Cross, No. 970 (afterwards No. 672)‑was established at Pernambuco. The last returns of this unit were sent to Grand Lodge in 1871 and it was erased in 1894.


On September 30, 186o, Grand Orient, No. 2 and Supreme Council, No. 1, were dissolved and suppressed by Imperial decree, leaving the older Grand Orient in possession of the field. In that year, according to the llorld Fide Register, there were 13o Lodges in Brazilian territory. Peace, however, was destined to be in possession of the land for but a short time, as, in 1863, the Grand Orient experienced another split into two sections, each becoming known by the name of the street in which it assembled. One, the Grand Orient of Lavradio Valley, chose Baron Cayru as Grand Master. He was succeeded, in 1865, by Dr. Joachim Marcellino de Brito and, in 187o, by the Visconde do Rio Branco. The second, the Grand Orient of Benedictine Valley, elected Dr. Joachim Saldanha Marinho as Grand Master.


In 1872 the schism was apparently healed by the amicable fusion of the two Grand Orients but, within a year, dissensions again broke out with undiminished virulence, each of the two opponents once more seeking recognition as the legitimate Grand Orient of Brazil.


The Lavradios were again arrayed under the standard of Rio Branco, Prime Minister of the Empire; whilst the Benedictinos renewed their fealty to Saldanha Marinho, a former Minister of State and the head of the Liberal party. The various Lodges throughout the country once more divided their allegiance, some adhering to the Lavradio faction, but the larger number enrolling themselves on the side of the Benedictinos.


The discord passed through sundry phases. In the first instance, to go back beyond the temporary fusion of 1872, the two Grand Orients reflected pretty accurately the prevailing opinions of the rival parties in the State. In course of time it became a recognized fact that the Lavradios were supporters of the clerical authority, whilst the Benedictinos, on the other hand, everywhere denounced the evils of priestcraft and Ultramontanism. At this period the clergy entered fully into the fray. On one party they bestowed high praise; on the other they lavished terms of opprobrium. The Lavradios, however, under the benignant rule of Rio Branco, gradually grew less bigoted and illiberal in their ideas and, in 1873, twenty three of their Lodges went over to the enemy. This example was quickly followed by fifteen others. It is probable that the secession just referred to was also in some measure the result of proceedings which it becomes the next task to relate. The Jesuits, driven from most of the European countries, selected Brazil as a field for their enterprise. For a long time the Church and the Freemasons had lived in peace and the population of Pernambuco was always recognized as the type of Christian piety. But the Bishop of that diocese‑a young monk, aged twenty‑three ‑at the bidding of the Jesuits, attempted to enforce the Papal Bull against the Free‑ 180 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA masons. The prelate had counted on the support of the people, but his high handed measures turned the tide of popular feeling. The Bishop was mobbed in his own palace and the military had to be called in to protect him.


Eventually the Government interfered and the Bishop, disdaining to avail himself of the locus pcenitentiT which had been devised for him, was sentenced to four years' imprisonment. The Archbishop of Bahia and the Bishops of Olinda, Pari, Rio de Janeiro, Dramantina and Marianna are also said‑in violation of the orders of their Government‑to have hurled their anathemas against the Craft.


The fickle populace then turned once more against the Freemasons, who suffered much at the hands of the mob, were refused the sacraments of the Church and burial for their dead in consecrated ground, by the clergy. The Benedictinos, nevertheless, held their own and especially distinguished themselves in the spread of liberal ideas. Among the measures they energetically supported were acts for the abolition of slavery and for the foundation of public libraries. Instructive lectures, moreover, were delivered from time to time by members of this party. Meanwhile the Lavradios had gradually shaken off the yoke of their clerical allies, by whom they were ultimately regarded with the same aversion as their rivals and, in 1877, there were attempts at a fusion. At this time the Benedictinos under Saldanha Marinho numbered z16 and the Lavradios, under Rio Branco, 56 Lodges.


In 1874, on November io, Washington Lodge was founded under a Warrant from the Grand Orient of Brazil, deriving its name from the fact that it was composed almost entirely of American Brethren. It held its meetings at Santa Barbara in the State of Sao Paulo. The following interesting account of its formation is given by Peter Swanson (op. cit., pp. 8‑9) It is a historical fact that a considerable exodus of Southerners followed the civil war in the United States of America and many of them sought a new home in South America. It so happened that the State of Sao Paulo was chosen by a number of them and, in due course, Santa Barbara became the home of quite a few families. Amongst these immigrants was William Hutchinson Norris, better known as Colonel Norris, who was 65 years of age when he arrived in Brazil and was accompanied by his son, Dr. Robert Cicero Norris. Colonel Norris became a Mason early in life and, in his native country, had attained the high distinction of Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Alabama. As far as is known his portrait still hangs in the Masonic Hall in Montgomery, Alabama. His son, Robert, was also a Mason, having been initiated in the Fulton Lodge, Dallas, U.S.A., in 1858, his father being, at the time, Master of the Lodge. Dr. Robert served with distinction for four years in the Civil War, during which time he was wounded on various occasions and was finally taken prisoner and interned in Fort Delaware.


It was to men such as these that the Washington Lodge owed its being and, needless to say, Colonel Norris was its first Master. His son, Robert, who, later on, followed him in the Chair, practised medicine in this country until shortly before his death in 1913 and, although the Washington Lodge years ago disappeared from the Grand Orient register, it is pleasing to note that we number the third generation of the family amongst our members. Dr. Robert's son, Thomas John Norris, FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 181 was received into Masonry in Eureka Lodge, No. 3, a few months ago and it is to him our thanks are due for this interesting information.


On January 18, 1883, a union between the two Grand Orients was consummated and Francisco Jose Cardoso was proclaimed Grand Master and Sovereign Grand Commander of the now sole Grand Orient of Brazil, which recognized three Rites‑the Ancient and Accepted of thirty‑three Degrees ; the modern French Rite, with seven Degrees; and the Adonhiramite Rite. Each was governed by a Chamber of the Grand Orient, which Chamber was styled a Grand Lodge. In that year there were 139 Lodges, 48 of which met in Rio de Janeiro and 91 in the Provinces.


Other difficulties and troubles, however, occurred until the formation of the Grand Council in 1915, though the present oldest Lodge in Brazil, Eureka, No. 3, dates back to December 22, 1891, when it was granted a Warrant by the Grand Orient of Brazil. The members were given full liberty of action in following the standards set up by the Grand Lodge of England and to work the Emulation Ritual, but they were to be governed by the Constitutions of the Grand Orient. This naturally led to difficulties and, in 1902, the members of Eureka Lodge submitted their case to the Assemblea Geral, the legislative body of the Grand Orient. In December of that year that body gave its decision, which was that wherever the Lodge found that the practice of the Ritual in its purest form conflicted with the Constitutions, the members were to be guided by the Ritual and not by the Constitutions. But, says Swanson (op. Cit., p. 12) As time went on, however, in the body of the Grand Orient, discussions arose on political and religious matters and culminated in a Masonic Congress held in agog, at which several themes of a rather revolutionary character were submitted.


It will be sufficient to mention here that Brazilian Masonry proposed to take the lead in an International Congress for the unification of all Masonic Rites. They further proposed to deal drastically with religious bodies and with social problems on highly revolutionary lines. But the thesis which caused the English‑speaking Brethren very serious alarm was the submission that " the actual historical moment exacts the simplification of the rituals, by which means the principle of the broadest tolerance will dominate in the interior of all temples, embracing in the bosom of Masonry, Deists and Atheists, the sectarians of any religion and Freethinkers.


It was not until 1912, however, that a Deputation from the Grand Lodge of England, consisting of Lord Athlumney, Past Grand Warden; P. Tindal‑Robertson ; H. Passmore Edwards, Past Grand Deacon; J. J. Keevil ; and F. H. Chevallier Boutell, then District Grand Master for the Argentine, visited Brazil " to negotiate some arrangement which would meet the conscientious scruples of English Brethren and establish new relations with the Grand Orient, consistent with the fundamental principles of English Freemasonry." The outcome of the negotiations was the formation of a Grand Council (Capitulo) of the York Rite with a Warrant of Sovereignty under the Grand Orient of 182‑ FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA Brazil. This Grand Council was to become the supreme authority in matters of principle for all the Lodges of the York Rite then existing in Brazil or which should be created in future. The result of this treaty was to " secure independence for the Lodges in Brazil composed of British subjects and ensure the regularity of their working in conformity with the principles of English Masonry." (Quoted from the Report of the Board of General Purposes, presented to the Grand Lodge of England, June 4, 1913.) In 1927, Sir Alfred Robbins, President of the Board of General Purposes, went out to South America as a Deputation from the Grand Lodge of England and, in his report to the Grand Lodge, he said There is one point which is specially a matter for consideration by the United Grand Lodge of England and that is the relationship of Brethren initiated in or joining Lodges which acknowledge suzerainty to a Sovereign jurisdiction other than that of our own Grand Lodge. As far as that Grand Lodge is concerned, Brethren belonging to Lodges working under the sanction of the Grand Council of Craft Masonry in Brazil have been regarded as having the same rights of entrance to Lodges under this jurisdiction as if they had originally sprung from it. . . .


New Warrants for English‑working Lodges are granted only on the recommendation of this Grand Council; and it is especially provided that a belief in T.G.A.O.T.U. as a fundamental principle of the Order shall be a necessary condition to membership of, or visitation in, any Craft Lodge in Brazil. The position thus. created is without exact parallel in any other part of the English jurisdiction, though one similar can be contemplated as a result of the spread of English‑speaking Masonry in Chili. Plainly the situation is one of some delicacy and much tact and discretion are required on both hands for its satisfactory working; but I am glad to be able to record the information given me that, during the fourteen years of the existence of the 1912 Agreement, no serious difficulty has arisen, while the most friendly sentiments towards English Freemasonry have been expressed, as before shown, by the present rulers of the Grand Orient of Brazil.


It should be stated that new Warrants for English‑working Lodges are granted only by the Grand Council, whose standing, therefore, as the Governing Body of Craft Masonry in Brazil is quite clear. The Grand Masters of the Grand Council since its formation have been H. L. Wheatley, Past Grand Deacon of England (1915‑16) ; Antonio Luiz dos Santos (1916‑21) ; H. A. Livings (1921‑4) ; Victor N. Tatam (1924‑7) ; and H. J. Hands, since 1927.


On March 28, 1925, the Brazil Craft Masters' Lodge, No. 15, was consecrated and its Warrant provides for meetings to be held at any place where there exists a Lodge working under the Grand Council. The first Master was R. A. Brooking, Past Grand Deacon of England, who was Master of the Eureka Lodge in.1905‑6. The Masonic organisation, or organisations, of Brazil, will be found to be unlike all others in the world, so far as we have information. The Brazilian system is completely mystifying to the casual reader, or even to the‑ student not in possession of facts which it is not at all easy to obtain. This fact accounts FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 183 for some of the unwillingness found at the present time to recognise Brazilian Masonry as legitimate and regular. This writer confesses that he was for a long time misled by it. It is therefore thought that a serious attempt to set these matters straight will not be improperly set forth. It is significant that we find that this Grand Orient is recognised by the mother United Grand Lodge of England; by Massachusetts; by Louisiana; by Alabama; by California; by the Grand Lodge of Ireland; and by a considerable number of other Grand Lodges in the United States or in other lands, which it is not possible to list here. Since the Grand Lodge of England sent personal representatives to Brazil twice, and since the standards of recognition of Massachusetts and of North Carolina, for example, are almost identical, the question of the regularity of the Masonry of Brazil should have our careful attention.


We have before us a translation into perfect English, of the article printed in the Anuario of the Grand Orient of Brazil for 1915, bearing the title, " The Organisation of Brazilian Masonry.'' In this document, it is stated that whereas the usual form of Masonic organisation is either the Supreme Council, the Grand Orient or.' the Grand Lodge, that of Brazil is a " mixed corporation." In forming this '' mixed corporation," the scattered Lodges then existing in Brazil were in 1882 merged into the present organisation. There were in existence then, as there now are in the " mixed corporation," Lodges practising the Scottish Rite, the Modern Rite (sometimes called the French Rite), the Adonhiramite Rite and the York Rite. As regards their Ritual, or liturgically, as they tell us, each of these groups of Lodges of Masonic Bodies derives its Work from the governing authority of the particular rite. As to the government of the Grand Orient there is no outside control.


It will be borne in mind in this connection that the Grand Lodge of Louisiana has certain Lodges which use the Scottish Rite Ritual, but we do not refuse to recognise Louisiana on this account. In Alberta, we believe, there are three different Rituals in use, but this fact does not make this Grand Lodge unfit to be recognised. The same condition is found in many Grand Lodges.


Let us next examine the administration of Masonry in the Grand Orient of Brazil. The centre of its work is the Council General of the Order. It consists of the Grand Officers and the Standing Committees. This Council General under their constitution is a part of the " Assemblea Geral," or General Assembly, which consists of the members of the Council General, just referred to; and in addition, the Representatives of the Lodges at, and of those away from, the seat of power; and the Representatives of each of the Grand Bodies which are heads of the Modern, Scottish, Adonhiramite and York Rites. This General Assembly therefore corresponds in a more or less rough way with the Grand Lodge as we know it; and its meetings coincide more or less with the Communications of the Grand Lodges. In addition, there is a sort of Committee on Appeals, Grievances, jurisprudence and the like, which is called the Supreme Tribunal of justice, and 184 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA which consists of fifteen judges. The term of office of these judges is three years. Five are elected each year by the General Assembly.


This is the legislative and judicial organisation of Brazilian Masonry, as well as its Ritualistic origin and authority. It may be said that the Grand Master is also the Grand Commander of the Supreme Council, and the Grand Secretary is also the Secretary‑General of the Supreme Council. There is also interlocking with the " Modern " and Adonhiramite Rites. In the Boletims which come to us quite frequently, there is always first space devoted to the Grand Orient and to the official doings of the Grand Master. This Boletim is published bimonthly, and decribes itself as " the official organ of Brazilian Masonry "‑of all sorts. Therefore, following the pages for the Grand Orient and its Grand Master, there are other pages used by the Council‑General of the Order; then other sections used by the Supreme Tribunal of justice; and the scene changes and we find others used by the Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite, the Grand Chapter of the Noachites (Adonhiramite Rite); the Grand Chapter of the York Rite; and of the Grand Chapter of the Modern Rite (the French Rite). The inside back cover lists the Rituals of three Degrees of each of the four Rites as for sale by the Grand Secretary‑General; he seems to be indifferent about which he sells.


The latest figures which we can get indicate that there are some Zo,ooo members of about 33o Lodges. Seven of these Lodges are of the York Rite, 32 Lodges are of the Modern or French Rite; 14 are of the Adonhiramite or Noachite Rite; 274 are of the Scottish Rite; and 3 are of the Schroeder Rite, which has not been referred to above. It was invented by a German named Friedrich Joseph William Schroeder, and consists of seven Degrees, terminating with the Rose Croix. In all cases the Lodges confer the three Symbolic Degrees.


A circular sent out from one of the Brazilian Grand Lodges gives the names of the new Grand Lodges formed in 192.7 and later: Grand Lodge of Para P. O. Box 455. Belem do Para‑Para Grand Lodge of Ceara Rua Bara`o do Rio Branco, 2‑1o Sob. Fortaleza Ceari Grand Lodge of Pernambuco Recife, Pernambuco P. 0. Box 2‑97 Grand Lodge of Bahia Rua Carlos Gomes 21 S. Salvador‑Bahia Grand Lodge of Rio de Janeiro Rua do Carmo 61‑1 Rio de Janeiro Grand Lodge Minas Gereas P. O. Box 127, Bello Horizonte‑Minas Gereas Grand Lodge of Paraiba P. O. Box 3 Paraiba, Brazil Grand Lodge of Sao Paulo Rua da Tabatinguera 37A Sao Paulo Grand Lodge of Rio Grande do Sul P. O. Box 263 Pelotas‑Rio Grande do Sul Grand Orient of Amazonas e Acre P. O. Box 362‑Mangos‑Amazonas All these Bodies of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons defend the autonomy of the Symbolic Masonry and are sovereign in the jurisdiction of each territory.


The following Symbolic sovereign Bodies act in Brazil separated from the Grand Orient of Brazil: FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 185 Grand Orient of Amazonas with 2‑4 Symbolic Lodges Grand Lodge of Para with 7 Symbolic Lodges Grand Lodge of Ceara with S Symbolic Lodges Grand Lodge of Parahyba with 8 Symbolic Lodges Grand Lodge of Pernambuco with 7 Symbolic Lodges Grand Lodge of Bahia with 21 Symbolic Lodges Grand Lodge of Rio de Janeiro with 13 Symbolic Lodges Grand Lodge of Sa"o Paulo with 27 Symbolic Lodges Grand Lodge of Rio Grande do Sul with 13 Symbolic Lodges Grand Lodge of Minas Gereas with II Symbolic Lodges The Grand Lodge of Matto Grosso is in formation, it has 4 adepts Lodges.


Nine‑tenths of the Lodges which formed the Brazilian Grand Lodges already enumerated belonged to the Grand Orient of Brazil and when the separation of the Supreme Council took place they decided to separate freely and adopted the organisation of decentralisation, as per the Symbolic Universal Masonry.


Practically all of the new Grand Lodges formed in 1927 adopted substantially the same standards quoted as those of the Grand Lodges of Rio de Janeiro It is an independent, responsible and self‑governing organisation, with undisputed and exclusive dogmatic and administrative authority over the Symbolic Lodges within its jurisdiction. It is not, in any sense whatever, subject to, or dividing its authority with any other Body claiming Ritualistic or other supervision or control.


It makes Masons of men only.


It considers necessary and indispensable to admission of any Lodge under its jurisdiction: a. The belief in God, styled T.‑. G.‑. A.% O.'. T.‑. U.‑. b. Secrecy.


c. The symbolism of operative Masonry.


d. The division of Symbolic Masonry into the Three Degrees, universally adopted by all regular Grand Bodies:‑E. A., F. C. and M. M.


e. The legend of Third Degree (H. A.).


Its dominant purposes are‑Charitable, Benevolent, Educational and for the worship of God; and forbids expressly controversial politics and sectarian religion from all activities under its auspices.


g. The Sacred Book of Divine law, chief among the Three Great Emblematic Lights of Masonry, must indispensably be present and open in the Lodges under its jurisdiction, while at Work.


It occupies exclusively its territorial jurisdiction and does not presume to extend its authority into, or to establish Lodges in a territory occupied by another lawfully constituted Grand Lodge.




186 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA BRITISH GUIANA Two Lodges are known to have been in existence at the capital, Georgetown, in the eighteenth century. The first, St. Jean de la Reunion, was established by the Grand Lodge of Holland, in 1771 ; the second, No. 887, on the register of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, apparently very shortly after the cession of a portion of Guiana, now forming the British colony of that name, in 1796. Mackey's Lexicon of Freemasonry, published in 1869, gives 178o as the year of the foundation of the first Lodge in this colony. The " Three Rivers," viz. Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice, were then in the possession of the Dutch, but there were in Essequebo, at any rate, a considerable number of British settlers, who had been attracted thereto by the inducements offered under Gravesande's administration. In 1740, Essequebo had been opened to all nations ; free lands, with ten years' exemption from head taxes, being offered to everyone who took up new plantations. Among the new colonists who arrived from England, Barbados, Antigua and other places, attracted by these inducements, were some enthusiastic Freemasons, who are said to have obtained a Charter for a Lodge from the Grand Lodge of England, of which, however, there is no mention in Lane's Masonic Records. Where the Lodge was originally held is difficult to say, but, probably, it was held at Fort Island, at that time the seat of administration, most of the settlers being then at Essequebo. The Three Rivers were captured, in 1781, by the British, who, in their short occupation of ten months' duration, chose as a site for the new capital the land near the mouth of the Demerara River, on which the city of Georgetown stands. The town was laid out by their successors, the French, who captured the Three Rivers in 178z. The Dutch, who resumed possession in 1784, called the town Stabroek, which became Georgetown in 181 z ; and the colonies were finally transferred to Great Britain at the peace of 1814‑15, just about the time when the union of the two Grand Lodges in England took place.


There are no Masonic records of Freemasonry in these parts prior to 1813 and from 178o to 1813 the colonies were in a very unsettled condition. It is known, however, that, in 1799, a Dutch Lodge, bearing the somewhat singular name of Calum non Mutat Gesus, was formed at Berbice and that, in 18oi, the Lodge of the Chosen Friends of Demerara was established by the Grand Lodge of New York. This last‑named merged, apparently, into the Union Lodge, now No. 247, under the Grand Lodge of England, for that Lodge was, until 1goi, when they were stolen, in possession of some old Masonic jewels marked " Chosen Friends, Demerara." Union Lodge was warranted by the Grand Lodge 'of England on July z8, 18 13 and, three years later, its own Masonic Hall was dedicated. It was the very last Lodge to be warranted by the Antient or Atholl Grand Lodge and it is claimed as the first definitely English Lodge constituted at Georgetown. About fifty years ago the Grand Lodge of Canada was invited to found a rival to it but, in loyalty to the Mother Grand Lodge, refused. Further Lodges were founded under the United FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 187 Grand Lodge of England: Mount Olive, No. 385, in 18 z7; Ituni, No. z64z, at New Amsterdam, in 1896; Silent Temple, No. 3 2 5 4, in 1907; Concord, No. 3 5 08, in 1911; and Roraima, No. 39oz, in 1918. Others have also been founded but have ceased to exist. In 1899, the District of British Guiana was formed under the Grand Lodge of England by three Lodges, Union, Mount Olive and Ituni, when LieutenantColonel Thomas Daly was appointed the first District Grand Master. He was succeeded in 1903 by the Hon. Sir Joseph E. Godfrey, M.B., who ruled over the Province until 1915, when William Heather Parratt was appointed. In 19z5, the present District Grand Master, Sir Alfred Parker Sherlock, was appointed.


DUTCH GUIANA, Or SURINAM In the Freemasons' Calendar, 1776, a list is given of the Lodges in Holland and the Dutch colonies. Among these are La Vertieuse, 1769 and La Fidele Sincerite, 1771, at Batavia ; Concordia, 1762, La Zelee, 1767 and Le Croissant des Trois Clefs, 1768, at Surinam. Apparently the same Lodges, though with slightly varied dates of formation and, in a solitary instance, a change of name, are also shown in the edition of the same publication for 1778. Other Lodges in Guiana, of which there is no complete record, have doubtless lived their span and died.


FRENCH GUIANA, or CAYENNE Three Lodges in all appear to have been constituted at Cayenne, the capital of the colony, which is now scarcely anything more than a penal settlement of the French Government. The first, L'Anglaise, was established in 1755 by the Mother Lodge of the same name‑No. zoo‑at Bordeaux; the second, La Parfaite Union, in 18zg, by the Grand Orient of France; and the third, La France Equinoxiale, in 1844, by the Supreme Council 33' of the same country.


CHILE Exactly when Freemasonry was established in Chile cannot definitely be ascertained. The earliest Lodge in the Republic of which there is any record, L'Etoile du Pacifique, was founded under the Grand Orient of France on September '12, 1851, but 1840 is claimed as the date of the foundation of an older Lodge. In I85z the Pacific Lodge was founded under a dispensation from the Grand Master of California, but it had a brief existence of one year. Then came Loge L'Union Fraternelle, under the Grand Orient of France, established at Valparaiso, in 1854. The fourth Lodge, Aurora de Chile, is said to have been established under the same sanction at Concepcion and, subsequently, to have taken the name of Fraternidad, but it cannot be traced in the French Calendars. The fifth, Estrella del Sur, which also met at Concepcion, was chartered by the Grand Orient of Peru, but the Warrant was returned in 1860.


The next three Lodges‑Bethesda, Southern Cross and Hiram of Copiapoderived their origin from the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, the first in 18 5 3, the 188 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA last two in 1858. Bethesda and Southern Cross met at the capital and Hiram at Copiapo at first, afterwards at Caldera. Bethesda Lodge continued, but Southern Cross and Hiram became defunct, the first in 186o, the second in i88o.


In 1861, a member of the Ancient and Accepted Rite from Lima, Peru, established, on his own authority, a Lodge called Orden y Libertad, in Copiapo. This body at once sent out circulars to the other Lodges in Chile asking for recognition.


This they declined to accord, basing their refusal on the ground that the founder of their Lodge belonged to an irregular and spurious Supreme Council; had been expelled from the Supreme Council of Peru; and that it was not within the power, even of a regular Inspector‑General of the Ancient and Accepted Rite to establish a Lodge on his own authority, without the sanction of a Supreme Council of the Rite.


In April 1862‑, the news that Marshal Magnan had been appointed Grand Master of the Grand Orient by the Emperor, Napoleon III, reached Chile, when, immediately Lodges L'Union, Fraternelle, Valparaiso and Fraternidad, at Concep tion, returned their Charters and were formally erased from the register of the Grand Orient of France by decree dated November 1o, 1863. The reason for this action was that Marshal Magnan was not a Freemason‑he had never been initiated. The members of the Chilean Lodges met in Valparaiso on May 24, 1862‑ and passed the following resolutions Not to acknowledge the authority of Grand Master Magnan, in view of his having been appointed in an irregular manner.


To found the Grand Lodge of Chile with sovereignty over the whole of the territory of the Republic, so far as the three Degrees in Freemasonry are concerned.


Loge L'Etoile du Pacifique refused to unite with the other Lodges in the formation of a Grand Lodge but, in order to secure a quorum, a Lodge, called Progreso, was founded and, at the Convention, there were present Delegates from the Lodge Orden y Libertad and these four Lodges combined to form the Grand Lodge of Chile.


From the date of its formation the Grand Lodge has progressed and to‑day numbers 65 Lodges and 2‑3 Trangulos (Lodges of Instruction or Lodges in the course of formation, corresponding to " Lodges under Dispensation " in the American jurisdictions), with an aggregate membership of more than 4,500.


Since the Grand Lodge has been formed, no Lodge has been founded in that territory under a foreign Jurisdiction, notwithstanding the fact that several Petitions were presented to the Grand Lodges of England, Scotland and Massachusetts. The Petitions were, in each case, refused by the Grand Lodges named and the Petitioners were recommended to organise Lodges under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Chile.


With reference to this point, there was an interesting exchange of communications between the United Grand Lodge of England and the Grand Lodge of Chile FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA in 19z7. In icgz6, the Board of General Purposes (England) reported that a number of Freemasons of British nationality, residing in Santiago, had requested from the Grand Lodge of Chile the necessary authorization to found a Lodge to be named the Prince of Wales Lodge, with the assent of H.R.H., which would act according to the working and ceremonial recognized in the Lodges throughout the English Jurisdiction. This request was granted immediately. Within a very short time two other Lodges were established under the like conditions. There were thus established in Chile in 1927, which permitted English‑speaking Freepractise Freemasonry in their own language and to perform the cerethe manner to which they were accustomed. The three Lodges are respectively as Prince of Wales, No. 19 ; Andes, No. zo ; and Montandon, zz. A petition was also presented by some German Freemasons resident in Chile for the privilege of founding a Lodge which should conduct its proceedings in the German language and in the German manner; and the Grand Master, Hector Boccardo, warranted Lodge Germania, No. zi, to work according to the ritual of the Grand Lodge of Prussia. Reporting on this matter to his Grand Lodge, the Grand Master said The enthusiasm of all these Brethren so to work under our jurisdiction is good for our Grand Lodge; for the many Brethren, constituted like this, demonstrates our conception of the Masonic Powers upon which these Brethren originally depended.


Numerous other Lodges would be constituted under similar auspices but for the difficulty of many of the Grand Lodges of North America prohibiting their members to belong to more than one Lodge at the same time; and many of these North American Brethren do not wish to sever their connexion with their Mother Lodges.


Our Grand Lodge has made this friendly gesture to obtain the good elements permanently and for all time in the Lodges and we are hoping that this difficulty will disappear shortly.


The authorization of Lodges that work in a different language and ritual than ours is not easy and it is for this reason that, in a separate message, I am proposing certain constitutional reforms to solve the difficulty.


The Chilean Supreme Council of the 33 was formed in 1899 when a Treaty was signed with that body establishing clearly the exclusive jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Chile over the three Degrees of Symbolic Masonry, also the absolute independence of the Supreme Council.


The connexion of Chilean Freemasonry with the Grand Orient of France was, of course, prior to the alteration of the Constitutions of the latter. The Grand Lodge of Chile has always demanded from its initiates a belief in the Supreme Being and it has always maintained the Bible on its altars. Discussion of political matters in Lodges is also prohibited. It has received recognition from about eighty jurisdictions, England included.


189 I go FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA In 1928, the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, which has a District Grand Lodge, or several Lodges, in Chile, sent out a letter containing the following The Grand Lodge of Chile was recognised by this Grand Lodge in December of 1862. We were, we believe, the first Grand Lodge to recognise it, as it had then been formed but a few months. There was then a Lodge in Chile work ing under a Massachusetts Charter. That Lodge preferred to retain its original allegiance and within a few years two other Lodges were chartered by us in Chile, the Grand Lodge of Chile not insisting upon its sovereign rights over the territory. These three Lodges still function under the obedience of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts and in warm and close fraternal relations with their Chilean Brethren.


In recent years three Lodges of English and Americans, using the English language and English or American ritual, have been chartered by the Grand Lodge of Chile, and we understand that the organisation of Lodges of a similar sort is encouraged.


We have found the Grand Lodge of Chile in every way worthy of our respect and esteem. M.‑. W.‑. Dudley H. Ferrell visited Chile in 1925, during his administration as Grand Master. He had conference with M.‑. W.‑. Brother Boc cardo and other leaders in Chilean Masonry and found their Masonic principles and practice fully conforming to the strictest type of Masonic regularity and propriety as we understand it.


CHAPTER VI FREEMASONRY IN ASIA T has been the practice of Masonic writers to pass very lightly over the history of Freemasonry in non‑European countries and to exclude almost from mention the condition or progress of the Craft in even the largest Colonies or Depen dencies within the sovereignty of an Old‑World power. Thus we are told by Findel (p. 614) that " the Lodges existing in these quarters of the globe were one and all under the Grand Lodges of England, Scotland, Holland, or France, therefore their history forms an inseparable part of that of the countries in question." With all deference, however, the position here laid down must be respectfully demurred to. In the East and West Indies‑and elsewhere‑the natives of many countries commingled, Lodges existed under a variety of jurisdictions and, if an intelligent appreciation of Freemasonry is best attained by comparing one Masonic system with another, the Brethren at a distance from Europe enjoyed, in many cases, opportunities denied to those residing in London, Paris, or Berlin. The most popular and extensively diffused of the Masonic innovations which either claim an equality with, or a superiority over, the Grand Authority of the Craft, were cradled in the Greater ,Antilles ; whilst in the Lesser Antilles‑as in the East Indies‑British, French and Dutch Lodges existed side by side. Indeed, in some of these islands, there were Lodges under other jurisdictions than those already enumerated and the reader, desirous of studying the Masonic history of the West Indies, would, in the absence of any further materials to facilitate his inquiry, be left very much in the position of an astronomer without a telescope, who might seek to compute the path of a planet by conjecture.


According to Rebold (Histoire des trois Grandes Loges, p. z 19), " After Holland had become incorporated with the French Empire (July 18io), the Grand Orient of France assumed the control of all the Dutch Lodges which then existed, with the exception of those of the Indies, which remained under the obedience which had created them and which carried on the title of Grand Lodge of the United Provinces of the Low Countries." Thus, for a time and during the temporary obliteration of Holland as a kingdom, what had been the Colonial Lodges of that monarchy, became, in strictness, the only component members of the Grand Lodge.


In another way the Provincial Grand Lodge of Bengal, in British India, became, on more than one occasion, in everything but name, a Grand Lodge, independent of the mother country and, unless its proceedings formed the subject of a separate inquiry, the student who in all good faith accepted the assurance of Findel, that the I9I 192 FREEMASONRY IN ASIA history of Masonry in Hindustan was inseparable from that of England, would vainly search the archives of the Premier Grand Lodge of the World, for the names of Lodges that never appeared on her roll, or for an account of transactions that were never entered in her records.


CHINA During the eighteenth century, two Lodges of foreign origin were constituted in the Celestial Empire‑the Lodge of Amity, No. 407, under an English and Elizabeth under a Swedish, Warrant. The former was erected in 1767, the latter in 1788 ; in each case the place of assembly was Canton. The English Lodge was not carried forward at the Union (1813) and Elizabeth came to an end in 1812.


The next Lodge erected on Chinese soil was the Royal Sussex, No. 735, at Canton, for which a Warrant was granted by the United Grand Lodge of England in 1844. This is still in existence at Shanghai, as No. 5o1. A second‑Zetland, No. 768‑was established at Hong‑Kong under the same sanction, in 1846, which also is still in existence, as No. 525 ; and a third‑Northern Lodge of Chinaat Shanghai, in 1849, now No. 570. No further increase of Lodges took place until 1864, in which year two were added to the English roll, at Hong‑Kong and Shanghai respectively, known to‑day as Victoria Lodge of Hong‑Kong, No. 1026 and Tuscan Lodge, No. I o27 ; and one each at the latter port under the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Massachusetts. In 1865, the foundation stone of a Masonic Hall at Shanghai for the joint use of English, Scottish and American Lodges was laid by R. Freke Gould. In 1867 the Lodge of Perseverance, No. I165, was consecrated at Hong‑Kong, which is still on the register. In the following year Lodge Star of Peace, No. 1217, was formed at Ningpo, but this was erased in April 1872. The United Service Lodge, No. 1341, was founded at Hong‑Kong in October 187o and has survived. Other English Lodges in China are the Doric, No. 1433, consecrated in December 1873, still in existence; the Ionic Lodge of Amoy, No. 1781, founded in September 1878, but since erased; the Corinthian Lodge of Amoy, No. i 8o6, consecrated in December 1878, still in existence; the Union Lodge at Tientsin, No. 1951, formed in October, 1881 ; Lodge Star of Southern China, No. 2013, consecrated in March 1883, all three still in existence. In more recent years there has been a marked increase in the number of Lodges in both Northern and Southern China, as evidenced by the formation of the following Lodges, all still on the English register: Northern Star of China, No. 2673, Newchang (1897) ; Far Cathay, No. 2855, Hankow (ICgoi) ; Coronation, No. 2931, Tientsin (igoz) ; Daintree, No. 2938, Wei‑hai‑wei (icgo2) ; Tongshan, No. 3001, Tongshan (1903) ; University of Hong‑Kong, No. 3666 (1913) ; Swatow, No. 3705, Swatow (1913); Cathay, No. 4373, Hong‑Kong (igzi); St. George's, No. 4575, Shanghai (1923). The register of Irish Lodges contains the names of none in China, but there are three in Hong‑Kong and Southern China under the Scottish Constitution, viz. No. 6I8, St. John; No. 848, Naval and Military; and No. 9z3, FREEMASONRY IN ASIA 193 Eastern Scotia, governed by a District Grand Lodge; with five in Northern China, viz. No. 428, Cosmopolitan, Shanghai; No. 493, St. Andrew‑in‑the‑Far‑East, Shanghai ; No. 924, St. Andrew, Chefoo ; No. 936, Saltoun, Shanghai; and No. 1300, Caledonia, Tientsin, also under the governance of a District Grand Lodge.


The District Grand Lodge of China under the English Constitution was formed in 1847 when Samuel Rawson was appointed Provincial Grand Master of British Freemasonry in China. In 1875 this was split up into two Districts‑Northern China and Hong‑Kong, and Southern China.


In May, 193o, a number of Masons in Shanghai Petitioned the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts for a Dispensation to form a Lodge to be composed largely of Chinese. The Petition was denied, and they applied to the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands and on October 28, 193o, received the Dispensation. In 1932 a Dispensation was granted from the same source to form a Lodge at Nanking.


JAPAN The first English Lodge in Japan, the Yokohama, No. io92, was founded in 1866, being warranted on January 3o and consecrated on June 26 of that year. A second Lodge at Yokohama, the O Tentosama, No. 1263, was chartered on April 22, 1869 and consecrated on July 28 of the same year. The Nippon Lodge, No. 1344, at Teddo (now Tokio), was warranted on December 7, 1870 and constituted on May 26, 1871. The Warrant was afterwards surrendered and the Lodge was erased from the list on July 27, 1883. In 1872, a Charter was issued for the Rising Sun Lodge, No. 1401, at Kobe and, eleven years later, the Tokio Lodge, No. 2015, was constituted at Tokio. In 1873, a District Grand Lodge of Japan, under the Grand Lodge of England, was formed, which has to‑day under its jurisdiction Lodges Yokohama, O Tentosama, Rising Sun and Tokio, mentioned above and the Lodge of Albion in the Far East, at Kobe, No. 3729, warranted 111 1914‑ Charles Henry Dallas was the first District Grand Master appointed; succeeded, in 1886, by William Henry Stone; in 19oo, by Edward Flint Kilby ; in 1904, by William Henry Stone for a second term of office, which lasted until 1911, when George Harvey Whymark was appointed ; and, in 1923, by Stanley Edward Unite. The Lodges are far removed one from another, the distances apart being as far as 400 miles. The Grand Lodge of Scotland has two Lodges‑Hiogo and Osaka, No. 498, established in 1870, in Kobe and Lodge Star in the East, No. 64o, established in 1879, at Yokohama. A Scottish Lodge, No. 710, established in 1884, at Nagasaki, has ceased to exist.


There are numerous stories by the Japanese, dating back to the latter part of the seventeenth and the earlier part of the eighteenth centuries, of mysterious documents, carefully preserved in secret by the natives, which they regard as precious heirlooms. Several of these are matters of history, but the theory has been advanced (Masonic Magazine, vol. vii, p. 319) that these documents may have been 194 FREEMASONRY IN ASIA vouchers of Lodges, Warrants, lists of members, etc and, in some cases, the certificates of ancestors.


When, in 1923, the Japanese earthquake occurred, the Grand Lodge of England at once voted the sum of two thousand guineas to the Relief Fund. The Lodge at Tokio and the two Lodges at Yokohama were specially affected by the disaster. The Charters of the Yokohama Lodge and Chapter (this latter established in 1871), No. io9z ; of the O Tentosama Lodge and Chapter (the latter established in igiz), No. iz63 ; the Orient Mark Lodge, No. 304, constituted at Yokohama, in 188z ; Lodge Star in the East, No. 640, Scottish Constitution; and the various bodies holding under the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction of the Ancient and Accepted Rite in the United States, were all lost, together with the furniture and regalia, both Lodge and private, the regalia of the District Grand Lodge and a valuable Masonic library. The records of the Yokohama Lodge, from its formation in 1866, deposited in the vault, were destroyed, while all the Minute books, registers and current records of the different bodies, kept by the various secretaries, were lost. This, apart from the loss of life. A second Mark Lodge in Japan, the Torii, No. 837, was established on October zz, igz6, under the Grand Mark Lodge of England.


The Imperial Japanese Government does not allow its citisens to become members of any secret society at whose meetings the police may not be present, but Masonic Lodges composed of citisens of other countries are not molested. In view of this prohibition it is not likely that there will be native Lodges.


PERSIA Thory informs us that Askeri Khan, ambassador of the Shah at Paris, who was himself admitted into Masonry in that city‑November 24, 18o8 ‑took counsel with his French Brethren respecting the foundation of a Lodge at Ispahan (Acta Latamorum, vol. i, p. z37). Whether this project was ever carried into effect it is impossible to say, but two years later we find another Persian‑also an ambassador‑figuring in Masonic history. On June 15, 18io, His Excellency Mirza Abdul Hassan Khan was granted the rank of Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England. This personage‑the Minister accredited from the Court of Persia to that of Great Britain‑in addition to having been a great traveller both in Hindustan and Arabia, had also performed his devotions at Mecca. In the course of his journey from Teheran he passed through Georgia, Armenia and Anatolia. At Constantinople he embarked in a British man‑of‑war and reached England in December I8og. Sir Gore Ousely, Bart., who was selected to attend upon the Mirza " as Mehmander‑an officer of distinction, whose duty it is to receive and entertain foreign princes and other illustrious personages " (European Magazine, vol. lvii, 18io, p. 403)‑in the following year (18io) received the appointment of ambassador to the Shah of Persia and was also granted an English Patent as Provincial Grand Master for that country. No Lodges, however, were FREEMASONRY IN ASIA 195 established in Persia at any time by the Grand Lodge of England, nor‑so far as the evidence extends‑by any other external authority. The Mirza Abdul Hassan Khan was made a Mason by Lord Moira in 181o (Freemasons' Magazine, January 2, 1 864). The extent of his services to the Craft must be left undecided; but it was stated in the Masonic journals, on the authority of a Persian military officer then pursuing his studies in Berlin, that nearly all the members of the Court of Teheran were Freemasons.


THE EASTERN ARCHIPELAGO The Neptune Lodge, No. 344, was established at Penang (Prince of Wales's Island) under the Antients, on September 6, 1809, but is stated to have become extinct in 1819. It was revived in 1825 and again became dormant in 1846, although it was not erased from the register until June 4, 1862. In June 1822, a military Lodge‑Humanity with Courage, at Georgetown, Penang, No. 826 on the register of the Antients‑was warranted from Bengal, but it did not appear in the List until 1828 and it was struck out of the Calendar in the following year, having, it is said, become irregular through the initiation of civilians. The next Lodge to be founded at Penang was the Royal Prince of Wales, No. 15 5 5, still in existence and the only English Lodge there. It was warranted on July 5, 1875 and consecrated on December 4 following. In honour of the Grand Secretary of that period, Colonel Shadwell Clerke, a Lodge bearing his name and numbered 2336 was consecrated at Penang on May 2, 189o, but this has since been erased.


The oldest Lodge in Singapore is Zetland‑in‑the‑East, No. Sob, was warranted on February 28, 1845 and, in 1867, united with the Lodge of Fidelity, founded in 1858. The Lodge of St. George, No. 1152, still in existence, was warranted on February 22, 1867 and consecrated on June 22 following. There are. two other Lodges in Singapore under the English Constitution, St. Michael, 2933, founded in 1902 and Eastern Gate, No. 2970, founded in 1903.


The District of the Eastern Archipelago under the English jurisdiction was founded in 1858, with William Henry McLeod Read, C.M.G., as District Grand Master. He was succeeded in 1885 by Colonel Samuel Dunlop, C.M.G. ; in 189i, by General Sir Charles Warren, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., renowned as the first Master of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 2076; in 1895, by Lieut.‑Colonel Sir Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell, G.C.M.G. There was an interregnum from 1899 to 1902 and, in the latter year, Sir Walter John Napier, D.C.L., was appointed, who held the office until igo9, when Frederick M. Elliot, O.B:E., was appointed. In igi9, Walter Frederick Nutt, O.B.E., became his successor, followed, in 1923, by MajorGeneral Sir Neill Malcolm, K.C.B., D.S.O. and, in the following year, by the Hon. Mr. Justice Percy J. Sproule, who still holds the appointment.


There are to‑day fifteen Lodges under the English Jurisdiction in the District of the Eastern Archipelago and, according to the official returns, neither Ireland nor Scotland is represented there.


196 FREEMASONRY IN ASIA SUMATRA An English Lodge‑No. 356‑was established at Bencoolen in 1765 ; two others‑Nos. 424 and 559‑at Fort Marlborough in 177z and 1796 respectively. These continued to appear in the Lists until 1813 ; but only one, the Marlborough (afterwards Rising Sun) Lodge (1772), was carried forward at the Union, which ultimately became No. z4z and, having omitted to make any returns for several years, was erased March 5, 186z. Sumatra was erected into an English Province in 1793 under John Macdonald, who was succeeded as Provincial Grand MasterDecember io, 18z1‑by H. R. Lewis, who continued to hold office until his death in 1877, there having been one Lodge in existence at the time of his original appointment and none at all for fifteen years preceding his decease.


Java, Celebes, Borneo and the Philippine Lodges were established in these islands by the Grand Lodge of the Netherlands at various dates between 1769 and 1885. The Grand Lodge of Scotland has one Lodge in the Philippine Islands, but England and Scotland are not represented in these islands.


GRAND ORIENT DU LIBAN The following official document was received by the Masonic Grand Lodges in the year 1934: The Grand Orient of Lebanon has the honour to announce to the Grand Lodges and Orients its foundation and constitution as an Independent Body; and, considering that a number of Masonic Lodges had been working under Charters from various Grand Lodges and Orients, and that the active Lodges in the Lebanon which worked under Foreign Masonic Authorities now desire to unite under an Independent National Grand Orient, now, therefore, the following Lodges, to wit Al Waleed, Hermon, Bokaa‑al‑Aziz, Al‑Maaref, Hermol, Al‑Meena‑AlAmeen, Hermon‑Tripoli, Phoenecia, Damascus, Annoor, with an enrolment of over eight hundred members have met and unanimously decided to return each its Charter to the Grand Authority that granted it, and have unanimously decided further to found and constitute a Grand Orient under the name of the Grand Orient of Lebanon. The said Lodges have drawn an organic constitution for the Grand Orient of Lebanon based on the principles and traditions of the Ancient and Accepted Rite.


On the 15th day of September, 1934, the newly organised and constituted Grand Orient of Lebanon met, consecrated and dedicated its Temple and installed its Officers in their respective chairs.


The Grand Orient of Lebanon begins its work trusting in the assistance and guidance of the Great Architect of the Universe and hoping that friendly relations and courtesies will be exchanged between the Grand Lodges and Grand Orients and itself and that the fraternal bonds which unite Masons all over the world will grow stronger as the days pass by. The Grand Orient of Lebanon trusts further that its older Sister Organisations will extend to it their assistance and FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH AMERICA 197 recognition and thereby help it to go onward with them, hand in hand for the furtherance of the Cause.


PALESTINE Lodges under the Grand Lodge of Egypt and others under the British Grand Lodges have existed in Palestine many years. These did not for a long time think of the formation of any Grand Lodge. It was only in 1932 and 1933 that this step was taken. The Symbolic Grand Lodge of Palestine was formed and appears to be Working upon principles very acceptable to British and American Masonic standards. It appears to be composed of Lodges of several nationalities, with Egyptian Lodges preponderating. The Lodges formed under the British Constitutions have not yet seen fit to connect themselves with this new organisation but there is no hostility between the groups.


In addition to the Symbolic Grand Lodge of Palestine, there is another organisation which has adopted the name, " Symbolic Grand Lodge of Germany inExile.'' About 1931, the Symbolic Grand Lodge of Germany was organ ised in the German Republic, and after the Hindenburg regime gave way to the Hitler government, all Masonry in Germany was dissolved by the government of the Reichsfuehrer. The Symbolic Grand Lodge, while not in some respects like any of the old Masonic Bodies of Germany, was akin to the Humanist group. A nucleus of its members with some Officers, the names and titles of whom are not stated to us, assembled in Jerusalem and then announced that the Symbolic Grand Lodge of Germany was functioning in Palestine in exile. Circulars have been sent out giving accounts of the activities of this group, and reports have been quite favourable.


CHAPTER VII FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON BENGAL 0 N December z7, 1728, a Deputation was granted by the Grand Lodge of England to George Pomfret, authorizing him to " open a new Lodge in Bengal." Thus, says Preston, he " first introduced Masonry into the English settlements in India " and Pomfret figures in the Masonic Year Book as the first Provincial Grand Master for East India. Nothing further, however, is known of this individual and even the voluminous Calcutta records are silent concerning him. He was succeeded in 17zg by Captain Ralph Farwinter as Provincial Grand Master " for East India in Bengal " and, under his direction, a Lodge was duly established in 173o, known as Lodge East India Arms, which, in the Engraved Lists, is distinguished by the arms of the company and is described as No. 7z at Bengal in the East Indies. The records of the Grand Lodge of England contain an entry to the effect that, on December 3, 1731, Captain Farwinter attended a Communication as the Provincial Grand Master for India and that, on his return to India, he sent " from his Lodge of Bengal a chest of the best arrack for the use of the Grand Lodge and ten guineas for the Masonic Charity." At the Communication held on December 13, 1733, the thanks of the Grand Lodge of England were voted to him for his gift.


The following letter of thanks, which was sent by the Grand Lodge of England to the Provincial Grand Lodge of Bengal, is taken from a copy which appears in the Rawlinson Collection in the Bodleian Library at Oxford (Rawl. Ms., c. 136).


Rt Worshipful G. Master, Deputy and Wardens, with the other Worshipful Members of the Grand Lodge at Calcutta in Bengall in East India.


All our Fraternity here rejoyce much in the frequent good account of your excellent Conduct, the Grand Lodge have been refreshed by your genteel Present of Arrack, which made curious Punch and you may without telling believe that we drank all your healths after the ancient manner of Masons.


We return our hearty Thanks for it, but much more for your two handsome Presents of ten Guineas by Br. Capt. Farr Winter and twenty Guineas by Br. Capt. Rigby for the Releife of our poor Brethren: which we lodged in the hands of our Treasurer and recorded in our Books as a lasting Evidence to Posterity how strong and extensive appears the Brotherly Love of true and faithful Masons surmounting all tempestous Billows, Promontories and distant Capes and Climes.


You have well rewarded us for our Deputation or Patent and we heartily rejoice in your Honour and Reputation, as you are a part of our Selves, for it all I98 FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON 199 redounds to us and we cannot forbear saying that no Lodge out of Britain has been so generous and so deserving our esteem.


Providence has fixed your Lodge near those learned Indians that affected to be called Noachidx, the strict observers of his Precepts taught in those parts by the disciples of the great Zoroastris, the learned Archimagus of Bactria or Grand Masters of the Magians, whose religion is largely preserved in India (which we have no concern about) and also many of the Rituals of the ancient Fraternity used in his Time, perhaps more then they are sensible of themselves. Now if it was consistent with your other Business to discover in those parts the Remains of old Masonry and transmitt them to us, we should be all Thankfull, but especially the learned Brothers who grasp at new Discoveries from ancient Nations that have been renowned for Arts and Science and must have some valuable remains among them still.


The Grand Master (the Lord Viscount Weymouth) orders me to write this, with as many commendations as you can imagine from all the Brethren, who, I may assure you, of their most sincere affection, and I am with great esteem R` Worship' and Hon`d Brethren Your most humble servant and affectionate brother I. R. Secretary to the Grand Lodge.


The name of Ralph Far Winter appears as a member of the Lodge held at the Queen's Arms in Newgate Street, in a list published in 173o. The name of Capt. R. Farr Winter also appears in the same year as a member of the Lodge held at the Hoop and Griffin in Leadenhall Street. He was Steward at the Grand Festival held on March 30, 17 Farwinter was succeeded by James Dawson, temp. incert. and by Zachariah Gee, who held the office from 1740 to 1754, but whose name, for some reason, does not appear in the Masonic Year Book. He was Gunner and Master Attendant at Old Fort William and is described in an official document as "honest, industrious, to be confided in." Gee was succeeded in 175 5 by the Hon. Roger Drake. According to the Minutes of Grand Lodge, at the Communication held on April 1o, 175 5, James Dawson, late Provincial Grand Master for East India, was present and the Grand Master " was pleased to appoint the Honourable Roger Drake, Esq., Provincial Grand Master at Bengal for East India." Drake was Governor of Calcutta at the time of the attack made on the settlement by Surajah Dowlah in 1756 and escaped the horrors of the Black Hole by deserting his post and flying to the shipping ; but though present at the retaking of Calcutta in January 1757 by the forces under Clive and Watson, it is improbable‑after the calamity which befell the Settlement‑‑that he resumed the duties of his Masonic office.


Archdeacon W. K. Firminger, in his Freemasonry in Bengal and the Punjab points out that the hero of the Black Hole, Zephaniah Holwell, the renowned Collector of Calcutta, was a Freemason. He was offered an easy opportunity of escape, but elected to remain with his fellow‑captives and be their leader in the sufferings of that awful night, of which Macaulay said " nothing in history or fiction, not Zoo FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON even the story which Ugolino told in the sea of everlasting ice, after he had wiped his bloody lips on the scalp of his murderer, approaches the horrors which were recounted by the few survivors." On February 13, 1759, says Firminger, " Messrs. Holwell and Mapletoff, on behalf of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Masons, laid before the Board the sum of Rs. 2,475," but the bond was lost at the capture of Fort William. Holwell, it may also be mentioned, erected on the site of the Black Hole, in the north‑west corner of Tank Square, an obelisk, fifty feet high, inscribed with the names of the thirty victims who perished on that occasion on June 2o, 1757, but the monument was ordered to be pulled down by the Marquess of Hastings.


The Minutes of Grand Lodge inform us that William Mackett, Provincial Grand Master for Calcutta, was present at a meeting of that body on November 17, 176o and we learn from the same authority that, in 1762, at the request of the Lodges in the East Indies, Grand Lodge " ordered that a Deputation be made out in the neatest manner appointing Cullen J. Smith, Esq., of Calcutta, to be Provincial Grand Master for India, the expenses to be defrayed out of the funds of Grand Lodge." Culling J. Smith (for that is the correct spelling of the name) was secretary of the East India Company and a churchwarden at St. Anne's Church, which figures largely in the Masonic life of that period. He had previously been subimport warehouse keeper. He signalized his appointment to the high office by sending to Grand Lodge the sum of fifty guineas for the Public Fund of Charity. At the period in question it was the custom in Bengal " to elect the Provincial Grand Master annually, by the majority of the voices of the members then present, from among those who had passed through the different offices of the [Provincial] Grand Lodge and who had served as Deputy Provincial Grand Master." This annual election, as soon as notified to the Grand Lodge of England, was confirmed by the Grand Master without its being thought an infringement of his prerogative. In accordance with this practice, Samuel Middleton was elected Provincial Grand Master in 1767, but a few years previously a kind of roving commission had been granted by Earl Ferrers, Grand Master of England, 1762‑3, to Captain John Bluwitt, or Blevit, Commander of the Admiral Ilatson, Indiaman, " wherever no other Provincial Grand Master may be found." Middleton's election was confirmed‑October 31, 1768‑and as the Dispensa. tion forwarded by the Grand Secretary was looked upon as abrogating the practice of annual elections, he accordingly held the office of Provincial Grand Master until his death in 1775. According to the terms of the Patent, in the absence of Middleton, Thomas Burdell might act until a new Provincial Chief was appointed. It appears, also, that one Jolm Graham was elected Provincial Grand Master to succeed in like manner.


The records of the Provincial Grand Lodge reach back only to 1774, the earlier ones having been lost and it is, therefore, convenient if, before leaning on their authority, a preliminary outline is given of the progress of Masonry in Bengal from the erection of the first Lodge in 173o. A second Lodge, now known as FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON 2‑01 Star in the East, No. 67, Calcutta, soon after sprang into existence, which, becoming too numerous, seven of its members were constituted‑April 16, 174o‑by the Provincial Grand Lodge into a new and regular Lodge. Of the former nothing further is known ; but the Grand Lodge of England, on the petition of the latter, ordered " the said Lodge to be enrolled (as requested) in the list of regular Lodges, agreeable to the date of their Constitution." A Lodge‑No. 2zi‑was formed at " Chandernagore, ye chief French Settlement," in 175z, which became dormant in 1788 and was erased in 1790. Others sprang up at Calcutta, 1761‑No. 275, now Lodge of Industry and Perseverance, No. 1ocg ; and at Patna and Burdwan, 1768‑Nos. 354 and 363, erased in 1790. As the last named, however, were styled respectively the 8th, 9th and loth Lodges, some others of local constitution must have been erected.


Five Lodges‑Nos. 441‑445‑were warranted in 1772, the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th Lodges of Bengal. These were at Dacca, Calcutta and with the 1st, 3rd and znd Brigades respectively. All, however, with the exception of the 6th Lodge, No. 44z, Calcutta‑afterwards Unanimity‑were erased in 1790. This became No. z9z in 1792, but lapsed in the following year, when its place was assigned to Lodge Anchor and Hope, Calcutta, on the Provincial establishment.


The loth and 11th Lodges of Bengal‑Nos. 45z and 453‑were added to the roll in 1773 and the lzth‑No. 482‑in 1775. The former were at Moorshedabad and Calcutta respectively ; whilst the latter was " with the 3 rd Brigade." No. 45 3, which underwent many vicissitudes, appears later as Lodge Humility with Fortitude; whilst No. 48z is described in 1793 as the Lodge of St. George in the East and, in the following year‑having then become No. 316‑as the Lodge of True Friendship, with the 3rd Brigade.


Returning to the year 1774, there appear, from the records of the Provincial Grand Lodge, to have been at that time only three Lodges in Calcutta, viz. (local) Nos. i, Star in the East‑constituted in 1740 as the third, but which became the first, Lodge of Bengal on its predecessor of 1730 dropping out in 1770; 2, Industry and Perseverance; and 3, Humility with Fortitude. Besides these, however, there were Lodges at Chandernagore (French settlement), Patna, Burdwan, Dacca and Moorshedabad, also at some of the military stations or with the army brigades. The Provincial Grand Lodge under England seems to have worked in perfect harmony with a similar body under Holland, " The Grand Lodge of Solomon at Chinsura " (Dutch settlement) and the officers and members of the two Societies exchanged visits and walked together in processions. Constitutions were granted by the Grand Lodge of Holland to the following Lodges in Bengal :‑Solomon, 1759; Perseverance, 1771; and Constance (Houghly), 1773˛ On February 15, 1775, the Provincial Grand Lodge " taking into consideration the propriety of preserving concord and unanimity, recommend it to the Brethren who call themselves ` Scott and Elect,' that they do lay aside the wearing of red ribbons, or any other marks of distinction, but such as are proper to the 102‑ FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON Three Degrees, or to the Grand Lodge as such "‑a request, we are told, which was cheerfully complied with.


Middleton passed away in 1775 and, in the following year, Charles Stafford Pleydell was elected in his room, but the confirmation of the Grand Lodge of England was withheld until 1778. Pleydell, in addition to being Collector or Collector‑General of Calcutta, member of the Board of Trade, Master in Chancery and Superintendent of Police, seems also to have had a private practice as a barrister in Calcutta. As already noted, John Graham had, in 1769, been elected to succeed Middleton whenever he should vacate his office, but Graham had left India in 1775, before Middleton's demise. Pleydell was succeeded by Philip Milner Dacres, who was installed on November 4, 1779 On March 17, 1777, a letter had been sent to the Grand Lodge of England from the Province in which the following passage occurs We are sorry we cannot give the same favourable relation of Masonry in our Province. It has grown languid in the interior districts where Lodges are established, by reason of the Brethren being, by their several callings, so dispersed as to prevent their assembling at all in some places and seldom in others, for want of sufficient number to form a Lodge. This we premise, that you may not be surprised that our contribution this year to the Grand Charity from Bengal fell short of former years. However, from us you will receive thirty golden mohurs, as usual, to be allotted, ˙2o to the Fund of Charity, and ˙io towards dedicating the hall.


In 1779 a contribution of fifty‑one gold mohurs was made to the Charity and Hall Funds of the Grand Lodge of England. C. S. Pleydell presided for the last time in the Provincial Grand Lodge on March 29, 1779. He died exactly two months later. He is described on his tombstone as member of the Board of Trade, Master in Chancery and Superintendent of Police in Calcutta. The confirmation of his appointment had been received from the Grand Lodge of England only a few months before his demise.


Under Dacres the Provincial Grand Lodge for Bengal had but a very brief existence. It assembled for the last time on January 25, 1781. Doubtless the war in the Carnatic, which broke out about that time, had much to do with its dissolu tion and Masonry in India was very nearly swept away by it. Every Lodge in Calcutta, where alone in Bengal Masonry may be said to have existed, was extinguished, with the. exception of Industry and Perseverance and, even there, the light glimmered feebly. But the members of that Lodge nobly determined that the light should not go out. The name of Philip Milner Dacres is associated with the first proposal for a corps of volunteers in Bengal and he was one of the signatories to the Governor‑General to a petition to establish a Patriot Band. An interesting event occurred on April 6, 1784, when the foundation stone of the Presidency Church was laid, with Masonic ceremonial, by Edward Wheler, Senior Member of the Council.


At two meetings held in January, 1784, Lodge Industry and Perseverance FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON 203 resolved to call a general assembly of the Craft " for the purpose of taking into consideration the present state of Masonry and of concerting and adopting measures to revive its ancient splendour in the Settlement." The Provincial Grand Lodge was reopened July 18, 1785, under the presidency of George Williamson, a former Deputy Provincial Grand Master, who, on the same date, produced a Patent from England appointing him Acting Provincial Grand Master and directed that a meeting of the Provincial Grand Lodge should be held a fortnight later for the express purpose of electing a Grand Master. At this assembly the Wardens of Lodge Star in the East said their meetings had been interrupted, because, in the absence of the Provincial Grand Lodge, no new Master could be installed. Williamson, however, ordered them to proceed with the election of a new Master and engaged to convene a Provincial Grand Lodge for his installation.


The election, however, did not take place until November 14, when four votes were cast for Williamson and six for Edward Fenwick, a former Provincial Grand Warden.


The new Provincial Grand Master was installed March 17, 1786, although the Patent granted to Williamson clearly indicated that he was to retain his acting appointment until the confirmation from London of the person who might be elected to the office. This led to serious disagreements, which harassed the Fraternity for some years.


The supporters of Fenwick were, undoubtedly, in the wrong from the constitutional, which is the only, point of view. This was clearly laid down in a letter written by William White, Grand Secretary, dated March 24, 1787, in which he pointed out that the Bengal Brethren had fallen into the error of electing, instead of recommending to the Grand Master, the name of the Brother they deemed suitable for the office of Provincial Grand Master and he added The powers and dignity of the Provincial Grand Master are delegations of the Grand Master's high authority and granted by him, during his pleasure only, to such respectable Brethren in particular districts as he may deem worthy to repre sent him for the purpose of cementing the Brethren and more easily communicating with Grand Lodge; but the Brethren of a particular Province can have no powers of election. They may recommend and their recommendations, when conducted with general assent and harmony, will always receive the Grand Master's sanction and approbation. But in an election the electors assert a legal right, which, in the present instance, cannot be pretended.


The Grand Master refused to make any appointment of a Provincial Grand Master " in hopes that the Brethren will be more unanimous in the recommendation of a Brother for that office " and continued the powers specified in the com mission to George Williamson. Thus it happened that Williamson was supported by the Grand Lodge of England and the letter already quoted continued to Williamson the powers specified in his Patent of 1784. This was read in the Zoo FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON Provincial Grand Lodge held on August 27 of that year, but that body studiously refused to yield to its mandate. In the discussion which ensued, the Master of Lodge Star in the East observed:‑" . . . Mr. Williamson, whose affairs have long been in a most anxious situation‑who has been obliged, for a long time past, to live under a foreign jurisdiction‑who now cannot come to Calcutta, but on a Sunday, or, if he comes on any other day, is obliged to conceal himself during the day time and to be extremely cautious how he goes out even when it is dark ! " In spite of repeated protests on the part of the Acting Provincial Grand Master, Fenwick continued the exercise of the duties of the office to which he had been elected by a majority, even to the granting of Lodge Warrants, but his election was not confirmed by the Grand Lodge of England until March 4, 1789. The position was an extraordinary one. Fenwick, in his role of Provincial Grand Master, which he claimed to be, had set aside the Warrants granted by Williamson, in the exercise of the right conferred upon him by Grand Lodge and by recognizing Fenwick ultimately as Provincial Grand Master, Grand Lodge countenanced and set the seal of approval upon Fenwick's insubordination. Fenwick, however, had but a short lease of office, for on December 27, 179o, he was forced to resign his position " in consequence of his unfortunate state of affairs." Williamson's loyalty was never in question. Directly he received the official intimation of the confirmation from Grand Lodge of Fenwick's appointment, he handed over to him all the property he had in his possession belonging to the Provincial Grand Lodge. Apparently, from a letter written by Williamson, dated December zi, 179o, Freemasonry in Bengal had passed into a more or less moribund condition, " no Lectures ever being given and nothing going forward but the outward form of Making, Passing and Raising, insomuch that there is scarce among them one that has sufficient knowledge to gain admittance into a strange Lodge." Williamson, in the same letter, protested against the treatment he had received from Grand Lodge. He said I do not consider myself ill‑treated by the Lodges here only, but conceive also that I was very ill‑requited by the Most Worshipful Grand Master of England, whose Dignity and Authority I so strenuously strove to support and maintain, for certainly private Thanks such as I received through you was by no means a Recompence, for who, saving myself, could suppose otherwise than that my Conduct was disapproved? Had the Thanks been publicly announced and registered on your Records, a Vote passed creating me an Honorary Member of the Grand Lodge, or an honorary Medal sent me as a testimonial of Approbation, I should have been perfectly satisfied, whereas now I am confidently told that Brother Miller and others have propagated among the Brethren that the Grand Lodge of England were highly incensed against me for the part I had acted contrary to the intent and meaning of my commission.


Some interesting correspondence occurred about this period. In a letter dated February 6, 1788, from the Provincial Grand Lodge meeting under Fenwick to William White, Grand Secretary, the following passages occur FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON Zos Country Lodges.‑We earnestly wish to see the whole number of Lodges which existed in 1773 or 1774 re‑established. But the Subordinates at Patna, Burdwan, Dacca and Moorshedabad now consist of such small societies and these so liable to change, that we must confess it rather to be our wish than our hope to see Lodges established at any of these places.


Military Lodges.‑With respect to the Brigades, they have been divided into six of Infantry and three of Artillery. This regulation has lessened the number of officers in each and they will be more liable to removals than formerly. The first circumstance must be a great discouragement to the formation of Lodges in the Brigades and the second would sometimes expose such Lodges to the risk of being annihilated. However, we shall give all encouragement to the making of applications and all the support we possibly can to such Lodges as may be constituted.


On the same day a letter was written to the Grand Lodge introducing the Rev. William Johnson who, for sixteen years, had been in Bengal as one of the chaplains of the Settlement and, for three years, Provincial Grand Chaplain, who was then on his return to Europe. That letter refers to the erection of the church by public subscription and, to a large extent, by the Freemasons in the Settlement. That letter, by stating that the church " was consecrated on the Festival of St. John the Baptist, one of the Patrons of the Fraternity," settles the point raised by Archdeacon Hyde in his Parochial Annals of Bengal, when he writes It has long been a matter of controversy as to whether the Evangelist or the Baptist is to be held as the patron saint‑and the following solution to the question is now proposed. The Provincial Grand Lodge of the Freemasons of Bengal had been revived the previous year, Mr. William Mackett, previously mentioned being the Grand Master and Mr. Holwell and Mr. Mapletoft high office‑bearers. Mr. Churchwarden Culling Smith was also a member of the Lodge and succeeded as Grand Master in 1762. It happened that the new chapel was projected and completed during the six months, January 28 to July 27 of Mr. Holwell's administration as President in the Bay and Governor and Commander‑in‑chief for Fort William in Bengal for the United East India Company, before Mr. Henry Vansittart, who had been designated for that jurisdiction, arrived to assume it. There is a tradition that the first Calcutta church was dedicated to St. John at the request of the Freemasons, who provided the ceremony of dedication. It is now known that the first church was dedicated to St. Anne, but that the chapel built in 176o was St. John's. Adjusting, therefore, the tradition to the dedication of the Chapel, it appears very likely that the Governor Holwell appointed the 24th of June, St. John the Baptist's Day, a great Masonic anniversary, for the opening solemnities and not some time, as Mr. Long thinks, in July.


Masonic Church Services were not infrequent at that period and did not always take place on Sundays. The Calcutta Gazette of January 1, 1789, contains the following paragraph On Saturday last the different Lodges of Free and Accepted Masons met at the Exchange, from whence they proceeded to the new church and attended divine 2o6 FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON service, after which the Brethren retired to their respective Lodges and the day was concluded with that festive mirth and harmony which ever characterize the meetings of this ancient and honourable Fraternity.


There are previous references to the practice. One occurs in the Minutes for December, 1786, the last occasion on which the service was held in the old church. Future services were held in the new church, in the erection of which the Craft had taken a great interest. The preacher in 1786 in the old church and in the new church on St. John the Evangelist's Day, 1787, was the Rev. W. Johnson and, concerning the latter service, the Calcutta Gazette of January 3, 1788, said A historical sermon on the occasion was preached by the Rev. Mr. Johnson, a member of the Fraternity, who traced the origin of the Society from the ancient Egyptians and enumerated its several revolutions, encouragements and persecu tions, down to the present period, concluding with many excellent doctrinal maxims for the qualifications and conduct of the true Mason, who, he strongly argued, must necessarily be a good man and a worthy member of the Society of mankind in general.


The Rev. J. Long, in an article entitled " Calcutta in the Olden Time," which appeared in the Calcutta Review (vol. xviii, p. 299), says To the west of Writers' Buildings, Fort William College, thirty yards east of the Fort, stood the first church of Calcutta, called St. John's on the suggestion of the Freemasons, who were liberal contributors to it. We have accounts of a Freemasons' Lodge in Calcutta in 1744; in 1789 they gave at the old court‑house a ball and supper to members of the Company's service in Calcutta ; and they seem to have had a local celebration and name from the days of Charnock‑their institution tending to mitigate the exclusiveness of European classes in modern times.


Unhappily there is no evidence to support this statement as to the antiquity of Freemasonry in Calcutta. It was on August 24, 16go, that job Charnock of the English East India Company founded the city of Calcutta. The place is mentioned briefly in the Survey of Bengal made in 1596, by command of the Emperor Akbar, but it did not emerge into history until eighty‑four years later. In those days Calcutta was a small rent‑paying village, then and later known as Golgotha, because of its malarial jungles and heavy death‑rate.


A grand ball and supper was given by the Provincial Grand Lodge, January 14, 1789, to which invitations were sent, not only to residents in Calcutta, but also to " Bro. Titsingh [? Titsink], Governor of Chinsurah and other Masons of that Colony; to Bro. de Bretel, and the other Masons of Chandernagore ; also to the Masons of Serampore [Danish settlement] and to the Sisters of these Colonies, according to what has been customary on such occasions formerly." This reference to " Sisters " is very curious and it occurs elsewhere in the Masonic annals of Bengal. A possible explanation is that special distinction was FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON zo7 accorded to the sisters, wives and daughters of members of the Lodges in the district. In the arrangements made for a Festival in connexion with a private Lodge in January 1775, the following directions occur General invitations to be sent to the ladies of Calcutta with a request to those who are sisters and don't receive blue ribbons, would send intimation thereof, that they may be sent.


Particular invitations with ribbons to be sent to all the Sisters.


On the same day‑December z7, I7go‑that Fenwick resigned the office of Provincial Grand Master, the Hon. Charles Stuart, Senior Member of the Supreme Council, was elected and installed as his successor, which action was, of course, again entirely contrary to the ruling of Grand Lodge. There is no record, however, of any protest on the part of that body, but one undoubtedly was lodged, as may be deduced from a letter written three years later, an extract from which is given below. Stuart, however, was unable to perform his Masonic duties, owing to the fact that the government of the country devolved upon him, in consequence of the absence of the Earl Cornwallis from Calcutta. He, thereupon, appointed Richard Comyns Birch as Acting Provincial Grand Master of Bengal and reappointed John Miller as Deputy. In February, 1793, Stuart appears to have handed in his resignation, not to the Grand Master of England as he ought to have done, but to the Provincial Grand Lodge of Bengal and that body communicated the fact to the Grand Master, George, Prince of Wales, afterwards King George IV. The Provincial Grand Lodge assembled on the 19th of the same month, elected and installed, again in defiance of the Grand Lodge regulations, Richard Comyns Birch as Provincial Grand Master. On this occasion they wrote a letter to the Grand Master, explaining their action in the following words We have the Highest Respect for your Most Worshipfull Lodge and wish to conform exactly to the Line of Duty Laid Down to us, . . . and we would have awaited the Confirmation of our Choice. . . . But to have done so would have occasin'd a Long Delay, which, in any case, would have Evil Consequences : And We have very forcible Reasons for wishing to avoid in the Present Occurrence. We have already informed you, that the Craft has been for some time, on the Decline and We have Cause to apprehend It may be still more so. . . . Wherefore, after the most serious Consideration, We were Unanimously of Opinion that it was essentially necessary for the proper Support of the Provincial Grand Lodge and of the interests of Masonry in these Provinces in General, that Brother Birch should be immediately seated in the Chair of Solomon; and he was installed accordingly.


When war broke out between England and France in 1793, Chandernagore, the French settlement, was occupied by the English and Richard Comyns Birch was appointed " Superintendent and Judge and Magistrate of Chandernagore " and de Bretel was appointed " Deputy to the Superintendent." A noted character appeared on the scene at this period in the person of the Rev. Dr. James Ward, who seems to have been inspired with a genuine desire to F. V‑IO Zo8 FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON resuscitate and to reorganize Freemasonry in the District. At any rate, on St. John's Day, December 27, i 8og, the members of five Lodges‑True Friendship, Humility with Fortitude, Marine, Union (then No. 338, afterwards 432) and the Dispensation Officers' Lodge (which worked under a Warrant granted by No. 3 3 8) ‑walked in procession to St. John's Church, where Divine Service was sung and " an excellent sermon illustrative of the grand principles of Masonry " was delivered by Dr. James Ward, who is described as a " Royal Arch Brother." A like service was held in December 1811, when, at Dr. Ward's suggestion, a subscription was made for the distressed Portuguese. That sermon was printed by request and over four hundred copies were taken by Lodges Humility with Fortitude, Star in the East, Marine and True Friendship. This sermon, says Firminger, stirred up the zeal of some Brethren of the dormant Lodge Star in the East. A meeting was at once called and it was resolved that the Lodge should be revived. W. C. Blaquiere, who was elected Master, attributed the resolution " of restoring the Lodge to its former splendour " to the impulse given to the zeal of the Brethren by Dr. Ward's eloquent and impressive sermon on St. John's Day last.


The question of electing a Provincial Grand Master and submitting his name for the approval of the Grand Lodge of England was also broached and, when the ballot was taken, there were sixteen votes for Dr. Ward and ten for W. C. Blaquiere and the former was accordingly declared elected, although, for reasons that will presently be noted, his election was not confirmed by Grand Lodge and he was never installed in the position.


During the ten or eleven years that intervened between the obliteration of the Provincial Grand Lodge and its re‑establishment in 1813, Masonry in Calcutta was represented almost exclusively by the Lodges which had seceded from the (older) Grand Lodge of England.


It may be as well to break in here with a description of the Lodges in the Presidency as they were given in the Freemasons' Calendar for 1794 Nos. Founded.


70. Star in the East, Calcutta . 1740 143. Industry and Perseverance, Calcutta . 1761 288. Unanimity, Calcutta . 1771 Revived in 1787, when it consisted of handicraftsmen in Calcutta.


292. Anchor and Hope, Calcutta . . 1773 According to Grand Lodge records this Lodge was placed at this vacant number in 1793.


293. Humility with Fortitude, Calcutta . 1774 Afterwards became dormant and was revived by Acting Provincial Grand Master Williamson in 1787 316. True Friendship, with the Third Brigade . 1775 When the Third Brigade removed to Berampore in 1788 a new Warrant was issued to the seven members remaining in Calcutta.


FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON Zo9 Nos. Founded. 399. Lodge at Futty Ghur . . 1786 Dormant in 1788, erased 1794.


464. North Star, Fredericksnagore . 1789 In connexion with the Danish Factory in Bengal.


528. Lodge at Chuna, East Indies . 1793 I Known as Sincere Friendship. Dormant from 1796 to f 1812. Erased from English roll in 1813, though according to Provincial records was on November 23, 1814, " doing well and their numbers daily increasing." 529‑ Mars, Cawnpore . 1793 There was also in existence about this time the Marine Lodge, originally formed by persons employed in the Government's marine service, Calcutta, which, however, only obtained a local number; and a Stewards' Lodge‑established p June 24, 1736‑with privileges akin to those of its prototype under the Grand f Lodge of England.


It unfortunately happened that the officers of the Provincial Grand Lodge had always been selected from the first two Lodges on the above list and this G circumstance led to no slight dissatisfaction on the part of the other Lodges, who, feeling themselves aggrieved, were not slow to resent the treatment. This it was which mainly conduced to the almost general defection, about the close of the century, from the Provincial Grand Lodge of Bengal and, consequently, from the older or legitimate Grand Lodge of England. A Lodge ‑No. 146‑under the Atholl (or Antient) Grand Lodge, was established at Calcutta in 1767, but it took no root and it does not appear that any further Lodges were erected by the same authority until the secession now about to be described. The Lodges True Friendship and Humility with Fortitude were the first which transferred their allegiance, the former becoming No. 315, or No. i of Bengal‑December 27, 1797 and the latter, No. 317, or No. z of Bengal‑April 11, 1798. The Marine Lodge followed their example and obtained a similar Warrant‑No. 323‑March 4, 18oi. Meanwhile, Lodge Star in the East fell into abeyance and Industry and Perseverance was on the point of closing also. One meeting only was held in each of the years 18o2, 1803 and 1804, after which, for a long period, there were no more. Lodge Anchor and Hope obtained an Atholl Warrant as No. 325‑October i, i 80i. Little is known of Lodge Unanimity, which, though carried forward at the Union (1813), must have died out at least several years before.


As St. John's Day in Winter, 1812, fell upon a Sunday, the two newly revived Lodges decided to hold their Service on January 6, 1813, while the Atholl Lodge True Friendship, No. 1, with its Royal Arch Chapter and the Lodge Marine also held a Service on January 14, the sermon on each occasion being preached by Dr. Ward. The Atholl Lodge True Friendship had also held a Service in the previous January, when the sermon was delivered by the Rev. T. Thomason. A very zio FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON elaborate dinner followed these gatherings at which a very large number of toasts were honoured, in which the Earl of Moira and " our noble and gallant Brother, the Marquess Wellington " were included and honour duly paid to " the memory of our illustrious Brethren, Lord Nelson, Sir Ralph Abercromby and Sir John Moore." It was not until March 27, 1813, that Lodge Star in the East communicated to the Grand Lodge of England the desire of the Brethren concerning Dr. Ward and this unexplained delay of six months undoubtedly accounts for the events that followed.


On October 4, 1813, the Earl of Moira, who had been appointed Acting Grand Master of India, arrived in Calcutta, after a short sojourn in Madras, where he had held a Masonic reception. It should also be noted that on his outward journey he stopped at Mauritius, where, at the head of the Freemasons of the island, he laid the foundation‑stone of the Roman Catholic cathedral there. The first Masonic act of the Governor‑General was to constitute a new Lodge, the Moira Lodge of Freedom and Fidelity, which he did on November 8, 1813. Major‑General Sir William Keir (who afterwards became successively Sir W. Grant Keir and Sir W. Keir Grant) was the first Master of the Lodge and he had for his Wardens, Colonel L. J. Doyle (afterwards Sir Charles Doyle) and Commodore Sir John Hayes. Another Founder was Sir Robert Rollo Gillespie. Archdeacon Firminger relates the following interesting story concerning the last named Bro. Gillespie had seen much service in the West Indies. On one occasion he was sent by the Commander‑in‑Chief as bearer of a command to the enemy to surrender an island. His boat, with the flag of truce and the papers were over turned. Gillespie, with his sword between his teeth, swam ashore under a heavy fire. He was brought before the Governor‑General, Santhonax, who condemned Gillespie, as a spy, to the gallows. Fortunately the Governor was familiar with Masonic language and, instead of being executed, Gillespie was sent back to the squadron under a guard‑of‑honour.


As soon as the Union of the two Grand Lodges of England became known in India, which was not until December ‑18 14, the Atholl Lodges at Calcutta tendered their allegiance to the Provincial Grand Lodge. These were, True Friendship, Humility with Fortitude and Marine. The Anchor and Hope‑which also seceded from the legitimate Grand Lodge of England‑is not mentioned in the records of the Province 1814‑4o.


At the period of this fusion, there were the following Lodges under the older sanction: The Stewards, Star in the East, Industry and Perseverance and Sincere Friendship (Chunar). Of these Lodges, the first never held a London Warrant and the last was struck off the roll inadvertently at the Union. There were also then in existence the Moira Lodge and three others constituted since the revival of the Provincial Grand Lodge, the names of which head the following table of Lodges erected during the period 18 1 3‑2G FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON 211 i. Moira, Calcutta, November 13, 1813.


z. Oriental Star, Noacollee, April zi, 1814. 3. Aurora, Calcutta, June z3, 1814.


4. Courage with Humanity, Dum Dum, July 17, 18145. Northern Star, Barrackpore, July 18, 1816.


6. Sincerity, Cawnpore, January 8, i 8 i g.


7. Hastings Lodge of Amity and Independence, Allahabad, April 9, 18 z1. 8. United Lodge of Friendship, Cawnpore, June 13, 1871 9. Humanity with Courage, Prince of Wales' Island, July 1822. io. Amity, St. John's, Poona (Deccan), January 30, 1824 ii. Kilwinning in the West, Nusseerabad, October zo, 1824.


12. Larkins' Lodge of Union and Brotherly Love, Dinapore, October zo, 1824. 13. Independence with Philanthropy, Allahabad, October 26, 18 z 5.


14. South‑Eastern Star of Light and Victory, Arracan, October 26, r825. 15. Tuscan, Malacca, October 26, 1825.


16. Royal George, Bombay, December 9, 18 17. Union and Perseverance, Agra, October 23, 1826. 18. Kilwinning in the East, Calcutta, December 23, 1826.


Out of these eighteen Lodges, however, only seven‑Nos. z, 3, 4, 6, 7, 13 and 18 above‑secured a footing on the Roll of the Grand Lodge of England. It is not a little curious that, of the two now alone surviving, Courage with Humanity (1814) and Independence with Philanthropy (1825), which were placed on the general list in the same year (1828) in juxtaposition, the latter bears the earlier number and has the higher precedence ! The first was the only one in India warranted by Lord Moira : it hadf ceased working in 1821. The second sent Lioo to the English Charities in 1816 and, five years later, surrendered its Warrant. The third amalgamated with Lodge True Friendship in 183o. The fourth was for many years composed of non‑commissioned officers of the Bengal Artillery. It threw off a shoot in Penang‑Humanity with Courage, in 18 z2, which took the place of the Atholl Lodge Neptune, No. 344, established in 18og. The fourteenth Lodge was never established, in consequence of the dispersion of the petitioners.


As a result of the appointment of the Earl of Moira, Dr. Ward's appointment as Provincial Grand Master was not confirmed, which is the explanation of the absence of his name from the list of Provincial Grand Masters for Bengal. The Grand Lodge of England explained the position in the following letter I am commanded by H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex to say that he sees not the least objection to the appointment ; but as the Earl of Moira is vested with the rank of Acting Grand Master for the whole of India and in that capacity is com petent to appoint Provincial Grand Masters for Districts (whose rank and authority will be the same as if appointed by the Grand Master himself) he feels it would be more correct that the appointment should be under the hands of his Lordship ; and as no inconvenience or delay will result from this course being adopted, I have to refer you to the noble Lord accordingly.


III FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON There was no resentment on the part of Dr. Ward, who accepted the appointment of Provincial Grand Chaplain in the Provincial Grand Lodge appointed by Lord Moira in December 1813.


This re‑establishment of the Provincial Grand Lodge was the second Masonic act of Lord Moira, who appointed the Hon. Archibald Seton as Acting Provincial Grand Master. He left India in 1817, when the Governor‑General, who had now become the Marquess of Hastings, intimated to the Provincial Grand Lodge that he had selected the Hon. C. Stuart to succeed him. The latter does not appear, however, to have entered upon the duties of his office ; and in the following yearJanuary 17‑the Hon. Charles Robert Lindsay was successively appointed, by Warrants of Lord Hastings, Provincial Grand Master for Bengal, January 17, 1818, and Deputy Grand Master for India, January 13, 181g.


On November 3 an application was made to the Grand Master for India, by eight Brethren residing at Poona, in the Deccan, praying for authority to meet as Lodge St. Andrew at that station, also for " a dispensation for holding a Provincial Lodge, for the purpose of making the Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone a Mason, he having expressed a wish to that effect." The petitioners further requested " that his name might be inserted in the body of the Warrant, authorizing them to install him, after being duly passed and raised, a Deputy Grand Master for the Deccan." Of the reply made to this application, no record has been preserved.


According to the Calcutta Gazette of January and February i s i g, the Provincial Grand Lodge for Bengal was solicited by the Collector of Government Customs (Sir Charles D'Oyly, Bart.) to assist in the ceremony of laying the founda tion‑stone of the new Customs House, then about to be erected on the site of the old fort. The stone was accordingly laid by the Hon. C. R. Lindsay, who was accompanied by W. C. Blaquiere as Deputy and the Rev. H. Shepherd as Provincial Grand Chaplain. The Lodges represented were Courage with Humanity, Aurora, Moira, Humility with Fortitude, True Friendship, Industry with Perseverance and Star in the East.


Lindsay, on his appointment to a distant station, was succeeded as Deputy Grand Master for India and Provincial Grand Master for Bengal by John Pascal Larkins, who was installed by W. C. Blaquiere on December 24, 18 i g. At that meeting it was decided to abolish the Stewards' Lodge and, on March 21 following, it was reported that the Aurora Lodge had ceased to work.


On December 2o, 1822, an address was presented to the Marquess of Hastings on his approaching departure from India and, a week later, on the Festival of St. John, the Governor‑General was present at the Cathedral Church in his capacity of Grand Master for the last time. The members of the Lodges walked there in procession and a Masonic Service was held, conducted by the Rev. D. Corrie, afterwards first Bishop of Madras.


Larkins returned to Europe in 1826, but did not resign his appointment, with the consequence that, from that year until 1840, Bengal was under the nominal rule FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON 213 of a Provincial Grand Master resident in England, with a Deputy at Calcutta. Before leaving for England, Larkins earnestly recommended the Brethren to maintain the custom of attending Divine Service on the anniversaries of the Saints John and issued a Warrant authorizing William Coates Blaquiere to officiate as his Deputy and to execute all the functions of the Provincial Grand Master in his name. The absence of the Provincial head, however, resulted in the extinction of the Provincial Grand Lodge and the annihilation of all order and constituted authority for a time. In 1827‑November z2‑Lodge Independence with Philanthropy, at Allahabad, so resented this conduct, as to return its Warrant, intimating that its future meetings would be held under a Dispensation obtained from Lodge Union, No. 43z (Irish Register), in the 14th Foot, until a Warrant could be obtained from England, for which application had been made direct and which, strange to say, was granted by Grand Lodge.


In 1834, some Masons at Delhi applied to their Brethren at Meerut for an acting Constitution of this kind, which might serve their purpose until the receipt of a Warrant from the Grand Lodge of England. At the latter station there were two Lodges, one of which, however, was itself working under Dispensation and could not therefore dispense grace to another. The other belonged to the 26th Foot, No. 26, under the Grand Lodge of Ireland. This Lodge declined giving a Dispensation, for the somewhat Irish reason that the Cameronian Lodge had already granted one to another Lodge, of the propriety of which act they had great doubt; and that until an answer had been received from Ireland, they could not commit a second act of doubtful legality ! The custom, however, was a very old one. In 1759, Lodge No. 74, I.R., in the 1st Foot (zd Batt.), granted an exact copy of its Warrant‑dated October 26, 1737‑to some Brethren at Albany, to work under until they received a separate Charter from Ireland. This was changed‑February 21, 1765‑for a Warrant from George Harrison, English Provincial Grand Master for New York; and the Lodge‑Mount Vernon‑is now No. 3 on the roll of the Grand Lodge of that State. Cf. Barker, Early History of the Grand Lodge of New York, Preface, p. xviii.


The Lodges in Bengal made their returns regularly and forwarded their dues punctually, to the Provincial Grand Lodge ; but as no steps were taken for the transmission of these returns and dues to their destination, the Grand Lodge of England ceased to notice or regard the tributary Lodges of Bengal. On the submission of a motion for inquiry‑March 22, 1828‑W. C. Blaquiere, Deputy Provincial Grand Master, " felt himself constrained to resign his chair on the spot and the Grand Wardens also tendered their resignations." On April ig, 1828, a letter signed by the Master, Wardens and Secretary of Lodge Aurora, requesting the Deputy Provincial Grand Master to reassume his high functions and to call an early meeting of the Provincial Grand Lodge was despatched. On May 31 a meeting called by Lodge Aurora was attended by representatives from Lodges True Friendship, Humility with Fortitude, Marine, Courage ‑with Humanity and Kilwinning in the East and led to the formation of a repre‑ 214 FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON sentative body styled the Lodge of Delegates, which, on August 28, 1828, sent a Memorial to the Duke of Sussex as Grand Master of England.


To this no reply, beyond a bare acknowledgment, was vouchsafed. The letters of the Lodges in Bengal remained unanswered and their requests unheeded. The usual certificates for Brethren made in the country were withheld, notwithstanding that the established dues were regularly remitted ; and applications for Warrants were also unnoticed, though they were accompanied by the proper fees. This state of affairs continued until 1834, when the question of separation from the Grand Lodge of England was gravely and formally mooted in the Lodges. Overtures for a reconciliation at length came in the shape of certificates for Brethren who had by this time grown grey in Masonry. Answers to letters written long ago were also received; but the most important concession made by the Grand Lodge of England was the constitution of the first District Grand Lodge for Bengal‑under Dr. John Grant‑which held its first meeting, February 28, 1840.


Although the Masonic Jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Ireland has always been a favourite one with the rank and file of the British army and the number of military Lodges under it has ever been vastly in excess of those owning allegiance to any other authority, only a single Irish Warrant for a stationary Lodge in India appears to have been issued. This was granted in 1837 to some Brethren at Kurnaul, but its activity seems not to have outlasted the year of its constitution. An attempt was made in 1862 to establish an Irish Lodge in Bombay, but on the representation of the Grand Secretary of England to the Deputy Grand Secretary of Ireland that it would be objectionable " to create a third Masonic independent jurisdiction in the Province, there being already two, viz. English and Scotch," the Grand Lodge of Ireland declined to grant the Warrant.


In the decennial periods 1840‑50 and 185o‑6o there were, in each instance, i z additions to the roll. In 1860‑7o the new Lodges amounted to 1 g and in 1870‑85 to 3 8. Since 1885, 57. Lodges have been added. These figures are confined to the English Lodges, but extend over the area now occupied in part by the District Grand Lodges of Burma and the Punjab, both of which were carved out of the territory previously comprised within the Province of Bengal in 1868. The following statistics show the number of Lodges existing‑January 1, 1886‑in the various states and districts which until 1868 were subject to the Masonic government of Bengal: under the Grand Lodge of England‑Bengal (District Grand Lodge), 39; British Burma (District Grand Lodge), 7 ; and Punjab (District Grand Lodge), 24. Under the Grand Lodge of Scotland, I1‑the earliest of which, St. David (originally Kilwinning) in the East, No. 371, Calcutta, was constituted February 5, 1849˛ The Dutch Lodges in Hindostan have passed out of existence, but with regard to these, also to certain other Lodges established by the Grand Lodge of Holland in various places beyond the seas, the materials for an exhaustive list are not available to the historian.


FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON 2‑15 MADRAS The first Lodge on the Coromandel Coast was established at Madras in 1752, shortly after that city had been restored to the English under the treaty of Aix‑la‑Chapelle. It is described in the lists as "at Madrass " in East India and it was first numbered 222, becoming 157 in 1755 ; 124 in 1770; ioi in 178o ; and Io2 In 1781. It was erased from the register in 1790. Canon C. H. Malden, in his History of Freemasonry on the Coast of Coromandel, thinks that, in all probability, the Lodge was founded by Captain Edmund Pascal, who was appointed Provincial Grand Master for that District on February 27, 1767. He was an officer in the English Coast Army, the date of his commission being October 30, 1751. He was also responsible for the foundation, in 1765, of three Lodges, numbered respectively 3 5 3, 3 5 4 and 3 5 5. The first had its location at Madras and the third at Trichinopoly, and Canon Malden thinks that the second worked at Ellore on the East Coast, where there certainly was a Lodge of which G. Westcott was Master for many years.


It was in the Trichinopoly Lodge that the last reigning Nabob of the Carnatic, Omdat‑ul‑Omrah Bahadur, then the eldest son of the reigning Nabob, was initiated in 1775 by Terence Gahagan, who returned to England in the following year on account of his health. He attended a meeting of Grand Lodge held on February 5, 1777 and reported the initiation, stating that Omdat‑ul‑Omrah Bahadur professed a great veneration for the Society.


It was thereupon resolved that a complimentary letter should be sent to His Highness, accompanied with a Masonic apron, elegantly decorated and a Book of Constitutions, bound in a most superb manner. This apron and book cost ,37 17s. 6d.


The letter and present were entrusted to the care of Sir John Day, then going out as Advocate‑General of Bengal, who executed his commission to the universal satisfaction of the Society and the following letter was written by him to His Highness as an introduction May it please your Highness,‑The underwritten (having. been honoured with the commands of the Grand Lodge of Masons of Great Britain, to convey to your Highness an apron and Book of Constitutions, as a testimony of their respect for you and your illustrious father, the stedfast friend and ally of their Sovereign, as well as of the satisfaction they feel at seeing so exalted a name enrolled among their Order) intended to have executed the commission with which he is charged in a manner that might best answer the intentions of his constituents, and the dignity and importance of the occasion.


It so happens, however, that the late dissensions in this Settlement have so effectually dissolved the ties of amity and confidence which once subsisted amongst them, that even the fraternal bond of Masonry has been annihilated in the general wreck.


For this reason the Lodge has so long discontinued its meetings that it may be said to be now extinct.


2.16 FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON In this situation of things, it being impossible to invest your Highness in full Lodge and with a splendour and solemnity suited to the dignity of your character and the importance of the commission he is honoured with, the underwritten hopes your Highness will condescend to accept (in the only manner that remains) the pledge of amity and respect from the Masons of Great Britain that accompanies this and remains, with the most profound respect, Your Highness's Most humble and devoted servant, JOHN DAY.


Omdat‑ul‑Omrah Bahadur returned an answer to the Grand Lodge of England in the Persian language, elegantly decorated and enclosed in cloth of gold, which translated is as follows To the Right Worshipful His Grace the Duke of Manchester, Grand Master of the Illustrious and Benevolent Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons, under the Constitution of England and the Grand Lodge thereof.


Most honoured Sir and Brethren,‑An early knowledge and participation of the benefits arising to our house from its intimate union of councils and interests with the British nation and a deep veneration for the laws, constitution and manners of the latter, have for many years of my life led me to seize every opportunity of drawing the ties subsisting between us still closer and closer.


By the accounts which have reached me of the principles and practices of your Fraternity, nothing though be more pleasing to the Sovereign Ruler of the Universe, whom we all, though in different ways adore, or more honourable to His creatures, for they stand upon the broad basis of indiscriminate and universal benevolence. Under this conviction I have long wished to be admitted of your Fraternity; and now that I am initiated, I consider the title of an English Mason as one of the most honourable I possess, for it is at once a cement to the friendship between your nation and me and confirms me the friend of mankind.


I have received from the Advocate‑General of Bengal, Sir John Day, the very acceptable mark of attention and esteem with which you have favoured me; it has been presented with every circumstance of deference and respect that the situation of things here and the temper of the times would admit of; and I do assure your Grace and the Brethren at large that he has done ample justice to the commission you have confided to him and has executed it in such manner as to do honour to himself and to me.


I shall avail myself of a proper opportunity to convince your Grace and the rest of the Brethren that Omdat‑ul‑Omrah is not an unfeeling Brother, or heedless of the precepts he has imbibed; and that, while he testifies his love and esteem for his Brethren, by strengthening the hands of humanity, he means to minister to the wants of the distressed.


May the common Father of aft, the one omnipotent and merciful God, take you into His holy keeping and give you health, peace, and length of years.


Prays your highly honoured and affectionate Brother, OMDAT‑UL‑OMRAH BAHADUR.


MADRAS, September 29, 1778.


FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON 217 This letter is still preserved in the Library and Museum of the United Grand Lodge of England. Unhappily, in later years, when he succeeded to the rule, the Nabob seems to have fallen from Masonic grace and through his inattention to the just claims of dependents upon him much suffering was caused, so much so that, in 1793, the Lodge of Perfect Unanimity, now No. 150, recorded With respect to the claims of our late Brother on the Nabob, experience has shown that the solemn obligations of a Mason and the admonitions of Lodge, have weighed little with His Highness, in the payment of a just debt to the orphans of a faithful Brother and Servant.


Some years later, Terence Gahagan was the bearer of a personal letter from the Prince of Wales (afterwards George IV) to the Nabob, but, apparently, no notice was taken even of that communication.


Captain Pascal appears to have appointed as Deputy Provincial Grand Master, John Call, who was appointed Chief Engineer, in succession to Captain Brohier, in 1757. He was granted the rank of Captain in December 1758 and took a leading part in the siege of Fort St. George.


It is worthy of recollection that for a short period the Presidency of Madras and its Dependencies was predominant over all the other English settlements in India ; and, during the latter half of the eighteenth century, the continuous wars with the French and, afterwards, with Hyder Ali and his son, caused the Carnatic to figure largely in Indian history.


In 1767 a fifth Lodge was warranted at Madras, being described as " of Fort St. George, East Indies." Its number was first 389, being changed successively to 3 z 3, z 5 4 and z 5 5 . It did not appear in the List for 177o and it was erased on February 9, 1791.


On January 5, 1768, the Atholl Grand Lodge established a Lodge‑No. 15z ‑at Fort St. George, recruited mainly, if not altogether, from officers in the army, which received an impetus in consequence of the break‑up of Lodge No. 353 This unit seems to have exercised the functions of a Provincial Grand Lodge, inasmuch as, in addition to building a Masonic Hall, it established a Charity Fund and granted Warrants, or Dispensations, for subordinate Lodges. It was not until 178z, however, that a regular Provincial Grand Master for the Coromandel Coast was appointed by the Atholl Grand Lodge in the person of John Sykes, an attorney‑at‑law, then Master of Lodge No. 15 z, but the Warrant of his appointment never reached its destination. Prior to that date‑at the latter end of 1778‑the Master and Past Master of the Lodge had been constituted into a "Provincial Grand Committee for hearing petitions and granting Dispensations for holding Lodges to such Brethren that may apply and be deemed worthy." In 1785 there was the expression of a desire for Masonic union on the part of the Atholl Masons. In a letter to the Earl of Antrim, dated from Fort St. George on July 17, 1785, the Master and Officers of Lodge No. 15 z wrote 2‑18 FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON We cannot but express our deepest concern that Freemasonry should be unhappily divided into two different sects, by the term of Ancient and Modern and that their respective laws strictly prohibit a free communication with each other. We wish a union of the Craft could be effected; the principles of both are the same, the difference, therefore, must be in their manner of conducting the business of their respective societies, which do not appear so essential as to prevent a scheme taking place that would cement the Fraternity in universal harmony and give it more the appearance of its divine origin, than it at present bears.


On February 2o, 1786, Brigadier‑General Mathew Horne was appointed by the Duke of Cumberland as " Provincial Grand Master for the Coast of Coromandel, the Presidency of Madras and parts adjacent " and the Atholl Brethren welcomed his suggestion that they should transfer their allegiance to the older body. They surrendered their Atholl Warrant and a number of them joined the Lodge of Perfect Unanimity, still in existence as No. 15 0, which has existed uninterruptedly since its constitution on October 7, 1786. Although 1786 is the date given in the Masonic Year Book, it is clear from a letter from Horne to the Grand Master of England, dated January 16, 1785, quoted in full in Canon Malden's History, that he had held the office previously, but Freemasonry generally had been abandoned, owing to the unsettled conditions of the times. General Horne appointed Terence Gahagan as his Deputy Provincial Grand Master. Gahagan had striven hard, in 1784, to secure the higher office, but unsuccessfully. We are indebted to him, however, for a description of the surrender of the Atholl Brethren. In a letter to the Grand Secretary of England, dated October 9, 1786, he says I am very happy to inform you that previous to the arrival of the Patent, I made no small exertions in bringing about a Union with a set of gentlemen here who had acted under the Patronage of that Spurious Set who assumed the title of " Antient Masons." My arguments have at length carried conviction and, about three months ago, they offered General Horne and me unconditional terms to come under our Authority, which we gladly accepted, but deferred the execution of it till the Patent arrived, since which General Home repaired to the Presidency of Madras, tho' 300 miles distant from Trichinopoly, where I met him and the 5th instant we visited Prov. Grand Lodge, No. 152, which was composed of some of the first Characters in the Settlement, who in a very formal and awful manner surrendered their constitution of York Masons, with all their jewels, Masonic Implements, etc., to General Horne and me and solicited our Patronage under the Grand Lodge of England and, on Saturday, the 7th inst., a Masonic assembly was convened at a very large, elegant House for the purpose of consecrating in due form the new Lodge, as well as to proclaim our Authority, which was done in ample form. After a regular procession, we marched round the Hall three times with a Band of Music and then entered in a solemn manner and consecrated devoutly and installed in due form. As the ceremony had never been performed in this part of the world, it was left to my management and I take no small share of satisfaction to myself in finding that the largest assembly of Masonic Gentlemen, sixty and upwards, attended upon the occasion ; and were agreeably surprised and extremely pleased at the ceremony.


FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON 21g The full programme of the procession is given by Preston, in his Illustrations of Masonry, though he has wrongly placed the year as 1787 instead of 1786.


At this period all the Lodges under the older Grand Lodge of England seem to have been extinct; but, in 1786, the Carnatic Military Lodge, No. 488, was established at Arcot. In 1787 four Lodges were added to the roll, viz. Perfect Harmony, St. Thomas Mount; Social Friendship, Madras; Trichinopoly ; and Social Friendship, St. Thomas Mount. Two other Lodges were already established ‑Stewards' and Perfect Unanimity‑which, according to the loose practice of those days, were given the places on the list of the two earliest Madras Lodges and became, in 179o, Nos. ioz and 233 respectively. The Lodge of Perfect Unanimity is, as already stated, still in existence as No. 15 o, but the Stewards' Lodge is extinct. A Lodge of happy nomenclature, La Fraternite Cosmopolite, was constituted at Pondicherry in 1786 by the Grand Orient of France and a second, Les Navigateurs Reunis, in 1790 Brigadier‑General Horne resigned his office as Provincial Grand Master in 1788 on his transference to Trichinopoly, his resignation being accepted with great regret by the Grand Lodge of England, a regret which was accentuated when he passed away in December 1789. He was buried in the church at Trichinopoly, where a handsome tablet was erected to his memory.


General Horne was succeeded by John Chamier, a member of the Madras Civil Service, a very enthusiastic Freemason, who held the office until 1804, when he returned to England, where he died in 181 o, after holding the office of Senior Grand Warden of England in the previous year. Chamier was succeeded by Terence Gahagan, who had been Deputy Provincial Grand Master since 1786. He had waited long for the preferment which he had sought with much assiduity. In 1812, when he returned to England, where he died in 1814, he appointed Herbert Compton as acting Provincial Grand Master, who became his successor. Compton had the distinction of being the first Grand Superintendent of Royal Arch Masonry in Madras, in which office he was succeeded, says Canon Malden, by Richard Jebb, LL.D., although his name is absent from the list of Grand Superintendents as given in the Masonic Year Book, who also ruled over the Province as Provincial Grand Master from 1814 until his death in 18zo. Between 179o and 1812 four Lodges were added to the roll: Solid Friendship, Trichinopoly, 1790; Unity, Peace, and Concord, 1798 ; St. Andrew's Union, 19th Foot, 18oz ; and Philanthropists, 94th Foot, Scotch Brigade, at Madras.


Richard Jebb was, of course, the first Provincial Grand Master for the Coast of Coromandel appointed after the Union of the Antient (or Atholl) and Modern Grand Lodges, but it was not until April 1815 that the official intimation of that Union was received at that outpost. Jebb was succeeded by George Lys in i 8zo, who, however, was never formally installed and, five years later, Compton again ruled over the Province. The name of this worthy only disappears from the Freemasons' Calendar in 1842, and with it the provincial title, " Coast of Coromandel," which was exchanged for that of Madras, over which Lord Elphinstone had been ZZO FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON appointed Provincial Grand Master in 1840. In 1866 Madras was designated a District instead of a Province, the latter term being reserved for the Provinces in England and `Vales.


Between 1814 and 1842 numerous Lodges were warranted locally, but thirteen only, of which seven were in Madras itself, secured places on the London register. There are, at the present time, thirty‑five Lodges on the register of England and five on that of Scotland within the boundaries marked out for the English District, but the introduction of Scottish Lodges into India will be referred to in the ensuing section.


The French Lodge at Pondicherry, La Fraternite Cosmopolite, was revived (or anew one established under the old title) in 18zi. Another, L'Union Indienne, was erected at the same station in 18 51. At the present date, however, there exist throughout India and its dependencies no Lodges other than those owning allegiance to the Grand Lodges of England and Scotland.


The earliest Minute relating to Royal Arch Masonry occurs in the proceedings of the Lodge of Perfect Unanimity, dated March 4, 179o and runs Read a letter from the Cosmopolitan Lodge at Pondicherry acquainting us of the zeal they have demonstrated from the Royal Arch by promoting Brothers Robson and Griffiths to a high degree.


Agreed that a letter be written to Cosmopolitan Lodge at Pondicherry expressive of our attention for the regard they have demonstrated to Brothers Grifths and Robson and further a mark of our attention that we have referred their letter to the Lodge of the Royal Arch.


The Degree, however, was worked in a Chapter attached to the Lodge of Perfect Unanimity right from the time of its foundation in 1786, although many years elapsed before a Royal Arch Chapter was regularly warranted on the coast. About 18og two Chapters were established in Madras‑Benevolence and School of Plato‑but their Warrants were not issued until December io, 18 11. The first was formed by members of the Provincial Grand Lodge and the second by the members of the Lodge of Perfect Unanimity. In 1811, also, a Chapter, named St. George, which met at Fort St. George, was formed from among the members of the Lodge Carnatic Military, which met as a separate unit until July 1814, when it joined forces with the Chapter of Benevolence. The only Chapter in this trio still in existence is the School of Plato, which, Malden says, may fairly claim to be the oldest Colonial Royal Arch Chapter now on the roll of the Supreme Grand Chapter of England.


The Mark Degree was worked by the Lodge of Perfect Unanimity from August 1856, when the following resolution was adopted That the Mark Degree having been sanctioned by the Grand Lodge of England, it be given as a separate Degree in this Lodge to any desirous of it who have taken the degree of Fellow Craft.


FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON Zzi The Lodge of Social Friendship also worked the Mark, Ark Mariner and Excellent Master Degrees and had a Knight Templar Encampment attached to it. The first Chapter of the Ancient and Accepted Rite was opened in Madras in 1839, before the establishment of the Supreme Council for England, which was formed in 1845. The following are the Minutes of the first meeting held on August 2, 1839 In the name of the Holy Trinity, At a meeting of the Knights of the Sovereign Chapter of Rose Croix. Present : Sir Knights John Carnac Morris, Most Wise ; Varden Seth Sam, i st Knight ; Eleazar Seth Sam, 2nd Knight ; Paul Melitus, Grand Expert; Stephen Lazar.


After the Sovereign Chapter was opened in due and antient form, the Most Wise announced to the Sir Knights present the object of the meeting. That it was to admit a certain number of candidates into the Sovereign Chapter in order to enable theMasons in Madras to establish a Chapter of that Degree, which proposition being put to the Sir Knights present and all assenting to, the ist Knight was desired to admit the following candidates: Major John James Underwood, Dr. D. S. Young, Cosmo Richard Howard (Merchant), Alexander Inglis Cherry (Madras C.S.), Surgeon William Middlemass, John Binny Key (M(‑.rchant), James Ouchterlony (Merchant), Captain John Bower, William McTaggart (Merchant), Captain Godfrey Webster Whistler. The candidates were admitted to a participation of the Sublime and Sovereign Degree of Rose Croix. No other business being on hand, the Most Wise closed the Chapter with Prudence, Intrepidity and Justice and the Sir Knights departed in the true Christian faith.


All the candidates were members of the Lodge of Perfect Unanimity. At the next meeting held on December 27, 1839, the following twelve candidates, all again members of the same Lodge, were admitted to the Rite; John, Lord Elphinstone, Governor of Madras; Alexander Duncan Campbell, C.S. ; John Henry Wilkins, Attorney; Charles Martin Teed, Barrister; John Thompson, Merchant; Lieutenant the Hon. G. F. C. Graves; Walter Elliot, C. S. ; Alexander Maclean, C. S. ; Colonel William Monteith ; William Serle, Lawyer; Joseph Pugh, Merchant; and Captain James Macdonald. The Chapter seems to have fallen into abeyance soon after 185o, a fate which, in the same year, appears to have befallen three other Chapters of the Rite which were working in 1847. It was not until 1869 that a Warrant was obtained from the Supreme Council of England for the establishment of a Chapter at Madras, the foundation of which was due to the Masonic zeal of Colonel A. J. Greenlaw, a member of the Thirty‑first Degree. That Chapter, known as the Coromandel, No. 27, is still in existence. The address delivered by Colonel Greenlaw on the occasion of the consecration of this Chapter contained the following historical references Some years back the 18 was worked by two of the Lodges in Madras, I think in Perfect Unanimity and Pilgrims of Light, but without, as far as I can discover, any Warrant from a Supreme Grand Council of the 33. The Degree has now long ceased to be worked in Madras.


2‑2.2‑ FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON On my arrival from Burma, where I had inaugurated the Leeson Chapter under a Warrant from the Supreme Grand Council 33 for England and Wales, I made every inquiry regarding these Chapters and found that even the working had been incorrect.


There were some interesting local customs, particularly in the Lodge of Perfect Unanimity. When the time for the election of Master came round, the retiring ruler invariably proposed the Senior Warden as his successor. The members then put forward another candidate and the votes of the Brethren were then cast, the candidate securing the majority being, of course, declared elected. He then nominated a Brother to take the office of Senior Warden; the members brought forward a candidate in opposition and the ballot again decided the issue. The same procedure was adopted for the election of junior Warden, Treasurer and Secretary, but the remaining officers were appointed by the Master‑elect. A similar custom seems to have been followed in St. Andrew's Union Lodge. The Lodge of Perfect Unanimity seems to have valued Chaplains highly. On November 6, 1792, it admitted the Rev. Richard Hall Kerr, D.D., as an honorary member and, shortly afterwards, he was appointed Grand Chaplain at a monthly salary of thirty pagodas (a pagoda was of the value of about seven shillings). The Provincial Grand Lodge demanded that the names of all candidates should be submitted to that body before any subordinate Lodge could proceed to confer any Degree, a rule which was the cause of much irritation. The following extract from the Minute Book of the Carnatic Military Lodge is somewhat amusing Resolved unanimously that henceforward no person exercising the occupation of Gaoler, Bailiff, Turnkey, or any other whose Livelihood arises from being actually and personally employed in restraining the Liberty of his Fellow Creatures, be admitted a member of this Lodge, with the exception (to prevent misconstruction) of anyone who being a Housekeeper in Madras may be obliged to serve the office of Constable, as parochial duty in his turn, when regularly chosen as such, for the usual term; an office unavoidable and which every one so situated is liable to ; but no Person holding the last‑mentioned employ as a substitute for another (for hire or otherwise) is by any means to be admitted. Furthermore, the exception equally applies to all military men immediately employed as such, whose duties are of that nature, so as to preclude them from always acting according to their own inclination and who cannot give way to the impulse of their own feelings, or resist the authority by which they are commanded.


The old customs of St. John's Day in winter and summer, says Canon Malden, were regularly kept. On June 24 and December 27 it was the practice for the Brethren ˛ assemble sunrise ˛ ˛ ˛.‑ ˛˛._ . The officers for the ensuing six months were then installed. During the day the meeting of the Provincial Lodges.n the evening ˛.[" Brethren ireassembled,lf'.W[WOe business of 7Pro FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON 223 vincial Grand Lodge was reported to those who had no right to attend. At sunset the Lodge was closed, after the usual Masonic toasts had been honoured.


The Lodge of Social Friendship appears to have visited the sins of a wife upon a husband, according to the following extract from its Minute Book Brother S. having petitioned the Lodge for advancement, it was proposed and agreed to and accordingly put to the ballot, whether or not Brother S. should be advanced, or even continued as a member of the Lodge, unless he put away his wife, she being convicted of having behaved in a loose and indecent and scandalous manner in various instances, particularly during his absence at Seringapatam, on command. The poll proved against him by ten to three, on which he was directed to withdraw and his name struck out of the Lodge.


The expelled Brother, quite naturally, appealed to the Provincial Grand Lodge, with the result that about a year afterwards he was readmitted to membership of the Lodge.


The Brethren of the District have always been stalwart supporters of the Masonic Institutions and have organized their own local Benevolent Funds. The Civil Orphan Asylum was founded in 1807, as the outcome of a scheme drawn up by Dr. R. H. Kerr and placed before the members of the Lodge of Perfect Unanimity in September 18oo.


The Madras Masonic Institution for Maintaining and Educating the Children of Indigent and Deceased Freemasons, inaugurated in 1879, is in a healthy condition.


In April 1917 a plot of land in a central position in Egmore was acquired with the object of erecting thereon a Masonic Hall with Offices for the District Grand Lodge. A temporary building was at once erected and the foundation stone of the new building was laid on February 26, '1923, by Lord Willingdon, Governor of Madras. The building has since been completed and was opened by Viscount Goschen, who succeeded Lord Willingdon as Governor, on February 27, 1925, being dedicated by A. Y. G. Campbell, District Grand Master. Among the important events in the history of Freemasonry in Madras, probably the one of outstanding importance was the visit of H.R.H. the Duke of Conn.aught, Grand Master, who attended the District Grand Lodge in 1921.


BOMBAY Two Lodges were established in this Presidency during the eighteenth century‑Nos. 234, Bombay, in 1758 and 569, Surat, in 1798, both of which were carried on in the lists until 1813, but disappeared at the Union. A Provincial Grand Master‑James Todd‑was appointed in 1763, whose name only drops out of the Freemasons' Calendar in 1799. In 18o1, an Atholl Warrant, No. 322, was granted to the 78th Foot, which regiment was engaged in the Mahratta F. V‑II 114 FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON war under Sir Arthur Wellesley and took part in the decisive victory of Assaye (1803). In 1818, Lord Moira was asked to constitute a Lodge at Poona. But none was again established in the Presidency until 1822, in which year the Benevolent Lodge, No. 746, Bombay was placed on the English lists. Among the Freemasons about this time in Bombay were thirteen non‑commissioned officers who were too poor to establish a Lodge of their own and too modest to seek admittance in what was considered an aristocratic Lodge. They met, however, monthly in the guard‑room over the Apollo Gate, for mutual instruction in Masonry. This coming to the knowledge of the Benevolent Lodge, the thirteen were elected honorary members of No. 746, for which they returned heartfelt thanks. At their first attendance, when the Lodge work was over and the Brethren adjourned to the banquet, the thirteen were informed that refreshments awaited them down stairs. Revolting at the distinction thus made among Freemasons, they one and all left the place. The next morning they were sent for by their commanding officer, who was also one of the officers of the Lodge and asked to explain their conduct. One of the party, W. Willis, told him that as Masons they were bound to meet on the Level and part on the Square ; but as this fundamental principle was not practised in No. 746, of which they had been elected honorary members, they could not partake of their hospitality. The astonished colonel uttered not a word, but waved his hand for them to retire. Ever after this, the Benevolent Lodge‑including the thirteen‑met on the Level, both in Lodge and at the banquettable.


In 1823, a Military Lodge‑Orion in the West‑was formed in the Bombay Artillery and registered at Poona as No. 15, Coast of Coromandel, November 15. According to the early proceedings of this Lodge, members " were examined in the Third Degree and passed into the chair of the Fourth Degree "‑for which a fee of three gold mohurs was exacted. In the following year, a second Lodge at Poona was established by the Provincial Grand Lodge for Bengal, which, however, has left no trace of its existence. In 1825, the civilian element of Orion seceded and formed the Lodge of Hope, also at Poona, No. 8oz. Here, Orion, unrecognized at home, aided in the secession of some of its members, who obtained a Warrant, on the recommendation of the parent Lodge, from the Grand Lodge of England. A Lodge was erected at Bombay‑Perseverance, No. 818‑in 1828. Two years later it was discovered that no notification of the existence of Orion in the West had reached the Grand Lodge of England, nor had any fees been received, though these, including the quarterages, had been regularly paid to the Provincial Grand Lodge of the Coast of Coromandel. It was further ascertained that in granting a Warrant for a Bombay Lodge, the Provincial Grand Master for the Coast of Coromandel had exceeded his powers. Ultimately, a new Warrant, No. 598, was granted from England, July 19, 18 Up to this time the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of England had not been invaded ; but in 1836, Dr. James Burnes was appointed by the Grand Lodge for Scotland, Provincial Grand Master for Western India and its Dependencies.


FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON 225 No Provincial Grand Lodge, however, was formed until January 1, 1838. A second Scottish Province‑of Eastern India‑was subsequently erected, which, on the retirement of the Marquess of Tweeddale, was absorbed within the jurisdiction of Dr. Burnes, who, in 1846, became Provincial Grand Master for all India (including Aden), but with the proviso, that this appointment was not to act in restraint of any future subdivision of the Presidencies. D. Murray Lyon says that though Lord Tweeddale was Governor and Commander‑in‑Chief of Madras from April 1842 to September 1848, his name does not occur in any records of the Grand Lodge of Scotland of that period, nor indeed of any other, as Provincial Grand Master for Eastern India.


Burnes, in 1836, may be best described, in ecclesiastical phrase, as a Provincial Grand Master in partibus infidelium, for whatever Lodges then existed throughout the length and breadth of India were strangers to Scottish Masonry. But the times were propitious. There was no English Provincial Grand Lodge for Bombay; and under the Chevalier Burnes, whom nature had bountifully endowed with all the qualities requisite for Masonic administration, Scottish Masonry presented such attractions, that the strange sight was witnessed of English Masons deserting their mother Lodges to such an extent that these fell into abeyance, in order that they might give their support to Lodges newly constituted by the Grand Lodge of Scotland. In one case, indeed, a Lodge‑Perseverance‑under England went over bodily to the enemy, with its name, jewels, furniture and belongings and the charge was accepted by Scotland.


From this period, therefore, Scottish Masonry flourished and English Masonry declined, the latter finally becoming quite dormant until the year 1848, when a Lodge, St. George‑No. 807 on the roll of the Grand Lodge of England‑was again formed at Bombay and, for some years, was the solitary representative of English Masonry in the Province.


In 1844, Burnes established a Lodge, No. 413, Rising Star, at Bombay, for the admission of natives‑by whom a beautiful medal, cut by Wyon, was struck in consequence‑and No. 414, St. Andrew in the East, at Poona. These were fol lowed by Nos. 421 (now No. 337)‑Hope, Karachi‑and 4zz (now No. 338) ‑Perseverance, Bombay‑in 1847.


Scottish Lodges were next erected in Bengal‑No. 3 5 3 (now 371), St. David in the East, Calcutta, 1849 ; and in Arabia‑No. 35 5, Felix, Aden, 1850, still existent with the same number. At the close of 1885, 33 Lodges in all‑or under Bom bay, 19 ; Bengal, ii ; Madras, z ; and in Afghanistan, 1‑had received Charters from the Grand Lodge of Scotland.


Burnes left India in 1849 and was succeeded by a Provincial Grand Master for Western India only. In 1874, however, Captain Henry Morland became Provincial Grand Master for Hindustan and, subsequently, was commissioned as Grand Master of All Scottish Freemasonry in India.


Returning to the Lodges under the Grand Lodge of England, St. George ‑No. 807 (now No. 549)‑constituted in 1848, was for ten years the only repre‑ 226 FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON sentative of its class. In 1858, however, Lodges Concord‑No. 1o59 (now No. 507) ‑and Union‑No. io6g (now No. 767 at Karachi)‑were established at Bombay and Karachi respectively. A year later, Orion in the West (now No. 415, Poona), awoke from its dormancy. In 1861, a Provincial Grand Lodge was established and to‑day there are 49 Lodges under the District Grand Master for Bombay.


Until recent years, it cannot be said that Freemasonry has taken any real root among the native population of India. Umdat‑ul‑Umari, son of the Nabob of Arcot, was admitted a member of the Society in 1776. The princes Keyralla Khan (of the Mysore family) and Shadad Khan (ex‑Ameer of Scinde) joined, or were made Masons in, the Lodge of True Friendship in 1842 and‑ 18 5 o respectively; and, in 1861, the Maharajahs Duleep and Rundeer Sing were initiated in Lodges Star of the East and Hope and Perseverance‑the last‑named personage at Lahore, the other three in Calcutta. Since then several native princes have received Grand Rank in the United Grand Lodge of England.


A By‑law of the Provincial Grand Lodge for Bengal, forbidding the entry of Asiatics without the permission of the Provincial Grand Master was in force until May 12, 1871 ; and there was at least a popular belief in existence so late as 186o, that Hindus were ineligible for initiation. An assistant military apothecary was initiated in the Meridian Lodge, 31st Foot, in that year. The legality of this act‑on the score of the intrant being a Brahmin‑was demurred to in the Masonic press; the 31st Regiment being with the Expeditionary Force in China, G. W. Ingram, P.M., No. 345, took up the cudgels on behalf of the Lodge, pointing out, in an elaborate argument, " that the very ground‑work of the Brahmin faith is the belief in one Grand Superintending Being." The journal in which these letters appeared ultimately reached the Lodge‑then at Tientsin‑when a final letter, deposing that, having filled the chair on the occasion alluded to, the individual whose admission had been called in question was, " by his own statement a Christian," was sent to the press. Cf. Freemasons' Magazine, April zi, September 8, and October 13, 186o; and May 18, 1861 ; and for some startling assertions respecting Freemasonry forming a portion of the Brahminical knowledge, see Higgins, Anacalypsis, 1836, vol. i, pp. 767‑9; and H. Melville, Revelation of Mysteries, etc., 1876, p. 17. The Parsees of Western India were the first of the native races who evinced any real interest in the institution and in 1886 one of their number, Doribjee Prestonjee Cama, was elected to the high position of Treasurer of the Grand Lodge of England. Another member of that family was, in 1927, appointed to the rank of Past Assistant Grand Registrar, while there is a Lodge at Hampton Court, Cama, No. 2105, named after another distinguished Parsee (see Masonic News, London, June 14, 1930, p. 480).


In 1876, a Scottish Lodge, No. 587, Islam‑presumably for the association of Mohammedans‑was erected at Bombay. The extent to which Freemasonry is now practised by the Hindus‑who form 7312' per cent. of the total population of India‑is impossible to determine.


FREEMASONRY IN INDIA AND CEYLON zi7 CEYLON The earliest trace of a Lodge in Ceylon is that of one warranted by the Antient Grand Lodge of England in October 1761, to be attached to the 51st Regiment. Little is known of its activities. In a certificate of i8oz from Colombo it is referred to as the Orange Lodge, but it does not appear in the Register after 1781, although it is included in the list in Ahiman ReZon in 1804. In 18oz, the Antients warranted a Lodge for the Sixth Battalion of the Royal Artillery then stationed at Colombo, but this seems to have had an inglorious existence and it was erased in 1830. In September 1807 a further Lodge was warranted by the Antients to be attached to the Second Battalion of the 34th Regiment, but it is doubtful whether the Lodge ever met there as the Warrant is endorsed "At Bandon, November 25, 1807." The Lodge met at Bandon and Clonmel in that year and at Jersey in the following year. Little more is known of its movements and it was erased from the English Register in 1832. In 18zz, the Taprobane Lodge was established in Ceylon under a Provisional Warrant from the United Grand Lodge of England, but it does not appear in the list until 1836, when it met at Madras ; it was erased in June 1 862. In the same year (18zz), St. John's Lodge, No. 628, was formed at Colombo by members of the St. Andrew's Union Lodge, which had been founded in 1799, to be attached to the 19th Regiment of Foot. It is still in existence as No. 434, but meets at Secunderabad and is, therefore, included in the District of Madras. In August, 1838, the oldest existing Lodge in Ceylon was established‑the St. John's Lodge of Colombo, No. 454, which now meets at the Henry Byrde Memorial Hall, Kandy. Then comes a long break until 1886, when the Lodge of St. George, No. z170, still in existence, was founded at Colombo. To‑day there are nine Lodges in the District of Ceylon, which was formed in 1907. Sir Alexander Johnston was appointed Provincial Grand Master in 181 o, but he was connected with the Coast of Coromandel, which had the supervision of the Lodges in Ceylon.


There are three Lodges under the Irish Constitution: two in Colombo, No. 107, founded in 1861 and No. r 15, founded in 1868 ; one at Talawakelle, No. 298, founded in 1874. Scotland has jurisdiction over one only, Bonnie Doon, No. 611, at Colombo.


The Grand Lodge of the Netherlands was one of the earliest Masonic invaders of Ceylon and erected Lodges at Colombo in 1771 and 1794 and at Point de Galle in 1773. In 1795 the British took possession of the Dutch settlements on the island and annexed them to the Presidency of Madras but, six years afterwards, in 1801, Ceylon was formed into a separate Crown colony.


CHAPTER VIII FREEMASONRY IN AFRICA SOUTH AFRICA HE Cape Settlement was taken by a British naval force in 1795, restored to Holland in 18oz, retaken in 18o6 and permanently ceded to Britain at the Congress of Vienna.


Dutch Lodges‑" Of Good Hope " and " Of Good Trust "‑were erected at Cape Town in 1772 and I8oz respectively. These, happily, survive; but several Lodges, at least, in South Africa under the same jurisdiction appear to have passed away without leaving any trace of their existence.


After the final cession of the colony, Lodges under the rival Grand Lodges of England were established at the capital in 1811 and 1812 respectively‑in the former year, the British, No. 629, under the older sanction, still in existence as No. 334, the oldest Lodge in the District of South Africa, Western Division; and in the latter, No. 354, the Cape of Good Hope Lodge, in the Loth Battalion of the Royal Artillery, under an Atholl Warrant ; this Lodge was erased in 1851.


The first band of English settlers arrived in 18zo and, in the following year, a second stationary Lodge, under the United Grand Lodge of England‑Hope, No. 7z7 (erased in January 1878)‑was erected at Cape Town‑where, also, a Lodge bearing the same name under the Grand Orient of France, sprang up, November Io, 18z4. A third English Lodge‑Albany, No. 817‑was established at Grahamstown in 18 z8. It is now numbered 389 and is the oldest Lodge in the District of South Africa, Eastern Division.


The following statement appears in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of England for June 5, 1867 The Dutch Lodges received the English Brethren with open arms and with great satisfaction. When English Masonry had increased and it was considered right to form a Provincial Grand Lodge, the Brother selected for the office of Provincial Grand Master was the Deputy Grand Master of the Netherlands, who continued till his death to hold the two appointments.


This must have been Sir John Truter, who received an English Patent in 181g ; for, although an earlier Provincial Grand Master under England‑Richard Blake ‑had been appointed in I8oI, the words quoted above will not apply to the latter. Between 18 z 8 and 18 5 o there was no augmentation of the Lodges ; but, in the latter year, a revival set in and, during the decade immediately ensuing‑1851‑6o‑six 228 FREEMASONRY IN AFRICA 229 were warranted by the Grand Lodge of England. These were the Sovereignty, 871, founded in 1851 and erased on June 4, 18 62 ; Zetland, No. 884, now No. 6o8, founded at Fort Beaufort on November 30, 185z; Fordyce, No. 987, founded at King William's Town, in November, 1856, which ceased working in October i86o; Lodge of Good Will, No. 1013, now No. 711, warranted on July 30, 1857 and consecrated on June 24, 1858 ; Port Natal, No. 1040, now 738, warranted on March 3 and consecrated on June 14, 1858 ; and St. John's, No. 113o, now No. 828, warranted on August 7 and consecrated on November 29, 186o.


In i 86o, to the jurisdictions already existing (those of Holland and England) was added that of Scotland, under the Grand Lodge of which country a LodgeSouthern Cross, No. 398‑was erected at Cape Town, Which is still in existence. Shortly afterwards, in a single year (1863) two Dutch Lodges were established in Cape Colony and one at Bloemfontein, in the Orange Free State. This period coincides with the appointment in 1863‑after an interregnum‑of Sir Richard Southey as Provincial Grand Master under the Grand Lodge of England for the whole of South Africa. This, however, was not the first appointment of this character, as he had been preceded, in i 8o1, by Richard Blake; in 1826, by Sir John Truter ; and, in 1834, by Clerke Burton. In 1877, South Africa was divided into two Districts‑Eastern and Western Divisions, when Sir Richard Southey became District Grand Master of the latter. In 1895 there was a further partition and the District of South Africa, Central Division, was founded. The District of Natal was formed in 1882 ; Transvaal in 1895.; and Rhodesia in 1929.


The strength of the English Jurisdiction in South Africa to‑day is as follows Natal, 4o Lodges; Rhodesia, 6 Lodges ; South Africa, Central Division, iz Lodges; South Africa, Eastern Division, 46 Lodges ; South Africa, Western Division, 31 Lodges ; Transvaal, 61 Lodges.


Ireland has two Provincial Grand Lodges in South Africa: the Northern Province, with jurisdiction over z3 Lodges and the Southern (Cape) Province, with 5 Lodges.


Scotland has five Districts : the Eastern of the Cape of Good Hope, i z Lodges ; Natal, 14 Lodges ; Rhodesia, 11 Lodges ; Transvaal, 44 Lodges ; Western of the Cape of Good Hope, 9 Lodges.


The relations between the English and Dutch Masons at the Cape have always been of the most friendly character. When the District Grand Lodge under England was re‑erected (1863), the Deputy Grand Master under the Grand Lodge of the Netherlands assisted at its re‑inauguration and placed at the disposal of the English Brethren, the Masonic Hall belonging to the Dutch Fraternity. At the celebration of the festival of St. John, it has long been customary for the English and Dutch Masons to assemble at different hours of the day, in order that the Brethren under each jurisdiction might be present at both meetings. There is frequent inter‑visitation between the members of all four jurisdictions.


At a Quarterly Communication of the Grand Lodge of England, held June 5, 1867, it was stated 2.30 FREEMASONRY IN AFRICA Recently an objection has been raised by some of the younger English Masons against the establishment of some new Lodges lately formed by the Dutch, on the ground that the Convention of 1770 prohibits their doing so, the Cape now being an English possession, having been so since the early part of the present century. In this view, the District Grand Lodge does not seem to participate. That body is anxious that the amicable relations that have so long subsisted between the English and Dutch Masons should continue. .‑. .‑. After setting the foregoing facts before the Grand Lodge, the Grand Registrar expressed an opinion that, whatever might have been the intention of the Convention of 1770, it had not been acted on in the Cape Colony, but that the Grand Master of England, by appointing the Deputy Grand Master of the Netherlands to be his Provincial Grand Master over English Lodges, virtually recognized the Dutch Lodges. It must be taken for granted that both the contracting parties have tacitly consented that it should not apply to the Cape. . . He was of opinion that as both parties seem to have considered that the Cape was neutral ground and, the existence of two Grand Lodges having been allowed to continue side by side, it would be for the benefit of the Brethren in that Colony, that, as they have gone on working as friends and Brothers, they should still continue to do so (Proceedings, Grand Lodge of England).


A resolution embodying the foregoing was then put and unanimously adopted.


WEST COAST OF AFRICA Richard Hull was appointed Provincial Grand Master for Gambia, West Africa, in 1735 ; David Creighton, M.D., was similarly commissioned for Cape Coast in 1736; and William Douglas for the African Coast and American Islands in 1737. Notwithstanding these appointments by the Grand Lodge of England, the earliest Lodge in the western portion of the continent established by that body, seems to have been No. 586, at Bulam, constituted in 1792. After this came the Torridzonian Lodge, No. 6zi, at Cape Coast Castle, in 18io. The former of these disappeared at the Union (1813), but the latter was only erased March 5, 1862, though doubtless inactive for a long time previously, as three Lodges of much later constitution‑Nos. 7z', Sierra Leone, I8z0 ; 599, Cape Coast, 1833 ; and 867, Bathurst, River Gambia, 1851‑were likewise struck off the Roll on the same occasion. Two further English Lodges were established in the district‑Nos. 1075, Cape Coast Castle, 1859, now No. 773 ; and IM, Lagos, West Coast, 1867‑both of which are still shown in the list.


To‑day there are altogether eleven Lodges of the English Constitution in the Gold Coast under the charge of a Grand Inspector, viz. four at Accra: Victoria, No.


2392, (founded in 189i) ; Accra, No. 3o63 (igo4) ; Harmonic, No. 4190 (i92o) ; and Three Pillars, No. 4867 (igz6) ; one at Cape Coast Castle, Gold Coast Lodge, already mentioned; 'two at Coomassie : Ashanti, No. 3717 (1914) and McCarthy, No. 4132 (19z0); two at Sekondi : Sekondi, No. 3238 (1907) and St. George's Seccondee, No. 3851 (I g I 8) : two at Tarkwa : Taquah, No. 3356 (I 9o9) and Wanderers' Home, No. 3814 (1917). There are thirteen Lodges under the Scottish FREEMASONRY IN AFRICA 2.31 Constitution in West Africa: at Sierra Leone (three), Nigeria (seven), Gambia (one), Cape Coast Castle (one) and Ashanti (one).


LIBERIA.‑This remarkable State, colonized in 1821 by a handful of freed slaves from the United States, recruited ever since by emigrants of the same class and by the wretched cargoes of captured slave vessels, acknowledged in 1847 as an independent Republic, governed and well governed too, on the American model, by the elsewhere despised negro race, with a navy of one vessel (a present from England), a college with professorial chairs all filled by negroes‑this successful outcome of a daringly humane experiment, which has partly civilized countless hordes of natives on its borders, possesses an independent Grand Lodge of its own, with a seat at Monrovia, the capital. Its Masonic history, properly told, would prove both interesting and instructive, but unfortunately nothing beyond the barest statistics can be obtained. A Grand Lodge was established in 1867, of which the first Grand Master was Amos, an ex‑Pennsylvanian slave. In 187o he died and was followed by Joseph Roberts, an ex‑President of the Republic. According to the Masonic Calendars, in 1876 C. B. Dunbar was the Grand Master, with five Lodges; in 1877, Reginald A. Sherman ; and in 1881, William M. Davis, with six Lodges and 125 members.


THE AZORES.‑In these, which form a province and not a dependency, of Portugal, there was a Lodge under the United Grand Lusitanian Orient. That jurisdiction is a favourite one in the islands of the North Atlantic, as there were in MADEIRA three and in the CANARIES nine, Lodges holding Warrants from the same Grand Orient.


ST. HELENA.‑An (Atholl) Lodge‑No. 132‑was established in this island in 1764, but lapsed in the following year; another‑No. 568‑under the (older) Grand Lodge of England in 1798, which was carried forward at the Union (1813), though it did not survive the renumbering of 1832. Lieut.‑Colonel Francis Robson was appointed Provincial Grand Master in i 8oi, David Kay, M.D., in 1803, both holding office under the senior of the two Grand Lodges. The latter continued for several years to preside over a Province in which there was no Lodge; but a revival took place in 1843, when No. 718, now No. 488, was erected and a second Lodge‑No. 1214‑came into existence in 1862, but has since been erased.


The zoth Foot‑to which the famous Minden Lodge, No. 63, was attached by the Grand Lodge of Ireland in 1748‑formed the guard over Napoleon in 181c9‑zI ; but the historian of the Lodge informs us, " the political and peculiar state of the island during our station at St. Helena, the severity of duty, the want of a building, all operated to prevent the best intentions .. .. to assemble for Masonic purposes." In the only other British island on the coast of Africa lying south of the Equator‑ASCENSION‑a Lodge, No. Iozq on the English Roll, was erected in 1864, but has ceased to exist.


There is one Lodge under the Irish Jurisdiction in West Africa, No. 197, at Calabar.


232‑ FREEMASONRY IN AFRICA EGYPT Tradition states that Freemasonry was introduced into Egypt, according to the Rite of Memphis, in 1798, by Napoleon, Kleber and other officers of the French Army. It is not, however, until 18o2 that there is definite information concerning regular French Lodges, when Loge La Bienfaisance was established at Alexandria; in 18o6, a second unit, Loge Les Amis de Napoleon le Grand, was established, also at Alexandria: both these were under the Grand Orient of France. Others were constituted by the same authority, at Alexandria, in 1847 and 1863 ; at Cairo, in 1868 ; and at Mansourah, in 1882. The rival French Jurisdiction‑the Supreme Council of the 33rd Degree‑also established a Lodge at Alexandria in 1862, others at Ismailia, Port Said and Suez in 1867, which remained in existence for many years. There was also in existence, in 1879, a French Lodge under the dominion of the Grand Independent Symbolic League˛ body no longer in existence.


The following Lodges were established under the United Grand Lodge of England, prior to 1894 St. John's Lodge, No. 1221 (afterwards 9i9), founded at Alexandria, July 12, 1862 ; erased April 5, 1877.


Bulwer Lodge of Cairo, No. io68, constituted February 8 and chartered June 7, 1865, still in existence.


Hyde Clarke Lodge, No. io82, founded in 1865 at Alexandria; erased December 14, 1869.


Grecia Lodge, No. 1105, warranted March 31 and constituted April 2o, 1866, at Cairo ; still in existence.


Lodge of St. John and St. Paul, No. 1154, at Alexandria, chartered on February 22, 1867; erased December 6, 1882.


Egyptian Lodge, No. 1156, at Cairo, chartered March 5 and constituted April 29, 1867 ; erased December 6, 18 Zetland Lodge, No. 1157, at Alexandria, warranted March 5 and constituted May 30, 1867 ; still in existence.


La Concordia Lodge, No. 1226, Cairo, formed in 1868 and erased June 4, 18go. Lodge Star of the East, No. 13 5 5, warranted March 27 and constituted June i o, 1871 ; still in existence.


Ramleh Lodge, No. I4Ig, at Ramleh, warranted October 21, 1872, and constituted on January 28, 1873 ; erased December 6, 1882.


The Lodges