Note:  This material was scanned into text files for the sole purpose of convenient electronic research. This material is NOT intended as a reproduction of the original volumes. However close the material is to becoming a reproduced work, it should ONLY be regarded as a textual reference.  Scanned at Phoenixmasonry by Ralph W. Omholt, PM in May 2007.










































































































[The remaining States are in Volume Vl.]



THE intimate connection between Freemasonry and the founding and development of America is fascinating and illuminating, not only to the Brethren of the Craft but to all who are interested in the history of the building of the civic life of North America. Neglected by the writers of history, because unrealised and unknown, the spirit and ideals of this ancient Fraternity have played a mighty part. Herein, for the first‑ time, is to be found the first real picture showing how Freemasonry and its teachings and influence were a vital part of the early days‑the establishment and growth‑of the States and Provinces of the United States and Canada. Far more potent than the wars of which the historian writes at length, in the crystallising and fixation of the fundamentals of North American civilisation, were the tenets of Freemasonry. One has but to follow the men whose names appear in these pages, for history is but the record of the lives and influence of men.

Never before has the history of American Freemasonry been presented as in this work. No one person could do it. For each jurisdiction, some leader in the Craft, imbued with its spirit and a student of its history, has been chosen to tell the story of that jurisdiction. The tale has thus been told by experts who will be recognized as such by the Brethren of the Grand jurisdictions of which they write. All of them are nationally and some internationally known and acclaimed.

Bro. J. Edward Allen and I have made the selection of the co‑authors but we have left them unhampered except by limitations of space. Theirs is the credit for research and the responsibility for conclusions. We are grateful for their co‑operation, given freely and without financial reward, but merely that the true story may be told of the Fraternity they love and, serve.





 ILLUSTRATIONS VOLUME V Benjamin Franklin Frontispiece PACING PAGE s Administration Building, Montgomery, Alabama 8 The Masonic Temple, Montgomery, Alabama 8 Eastern Star Hospital, Montgomery, Alabama 14 American Masonry Upon the Western Trail pages 20‑21 Albert Pike 40 Fay Hempstead 44 1 The Albert Pike Memorial 48 The Albert Pike Residence 48 San Francisco, 1870 52 Grand Parade, Knights Templar, 1883 52 Mystic Shrine Temple, Los Angeles, California 58 Shriners at San Diego Fair 5 8 b Passion Cross Formation 64 Gregory Gulch, 1859 page 70 Cabin of Sagendorf and Lehow 72 Masonic Temple, Grand Junction, Colorado 72 Highlands Masonic Temple, Denver, Colorado 72 Colorado Consistory 76 Masonic Temple, Fort Collins, Colorado 76 Lawrence Nicholls Greenleaf 82 Henry Moore Teller 82 X111 xiv ILLUSTRATIONS 8AQN0 PAOB Lodge Night in the Village 88 The Masonic Home at Wallingford, Connecticut 92 Masonic Temple, Woodbury, Connecticut 92 Gunning Bedford 98 Two Views of the Masonic Home of Delaware 104 The Scottish Rite Temple, Washington, D. C. io8 Home of Federal Lodge, No. 1, 1796‑1804 112 First Home of Columbia Lodge, No. 3 112 The Masonic Temple, Washington, D. C. 112 A Notable Masonic Ceremony 114 The 61st Annual Session of the Imperial Council, A. A. O. N. M. S. 116 Grand Lodge, F. and A. M., Florida 12‑2 A Masonic Diploma in French 126 Masonic Temple, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 126 The Scottish Rite Temple, Miami, Florida 132 Major General James Edward Oglethorpe 138 George Walton 138 Noble Jones 138 At the King's Boat‑house, Honolulu 158 Masonic Temple at Boise, Idaho 166 Masonic Hall, Idaho City, Idaho 166 Return of Western Star Lodge, No. 107 page 177 Shadrach Bond 180 Governor L. L. Emmerson 180 Masonic Temple, Decatur, Illinois 182 Masonic Temple, Evanston, Illinois 182 Marshall Masonic Temple 182 ILLUSTRATIONS xv PAC1NG PAGE Airplane View of the Illinois Masonic Home 184 The Illinois Masonic Orphans' Home 186 Masonic Temple, Chicago, Illinois 19o Knights Templar Grand Commandery of Illinois 194 Knights Templar Hospital, Knightstown, Indiana 198 The Indiana Masonic Home at Franklin, Indiana 200 Masonic Temple, Indianapolis, Indiana 202 Masonic Temple, South Bend, Indiana 202 Masonic Temple, Logansport, Indiana 204 Masonic Temple, Marion, Indiana 204 Scottish Rite Cathedral, Indianapolis, Indiana 2o8 Masonic Temple, Sioux City, Iowa 212 Theodore Sutton Parvin, LL.D. 218 Louis Block, P .'. G .'. M. 218 Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids, Iowa 218 Masonic Home, Wichita, Kansas 226 Grand Lodge Building, Topeka, Kansas 226 Building of the Grand Consistory of Kentucky 230 The Old Masons Home, Shelbyville, Kentucky 232 The Building of Preston Lodge, No. 281, Louisville 232 The Masonic Widows and Orphans Home and Infirmary, Louisville 236 Masonic Temple, New Orleans, Louisiana 244 The New Masonic Temple, New Orleans 244 The Charter of Portland Lodge page 263 William King, First Grand Master 266 Robert P. Dunlap, Sixth Grand Master 266 Josiah H. Drummond, Twenty‑second Grand Master 266 xvi ILLUSTRATIONS PACING Peas Masonic Hall, Sanford, Maine 272 Masonic Hall, Winthrop, Maine 272 Laying the First Stone of the Baltimore and Ohio R.R. 282 John M. Carter 286 General Thomas J. Shryock 286 Edward T. Schultz 286 Maryland Masonic Home, "Bonnie Blink," Cockeysville, Maryland 290 The Scottish Rite Temple, Baltimore, Maryland 300 Facsimile of Petition of First Lodge in Boston, Massachusetts page ‑ 311 The Green Dragon Tavern in Boston, Massachusetts 34 The Masonic Funeral Given General Warren 34 Masonic Temple at Plymouth, Massachusetts 320 Masonic Temple at Dedham, Massachusetts 320 Masonic Temple, Worcester, Massachusetts 322 Masonic Temple, North Attleboro, Massachusetts 322 Massachusetts Masonic Home, "Overlook" 326 Corner‑stone Laying, Lowell, Massachusetts 326 Masonic Temple, Detroit, Michigan 330 Michigan Masonic Home, Main Building, Alma, Michigan 334 R The Hospital at the Michigan Masonic Home, Alma, Michigan 334 Masonic Temple, Ann Arbor, Michigan 334 The Passion Cross, Detroit Commandery, No. i, Knights Templar 340 A. E. Ames 350 A. T.,,C. Pierson 350 Old Central House, St. Paul, Minnesota 350 Old Masonic Temple, Natchez, Mississippi 36o Masonic Temple, St. Louis, Missouri 374 ILLUSTRATIONS xvil FACING reds The Eastern Star Room 376 The Lobby 376 Scottish Rite Temple, Kansas City, Missouri 38o Ivanhoe Masonic Temple, Kansas City, Missouri 384 The William Frederick Kuhn Memorial 384 Montana's Masonic Home 394 Laying the Corner Stone at Billings, Montana 394 Nebraska Masonic Home 4o8 Facsimile of Petition for First Lodge in New Hampshire page 423 Masonic Temple, Manchester, New Hampshire 428 Jewels and Apron of the Royal Arch 438 Knights Templar Parade on Capitol Hill, Albany 488 Shriners at Washington, D. C., 1935 536 Columns of the Mystic Shrine Erected in Washington, D. C. 538 Prominent Army Officers, Members of the Masonic Fraternity Duke of Wellington, Arthur St. Clair, Frederick the Great, Marquis de Lafayette, Anthony Wayne, Baron von Steuben, Napoleon Bonaparte, Winfield Scott, Simon Bolivar, John J. Pershing, Nelson A. Miles, George B. McClellan At end of volume GOULD'S HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY THROUGHOUT THE WORLD VOLUME V A HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY THROUGHOUT THE WORLD VOL. V FREEMASONRY IN ALABAMA OLIVER DAY STREET INTRODUCTORY THE existing Masonic Grand Bodies in Alabama were formed on the dates following The Grand Lodge on June II, 1821. The Grand Chapter on June 2, 182‑7.


The Grand Council on December 13, 1828. The Grand Commandery on December I, i86o. The Council of Anointed High Priests on December 8, 1869.


The earliest Bodies of the Scottish Rite in Alabama were formed at Mobile in December 1867.


Red Cross of Constantine, Saint Dunstan's Conclave, instituted at Birmingham on September 25, 1925.


These dates will furnish us with convenient points of departure in sketching the history of Freemasonry in Alabama.


SYMBOLIC MASONRY Masonry in Alabama, of course, preceded the formation of the Grand Lodge. Masons were among its earliest settlers. The settlement of Madison County, lying north of the Tennessee River, began feebly in i 8o5 and, on August 29, 1811, a Dispensation was issued by the Grand Lodge of Kentucky for the earliest Lodge in the State. This was Madison Lodge, No. 2.1, at Huntsville. Its Officers under the Dispensation were Marmaduke Williams, Master; John C. Hamilton, Senior Warden; and William Harrison, Junior Warden. Charter was granted August 2‑.8, 18iz, and the first Officers under the Charter were Lewis Watson, Master; Thomas Fearn, Senior Warden; and John J. Winston, Junior Warden. It still exists as Helion, No. I, at Huntsville.


From 1812 to the organisation of Grand Lodge on June 11, I82I, fourteen other lodges were formed. They were, 2 FREEMASONRY IN ALABAMA Friendship, No. 6, at Mobile. Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, September 6, 1813; forfeited July i, i82o; Friendship, No. 65, at St. Stephens. Chartered by the Grand Lodge of North Carolina about 1815; forfeited in 1816; Alabama, No. 21, at Huntsville. Dispensation issued by the Grand Master of Tennessee, April 6, 1818; Charter granted October 4, 1818; Washington, No. 23, at Hazel Green. Dispensation issued by the Grand Master of Tennessee, July 6, 1818; Charter granted October 6, 1818; surrendered in 1829; Eureka, No. 16, at Blakely. Charter granted by the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, March 27, 1819; forfeited previous to June 1821; Alabama, No. 51, at Claiborne. Chartered by the Grand Lodge of South Carolina, June 2S, 1819; Rising Virtue, No. 3o, at Tuscaloosa. Dispensation issued by the Grand Master of Tennessee, August 2, 1819; Charter granted October 5, 1819; Halo, No. 21, at Cahaba. Dispensation issued by the Grand Master of Georgia, February 21, 182o; Charter granted January 24, 1821; forfeited in 1872; Moulton, No. 34, at Moulton. Dispensation issued by the Grand Master of Tennessee, May 2, 182o; Charter granted October 4, 1820; Franklin, No. 36, at Russellville. Dispensation issued by the Grand Master of Tennessee, October 3, 182o; surrendered December 8, 1824; Tuscumbia, No. 4o, at Courtland. Dispensation issued by the Grand Master of Tennessee, March 3, 1821; Charter granted December 18, 1821; forfeited January 9, 1834; Farrar, No. 41, at Elyton (now Birmingham). Dispensation issued by the Grand Master of Tennessee, March 6, 1821; St. Stephens, at St. Stephens. Dispensation issued by the Grand Master of North Carolina, April 12, 1821; forfeited in 1834; Marion, at Suggsville. Dispensation issued by the Grand Master of Georgia, May 28, 1821; Chartered December 18, 1821; forfeited in 1878.


Nine of these, viz.: Halo, Madison, St. Stephens, Rising Virtue, Alabama, No. 51, Farrar, Alabama, No. 21, Moulton, and Franklin (or Russellville) Lodges, after due notice to all, participated in the Convention which convened in the hall of Halo Lodge, at Cahaba, on June 11, 1821, and formed the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of Alabama, with Thomas W. Farrar, of Elyton, as Grand Master and Thomas Amis Rogers, of Cahaba, as Grand Secretary.


Washington, No. 23, Tuscumbia, No. 40, and Marion did not attend the Convention. Washington never adhered but the other two, Tuscumbia and Marion, accepted Charters December 18, 1821.


Those who participated in forming the Grand Lodge, so far as the proceedings disclose, were Thomas W. Farrar, John Brown, and Bartholomew Labuzan, all of Elyton (Birmingham); Israel Pickens and Benjamin S. Smoot, of St. Stephens; Constantine Perkins, Thomas Owen, and Dugald McFarlane, FREEMASONRY IN ALABAMA 3 all of Tuscaloosa; William B. Allen, John H. Thorington, David McCord, Thomas O. Meux, Horatio G. Perry, Luther Blake, John Cox, Thomas Amis Rogers, and Robert B. Watson, all of Cahaba; Gabriel Moore, David Moore, Clement C. Clay, John M. Leake, and Frederick Weeden, all of Huntsville; Anderson Hutchinson and Lewis B. Tully, of Moulton; George W. Owen, John Murphy, and James H. Draughan, all of Claiborne; Seth W. Ligon and George Kreps, residence unknown; John S. Fulton, of Russellville, and the Rev. John B. Warren and John Elliott, of Mobile. There was also present a Bro. Davis.


Of the fifteen Lodges above mentioned, seven derived from the Grand Lodge of Tennessee; two from that of Georgia; two from that of Louisiana; two from that of North Carolina, and one each from Kentucky and South Caro lina. Both of the Lodges from Louisiana ceased to exist before the formation of the Grand Lodge, as did one from North Carolina.


The Lodges participating in the formation of Grand Lodge hailed thus from Tennessee, four; Georgia, two; Kentucky, one; North Carolina, one; and South Carolina, one. This is sufficient evidence of the orthodox character of the Freemasonry of Alabama.


On June 15, 1821, the Lodges participating in the formation of the Grand Lodge surrendered their old Charters or Dispensations and received new Charters with numbers as follows No. 1, Madison, at Huntsville, No. 2, Alabama, at Huntsville, No. 3, Alabama, at Claiborne, No. 4, Rising Virtue, at Tuscaloosa, No. S, Halo, at Cahaba, No. 6, Moulton, at Moulton, No. 7, Russellville, at Russellville, No. 8, Farrar, at Elyton (now Birmingham), No. 9, St. Stephens, at St. Stephens.


Lodge No. 1o, under the new Grand Lodge, was Chartered on December 1g, 1821, under the name of Mobile; became defunct in 1831; Lodge No. 11 was Chartered January 1, 1822, at Montgomery, under that name; still active; Marion, at Suggsville, accepted a Charter on December 18, 1821, and became No. 12; now defunct; Tuscumbia, No. 4o became No. 21 on December 2i, 1824, on the roster of the new Grand Lodge; now defunct; Washington, No. 23, at Hazel Green, Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, ceased to exist in 1829, by surrender of its Charter, without ever becoming a constituent of the Grand Lodge of Alabama. Thus is accounted for all of the original fifteen Lodges in Alabama.


To‑day, Madison, No. 1 and Alabama, No. 2, at Huntsville, exist by virtue of their consolidation in 1824 as Helion, No. i.


Alabama, No. 3 is now at Perdue Hill, Monroe County, and Rising Virtue, 4 FREEMASONRY IN ALABAMA Moulton, and Farrar still exist at their original sites. Thus we see that of the nine Lodges forming the Grand Lodge six are still in existence. The three dead ones are Halo, at Cahaba; Franklin, at Russellville; and St. Stephens. Two of the three were located at former but now dead capitals of the State; the towns of Cahaba and Old St. Stephens no longer exist. Russellville is a prosperous town in the northwest corner of the State and now has a live Lodge under the same name, but as No. 371.


The aspiring little city in which the Grand Lodge was formed has passed away, and we venture to quote here a description of its rise and fall from Mrs. Fry's ".Memories of Old Cahaba " (1908) When the General Assembly convened at Huntsville the following year (18ig), the Commissioners reported that they had selected a locality at the mouth of the Cahaba River for the capital and by that Legislature of 1819 the town of Cahaba was incorporated, lots laid out and a location for the government buildings selected by Governor William Bibb, who appointed Luther Blake, Carlisle Humphreys and Willis Roberts to hold the first town election.


Cahaba at this early day was not only the capital of the State, but was also the seat of justice of Dallas County, and soon sprung into an important business and social centre, despite its unfortunate geographical location. Lying in a valley, the Alabama River in front, with the Cahaba River flowing around the northwestern and northern portions of the town, and Clear Creek on the west, the place is almost surrounded by streams of water, which become swollen torrents and subject it to heavy overflow during the wet season.


In 1820, Cahaba had two newspapers, a land office, State bank, stores, private boarding houses, hotels, schools and churches, we presume, though there is no mention made of a church until later on.


In 1822, a large amount of public land was sold in Cahaba at public outcry. Lands in the vicinity of the town brought $1.25 an acre. In a few weeks these same lands were worth $6o.oo and $70.oo an acre, and in a few months could not be had at any price. There was a great demand for city lots, and it has been stated that unimproved lots in the central portion of the town in 1822 sold as high as $5,025, and that the sale of 184 lots amounted to over $120,000, which amount was added to the sum set aside by the Legislature for government buildings.


The Capitol was a solid square brick structure, two stories high, surmounted by an imposing dome, said to be similar in appearance to the old Capitol building at St. Augustine, Fla., which was erected in the same year. On either side of the broad hall that ran through the centre of the first floor were the executive and state offices. The second floor, composed of two large rooms, was occupied by the Senate and House of Representatives.


The town was now growing and continued to improve rapidly until 1825, when the largest flood ever known in the history of this country swept down the Alabama and Cahaba Rivers and completely inundated Cahaba. According to tradition the Legislature was in session when the flood came and the different representatives had to be rowed in boats and landed in the second story of the Capitol to reach the legislative, halls. Many of the private residences and public FREEMASONRY IN ALABAMA 5 buildings were injured by the overflow and, when a portion of the State House fell, Cahaba was no longer deemed safe as the seat of government, and at a meeting of the next Legislature, in January 182‑6, the capital was removed to Tuscaloosa.


Cahaba now became almost abandoned. Though it still remained the county seat of Dallas County, many of the most influential inhabitants moved away and the town rapidly declined. Many of the houses were torn down and moved to Mobile. Many of those left were unoccupied. Rare flowers bloomed in the lonely yards in neglected wild luxuriance. Beautiful climbing roses waved mournfully to the breeze from decaying galleries and the grass grew in the principal streets as though months had passed since foot had touched it. The place was lonely and deserted. And this a few months before was the gay capital of the State of Alabama, famed for its thrift and industry, its hospitality and its chivalry! A sad commentary on the uncertainty and mutability of human hopes, human endeavours and human ambition! But those beautiful scenes are no more. All those noble, grand old people have passed away and their like will never be seen again, because the conditions and the surroundings that produced them are no longer a part of the South.


They are gone never to return, and Cahaba, like Rome, must ever remain a Niobe of the nation, a mother bereft of her children, to whom our hearts still cling with loving enthusiasm in memory of her departed glory. Though long years have passed and the ruin is now perfect and complete, the site of the old town is still a lovely spot, where the pure, limpid waters gush unceasingly from the Artesian wells; where the flowers planted long years ago still bloom in perennial spring in the old‑time yards; where the mocking bird still sings in the springtime and the Cherokee roses, full with blossoms, shed their snowy petals along the deserted streets; where the sweet breath of the China blossom is wafted by the night breeze; where the stars still shine in all their brilliant beauty and the moon rises in its old‑time splendour enfolding the ruined town in its soft, mellow light and lovingly shadows the graves of the dead, who when living, were among the most refined, cultivated and intellectual people that ever adorned the State of Alabama.


A description of the other dead capital, Old St. Stephens, would read much like the foregoing.


It was among a people and surroundings like these that the Grand Lodge of Alabama had its beginning. It is not surprising that those who composed it were the best people of their day.


The Lodges formed during 182‑1 and prior thereto were located as follows two at Huntsville; two at Mobile; two at St. Stephens; and one each at Hazel Green, Blakely, Claiborne, Tuscaloosa, Cahaba, Moulton, Russellville, Court land, Elyton, Suggsville, Montgomery, Conecuh C. H., and Florence. A glance at the map shows that of these nineteen Lodges, seven were in the Tennessee Valley; seven were in the southwest (or Mobile) corner of the State; and one each at Tuscaloosa, Cahaba, Montgomery, Elyton (Birmingham) and Conecuh C. H. The two chief Masonic centres were the Tennessee Valley in the 6 FREEMASONRY IN ALABAMA extreme north, and the Mobile Neck in the extreme south end of the State, with thin lines extending up the Alabama and Black Warrior Rivers, then two of the State's main avenues of travel and communication.


This may give a hint of the difficult conditions under which Masonry then existed in Alabama. The first five Annual Communications of Grand Lodge were held in Cahaba on the Alabama River, and then the meetings were held at Tuscaloosa, the new capital, on the Black Warrior for many years.


To reach either of these places from Mobile or the Tennessee Valley required wearisome travel by steamboat or over bad roads and occupied about two weeks of time going, attending Grand Lodge and returning home. Con trast this with the impatience with which we now give two or three days to the discharge of this duty.


Masonry in Alabama, as elsewhere, was very injuriously affected during the years 1830 to 1840 by the so‑called " Morgan Craze," the agitation which grew out of the disappearance of one William Morgan from Batavia, New York, in 182‑6, allegedly abducted and murdered by the Freemasons because of his betrayal of their secrets. It is unnecessary to enter into that subject further than to mention the effects it had on Masonry in Alabama. For about two years its effects here were not marked. By 182‑9 the storm was being felt. In that year there were thirty‑three Lodges in the State and of these the Charters of ten were declared forfeited at the Annual Communication in December of that year and representatives from only nine Lodges appeared the first day. The Committee on Foreign Correspondence alluded to the " anti‑Masonic clamour and malignant opposition " prevailing in many States. Feeble Annual Communications of the Grand Lodge were held in 1830 to 1834. No further Communications were then held until December 6, 1836. For two years the light of the Grand Lodge went out, but on the last‑named date the representatives of six Lodges and four other Brethren met at Tuscaloosa and revived the Grand Lodge. The Grand Chapter went to sleep from July 1830 to December 1837, and no Assembly of the Grand Council was held in 1840.


But by 1841 the storm had spent its force. The strong men had never weakened or lowered their flag. The timid began to venture back. In a few years all signs of the devastation had disappeared and Masonry, stronger for its trials, entered upon an era of progress that has never been halted, though severely shaken by the ravages of the Civil War.


In the year 1859 the Grand Lodge and its particular Lodges were legally incorporated by special Act of the Legislature, giving them a standing before the law not otherwise obtainable. Its Charter was materially but not radically amended in 1875 by another Act of the Legislature.


After many years of effort, finally the Grand Lodge in 1912 established a Masonic Home, at Montgomery, for the care of distressed Master Masons and their widows and orphans. It was formally opened on the 18th day of January 1913, with three girl children as inmates. While as usual with such institutions it has taxed the financial resources of the Grand Lodge, it has met in the main FREEMASONRY IN ALABAMA 7 the expectations and hopes of its founders and supporters. Its burden is lightened by the maintenance of the Emergency (or Charity) Fund for the assistance of the distressed outside the Home. The utility and value of this fund as an instrument of relief has been fully proved.


Until 1903 the Grand Lodge had no printed manual or monitor of its own. For the written " Work " recourse was had to those of Webb and Cross or to monitors based upon them. In the year above named it promulgated a manual of its own, which also included the Constitution and Edicts. This book has gone through many editions and reprintings and has contributed much to the spread of Masonic knowledge among the Masons of the State. Webb's Monitor is, of course, its basis with many of Cross' changes and additions.


The history of Masonry in Alabama has not been replete with exciting or stirring events. Peace and harmony have at all times prevailed among the Craft, a condition favourable to its solid growth and prosperity. A long suc cession of able and devoted leaders (Grand Masters, Grand Secretaries, Grand Lecturers, Foreign Correspondents, etc.,) have assured it a firm and safe course at home and respect from abroad.


The Committee on Foreign Correspondence had its beginning in 182‑6, but its duties did not assume their present form till 1842‑. Prior to this latter date its reports were barren. The first real report was given in 1844 by Leroy Pope Walker, subsequently Secretary of War of the Confederacy. He reviewed twenty Grand Lodges in two pages and thus briefly cast the form for the future. The office of Grand Lecturer began with the organisation of the Grand Lodge in 182‑1 and existed till 1857. It then became vacant and was not recreated till 1889. With the death of Bro. Angus M. 'Scott in 1915, the office again lapsed and has so remained though repeated efforts have been made to revive it. A system of District Lecturers has taken its place.


James Penn, Grand Lecturer from 182‑7 to 1834, may fairly be regarded as the father of the " Alabama Work." Situated as the Lodges were in those days and under the conditions surrounding them, intercourse between them was of the most scanty nature and, Chartered as they were by five different Grand Lodges, it will be easily under stood that among these early Lodges there was no uniformity of " Work." To add to the confusion no doubt every Lodge had members made in different States, each feeling and insisting that his Work was the best and most authentic.


Until 1826 there was no established " Work "; each Lodge followed the Work of the State from which its members chiefly hailed. But at the 182‑6 Communication, under date of December 15, we find this record: Brother Penn offered the following resolution " Resolved that a working committee be appointed to consist of five brethren; who shall on Monday Evening next, exemplify the mode of work, which they may believe to be the most correct on the three First Degrees of Ma‑ 8 FREEMASONRY IN ALABAMA sonry," which being carried, Brothers McFarlane, Penn, Wallace, Phister and Wooldridge were appointed said committee.


The proceedings for the next Monday, December 18, contain the following: This being the day assigned for hearing the report of the working committee, Brother James Penn, from said committee, gave a splendid and most interesting exemplification of the mode of work agreed upon by said committee, in the three first degrees of Masonry, which was received with great and deserved applause.


So long as James Penn attended Grand Lodge, whenever the " Work " was exemplified, it was done under his direction. When, in 1846, he left the State his mantle fell upon the shoulders of James M. Brundidge, one of his initiates and pupils. From 1848 till his death on March 13, igoi, Bro. Brundidge was regarded as the last authority upon what was the proper " Work " for Alabama. He was without doubt the greatest ritualist Alabama Masonry has produced. Angus M. Scott, his pupil, was second only to Brundidge for length of service, for knowledge of the " Work," and for skill in imparting it. By their sweetness of spirit, their nobility of character, their purity of life, their charm of person and their ability as instructors, these three men left a lasting impression upon the Masonic Fraternity in this State.


The first standing Committee on Work was created in December 1842, and at no time since has the Grand Lodge been without such Committee. Sometimes its Chairman and the Grand Lecturer have been the same person, and sometimes not.


To the Grand Lecturers and their co‑workers, the Chairman of the Committee on Work, must be accorded a large measure of credit for the progress of the Craft and its present prosperous condition in the State.


Among the members of the Lodges in i82i, and prior thereto, were the foremost business, professional, and public men of the day, embracing United States senators, members of Congress, governors, legislators, lawyers, phy sicians, ministers, educators, etc., etc. A hasty glance discloses the following: Thomas W. Farrar, the first Grand Master, was a highly respected man and Mason. This is attested by the fact of his election to the highest office in the gift of his Brethren from among the distinguished body of men who composed the first Grand Lodge. He married Seraphine Bagneris, a French woman of high standing from Louisiana, by whom he had two sons, Du Volney T. and Du Vernay, and it is a tradition in his family that he and LaFayette were close friends and that the latter named Bro. Farrar's two sons. Descendants and relatives of Thomas W. Farrar reside in New Orleans, but they know little of him. It is regretted that our data are so meagre.


Thomas Amis Rogers 0'792‑i82i), the first Grand Secretary, died during this year at the early age of twenty‑nine years, yet he had served as a member of the State Constitutional Convention of 18ig, and as secretary of the State FREEMASONRY IN ALABAMA 9 Senate in 1819 and was secretary of state from i8i9 to his death in i821. He was a lawyer by profession and built the first court house for Shelby County. We do not wish to convert this sketch into a biographical dictionary of the prominent men of Alabama of that period, but we must mention the following Marmaduke Williams (1774‑i85o), lawyer; member of Congress; member of Constitutional Convention of 1819; judge; brother to Robert Williams, governor of Mississippi Territory; married Agnes Payne, first cousin of Dolly Madison; many prominent descendants in Alabama.


Thomas Fearn (1789‑1863), physician and surgeon; Gen. Andrew Jackson's personal physician in Creek War, 1813; member of Alabama " Secession Convention," 1861; member of first Confederate Congress.


John Brown, a soldier of the Revolutionary army; pensioned as such March 15, 1833.


Bartholomew Labuzan, a leading merchant of his day.


Constantine Perkins (1792‑1836), lawyer; elected attorney‑general of Alabama 1825; was under Andrew Jackson in Creek War of 1813.


Horatio Gates Perry (1795‑1834), lawyer; served in both branches of the Legislature; circuit judge.


Gabriel Moore (1785‑1845), lawyer; speaker of first Territorial Legislature of Alabama; member of Constitutional Convention of 1819; president of State Senate, i 82o; member of Congress, 1822‑29; governor, 1829‑31; U. S. senator, 1831‑37.


David Moore (1789‑1845), family physician of Andrew Jackson; elected to Legislature thirteen times; State Senate, 182.2.‑2.5; speaker of the House, 1841; extensive planter.


Clement Comer Clay (1789‑1866), lawyer; congressman; governor; U. S. senator; served in Creek War of 1813; member of Territorial Legislature and of Constitutional Convention of 1819; author of Clay's Digest, 1843.


Frederick Weeden, distinguished physician and surgeon; soldier.


George Washington Owen (1796‑1837), lawyer, studied in the office of Felix Grundy; partner of Governor John Gayle; speaker of the House, 182o; in Congress, 1823‑29; mayor of Mobile, 1836.


John Murphy (1785‑1841), lawyer; planter, governor, member of Congress; clerk of South Carolina Senate for ten years; member of Constitutional Convention of 1819.


Thomas Owen, lawyer; son‑in‑law of Marmaduke Williams and grandfather of Thomas McAdory Owen, founder and director of the Alabama Department of Archives and History.


Israel Pickens (178o‑1827), member of North Carolina Senate, i8o8‑Io; in Congress from that State, 1811‑17; register of U. S. Land Office at St. Stephens, Alabama; member of Constitutional Convention of 1819; governor, 1821‑25; U. S. senator, 1826.


Masonic membership in Alabama has been no less distinguished since 1821 10 FREEMASONRY IN ALABAMA than it was in that year and prior thereto. The names mentioned in this sketch, coupled with a reasonable familiarity with the history of Alabama, demonstrate what a large share Masonry has had in the settlement, founding, and building of the State. Nearly all of its leading men have been Masons.


In recent years the Masonic membership in Alabama has shown a marked decline. There are two main causes for this, the depressed financial conditions and the unwise facility afforded unworthy profanes for initiation during and following the World War.


CAPITULAR MASONRY On March 21, 1823, a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons was formed at Mobile by two Chapters. The Chapters participating were those at Tuscaloosa and Mobile. Two other Chapters then in the State, one at Cahaba and one at Claiborne, held aloof. This organisation had a precarious existence until September 1826, when the General Grand Chapter declared it irregular and recommended that another Grand Chapter be formed. Identified with this abortive attempt were prominent Masons of the day, among them Dugald McFarlane, Israel Pickens (then governor), and Nimrod E. Benson, as Grand High Priests.


On June 2, 1827, representatives of the four Chapters then in the State, working under the General Grand Chapter, to wit, Tuscaloosa, No. i, at Tuscaloosa; Alabama, No. 2, at Cahaba; Mobile, No. 3, at Mobile; and Monroe, No. 4, at Claiborne, met in Mobile and formed a new Grand Chapter, adopted a Constitution and elected Officers. John Murphy (then governor) was the first Grand High Priest under this Organisation. The Grand Chapter was not prosperous; it held meetings till July 8, 1830, and then went to sleep for more than seven years. There is no doubt this result was caused by the Morgan excitement.


Apparently under the stimulus of John C. Hicks, then Grand Master, on December 8, 1837, a meeting of Officers and representatives of the subordinate Chapters convened in the Masonic Lodge room at Tuscaloosa, at which it was resolved that a Grand Chapter be formed, " the former Grand Chapter of this State having failed to hold its constitutional meetings for the last seven years." The Grand Royal Arch Chapter was, thereupon, opened with John C. Hicks as Grand High Priest, and in this capacity he served for three years. He was succeeded on December 7, 1840, by Companion A. B. Dawson, of Wetumpka.


The period Of 1823 to 1841 may be counted as marking one era in the history of Capitular Masonry in Alabama. Another is that from 1841 through the Civil War period, and the third and last is that from, say, 1866 to date. The first period was characterised by doubt and uncertainty. The earlier portion of the second period was one of prosperity, but during the latter portion of this second period Royal Arch Masonry in Alabama was shattered like everything else by the tragic shock of war. The third period has been one of varying but continuous success and prosperity. The latest complete statistics show nearly 1o,ooo members.


FREEMASONRY IN ALABAMA On December 8, 1869, a Council of Anointed High Priests for Alabama was constituted at Montgomery. George D. Norris was chosen President; Daniel Sayre, Recorder; Richard F. Knott, Master of Ceremonies. The Coun cil has had a continuous and successful existence, though meetings were not held in 1882 to 1891, inclusive; 1894, 1897, 1898, 190, and 1901. Since the latter date its Convocations have been held regularly and are well attended during each Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge.


CRYPTIC MASONRY The Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters of the State of Alabama t was formed at the Masonic Hall, Tuscaloosa, on the evening of December 13, 1838, by twenty‑eight Royal and Select Masters, Gerard W. Creagh presiding, with F. C. Ellis as Recorder.


The others present were John C. Hicks, then Grand Master of Masons in Alabama; R. A. Baker, Charles Bealle, L. S. Skinner, E. W. Esselman, William Hazlett, Z. B. Snow, James Rather, J. D. Bears, Doric S. Ball, Carlo De Haro, Jacob Wyser, J. C. Van Dyke, Armand P. Phister, Walker K. Baylor, Major Cook, James G. Blount, James L. F. Cottrell (the successor in Congress of William L. Yancey), W. R. Ross, G. T. McAfee, John Cantley, A. B. Dawson, Rev. James H. Thomason, J. B. Norris, Carter R. Harrison, and William H. Payne. The proceedings are silent as to whence hailed these companions, though we know from other sources that most of them resided in and around Tuscaloosa.


A Constitution was adopted and Companion Creagh was elected " Thrice I Illustrious General Grand Master." (The word " General " was eliminated from the nomenclature in 1846.) Of those participating, John C. Hicks, Armand P. Phister, and Walker K. Baylor were already prominent in the Masonic life of Alabama. To the well‑known Bro. John Barker, of Scottish Rite fame, is accorded the honour of first sowing in Alabama the seeds of Cryptic Masonry. The Grand Council held its Annual Assemblies regularly (except 1840) to and including 1860. The decline about 1840 was doubtless due to the Morgan excitement. The growth of the Grand Council during the period from 1840 to the Civil War was slow but steady. The records show one active subordinate Council in 1838; four in 1841; twenty‑four in 1850, and sixteen in 1860. Other distinguished Masons who appeared in Grand Council during this period were James Penn, father of the Masonic " Work " in Alabama; David Moore, William Hendrix, William C. Penick, Lewis E. Parsons (subsequently governor and elected United States senator in 1865 but not seated), Sterling A. M. Wood, J. McCaleb Wiley, David Clopton (subsequently a justice of the Supreme Court), } Nimrod E. Benson, James M. Brundidge, Alabama's greatest ritualist; Felix G. Norman, David P. Lewis (subsequently governor), Daniel Sayre (long Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge), Rufus Greene, Lewis B. Thornton, John A. Loder, distinguished lawyer, and others.


On the roll of members of Central Council, at Marion, was the name of 12 FREEMASONRY IN ALABAMA the accomplished minister and writer Eugene V. Levert, and on that of Tuscaloosa Council the name of the distinguished educator, Frederick A. P. Barnard, subsequently president of Columbia College (now University), and the founder of Barnard College for Women.


The regularity of the formation of the Grand Council seems never to have been challenged. At the 1841 Assembly ministers of the gospel were exempt from dues, and " the original members of the Grand Council " were allowed to vote in the election of Officers. In 1843, 1845, and 1847 the Grand Council expressed its disapproval of the proposed transfer of the Cryptic Degrees to the Royal Arch Chapters. This question agitated the Grand Chapter for many years, the latest echo being heard in 1880. Alabama has at all times stood firmly for the independence of the Cryptic Degrees.


At the 1845 Assembly that master ritualist, James Penn, exemplified the Cryptic Degrees before the Grand Council and it was resolved that the subordinate Councils be enjoined to practise the same. Thus, Bro. Penn appears as the father of the Cryptic " Work " in Alabama, as he was of that of the Symbolic Degrees. In 1848 Dispensations were issued for Louisiana Council, No. 15, at New Orleans, and for Columbus Council, No. 16, at Columbus, Mississippi. These were never Chartered and ceased existence in 1851.


In 1849 it developed that an Officer acting under the authority of the Grand Consistory of Charleston, South Carolina, had conferred the Cryptic Degrees on Masons residing in Alabama, and that these companions had applied to and obtained from the Grand Council a Dispensation to form a subordinate Council, Izabud, at LaFayette. On discovering these facts the Dispensation of Izabud Council was withdrawn and demand made on the Consistory that the fees collected by its Officer be returned to the Brethren paying them. This demand was repeated several times, but never with any result.


Being unable even to get a reply from the Consistory, at the 1855 Assembly the Grand Council discharged its Committee and adopted a resolution that it had " exclusive jurdisiction over all subordinate councils in Alabama and over the degrees of Royal and Select Masters and that any attempt by the Grand Consistory of South Carolina, or any officer thereof, to establish Councils in Alabama or to confer these degrees will be regarded as an act of usurpation and unwarranted by Masonic usage." This was but another phase of the long controversy over the position of the Cryptic Degrees in the Masonic system.


In 1850 the New Masonic Trestle Board, by Moore, was adopted " for the government of the Grand and Subordinate Councils." The use of the term " adjourned " was disapproved and " assembly " instead of " meeting " was recommended.


At the 1852 Assembly, the distinguished ritualist and author, Companion J. W. S. Mitchell, was present and installed the Officers.


In 1854 the Grand Council adopted as the uniform of the Cryptic Degrees " a collar and apron of Tyrian purple, trimmed with gold." In the 1857 proceeding it is noted that at the last Triennial of the General FREEMASONRY IN ALABAMA 13 Grand Chapter an effort had been made to form a General Grand Council but that the movement failed because several of the Grand Councils, among them that of Alabama, had no one present authorised to participate. At the next Annual Assembly, the Committee on Foreign Correspondence, through Companion Lewis B. Thornton, reported adversely.


In 1858 the Grand Puissant granted a Dispensation to form California Council, No. 38, at San Francisco.


At the 1859 Assembly a resolution was offered that no Council can be opened or work with less than nine Royal and Select Masters, and that those receiving said Degrees in a Council of less than that number would not be recognised. No action was ever taken upon the resolution, but Alabama has always adhered to the quorum of nine.


The history of the post‑Civil War period of the Grand Council is quickly told. On December 8, 1864, the Civil War had nearly spent itself and on that date the Grand Council again convened at Montgomery with nine Councils represented. Only three of its Officers, however, appeared: James B. Harrison, Grand Puissant; Daniel Sayre, Recorder; and Thomas McDougal, Grand Sentinel.


By December 6, 1865, the war had become history; the Grand Council met with thirteen Councils represented and five of its regular Officers in place. The Recorder reported that Cryptic Masonry was reviving in Alabama, and expressed his hope that " our future should be steadily onward and upward." This hope has been fulfilled with one marked exception. In 188o the General Grand Council was formed and, in the same year, the Grand Council of Alabama ratified the general Constitution and became a member. Soon, how ever, a decline set in and by 1886 the state of Cryptic Masonry was so low that no Annual Assembly was held. At the 1887 Annual, the Grand Master reported to the Grand Council that " our numbers are now reduced to the minimum," and that all but three of the Councils in the State were dormant, and that these three were in a " very feeble condition." The Grand Master recommended that the Grand Council be dissolved and that the subordinates hold under the General Grand Council. This action was not taken, but, at the 1888 Annual, connection with the General Grand Council was dissolved, the resolution reciting that it was " detrimental to be subordinated longer to the General Grand Council." For the next seventeen years the Grand Council was an independent body.


In 1892‑ it was resolved that the Degree of Super‑Excellent Master be conferred without charge on all Royal and Select Masters, members of Councils in Alabama.


Not till 1894 did the languishing condition of Cryptic Masonry show signs of reawakening. Conditions were further improved in 1895 and " hard times," incompetent presiding Officers in the Councils, and the scramble for advance ment without knowing anything about the Cryptic Degrees were assigned as the causes of the low state of this branch of Masonry.


14 FREEMASONRY IN ALABAMA In 1898 the Annual Assembly met in the new Masonic Temple on Perry Street, Montgomery, where it has ever since been held.


By 1899 the country and Cryptic Masonry were again prosperous, and the latter has continued so in varying degrees ever since, though it is again feeling the effect of the present world‑wide depression in business.


In 19o5 the Grand Council renewed its membership in the General Grand Council and this relation has since been maintained to the advantage of both. From 6 Councils in 1904 with 357 members, the increase has been to 22 Councils with about 3ooo members.


KNIGHTS TEMPLAR This Concordant Order, though not technically a part of Freemasonry, will be briefly treated.


In the year 186o there were five Commanderies in Alabama, all chartered by the Grand Encampment of the United States. They were Washington, No. I, at Marion; Mobile, No. 2; Tuscumbia, No. 3 ; Montgomery, No. 4; and Selma, No. 5, with a total of about 15o members.


Charter for the first of these, Washington, No. I, was refused in 1841 by the Grand Encampment, but was granted on September 12, 1844; then came Mobile, Tuscumbia, and Montgomery, and finally the Charter for the last, Selma, No. 5, was issued September 16, 1859. At the 1847 Triennial of the Grand Encampment there was authorised the issuance of a Charter to " Barker Encampment," at Claiborne, Alabama, as soon as it complied with the requirements of the General Grand Constitution, made proper returns, and paid all dues. This movement must have fallen through as no such body is shown on the roster for 185o or any subsequent year of the Grand Encampment. This name affords evidence, however, of the popularity in Alabama of Bro. John Barker.


On December I, 186o, in the Asylum of Montgomery, No. 4, the "Grand Commandery of Knight Templar and Appendant Orders of Alabama " was formed, under warrant from the Grand Encampment of the United States. Richard F. Knott, one of the most distinguished Masons of his day, was elected Grand Commander, a position he held for eight years. Washington, No. I, then in a moribund state, did not participate. So the Order of Knights Templar had a brief but uneventful history in Alabama of about sixteen years before the formation of the Grand Commandery. The Grand Conclave of 186o was held in regular course, but by 1862 the disruptions resulting from war had become so great that a quorum could not be obtained. It was not represented at the Triennials of 1862 or 1865 for the same reasons. Its history has been undisturbed except by the difficulties of the Civil War and Reconstruction periods, and its growth in numbers and influence has been steady. Able men have presided over it and served on its Committee on Foreign Correspondence. Their addresses and reports make the printed proceedings of great interest and value. On December 9, 1861, the Grand Commandery and its subordinates were incor‑ FREEMASONRY IN ALABAMA 15 porated by Act of the Legislature of Alabama. From its small beginning in 1860, with 5 Commanderies and only about 150 members, it now boasts 35 Commanderies with over 5000 members. Despite the present general financial depression, its future is bright.


THE SCOTTISH RITE In 1865, Grand Commander Albert Pike reported the Scottish Rite membership in Alabama as " exceedingly limited," with no organisation of the Rite and no Inspector‑General. In his allocution of May 1870 he said of Alabama In this State no attempt was made to propagate the Ancient and Accepted Rite, until, in December 1867, Ill. Bro. Batchelor established in Mobile the several bodies of the degrees up to the Kadosh. I have no report from Ill. Bro. Knott, Deputy for the State, of the establishment of bodies or of any initiation, nor have I had any communications from him for quite a year and half. I hoped to hear long ago of the establishment of the Rite at Montgomery, the capital of the State; and it ought not to be difficult, among the great number of intelligent Masons in Alabama, to find many worthy of initiation into the higher mysteries.


The 1872 Transactions of the Supreme Council show Mobile Lodge of Perfection, No. I, with thirty‑seven members; Mobile Council of Princes of Jerusalem, No. I, with fifteen members; Mobile Chapter, Knights of Rose‑Croix, No. I, with ten members; and Mobile Council of Kadosh, No. I, with eleven members. These were the earliest bodies of the Rite to be established in the State. In 1874 there were no reports from Alabama and in 1876 Grand Commander Pike reported the Bodies at Mobile as " lifeless and extinct." On April 13, 1874, Alabama Lodge of Perfection, No. I, at Montgomery, was Chartered, but in 1876 Grand Commander Pike reported it as giving " no signs of vitality." However, this body is still on the Roster of the Supreme Council and at present has 1109 members. It and the other Scottish Rite bodies now at Montgomery have erected there a magnificent temple. The other bodies of the Rite at Montgomery were chartered as follows Hermes Chapter of Rose‑Croix, October 2o, 1899, present membership 939; Mitchell Council of Kadosh, October 22, 1915, present membership 813; Holbrook Consistory, October 2o, 1917, present membership 803.


The other Scottish Rite bodies in Alabama were Chartered as follows Birmingham Lodge of Perfection, October 2o, 1897, present membership 3199; Birmingham Chapter of Rose‑Croix, October 2o, 1899, present membership 2‑811; Birmingham Council of Kadosh, October 2o, 1899, present membership, 2691; Alabama Consistory, Birmingham, October 2o, 1899, present membership 2642; Mobile Lodge of Perfection, October 24, 1901, present membership 2iio; Mobile Chapter of Rose‑Croix, May 21, 1903, present membership, 1802; Mobile Council of Kadosh, October 23, 1907, present membership 1692; 16 FREEMASONRY IN ALABAMA Mobile Consistory, October 2.3, 1907, present membership 1688; Dothan Lodge of Perfection, October i9, 192.7, present membership 114.


The foregoing tables show that the Scottish Rite in Alabama is flourishing. The Birmingham and Dothan bodies are also housed in splendid temples. Alabama has furnished two of the Grand Commanders of the Rite in the Southern jurisdiction, viz.: James C. Batchelor and George Fleming Moore.


CONCLUSION Masonry in all its branches is firmly established in the State. On the whole its course here has been peaceful and prosperous. Like everything else, the Grand Lodge and Masonry in general in the State have suffered during the past few years on account of bad business conditions and other causes, but it is confidently believed that the bottom has been reached and soon the Craft will be experiencing another era of prosperity. It is not Masonic to be pessimistic; Hope is one of the guiding principles of Freemasonry. Masonry has passed through these valleys many times and has always emerged wiser and stronger than before.


FREEMASONRY IN ARIZONA HARRY ARIZONA DRACHMAN 0 RGANISED Masonry came into existence in the Territory of Arizona on April 22, 1865 . It was on that date that a Dispensation was issued by the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of California to form Aztlan Lodge at Prescott, Arizona. At the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of California, held on October 15, 1865, the Committee on Charters made the following report of interest to all Arizona Masons: " Your Committee has had under consideration the application of Aztlan Lodge for a continuance of its Dispensation until the next Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge. This Lodge is located at Prescott, in Arizona Territory, and the great distance between us and that locality, and the uncertain and slow means of communication, afford a sufficient reason why the Lodge's Records and Returns have not yet been received. Bro. Alsap, the Master of the Lodge, well says in his application: ` This is a small community, far removed from others, an advance post of the army of civilisation, fighting against barbarism, with a hostile and savage foe around, and‑depending upon our own armed hands for safety of life and property. I say it proudly, nowhere are the Constitutions of Masonry more cherished and loved, or its principles better or more nobly illustrated. The worthy distressed Brother here has ever found a friendly word and helping hand.' " With all this in mind, the Grand Lodge of California did continue the Dispensation of the Prescott Lodge until the former's next Annual Communication. The first three Officers named under the Dispensation were John T. Alsap, Worshipful Master; Hezekiah Brooks, Senior Warden; and Herbert Bowers, Junior Warden. Then, on October 11, 1866, the Grand Lodge of California having found that the Records of Aztlan Lodge had been creditably kept, granted it a Charter and assigned it as No. 177. The Officers who had been named in the Dispensation continued under the Charter.


The next Lodge to organise in the Territory was Arizona Lodge, at Phoenix, to which a Dispensation was issued by the Grand Lodge of California on August 9, 1879. Then, on October 16 of the same year, a Charter was granted to 17 18 FREEMASONRY IN ARIZONA the Lodge and it was registered as No. 257. The first three Officers of this Lodge were John T. Alsap, Worshipful Master; Francis A. Shaw, Senior Warden; and Newell Herrick, Junior Warden.


Arizona Lodge was followed by White Mountain Lodge, at Globe, Arizona, the third Lodge to be organised in the Territory. This Lodge was issued a Dispensation from the New Mexico Grand Lodge on July 1, 188o. Because there was no two‑story building in the town of Globe at the time, the Grand Lodge of California had refused to issue a Dispensation to form a Lodge there. For that reason the Brethren there petitioned the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, which allowed Lodges to meet on ground floors, provided they were safe from intrusion and properly tiled. The Altar, Pillars, Pedestals, Columns, and other Lodge furniture used by the Lodge were designed and put together by local carpenters. The jewels were made of tin, from which they had been neatly cut by the local tinsmith, Bro. Jacob Abraham. Suspended on collars of blue ribbon, they presented a unique appearance. During the time the Brethren were awaiting news of the Dispensation from the New Mexico Grand Lodge, John Kennedy was induced to erect a two‑story building. This was then readily accepted by the Masons, and leased by them for five years. In order that the Officers might familiarise themselves with the Ritual of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, they occasionally met in lonely cabins on the high hills that surround Globe, or in the wilderness near by. The first meeting of this Lodge held under Dispensation took place on August 2, i88o, with the following Officers officiating: A. H. Morehead, Worshipful Master; Alonzo Bailey, Senior Warden; and Jacob Abraham, Junior Warden. Then on January 18, 1881, a Charter was granted to the White Mountain Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons, by the Grand Lodge of New Mexico. It was registered as No. 5.


The first quasi‑Masonic organisation in Tucson was a Masonic Club which was organised on April 11, 1875. This, however, ceased to exist on February 3, 1876. Then, on October i9, 1879, the Tucson Masonic Relief Association was organised, the purpose of which was " to relieve distressed worthy Brother Masons, their wives, widows, and orphans, and to encourage social and fraternal intercourse among the Brethren." This organisation was also shortlived, for it lasted only until December 7, 1879. A few months later, on February 6, 188o, to be exact, the Masonic Association of Tucson was organised, with George J. Roskruge as President. On February 17 of the next year, this organisation became Tucson Lodge, under a Dispensation issued by the Grand Lodge of California. Its Charter was granted October 15, 1881, and the number 2‑63 was assigned to it. The first three Officers of the Lodge were: Ansel M. Bragg, Worshipful Master; George J. Roskruge, Senior Warden; Abraham Marx, Junior Warden. The next Lodge to be formed in Arizona Territory was Solomon Lodge, at Tombstone, for which a Dispensation was granted by the Grand Lodge of California on June 14, 1881. The first Officers were: William A. Harwood, Worshipful Master; Benjamin Titus, Senior Warden; and Thomas R. Sorin, Junior Warden.


FREEMASONRY IN ARIZONA 23 On February 5, 1882, Tucson Lodge, No. 263, sent the following letter to the four other Lodges in the Territory: Hall of Tucson Lodge No. 263 Free and Accepted Masons Tucson, Arizona February 5, 1882 To the Master, Wardens, and Brethren of Lodge No.


Free and Accepted Masons Arizona Brethren On Tuesday the 21st March next we will dedicate our new Masonic Hall, now in course of construction, and we extend a cordial invitation to the Officers and members of your Lodge to participate with us on that occasion.


We would also suggest the idea of forming a Grand Lodge at that time, there being now five Lodges in the Territory. If this suggestion meets with your approval, will you elect Delegates to attend for that purpose; and should the Grand Lodge be formed, Tucson Lodge will pay Delegates fees same as‑ in California. At all events we will be happy to see any and all members of your Lodge present at the opening of the hall.


We have extended the same invitation and suggestion to all Lodges in the Territory.


Fraternally yours Ansel Mellen Bragg, Master George James Roskruge, Senior Warden Abraham Marx, Junior Warden All the Lodges, excepting only Aztlan Lodge, No. 177, of Prescott, sent Delegates to the Convention. The following communication from Aztlan explains why that Lodge did not also sent Representatives to Tucson Hall of Aztlan Lodge No. 177, Free and Accepted Masons Prescott, Arizona March 21, 1882 To the Master, Wardens, and Brethren of Tucson Lodge No. 263 Free and Accepted Masons Tucson, Arizona Brethren The Committee appointed by this Lodge at their last regular meeting to fully investigate the advisability and necessity of establishing a Grand Lodge in the Territory of Arizona and severing our connection with the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of California, have been in daily consultation and deliberation over the subject‑matter in question and have come to the conclusion not to send anyone from this Lodge to represent us in the Convention to assemble 24 FREEMASONRY IN ARIZONA at Tucson; that we do not believe in the " advisability and necessity " of forming a Grand Lodge in Arizona at this time; that the expense attending such a move will not be for the good of Masonry in this Territory; that it will cause a falling off of membership in all the Lodges in consequence of additional expense, and ultimately result in bankruptcy and the surrender of a majority of the Charters of the several Lodges now existing; that we believe it ill advised and premature.


Trusting you may fully realise your highest anticipations in your coming dedication and festivities, we are, Brethren, Very fraternally yours, Geo. D. Kendall, Past Master Chairman of the Committee Nevertheless the Representatives of Arizona Lodge, No. 2.57, at Phoenix, of Tucson Lodge, No. 2.63, at Tucson, and of White Mountain Lodge, No. 5, at Globe, met at Tucson on March 2.3, 1882.. Representatives of Solomon Lodge U. D., of Tombstone, were also invited to take part in the deliberations of the Convention. Alonzo Bailey was elected Chairman, and George J. Roskruge was appointed Secretary. A Constitution was then adopted by the Convention, a Lodge of Master Masons was opened, and the following Grand Officers were elected and appointed: Ansel M. Bragg, Grand Master; John T. Alsap, Deputy Grand Master; Alonzo Bailey, Senior Grand Warden; William A. Harwood, Junior Grand Warden; Abraham Marx, Grand Treasurer; George J. Roskruge, Grand Secretary; Charles M. Strauss, Grand Chaplain; James A. Zabriskie, Grand Orator; Joseph B. Creamer, Grand Marshal; Josiah Brown, Grand Bible Bearer; James D. Monihon, Grand Standard Bearer; Thomas R. Sorin, Grand Sword Bearer; Francis A. Shaw, Senior Grand Deacon; Charles A. Fisk, Junior Grand Deacon; Benjamin Titus, Senior Grand Steward; William Tucker, Junior Grand Steward; William Downie, Grand Pursuivant; Solon M. Allis, Grand Organist; and James M. Elliott, Grand Tyler. The Master Mason's Lodge was then closed, and the Convention, having completed the business for which it assembled, was adjourned sine die.


The M.*.W.%Grand Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons, of the Territory of Arizona was then opened in ample form on March 2.5, 1882.. A resolution was passed that the M.'.W.'.Grand Master and V.'.W.'.Grand Secretary should endorse the Charters of the Lodges represented. Since Aztlan Lodge, No. 177, was not represented at the Convention, the following resolution regarding it was passed: " Resolved, That it should be properly represented to the Grand Master during the recess of the Grand Lodge that Aztlan Lodge now holden at Prescott, Arizona Territory, was a duly constituted Lodge, the Grand Master is hereby authorised to adopt the same course and make a similar endorsement on its Charter as on the Charters of the other Lodges in the Territory." Upon receipt of the engrossed Proceedings of the Grand Lodge Communication of March 25, 1882., the M.'.W. *Master of Aztlan Lodge wrote to the Grand FREEMASONRY IN ARIZONA ZS Secretary. He referred to the resolution passed by the Grand Lodge regarding the endorsement of Aztlan Lodge's Charter, and objected to sending the Charter out of his control for that purpose. A second interesting letter to the same effect is also found in the Grand Lodge archives. It reads as follows: Prescott, Arizona Territory June 3, x882 George J. Roskruge, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge Free and Accepted Masons of Arizona Tucson, Arizona Territory Dear Sir and Brother: Yours of the 31st May received to‑day, and I hasten to reply so as to delay your work as little as possible.


Before I wrote my letter of the 29th I had read the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge, and judging from them that the Grand Master would want to see our Charter I used the language that you quote. I am still of the opinion that it would not be right for me to send you by express or otherwise our Charter. Comparing dates, it seems as if six days were the least number it could possibly take to send it to you and return, if all worked well. During this time we could not examine distressed Brethren who might apply for relief nor open our Lodge even for the burial of a Brother, should it unfortunately be our duty to do so.


I do not know of any section of the California law which bears on the case, and so I quote to you the words of Mackey : " I have no doubt that the Grand Master cannot demand the delivery of the Warrant into his custody, for having been intrusted to the Master, Wardens, and their successors by the Grand Lodge, the Master who is the proper custodian of it has no right to surrender it to anyone, except to that Body from whom it emanated." It seems to me that the Grand Master can easily satisfy himself as to our being a regularly constituted Lodge, without seeing our Charter, and can then send us a copy of the endorsement under the Grand Seal and attested by you. With this we could work until such time as we might be able to present our Charter under the care of the Master or Warden.


I am desirous of facilitating your labours by all proper means, but the more I consider my duty under the circumstances the less I am inclined to send the Charter out of my control.


I enclose you therefore the Petition drawn in accordance with the Resolution of our Lodge, which please present to the Grand Master for his action. With assurances of fraternal regard, I am yours truly, Morris Goldwater Master of Aztlan Lodge No. 177 Although the Records do not show just how the Grand Master succeeded in endorsing the Charter, we do know that on June 14, 1882, the proper endorsement was made, and Aztlan Lodge, No. 177, being the oldest Lodge in the Territory, was registered as No. 1 in the list of Arizona Lodges.


26 FREEMASONRY IN ARIZONA The year 1882 was a time of hardship and danger in Arizona. The Territory had a small white population living in widely scattered communities. Although the Southern Pacific Railway had recently completed its main line across the southern part of the Territory, it was of little help to the inhabitants, since most of them lived in remote districts. Roads were little more than trails, and due to heavy mountain snows and summer storms, they were impassable much of the time. At all times there was also constant danger from roving bands of stage‑coach robbers and Apache Indians. Travel on the main roads was done in either four‑ or six‑horse Concord stage‑coaches or in buckboards; on the mountain trails it was done by horseback or muleback. Danger of attack by marauding Indians made it necessary to do much of the travelling between twilight and dawn. And, of course, few comforts for the weary traveller were to be found at the journey's end. Therefore, it was under such trying conditions as these that the early Masons of Arizona managed to perfect the organisation of the Grand Lodge and to attend the regular meetings of their local Lodges. Indeed, it was not until 1895 that northern and southern Arizona were connected by rail, thus making possible a steady increase in Masonic membership and in the number of Chartered Lodges throughout the Territory.


At the first Annual Meeting of the Grand Lodge, held in November, 1882, Bro. Morris Goldwater introduced a resolution for the appointment of a Committee of three to present to the Grand Lodge at its next Session the most feasi ble method of creating a widow's and orphan's fund. This was done and the Committee reported in November 1883, proposing the following plan for the creation of the fund: That each Lodge pay for each Master Mason borne upon its Rolls the sum of fifty cents per annum. The plan was adopted, and the first year's record of the fund shows that there was a membership of 35o, and the sum of $175 in the fund. To‑day, with a membership of 6685 there is to the credit of this fund $118,794. In 1918 the Grand Lodge created an endowment fund which now amounts to $161,459. The purpose of the funds was the erection and maintenance of a Home for aged and needy Masons, their widows and orphans. Although the Home has not yet been built, the aged and needy are generously taken care of with money from these funds. In 1922 a large Home with extensive grounds, located at Oracle, Arizona, was offered to the Grand Lodge on condition that it be used for the care and treatment of tubercular patients. The offer was accepted and the Grand Lodge has since maintained the Home for ambulatory tubercular patients, the large majority of whom come from sister Grand Jurisdictions. Although the Home is not now equipped with hospital facilities for the care of advanced cases, it is hoped that in the near future, with the aid of sister Grand jurisdictions it may be made a permanent national Masonic tubercular sanitarium.


Of the early pioneer Masons, none undertook greater responsibility for the success of Masonry than Bro. George J. Roskruge, known as " Father of Masonry in Arizona," and Grand Secretary for forty‑five years. Never discouraged by the great handicaps of adverse opinions and scant funds, he worked tire‑ FREEMASONRY IN ARIZONA z.7 lessly and advanced money liberally to promote the growth and success of the Fraternity in Arizona.


Another eminent Mason was Marcus A. Smith, a member of Tucson Lodge, No. 4, who was for years delegate to Congress from Arizona Territory, and later United States Senator for a number of years until his death. Among those prominent in the Masonic Fraternity of Arizona to‑day is Bro. George W. P. Hunt, a member of White Mountain Lodge, No. 3, of Globe, who has served as governor of the State for seven terms and was minister to Siam by appointment of President Wilson. Still other prominent Arizona Masons are Ralph Cameron, Past Master of Flagstaff Lodge, No. 7, a former United States Senator; Carl Hayden, Past Master of Tempe Lodge, No. 15, who was once a representative in the national Congress and is now a United States senator; Ygnacio Bonillas, Past Master of Nogales Lodge, No. ii, who was ambassador for the Republic of Mexico to the United States during President Carranza's term; and Dr. Andrew E. Douglass, Past Master of Flagstaff Lodge, No. 7, now a member of Tucson Lodge, No. 4, who is internationally known for his scientific work in astronomy and tree‑ring research.


Since the formation of the Grand Lodge in 1882, with 5 Lodges, a membership of 274, and no cash resources, it has grown to 38 Lodges, having 6685 members and cash resources of $326,778.


Alexander G. Abell, Very Worshipful Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of California for years, did much to promote the order in Arizona. Hon. John Howard was largely instrumental in helping to organise the first Masonic Lodge in Arizona, which was at Prescott. The first recorded minutes of a meeting are without date. This, however, was in the year 1864, the Secretary being Lieut. Charles Curtis, of the United States army.


The meeting was held at the house of John N. Goodwin, then governor of the Territory, Mr. Goodwin being the presiding officer.


It was resolved to apply to the Grand Lodge of California for Dispensation to open a Lodge at Prescott. The name selected was Aztlan. John T. Alsap was chosen Worshipful Master; Joseph Ehle, Senior Warden; and H. Brooks, Junior Warden. Bro. John T. Alsap was afterwards the second Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Arizona. The petition was signed by nine Master Masons. As it was necessary to have a recommendation from the nearest Lodge, Joseph Lemon was selected to carry the petition to Santa Fe, New Mexico.


At the next meeting, which is also without date, $300 were subscribed for the purpose of procuring and furnishing a hall. Upon the return of John Lemon from Santa Fe, John N. Goodwin was chosen to present the petition to the Grand Master of California. This was done April 22, 1865, and the petition was granted.


Owing to the inability of Mr. Ehle to secure a demit from his Lodge, H. Brooks was named Senior Warden and Herbert Bowers, Junior Warden.


The first to apply for Degrees was Lieut. Samuel L. Barr, a Fellow‑craft. The first named as affiliating members were N. L. Griffin, A. W. Adams, and z8 FREEMASONRY IN ARIZONA Ned Pierce. September 30, 1865, the first regular Work was done. A. C. Noyes and J. G. Mitchell receiving the Entered Apprentice Degree and Lieut. Samuel L. Barr being raised to the Sublime Degree of Master Mason.


The first Lodge funeral held was on January 2, 1866, Stephen Lea, a member of an Oregon Lodge being the deceased.


On August 1866 the last meeting under Dispensation was held. The debts of the Lodge were all paid; the books, papers, and Dispensation were forwarded to California by Bro. Samuel L. Barr, and by a vote of the Lodge the Grand Lodge of California was asked to change the name of the Lodge from Aztlan to Arizona Lodge and to grant a Charter. January 21, 1867, the Charter arrived, but the name of the Lodge remained as Aztlan Lodge, No. 177. The Charter was brought from San Francisco, California, to La Paz by Charles N. Genung, and from La Paz to Prescott by Joseph R. Walker.


[The above is taken from an address delivered at Prescott, Arizona, June 24, 1891, by Morris Goldwater, Past Grand Master, upon the twenty‑fifth anniversary of the Masonic Order in Arizona.] FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS ANDREW J. RUSSELL A THOUGH Arkansas is rich in Masonic lore, any one attempting to write or compile a comprehensive history of Freemasonry during its more than one hundred years of organised existence in the State is greatly handicapped by a lack of Records. The loss of the Grand Lodge's library by fire at three different times has made it impossible for the historian to be sure that his statements are absolutely authentic. In fact, much of the Arkansas Masonic history that does exist is based on tradition rather than on written records chronologically arranged. In order to offset this lack of documentary evidence, the Grand Lodge of 1871, realising the need of gathering and preserving Masonic data, appointed a History Commission for that purpose. During the next two years this Commission made reports on its findings, and by the time of the Session of 1873 it seems to have caught up with its work. The gist of its reports was, however, merely a recital of important features of the organisation of the Grand Lodge in 1838, supplemented by biographical sketches of Past Grand Masters.


Again, in 1927, the task of bringing such data up to date was undertaken. At the Session held that year, another History Commission was created. This second Commission has, with the assistance of the Grand Secretary, succeeded in restoring a complete file of all Proceedings except those for the years 1839 and 1840. Some of the earlier Proceedings were obtained only by making copies of data preserved in the libraries of other Grand Jurisdictions. Still other data that were gathered and are still being gathered give facts regarding the early history of the 73o Lodges (511 of which are still active, which have been Chartered by the Grand Jurisdiction. The task of procuring portraits of all Past Grand Masters was also undertaken. With only a few exceptions, that task is now complete. The collection of historic mementoes which has recently been brought together includes bound volumes of The Trowel, a Masonic publication edited by Past Grand Master George Thornburgh from 1886 to 1922, as well as many Masonic histories and encyclopxdias in which references to Freemasonry in Arkansas are made. From those and the writer's own memories and associations, gained from attending every Session of the Grand Lodge held since 1886, he has gathered material for this brief sketch.


The tradition that Symbolic Masonry was introduced into Arkansas by the Spaniards in 1770, as suggested by one writer, is vague and independable. It is an historic fact, however, that following the expeditions of Hernando de Soto in the sixteenth century several Spanish settlements were made in that z9 30 FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS part of the Missouri Territory from which Arkansas Territory was afterwards carved. The first of those was at Arkansas Post. In the minds of many it is not improbable that Freemasonry existed in some form among the early pioneers of those first settlements, but the belief cannot be substantiated by authentic records.


Beginning with the indisputably authentic records, we, however, find that in i8i9, Andrew Scott, a resident of Potosi, Missouri, was appointed by President James Monroe to serve as judge of the Superior Court of the Territory of Arkansas. After removing to Arkansas Territory and locating there, he and other members of the Fraternity in that region petitioned the Grand Lodge of Kentucky for Arkansas Lodge, to be located at Arkansas Post, then capital of the Territory. The Charter naming Robert M. Johnson as Worshipful Master was issued on November 30, 1819. Upon Judge Scott's departure from Potosi, the Officers and members of his Lodge there had deemed it advisable to surrender their letters of Dispensation, and in so doing they had requested the Grand Lodge of Kentucky to permit judge Scott to retain the jewels of the Potosi Lodge for the purpose of presenting them to the first Masonic Lodge to be established in the Arkansas Territory. The request was granted, and accordingly, upon the institution of Arkansas Lodge U. D. the jewels which had formerly been used by his old Lodge in Missouri were presented by judge Scott to the first Lodge in the new Territory.


Later, in 182‑1, when the seat of government was removed from Arkansas Post almost all members demitted from Arkansas Lodge, for they too were removing to the new seat of government. This made it necessary for the Lodge there also to surrender its Dispensation to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, and again judge Scott retained the jewels for the purpose of presenting them to the next Lodge to be established in his adopted Territory. However, a period of fifteen years, from 1821 to 1836, appears to have elapsed before any further movement looking toward the establishment of new Lodges was undertaken. This was probably due to the " anti‑Masonic excitement " which was raging with intense fury at about that time. In 1836, however, the year of the admission of Arkansas into the Union, the Grand Lodge of Tennessee was Petitioned for a Dispensation for a new Lodge to be located at Fayetteville, in Washington County. The Dispensation was granted, and the Lodge was called Washington Lodge. It was later Chartered as Lodge No. 82‑, with Onesimus Evans acting as its Master, James McKisick as Senior Warden, and Matthew Leeper' as Junior Warden. Upon the establishment of this Lodge, Judge Scott again made good his promise concerning the jewels. When the Charter was granted, however, it was accompanied by proper jewels, and, at the suggestion of judge Scott, the new Lodge presented the jewels which he had brought with him from Missouri to Clarksville Lodge, No. 9, which meantime had been Instituted by the Grand Lodge of Arkansas. Then, in 1845, when the Charter of Clarksville Lodge, No. 9, was taken up, the jewels were placed in the keeping of Franklin Lodge. Two years later they were placed in the archives of the FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS 31 Grand Lodge of Arkansas, where they were later unfortunately destroyed by fire.


In September, 1837, the Grand Lodge of Louisiana granted a Dispensation for Western Star Lodge, at Little Rock, designating Edward Cross as Master, Charles L. Jeffries as Senior Warden, and Nicholas Peay as junior Warden. The Charter for this Lodge was issued on February 12, 1838, as Western Star Lodge, No. 43. Before January 6, 1836, a second attempt to establish Masonry at Arkansas Post had been authorised by the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, and a Charter had been issued to Morning Star Lodge, No. 42, of that place. But the attempt to revive Masonry there was almost futile, for as time passed the historic village, itself the first point of settlement and the first capital of the State, began gradually to disappear, leaving little trace of its Masonic activities.


The next Lodge to be established in Arkansas was granted a Dispensation by the Grand Master of Alabama on November 21, 1838. It was called Mount Horeb Lodge and was located at Washington, in Hempstead County. Soon after its establishment this and the other Chartered Lodges of the State called a Convention, which met in Little Rock on November 21, 1838, and after a six days' Session adjourned sine die. The total membership of all the Lodges in Arkansas at that time was about one hundred. The following copy of the Record, or rather, abstract, of the Convention's Proceedings was obtained by the Arkansas History Commission from the files in the archives of the Grand Lodge in Missouri.


NOTICE OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONVENTION THAT FORMED THE CONSTITUTION OF THE GRAND LODGE OF ARKANSAS A.D. 1838 (A.L. 5838) The Convention of the Ancient York Rites met in the city of Little Rock, Arkansas, in the month of November, in the year of Christ, 1838 (A.L. 5838), was composed of the following Delegates From Washington Lodge, No. 82, working under authority of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, Onesimus Evans, Past Master, Washington L. Wilson, Robert Bedford, A. Whinnery, R. C. S. Brown, Samuel Adams, and Williamson S. Oldham.


From Western Star Lodge, No. 43, working under authority of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, William Gilchrist, Past Master, Charles L. Jeffries, Past Master, Nicholas Peay, Past Master, Edward Cross, Past Master, Thomas Parsel, Alden Sprague, and John Morris.


From Morning Star Lodge, No. 42, working under authority of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, John W. Pullen.


From Mount Horeb Lodge, working under a Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Alabama, James H. Walker, Allen M. Oakley, Joseph W. McKean, and James Trigg.


Which Convention, on the 21st day of November, A.D. 1838, by unanimous consent of all Delegates, adopted a Constitution for the government of the Grand Lodge of Arkansas: Whereupon a Grand Lodge was opened in due and ancient 32 FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS form, and the Officers thereof were elected and installed according to the most ancient usages and customs of the Fraternity: When on the 27th day of November, aforesaid, the Convention adjourned sine die.


Attest. Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Arkansas judging from this account the Convention must have resolved itself into a Grand Lodge, but if any Minutes were kept other than the above " Notice of Proceedings," they have been " lost in the rubbish of the Temple." Elbert H. English, noted as a jurist as well as a Masonic scholar, sewed as Grand Master from 1849 to 1850. After an interim of nine years he was again elected in 1859. From that time on he was re‑elected from Session to Session until November 1869, when he retired. Thus he served in that high Office during the entire period of the War between the States. Although his addresses to the Grand Lodge during his incumbency are models of excellence in diction and fraternalism, some of them are highly coloured with the bitterness which was fairly general at that time. Feeling impelled to espouse the cause of Secession it was only natural that he should employ his beautiful flow of English in its support. Although he ever eschewed the idea that he could be actuated by his political views, in his address delivered at the Grand Lodge Session of November 1861 he said in part: " I refer to these matters not in a political sense, or as mere political events, for Masonry does not interfere in affairs of a strictly political character‑but I refer to them as great civil events‑stern historical realities overwhelming in their immediate consequences and deeply affecting our entire people in all their relations, civil and social as well as political. . . . There are no voices to respond for a number of subordinate Lodges. Why are these Brethren absent? The answer is in every mouth, with all its thrilling and momentous associations! They have laid aside the gavel, the trowel, and the plumb‑line, and taken up the sword. And this night their tents whiten many a plain, and their patriotic breasts help to form a living wall to protect eleven States of a once‑glorious Union from the invasion and desolation of a man‑if he may be called such‑who now desecrates the seat first occupied by the good and great Washington. And who, as the fit representative of the party that placed him in power, has trampled in the dust the Constitution framed by the purest and best men that ever sat in council to organise a government. And may I be permitted to say that, if there is weeping in Heaven, Washington and his associates have wept over the ruin which his degenerate successor and his black‑Republican confederates in crime and guilt have wrought!" When the smoke of battle had finally cleared away, however, when victory had come to the other side and the domicile of the Grand Lodge had been returned to Little Rock, whence it had been removed to the Confederate seat of State government at Washington, in Hempstead County, Grand Master English seems to have had a different attitude. In his address made at the November Session of the Grand Lodge in 1865, a marked contrast in the tone of his words was very noticeable, for he at that time evinced his own resigna‑ FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS 33 tion to the fate of war in the following words: " The terrible storm of war is over, the last faint echoes of its awful thunders are hushed, its angry clouds are drifting away, and the sun of peace once more smiles upon our desolated country. Many of our Brethren who met with us in former years and whose faces are familiar to us now sleep the long sleep of death, in their quiet resting‑places, and their homes are left in mourning. They may have erred, but to err is incident to the frailty of human nature, and to forgive is not only Masonic but Divine. Let the broad mantle of Masonic charity be thrown over their errors, whatever they have been, and let their virtues be cherished in the memory of those of us who survive them. The unfortunate and deplorable civil commotion, which for four gloomy years afflicted our country, fortunately for Masonry ' it has no schism. The Masons of the United States now, as before the national troubles, constitute one great individual Fraternity. Leading Masons from j every section of our extensive country have assembled at Columbus, Ohio, in the General Grand Chapter and the General Grand Encampment, since the close of the war, and, as in years gone, they treated each other as Brothers and Companions, transacted their Masonic business in peace and harmony, renewed their social and fraternal obligations around a common Altar, and have thus demonstrated to the world that Masons are bound together by ties which cannot be severed by civil strife or political conflicts.... There stretches from the stormy coast of the Atlantic to the calm and peaceful shore of the Pacific a fraternal 1 chain of strong links, which, though unseen by the world, will do more than all else to reunite and strengthen the bonds of union between the Northern and Southern people, who during the last four years were unhappily at war about sectional questions." In another address, made at the Grand Lodge Session of 1866, Bro. English said: " At the close of the war, no class of our population returned i more readily, quietly, and cheerfully to the peaceful pursuits of life than did the Masonic Fraternity. . . . I repeat now, in writing, substantially what I said to the last Grand Lodge orally: In considering the claims of applicants for initiation, advancement, or affiliation, the physical, moral, and mental fitness of the applicant must alone be regarded. In other words, none other than the old and well‑defined Masonic tests should be applied. No inquiry should be made whether he was born North or South, or was on one side or the other in the late war." As a sequel, the significant fact remains that such a spirit of toleration exists among the members of, the Craft in Arkansas as is not to be found in any other civic and moral institution of the State. Although the spirit of the Old South still exists there in legend and in song, no Mason attempts to use it to further his political ambitions. There is hardly a community or section of the State, however, that was not greatly affected by the great strife. Tales about thrilling experiences and narrow escapes from death have been handed down from father to son. Even now there are men still living who witnessed the mysterious freeing of certain prisoners of war after they had been condemned 34 FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS to death, the secret being that the prisoners were Masons. Some of their captors, having seen the Masonic sign of distress, immediately released the prisoners while their comrades were executed in accordance with the rules of war. It is also an historical fact that many men prominent in Arkansas politics have also been prominent in Masonry, but no governor, congressman, or United States senator of Arkansas has ever occupied the office of Grand Master. It may not be improper also to observe that while Arkansas has not elected a Republican to State office since Reconstruction Days, yet Republicans, and even veterans of the Union Army, have frequently been elected as Grand Masters of the Masonic Fraternity in this jurisdiction.


The following historical highlights of Arkansas Masonry were gleaned from the Annual Proceedings now in the Grand Lodge Library of the Albert Pike Memorial Temple at Little Rock. They incidentally introduce the names of prominent Masons, whose complete biographies would indeed give a comprehensive history of Freemasonry in Arkansas. As has been said, following the third loss of the Grand Lodge library by fire, the Grand Secretary, Fay Hempstead, and the present History Commission have succeeded in restoring all Proceedings except those for the years 1839 and 1840. Those covering the period from the time of the organisation Convention held in 1838 up to 1851, have been supplied mainly by bound copies entitled Proceedings o f the Grand Lodge o f Free and Accepted Masons of Arkansas: 1838‑1851. The originals of these Proceedings are to be found in the libraries of the Grand Lodges of Alabama, Maine, Massachusetts, and Missouri.


The Session of 1841 convened at the Masonic Temple in Little Rock, which was, perhaps, the Hall of Western Star Lodge, No. 2, where it seems likely that all subsequent Sessions were held up to the time of the outbreak of the War between the States. During that period, meetings were held at Washington, the Confederate capital of the State. The Session of 1841 was presided over by Alden Sprague, Grand Master pro tempore. At that meeting Bro. Sprague was elected Grand Master for the ensuing year. Returns were then made from Washington Lodge, No. 1, at Fayetteville; Western Star Lodge, No. 2, at Little Rock; Morning Star Lodge, No. 3, at Arkansas Post; Mount Horeb Lodge, No. 4, at Washington; Clarksville Lodge, No. 5, at Clarksville; and Van Buren Lodge, No. 6, at Van Buren. During the Session it was also " Resolved, That Brother Edward Cross be and is hereby appointed a Delegate from this M.".W.'. Grand Lodge, and is hereby requested and authorised to attend the Convention of the several Grand Lodges in the United States proposed to be held in Washington, D. C., in March next." After recording a list of the Officers present at the next Session, which convened on November 7, 1842, this entry follows: " The Grand Lodge was opened in ample form, continued in Session until the sixth day of February, a. L. 5843, when the same was closed in ample form, during which Session the following elections, appointments, et cetera, took place." Two Charters were granted at that time. It was also ordered that the Grand Secretary should cause to be pub‑ FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS 35 lished an abstract from the Minutes, and that a copy of it should be sent to the several States " and to Texas." One copy of it was also to go to each of the several Lodges of the Grand Lodge of that republic.


At the Session of 1843 a Committee which had been appointed at the previous Session reported that it had " settled the difficulty said to exist in Van Buren Lodge, No. 6, to the great satisfaction of all concerned and in accord ance with the ancient usages and customs of the Fraternity." Thus, apparently, an end was made of what appears to have been the first trouble within the Grand Lodge. Several Communications from other Grand jurisdictions were then read and filed.


The 1845 Session of the Grand Lodge took further note of a matter that had been discussed during the 1842 Session, namely the death of the Grand jurisdiction's first Grand Master, William Gilchrist. At that time it was requested that subscriptions be taken " to erect a suitable monument over his remains." At that same Session the Committee of Foreign Correspondence submitted an extensive review of the Proceedings of the Grand Lodges in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin.


The next Annual Session, held on November 5, 1846, authorised " a Committee of three to prepare an act of incorporation for this Grand jurisdiction and to present it to the legislature during its present session." It appears that the Committee carried out its instructions, and that the Grand Lodge authorised the Act to be included in its printed Proceedings of that year. Such incidents as this explain, perhaps, the reason for the long‑drawn‑out Sessions of this period, some of which lasted several weeks. The State Legislature was also in session during the same period. Those present at this Session levied a tax of one dollar on each non‑affiliated Mason living in the State, and ordered subordinate Lodges to collect the tax and to report on it at the next Session. The money thus raised was to be spent " for charitable purposes." This Session also endorsed the idea of a General Grand Lodge. Early in the Session of the Grand Lodge of 1847, a resolution introduced and promptly passed on the second day repealed the " tax edict " of the previous Session. Thus it is clear that the non‑affiliate, who is still a problem to almost every Masonic jurisdiction, was a concern to the Grand Lodge of Arkansas even in those early days.


Previous to the Session of 1848 it may have been the custom for Grand Masters to deliver opening addresses, but if such had been the case it had not been customary to include the addresses in the Record. The Record of the 1848 Session, however, gives a complete version of Grand Master D. J. Baldwin's address, which was prefaced by these words: " Obedient to the custom, salutary in its tendency, which has obtained in the sister Grand Lodges of this nation, it is a duty incumbent on us at the opening of this Grand Communication to render thanks to the Great Jehovah for his wonderful goodness and enduring mercy to us and our Brotherhood during the past year, and to bring to your notice such matters as imperiously demand your special attention. Chosen and 36 FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS sent here for your sagacity, virtue, and wisdom, to adorn the great Masonic edifice within our bounds, your constituencies look to you for that result of your Labours which your capacity warrants and your disposition so fully guarantees." In this introduction Grand Master Baldwin dealt with the problems of the times, and seemingly with great understanding. Like Banquo's ghost that would not down, the Grand Master reported that " Van Buren Lodge, No. 6, has, for a peculiar local reason, ceased to exist, and its Charter, jewels, and furniture are in the hands of our Grand Secretary." However, this Lodge is now a very lively corpse.


It was at this Session of 1848 that the Grand Lodge first advocated the establishment of a school for the blind in Arkansas. At that time steps were taken to provide for raising funds for the purpose. It is significant that the Arkansas Legislature soon thereafter established a school for the blind which is to‑day one of the leading eleemosynary institutions in this commonwealth. Twentyone Lodges were represented at this Session, which lasted twelve days.


Without any Minute of explanation, neither the Grand Master, P. P. Pullen, nor the Deputy Grand Master, George B. Hayden, was present at the opening of the 1849 Session. However, both were listed as being present at later sittings. Bro. E. H. English is recorded as having acted as the Grand Master pro tempore. Although Bro. English's name does not appear among those who were possible candidates for the Office of Grand Master, he was elected to that high position for the succeeding Session. Thus began in the Grand Lodge of Arkansas the career of one of the State's most illustrious Masons. At the next Annual Communication, thirty‑two subordinate Lodges were represented. In his opening address Grand Master English stressed the need for education and advocated the establishment of a Masonic school. He also proposed that a uniform Code of By‑Laws be adopted. The establishment of St. John's College was then recommended by the Educational Committee, and another Committee was named to apply for a Charter for the school. This Session also provided for a Grand Lecturer, and Bro. W. H. Sutton was unanimously named to fill the newly created Office. The Proceedings of this Session also contain a list of the names of members of the thirty‑four subordinate Lodges in the State. The next year, at the Session of 1851, Grand Master E. H. Whitfield suggested that it would be expedient for the Grand Lodge to divide the State into four or more Districts. Thus was established the District system and the appointment of the District Deputy Grand Masters. The Committee which had been appointed to obtain a Charter for St. John's College also reported at this time and presented a Charter which had been granted by an Act of the Legislature. It had been approved on December 31, 185o.


Since the Session of 1852 celebrated the hundredth anniversary of the Initiation of George Washington into Freemasonry, it was ordered that " a block of marble of suitable size, with appropriate device and emblems, should be pre pared and forwarded to the national capital to be placed in the Washington Monument just then being erected there." At the next year's Session, Bro. E.


FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS 37 H. English, Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Correspondence, submitted a report, at the conclusion of which he pointed out some of the leading subjects that had recently been engaging the attention of the Craft throughout the United States. Among those topics mentioned were the matters of appropriately celebrating the Initiation of George Washington, of erecting a monument to Henry Clay, of providing relief for the Brethren in California, of settling the disputes existing among the Brethren of New York, and of creating a General Grand Lodge. Commenting on these matters in general, the Chairman said: " In these important enterprises, it is to be hoped that Arkansas will not be an idle spectator, but that she will keep her lamps trimmed and her lights burning, and actively employ her growing energies in the great field of Masonic charity spread out before her." At the 1854 Communication the Library Committee reported the purchase of thirty‑five volumes of Masonic literature at a cost of $153. It is also interesting to note that Albert Pike was quite active in the Sessions of this period.


Another interesting feature of the Session was the great amount of attention which was given at the time to the maintenance and progress of St. John's College. Indeed, more than passing notice should be given to the establishment of St. John's College. For years this college flourished under Masonic management. It was made possible by funds contributed by the Grand Lodge. State educational facilities not having yet been provided, it was the alma mater of many men who contributed much to the educational development of the State. Like many other pioneering projects, however, it went out of existence with the coming of endowed colleges and the establishment of State schools. The founding of this college is perhaps the outstanding contribution of Arkansas Masonry during the first fifty years of its Grand Lodge. Next year Grand Master Nathaniel G. Smith expressed his attitude toward the library in the following words: We have laid the foundation for a good library. This is a good work. Let us pursue it by adding to the collection of books and increasing it annually until we have such a library as our wants demand, one that comports with our standing as a Grand Lodge. The Bible says, ` give thyself to reading ' and ` study to show thyself a workman that needeth not to be ashamed.' " Later in the Session of that year (1855) an appropriation of $zoo was made for the library fund.


An interesting question has been raised regarding the address of the Grand Orator, George A. Gallagher, which was made at the Annual Communication of 1856. Since he began a most scholarly and able address by saying, " Ladies and gentlemen, Brethren," we to‑day wonder how the " ladies " happened to be present, for the Order of the Eastern Star had not yet been introduced into Arkansas. The outstanding event in the Proceedings of 1857 was discussion of the codification of the By‑Laws governing subordinate Lodges and a copy of the Constitution and the By‑Laws governing the Grand Lodge.


The first substantial effort to establish a Masonic Widows' and Orphans' Home seems to have culminated in 1858, when Grand Master Luke E. Barber 38 FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS reported having held an Emergent Communication of the Grand Lodge at Pine Bluff, on June 24 of that year. At this Session it was appropriately noted that the Grand Lodge was then twenty years old, and that the number of Lodges had increased from 4 subordinate Lodges to 128. During the Session of 1859 Albert Pike was introduced as the representative to the Grand Lodge of Minnesota and the Grand Lodge National of the Spanish Republic of Santo Domingo. He delivered an address, which was perhaps his first active participation in the Grand Lodge of Arkansas. Another interesting event of this Session was the attitude expressed toward duelling. Despite the fact that duels were quite common and were still regarded as being the proper way for prominent men to settle their difficulties, the Grand Lodge of 1862 " Resolved, That no Mason who shall knowingly challenge or accept a challenge from a Mason shall sit in this Grand Lodge." Perhaps the outstanding feature of the Proceedings of 1863 was the record that a number of Travelling Lodges had been granted Dispensations to meet the exigencies of the war. Past Grand Master J. W. Sorrels has told the author of this article that he received the Masonic Degrees stationed in Madison County, Arkansas, with the Confederate Army, and that he was only nineteen years old at the time. The impressive event of the Session of 1869 was the retirement of Grand Master English after ten years of continuous service. A Past Grand Master's jewel was presented to him at that time.


At the Session George Thornburgh, afterwards Grand Master and for years editor of the Masonic Trowel, made his appearance. From then on he attended every Session of the Grand Lodge until his death. George Thornburgh may be called the pioneer advocate of prohibition in Arkansas, for at the 1886 Session he urged the adoption of a resolution making it a Masonic offense punishable by expulsion for a member to keep a saloon for the sale of intoxicating liquors. At this Session a Committee on History was also appointed. Dr. E. R. Duvall was Chairman. This Committee made very interesting reports at subsequent Sessions in 1872, 1873, 1874, and 1875. They consisted mainly of short biographies of Past Grand Masters.


The main feature of the Past Grand Master's address delivered at the Annual Communication of 1873 referred to the national panic, brought about by the appearance of a cholera epidemic in the early summer and the outbreak of yellow fever in the autumn, which was climaxed by " one of the worst droughts ever known anywhere." Another event of this Session worthy of more than passing attention was J. R. H. Scott's presenting to the Grand Lodge the Apron worn by his illustrious father, judge Andrew Scott.


A few days after the adjournment of the Grand Lodge of 1875, the Masonic Hall burned down, and much valuable property, unpublished Records, and many historic articles belonging to the Grand Lodge were destroyed. An interesting feature of the Session of 1875 was the Lodge's refusal to allow the Grand Treasurer $400 to reimburse him for that amount which he had lost through the failure of a bank. The reason given was that the Officer had deposited the money in his own name and not in the name of the Grand Lodge.


FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS 39 A spirit of optimism and rejoicing characterised the Session of 1876, America's centennial year. However, the Grand Master, Bro. M. L. Bell, spoke as follows in his address made at that time: " While we can but rejoice at the material prosperity of our State, the abundant crops and general peace and prosperity that reign through the land, can we congratulate ourselves upon equal progress in education and refinement, goodness and purity, among the people? . . . Amid our congratulations on our general prosperity as a State and a people, can we also rejoice in the success and prosperity of our work as Masons? " Again, soon after the adjournment of the Session of 1877, the Masonic Hall was destroyed by fire and a valuable Masonic library as well as all Records, books, and papers pertaining to the Grand Secretary's Office were among the losses. One of the features of the Session of 1879 was the conferring of the Degrees on Arthur McArthur by special request of Magnolia Lodge, No. 2. At the time a captain in the United States Army stationed at Little Rock, Bro. McArthur afterwards became famous as a Brigadier‑General of the Confederate Army, and as one of the principal generals in the Spanish‑American War. He was a native of Little Rock.


The Session of 1888 featured the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the organisation of the Grand Lodge. John P. Karns was the only Brother present who had attended the Convention of 1838. Among the prominent visi tors at this celebration was Joseph Eichbaum, Grand Master of Pennsylvania, and Michael Nisbet, the Grand Secretary of that jurisdiction. The author of this article was also present, being only twenty‑three years of age at the time.


The Session of 1892, presided over by Bro. C. A. Bridewell, was the first to be held in the Grand Lodge Temple that had been erected at the corner of Fifth and Main Streets in Little Rock. For the first time in the history of the Grand Lodge, it was able to meet in its own home. This was an occasion of much felicitation. This Session marked the beginning of the long and faithful service of John M. Oathout as Grand Lecturer. Bro. Oathout served from 1892 till his death in 1912‑. He was succeeded by Bro. Clark, who is still serving in that capacity, having already exceeded the record of Bro. Oathout in point of time.


As has already been pointed out, Arkansas has been favoured with a great deal of unusually fine Masonic material. The State has, indeed, produced some of the outstanding Masons of the world. If records had been preserved the his tory of Freemasonry in Arkansas would compare favourably with that of any other Grand Jurisdiction.


However, the limitations, both of authentic Records as well as space, are such that biographical sketches can be given for only a few of Arkansas's most distinguished members of the Craft. First, let us sketch the life of that great Arkansas Mason‑Albert Pike.


Pike was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on December 29, 18og. In 1822he attended Harvard University, and afterwards he taught school in Massachusetts for seven years. In 1832 he joined a trading party and made an expedi‑ 40 FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS tion through Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, and the Indian Territory. He reached Fort Smith, Arkansas, on December 1o of that year. There he resumed his profession as a teacher. Later he married Miss Mary Ann Hamilton at Arkansas Post. He also engaged in newspaper work at Van Buren and at Little Rock, and was admitted to the bar in 1836. Afterwards he was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of the United States. He received that advancement just when Abraham Lincoln and Hannabal Hamblin did. In 1846, during the war with Mexico, Pike raised a company of Arkansas cavalrymen and served as its captain under Archibald Yell, the Arkansas governor who resigned office to enter his country's military service. Bro. Yell, a Mason, was killed at the battle of Buena Vista, in 1847. Pike's account of the action at Buena Vista, as published throughout the State, aroused the ire of Colonel John S. Roane, who thought the report reflected unjustly on the Arkansas regiment. In consequence Colonel Roane challenged Captain Pike to a duel, and although neither was a " fire‑eater," public opinion was such that Pike felt himself honour bound to accept the challenge. The duel was fought at a spot in the Indian Territory, just across the Arkansas River from Fort Smith, in August, 1848. Two shots were exchanged by each of the duelists, fortunately without injury to either. Their seconds refusing to interfere, personal friends who were present brought about a reconciliation. Pike and Roane afterwards became friends and companions. When Captain Pike was mustered out, he returned to Little Rock and resumed his law practice.


Bro. Pike was made a Mason in Western Star Lodge, No. 2, in July 1850. In 1859 Albert Pike became Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite of the Southern Jurisdiction. He also assisted in establishing the Scottish Rite Council in Arkansas, in 1853. That same year he was made Grand High Priest of the Royal Arch Chapter, and in 1865 he was chosen Grand Orator of the Grand Lodge. The fact that he never attained the position of Grand Master was perhaps due to his activities in legal and military pursuits. In 1853 Pike removed from Little Rock to New Orleans, probably with a view to practising law there. Apparently he did not secure an extensive practice, however, for he maintained himself by translating the Code Napoleon from the French, a translation which is still in use in Louisiana. Pike is rated as one of the most learned lawyers of his time. After residing in New Orleans for about five years, Pike returned to Little Rock, where he maintained his residence until 1868. Then he removed to Washington, District of Columbia, where he could be in closer contact with his Masonic duties. He resided there until his death on April 2, 1891.


Pike's thrilling yet disappointing career as a soldier during the war between the States is worthy of historical reference. Like many another Easterner who had cast his lot in Dixie Land, Albert Pike found himself in a dilemma when it became necessary to choose between his country as a whole and his State. As a boy he had heard of the glory of the Union, but as a man he was faced with the " sovereignty " of his State. Although he hoped against hope that Arkansas would not secede, when it did so he finally cast the die in its FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS 41 favour by saying, " Whatever I am, I owe it to my State." During the war he reached the rank of brigadier‑general, and was put in command of a brigade composed largely of Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Choctaw Indians from the Indian Territory. When General Van Dorn ordered those troops to be taken into Kansas, Pike protested, for he did not think that the Indians should be required to fight except in their own Territory. But about that time the Federal troops under General Curtis invaded western Arkansas, and General Pike was required to join General Van Dorn. He did so just in time to participate in the battle of Pea Ridge, or Elkhorn, in Washington County, Arkansas. That battle was fought contrary to Pike's judgment and against his advice. It terminated unsuccessfully for the Confederates, who lost two of their ablest leaders, General McIntosh and General McCulloch.


This was the beginning of a very sad and disappointing period of Pike's life‑due chiefly to a quarrel which arose between him and other Confederate commanders with whom he was associated. So serious did the differences of opinion become that Pike was ordered arrested. Finally, the disagreement culminated in Pike's retirement from the service during the early years of the war. To add to his troubles, Pike's large property holdings were confiscated by the Federal Government. At one time property of his valued at $z.o,ooo was sold on the auction block. As a result he was almost penniless at the close of the war. But with the dauntless courage characteristic of the man, Albert Pike resumed his literary and legal pursuits and again amassed quite a fortune. In i 879 he relinquished the practice of law in order to give his entire time to his Masonic pursuits and literary productions. " Every Year " is his best known poem.


Among the many magnificent tributes which have been paid to Bro. Pike's memory, the following from Colonel Patrick Donan, of Fargo, North Dakota, is one of the most interesting. Colonel Donan said of him Albert Pike was a king among men by the divine right of merit. A giant in body, in brain, in heart, and in soul. So majestic in appearance that every passerby turned to gaze upon him and admire him. Six feet, two inches tall, with the proportions of a Hercules and the grace of an Apollo. A face and head massive and leonine, recalling in every feature some sculptor's dream of a Grecian god; while his long, wavy hair, flowing down over his shoulders, made a strikingly picturesque effect. The whole expression of his countenance told of power combined with gentleness, refinement, and benevolence. . . .


His legal practice brought him several fortunes . . . but his ear and heart and purse were ever open to the appeal of the needy or distressed and his benefactions were beyond enumeration. His bounty was reckless in its lavishness.


In all the rush of his busy and eventful career, he found time to counsel and assist every worthy man or woman who came to him. He was peculiarly kind and considerate toward young people.


Glorious record of a glorious man! Great enough to succeed in nearly every line of human effort and ambition. A patient and faithful teacher, a brilliant editor, a lawyer of eminent ability and skill, an eloquent and impas‑ 42 FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS sioned orator, a gallant soldier, a profound scholar, a poet whose verses tingle with pure Promethean fire that comes from heaven alone, a prolific author, a wise counselor, a patriot, and a philanthropist whose charity was broad enough to take in all mankind. God never made a gentler gentleman, a better citizen, or a truer man! He was in himself the highest and grandest embodiment of the virtues and graces of Freemasonry, a living exemplification of the exalted and exalting principles of our great world‑embracing Brotherhood! He ran the whole gamut of earthly honours. He climbed Fame's glittering ladder to its loftiest height, and stepped from its topmost round into the skies. . . .


As had already been indicated, another of Arkansas' famous Masons was Elbert Hartwell English. A native of Alabama, Bro. English was reared on a farm. His education was such as he could obtain from the primary schools and academies of his day. He was admitted to the bar in 1838 and had some experience as a legislator. In May 1844 he removed to Little Rock, and soon thereafter was appointed reporter of decisions of the Supreme Court. In 1854 the General Assembly elected him chief justice of the Supreme Court, an office he held until his death excepting only a short period during the war between the States. Bro. English was made a Mason in Athens Lodge, No. 18, in Alabama, on August 25, 1842. Afterwards he affiliated with Western Star Lodge, No. 2, at Little Rock. In 1849 he was elected Grand Master. Following his reelection in 1859, he served for ten consecutive years, the longest period any one Grand Master has ever served. The founding of St. John's College was the outstanding accomplishment of his administration. Bro. English received all the Degrees of both the York Rite and the Scottish Rite.


Charles E. Rosenbaum, another distinguished Arkansas Mason, was born in St. Louis, Missouri, on January 1, 1855. He was educated in the public schools of his native city, and then in 1883 he moved to Little Rock, where he entered business. He was an active participant in both the York Rite and the Scottish Rite Bodies. He served as Grand Master from November 1914 to November 1915. His most distinctive service to Masonry came perhaps through his connection with the Scottish Rite Bodies, wherein he became a pioneer in the work of dramatising and adapting for presentation, with elaborate stage equipment and effects, Degrees which had hitherto, for the most part, been communicated only. For nearly forty years he was the directing genius of the Bodies of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in the Jurisdiction of Arkansas, and in 1911 he was made one of a Committee to superintend the construction of the House of the Temple. He served as the Chairman of the Committee until 1915, when that wonderful structure was completed and dedicated in Washington, District of Columbia. Few men have devoted so much time to the work of Masonry or achieved positions of such prominence in all its branches as did Bro. Rosenbaum. His Masonic record is, indeed, an impressive one. February 25, 1931, closed the unblemished record of a long useful life crowned with joys of friendships and honours well bestowed.


A biographical sketch of Bro. Fay Hempstead forms the essential nucleus FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS 43 about which the history of the Masonic Fraternity in Arkansas has been builded during the past threescore and more years. Fay Hempstead came from a talented lineage, both paternal and maternal. While his father was a member of the Supreme Court of Arkansas, he wrote of its most widely quoted decisions on the law of descent and distribution.


Fay Hempstead was born in Little Rock, on November 24, 1847. He was educated in private schools and in St. John's (Masonic) College. Later, he studied law at the University of Virginia. In 1868 he entered upon the practise of his profession at Little Rock, a vocation from which he retired only in 1881, upon his election as Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Arkansas. From then on he gave his entire time to his official duties and to literary pursuits.


On May 6, 1869, Bro. Hempstead was made an Entered Apprentice in Western Star Lodge, No. 2, at Little Rock. Step by step, he received all the Degrees of both the York Rite and the Scottish Rite, including the Thirty‑third Degree. On November 23, 19oi, he was coroneted as Honorary Inspector General. Bro. Hempstead's preferment placed him in the Chairs of almost all the local Bodies. For years he was also prominent in the Order of the Eastern Star. His service in all the Grand Bodies was distinctive. In addition to his record as Grand Secretary, he also served as Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons in 1891, and as Most Illustrious Grand Master of the Grand Council in 189o. From 1899 he served as Grand Recorder of the Grand Council, of the Order of the High‑Priesthood, and of the Grand Commandery. In 19o6, Bro. Hempstead was elected Grand Steward of the General Council of North America. He also served as Most Puissant General Grand Master from 1921 to 1924. His address made in 1878, when he served as Grand Orator of the Grand Lodge of Arkansas, is to be found in the collection entitled Masonic Jewels.


Perhaps the highest honour within the gift of Masonry was conferred upon Bro. Hempstead at Chicago on October 8, 19o8, when he was crowned Poet Laureate of Freemasonry, an honour which had up till then been bestowed upon only two others, Robert Burns and Robert Morris. Hempstead's literary, musical, and historical works are extensive. His poems have passed through several editions, and his essays and addresses have found a place in Masonic literature. His large collection of historical and biographical works includes volumes that touch upon all subjects of state.


The Session of the Grand Lodge held on November 17 and 18, 1931, was the occasion of the completion of Bro. Hempstead's fifty years of service as Grand Secretary. Grand Master Andrew J. Russell took special note of the Golden jubilee, and appointed a Committee to prepare a programme to be given on that occasion. Among distinguished Masons of other Grand jurisdictions present were M. '. W.'. E. E. Sykes, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, R. '. W.'. Milton W. Boyland, Grand Junior Warden of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, and R. '. W.'. Isaac Cherry, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey. Telegrams and letters of felicitation came from several foreign Grand jurisdictions and from almost every State in the Union.


44 FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS Bro. Hempstead's response on this occasion, made without reference to notes or manuscript, is a classic piece of Masonic literature that really gives a bird's‑eye view of the Craft in Arkansas during the last fifty years. It is quoted here because no one now living is more capable of drawing such a picture Most Worshipful Grand Master and Brethren of the Grand Lodge, Sisters, and Brothers I find myself utterly incapable of expressing the deep emotions which fill me on this wonderful occasion. I wish that I might find the words necessary to express to Bro. Harry H. Myers my appreciation of the kind things he has said to me, and to you, Most Worshipful Sir and Brother, and to the other Grand Lodge Officers for having projected this jubilee Celebration, and to the Committee for having made this great occasion possible. I also feel deeply honoured to know that Brethren from other jurisdictions are present, having made long journeys to attend this event. I can only express to them my pride and appreciation of their presence, and extend a word of welcome to them for their being in our midst.


When I give one glance at this magnificent assembly, I realise that you have assembled to celebrate an unusual event, the service of fifty years as Secretary to the Grand Lodge of Arkansas. When I look back upon the initial inci dent of entering upon this Office, it seems incredible to me that a half century of time has passed away. It seems so recent, as if it were yesterday, last week, last year, and yet I know that between that date and this, time with his velvetshod feet, treading lightly, has rolled a half‑hundred years into the abyss of the past.


A friend has said to me, " This is a far different world, no doubt, from what it was when you began in this Office." Yes, indeed! It is a far different world, and a far better one. In that fifty years the genius of man has simply run riot in the field of invention and advance. He has invaded the eagle's home and fashioned for himself the semblance of a bird. He soars into the sunlight and the clouds until the eagle becomes but a tiny speck beneath him, and having gained dominion of the upper air, he girdles the earth with his ventures! And men and women are daily vying with each other for newer records in altitude and 'speed. He has covered the earth with swift‑moving vehicles which make transportation a plaything and travel an unceasing delight. He has plunged into invisible ether and seized upon sound waves through which, with the aid of electricity, in the telephone, the long‑distance call, the wireless, and the radio, he sends his communications to far continents, as friend would speak with friend, and from aerial towers he broadcasts the human voice into millions of homes so that a man may sit in his home and listen to the king of England talking to his Parliament in London; a song sung in New York and a concert given in San Francisco. He has flooded the world with light, making darkness into daylight with the magic of the electric lamp. He has imprisoned the voice of music in a whirling disc that rivals the nightingale with floods of melody and song. He has put upon the screen, shadows that move and talk as if they were human and clad in the colours of natural life. These and countless other marvels and miracles have come to pass in that half‑century flown, and possibly FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS 45 the end is not yet. Each year finds something new where all seems old. Each spring new verdure and fresh flowers crown the hills that have stood from everlasting.


All the years invent.


Each month is various to present The World with some development; And men, through novel spheres of Thought, Still moving after Truth, long sought, Will find new things when we are not.


And how has Masonry in Arkansas fared while these great features were in the making? Let us recall a few items by way of comparison. Then her Lodges numbered three hundred and forty‑two; to‑day they are five hundred and ten. Then her membership was approximately fifteen thousand; now it is approximately forty thousand. Then her revenue was around ten thousand dollars; now it is above sixty thousand dollars. These are material things, but they show through the light of comparison that in that time the Grand Lodge of Arkansas has not stood still or gone backward, but that her advance, if slow and creeping on from point to oint, has been always forward.


And what have been the achievements o the Grand Lodge of Arkansas during those eventful years? Let us recall those which come readiest to the mind. First, we have established at Batesville a home for orphan children of Masons, which is the pride and glory of the Grand Lodge. Then, we have built in the State's tuberculosis sanitarium at Booneville, purely as a matter of charity, a ward for the more ample accommodation of children smitten with that disease. We have created a bureau for the payment of pensions to widows and indigent, aged Masons, which every month sends a measure of relief to numerous cases of need. We have created a Board of Finance, composed of able financiers who wisely conserve and administer our invested funds. A generous Bro., ,J. P. Hall, of Conway Line Lodge, No. 373, in Arkansas, but himself living at Bakersfield, Missouri, just across the line, has made a wonderful donation to the cause of higher education of which boys graduating from the Home are the beneficiaries, and which stands as a perpetual endowment for that noble cause. It is with the deepest sorrow that we relate that Bro. Hall departed this life within the past fortnight. For a time and in a limited way we furnished hos ital service for the sick. We furnish lecturing for the Lodges. The Grand Loge has been liberal in making donations for monuments to deceased Past Grand Masters. Since we have come into this splendid building, we have been more suitably housed than ever before, overcoming the disasters of three fires that have occurred within my knowledge. Here in this building, for the first time in our history, we are able to maintain an adequate library, which is gradually filling up with valuable and interesting books. Two features that have come into this library during the past year are specially worthy of note. One is a large album which I have had manufactured and beautifully bound, which I call a Portrait Gallery of Past Grand Masters; into which is gathered the portraits of all Past Grand Masters of the Grand Lodge, as far as obtainable, only a few of the earlier ones being lacking; and these being conveniently indexed 46 FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS so that reference to the portraits can be easily made, form a condensed history of the Grand Lodge as reflected in the portraits of those who have been its leaders. The other feature to which I refer is the gathering and having suitably bound memorial circulars issued by Grand Bodies of Arkansas for those who passed on into the Silent Land. And then, although it is not a subject which originated in the Grand Lodge, but is a subject to which she has made liberal donations of her funds, sons and daughters of members of our Lodges receive the benefit of our Educational Loan Fund projected by the Order of Knights Templar, the object of which is to aid young men and young women in making their way through college. The Grand Lodge of Arkansas did her part in the building of the George Washington National Masonic Memorial which is being erected at Alexandria, Virginia; and which will be dedicated in 1932‑She did her part toward relieving cases of distress in the flood waters of 192‑7. She did her art in relieving cases of distress in the drought disaster of 1930; and in all of these features she has had the cordial cooperation and assistance of that noble band of workers, whose assisting hand the Grand Lodge of Arkansas gratefully acknowledges.


Not any of these features are of overwhelming greatness, but when put together, all are units in an united structure of achievements which furnish a fair exhibit of the aims and purposes of Masonry as carried out in these ways, of which, we have no cause to feel ashamed. I cannot claim to have had any direct connection with their origin and inception; but only that I have gone along with them step by step from the beginning.


The one feature of distress in contemplating these buried years is recalling the long list of those who were of us and with us, who walked and worked with us, who have passed on into the Silent Land. May it be that their spirits in the Vast, share with us the emotions of this hour.


Oh, if it be, that souls which once we knew, Have prescience in them of the things we do, Then may we think that from their realms of day They look upon us in approving way; And though their tongues are hushed forevermore, They silent watch us from the other shore.


Brethren and Friends, in this supreme hour of my life I seem to be as one who stands on the tip of a mountain crest and looks pensively down upon the long valley beneath him. Valley once filled with roseate hopes which have now grown ashen and grey! Valley once filled with the glow of Youth and the fire of Ambition, which have now become chilled by the frosts of Age. But I do so with a calm serenity which makes me feel that I can adopt the words of our nation's chief poet when he said Time has laid his hand upon my heart gaily; Not smiting it, But as a harper lays his open palm upon his harp To deaden its vibrations.


I assure you, Brethren and Friends, that he who stands in the sunset of life and sees the shadows lengthen, sees the sun descend below the slanting FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS 47 hills, may yet find sweet solace in dwelling upon " the days that are no more." And such I trust may be the case with me to the end.


As the day dies out in a golden gleam, And the red West glows with its parting beam, So would I, Friends, when it comes my lot, Wish to depart thus calmly; and not As the Old Year passes, sad and slow, Wrapped in the shroud of the Winter's snow; But rather in the starlight, fair and clear, Where the quivering discs of the stars appear.


He died in the spring of 1934.


In 1841 the General Grand High Priest of the United States issued his Dispensation to Far West Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, at Fayetteville, in Washington County, Arkansas. The petitioners for that authority were the Rev. Joel Haden, Samuel Harris, William Shoman, Onesimus Evans, Thomas J. Pollard, Richard P. Pulliam, Alfred A. Stirman, Thomas Bean, and Abraham Winnery. The next year a Charter was granted to Far West Chapter, No. i, by the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons. And thus Royal Arch Masonry was inaugurated in Arkansas.


On June 21, 1844, Union Chapter, of Little Rock, was established by a Dispensation issued by Joseph K. Stapleton, the General Grand High Priest of the United States, to George P. Lemmon as High Priest, Joseph Grubb as King, and C. J. Krebs as Scribe. On the following September 13, the Charter to Union Chapter, No. 2, was granted. Then followed the organisation of Friendship Chapter, No. 3, of Union County, and of Whitfield Chapter, No. 4, at Camden. On April 28, 1851, a Convention of the Chapters was convened for the purpose of organising a Grand Chapter for the State of Arkansas. These representatives were present: Union Chapter, No. 2, represented by E. H. English, High Priest, A. Pike, King; C. J. Krebs, Scribe; Friendship Chapter, No. 3, represented by F. Courtney, High Priest, D. J. Baldwin, proxy for King, and W. H. Hines, Scribe; Whitfield Chapter, No. 4, represented by E. H. Whitfield, High Priest, C. C. Scott, King, and Jas. A. Warren, Scribe.


The Convention elected E. H. English to be Grand High Priest; Franklin Courtney, Deputy Grand High Priest; C. C. Scott, Grand King; A. Pike, Grand Scribe; L. E. Barber, Grand Secretary; and R. L. Dodge, Grand Treasurer. The Officers were installed by E. H. Whitfield. A Constitution was then adopted and Far West Chapter was then invited to unite with the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons. The Convention then adjourned, and after one day's Session the Grand Chapter closed until its next regular Convocation. Since that time it has met annually, except during the years 1863 and 1864, when no meeting could be held because of the War between the States. Since the close of that conflict the Grand Chapter's Labours have been zealous and harmonious.


48 FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS The growth, although slow, has been gradual. There are now 30 Chapters, having an affiliated membership of over 7000.


The first Council of the Order of High Priesthood in Arkansas was held at Little Rock on January 17, 18 It was presided over by Samuel Reed, who served as President; William H. Field, who acted as Vice‑President; and A. W. Webb, who served as Recorder. At that time, Companions English and Merrick were consecrated and anointed. The next Council convened on February 16, 1853. At that meeting Companion Barber was consecrated and anointed. The Councils continued to hold Special Sessions until the beginning of the War between the States, when they were discontinued. Then, on November 6, 1867, a Convention of High Priests was held at Little Rock. At that time Companion Barber acted as Chairman and Companion M. L. Bell Secretary. A Constitution was then formed, and a Council of High Priests for the State of Arkansas was organised. Companion L. E. Barber was elected President, with a full corps of Officers, as provided by the Constitution. As Royal Arch Masonry flourishes, so flourish the High Priests. The evening following the closing of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons is given over to the conferring of this Degree.


Council Masonry was introduced into Arkansas on April 25, 1853, by a Dispensation issued by Albert Pike, Deputy Inspector General of the Supreme Council of the Southern jurisdiction, to R. L. Dodge, Luther Chase, and W. H. Sutton, all of Little Rock. The newly organised body was named Occidental Council. Then, on the Thirty‑third Degree of Charleston, South Carolina. The next Councils organised were Adoniram Council, No. 2, of Camden; Cephas Council, No. 3, of Monticello; Friendship Council, No. 4, of Seminary, and Osiris Council, No. 5, of Fort Smith. On November 6, 186o, a Convention was called to meet at the Masonic Hall in Little Rock, on invitation of the Supreme Council of the Thirty‑third Degree for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, for the purpose of forming a Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters. The following Councils were represented: Occidental Council, No. i, of Little Rock, Luke E. Barber, Thrice Illustrious; R. L. Dodge, Illustrious Deputy; Thomas Parsel, P. C., and members, William G. Sutton, Henry H. Hays, and J. B. Groves. Adoniram Council, No. 2, of Camden, Edmund H. Whitfield, Thrice Illustrious. Friendship Council, No. 4, of Seminary, Samuel H. Bayless, Thrice Illustrious. Osiris Council, No. 5, of Fort Smith, R. M. Johnson, Representative. The Convention resolved itself into a Committee of the Whole, and proceeded to form a Constitution for the Most Puissant Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters of Arkansas. Then, after consultation, a Constitution was adopted. The Convention next proceeded to elect Officers. Those chosen were: Companion L. Barber, Grand Master; Companion E. H. Whitfield, Deputy Grand Master; Companion S. H. Bayless, G. I. M.; Companion W. H. Sutton, G. P. C. of W.; Companion R. L. Dodge, Grand Treasurer, and Companion E. H. English, Grand Recorder. There are now 1169 Council Masons in Arkansas. The Grand Council meets annually, immediately after the closing of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons.


FREEMASONRY IN ARKANSAS 49 Organised Templar Masonry was first introduced into Arkansas by a Dispensation to Hugh de Payens Commandery, dated December Zo, 1853, and issued by W. B. Hubbard, Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of the United States, to Sir Albert Pike, Sir Percy C. Brockus, Sir John McDaniel, Sir H. H. Heath, Sir H. F. Loudon, Sir B. B. French, Sir A. W. Webb, Sir W. S. Brown, Sir John W. Sketo, and Sir Samuel Mitchell.


Sir Albert Pike was made Eminent Commander; Sir A. W. Webb, Generalissimo; and Sir J. W. Sketo, Captain General. Then, in October, 1856, a Charter was granted to the Commandery, which was known as Hugh de Payens Commandery, No. i. The next Commandery organised was Bertrand du Gueselin Commandery, No. z, at Camden. The date of its Dispensation was April 13, 1866. Its Charter was issued on September i8, 1868. This was followed by Jacques de Molay Commandery at Fort Smith. The date of its Dispensation was December 30, 1868, while the date of its Charter was September 22, 1871. The next Commandery to enter the field was Baldwin Commandery, No. 4, at Fayetteville. Its Dispensation was issued on April 28, 1871, and its Charter on September 22, 18 71.


On March 23 , 1872, pursuant to a call for a Convention to be held in Fort Smith, the Grand Commandery was organised. At that meeting the following Commanderies were represented: Hugh de Payens Commandery, No. i ; Bertrand du Gueselin Commandery, No. 2, and Jacques de Molay Commandery, No. 3. Sir L. E. Barber was elected President, and Sir Edward J. Brooks, Recorder. The Constitution was then framed, and the following Officers were elected: Sir Luke E. Barber, of Little Rock, Right Eminent Grand Commander; Sir Edward J. Brooks, of Fort Smith, Very Eminent Deputy Grand Commander; Sir Raphael M. Johnson, of Fort Smith, Eminent Generalissimo; Sir Samuel W. Williams, of Little Rock, Eminent Captain General; Sir William A. Sample, of Fort Smith, Eminent Prelate; Sir Walter O. Lattimore, of Fayetteville, Eminent Senior Warden; Sir Caleb H. Stone, of Camden, Eminent Junior Warden; Sir Roderick L. Dodge, of Little Rock, Eminent Treasurer; Sir J. W. Rison, of Little Rock, Eminent Recorder; Sir R. S. Crampton, of Spadra, Eminent Standard Bearer; Sir J. S. Looney, of Fayetteville, Eminent Sword Bearer; Sir Robert E. Salle, of Camden, Eminent Warden, and Sir James Tunnah, of Little Rock, Eminent Captain of the Guard. The Grand Commandery meets annually in May, and now has a membership of over Zsoo in the 28 Commanderies.


FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA JOHN WHICHER T is quite impossible to write the story of pioneer Masons and Masonry in California in small compass, for it is interwoven with romance and fiction. Masons and Masonry were known in the Golden State long before the dis covery of gold by John Marshall in January 1848. The pioneers were lured there not altogether by a desire for gold, but rather because of highly coloured stories told by returning trappers, who lauded California's genial skies and fertile lands that were to be had for asking. A few Masons came in the 1830's, but the trek to the new country did not fully begin until about May 1840. Then John Bidwell, of whom more will be told later in this sketch, organised a party in Platt County, Missouri, and the adjacent region, and presently he and his companions started on the long and perilous journey to the Pacific Coast. From that time until the discovery of gold in California in 1848, emigration from the East was constant. It was never again so spectacular, however, as during the decade immediately following the discovery.


So far as records disclose, the first Master Mason to make a permanent residence in California was Abel Stearns, who came from Salem, Massachusetts, and settled at the pueblo of Los Angeles in 1833. He had the distinction of ship ping to the Philadelphia Mint, in 1842, the first gold mined in California. The dust and nuggets were purchased from miners who discovered and worked the mines in Placerito Canyon, near the San Fernando Mission in Los Angeles County. Singularly, the discovery of gold there in sufficient quantity to warrant shipment to the United States mint caused no interest at all beyond the locality where it was found. Pioneers were hungry for land, not for gold.


Besides Abel Stearns, there were, indeed, other pioneer Masons of preGrand Lodge days. Among them was Christopher Carson, the noted trapper and scout better known as " Kit " Carson, who carried the first overland mail from Taos, New Mexico, to military headquarters at Monterey, California, in 1842. Carson was born in Kentucky on December 24, 18o9, and died at Fort Lyon, Colorado, On May 23, 1868. He spent many years of his life in California, having made his first visit there in 1829. He was with General John C. Fremont at the capture of Sonoma in 1846. Carson's last trip to California was made in 1853. Then he returned to Taos, New Mexico, where he was appointed Indian Agent, a post he held until the beginning of the war between the States in 1861. During the war he was first a colonel of the First New Mexico Cavalry, then later breveted brigadier‑general. In 1854 he received his Masonic Degrees in Montezuma Lodge, No. io9, of New Mexico.


50 FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA 51 Associated with Carson was George Yount, a pioneer of 1831, who was the first American settler in Napa Valley and builder of the first fort in California, erected in 1841. He received his Degrees in 185o in Benicia Lodge, No. 5, was Grand Bible Bearer from 1854 to 1864, and died on October 5, 1865.


Hillard P. Dorsey, at the time a Past Master, came to California from Mississippi in 1849. In 1855, as the first Master of Los Angeles Lodge, No. 42, he was expelled by the Grand Lodge for fighting a duel, something that was contrary to the Masonic regulations as well as the civil law of the jurisdiction. Benjamin D. Wilson, known as " Don Benito," came to California from New Mexico in 1841 and settled on a ranch on which the city of Riverside was subsequently established. He was one of the first initiates of Los Angeles Lodge, No. 42, and was mayor of the city in 1851. Mount Wilson is said to have been named in his honour.


Myron Morton, a captain in Colonel Stevenson's famous New York regiment, was a member of California's first Constitutional Convention. To him was delegated the task of phrasing the document.


In 1846 Robert Semple edited The Californian, the first newspaper published in the State. Having received his Degrees in Kentucky, he came to California in 1845 as secretary of the Bear Flag Party. Semple was president of the first Constitutional Convention, a body that not only formed the State government but also prevailed upon the United States to accept the former Mexican territory as a sovereign State. That took place on September 9, i85o.


Commodore John D. Sloat received his Degrees in 18oo in St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 3, of New York City. From 1844 he was in command of the Pacific Squadron of the United States Navy, and on July 7, 1846, he raised the American flag and took possession of California, in the name of the United States Government. A monument to his memory, standing in the presidio of Monterey, was dedicated by the Grand Lodge of California on June 14, 1910. Commodore Sloat died on November 28, 1867, at Staten Island, New York.


James Frazier Reed, organiser of the Reed‑Donner party of emigrants at Springfield, Illinois, on April 15, 1846, and a comrade of Abraham Lincoln throughout the Black Hawk War, was an outstanding character among the early Masons of California. As first lieutenant of Captain Charles M. Weber's company of United States Rangers, of the Pueblo of San Jose, he helped to defeat the insurgent Californians at the battle of Santa Clara, on January 2, 1847, while he was on his way to procure relief for the starving Donner party near Truckee. He rescued thirteen persons, including three members of his own family, and later escorted them to Sutter's Fort at Sacramento. Reed donated six public parks to the city of San Jose in 1851. He was born in County Armagh, Ireland, on November 14, 181o, and died at San Jose on July 24, 1874. His Masonic Degrees were conferred in 184o, in Springfield Lodge, No. 4, at Springfield, Illinois.


Joseph Warren Revere, grandson of Joseph Warren and Paul Revere, was young lieutenant in the squadron commanded by Commodore Sloat, already  52 FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA mentioned. By order of the Commodore and Commander John B. Montgomery, of the sloop of war Portsmouth, he had the honour of lowering the Bear standard and raising the American flag at Sonoma, California.


John A. Sutter, famous as the builder and owner of Sutter's Fort, was elected to receive the Degrees in Marysville Lodge, No. 9, on September i, 1853, though so far as is known he was never initiated.


Serving as a purser in the squadron of Commodore Sloat was a Mason named Rodman Price who afterwards became a member of California's first Constitutional Convention. Later he was elected governor of New Jersey.


One of the most interesting of the pioneer characters among early Masons of California was Colonel John W. Geary. After being discharged from service in the Mexican War, he came to California on the ship Oregon in 1849. When he landed at San Francisco on April 1 of that year he carried a commission granted by President Polk and making him postmaster of the town. Geary filled the place only fourteen days and then resigned. Since establishment of orderly government in San Francisco was just then being seriously considered by the citizens, Geary was elected as first alcalde, or mayor, at an election held the following August 1. He served as mayor until 1851, and then returned to his native State of Pennsylvania. Five years later President Pierce appointed him governor of Kansas Territory. There Geary had the unpleasant task of administering his office during the troublous days incident to discussion of the slavery question in that blood‑stained Territory, and when James Buchanan was inaugurated as President he resigned and again returned to his old home. At the outbreak of the war between the States in 1861, he entered the Northern Army as a colonel. During the war he was wounded several times, and eventually he was given a commission as brigadier‑general for gallantry in action. As commander of the Second Division of the Twentieth Army Corps, he took part in Sherman's memorable march to the sea, and upon the arrival of the Northern troops at Savannah, in 1864, he was appointed military governor of that city. Geary, who was elected governor of Pennsylvania in 1866, was probably the only American who ever had the distinction of having been governor of two States, in this instance, Kansas and Pennsylvania. Bro. Geary received his Masonic Degrees in St. John's Lodge, No. 219, of Pittsburgh, on January 4, 1847. Because he was just on the point of leaving for Mexico with his regiment, the three Degrees were conferred in one evening by Dispensation. In California, where he was active in Masonic Work, he assisted in formally organising California Lodge, No. 13, then under obedience to the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia. He was its first Secretary.


The Brother to whom California Masonry is most indebted was Charles Gilman, who presided at the Convention which launched the Grand Lodge of California. In the spring of 1849 he came to San Francisco from Baltimore, and at once commenced active work among the Masons scattered throughout the city. He had been Grand Master of New Hampshire in 183o, and Grand Master of Maryland from 1842 until 1848. He was an active Inspector General Thirty‑ FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA 53 third Degree of the Scottish Rite Masons. From 1835 to 1849 he was Secretary General of the Royal Arch Masons and Grand Recorder of the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of the United States. Not only was he learned in the civil law, but he was also familiar with Masonic law and custom. As presiding Officer of the Convention that formed the Grand Lodge, his knowledge of procedure was invaluable. Though he was logically the Mason to be selected as first Grand Master, he declined the honour in favour of his law partner, Colonel Stevenson, because his own Bro. Gilman died at Baltimore sometime in September, 1861.


The man to whom California Masons assigned the duty of administering the affairs of the Grand Lodge in 1850, Jonathan Drake Stevenson, was a colourful character. On January 1, 18oo, he was born in New York City; he died at San Francisco on February 14, 1894. In 1821 he was made a Mason in Phoenix Lodge, No. 40, of New York City, and he became the Lodge's Master the following year. For many years he was private secretary to Vice‑President Daniel D. Tompkins, who was a justice of the New York Supreme Court, and was governor of New York from 1807 until 1817. Bro. Tompkins was Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge in New York in 18o6 and Grand Master in 182o. At the outbreak of the Mexican War in 1846 Bro. Stevenson, who had long been identified with the New York National Guard, was commissioned colonel of the First New York Volunteers, a regiment known as the New York Legion. He sailed for California with his regiment in September 1846, and arrived at San Francisco on March S, 1847. There his troops were first to hoist the American flag over the old Mexican presidio. Colonel Stevenson established his headquarters at Los Angeles, and after the signing of the Treaty of Hidalgo, in 1848, his command was mustered out. As an officer he was a rigid disciplinarian, honest and just in all his dealings with his men. At his death he was buried not far from the place where nearly half a century before he had entered the Golden Gate with his soldiers, and where the Pacific chants a ceaseless requiem in honour of the first Grand Master of California.


Before the East heard of the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill, in January 1848 one Charter and one Dispensation approving the formation of Masonic Lodges in Alta California had been issued. After 1848 and before the formation of the California Grand Lodge, others were issued as follows: (1) Western Star Lodge, No. 98, at Benton City, whose Charter, dated May io, 1848, came from the Grand Lodge of Missouri. (2) San Francisco Lodge, empowered by a Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts granted sometime in 1848. This Lodge was never formed. (3) California Lodge, No. 13, at San Francisco, whose Charter was issued by the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia on November 9, 1848. (4) Pacific Lodge, at Benicia, established under a Louisiana Dispensation dated June S, 1849 (S) Davy Crockett Lodge, at San Francisco, established under a Louisiana Dispensation dated sometime in 1849. (6) Connecticut Lodge, No. 75, established under a Connecticut Charter dated January 54 FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA 31,._ 1849. (7) New Jersey Lodge, at Sacramento, established under a New Jersey Dispensation dated March 1, 1849. (8) Sierra Nevada Lodge, at Centerville (now Grass Valley), established under an Indiana Dispensation dated May, 1848. (9) San Francisco Lodge, whose Indiana Dispensation was dated sometime in May 1848, did not organise. (io) Pacific Lodge, at Long's Bar, established under an Illinois Dispensation dated sometime in October 1849. (11) Laveley Lodge, at Marysville, established under an Illinois Dispensation dated sometime in October 1849. (12) Richmond Travelling Lodge, whose Dispensation was issued by the Grand Lodge of Virginia sometime in 1849, was never organised. (13) La Fayette Lodge, No. , at Nevada City, held a Charter from Wisconsin dated sometime in 185o. (14) A Lodge to be established somewhere " in the mining district of California " was empowered by a Dispensation issued by the Grand Master of Ohio on March 5, 185o. Nothing at all is known about the fate of this Lodge. (15) Gregory Yale Lodge was empowered by a Dispensation issued by the Grand Lodge of Florida in 1849.


Peter Lassen is sometimes credited with having brought the first Masonic Charter to California, the Charter of Western Star Lodge, No. 98, but that distinction really belongs to Bro. Saschel Woods. Bro. Lassen was a pioneer of California who arrived here in May i84o. In 1847 he returned to Missouri for the express purpose of urging immigrants to come to his large estate in Alta California. Among the men who agreed to go with him were several Masons. They applied for a Charter from the Grand Lodge of Missouri, and that was granted as of May io, 1848. In this Charter, Bro. Woods was named as Master and Bro. Lassen as junior Warden. The Lodge was to be located at Benton City, on Lassen's ranch. Bro. Lassen was said to have been a member of Warren Lodge, No. 74, at Keytesville, Missouri, but he was neither versed in Masonic lore or Ritual, nor did he take any part in the organisation or subsequent Work of the Lodge. Bro. Saschel Woods, on the contrary, was active in Masonic Work. He was legal custodian of the Charter from the day it was issued, he presided at the first meeting of the Lodge held on October 30, 1849, he issued the first invitation to the California Lodges to hold a Convention for forming the Grand Lodge of California, he was California's first junior Grand Warden, and he continued his Masonic activities until overtaken by ill health and financial reverses. Bro. Woods, who was a native of Kentucky, removed from there to Missouri in 1834. A minister of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church and a forceful public speaker, Bro. Woods warmly espoused the antiMormon cause. He took a conspicuous part in the Mormon war in Missouri. It was he who accepted the Mormon commander's sword at the time that leader surrendered. This sword Bro. Woods afterwards presented to Wakanda Lodge, No. 52, at Carrollton, Missouri, of which he was a Charter member and the first Chaplain, and it is still in possession of the Tyler of Wakanda Lodge. Saschel Woods died at Crescent City, California, on April 26, 1854. A monument erected by the California Grand Lodge marks his grave.


On the California Register, Western Star Lodge, No. 98, was made No. 2.


FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA 55 In May 1851, it was granted permission to remove to Shasta, where it still carries on. All that is left of what was once Benton City is a stone monument that marks the site where the Lodge was first opened. This stands along the State highway, seventeen miles north of Chico.


Though the further Masonic history of Peter Lassen has no place here, his activities as a promoter are so interesting as to merit relating. In 1851, with Isaac Roop, a Past Master of Western Star Lodge, No. 98, and others, Lassen removed to the Honey Lake Country, in the region that now forms northeastern California. Lassen was a bachelor; Roop, a married man having a daughter named Susan. In honour of Roop's daughter, Lassen gave the name Susanville to the town that the pioneers established. There the settlers took up land without any formality except law of their own making, and in 1856 they established a new territory and called it the Republic of Nataqua. With Lassen as president and Roop as secretary of the newly established State, a code of laws was adopted whose first section declared that " in as much as Honey Lake Valley is not within the limits of California, the same is hereby declared a new Territory," and fixed boundaries that enclosed a region extending 15o miles north and south and some Zoo miles east and west, into Utah Territory, now the State of Nevada. Each settler was allotted 64o acres of land and one town lot. The western boundary of the new " Republic " was 35 miles east of the headquarters of Lassen and Roop. Settlers in the Carson and the Washoe valleys, whose lands were included within the paper survey, never knew they were a part of the new State. Nataqua had its own courts and peace officers and functioned as an independent government for several years. Finally, however, about 1859, it passed out of existence. Roop then went to western Utah, and later he became the first provisional governor of Nevada. Lassen continued to reside in Honey Lake Valley until he was killed‑supposedly by Indians‑in 1859. His memory is perpetuated by Mount Lassen, the only active volcano in the United States proper, by Lassen County, California, and by a granite monument near the huge pine tree under which he camped on his arrival in Honey Lake Valley.


James W. Marshall's discovery of gold in California, on January 19, 1848, set the world ablaze with excitement, and soon the great plains and mountains west of the Missouri River became the site of trails for seekers after the yellow metal. Masonic Lodges throughout the Eastern States were besieged with applications for Degrees made by those whose hearts were set upon going to the new El Dorado by the sunset sea, there to satisfy their greed for wealth. Like grist at the mill, Masons were ground out, so to speak, to meet the demands for human brotherhood, aid, and assistance on the journey to the wondrous new land. Grand Lodges and Grand Masters in the Eastern States issued Charters and Dispensations for Travelling Lodges so that Masons might be made en route. They were to organise Lodges after they reached their destination. The first Charter upon which a Lodge was established in California was granted by the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia, and dated November 9, 1848.


56 FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA This Lodge, known as California Lodge, No. 13, was to be located at San Francisco, with Samuel At Lee as Master, William Van Voorhees as Senior Warden, and Bedney F. McDonald as junior Warden. Van Voorhees held a commismission from President Polk that made him Assistant Postmaster General for California. At Lee was appointed postmaster of San Francisco. Lee, however, resigned his commission and did not leave Washington. John W. Geary was appointed in his place. Before leaving Washington, District of Columbia, Levi Stowell was installed as Master of the Lodge.


California Lodge, No. 13, was organised on October 17, 1849, with Levi Stowell as Master and John W. Geary as Secretary. Fees for the Degrees were fixed at $115, the charge for affiliation was $15, the dues were $4 a month. The Lodge held its first meetings in an attic at 726 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, a room so low at the sides that the Brethren had to move towards its middle when they arose, to keep from striking their heads on the roof timbers. The improvised Lodge Hall was lighted only by candles. Chairs were provided for the Master and Wardens, but all others present sat on boxes and benches. The Master's Pedestal was a pine box. A wooden shoe box, draped with an American flag and bearing the usual great lights of Masonry, served for an Altar. The lesser Lights were afforded by candles supported on wooden uprights. This Lodge, which participated in the formation of the Grand Lodge, is now Lodge No. i on the California Register.


The third Charter known to have been used in California was issued by the Grand Lodge of Connecticut at a called Communication held on January 30, 1849. The Lodge was named Connecticut Lodge, No. 76. Caleb Fenner was Master; James W. Goodrich, Senior Warden; and Elizur Hubbell, Junior Warden. When the Grand Lodge was organised, the name of Connecticut Lodge, No. 76, was changed to Tehama Lodge, No. 3. The room first occupied by the original Lodge was an attic at the corner of Fifth and J Streets. The second story of the building served as lodgings for persons whose sex and lack of morals made them ineligible for the privileges of Masonry. Naturally, the Lodge soon removed to more congenial quarters at a lower rental. Tehama Lodge, No. 3, now meets in the dignified Masonic Temple, of which it is part owner.


The fourth Lodge of California, known as La Fayette Lodge, held a Charter granted to J. F. Halsey, as Master, by the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin in the early months of 185o. Halsey and some other Masons from La Fayette County, Wisconsin, first settled at Nevada City. There the Lodge was organised and there it Worked until March 1851, nearly a year after the formation of the Grand Lodge of California. In May 1851 the Wisconsin Charter was surrendered. Members of the Lodge were then granted a Charter by the Grand Lodge of California. Known as Nevada Lodge, No. 13, this Lodge has had a continuous existence.


Besides the four Chartered Lodges already mentioned, several other Lodges operated before April 185o by virtue of Dispensations issued by Grand Masters.


FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA 57 The earliest of these Lodges was New Jersey Lodge, whose Dispensation, dated March 1, 1849, bore the signature of Edward Stewart, Deputy Grand Master of New Jersey. Thomas Youngs, as Master, opened the Lodge at Sacramento on December 4, 1849. Immediately after the formation of the Grand Lodge, on April 19, i85o, the Brethren of New Jersey Lodge were granted a Charter as Merryman Lodge, No. 4, and two weeks later the name was changed to Jennings Lodge. Berryman Jennings, in whose honour the Lodge was named, withdrew his membership early in 1851, removed to Oregon, became Master of Multnomah Lodge, No. 1, at Oregon City, and at the organisation of the Grand Lodge of Oregon, on September 14, 1851, was elected its Grand Master. In October 1830, Jennings opened the first school in Iowa. In 1923 a bronze tablet commemorating the man and the circumstance was erected near Galland, some six miles from Keokuk, the site of the school. Bro. Jennings received his Degrees in Des Moines Lodge, No. 1, at Burlington, Iowa, in 1845. He withdrew in 1847, and when he arrived at Sacramento, in 1849, he affiliated with New Jersey Lodge. He continued as a member until his death, which took place in Oregon in 1888. Jennings Lodge, No. 4, surrendered its Charter on February 14, 1853 The second Dispensation for a Lodge in California was issued by the Grand Master of Louisiana under date of June 5, 1849. This authorised D. B. Hyam, and others, to open a Lodge of Ancient York Masons at Benicia. The Brethren held their first meeting on March 6, 1850, and formally organised two days later, choosing the name Benicia Lodge. Benicia Lodge received a Charter from the Grand Lodge of California in 185o and held its first meeting as a California Lodge on May 9 of that year. In May 1852 Hyam was elected Grand Master, and the following June he conferred the Degrees of Masonry without the sanction of a Lodge and in a house not devoted to Masonic uses. Then he pocketed the fees he had received. To this the Grand Lodge took exception at a special Communication held on August 17, 1852. Hyam's defense was that it was an inherent right of a Grand Master to make Masons at sight, and that he, as such an Officer, was above the law of Masonry and could do no Masonic wrong. The result of the deliberations of the Grand Lodge was that the doctrine claimed by Hyam was disavowed. In testimony of its position, the Grand Lodge adopted the following Regulations The Grand Master has no power to make Masons at sight, or at will, except in a regular Lodge by unanimous consent of the members present. . . . He is but the creature of the Grand Lodge, with no implied powers. It is compe tent for Grand Lodge to try its Grand Master for a misdemeanor in office, and deal with him as the nature of the offense may require.


A few years after this event took place, Hyam left California. He was last heard of in England as a discredited Mason.


Benicia Lodge, which still flourishes, has included among its members 58 FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA many makers of California history who have ranked high in the good work of upholding law and order and resisting evils incident to the gold rush of early days.


Davy Crockett Lodge was organised in San Francisco in the fall of 1849 by virtue of a Dispensation issued by an irregular Grand Lodge of California. The Brethren of this Lodge renounced their allegiance to the Louisiana Grand Lodge and Petitioned for a Charter under California obedience. This was granted on November 27, i85o, and the Lodge was known as Davy Crockett Lodge, No. 7. In August 1852, the Lodge's name was changed to San Francisco Lodge. Its Charter was revoked in 1859.


Sometime in May 1848 the Grand Master of Indiana issued a Dispensation for a " Travelling Lodge for California to be known as Sierra Nevada Lodge." The members of this proposed Lodge were residents of La Fayette, Indiana. They opened their Lodge at Centerville, now Grass Valley, California, in 1849, and there the Lodge continued in active operation until May 1852. It was then transferred to California obedience with the name of Madison Lodge, No‑ 2.3, and as such it is still Working.


Another early Lodge that expected to Work in California was to bear the name San Francisco Lodge. Proposed in Wayne County, Indiana, in 1848, the Lodge was to be located at San Francisco. But so far as is known, it never organised. The Officers named in the Dispensation were Henry R. Hannah, Master, John Prichett, Senior Warden, and Absalom Cunningham, Junior Warden. The only member of this proposed Lodge whose record can be traced was Henry R. Hannah, whose name appears on the Roster of Ophir Lodge, No. 33, at Murphy's Camp, Calaveras County, California.


Two Lodges, about whose activities little is known, operated by virtue of Dispensations issued by Grand Master Lavely, of Illinois, and dated March 1849. One Dispensation was for Pacific Lodge, in which Past Grand Master Nelson D. Morse, of Illinois, was named as Master, Alexander Ewing, as Senior Warden, and L. D. Montgomery, as junior Warden. The Brethren opened the Lodge at Long's Bar, Butte County, in 185o, where it continued until the fall of 1851. In 1852 Bro. Morse represented Butte County in the California Legislature. Later he returned to his home at Henderson, Illinois, where he died on February 9, 1854.


Among the distinguished men who were made Masons in Pacific was John Bidwell, a pioneer of 1840. Bro. Bidwell described the early home of this Lodge as being a log house rising some four feet above ground, whose dirt floor had been excavated deeply enough to permit one to stand. Altar and Pedestals were stumps of trees, the Lights were candles, and the jewels were cut from tin cans. Bro. Bidwell's record looms large in the early history of California. Born in New York in 1819, he emigrated to Pennsylvania and Ohio with his parents. After teaching school ,:n Ohio and Iowa, he went from Missouri to California in 1840. There he was grantee of the Colus (Colusa) Ranch in 1845, since he had become a naturalised Mexican citizen. In 1846 he ranked as major, under FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA 59 Stockton, in the California Battalion. Later Bro. Bidwell became a miner on Feather River, at Bidwell's Bar. He acquired the Arroyo Chico ranches, and there made his permanent home as a man of wealth and one of the foremost agriculturalists of the State. In 1849 Bro. Bidwell served as State senator in the first California Legislature. He was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention held at Charleston, South Carolina, in 186o, a delegate to the National Union Convention held in 1864, and a member of Congress from 1864 to 1867. As anti‑monopoly candidate for governor of California, he was defeated in 1875. In 18go he was again an unsuccessful candidate for governor, this time on the Prohibition Party ticket. In 1892 he became the first candidate of the Prohibition Party for President of the United States. In this campaign Bro. Bidwell's total expenses were only $300, that amount having been paid to Rev. E. B. Barnes, who went to the party's St. Louis convention in Bidwell's interest. Bro. Bidwell died at Chico, California, on April 5, igoo.


In March 1849 Grand Master Lavely, of Illinois, also issued a Dispensation to Past Deputy Grand Master John R. Crandall as Master, and others, to form and open a Travelling Lodge in the Territory of California, to be known as Lavely Lodge. The Lodge was organised at Marysville early in 185o, and continued in operation until the formation of the Grand Lodge the following April. Lacking a suitable hall, Lodge meetings were held in a tent. Bro. Crandall, of Lavely, was Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of California in 1853, and for many years was active in the State's Masonic and civic affairs.


The antecedents of Gregory Yale Lodge, of Stockton, California, reach back into Florida Masonry. In his address to the Grand Lodge of that State, on January 14, 185o, Grand Master Thomas Brown reported that since the last annual Communication he had granted a Dispensation to W.‑. Bro. Gregory Yale, Master of Solomon's Lodge, No. Zo, of Jacksonville, East Florida, to establish a Lodge in California. The Lodge thus provided for was organised at Stockton early in 185o, and continued to operate until about the time that San Joaquin Lodge, No. i9 was organised, some two years later. Then it ceased Work. No report on this Lodge was ever made to the parent Grand Lodge from which it sprang. Gregory Yale, original holder of the Dispensation, was a lawyer who removed to San Francisco in i85o and there became associated with Albert Nunes, whose office was in Adobe B, on the Plaza. Bro. Yale joined with others to organise Occidental Lodge, No. 22, of San Francisco, in May 1852, though he withdrew from that Lodge on January 24, 1859 The Dispensations and Charters thus far mentioned include all those for Lodges whose opening in California was proposed up to the time of the formation of the California Grand Lodge. As has been explained, some few of the proposed Lodges materialised. The Brethren of other proposed Lodges, who started to the new land of gold with high hopes of finding riches, may have been diverted to Oregon. Some may have perished from the privations that beset those who undertook the long journey across desert and sierra. On the whole, however, the hardy Masons who did reach their destination and set 6o FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA up Lodges became towers of strength in building here a decent civilisation. To them succeeding generations indeed owe much.


It is not generally known that representatives of some of the Lodges operating in California in 1849 and 185o, by virtue of Dispensations, formed a Grand Lodge early in the latter year. It seems that D. B. Hyam, whose Masonic repu tation would stamp him as a sort of climber on the fraternal social ladder, was the guiding spirit in a Convention which met at Sacramento, in March 185o, solemnly organised " The Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Ancient York Masons of California," and adopted a Constitution. Immediately the Lodges Working under Charter protested, and the Delegates to the irregular Body promptly rescinded their action.


Soon after the irregular organisation passed out of existence, proceedings were begun anew and publicly in regular Masonic manner for the formation of a Grand Lodge. In behalf of the Lodges holding Charters, a call for a Con vention to be held at Sacramento on April 17 for the purpose of forming a Grand Lodge " in the State of California " was published by Saschel Woods, Master of Western Star Lodge, No. 98, under date of April 5, i85o. It should be borne in mind that although the Constitution of the new State had been adopted on October io, ratified by the people of the Territory on November 13, and proclaimed on December Zo, 11849, Congress did not formally accept California as a part of the Union until September 9, i85o. In response to Woods's call, a Convention was held on the day fixed, in the Red House at Sacramento. It was attended by accredited representatives from the following Chartered Lodges: California Lodge, No. 13, of the District of Columbia; Connecticut Lodge, No. 75; Western Star Lodge, No. 98, of Missouri. The Leader in that Convention was Charles Gilman, who represented California Lodge, No. 13Bro. Gilman was peculiarly well equipped to take a leading part in the work of forming a Grand Lodge, and to him was committed the preliminary work of organisation. The Delegates selected him to be the Chairman of the Convention. A Constitution consisting of only nine articles, and containing only basic Masonic law, was adopted, and on April I9, i85o, the Grand Lodge was formed and opened regularly, in strict accordance with Masonic law and usage. In this Grand Lodge Bro. Jonathan Drake Stevenson, of California Lodge, No. 13, was Grand Master; Bro. John A. Tutt, of Connecticut Lodge, No. 75, was Deputy Grand Master; Bro. Caleb Fenner, of Connecticut Lodge, No. 75, was Senior Grand Warden; Bro. Saschel Woods, of Western Star Lodge, No. 98, was junior Grand Warden; Bro. John H. Gihon, of California Lodge, No. 13, was Grand Secretary. Petitions for Charters were received and granted that same day. A Charter was granted to the Brethren of New Jersey Lodge, of Sacramento, which was from then on known as Berryman Lodge, No. 4. Benicia Lodge, of Benicia was Chartered as No. 5. The Grand Lodge was then closed in ample form, to meet semi‑annually on the first Tuesday in May and in November.


From the humble beginnings of organised Masonry in California just recounted, the Grand Lodge now boasts nearly i5o,ooo members. The pioneer FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA 61 Brethren brought order out of chaos, and by following the dictates of and by stern Masonic morality they laid deep and strong foundations for stable government. One of the first standing resolutions the Grand Lodge adopted was against duelling; it provided for the expulsion of all who should use that method to settle personal disputes. Another resolution declared " that the stern morality of Masonry is practicable, that we pledge the influence of this Grand Lodge in sustaining it, and recommend that the members exemplify the same in their lives and conduct. " When the Grand Lodge was formed, the three Lodges under Charter had a combined membership of only 103. By November, 1850, seven additional Charters had been granted and the combined membership had increased to 304. At that time the fees exacted by the Grand Lodge were $ioo for a Dispensation to form a Lodge, $so for a Charter, $25 to the Grand Secretary for engrossing a Charter, $i.5o for each Degree conferred, $2 for each affiliate, and $2 semiannually for each contributing member. Five dollars was fixed as the fee for a diploma, and for a copy of any document required of the Grand Secretary, a charge of 5o cents for each hundred words was charged. During the next ten years the number of Lodges increased to 128, the membership to sons . All those Lodges except three were in the northern part of the State.


Because of the shift in population and the rapid decline of some of the mining camps, thirteen Lodges had surrendered their Charters before i86o, two others had been transferred to the Oregon jurisdiction, and two other Charters had been revoked for cause. Since the organisation of the Grand Lodge, 678 Lodges have been formed, while 98 have become extinct by revocation or surrender of Charter, consolidation with other Lodges, or surrender of jurisdiction. In November 1851 two Lodges were transferred to assist in the formation of the Grand Lodge of Oregon. Eight Lodges were transferred to Nevada in July 1865. Three Lodges were transferred to Arizona in March 1882, and in December 1912 three Lodges were transferred to form the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands. The three Lodges located in the southern part of the State during the early career of the Grand Lodge were San Diego Lodge, No. 35, organised in 1851; Los Angeles Lodge, No. 42, organised in 1853; and Lexington Lodge, No. 104, organised in 1855 at El Monte, a town at the end of the Old Santa Fe Trail. By 1870 the population of the southern counties of the State had begun to increase, and at that time many Lodges were formed. There are now 235 Lodges in the region south of the Tehachapi River, and of those 160 are located in Los Angeles County alone.


Of the many early mining camps, one only need be mentioned. Known as Columbia and located in Tuolumne County it was the largest in the State. It was popularly called the " Gem of the Southern Mines." Gold was discovered there in the spring of 1850, and within a month the rush of miners from nearby camps brought in a population of some 6ooo gold‑seekers. Every week brought more treasure hunters, and at times as many as 30,000 men madly dug for gold in the hills roundabout. As many as 15,000 miners lived within limits of the 62 FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA town. By the year 1865, however, Columbia was a dead settlement. In its heyday Columbia had 40 saloons, a long street where fandangoes were danced to the music of hurdy‑gurdies, 4 English language theatres, I Chinese theatre having a stock company Of 40 native actors, 3 jewelry stores, a bull ring, 143 faro banks having a combined capital of some $2,000,000, 4 hotels, 2 military companies, 2 fire companies, 3 express offices, 4 banks, 4 newspapers, 2 churches, a Sunday school, a division of the Sons of Temperance, and Columbia Lodge No. 28 of Masons. The principal bank, a building whose steps were of white Columbia marble and having mahogany counters, belonged to D. O. Mills. The bank's capacious scales could weigh $40,000 worth of gold dust and nuggets at one time. The mines, lying within a radius of three miles, produced and shipped a hundred and a quarter million dollars worth of gold before they were exhausted. In Columbia, the Masonic Lodge was a power in maintaining order and decent government. After the gold fever had died down and the mines were exhausted, however, the membership of the Lodge fell to a low mark. In I89I the old Lodge, which had been established in July 1852, consolidated with Tuolumne Lodge, No. 8, at the historic town of Sonora. There it still carries on. In the annals of the Grand Lodge of California are to be found stories of many mining towns long since vanished. Of them all, Columbia was indeed most notable.


ILLUSTRIOUS MASONS OF CALIFORNIA Though names of all distinguished California Masons cannot be mentioned in this short sketch, in addition to those which have been noted the following are of consequence. Alexander G. Abell. Born in New York City on June 29, 1818. He arrived in San Francisco on November 6, 1847, from Honolulu, where he had served as United States Consul since 1844. Made a Mason in Federal Lodge, No. I, at Washington, District of Columbia, in 1852. Affiliated with California Lodge, No. I, on January 5, 1853. Master of that Lodge from 1855 to 1857. Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of California from May 19, 1855, until his death on December 26, I89o. Bro. Abell was known in Masonry both as a Warwick and a Bismarck. During his long years of service he was the dominating character of the Grand Lodge.


George W. Baird. Admiral in the United States Navy. Affiliated with Naval Lodge No. 87, at Vallejo, in 1870‑ Withdrew to Washington, District of Columbia, in 1872. Died in 193 I.


Lawrence Patrick Barret. Distinguished as an actor. Raised in Oriental Lodge, No. 144, at San Francisco, on July i9, 1870. He continued his membership in that Lodge till his death in I89I.


John Mills Brown. Surgeon General of the United States Navy. Master of Naval Lodge, No. 87, in 1871. A Grand Master from 1875 to 1878. Died at Washington, District of Columbia, on December 7, 1894. He was surgeon aboard the U. S. S. Kearsage in its memorable battle with the Confederate cruiser Alabama.


FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA 63 Luther Burbank. Born in Massachusetts. World famous horticultural experimentalist. Made a Mason in Santa Rosa Lodge, No. 57, in 1921. Died on April 11, 1926.


Thomas Hubbard Caswell. Born on August io, 1825, at Exeter, Otsego County, New York. Lawyer. Settled in Nevada City in 1849. Made a Mason in Nevada Lodge, No. 13, in June, 1851. Master of the Lodge from 1868 to 1869, and from 1870 to 1871. Grand Lecturer in 1873. Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of Scottish Rite Masons, Southern Jurisdiction of the United States in 1895. Died November 13, 1900.


Samuel Langhorne Clemens, known to the world as " Mark Twain." Made a Mason in Polar Star Lodge, No. 79, at St. Louis, Missouri. Was in California during the 186o's, and on February 8, 1865, acted as junior Deacon of Bear Mountain Lodge, No. 67, at Angels Camp. Angels Camp is the scene of Mark Twain's famous story of " The Jumping Frog of Calaveras County. " Joseph B. Coghlan. Admiral in the United States Navy. Received much unfavourable renown through newspapers and magazines for his recitation of a poem entitled " Me and Gott," which ridiculed Emperor William II of Ger many. Master of Solano Lodge, No. 229, at Vallejo, in 1887. Died on December 5, 1908.


James G. Fair. Of " Comstock Bonanza " fame. Received his Masonic Degrees in 1858 in Bear Mountain Lodge, No. 76. Secretary of that Lodge in 1861. Treasurer from 1862 to 1864. Withdrew from the Lodge in 1869 and ceased all further Masonic activities.


William D. Fair. Junior Warden of California Lodge, No. 1, in 1850. Lawyer. At the opening of the war between the States, Bro. Fair was a strong supporter of the Confederacy. Because this attitude caused a decline of his law practice, he committed suicide on December 27, 1861. On November 3, 1870, Bro. Fair's widow, Laura D. Fair, shot and killed Alexander Crittenden, a prominent lawyer. Her acquittal on the ground of " emotional insanity " introduced a new type of defense into criminal practice.


Stephen J. Field. Raised in Corinthian Lodge, No. 9, at Marysville, in 1850. In 1866 he was made a life member of the Lodge because of his liberal donations. A brother of Cyrus West Field, projector of the first cable to be laid across the Atlantic Ocean. A member of the first California Legislature, in 1850. Prepared a code of mining, civil, and criminal laws which was generally adopted by Western States. Justice of the Supreme Court of California in 1857 and chief justice in 1859. In 1863 he was appointed to be an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court. He resigned that post in April, 1897. Born at Haddam, Connecticut, on November 4, 1816, and died at Washington, District of Columbia, on April 9, 1899 James Clair Flood. Member of the " Comstock Bonanza " banking firm of Flood and O'Brien. Made a Mason in Golden Gate Lodge, No. 30, in 1852. Died in 1889.


64 FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA John Hays Hammond. World famous mining engineer. Raised in Oriental Lodge, No. 144, at San Francisco, on June 2‑o, 1893 .


James William King. Member of California Lodge, No. 1. Banker. Edi tor of The San Francisco Bulletin. Shot by James P. Casey on May 14, 1856, and a week later died. Casey was hanged by the San Francisco Vigilance Committee immediately after the burial of King.


Thomas Starr King. Born at New York City on December 16, 182‑4. Died at San Francisco on March 4, 1864. Received his Master's Degree on August 17, 1861, in Oriental Lodge, No. 144. Pastor of the First Unitarian Church of San Francisco from April 186o until his death. By his zeal and eloquence Thomas Starr King was foremost among those who succeeded in keeping California in the Union at the time of the war between the States, and in stimulating subscriptions to the funds of the Sanitary Commission during that war. He was instrumental in raising $566,ooo from citizens of San Francisco. Upon hearing of Bro. King's death, the California Legislature of 1864 adjourned for three days, after resolving " that he had been a tower of strength to the cause of his country." A bronze statue of the patriot in Golden Gate Park, at San Francisco, and a statue in the Hall of Fame, at Washington, District of Columbia, memorialise his devotion to humanity and to the Union. He was at one time Grand Orator of the Grand Lodge of California. His best epitaph is written in the hearts of his Brethren.


John William Mackey. Of " Comstock Bonanza " fame. Made a Mason in Forest Lodge, No. 66, at Alleghany, California, in 1858. In 1862 he withdrew to Escurial Lodge, No. 7, of Virginia City, Nevada. Born on November 2‑.8, 1831, at Dublin, Ireland. He died in 1903.


Nelson A. Miles. General in the United States Army. Raised in February, 1888, at the age of forty‑seven, in Southern California Lodge, No. 278, of Los Angeles. Died on May 15, 192‑5, at Washington, District of Columbia.


William Smith O'Brien. A member of the famous gold‑mining and banking firm of Flood and O'Brien, of the " Comstock Bonanza." With John W. Mackey he made a fortune out of his interest in the Comstock mines. Made a Mason in Golden Gate Lodge, No. 30, in 1852. Was Secretary of the Lodge in 1853. Died in 1878.


Lester A. Pelton. Member of Gravel Range Lodge, No. 59, at Camptonville. In 1879 he invented the Pelton water wheel, a successful innovation in hydraulic engineering, since adopted by engineers throughout the world. In 192‑9 a monument having the form of a water wheel was erected at Camptonville in his honour.


Leland Stanford. Received his Masonic Degrees in Ozaukee Lodge, No. 17, at Port Washington, Wisconsin. Withdrew, and removed to Cold Springs, near Placerville, California, in 1852‑. From 1853 to 1855 he was at Michigan Bluff. He was at Sacramento from 1855 till 1874, when he took up his residence at San Francisco. Leland Stanford was the chief political agent and one of the incorporators of the Central Pacific Railroad. He was governor of California FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA 65 from 1861 to 1863 and United States senator from California from January 1885 till his death on June 21, 1893. He founded Leland Stanford Jr. University as a memorial to his deceased son.


William G. Walker. Made a Charter member of Texas Lodge, No. 46, at San Juan Bautista, on October 25, 1853. Withdrew from the Lodge in 1855. Organised the Walker invasion of Nicaragua in 1855, and became president of the republic he established there. In November 1853, he seized the town of La Paz and proclaimed the Republic of Lower California. Walker's aim was generally believed to be the conversion of the border states of Mexico into a slave‑holding republic. In May 1854 Walker and his " cabinet " returned to San Francisco. There he was indicted by a grand jury, tried, and acquitted. In May 18 Walker embarked on his Nicaragua enterprise, but after two years he was compelled to leave that country. He went to New York, and subsequently made another invasion of Central America. This time he fell into the hands of the Honduras military authorities, was tried, condemned, and shot on September 25, 1860. Edmund Randolph, then a resident of Sacramento, was associated with Walker in his unsavory escapades.


THE CALIFORNIA RITUAL One of the first matters to engage the attention of the Grand Lodge of California in 1850 was Ritualistic uniformity. The Officers of the several Lodges having come from different jurisdictions, naturally held divergent views and were jealous of the infringements of others. At the first Communication, a Committee was appointed whose members were instructed to compare their knowledge and " report the proper mode of Work." The result was that, in 1853, Isaac Davis, who had learned his Work in Ohio, was appointed Grand Lecturer. Undoubtedly he used the Barney Work, since Barney had been Grand Lecturer of Ohio from 1836 to 1843. Bro. Barney was an enthusiastic Ritualist, who, while living in Vermont in 1817, went to Boston and there learned the Preston Work as taught by Bro. Gleason. In 1843 Barney attended a conference at Baltimore, and on his return home the Grand Lodge of Ohio adopted the Work as approved by the Baltimore Conference. In the main, California has adhered to the old Barney Ritual.


MASONIC RELIEF IN CALIFORNIA Masonry in California has fairly justified its claims as an upholder of the principles of Brotherly Love and Relief, and in these matters its record is worthy of the best traditions of our Institution. Before the Organisation of the Grand Lodge, the Brethren of the pioneer Lodges were actively engaged in relief work rendered necessary in the years 1849 and 1850 by the poverty and sickness following the rush of gold‑seekers to the new El Dorado. In the wake of those lured by tales of wealth, came deadly Asiatic Cholera. In Sacramento as many as a 150 new case's of cholera a day were reported, and to the credit of our pioneer Brethren, all these were cared for, irrespective of the affiliation of the stricken.


FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA 65 from 1861 to 1863 and United States senator from California from January 1885 till his death on June 21, 1893. He founded Leland Stanford Jr. University as a memorial to his deceased son.


William G. Walker. Made a Charter member of Texas Lodge, No. 46, at San Juan Bautista, on October 25, 1853. Withdrew from the Lodge in 1855Organised the Walker invasion of Nicaragua in 1855, and became president of the republic he established there. In November 1853, he seized the town of La Paz and proclaimed the Republic of Lower California. Walker's aim was generally believed to be the conversion of the border states of Mexico into a slave‑holding republic. In May 1854 Walker and his " cabinet " returned to San Francisco. There he was indicted by a grand jury, tried, and acquitted. In May 1855 Walker embarked on his Nicaragua enterprise, but after two years he was compelled to leave that country. He went to New York, and subsequently made another invasion of Central America. This time he fell into the hands of the Honduras military authorities, was tried, condemned, and shot on September 25, 186o. Edmund Randolph, then a resident of Sacramento, was associated with Walker in his unsavory escapades.


THE CALIFORNIA RITUAL One of the first matters to engage the attention of the Grand Lodge of California in i85o was Ritualistic uniformity. The Officers of the several Lodges having come from different jurisdictions, naturally held divergent views and were jealous of the infringements of others. At the first Communication, a Committee was appointed whose members were instructed to compare their knowledge and " report the proper mode of Work." The result was that, in 1853, Isaac Davis, who had learned his Work in Ohio, was appointed Grand Lecturer. Undoubtedly he used the Barney Work, since Barney had been Grand Lecturer of Ohio from 1836 to 1843. Bro. Barney was an enthusiastic Ritualist, who, while living in Vermont in 1817, went to Boston and there learned the Preston Work as taught by Bro. Gleason. In 1843 Barney attended a conference at Baltimore, and on his return home the Grand Lodge of Ohio adopted the Work as approved by the Baltimore Conference. In the main, California has adhered to the old Barney Ritual.


MASONIC RELIEF IN CALIFORNIA Masonry in California has fairly justified its claims as an upholder of the principles of Brotherly Love and Relief, and in these matters its record is worthy of the best traditions of our Institution. Before the Organisation of the Grand Lodge, the Brethren of the pioneer Lodges were actively engaged in relief work rendered necessary in the years 1849 and i85O by the poverty and sickness following the rush of gold‑seekers to the new El Dorado. In the wake of those lured by tales of wealth, came deadly Asiatic Cholera. In Sacramento as many as a 15o new cases of cholera a day were reported, and to the credit of our pioneer Brethren, all these were cared for, irrespective of the affiliation of the stricken.


66 FREEMASONRY IN CALIFORNIA In the fall of 1849 and during the following spring, members of Sacramento Lodges, who numbered only 69, contributed $32,000 towards the support of a local hospital and gave of their time and funds for general relief besides. Tuolumne Lodge, No. 8, of Sonora, which had been Chartered in November i85o, and had only 41 members, expended $4500 in two years, not a dollar of which went to its own members. A survey made in 1852 showed that in only one case had relief been demanded by, or paid to, a member of a California Lodge. During its formative years, the Grand Lodge adopted a law, which is still part of its Constitution, stipulating that " the funds of a Lodge are trust funds set apart for the payment of its necessary expenses and for the special calls for charity for which it was instituted," and that " each Lodge shall see to it, even if it require all its funds and property, that the needy Brethren of its own membership and neighbourhood are not suffered to want or to be made a burden to others." And this law applies equally to distressed widows and orphans.


Our Masonic treasuries have never been avaricious. No Lodge may charge less than nine dollars a year for dues, most of them do charge twelve dollars. Each initiate must pay twenty‑five dollars toward the support of the two Homes maintained by the Grand Lodge‑one Home, at Covina, for the care and education of dependent children, the other, at Decoto, for the care of aged dependent Masons, their widows and mothers. These Homes represent a capital expenditure of some $Z,ooo,ooo for buildings, and a yearly maintenance cost of some $Zoo,ooo. In a single year 230 children and 368 aged men and women were cared for out of these funds. A clubhouse for young men and women attending the State University is maintained at Berkeley, and another at Los Angeles. In California there are 14 organised Boards of Relief, which in a recent year expended $95,SZo. Of this amount the Lodges composing the Boards and California recipients contributed $58,140. Though unobtrusively carried on, this work of relief is a monument to Masonry. It is known only to those whose sorrows and distresses have been assuaged by the helping hand and open purse. An Endowment Fund for the benefit of the Masonic Homes was created in 1910. Although this fund increases only slowly, it now amounts to some $700,000. Only the interest accruing to this fund may be used.


FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO HARRY L. BAUM IKE most of the rest of the West, Colorado was settled as a result of the discovery of gold. The existence of the precious metal in what is now Colorado was definitely determined in August 1849, but no deposits of consequence were discovered until April 1858, when a party of traders led by O. O. Cantrell brought to the outside world evidence of the presence of gold in washings from the sands of the South Platte River, near the present site of Denver. Further confirmation was furnished by O. O. Russell and O. O. McFadden, who at about the same time found gold in the sands of Cherry Creek, also near the present site of Denver. Reports of those discoveries, gradually made known through the newspapers, resulted in the westward migration of many venturesome persons who were in quest of riches. Fairly substantial numbers of them began to reach Colorado during the latter part of 1858. As was usually the case in such circumstances, town sites were laid out near several places where gold had been discovered, but only two of those towns ever developed. They were Auraria, on the west bank of Cherry Creek, and Denver City, on its east bank. The two were rivals for supremacy in size and population. In the spring of 1859 those towns began to grow rapidly, and in April 186o they were united under the name and government of Denver City. Transportation from the eastern centres of population was, of course, only by means of ox‑cart or wagon, on horseback or on foot. Those pretentiously styled cities, which were the first objectives of gold‑seekers, consisted of only a few straggling log cabins‑without windows, with dirt roofs and floors‑the rudest of furniture, and none of the comforts common to those settled regions from which the adventurers had so recently departed.


One hardly can fail to be impressed with the importance of the Masonic Lodge in the life of such communities. And, indeed, we find pioneer Freemasonry to have possessed unique characteristics and to have been filled with a wealth of the best of Masonic attributes. Here, in a vast wild country hitherto unpopulated by white settlers, were gathered persons totally unknown to one another, untrammelled by any tie of home or family, unrestrained by the civilising influences to which they had been accustomed. They found themselves completely thrown upon their own resources‑for food and shelter, for protection, for government, and for social intercourse.


It was natural that under such circumstances people should look about them for others whose preferences were like their own. How human it was and how very indicative of the values of fraternity, that many of those men 67 68 FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO found themselves congregating as Masons almost as soon as they arrived at the scene of their intended activities. At first they met informally without Warrant or Dispensation. Later, they went through the form of opening Lodge and examining applicants for admission to their meetings. Occasionally a burial was conducted with Masonic rites, though the historian wonders where jewels, Columns, Aprons, and other paraphernalia were obtained for the purpose. It must be assumed that at least a Bible was to be found among the Brethren assembled on such solemn occasions! Since those pioneer Brethren were holding forth without even a vestige of regular authority, it is conceivable that they may have considered one of the Great Lights sufficient for their purpose. Of course, no Degrees were conferred at any of those meetings, such foregatherings having been mainly an expression of the Brethren's desire to see once more the form of the Lodge, to listen to the familiar words of the Ritual, to prove and to know one another Masonically, and to be able to afford relief to distressed and needy who found themselves amidst such strange surroundings. Thus the Lodge of those days was a social and fraternal centre of great value to the community and to the men who participated in the fellowship it had to offer. Here, through Masonry, and without the trials which in such circumstances must ordinarily be used to prove worthiness, men came to know each other as trustworthy, dependable citizens. Here too, along with others of like persuasion, might men renew in spirit the obligations taken before a common altar.


The first such meeting of which there is record was held in Auraria on November 3, 1858, in the cabin of Henry Allen, which stood on the west bank of Cherry Creek. It is best described by one of the participants, Bro. J. D. Ramage, in a letter he wrote in 1896, nearly forty years later.


On the evening of the 3d day of November, 1858, the first informal meeting of Masons was held in the cabin, I think, of Henry Allen. I arrived in Pike's Peak, as it was then called, on the 2.d of November . . . and having heard that I was a Mason, they invited me to attend.


I accompanied Bro. Allen to his abode, and there found Bros. W. M. Slaughter, Charles Blake, Dr. Russell, Andrew Sagendorf, and, I think, George Lehow. These Brethren, together with Bro. Allen and myself, made the first seven Masons, according to my knowledge and belief, who ever met in Colorado having in contemplation the application for a Charter, and a seven who stuck together, as Masons should do, through thick and thin. . . . In the meantime we decided to form an informal Lodge for mutual fellowship, and for the purpose of practising Lodge Work, so that when we received our Charter we would be able to take hold properly. We agreed to meet every Saturday night, and as our object in locating in Colorado was to get gold . . . we decided that any ideas concerning the country we were in, news of any mines we should discover, or any information which might be beneficial to the Brethren, Masonically or financially, would, at the next meeting, be given to the Masons there assembled. We had some very pleasant meetings.


FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO 69 From time to time we increased our membership. On the Z7th of December, St. John's Day, we concluded to have a supper in honour of the festival‑a work of no small difficulty. We had flour, pork, coffee, beans, and so on, and a scarcity of even some of those things. Those who were so disposed went out hunting, and returned with some game in time to prepare it for the feast. . . . We had great difficulty in finding something to cover our festal board with. Somebody informed us that a Mormon, his wife and daughter, had lately come to town, and taking for granted that where there were women (a scarce article in that country in those days) there we would surely find tablecloths, we called on the old lady and she informed us that, while she did not possess what we desired, she had some nice, clean bed sheets, and we were welcome to them. We were now provided, and ready for the supper. We accordingly met. There' were in all twenty‑six in number, and notwithstanding our hurried preparations, there probably never was a happier or pleasanter meeting of such a Body of Masons.


The meetings of this group of devoted Masons finally resulted in the submission of an application to the Grand Lodge of Kansas for a Dispensation to form a new Lodge to be called Auraria Lodge U. D. In the meantime, on May 6, 1859, O. O. Gregory's discovery of rich deposits of placer gold started a veritable stampede to the region of the Gregory diggings. Those were situated high in the mountains, in what is now Gilpin County, some forty miles northwest of Denver. Three towns were immediately laid out in Gregory Gulch, as the locality had been called in honour of the discoverer. Of those, Mountain City was the settlement adjacent to the Gregory discovery. Central City was situated somewhat above it, and Black Hawk just below it. In the course of their rapid growth, however, the three became one populous settlement, straggling down the gulch and extending up the mountain slopes for some distance on either side. There the remains of those towns still stand, almost depopulated. They are reminders of the glories of other days and of the fame that once was theirs. In early days, though, a population of more than 2o,ooo‑almost exclusively male‑was crowded into a few square miles of terrain almost vertical. And all were bent upon finding gold or profiting from others' discovery of it. Here, during the frantic rush for treasure, the Masons, many of whom had participated in the meetings at Auraria, conceived the idea of building a Masonic Temple. Its construction is best described in a letter written by Bro. William M. Slaughter, in which he recounts the experience as he remembered it in 1896.


About the first day of June, 1859, there had assembled in and around Gregory Gulch, where Central City and Black Hawk now stand, fully twenty thousand men, and it was decided that there ought to be a rallying‑ lace for Masons, hundreds of whom were to be found among this vast crow A consultation of those known to each other as Masons was held at Slaughter and Sopris's cabin, and it was resolved to build a Lodge Room. The word was passed about among all those claiming to be Masons, and about the 15th of June a site was 70 FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO selected for the Lodge Room, which was on the south side of Gregory Gulch. . . . Work was begun immediately, and the ground leveled for the building, and from fifty to one hundred men with horses and ox‑teams were cutting and dragging logs for the new Temple, which, as near as I now remember, was about thirty feet square. . . . Within two or three days the walls were up, and chinked and plastered with mud inside and out. A pole roof covered with pine boughs, and this covered with several inches of earth, completed the Lodge Room building. The three Stations were made of pine logs, sawed the proper height, hewn and sunk into the ground, with a shorter block of the same material planted by it for a seat. The Secretary's desk was the end gate of a wagon Gregory Gulch, Colorado, 1859. [Drawn from contemporary descriptions.] The first building erected for Masonic purposes between the Missouri River and the Pacific coast.


box, nailed on top of a post set in the ground and covered with a piece of wagoncover canvas, with a block of wood for a seat. I do not remember the exact date of the first meeting in the new Lodge Room, but I think it was about the twentieth of June, 1859. I shall never forget that first meeting on the mountain side.


Word had been passed about among the Masons of the several camps that a Masonic meeting would be held that night at dusk, and as the hour arrived the trails and paths leading towards the Temple began to be lined with Masons, gathering together to meet each other, from distant States and countries, for the first time in this wild place amid the pine woods on a lone mountain side. Four men (Masons) armed with rifles and revolvers stood on guard, one at each corner of the Temple, and one at the outer door also. At the outer door there was also a Receiving Committee, to whom each visitor was introduced, or made himself known if he was unacquainted with anyone. If he desired ex‑ FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO 71 amination as to his standing as a Mason, he was at once placed in the charge of an Examining Committee, of whom there were not less than ten or more appointed to wait on visiting Brethren who were unknown to any known Mason. Scores of visitors were known or had proved themselves Masons, and of course were vouched for. There were over two hundred visiting Brethren whose names were entered upon the journal, or Roll of Visitors, as it was called at that first meeting. A meeting was held once each week for over three months. These meetings were of course informal, and were held for the purpose of forming acquaintance with each other.


As an interesting sequel to the account given in Bro. Slaughter's letter, we add here the transcript of an entry in Book A, at page 59, of the Records of Gregory Mining District, Arapahoe County, Kansas Territory, now Gilpin County, Colorado.


Know all men by these presents that we, Wm. M. Slaughter, John Hughs, and Joseph Casto, a building committee appointed by the Free and Accepted Masons, do this day preempt one block for the purpose of erecting a Masonic Temple, June 12, 1859 Wm. M. Slaughter John Hughs Joseph Casto The Temple proposed by those fervent pioneer Masons was probably never used for the meetings of a regularly Chartered Lodge. As testified by Bro. Slaughter, however, informal meetings were held there weekly for more than three months, from June 2_o, 1859, until the approaching bad weather compelled the members to return to Denver City and Auraria for the winter. At Auraria the first Lodge was formed, and there the first regular meeting was held when, on October 1, 1859, the members of the original group received their Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Kansas, which authorised them to organise Auraria Lodge U. D. This they did on October 18, 1859, with Henry Allen as Worshipful Master. The Lodge's Records, still preserved, show that it met regularly from that date on.


Here, then, we have the record of the first Masonic Lodge and the first Masonic Temple in a region that included much more than merely the present State of Colorado. Really, this was the first permanent Lodge, still working as such, and the first Temple, in a vast territory that included nearly half the area of our county. Bounded by New Mexico on the south, it extended from a thin line of settlements along the Pacific Coast, where Lodges were first established in 1848, to the Missouri River, along whose banks some of the early Lodges of Kansas and Nebraska were situated.


Strangely, however, Auraria Lodge was not the first to be Chartered in the region, nor was it one of the three that later joined to form the Grand Lodge of Colorado. In February 1861 that part of Kansas Territory which later became Colorado was segregated. The Territory of Colorado was organised at the same 72 FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO time. Since the procedure which usually followed under such circumstances was the organisation of an independent Grand Lodge, this action was promptly taken by the Brethren of Colorado. As had been explained after Gregory's discovery of gold was made known, the first objective of the gold‑seekers was the region adjacent to Gregory's claim. The route there led from Denver City and Auraria across the Platte River, then due westward almost fifteen miles to a point where it entered the mountains just where Clear Creek flows out. Here Golden City was built, later to become the first capital of Colorado. And here, on February 18, i86o, Golden City Lodge U. D. was organised, under Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Kansas. Bro. Isaac E. Hardy was Worshipful Master, Bro. Eli Carter was Senior Warden. These and the other Officers were installed by Bro. John Hughs, who was deputised for the purpose by Auraria Lodge U. D. Golden Lodge, which was Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Kansas on October 17, i86o, as Golden City Lodge, No. 34, became Lodge No. 1 on the Roster of the Grand Lodge of Colorado. The two other Lodges which joined with Golden City Lodge, No. 34, to form the Grand Lodge of Colorado were Summit Lodge, No. 7, of Parkville, and Rocky Mountain Lodge, No. 8, of Gold Hill, both of which had been Chartered on June 5, 1861, by the Grand Lodge of Nebraska.


On August 2, 1861, the following Brethren met in Golden City in the Hall of Golden City Lodge, No. 34: Bro. Eli Carter, Worshipful Master; Bro. I. E. Hardy, Senior Warden, and Bro. J. A. Moore, Junior Warden, of Golden City Lodge, No. 34; Bro. Charles F. Holly, Master, and Bro. John M. Chivington, Junior Warden, of Rocky Mountain Lodge, No. 8; Bro. James Ewing, Master; Bro. O. A. Whittemore, Senior Warden; Bro. S. M. Robins, Junior Warden, of Summit Lodge, No. 7. There they organised the Grand Lodge of Colorado with John M. Chivington as Grand Master, under " the name and style of the Most Ancient and Honourable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons of Colorado." This name the Grand Lodge bore until the Annual Communication of 1875. At that time a revised Constitution was adopted and the name was changed to " The Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of Colorado." Following the organisation meeting, the First Annual Communication was held at Denver City on December io, 1i, and 12, 1861, and at that time Bro. John M. Chivington was re‑elected Grand Master. Six Lodges were repre sented, including, in addition to the original organisers, Nevada Lodge, No. 4, Denver Lodge, No. 5, and Chivington Lodge, No. 6. The former had worked under Dispensation from January 1861 until on October 15, 1861, it was Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Kansas as Nevada City Lodge, No. 36. The Lodge almost immediately surrendered its Kansas Charter, however, in order to become a member of the Colorado Grand Lodge. At the First Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of Colorado it was Chartered as Nevada Lodge, No. 4, and at the time Andrew Mason was retained as Worshipful Master.


As has been said, Auraria Lodge U. D. did not participate in the formation FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO 73 of the Grand Lodge of Colorado. Unfortunately, this Lodge lost its priority because it never received its Charter from the Grand Lodge of Kansas. That the Charter was authorised, and was to have been issued as No. 37 on the Roll of the Grand Lodge of Kansas, is apparent from the Minutes of the Annual Communication of that Grand Lodge in 1861. At that time it was voted to grant a Charter to Auraria Lodge upon receipt of its Dispensation and the necessary returns if the Grand Secretary of Kansas should find those correct. The returns were received in October 1861, after the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of Kansas had taken place, but at the time Auraria Lodge told of its intention to surrender its Dispensation and to apply to the Grand Lodge of Colorado for another. Thus, Auraria Lodge lost its priority on the Roll of the Grand Lodge of Colorado by failing to apply to the Grand Lodge of Kansas for a Charter in 186o, the year in which Golden City Lodge, No. 34, did apply and was Chartered. So far as the Records disclose, Auraria Lodge never did apply for a Charter. Instead, it continued to Work under Dispensation from the time of its organisation in October, 1859. Whether or not this failure to apply was due to carelessness, or what other reason there may have been, is not certainly known, but the fact remains that Auraria Lodge was still under Dispensation at the time the Grand Lodge of Colorado was formed. After that took place, Auraria Lodge applied for a Dispensation and received it under the name of Denver City Lodge U. D., with Charles H. Blake as Worshipful Master. At the First Annual Communication it was Chartered under the name and number of Denver Lodge, No. 5, with Paris S. Pfouts as Worshipful Master.


Chivington Lodge, located at Central City under Dispensation from the newly‑elected Grand Master, John M. Chivington, was Chartered at the First Annual Communication as Chivington Lodge, No. 6, with Allyn Weston as Worshipful Master, and Henry M. Teller as Senior Warden.


Of the three Lodges which participated in the formation of the Grand Lodge of Colorado, only Golden City Lodge, No. 1, has enjoyed a continuous existence. It still flourishes with just pride in its priority and in a long and honourable career. Rocky Mountain Lodge, No. 3, lasted only a short while, having surrendered its Charter at the Second Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge in 1862, because nearly all its members had left the district. At the Fifth Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge, held in 1865, Summit Lodge, No. 2, also returned its Records and surrendered its Charter for like reason. Considering the circumstances of time and place such developments were not at all surprising, for during those years of frenzied gold digging whole towns often declined and practically disappeared within a few months. Whenever gold was discovered in any given locality, a town often sprang into being as though by magic, throve for a time, then as suddenly passed out of existence. The inhabitants rushed away as more promising gold fields were opened, or gradually drifted away as placer diggings were exhausted.


The three other Lodges which participated in the First Annual Communication and received their Charters at that time also merit mention here. Of 74 FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO those, all are still in existence. Nevada Lodge, No. 4, maintains itself in a deserted city, the mere shell of what was once a thriving community. Perched high upon the sides of furrowed and barren hills, its stores and houses vacant, its streets covered with weeds, its wooden sidewalks rotted and broken, Nevada City shelters only one human being, a devoted Brother who is Treasurer of the Lodge. Of the other forty‑odd members whose names remain on the Lodge's Roll, a dozen or more still live so near that with the aid of members of Central Lodge, No. 6, and Black Hawk Lodge, No. ii, they are able to continue holding Communications in the old Lodge Room that still stands on the main street of this ghostly city hidden away in a fastness of the Rocky Mountains. Thus do these Brethren keep alive the spirit of a Masonry that flourished in the gold camps of the old West, a Masonry of the frontier that antedated both church and school, and flourished long before the advent of other uplifting and refining influences.


The second Lodge of the original early group, Denver Lodge, No. S, is a direct continuation of Auraria Lodge U. D., as has been explained. This Lodge carries on the tradition established by those seven Masons who were first to meet together as such in this region. It still meets regularly on Saturday night, as did the pioneers, and thus preserves its existence as a Lodge uninterrupted since 1859. A very active Lodge, Denver Lodge, No. S, is now one of the largest in Colorado with approximately lzoo members.


The last of the historic original Lodges, Chivington Lodge, No. 6, lives on now as Central City Lodge, No. 6, its name having been changed in 1866. That year the town of Black Hawk, which lay just below Central City, in Gregory Gulch, became the home of Black Hawk Lodge, No. i1. It was Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Colorado on October 1, 1866. Thus during the first ten years following the organisation of the Grand Lodge of Colorado, the region in Gilpin County contiguous to the original gold diggings held Nevada Lodge, No. 4, Chivington Lodge, No. 6, and Black Hawk Lodge, No. i 1, whose Rolls listed more than half the Masons in the Territory of Colorado. It is interesting to note that of the first twelve Annual Communications of the Grand Lodge of Colorado, half were held at Central City. Since that time the Annual Communications have been held in Denver, for with the decline of gold‑mining activities the population of Gilpin County has shrunk and the Lodges there now include only a fraction of their former numbers. In spite of this, however, Central Lodge, No. 6, and Black Hawk Lodge, No. i1, continue to flourish and to perpetuate the traditions of the pioneer Masonry of Colorado. At present, Central Lodge, No. 6, has about 132‑ members who still meet in the Lodge Room in Central City that has been the Lodge's meeting‑place since 1866. Black Hawk Lodge, No. 11, sister Lodge to Central Lodge, No. 6, and Nevada Lodge, No. 4, still continues an active existence. Each of these Lodges Works happily and efficiently with the assistance of co‑operation of the other two.


After Chartering the original six Lodges, the Grand Lodge of Colorado FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO 75 next Chartered Union Lodge, No. 7. According to the Records, a Petition for a new Lodge to be called Union Lodge, No. 7, and a prayer that a Charter be issued to it at once, were presented to the Grand Lodge at its Third Annual Communication, held on November 2, 1863. The prayer of the Petitioners was immediately granted. Those Brethren among whom was the militant Unionist, John M. Chivington, a Past Grand Master, petitioned for a new Lodge to be called Union Lodge, and asked that a Charter be given them without any period of Dispensation. Such a request was unusual, to say the least, but it was granted nevertheless. To‑day Union Lodge is distinguished for having been granted a Charter directly, and having never worked under Dispensation.


This singular circumstance explains itself when one recalls the period during which it took place. In those days civil strife between two sections of the nation was disrupting families, separating friends, and causing brother to hate brother. Even Colorado was not immune to those conditions. Here, even in Freemasonry, there was sufficient feeling to bring about the formation of a Lodge made up exclusively of sympathisers with the North. The Records show that all those Brethren except Bro. Chivington came from Denver Lodge, No. 5, which was at that time strongly tinged by Southern sentiment, as it seems. Yet in the Minutes of Denver Lodge, No. 5 we find an entry saying that the Brethren of the new Lodge were to be permitted to use not only the Hall of Denver Lodge, No. 5, but also its paraphernalia. How significant was this of the toleration practised under the restraining influence of Masonry! For we of to‑day can scarcely estimate the fierce feelings engendered by the terrible conflict then in progress.


Of the other early Lodges in Colorado, only No. 8, No. 9, and No. 1o remain to be accounted for. One of these, Empire Lodge, No. 8, was another example of an abortive attempt to form a Lodge in the face of difficulties in herent in a rapidly shifting population. Chartered in 1865, this Lodge throve for a time and succeeded in maintaining a precarious existence for ten years. Finally, in 1875, it surrendered its Charter. Lodge No. 9 and Lodge No. io are interesting because they were the first to be Chartered outside of Colorado Territory by the Grand Lodge of Colorado. They were properly Montana Lodge, No. 9, and Helena Lodge, No. 1o, in Montana Territory. Later they surrendered their Charters and became, respectively, Montana Lodge, No. 2, of Virginia City, Montana, and Helena Lodge, No. 3, of Helena, Montana, on the Roster of Lodges under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Montana. In precisely the same way, other Lodges in the State of Colorado also contributed to the formation of the Grand Lodge of Utah and the Grand Lodge of Wyoming, just as Kansas Lodges and Nebraska Lodges had earlier contributed to the formation of the Grand Lodge of Colorado.


When more gold, silver, and other metals were later discovered in the mountains of Colorado, other mining‑camps sprang up, as before, and sometimes almost overnight. But no more Lodges were Chartered to die out with the towns that supported them. Instead, Colorado communities grew in sta‑ 76 FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO bility as industries came in and the settlement of the State proceeded. Thus, the location of Lodges at an ever‑increasing distance from original centres of population soon became the rule. First of those was Georgetown Lodge, No. 1z, presently followed by El Paso Lodge, No. 13, at Colorado City, later removed to Colorado Springs. Then came Columbia Lodge, No. 14, at Columbia City, later removed to Boulder. Those were followed by Mount Moriah Lodge, No. 15, at Canyon City, and Pueblo Lodge, No. 17, at Pueblo. As time went on, many other Lodges were established. Most of the later Lodges throve, and maintained their places on the Roster of the Grand Lodge of Colorado as the communities grew and reached maturity. Some early Lodges, originally in the Colorado ,Jurisdiction, came to be listed on the Rosters of other Grand Lodges as new States and Territories were formed.


But difficulties other than those of a shifting population and the varying fortunes of boom communities beset the path of Masonry in Colorado throughout its formative period. Great distances and the risks of travel in wild and sparsely settled country interposed serious obstacles. It was nothing unusual for Brethren to travel from ten to twenty miles, or even more, along mountain trails, sometimes in very inclement weather, to attend Lodge. The Brethren who attended the Annual Communications of the Grand Lodge frequently travelled much greater distances on foot or horseback, much of the way along almost impassable roads or trails. At the Eighth Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge, held in 1865, the Grand Master, Bro. Henry M. Teller, reported that he had granted a Dispensation to Canyon Lodge U. D., at Canyon City. Before doing so he had visited Canyon City and found that though there were only a few Brethren there, they had the ability and disposition to support agoodLodge. He learned also that the proposed Master and Junior Warden regularly attended the Communications of El Paso Lodge, although doing that required them to ride some fifty miles through almost uninhabited country. This seems to be at least a fair indication of more than passing interest on the part of those worthy Brethren. At the same Annual Communication, Bro. Harper M. Orahood, Grand Lecturer, reported that he had visited nearly all the Lodges in the Jurisdiction. With the Grand Master, he had made preparations to visit the Lodges at Canyon City and Pueblo, both then under Dispensation, but the appearance of marauding Indians along the trail caused them to dismiss the visit as unsafe. It should be borne in mind that the proposed visit would have required a round trip horseback ride of some 400 miles through unsettled country. The intentions of the Grand Officers were undoubtedly good, even though the Indians unwittingly prevented carrying them out.


A somewhat darker picture shows that not the least of the difficulties of those pioneer Masons was the conduct of some of the Brethren. In those early times, as at others, this was the concern of the serious and constructive element in the membership. In the instance about to be cited, it is quite evident that the better element shrank neither from telling the wayward that their conduct was unbecoming their profession as Masons, nor from defining, in positive FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO 77 terms, the penalties to be exacted for further misbehaviour. At the Fifth Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge, held in 1865, the following resolulution was adopted: " Resolved, That it shall be and is hereby made the imperative duty of the subordinate Lodges in this jurisdiction to restrain, as far as possible, the Masonic crime of intemperance by trial and suspension, or expulsion, as the case may require, and for the faithful performance of that duty the said subordinate Lodges will be held accountable to this Grand Lodge." That the young Grand Lodge flourished from the very start is shown by the returns that came in year by year. There has been a steady growth in number of subordinate Lodges from the original three to an active list of 148 out of a total of 169 that have been Chartered since the beginning. From an original membership of not more than i5o, at the time of organisation in 1861, the Grand Lodge has grown to a present membership of about 34,000 Master Masons. And this out of Colorado's total population of 1,035,791 people in 1930! It is a remarkable fact that in only one year, 1875, has there occurred a net loss in membership in the Lodges under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Colorado.


Of the several concordant Masonic Bodies, the Royal Arch Masons first came to Colorado with Central City Chapter, No. i. It received its Dispensation from the General Grand Chapter of the United States under date of March 23, 1863, and its Charter under date of September 8, 1865. The Organisation of Central City Chapter, No. 1, was soon followed by that of Denver Chapter, No. 2. It received its Dispensation from the same source in April 1863, while its Charter was also dated September 8, 1865. Those first two Chapters were followed within ten years by the establishment of Pueblo Chapter, No. 3, Georgetown Chapter, No. 4, and Golden Chapter, No. 5, all of which participated in the formation of the Grand Chapter of Colorado on May 11, 1875,. with William N. Byers as Grand High Priest. The list of Chapters then steadily grew until there are 51 active Chapters having a total of nearly 8ooo members. It is significant that of the 53 Chapters of Royal Arch Masons thus far Chartered in Colorado all but one have survived. One other surrendered its Charter for the purpose of consolidation, when the towns of Colorado City and Colorado Springs were united under the latter name. At that time Euclid Chapter, No. 45, of Colorado City merged with Colorado Springs Chapter, No. 6, of Colorado Springs, under the latter's name and number.


The Commandery of Knights Templar was next in order of appearance in Colorado. Colorado Commandery, No. i, was given a Dispensation under date of January 13, 1866, and was Chartered by the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of the United States on September 18, 1868. Soon thereafter Central City Commandery, No. 2, was established with a Charter under date of October 24, 1868. These two Commanderies, joined by Pueblo Commandery, No. 3, formed the Grand Commandery of Colorado on March 15, 1876, with Henry M. Teller as Grand Commander. Thirty‑six Commanderies out of a total of 37 originally established are still flourishing, with a total membership 78 FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO of over 4500 Sir Knights. Two Triennial Conclaves of the Grand Encampment have been held at Denver since the organisation of the Grand Commandery. Both were highly successful. The first, held in 1892, attracted some 75,000 visitors, all kinds included. The second, held in 1913, remains outstanding among Triennial Conclaves for the impressively beautiful decorations that graced the city at the time. Colorado Knight Templary is proud to have supplied the Grand Encampment of the United States with one Grand Master, Most Eminent George W. Vallery, who filled that post during the Triennial period from 1925 to 1928.


Cryptic Rite Masonry was first established in Colorado when the Grand Council of Illinois Chartered Central City Council as No. 54. This Council terminated its existence in 1875. It was, then, not until 1892 that Denver Coun cil, No. 1, was placed under Dispensation by the Grand Master of the General Grand Council of the United States. Its establishment was soon followed by the organisation of 6 other Councils. All those Councils were Chartered in 1894 by the General Grand Council, and the Grand Council of Colorado was formed on December 6 of the same year. There are at present 15 active constituent Councils under the jurisdiction of the Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters of Colorado, with over 2300 members.


The Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite was established in Colorado when Delta Lodge of Perfection, No. i, was Chartered in Denver on January 26, 1877, by Illustrious Bro. Albert Pike, Grand Commander of the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction. Soon afterwards, on April 11, 1878, Mackey Chapter of Rose Croix, No. i, was established. The next two Bodies of the Scottish Rite were not Chartered until ten years later‑Denver Council of Kadosh, No. 1, on September 3, 1888, and Colorado Consistory, No. i, on the following October 17.


The Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite has flourished in Colorado in a very gratifying way. Its growth, like that of the York Rite, has been fostered by the labour of many loyal and willing workers. With Bro. Henry M. Teller, Thirty‑third Degree, who was the first Inspector General, the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite carried on for many years under the usual handicaps of small membership and inadequate equipment. It had, however, one highly compensatory advantage. That was the inspiration afforded by the indefatigable industry of Bro. Lawrence N. Greenleaf, Thirty‑third Degree, Deputy Inspector General under Bro. Teller. Due to Bro. Greenleaf's leadership and enthusiastic example, most early obstacles were surmounted. The present thriving condition of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite, which now has 3 Consistories and 2 magnificent Temples, has of late years been attained under the stimulating supervision of Bro. Stanley C. Warner, Thirty‑third Degree, Inspector General in Colorado. The second set of Bodies was Chartered in Denver by the Supreme Council in 1918, and the third set in Pueblo the following year. All the Bodies have greatly prospered. Though the membership of Colorado Consistory, No. i, was 53 in 1889, the year after it received its Charter, now its FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO 79 membership is about 24oo. The combined membership of the 3 Consistories of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite in Colorado is over 6ooo.


So far as concerns active charity, Colorado Masons have never yet been convinced that it is wise to establish Masonic institutions of a charitable nature to care for dependents. The Minutes of the Twenty‑eighth Annual Com munication, held in 1888, reveal that a Committee was at that early date appointed to " present to this Grand Lodge some plan for founding a Masonic ` Widows and Orphans ' Home." Since that time the subject has been exhaustively studied by various Committees of the Grand Lodge. The result of the investigations has been the adoption of the method now used in caring for dependents as the best under existing circumstances. Many subordinate Lodges have funds of their own which provide relief within certain limitations. In addition, and what is even more important, the Grand Lodge of Colorado has formed what is called the Colorado Masons Benevolent Fund Association. This Association is the repository of a steadily increasing fund, the income from which is used for all necessary charitable purposes. Known only to administrators of the fund, there comes to every dependent each month a check sufficient to meet his needs. Thus each recipient can continue to live as a respected resident of his community. He is adequately cared for, yet not publicly known as the recipient of charity. In such a fashion has Colorado Masonry been able to care for its widows, orphans, and dependent Brethren with satisfaction to all concerned and in an efficient and unostentatious manner.


Another organised activity, of a different nature, which has been carried on under the auspices of the Grand Lodge, is that of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Welfare Committee. It is engaged in the regular visitation and entertainment of sick and disabled Masonic war veterans who are being cared for in Government hospitals located within the State. The two such institutions‑Fitzsimmons General Hospital, near Denver, and Fort Lyon Hospital, at Fort Lyontogether house some Z,ooo patients, of whom about Zoo are Masons, or dependents of Masons. Regular visitations are made to those men, and a wonderful service of sympathy, good cheer, and encouragement is rendered. Thus the welfare and happiness of these Brethren is looked after.


Names of distinguished men are almost always associated with the history of every Grand Lodge of Masons‑names of men distinguished not only in Masonry but also in many other fields of endeavour. Of the many such which Colorado Masonic history records, that of John M. Chivington, outstanding Mason, preacher, warrior, first Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Colorado, must head the list. Bro. Chivington was a Methodist preacher who came to Colorado after having had extensive experience in his profession in Ohio, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska. That he was active in the Masonic work of those States is proved by the fact that he was at some time or other a member of a Lodge in each of them, that he was Master of a Lodge at Wyandotte, Kansas, and at one time Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge of Nebraska. Later in his career he was sent to Colorado Territory as presiding elder of the 8o FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO Rocky Mountain District of the Methodist Episcopal Church. During the second year of this service, while he was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Colorado, he offered his service to his country and entered the forces of the North. Refusing a proffered commission as chaplain, he was made a major in the First Colorado Infantry. He distinguished himself chiefly in the celebrated Apache Canyon fight, known in history as the battle of Glorieta, when he led Soo men in a rear attack upon the Confederate troops of General O. O. Sibley, who was attempting to invade Colorado from New Mexico. Historians say that this battle saved Colorado and her great gold deposits to the Union. For bravery shown at the time, Major Chivington was made a colonel, a rank he held until his honourable discharge from the army, in 1865. Another of Colonel Chivington's exploits was his leadership at the battle of Sand Creek. In that engagement with Indians, several hundred of them were slain, and the massacre of 174 white men, women, and children was thus avenged. Indian depredations from which Colorado settlers were suffering at the time were effectually ended by this victory. The historian must surely be aware that this devout and warlike clergyman truly believed the biblical exclamation, " Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord." Another Brother of early days to whom Colorado Masonry is deeply indebted was M.'. W.‑. Bro. Allyn Weston, first Grand Lecturer and second Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Colorado. Before removing to Colorado, Bro.


Weston had for six years been editor and publisher of The Ashler, a Masonic magazine, of Detroit and Chicago. He was the first Master of Chivington Lodge, No. 6. Bro. Weston's greatest contribution to Colorado Masonry was emphasised by R.‑. W.‑. Bro. W. W. Cooper, formerly Grand Lecturer and in 1932 Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Colorado, in his masterly analysis of the Colorado Work, its origin and descent. Bro. Cooper wrote as follows In the days we are considering, the Work used by a new Grand Lodge would be that which was known and favoured by some strong, forceful leader in the organisation, particularly if he possessed authority to regulate the matter. Allyn Weston was the outstanding leader in the Grand Lodge of Colorado in the first two years of its existence. Within four months after the organisation of the Grand Lodge, he was appointed its Grand Lecturer, whose duty it was to " cause the work of the several Lodges to be uniform,'' and he was the second Grand Master of Colorado. Past Grand Master Henry M. Teller, speaking in the Grand Lodge in i91o, said: " Weston was a remarkable man, a man of fine presence, fine education, and fine address, and a gentlemen in the best use of the term. I do not think it is an exaggeration to say that this man had great influence on the organisation, the upbuilding, and general character of Masonry in this jurisdiction. He was a firm believer in the tenets of the Craft, a firm believer in the maintenance of strict order, and devoted to the great principles that underlie this Institution; and he impressed himself upon the Lodge for the year that he was Grand Master as I think no other man has ever done since." When it is known that the first active Grand Lecturer and the second Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Colorado was a man of the character above de‑ FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO 8 1 scribed, there can be but one conclusion, and that is that Weston determined the system of Work that was required to be used by the Lodges under the jurisdiction of the new Grand Lodge. And this conclusion is confirmed by a living and competent witness, an associate of Weston's and a participant in the Masonic affairs of the State since the year 1861. I speak of Most Worshipful Bro. Chase Withrow, who served as Grand Lecturer in 1864 and as Grand Master in 1866, and who, now in his ninety‑first year, occasionally confers the Master Mason Degree. Brother Withrow has repeatedly stated in Grand Lodge and elsewhere that " the Work mostly used in the early days of Colorado Masonry was what was known as the ` Allyn Weston.' " That this Work continued to be used after Weston left the State is shown by the Report of a Committee of the Grand Lodge upon a revision of the Work pre ared by Grand Lecturer George E. Wyman, and adopted by the Grand Loge in 1882, in which it was stated: " The Work presented by the Grand Lecturer is in its essential features the same as the ` Allyn Weston Work ' so long used in this jurisdiction.'' Just which one of the many kinds of Work used in Michigan from 1844 to 186o, which Weston introduced into Colorado, it is probably now impossible to determine. Because of certain of its characteristics, there can be no doubt that it was a variety of the 'Barney Work ' used in Michigan in the period mentioned. " In 1911 the Colorado Work was thoroughly and very competently revised by Bro. Cooper himself, the accomplished student of Masonic Ritual, whom we quote above. Of his own revision, Bro. Cooper has said: " Essentially, the Colorado Work remains as it was in 1861. No modern material was added in this revision, although some restorations were made that antedate in their origin Weston, Barney, the Baltimore Convention, and even Webb. Leaving out of consideration any Systems of Work in use in the United States prior to the year 18oo, the line of descent of our Colorado Work appears to be fairly well defined. First we have Webb, then Gleason, then Barney, then some modified form of Barney as used in Michigan seventy‑five years ago, then Weston, and finally the Colorado Work." We must conclude, then, upon the most competent of modern testimony, that Bro. Weston was responsible for the purity and accuracy of the Colorado Work in its inception, whatever change it may since have undergone. We can trace the thread of influence of each unselfish worker who wove into the fabric of the future greatness of the Ancient Craft for which he laboured.


Among those other Colorado Masons who were great in civic life as well as great in Masonry, the name of Henry Moore Teller, third Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Colorado, stands pre‑eminent. Beginning in 1863, he at first held the office for one year. Subsequently he was elected Grand Master each year from 1867 to 1872, inclusive, and thus served his Grand Lodge as Grand Master for seven years in all. Aside from Bro. John M. Chivington, only one other Mason has had the distinction of being elected to the Grand East in 82 FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO Colorado a second time. That honour was also conferred upon Bro. Webster D. Anthony, who followed Bro. Teller and served during the years 1873 and 1874. That Bro. Teller's associates in Masonry regarded him very highly is evident from his further Masonic record, which covered a period of more than fifty‑four years. He was made a Mason in Illinois in 1858. In 1861, at the age of thirty‑one, he came to Colorado. He was second Master of Chivington Lodge, No. 6, first Eminent Commander of Central City Commandery, No. 2, and first Grand Commander of the Grand Commandery of Colorado. He was coroneted Honorary Inspector General of the Thirty‑third Degree in 1866. Appointed in 1882, he was the first active member in Colorado of the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite. He occupied this post for nearly thirty‑two years, and rose to the position of Grand Prior in the Supreme Council in 1913. From this brief review it is clear that Bro. Teller was a Mason of many activities. No adequate catalogue of them is possible here.


For many years Bro. Teller was also a distinguished figure in the nation's civic life. Upon his arrival in Colorado, he established himself as a lawyer in Central City and quickly became the leader of his profession in the Terri tory. Soon thereafter he organised the Colorado Central Railroad, which later became a part of the Colorado and Southern Railroad. During the first five years of its existence he was president of the former. Having been appointed major‑general of militia during the Indian troubles of 1863, he served in that capacity for three years. Upon admission of Colorado to the Union in 1876 he was elected to the United States Senate, where he served until 1883. He was then appointed to the Cabinet as Secretary of the Interior under President Chester A. Arthur, and at the expiration of the latter's term Bro. Teller returned again to the Senate. Altogether, he served as senator from Colorado for thirty years. During that time his outstanding accomplishments were indeed many, and one at least merits specific mention. This had to do with stating our nation's aims at the outbreak of the Spanish‑American War. At that moment, the position of our government in the conflict could easily have been misunderstood by other world powers, and trouble leading to serious consequences might easily have been precipitated. Realising this, and recognising the seriousness of the situation, Bro. Teller introduced into the United States Senate the following resolution, which was adopted, thus removing all doubt as to the intention of our government " Resolved, That the United States hereby disclaims any disposition or intention to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction, or control over said island (Cuba), except for the purpose of pacification thereof; and asserts its determination, when that is accomplished, to leave the government and control of the island to its people." Bro. Teller died in 1914. He had served his Lodge as Master, his Commandery as Eminent Commander for ten years, the Grand Commandery of FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO 83 Colorado as first Grand Commander, the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite as Inspector General for thirty‑two years, the Grand Lodge of Colorado as Grand Master for seven years. In addition, he had served his country in some form of national public service for thirty‑three years. This was a truly remarkable record for one man to leave behind him‑the record of a great citizen and a great Mason.


The fairest shrine that can be occupied by any of the Masonic great must, after all, be within the hearts and memories of their Brethren. None more surely occupies that place than Colorado's poet laureate of Masonry, Lawrence N. Greenleaf. Masonic poet, editor, and publisher, Bro. Greenleaf was, in addition, a tireless worker both in the ranks of Masonry and in high places. Receiving the Degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry in Boston, in 1863, he affiliated with Denver Lodge, No. 5, that same year, then served his Lodge as Master in 1866, 1868, 1869, 1877, and 1878. He was High Priest of Denver Chapter, No. 2, for two years, and Grand High Priest of the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Colorado in 1885. He was Grand Master of the Grand Council of Colorado in 1907, and for eighteen years he was Recorder of Colorado Commandery, No. 1. Bro. Greenleaf was friend and associate of such other great Masons as Bro. Albert G. Mackey, Bro. Albert Pike, Bro. Henry M. Teller, and Bro. Henry P. H. Bromwell, whose monumental work on Freemasonry was published by the Grand Lodge of Colorado in 1905. The publication of this volume was undertaken after the death of Bro. Bromwell. The literary ability of Bro. Greenleaf made him an important member of the Committee that carried the work through to completion. Bro. Greenleaf was elected Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Colorado in 1880, and served as Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Correspondence of the Grand Lodge from 1870 to 1878; again in 1882, and again from 1889 to 1917. In Denver, from 1893 until 1917, he published a Masonic magazine, The Square and Compass, while his writings, especially his poetry, gave him world renown in Masonic circles. To have written only one of his Masonic poems, " The Lodge Room over Simpkin's Store," would have been sufficient to assure him lasting fame among the Masons. It has been said of his writing, particularly of his poetry, that it expressed the very soul of Freemasonry. His correspondence reports, which extend over a third of a century, furnish the means for acquiring a Masonic education, since they touch upon nearly every phase of the Institution. Having received the Degrees of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite by communication from Bro. Albert G. Mackey, Bro. Greenleaf's interest in that Body never flagged. He initiated the movement that led to the organisation of the Scottish Rite Bodies in Denver, and was chiefly responsible for bringing that about. At some time or other he was the presiding Officer in each of the Bodies. He served as Deputy Inspector General from 1878 until infirmities forced him to reture in 1914. During the difficult days of the formative period of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite in Colorado, Bro. Greenleaf carried on through the era of indifference and small membership until he saw the fruition of his efforts in the magnificent 84 FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO growth and prosperity of that Body in the early part of the twentieth century. Our distinguished Brother died in 192‑2‑. For years he had held a position of respect and loving regard in the hearts of his Brethren, an enviable honour which his long and unselfish service amply justified. Preserved in his writings, his spirit will long serve as an inspiration to many Masons in years yet to come.


Another Colorado Mason whose name will long be remembered was M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Roger W. Woodbury, who is credited with an accomplishment of which Colorado Freemasonry is justly proud. He held the Masonic Memorial Exercises at Mount Vernon, Virginia, on the centenary of the death of Worshipful Brother George Washington. In response to a recommendation in the address of Grand Master William D. Wright, made at the suggestion and request of Bro. Woodbury, those exercises were formally inaugurated by the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Colorado in 1893. The enormous task of initiating and carrying through the plan was entrusted to a Committee consisting of three Past Grand Masters, Bro. Woodbury, Bro. William D. Wright, and Bro. William D. Todd. After corresponding for three years, this Committee succeeded in interesting enough Grand Lodges of the United States to insure the national character of the project. Having concluded that the exercises could only properly take place at Mount Vernon, George Washington's Virginia estate, the Grand Lodge of Virginia was then formally invited to arrange all details of the celebration. That Grand Lodge accepted the invitation, and gave acknowledgment to the Grand Lodge of Colorado for its inception of the idea and for the service it had performed. On December 14, 1899, the Memorial Exercises were carried out under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Virginia. Practically every Grand Lodge in the United States participated, and the Grand Lodge of Colorado was accorded the place of highest honor among them in recognition of its service. The honour was even increased by asking M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Alphonse A. Burnand, then Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Colorado, to deliver one of the three addresses given on the occasion. The two other addresses were delivered by the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Virginia and by Bro. William McKinley, President of the United States, respectively. The events of the occasion were later fully described by Past Grand Master William D. Todd, a member of the Committee. As Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Colorado, he named this as " the most interesting, impressive, and important Masonic event of the last century." Bro. Roger W. Woodbury's mind conceived the plan of that fitting centenary celebration, his industry carried it out. To him belongs the greater share of credit for successful accomplishment.


Two other Past Grand Masters of the Grand Lodge of Colorado must be mentioned even in this short sketch. They were M.. W . . Bro. Chase Withrow and M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Earnest Le Neve Foster. The former was a person of outstand ing interest to the Masonic historian for many years because he was the only survivor of early Colorado Masonry. During his lifetime Bro. Withrow had personally known every Grand Master of this Grand Lodge. He had been inti‑ ‑ FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO 85 mate and co‑worker with Bro. Chivington, Bro. Weston, Bro. Teller, Bro. Greenleaf, Bro. Whittemore, Bro. Parmelee, and the other pioneers of the days when Colorado Masonry was founded. Bro. Withrow was first Master of Black Hawk Lodge, No. ii, in 1866, and at the same time he was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Colorado. In 1916, on the fiftieth anniversary of his Grand Mastership, he was re‑elected Master of his Lodge. Again he sat in Grand Lodge as representative of Black Hawk Lodge, No. 11, just half a century after he first presided as Grand Master. The death of this distinguished Brother in 1931 severed the last link that for so long had connected Colorado Masonry of to‑day with the pioneer Masonry of Colorado's earliest years.


M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Earnest Le Neve Foster was long distinguished among Colorado Masons because of the many years of service he rendered to the Craft in nearly every sort of way. His name will chiefly be remembered, however, as that of the founder of the Colorado Masons' Benevolent Fund Association, as that of a contributor to the fund, and as that of a faithful and successful worker in the service of the Association. Bro. Foster was Grand Master in 189o. For nine years he was Grand Lecturer, and in addition he served other branches of the Craft in many Offices. Nearly all the last twenty‑five years of Bro. Foster's life were devoted to the service of the Benevolent Fund Association; there he laboured without pecuniary reward until the very hour of his death. It was fitting that this worthy Mason's life should end as it did: Death came to him while he was on an errand of mercy to a beneficiary of the Fund. Bro. Foster died as he had long lived‑occupied with the work of the Craft for which he had chosen to labour.


Mention of some few of the many other great Masonic pioneers and workers whose lives have served as inspiration and example to Masons of Colorado must be made here before this short article is brought to a close. These few are the five who have served the Grand Lodge of Colorado as Grand Secretary during its seventy years of existence. The Colorado Grand Lodge has indeed been fortunate in its choice of Grand Secretaries. All have been able and distinguished workers in the field of Masonry, itself an abiding strength and support. First of the Grand Secretaries was R.‑. W.‑. Bro. Oliver A. Whittemore, one of the organizers of the Grand Lodge, and later Deputy Grand Master. Bro. Whittemore occupied the office until 1865, when he was succeeded by R.‑. W.‑. Bro. Edward C. Parmelee, who held the position for thirty‑five years, a career distinguished throughout by faithful and efficient service. At the death of Bro. Parmelee, a Past Grand Master, R.‑. W.‑. William D. Todd, succeeded him. Bro. Todd held the Office only three years. He was followed by an outstanding Masonic writer, a capable orator and a tireless worker, R.‑. W.‑. Charles H. Jacobson, who served as Grand Secretary until his death in 1921, a period of more than sixteen years. Since the death of Bro. Jacobson, this important post has been occupied by R.‑. W.‑. Bro. William W. Cooper, whose standing among present‑day Masonic students and authors is generally well known.


Of great names such as those that have been mentioned, Colorado has had 86 FREEMASONRY IN COLORADO ‑ its full share. It stands indebted to those Brethren and to many living workers who to‑day are ably serving the Craft with all their strength and will and heart. Though the historian cannot here mention all of those, he is nevertheless in duty bound to accord some words to the labourers in the ranks‑no less worthy contributors to the success and prosperity of Masonry in this jurisdiction. To them the Fraternity is often as deeply obligated as to those whose names shine forth more brightly from the pages of Masonic history. Without them the acknowledged great could have accomplished little. To them the debt can never be repaid, even in gratitude. They here receive posterity's tribute of honoured recognition‑they who have been quiet and faithful workers in their day and generation.


Coming now to the present, we must not fail to say that the activities of Freemasonry in Colorado are to‑day characterised by a perpetuation of all that is best of fraternal feeling, by a normal increase of numbers, and by steady ad vancement of the Craft's many interests. In the larger centres of population throughout the State, a number of beautiful buildings have been constructed for the housing of Masonic activities. Many worthy relief activities have been organised and carried on under the auspices of Masonic Bodies. Just as progress in any line of worthy endeavour is never without difficulty, however, so, too, Freemasonry in Colorado has not escaped its times of trial. Nevertheless it has thus far surmounted every obstacle. Accompanying the Craft's healthy growth there has been a widening and deepening of its power and influence for good. To the pioneer founders, credit for whatever progress has been made must first be accorded. Nothing could exceed the worth of their service. None could have sacrificed more freely or unselfishly than they. In days whose story now forms part of a great tradition, they were first to build. On the foundations firmly laid, they builded better than they knew. Since then, one well‑formed stone after another has been slowly and carefully laid on others equally well formed, until now we can perceive a temple slowly rising on its firm and solid base. Truly this is an edifice not built by human hands. Rather, it is an imperishable monument to Faith, to Devotion, and to Love.


FREEMASONRY IN CONNECTICUT WINTHROP BUCK P REVIOUS to the year 1789 eighteen Lodges whose names and locations are known existed in Connecticut. Of those, eight received their Charters 1 from the St. John's Grand Lodge situated in Boston, which was descended from the Grand Lodge of England. Six were Chartered by the Massachusetts Grand Lodge, also situated in Boston, which claimed authority from the Grand Lodge of Scotland. The remaining four, situated near the New York State line, obtained their Charters from the Provincial Grand Lodge of New York. The famous Army Lodge, known as American Union Lodge, had ceased operation, in 1783, and the authority of its Charter was not again used until Jonathan Heart reached Ohio with it. Although Chartered by the St. John's Grand Lodge, its membership was principally confined to Connecticut soldiers of the American line. There are traditions of one or two other Lodges, but they are only traditions.


The source from which the Charter members of those Lodges obtained their Degrees is in most cases difficult to ascertain. Masonic Lodges were frequently attached to British regiments that were on service in the struggle with the French for possession of this continent, and it is supposed that some men, like Israel Putnam, obtained their Light from such sources. A few Masons may have been initiated in England. A number of the members of American Union Lodge became Charter members of Lodges founded after the struggles of the War for Independence had come to a close.


In those days it was the custom among the Lodges to hold Conventions. Such a Convention met in New Haven in the house of Bro. Brown on April 29, 1783. Delegates were in attendance from Hiram Lodge of New Haven; St. John's Lodge, of Middletown; St. John's Lodge, of Fairfield; St. John's Lodge, of Hartford; St. John's Lodge, of Norwalk; King Solomon's Lodge, of Woodbury; St. John's Lodge, of Stratford; Compass Lodge, of Wallingford; Union Lodge, of Danbury; Wooster Lodge, of Colchester; St. Paul's Lodge, of Litchfield; and King Hiram's Lodge, of Derby. Twenty‑one Delegates from those twelve Lodges were present. As a result of that Convention, regulations were adopted which were intended to make the proceedings of those Lodges more uniform and lead finally to the establishment of the Grand Lodge.


Other meetings were doubtless held in the succeeding years, but nothing further was accomplished until, at a meeting of Delegates held at Hartford on May 14, 1789, it was voted that the Committee of four there appointed prepare a systematic plan for forming a Grand Lodge, and that they report to a subsea7 88 FREEMASONRY IN CONNECTICUT quent meeting to be held in New Haven on the following July 8. It is not stated what Lodges were represented at that meeting, or how many Delegates attended. We do know, however, that Frederick Lodge of Farmington, Hiram Lodge, of New Haven, and St. Paul's Lodge, of Litchfield, were among those represented.


On the date set, at least twenty‑two Delegates met in New Haven. They represented Hiram Lodge, of New Haven; St. John's Lodge, of Middletown; St. John's Lodge, of Fairfield; St. John's Lodge, of Hartford; King Solomon's Lodge, of Woodbury; St. John's Lodge, of Stratford; Compass Lodge, of Wallingford; Union Lodge, of Danbury; Wooster Lodge, of Colchester; St. Paul's Lodge, of Litchfield; Frederick Lodge, of Farmington, and Montgomery Lodge, of Salisbury. Those twelve Lodges adopted a Constitution which, among other things, provided for semi‑annual meetings. One such meeting was to be held in New Haven during October, and one was to be held at Hartford in May. Officers were chosen, and Pierpont Edwards, a Past Master of Hiram Lodge, became the first Grand Master. For some unknown reason St. John's Lodge, of Norwalk; Union Lodge, of Stamford; King Hiram Lodge, of Derby; Columbia Lodge, of Norwich, and St. Alban's Lodge, of Guilford, were not present.


With the institution of the Grand Lodge, Masonry seems to have begun to grow immediately. The first new Charter granted is thought to have been a result of the death of General Israel Putnam, which occurred on May 29, 1790. At that'Itime many of his former companions in arms gathered to honour him with a Masonic funeral. After the ceremony they probably met around the refreshment table as usual, and there they may have discussed the advisability of having a Lodge nearer than Hartford or Colchester, fifty miles distant. At any rate, Moriah Lodge, No. I5, was Chartered at the October meeting of that year, with jurisdiction in Windham County. At the next meeting, held in May 1791, all the original Lodges were represented except St. Alban's Lodge, of Guilford, and Columbia Lodge, of Norwich. In addition there were eight new members of the official family. In the May session of 1796, Grand Secretary John Mix announced that he had assigned numbers to the thirty‑seven Lodges that had applied for Charters under the new Grand Lodge. Union Lodge, of Danbury, which was one of those that had taken part in the formation of the Grand Lodge, had not then applied. When it did apply, it was Made No. 40, a number that does not correctly indicate its age. By 1826 the numbers assigned had mounted to seventy, but no report was made at that time as to the number of members. No list of members was preserved by the Grand Secretary, and it is now difficult to trace membership in many of the Lodges of those days.


In no State where the political anti‑Masons exhibited strength did the Masons afford a stronger resistance to those enemies than in Connecticut. Although there were seventy Lodges listed in 1826, as has been said the effect of " The anti‑Masonic Excitement " was nevertheless soon felt. The records of the Grand Lodge Session held in May 183 1 give no account of the number present, nor do they list the representatives. A quorum is merely acknowledged. The Officers, with the exception of the Grand Treasurer, R .'. W .'. Laban Smith, FREEMASONRY IN CONNECTICUT 89 who had held Office since 1822 and was to continue to do so until his death in 1841, refused re‑election, and a new corps was selected. Dr. Thomas Hubbard, of Pomfret, was the courageous Brother who accepted the Office of Grand Master. In 1832 an anti‑Masonic convention was held in the State, and in it Henry Dana Ward of New York City was conspicuous. At the Annual Communication of that year, the Connecticut Grand Lodge followed the example of that of Massachusetts by adopting and publishing not only in the Masonic Proceedings but also in the newspapers, a " Declaration " of principles. Thus those Principles, bearing the signature of many of the best citizens of Connecticut, were broadcast over the land. In a measure this declaration tended to allay the anti‑Masonic feeling, but it did not heal the wound that had been inflicted. Work was reported in a very few Lodges during 1833, but in 1841 only twentyfive Lodges were represented and only thirty‑one made returns. At every Session delinquency was a source of constant vexation that resulted in the surrender and revocation of many Charters. In 1845 the improvement was more marked. It continued until, in 1865, eighty Lodges were listed. The religious phase of the movement lasted longer than the political phase and brought forth such rabid leaders as the Rev. Daniel Dow, of Thompson, as well as such loyal defenders as Joseph Emerson, of Wethersfield. When his church council gave him the choice of renouncing either his church or his Lodge, Deacon Terry, of South Windsor, is said to have remarked that since he knew several kinds of religion, but only one kind of Masonry, he preferred to cling to the latter.


The history of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut from 185o onward is too much like that of other Grand Lodges to require great attention here. At the Annual Communication held in February 1935, the Grand Secretary reported the membership as being 39,7oo and the number of Lodges listed as being 128. Most of the Lodges own their own buildings and are in good financial condition. Symbolic Masonry in this State has suffered little from clandestine troubles. In 1803 the Grand Lodge issued a warning against the activities of a certain Joash Hall. Three Lodges are known to have been formed by that imposter, but they soon passed out of existence. The McBain‑Thompson trouble of recent years affected Connecticut Lodges very little. The old records reveal a very consistent attitude of opposition to a General Grand Lodge, although the matter has frequently been brought up for discussion.


A great deal might be written about the remarkable Army Lodge, known as American Union Lodge, previously mentioned. Chartered by Deputy Grand Master Richard Gridley, of St. John's Grand Lodge, of Boston, on February 15, 1776, by order of Grand Master John Rowe, it moved about with the Colonial troops during the War for Independence, conferred Degrees upon soldiers of every rank, and welcomed distinguished Brethren, among them George Washington. Jonathan Heart, Master of the Lodge during the greater part of its military existence, carried the Charter with him to Ohio, There, under the same name, the Work of the Lodge was continued. This Lodge, together with Erie Lodge, No. 47, and New England Lodge, No. 49, which were Chartered by the Grand 9o FREEMASONRY IN CONNECTICUT Lodge of Connecticut in 1803, was instrumental in forming the Grand Lodge of Ohio in 1808. Connecticut also had a hand in founding the Grand Lodge of Vermont, by Chartering Temple Lodge, of Bennington, in 1793, and Union Lodge, of Middlebury, in 1794. One Lodge having a Connecticut Charter obtained during the gold excitement of 1849 was among those that later formed the Grand Lodge of California.


On June 6, 1861, a Dispensation was granted to twelve Brethren belonging to the Fourth Connecticut Regiment of Volunteers, then about to leave for the seat of hostilities. The document, which was for a Lodge to be called Connecti cut Union Lodge, No. 9o, was signed by Howard B. Ensign, Grand Master. No returns were ever made, and no record of the Lodge's proceedings has ever appeared on the Minutes of the Connecticut Grand Lodge. The first meeting of that Army Lodge was held at Camp Ingalls, near Fort Richardson, Virginia, on Saturday evening, January 4, 1862. Then the Lodge was organized by the appointment of Officers, after which it proceeded to business. Three other Communications were held during that January, and the names of several candidates were proposed and accepted. One of them, George Ayer, was initiated as an Entered Apprentice at the Lodge's last meeting. That was the only Masonic Labour reported. One other petition for a Dispensation to organise an Army Lodge was refused. It was to be located with the Fifth Connecticut Regiment and to be known as Ensign Lodge, No. 9i.


During those years of bloody strife which have become so notable in the history of the country, the Craft became exceedingly prosperous. It continued to be in a state of harmony largely because of the unusual activity in all depart ments of business which was stimulated by the immense military preparations and the reckless expenditure of public money. Hundreds were annually added to our numbers. This condition continued for several years after the cessation of hostilities, and at the close of the decade ending with 1870 there were a hundred Lodges on the Roll and a total membership of 13,072. This was a gain of 7,218 members in ten years.


Similar conditions were a result of the World War. Lodges were thronged with applicants and there were many requests to shorten the time of probation because our young men were going either to camp or abroad. Though honour rolls were erected in Lodge rooms and records were kept of the members' war service, no Travelling or Army Lodges were Chartered. The experience of Lodges throughout the country during the war between the States had taught Masons that on the whole the results of such Lodges were unsatisfactory.


In 1872, at the time of the great fire in Chicago, Connecticut Masonry extended charity in the form of funds for the destitute. When everything had been done that was deemed wise, there remained a balance in the fund contributed by the various Grand Bodies. This was distributed pro rata among the donors. Connecticut's share, which amounted to about sixty dollars, became a nest egg for the Masonic Charity Foundation. The fund grew, and in 1895 a large property was purchased in Wallingfo‑rd and converted into a Masonic Home. During FREEMASONRY IN CONNECTICUT 91 the thirty years that have passed since then, the old building has been replaced by a fireproof structure and additions have been made to the plant. These additions include an infirmary known as the Eastern Star Hospital. Connecticut Masonry now finances a charitable project valued at more than $9oo,o0o. In 1930 the cost of this undertaking to the Craft was $203,ooo. During that year the Mason's Connecticut Foundation was caring for 251 people at the Masonic Home and for 163 others elsewhere.


Connecticut followed up her contribution of $5oo made in 1826 toward a monument to George Washington at Mount Vernon, by joining wholeheartedly in the support of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial. The State was also one of the prime movers in The Masonic Service Association. It endeavoured to do its part in the educational work of that organisation. In addition the Masons of Connecticut contributed freely toward alleviating the distress of the sufferers in Charlestown in 1886, of those in San Francisco in 19o6, and of those who were in the Florida and Mississippi disasters during recent years.


Many men of national importance have encouraged and promoted Masonry in Connecticut. Mention of Israel Putnam has already been made. Although his Lodge memberhsip is not certainly known, he was a Masonic resident of this State. Of like prominence was General David Wooster, Charter Master of Hiram Lodge, No. i, of New Haven. This Brother was probably made a Mason in England about the year 1745. Upon his return to America, he obtained a Charter from R.‑.W.‑.Thomas Oxnard, Provincial Grand Master of St. John's Grand Lodge of Boston, under date of November 12, 175o. Thus he became the founder of duly constituted Masonry in Connecticut. All Masons regret that Benedict Arnold, of the same Lodge, did not always remain in as good standing as Bro. David Wooster. Oliver Wolcott held the office of Grand Master and Governor of the State at the same time. Of the first six Grand Masters, five have Revolutionary War records, and the sixth was the first chief justice of the Supreme Court of Connecticut. In more recent times such men as Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy under President Lincoln, Governor Thomas H. Seymour, Governor Morgan G. Bulkley, Governor John H. Trumbull, Senator Orville H. Platt, and Senator George M. McLean have been proud of their Masonic membership. It therefore behooves us to see to it that Connecticut Masons of the future will be proud that our names were upon the Records of the Lodge.


The Grand Chapter of Connecticut was organised in 1798. There is ample evidence to prove that even before that time semi‑annual Convocations of the six Chapters then in existence were held to legislate for the good of the Craft. The first recorded Convocation was held in Hartford on July 5, 1796. On October Zo, 1798, the six Chapters met in New Haven and organised the Grand Chapter of Connecticut. All but one of those Chapters had a Charter from Washington Chapter of New York City. It is likely that the other Charter also came from the same source, although this is disputed.


At a Convention held in Hartford on January 24, 1798, the Grand Royal 92 FREEMASONRY IN CONNECTICUT Arch Chapter of the Northern States of America was organised. It embraced the States of New Hamsphire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Vermont, and later became the General Grand Chapter. Apparently the Connecticut Representatives at first stood aloof, but by tactful diplomacy they were led to join in the deliberations and to unite with the others. In 1827 an Act of the State Legislature incorporated the Grand Chapter as " The Grand Chapter of the State of Connecticut." Although some Chapters fell into a state of apathy and forfeited their Charters during the anti‑Masonic period, most of the Charters were later restored and the Grand Chapter continued to hold Convocations. Since that time Capitu lar Masonry has normally progressed onward and upward. On May 1, 1934, Connecticut had forty‑six Chapters and 14,400 members.


In its organised form, Cryptic Masonry began in Connecticut in 1818. In that year Jeremy L. Cross, claiming authority from the Grand Chapter of Maryland, established Councils in Hartford, Ashford, Norwich, New London, Col chester, Stamford, Kent, New Haven, Middletown, and Canterbury. The first of those, afterward called Wolcott Council in honor of its Thrice Illustrious Master, was Chartered on February 7, 1818. The others were Chartered in the order in which they are named above. Those, together with the Council established at Newtown in February 1819, organised the Grand Council at a meeting of their Representatives held in Hartford on May 18 and 2‑o, 1819. At the beginning of the anti‑Masonic period the number of Councils had reached sixteen, but at the close of the Grand Council held in May 1840 only six were in good standing. That, however, seems to have been the low point. The next year a Charter was restored, and from then on new Councils were added. Membership in General Grand Council of the United States was debated a number of times, but Connecticut has never joined that organisation. Conferences were held for the purpose of making the Ritual uniform, and the present Ritual is the result of the Annual Meeting of 1915. The Super‑Excellent Degree was adopted in 1864. The Grand Council of New York was the result of three Councils Chartered by Connecticut in that State. The same is true of the Michigan Grand Council. At present twenty‑four Councils make up the Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters of Connecticut.


In 1858 a Lodge of Perfection Chapter of Rose Croix and a Consistory were Chartered in Bridgeport by the then so‑called " New York Supreme Council." These were followed by a Council of Princes of Jerusalem established in 1859.


In 1864 a Lodge, Council, Chapter, and Consistory were Chartered in Norwich by the " Boston Supreme Council." After the union of the two Supreme Councils in 1867, Connecticut was allowed to retain both Consistories, although the policy of that period was to allow but one Consistory to each State regardless of the State's area of population. Later, Bodies other than Consistories were formed in Hartford, New Haven, and Waterbury.


The total Scottish Rite membership in Connecticut is now about as follows Lodges of Perfection, 4153; Councils of Princes of Jerusalem, 4116; Chapters of FREEMASONRY IN CONNECTICUT 93 Rose Croix, 4111; Consistories, 3979. 'In the Connecticut Council of Deliberation there are two Active Members of the Supreme Council of Thirty‑third Degree Masons, and forty‑two Honorary Members.


The history of Washington Commandery, No. i, is the story of the beginning of the Templar Order in Connecticut. This Commandery claims to be the oldest Body of Knights Templar existing in the United States. It was the first organised at Colchester in July 1796 by virtue of that inherent right delegated to Knights Templar by ancient usage and conferred Degrees. Two meetings were afterward held by the same authority. On June 9, 18oi, the members effected a permanent organisation and applied to the Knights Templar in London for a Warrant. That this was the first Encampment Chartered in this country is indisputably proved by the Charter. It was issued from the Grand Encampment of the United States over the signature of Thomas Smith Webb, then Deputy General Grand Master. The document recognises and establishes September S, 1803, as the date of the London Charter. This is the only Encampment in the United States that ever received a Charter from the Grand Encampment of England. Meeting at various times in Colchester, New London, and Hartford, this Encampment finally became permanently located at the latter place in 1844.


The Grand Commandery of Connecticut was organised on September 13, 1827, having as its members Washington Commandery, No. 1, New Haven Commandery, No. 2, and Clinton Commandery, No. 3, the last situated in Norwalk. At that time there were only about a hundred members. Now there are 12 commanderies and over 6ooo members.


FREEMASONRY IN DELAWARE THOMAS J. DAY HE first record of a Masonic Lodge in Delaware is that of Lodge No. 5, of and under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, of which R.‑. W.‑. Bro. William Ball was Provincial Grand Master. On June Z4, 1765, the Grand Officers granted a Warrant for a Lodge to be held at Cantwell's Bridge, a small hamlet in New Castle County, where the post‑road crossed the Appoquinimink Creek, about twenty‑one miles southwest of what is now the city of Wilmington, or, as was said in those early times, " within five miles thereof." This Warrant was the first to be granted by the Provincial Grand Lodge (Ancients) of Pennsylvania, for a Lodge to be held beyond the bounds of that Province. The Warrant Officers were: Bro. William Bradford, Worshipful Master; Bro. Peter Wyatt, Senior Warden, and Bro. Duncan Beard, Junior Warden.


A copy of the Minutes of that Lodge, covering the period from June 23, 1770, to December 27, 1787, is now in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. This Minute Book is of especial value to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, for it also gives some information about the proceedings of that Grand Lodge, whose Minutes prior to July 29, 1779, are not known to exist. They were either lost or destroyed during the British occupation of Philadelphia in 1777 and 1778.


Lodge No. 5 was strictly a country Lodge, located in a sparsely settled agricultural region. Thus, in the entry made on the Minutes on June 23, 1770, it states that the " Lodge met this day on account of harvest, instead of the day in course! " The Minutes also show that Lodge No. 5 celebrated St. John the Baptist's Day in 1773, at Georgetown, Md., together with Lodge No. 6. Another entry states that on April 27, 1775, it was resolved to remove the Lodge to Bro. Thomas Sculley's, at Middletown.


During 1776 and 1777 quite a number of emergency Petitions were received from soldiers in the Continental Army. An item of the Minutes of September 27, 1777, says: " The confusion we were thrown into by the British Army landing at Elk prevented us from meeting on last month." Another item notes that Lodge No. 5 was one of the twelve Lodges represented on the memorable September 25, 1786, when it was decided to close forever the Grand Lodge then acting under the Warrant from the Grand Lodge of England, and to re‑open it as an independent Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. The Lodge No. 5 continued to be under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania until January 30, 1816, when its Warrant was finally surrendered, five days before it had received a Warrant from the Grand Lodge of Delaware.


94 FREEMASONRY IN DELAWARE 95 On December 27, 1769, another Warrant was granted by the Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, this time for a Lodge to be held at Christiana Ferry, now Wilmington, Delaware. The Warrant was registered as No. 14. It named Bro. Hugh McConnell, Worshipful Master, Bro. Jonathan Jordon, Senior Warden, and Bro. Joseph McGarraugh, Junior Warden. Two old Minute Books of this Lodge, covering the period from November 18, 1779, to December 16, 1784, are also in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.


During the early years of the American War of Independence, the Brethren of this Lodge suffered more or less. Their meetings were irregular, and the Records of the Lodge were either lost or destroyed. Meetings had to be held at various places. The house of Bezlin Bentley seems to have been used more than any other. At the meeting held on September 25, 1786, when the Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania ceased to exist and the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania was organised, Lodge No. 14 was represented by Bro. Francis Robinson, of Wilmington, a Past Master.


Lodge No. 14 applied for a new Warrant under the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania on November 29, 1788. This request was read before the Grand Lodge on the following December 15, whereupon it was ordered that the request be com plied with. On January Zo, 1789, the new Warrant was acknowledged by Daniel J. Adam, Secretary. Later, however, on September 15, 18o6, the Warrant of this Lodge was vacated by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania because its proceedings during the establishment of the Grand Lodge of Delaware were considered to have been un‑Masonic.


On August 26, 1775, still another Warrant was granted by the Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for a Lodge to be held in the town of Dover. The Officers appointed for this new Lodge were Mark McCall, Master; George McCall, Senior Warden, and Henry Bell, Junior Warden. The first meeting of the Lodge took place on October 11, 1775. It was held at a tavern known as the " Sign of General Washington. " Eleven Brethren were present. Alexander Rutherford, a Past Master of Lodge No. 2, of Pennsylvania, was on hand to install the Officers. On that occasion three Petitions were received from men who had previously been initiated into a clandestine Lodge. Since the Petitioners were well known, they were severally elected, entered, passed, and raised, and regularly made Master Masons. The second Tuesday of each month was then selected as the time for holding stated meetings. This Lodge seems to have been very active in initiating new members, many of whom were soldiers in the Delaware regiment of the Continental troops. In October 1786 the Roster of the Lodge contained the names of 1o6 persons. The old Provincial Warrant was surrendered and renewed on May 31, 1787.


Although the Records of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania do not state the day on which a Warrant was granted to Delaware Regimental Lodge, No. 30, the following memorandum is available The Warrant and jewels on Hiram's Delaware Regimental Lodge were taken at the Battle of Camden, the 16th of August, 178o, by the British Troops, 98 FREEMASONRY IN DELAWARE Past Master; Bro. Edward Roche, Past Master; Bro. John Hendrick, Senior Warden of Lodge No. 14, and Bro. William Pluright, Secretary of Lodge No. 14. The following Brethren served as Officers at that time: Bro. Jesse Green, Worshipful Grand Master; Bro. Evan Thomas, Senior Grand Warden; Bro. James Snow, Junior Grand Warden; Bro. Edward Roche, Grand Secretary; Bro. Thomas Stockton, Senior Grand Deacon; Bro. John Crow, Junior Grand Deacon, and David Robinet, Grand Tyler.


Thereupon the Grand Lodge of Delaware was opened in due form and with due solemnity, according to the ancient usages of Masonry. The Committee appointed to form a set of Regulations submitted its report, which, after being somewhat amended, was unanimously approved.


Warrants for the Lodges which organised the Grand Lodge were authorised as follows. The original number of each Lodge mentioned below was that inscribed on the Register of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. Lodge No. 14, at Wilmington, became Washington Lodge No. i; Lodge No. 33 became St. John's Lodge No. z, of New Castle; Lodge No. 96 became Hiram Lodge No. 3, of Newark; and Lodge No. 31, formerly under the Jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Maryland, became Hope Lodge No. 4, of Laureltown, Sussex County, Delaware.


The first Grand Officers were then elected: Bro. Gunning Bedford, Jr., was elected to be Grand Master; Bro. Jesse Green, Deputy Grand Master; Bro. Joseph Israel, Senior Grand Warden; Bro. John McBeath, Junior Grand Warden; Bro. Thomas Stockton, Grand Treasurer; Bro. Edward Roche, Grand Secretary; Bro. John Sellers, Grand Marshal, and Bro. David Robinet, Grand Tyler.


The first Dispensation granted by the new Grand Lodge was issued on November 14, 1806, to William Huston, Ralph McConnell, and Thomas Harlin, for the purpose of holding a Lodge to be known as Hiram Lodge No. 6. This was at the Buck Tavern. A Charter was issued to this Lodge on June 24, 1807. At this Communication of the Grand Lodge, the Deputy Grand Master reported that he had conferred with the Grand Lodge of Maryland and found that the establishment of a Grand Lodge in the State of Delaware was well approved by them, and that they were eager to maintain friendly intercourse and correspondence with the new Grand Lodge.


The Returns from the five Lodges which were made on June 24, 1808, showed a total membership of 118. The amount due the Grand Lodge at that__time was $135.52.


Gunning Bedford, Jr., the first Grand Master of Delaware, was a man of great distinction. Born in Philadelphia in 1747, he was educated at Nassau Hall, New Jersey, from which institution he graduated in 1771. He then studied law in Philadelphia, and later practised his profession in Delaware. He received his commission as colonel of the Continental Army from George Washington, with whom he was closely associated during the Revolutionary struggle of 1776. He was attorney‑general of the State, and a member of the General Assembly of Delaware from 1783 to 1787, as well as a member of the Conventio_i FREEMASONRY IN DELAWARE 99 which framed the Constitution of the United States. He was a signer of that epoch‑making document. It was largely through Bro. Bedford's efforts that Delaware, Rhode Island, and the other smaller States were put upon an equality with the larger States as far as concerned numerical representation in the United States Senate. Bro. Bedford was distinguished for his eloquence. In 1789 President Washington appointed him a judge of the United States Court for the District of Delaware, an office which he held until his death.


Bro. Bedford was a member of Lodge No. 14, under the Grand Jurisdiction of Pennsylvania. He received the Entered Apprentice Degree on March 21, 1782, the Fellow Craft Degree on August io, 1782, and the Master Degree on Septem ber 11, 1782. His Lodge afterwards became Washington Lodge, No. 1, of Delaware. Bro. Gunning Bedford was elected most Worshipful Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Delaware on June 7, 18o6, at the time of that Body's organisation and was re‑elected in 1807 and 18o8. Upon his death a Special Communication of the Grand Lodge was held, on March 31, 1812, for the purpose of attending his funeral. The Lodge assembled at the town hall in the Borough of Wilmington at four o'clock in the afternoon of that day, and proceeded from thence, by Lodges and according to Juniority, in procession to Market and Second Streets. Thence the procession preceded the hearse until the funeral cortege reached the Upper Presbyterian Church, where services were held. After that the Masonic Bodies went to the grave in the cemetery adjoining the church, and there Masonic funeral services were performed by the Deputy Grand Master and Grand Chaplain. The Masonic Honours were given by the Brethren.


Due to the growth and expansion of the city of Wilmington, this cemetery was later vacated; at the time the remains buried there were removed to other places. Since there were no relatives of Past Grand Master Bedford living at that time, the Grand Lodge of Delaware took charge of the remains of its first Grand Master, and on March 31, 1921, a hundred nine years after interment, the Grand Lodge held an Emergent Communication in the town hall, the very building in which that Body had been organised in 18o6. From thence the Grand Lodge proceeded to the Masonic Home grounds, where the remains were re‑interred. On that august occasion the solemn Masonic burial service was again followed. The monument that marked the first grave was then removed and re‑finished. Again it marks the resting‑place of the earthly remains of Bro. Gunning Bedford.


At an Adjourned Communication held on September 1o, 1813, the following Resolution was adopted: " Whereas, the Grand Lodge, being duly impressed with a high sense of merits of the late worthy Brethren Captain James Lawrence and Augustus C. Ludlow, of the late American Frigate Chesapeake, Therefore be it Resolved, That an oration be delivered, commemorative of the character of those Brethren and in honor of their memories, and that there be a procession on the occasion, formed by the Grand Lodge and the several subordinate Lodges under its jurisdiction." This event took place on September 25, 1813. The Grand 100 FREEMASONRY IN DELAWARE Lodge led the procession, which was composed of members of the subordinate and visiting Lodges, together with Commodore Angus and other officers and seamen of the navy, a group of military men having arms reversed, men from the cavalry and the artillery, and citizens. They proceeded to the Hanover Presbyterian Church, where the oration was delivered by Bro. George Read, Most Worshipful Grand Master pro tempore. After leaving the church, the procession then returned to the town hall, where the participants partook of refreshments provided for the occasion.


On October 6, 182.4, a Special Communication was held for the purpose of uniting with the citizens of New Castle County in escorting General the Marquis de7Lafayette to Wilmington. At that time the distinguished Frenchman was making a tour of America. The Grand Lodge, escorted by the Brethren, proceeded to a point known as Prospect Hill, about two miles from Wilmington. There they joined the procession that had met the General at the State line. Returning in the procession to a point near the town hall, the Brethren opened ranks to the right and left, facing inward, and as Bro. Lafayette passed between them they gave him the Grand Honouis. Entering the town hall, the distinguished guest was then greeted in an eloquent address made by the Most Worshipful Grand Master, Bro. J. Gordon Brinckle. In reply, Bro. Lafayette said in part: " Freemasonry is distinguished for the enlightened liberality of its principles, its inculcated toleration of religious opinions. And although, as a Society, Masons do not interfere with politics, they consider every member as a Brother and as standing on the same natural level." The members of the Grand Lodge were then severally introduced to Bro. Lafayette.


Later, on June 2.7, 18zs, at the Communication held in Wilmington, General Lafayette was unanimously elected a member of the Grand Lodge of Delaware. At a Special Communication held on July 2..s, of that year, he visited the Grand Lodge and was there presented with a box made from an oak tree that had grown on the battle‑ground of Brandywine. The box, containing Bro. Lafayette's Certificate of Membership, was presented by M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Arnold Naudain, Grand Master. In accepting the gift Bro. Lafayette said in part: " Of all the high gratifications I have experienced in my progress through my adopted country, my receptions by the twenty‑four Grand Lodges of the United States have afforded me the greatest gratification. Accept, Most Worshipful Grand Lodge, my thanks for the honor you have conferred by enrolling me among your members." At this Communication General Lafayette, his son, George Washington Lafayette, and his secretary, M. Levasseur, signed the Charter of Lafayette Lodge No. 14.


On June 2.s, 1816, a Committee was appointed to visit the several Lodges of the State for the purpose of ascertaining their mode of Working, and of directing them in the Work. The Committee was also instructed to address a circular letter to the Lodges, enjoining promptness in the punishment of all un‑Masonic misconduct, carefulness in the admission of new members, and the FREEMASONRY IN DELAWARE passage of such general regulations relative to the premises as they should think proper. Bro. James Rogers, Bro. James Dirickson, and Bro. William Hall formed this Committee.


" It appears to this R.‑. W.‑. Grand Lodge that the tickets for the said election, which took place in the said Hiram Lodge, No. 6, on June 15, 1816, were formed and written out in the Lodge. The Grand Lodge considers this to be un Masonic, and that every election so conducted ought to be considered void, and the above election is void." On January 18, 1819, it was " Resolved, That a petition to the Legislature be drawn by J. Gordon Brinckle, and signed by Bro. James Millechop, Senior Grand Warden and Worshipful Grand Master pro tempore, on behalf of the Grand Lodge, praying the Legislature to strike out certain names from the list of Managers of a Lottery, authorised by the Legislature, for raising the sum of Fifteen Thousand Dollars for the purpose of erecting a Grand Masonic Hall in the Borough of Wilmington, and to substitute in their room the names of others." On January 2‑5, 1825, a Special Communication was called for the purpose of attending the funeral of M.‑. W.‑. Grand Master Joshua Gordon Brinckle. The Grand Lodge, together with the visiting Brethren present, proceeded to the house of the deceased Brother, and from thence to the grave in Trinity churchyard, where the body was interred in Masonic form.


On June 27, 1840, a Stated Communication was held at Wilmington, with M.‑. W.‑. Alexander Porter acting as Grand Master pro tempore. The three Lodges represented were Lodge No. 9, Lodge No. i, and Lodge No. 14. The total expenses were $47.5o, and the receipts $72.oo. At that time James P. Lofland was elected Grand Master.


A Special Grand Communication was held on October 26, 185o, with M.‑.W.‑.Bro. William T. Read acting as Grand Master. The object of the Communication was " the interment of the remains of Bro. Commodore Jacob Jones." The Minutes of the meeting read as follows: At the request of a Committee of Arrangements, the M.‑.W.‑.Grand Master appointed Bro. George W. Claytor, Grand Scribe, to be Grand Marshal pro tem.


At High Noon, the Grand Marshal, accompanied by William Hemphill Jones, proceeded to the Railroad Depot to receive and escort the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania to the Masonic Hall.


At half past High Noon, the Grand Lodge of Delaware received the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in due form, after which they were escorted by the Grand Marshal Pro Tem to the Delaware House, where they partook of a dinner provided for them. The Grand Lodge consisted of forty Members present.


102 FREEMASONRY IN DELAWARE At two hours past High Noon, the Brethren were formed in due Masonic order and proceeded under charge of the Grand Marshal to their place in the Procession, and thence to the cemetery, and there performed the usual Cere mony prescribed for the burial of a deceased Brother, after which they returned to the Hall, and the Grand Lodge was closed in Ample form.


From the day of the organisation of the Grand Lodge in i8o6, up to the year 1828, eighteen Lodges were Chartered. The force and the effect of the blow given to Masonry throughout the Country by the anti‑Masonic frenzy, which lasted for several years, affected the Grand Lodge of Delaware to the extent that the Charters of seven of the Lodges were surrendered, while the remaining Lodges merely existed and that was all. Since 1840, when Freemasonry took on new life, the Craft has continued to grow. Altogether thirty‑three Charters have been granted, and twenty‑two of those are in healthy condition, with a total membership of over 6ooo.


At the Annual Communication held in Wilmington, on June 2'7, 1866, a Resolution was adopted that provided for a Communication of the Grand Lodge to be held. At that time the Grand Lecturer of Maryland was authorised to appear before the Grand Lodge and exemplify the Work, as transmitted in his own jurisdiction. At the Annual Communication held in October 1886, Bro. Thomas Davidson, Grand Master, called the attention to the lack of uniformity in the Work, and suggested that a Committee, of three members, should be established. The Grand Lodge approved the recommendation and increased the Committee to five, designating the M.‑. W.‑. Grand Master as Chairman. The other Committee members were then appointed, but for some reason very little was accomplished. In 1889 the regulation was changed and by adding to it the words, " who shall establish a Work for this jurisdiction. " In his address delivered in 189o, M.‑. W.‑. Grand Master James S. Dobb said in part: " We now have completed the opening and closing in all Degrees, and the Work of the first two Degrees, and have communicated the same to the Lodges in this city, and they are substantially proficient in the revised Work. The Work was completed in 1891, and to‑day it is the same in all of the Lodges in the Jurisdiction. It is kept uniform through the efforts of a Grand Instructor. The Worshipful Master, Wardens, and Senior Deacon are required to pass an examination in the Work assigned to them before they can be installed into their respective Offices." A notable event in the history of Delaware Masonry occurred at Wilmington on June 7, 19o6, when the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge celebrated its one hundredth anniversary. With M.‑. W.‑. Levin Irving Handy acting as Grand Master, the Grand Lodge was opened in Special Communication at high noon. Distinguished guests from several other Grand jurisdictions were first introduced and cordially welcomed, then, at two o'clock that afternoon, the Brethren assembled in the auditorium of the Masonic Temple where they were entertained with interesting and instructive addresses by Bro., the Honorable Jonathan P. Dolliver, United States Senator from Iowa, R.‑. W.‑.John L. Kinsey, District FREEMASONRY IN DELAWARE 103 Deputy Grand Master of Pennsylvania, and M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Levin Irving Handy, Grand Master of Delaware. At seven‑thirty that evening the members of the Grand Lodge and the visiting Brethren assembled at the Masonic Temple. Then, under the direction of the Grand Marshal, they marched in a body to Turn Hall, where a sumptuous banquet was served. The M.‑. W.‑. Grand Master of the Delaware Grand Lodge acted as toastmaster, and many eloquent toasts were given.


At the time of its one hundredth anniversary the Grand Lodge of Delaware had under its jurisdiction twenty‑two Chartered Lodges having a total membership of 2772.


The Grand Lodge of Delaware was represented at the preliminary meeting held at Alexandria, Virginia, on February 22, 19io, for the purpose of organising The George Washington Masonic National Memorial Association. The Grand Lodge of Delaware has also been represented at every subsequent annual meeting of the Association. It has always been among the leaders in raising funds for this magnificent testimonial to " George Washington, the Mason," and to the Masonic Fraternity throughout the United States. At present it is second in the list for contributions per capita, having raised 222.8 per cent on the quota of one dollar per member.


The M.‑.W.‑.Grand Master of Masons of Delaware, Bro. Harold W. T. Purnell, granted a Dispensation to Lafayette Lodge, No. 14, to hold a Special Communication of the Lodge in May 1934 in this Memorial Temple, the request for this privilege having been granted by M.‑.W.‑.Bro. William Moseley Brown, Grand Master of Masons of Virginia; M.‑.W.‑.Bro. Harry Galbraith, P. G. M., and R.‑. W.'. Bro. Harry W. Lowe and Harry F. Newlin, P. G. S. Wardens were appointed by the Lodge a Committee to make the necessary arrangements. May 15, 1934, was selected for this Special Communication. It was decided to confer the Master Degree upon a Candidate of the Lodge by a Degree Team composed of Past Masters. More than 2_5o of the Brethren from Wilmington and other parts of Delaware made the special trip, and an equal number from Washington, District of Columbia, and Alexandria, Virginia, were present. Both Grand Masters were in attendance. This was the first time the Master Mason Degree had been conferred in the Memorial Temple.


The question of providing a Masonic Home in Delaware, where indigent Brethren and their wives or widows might be well and comfortably cared for, was agitated for several years. At the Annual Communication held on October 5, igio, M.. W.‑. Grand Master Edward B. Mode recommended that a Committee, to be known as the Masonic Home Committee, should be appointed, " with power to procure a Masonic Home for this Grand Lodge, at any time in their judgment they feel justified in so doing, provided they have sufficient funds pledged to pay for same in full, without placing any debit for purchasing such Home upon this Grand Lodge." This recommendation was approved by the Grand Lodge, and a Committee of Nine was then appointed to act, but little was accomplished during the year. Then, on October 5, 1911, the Grand Lodge 104 FREEMASONRY IN DELAWARE appropriated all the Grand Reserve Fund and three‑fourths of the Grand Charity Fund, a total sum of $32‑36, for the purpose of procuring a Home. Vight days later, at the Stated Communication of Du Pont Lodge, No. 29, a voluntary subscription was started. The other Lodges in the jurisdiction immediately took similar action, with the result that at the next Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge, a Home situated about two miles from the city of Wilmington was dedicated. At that time it was announced that the Home would be ready for guests on November i, igi2‑. Of the $16,932 which had been received by the Home Committee, $12‑,833 had been expended for the property and in making the necessary alterations. The Report made on October 1, 1913, states that there were at that time eight residents in the institution, four men and four women, and that the total valuation of the resources of the Home was $2‑8,2‑91. There were no liabilities. The total membership of the Grand Lodge at that Communication was 3358.


In 192‑1, upon the recommendation of M.‑.W.‑.Grand Master William J. Highfield, it was resolved to raise a fund of $5o,ooo to build additional quarters at the Masonic Home. A'period of two years was allotted in which to raise this amount, and contracts amounting to $79,662‑ were negotiated to carry out the proposed additions and alterations. The new building was dedicated with appropriate ceremonies on May 30, 192‑3. The attendance at the dedication was estimated to be more than 5ooo persons. More than $2‑2‑ per member has been contributed by the Fraternity in Delaware to provide a Home for those members and their dependents who are unable to care for themselves The annual dues for the maintenance of the Home from its opening until the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge, held in October 1933, were two dollars per member. At this Communication, owing to the increasing receipts from the Permanent Endowment Fund, an amendment to the by‑laws was recommended by the Board of Managers of the Home reducing the annual dues for maintenance to one dollar per member. This amendment was approved by Grand Lodge and a refund of one dollar per member was made to the several Lodges for the year 1933 The first guests were admitted in 1913. Since then over loo guests have been cared for. Of those two have left to reside with relatives, and more than 6o have passed away. The average length of time that each guest has spent at the Home is four and a half years. One of the guests lived there more than fourteen years. The total valuation of the Home, including the Trust Fund, is $284,093 With one exception only, all Delaware Lodges were represented in the military or naval service of the United States during the Great War. Of a total membership of 42‑50 in 1918, 352‑ were in the different branches of military service. Three of those were killed in France, and five died of illness.


Upon the recommendation of M.‑. W.‑. Grand Master William J. Highfield, made on October 5, 1921, a Resolution was adopted organising what is known as the Gunning Bedford, Jr., Memorial Masonic Scholarship. Its object is to FREEMASONRY IN DELAWARE 105 assist Masons or their descendants who are financially unable to get a college education. Since the establishment of this scholarship, twenty‑three young men and six young women have been assisted. The Grand Lodge levies an annual assessment of fifteen cents on each member in the jurisdiction for the maintenance of this fund.


The first record of a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons in Delaware is found in the Minutes of Washington Royal Arch Chapter of Super‑Excellent Royal Arch Masons. These Minutes tell of a meeting held on January 2‑4, 18og, in the borough of Wilmington, under the authority of a Warrant from the Grand Lodge of Delaware for holding a Lodge in that borough under the name and title of Washington Lodge, No. i. The Lodge was convened by special agreement. Six Companions present " having conferred, examined and approved each other and found to agree, proceeded to open, and did open, the Royal Arch Chapter with due form and solemnity." David Robinette was the first candidate. Chapters were later formed in the several Lodges, and on June 24, 1817, a Convention of Delegates assembled in the town hall at Wilmington for the purpose of organising a Grand Royal Arch Chapter. Six Chapters were represented. A Committee was then appointed. It reported ` ` that it appears to the Committee necessary and expedient to form a Grand Royal Arch Chapter in this State," and recommended that a Committee be appointed whose duty it should be to report a Constitution at a future time. The Report was adopted and the Committee was at once appointed. The Convention then adjourned to meet at Dover on January i9, 1818. At that meeting the Committee reported a Constitution, which was adopted. Thereupon the Convention adjourned sine die, and the Grand Chapter of the State of Delaware was opened in due form with Companion J. Gordon Brinckle presiding. The Grand Chapter then elected its Officers for the ensuing year. Alexander Hamilton was elected Most Excellent Grand High Priest, and J. Gordon Brinckle Excellent Grand Secretary.


From then till 1833 the Grand Chapter held regular Stated Communications. There was then an intermission from 1833 until 1848. Nor are there any Records of any Convocations having been held between 1859 and 1868. In 1868, however, a Convention was held at Dover. The Grand Chapter was recognised on January Zo, 1869, the General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter installed the Officers, and on January 30, 1869, the Grand Chapter was enrolled under the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter.


The centennial anniversary of the introduction of Capitular Masonry into Delaware was celebrated on January 16, 1918, at which time an interesting programme was given. The principal address was delivered by the Hon. Thomas R. Marshall, Vice‑President of the United States. The Report of the Grand Secretary at that time showed four Chapters and a total membership of 1371. The Report for 1934 showed five Chapters and a membership of 1685.


The first Council of Royal and Select Masters, known as Gunning Bedford Council, No. 1, was organised at Wilmington in 1918. In 1933 a Council was also organised at Dover and at Georgetown.


io6 FREEMASONRY IN DELAWARE On February Zo, 1926, a Convention was held in Wilmington for the purpose of organising a Grand Council for Delaware. At that meeting Most Illustrious Companion Warren S. Seipp, personal representative of General Grand Master Bert S. Lee, presided. Representatives of the three Councils were present. A Committee on Constitution was appointed. It later reported that a Constitution had been adopted. At the first election held under this Constitution, Companion Harvey W. Bentley was elected Most Illustrious Grand Master, and Marshall M. Carpenter, Right Illustrious Grand Recorder. At the time of the organisation of the Grand Council the three Councils reported a membership of 225 Companions.


Early in 1868 several Sir Knights made application to Eminent Sir H. L. Palmer, Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of the United States, for a Dispensation to form a Commandery in Wilmington. The Dispensation was granted on March 1o, 1868, and on September 18, 1868, a Charter was issued. The present membership is 700.


The first Body of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite to be Chartered in Delaware by the Supreme Council of the Northern Jurisdiction of the United States was Wilmington Lodge of Perfection, which was Chartered on May 27, i91o. Then on February 24, 1911, Wilmington Council of Princes of Jerusalem was Chartered. The Chapter of Rose Croix received its Charter on March‑24, 1911, and the Delaware Consistory was Chartered on March Zo, 1912. Since the Organisation of the Consistory, 25 members have received the Thirty‑third Degree. The present membership is over Zooo.


FREEMASONRY IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CARL H. CLAUDY CREATED in 179o by being carved from Maryland and Virginia, the District of Columbia, originally ten miles square, was divided by the Potomac River. In 1846 the Federal Government ceded back to Virginia the area originally taken from that State. Freemasonry came into the District of Columbia from those two States, but the influence of Virginia Masonry upon that of the District of Columbia was of less importance than was that of Maryland. Maryland Masonry was derived from Massachusetts (Moderns), England (Moderns), and Pennsylvania (Ancients). Unsubstantiated tradition also couples Masonry from Scotland and Germany to the Maryland Craft.


Of what may be termed Apocryphal Masonry in the District of Columbia, there are vestiges, but they rest at only a point or two upon any real evidence and are mainly supported by tradition. A Masonic Bible in possesion of Po tomac Lodge, No. 5, is inscribed, " A present from Mr. Colin Campbell to St. Andrew's Lodge, the 3oth January, 1773, Bladensburg." Tradition credits a Rev. Bro. Thomas Balch, of Georgetown (District of Columbia), with possession of a diploma showing that his great‑grandfather, Colonel James Balch, was made a Mason in " St. Andrew's Lodge " in 1737. No written evidence can be adduced, however, that any " St. Andrew's Lodge " ever existed in the territory which later became the District of Columbia. Nor has the Grand Lodge of England or of Scotland any records of a Lodge having been Chartered in Maryland as early as 1740.


Nevertheless, a certain weight must attach to this Masonic tradition, even though it is unsupported by a diploma or by records in the Grand Lodge of England or of Scotland. Certainly, Lodges existed in the Colonies in 1733. It is noteworthy, for example, that in 1931 the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania celebrated the two hundredth anniversary of Masonry in that State, though upon what evidence it is not necessary to inquire here. Early Lodges met by " immemorial custom " with no better authority than that of a number of Brethren getting together, tiling, opening, and meeting as a " Lodge." Fredericksburg Lodge, No. 4, of Virginia, then " The Lodge of Fredericksburg," did not procure a Charter until long after it was formed and had Worked‑indeed, not for several years after it initiated, passed, and raised George Washington, in 1752‑53.


That no Grand Lodge Records exist showing an early " St. Andrew's Lodge " in Maryland is no proof that such a Lodge did not exist. Indeed, the 107 io8 FREEMASONRY IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA documentary evidence of the inscribed Bible is far stronger proof of the existence of a " St. Andrew's Lodge " than absence of other records is proof to the contrary. Masonic history in this country is replete with instances of " occasional Lodges," meeting under " immemorial custom," which later accepted Charters from newly formed Grand Lodges, or which, like " The Lodge at Fredericksburg," asked for and received Charters many years after the Lodge's formation. It is thus possible that " St. Andrew's Lodge " did exist and Work.


However this may be, Freemasonry not only existed in the District of Columbia when the District was created in 1790, but it was also even intimately and actively concerned with bringing the Federal reservation into being. The corner‑stone of the District of Columbia‑a real stone marker‑was laid by Alexandria Lodge, No. 22. This Lodge was originally Chartered as No. 39 by the Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. Later it was known as Alexandria Lodge, No. 22, under a Charter from the Grand Lodge of Virginia. Still later, it became known as Alexandria‑Washington Lodge, No. 22. after the death of George Washington. Washington had been its Charter Worshipful Master. The Masonic laying of the corner‑stone of the District of Columbia occurred on April 15, 1791. The following contemporary newspaper account of the ceremonies, dated April ZI, 1791, is both short and quaint enough to quote in full: Alexandria, April ZI, 1791.


On Friday, the 15th inst. the Hon. Daniel Carroll and Hon. David Stuart arrived in this town to superintend the fixing of the first cornerstone of the Federal District.


The Mayor and the Commonalty, together with the members of the different Lodges [?] of the town, at three o'clock, waited on the commissioners at Mr. Wise's, where they dined, and, after drinking a glass of wine to the fol lowing sentiment, viz.: " May the stone which we are about to place in the ground, remain an immovable monument of the wisdom and unanimity of North America," the company proceeded to Jones Point in the following order: 1st. The Town Sergeant. Zd. Hon. Daniel Carroll and the Mayor. 3d. Mr. Ellicott and the Recorder. 4th. Such of the Common Council and Aldermen as were not Freemasons. 5th. Strangers. 6th. The Master of Lodge No.


22, with Mr. David Stuart on his right, and the Rev. James Muir [for many years an active Mason] on his left, followed by the rest of the Fraternity, in their usual form of procession. Lastly, the citizens, two by two.


When Mr. Ellicott had ascertained the precise point from which the first line of the District was to proceed, the Master of the Lodge and Dr. Steuart, assisted by others of their brethren, placed the stone. After which a deposit of corn, wine, and oil was placed upon it, and the company partook of some refreshments, and then returned to the place from whence they came, where a number of toasts were drank; and the following was delivered by the Master of the Lodge [Dr. Dick], and was received with every token of approbation: " Brethren and Gentlemen: May jealousy, that green‑eyed monster, be buried deep under the work which we have this day completed, never to rise again within the Federal District." FREEMASONRY IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 109 In what is now the territory of the District of Columbia (north of the Potomac River), the first Lodge to receive a Charter was " Lodge No. 9," Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Maryland on April 2.1, 1789, to be held at " George‑Town, Maryland." This Lodge lived only a few years. It committed suicide, so to speak, by a very unusual method. " The Worshipful Lodge of Ancient York Masons, No. 9, in George‑Town " issued a Dispensation to some of its members to form a Lodge at Port Tobacco, Maryland. Such an irregular proceeding, even if excused by difficulties of transporation and communication, was frowned upon by the Grand Lodge of Maryland, yet that Body confirmed the Dispensation by granting a Charter to St. Columbia Lodge, No. 1 i. The heavy loss in membership to " Lodge No. 9," due to the removal of its members to Port Tobacco to form the St. Columbia Lodge, No. 11, resulted in the death of " Lodge No. 9 " in 1794. Before it ceased to exist, however, it was presided over by W .'. Bro. Valentine Reintzel, later to become the first M.‑. W.‑. Grand Master of Masons of the District of Columbia. W.‑. Bro. Reintzel was to be further immortalised by receiving from the hands of W.‑. Bro. George Washington, then President of the United States and Past Master of Alexandria Lodge, No. Zz, of Alexandria, Virginia, the gavel he had used at the laying of the corner‑stone of the United States Capitol. This gavel is still the prized possession of the successor of " Lodge No. 9 "‑Potomac Lodge, No. S, Free and Accepted Masons of the District of Columbia.


In the 179o's, Georgetown, District of Columbia, now and for many years quite as much part of the city of Washington as so‑called Greenwich Village is part of the city of New York, was distant a long, hard journey from almost anywhere inside the limits of the present District. Actually, the eastern limits of the old town are within three miles of the United States Capitol. In terms of a bad road, wooded hills, and lack of illumination, the little town was in those days at least an hour's journey. These conditions, coupled with the near prospect of the laying of the corner‑stone of the Capitol, resulted in certain Brethren desiring a Lodge nearer home. On September 6, 1793, they made formal Petition to the Grand Lodge of Maryland for a Charter. The Petition was granted and Federal Lodge, No. 15 (now Federal Lodge, No. i, of the District of Columbia), came into being. Bro. Clotworthy Stephenson, one of the petitioners, and Senior Warden of the new Lodge, acted as Grand Marshal at the Masonic corner‑stone laying of the United States Capitol on September 18, 1793. Bro. Collin Williamson, a Charter member of the Lodge and master stonemason of the Capitol building, in full Masonic regalia, personally superintended the laying of the stone by W.‑. Bro. George Washington, who acted as Grand Master of Maryland pro tempore.


History records a curious sidelight upon Ancient Craft Masonry of the early days in records of Bro. James Hoban, devout Romanist and ardent Freemason! He was the architect of the Capitol, an influential man in civic affairs, and an enthusiastic and potent force in the spread of Freemasonry in the District of Columbia in those formative days.


110 FREEMASONRY IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Brooke Lodge, of Alexandria, Virginia, was Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Virginia on November 29, 1796. Later it was to become Lodge No. z of the District of Columbia. " Two " is now a vacant number, Brooke Lodge having ceased to exist in 1833 during the anti‑Masonic wave of " The Morgan Excitement. " Next on the list of pre‑District‑of‑Columbia Grand Lodge Lodges is Columbia Lodge, now known as No. 3, though it was Chartered as NO. 35 by the Grand Lodge of Maryland on November 8, 18o2. Its early history is enriched by the fact that it joined with Federal Lodge, No. 15, in erecting the first Masonic Temple in the District of Columbia. This was the old Union Lodge Hall, long since torn down. Columbia Lodge's first Worshipful Master, Bro. Charles Jones, became the first Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia.


Washington Naval Lodge, No. 41, Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Maryland on May 14, 18o5, is now Naval Lodge, No. 4, on the District Grand Lodge register. This very active and vigorous old Lodge is justly proud of the fact that during its century and a quarter of life it has never suffered either a suspension or an arrest of its Charter. During " The Morgan Excitement '' this Lodge held regular meetings, though they were unduly secret.


Potomac Lodge, No. 5, is naively proud of the fact that it has had four different dates of Warranty, three different names, and four different numbers This statement can only be considered correct if it is admitted that continuous existence of a Lodge can be interrupted by periods of slumber, coma, and even death! " Lodge No. 9 '' was its first appellation and number, as already explained. As " Columbia Lodge, No. i9," many of the original members of " Lodge No. 15 " received a Charter from the Grand Lodge of Maryland in 1795. This Lodge passed quietly out of existence in 1797, but the records it left have ever been precious material for this historian. Nine years later, in 18o6, the Grand Lodge of Maryland‑which certainly showed exemplary patience with the Brethren of George‑Town‑granted a Charter to Potomac Lodge, No. 43, with some reluctance.


This, then, is the present Potomac Lodge, No. 5, of the District of Columbia Grand Lodge, an organisation with historic traditions and one of the leaders in the movement for a District of Columbia Grand Lodge.


FORMATION OF THE GRAND LODGE Agitation for the formation of a Grand Lodge in the District of Columbia was probably coincident with the setting aside of the area as a Federal reservation. It came to a head in 181o. On December 11 of that year, delegates from Federal Lodge, No. 15; Alexandria Brooke Lodge, No. 47; Columbia Lodge, No. 35; Washington Naval Lodge, NO. 41, and Potomac Lodge, No. 43, met in Union Lodge Room on 11th Street, Northwest, the first Masonic Temple of the District, to consider the formation of a Grand Lodge. Alexandria‑Wash‑ FREEMASONRY IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA III ington Lodge, No. 22‑of which, as Alexandria Lodge, George Washington was the Chartered Worshipful Master‑was invited, since that Lodge was at the time within the then District of Columbia. But that old Virginia Lodge, though friendly and interested, refused to join in the movement. It was satisfied with its historic Charters from the Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania and from the Grand Lodge of Virginia, and did not wish to sever the ties, rightly considered as being almost hallowed, which bound it to Washington's home State. The delegates who were present did, however, determine that a Grand Lodge should be formed but, cautious, they returned to their several Lodges for further instructions and to await the appointment of delegates having power to act.


Authorised delegates met again at the Union Lodge Room, on January 8, 1811, and elected the first Officers of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia Free and Accepted Masons. Those were: Bro. Valentine Reintzel of Po tomac Lodge, No. 43, Grand Master; Bro. John Kinkaid of Brooke Lodge, No. 47, Deputy Grand Master; Bro. Alexander McCormick of Federal Lodge, No. 15, Senior Grand Warden; Bro. Joseph Cassin of Washington Naval Lodge, No. 41, junior Grand Warden, and Bro. Charles Jones of Columbia Lodge, No. 35, Grand Secretary.


The Grand Lodge actually came into being on February I9, 181 1, for at that Communication the Officers who had been elected were installed. Bro. John Richards of Brooke Lodge, No. 47, was installed as Deputy Grand Master, however, in place of Bro. John Kincaid, who had died since the earlier meeting. Bro. John Davis, of Abel, a member of Washington Naval Lodge, No. 41, was installed as Grand Treasurer. The Roster was increased by the appointment of Bro. Daniel Kurtz of Potomac Lodge, No. 43, as Senior Grand Deacon; Bro. William O'Neale of Federal Lodge, No. 15, as junior Grand Deacon, and Bro. Thomas Summers of Brooke Lodge, No. 47, as Grand Tiler. Warrants were also issued at this Communication. Federal Lodge became No. I; Brooke Lodge became No. 2; Columbia Lodge became No. 3; Naval Lodge became No. 4, and Potomac Lodge became No. 5. The one other important act of the Grand Lodge at this Communication was the recommendation that the respective Lodges pay their dues to the Grand Lodges under which they had previously held Charters, and that a committee be formed to inform the Grand Lodges of Maryland and of Virginia that the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia had been formed.


The official line was completed on May 2.i, 1811, by the election of Bro. Andrew T. McCormick as Grand Chaplain; of Bro. Thomas Arbuckle as Senior Grand Deacon; of Bro. Thomas Holliday as junior Grand Deacon; of Bro. Nicholas L. Queen as Grand Marshal; of Bro. Francis Clark as Grand Steward; of Bro. Ninian Beall as Grand Sword Bearer, and of Bro. John McGill as Grand Pursuivant. Bro. Barney Parsons was then elected as Grand Tiler to take the place of Bro. Thomas Summers who had resigned. At this meeting, also, the " Committee on Communication and Correspondence " was authorised.


III FREEMASONRY IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA The Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1811, and a hundred copies were ordered to be printed. A Communication from the Grand Lodge of Maryland was read. It courteously and fraternally recognised the new Grand Lodge and per mitted the Lodges formerly of its own obedience to retain their Charters. Between these two Grand Bodies this warm‑hearted action cemented bonds of union which have ever since been of the closest and most fraternal character.


The Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia presently received good wishes from those of New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Ohio, Kansas, Tennessee, and England. The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania was not satisfied at the time, however, and more than ten years were needed to complete the correspondence which finally resulted in full fraternal relations with the Grand Lodge of the Keystone State.


At present forty‑five Lodges in the District of Columbia owe obedience to the Grand Lodge. The most recently Chartered is Semper Paratus Lodge, No. 49. There are, though, four vacancies in the list of Lodges; they are No. 2‑, No. 6, No. 8, and No. 13. Lodge No. 2‑ was Alexandria‑Brooke Lodge; Lodge No. 6 was Union Lodge; it having been the first Lodge to receive its original Charter from the newly‑formed Grand Lodge. Union Lodge No. 6 expired in 1835 after twenty‑four years of existence. Lodge No. 8 was Evangelical Lodge, of Alexandria, Virginia, which had been Chartered on May 4, 182‑4. Unable to survive the anti‑Masonic excitement of the period from 182‑6 to 1840, this Lodge died in 1843.


Lodge No. 13 on the register of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia was " California Lodge," which was Chartered on November 9, 1848, " to be held in the Town of San Francisco, Upper California." As may be imagined, this Charter was granted to an adventurous company of Masons who desired to carry Freemasonry with them to the far and unknown West during the gold rush of 1849. California Lodge, No. 13, adhered to the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia until 185o. Then it united with other Lodges to form the Grand Lodge of California, on whose register it became Lodge No. 1. It furnished the first Grand Master and the first Grand Secretary of that great jurisdiction. The Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia bade its daughter Lodge Godspeed in the new allegiance, and has ever since been proud that the magnificent Freemasonry of California first came to the Golden Gate from the District of Columbia.


Space does not permit a detailed history of the formation of the many daughter Lodges of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia. It must be related, however, that although the Grand Lodge had its early troubles, its periods of depression and discouragement, and its time of slow growth, especially during " The Morgan Excitement " and the decade immediately following, none the less it never ceased to meet nor did it ever suspend activities or become dormant. When, finally, it began really to grow and to prosper, it started a career of Masonic activity, high in its standards and unswervingly devoted to Masonic ideals, which was nothing less than fitting for the Grand FREEMASONRY IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 113 Lodge of the Nation's Federal District in which stands the Capital City of the Republic.


CORNER‑STONE LAYINGS The corner‑stone of the United States Capitol was laid September 18, 1793, by W.‑. Bro. George Washington, who was Charter Worshipful Master of Alexandria Lodge, No. 22, and then President of the United States. Lodge No. 9, of Georgetown, played an important part in the procession and ceremonies on that occasion, and as has been noted, its successor, Potomac Lodge, No. 5, now treasures the gavel used by President Washington that day.


The corner‑stone of the Washington Monument was laid July 4, 1848, by the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia. M.'. W.'. Bro. B. B. French officiated. But this Grand Lodge was, figuratively, much more bound up with the great shaft to Washington's memory than the mere ceremonial deposit of the corner‑stone implied. As early as 1825 the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia had initiated the movement that looked to the erection of the mighty memorial. It had encouraged the building of the monument and had been intimately concerned with settling the troubles into which this project eventually fell. It is hardly too much to say that the Washington Monument would never have been constructed had it not been for the loyal encouragement and staunch support of the Masonic Fraternity throughout the United States of America.


There is a tradition that the corner‑stone of the White House, home of the Presidents of the United States, was laid by Masons of the District of Columbia, but no contemporary accounts of any such event are to be found. Therefore it cannot be affirmed as a fact. In view of President Washington's interest in Masonry, however, and the fact that the corner‑stone of the Capitol was laid by Masons only a year later, it is not unlikely that laying the corner‑stone of the White House was also a Masonic affair.


Other important corner‑stones laid by the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia were that of the Smithsonian Institution; that of the House Office Building, upon the occasion of which Bro. Theodore Roosevelt uttered the famous phrase‑" muck‑raking "; that of the War College, and that of Continental Hall, home of the Daughters of the American Revolution. The participation of the Fraternity on the last‑named occasion was highly appropriate, in view of the many patriots of the War for Independence who were Freemasons.


The Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia has laid the corner‑stones of many Masonic Temples. The laying of that of the old Temple at 9th and F Streets, Northwest, still standing although no longer used by the Fraternity, must be especially noted, however, since at that ceremony Bro. Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, marched in the Masonic procession from start to finish in his character as a Master Mason.


GRAND VISITATIONS A practice peculiar to the District of Columbia is the Grand Visitation annually paid to each Lodge in the Jurisdiction by the Grand Master and the 114 FREEMASONRY IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Officers of the Grand Lodge. The District of Columbia is small enough to permit what would be impossible in a larger territory. Each Lodge is notified well in advance of the Visitation, which occurs in October or November. The Grand Master and his Officers are received with a colorful ceremony in which they take part. They then assume the stations and places of the Officers, and the Grand Secretary and Grand Treasurer review the Work of the Lodge Secretary and Treasurer. The Grand Master thereupon comments upon the Work of the Lodge as a whole. Another interesting ceremony then marks the retirement of the Grand Master and his Officers. Then, following an old custom, the Grand Master returns to the Lodge, closes it " in ample form," and remains as the guest of the Lodge for an evening of entertainment. The increased number of Lodges has made this pretty custom difficult, and in consequence several attempts have been made to abandon it. The Grand Lodge, however, has insisted upon continuing it. Because of the time required for these functions, the Grand Visitations are now often paid to two or more Lodges at once. The Lodges meet and open separately, then receive the Grand Visitation jointly.


MASONIC AND EASTERN STAR HOME The corner‑stone of this institution was laid May 17, 1905, by M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Lurtin R. Ginn, Grand Master, who used Washington's gavel, loaned for the occasion by Potomac Lodge, No. 5. A recent report of the President of the Home listed as guests thirty‑seven women, seventeen men, twenty girls, and twenty‑eight boys. The Home is supported by per capita contributions from Masons and ladies of the Eastern Star Chapters, by donations of money and other gifts, by interest on securities, and so on. The yearly income has exceeded $86,ooo. The Home possesses an endowment fund exceeding $167,000, most of which came from the proceeds of a yearly baseball game and field day. This method of creating an endowment fund was started in 1914 by Harmony Lodge, No. 17, at the suggestion of W .'. Bro. Robert H. Young, son of " Uncle Nick '' Young, a famous baseball player and president of the National Baseball League. Through his efforts Harmony Lodge, No. 17, challenged the Lodges of the entire jurisdiction to select a competing team. The challenge was accepted, and on June Zo, 1914, the team of Harmony Lodge, No. 17, was soundly beaten. From this field day the first contribution of $2942 was made to the endowment fund of the Masonic and Eastern Star Home. The field day was continued for fifteen years, during which the proceeds reached the substantial sum mentioned above.


THE SCHOOL OF INSTRUCTION The Grand Lecturer, assisted by the Committee on Work and Lectures, conducts a weekly school of instruction during ten months of every year, in the Grand Lodge Temple at 13th Street and New York Avenue. Although especially designed for Officers of Lodges, this school is free to all Masons. An Emergent Lodge is opened and closed at every school session. Following that, all three FREEMASONRY IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 115 Degrees are conferred in each of three Lodge rooms of the Temple. The cast is made up of Officers who desire instruction in the various parts. Only school instructors who hold a certificate of proficiency may rehearse the Degrees or give private instruction in the Esoteric Work. The certificates are held by very few persons. They are difficult to obtain, since a candidate applying for one must pass a practically perfect examination in all the Esoteric Work of the ,Jurisdiction. He is allowed error only to the extent of one one‑hundredth of a per cent. As a result of this training the Work of the Lodges in the District of Columbia is of a carefully preserved uniformity. This is true of all Lodges except Naval Lodge, No. 4, which retains its old forms of Work in the Master Mason Degree, according to an agreement made when it came into the Grand Lodge. The differences between a Naval Lodge, No. 4, Third Degree and the Third Degree of the other District of Columbia Lodges are not many, but nevertheless they are jealously guarded by the Brethren of Naval Lodge, No. 4. A Regulation of the Grand Lodge provides that the lecture pertaining to any Degree must be given at the Communication during which the Degree is conferred.


MASONIC TEMPLES IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Ancient Craft Masonry in the District of Columbia is housed in fourteen Masonic Temples. The Temple at 13th Street and New York Avenue, an imposing though somewhat ill‑arranged building, contains three Lodge rooms, two auditoriums, a Commandery room, a Chapter room, and a basement banquet hall. Several particular Lodges own their own Temples, since the neighbourhood Lodge idea is popular in the District of Columbia. Some of the smaller Temples rent the first floor for commercial purposes and so are self‑supporting. Others depend entirely upon Masonic use for their upkeep. The Southern jurisdiction of Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite Masons owns the magnificent House of the Temple at 16th and S Streets, Northwest, one of the most beautiful existing structures devoted exclusively to Masonic purposes. Local Bodies of Scottish Rite Masons own and occupy the original House of the Temple at 433 3d Street, Northwest, an edifice hallowed by memories of Albert Pike, who lived and worked in it for so many years.


TEMPLE HEIGHTS At the corner of Florida and Connecticut Avenues, Northwest, the Grand Lodge owns a tract of some nine acres on which it intends to erect a Masonic Temple in keeping with the dignity and beauty of Government buildings in the Nation's capital. The beautiful site is elevated and wooded. At the top of the hill is an old mansion, and right at hand is the so‑called " Treaty Oak." Beneath the branches of this oak, so it is said, early settlers and Anacostia Indians, primitive inhabitants of what is now the District of Columbia, signed a treaty of purchase for the land on which the city of Washington was later built. During the summer non‑denominational religious services are held in 116 FREEMASONRY IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA the shade of this mighty oak tree. Chairs are placed about the lawn, piano and pulpit stand on the porch of the mansion, and a different minister addresses the congregation each Sunday. Services are held under the auspices of some one Masonic Body or under the auspices of a group of Masonic Bodies. There is a Commandery Day, for example, a Scottish Rite Day, a Royal Arch Mason's Day, and so on. All services are conducted by the Grand Chaplain, with the approval and co‑operation of the Grand Lodge.


DISTINGUISHED BRETHREN IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA GRAND LODGE The long Roster of distinguished Masonic leaders in the District of Columbia includes the names of many men famous in literature and science, and in governmental, political, and social activities. To list all those names would be only to catalogue persons prominent in many lines of work who have lived and laboured in Washington for the past century and a quarter. A few names stand out so distinctly in the annals of the Craft, however, that even an account so brief as this must be considered incomplete without them.


Benjamin Brown French, Grand Master of Masons in the District of Columbia from 1847 to 1853 and again in 1868, left his mark on national as well as local Masonry. To the many high positions to which his Brethren called him he brought scholarship, culture, an easy style of writing, marked executive ability, active citizenship, and a reverent Freemasonry. Before becoming Grand Master of the District of Columbia‑a position he finally relinquished only because he refused further service‑Bro. French was District Deputy Grand Master of New Hampshire and later (1832‑33) Grand Marshal of that Grand Lodge. From 185o to 1855 he was Grand High Priest of Maryland and the District of Columbia. He finally refused to serve again. In 185o he was Grand Recorder of the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of the United States and General Grand Secretary of the General Grand Chapter of the United States. He held these offices until 1859, when he left them to become Grand Master of Knights Templar of the United States, a position he retained for six years. During this period he made a powerful impression upon Templary. All with whom he came in contact were inspired by his vigour and vision. In 1859 he received the Thirty‑third and Last Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of the Southern Jurisdiction. He was an active InspectorGeneral of the Supreme Council. Later he became the Grand Chancellor. In 1870, a few"months before his death, he became Lieutenant Grand Commander. Bro. French's sane outlook, his masterly knowledge of Masonic law and precedent, and his ability as a leader, have never ceased to inspire. His name is perpetuated in the jurisdiction he so well served, not only by his distinguished services but also by the title of Benjamin B. French Lodge, No. 15, which received its Charter from the hands of that Grand Master whose name it bears.


Any jurisdiction having even the slightest vestige of a right to do so would like to claim Albert Pike, since that great poet, scholar, mystic, and Freemason FREEMASONRY IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 117 left an indelible impress upon all branches of the Ancient Craft. The District of Columbia needs no better claim to Bro. Albert Pike than is given by his long residence there, by his intense interest in local Masonic affairs, and by the pride and veneration which the jurisdiction has for the Mason who " found Scottish Rite Masonry in a hovel and left it in a palace." But Washington Commandery, No. i, Knights Templar, has on its Roll the name of the great leader as one who was there Knighted on January 12, 1853, who acted as Recorder and remained in that position until January 9, 18 In 186o Bro. Pike handed to R.‑. E.‑. Sir Benjamin B. French the historic sword which the Grand Encampment presented to him after nine years service as its Recorder.


From the point of view of the Freemasons in the District of Columbia, what is of even greater importance is the fact that for three years Bro. Albert Pike was a member of Pentalpha Lodge, No. 23. He affiliated with this splen did Lodge on October 4, 188o, having come to it from Magnolia Lodge, No. 6o, of Little Rock, Arkansas, of which he was a Charter member. As is well known, Bro. Pike received his Degrees in Western Star Lodge, No. 2, of Little Rock. He twice served Magnolia Lodge, No. 6o, as Worshipful Master (185354) and later returned to it from Pentalpha Lodge, No. 23. He dimitted from the latter Lodge on January 1, 1883. Bro. Pike died a member of Magnolia Lodge, No. 6o.


As Grand Commander of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, Bro. Pike was a familiar figure in Craft Lodges during his long residence in Washington. His striking beard, long and white, the hooked pipe that he rarely laid aside, his kindliness, his benignant bearing, and his vast learning made him a venerated and beloved visitor wherever he might elect to spend an evening. During his later years Bro. Pike visited less and less, for it was then that he devoted himself to the preparation of those treatises on Freemasonry and Masonic philosophy which are his monuments.


The death of Bro. Pike, in 1891, was felt keenly by Masons of the city which had so long been his home. It was, indeed, keenly felt by Masons everywhere, for he belonged to the whole Masonic world rather than to any one jurisdiction. Members of the Craft in the District of Columbia were privileged to have this great man and Mason among them for many years. As fellow townsman and as fellow Mason he was sincerely and truly mourned by all Brethren of all Bodies of the Ancient Craft.


Like the great Pike, Albert Gallatin Mackey, whose influence upon Craft Masonry has probably been more profound than that of any other Mason, was a resident of Washington for the eleven years that preceded his death. Bro. Mackey affiliated with Lafayette Lodge, No. i9, on January 5, 1871, after spending nearly twenty‑five years as Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of South Carolina, during which time he was General Grand High Priest (1859). He was Past Master of Landmark Lodge, No. 76, in the jurisdiction he served so long. During his membership in Lafayette Lodge, No. 19, he served the 118 FREEMASONRY IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Grand Lodge in many unofficial ways. He was an honoured and venerated Chairman of its jurisprudence Committee. On September 13, 1871, he affiliated with Washington Commandery, No. i. Bro. Mackey was a habitual visitor of all Masonic Bodies. His capacity for Work was as enormous as his scholarship was profound. Any of his larger Masonic treatises might well be regarded as of sufficient scope to occupy one man for a lifetime. Yet Bro. Mackey produced a series of Masonic books of such quality that for many they are an authority of last resort.


As was Albert Pike, so, too, Albert Gallatin Mackey was intimately identified with the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry for the Southern jurisdiction. He served it as Secretary General for many years. Rooms of the old House of the Temple, now the Cathedral for the local Bodies of the Scottish Rite, in which Bro. Pike and Bro. Gallatin so long worked together, still breathe of those two great leaders, scholars, and constructive geniuses. The District of Columbia claims Albert Gallatin Mackey not only because of his membership in Lafayette Lodge, No. i9, and in Washington Commandery, No. 1, but also because of his intense interest in all local Masonic matters.


No account of Masons of the District of Columbia who have reached national prominence would be complete without mention of R.‑. W.‑. Bro. George E. Corson, General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter from 1915 to 1918‑ In i88o he was junior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of the District.


M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Harrison Dingman, Grand Master of the District of Columbia in 1889, received many distinguished honours from the Craft he loved and served. In 1896 he was elected Imperial Potentate of the Ancient and Ac cepted Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine of North America. He became a life member of the Imperial Council of that Body.


Admiral George W. Baird, Grand Master of the District of Columbia in 1896, was probably better informed about Freemasonry throughout the world than any other man who ever served a Grand Lodge as Chairman of its Com mittee on Foreign Correspondence. M.‑.W.‑.Bro. Baird had travelled widely and made it a point to visit and investigate Masonic conditions in many foreign lands. This interest was undoubtedly an outcome of the fact that when a young man he had been initiated, passed, and raised in Lodge Tolerancia, No. 4, of Lisbon, Portugal. Following Bro. William R. Singleton as Fraternal Correspondent, Bro. Baird had a difficult task. Mourning throughout the Masonic world, particularly among Fraternal Correspondents, at the death of Bro. Baird in 1930, was testimony as to how well he had filled his difficult position. Bro. Baird's reviews were filled with homely wisdom and sound common sense. He was unyielding in his refusal to recognise sporadic and doubtful Grand Lodges, and his acumen, knowledge, and first‑hand acquaintance with the Masonry of many lands served not only his own Grand Lodge but also all other Grand Lodges throughout the world.


Less well known to the Masons of this generation than his attainments FREEMASONRY IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 119 and merit should have made him, Bro. William R. Singleton, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia from 1875 to 1go1, was a Mason pre‑eminently distinguished. No other person who has filled so important a position in Masonry for so long a time has ever been more noted for gentleness of character and for tolerating the opinions of others. With these qualities Bro. Singleton combined real Masonic scholarship. His collaboration with Bro. Albert G. Mackey and with Bro. O. O. Hughan were often praised by those Masonic scholars. Though Bro. Singleton's writings are perhaps little known to Masonic students of the present day, they have nevertheless left a profound impress upon the body of Masonic knowledge of his own time.


Few Brethren have rendered more valuable service to the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia than did Bro. Kenton N. Harper, the distinguished historian. His monumental History of Freemasonry in the District of Columbia was published by the Grand Lodge as part of the celebration of its one‑hundredth anniversary in 1911. Records of to‑day that seem so secure to‑morrow become data which are scattered and hard to find. Bro. Harper's tireless energy and resourcefulness, his patient delving into old records, his scholarship, and his marked ability as a writer, enabled him to produce a history of Freemasonry in the District of Columbia, and of the Grand Lodge, which must inevitably increase in value as the years go on. Bro. Harper twice served Naval Lodge, No. 4, his Mother Lodge, as Master (1896‑97). He was elected Secretary in lgoo and a Life Member in 1905.


No Brother of to‑day is better known to the Masonic world than is M.'. W.‑. Bro. J. Claude Keiper, present Grand Secretary and Past Grand Master (1911) of the District of Columbia. As fifty‑seventh Grand Master of the Dis trict of Columbia, he supervised the plan for celebrating the one‑hundredth anniversary of the birth of the Grand Lodge. Further, he played a leading part in the celebration. Scarcely less important in the minds of all who witnessed the ceremony is the fact that, as Grand Master, he laid the corner‑stone of the imposing and beautiful House of the Temple, home of the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry for the Southern Jurisdiction. He was editor and reviser of the Code of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia, a Code that has served as a model for many jurisdictions. Since 1921 Bro. Keiper has served the George Washington Masonic National Memorial Association as Secretary‑treasurer. He was one of the great driving forces behind the magnificent memorial that stands on Shooter's Hill near Alexandria, Virginia. Since 1927 Bro. Keiper has served as Secretary to the Conference of Grand Masters of the United States which meets annually in Washington, District of Columbia. He is the author of History of Washington Commandery No. 1: Knights Templar. Into this work he has woven a fascinating story of Templary in the District of Columbia.


Bro. Keiper's reputation rests upon more than his distinguished service to the Craft as business man and as Masonic leader. He not only has personal acquaintance and active communication with practically every Masonic leader 12o FREEMASONRY IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA in the United States, but he is also noted for his deep learning in Craft customs, precedents, and jurisprudence. A speaker of note, his gracious language, sympathetic voice, and good articulation are embellishments of that wise counsel and inspiration contained in his addresses.


FREEMASONRY IN FLORIDA WALLACE R. CHEVES AND ELY P. HUBBELL FOR many years doubt and uncertainty overshadowed the origin of Freemasonry in Florida. Mackey's Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, in an edition as late as that of 192o, lists St. Fernando Lodge, at St. Augustine, Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Georgia in 18o6, as the first Lodge. A previous American edition of Gould's History of Freemasonry mentions an earlier Lodge, and says that its origin is unknown though it may be the East Florida Lodge Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1768, " of which there is now no trace." Nevertheless there was long‑persistent tradition to the effect that a Lodge of Masons Worked at Pensacola during the English occupation from 1763 to 1781. Happily all doubt about this matter was removed and all uncertainty respecting the origin and history of early Masonry in Florida was cleared up in 1898. Early that year there came into the hands of the late M.'. W.. James M. Hilliard, then Grand Master, a rare old copy of Preston's Illustrations, a gift to the Grand Lodge of Florida from Bro. F. F. Bond, M.D., of Thorncliff, Brighouse, England. On the title‑page of the book was this inscription: The gift of James Murray to St. Andrew's Lodge, No. i, West Florida, June z7, 1776.


When this priceless old relic came to the attention of M.'. W.'. Bro. Hilliard, he appointed the late M.. W.'. Silas B. Wright, then Deputy Grand Master, " as a special committee to prepare and report at this Grand Lodge (1899) all matters pertaining to this particular subject." This was the first quasi‑authentic information that such a Lodge had ever existed in Florida. It was eagerly seized upon as a lead in unravelling the mystery of early Masonry in this State.


Knowing that the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania had Chartered many Lodges outside its own domain during the Colonial period, Bro. Wright sought the help of W.‑. Charles E. Meyer, Past Master of Melitia Lodge, No. 295, of Philadelphia, one of the Board of Editors of The History of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons and Concordant Orders, but without avail. Having made this failure, and being still unsatisfied, Bro. Wright appealed to the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. There he met with success beyond his fondest hopes. Some two years before that time, R.‑. W.‑.John S. Perry had uncovered some long‑lost original documents dating back to the earliest history of organised Masonry in Pennsylvania, and probably to the earliest history of organised Masonry on the American continent. Concerning this happy incident we quote the following from Old Masonic Lodges of III 122 FREEMASONRY IN FLORIDA Pennsylvania. Moderns and Ancients. 1730‑1800, compiled by the Library Committee of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.


Heretofore it was believed that at the burning of the Masonic Hall in Philadelphia . . . on the night of March, A. D. 1819 (A.L. 5819), that all the old records of the Provincial Grand Loge . . . and the records of the present Grand Lodge, were destroyed. . . . Many of these old records and papers were saved on that eventful night, however, by the then Grand Secretary, R.‑.W.‑.George A. Baker, Jr., . . . and were listed and securely locked and sealed in six strong wooden boxes by R.‑.W.‑.Bernard Dahlgren, Bro. Baker's successor, in February, 1824. . . . These boxes were removed from Hall to Hall through the years . . . and lastly stored in one of the vaults of the new Masonic Temple at Broad and Filbert Streets in 1873. Here these boxes remained for years, unknown and forgotten . . . until 1896, when it occurred to Bro. John A. Perry, Deputy Grand Secretary, to open them and investigate their contents.


Among the old documents found in those boxes was a certified copy of the original Charter of St. Andrew's Lodge, No. i, of West Florida, and other Florida Masonic records of the period between 1768 and 1783. * Bro. Perry kindly loaned all those Florida records and papers to Bro. Wright for examination, copying, and filing. That was done and the documents are now filed in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Florida. Together with Bro. Wright's exhaustive report they were published in the Proceedings of 1899.


The Charter of St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 1, of West Florida, dated May 3, 1771, was issued by the Provincial Grand Lodge of the Southern District of North America. It was signed thus: " James Grant, G. M.; William Drayton, D.G.M.; p.t.; Alexr McKenzie, S.G.W. ; Fredk. Geo. Mulcaster, J.G.W.: David Yates, G.S. and John Faley, G.C." In this Charter it was set out that the Petitioners for a new Lodge at Pensacola were members of " Lodge No. 108 of the register of Scotland, attached to the Thirty‑First Regiment of Foot of the British army, lately stationed at Pensacola, but recently transferred." Since this was the first authentic information of the existence of St. Andrew's Lodge, as well as of the Grand Lodge that Chartered it, and since both documents were of undoubted Scottish origin, Bro. Wright applied to the Grand Lodge of Scotland for authoritative data. His request brought the following letter from R.‑. W.‑. D.‑. Murray Lyon, Grand Secretary, under date of March 17, 1898: In searching our Grand Lodge records I find under date of 15th March 1768: " Having read a petition from James Grant, Esq., Governor of the Province of East Florida, Henry Cunningham, late Senior Warden of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, and many other brethren residing in the province aforesaid, * The original letters and other papers coming from the Grand Lodge at St. Augustine were kept by the Lodge at Charleston, since the papers that were sent to the Grand Lodge at Philadelphia were certified as being true copies by John Troup, Notary Public. The facsimile of the Charter, now on file in Philadelphia, is so certified.


FREEMASONRY IN FLORIDA 123 craving a Charter for holding a Lodge there by the stile and title of Grant's East Florida Lodge, and also entreating the Grand Lodge would appoint the said Governor James Grant Provincial Grand Master over the Loges in the Southern District of North America, the Grand Lodge granted the desire of that petition, and authorised a Charter to be made out accordingly, and likewise a Commission appointing Governor James Grant, Provincial Grand Master over the Lodges in the Southern District of North America.


Aside from the Charter of St. Andrew's Lodge, these old documents include much other interesting matter that reflects the scrupulous care and attention which were given to the Masonic Institution in those early days.


When the Brethren of St. Andrew's Lodge were driven out of Pensacola in 1781 by the Dominican priests who accompanied the Spanish victors that occupied Pensacola by force of arms, most of them fled to Charleston, South Carolina, then occupied by the British. They took pains, however, to take their Lodge's Charter, together with all other records, including the Minutes of every Communication that had been held since the Lodge was organised. From Charleston, under date of February 9, 1782, their Master, W.‑. Thomas Underwood, the Junior Warden, H. Beaumont, the Past Master, John Simpson, and Bro. Thomas Pashley, Steward, communicated the fact of their plight to the Grand Lodge in St. Augustine. The Grand Lodge at St. Augustine acknowledged receipt of this communication under date of March 14, 1782, and authorized the writers to constitute and hold a Lodge at Charles Town, South Carolina, " under your Charter until it shall please God to restore you to the ancient seat of your lodge in West Florida, provided you have the Master and a sufficient number of members of the same to form a Lodge." This Dispensation was signed by " John Forbes, D.G.M.; David Yeates, S.G.W.; Henry Young, J.G.W.; and John Naley, G.S." Before constituting themselves into a Lodge of Masons, however, those conscientious Brethren " summoned all the Masters of ancient lodges of Free and Accepted Masons, constituted and warranted in Charles Town," to ex amine into their regularity and their right to Work as Masons. This meeting brought a Clean Bill of Regularity signed by John Kenniburg, Master of Lodge, No. 1o6; George Carter, Paster Master of Lodge, No. igo; H. J. Rushworth, Master of Lodge, No. 9o; Alexander Smith, Past Master of Lodge'.‑No. 19o, and Jeremiah Wright, Master of Lodge No. 535. The Brethren then proceeded to meet in Charleston, South Carolina, and Work as a regular Lodge under a Florida Grand Lodge Warrant until, in the language of their special Dispensation, " it shall please God to restore you to the ancient seat of your lodge in West Florida." This was not to be, however, for by the Treaty of Versailles, made the next year, both the Floridas were ceded back to Spain by England. When the Spaniards again occupied St. Augustine, Masonry was driven out, as it had been from Pensacola in 1781. The Florida Grand Lodge then became extinct.


True to their steadfastness of purpose and unyielding devotion to the Ma‑ 124 FREEMASONRY IN FLORIDA sonic Fraternity, however, the Brethren of St. Andrew's Lodge turned to the Grand Lodge at Philadelphia for succor when they found themselves without a head. They surrendered their Florida Charter and all other records to it, and prayed to be re‑Chartered under their original name and title. After careful inquiry the Philadelphia Grand Lodge granted their prayer. It did not Charter them as " St. Andrew's Lodge, No. i, late of West Florida," as had been requested, but as Lodge No. 40.


Thus the first chapter of Florida's Masonic history closes. Masonry came with the English in 1768 and passed out with the return of the Spanish in 1783. But not for long, as time is measured. Several attempts were made to revive it during the four decades between 1783 and 1825. None of them was successful, however, until Florida became a territory of the United States. Bought from Spain in 1819 for $5,000,000, it was the best bargain our country ever made! In 1825, Warranted by the Grand Lodge of Alabama, Masonry returned to Florida as a permanent institution. Confident, inspiring, and enduring, then took its proper place in the affairs of men and in the ranks of advancing civilisa tion. As has been said, the history of early Freemasonry in Florida, and Florida's lack of Masonic history contemporary with that of other early settlements in the New World, are inseparably interwoven with prejudice and antagonism. The Floridas and Cuba were settled by the Spaniards. A settlement was made at Baracoa, Cuba, in 1511, and another at 1519. The first settlement in Florida was made at Pensacola on August 14, 15 59, by Zooo Spaniards led by Don Tristam de Luna. Spanish explorers were nearly always accompanied by ecclesiastics and fortune‑seekers, and it was they who decided the fate of Pensacola's first settlement. The latter did not find the gold of their dreams, and the former found the Indians more ready to lift their scalps than to listen to their sermons. Discontent soon spread and the settlement was abandoned in 1562. The first permanent settlement in Florida was made at St. Augustine in 1565. The first permanent settlement at Pensacola was made in 1696 by 300 Spanish soldiers and settlers led by Don Andres Arriola. He first built a " square fort with bastions " and named it Fort San Carlos. Afterwards it was called Fort Barrancas.


Except for a short period between 1719 and 1723, when Pensacola was occupied by the French, Spain uninterruptedly ruled and controlled both the Floridas and Cuba until 1762. Then the English led by Lord Albemarle took Havana. This incident gave rise to the introduction of Freemasonry into Florida. By the Treaty of Paris, made on February 1o, 1763, Spain ceded both the Floridas to England. With the coming of the English, that same year, came Masonry. Its tenure, however, was not to be continuous until many years after its first advent. The Treaty of Versailles, made on January 28, 1783, reconstructed the political map of North America, the Floridas again became a Spanish possession. Since Masonry had come with the English occupation, so now it went when the Spanish reoccupation took place. Masonry awaited a more propitious season.


" Grant's East Florida Lodge, No. 143, on the Scottish register," located FREEMASONRY IN FLORIDA 125 at St. Augustine, was Florida's first Masonic Lodge. It was Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Scotland on March 15, 1768. James Grant, its Master, was also commissioned Provincial Grand Master of " The Provincial Grand Lodge over the Lodges of the Southern District of North America," as it is attested by a copy of a letter from the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. The letter, sent to Bro. Silas B. Wright, is reprinted elsewhere in this article. So far as is known, that Grand Lodge Warranted only two Lodges. J. Hugo Tatsch's Freemasonry in the Thirteen Colonies says: Its first warrant was issued to brethren who were members of St. George's Lodge No. 1o8, held in the Thirty‑first Regiment of Foot, Pensacola, West Florida. The brethren founded St. Andrew's Lodge No. 1, at Pensacola, by authority of a charter dated May 3, 1771. The second warrant was issued in 1779 to Mount Moriah Lodge in the Thirty‑fifth Regiment of Foot, stationed at St. Lucia, one of the Windward Islands. St. Andrew's Lodge was suppressed at Pensacola in 1781 by the Dominican Priests who came with the Spanish victors, but was revived at Charleston, South Carolina, two years later i.e. the next year.


By the vicissitudes or war and the machinations of European diplomacy, the whole of Florida again came under the control of Spain and the Roman Catholic Church in 1783. Masonry was then interdicted at St. Augustine, as it had been at Pensacola in 1781. Grant's East Florida Lodge No. 143 and the Grand Lodge of the Southern District of North America were suppressed. All records of both Lodges were lost. When this happened, St. Andrew's Lodge No. i, of West Florida, then Working at Charleston, South Carolina, under special Dispensation from the Florida Grand Lodge, found itself without a head. In consequence it memorialised the Grand Lodge at Philadelphia to re‑Charter it, as has been explained. On July 12, 1783, it was duly Chartered as Lodge No. 40, thereby severing the last link that joined the Masonic citadel to the Floridas. St. Andrew's Lodge, however, continued to function for more than a century after severing its connection with early Florida Masonry. Under the Philadelphia Grand Lodge it was known as Lodge No. 40. Later, in 1787, together " with Lodge No. 38 and Lodge No. 47, of Pennsylvania, and with Lodge No. igo and Lodge No. 236, of the Athol Grand Lodge of England, it formed the Grand Lodge of South Carolina. . . . At the union of the Grand Lodges of South Carolina in Charleston in 1817, St. Andrew's Lodge No. 4o, became St. Andrew's Lodge No. 1o. It continued to Work until i89o, when it became dormant and was dropped from the Roll.


Thus the fledgling of Florida Masonry, after one hundred nineteen years of life, wrote " Finis '' at the conclusion of its name and record.


There were several attempts to revive Masonry in St. Augustine, and one attempt to revive it at Pensacola, between the withdrawal of St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 1, in 1783, and the institution of Jackson Lodge, in 1825. None of them, however, was enduring. St. Fernando Lodge was Chartered at St. Augustine in 18o6 by the Grand Lodge of Georgia. It became defunct in 1811. Floridian Virtue Lodge, No. 28, was established at St. Augustine in i82o by 126 FREEMASONRY IN FLORIDA the Grand Lodge of South Carolina. After a very short life it ceased to exist. Esperanza Lodge, established at St. Augustine in 1824 by the Grand Lodge of South Carolina, died the same year. Montgomery Lodge, No. 30, was Chartered at St. Augustine in 1824 by the Grand Lodge of Georgia. Though one cannot be certain when this Lodge became defunct, that must have taken place prior to 1829, for the following appears in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Georgia for the year 1829 under the caption, " Districts " : " District No. 9: Meridian Lodge, No. 3o, Bainbridge; Washington Lodge, No. 1, Quincy, Florida; and Harmony Lodge, No. 2, Jackson County, Florida. Good Intention Lodge, No. 56 was established at Pensacola in i8og by the Grand Lodge of South Carolina. It became defunct in 1827. And so, St. Augustine, the oldest settlement on the Atlantic seaboard, the birthplace of Florida Masonry, was not destined to be the home of the Mother Lodge of this Grand ,Jurisdiction. That distinction and honour was to go to Tallahassee, the home of Jackson Lodge, No. 1, which was Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Alabama in 1825." The varied history of St. Augustine's Lodges and their resolute perseverance against recurring vicissitudes is of compelling interest. Their record may be without a parallel in the annals of the Masonic Institution. The first Lodge in St. Augustine was Chartered in 1768. The last Lodge, that is, the present Lodge, was Chartered in 1888. In the interim the town witnessed one Provincial Grand Lodge, and it saw twelve Particular Lodges come and go. Not one of them was able to withstand the process of change incident to the fortunes of war and of nations, or the legacy wrought by those mutations, until Ashlar Lodge, No. 98, came into being. It was Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Florida on January 18, 1888, and is now one of the ranking Lodges of this Grand Jurisdiction.


Such, in brief, is the chronicle of early Masonry in Florida. It was intermittent and unenduring, but in time it was to sweep aside every barrier and take its proper place in the scheme of social and moral uplift in a growing na tion. And now we make our bow to the three Mother Lodges of this Grand Jurisdiction. They are Jackson Lodge, No. i, originally Lodge No. 23, Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Alabama; Washington Lodge, No. 2, originally Lodge No. 1, and Harmony Lodge, No. 3, originally Lodge No. 2. The last two were Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Georgia.


A list of Officers and original Petitioners for Washington Lodge and Harmony Lodge, U. D., are not available. The Grand Secretary of Georgia says that those documents cannot now be found. The Minutes of the Grand Lodge of Georgia do record, however, that those Lodges were duly Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Georgia. The first was Chartered as Washington Lodge, No. i, at Quincy, Florida, on December 2, 1828; the second, as Harmony Lodge, No. 2, of Jackson County, Florida, on December 8, 1829. Of Jackson Lodge, however, there is a complete record of the original Petition for a U. D. Lodge at Tallahassee, as well as a record of its being Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Alabama on December 1g, 1825. These records were attested by R..'. W.‑.


FREEMASONRY IN FLORIDA 127 George A. Beauchamp, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Alabama, under date of October 26, 1931.


The original petitioners for a U. D. Lodge at Tallahassee were Robert Butler, Robert W. Williams, Isham Green Searcy, Ede Van Evvier, E. R. Downing, R. D. Jourolmon, David Thomas, William P. Duval, and B. D. Wright.


The first three of those mentioned were named in the Dispensation as Worshipful Master, Senior Warden, and Junior Warden, respectively.


Jackson Lodge, U. D., was organised on June 3, 1825. It was Chartered on December 19, 1825, as Jackson Lodge, No. 23. When constituted, the following persons were installed as its first Officers: Robert Butler, Worshipful Master; Robert W. Williams, Senior Warden; Isham Green Searcy, Junior Warden; Romeo Lewis, Secretary; Samuel R. Overton, Treasurer; David Thomas, Senior Deacon; Robert D. Jourolmon, Junior Deacon; Edward Vanevour, Tyler. This Lodge, with Washington Lodge and Harmony Lodge, still carries on in unbroken continuity. The three formed the nucleus around which the splendid Masonic system in this State was erected. As measured by to‑day's standard, their membership was small, but what they lacked in numbers they more than made up in courage, determination, and resourcefulness.


The movement to form an independent Grand Lodge in the Territory of Florida originated with Jackson Lodge, then Lodge No. 23. At the regular Communication of May 1830, Jackson Lodge passed a resolution inviting Washington Lodge and Harmony Lodge to appoint Delegates from each to meet with Delegates from Jackson Lodge on the first Monday of the following July for the purpose of forming a Grand Lodge. Accordingly, the Delegates of those three Lodges met in the Hall of Jackson Lodge, on July 5, 1830, and proceeded to the business for which they were called. Altogether the Delegates numbered twenty‑seven. The following nineteen came from Jackson Lodge: Isham Green Searcy, David M. Sheffield, John Laudaman, William P. Duval, Robert Butler, Richard K. Call, Romeo Lewis, Lewis Willis, Thomas Monroe, John P. Duval, Robert W. Williams, Justinian F. Davis, James Hughes, James Bryan, Jr., Burr H. Duval, Thomas Brown, James G. Ringgold, William G. Burgess, and Richard C. Allen. The five Delegates from Washington Lodge were Henry Gee, Francis A. Cash, John Lines, James A. Dunlap, and Isaac Nathans. The three Delegates from Harmony Lodge were James W. Exum, William J. Watson, and Jacob Robinson. " The oldest Past Master present, John P. Duval, was elected to the Chair, and Thomas Monroe was appointed Secretary of the convention." After calling the Roll the Convention proceeded to the business in hand with the decorum and punctiliotechnique peculiar to that day. Not a jot of precedent or " Ancient Landmarks " was overlooked or transcended by those pioneer Brethren.


Resolved. (First), That it is expedient for the convenience, interest, and prosperity of the Craft in the Territory of Florida, that a Grand Lodge be constituted. (Second), That three regularly warranted Lodges of Ancient York 128 FREEMASONRY IN FLORIDA Masons are fully represented in this Convention, and, according to precedent and authority, they have a right to establish a Grand Lodge for the Territory of Florida. (Third), That a committee be appointed to draft a form of Constitution for the Grand Lodge of Florida and suitable by‑laws and rules for the government of the same.


The Constitutional Committee was composed of Bro. Robinson, Bro. Searcy, Bro. Gee, Bro. Brown, Bro. Exum, Bro. Watson, Bro. Nathans, Bro. Lines, Bro. Butler, Bro. Call, and Bro. Duval, President of the Convention. The Con vention then adjourned. It was to meet from time to time and day to day, until the Constitutional Committee should report. That occurred on Friday, July 9, 1830. With a few amendments, the report was adopted, and Bro. Brown, Bro. Searcy, and Bro. Dunlap were appointed to have the report, as amended, enrolled, certified, and signed by the Chairman.


Pursuant to adjournment, the Convention met on the following day and proceeded to the election of Grand Officers. The Grand Officers so elected and appointed were " installed according to ancient usage," and having completed its labours the Convention stood adjourned sine die. The Grand Lodge was then opened in ample form and on motion of Bro. Thomas Brown the rules and bylaws of the Grand Lodge of Alabama were adopted, " so far as they are applicable to the proceedings of this Grand Lodge." Bro. Cash, Bro. Searcy, Bro. Dunlap, Bro. Call, Bro. Butler, and Bro. Duval were appointed a Committee to prepare rules and a code of by‑laws for the government of the Grand Lodge. Their action was to be reported to the next Annual Grand Communication. Warrants were ordered to be issued to the " subordinate " Lodges represented and to be numbered as follows: Jackson Lodge, No. i; Washington Lodge, No. 2, and Harmony Lodge, No. 3. Those Lodges were directed to surrender their old Warrants to the Grand Secretary so that he might return them to the Grand Lodges from which they had been obtained. The Grand Secretary was directed to procure a Grand Lodge seal having " suitable devices," and to " draw on the Grand Treasurer for the amount of same." " The Grand Lodge was then closed in ample form, to meet again on the second Monday after the Annual Session of the Legislative Council of the Territory of Florida, as provided by the Constitution of the Grand Lodge. " Thus was the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the Territory of Florida, afterwards the State of Florida, started upon its way. It was a bulwark of strength for good, and a potential addition to the social and moral fabric of an advancing civilisation. Except for a few Indian trading‑posts, the interior of Florida was at that time an unreclaimed wilderness, inhabited by savages and runaway slaves. The fringe of settlements along its northern border comprised the southern outposts of advancing American civilisation. Into this environment came the Grand Lodge of Florida, an outgrowth of Jackson Lodge, Washington Lodge, and Harmony Lodge, and of the towns where they were located. Imbued with energy and vitality, this Grand Lodge entered upon its beneficent career.


FREEMASONRY IN FLORIDA 129 The beginning of the Florida Grand Lodge was humble and its numbers were few. There were only three Composite Lodges having a total membership of 76. Now after over a hundred years of unbroken activity and service it enters upon its second century with an enrollment of ZS i Lodges and a total membership of over 31,0oo. The Annual Grand Communication for 1930 was held in Tallahassee, by special action of the 1929 Grand Lodge. The chief object was to celebrate in a fitting manner the one hundredth anniversary of the Grand Lodge.


The unveiling exercises were participated in by the mayor of the city of Tallahassee, by the president of Stetson University at DeLand, and by the governor of the State together with many of his cabinet. Justices of the Supreme Court and Delegations from the Grand Lodge of Georgia, the Grand Lodge of Alabama, and the Grand Lodge of Louisiana also attended.


Appropriate historical tablets were erected in honour of the occasion as a memorial to deceased Past Grand Masters. Tablets contained the names of the first Grand Lodge Officers, Representatives of first Grand Communication from Jackson Lodge, No. 23, Washington Lodge, No. 1, Harmony Lodge, No. 2, and the names of present Grand Lodge Officers. On another tablet were the names of deceased Grand Masters.


The Grand Lodge met in the Hall of Jackson Lodge, No. i, at Tallahassee, from 1830 to 1869, inclusive. Then it removed to Jacksonville and met in the Hall of the local Jacksonville Lodges until that was destroyed by fire in 1891. This left the Grand Lodge as well as the local Bodies without a home, but fortunately, during the preceding year, the Grand Lodge had authorised the purchase of a lot and the erection of a four‑story Masonic Temple at Forsyth and Bridge Streets, in Jacksonville. This was to be used by both the Grand and local Masonic Bodies. The Temple was completed in 1892. The Grand Lodge held its first Annual Grand Communication in the Temple from January 17 to 19, 1893. In this structure the Grand Lodge and the local Bodies remained until January, 1909. Then they all removed to the present Grand Lodge Temple at Main and Monroe Streets. The sixth and seventh floors of this seven‑story structure are used exclusively for Masonic purposes and are very well adapted to the purpose.


Until 1912 there was in Florida no organised system of administering Masonic relief. Each Lodge administered its own relief from its treasury. If that was inadequate, it called for help from other Lodges. At the Annual Grand Communication of 1912 a resolution was passed which forbade among the Lodges any solicitation for assistance, and which provided for a per capita tax of twenty‑five cents upon each dues‑paying member, the money thus raised to be administered by a Grand Lodge Relief Committee. This Committee still functions. From year to year it is provided with a supplementary appropriation.


In 1892 the Grand Lodge inaugurated a movement to provide a permanent home for indigent Masons, their widows, and their orphans. This was realised in 1918 by the purchase of suitable grounds and building at St. Petersburg. The 130 FREEMASONRY IN FLORIDA establishment opened for guests the following year, and has been in continuous operation since that time. It is financed by a special per capita assessment against the membership of the Grand Jurisdiction. There are at present in the Home more than 130 children and adults. All are splendidly cared for, all seem contented and happy. The children are given a high‑school education in the schools of St. Petersburg, and vocational training at the Home.


In connection with their work for the Masonic Home and other outstanding Grand Lodge activities, it is fitting to dwell briefly on the services of our two oldest and greatly beloved Past Grand Masters, M.‑. W.‑. Marcus Endel, Grand Master in 1893, and M.‑. W.. Elmer E. Haskell, Grand Master in 1907 and 19o8. M.‑.W.‑.Bro. Endel enjoys the rare distinction of having attended fifty‑five consecutive Annual Grand Communications of the Grand Lodge of Florida. In all that time he has ranked high in the Grand Lodge's Councils. He has served on the Masonic Home Board of Trustees since its creation in 1903 . He has served on the Grand Lodge Committee on Work since it was created in 1879. Under his tutelage Florida's present system of Esoteric Work has grown up. We believe no similar Work is superior to this and that it has few equals. M.'. W.‑. Bro. Haskell has seen nearly fifty years of service in the Grand Lodge. Always he has been at the forefront of every constructive movement. For many years he has been Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Temple. For many years he was President of the Masonic Home Board of Trustees, and until 1929, when he had to resign because of ill health. Both Bro. Endel and Bro. Haskell are known, loved, and revered by the entire Craft of this Grand Jurisdiction.


Among the organisers of the Grand Lodge of Florida were persons of first rank in the political organisation and development of Florida Territory and the State of Florida. The Floridas were ceded to the United States by Spain on January 22, 1819, but the exchange of flags did not take place until 1821, at Pensacola on July 17, and at St. Augustine on July 1o. General Andrew Jackson, Past Grand Master of Tennessee, who was later elected to honorary membership in the Grand Lodge of Florida, was the first and only provisional governor of the region. He resigned when the civil government was established by an Act of Congress on March 3o, 1822. The two Floridas were united by that law.


William P. Duval (1784‑1854), who was then United States judge for East Florida, was appointed as first civil governor by President Monroe. He served four terms, from 1822 to 1834. Bro. Duval, brother of our first Grand Master, was a Charter member of Jackson Lodge, No. 23, and one of the Petitioners for Jackson Lodge, U. D. As a Representative of Jackson Lodge, No. 23, he was also one of the Delegates to the Convention that formed the Grand Lodge of Florida. The Indian situation was troublesome and threatening when Bro. Duval assumed his duties as governor. All over the Territory the Indians were restless, surly, and bitterly resentful of the constant encroachment on their wild domain and the announced purpose of the whites to segregate them beyond the Mississippi River. Nevertheless, by means of tact, fairness, and square dealing with the wild men of the forest, Bro. Duval succeeded in maintaining friendship FREEMASONRY IN FLORIDA 131 between them and the settlers. Not once during Bro. Duval's administration of twelve years was there a serious outbreak. Sadly enough, however, his regime was followed by years of bloody war.


Richard Keith Call (1791‑1862), Grand Master in 1850, was the third civil governor of the Territory of Florida. He served two terms, from 1836 to 1839 and from 1841 to 1844. Bro. Call succeeded to the governorship at a troubled time. Since Indian outbreaks overshadowed all else, most of his first term was spent in military campaigns against the redskins. He was strongly attached to the Union, as his many letters show, " but when Florida seceded he bowed his head and went with his State.'' As a Representative of Jackson Lodge, No‑ 2‑3, he was a Delegate to the Convention that formed the Grand Lodge of Florida.


Thomas Brown (1785‑1867), Grand Master in 1849, was the second governor of the State after Florida was admitted to the Union in 1845. He served one term as governor, from 1849 to 1853. Bro. Brown was " widely known for the charity and hospitality he exercised, "and his administration has been called an " era of good feeling." He represented Jackson Lodge, No. 23, as a Delegate to the Convention that formed the Grand Lodge of Florida.


Robert Butler (1786‑1860), Grand Master in 1832, was Worshipful Master of Jackson Lodge, U. D., and the first Worshipful Master of Jackson Lodge of Florida. In political life he was for a time Adjutant General of the Southern Division of the United States Army, and surveyor‑general in charge of the land survey of the Territory of Florida. " Bro. Butler, while not first Grand Master, might justly be considered the founder of the Grand Lodge of Florida." Bro. Butler's grandson, R.‑.W.‑.W. E. Lewis, has been a lifelong member of Bro.


Butler's old Lodge, Jackson Lodge, No. i. He is a Past Master of that Lodge, and for many years he has been R.‑. W.‑. District Deputy Grand Master of his Masonic District. Like his illustrious grandfather, he is loved and revered by all who know him.


Samuel Pasco (1834‑1917), Grand Master from 1870 till 1872, was twice United States senator from Florida, from 1887 till 1899. He was president of the State Constitutional Convention of 1885 that drafted the Constitution under which Florida functions to‑day. When he retired from the Senate, President McKinley appointed him counsel for the Isthmian Canal Commission. The opinions which he rendered in that capacity have been recognised and cited from then till now as being sound judicial utterances. Bro. Pasco's son and namesake, M .'. W .‑. Samuel Pasco, of Pensacola, in 1931 was Grand Master in this jurisdiction, a worthy son of an illustrious sire.


Albert W. Gilchrist (1858‑1926), Grand Master in 1912 and 1913, was noted for his benevolence and charity. He was the prime mover in establishing a Masonic Home in this State. He headed the list of voluntary contributors with a donation of a thousand dollars, and gave much of his time and money toward instituting this philanthropic venture. At his death in 1926 he bequeathed to the Masonic Home almost his entire estate, appraised at that time as being worth considerably more than $1oo,ooo. He was an outstanding po‑ 132 FREEMASONRY IN FLORIDA litical figure in this State. He served four terms in the Legislature, was speaker of the House in 1905, and governor of the State from 1909 to 1913.


Dr. John Gorrie (1803‑1855), whose statue in the Hall of Fame at Washington, District of Columbia, is one of Florida's contributions, was a Charter member of Franklin Lodge, No. 6, at Apalachicola. He wrote the Minutes of that Lodge as Secretary pro tempore. He was Treasurer of the Lodge during the first two years after it was organised on December 5, 1835. This old Minutes Book is now one of the prized possessions of the Florida Lodge, which received it as a gift from Apalachicola Lodge, No. 76. The neatness and diction of the old Minutes in the handwriting of Dr. Gorrie reflect the culture of the man. He was a practising physician, a contributor to medical journals, and the inventor of artificial cooling out of which have grown the ice‑making and cooling systems that mean so much to the world to‑day.


John P. Duval (1790‑1855), first Grand Master of Florida, left a rich legacy to immortalise his name. He headed an altruistic institution of boundless possibilities and started it on its way down the centuries.


Stafford Caldwell, sixty‑first Grand Master of Florida, left an equally rich legacy. He stabilised the business administration of the Grand Lodge and by means of his constructive financial policies he rounded out that Institution's first century of life. It would not be fair to the Masonry of this Grand jurisdiction were not mention made here of the long, continuous, and efficient service rendered to the Craft by Wilber P. Webster. In 1890 he was made a Mason in Duval Lodge, No. 18, which no longer exists. He was a Charter member and first Worshipful Master of Temple Lodge, No. 23. At the Annual Grand Communication of 1896 he was elected Grand Secretary and served as such continuously up to 1934.


In 1926 after the destructive hurricane which devastated a portion of the East.Coast and Lake Okeechobee region Cary B. Fish, who was Grand Master, took personal charge of distributing Masonic funds for immediate relief and re habilitation and received and disbursed $114,236.97 at a cost of less than one per cent. In 1928 Leroy Brandon was Grand Master at the time of the hurricane on the East coast and in another part of the Okeechobee Lake region, and he delegated Past Grand Master Cary B. Fish to proceed to the stricken districts and take charge of the relief work. This time, Bro. Fish disbursed $107,622.14 at a cost of less than one‑half of one per cent.


List of Grand Masters from 1905 to date: 1905 and 1906. Charles W. Johnson, Jacksonville 1907 and 1908. Elmer E. Haskell, Palatka !I; 1909 and 1910. Louis C. Massey, Orlando 1911 and 1912. Albert W. Gilchrist, Punta Gorda 1913‑ George B. Glover, Monticello 1914 and 1915. Cephus L. Wilson, Mariana 1916. James E. Crane, Tampa 1917. A. S. York, Live Oak FREEMASONRY IN FLORIDA 133 1918 and 1919. T. Picton Warlow, Orlando 192‑0. Reginald H. Cooper, Palatka 192‑1 and 192‑2‑. Charles H. Ketchum, Key West 192‑3. John L. Hall, Jacksonville 192‑‑4‑ T. T. Todd, Pensacola 192‑5. Lamar G. Carter, Gainesville 192‑6. Cary B. Fish, Sarasota 192‑7. Benjamin E. Dyson, St. Augustine 192.8. Leroy Brandon, Clearwater 192‑9. Stafford Caldwell, Jacksonville 1930‑ Wallace R. Cheves, Newberry 1931‑ Samuel Pasco, Pensacola 1932. J. S. B. Moyer, Jacksonville 1933‑ B. W. Helvenston, Live Oak 1934 Fred W. DeLaney, Miami 1935‑ Harry G. Taylor, Miami To make special mention of all members of the Craft who have distinguished themselves in business, and in professional, political, fraternal, and religious life would in itself require a volume. Limited space precludes a more extended account of these interesting details.


ROYAL ARCH MASONRY The Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the State of Florida was formed at Tallahassee on January 11, A.D. 1847 (A. L. 2.377), by Florida Royal Arch Chapter, No. 4; Magnolia Royal Arch Chapter, No. 16, and Florida Royal Arch Chapter, No. 32‑., when Companion Thomas Douglass was installed as Grand High Priest by Companion John P. Duval, Past High Priest. The following elective and appointive Officers were also installed on that occasion: Companion John P. Duval, Deputy Grand High Priest; Companion Harry R. Taylor, Grand King; Companion George W. Macrae, Grand Scribe; Companion John B. Taylor, Grand Secretary; Companion Edwin D. Nash, Grand Treasurer; Companion the Rev. Edwin T. L. Blake, Grand Chaplain. The Order of Priesthood was conferred upon Companion Thomas Douglass, Most Excellent Grand High Priest, and the Grand Secretary was directed to communicate with the General Grand Chapter of the United States and to seek membership. The Grand Chapter is now composed of 51 Subordinate Chapters having a total membership of nearly 7000.


ROYAL AND SELECT MASTERS The Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters of Florida was formed at Tallahassee on January 12‑, 1858, by Mackey Council, No. 1; Columbia Council, No. 2‑, and Douglass Council, No. 3, all of which had been previously Working under authority from Charleston. The following Officers were elected and duly installed: Thomas Hayward, Grand Puissant; E. R. Ives, Deputy 134 FREEMASONRY IN FLORIDA Grand Puissant; George F. Baltzell, Grand Thrice Illustrious; D. P. Holland, Grand P. C. of Work; Rev. C. E. Dyke, Grand Treasurer; J. B. Taylor, Grand Recorder; Rev. J. Penny, Grand Chaplain. There are now 21 Councils, having a total membership of about 1700.


KNIGHTS TEMPLAR The Grand Commandery of the State of Florida was organised at Jacksonville on August 15, 1885, by Coeur de Lion Commandery, No. I; Damascus Commandery, No. 2, and Olivet Commandery, No. 4. The election of Grand Officers resulted as follows: R.‑. E.‑. Sir William A. McLean, Grand Commander; V.‑. E.‑. Sir Charles McKenzie‑Oering, Deputy Grand Commander; E.‑. Sir Wilber P. Webster, Grand Generalissimo; E.‑. Sir James W. Boyd, Grand Captain General; E.‑. Sir Charles R. Oglesby, Grand Prelate; E.‑. Sir William S. Ware, Grand Senior Warden; E.‑. Sir Thomas L. Watson, Grand Junior Warden; E.‑. Sir Irving E. Baird, Grand Treasurer; E.‑. Sir John D. Sinclair, Grand Recorder; E.‑. Sir Bingham H. Chadwick, Grand Standard Bearer; Sir James R. Keller, Grand Sword Bearer; Sir Charles A. Clark, Grand Warder; Sir Thomas B. Davis, Grand Captain of the Guards. Sir Knights W. P. Webster, Charles McKenzieOering, and J. W. Boyd were appointed as a Committee to frame a Constitution and By‑Laws. Their report was unanimously adopted. There are now 36 Commanderies having a total membership of nearly 5ooo.


ANCIENT ACCEPTED SCOTTISH RITE The first organised Bodies of this Rite in Florida were a Lodge of Perfection and a Council of Princes of Jerusalem, opened at Alligator, now Lake City, in April 1853, under Grand Commander John Henry Honour. In 1859 Edward Rutledge Ives, of Lake City, was crowned an active member of the Supreme Council. He organised a Lodge of Perfection, a Council of Princes of Jerusalem, and a Chapter of Rose Croix in that city. Those Bodies did not long survive, for it states in the Records of the Session held in South Carolina in 1874 that the Rite was yet to be planted in North Carolina and Florida. DeWitt C. Dawkins was crowned an active member of the Supreme Council in 1877, judge William Allen McLean in 1895, and Dr. Olin Seamore Wright in 1917. The first permanent Lodge of Perfection was Chartered in 1892 at Ocala. Scottish Rite Degrees were first conferred in 1912, when Grand Commander James Daniel Richardson brought Workers to Jacksonville, and conferred the various Degrees from the Fourth to the Thirty‑second. There is a Lodge of Perfection, a Chapter of Rose Croix, a Council of Kadosh, and a Consistory at Jacksonville, Tampa, Pensacola, Key West, Miami, and Lake Worth. In Ocala and in St. Augustine there is a Lodge of Perfection only. From a Body having only sixteen members in 1880, the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite in Florida has come to have some 7500 members.


FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA WILLIAM BORDLEY CLARKE PRIOR to the year 1924 the early record of the Craft in Georgia was practically unknown. The result of failure to establish facts concerning the beginnings of Masonry in this State was the prevalence of traditions and assumptions and assertions, confusing and disconcerting to the seeker after dependable data. Article I of the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Georgia adds to this confusion because it contains conflicting statements that cannot logically be reconciled with facts. For the guidance and satisfaction of the historian, documents relating to salient points of this early history have fortunately been discovered in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Georgia and of several early Lodges. With unvarying consistency concerning fundamental data these reveal facts and establish dates heretofore wanting. The documents have remained in the hands of the original owners since they were written, but the full value of their content has until now been overlooked and never before given to historians of the Craft.


Many valuable documents were lost because of the sieges of Savannah during the War for Independence. Other causes that contributed to the loss of valuable papers were the British surrender of the city to Americans, the re moval of many British sympathisers to other parts of the country, and the fire of 1792 that destroyed the greater part of the town in which Georgia Masonry had its birth and where the Grand Lodge of Georgia met for many years after its Organisation. Facts contained in the few remaining documents were not published until 1924. At that time, Solomon's Lodge, No. i, of Savannah, the first Lodge of Georgia, issued a book entitled Early and Historic Freemasonry of Georgia. The publication of this work gave the first opportunity to learn facts about the beginning of the Craft in this State. At the Session of the Grand Lodge in 1927, the appearance of this book was followed by the distribution of a pamphlet entitled The Beginning of Constituted Freemasonry in Georgia. This made public for the first time facts concerning the Organisation of the Grand Lodge in this State. These publications were the first attempts of Georgians to make known important facts of Georgia's Masonic history in any proper manner.


The first attempt to give an outline of the history of the Grand Lodge of Georgia was contained in the Ahimon Rezon, compiled in 1857 by Committees authorised by the Grand Lodge, the Grand Chapter, and the Grand Council. In this book is a chapter entitled Memoranda of the Early History of Freemasonry in Georgia, written by M.'. W.‑. William S. Rockwell, Grand Master of Georgia I35 236 FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA at the time. Those Memoranda, appearing in a volume issued with the sanction of the Grand Lodge of the State, have been accepted by the Masonic world as the official point of view of that organisation. A study of the statements made by M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Rockwell, and a companion of those statements with recently discovered documents, would immediately convince the student, however, that the author did not know that the contents of documents in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Georgia refute many of his assumptions, statements, and conclusions. Since the recent publication of these documents, Masonic historians have utterly rejected M.'. W.'. Rockwell's statements as being unsupported by facts.


Article I of the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Georgia, which not only repeats the statements of M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Rockwell but also omits several fundamental facts concerning the organisation of the Craft and of the Grand Lodge, has been the object of much study by Masonic historians because it states that the Grand Lodge of Georgia has existed since 2733 by virtue of a Warrant issued in 2735. Masonic historians find it impossible to reconcile these two statements. In view of this, the present writer has attempted to determine the date of adoption of this Article of the Constitution, and has found that the Minutes of the Grand Lodge do not contain any record of the adoption of the Article. It appears to have been adopted in 2857, at about the time of the publication of the Ahimon Rezon, and the historical record it contains appears to have been largely based upon the assumptions M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Rockwell sets forth in his Memoranda. The documents since discovered do not confirm the dates or other statements contained in the Article, and Masonic historians generally have challenged the statements contained in Article I of the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Georgia upon the ground that they are largely incorrect assumptions not based upon facts or otherwise supported by evidence. Since the publication of the documentary evidence which consistently establishes the facts, steps have been taken by the Grand Lodge to reconcile the statements in Article I with the actual facts.


In this article it is not possible to state the various claims that have been made or to show the errors of them. Rather, the facts are merely presented so that they may speak for themselves. These facts alone reveal the complete story of Freemasonry in Georgia. Assumptions and unwarranted conclusions must be dismissed until such time as newly discovered evidence may furnish some grounds for considering them.


For many years it was believed that the first Lodge in Georgia had been organised in 2733. The ground for this erroneous notion was doubtless the change of calendar which occurred in 2752.. Until then the year had ended on March 2.q., January, February, and March having been the last three months of the year. According to the old calendar, the Colony of Georgia was established with the landing of the colonists at Savannah on February 2, 2732.. When the calendar was changed in 2752., February became the second month of the year instead of the eleventh month. Thus, according to the new calendar, the date FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA 137 of the founding of the Colony of Georgia was reckoned as February 12, 1733. After 1752 a novel method of showing the change of calendar came into use. Any date that fell in January, February, or March of a given year that preceded the change was indicated by showing that year and its immediate successor. The date of the establishment of the Colony of Georgia, for example, was written as February 12, 1732‑3. This shows that the event occurred in 1732 according to the old calendar, but in 1733 according to the new one. This change of calendar and consequent method of recording dates, which has caused much confusion in Georgia, is responsible for the belief that the Masonry of Georgia came into existence in 1733. On the contrary, however the existence of documents showing the occurrence of important events in 1733‑4 furnishes ample proof that Georgia Masonry was established in 1734.


The earliest reference to Masonry in Georgia is contained in the records of the Grand Lodge of England. At its meeting held on December 13, 1733 (new style), the following resolution was adopted Then the Deputy Grand Master opened to the Lodge the Affairs of Planting the new Colony of Georgia in America, and having sent an Account in print of the Nature of such Plantation to all the Lodges, and informed the Grand Lodge That the Trustees had given to Nathaniel Blackerby, Esq., and to himself Commissions under their Common Seal to Collect the Charity of this Society towards enabling the Trustees to send distressed Brethren to Georgia, where they may be comfortably provided for.


Proposed, that it be strenuously recommended by the Masters 8L Wardens of regular Lodges to make a generous Collection amongst all their Members for that purpose. Which being seconded by Brother Rogers Holland, Esq.


(one of the said Trustees), who opened the Nature of the Settlement, and by Sr. William Keith, Bart., who was many years Governour of Pensilvania, by Dr. Desagulier, Lord Southwell, Brother Blackerby, and many others, very worthy Brethren, it was recommended accordingly.


This resolution is apparently responsible for the oft‑quoted statement that Masonry existed in Georgia in 1733. Nothing in the resolution, however, indicates that there was a Lodge in Georgia at the time. The first colonists had not yet arrived. The resolution is clearly the first step in a movement to send distressed Brethren at some later time, after the Colony had been established. It is a historical fact that, because of conditions in the Colony after its establishment, any Brethren who might have been sent over with the first expedition would have found themselves seriously embarrassed because of lack of support. This is clearly shown by a resolution adopted by the Grand Lodge of England on March 18, 1734 (new style), which reads as follows: Resolved, That all the Masters of all regular Lodges who shall not bring in their contributions to charity, do at the next quarterly communication, give the reasons why their respective Lodges do not contribute to the settlement of Georgia.


138 FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA This resolution makes it seem probable that no Brethren had yet been sent to Georgia by the Grand Lodge of England. It is known, of course, that there were Masons with the first expedition of colonists, but it is also known that those Brethren came from that stratum of English society which permitted them to maintain themselves in their proper estate without help from private or public sources.


It is plain that nothing in the action of the Grand Lodge of England furnishes any basis for assuming that Masonry existed in Georgia in 1733. That the first Lodge of Masons in Georgia was organised at Savannah on February 21, 1734, is fully proved by documentary evidence. The present writer has discovered that evidence and brought the facts to light.


The following resolution appears in the Minutes of a meeting of Solomon's Lodge, No. i, of Savannah, held on December 21, 1858: As tradition has informed us that a Masonic Lodge (now Solomon's was first organised in this city by General Oglethorpe February 10, 1733, we do dedicate Solomon's Lodge New Hall on the loth of February next, being the 127th anniversary of the organisation of Masonry in Georgia.


This tradition had already existed in Savannah and in Solomon's Lodge for almost a hundred years before it was written into the Minutes of Solomon's Lodge. In fact the origin of it can be traced to a time before the calendar was changed in 1752. When the New Hall was dedicated on February 1o, 1859, Mrs. Perla Sheftall Solomon presented Solomon's Lodge with a gavel made from a fragment of the oak under which General James Edward Oglethorpe opened the first Masonic meeting in Georgia. That took place where the town of Sunbury, in Liberty County, later sprang up. The meeting was held while General Oglethorpe was on a scouting expedition along the banks of the Altamaha River. Some two weeks later he returned to Savannah and Solomon's Lodge was organised there at that time.


In one of her letters Mrs. Solomon states that she received the information from her uncle, Sheftall Sheftall. He had obtained it from his father, Mordecai Sheftall. The records of Solomon's Lodge show Sheftall Sheftall to have been a member. Mordecai Sheftall was a member and Past Master of Solomon's Lodge, and Senior Grand Warden of the Provincial Grand Lodge. His father, Benjamin Sheftall, was among the first colonists who came to Georgia in 1733. In 1758 Benjamin Sheftall became Master of Solomon's Lodge. Where Mordecai Sheftall obtained his information may readily be conjectured. Undoubtedly he got it from his father, who was in Georgia at the time when General Oglethorpe organised the Lodge. Further, it is known that for more than forty years Mordecai Sheftall was next‑door neighbor to Moses Nunis, who received his First Degree in the Lodge within three weeks after it had been organised by General Oglethorpe. It is hardly likely that, in the course of his Lodge visits and his daily life, Past Master Mordecai Sheftall would have failed to discuss Masonic matters with his father, Past Master Benjamin Sheftall, and with his friend and fellow Lodge member, Moses Nunis. Certainly, during those forty years, Mordecai FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA 139 Sheftall must have got from them some information concerning the organisation of Solomon's Lodge and the beginnings of the Craft in Georgia.


That Moses Sheftall was convinced of the truth of the information he had received, which he in turn gave to the Lodge, is further proved by his actions during the War for Independence. He was captured by the British during the first siege of Savannah and with other Masons confined in a British prison camp near Sunbury, where General Oglethorpe held the first Masonic meeting. During Sheftall's imprisonment, the day of the annual meeting of the Union Society fell out. This was a charitable organisation which maintained Bethesda Orphanage at Savannah. This orphanage, established by Rev. George Whitefield, co‑worker with John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, is still maintained by the Union Society, and is the oldest institution of its kind in America. In order to preserve the charter of the Union Society its members had to hold the annual meeting on the prescribed date. Through the mediation of Masons among the British officers, Sheftall and his fellow colonial Masons requested and obtained permission to be escorted to Sunbury on the appointed date. There they held the annual meeting of the Union Society under that same great oak tree where Georgia Masonry had its birth. All these facts are matters of Georgia history.


According to the above account, the actions of those Brethren furnish convincing proof of the truth of the tradition they gave to Solomon's Lodge that its first meeting was held by General Oglethorpe among the great trees of the primeval forest along the banks of the Altamaha River, and that Solomon's Lodge was actually organised on February io, 1733. It must be remembered that the colonists landed at Savannah on February 1, 1732. (old style), that is, on February i2., 1733 (new style). The problem is to determine whether or not the tradition refers to dates reckoned according to the old calendar or the new.


If February io, 1733, refers to the new calendar, one year and eleven days must be subtracted from that date in order to reconcile it with the old calendar. When this is done, the date becomes January 30, 1732, which is two days before the date when General Oglethorpe landed at Savannah with the first group of colonists. Plainly, then, the date of the tradition must have been reckoned according to the old calendar. Since this is the case, allowance must be made for the difference between the two calendars. Thus, February 2.i, 1734, becomes the date upon which Masonry came into existence in Georgia. The Lodge organised by General Oglethorpe at Savannah, on that date, did not take a name until 1776. In that year it became Solomon's Lodge, a name under which it still exists. It is to‑day generally recognised by Masonic historians as being the oldest of the remaining original English Lodges in America, since it has never discontinued or lost its original identity. While investigating the beginnings of Masonry in Georgia, the writer discovered some of the Minutes of Solomon's Lodge in the Library of Congress. The British had removed the documents from Savannah when they occupied that town during the War for Independence. When the Americans captured Savannah, towards the close of the war, the fleeing British refugees carried the Minutes to New York. The papers were later found 142 FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA Savannah. Called the Lodge at " Savannah _in. the Province of Georgia," it is listed as No. 139. This Lodge, later known on the Roll of the Grand Lodge of Georgia as Solomon's Lodge, No. 1, was the second Lodge in America to appear upon such a list. On the list for the year 1737 the Lodge at Savannah continues as No. 139, though the date on which it was constituted is not mentioned. And on the list for 1737, Lodge No. 138 is mentioned as having been constituted on October 30, 1735, Lodge No. 14o as having been constituted on March 1, 1736. The date that appears on the list is March 1, 1735, but since this is according to the old calendar, the date really signifies one year later. Since the date of the founding of the Lodge at Savannah appears on the list between the two dates mentioned above, this indicates that it was constituted between October 30, 1735, and March 1, 1736. Here we have interesting proof of the truth of an old tradition concerning Solomon's Lodge. From the earliest days of Solomon's Lodge there has been a persistent tradition that General Oglethorpe obtained the Lodge's Charter from Viscount Weymouth in 1735, and brought it back to Savannah with him upon returning from his first visit to England after the establishment of the Colony. General Oglethorpe left Savannah on a visit to England on March 23, 1734. He sailed from Charleston, South Carolina, on April 7, 1734. Thus it is clear that he left Savannah somewhat more than a month after organising the Lodge which later became Solomon's Lodge. The records of the Grand Lodge of England do show that the Charter of the Lodge was granted in 1735 by Viscount Weymouth, Grand Master of England. Nearly two years elapsed between the organisation of the Lodge and the date when its Charter was granted. The laws of the Grand Lodge of England required the presence of the Master of the Lodge at the time it was constituted. It would seem that the delay of the Lodge in waiting for the return of General Oglethorpe must have been due to the fact that, being Master of the Lodge, it was necessary for him to be present when the Lodge was constituted. Here, then, is evidence that seems to corroborate another of the Lodge's traditions, namely, that General Oglethorpe was its first Master. On February 5, 1736, General Oglethorpe returned to Savannah. This date coincides with that shown on the 1737 list of the Grand Lodge of England as the date of constituting Solomon's Lodge. It also proves that the Lodge did receive its Charter upon the return of General Oglethorpe, and that it was duly constituted sometime between February 5 and March 1, 1736.


The action of the Lodge in applying to the Grand Master of England for a Charter seems to be conclusive proof that there was no Provincial Grand Master in Georgia from whom a Charter could be obtained. Thus, the action of the Lodge itself clearly refutes the statement in Article I of the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Georgia that it has " existed since 1733." Had a Provincial Grand Lodge existed in Georgia before Solomon's Lodge applied for its Charter in 1735, the Provincial Grand Master would have granted a Charter to the Lodge. For the existence of a Lodge in the Colony does not at all prove that a Provincial Grand Master was also there. The present writer is convinced that FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA 143 the Grand Lodge of Georgia believed it necessary for a Provincial Grand Master to organise the first Lodge, and on that account states in Article I of its Constitution that the Grand Lodge has " existed since 1733 by virtue of a Warrant issued in 1735." This seems to be a reasonable explanation to account for the statement made in Article 1, for it has been shown that the Lodge was organised according to the Old Customs and without semblance of " due constitution." It will later be proved by documentary evidence that the first Provincial Grand Master of Georgia, Roger High Lacey, was granted his Warrant by Viscount Weymouth on December z, 1735. This was eight days before General Oglethorpe left England with the Charter for Solomon's Lodge at Savannah. This seems to indicate that General Oglethorpe went to the Grand Master of England and asked that a Provincial Grand Master be appointed in Georgia in"order that that Officer might constitute Solomon's Lodge under its Charter, which had been issued a short time before. The correct conclusion seems to be that the Charter and the Warrant of the first Provincial Grand Master of Georgia were issued at the same time by the Grand Master of England.


It is often said that the first Lodge in Georgia was Savannah Lodge. The name " Savannah Lodge " must have originated from designating the first Lodge on the English lists as " the Lodge at Savannah in the Province of Georgia." No record shows that a " Savannah Lodge " existed anywhere in Georgia.


The Lodge at Savannah did not take a name until 1776. Until 1774 it was the Lodge in Georgia, and consequently needed no name to distinguish it. In 1774 Unity Lodge was organised in Savannah, and thus the first Lodge was no longer " the Lodge at Savannah in the Province of Georgia." There were then two Lodges at Savannah, so the first Lodge took the name " Solomon's Lodge " in 1776, and has continued under that name until now.


Solomon's Lodge owns an interesting relic of the days of its organisation. This is a Bible presented to it by General James Edward Oglethorpe, the man who founded the Colony and organised the Lodge. The donor himself wrote on the flyleaf, " Presented by General Oglethorpe, 1733." Oglethorpe left Savannah for England on March 23, 1734 (new style), which was March i2, 1733 (old style). The fact that he wrote " 1733 " is evidence that the Bible was presented at the time the Lodge was organized and shortly before he left for England, since at that time the old year ended on March 25.


Although the autographed flyleaf of the Bible is missing, the Lodge has affidavits that it was stolen while the book was on exhibition at the Atlanta Exposition in 1881. That the Bible is a historical relic is attested by Robert Wright's Memoir of General James Oglethorpe, published in London in 1867, fourteen years before the autograph was stolen. Wright says that General Oglethorpe gave the book to the Lodge and that it is one of three existing relics of the General, all others having been lost when his English home, Cranham Hall, was destroyed by fire.


144 FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA Solomon's Lodge owns a fine oil portrait of General Oglethorpe executed by Bro. Richard West Habersham from a miniature given by the General to his friend, James Habersham, a member of the Lodge and the painter's great‑grandfather. The portrait has been reproduced to accompany this article.


Now that the circumstances surrounding the organisation of the first Lodge in Georgia have been reviewed, facts concerning the organisation of the Grand Lodge of Georgia, previously unknown, can now be brought to light to reveal a clear record for the first time.


All evidence that has been presented proves that Roger Hugh Lacey, the first Provincial Grand Master of Georgia, was not appointed for the purpose of organising or granting a Charter to the first Lodge in Georgia. The organi sation of the first Lodge on February 21, 1734, does not indicate that Lacey was given a verbal Warrant prior to 1734, or that the Warrant was later confirmed by writing in 1735. This assumption was made by M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Rockwell in Memoranda, and is also implied in Article I of the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Georgia, which says that the Grand Lodge of Georgia has existed " since 173 3 by virtue of, and in pursuance of, the Warrant granted in 173 5 ‑" This assumption appears to be based not only upon the conclusion that Bro. Lacey organised the first Lodge in 1733 (old style) but also upon an error that appeared in the third edition (1805) of Thomas Smith Webb's Monitor. This book says that Masonry in Georgia dates from 1730. M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Rockwell quotes this statement in his Memoranda. Bro. Webb corrected the next edition of his Monitor and gave the correct date of Bro. Lacey's Warrant as 1735M.‑.W.‑.Bro. Rockwell apparently did not see the corrected edition of the Monitor, and consequently laboured under a wrong impression.


In the light of all the facts that have been presented, historians generally refuse to accept as correct the statement contained in the Memoranda of M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Rockwell in Article I of the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Georgia. The year 1735 is accepted as the time when Bro. Lacey received his Warrant.


The Colonial Records of Georgia contain no reference to Roger Lacey before the year 1736. In that year he was sent to the town of Augusta, Georgia, to establish a trading‑post. He held a commission as captain of the Georgia militia. His death took place on August 3, 1738, and his body was interred with full military honours at Thunderbolt, near Savannah.


The records of the Grand Lodge of England do not show the appointment of Roger Lacey as Provincial Grand Master of Georgia. Since the appointment of a Provincial Grand Master was a prerogative of the Grand Master of Eng land, which did not require the sanction of the Grand Lodge, the Grand Master of England often failed to report his appointments to the Grand Lodge. What powers were granted to Bro. Lacey by his Warrant is not known. Apparently he had authority to name the Officers of his Provincial Grand Lodge, though he did not have power to name his own successor or to grant his Officers the power to name his successor. Later events clearly indicate that FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA 145 Bro. Lacey's powers were limited so that the Grand Master of England alone could name a successor to him. The exact date of the Warrant issued to Roger Lacey was long unknown because the document itself was thought to have been lost. Although it has remained in obscurity for about a hundred fifty years, the document bearing the date has all that time lain in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Georgia, unknown and unidentified.


While in the Office of the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Georgia searching for a document bearing an impression of the seal of the Provincial Grand Lodge, the present writer was asked to examine the seal of another docu ment. Knowing the names of early members of the first Lodge in Georgia, and having knowledge of facts surrounding the principal events in the early history of the Craft in this State, enabled the writer to identify the document at once, and to explain the conditions that surrounded the writing of it. The preamble of the document, an unused Charter, reads as follows KNOW YE that we the Honorable Sir Samuel Elbert Esquire Right Worshipful Grand Master of all Masons in the State of Georgia and of all Lodges therein of the most Ancient and Sublime Degree of Royal Scotch Masonry of the Holy Lodge of Saint Andrew, and invested with the order thereof, Past Master of Solomon's and Unity Lodges in Savannah and Member of the Assembly of High Priests of the Royal Arch Brotherhood AND Sir William Stephens Esquire Right Worshipful Deputy Grand Master of all Masons in the State and of all Lodges therein of the like most ancient and sublime degree of Royal Masonry of the Holy Lodge of Saint Andrew and invested with the order thereof, Past Master of Solomon's Lodge aforesaid, Knight of the Red Cross and member of the Assembly of High Priests of the Royal Arch Brotherhood, AND by the concurrence of the Right Worshipful Sir Mordecai Sheftall, Senior Grand Warden of the State, Past Master of Solomon's Lodge aforesaid, Member of the Assembly of High Priests of the Royal Arch Order and Knight of the Red Cross and the Right Worshipful Sir James Jackson Junior Grand Warden of the State, Past Master and Master of Solomon's Lodge, Temporary High Priest of the Assembly of High Priests of the Royal Arch order and Sublime King of the degree of the most Noble order of Knights of the Red Cross in pursuance of the right and succession legally derived from the Most Noble and Right Worshipful Sholto Charles Douglass Lord Aberdour Grand Master of Scotland for the years of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and fifty‑seven and one thousand seven hundred and fifty‑eight and then Grand Master of England as willä appear by his warrant bearing date the tenth day of October in the year one thousand seven hundred and sixty directed to the Right Worshipful Grey Elliott Esquire and renewing the warrant of the Right Worshipfl and Most Noble Thomas Thynne Lord Viscount Weymouth the Grand Master of England dated the second day of December in the year one thousand seven hundred and thirty‑five directed to the Right Worshipful Hugh Lacey, . . .


This Charter was issued on July 11, 1786, by the Provincial Grand Lodge of Georgia, to George Handley, for the organisation of a Lodge in Augusta. Ex‑ 146 FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA cept for the signature of the Grand Master, Major‑General Samuel Elbert, the Charter is complete. Signatures of the other Grand Officers and the seal of the Provincial Grand Lodge are properly affixed to it. The authenticity of the signatures may be established by comparing them with signatures of the same Brethren on the Charter of Solomon's Lodge and on that of Hiram Lodge. Those Charters were granted one year later, after the Grand Lodge had cast off the Provincial Regulations of England and had thus become an independent Body.


The names of the Officers of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Georgia, and the Offices they held during this period, appear on the Minutes of Solomon's Lodge. They are as follows: Major General Samuel Elbert, Grand Master; William Stephens, Deputy Grand Master; Mordecai Sheftall, Senior Grand Warden; Brigadier‑General James Jackson, Junior Grand Warden; James Habersham, Grand Secretary; George Handley, Grand Treasurer; Samuel Stirk and John Martin, Grand Stewards.


Minutes of Solomon's Lodge for 1785 show that George Handley, former Grand Treasurer, to whom the Charter was issued, removed to Augusta that year. He had been a member of the Lodge for several years. The Minutes also show that in 1787 he returned to Savannah and visited Solomon's Lodge, for he is designated as Master of Columbian Lodge in Augusta. Thus it appears that George Handley had written to the Provincial Grand Lodge of Georgia asking for a Charter for a new Lodge in Augusta, and that the Charter had been issued. For some reason or other, the Grand Master did not sign the Charter.


The Minutes of Solomon's Lodge for 1785 show that steps were just then being taken to have the provincial Regulations of the Grand Lodge of England set aside and to organise a new and independent Grand Lodge of Georgia. A reasonable explanation of Samuel Elbert's failure to sign the Charter is that he suggested to George Handley a delay in organising the new Lodge until the reconstitution of the Grand Lodge of Georgia should be completed. A Charter could then be obtained from an American Grand Lodge rather than from an English Grand Lodge. It must be remembered, however, that the War for Independence had just ended and that patriotic fervour was intense. That George Handley later obtained a Charter and organised the Lodge is proved by his appearance in Solomon's Lodge in 1787 as Master of Columbian Lodge, a new Lodge in Georgia.


This unused Charter is valuable to the Craft of Georgia since it is the only known document which says that the Warrant of Roger Lacey, first Provincial Grand Master of Georgia, was issued on December 2, 1735, by Viscount Wey mouth, Grand Master of England. Also it is the only known document that gives the date of the Warrant of the second Provincial Grand Master of Georgia, Gray Elliott. That date is October io, 176o.


This Charter is ample evidence that as late as 1786 there were documents in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Georgia which stated these important dates. The dates in the Charter differ in handwriting from the body of the document.


FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA 147 This would seem to indicate that James Habersham, the Grand Secretary, had to consult original documents to refresh his memory of the dates. The documents he consulted must have been the original Warrants of Roger Lacey and of Gray Elliott, or copies of those Warrants in the records of the Provincial Grand Lodge. Most of those documents seem to have been destroyed in Savannah's great fire of 1792, since only a few fragments remain.


Some have believed that there is a break in the historical record of the Grand Lodge of Georgia, due to a possible implication of the 1786 Charter of Solomon's Lodge. It might seem that the second Provincial Grand Master of Georgia, Gray Elliott, obtained his Warrant from Lord Aberdour while the latter was Grand Master of Scotland. Such an implication seems to be further strengthened by the fact that the exact date of the Warrant issued to Gray Elliott is not mentioned. The facts are established, however, by the Charter issued to George Handley, which gives the date of Gray Elliott's Warrant as October io, 176o. Lord Aberdour was Grand Master of England at that time.


In Article I of the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Georgia, the name of Major‑General Samuel Elbert is omitted from the list of Provincial Grand Masters. This might seem to imply that Samuel Elbert was never legally made Provincial Grand Master of Georgia. Not one fact can be presented, however, to show that the name of Samuel Elbert should be omitted from the list of Provincial Grand Masters of Georgia.


Bearing in mind that many Provincial Grand Masters in America received Warrants containing a provision that empowered the Brethren to elect successors to Provincial Grand Masters in event of their removal from the Province or their inability to serve for some other reason, it is clear that Gray Elliott was given such a Warrant by Lord Aberdour. The Charter issued to George Handley proves this by the statement that " we, the Honorable Sir Samuel Elbert, Esquire, Right Worshipful Grand Master of all Masons in the State of Georgia and of all Lodges therein ... in pursuance of the right and succession legally derived from the Most Noble and Right Worshipful Sholto Charles Douglass ... Grand Master of England as will appear by his Warrant . . . directed to the Right Worshipful Gray Elliott, Esquire." This shows that Samuel Elbert was legally elected Grand Master under the authority contained in Gray Elliott's Warrant. It may readily be seen that when Gray Elliott left Georgia in 1774 to join Benjamin Franklin in representing the colonies at the Court of St. James, Bro. Elbert was elected by the Brethren as his lawful successor according to the authority contained in Bro. Elliott's Warrant, a method almost universal in America at the time.


It is true that in 1774 Lord Petre appointed Noble Jones to become Provincial Grand Master of Georgia, but the death of Bro. Jones in 1775, and his failure to use his Warrant, indicates either that he did not receive the Warrant before his death, or that illness prevented his taking the Chair. Bro. Elbert continued legally in office, while the outbreak of the War for Independence seems to have kept the Grand Master of England from making another appointment. It is 148 FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA unfortunate that the omission of Bro. Elbert's name from the list of Provincial Grand Masters in Article I of the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Georgia has placed a blot upon the record of one so devoted to the service of the Craft. He was an intimate friend of General Washington, and a member of Washington's little Masonic staff in whose members so much faith and trust was placed. After serving with distinction through the bloody battles of the campaigns of the South, he was with General Washington at Yorktown as QuartermasterGeneral of the Continental troops.


In 1786 when Bro. Elbert surrendered the permanent appointments under the Provincial Regulations of the Grand Lodge of England, to organise the present Grand Lodge of Georgia, the Craft gave him the jewel of a Past Grand Master and the honoured title, " Father of Independent Masonry in Georgia." At that time the Brethren did not question the legality of Bro. Elbert's position. All facts thus far considered deal with the history of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Georgia from 1735 to 1786. In 1774 circumstances rapidly tended to develop a situation which was to have its bearing upon the history of the Grand Lodge. The War for Independence was at hand. The records of Georgia Masonry show that at that time and during the period of the war the Brethren tended to break away from the authority of the Grand Lodge of England, just as the patriots resolved to sever relations with the mother country. The scanty Masonic records of the Revolutionary period show that no definite break took place until the close of the War of Independence. In the December 21, 1786, issue of The Gazette of the State of Georgia, a colonial newspaper published at Savannah, a short article says that on the preceding Saturday representatives of the Lodges in the State met the Grand Lodge at their room in the coffee house. At that meeting permanent appointments under the Provincial Regulations of England were voluntarily abolished, and annual elections were decided upon. MajorGeneral Samuel Elbert resigned the Chair, and William Stephens was elected Grand Master. Other Officers elected were: Brigadier‑General James Jackson, Deputy Grand Master; Sir George Houstoun, Senior Grand Warden; Thomas Elfe, Junior Grand Warden; James Habersham, Grand Treasurer; Samuel Stirk, Grand Secretary. The newspaper article, with its statement that permanent appointments under the Provincial Regulations of England had been abolished, is further evidence that the Brethren had elected Bro. Elbert to succeed Gray Elliott. The Provincial Regulations in his Warrant authorised the election of his successors until the Warrant should be revoked by the Grand Master of England. Subsequent to the meeting of December 16, 1786, at which the present Grand Lodge of Georgia was organised, it is clear from the Charter issued to Solomon's Lodge a few days after the meeting, that no final step in the re‑organisation of the Grand Lodge was taken until 1796. In that year a Petition for the incorporation of the Grand Lodge was presented to the General Assembly of Georgia. The Act incorporating the Grand Lodge of Georgia was signed by the governor on February 6, 1796. In their Petition to the General Assembly, the Officers of the Grand Lodge stated that " there have existed, and still exist, in FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA 149 this State, divers Lodges or Societies of Freemasons on an ancient establishment, since the year 1735." Here, then, once more and finally, Officers of the Grand Lodge state authoritatively that no Grand Lodge or constituted Lodge of Masons had existed in Georgia before 1735. They knew that neither the first Lodge in Georgia nor the first Grand Master of Georgia had received any form of authority previous to that year. Details have been set forth in this article to show ::that an unbroken historical record from February 2.1, 1734, until the present time is based upon facts. In the past, Masonic histories have given small space to Georgia Masonry, for very little was known about it. This sketch first presents to students and historians of Masonry recently discovered facts which give Georgia a prominent place in the history of the Craft in America.


GEORGIA MASONRY IN HISTORY Groups of Quakers, Lutherans, Puritans, Jews, Roman Catholics, and some few English high churchmen were to be found in the American Colonies during the early days. Those people had come to America to find that religious and political freedom denied them at home. In America each group largely continued the customs and living standards of the mother country. Because of religious and political differences among those groups, it was hardly to be expected that their interests could be so subordinated that the people would fuse into one body having a common interest. Nevertheless this thing was done. The story of the accomplishment is a highly interesting episode of American history. Though histories of the United States tell the story, they do not name the medium that brought about the fusion. The student of history should turn to the record of Freemasonry in America if he would find what he seeks. Freemasonry made possible the establishment of the United States as a great melting pot for the people of the world.


During the Colonial Period, Lodges were formed under the authority of the Grand Lodges of England and Scotland. Men of every faith were in them. Jews, Roman Catholics, Quakers, Anglicans, Lutherans, and Puritans were banded together. An abiding belief in a Creator was the foundation of their faith. The fact that all were bound together by a common faith, and that all had been persecuted for their belief, naturally encouraged in them a desire to practise the principles of religious tolerance. The only instrument offering them the opportunity to meet and encouraging the growth of their desires was Masonry.


Though it was not then permitted, and still is not, to argue religious questions in Masonic Lodges, nevertheless Masonry furnished the only opportunity these men had for gathering sympathetically about one Altar to express a common faith. In early taverns and about early Masonic banquet tables religious differences and religious ideals were often discussed informally. Since nearly all who met at such times had been persecuted, that made them friends and brothers in a common cause. The principles and teachings of Masonry aided and encouraged them in seeking tolerance and personal liberty. The universal desire to worship  149 150 FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA God according to the dictates of conscience was found to be one of Masonry's foundation stones.


At a later date the English Government's unjust attitude toward the Colonies became a topic of discussion. Since, as Masons, these men met to lay aside religious differences, there slowly developed a demand for the establishment of a nation founded upon the principles of personal liberty and religious freedom which they enjoyed in Masonic Lodges. So it came about that when the War for Independence began, the leaders in that great struggle were largely Masons. Further, the great pronouncements which established the right of this people to govern itself, to have free thought and speech, and to worship God as conscience dictates were largely products of Masonic minds. Masonry was the instrument that welded apparently unrelated groups into a nation having a single purpose, namely, the establishment of a country built upon Masonic principles and Divine truth as Masonry teaches it.


Of all the American Colonies, none was more influenced by Masonry than was Georgia. The establishment of the Colony was a direct outgrowth of Masonic influence. A Mason, General James Edward Oglethorpe visualised a Colony where honest though unfortunate men might have opportunity to start life anew. Though the trustees of the enterprise laid down rules which barred Jews and Roman Catholics from the Colony, the Masonic heart of Oglethorpe persuaded him to disregard that restriction. Immediately after the establishment of the Colony those persecuted people were freely admitted. From that first group of Jews have come many prominent citizens of the State.


In any review of Georgia history it is impossible to separate the factors that influenced the growth of the State from those that directed the growth of the Craft. Men active in developing Colony and State were also guiding lights of Masonry. From the time when the first Board of trustees for governing the Colony was organised in England, that has been true until this present day. As soon as the Colony was established, two of the trustees, Bro. Holland and Bro. Blackerby, called upon the Grand Lodge of England to aid in sending worthy and distressed Brethren to the Colony. Bro. Desagulier, who contributed so much to the Ritual of the Craft, added his support to the movement. General Oglethorpe, who was responsible for the details of colonial organisation, openly gave aid and encouragement to the Craft.


Less than a year after the Colony was organised, Oglethorpe's Masonic character became evident. Through his efforts and leadership the first Lodge was organised in Georgia. To this Lodge the General gave the Great Light of Masonry. Just as the Psalms are the voice of those ancient Jews who through David thanked the Great Creator for His blessings, for releasing His people from bonds of oppression, for leading them into a new country where they might begin life anew, so, too, the Psalms reflect the condition of the first Georgia colonists. Through the efforts of James Edward Oglethorpe, the Mason, they had been released from the debtors' prisons of England and given a new chance in a new world. Thus it was that in Georgia Masonic effort laid the ground FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA 151 work for an expression of Wisdom, Justice, and Toleration, words that later came to be a motto on the Great Seal of the State.


That the early Georgia Brethren were not unmindful of their obligation to the Supreme Architect is shown by their actions in public. Willie Stevens, secretary to General Oglethorpe, says in his journal that in 1736 the first Lodge held a procession on St. John's Day and publicly paraded to the church in Savannah. Some twelve Brethren, wearing Masonic regalia, were in line. Another interesting account of the first Lodge in Georgia is to be found in the diary of the great preacher, Rev. George Whitefield, co‑worker with Rev. John Wesley, founder of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Whitefield says that on June 24, 1738, he was invited to preach to the Freemasons of Savannah and was cordially entertained by them. Under date of 1739, William Stevens again says in his journal that members of the Lodge in Savannah attended service at Christ Church and that they were addressed by Rev. Mr. Norris, who followed his predecessors' custom of addressing the members of the Craft once each year. From this it seems that Rev. John Wesley must have set the precedent, since he was the only predecessor of Rev. Mr. Norris. From the time of the arrival of John Wesley, Georgia's first preacher, members of the Craft in Georgia faithfully observed the customs of the Fraternity and dutifully paid public homage to God, the Supreme Architect.


Religious differences did not affect the Craft in Georgia. Among names of the first members of Solomon's Lodge appear those of Jews, Roman Catholics, Lutherans, and Episcopalians. Roman Catholics continued to become Masons until Pope Pius IX published an encyclical in 1857 which prohibited them from uniting with the Fraternity. Though few in number, Masons of colonial Georgia nevertheless laid a firm foundation upon Divine principles.


From 1740 till 1760 the Colony of Georgia passed through trying times. Historians seem to set small store by the fact that Georgia was the only buffer between the rich colonies of New England and the Spanish settlements of Florida. Prior to 1740 Spain had for some time been massing troops preparatory to making a determined attempt to destroy the settlements to the north. Fear and uncertainty beset Georgia colonists. They were fully aware that they would receive the first and strongest attack. Since at that time the colonists could obtain no labourers to work their farms, holdings were restricted to a size that a man and his family could work. Little profit could be made. Acts of the Colony's trustees in England were used by unscrupulous people for fomenting dissension. Even General Oglethorpe's character was assailed. Too, the warlike Indians were a constant menace. Merchants of South Carolina eager for the trade of Georgia colonists unjustly made false statements, and spread discord that caused the Colony's growth to suffer severely. During this period the Masonry of Georgia was also severely affected by conditions. Though fewer than ten names appear on the rolls of the Craft, the loyalty of that little group is indicated by the fact that during all those trying times they made regular reports to the Grand Lodge of England and regularly paid their dues to that Body.


152‑ FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA The turn for the better came in 1749. During that year the Spanish menace reached a climax. In one of the bloodiest and most critical battles of early American history, a band of some 400 colonists and loyal Yamacraw Indians, under the inspired leadership and military genius of General Oglethorpe, met several thousand well‑equipped Spanish troops at Bloody Marsh and annihilated them. This battle looms large in the military history of America.


As has been explained, warlike Indians were subdued by men directed by the military and diplomatic skill of Bro. Noble ,Jones, commander of Oglethorpe's militia. Imported slaves furnished labour for agriculture. Bro. James Habersham aided Rev. George Whitefield to build Bethesda Orphanage, now the oldest in America. Bro. Habersham also succeeded in getting the trustees of the Colony to pass laws requiring that slaves be humanely treated. When the first Provincial governor, Sir John Reynolds, arrived in 1751, he chose Bro. James Habersham, Bro. Patrick Houstoun, and Bro. Noble Jones to be members of his King's Council for the government of the Province. Bro. Henry Parker and Bro. John Graham had governed the Province prior to the arrival of Provincial Governor Reynolds. So soon as Governor Reynolds had started the machinery of Provincial government, new responsibilities fell upon members of the Craft in Georgia. Bro. Noble Jones became judge of the first General Court, as has been said. Bro. James E. Powell became judge of the first Admiralty Court; Bro. William Spencer became register of that Court; Bro. John Graham was lieutenant governor of the Province; Bro. Sir Patrick Houstoun was register of grants and receiver of quitrents; Bro. Charles Pryce was a leading lawyer; Bro. Charles Watson was a leader at the bar; Bro. John Graham, Bro. Gray Elliott, Bro. William Wright, Bro. James Edward Powell, and Bro. ;John Baillie were among the founders of the Presbyterian Church in Savannah. The Province became fully developed under Governor Ellis, who succeeded Governor Reynolds in 1757. Governor Ellis was received in state by members of Solomon's Lodge. They paraded to his home, where a public address was delivered. They had ships in the harbour fire a three‑gun salute when they started from the Lodge Hall, another when they arrived at the governor's house, and still another when they left. Governor Ellis reported this celebration to the King of England. The Minutes of Solomon's Lodge carry a detailed record of the affair.


Sir James Wright, Past Grand Master of South Carolina, became Provincial governor in 176o. A man of exceptional ability, he furthered every opportunity for the progress of the Province. He appointed Bro. James Habersham to be president of his Council, and he made the following Masons members of it: Bro. John Graham, Bro. John Morel, Bro. James Parker, Bro. Benjamin Goldwire, Bro. Charles Watson, Bro. Gray Elliott, Bro. Sir Patrick Houstoun, Bro. Noble Jones, and Bro. James Edward Powell.


In Georgia, as in many of the other Provinces, the " Sons of Liberty " was organised at about that time. The organisation was led by Bro. Noble Wimberley Jones, Bro. Joseph Habersham, Bro. George Walton, and Bro. John FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA 1153 Houstoun. This group banded together to guard the best interests of the Province against the unjust laws of the mother country. Steps which they took included protests against the Stamp Act, support of the Massachusetts Colony, whose " circular " voiced the grievances of all Colonies against the acts of England, and finally agreement to forbid the importation of taxed products into the Province. This group of patriots obtained the support of the Provincial Assembly, and thus aroused Governor Wright's wrath.


According to the usual procedure, the Assembly chose a speaker in 1770. Bro. Noble Wimberly Jones was elected. Because he was a leader of the " Sons of Liberty," Governor Wright refused to accept him and forthwith ordered another election. Again Jones was elected, this time unanimously, and again the governor refused to accept him. The Assembly's refusal to elect a speaker other than Bro. Jones and dissatisfaction with the English Government throughout the Province, led Governor Wright to dissolve the Assembly and go to England for a rest. Bro. James Habersham, president of the Council, directed the affairs of the Province during the governor's absence.


At the time events in Georgia were fast shaping themselves towards the outbreak of the War for Independence, and the majority of Masons in the Province were openly and actively sympathising with the patriots. Just after Governor Wright returned from England, the Boston Port Bill was passed by the English Parliament. Then the famous speeches of Edmund Burke and Lord Chatham awakened echoes in Georgia. On July 2.9, 1774, Bro. N. W. Jones, Bro. John Houstoun, and Bro. George Walton called a meeting of the citisens of Savannah to discuss the situation. Despite dire threats made by Governor Wright, citisens met, approved the Boston Tea Party, and endorsed the actions of Massachusetts patriots. Those present even agreed to contribute 5oo barrels of rice to the Boston patriots. Among Masons who were active on the occasion were Bro. John Morel, Bro. H. Bourquine, Bro. Joseph Habersham, Bro. George Walton, Bro. N. W. Jones, and Bro. John Houstoun.


Following the meeting, Governor Wright circulated a protest throughout the Province. In it he belittled the action of the citisens. Because Georgians were apart from events that were inflaming northern patriots, because they were only slightly affected by those events, they showed little interest. Many Georgians who became ardent patriots as soon as they learned the facts even signed Governor Wright's protest at the time.


When news of the battle of Lexington reached Savannah, Bro. Joseph Habersham, Bro. N. W. Jones, Bro. George Walton, and Bro. James Jackson waited till nightfall and then broke into the powder magazine of the English. The powder was carried to a hiding place and later sent to Boston, where it was used by the Colonists at the battle of Bunker Hill.


During that troubled time many posts of honour and responsibility were held, by the Masons of Georgia. Bro. James Habersham, Bro. John Graham, Bro. Gray Elliott, and Bro. J. E. Powell were counsellors. Bro. Noble Jones, Bro. Sir Patrick Houstoun, Bro. John Simpson, Bro. Thomas Vincent, Bro.


154 FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA Edward Barnard, and Bro. N. W. Jones were members of the General Assembly. Bro. Charles Watson and Bro. Matthew Roche were provost marshals. Bro. Charles Pryce was notary. Bro. William Stephens, later Grand Master of Georgia, was clerk of the Assembly. Bro. James Whitfield was quartermaster. Bro. George Walton and Bro. John Houstoun were solicitors. Bro. Sir Patrick Houstoun was justice of the. peace. Bro. Charles Pryce was deputy register and examiner in chancery. Bro. John Simpson was clerk of the House. Bro. Moses Nunis was searcher for the Port of Savannah. Bro. Samuel Elbert, Grand Master of Georgia, Bro. Joseph Habersham, Bro. George Houstoun, and Bro. William Stephens were captains of militia.


On June 17, 1775, at the meeting of those Savannah citisens who had decided to stand with the other colonists, Bro. John Simpson, Bro. N. W. Jones, Bro. Josiah Tattnall, Bro. John Graham, Bro. George Houstoun, Bro. J. E. Powell, Bro. Francis Courvoisie, and Bro. William O'Bryan were participants. The first Council of Safety, organised five days later, included the Grand Master of Georgia, Samuel Elbert; Bro. Joseph Habersham, Bro. George Walton, Bro. George Houstoun, and Bro. John Morel.


The first Provincial Congress met in Savannah on July 4, 1775, with Bro. George Walton as its secretary. The Congress took over the government of the Province and ordered the arrest of Governor Wright. Among the members of this Congress were Bro. N. W. Jones, Bro. Joseph Habersham, Grand Master Samuel Elbert, Bro. John Houstoun, Bro. Oliver Bowen, Bro. George Houstoun, Bro. John Martin, Bro. William O'Bryan, Bro. Matthew Roche, Bro. George Walton, Bro. John Morel, and Bro. William Maxwell. Bro. N. W. Jones and Bro. John Houstoun were two of the four delegates sent to the Continental Congress. There those delegates voted to make Georgia one of the Original Thirteen States.


Governor Wright, whose arrest had been ordered by the Provincial Congress, was taken into custody by Bro. Joseph Habersham of the Georgia militia. An interesting sidelight to this incident was an occurrence that took place after the‑governor had been made a prisoner in his own home. Since Wright had been the Grand Master of Masons in South Carolina, and since he was acquainted with Georgia members of the Craft, it was only natural that the Savannah Brethren should desire that the governor escape to the British forces. In order to encourage him to do so, they casually fired shots through his house until he became fearful for his safety. Presently he made a break to escape, and no attempt was made to detain him as he made his way to an English ship in the river. Thus the patriots were rid of a liability.


On July io, 1775, a British ship laden with gunpowder was captured by American forces commanded by Bro. Oliver Bowen and Bro. Joseph Habersham when it arrived at the mouth of the Savannah River. This was the first naval capture of the War for Independence. Early the next year, on February 28, 1776, two English men‑of‑war and a transport sailed up the Savannah River and attempted to capture some colonial rice ships lying there. During the night, FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA 155 3oo English soldiers landed on an island in the river, then boarded and took possession of the rice ships. At once all adult males in Savannah were called to arms. Presently one of the British ships went aground in the darkness. Before it could be floated clear, it was fired upon by troops under command of Bro. Joseph Habersham, and many of its crew were killed or wounded. Then a rice ship was manned by troops under command of Bro. Oliver Bowen, Bro. James Jackson, and Bro. John Morel, and floated down past the rice ships that had been captured by the British. Set afire, this vessel drifted toward the British ships. The outcome of this little plot and counterplot was that six British‑held rice ships were burned, three were captured, and two were set adrift by the American attack. Americans captured during the fight were at once released when the British learned that the patriots of Savannah had arrested all members of the King's Council and were holding them as hostages. Those arrests were ordered by the Council of Safety at the order of Grand Master of Masons, Samuel Elbert.


Bro. John Houstoun had by this time been elected first governor of Georgia by the newly formed Provincial Congress. With Bro. George Walton, Bro. Button Gwinnett, and Bro. Lyman Hall he attended the meeting of the Conti nental Congress at which the Declaration of Independence was written, and there the three men signed that immortal document. Bro. John Houstoun who was also in attendance at the meeting of the Continental Congress, was called back to Georgia just before the document was ready for signatures.


The year 1776 saw the beginning of actual warfare in Georgia. British troops in Florida began a movement northward, and although the Americans were greatly outnumbered they engaged the British at Midway Church, in Liberty County, and there fought a bloody but losing battle. In this engagement Bro. James Jackson and Bro. John Habersham distinguished themselves.


The British siege of Savannah took place on December 27, 1778, the Americans being commanded by General Howe, who failed to take the advice of Bro. George Walton, one of his colonels, that he should defend the rear guard of his troops. Colonel Samuel Elbert, Grand Master of the Masons of Georgia, was in command of the line troops. Although greatly outnumbered, the Americans ably defended the city until the British crossed an unprotected marsh in the rear and surprised them. The battle would have been a rout for the Americans had it not been for the courage of Bro. Samuel Elbert, Bro. George Walton, and Bro. Joseph Habersham. Bro. Elbert held his troops on the left until the right and centre had retreated safely. Bro. Habersham kept his guns in action until every one of his men was either killed or wounded. Bro. Walton kept his troops in line and so protected the retreating Americans. All three of these Brethren were severely wounded, and Bro. Walton carried a grape shot in his thigh until the day of his death, some years later.


After the capture of Savannah the British published a list of leading rebels on which appeared the names of Grand Master Samuel Elbert, Bro. John Houstoun, Bro. N. W. Jones, Bro. Mordecai Sheftall, the " Great Rebel " and Senior Grand Warden; Bro. William O'Bryan, Bro. George Walton, Bro. William 156 FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA Stephens, Deputy Grand Master and later Grand Master of Georgia; Bro. John Habersham, Bro. Sheftall Sheftall, Bro. Benjamin Lloyd, Bro. Samuel Stirk, later Grand Secretary; Bro. Oliver Bowen, Grand Steward; Bro. Joseph Habersham, and Bro. Sir Patrick Houstoun. Tradition tells that Bro. Sir Patrick Houstoun kept the Oglethorpe Bible hidden in his home to prevent its being carried away from Solomon's Lodge Hall by British looters.


A year later, with the aid of the French fleet, the Americans attempted to recapture Savannah. One of the bloodiest battles of the War for Independence was a result of this attempt. In this battle nearly all the Brethren named above again served loyally. After the disastrous siege of Savannah had been abandoned by the Americans, but only after thousands of men had been sacrificed, the patriots of Georgia joined forces with General Nathanael Greene and General " Mad Anthony " Wayne. Throughout the guerilla campaigns of those two leaders, whose troops bit steadily into the strength of the British in the South, Masonic Brethren served with distinction. The Minutes of Solomon's Lodge of Savannah contain references to meetings of the Lodge while its members were with the Continental troops. Largely through the military skill of Bro. General James Jackson, Junior Grand Warden, the city of Augusta was taken from the British. Letters and diaries still available tell of attempts on the life of this Brother by British spies. He it was who maintained the spirit of Georgia patriots during those dark months of privations and suffering. Bro. Jackson brought his troops into lower Georgia and struck telling blows at the British, who firmly held that part of the State. Using guerilla tactics, his men burned the property of the British governor, and so successful was this campaign that Governor Wright soon sought peace. The governor originated a clever scheme to sow discord among the ranks of the weary and starving patriots. He proposed to make peace on condition that the British retain property held by them, the Americans also to hold the property they occupied. This was tempting bait for the ragged patriot troops. Bro. George Walton destroyed the effectiveness of the proposal, however, by circulating a pamphlet he had prepared, which disclosed the cunning of the enemy. Governor Wright's peace offer was flatly refused.


By this time General Nathanael Greene had begun a campaign that was to result in clearing the South of the British. One of his most dependable commanders was General Samuel Elbert, Grand Master of Georgia Masons. General Greene's little army met the British at Briar Creek. In the ensuing battle the right and centre broke, but the left wing, under General Elbert, held firm until every one of his men was out of the action through capture, wounds, or death. Bro. Elbert himself was severely wounded, and while lying on the battlefield he gave a Masonic sign that was recognised and answered by a British officer, who dragged him to safety. Bro. Elbert was later released in an exchange of prisoners. He then went North and joined his friend, General Washington, who placed him in command of the central ammunition depot at Yorktown.


The patriots having cleared the State of British forces and being then in FREEMASONRY IN GEORGIA 157 control of the situation, the British decided to evacuate Savannah in 1782. General Anthony Wayne selected Bro. Major John Habersham to enter the city and arrange the terms of surrender. The American troops voted for the officer whom they wanted to represent them and to receive the formal note of surrender, and this honour was given to Bro. General James Jackson, later Grand Master of Georgia Masons. After the surrender took place, command of the city was given to him by General Wayne.


Now that a Nation and a State had come into being, the activities of Masonic Brethren in the events that came with the establishment of government upon a sound basis forms an interesting episode. Bro. William Pierce, Bro. Wil liam Houstoun, Bro. George Walton, and Bro. Nathaniel Pendleton were delegates to Congress during the drafting of a Constitution for the newly formed United States. The Convention called in Georgia for ratifying the Constitution included Bro. William Stephens, Bro. Joseph Habersham, Bro. James Powell, Bro. George Handley, and Bro. Henry Osborne. Bro. John Houstoun became the first mayor of Savannah in 1790, and the eight mayors following him were also Masons.


George Washington visited Savannah in 1791. On the committee appointed to receive him on behalf of the people were Bro. N. W. Jones, Bro. John Houstoun, and Bro. Joseph Habersham. Bro. Habersham as Postmaster General of the United States, was a member of the Cabinet of the first President. The Grand Lodge of Georgia visited the President in a body to deliver their address of welcome. President Washington cordially received them and then spoke to them. The Master's chair of Solomon's Lodge Hall was in use at that time, and in it the President sat during the ball held in his honour.


To the glory of Georgia Masons they have served their State and Nation well. As servants of the Commonwealth they have rarely failed to impress the public with their pride in Masonic membership. Publicly acknowledging them selves as Masons, they have furnished the great majority of those who have given the State of Georgia its being. Aware of the intimate relationship between the history of the State and the history of the Craft, all citisens to‑day recognise the two as inseparable.


To continue with the record of the Colony, Province, and State would be only to repeat an account of the way in which the members of the Craft have intimately written their names into our glorious history. A great majority of men who in later years have fought to lead our people in the path of right, who have died upon the field of battle, who have served ably and creditably in all the public activities of Georgia, have been loyal and interested members of the Craft. Nearly 70,000 of them now labour in the places of those few who made the beginning. They have not failed to uphold the record of the Fraternity in teaching Georgians the great principles of Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth.


FREEMASONRY IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS JOHN WICHER HE oldest Lodge west of the Missouri River is Le Progres de 1'Oceanie Lodge, located at Honolulu, Island of Hawaii. It was organised in 1841 on the whaling bark Ajax, then lying in the harbour of Honolulu, Sand wich Islands, by Captain Le Tellier, master of the ship, who held a Commission from the Supreme Council of France " to set up Lodges in the Pacific Ocean and elsewhere in his voyages; to issue Warrants; to call upon the Supreme Council for Charters; to make Masons at sight; to forever be given the Grand Honours upon his appearance in any Lodge of his creation." The membership was originally composed of American, English, Irish, Scotch, French, German, Italian, Central American, and South American Masons, and the Work was restricted to the three Craft Degrees. The Lodge was granted a Charter bearing the date of April 8, 1842, and the title Le Progres de l'Oceanie Lodge, No. 124. The Lodge continued under French obedience until October igo5, when its original allegiance was surrendered to the Grand Lodge of California. It is still flourishing as Lodge No. 371. In 1916 the Grand Lodge of California gave formal permission to the Lodge to retain a part of the old French Ritual in the Third Degree., During the early days of the kingdom of Hawaii, royalty was active in Masonic affairs. King Kamekameha IV received the Degrees of Masonry in Le Progres de 1'Oceanie Lodge during January and February 1857. He was Master of the Lodge in 1858, in 186o, and in 1861. He died on November 30, 1863. His successor, King Kamekameha V, was also an active member, as was Prince Leleiohoka. David Kalakaua received his First Degree on March 25, 1859, on which occasion King Kamekameha IV acted as Master. The Third Degree was conferred upon him, on July 28, 1859, and he was elected Master of the Lodge on November 29, 1875. This Brother was crowned as King Kalakaua I on February 12, 1883. His Masonic Brethren were special guests at the coronation ceremony. He died in 1891. John Dominus, " Prince Consort," the husband of Queen Liliuokalani, was made a Mason in 1858 and served as Master of the Lodge in 1862, 1863, and 1867. Prince David Kawananakoa of the Kalakaua dynasty was made a Mason in 19oo.


In September 1848, the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts issued a Dispensation for a Lodge at Honolulu, but the Lodge was never organised. Fire having destroyed many old archives of the Massachusetts Grand Lodge, nothing can now be learned concerning the final disposition of this Dispensation.


The first Lodge to be formed in the Hawaiian Islands by the Grand Lodge of California was Hawaiian Lodge, No. 21, at Honolulu. The Charter is dated May 5, 1852. The Lodge has had a continuous existence.


=58 FREEMASONRY IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 159 At Wailuku, Island of Maui, a Lodge was formed on July io, 1872, by Dispensation from the Grand Master of California, and a Charter was granted making it Maui Lodge, No. 223. The Charter was surrendered in 1877. In 1904 the Brethren on the Island of Maui secured a Charter from the Grand Lodge of Scotland and established the meeting‑place of their Lodge at Kahului. This Lodge continued active until 1918, when, by permission of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, it transferred its allegiance to the Grand Lodge of California. Like all the other Lodges of the Hawaiian Islands, Maui Lodge, No. 472, is generous in its relief work.


Pacific Lodge No. 822 was organised in January 1895, by Dispensation from the District Grand Lodge of Queensland, Scottish Constitution, and was granted a Charter by the Grand Lodge of Scotland on August 1, 1895. In 19o9 the Brethren reorganised as Honolulu Lodge, No. 409, under a Charter from the Grand Lodge of California. The next Lodge to be formed in the " Paradise of the Pacific " was Kilauea Lodge, No. 330, located at Hilo, Island of Hawaii. Its Charter is dated October 15, 1897 The largest United States military reservation, Schofield Barracks, on the Island of Oahu, boasts of a splendid Lodge, Schofield Lodge, No. 443, under obedience to the Grand Lodge of California. Its Charter is dated October 14, 1914. The membership is almost exclusively composed of men in the armed service of the United States, and the meetings are very enjoyable. It is the only place on the reservation where the husbands of " Judy O'Grady and the Colonel's lady " can meet socially. It is true there as it was in Kipling's Mother Lodge; " Outside: Sergeant! Sir! Salute! Inside. Brother." At Lihue, on the " garden isle," Kauai, is located Kauai Lodge, No. 589, Chartered by the Grand Lodge of California on October 15, 1924.


The last Lodge formed in the Hawaiian Islands was Pearl Harbour Lodge, No. 589, whose Charter is dated October 15, 1924. It meets at Honolulu, on the Island of Oahu.


The membership of the eight California Lodges in the group of islands comprising the Territory of Hawaii aggregates igoo, all masters of the peculiarly cordial hospitality for which the islanders are noted. Of rare beauty and infinite in its attractions, the land is aptly called the " Paradise of the Pacific." Though the social and economic problems there are difficult of solution because of the diverse interests of the polyglot population, the Territory's people generally are of the salt of the earth and its Masonry is honourable and influential for good.


FREEMASONRY IN IDAHO JOHN H. MYER URISDICTION of the Grand Lodge of Washington, organised in 1858, at first covered the region now known as Idaho. Since it was easier to communicate with Oregon than with Washington Territory, the Masons of Idaho Territory found it preferable to act with Oregon Masonry rather than with that of Washington when they desired to organise Lodges. Consequently, upon the recommendation of Wasco Lodge, No. io, of Oregon, and after the usual preliminaries, a Charter was issued on June 21, 1864, for the formation of a Masonic Lodge at Bannock, later known as Idaho City. This was called Idaho Lodge, No. 35. On June Zo, 1865, the Grand Lodge of Oregon also issued a Charter to the Masons of Boise City for a Lodge to be known as Boise Lodge, No. 37, and on the same day it granted a Charter to the Masons of Placerville, Idaho, for a Lodge to be known as Placer Lodge, NO. 38. On September Zi, 1867, the Grand Lodge of Washington issued a Charter to the Masons of Pioneerville for a Lodge to be known in that jurisdiction as Pioneer Lodge, No. 12. The Masons of Silver City, Idaho, received a Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Oregon on July 21, 1866, and in 1867 they were operating under that Dispensation.


On December 16, 1867, at two o'clock in the afternoon, a Convention of the Free and Accepted Masons delegated by the several Lodges in the Idaho Territory assembled at the Masonic Hall in Idaho City. Their purpose was to establish a Grand Lodge for the Territory. George H. Coe, a Past Master, was called to the Chair, and P. E. Edmondston, Worshipful Master of Idaho Lodge, No. 35, was appointed Secretary. Acting upon a motion made by Bro. L. F. Cartee, a Committee on Credentials was appointed. It consisted of the following Worshipful Masters of Lodges represented in the Convention: P. E. Edmonston, G. W. Paul, George T. Young, and S. B. Connelly. On December 17 the Committee on Credentials found that Representatives of Lodge NO. 35, Lodge No. 37, and Lodge NO. 38, which were under the Oregon Jurisdiction, and the Representative of Lodge No. 12, which was under the jurisdiction of Washington Territory, were entitled to seats in the Convention. The Committee also recommended that Bro. L. P. Mikkelson, Worshipful Master of Owyhee Lodge, then under Dispensation, be admitted to a seat in the Convention and to a vote, as an act of courtesy. At that same meeting, Bro. L. F. Cartee offered three resolutions that were adopted. The first of these was to the effect that the four Lodges were empowered to organise a Grand Lodge. The second to the effect that a Lodge of Master Masons be called for the purpose of organising the Grand Lodge. The 160 FREEMASONRY IN IDAHO 161 third to the effect that an election of Grand Officers be held. The following Officers were then chosen: M.‑. W.‑. George H. Coe, as Grand Master; R.‑. W.‑. G. W. Paul, as Deputy Grand Master; R.'. W.'. A. Haas, as Senior Grand Warden; R.‑. W.‑. George T. Young, as junior Grand Warden; R.‑. W.‑. S. B. Connelly, as Grand Treasurer; R.. W.‑. P. E. Edmonston, as Grand Secretary; R.‑. W.‑. I. B. Curry, as Senior Grand Deacon; R.‑. W.‑. John Merrill, as junior Grand Deacon. The Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Oregon, with necessary modifications, was adopted for the use of this new Grand Lodge. Thus the greater part of four days was devoted to laying the foundation of the structure which was to grow and mature as the years passed.


Just zoo Masons were enrolled in the 5 Lodges, and of those 7o belonged to Idaho Lodge, No. i. The non‑affiliate was early given attention by the adoption of a resolution to the effect that failure to contribute an amount equal to the regular dues of a member would deprive him of all rights and privileges of membership.


The second session of the Grand Lodge was held on June 22, 1868. Because all correspondence had been destroyed by a fire, the address of the Grand Master was very brief. All Officers except Bro. Jonas W. Brown were retained in their original positions. He was elected to be Senior Grand Warden. The fee for affiliation was abolished, but the non‑affiliate was requested to contribute an amount equal to the dues of a member.


In 1869 the Session of the Grand Lodge was held on October 4. The first Roster, published that year, showed an increase of seventy‑nine members and recorded only two deaths. At this Session the most momentous legislation ever enacted by the Grand Lodge of Idaho was put upon the records. It was the result of a resolution offered by Bro. L. F. Cartee that the sum of one dollar be collected annually from each member and placed in a fund to be known as " The Grand Lodge Orphan Fund." Payments were " to provide an irreducible` fund, the interest of which is to be applied to the support and education of orphans of deceased Brethren or children of indigent Masons whom this Grand Lodge may deem worthy of said Masonic assistance. " The resolution was unanimously adopted. Two years later (1871) the Grand Master stated that he thought the measure premature, and suggested that the plan be abandoned. The Committee to which this matter was referred reported that the fund even then amounted to $432. Joseph Pinkham, Chairman of the Committee, insisted that the fund be maintained and that was done. At the end of another two years (1873), the Grand Master suggested in his address that the " Orphan Fund " be merged with the " General Fund." Again Bro. Joseph Pinkham saved the day. This time he showed that the " Orphan Fund " was not at all needed for other purposes. As long ago as 19o6 the annual levy for this fund was reduced from one dollar to fifty cents per member. Now Idaho's " Grand Lodge Orphan Fund " amounts to more than $158,ooo.


Though temperance, first named of the Cardinal Virtues, should properly apply to all manner of excess, nevertheless, in Idaho, as elsewhere, it usually 162 FREEMASONRY IN IDAHO refers chiefly to the use of alcoholic drinks. In early days, when the main pursuit of Masons and others in Idaho was placer gold mining, conditions were favourable to the prevalence of the habits of gambling and liquor drinking. George H. Coe, Idaho's first Grand Master, was a wholesale liquor dealer. Jonas W. Brown, the second Grand Master, sometimes played cards and had also been known to drink some. Later in life, however, he became a total abstainer who wanted all others to refrain from drinking. In his annual address as Grand Master in 1872, Bro. Brown touched upon the topic of Masons as saloon keepers. The Grand Lodge supported his contention that a professional gambler and saloon keeper should not have been elected to the office of junior Warden in any Lodge, though that had already been done. Then Bro. Brown issued an order stating that Masons engaged in the saloon business should dispose of their establishments or suffer the consequences of their failure to do so. The feeling caused by this order was general and pronounced. Many contended that, if a man were acceptable when made a Mason, then, regardless of his business, his status as a Mason was definite. Further, it was contended that the matter of putting a man out of the Fraternity, and keeping him out of it in the first instance, were two entirely different propositions. Many held to the theory that if a man had been good enough to be taken into the Fraternity, then he was also good enough to stay in it. The final result of all this discussion was that saloon keepers were gradually eliminated. Some sold their establishments then and there. Eventually death removed from the Order those who had seen fit to continue in the liquor business.


During the early years in Idaho Territory, the commonest medium of exchange was gold dust. This varied in value from one locality to another. It could be manipulated to personal advantage by the adept. Gold coin was diffi cult to obtain, and gold bars, though satisfactory for larger transactions, were useless in small ones. In consequence of these conditions, at the Session of 1874 it was " on motion ordered that the United States currency be the basis of account with the subordinate Lodges, and that the accounts of the Grand Lodge be kept in accordance therewith." As early as the second Session of the Grand Lodge (1868), it was resolved " that the Most Worshipful Grand Master of this body be required to have a life‑sized photograph of himself, as soon as practicable after Installation, for this Grand Lodge; and the Grand Treasurer is authorised to pay for the same upon presentation of an order by the Grand Secretary, who is hereby authorised to draw the same." The resolution has been faithfully complied with. The walls of the Masonic Temple in Boise, Idaho, now display portraits of the fifty‑seven Brethren whom the Grand Lodge of Idaho has seen fit to honour.


In earlier days there was a rule that a Master or Warden of a subordinate Lodge might not enjoy a Grand Lodge elective office while holding one of the chief offices in his own Lodge. This custom was largely responsible for Bro.


Stevenson's being four times elected Grand Master. When Grand Master in 1886, Bro. George H. Davis decided that the Masters and Wardens of Blue FREEMASONRY IN IDAHO 163 Lodges were eligible to hold office in the Grand Lodge, and that their election to the higher office vacated their tenure of office in the local Lodge. For the last thirty years promotion to elective offices has been customary. So, too, has advancement from the appointive offices. There is, however, no hard and fast rule about these matters. Until 1895 the office of Deputy Grand Master was appointive. At that time the Constitution was amended so as to make the office elective.


In 1917 the Grand Lodge adopted a uniform code of By‑Laws for the use of its constituent Lodges. These By‑Laws provide that a man who continues to be a non‑affiliated Mason for a period of six months cannot sit in Lodge more than three times, unless he contributes an amount equal to the monthly dues of the Lodge which he visits. Nor can he appear in any Masonic procession or be entitled to Masonic charity. Nor shall he have Masonic burial. Further, if he continue to be unaffiliated, or refuse to contribute, he shall be deemed a drone in the hive of Masonry, a useless member of society, and unworthy of our protection as Masons. The By‑Laws also decree that no Grand Officer, Past Grand Officer, or Past Master shall be represented in the Grand Lodge by proxy. No Mason except one who has attained to the Degree of Past Master, and is at the time a member of some Lodge in this jurisdiction, shall be eligible to any elective Office in the Grand Lodge except that of Most Worshipful Grand Master. He may be elected from the Body of the Craft. Although this provision is as old as Idaho Masonry, the Office of Grand Master has always been filled without looking for material in the Body of the Craft. The ByLaws also stipulate a year's residence in the jurisdiction before a candidate is permitted to petition for Degrees, and membership is restricted to a single Lodge.


In the early history of Idaho Masonry there was entire lack of uniformity in the Work. Among the various Lodges this was especially the case so far as pertained to the conferring of Degrees. In 1887 Bro. Davis, then Grand Mas ter, submitted a resolution calling for an exemplification of a particular Work on the first day of the following Session. When the next Session met the Committee reported but no exemplification took place. It was some ten years later that Bro. Anderson, Grand Lecturer of California, visited Idaho and gave instructions which led to the establishment of uniform Work and the publication of a monitor. Since that time the office of Grand Lecturer has been maintained. It has been filled by eleven different Brothers, some of whom have served only a single term, though one of them, Bro. William B. Goodheart, has served thirteen years.


IDAHO S GRAND MASTERS George H. Coe, first Grand Master of Idaho Freemasonry, died of a cancerous infection on December 17, 1873. The record does not give the date of his birth. In an address of 1874 Grand Master Kennaly in part said: " It is the nature of our common humanity that, one by one, we should yield to the 164 FREEMASONRY IN IDAHO mandate of relentless death and enter upon the final rest. Not one of us may go forth from this meeting and not feel that, ere another, we may be summoned to join the innumerable caravan that moves to that mysterious realm where each shall take his chamber in the silent halls of death. In sadness I announce the death of our beloved brother, Past Grand Master George H. Coe, who died in the city of San Francisco on the 17th day of December, 1873. Bro. Coe, the first Grand Master of this Grand Lodge, served this Body faithfully for two terms. He possessed a generous heart that overflowed with kindness to his fellow men. As a presiding Officer he was dignified and impartial. His urbanity and gentlemanly manner endeared him to a host of friends. Green be his memory. You will need no incitement from me to place upon your records such a tribute as shall show your appreciation of his many sterling qualities as a man and Mason." Jonas Warren Brown was elected Grand Master in 1879. He died on September 15, 1916, less than one day after the close of the annual session of the Grand Lodge for that year. The Committee appointed at the next session after Bro. Brown's death reported the following as having been written by him on July 11, 1916: " My father and mother, named Samuel Brown and Lydia Brown, were of North Danvers, Massachusetts. They moved to Roscoe, Coshocton County, Ohio, about the year 1841. They lived at Keokuk (Iowa), until the spring of 1853. I crossed the plains with an ox team in 1853, and stopped at Shasta for about one year. I then moved to Deadwood (California), near Yreka, and the following year I worked at mining. In 1855 I was elected county clerk of Siskiyou County, on the ' Know‑Nothing' ticket. I was an old‑line Whig in politics. I served as under sheriff under F. C. Horsley. I paid out $11,ooo in surety notes, got broke, went to Sacramento Valley, and then to Florence, Idaho, to try again. A man who knew nothing about the business was elected county clerk, so he appointed me deputy with the understanding that he would go mining and would divide with me. I was afterwards appointed under sheriff. The treasurer got tired and appointed me deputy‑treasurer, so I had charge of the whole thing. I ran the business of the county, and in the fall closed up the business of the county, having all debts paid and $400 in the treasury for the next year. My record for that year was very highly praised by courts and attorneys. Of that I am quite proud. I came across the country to Idaho City and arrived there on August 13, 1863. I lived in Idaho City nineteen years. Then, on October 2, 1882., I came to Boise. Here I have lived ever since. I united with the Methodist Episcopal Church when I was thirteen years of age. I am an acceptable member of it now. " Bro. Brown was born on June 2.7, 182.5, at Roscoe, Ohio. In January 1849, he was made a Master Mason in Eagle Lodge, No. 12., of Keokuk, Iowa. Later he affiliated with St. John's Lodge of Yreka, California. Demitting from St. John's Lodge, he became a Charter member of Howard Lodge, No. 96. His membership in Idaho was first in Idaho Lodge, No. 37, under the Oregon jurisdiction, then in Idaho Lodge, No. i, and later in Boise Lodge, No. 2, both FREEMASONRY IN IDAHO 165 under Idaho Jurisdiction. In 1857 he received the Council and Chapter Degrees in Yreka, California, and the next year he received the Degree of Knight Templar in Sacramento. Later he helped orgarrise Idaho Commandery, No. 1 at Boise. Space will not permit the inclusion of many other interesting facts that might be related about this extraordinary man and Mason.


John Kennaly, who was born at Niagara Falls, New York, on August 29, 1833, died December 13, 1918. Fifty‑five of his sixty‑two years in Masonry were passed in Idaho. In 1856 he was made a Mason in Milwaukee Lodge, No. 3, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Later he belonged, successively, to Prairie du Chien Lodge, of Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin; to Willamette Lodge, of Willamette, Oregon; and to Boise Lodge, No. 37, of Boise, Idaho. He was Master of the Boise Lodge while it was under Dispensation. He received the Degrees of Royal Arch Masonry in Wisconsin Chapter, No. 7 during October 1856, and took the Orders of Knighthood in Idaho Commandery during 1883. Bro. Kennaly was a genial gentleman, who delighted to regale the Brethren with the story of his life and experience. He was well versed in the Work of the Blue Lodge.


Lars P. Mikkelson, who in 1874 was elevated to the Office of Grand Master, died on May 28, 1876. Since he had been born in distant Scandinavia, Grand Lodge records are extremely deficient in facts regarding his early career. The Committee appointed at the time of his death referred to the words of Grand Master Kennaly as befitting the subject, and recommended that a memorial page in the Transactions of the Grand Lodge be set apart to Bro. Mikkelson's memory. That was done. In his annual address, Grand Master Griffin, a very close friend of Bro. Mikkelson's, said this, in part: " Bro. L. P. Mikkelson, my immediate predecessor as Grand Master of Idaho, died on May 28, 1876. He was so well known as a zealous and kind‑hearted man, and as an upright citisen, that any attempt of mine to eulogise him at this time would be superfluous. We must all deplore the circumstances under which he died. Let us cherish the charitable hope that the rash act which terminated his earthly career was the devious fancy of a disturbed and distracted mind, and a muscle raised obedient to its impulse, rather than an act of premeditation and reflection.


James W. Griffin, who was elected Grand Master in 1875, was born at Sebec, Maine, on August 29, 183o. He died on July 27, 1885. The sea had an attraction for Bro. Griffin early in life, and before attaining manhood he was master of a vessel. In 1842 he was married, and for more than twenty years his wife was the companion of his voyages. In 1849 he sailed round Cape Horn, and the following year he retired from the sea. Bro. Griffin came to Idaho in 1864 and was for many years owner of the Overland Hotel in Boise. About i85o he was made a Mason in Brooklyn Lodge, No. 285, of Brooklyn, New York. He became a member of Boise Lodge, No. 2 in 1868, and was its Master in 1870. He was Grand Treasurer for a period of five years.


Edward Augustus Stevenson, born on June 15, 1825, at Lowville, New 11 166 FREEMASONRY IN IDAHO York, lived for a time in Michigan. In 1849 he went to California by way of Cape Horn. There he was at different times alcalde, sheriff, Indian agent, and speaker of the House of Representatives. In 1863 he came to Idaho and followed the work of placer mining. He was twice elected to each house of the Territorial Legislature, and served four years as Territorial governor, having been appointed to that office by President Grover Cleveland. Bro. Stevenson's Masonic career began in California. He received the First Degree in Vesper Lodge, No. 84, at Red Bluffs, in 1857. Early in 1869 he received the Second and Third Degrees in Pioneer Lodge, No. 4, of Idaho, and in this Lodge he served as Secretary, as junior Warden, as Senior Warden, and as Master. In 1874 he was appointed as Deputy Grand Master. He was elected Grand Master in 1876, 1877, 1878, and 1887. For many years Bro. Stevenson was Chairman of the Board of Trustees of " The Grand Lodge Orphan Fund." He was a member of Idaho Chapter, No. 1, Royal Arch Masons, and at the time of his death he was a member of Boise Lodge, No. 2, of Boise. It is said that Bro. Stevenson's funeral was the largest ever seen in Boise.


Charles Himrod, who was born at Burdett, New York, on November 4, 1842, came to Idaho in 1864, after crossing the plains on a mule. As a Mason he was raised in Shoshone Lodge, No. 7, on January 24, 1872. Later he became a member of Boise Lodge, No. 2, of Boise. He was Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge in 1874. For four years he was Grand Secretary, and in 1879 he was elected Grand Master. From 1889 until 1917 he was Grand Treasurer. Then the infirmities of years compelled him to resign. Bro. Himrod had an unbroken record of forty‑four years' attendance at the Grand Lodge. This record was surpassed only once in all the history of the Grand Lodge of Idaho. He had been High Priest of Boise Chapter, No. 2, Eminent Commander of Idaho Commandery, No. 1, and he was a life member of El Korah Temple of the Mystic Shrine. In civil life Bro. Himrod's career was varied and honourable. He served as mayor of Boise, Idaho, for four terms; as treasurer of Ada County for two terms, and as treasurer of Idaho Territory for two terms. He was a member of the seventh session of the House of the Territorial Legislature, and of the fourteenth session of its Council. For four years he was register of the United States Land Office, and county commissioner of Ada County for an equal length of time. At the time of his burial, on January 28, 192o, the Grand Lodge held an Emergency Session. There it was said, " We reverently laid his body in the grave, depositing therein the Masonic symbol of immortality, there to rest in the silent city where dwell so many of his old‑time friends. There we left him until the day breaks and the shadows flee away." Henry E. Prickett, who was born on February 1, 1829, in Fernshaw, County of Kent, England, arrived in the United States in 1836. In 186o he started West and reached Idaho during the early days of the gold rush. Being a lawyer by profession, he became judge of the District Court at a time when the district judges composed the Supreme Court. He was Grand Secretary, Grand Orator, and Grand Senior Warden, before his elevation to the Office of Grand Master FREEMASONRY IN IDAHO 167 in 1885. He was buried with Masonic honours at Boise, Idaho, on July 16, 1885. " Brother Prickett was made a Mason in Jackson County, Wisconsin, about the year 1854. He was able, zealous, and conscientious in every office he held, whether it was political, judicial, or Masonic. His qualities gave him preference among his fellows." Francis Edward Ensign, commonly known simply as Frank Ensign, was born in Painesville, Ohio, on March 4, 1829. He was made a Mason on May 1, 1853, in Wayne Lodge, No. 35, of Fort Wayne, Indiana. Bro. Ensign was in California as early as 1854. From there he came to Idaho in 1886. As a Chapter and Commandery Mason he helped organise Idaho Commandery, No. i, of the Knights Templar. A lawyer by profession, Bro. Frank Ensign was highly esteemed by all who knew him. He died at his home in Hailey, Idaho, on May 5, 19o8. " He was generous. His integrity, and the other sterling qualities of his character, will ever be cherished by his Brethren of the mystic tie. He was buried at Hailey, Idaho, under the auspices of the Masons, by Hailey Lodge, No. 16.


Lafayette Cartee was born on December 2, 1823, at Syracuse, New York. He died on September 2, 1891. This Brother was indeed an argonaut of California in 1849, and of Idaho in 1863. By profession a civil engineer, he was for fourteen years surveyor‑general of Idaho Territory. He was a pioneer in the fruit growing industry of this State. On April 6, 1867, he affiliated with Boise Lodge, No. 37, of Boise, and in December of that year he was one of the leaders who formed the Grand Lodge of Idaho. Bro. Cartee was the Grand Lodge's first Grand Orator. He served as Grand Secretary for two years and as Deputy Grand Master for one year. In 1882 he was elected Grand Master. The Committee appointed by the Grand Master, at the Session of the Grand Lodge held a few days after Bro. Cartee's death in 1891, embodied this tribute in their report: " Noble Brother, we have laid you in the tomb, there to sleep under the fragrant acacia until the trumpet of the eventful morn shall summon us all into the presence of the Grand Architect of the Universe. Until then, dear Brother, until then, farewell." Chester P. Coburn was born on May 3, 1832, at Rochester, Vermont, and died on October 17, 1911, at Lewiston, Idaho. Having travelled to the Pacific Coast by way of Panama, after ten years of life in California Bro. Coburn came to Idaho. He was one of the pioneers of 1862. In 1875 he joined the Masonic Fraternity and received his Degrees in Nez Perce Lodge, No. 1o. Later he became a member of Boise Lodge, No. 2. He was a Royal Arch Mason and a member of Lewiston Consistory of the Scottish Rite. In 1883 he was Deputy Grand Master, and in 1884 he was elected Grand Master.


John A. Post, Grand Master, in 1885, and for a number of years postmaster at Boise, Idaho, ended his life in a sudden and untimely manner during the very year when he held this high Masonic office. In his first annual address, Grand Master Davis spoke as follows about the death of Bro. Post: " On the 8th day of August just passed, John A. Post, Past Grand Master, was instan‑ 168 FREEMASONRY IN IDAHO taneously killed by the discharge of a gun in his own hands. A most careful investigation by a coroner's jury resulted in a verdict of accidental death. We mourn the demise of one who was endeared to us by many virtues. Bro. Post was possessed of many estimable traits of character. He was an earnest and devoted Mason, a kind husband, a loving father, a generous friend, and an honoured citisen." At the Session of the Grand Lodge in 1882, the Deputy Grand Master announced the presence of Bro. George H. Davis, R.‑.W.‑.Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Minnesota. The distinguished Brother was cordially welcomed and was escorted to a position in the East. In 1884 Bro. Davis affiliated with Boise Lodge, No. 2. He was an Episcopalian minister and a man of signal ability. He was elected to the Office of Grand Master of Idaho in 1885, and re‑elected the following year, thus holding the Office two terms without having held previous Office in the Grand Lodge. He demitted from Boise Lodge, No. 2, on July 6, 1889. After fulfilling his mission in Idaho Bro. Davis travelled in an easterly direction on his life's journey, and on January 9, 1907, he crossed over the river to that land whose beauties he had for years praised in many delightful sermons. The world is better for his having lived.


Born in Booneville, Missouri, on October 3o, 1838, George Ainslie received his early education in Scotland and later attended St. Louis University. The year 186o found him in Colorado. Two years later he was in Idaho. Hav ing been educated in the law, Bro. Ainslie mingled law with politics early in his 'career. He filled the office of prosecuting attorney efficiently. He served two terms in Congress as a delegate from Idaho before the Territory was admitted to Statehood, and he was one of the most prominent members of the convention that framed a constitution for the State of Idaho. On January 29, 1868, a few weeks after the formation of the Grand Lodge of Idaho, Bro. Ainslie was made a Mason in Idaho Lodge, No. i. He served his Lodge as Warden and as Master. In 1889 he filled the position of Deputy Grand Master, and he was elected Grand Master in 189o. He was a Royal Arch Mason and a member of Columbia Commandery, No. 2, of Washington, District of Columbia. For fourteen years he was one of the trustees of " The Grand Lodge Orphan Fund." Bro. George Ainslie was a fluent talker, a good reasoner, a devoted Mason, and a loyal friend. It were well if there were more like him.


Isaac C. Hattabaugh, who was born on an Indiana farm on December 24, 1851, died on December 11, 1927. When only twenty‑three years of age he was made a Mason in Indiana, in Middle Fork Lodge, No. 304. In 1879 he was a member of Nez Perch Lodge, No. 1o, of Lewiston, Idaho. He was Deputy Grand Master in 1887 and Grand Master in 1882. Bro. Hattabaugh was a Royal Arch Mason and a member of the Commandery at Moscow, Idaho. He was also a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, of the Woodmen of the World, and of the United Artisans. In addition, he was a Charter member of the Elks Lodge at Moscow. He held his Shrine membership with Katif Temple, of Spokane, Washington.


FREEMASONRY IN IDAHO 169 James Alonzo Pinney was born on September 28, 183 5 and died on February 4, 1914. In 185o he was in California, twelve years later he was in Idaho, and from 1864 to 1872 he served as postmaster in Idaho City. For forty years Bro. Pinney was zealous in working for the interests of the people of Boise City, where he resided after leaving the mining regions of Boise Basin. He built the first modern theatre building in Boise and was five times elected mayor'of the city. Originally an Iowa Mason, Bro. Pinney early identified himself with Masonry in Idaho. He filled both the Warden stations in Idaho Lodge, No. i, and was Master of Boise Lodge, No. 2. He was a York Rite Mason, a member of the Scottish Rite, and a Past Potentate of El Korah Temple of the Mystic Shrine. In the Grand Lodge he was a junior Warden, a Deputy Grand Master for one year, and Grand Master in 1893. In 1894 he was elected to be one of the trustees of " The Grand Lodge Orphan Fund," a post he retained until his death. Genial and generous, Bro. Pinney was loved and respected both as man and Mason during the full period of his eventful career.


Adelbert B. Clark was elected Grand Master in 1894. In 19o1 the Appeals and Grievance Committee reported that they approved the action of Elmore Lodge, No. 30, with regard to the case of a certain Bro. Howie, but that they disapproved of the Lodge's action so far as concerned Bro. Clark. The report of the Committee read in part as follows: ` ` In the matter of said Lodge versus Bro. A. B. Clark, wherein said Clark was found not guilty, we must say that we cannot agree with the conclusion arrived at by said Lodge. In our opinion, Clark was guilty of un‑Masonic conduct as charged, and is rather entitled to punishment than was Bro. Howie. The evidence is certainly conclusive as to his guilt. It is another instance of the perversity of human nature, that one should be found guilty and the other not guilty, when the latter is proven guilty by his own letters and subsequent conduct, violating not only his written word but his contract with a Brother Mason. If it were possible, we should recommend some action be taken as to Clark, but as no appeal was taken on behalf of Elmore Lodge, No. 30, from the judgment in Clark's case, and we are informed that Clark has not only removed from the jurisdiction of said Lodge, but from the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge, and that he demitted from Elmore Lodge, No. 30, we do not see that we now have any jurisdiction over him, as we learn that he is now a resident of the State of Washington." Isidor Samuel Weiler, known to nearly everybody as Sam Weiler, was born on October 1, 185 1. He died on July 1, 1898, and was buried two days later in the Masonic cemetery of Boise, Idaho. Bro. Weiler's earliest years were spent in New York City, but as a young man he came to Placerville, Idaho, and there spent his early manhood. Amid such surroundings he developed many of those touches of character which seem to distinguish the denizens of a placer mining camp. He went much among the gold diggers, for as a mere lad he worked at distributing meat among the mining camps at the behest of his guardian uncle, Mark Schmidt, a butcher. With wares loaded upon a pack mule's back, Sam Weiler visited every mining party in the region. One of the most genial 170 FREEMASONRY IN IDAHO of men, Bro. Weiler attracted many friends. He was not only a member of the ninth Territorial Legislature, but also a member of the first State Legislature. After being made a Mason in Placer Lodge, No. 3, at Placerville, Idaho, he demitted and joined Mount Idaho Lodge, No. 9. He was a Royal Arch Mason and attained the Thirty‑second Degree of Scottish Rite Masonry. In 1895 he was elected Grand Master. Bro. Sam Weiler had the proverbial " host of friends," both Masonic and non‑Masonic.


George Dickson Golden, a native of England, was elected Grand Master in igoo and died on May 17, igoi, while occupying that Office. The Grand Lodge was convened to officiate at his burial, which took place on Sunday, May 26.


Joshua M. Cowan was born in Massachusetts on March 23, 1851. In 1875 he came to Atlanta, Idaho, where he engaged in mining. Later he removed to Mountainhome, Idaho. The year of his departure from the " Old Bay State," Bro. Cowan was made a Master Mason of Pythagoras Lodge (Massachusetts). Later he affiliated with St. Johns Lodge, No. 15 (Idaho). In 1901 he was Senior Grand Warden, and in 1903 he was elected Grand Master. Bro. Cowan's funeral was held at Mountainhome on Sunday, August io, 1919, the Grand Lodge having been convened for the burial rites. Bro. Arch Cunningham, acting as Grand Master, officiated on the occasion.


Albert W. Gordon, who was born at Marysville, California, was made a Mason in Ruby Lodge, No. 36, at Granite Mountain, Montana, in the year 1887. Bro. Gordon's Lodge membership was held in different Lodges. He was at one time affiliated with Kendrick Lodge, No. 29, of Kendrick, Idaho. He was a member of State Lodge, No. 68, at Tacoma, Washington, and later of Hiram Lodge, No. 36, at Nez Perce, Idaho. In 1904 he was elected Grand Master of Idaho. Bro. Gordon died at Spokane, Washington, on June 12, 1926, and that same day the Grand Lodge of Idaho conducted burial services at Hope, Idaho, with full Masonic honours.


William Carroll Whitwell, who was born in Tennessee in 1850, came to Idaho at the age of thirty‑seven to be official physician at the Lemhi Indian Agency. While yet in his home State, Bro. Whitwell had become identified with the Masonic Fraternity. He was elected a Grand Master of Idaho in 1907, and three times he represented Lemhi County in the State Legislature. Yet throughout his whole life the honour which he most highly prized was his long service as a Master Mason. In 1918 Bro. Whitwell died at Salmon City, Idaho. Since the Grand Lodge was not notified of his death with sufficient timeliness, burial rites were conducted by the local Lodge of Salmon City.


Ezra A. Burrell was elected Grand Master in 1912. At the 1930 session of the Grand Lodge the following report was made: " On June 5, 1930, I received a message from Bro. F. N. Dryden, Worshipful Master of King Solomon Lodge of Montpelier, saying, ' I am advised that Past Grand Master Ezra A. Burrell died in California to‑day.' Not having Bro. Burrell's address, I made further inquiry of Bro. Dryden as to particulars of address, death, and burial of the demised. I learned the address, but other particulars were not available. Two FREEMASONRY IN IDAHO 171 days later I received a message from the Masonic authorities of Los Angeles saying that Bro. Burrell was buried on June 7 with a private funeral." John D. Bloomfield was elected Grand Master in 1916, after having successively filled the office of each of the Wardens, and after having been Deputy Grand Master in the Grand Lodge. Born in Peoria, Illinois, in 1870, Bro. Bloomfield came to Idaho in 1898 and was made a Mason in Nampa Lodge, No. 29, on September 12, 1903. For three successive years he served his Lodge as Master, and for seven years he was its Secretary. His Masonic record was a splendid one. Marked by ability and devotion, he was a Mason true and trusty, one of God's noblemen who left behind him an influence that will not soon die.


Andrew Lounsbury, who was born in Bangor, Maine, on November i, 1845, was elected Grand Master of Idaho in 1918. Having enlisted as a soldier in the war between the States, he was present when General Robert E. Lee finally surrendered. As an upstanding citizen of his community, Bro. Lounsbury was the proud parent of three sons and three daughters. He served his county as sheriff and as treasurer. In 1886 he was made a Mason and five times he was Master of Cassia Lodge, No. 14. He was a member of the Scottish Rite and a Shriner as well. While still Grand Master, Bro. Lounsbury died on June 16, 1919. The Grand Lodge was convened by Bro. Arch Cunningham, Deputy Grand Master, on August io, 1919, and on that occasion the death of Bro. Lounsbury was commemorated with full Masonic honours.


George Laird Shoup was born in Pennsylvania on June 15, 1836. After being educated in the public schools, he came into the West where he led a long and distinguished career as citizen, as soldier, and as Mason. He reached Colorado some time in 1859. During the war between the States he was in the military service of the North. At the conclusion of hostilities he was commissioned as colonel of the Third Colorado Cavalry. In 1864 he was a member of the Colorado Constitutional Convention, and later he was a member of the eighth and tenth sessions of the Idaho Territorial Legislature. He became a governor of Idaho Territory and later a governor of the State. At one time he was United States senator from Idaho. Bro. Shoup was made a Mason in Denver Lodge, No. 2 (Colorado), in 1863. Later he was a member of Lemhi Lodge, No. 11, of Salmon City, Idaho. Though he had not previously held any Office in the Grand Lodge, Bro. Shoup was elected Grand Master in 1889, since a ruling of the Grand Lodge of Idaho makes it possible to select the Grand Master from the Body of the Craft. Past Grand Master Shoup died on December 21, 1904, at Boise, Idaho. The Grand Lodge over which he had so ably presided conferred the funeral Rites.


George M. Waterhouse, a physician who had an extensive experience in general practice and hospital work, was born on October 7, 186o, at New Lebanon, Ohio. In all civic affairs, especially in those connected with medical and educational matters, he had an active interest. For four years he was treasurer of his county, and he served one term as regent of the State University at Moscow. Bro. Waterhouse was the first candidate elected in Weiser Lodge, 172 FREEMASONRY IN IDAHO No. 23, having been raised on December 23, 1887. He was elected junior Grand Warden in 1892; Senior Grand Warden in 1894; Deputy Grand Master in 1895, and Grand Master in 1897.


William R. Hamilton was born in Brant County, Province of Ontario, Canada, on July 16, 1866. He was made a Mason in Silver City Lodge, No. 13, of Silver City, Idaho, on June 9, 19oo. In 1905 he was elected junior Grand Warden, and in 1907 he became Deputy Grand Master. The next year he was chosen Grand Master. Bro. Hamilton's worth as a citisen was shown by his election as mayor of his home city for a third time.


Francis Jenkins, a native of South Wales, was born on March 12, 185o. He was made a Master Mason in Deadwood Lodge, No. 7 (Dakota Territory) on August 28, 1881, and later a member of Paradise Lodge, No. 17, of Moscow, Idaho. In 1912 he was elected junior Grand Warden, and the next year he was made Senior Grand Warden. He became Deputy Grand Master in 1914, Grand Master in 1915. Bro. Jenkins was a York Rite Mason, a member of Cyrus Chapter, No. 2, of Silver City, and a member of Moscow Commandery, No. 3, of Moscow, Idaho. He was associated with the State University of Idaho, at Moscow, for many years.


Of the Past Grand Masters now living, the oldest in point of service is John Hunter. All his predecessors are deceased. Bro. Hunter was born in Paisley, Scotland, on July 5, 185o, and was made a Mason in Evanston Lodge, No.


4, of Evanston, Wyoming. In 1886 he was the first Worshipful Master of Portneuf Lodge, No. 18 (Idaho). He was the Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge in 1887, and in 1888 he was elected Grand Master. Since 1883 he has been a Scottish Rite Mason of the Utah Jurisdiction. As a boy of thirteen years John Hunter accompanied his father, who in 1863 removed from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Salt Lake City, Utah. Since then he has passed his life in the Inter‑Mountain Country, first in the transportation work of the United States Government, and later with the Union Pacific Railway. Bro. Hunter was still living in Salt Lake City, Utah, where he had resided for many years.


John H. Myer was born at Sing Sing, New York, on June 5, 1848. His family removed to Illinois in 1855. Having reached his majority, he set out for Idaho in 1870. In July of the next year, Bro. Myer was made a Master Mason in Placer Lodge, No. 3, of Placerville, Idaho. He is still (1931) a member of that Lodge. He became a Royal Arch Mason on March 7, 1873, and a Knight Templar on the same day of the same month ten years later. He is also a Charter member of El Korah Temple of the Mystic Shrine. In 1886 Bro. Myer was elected Senior Grand Warden, in 189o he was appointed Deputy Grand Master, and in 1891 he was elected Grand Master. In civil life Bro. Myer has been a postmaster, a member of the Territorial Legislature, a prosecuting attorney, and a member of the Constitutional Convention. From among the original sixty‑five members of the last‑named body, Bro. Myer is to‑day among some half‑dozen survivors. Of a company of forty‑two men who enlisted in the Nez Perce Indian War of 1877, he is now one of the two survivors.


FREEMASONRY IN IDAHO 173 Fred G. Mock was born in Cumberland County, Illinois, on November 2.4, 1861. On October 4, 18go, he was made a Mason in Burlington Lodge, No. 77, of Burlington, Colorado. He is still a member of Nampa Lodge, No. 2‑9, of Nampa, Idaho, having been a member of that Lodge since the day it was Chartered. Of all Idaho's Past Grand Masters, Bro. Mock is probably the most widely travelled. He went around the world in 192‑6. In 192.9 he travelled in South America, Africa, and northern Europe. He was elected Grand Master in 1896, having previously been Grand Lecturer.


George Hiram Storer was born in Nottingham, England, on February 17, 186o. He was initiated, passed, and raised in the Lodge at Corinne, Utah, in October 1884, and there received all three Degrees within a single month. The next year he became a member of Eagle Rock Lodge, No. 19 (Idaho). Bro. Storer, who is a York Rite Mason and a member of Lewiston Commandery at Lewiston, Idaho, was elected junior Grand Warden in 1896, Senior Grand Warden in 1897, and Grand Master in 1898. This well‑known Past Grand Master first reached Idaho in 1879. For a while he lived in Blackfoot, then in Idaho Falls. In earlier years he was first in the lumber business and later in the realestate business. In 1896 he was elected treasurer of the State of Idaho. At present Bro. Storer resides in Southern California.


John Charles Muerman was born in Deerfield, Ohio, in 1865. He was made a Mason in Paradise Lodge, No. 17, of Moscow, Idaho, on June 2.z, 1893. In 1895 he was appointed Senior Grand Deacon, in 1896 he was elected Deputy Grand Master; he filled that Office again in 1898, and in 1899 he was elected Grand Master. Recognition of Bro. Muerman as a Mason of sterling worth was shown by his reaching the topmost round of the ladder within six years after becoming a Mason. He is a member of the Royal Arch Chapter at Moscow, Idaho, and of Washington Commandery, No. 1, and Alma Temple of the Mystic Shrine at Washington, District of Columbia. Bro. Muerman is a specialist in rural education, associated with the Federal Bureau of Education. Though his work has taken him to the Orient and elsewhere in distant lands, in all his travels he has never failed to remember his Masonic duties and obligations.


Jeremiah William Robinson was born in McLean County, Kentucky, on July i8, 186o. He was made a Mason in Carson Lodge, No. 132, of Elk City, Kansas, in 1886. Since 1892‑ he has been a member of Boise Lodge, No. 2, and he is, besides, a Thirty‑third Degree Mason and a Knight Templar. Bro. Robinson was elected junior Grand Warden in 19o2‑, Senior Grand Warden in 1903, Deputy Grand Master in 1904, and Grand Master in 19o5. Since 191o he has filled the position of trustee of " The Grand Lodge Orphan Fund " with credit to himself and benefit to the Fraternity.


Victor Peterson was born in Sweden on April 16, 188o. That same year he came with his parents to the United States. He arrived on the Pacific Coast in 19o5 and from then till now he has been at one time and another school teacher, placer miner and grain dealer. In 19o2‑ he was made a Mason in Magnolia Lodge, No. 22‑o, of Emerson, Nebraska. He is now a York Rite Mason, FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS EVERETT R. TURNBULL A DESCRIPTION of Kaskaskia, capital of the Illinois Country, written in 1810, said that it was then " a port town, and the chief one of Randolph County," that it contained " forty‑five houses, many of them well built, several of stone, with gardens and large lots adjoining," and that it boasted " 467 inhabitants, of whom 47 were slaves." From here, on March 9, 1805, seven Brethren of Kaskaskia and vicinity sent the following letter to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania‑a letter which shows the sentiments that actuated those Brethren of pioneer days.


To the R . . W .'.Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, Greeting: The subscribers, and many others of our Brethren in the counties of St. Clair and Randolph, beg leave to approach your Worshipful Body and state to you that they are far removed from those social enjoyments which they once as Masons have experienced; that from the growth of population many worthy and respectable Brethren have settled, and many more will soon come to this country; and that your suppliants, from a sense of duty incumbent on them as Masons and as men, to promote their mutual happiness, the happiness of their neighbours, and as far as in their power lies, humanise society; and furthermore, to impress on their memory what has long ago been written on their hearts.


Wherefore, your suppliants thus presume to approach your Worshipful Body and request that, if in your councils you think it expedient, your Worshipful Body will grant to your suppliants a Warrant, or if that can't be ob tained, a Dispensation, authorising them to hold a regular Lodge in the town of Kaskaskia, appointing such of your suppliants to preside therein as may seem proper to your Worshipful Body, sending with the said Warrant your Constitution, all other necessary instructions, and the amount of expenses attending the same, which will be duly remitted by your suppliants, etc. etc.


Robert McMahan Stanton Lodge, No. 13 (Virginia) Wm. Arundel St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 2 (Quebec) James Edgar Lodge No. 9 (Philadelphia) Michael Jones Lodge No. 45 (Pittsburg) James Galbreath No. 79 (Chambersburg) Rufus Eaton Roman Lodge, No. 82 (New York) Robt. Robinson Stanton Lodge, No. 13 176 _ A/Z.. /tire ./~ v ~huellzoe _ _ .,4: .iJ . /!r J~etJ~',/&l A‑/h.0 ~yoaJe..r ` A ‑o. Jls,Oee'". /8a ~ev~ .~1:. .~.~e /80 / 6~~ /how go, ‑ v. ~0 . A: ./If 1~..~ /e'e /yam __ G* LJfa6 UUz' Va/~:~ /OA lPO /6/ .r,rnAeOYoae. ...ho".1+arreL/ _ 24 17 2 6 .‑ ~lco~rrv ~ ,/hJ~~: ~ 2A~.c1to 1/r 2lr?1.a.rrl 6'_ ~z L~nQda~1v oar_ ‑ 1 ?1rA‑1.18c FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS 179 In response to this request, the Dispensation was granted on the following September 24, and James Edgar was named first Master, with power to appoint the Wardens and other Officers. Bro. Edgar then appointed Rufus Eaton to be Senior Warden, and Michael Jones to be junior Warden, and directed the two of them to select a name for the new Lodge. They reported " Western Star Lodge " to be their choice and the name was adopted. The first three petitions which the new Lodge received were from residents of Ste. Genevieve, a small town across the Mississippi River, in Louisiana Territory. Indeed, so many were the Petitions received in those days that the new Lodge was compelled to hold special meetings to take care of them. The Minutes record those meetings as " extra Lodge." The Charter for Western Star Lodge was issued on June 2, 1806, and the Lodge was constituted on the following September 13 by Robert Robinson. The return for the year 1806 is now in possession of the Grand Lodge of Illinois.


Although only nineteen names are entered on it, eighty‑four members affixed their signatures to the By‑Laws, which were adopted on June 24, 1808. This first Lodge in what is now Illinois was instituted, and frequently held its meetings in the first brick building erected for public purposes in the Mississippi Valley. The building, built in 1792, served first as a town hall, then as the meeting‑place of the Territorial Legislature, and later of the State Legislature. Finally it was used as a court house until the removal of the county seat in 1848.


On December 27, 1806, a Petition signed by several Brethren of Western Star Lodge asked that Lodge to recommend the organisation of another Lodge at Ste. Genevieve, Louisiana Territory. The recommendation was granted al though the formation of a second Lodge meant the loss of about half the membership of Western Star Lodge. The Dispensation for the new Lodge, known as Louisiana Lodge, No. 109, was granted on July 17, 1807, by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, and James Edgar, Master of Western Star Lodge, was named proxy to institute the Lodge at Ste. Genevieve. Bro. Edgar performed that ceremony on November 14. The Wardens of the new Lodge were two of the first three Petitioners to Western Star Lodge. Likewise, when the Petition to organise St. Louis Lodge, No. 111, was circulated, three of the signers had also been members of Western Star Lodge.


The first Masonic funeral held in Illinois occurred on October 16, 1811. On that date, Robert Robinson, who had Constituted Western Star Lodge, was buried. Six years later, on November 2, 1817, James Edgar, the first Mas ter, was also buried with Masonic ceremonies. As a token of mourning, the Brethren were directed to " wear a piece of black ribbon through the second and third button‑holes of their coats for three months." On October 2, 1819, the Lodge suffered another loss when Bro. Michael Jones demitted. The Lodge passed resolutions of regret over losing such an active member. Since Bro. Jones had removed to Shawneetown, his attendance at Lodge in Kaskaskia entailed a journey of about a hundred miles across an unsettled region. Inasmuch as a Lodge had recently been organised at Shawneetown and he could meet the 180 FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS Brethren there without undergoing the hardship of the long journey, it was not surprising that Bro. Jones should demit.


Although there are no Records of the activities of Western Star Lodge from December 2, 182o, until its new Charter as Lodge No. i was granted, we know that it continued to exist and that it was represented in the first Grand Lodge of Illinois every year of its existence. We also know that the first Grand Master of Illinois was a member of Western Star Lodge, even though the Lodge was unable to sever its connection with the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania until November 30, 1826.


On February 14, 1827, the Crand Lodge of Illinois issued a Charter to Western Star Lodge as No. i. Under that Charter the Lodge was Constituted on June 24, 1828, by Thomas Reynolds, Deputy Grand Master. But the Lodge was destined to disappear. The immediate cause of its closing was the failure of the Grand Lodge to acknowledge its Constitution and the installation of its Officers. The Record of the last nine meetings, those held bewteen June 24, 1828, and February 7, 1829, discloses the truly pathetic struggle of a few faithful‑Brethren against overwhelming odds. Some nights only three members were present at the Lodge meetings. In one instance, a Brother was recorded as having served at one meeting as Treasurer, Senior Deacon, Junior Deacon, and Tyler. On February 7, 1829, the Lodge was closed forever, but it left its impress on Illinois nevertheless. That little band of Brethren furnished the State its first governor, one United States senator, two Supreme Court justices, four State senators, twelve national representatives, and many other State and Federal officers. In addition one member became attorney‑general and congressman from Missouri, while still another served as Territorial governor and as United States senator for Wisconsin. Indeed, the record of Western Star Lodge is an example for all time. It always celebrated St. John's Day with a public procession, a banquet, an oration, and the Installation of Officers. The call of the widow was always answered, and the destitute were cared for. Western Star Lodge was the forerunner, the inspiration, the beacon light for the Masons of the Mississippi Valley. Its Temple is destroyed and even the site of it is unknown, but the Work of that pioneer Lodge still lives to point the way for thousands of later Lodges of the Middle West.


For ten years Western Star Lodge was the only Lodge in Illinois, but as Masons began congregating in other settlements they asked for Dispensations and other Lodges came to be Chartered. The early Lodges were Western Star Lodge, No. 107, at Kaskaskia, Chartered on June 2, 18o6, by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania; Lawrence Lodge, No. 34, at Shawneetown, Chartered in September, 1815, by the Grand Lodge of Kentucky; Libanus Lodge, No. 29, at Edwardsville, Chartered on October 6, i82‑o, by the Grand Lodge of Tennessee; Olive Branch Lodge, No. 5, at Upper Alton, Chartered on April 3, 1822, by the Grand Lodge of Missouri; Vandalia Lodge, No. 8, at Vandalia, Chartered on October 8, 1822, by the Grand Lodge of Missouri; Sangamo Lodge, No. 9, at Springfield, Chartered on October 9, 1822, by the Grand Lodge of Missouri; FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS I81 Union Lodge, No. io, at Jonesboro, Chartered on October 24, 1822, by the Grand Lodge of Missouri; Eden Lodge, No. 11, at Covington, Chartered on October 8, 1822, by the Grand Lodge of Missouri; Albion Lodge, No. 9, at Albion, for which the Grand Lodge of Indiana issued a Dispensation on March 12, 1822, and Hiram Lodge, at Brownsville, concerning whose Charter we have no record. Temple Lodge, No. 25, at Belleville, received a Dispensation from Tennessee on June 28, 182o, but its organisation was not perfected, and no meetings were ever held.


The first reference to the organisation of a Grand Lodge in Illinois is found in the Minutes of Western Star Lodge under date of November 116, i82.o, at which time the Lodge concurred in a resolution from Libanus Lodge, No. 29, that it was expedient to organise a Grand Lodge. A Committee was then appointed to correspond with the other Lodges. An active correspondence was then carried on between the Lodges, and as a result a Masonic Convention was held at Vandalia, on December 9, 1822. This meeting was held at the same time as the Session of the State Legislature. Eight Lodges were represented, and twenty‑four Delegates were present. The Presiding Officer was Thomas C. Browne, a Supreme Court justice, who was a Delegate from Lawrence Lodge, No. 34. Sangamo Lodge and Hiram Lodge were not represented. Hiram Lodge later became a member, however, but Sangamo Lodge never affiliated with the Grand Lodge. The following day a Constitution for the " Grand Lodge of Illinois Ancient Free and Accepted Masons " was adopted. Then, on December 11, the election of Grand Officers was held. Officers elected at that time were as follows: Shadrach Bond, Grand Master; John Y. Sawyer, Grand Senior Warden; William M. Alexander, Grand Junior Warden; Richard T. McKinney, Grand Secretary, and James O. Wattles, Grand Treasurer. From then on the Grand Lodge held its Communications at Vandalia, then the State capital, at the same time as the sessions of the Legislature were convened there. This was especially convenient, since many of the Lodge members were connected with the State government. The Grand Lodge Communications were held in the Senate chamber, and resolutions thanking the Senate for the use of the room were usually adopted. The Grand Lodge held its first meeting during December 1823. At that time it was formally organised, and its Officers were Installed by George C. Melody, Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri. The complete reprints of the Proceedings for 1824‑1826 are in existence. The Returns of January 1, 1825, from seven Lodges show that they had a total of 128 members. The other Lodges made no Returns at that time.


This first Grand Lodge of Illinois Chartered the following Lodges: Palestine Lodge, No. io, at Palestine, on December 14, 1824; Greene Lodge, No. ii, at Carrollton, by Dispensation on December 14, 1824; Illion Lodge, No. i2, at Carlyle, on January 1o, 1826; Frontier Lodge, No. 13, at Lewiston, on January 1o, 1826; Strangers' Union Lodge, No. 14, at Fever River, now Galena, on January 1, 1827; Lafayette Lodge, No. 15, at Atlas, on January 7, 1826, and Cincinnatus Lodge, No. 16, at Shawneetown, on January 1, 1827.


182 FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS The last‑known Session of the first Grand Lodge of Illinois was held on January 3, 1827, for it, too, was destined to disappear. Just what caused its dissolution is not known, but it is supposed that the anti‑Masonic wave that swept the country reached Illinois about that time. Nevertheless, that Grand Lodge numbered among its members many distinguished persons. A check of membership shows that it included two governors, one attorney‑general, one State auditor, two secretaries of State, two State treasurers, seventeen representatives, six State senators, and several secretaries and clerks in the State Legislature. There were also among them two United States senators, two Supreme Court judges, and two Circuit Court judges.


After the closing of Western Star Lodge, Strangers' Union Lodge, No. 14, was the only one left in the State. Then, on June 11, 1829, this Lodge voted to return its Charter and to apply to the Grand Lodge of Missouri for a new Dis pensation, " further proceedings on which is postponed until Thursday the 18th inst. at 4 P.M., when the Brethren are requested to give general attendance." With this action, Illinois became for a time a place of Masonic darkness. Nevertheless, there remained in the State many faithful members who waited patiently for the time when they could once more assemble about a Masonic Altar.


Masonic darkness continued in Illinois until December 6, 1834, when seventeen Brethren met at Quincy and Petitioned the Grand Lodge of Kentucky for a Dispensation to open and hold a Lodge. Accordingly, the Dispensation for Bodley Lodge was granted on August 31, 1835, and Bro. H. H. Snow was delegated to Institute it. Bro. Snow had been Deputy Grand Master of the first Grand Lodge. Dispensations for other Lodges rapidly followed, and Freemasonry again began to spread throughout the State. During the next five years the following Lodges were established, all by Dispensation: Franklin Lodge, No. 22, at Alton (November 9, 1836, Missouri); Equality Lodge, No. 1o2, at Equality (1836, Kentucky); Harmony Lodge, No. 24, at Jacksonville (October 4, 1837, Missouri); Temperance Lodge, No. 27, at Vandalia (June 30, 1838, Missouri); Columbus Lodge, No. Zo, at Columbus (June 3, 1839; Missouri); Far West Lodge, No. 29, at Galena (March 23, 1839, Dispensation read in Lodge, Missouri); Mount Moriah Lodge, No. 33, at Hillsboro (August 17, 1839, Missouri); Springfield Lodge, No. 26, at Springfield (February 25, 1839, Missouri); Ottawa Lodge, No. 114, at Ottawa (December 19, 1839, Kentucky), and Friendship Lodge, at Dixon (November 6, 1840, Kentucky), Dispensation read in Lodge.


The first corner‑stone laid by the Masonic Fraternity in Illinois was laid in Shawneetown on February 24, 1838. During the 1830's Shawneetown was the most active business centre on the Ohio River. Since an army post was lo cated there, the government took charge of the river front and paved several blocks southward from the northeast corner of the town. This improvement was known as the " Public Works." Equality Lodge, No. 1o2, was invited to lay the corner‑stone of this pavement. The ceremony was in charge of the 1 FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS 183 Lodge's Master, Bro. Arnold B. Dake, a nephew of Benedict Arnold, who acted as proxy for the Grand Master of Kentucky. The stone was of sandstone and measured thirty‑two inches by twelve inches by sixteen inches. Only one face of the stone was dressed, and on it a crudely chiselled inscription reads as follows c. s. LAID BY EQUALITY LODGE NO. 102 FEB. 21, 183 8 A.L.


5838 The date on the stone is three days earlier than that given in the Record of the ceremony. Sometime during the 188o's this corner‑stone was removed and placed in the Lodge Room of Warren Lodge, No. 1q., where it still remains. The following year Equality Lodge, No. ioz, laid the corner‑stone of the Bank of Illinois at Shawneetown.


Early in 1839, Harmony Lodge, No. 2q., sent a circular to the other Lodges in the State, asking for a Convention to organise a Grand Lodge in Illinois. j The first Convention was held in Jacksonville, on December 27, 1839, and a second one met on January 2o, 1840, at which time it was deemed advisable to meet again on April 6 of that year, and then formally to organise a Grand Lodge. In response to the invitation, " a Convocation was held in Masons' Hall " at Jacksonville, on the date stipulated. The Representatives present at that meeting were James Adams, of Springfield Lodge, No. 2‑6; H. Rogers and H. Dills, of Bodley Lodge, No. 29; W. D. McCann, of Columbus Lodge, No. 2o; John T. Jones (proxy) of Equality Lodge, No. 1o2; D. Rockwell, of Far West Lodge, No. 29, and W. B. Warren and A. Dunlap, of Harmony Lodge, No. 25. The object of the meeting having been fully considered, it was unanimously " Resolved, That the several subordinate Lodges of Ancient Free Masonry in the State of Illinois here assembled, represented by Delegates and proxies properly authorised, consider it as a matter of right and as conducive to the general benefit of Masonry that a Grand Lodge be established in the State of Illinois, and that they now proceed to establish, organise, and locate the same accordingly, to be known and designated by the name of the Grand Lodge of Illinois." The Committee appointed to draft a Constitution and By‑Laws then reported that it had performed that duty. After amendment, the Constitution and ByLaws were adopted, and Jacksonville was designated as the location of the next Grand Lodge. The ballot for Officers resulted in the election of Abraham 184 FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS Jonas, of Columbus Lodge, No. Zo, to be Grand Master; James Adams, of Springfield Lodge, No. 26, Deputy Grand Master; W. S. Vance, of Harmony Lodge, No. 24, Grand Senior Warden; H. Rogers, of Bodley Lodge, No. 29, Grand Junior Warden; W. B. Warren, of Harmony Lodge, No. 24, Grand Secretary, and A. Dunlap, also of Harmony Lodge, No. 24, Grand Treasurer. The Grand Secretary was then ordered to procure a seal, and the Grand Lodge was called to Refreshment until April 28. On that date, Labour was resumed and, . ` all but Past Masters having retired, a Convocation of Past Masters was declared and the M.‑. W.‑. Grand Master was installed by proxy and the Grand Honours paid him agreeably to Ancient Form and Usage. The Convocation was then dissolved, and the M.‑. W.‑. Grand Lodge was called from Labour to Refreshment until to‑morrow morning at eight o'clock." On the following morning the other Grand Officers were Installed. Jacksonville and Springfield Lodges then surrendered their Charters and received new ones, which were registered as No. 3 and No. 4, respectively. The Grand Secretary was also directed to issue Charters to Bodley Lodge as Lodge No. i, to Equality Lodge as Lodge No. 2, to Far West Lodge as Lodge No. S, and to Columbus Lodge as Lodge No. 6. Temperance Lodge, No. 27, received a Charter as Lodge No. 16, on December io, 1842; while Friendship Lodge became Lodge No. 7 on October 6, 1841. Franklin Lodge became Lodge No. ZS in 1843. Although Ottawa Lodge, No. 114, received permission to unite with the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1841, there is no further Record of it. There is, however, a Record of the Chartering of Occidental Lodge U. D. (Kentucky), on October 7, 1841.


On February Zo, 1847, the Legislature of Illinois granted the Grand Lodge a special Charter under which it still operates.


When the Grand Lodge was only a year old, an event occurred that caused serious trouble. A Petition for a Dispensation to establish a Lodge was received from the Mormons in Nauvoo, Illinois. The Dispensation was issued on Oc tober 15, 1841, and the Lodge was Instituted on March 15, 1842. George Miller, Worshipful Master; Hyrum Smith, a brother of the Mormon '' prophet,' Senior Warden; and Lucius N. Scoville was junior Warden. From the date when this Lodge was Instituted till August 11, 1842, when the Record was closed, 286 candidates were Initiated and 243 were Raised. The statement was made that " if this Lodge had been suffered to Work two years longer, every Mormon in Hancock County would have been Initiated." The Lodge at Nauvoo refused to send its Records to the Grand Lodge for inspection, and since it was suspected of irregularities a special Committee was appointed to visit the Lodge and investigate its Work. Meantime the Grand Master had suspended all Work until the Report of the Committee should be received. Jonathan Nye, Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Vermont, who was a visitor at the Illinois Grand Lodge at the time, was elected to honorary membership, and granted a seat in the Grand Lodge of Illinois, and then was made Chairman of the special Committee appointed to investigate the FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS 185 Nauvoo situation. Other members of the Committee were the Grand Secretary, and Bro. H. Rogers. After investigation, the Committee reported that it had found " much to regret, much to deplore," but it recommended that the Dispensation for the Nauvoo Lodge be continued until the next Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge. The Grand Master then divided the Lodge into four Bodies by issuing Dispensations for Nye Lodge and Helm Lodge at Nauvoo, and for Eagle Lodge at Keokuk, Iowa. But this action did not help matters, for all four Lodges refused to abide by the rulings of the Grand Lodge. They were therefore declared to be clandestine, and their members were put under suspension. We know that the Mormons continued to hold meetings, however, for in 1844, St. Clair Lodge, No. 24, preferred charges against a member for wearing his Regalia and marching in a procession at the dedication of a Masonic Hall at Nauvoo. Grand Master Helm reported to the Grand Lodge that the subject had " excited no little discussion both in and out of this Body, and the action of the Grand Lodge in reference to it has been made the object of much animadversion, criticism, and remark. Several communications from eminent and honoured names in Masonry have been addressed to me, calling in question the correctness of the course pursued by you in relation to this subject, and strongly protesting against the prudence and propriety of allowing a Masonic Lodge to exist in Nauvoo." Then, in 1845, another event occurred that for a time almost disrupted the Grand Lodge. A man of mixed African‑Indian blood, having a duly signed Diploma which certified to his membership in another jurisdiction, was per mitted to visit Chicago Lodges a few times. About the same time Apollo Lodge, No. 32, received the Petitions of two men of mixed Anglo‑Saxon and African blood. Although it was reported that " the proportion of African blood " was " evidently small," and that the Petitioners were men " reputed ` freeborn,' certainly of good report, and one or two entitled to vote by the laws of the State," the Committee on Petitions was directed not to report until an expression regarding the advisability of accepting the Petitions could be obtained from the Grand Lodge. The Delegate sent to obtain such an expression, failing to get an expression from the Grand Lodge, the Committee then reported favourably on the Petitions, and the men were accepted. When the failure of the Delegate became known, however, a resolution was adopted authorising the withdrawal of the Petitions. These facts then became generally known, and eighteen other Lodges passed resolutions regarding the matter. Some called for a Convention to reorganise the Grand Lodge; others demanded the resignation of the Grand Master for permitting such an outrage. One Lodge called a Convention of Delegates to meet in Peoria during April to consider the course to be pursued. Then Springfield Lodge, No. 4, addressed a Communication to the Grand Master, asking for the facts in the case. It remained, however, for Piasa Lodge, No. 27, to still the tempest with a dignified letter which deplored the precipitate action of the Lodges, and ended by stating " that the Proceedings of Springfield Lodge, No. 4, at their meeting of February 2, A. L.


186 FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS 5846, meet our cordial approbation and concurrence, and that their course in first communicating the charges to the Brethren implicated, and hearing what they had to say in their defense, before proceeding to pass judgment upon them, is perfectly honourable, fair, and Masonic, and worthy of universal imitation in all similar cases." The matter was thoroughly debated in the Grand Lodge, the offending Chicago Brethren were reprimanded, and the Report of the special Committee was adopted. This Report closed as follows: " Resolved, That this Grand Lodge is unqualifiedly opposed to the admission of Negroes or mulattoes into Lodges under its jurisdiction." Again in 1851, however, a Negro asked permission to visit a Lodge in Chicago, and presented a Certificate showing that he had visited Lodges in Kentucky, Missouri, Wisconsin, and Ohio. Despite the ruling of the Grand Lodge, he was examined and admitted as a visitor. The action was reported to the Grand Lodge. This led to the passage of a second resolution to strengthen that of 1846. It read as follows: " Resolved, That all subordinate Lodges under this jurisdiction be instructed to admit no Negro or mulatto as visitor or otherwise, under any circumstances whatever. And be it further Resolved, That if any Lodge under this jurisdiction hereafter violates this expressed will of this Grand Lodge, it shall be the duty of the M.‑. W.‑. Grand Master of this State at once to arrest their Charter." In the year preceding the outbreak of the war with Mexico, the Grand Lodge had its first experience with Military Lodges. On October 4, 1847, seven Brethren, members of Company B, United States Mounted Volunteers for Mex ico, Petitioned for a Dispensation for a Travelling Lodge. Although the Grand Lodge had authorised the Grand Master to issue such Dispensations, none was granted at that time. There was, however, an active Lodge connected with the First Regiment of Illinois Foot Volunteers, but it received its Dispensation from Missouri. John Ralls, Grand Master of Masons of Missouri, was colonel of the Third Missouri Volunteer Militia. On October 9, 1847, while in the field, he issued a Dispensation for Hardin Lodge, No. 87, and named Vantrump Turner as Master. This Lodge was named in honour of Colonel John J. Hardin, of the First Illinois Regiment, who had lost his life at the battle of Buena Vista. No Report of it was ever made, but the Dispensation is still in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Missouri. " It is on paper discoloured by age and bears evidence of considerable rough usage. How it came to be recovered, and the name of its custodian, will probably never be known." Then, during the war between the States, fifteen Military Lodges were granted Dispensations by the Grand Lodge of Illinois. This action finally brought complaints from other jurisdictions which objected to the Travelling Lodges accepting Petitions from soldiers who came from States other than Illinois. Consequently, at the Session of 1865 the Grand Master made the following report against the Travelling Lodges: " Most of our Military Lodges suspended Work, and, the War being closed, they ceased to exist‑having done some good and much mischief." The Committee on the Grand Master's Ad‑ FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS 187 dress also said: " It is to be hoped that this experience will forever close the question of Travelling Lodges operating within regular foreign jurisdictions." Thus ended an unfortunate phase of Masonry in Illinois.


Meantime, however, Illinois had some more experience in granting Dispensations to Lodges of a somewhat similar character. On March 17, 1849, the Grand Master of Illinois granted a Dispensation to Past Grand Master Nelson D. Morse, and six others, " to form and open a Lodge to be named Pacific Lodge, in any place in said Territory (California) where they may sojourn, or on the journey there where there is no Grand Lodge established." In discussing the Lodge which was finally established, Assistant Grand Secretary John C. Reynolds said: " Of the Labours, difficulties, and scenes which this Lodge went through, we have no Record, but the Dispensation, which now lies before us in three separate and distinct pieces, speaks of rough usage. The Lodge was in existence as late as October, 1851, at which time its last Return was made." We do know that twenty‑seven Brethren were Initiated into the Lodge and that twenty‑five were Raised. The last Return of this Lodge was made from " Long's Bar, Upper California." On the same date a similar Dispensation was granted for " Lavely Lodge." The Dispensation was given to John R. Crandall, Past Deputy Grand Master, and others, but there is no further Record of it. Shortly afterward, the Grand Lodge suffered a singular misfortune. On February 2.o, 185o, a terrific explosion, followed by a fire, destroyed all the Grand Lodge Records, including the Minutes of the 1849 Communication. Consequently, on April 8, 185o, the Grand Master convened a Special Session of the Grand Lodge for the purpose of restoring the Records. This meeting has since been known as the " Grand Lodge of the Recovery." During the first ten years of the Grand Lodge's existence, the question of educating the children of Masons was seriously considered. At one time it was proposed that the Grand Lodge of Illinois should unite with that of Missouri in supporting the Missouri Masonic College, but the suggestion was never carried out. Nevertheless, Macomb Lodge, No. 17, purchased the property which had formerly belonged to McDonough College and offered to repair the building and donate it to the Grand Lodge, provided the Grand Lodge would maintain an institution of learning there. Franklin Lodge, No. 25, also maintained a school for girls. This school was held on the first floor of Franklin Lodge's building. No extensive educational plan ever presented was satisfactory to the Grand Lodge, and the enactment of the free‑school law, in 1855, made such a plan unnecessary.


The Ritual adopted by the Grand Lodge of Illinois was that agreed upon at the Baltimore Convention of 1843‑a Convention at which Illinois was not represented because of its recent organisation and lack of money to pay the ex penses of a Delegate. Nevertheless, in 1844, the Grand Lecturer, Levi Lusk, was sent to St. Louis to perfect himself in that Ritual. The next year John Barney came to Illinois and taught the same Work. These lectures were rehearsed before the Grand Lodge in 1845 and unanimously approved. At the 188 FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS Session of i86o, Past Grand Master Morris of Kentucky asked permission to lecture on Ritual. This was the beginning of the trouble with the Conservator's Association. In 1863 the true nature of this association was exposed by Grand Secretary Reynolds, who proved that its members were bound by an oath blindly to obey the orders of its head. The length to which it would go to carry out its purpose was shown in a letter to the Grand Secretary, which said: " Your position would be damaged by taking sides against us, and we don't need you for us." But threat to defeat him for re‑election did not deter the Grand Secretary from defending the Standard Work, and the Grand Lodge sustained his position by adopting a resolution making expulsion the penalty for using the Ritual of the Conservator's Association. In fact, a signed agreement not to countenance the use of that Ritual was required of every Officer before Installation. So serious did the problem become that it was necessary to expel one Master and to suspend the Work of his Lodge for one year because the Lodge refused to obey the Grand Lodge resolution.


In 1870 the Grand Lodge, in company with the Committee for the Examination of Visitors, held three‑day schools of instruction in several towns throughout the State. This was the beginning of a plan of instruction still in use. For more than sixty years now such schools have been the means of disseminating Ritualistic instruction. They are conducted by a Board of Grand Examiners, consisting of five members. To‑day there are more than 500 commissioned Grand Lecturers in Illinois.


In 1887 the Grand Master was asked whether " charges could be sustained against a Mason who disbelieves the Bible and who does not believe in the God of the same." The Grand Master answered by ordering that a trial should be held and, if the charges were proved, the accused Brother should be expelled. The specifications included the charge of atheism, a disbelief in God on the part of the accused, and a denial of the Divine authenticity of the Bible, and accused the Brother on trial of ridiculing the Bible, of declaring some portions of it to be false, and of speaking contempuously of it. The accused was acquitted of all charges but that of having ridiculed the Bible and of having held it in contempt. Although he was found guilty of those charges the Lodge of which the accused was a member refused to fix a penalty. Thereupon, the Grand Master promptly suspended the Lodge and reported its action to the Grand Lodge. The stand taken by the jurisprudence Committee, of which Joseph Robbins was Chairman, was that " there is nothing to be gained in inflicting punishment upon those who have broken the law, which is at all comparable to the mischief of continued agitation of a question so dangerous to the peace of the Fraternity. Your Committee, therefore, recommends that the whole proceedings be regarded in fact, as it is in law, void ab initio, leaving all parties enjoying the same status as before the mischievous proceeding was begun." This ruling was severely criticised by many reviewers. For example, Josiah H. Drummond, of Maine, called it the " most dangerous attack upon Freemasonry that has ever come to our knowledge, and all the more dangerous FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS 189 because it is made in the name of Masonry and by Masons who love Masonry." In 1872 still another disaster seriously affected the Masons of Illinois. At that time the great fire in Chicago destroyed the property and halls of eighteen Lodges. But other Lodges came to the rescue, and contributions amounting to $9o,ooo were received from various Bodies to relieve the necessities of the Masons whose property had been damaged. Fortunately, the Grand Tyler was able to preserve the Grand Lodge jewels, and by so doing won the thanks of the Grand Lodge, as well as a sum of money for his act.


At the time of the organisation of the Grand Lodge, there were only ten Lodges in Illinois. Their total membership was about 150. The Grand Lodge's financial weakness is shown in the following statement made at the time by Grand Master Jonas : "A Brother rather more able than the most of us generously loaned it a Hundred Dollars to enable it to get along." Twenty‑five years later there were 465 working Lodges, having more than Zo,ooo members, while at the time of its fiftieth anniversary, there were 675 Lodges and 43,930 members. By 19oo there were 837 Chartered Lodges and 139,271 members. The latest Report gives 1012 Chartered Lodges and a total membership of over 264,000.


In 1865 Grand Master Turner recommended that " steps be taken to found and establish a school for the education of the children of deceased and indigent Masons, and an asylum for aged, decrepit, and decayed Master Masons." For a time, however, nothing was done. Then, in 1874, a resolution was adopted to appoint a Committee to inquire into the wisdom of establishing a Masonic Widows' and Orphans' Home. Two years later the resolution was referred to the subordinate Lodges for a referendum vote. It was decisively rejected. Thus, then, the first organised Masonic charity was a private venture. On March 11, 1885, the Illinois Masonic Orphans' Home was incorporated " for the nurture and intellectual and physical culture of the indigent children of deceased Freemasons of the State of Illinois and a temporary shelter and asylum for the sick or indigent widows of such deceased Freemasons." A four‑story building surrounded by ample, well‑shaded grounds was purchased in Chicago. The property was Dedicated by the Grand Lodge on October 7, 1886. It was managed by an Association, incorporated under the general laws of Illinois, whose membership was composed entirely of Masons. The funds were collected by membership fees and donations. In 1894 the Grand Lodge contributed a sum of $5ooo to assist in the erection of an additional building. In 19oo the Finance Committee recommended an appropriation of $15,ooo to this Home, but Past Grand Master Joseph Robbins, an opponent of organised relief, introduced a resolution to prorate all money in the treasury in excess of $3o,ooo back to the Lodges. The motion prevailed, and $85,34422 was returned.


Then, on April 7, 1888, Robert A. Miller executed a will bequeathing 264 acres of land near Sullivan, to the Grand Lodge, upon condition that a suitable home for widows and orphans be erected upon it. He reserved a life‑interest for 19o FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS his wife, however, but upon Mrs. Miller's death, on August Zo, igoi, the Grand Lodge took steps to secure the title to the farm. The following year a Board of Trustees was organised. During the same year the Trustees of the Illinois Masonic Orphans' Home deeded their property to the Grand Lodge on condition that the Home be maintained at or near Chicago. The Grand Lodge accepted the condition, sold the property in igo8, then purchased a tract of ground at LaGrange, Illinois, and erected new buildings there.


In igo9 the Grand Lodge directed the Trustees to erect a building at LaGrange, the cost of which should not exceed $ioo,ooo. The corner‑stone of this building was laid on April 30, igio. The children who were to be cared for there were moved into the building on the following March 15, but the dedicatory exercises were not held until June 24. The following year the city school board demanded tuition for all Home children attending the LaGrange city schools. This the Grand Lodge declined to pay, whereupon the school board brought suit. The Circuit Court held the Grand Lodge liable for tuition, but the case was appealed, and during October igi6, the Supreme Court reversed the decision. Having vindicated its right to use the public schools, the Grand Lodge has nearly every year since contributed largely towards the support of the LaGrange schools. In 1924 the Chapters of Chicago and vicinity contributed funds to build a wading pool at the LaGrange Home. This was to be a permanent memorial of the seventy‑fifth anniversary of the organisation of the Grand Chapter. In July of that year, " a basket picnic was held on the Home grounds at LaGrange to celebrate the completion of the memorial, which consists of a circular wading pool, sixty feet in diameter, a sand pavilion twenty by forty feet, with roof, and a handsome four‑cup drinking fountain, suitably inscribed, showing the purpose of the memorial and the donors on bronze tablets, on a keystone in the centre of the fountain." Constantly increasing demands have required the construction of additional buildings. In addition to the original building, three dormitories and a power plant have since been built. The institution now has about ten acres of ground and buildings, the estimated value of which is $685,427. Children living there are given a regular course in Bible study as well as in the common branches of school study. There is a printing plant which turns out very creditable work.


When the Grand Lodge acquired title to the Sullivan farm, architects were employed to draw plans for a series of buildings, and the sum of $Z5,ooo was appropriated to commence work on a dormitory. The first building was com pleted, and on September 8, 1904, the Illinois Masonic Home was dedicated to the purpose for which it was intended. At the Session of the Grand Lodge held in 1915, an additional Zoo acres adjoining the Sullivan property was donated to the Grand Lodge by Edwin C. Swain, a brother‑in‑law of Bro. Miller, upon condition that he be given a life annuity of $8oo. Swain, who was not a Mason, had passed his seventieth birthday at the time of making his donation.


Hospital facilities at the Sullivan Home having been badly needed, the FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS 191 Grand Chapter, in 1913, donated $5o,ooo to the Grand Lodge for the construction of a hospital. On October 3, of the following year, the corner‑stone was laid by the Grand Lodge, and work proceeded rapidly thereafter. The building was dedicated on July 5, 1915, in the presence of perhaps the largest assemblage of Masons ever brought together in Illinois either before or since that event. The procession was more than two miles long, and many thousands witnessed the ceremony. In 192q. the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter jointly provided $ioo,ooo to pay for constructing an addition to the hospital. Every year the Grand Chapter has contributed $5ooo for the upkeep of the hospital and has made, besides, several special donations to provide for needed facilities. The hospital is called the Royal Arch Memorial Hospital.


The property at Sullivan consists of the administration building, which is an imposing structure, two dormitories, and two hospital buildings. The whole is surrounded by beautiful lawns and flower gardens. Ten acres are used for lawn in which is planted a large collection of rare and beautiful flowers. The lawn is further beautified by shade trees, shrubbery, vines, flowerbeds, and a fountain. There is also a greenhouse, with hotbeds. The buildings are made of dark and light pressed brick, trimmed with Bedford stone and cement columns. They are three‑story buildings, splendidly constructed, and are equipped with the most modern devices. The furniture and furnishings are the best that could be obtained for the comfort and pleasure of aged men and women. There is a five‑acre fruit orchard. In the twenty‑three acre garden berries, melons, and vegetables are raised for use in the Home. The Home owns as fine a dairy barn as there is anywhere in the State, and a herd of Holstein cattle which furnish milk and butter. It also possesses five libraries, containing more than 2ooo books, which afford entertainment and relaxation for the Home guests.


The men living in the Home have formed a Masonic club which holds regular meetings twice a month, and which performs the Masonic funeral service for those who pass away. The average cost per member has been $32.10 per month. The appraised valuation of the property is $789.073. This sum does not include the value of the land.


The Illinois Masonic Hospital is a voluntary organisation composed of members of the Masonic Fraternity, of the Order of the Eastern Star, and of other allied Bodies in Chicago. The Association was Chartered on July 21, 19o9, to provide free hospital service for members of the Fraternity and their families, who are without means to pay for such service. Donations were solicited, memberships sold, and picnics and other entertainments were promoted in order to raise money. At first the Association made other arrangements with hospitals to care for its patients. Thus the constantly increasing demands for service required all the funds of the Association, and the building of a hospital had to be deferred. On February 1, 1921, however, the Association accepted the offer of Chicago Union Hospital to purchase their property for $1oo,ooo. A campaign for funds was then started, and within six months' time a 192 FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS sum of $130,000 was raised. In 1925 an addition which cost $5oo,ooo was added. This raised the capacity of the hospital to 150 patients. The physical property has an approximate value of $750,000. Accommodations not needed for the Work of the Association are available to other members of the Fraternity and to the general public, as paying patients. In a single year 3414 patients were admitted, of whom 374 were treated gratis. Of 1764 operations performed, 211 were done at no cost to the patient.


The government of the hospital is vested in two Representatives from each Masonic Lodge, each Eastern Star Chapter, or each other Masonic Body in Cook County, which cares to send such Representatives. The management i s in charge of a board of twenty‑one trustees, and the annual meeting is held in November. This institution has received official recognition through generous gifts from the various Grand Bodies.


The Eastern Star and Masonic Home is located on the west bank of the Rock River, about one mile from the centre of the city of Rockford. It stands on a beautiful hill which rises about twenty feet above the water's edge. The Home was built in 1922 and was dedicated on September 28 of that year. The building is of yellow brick with stone trimmings. The cost of the building and furnishings was $14o,ooo, all raised by voluntary donations from the Chapters. An addition which cost approximately $9o,ooo was built in 1925. There are 128 rooms. Ninety guests can be accommodated. At the present time all rooms are occupied, and there is a long list of those waiting for admission. The remainder of the space is taken up with the administrative offices, a sun parlor, a hospital section, and servants' quarters. The expense of management is paid by a twenty cent per capita tax and from donations by Chapters and individuals.


Every applicant for admission must have been a member of an Illinois Chapter of the Eastern Star for two years, must be sixty‑five years old, possessed of not more than $5oo, able to care for herself, and have no relative capable of caring for her.


For their helpless members, the Grand Chapter maintains a sanitarium at Macon. At the present time this institution has sixty‑seven guests. Each member has a room of her own. Every effort is made to care for these invalids and make their last days comfortable. Members of the local ministerial association conduct religious services for them every Sunday.


The most eminent of early Illinois Masons was Shadrach Bond, the first governor of the State. Born on a plantation in Fredrick County, Maryland, in 1773, he came to Illinois twenty‑one years later. In 1812 he was elected as the first Illinois Delegate to Congress. There he was instrumental in securing the passage of the " Right of Pre‑emption," which permitted settlers to secure title to their land and opened the new Illinois Country to settlement. This act was called " the keystone to the arch of the prosperity and growth of Illinois." At the expiration of his term in Congress, Bro. Bond was appointed receiver of public money at Kaskaskia. About this time he moved from Monroe County to Kaskaskia. On November 27, 1810, the date of his marriage at Nash‑ FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS 193 ville, Tennessee, he manumitted 6oo slaves he owned in Maryland. He was a captain in the military service against the Indians and in the United States Army during the War of 1812. When Illinois was admitted to the Union in 1818, Bro. Bond was unanimously elected governor. He was inaugurated on October 5, 1818, and served until December 5, 1822.


Bro. Bond was made a Mason in Temple Lodge, No. 2‑5, of Reisterstown, Maryland. The date of his becoming a member is unknown, but we do know that the Lodge existed from 1797 to 1815. Bro. Bond's first visit to Western Star Lodge occurred on October 4, i8o6, and at that time he Petitioned for affiliation. He was elected to membership on December 27 of the same year. He served as junior Deacon in 1814, and as Master in 1815, 1817, 1818, and 1819. December 11, 1822, he was elected Grand Master, in which office he served until the installation of James Hall on December 1, 1824. Bro. Bond was a regular attendant at the Grand Lodge, and always took an active part in its affairs. When General Lafayette visited Kaskaskia, on April 2o, 1825, ex‑Governor Bond responded to the toast in the following words: " General Lafayette: May he live to see that liberty established in his native country which he helped to establish in his adopted country." Bro. Bond died April 15, 1832, and was buried in the family cemetery at Kaskaskia. Later, however, when the Mississippi River began to wash away the land on which the cemetery stood, the remains of the deceased governor and his wife were removed to Evergreen Cemetery, at Chester. A monument was there erected to their memory by the State of Illinois.


Another distinguished Illinois Mason was Richard M. Young. In 1816, at the age of eighteen, he was admitted to the bar in Kentucky. The following year he removed to Illinois, and early in 1818 he was enrolled as a member of the Union County bar. His public life began when he was elected a State representative from that county. At the age of twenty‑two he was the leader of the movement to establish the State bank. The debate was " a contest of intellectual gladiators " who had " few equals in the State, and victory was won by Young." At the age of twenty‑three he was commissioned as colonel of the tenth Illinois Militia. He was also a member of the committee appointed by the Legislature to welcome General Lafayette when the distinguished Frenchman visited Kaskaskia. During those festivities it was said that " no couple shone more resplendently than judge and Mrs. Young." In 1837 Judge Young was elected to the United States Senate, where he served six years. While in the Senate he was appointed one of the Commissioners to visit England to attempt borrowing $4,000,000 to complete the Illinois and Michigan Canal. On his retirement, he was elected Supreme Court justice, a position for which his profound and far‑reaching knowledge of law particularly fitted him.


Bro. Young was raised on July 16, 1822, in Union Lodge (No. io Missouri; No. 8 Illinois). At the Constitution of Western Star Lodge, No. i, under its Illinois Charter, on June 24, 1827, when the Lodge had returned to the " Court House and Lodge," he delivered an appropriate address. Then, in 1831, he re‑ 194 FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS moved to Quincy, and although busily engaged as Circuit Court judge, he attended the meeting and signed the Petition for the Dispensation of Bodley Lodge, No. z9. He remained a member of that Lodge until 1846, when, on his removal to Washington, District of Columbia, he demitted. He died in 1861, and was buried in the Congressional Cemetery in Washington.


Although the facts regarding Stephen A. Douglas's life are too well known to need repeating here, it is appropriate that his Masonic record be told. On April Zo, 1840, Bro. Douglas received the Degrees in Springfield Lodge, No. 26.


On the following December 28 he was elected junior Warden. He was a regular attendant until April Ig, 1341, when he resigned, having changed his residence to Quincy. In i84o, Bro. Douglas was elected Grand Orator of the Grand Lodge, but he was unable to attend the following Communication. Nevertheless, while acting as Circuit Court judge, he was a regular visitor to the Lodge whenever possible. He received the Degree of Mark Master on August 22, 1842, in Springfield Chapter, No. 1, and was exalted in Quincy Chapter, No. 5, on September 3, 1847. His Petitions to the Springfield Lodge and Chapter now hang framed on the walls of the Masonic Temple there.


Bro. Douglas died on June 3, 1861. Three days later the Grand Master, Ira A. W. Buck, " convened an Emergent Grand Lodge at Chicago, to pay such last sad rites as were in our power to his memory. Accompanied by the Lodges and Brethren of Chicago and from abroad, we repaired to the Hall, where the body lay in state, when the public ceremonies were performed, an oration pronounced by Bro. H. A. Johnson, and a procession formed, which occupied over an hour in depositing the evergreen upon the body, singing all the while the burial dirge. It was, for its majesty, significance, awe, and solemnity, the most imposing funeral pageant I ever beheld. Every feature of the face was natural, majestic, and imposing, even in death, and one could hardly resist the solemn impression that his spirit hovered over, hushed, and awed the vast throng into a mournful silence, to sobs, grief, and tears. In the meridian of life he is gone; of his public career I will not speak, for I should only repeat what you all know; his manners, talents, and endowments it is unnecessary to describe, for who, in all Illinois, has not seen the people's tribune‑Stephen A. Douglas? " Another outstanding Mason of Illinois was Joseph Robbins. He was born in Leominster, Massachusetts, on September I2, 1834, and was made a Mason at that place. On December 16, 1859, he affiliated with Quincy Lodge, No. 296, and was Master of it from 1863 to 1869, inclusive. He was also Master again in 188o. He first attended the Grand Lodge in 1863, and with one exception only he attended forty‑six consecutive Sessions of that Body. He was Grand Orator in 1869, and served as Grand Master in 1876‑1877. He was Master of his Lodge when the Grand Lodge adopted the resolutions condemning the Conservators' Association and prohibiting the use of its Ritual under severe penalties. Bro. Robbins believed that the " privileges and prerogatives of an individual Lodge could not be controlled by the Grand Body," and refused to stop the use of the prohibited Ritual. In consequence he was called before the Grand Lodge and FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS 195 suspended for a period of twelve months " for contumacy and disobedience of the resolutions of the Grand Lodge and the lawful edict of the Grand Lodge." But after " suitable explanations and acknowledgments " had been made, the penalty was stricken from the Record. He was also a member of Chapter, Commandery, and Consistory.


Bro. Robbins's great record as an outstanding member of the Craft was made during the thirty years he prepared the Reports on Fraternal Correspondence. His writings on Masonic law and usage brought him a world‑wide reputation as a master of Masonic jurisprudence. He died on July 1g, igo9, at which time universal tribute was paid to him. The Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Queensland said: " He was looked upon in the Masonic world as the greatest authority on Masonic jurisprudence, and who had contributed probably more than any other living Mason of his time towards the upholding of the Ancient Landmarks and good government of the Craft generally." Illinois Masonry was also fortunate in having among its membership the famous General John A. Logan. Although he was made a Mason in Mitchell Lodge, No. 85, he demitted the following year to affiliate with Benton Lodge, No. 64. Lack of space prohibits any mention of his public life, but none is needed here. As commander‑in‑chief of the Grand Army of the Republic in 1868, he issued his famous order establishing Memorial Day. This he considered the most important act of his life. At memorial services held in his honour, F. M. Cockrell, ex‑Confederate General and United States senator from Missouri, said: "Among all the great and distinguished volunteer officers during the late war, it is no disparagement of any of them to say that General Logan was the greatest and most distinguished. Courageous, fearless, energetic, untiring, generous, and dashing, he was the beau ideal of the American volunteer soldiery. As a representative and senator in the Congress of the United States he was incorruptible, faithful, diligent, and laborious, and was earnest in his convictions and forcible and aggressive in their advocacy." General Logan lived a stormy life and it seemed a fitting end to his career that his last journey with his old comrades should be made in a storm. His temporary resting‑place was in a vaulted tomb in Rock Creek Cemetery, in Washington, District of Columbia. When the remains of General Logan were laid away, " the procession was more than a mile in length. The veterans of the Grand Army of the Republic made a superb appearance. Though the snow and water were ankle deep, the griefstricken mourners marched through it with regular step, paying the last tribute to their illustrious departed comrade‑in‑arms." The body was later removed to the Soldiers' Home Cemetery, where Mrs. Logan had erected a granite mortuary chapel. He also held membership in Washington Chapter, Chevalier Bayard Commandery, and Oriental Consistory, all of Chicago.


One of the best known members of the Craft in Illinois is Louis Lincoln Emmerson. He was born at Albion, Illinois, on December z7, 1863. In 1886 he located in Mt. Vernon and began his business career. Five years later he organised the Third National Bank, and has since made banking his business.


196 FREEMASONRY IN ILLINOIS He has also held several political offices. In 1916 he was elected Secretary of State for Illinois, Un office to which he was re‑elected twice. Then, in 192.8, he resigned to serve as governor, an office he held till 1933. He received the Lodge, Chapter, and Council Degrees at Mt. Vernon, and was Knighted in Cyrene Commandery of Centralia. He has presided over Lodge, Chapter, and Commandery, having been the first Commander of Patton Commandery at Mt. Vernon. In 1913 he was elected Grand High Priest. Then, in 1919, he was made Grand Commander, and in 1927‑192.8 he served as Grand Master of Masons in Illinois. He is one of the Trustees of the General Grand Chapter and Treasurer of the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar. Since his retirement from Masonic Office, Bro. Emmerson has been Chairman of important Committees in all three Bodies. He is the only Mason who has been governor of the State and Grand Master at one and the same time. He was created a Sovereign Grand Inspector General, 33d Degree,"on September 19, 1911, and was crowned an active member of the Supreme Council on September 18, 192.8. He is still active in serving the Craft of his State.


Although space will permit the bare mention of several well‑known members, the names of a number of other distinguished Illinois Masons should be given. George M. Moulton, Vincent L. Hurlburt, and William L. Sharp have each held the Office of Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar. Joseph E. Dyas and Charles C. Davis have served as General Grand High Priest. The list of Grand Orators of the Grand Lodge contains the names of Adlai E. Stevenson, first assistant post‑master general and vice‑president of the United States; John M. Palmer, governor, United States senator, and candidate for the Presidency of the United States, on the Gold‑Democratic ticket; William E. Mason, James H. Lewis, and Lawrence Y. Sherman, all United States senators; Charles S. Deneen, governor and senator; Richard Yates, governor and congressman‑at‑large; and Frank O. Lowden, governor, and the only Honorary Member of the Grand Lodge. In addition to these there have been nine congressmen, one Supreme Court justice, three lieutenant‑governors, one secretary of State, and one attorney general.


Many have asked what was the attitude of Abraham Lincoln towards the Masonic Fraternity. In answer to them we quote here the following statement, which was printed in the Masonic Trowel, on August 15, 1868: "About 1838 or 1839, Mr. Lincoln and James H. Matheny concluded to ' join the Masons.' Matheny did so and has been Deputy Grand Master and Standing Orator ever since. Before starting for Washington, the matter was broached by judge Dubois and Grand Master Buck. He (Lincoln) declined them upon the ground that his motives would be liable to misconstruction. Much conversation was . had between him and the present Grand Master French, and he was somewhat inclined to Petition, but did not. He was friendly to the Institution." Ira A. W. Buck was Grand Master of Masons of Illinois, in 1858, 1859, and 186o, while Grand Master French lived in Washington, District of Columbia.


FREEMASONRY IN INDIANA ROBERT ARCHER WOODS FREEMASONRY came to Indiana by way of the South‑gate. After the Grand Lodge of Kentucky was organised, in 18oo, it issued Dispensations or Charters for the formation of eight Lodges in Indiana, as follows Vincennes, August 27, 1807, renewed September 1, 1808, and Chartered October 31, 1809; Madison, by Charter, August 30, 1815; Charlestown, by Charter, April 1816; Lawrenceburg, Corydon, Rising Sun, and Salem, by Charter, August 1817; Vevay, by Charter, September 1818. Brookville Lodge received its Dispensation from Ohio, May 9, 1817. These nine Lodges were represented at the permanent organisation of the Grand Lodge, held at Madison, January 12, 1818.


On January 15, 1818, Vincennes, Madison, Charlestown, Lawrenceburg, and Corydon were given Charters numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Brookville and Salem, for some cause, did not accept Charters, and Vevay and Rising Sun, working under Dispensation, were as yet ineligible. Rising Sun was Chartered September 14, 1818, as No. 6, and Vevay as No. 7, on September 14, 1819.


Alexander Buckner, Charlestown, was the first Grand Master; Alexander A. Meek, Madison, D.G.M.; John Tipton, Corydon, S.G.W.; Marston G. Clark, Salem, J.G.W.; Samuel C. Tate, Charlestown, G.T.; Henry P. Thornton, Madison, G.S.; Jeremiah Sullivan, Madison, G.Orator; Isaac Hawk, Charlestown, S.G.D.; Jonathan Woodbury, Lawrenceburg, J.G.D.; Alexander McCoskey, Madison, G. Stew. and Tyler. Most of these men were prominent in the political and legal arena of the State.


The first Lodge organised in Indiana, a decade earlier, was that of Vincennes. A Petition for a Dispensation was prepared by General W. Johnson, an able lawyer and an orator of no mean ability, a member of Abraham Lodge at Louisville, Kentucky. The Grand Lodge of Kentucky granted Dispensation August 27, 1807, to George Wallace, W.M.; James Adams, S.W. and General W. Johnson, J.W. Organisation failed thereunder and a new Dispensation was granted to the same Officers September 1, 1808. The Lodge was Instituted March 13, 1809; the Master and Senior Warden being absent, William Jones was installed Master and General W. Johnson as junior Warden; the Office of Senior Warden was left vacant.


Johnson has been heralded as the Father of Masonry in Indiana, and a monument erected in the cemetery at Vincennes by the Grand Lodge to commemorate that event; but the record of Vincennes Lodge and the Grand Lodge does not 197 198 FREEMASONRY IN INDIANA bear out this claim. His only claim to pre‑eminence rests on his preparation of the original Petition for Dispensation and a large number of Masonic orations, which he delivered very extensively.


Gen. John Gibson, secretary of Indiana Territory, Fellow‑Craft from a Lodge in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, was raised to the Sublime Degree of Master Mason, March 14, i8o9. This was the first degree work done by the Lodge and makes Gibson the first to be " raised " in Indiana. William Prince and Parmenas Beckes presented their Petitions on March 17, 18o9, the first meeting at which Petitions were received, and were elected, and the Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason Degrees were all conferred upon them that same day; these two are therefore the first to have received all three Degrees of Freemasonry in Indiana. Prince was a major on General Harrison's staff at the battle of Tippecanoe, U.S. Indian agent, lawyer, judge, and died a member of Congress. He was a member of the commission that, in 182o, selected Indianapolis as the permanent capital of the State. The town of Princeton was named in his honor.


Elihu Stout, the editor and publisher of the first newspaper, excepting the Cincinnati Gazette, west of the Alleghenies, was the first member of this Lodge to become Grand Master, in 1827; then came John B. Martin, in 1835, and Mason J. Niblack, in 1897. Although General W. Johnson was twice Deputy Grand Master, he failed to become Grand Master, Brethren from the floor being passed over him.


The history of the Grand Lodge of Indiana has been rather uneventful, but it may be said that our ancient Indiana Brethren laid its foundations substantially and satisfactorily, for no Grand Lodge has existed so long with so little friction. Its record for the past century and more is one of which its members may well feel proud.


The most exciting and trying period the Grand Lodge ever passed through was in connection with the remodelling and new construction of Grand Masonic Temple, wherein the Building Committee, authorised to spend $75,ooo, really expended $i15,5oo. Much bitterness arose, but the problem was solved by Biennial Communications and the raising of dues. During this period, from 1877 to 1885, the membership dropped from 28,1o1 to 22,548, a net loss of 5553 The present membership, in 555 Lodges, is 113,945 Alexander Buckner, the first Grand Master, was born in 1785, presumably in Jefferson County, Kentucky. As early as 1812 we find him practicing law at Charlestown, Indiana. Directly after serving as Grand Master in 1818, he re moved to Missouri, where he was a member of the State Constitutional Convention in 182o; he served several years as a member of the Missouri Legislature and was elected United States senator, serving from March 4, 1831, until his death at St. Louis, June 15, 1833.


Alexander A. Meek, second Grand Master, was a resident of Madison. He was elected Grand Master September 15, 1818, and served until September 14, 182o. He was born in Ireland, about 1786, from whence he came to America FREEMASONRY IN INDIANA 199 with his parents when quite young. Engaging in the practice of law, he afterwards became one of the most noted practitioners in Indiana. During the war of 1812‑ he served as lieutenant in the Regular Army of the United States. On the admission of Indiana into the Union in 1816, he became U. S. attorney for the first district, serving as such until his death in 1821.


John Tipton, third Grand Master, was born in Sevier County, Tennessee, August 14, 1786. In 1807 he became a resident of Indiana, and in 1811 served as captain of a company in the battle of Tippecanoe. He then settled at Corydon, which later became capital of the State and, by regular gradation, was promoted to the rank of brigadier‑general, and given command of the militia in southern Indiana. He served in the State Legislature and was a member of the commission that, in 182o, selected Indianapolis as the permanent capital of the State. He was elected Grand Master September 14, 182o, while a resident of Corydon; and again November 28, 182‑8, serving one year each. He was elected United States senator in 1831, to fill a vacancy, and was re‑elected in 1833. His latter years were spent at Logansport until his death, April 5, 1839. Tipton Lodge, at Logansport, was named in his honour, as was also the town of Tipton and Tipton County.


John Sheets, fourth Grand Master, of Madison, was elected Grand Master at Corydon, September 12‑, 1821, and again October 9, 182‑2‑.


Jonathan Jennings, fifth Grand Master, of Corydon, and later of Charlestown, the first governor of Indiana after its admission into the Union as a State, was elected Grand Master October 7, 182‑3 ; re‑elected October 4, 182‑4; declined a third term, October 1825. He was born in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, in 1784. His father was a Presbyterian minister, and soon after Jonathan's birth removed to Pennsylvania, where the son received a liberal education; studied law, but before being admitted to the Bar he migrated to Indiana Territory. He became clerk of the Territorial Legislature at Vincennes, and while such was elected to Congress; re‑elected in 1811, and again in 1813. Early in 1816, he reported a bill to Congress to enable the people of the Territory to take the necessary steps to convert it into a State. He was a member of the convention to form the State Constitution in 1816, was chosen to preside over its deliberations, and, in the election which followed, was elected governor by a good majority; he served six years as such. At the close of his term as governor he was elected representative in Congress and was chosen for four consecutive terms. He died July 2‑6, 1834.


The few brief sketches above mentioned will serve to indicate the character of the foundation stones of Indiana Masonry. Their successors in office maintained the same high standard of intelligence and patriotism. To this we attribute the excellence of Masonic standards and customs in the Hoosier State.


The establishment of a Masonic Home in Indiana was considered by Grand Lodge May 2‑6, 19o9, upon receipt of a memorial from the Grand Chapter, Order Eastern Star. Voted, " That this Grand Lodge declare in favor of providing a home for dependent Master Masons, widows and orphans." A special Com‑ Zoo FREEMASONRY IN INDIANA mittee, to formulate and recommend plans, reported in 19Io, recommending a tax of twenty‑five cents on each of its 53,000 members, to be continued " until funds are sufficient to begin work." The Grand Chapter, Order Eastern Star, made the initial contribution of $25,ooo. By May 1913 contributions from all sources, Lodges, Chapters, Councils, Commanderies, Scottish Rite, and O. E. S., amounted to $79,750.i9. The venture was named " Indiana Masonic Home." It is located at Franklin, twenty miles south of Indianapolis. The Grand Secretary of the Grand Chapter, O. E. S., is a member of the board of directors. To‑day, the Home is one of the most complete and best arranged institutions of its kind in the country. Since its inception not one cent of indebtedness has ever been incurred. The Maintenance Fund is now $213,57I.i2_; Endowment Fund, $571,897‑09; a gain in the latter in a year Of $27,000. The inmates are segregated in buildings of their own, men, women, boys, and girls. A print shop, band, orchestra, and other features for well‑rounded development and enjoyment are fostered, besides a full school curriculum, including high school, for the children and youth.


The George Washington National Masonic Memorial early received Grand Lodge support and its contribution, when completed, will be on the basis of one dollar for each of its more than 1oo,ooo members.


GRAND CHAPTER ROYAL ARCH MASONS OF INDIANA The Grand Chapter of Indiana was organised in the city of Indianapolis, December z5, 1845. Preliminary thereto we find the following historical data I. MADISON, MADISON Organised July 14, 1819, under Dispensation issued April 1, 18I9, by D. Gen. Gr. H. P. Thomas Smith Webb; but Webb died without making official report of his action to Gen. Gr. Ch. The Chapter made no returns, believing it working under Charter as independent Body. Hence G.G.C., at its September I8I9 meeting, having only hearsay evidence of its existence, took no action and no Charter was granted; but Chapter continued to work U.D. until 1829, when it suspended until July i9, 1842‑, when it resumed labour. In 1843 its irregularity was brought to G.G.C. attention by D.G.G.H.P. Stapleton, and it ceased labour and petitioned Gen. Gr. Chapter to heal and confirm its doings from September 1819, to date; this was done by G.G.C. September 12, 1844, and a Charter was granted, upon the Chapter healing the members by reobligating them. This confirmation gives the Chapter an unbroken record since July 14, 1819.


BROOKVILLE, BROOKVILLE Organised under Dispensation given by D.G.G.H.P. Thomas Smith Webb sometime during 1819, but Webb died before G.C. Chapter met in September 1819, and no official report was made of its formation; upon the hearsay evidence G.G.C. did not act, and no Charter was granted. G.G.C. gives the order of formation as Madison first and Brookville second. Brookville met with Madison FREEMASONRY IN INDIANA 201 and Vincennes, at Madison, May 13, 1823, and organised a Grand Chapter, which never functioned thereafter; and Brookville Chapter passes out of existence, with no records left even of its brief career.


VINCENNES, VINCENNES Organised June 16, 18io, under Dispensation issued May 13, i82‑o, by Gen. Gr. King John Snow. September 15, 1826, the Committee on Doings of Gen. Grand Officers reported " that charters have been granted to Vincennes Chap ter on May 13, 182o, and the Jennings Mark Lodge at Vevay on May 4, 1821." This Chapter during its early years was very unstable, and aside from taking part in the formation of a Grand Chapter at Madison in May 1823, which went for naught, it suspended functions on four different occasions, viz.: from March 9, 1830, to December 29, 1834; from August 7, 1836, to May 2, 1838; from February 3, 1839, to February 28, 1842; and from November 16, 1842, to May 7, 1845. On this last date it resolved to participate in the approaching meeting at Indianapolis for the purpose of forming a Grand Chapter and, although five Delegates were named, not one was present at the formation. About this time the history of Vincennes Chapter was rather clouded. Whether it was working under Dispensation or Charter is not clear; for on May 22, 1848, Grand Chapter provided that " a charter or dispensation be issued in vacation by the G.H.P. and one other Grand Officer, which, although the Chapter met on June 30, 1848, to receive it, and the G.H.P., at the May 1849, Annual, reports that a Charter has been issued to Vincennes Chapter, No. 7, yet future developments reveal that it was never delivered, and that the Chapter really received a Dispensation granted in 1848, signed by the G.H.P., but not even attested by the G. Sec.," as reported by G.H.P. William Hacker in 1858, and upon Hacker's recommendation a Charter was granted on May 21, 1858.


FIRST GRAND CHAPTER Madison Chapter, Brookville Chapter, and Vincennes Chapter met at Madison on May 13, 1823, and organised a Grand Chapter. From some cause, it never met afterwards, and was actually and legally dissolved by reason of its failure to comply with its own constitutional requirements to meet and elect Officers at the regular meeting in May 1824. Neither was Gen. Gr. Chapter advised of its existence, except hearsay; said Body therefore on September 12, 1844, declared it to have no legal existence or authority. This paved the way for the present Grand Chapter of December 1845.


2. LOGAN, LOGANSPORT Organised October 7, 1837, pursuant to Dispensation issued October 7, 1837, by D.G.G.H.P. Poinsett; this Dispensation and Returns miscarried in the mails and failed to reach G.G.C. at its meeting in 1838, and the same thereupon renewed on March 12, 1839, by D.G.G.H.P. Stapleton, and Charter granted by G.G.C. on September 17, 1841. Charter arrested December 11, 1854, and Zo2 FREEMASONRY IN INDIANA restored May 21, 1856. Logan Chapter and Vincennes Chapter occasionally conferred Degrees upon Sunday; and Logan Chapter and Madison Chapter conferred the Past Master Degree upon Masters‑elect of Lodges.


3. LAFAYETTE, LAFAYETTE Dispensation issued by D.G.G.H.P. Joseph K. Stapleton on August 17, 1843. Reported to G.G.C. at its meeting on September io, 1844; but no record of granting of Charter. Stapleton organised fourteen Chapters, only one of them being granted a Charter, according to G.G.C. Proceedings. Lafayette Chapter, therefore, must have participated in the formation of the Grand Chapter in 1845, as a Chapter under Dispensation. September 13, 1844, is date of Charter, as claimed by Lafayette Chapter. Probably correct.


KING SOLOMON, RICHMOND The Proceedings of the General Grand Chapter at its Session on September 14, 1838, reads: " The Committee on the Doings of General Grand Officers made a report in which they approved the granting of a Dispensation by M.E. Com panion Stapleton for a Chapter at Richmond, Indiana, and recommended the granting of a Charter "; the recommendation was agreed to, and the Charter issued. This Dispensation was doubtless issued near the close of 1837, as the first entry upon King Solomon's Records, January 1, 1838, is a record of its organisation under said Dispensation. The Return of King Solomon gives the date of Charter as " May 21, 1838," which is at variance with the above record of Gen. Gr. Chapter. Their Records also show that on January 2, 1838, Officers were " installed " in pursuance of a letter of Dispensation from Companion Stapleton, General Grand Scribe. Their Minutes further show that the Charter was received on November 3, 1838; hence, we conclude the correct Charter date is September 14, 1838; as six weeks surely is ample time for delivery of mails even at that period, especially so, as G.G. Chapter only met in September of that year, as per its record.


GRAND CHAPTER (1845) The Grand Chapter of Indiana was organised under a Dispensation granted by Joseph K. Stapleton, D.G.G.H.P., under date of November 18, 1845. The organisation was effected December 25, 1845, by Madison Chapter, No. I, Logan Chapter, Logansport, as No. 2, Lafayette Chapter as No. 3, and King Solomon Chapter, Richmond, as No. 4.


From the Record it would seem that King Solomon should have ranked at least Logan and Lafayette, and but for Madison's work being " healed " might have ranked that Chapter also. William B. Smith of King Solomon, Richmond, was elected the first Grand High Priest. King Solomon may have sacrificed her right to number one for the honour of office. Perhaps there was a bit of Indiana politics in that early formation.


It is also a matter of history, Proceedings of General Grand Chapter of 1826, FREEMASONRY IN INDIANA 2.03 that John Snow, G.G.K., on May 4, 1821, granted a Charter to Jennings Mark Lodge at Vevay. The records of Madison Chapter, twenty‑five miles away, a few years later show a number of candidates healed in the Mark Degrees, because they had received it " under the old constitution." This doubtless referred to some who had taken the Mark Degree in the Jennings Mark Lodge. No further record of this Mark Lodge is available.


INDIANA COUNCIL OF HIGH PRIESTHOOD M.E. Companion William Hacker is authority for the statement that the origin of the Order of High Priesthood dates from January Io, 1799, when the General Grand Chapter became its sponsor and retained authority over it until the Triennial Convocation of September 19, 18 The Indiana Council was fathered by the Ohio Council, under the supervision of Companion John Snow, a business partner of Companion Thomas Smith Webb.


The first reliable account we have of the Conference of the Order in Indiana is that sometime in the year 1825, Companions James T. Moffett and Thomas Bishop conferred it upon the much celebrated Companion Lorenzo Dow, the High Priest‑elect that year of what is now known as Vincennes Chapter, No. 7.


Moffett was a member of Vincennes Chapter, No. z, in I82o, and the records show was Anointed at the home of David G. Cowan, G.H.P. of Kentucky, on June 16, i82‑o, the date he was Installed as the first High Priest of Vincennes Chapter, under Dispensation from John Snow, Gen. Gr. King.


Bishop is shown to have been a member of Vincennes Chapter on September I, 1822, and to have affiliated with Vincennes Lodge, No. I, on October 6, 1828. Bishop claimed to have been Anointed in Toronto, Canada, in the year 1818, but of this we have no proof.


It is further claimed that Companion Dow, with the proper assistance, subsequently conferred the Order upon others, names unknown. The Degree was conferred upon John Law, May io, 1842, in Vincennes Chapter, doubtless at the hands of Thomas Bishop.


We have no further Record of the Order in Indiana until May 26, 1848, when a Council was convened in Indianapolis, with Samuel Reed, of Cincinnati, the Lecturer of the Ohio Council, acting as President; Elizur Deming, of La fayette, Vice‑President; Abel C. Pepper, of Rising Sun, Master of Ceremonies, and Isaac Bartlett, of Logansport, Conductor. When Deming, Pepper, and Bartlett got the Order we do not know, possibly from Companion Dow in 1825. At the Conference in 1848, four Companions were Anointed, Caleb Schmidlap of Madison, Alexander C. Downey of Rising Sun, Henry C. Lawrence of Lafayette, and C.S. Ramsay of Indianapolis.


Several Companions, whose names appear on the Roster as Officers of the Indiana Council, are without any record when Anointed or affiliated. One of these, Rev. William H. Raper, served as Chaplain in 185o. He may have 204 FREEMASONRY IN INDIANA been Anointed by the Ohio Council, as he was pastor at Urbana, Ohio, at an early date. The Commanderies of Knights Templar at Urbana and Indianapolis take their names from him.


The Indiana Council was finally organised on May 2o, 1853, and since that date the Record is full and complete.


On ‑October 21, 1931, the Constitution was amended with the name and title of the " Council of High Priests of the State of Indiana " changed to that of " Grand Council of High Priesthood of the State of Indiana." GRAND COUNCIL ROYAL AND SELECT MASTERS OF INDIANA The Grand Council Royal and Select Masters of Indiana was organised in the city of Indianapolis on December 2o, 1855. Many years previous to this Cryptic Masonry was practised in the State. The Council Degrees were first conferred outside of a Royal Arch Chapter of Indiana in the city of Richmond. August 22, 1838, Companion John Barney, Grand Lecturer of the Grand Council of Ohio, visited Richmond and conferred the Degrees of Royal and Select Master upon Companions Francis King, Lynde Elliott, Benjamin Sayre, J. R. Mendenhall, W. S. Addleman, C. W. Appleton, Rees C. Jones, Thomas K. Peebles, William B. Smith, Samuel Fleming, and B. W. Addleman. On October 16, 1838, a Dispensation was granted to these Companions by the M.P. Grand Master of the Grand Council of Ohio, to organise Richmond Council, the Officers named being Francis King, T. I. Grand Master, Lynde Elliott, D.I. Grand Master, and Benjamin Sayre, P.C.W. This Council held irregular meetings for some three years, the last entry being June 18, 1841. After a lapse of four years, the Companions at Richmond received another Dispensation granted by the Grand Puissant of the State of Ohio, empowering Companion W. B. Smith and eight other Companions to form a Council of Select Masters, which was done on April 12, 1845. There is no evidence that this Council ever held any meeting thereafter. In 1853 the General Grand Chapter passed a resolution that Royal Arch Masonry had no rightful jurisdiction or control over the degrees of Royal and Select Master. This appears to have stopped the further conferring of these degrees by Chapters in Indiana, and soon thereafter the organisation of regular Councils began in this State.


The first Council thus organised in Indiana was Indiana Council, No. 21, at New Albany, under a Dispensation granted by the Grand Puissant of the Grand Council of Kentucky, under date of June 7, 1854, the Officers named being George W. Porter, T.I. Grand Master, George W. Bartlett, D.I. Grand Master, and L. L. Garner, P.C.W. Under that Dispensation New Albany Council held its first Assembly on June 17, 1854, at which time fourteen petitions were received and the petitioners duly elected. They then received the degree of Royal Master and were separately introduced and " exalted " to the degree of Select Master, after which the Council was closed " in silence." Nothing further appears in the Records of New Albany Council except petitions received and degrees conferred until September 3, 1855. Meantime a Charter was issued FREEMASONRY IN INDIANA 205 by the Grand Puissant of the Grand Council of Kentucky to Indiana Council, No. 21, which was dated at Frankfort, Kentucky, on September 4, 1854.


On July 16, 1855, a Dispensation was granted by the Grand Puissant of the Grand Council of Ohio for the formation of Indianapolis Council at Indianapolis, Indiana. It was so organised on July 24, 1855, with Andrew M. Hunt T.I. Grand Master, Francis King, D.I. Grand Master and L. R. Brownell, P.C.W. A Charter was duly issued October 18, 1855, at Mansfield, Ohio, by the Grand Puissant of the Grand Council of Ohio, under which it was constituted November 5, 1855.


On August io, 1855, a Dispensation was granted by the Grand Puissant of the Grand Council of Ohio to Companion William Hacker, and eight others, to form Shelby Council at Shelbyville, Indiana. The Council was organised under Dispensation August 31, 1855. A Charter was granted by the Grand Council of Ohio under date of October 18, 1855, under which Shelby Council was constituted November 1o, 1855, with William Hacker, T.I. Grand Master, Cyrus Wright, D.I. Grand Master, and Eden H. Davis, P.C.W.


From the Records it would seem that William Hacker immediately busied himself with the formation of a Grand Council, as appears from his letters to the several Councils in Indiana urging consideration thereof.


Grand Council was organised at Indianapolis on December Zo, 1855, by Representatives of the three Councils then working in the State: New Albany, Indianapolis, and Shelbyville. The following Officers were elected and in stalled: George W. Porter, Grand Puissant Master, New Albany; William Hacker, Deputy Grand Puissant Master, Shelbyville; Andrew M. Hunt, Thrice Illustrious Grand Master, Indianapolis; L. L. Garner, Grand Principal Conductor, New Albany; Loring R. Brownell, Grand Captain of Guard, Indianapolis; Eden H. Davis, Grand Treasurer, Shelbyville; Francis King, Grand Recorder, Indianapolis; John W. Sullivan, Grand Chaplain, Edinburg, and Henry Colestock, Grand Steward and Sentinel, Indianapolis. Rank was distributed as follows: Indiana Council, No. i, New Albany; Indianapolis Council, No. 2, Indianapolis, and Shelby Council, No. 3, Shelbyville. These Councils are still active. Between the formation of Grand Council on December Zo, 1855, and its next Assembly in May 1856, five new Councils were organised, at Fort Wayne, Lafayette, Connersville, Aurora, and Terre Haute, to which Charters were granted in May 1856.


There is nothing of special interest to note in the annals of this Grand Council, except its rise and progress during the past eighty years. This may perhaps be best shown by a division into decades. In May 1855 there were three Councils with about 5o members. In May 1865 there were 16 Councils with a membership of 500. In May 1875, there were 44 Councils with a membership of 1803. The next decade was not a prosperous one. From 1875 to 188o there was a loss of three Councils and nearly 5oo in membership. This was the time of great dissatisfaction among the Masons of Indiana; because of the condition of affairs of the Grand Lodge in regard to the debt on the Masonic Zo6 FREEMASONRY IN INDIANA Temple, when the Grand Lodge lost nearly 6ooo Master Masons. The tide turned in 1881, and in 1885 Grand Council registered 18oi, being a net loss of two in this decade. In 1895 there were 46 Councils with a membership of 2457. In 19o5 there were 62 Councils with a membership of 4200. In 1915 there were 72 Councils with 9364 members. In 1925 there were 75 Councils with 19,850 members, second only to the Grand Council of ,Ohio. The latest figures show 71 Councils with 14,562 members.


During its history seventy‑one Grand Masters and six Grand Recorders have served Grand Council. Of the latter, Francis King served from 1855 to 1865, William Hacker from 1865 to 1868, John M. Bramwell from 1868 to 1888, William H. Smythe from 1888 to igol, Calvin W. Prather from igoi to 192o, and Robert A. Woods, from 192o to 1935 Henry M. Mordhurst, Fort Wayne, was General Grand Recorder of General Grand Council from 1886 to 1929, inclusive, and Robert A. Woods, Princeton, was General Grand Master for the triennial term 1933 to 1936.


The history of Cryptic Masonry in Indiana is worthy of all praise. There has been nothing to detract from its high standing. It is the second largest independent Grand Council in this country. We trust the Companions of In diana duly recognise its honourable record and their responsibility for its future, that it may pass down to their successors, pure and undefiled, through many generations to come.


GRAND COMMANDERY KNIGHTS TEMPLAR OF INDIANA The initial steps in Chivalric Masonry in Indiana are due to Raper Commandery No. I, of Indianapolis, instituted under Dispensation May 17, 1848. Rev. William H. Raper, an eminent Methodist Divine, of Dayton, Ohio, was a motivating agent. He was assisted by Sir Samuel Reed, Grand Lecturer of all the Ohio Bodies. The Dispensation was issued to Sir Knights Abel C. Pepper, James H. Pepper, and James Stirratt of Rising Sun; Isaac Bartlett and Frederick Fabel of Logansport; Richard Sopris and James W. Weaver of Aurora; Benjamin F. Kavanaugh and Francis King of Indianapolis; and Caleb Schmidlap of Madison. The Convention, at which the determination was made to apply for a Dispensation from the Grand Encampment, was held at the residence of Governor Whitcomb, in the city of Indianapolis. Sir Knights William H. Raper and Samuel Reed, of Ohio, were present at the institution.


The Encampment went at once to work, and upon May Zo, conferred both Orders upon Governor Whitcomb, who was the first candidate. When the Conclave closed, thirty‑one members composed the roll.


October 25, 1848, the Encampment participated in the laying of the cornerstone of Masonic Grand Hall. In 1849 the Orders were conferred upon M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Elizur Deming, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge.


September 1o, 1853, Raper Encampment requested the General Grand Encampment to organise a Grand Encampment for Indiana, and on May 16, 1854, a Convention for such purpose was held in Indianapolis, and the Warrant duly FREEMASONRY IN INDIANA 207 executed. The first regular Conclave convened at Lafayette, December 27, 1854, when the following Officers were elected: Henry Lawrence, Lafayette, Grand Commander; William Sheets, Indianapolis, Deputy Grand Commander; John S. Scobey, Greensburg, Grand Generalissimo; Solomon D. Bayless, Fort Wayne, Grand Captain General; Andrew Hunt, Grand Treasurer; Francis King, Indianapolis, Grand Recorder; John O. Barton, Lafayette, Grand Prelate; William Hacker, Greensburg, Senior Grand Warden; Henry Rudisill, Fort Wayne, Junior Grand Warden; Charles Case, Fort Wayne, Grand Standard Bearer; J. E. Houser, Greensburg, Grand Sword Bearer; Isaac Bartlett, Lafayette, Grand Warder; Henry Colestock, Indianapolis, Grand Sentinel. The Encampments (Commanderies) participating were: Raper of Indianapolis, Greensburg, Lafayette, Fort Wayne, and New Albany. In 1857 the word Encampment was changed to Commandery.


Raper Commandery of Indianapolis has ever been the outstanding member of the Grand Commandery of Indiana. Raper Drill Corps, under Sir Knight Nicholas R. Ruckle, since June 1875, became known throughout the land and its Asylum began to accumulate the magnificent trophies won in competitive drills at the triennials of Grand Encampment. A Libation service was awarded at Cleveland in 1877; a costly jewelled sword and banner at Chicago in 188o; a mounted knight in bronze at San Francisco in 1883; a bronze lectern at Denver in 1892; a clock at Saratoga in 1907; silver punch bowl and cups at Denver in 1913 ; watches at New Orleans in 192‑2; and a knight in armour at Seattle in 192.5; and minor awards.


The Boys' Dormitory at the Masonic Home in Franklin, a substantial and elegant building, was the gift of the Templars of Indiana during the administration of R. E. Sir Eugene Vatet, of Muncie, Grand Commander.


The elevation of Past Grand Commander Leonidas Perry Newby, of Knightstown, to the head of the Grand Encampment, as Grand Master, in 192.2‑, is Indiana's important contribution to Templary in the United States. The present Grand Recorder of Grand Encampment, R.E. Sir Adrian Hamersly, is another outstanding gift to Templary in general.


Since organisation in 1854 to date there have been seven Grand Recorders: Francis King from 1854 to 1865; William Hacker 1865 to 1868; John M. Bramwell 1868 to 1888; William H. Smythe 1888 to February 19o1; Jacob W. Smith, February 19o1 to April igoi; Calvin W. Prather, April 19o1 to August 192.o; William H. Swintz, August 192o to 193 S There are now 6o active Commanderies with a membership of io,ooo.


ANCIENT ACCEPTED SCOTTISH RITE IN INDIANA In May 1863 a number of Brethren in the city of Indianapolis were impressed with the idea of organising a body of the Scottish Rite in that city. Caleb B. Smith, a member of the Bodies at Cincinnati, Ohio, was the only one in posses sion of any of the Scottish Rite Degrees. On October 7, 1863, Brothers James M. Tomlinson, Edwin A. Davis, William John Wallis, Dr. Phineas G. C. Hunt, 2.08 FREEMASONRY IN INDIANA John C. New, and Horace W. Smith went to Cincinnati to receive the Degrees in Lodge and Council. Brother Caleb B. Smith accompanied them to assist in the conference. These seven Brethren thus became the Charter members of the first Scottish Rite Bodies in the Valley of Indianapolis.


The period from October 1863 to May 15, 1865, constituted the formative period of the Rite in Indianapolis, and was fraught with great interest and activity among the Brethren.


At the first election of Officers, held October 15, 1863, Caleb B. Smith was chosen as Thrice Potent Master, James M. Tomlinson as Senior Grand Warden, William John Wallis as junior Grand Warden, John C. New as Grand Treasurer, Horace W. Smith as Grand Secretary, Phineas G. C. Hunt as Grand Master of Ceremonies, and Edwin A. Davis as Grand Captain of the Guard. Sixteen Brethren were‑elected to receive the Perfection Degrees. The first quarters used was the upper story of the Yohn Block at the corner of Washington and Meridian Streets.


At the meeting held October 19, 1863, it was decided that the name of the Lodge should be Adoniram Grand Lodge of Perfection. Caleb B. Smith died January 7, 1864, and Edwin A. Davis was elected Thrice Potent Master to succeed him.


Both Lodge and Council were a part of the Division of Ohio, of which Bro. Enoch T. Carson, 33, was Deputy. On April 2.6, 1864, Bro. Killian H. Van Rensselaer, Sovereign Grand Commander, was present and inspected the Work. During the year 1864, the number Initiated was thirty‑nine, making a total membership with the six charter members of forty‑five.


At the election of Adoniram Grand Lodge of Perfection on February 3, 1865, John Caven became Thrice Potent Grand Master, and on May 19, 1865, Charters were issued for the four Bodies, Adoniram Grand Lodge of Perfection, Saraiah Council Princes of Jerusalem, Indianapolis Chapter of Rose Croix, and Indiana Consistory.


The year 1866 brought much turmoil to Scottish Rite affairs in Indiana. It was then that the rivalry of the warring Scottish Rite Supreme Councils was carried into Indiana. Under the authority of the New York (Raymond) Supreme Council, a Grand Consistory had been established at Laporte, Indiana, with Ill. E. W. H. Ellis as Grand Commander. Bodies were Instituted at Laporte, Fort Wayne, Logansport, Anderson, Richmond, Cambridge City, New Albany, Terre Haute, and Lafayette; of these, Logansport had only a Lodge and Council, and Laporte, Anderson, and Cambridge City each a Lodge.


Elbridge G. Hamilton of Laporte was designated as District Deputy Inspector‑General for Indiana (New York Supreme Council); and E. W. H. Ellis, of Goshen, George S. Seymour, of Laporte, and Thomas R. Austin, of New Albany, were elected to the Honorary Grade of Deputy Grand Inspector General, 33.


This invasion was met with determined opposition by the Indianapolis Bodies. Besides the Bodies at Indianapolis, the Boston (Van Rensselaer) Su‑ FREEMASONRY IN INDIANA 209 preme Council had a Lodge, Council, Chapter, and Consistory at New Albany, and were contemplating establishing others at Lafayette, Wabash, Kokomo, Greensburg, and Anderson. The Indianapolis Bodies issued this broadside: " It behooves us to be active, impressing upon Masons, not yet added to our numbers, that we have pre‑empted this jurisdiction, that we propose to hold it, and that ours are the only Bodies of the A. A. Scottish Rite having any true existence within the boundaries of the State of Indiana. ` The Grand Consistory of Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret for the State of Indiana,' located by circular at Laporte, lives only in that circular form; but its agents are active in spreading its literature through the mails and a cheaply purchased District Deputy Inspector General is meandering through the State, creating S.P.R.S. in innumerable quantities, with exceedingly little labor." This Ill. Bro., E. G. Hamilton, afterwards (1876 to 1884) served as Deputy of Supreme Council for Indiana, the Indianapolis Bodies being the sole Constituents! On May 16, 1867, Indiana became a separate District and John Caven became the first Deputy.


On the following day, May 17, now memorable in the history of the Scottish Rite, the Grand Union between the Raymond and Van Rensselaer Supreme Councils was effected. Brothers Caven and Davis were present. Bro. Caven lived until he was one of five survivors of the " Roll of '67." The New York Supreme Council had among its members many outstanding Masons, such as Josiah H. Drummond, Samuel C. Lawrence, and Henry L. Palmer. The same condition existed in Indiana, where we find such names as Elbridge G. Hamilton, E. W. H. Ellis, Sol D. Bayless, S. B. Richardson, Christian Fetta, E. D. Palmer, Thomas Newby, Thomas R. Austin, Robert Van Valzah, R. J. Chestnutwood, Martin H. Rice, and others. Most of these were in due time received into the Indianapolis Bodies and honoured as Sovereign Grand Inspectors‑General, 33. Shortly thereafter all the subordinate Bodies throughout Indiana, except those at Indianapolis, faded entirely out of the picture, and peace and harmony prevailed.


The Scottish Rite became prosperous through the years that followed in Indiana, and Bodies were formed in the Valley of Fort Wayne: Fort Wayne Lodge of Perfection, September ig, 1888; Darius Council Princes of Jerusalem, Septem ber 18, 18go; Emanuel Chapter of Rose Croix, September 2o, 19o6, and Fort Wayne Consistory, September 22, agog. In the Valley of Evansville Bodies were formed as follows: Evansville Lodge of Perfection, September 2.1, 1911; Mordecai Council Princes of Jerusalem, September 18, 1913; Trinity Chapter of Rose Croix, September 23, 1915, and Evansville Consistory, September ig, 1918. In the Valley of South Bend Bodies were formed as follows: South Bend Lodge of Perfection, September 22, 1926; Zerubbabel Council Princes of Jerusalem, and John Hazen White Chapter of Rose Croix, September 21, 1927, and South Bend Consistory, September 18, 1929.


Nicholas R. Ruckle became Thrice Potent Master February 18, 1874, and the quarters of the Rite were moved to the Baldwin Block. From that time the Rite, 210 FREEMASONRY IN INDIANA after several years of comparative inactivity, took on new life, and in 1877 the old Bodies at New Albany and Fort Wayne went out of existence, leaving the field entirely to the Indianapolis Bodies.


In 19o5 the Supreme Council held its Annual Session at Indianapolis, and again in 1932, the latter Session being held in the new Cathedral at Meridian and North Streets, one of the finest specimens of Gothic architecture in the country.


Membership in the several Valleys of the Rite in Indiana is as follows Indianapolis 8443; Fort Wayne 3832; Evansville 2559, and South Bend 1358; a total of 16,192.


The Deputies for the Supreme Council for the District of Indiana are as follows: Enoch T. Carson, of Ohio, October 1863 to May 1867; John Caven, May 1867 to August 1876; Elbridge G. Hamilton, August 1876 to October 1884; Nicholas R. Ruckle, October 1884 to May 19oo; Joseph W. Smith, May igoo to November 19oi; William Geake, January 1902 to June 1927; and Gaylard M. Leslie, September 1927 to the present time.


The active members of Supreme Council for Indiana were Crowned as follows: John Caven, May i9, 1866; Elbridge G. Hamilton, April 12, 1867; Thomas R. Austin, May 16, 1867; Nicholas R. Ruckle, September 27, 1883; Phineas G. C. Hunt, September 17, 1885; Joseph W. Smith, September 16, 1896; William Geake, September 18, 19oo; Samuel B. Sweet, September 17, 1902; Henry C. Adams, September 2o, 19o5; Roscoe O. Hawkins, September 21, 1911; Thomas R. Marshall, September 21, 1911; Winfield T. Durbin, September 2o, 1917; Gaylard M. Leslie, September 22, 1927; Louis G. Buddenbaum, September 2o, 1928; Eugene E. Vatet, September 18, 1930; Alfred M. Glossbrenner, September 28, 1933.


FREEMASONRY IN IOWA CHARLES C. HUNT S is the case elsewhere, the history of Masonry in Iowa is contemporaneous with the history of the State. The Territory of Iowa was organised by authority of an Act of Congress, passed on July 3, 1838. In pursu ance of this Act, President Van Buren appointed Robert Lucas, of Ohio, an exgovernor of that State, to serve as Territorial governor of the new Territory. Governor Lucas then appointed T. S. Parvin as his private secretary, and coming at once to the Territory of Iowa, he chose Burlington to be its capital. An election having been held, the first Territorial Legislature then convened on November 1, 1838. Both the new governor and his private secretary were Masons. It is not strange, then, that within two years after locating in their new home, they took an active part in organising the first Masonic Lodge in Iowa, at Burlington. Bro. Parvin, who was acquainted with the Officers of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, was appointed to make application to that Grand Lodge for a Dispensation. This he did, and it was issued without delay. This Dispensation, though dated November 2o, 1840, was not received at Burlington until Sunday, November 29. Immediately upon its arrival, the Brethren were notified to assemble on the following evening. At the Communication then held, the Lodge was organised under the name of Burlington Lodge U. D. A Charter was granted to this Lodge on October 2o, 1841, under the name of Des Moines Lodge, No. 41. On the same day a Charter was also granted by the Grand Lodge of Missouri to Iowa Lodge, No. 42, at Bloomington, now Muscatine, Dispensation for which had been issued on February 4, 1841.


Two years later, on October 1o, 1843, the Grand Lodge of Missouri granted Charters to Dubuque Lodge, No. 62, at Dubuque, and to Iowa City Lodge, No. 63, at Iowa City. While the two last named Lodges were still under Dispen sation, preliminary steps for the formation of the Grand Lodge of Iowa were taken by all the Lodges then existing in the Territory. The first recorded suggestion to this end was made at a meeting of Des Moines Lodge, No. 41, held on October 31, 1842. At this meeting, Bro. Jonathan Nye, Past Grand Master of Vermont (1815‑1817) and Past Grand Master of the Grand Encampment, Knights Templar, of the United States (1829‑1832), being present, was requested to give his advice in regard to the formation of a Grand Lodge in Iowa. The advice was favorable and a Committee of Five was appointed to communicate with the other Lodges of the Territory. This was done. The Communication received from this Committee by Iowa Lodge, No. 42, at Bloomington, on November 2i, 1842, was acted upon in the form of a resolution asking Iowa City 211 zit FREEMASONRY IN IOWA Lodge U. D. to name a time and place for holding a Convention to take steps towards organising a Grand Lodge of Iowa. The Lodges in Iowa holding Charters from the Grand Lodge of Illinois, and Far West Lodge, at Galena (Illinois), had also been urging the formation of an Iowa Grand Lodge. These Lodges, however, in difficulties with the Grand Lodge of Illinois, lost their Charters before the organisation of the Grand Lodge of Iowa and never became a part of the latter Grand Lodge.


Iowa City Lodge complied with the request made of it, and as a result a Convention was held at Iowa City on May 1o, 1843. At that meeting it was decided that each Lodge should send three Delegates as Representatives to the Grand Lodge of Missouri at its Annual Communication to be held in October, 1843, and that those Representatives should fix the time and place for holding a Convention to complete the proposed organisation of the Iowa Grand Lodge. The Convention so called met at Iowa City on January z, 1844. It then adopted a Constitution and elected Officers, but Oliver Cock, Grand Master‑elect, being absent, the Convention adjourned until January 8, when the Representatives again met, and after completing all preliminary arrangements adjourned sine die. R .‑. W . . Ansel Humphreys, District Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, then Constituted the Grand Lodge of Iowa and Installed its Grand Officers.


Thus the Grand Lodge of Missouri is the mother of the Grand Lodge of Iowa. In brief, the family tree of the Iowa Grand Body is as follows: The Grand Lodge of England (Moderns) Chartered Lodges in North Carolina. A few other Lodges were Chartered in that State by Provincial Grand Masters acting under authority from the Grand Lodge of England. These Lodges organised themselves into the Grand Lodge of North Carolina. At that time North Carolina also included what is now Tennessee. Although Tennessee became a separate State in 1796, the Grand Lodge of North Carolina continued to exercise jurisdiction over both States, and in 1803 Representatives from Lodges in both States held a Convention and adopted the name " Grand Lodge of North Carolina and Tennessee." However, in 1812, the Lodges in Tennessee requested permission to withdraw and establish a Grand Lodge of Tennessee. Permission was granted, and the proposed Grand Lodge organised in 1813. The Grand Lodge of Tennessee then Chartered three Lodges in Missouri, and in 1821 those three Lodges sent Delegates to a Convention at St. Louis, at which meeting the Grand Lodge of Missouri was organised by the adoption of a Constitution and the election of Grand Officers. The Grand Lodge of Missouri in turn, Chartered four Lodges in Iowa. These then organised themselves into the Grand Lodge of Iowa, as has been stated above.


The four Lodges thus constituting the new Grand Lodge surrendered their Charters from the Grand Lodge of Missouri and took new Charters from the Grand Lodge of Iowa in the order of their seniority in the Grand Lodge of Missouri. Thus, Des Moines Lodge, No. 41, became Des Moines Lodge, No. 1; Iowa Lodge, No. 42, became Iowa Lodge, No. 2; Dubuque Lodge, No. 62, be‑ FREEMASONRY IN IOWA 213 came Dubuque Lodge, No. 3, and Iowa City Lodge, No. 63, became Iowa City Lodge, No. 4. Throughout the history of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, these four Lodges have been very active. At the time of the organisation of the Grand Lodge, their combined membership was ioi. It is now nearly Zooo. The growth of each of these Lodges during this period is as follows: the membership of Des Moines Lodge, No. i, has increased from 25 to 366; of Iowa Lodge, No. 2, from Zo to 536; of Dubuque Lodge, No. 3, from 28 to 369, and of Iowa City Lodge, No. 4, from 28 to 684.


The growth of the Grand Lodge since its organisation is well illustrated by the following table which shows the increase in the number of constituent Lodges and in membership: YEAR I LODGES I GAIN I MEMBERS I GAIN 1844...................... 4 ... 101 ...


1854...................... 46 42 935 834 1864...................... 169 123 4,549 3,614 1874...................... 331 162 15,134 1o,585 1884...................... 413 82 19,715 4,581 1894...................... 46o 47 23,737 4,022 1904...................... 504 44 33,181 9,444 1914...................... 521 17 47,582 14,401 1924...................... 552 31 83,871 36,289 1934...................... 555 3 74,820 9,o5i (Loss) Four of the twelve Brethren who formed the first Communication of the Grand Lodge, Oliver Cock, T. S. Parvin, Ansel Humphreys, and J. R. Hartsock, afterwards became Grand Masters. Five of the twelve, or 42 per cent of their number, were proxies. At the present time the number of proxies at each Communication of the Grand Lodge is about 23 per cent of the representation.


To meet the expenses of the first Communication, each Lodge was required to pay the sum of ten dollars into the Grand Lodge treasury, which sum was then credited on its first year's dues. The amount of dues was fixed at one dollar per member. Of this sum the amount of twenty‑five cents was paid into the Grand Charity Fund. This plan lasted, however, for only a short time, for the paying of twenty‑five cents per member into the Charity Fund was abolished for several years. During that time it was ordered that each Lodge should attend to the charity requirements of its own members. When it was found that there were cases which the local Lodges could not care for, provision was again made for a Grand Charity Fund. At the present time the per capita tax for this purpose is the same as it was in the beginning. However, there is now a per capita charge of sixty cents each year to maintain a Masonic Sanitarium.


The administration of the Grand Lodge Charity Fund was at first temporarily placed in the hands of the Grand Master, Deputy Grand Master, Grand Wardens, Grand Treasurer, and Grand Secretary. But at the second Communi cation, a Committee of five was appointed " to propose and digest a plan for the 214 FREEMASONRY IN IOWA disposition of the Grand Charity Fund, with the view of hereafter making it available for the purpose of establishing an Orphan School under the jurisdiction and supervision of this Grand Lodge, and to report thereon at the next Grand Annual Communication." The Report of the Committee 'thus appointed was favourable to the proposition, and while recognising that the funds of the Grand Lodge and the subordinate Lodges were extremely limited, the Committee members stated that they believed funds could be accumulated to meet every emergency. They proposed " as a means of immediate relief, that every Lodge inquire after and furnish the means necessary for defraying the expenses of tuition, at least, of the orphan children of deceased Brethren residing in its vicinity, and present the bill to this Grand Lodge for payment." Very few demands were made on this fund, however. In fact, the amount usually asked was about $2o or $25 a year. The largest amount was paid out in 1849, when items aggregating $92 were expended for charity. Probably since so little was required, it was again decided that each Lodge could take care of all demands within its own jurisdiction, and in 1855 the provision for a Grand Charity Fund was abolished. Nevertheless, the Grand Lodge did not abandon charity work, for in 1864 an appropriation of $ioo annually for a period of five years was made to the Iowa State Orphan Asylum. One hundred dollars in 1867 was also donated to the Iowa Soldiers' Orphans' Home. In 1871, $6oo was appropriated for charitable purposes, and the proposal to build a Widows' and Orphans' Masonic Home was considered. This matter was referred to a Committee, and for several years the subject recurred, without being definitely acted upon. Then, in 1893, a Committee was appointed with definite instructions to make a thorough investigation of the entire subject and to report at the next Communication of the Grand Lodge. This Committee, after corresponding with every Lodge in the State and with every Grand Lodge in the United States, presented an extended Report in 1894. From the Reports from the various Lodges throughout the State it was ascertained that there were seventeen Master Masons, four widows, and nine orphans who might receive care at such a Home if it were established, and that the amount of money needed to care for those cases in their own homes was about $1700. It was also reported that the actual cost to the Grand Lodge and to the subordinate Lodges during the preceding year had been less than that amount; while the average cost of maintaining an inmate in the Masonic Homes of the United States during the same period was $318.45 . It was, therefore, decided by the Grand Lodge that the " wants of our needy Brothers, their widows, and orphans, can be better relieved by their home Lodges, and with much less expense, than in a Masonic Home. In many cases a small amount of money added to what the relatives or friends of a distressed Brother would do for him would be sufficient to relieve his wants at his home, while if sent to a public home his whole support must necessarily be furnished him. We believe, further, that it would be much more satisfactory to a sick or needy Brother to remain among his friends and there receive such support as might be necessary, than to go to a public home where of necessity all the ties of relationship and FREEMASONRY IN IOWA 215 friendship formed by years of residence must be severed, and he must be compelled to live upon charity received at the hands of strangers." It was, therefore, decided to provide a Grand Charity Fund and a permanent Board of Trustees to administer it. Provision was made for two funds, one to be permanent, the other temporary. It was further provided that the sum of $looo should be added to the permanent fund each year by the Grand Lodge from its current funds. To the permanent fund all unexpended amounts in the temporary fund in excess of $iooo also were to be paid each year. The temporary fund was to be composed of the interest on the permanent fund, and 1o per cent of the receipts of the Grand Lodge. It was soon found, however, that the provisions for the temporary fund were insufficient to meet the demands made upon it, so the percentage of the Grand Lodge receipts was raised to 12I2 per cent, and later to 25 per cent. In a recent year 317 Masons or their widows were assisted by means of this fund. This number does not tell the whole story, however, for many of those thus assisted had families. At least 132 minor children were supported in the families that were helped in this way, making a total of more than 449 Persons supported in private homes at an average cost of $124 each. Of course, some of that number were partially self‑supporting, but had they been cared for under the Institutional Home plan, all would have had to live in the Home. As for those assisted, the maintenance of their own self‑respect and continued association with their old friends and neighbours is an advantage which cannot be measured in dollars and cents. Thus the amount of good accomplished by the Grand Charity Fund since its creation cannot be accurately estimated.


Iowa Masons, however, have found that some of their dependents need nursing and medical attention which cannot be adequately provided in a private home. To meet this need, they took steps to establish in 1925 a Sanitarium at Bettendorf, where such cases can be properly cared for. This was provided for by the annual payment of one dollar by each member in the State for a period of five years. The annual contribution per member for support of the Sanitarium is sixty cents. The average number of guests is 44. The total maintenance cost is $38,ooo, or an average of $864 for each guest.


Another great enterprj *se of the Grand Lodge, which had a small beginning at the time of its organisation in 1844, is the Iowa Masonic Library. In his first address, Grand Master Oliver Cock recommended that a small sum be set aside each year for the purchase of books for the Grand Lodge as the beginning of a Masonic Library. This recommendation was referred to a Committee of Three. Since the Report of this Committee, which was adopted, is of absorbing interest, when we consider the proportions to which the Library thus started has grown, it is given here Your Committee feel the subject to be of very great importance to the interest of Masonry, more so perhaps to us in the Far West, where the means of obtaining Masonic information are much more limited than in the older settled countries. We also believe that the only true method of disseminating Masonic Light and Knowledge, and of having the principles of our Order properly ap‑ 216 FREEMASONRY IN IOWA preciated and practised, is to create an interest in the study of the same, as laid down in the Constitutions of Masonry. Your Committee do not believe, however, that the state of the finances of this Grand Lodge will admit of making an appropriation sufficient to produce an extensive collection of Masonic information. Still, we believe something should be done, a commencement should be made, and additions made from time to time as the Grand Lodge shall be able, so that in time we may have a collection of Masonic information that will be an honour to us. In furtherance of this object, your Committee would recommend the adoption of the following Resolution, viz., That an appropriation of Five Dollars would be expended under the direction of the Grand Secretary for procuring such information as he may see proper.


This appropriation was expended for Masonic magazines and books. The following year the Grand Secretary requested that the appropriation be increased to ten dollars, and the request was granted. From this small beginning has grown the present Iowa Masonic Library, which consists of more than 40,000 volumes. Some of these books are so rare that they may not be taken from the building, but most of them may be borrowed by Masons who wish to read them in their own homes.


The Library is housed in a building erected for the purpose in 1884, at Cedar Rapids, and also uses an annex for additional space. The head of the Library is designated by the double title, Grand Secretary and Librarian, and performs the double duty designated by the title. During the more than ninety years of the Library's existence, three men have served in this capacity: Theodore Sutton Parvin, who served from 1884 until his death in 19o1; his son Newton Ray Parvin, who served from igo1 until his death in 1925, and Charles Clyde Hunt, who has served from 1925 to the present.


One of the distinctive features of the Library is its system of travelling libraries, which have been in well organised operation since 1911. These consist of selections of books sent to Iowa Lodges for the purpose of being lent to their members. By means of these libraries an attempt is made to place the best Masonic literature within reach of every Mason in the Jurisdiction.


The Grand Lodge Bulletin, which has been issued since 1898, has a wide distribution throughout this country as well as abroad. Its chief purpose, however, is to interest the members of the Craft within the jurisdiction, by whom it may be had upon request. In addition to material of local interest, the Bulletin contains a variety of material of general Masonic interest.


Another important feature of the Library is an extensive Museum, containing articles of both Masonic and general interest. Educationally it is a valuable supplement to the Library and a source of special interest to all who visit the building. The Library also maintains a Clipping Bureau of over 25,000 clippings taken from duplicate copies of various Masonic magazines. From these clippings it is possible to select articles on nearly every Masonic subject imaginable, which may be loaned to a Mason who wishes to study that particular subject.


FREEMASONRY IN IOWA 217 In 1859 the Grand Lodge provided a permanent Board of three members, to be known as Custodians of the Work, whose duty it was to procure the "Ancient Webb Work" and provide for its dissemination. After investigation, this Board decided that Samuel Willson, Grand Lecturer of Vermont, had the "Ancient Webb Work" in its purest form, and on their recommendation this Work was adopted by the Grand Lodge of Iowa.


After trying many plans for the dissemination of the Work, the present plan of having District Lecturers was adopted in 1897. By this plan, the Board of Custodians was authorised to divide the State into Districts, in each of which schools of instruction are to be held each year. These schools are in charge of Brethren selected by the Custodians from those who have qualified themselves for the Work by passing a rigid examination in the entire Ritual. Each of those who pass the examination is commissioned as a Masonic Instructor, and if he retains his proficiency for three years and proves himself otherwise qualified in character and fitness he may receive a Certificate as a District Lecturer. It is considered a great honour to obtain one of those Certificates, but to do so requires hard work for a number of years, for the requirements are rigid. A Report of the Custodians lists 598 District Lecturers and 2.49 Masonic Instructors.


Another agency of the Grand Lodge, working with the Board of Instructors and the Grand Librarian to promote the cause of Masonic education, is the Service Committee. The Grand Lodge Code states that the province of this Com mittee "shall be to bring about among the Craft a better understanding and appreciation of Masonry and the application of Masonic principles to the life of the individual Mason. " This Committee has a large list of speakers who have volunteered to prepare and present addresses to the Lodges on various Masonic subjects. It arranges for such addresses on request of any Lodge, and provides educational programmes for instruction in the meaning of the Ritual as applied to the teachings of Masonry and its practical application to everyday life. It also promotes fellowship and intervisitation among the Lodges.


When we consider the achievements of Masonry in Iowa during the more than ninety years of her history there, we are not surprised to find that the leaders in the Grand Lodge were also leaders in civil and political life. Men tion has already been made of the first Territorial governor, Robert Lucas, and his secretary, T. S. Parvin. Governor Lucas took part in the organisation of the first Lodge and in the preliminary steps taken towards the organisation of the Grand Lodge. The work which Bro. Parvin accomplished for Masonry from the time of the organisation of the Grand Lodge in 1844, until his death in igo1, is too well known throughout the entire Masonic world to need any special mention here, but it may be well to remark his activities in other fields. He'_ was private secretary to Governor Lucas from 1838 to 1840, secretary to the_ Territorial Council in 1840, county judge from 184o‑i85o, clerk to the United States District Court from 1847‑1857, and registrar of the State Land Office in 1857 and 1858. For many years he was a trustee of the State University of Iowa, and for many more years he was connected with that institution as an 218 FREEMASONRY IN IOWA educator. Bro. T. S. Parvin, in speaking of secret societies in the early days of Iowa, once said: " The Masons, and they alone, permeated all and every rank and position in society; governors, judges, legislators, congressmen, senators, foreign ministers; all the learned professions and the bone and sinew of the State life, the agriculturist‑among whom the Masons have been most efficient and distinguished workers." These words of Bro. Parvin are as true to‑day as when they were first uttered in the early days of the Grand Lodge. In fact, it has always been true, as is proved by the following list of a few of the many distinguished Iowa Masons Henry Albert (1878‑1930), a member of Iowa City Lodge, No. 4, of Iowa City, was head of the department of bacteriology at the State University of Iowa from 1903 to 1922, and a State Health Commissioner from 1926 to 1930.


William Boyd Allison (1829‑19o8), a member of Mosaic Lodge, No. 125, of Dubuque, was United States senator from Iowa from 1872 to 19o8. Thomas Arthur (186o‑1925), a member of Chrysolite Lodge, No. 420, of Logan, was Grand Master in 1916, and‑chief justice of the Supreme Court of Iowa from 192o to 1925. Thomas Hart Benton, Jr. (1816‑1879), a member of Iowa City Lodge, No. 4, of Iowa City, and of Bluff City Lodge, No. 71, of Council Bluffs, was Grand Master in 186o, a brigadier‑general during the war between the States, and State Superintendent of Public Instruction in Iowa from 1848‑1854. William Robert Boyd (1864‑ ), a member of Mount Hermon Lodge, No. 263, of Cedar Rapids, editor and banker, has for a number of years been chairman of the finance committee of the Iowa State Board of Education. Luther Albertus Brewer (1858‑1933) a member of Crescent Lodge, No. 25, of Cedar Rapids, was for many years owner and editor of The Cedar Rapids Republican. His large collection of Leigh Hunt literature made him a well known figure among collectors. George Henry Carter (1874‑ ), a member of Bluff City Lodge, No. 71, of Council Bluffs, has been public printer of the United States since 1921. Bro. Carter was at one time editor of The Council Bluffs Nonpareil. Edgar Erastus Clark (1856‑1930), a member of Mount Hermon Lodge, No. 263, of Cedar Rapids, was at one time a member of the United States Interstate Commerce Commission, and for a while president of the Order of Railway Con ductors. Lester Jesse Dickinson (1873‑ ), a member of Prudence Lodge, No. 2o5, of Algona, and a well known lawyer, served as congressman from Iowa from 1919 to 1931, since which time he has represented this commonwealth in the United States Senate. He was for a time one of the trustees of Cornell College, at Mount Vernon, Iowa. Jonathan Prentiss Doliver (1858‑191o), a member of Ashlar Lodge, No. 111, of Fort Dodge, was another of Iowa's distinguished members of the bar. From 1889 to 19oo he represented Iowa in the United States Congress, and from igoo to 191o he was this commonwealth's sen ator in Washington, District of Columbia. Harry Morehouse Gage (1878‑ ), formerly a member of Clinton Lodge, No. 15, of Fairfield, now a member of Crescent Lodge, No. 25, of Cedar Rapids, has been president of Coe College, at Cedar Rapids, since 192o. In 1924‑1925, Bro. Gage was Grand Chaplain of FREEMASONRY IN IOWA 219 the Grand Lodge of Iowa. David Bremner Henderson (1840‑i9o6), a member of Mosaic Lodge, No. its, of Dubuque, was a member of the House of Representatives from 1883 to 1903, and Speaker of that body in the Fifty‑sixth and Fifty‑seventh Congresses. William S. Kenyon (1869‑1933) of Ashlar Lodge, No. 111, at Fort Dodge, represented Iowa in the United States Senate from 1911 to 1922‑. Thomas Huston MacBride (1848‑1934) a member of Iowa City Lodge, No. 4, of Iowa City, was professor of botany at the State University of Iowa from 1884 to 1914, and president of that institution from 1914‑1916. Hanford MacNider (1889‑ ), member of Benevolence Lodge, No. 145, of Mason City, served as Assistant Secretary of War from 1925 to 192‑8, having already had a military career of distinguished service during the World War, receiving the Croix de Guerre and other military honours. John Hanson Thomas Main (18591931), a member of Hermon Lodge, No. 273, of Grinnell, was president of Grin nell College from 1906 to 1931. Anson Marston (1864‑ ), a member of Arcadia Lodge, No. 2‑49, of Ames, became dean of the Division of Engineering at Iowa State College in 1904, which position he still holds. Edwin Thomas Meredith (1876‑192‑8), a member of Capital Lodge, No. 110, of Des Moines, owner and editor of the well‑known journal, Successful Farming, served as Secretary of Agriculture in the cabinet of President Woodrow Wilson. William Edward Miller (1823‑1896), a member of Iowa City Lodge, No. 4, of Iowa City, was a member of the Iowa Supreme Court from 1870 to 1875. Ernest R. Moore (1868‑ ), a member of Mount Hermon Lodge, No. 263, of Cedar Rapids, was lieutenant‑governor of Iowa from 1917 to 1921, and Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Iowa in 192‑4‑192‑5. George Douglas Perkins (1840‑1914), a member of Tyrian Lodge, No. 508, of Sioux City, for many years editor and publisher of The Sioux City journal, was a member of the United States Congress from 1891 to 1899. Charles Burton Robbins (1877‑ ), a member of Crescent Lodge, No. 2‑5, of Cedar Rapids, was Assistant Secretary of War of the United States in 192‑8 and 1929. Fred Wesley Sargent (1876‑ ), was made a Mason in Tyrian Lodge No. 508, of Sioux City. Bro. Sargent, a lawyer by profession, in 192‑5 became president of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway system. Bohumil Shimek (1861‑‑), a member of Iowa City Lodge, No. 4, of Iowa City, a distinguished scientist and writer on scientific subjects, was head of the botany department of the State University of Iowa from 1914 to 1919. In the latter year he became a research professor at that institution. Horace Mann Towner (1855‑ ), a member of Instruction Lodge, No. 2‑75, of Corning, was a member of the United States Congress from 1911 to 1923, and governor of Puerto Rico from 192‑3 to 1929. Joseph Williams (1801‑1871), who was one of the organisers of Iowa Lodge, No. 2‑, of Muscatine, was for a number of years a member of the Iowa Supreme Court. Lafayette Young (1848‑1928), a member of Home Lodge, No. 370, of Des Moines, well known as an orator, politician, and legislator, was editor of The Des Moines Capital from 1890 to 192‑6. James Wilson (1835‑1920), a member of Hesperia Lodge, No. 340, at Traer, served as Secretary of Agriculture from 1897 to 1913, under Presidents McKin‑ 220 FREEMASONRY IN IOWA ley, Theodore Roosevelt, and Taft. Henry Cantwell Wallace (1866‑1924), a member of Pioneer Lodge, No. 22, of Des Moines, was United States Secretary of Agriculture in the cabinet of President Harding. His son, Henry A. Wallace (1888‑ ), a member of Capital Lodge, No. 11o, Des Moines, became Secretary of Agriculture under President Franklin D. Roosevelt.


As one may readily surmise, the foregoing list of distinguished Iowa Masons does not by any means exhaust the record of the Craft in this Commonwealth. Though lack of space forbids our mentioning many other Brethren of this jurisdiction who have achieved distinction in one or more fields of activity, either public or private, we feel it incumbent upon us, nevertheless, to cite here the names of those Iowa Masons who have been governors of the State. First of those was Robert Lucas, a member of Des Moines Lodge, No. i, of Burlington, and of Iowa City Lodge, No. 4, of Iowa City, who served as Territorial governor from 1838 to 1841. James Clarke, who was appointed Territorial governor in 1845, was also a member of Des Moines Lodge, No. 1, of Burlington. Stephen Hempstead, who served Iowa as governor from 185o to 1854, was Initiated in Dubuque Lodge on June 21, 1843, while that Lodge was still under Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Missouri. Samuel J. Kirkwood, governor of Iowa from 186o to 1864, and again in 1876 to 1877, was a member of Iowa City Lodge, No. 4, of Iowa City. From 1864 to 1868 William M. Stone served the State as governor. He was a member of Oriental Lodge, No. 61, of Knoxville. From 1868‑1872, Samuel Merrill was governor of the Commonwealth, being a member of Capital Lodge, No. 1 io, Des Moines. Cyrus C. Carpenter, a member of Ashlar Lodge, No. 111, of Fort Dodge, served as Iowa's governor from 1872 to 1876. John H. Gear, a member of Des Moines Lodge, No. 1, of Burlington, was governor of Iowa from 1878 to 1882. Buren Robinson Sherman was a member of Vinton Lodge, No. 62‑, at Vinton. He served Iowa as governor from 1882 until 1886. From 1894 to 1896 Frank D. Jackson served as governor, being a member of Capital Lodge, No. 11o, Des Moines. Albert Baird Cummins, also a member of Capital Lodge, No. 11o, Des Moines, was governor of Iowa from 19o2 to 19o8. From 1917 to 1921, William L. Harding was governor. He was a member of Morningside Lodge, No. 615, of Sioux City. The next governor of the State, Nathan E. Kendall, who served in the high office from 1921 to 1925, was a member of Astor Lodge, No. 5o5, of Albia. John Hammill, a member of Darius Lodge, No. 431, of Britt, was the State's chief executive from 1925 to 1931. Up to the time of writing this sketch of Iowa's Masonic history, the last member of the Craft to serve as governor was Daniel Webster Turner, a member of Instruction Lodge, No. 275, at Corning, the term of his service being from 1931‑1933 Since this is a Masonic history, however, it would not be complete without at least a brief mention of some of the men who are better known for their Masonic activity than for their accomplishments in civil and political life. It is to the unselfish efforts of those men who gave to Masonry unstintingly of their time and talents, often at the sacrifice of their own affairs, that we chiefly FREEMASONRY IN IOWA owe the progress of the Institution. Among them was Theodore S. Parvin, whose unwearied zeal kept alive the sacred flame upon our Altars during the trying period of birth and adolescence. An educator himself, he inspired the infant Grand Lodge to promote the cause of Masonic education, and under his leadership the Great Masonic Library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa was established. Another who gave whole‑heartedly to the cause of Masonry in Iowa was Ansel Humphreys, whose thorough knowledge of Masonic Law and Ritual prevented many a mistake that, through ignorance and prejudice, might otherwise have been made.


Still another member who devoted himself to the Craft was Charles T. Granger, of later years also well skilled in Masonic Law and Ritual, who systematised the heterogeneous laws and decisions hidden away in the various Pro ceedings, and gave to the Grand Lodge its first systematic Code of Laws. It was under Bro. Granger's direction, and that of Bro. Charles C. Clark, that the present system of instruction in the Ritual was inaugurated and carried on. Bro. Granger's work on earth is finished, and he has passed to the other shore, but Bro. Clark is still with us, carrying on the work as Chairman of the jurisprudence Committee and a member of the Board of Custodians. Iowa Masons are also proud of Bro. Louis Block, well known throughout the Masonic world as the writer of their Reports on Fraternal Review. Unfortunately the space allotted for this article permits only a mere mention of these famous Masons, and makes it impossible to do more than name such distinguished members of the Craft as Brothers Rothert, Van Saun, Allen, Gamble, Fellows, Ball, the two Deweys, Bowen, Lambert, Eaton, Gardner, Norris, Cleveland, Hunter, Martin, Clements, Craig, Hutchinson, Moses, Arthur, Barry, Westfall, West, Alberson, Glaze, Gabriel, Moore, Wellington, Belt, Tripp, Gannaway, Percival, Hansen and Larson.


To all these Masons, whose love of Masonry has enriched us all, we owe an everlasting debt of gratitude.


While Iowa Masons may well be proud of the growth of the Order during its more than ninety years, from 4 Lodges having ioi members to 556 Lodges having nearly 75,000 members, they may profitably keep in mind the admonition of Bro. Parvin when he said: " The Institution does not rest its value upon the number of Lodges, nor yet upon the number of its members, but upon the strength which they embody within themselves and which they exemplify in their daily walk of life and experience with men. As men, they look upon their Institution and see what manner of men you are, and what are the works of your hands." FREEMASONRY IN KANSAS ELMER F. STRAIN HE tide of immigration across the borders of the Territory destined to become the great State of Kansas brought men of strong conviction and earnest purpose to these broad prairies. They desired to build new homes and to have a part in shaping the governmental policy of this new commonwealth. The hardships of the early days and the associations of other years drew men together regardless of their views on statehood.


Men of Masonic faith longed for the helpful fellowship of organised Fraternity and the Lodge, where those principles so vital to right living are taught. The desire of these sturdy pioneers became a reality under the authority of the M.'. W.‑. Grand Lodge of Missouri. The bane of bitterness and hatred yielded to the benediction and blessing of brotherhood, and the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of Kansas was born.


Thus it is written. Dispensations from the M.‑. W.‑. Grand Lodge of Missouri were issued as follows Grove Lodge (now Wyandotte, No. 3) to meet at the house of Matthew Walker with Bro. John M. Chivington as Master, Bro. Matthew R. Walker as Senior Warden and Bro. Cyrus Garrett as junior Warden, August 4, 1854. This first Lodge in Kansas held its initial meeting in the hall of the Sons of Temperance in Wyandotte, now Kansas City, Kansas, August 11, 1854. Smithfield Lodge (now Smithton, No. I) with Bro. John W. Smith as Master, Bro. E. H. Reinheart, Senior Warden, Bro. Daniel Vanderslice, Junior Warden, October 6, 1854. Their first meeting was held on a high hill overlooking the Missouri Valley in the northeast corner of the Territory. The Tyler performed his enlarged duties on horseback.


Leavenworth Lodge (now Leavenworth, No. 2) with Bro. Richard R. Rees,FMaster; Bro. Archibald Payne, Senior Warden, and Bro. Auley McAuley, Junior Warden, December 30, 1854. W .‑.Richard R. Rees, the Father of Ma sonry in Kansas, assembled this small group January 19, 1855, set them to Work with proper instruction. This meeting was probably held in the Master's office, as were many others.


At the meeting of the M.‑.W.‑.Grand Lodge of Missouri in May 1855 Charters were granted to these three Lodges, to be known respectively as Kansas Lodge, No. 153; Smithton Lodge, No. 140, and Leavenworth Lodge, No. I5o.


Lawrence Lodge (now Lawrence, No. 6) received their Dispensation September 24, 1855, with Bro. James Christian as Master, Bro. Columbus Hornsby 122 FREEMASONRY IN KANSAS 223 as Senior Warden, and Bro. James S. Cowan as junior Warden. Lawrence Lodge, No. 6, received its Charter from Kansas on the recommendation of the M .'. W .'. Grand Lodge of Missouri, which received and approved its Report under Dispensation. This Charter and all of the Lodge's property were destroyed Friday, August 21, 1863, by Quantrell and his band of outlaws. Five members of the Lodge were killed in this raid.


Kickapoo Lodge (now Kickapoo, No. 4) received their Dispensation November 5, 1855, with Bro. John H. Sahler, Master; Bro. Pleasant M. Hodges, Senior Warden, and Bro. Charles H. Gover, Junior Warden.


Charters having been issued to three Lodges and their organisation perfected, it was competent for them to organise a Grand Lodge. Action was promptly taken. At the Communication of Leavenworth Lodge, No. 150, September 15, 1855, Bro. Richard R. Rees introduced a resolution calling a Delegate meeting for November 14 next, to organise a Grand Lodge. The Convention of November 14 failed for want of a quorum and adjourned to meet again December 27 next. At the adjourned meeting Kansas Lodge, No. 15o, was not represented but organisation was effected subject to the approval of that Lodge. Following the election of Grand Officers and the transaction of necessary business, the Convention adjourned to meet March 17, 1856. The Officers selected were: M.‑.W.‑.Richard R. Rees, Grand Master; R.‑.W.‑.John W. Smith, Deputy Grand Master; R.‑.W.‑.Matthew R. Walker, Senior Grand Warden; R.‑. W.‑. Daniel Vanderslice, Junior Grand Warden; R.‑. W.‑. Charles T. Harrison, Grand Secretary; R.‑. W.‑. Charles Mundee, Grand Treasurer.


On March 17, 1856, a small but zealous group of Brethren, representing all the Chartered Lodges in Kansas, met in the city of Leavenworth, unanimously confirmed the action of the Convention of December 27, 1855, formed and opened the M.‑. W.‑. Grand Lodge of Kansas. The principal business transacted at this Communication was the adoption of the Constitution and By‑Laws, and the selection of a Committee to visit the M.. W.‑. Grand Lodge of Missouri and present the claim of the new Grand Lodge. Adjournment was taken to July 14, when Grand Master Richard R. Rees reported that his Committee visited the M.‑. W.‑. Grand Lodge of Missouri on May 30, 1856, and asked recognition for our infant Grand Lodge. Their request was met " with the magnanimity ever characteristic of true and noble Masons." Recognition was almost unanimously accorded. At this Communication Charters were authorised for Lawrence, Kickapoo, and Washington Lodges. While this doubled the number of Constituent Lodges, the total membership at that time was less than Zoo. Our Order grew and prospered with the settlement and development of the Territory. Each Annual Communication found progress, the addition of new Lodges, and a gradual increase in membership.


In 186o and 1861 Dispensations were given to Brethren at Nevada City and Denver City in the Colorado Territory, but these were soon released to the new Grand Lodge of Colorado. The Civil War had its effect upon the Work of Masonry even to preventing and interfering with the regularity of Annual 224 FREEMASONRY IN KANSAS Communications. In all the expressions of its Grand Officers and Acts of the M.‑. W.‑. Grand Lodge, consistent loyalty to the government was shown. Our Proceedings reflect our good fortune in having M.‑.W.‑.Jacob Saqui as Grand Master for the war period 1861 to 1865 inclusive.


Whatever depression came with the grasshoppers of the early seventies and the frequent crop failures, seems to have been offset by the extension of Lodges into the remotest part of the new State. Growth was steady and sure. Added to the hardships of frontier life, 150 miles or more from trading‑posts with wagon transportation only, there were roving bands of Indians to prey upon the settlers. Fortunately, the government had taught these many lessons, and violence was scarce. Insolence was plentiful and food was insistently demanded. With the disappearance of the buffalo in the late seventies, the Indians withdrew to their Reservations and left their pale‑faced neighbours to tame the West. Through the eighties and nineties, with their financial ups and downs, Masonry continued to offer the manhood of the West a faithful fellowship and opportunities for service. All of this contributed to soul growth, and the development of well‑balanced men. Reviewing fifty years of usefulness, closing with the turn of the new century, we are proud of our contribution to the righteous leadership of the nation and the world.


The early years of the twentieth century have given us the mechanical age and scientific development beyond our fondest dreams. Inventors under pressure of the World War conquered distance, the air and the sea, and man's dominion over the things of the world has been well established. Notwithstanding the War's crystallising influence upon Masonic ambition and the great influx into our Lodges, the years of deflation and the generation's living standards have caused the tide to recede.


In this year (1935) we have 448 Lodges and our membership stands at 65,48o, as against the high mark in 1928 of 83,7o8. Let us assure the reader that the apparent indifference is incident to the speed of the hour and the call upon men's time, and not disloyalty. Beyond question there are more believers in the fundamentals of Masonry and the Church to‑day than the world has ever known.


The headquarters of the M.‑. W.‑. Grand Lodge of A. F. and A. M. of Kansas is in Topeka, the capital city, located at 320 West 8th Street, facing the State House Grounds and the Capitol Building.


In 1916 the Grand Lodge Office and Library Building was constructed. It is fireproof, two stories and basement, built and equipped particularly for our requirements. It contains suitable and adequate quarters for the M.‑.W.‑.Grand Lodge, the M.‑.E.‑.Grand Chapter of R. A. M., the M.‑. Ill..‑. Grand Council of R. and S. M., and the Grand Commandery Knights Templar. The Library contains a large collection of miscellaneous literature, a considerable store of Masonic books and publications and a valuable collection of rare and old Masonic books. The Museum department contains a large and interesting collection of relics of the Fraternity covering its seventy‑nine years FREEMASONRY IN KANSAS 22‑5 of existence, and also many interesting collections of State and national importance and interest.


The Annual Communications of the M.‑.W.‑.Grand Lodge are held on the third Wednesday and Thursday of February. For many years, these Communications have been held alternately in the cities of Wichita and Topeka. The following Grand Officers are serving the year, which will be concluded Thursday, February 2‑o, 1936: M.'. W.'.Otto R. Souders, Grand Master; R.‑. W .‑.James H. Wendeorff, Deputy Grand Master; R.‑.W.‑.Charley B. Erskine, Grand Senior Warden; R.‑.W.‑.Henry S. Buzick, Jr., Grand Junior Warden; M.‑.W.‑.John McCullagh, Grand Treasurer; M .'. W .'. Elmer F. Strain, Grand Secretary; R.‑. W.'. Albert K. Wilson, Grand Secretary Emeritus; Bro. Fred W. Condit, Grand Chaplain; W.‑. Claud F. Young, Grand Senior Deacon; W.‑. Benjamin F. Hull, Grand Junior Deacon; W.‑.William B. Penny, Grand Marshal; W.‑. Harvey S. McIntosh, Grand Sword Bearer; W.‑. Paul M. Martin, Grand Senior Steward; W .'. Otto H. Rommel, Grand Junior Steward; W.‑. Homer T. Harden, Grand Pursuivant; W.‑. Lauren Dale Rigg, Grand Tyler.


Kansas Craftsmen are noted for, and have pride in, our strict adherence to the original plan of Masonry. Innovations of every character have been shunned. Participation in political, religious, or civic affairs has been dis countenanced except by individual members in the performance of their duty as citizens. The Institution has busied itself in a sustained effort to strengthen the characters of its votaries, train them in the correct principles of manhood and point them to a just God for the wages due the honest and upright efforts of every life. It has neither repudiated nor encouraged those enthusiasts of later years who have built upon or clung to the structure of Freemasonry to propagate a new idealism. Satisfied with an effort to teach the Cardinal Virtues and those fundamental principles on which all men agree, it has turned neither to the right nor to the left, and finds happiness in the " Faith of our Fathers." Outside of Masonry's effort to build character into the manhood it touches directly and indirectly and implant a vision of human brotherhood, its greatest effort has been for the orphan and the aged brother and sister.


In the year 1893 our Constitution was amended to permit the establishment of a Masonic Home. The original agitation is credited to the Order of the Eastern Star, and began at their Annual Session in 1881. After years of discussion, Committees from all Masonic Bodies met at Clay Centre on Thanksgiving Day, 1892‑, and prepared a definite plan of procedure. The first meeting of the Board of Directors was held May 8, 1893, but not until June io, 1896, were the plans consummated in the purchase of the Robert E. Lawrence residence, and fifteen acres of ground in West Wichita. December 22‑, 1916, fire destroyed the Home but from the ashes arose plans for larger and better buildings. February 19, 1919, the new fireproof buildings were dedicated.


It was expected that these buildings would house our family for at least a generation. However, in 192‑8, the M.‑. W.‑. Grand Lodge began a five‑year 226 FREEMASONRY IN KANSAS programme to raise $450,000 for additional buildings, some of which were needed at once. The additional facilities doubling the capacity of the Home were completed at a cost of $415,ooo and dedicated at the Annual Communication in February 1931. The plant is now valued at $i,ooo,ooo. At the close of 1934 the family Roll contained 362 names with 318 actually in the Home, about equally divided between men, women and children. Our membership has a genuine pride in this fine plant and the comfort they are thereby able to bring to brothers and sisters who have lost, but their great joy is our children. They come to us in the formative years of childhood and youth, are educated in the city schools and go out equipped to meet the battles of life.


The city of Wichita and its people have been very helpful in the handling of all of the Home problems. Our children are admitted to grade and high schools freely notwithstanding complete tax exemption. A most earnest ef fort to maintain this place as a Home in the truest sense, not as an Institution, has been very successful. The social atmosphere is therefore as comforting as the fine plant.


The Kansas Masonic Home is a corporation controlled by a Board of Directors. This Board is composed of the four members of the Council of Administration and five others elected by them, four from the Grand Lodge and one from the Order of the Eastern Star. The Grand Master is always President of the Board. The annual expenditure for maintenance is approximately $84,000. Practically all of the benevolences of the M.‑. W.‑. Grand Lodge are handled through the Masonic Home Board.


The formation of the M.‑. W.‑. Grand Lodge of Kansas gathered a group of faithful Brethren from many of the Grand jurisdictions east of the Missouri River. Each was trained in the peculiar phraseology of the Ritual of his na tive State. It was not unusual that the Officers of a Lodge would have three or four versions of the Work. Complication, confusion, and disagreement were common. This situation grew and became more intolerable with the addition of new Lodges and Brethren from new jurisdictions.


At the Annual Communication of the M.‑.W.'. Grand Lodge in 1866, a Committee designated as the " Board of Custodians " was appointed to report the Webb Work.


At the succeeding Annual Communication the Custodians exemplified the Work: Bro. Owen A. Bassett of Acacia Lodge, No. 9, the First Degree; W.‑. Edward A. Smith of Rising Sun Lodge, No. 8, the Second Degree, and M.‑. W.‑. John H. Brown of King Solomon Lodge, No. io, the Third Degree. The Work as thus exemplified was approved and adopted.


The task of teaching the correct Kansas Work to the Lodges was a long, laborious process, but in due time was accomplished, and for many years the Brethren of Kansas have taken much pride in the purity of their Work. In the years since this standardisation, there have been many to attack its verbiage, but like the Rock of Gibraltar, it still stands without the change of so much as a punctuation point.


FREEMASONRY IN KANSAS 227 The Board of Custodians continued until igo9 when it was abolished. At the same Annual Communication the Grand Master was authorised to appoint a suitable number of Lecturers to give all instruction. This system hash been continued to the present time. The State was divided into Districts containing three to ten Lodges, and a district meeting or school is held in each at least once each year, with an authorised Lecturer in attendance. The results have been so thoroughly satisfactory in every particular that change is unlikely.


Many of the men who have been influential in the political life of Kansas were active patrons of Masonry. During the trying period from Territorial organisation to admission of Kansas as a State (1854‑61) there were ten Terri torial governors. Most of these were nonresidents when appointed and left no Masonic record in this Grand Jurisdiction. Governor Wilson Shannon alone is shown as' a member. No doubt many of the others were Masons, but felt it undesirable to affiliate here.


Of the twenty‑five who have served Kansas as governor since its admission, all but nine were Masons.


Eleven of the twenty‑three United States senators from Kansas were associated with our Fraternity. The most outstanding member of this group‑was the late John J. Ingalls, a member of our Washington Lodge, No. 5, Atchison. He was nationally known during his eighteen years as United States senator, and his contribution to the literature of the country insures the perpetuity of his memory. His poetry and prose writings are particularly appealing. Everywhere he was recognised as one of our greatest orators. His ready wit, keen satire, and forceful delivery were known and feared in the Senate. For a quarter of a century he had an important part on the stage of human events in our State and national life, and left a public and private record of which all men and Masons may be proud.


M.‑.W.‑.Richard R. Rees (1856‑59), our first Grand Master, re‑elected for four‑consecutive terms, was a prominent factor in the early life of the Territory of Kansas, and most worthily directed the laying of the foundation of Masonry in Kansas.


M.‑.W .'.Jacob Saqui (1861‑65), Grand Master during the five years of the Civil War, was a true descendant of our traditional first Most ExcellentGrand Master. He led with that wisdom which immortalised Israel's great King.


M.‑.W.‑.John H. Brown (1868‑73), served with distinction in civil "and Masonic life. Three years as Grand Master and twenty‑three immediately following as Grand Secretary.


M . . W .'. Owen A. Bassett (1873‑74) served our country and Fraternity with honour. He had much to do with the construction of our law system. He is ;regularly quoted and the Bassett Notes in our Code are the last words in legal logic and clear‑cut expression of the same.


M.‑.W.‑.William M. Shaver (1897) is held in loving remembrance for his service as Grand Master and for his labour in compiling the Monitor used in Kansas for many years, and which bears his name. His musical ability, both 2.2.8 FREEMASONRY IN KANSAS organ and voice, so cheerfully given and so pleasingly adapted, and his true interpretation of our Work were the inspiration for many of the best workers of to‑day.


M.‑.W.‑.Charles J. Webb (igoo), a good example of deep water moving slowly, served faithfully as Grand Master and at his death a few years ._since made suitable provision for relatives, and left the residue of his estate, more than $1oo,ooo, to the Endowment Fund of the Masonic Home.


M .'. W .'. Perry M. Hoisington (zgoi), a Christian gentleman; banker by trade; a trained soldier; fearless and forceful, yet kindly and considerate; a man of broad experience and unquestioned integrity! Through his long service in the National Guard and the United States Army, he has contributed much to the‑general elevation of standards among our young men. The colonel was an outstanding servant to all branches of Masonry, particularly in the military affairs of the Grand Encampment. He was a Director of the Masonic Home Board from its organisation until his death in 1933 M.'. W.'. Bestor G. Brown (1903), nationally and internationally known Mason, contributed much to the general advancement of Masonry in Kansas. With his happy disposition, forceful and pleasing expression, he was naturally a floor leader in Grand Lodge and a man of great influence outside. It was his logic and eloquence that brought about the building of our magnificent Grand Lodge Building. His death was truly untimely.


M.‑.W.'. Thomas G. Fitch (1904), active in all the Grand Bodies for more than a generation; affectionately known as " Colonel Tom "; active head of the A. A. S. R. in Kansas at this time and for many years past. His great service has been as active Vice‑President and Secretary of the Masonic Home Board for many, many years without fee or reward.


M.‑. W.‑. Ben S. Paulen (192.1) served the State as governor for four years, during one of which (192.5) he was Grand High Priest of the M.‑.E.‑.Grand Chapter R.A.M. He is a regular patron of Masonic meetings and a man of influence in State and Fraternal affairs.


R.‑. W.‑. Albert K. Wilson was Grand Secretary for thirty‑five years (1894192.8); Reviewer for many years in all Bodies; founder of present system of Records and Accounts; Editor‑in‑Chief of all our literature. Has just finished writing a history of Masonry in Kansas.


M.‑. W.‑. Henry F. Mason (19o8) served Masonry with pleasing efficiency and was for many years prior to his death (192.7) a member of the Supreme Court of Kansas. He had an analytic mind, abundant, powerful and beautiful language, and could instantly adapt himself to any group or situation.


M.'. W.'. Wm. Easton Hutchison (19i2), pioneer Mason and citizen of the great Southwest. Served his people as district judge for many years. Now a member of the Supreme Court of the State.


To close this sketch without acknowledgment of the value of precept and example in the lives of the great army of members not called to service in official capacity would be an injustice. No Work of any consequence is ac‑ FREEMASONRY IN KANSAS 2‑29 complished without qualified and consecrated leadership. Similarly, no satisfactory results can be attained unless there is an army of devoted followers and Workers. The truly great Mason is he who accepts Masonry as the exact science it is; puts its principles into his daily life and walks before the world according to its teachings, performing the service which comes to his hand, always endeavouring to produce Square Work for the Tefhple. The responsibility of men and Masons is in proportion to their ability, and the reward to the humblest is equal unto that of the exalted, faithfulness being the only measure.


FREEMASONRY IN KENTUCKY G. ALL1soN HOLLAND HE Grand Lodge of Kentucky was organised at Lexington on September 8, 18oo, by three Representatives from Lexington Lodge, No. 2‑5; three from Paris Lodge, No. 35; two from Georgetown Lodge, No. 46; six from Frankfort‑Hiram Lodge, No. 57; and one from Abraham's Lodge U. D., of Shelbyville. John Hawkins was elected Chairman of the original meeting and Thomas Bodley, Clerk. At that time it was decided that each Lodge should have one vote, and the following resolution was adopted: " Resolved, That it is expedient, necessary, and agreeable to the Masonic Constitutions that a Grand Lodge should be established in this State to be composed of the Representatives of such Lodges in the Western country as may find it convenient to attach themselves to its jurisdiction." Since the above‑named Lodges were members of, and held their Charters under, the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Virginia, a Committee of one from each of these Lodges was, therefore, appointed to draft a respectful ad dress to that Grand Lodge, giving the reasons for the separation of the Lodges from its jurisdiction. It was also ordered that each Lodge should pay all it owed to the Grand Lodge of Virginia. That was done.


On the following October 16, pursuant to the resolution adopted at the Convention of September 8, i8oo, the various Representatives assembled in the Masonic Hall at Lexington. James Morrison, the oldest Past Master pres ent, was requested to take the Chair. The following Delegates were present From Lexington Lodge, No. 2‑5: A. McGregor, Master; Thomas Bodley, Senior Warden; John Bobbs, Junior Warden; James Morrison, Past Master; Hugh McIlvain, Past Master; and Bro. James Russell, Bro. James Bliss, and Bro. Nathaniel Barker; from Paris Lodge, No. 35 : Thomas Hughes, Master; Nathaniel Williams, Junior Warden; Bro. Thomas Phillips and Bro. Joseph Duncan; from Georgetown Lodge, No. 46: William Sutton, Master; Samuel Shepherd, Senior Warden; John Sutton, Junior Warden, and Cary L. Clarke, Past Master; from Hiram Lodge, No. 57: William Murray, Master; Thomas Love, Senior Warden, and Isaac E. Gano, Junior Warden; and from Abraham's Lodge U. D.: Simon Adams, Master, and James Wardlow, Senior Warden.


A Lodge of Master Masons having been opened in due form, the Masters then produced their Charters and Credentials. They were careful to see that everything should be well, regularly, and lawfully done. Grand Officers were then elected: William Murray, of Hiram Lodge, No. 57, now Lodge, No. 4, was elected Grand Master, and immediately Installed. The Grand Master, waiving his right to appoint his Deputy, Alexander MacGregor of Paris Lodge, z30 FREEMASONRY IN KENTUCKY 131 No. 25, now Lodge, No. i, was elected Deputy Grand Master. He also was Installed immediately. Simon Adams, of Abraham's Lodge U. D., now Solomon Lodge, No. 5, was elected Grand Senior Warden, and Cary L. Clarke, of Georgetown Lodge, No. 46, afterwards Lodge No. 3, was elected Grand Junior Warden. Both were at once Installed. Other Officers were then elected as follows: James Russell, of Lexington Lodge, No. 25, now Lodge No. i, Grand Secretary; John A. Seitz, also of Lexington Lodge, No. 25, now Lodge No. i, Grand Treasurer; Thomas Hughes of Paris Lodge, No. 35, afterwards Lodge No. 2, Grand Senior Deacon; Nathaniel Williams, also of Paris Lodge, No. 35, afterwards Lodge No. 2, Grand Junior Deacon; Samuel Shepherd, of Georgetown Lodge, No. 46, afterwards Lodge No. 3, Grand Pursuivant; and John Bobbs, of Lexington Lodge No. 25, now Lodge No. i, Grand Tyler.


After the Installation of those Officers, the Grand Lodge met as a Committee of the Whole to consider matters regarded as being absolutely necessary for the good of the Craft. The Committee was then directed to make its Report to the Grand Lodge at seven o'clock that evening. At the night meeting the action of the Committee of the Whole was considered separately, ratified, and confirmed. A Committee consisting of Simon Adams, William Sutton, and Isaac E. Gano was also appointed to prepare a letter to all other Grand Lodges which gave in detail the reasons and purposes of the Kentucky Lodges in withdrawing from the Grand Lodge of Virginia. At the same meeting the Grand Master was instructed to appoint well‑skilled Brethren to visit and inspect the Work of the various subordinate Lodges. It was then agreed that the following should be the order of numbers given to the subordinate Lodges under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky: Lexington Lodge, No. i (No. 25 on the Virginia Register); Paris Lodge, No. 2 (No. 35 on the Virginia Register); Georgetown Lodge, No. 3 (No. 46 on the Virginia Register); Hiram Lodge, No. 4 (No. 57 on the Virginia Register); and Solomon's Lodge, No. 5 (Abraham's Lodge U. D. on the Virginia Register).


It was also agreed that the Seal of Lexington Lodge, No. i, should be used as the Grand Lodge Seal until another could be procured, and that the Lodge Charters should be " delivered up " and temporary Charters issued to Lodges No. i, No. 2, No. 3, and No. 4 at a cost of five pounds each and to Lodge No. 5 for ten pounds. The Lodges were to be credited with those amounts, respectively, on paying the Grand Secretary's fees in advance. It was then ordered that the Grand Secretary should prepare Charters for the Lodges, and that the Charters should be signed " by the Grand Masters," that is, we now suppose, by the Grand Master and the Deputy Grand Master. The Charters were to be attested by the Grand Secretary under Seal, then returned at the next Stated Communication, when others issued in due form would be given in lieu of them. Orders were also made that the Grand Master, the Grand Treasurer, and the Grand Secretary should prepare Regalia, Tools, jewels, and other necessary equipment, and that the completion of the Seal be left to the Grand Secretary.


2‑32 FREEMASONRY IN KENTUCKY A Committee was then appointed to prepare a circular letter to be sent to all the other Grand Lodges. It was to advise them of the establishment and organisation of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky. The letter was then reported and signed by the Chairman, Alexander MacGregor. The Scotsman must have said to himself, " My feet are on my native heath," for he signed his name in big letters, thus: MACGREGOR, Chairman." The Grand Lodge met again on February 9, 18o1, in the Masonic Hall at Lexington, and having been opened it was adjourned again until the next day. At that time a Charter was granted to a Lodge in Bairdstown, to be known as Washington Lodge, No. 6. The name of that Lodge was subsequently changed to Duvall Lodge, No. 6. The name of the town was also changed to Bardstown. It is to‑day a centre of great historic interest in Kentucky.


Members of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky were notably represented in the War of 1812. At the very beginning of that struggle, really in 1811, Joseph Hamilton Daviess, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, stopped at Vincennes, Indiana, to visit the Lodge there. It was under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky. Daviess was at the time on his way to join Gen. William Henry Harrison, and under him to participate in the battle of Tippecanoe. There he lost his life on a gallant occasion while in command of a body of courageous Kentucky troops. Gen. Harrison said of Maj. Daviess " The Major's gallantry determined him to excute the order with a smaller force than was sufficient. . . . He joined me as a private volunteer, and on recommendation of the officers of that corps, was appointed to command the three troops of dragoons. His conduct in that capacity justified the choice. Never was there an officer possessed of more ardour and zeal in the discharge of his duties with propriety, and never one who would have encountered greater danger to purchase military fame." Daviess married Anna Marshall, a sister of Chief Justice John Marshall. He died on November 7, 1811, and on August 27, 1812, a funeral service in memory of him was conducted at Lexington by the Grand Lodge of Kentucky. On that occasion, eleven subordinate Lodges were represented. The coffin was ' borne by eight Master Masons, all members of Lexington Lodge, No. 1. The funeral sermon was preached by Dr. Caleb W. Cloud, and the Grand Lodge was presided over by Deputy Grand Master John Simpson, who also fought for his country alongside Past Grand Master Allen, as captain of a company in the regiment of which Allen was colonel. Both were killed at the battle of the Raisin.


The early history of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky mentions the names of many men prominent in other fields of endeavour in the State. At that time the Grand Lodge had an Office known as that of Grand Orator, which was filled by various distinguished Masons. Chief among them was Henry Clay, who later, in 182o, became Grand Master. The name of Henry Clay is so well known that it is not necessary to do more than mention it in this connection. Among the other distinguished Masons were: Colonel John Allen, George FREEMASONRY IN KENTUCKY 233 M. Bibb, Daniel Bradford, and others whose names are regarded as household words throughout the old Commonwealth.


In later years John Speed Smith, Robert J. Breckinridge, Leslie Combs, Daniel Breck, and Samuel Daviess added luster to the distinguished line of early Kentucky Masons. The last named was a brother of Grand Master Joseph Hamilton Daveiss, mentioned earlier in this article. It might also be well to mention Robert Johnson here. He located claims for land in different sections of what afterwards became Scott and Jefferson Counties. There is now in the Henry County clerk's office a parchment United States Treasury warrant given to him. This warrant established Bro. Johnson's claim and authorised him to make a survey of land in that county, in 1786, when it was still a part of Jefferson County. Bro. Johnson was in command at Bryan Station. His wife, Jemina Suggett Johnson, led the women out of Bryan Station to the nearby spring in full view of the Indians who were being led by the notorious Simon Girty. That spring, near which have been placed names of the women who took part in that heroic event, is now memorialised by a tablet placed there by the Lexington Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution.


In 1829 James O. Harrison was the Grand Orator of the Grand Lodge. His grandson, James O. H. Simrall, now a prominent citizen of Lexington, has charge of business affairs of the public school system there.


In 1851 an appeal for aid in erecting the Washington Monument having been received, a Committee was appointed to prepare a block of Kentucky marble inscribed with the following words BY THE GRAND LODGE OF KENTUCKY TO THE MEMORY OF WASHINGTON THE CHRISTIAN MASON The block, now a part of that celebrated memorial, bears the inscription given above.


In 1853 Thomas Todd, of Shelby County, became Grand Master. He was a distinguished Mason in Kentucky. Grand Master Todd's mother was Letitia Shelby Todd, daughter of Isaac Shelby, the first governor of Kentucky. During Bro. Todd's administration as Grand Master twenty‑seven Lodges were granted Dispensations. Among those was Eminence Lodge, No. 282, the Charter for which was granted on August 31, 1854.


Robert Morris, a celebrated Masonic writer, Poet Laureate of Kentucky Masonry, was Grand Master of Kentucky in 1858. Bro. Morris wrote a book of Masonic poems and also a large and interesting work entitled Freemasonry in the Holy Land. While gathering information for his books he spent eight years in Palestine. Among his better‑known poems are " The Level and the Square," " Our Vows," and " Galilee." The latter, set to music, is often sung in churches.


In 1866 a memorial was presented to the Grand Lodge asking for the estab‑ 2‑34 FREEMASONRY IN KENTUCKY lishment of a Masonic Home under the supervision of the Grand Lodge. This was the origin of our present Masonic Widows' and Orphans' Home and Infirmary. The meeting was held, as had been planned, and Articles of Incorporation were properly prepared. Bro. H. B. Grant, who was present at the first meeting, has written a brief statement naming others who were present at that time. Among them were Bro. Sadler, Bro. Richardson, Bro. C. Henry Fink, Bro. Harry Hudson, Bro. Cowling, and Bro. Monsarrat. Bro. Grant gives credit for the establishment of the Home to Dr. A. Given. It was established and built between i st and 2‑d Streets in Louisville. It was the first Masonic Widows' and Orphans' Home ever established. To‑day, similar Homes are to be found throughout the civilised world and especially throughout the United States.


In 1918 the Grand Lodge of Kentucky authorised the appointment of a Committee to raise $1,ooo,ooo for buying a new site and constructing new buildings for this Institution. It was evident that the site and buildings in use at the time had long since been outgrown and that more land and more buildings were necessary. This matter was discussed at the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge held in December 1918; then, in January 1919, Grand Master William Carson Black appointed the Committee which was to raise the necessary funds. It consisted of G. Allison Holland, Chairman; George C. Atkinson, Will Ward Duffield, H. M. Grundy, John F. Coldiron, A. R. Kimmerling, Secretary; and William Carson Black, Treasurer. A few months later, Coldiron having resigned, Bro. A. Gordon Sulser was made a member of the Committee. This Committee succeeded in raising the magnificent sum of $1,143,491 for the purpose of providing the Home.


A tract of land consisting of 127 acres was then purchased at St. Matthews, just outside Louisville. On that tract 15 large and commodious fireproof buildings have been constructed for the purpose of taking care of more than 6So widows and orphans of deceased Brethren. After the Committee had raised the sum of money mentioned, an assessment was then made against the various Lodges of Kentucky. Those assessments and subscriptions amounted to about $Z,ooo,ooo, all of which sum was invested in the new site and buildings. To‑day Kentucky has one of the most magnificent Masonic Homes in the world, and there is not a dollar of indebtedness against it. All expenses of maintenance are met by the Masons of Kentucky. Judge James Garnett, judge of one of the Chancery Divisions of the Circuit Court in Louisville and a man of high standing in the State, is now the President of the Home.


In addition to that Masonic undertaking, the Grand Lodge has also established what is known as the Old Masons' Home, at Shelbyville, Kentucky. It has there about zoo acres of fine bluegrass land, and a splendid three‑story fireproof building equipped with all modern conveniences. In that Home, Kentucky Masons are caring for 81 aged Masons who have no home, and, except for the Masonic Fraternity, neither friends nor family to care for them. These two Homes stand as material proof of the thought, the care, and the FREEMASONRY IN KENTUCKY 2‑35 great‑heartedness of Kentucky Masonry. They have been reared by a Fraternity that makes its deeds of love and duty a monument more durable than brass. Kentucky Masons are proud of their line of Grand Masters. The names of those who have held that high Office from 18oo to the present are given here because memory of them is an indelible part of our history: F. C. Gerard, 1895 R. Frank Peak, 1896 R. H. Thompson, 1897 J. E. Wilhelm, 1898 John A. Ramsey, 1899 William C. McChord, 19oo Harry Bailey, 1901 John W. Landrum, i9o2 Owen D. Thomas, 1903 R. H. C. Rhea, 1904 James Garnett, 1905 Samuel K. Veach, 1906 Henry P. Barrett, 1907 Virgil P. Smith, i9o8 John H. Cowles, 1909 Robert R. Burnam, 1910 David Jackson, 1911 Joseph H. Ewalt, 1912 Orie S. Ware, 1913 George B. Winslow, 1914 T. J. Adams, 1915 James N. Saunders, 1916 Earl W. Weathers, 1917 William Carson Black, 1918 Henry S. McElroy, 1919 Fred Acker, 1920 Fred W. Hardwick, 1921 Emerson E. Nelson, 1922 A. E. Orton, 1923 H. M. Grundy, 1924 G. Allison Holland, 1925 C. S. Rankins, 1926 Hanson Peterson, 1927 John W. Juett, 1928 Frank D. Rash, 1929 John X. Taylor, 1930 Edwin C. Landberg, 1931 John L. Phillips, 1932 Richard Priest Dietzman, 1933 Hebbert Henderson, 1934 Hugh Moore, 1935 William Murray, 18oo Charles G. Wintersmith, 1851 John Morrison, 1801‑1802 Thomas Ware, 1852 John Jordon, Jr., 1803 Thomas Todd, 1853 George M. Bibb, 1804‑1807 Marcus M. Tyler, 1854 John Allen, 1808‑18io) David T. Monsarrat, 1855 Joseph Hamilton Daviess, 1811 T. N. Wise, 1856 Anthony Butler, 1812‑1813 Philip Swingert, 1857 James Moore, 1814 Robert Morris, 1858 Daniel Bradford, 1815 Harvey T. Wilson, 1859 William H. Richardson,1816‑17 Lewis Landrum, 1860 Thomas Bodley, 1818‑19 Hiram Bassett, 1861 Henry Clay, 1820 John B. Houston, 1862 John McKinney, Jr., 1821 Thomas Sadler, 1863 David Graham Cowan, 1822 J. D. Landrum, 1864 Asa K. Lewis, 1823 M. J. Williams, 1865 John Speed Smith, 1824 Isaac T. Martin, 1866 Thomas Hood Bradford, 1825 Elisha S. Fitch, 1867‑68 Samuel Daviess, 1826 Charles Eginton, 1869‑7o Daniel Breck, 1827 Edward B. Jones, 1871 Robert Johnson, 1828 Edward W. Turner, 1872 WilliamWrightSouthgate,1829 Thomas J. Pickett, 1873 John M. McCalla, 1830 Henry Bostwick, 1874 Levi Tyler, 1831 John H. Leathers, 1875 John Payne, 1832 Robert M. Fairleigh, 1876 Abraham Jonas, 1833 Campbell H. Johnson, 1877 Richard Apperson, 1834 Thomas S. Pettitt, 1878 Willis Stewart, 1835 Jake Rice, 1879 William Brown, Jr., 1836 W. Larue Thomas, 1880 James Rice, Jr., 1837 W. H. Meffert, 1881 Derrick Warner, 1838 Garret D. Buckner, 1882 George Breckinridge, 1839 H. R. French, 1883 Abner Cunningham, 1840 John G. Orndorff, 1884 Thomas C. O'Rear, 1841 Bernard G. Witt, 1885 Henry Wingate, 1842 James W. Hopper, 1886 Leander M. Cox, 1843 J. Soule Smith, 1887 Bryan R. Young, 1844 James D. Black, 1888 William Holloway, 1845 W. W. Clarke, 1889 William B. Allen, 1846 Charles H. Fisk, 1890 James H. Daviess, 1847 James A. McKenzie, 1891 Charles Tilden, 1848 J. Speed Smith, 1892 John D. McClure, 1849 James W. Staton, 1893 John M. S. McCorkle, 1850 H. H. Holeman, 1894 Kentucky has been the home of many distinguished men who have been members of the State's Grand Lodge. Among them are J. Proctor Knott, of Duluth fame; James A. McKenzie, who was responsible for the passage in Con‑ 2.36 FREEMASONRY IN KENTUCKY gress of the bill removing tariff from quinine; James B. McCreary, United States senator and twice governor of Kentucky; and Colonel W. C. P. Breckinridge, one of the ablest and most brilliant orators the Bluegrass State ever produced.


The Grand Chapter of Kentucky, Royal Arch Masons, established on December 4, 1817, celebrated its centennial anniversary at the regular Annual Convocation held in the fall of 1917. The interesting historical sketch given at that time was prepared by Past Grand High Priest George B. Winslow. It was in 1816 that the Grand Lodge authorised the Chapters working under Warrants or Dispensations to establish a Grand Chapter, provided that no Warrant should be issued to a Chapter without the permission of the Grand Lodge. At that time the Grand Lodge claimed jurisdiction over Capitular Masonry in Kentucky, but since its reorganisation in 1817 that branch of Masonry has gradually grown till it is now a vigorous and splendid organisation of about 18,ooo Royal Arch Masons. The first meeting was held at Frankfort in 1817, and the next at Shelbyville in 1818. From 1825 to 1834 meetings were held in Lexington, but in 1835 the meeting place was changed to Louisville. In 1857 the Grand Chapter withdrew as a constituent of the General Grand Chapter, but in 1873 it reunited with it. Kentucky has been honoured by the General Grand Chapter in having the late Bernard G. Witt carried through its lines until he finally became General Grand High Priest. One or two other Kentuckians have also been in line at various times, but in each case the record has been cut short by death. At present Past Grand High Priest G. Allison Holland occupies the position of General Grand Scribe of the General Grand Chapter of the United States of America.


For many years the Cryptic Degrees were under the control of the Grand Chapter, but on December 1o, 1827, a Convention of Royal and Select Masters was held in Frankfort, and at that time a Constitution and a Code of Laws and General Regulations were adopted, Officers were elected and installed, and the Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters of the State of Kentucky was regularly established. At that Convention the following six subordinate Councils were represented: Washington Council, No. 1, of Lexington; Warren Council, No. 2, of Hopkinsville; Centre Council, No. 3, of Danville; Louisville Council, No. 4, of Louisville; Frankfort Council, No. 5, of Frankfort; and Versailles Council, No. 6, of Versailles. Although no Record shows just where these Councils obtained their Warrants or Dispensations, Louisville Council, No. 4, has in its archives an old‑time Warrant, or Dispensation, from the Supreme Council of the Thirty‑third Degree, which authorises its establishment. The Warrant, dated September 26, 1827, was signed by John Barker, Sovereign Grand Inspector General, 33 Degree, General Agent of the Supreme Council of the United States of America. There is also in existence some sort of Record which shows that Lexington Council obtained its Warrant on November 23, 1816, and that Shelbyville Council's Warrant was received on January 1,5, 1817. When the Grand Council of Kentucky was organised, the Council at Lexington was known as Washington Council, No. 1, but Shelbyville Council was not mentioned. Later, however, in 1870, a Council was established in Shelbyville. New FREEMASONRY IN KENTUCKY 237 Charters were granted and issued to these Councils in 1852. It seems that for some reason the General Grand Chapter was endeavouring to assert a form of control over the constituent Councils in Kentucky, and that formal objection was made in i85o by the Grand Council of Kentucky. The result was that the jurisdiction of Kentucky was that year extended over the States of Tennessee, Illinois, Missouri, Louisiana, Indiana, and Texas. The jurisdiction terminated, however, with the organisation of Grand Councils in those States. During the 187o's arrangements were made to have the Grand Chapter take care of, and confer, the Degrees of Royal and Select Master, but in 1882 the Grand Council avowed its right to authorise the Grand Chapter to supervise those Degrees. The Grand Chapter then returned the trust, and since that time Councils have been requested to resume Labour and to make Returns, a duty which has since been vigorously performed. Kentucky now has a splendid Grand Council made up of forty‑eight constituent Councils, all in good condition and doing real Work.


The Grand Commandery of Kentucky is an active Body of Knights Templar. Its roster includes a brilliant group of Past Grand Commanders. One of their number, W. Larue Thomas, was Grand Master of the Grand Encamp ment; another, Frank H. Johnson, was for many years Grand Recorder of that Distinguished Body.


Scottish Rite Masonry in Kentucky is more powerful just now than ever before in its history. There are two Consistories, the Grand Consistory of Kentucky, located in the Valley of Louisville, and Indra Consistory, located in the Valley of Covington. A member of the Grand Consistory of Kentucky, John H. Cowles, is the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of the Thirty‑third Degree. Although now residing in Washington, District of Columbia, he is a Kentuckian and one of the most distinguished Masons in America. His Deputies in Kentucky are Fred W. Hardwick, of the Grand Consistory of Louisville, and H. G. Hightower, of the Indra Consistory at Covington.


In Kentucky the two Masonic Rites are working together valiantly, progressively, and successfully. Their theories are broad and substantial, their practices uplifting and patriotic, and their system of recondite symbolism inspir ing and educational. The student of those Rites must of necessity accumulate historic values and traditional information leading into regions of impalpable azure and to the golden sunlight of intellectual accomplishment.


FREEMASONRY IN LOUISIANA EDWIN F. GAYLE T the beginning, and during the first half century of its existence, Freemasonry in Louisiana was a curious blending of the York Rite; the Modern, or French, Rite, under the Grand Orient of France; and the Scottish, or Scotch, Rite. Sometimes those elements blended harmoniously; sometimes dissensions grew out of the struggle for supremacy of one or the other of the several Rites, which sprang up almost simultaneously in Louisiana.


Masonic historians do not agree on the relative merits of those Rites. Rather they seem to have been somewhat prejudiced in favour of one or the other. For instance, Folger's History is said to have been written in the interest of the Hayes‑Atwood Supreme Council of New York and of the Foulhouze Supreme Council of New Orleans, but the Grand Lodge of Louisiana has approved the work of Bro. James B. Scot whose Outline of the Rise and Progress of Freemasonry in Louisiana was adopted by resolution as the true and authentic history of Freemasonry, at the Annual Grand Communication held in February 1911.


The first introduction of Masonry into Louisiana resulted from the insurrection in the French West India Islands in 1791. Several Freemasons, refugees chiefly from the Island of Guadeloupe, residing in New Orleans, met together and organised themselves into a Lodge which they named Parfaite Union (Perfect Union), and applied to the Grand Lodge of South Carolina for a Charter. This was granted, and they were duly Constituted under the York Rite as Loge Parfaite Union, No. 29. The following Officers were installed on March 30, 1794, by Jason Lawrence, deputed for that purpose: Laurent Sigur, Worshipful Master; Laurent Chouriac, Senior Warden; and Andres Wackernie, Junior Warden.


During the same year, another group of refugees, also residents of New Orleans, of French, or Modern, Rite affiliation, met and formed a Lodge which they called toile Polaire (Polar Star), and applied to the Grand Orient of France for a Charter. But since that Grand Orient had suspended its Labours on account of political troubles, they then applied for a Charter to the Provincial Lodge " La Parfaite Sincerite," at Marseilles, France. A provisional Charter, or Dispensation, was granted them in 1796, and Dominique Mayronne was deputed to deliver the Charter and to Constitute the new Lodge. This he did. The following Officers were installed on December 27, 1798: Duprelong Petavin, Worshipful Master; Chev. Desilets, Senior Warden; and F. Marc, Junior Warden.


Subsequently, in 1804, the Grand Orient of France having resumed Labour the year before, it granted a Charter to Polar Star Lodge and deputed Charles 238 FREEMASONRY IN LOUISIANA 2‑39 Tessier, a great‑grandfather of the writer of this history, to deliver the Charter and to heal the Work. Accordingly, the Lodge was re‑Constituted under this Charter on November 1 i, 1804, under the French, or Modern, Rite, as Polar Star Lodge, No. 4263, and the following Officers were installed by A. Pinard and A. Marmillion, deputed for that purpose by the Grand Orient of France: A. D. Chastant, Worshipful Master; A. Marmillion, Senior Warden; and J. Pinard, Junior Warden.


Those two Lodges, one working in the York Rite, the other in the French, or Modern, Rite, coming into existence about the same time and each claiming priority of organisation, became rivals. The rivalry between them became so strong at times that the two Lodges declined to have Masonic intercourse with ‑ach other.


It is claimed that even prior to the organisation of Perfect Union Lodge and Polar Star Lodge, a number of former members of Candor Lodge, No. 12, of Charleston, South Carolina, who were then living in Louisiana, had held Masonic meetings, though they did not apply for a Charter until 1801. This was granted on May 18, 18oi, by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, under the name of Candor Lodge, No. go. The first Officers of that Lodge were N. Definiels, Worshipful Master; Gaspard Debuys, Senior Warden; and Pierre D. Berne, Junior Warden. There is no known record of this Lodge's ever having Worked, and it is believed to have merged eventually with Charity Lodge, No. 93, whose members applied to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for a Charter. This was granted on March 1, 1802, but was not delivered until May 13, 1804, when the Lodge was duly Constituted by Eugene Dorsiere, deputed for the purpose. The following Officers were installed in the York Rite: Nicholas Definiels, Worshipful Master; D. Baron, Senior Warden; and J. Carrick, Junior Warden.


At this time Masonry was proscribed by the Spanish Government. In consequence, during the Spanish domination of Louisiana, Masonic meetings were held outside the walls of New Orleans, which was then bounded by what are now known as Canal Street, Rampart Street, Esplanade Avenue, and river front. Another source of early Masonic influence in Louisiana was Santo Domingo. From there came refugees, among whom were a number of Officers and members of " La Reunion Desiree Lodge, No. 3013, holding a Charter under the Grand Orient of France, which was dated April 16, 1783. This Lodge had been domiciled at Port au Prince. On February 15, 1806, a group of those Masons opened Lodge with the following old Officers officiating: Louis Casimir Elizabeth Moreau Lislet, acting as Worshipful Master; Louis Jean Lusson, as Senior Warden; and Jean Zanico as junior Warden. They resolved to resume their Labours in`New Orleans until they could return to their old home in Santo Domingo, and to apply to the Grand Orient of France for a duplicate Charter. A " provisional election " of Officers was held at the same time. This resulted in the election of Moreau Lislet, as Worshipful Master; J. Rice Fitzgerald, as Senior Warden; and Jean Zanico, as junior Warden. The Grand Orient of France granted the Lodge a duplicate Charter dated February 17, 1806, and registered as No. 3829. This 240 FREEMASONRY IN LOUISIANA Charter, delivered on July Zo, 1807, seems to have been registered in the " Grand Symbolic Lodge " of the Orient of France on March 3, 1807, and in the " General Grand Chapter " of the Grand Orient of France on the following day. From this fact we must conclude that the Lodge had a Chapter of the Rose Croix attached to it. The Lodge worked in the French, or Modern, Rite until November 27, 1808, when it seems to have ceased Labour. It also seems that its members had , already applied to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for a York Rite Charter, which had been granted them on September 15, 1808, under the name of La Reunion Desiree Lodge, No. 112. It began its Labours with the following Officers: Louis Jean Lusson, Worshipful Master; Jean Zanico, Senior Warden; and Peter Ambrose Couvillier, Junior Warden. This Lodge was dissolved on March 23, 1812. The Records of La Reunion Desiree Lodge are now in possession of Perseverance Lodge, No. 4, which was Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania on October 7, 1810, as Perseverance Lodge, No. 118. Moreau Lislet, specially deputed to Constitute Perseverance Lodge, did so and installed the following Officers according to the York Rite on December 23, 1810: Jean Baptiste Pinta, Worshipful Master; Emanuel Gigaud, Senior Warden; and John Francis Giquel, Junior Warden.


There was no considerable influx of English‑speaking Masons into Louisiana until several years after the acquisition of Louisiana Territory by the United States. Nevertheless, in 1806, a number of those Masons who had come into Louisiana from the Northern States applied to the Grand Lodge of New York for a Charter, which was granted on September 2, 1807, under the designation of Louisiana Lodge, No. 1. This was the first Lodge in New Orleans that Worked in English, and it is worthy of note that its first Worshipful Master was Edward Livingston, the celebrated jurist, who collaborated with Moreau Lislet in the compilation of the Civil Code of Louisiana.


The Grand Orient of France, upon the application of Polar Star Lodge, No. 4263, granted a Charter to open and hold a Chapter of Rose Croix under the designation of La Vertu Recompensee, No. Soot. This Chapter was regularly Constituted, and its Officers were installed on May 24, 1807. It is claimed that this was the first regularly Constituted Chapter of the Rose Croix in Louisiana. It was attached to Polar Star Lodge, pursuant to a custom of that time which permitted Bodies of the higher Degrees of the York, French, and Scottish Rites to be attached to Symbolic Lodges.


Among other Lodges organised by the refugees from Cuba and Santo Domingo was Concord Lodge, No. 88, originally located at St. Marc, Santo Domingo, and working under a Charter from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. The members of this Lodge fled from Santo Domingo to Santiago de Cuba, and on August 6, 18o5, they resumed Work under a Charter from the Pennsylvania Provincial Grand Lodge of Santo Domingo, then sitting at Baracoa. This Lodge continued to hold meetings until December 27, 1807.


Another Lodge, called Reunion des Coeurs, Working in the French, or Modern, Rite and holding a Charter from the Grand Orient of France, was Con‑ FREEMASONRY IN LOUISIANA 241 stituted in Santo Domingo on October 2, 1788. The members of this Lodge also fled to Santiago de Cuba. There they were reorganised on November 18, 18o5. They continued to hold meetings until May 22, 1808. The members of those two Santo Domingan Lodges subsequently took refuge in New Orleans, where they resumed their Labours in 18og. It being improper to continue their Labours under their old Charters, they applied to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for a Charter, which was granted them on October 7, 181o. The new Lodge was Constituted, and the following Officers were installed according to the York Rite on January 27, 1811, by Moreau Lislet, who was specially deputed for that purpose by the Grand Master of Pennsylvania: J. B. Baque, Worshipful Master; Fran~ois Lavigne, Senior Warden; Rousselin, Junior Warden. Concord Lodge is still in possession of the Records of its two progenitors. When the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania granted Charters to Concord Lodge and Perseverance Lodge, it also granted Charters for Royal Arch Chapters to be attached to each of them. Those two Chapters were Constituted at about the same time as were the Lodges; to be exact, on April ii, 18 11. They were the first regularly organised Bodies of Royal Arch Masonry in Louisiana.


Another English‑speaking Lodge Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania was Harmony Lodge, No. 122, whose Charter was granted on November ig, 18io. Its first Officers were Maunsel White, Worshipful Master; Chris topher Robert Elliot, Senior Warden; and James Hopkins, Junior Warden. Worshipful Master White afterwards became a merchant prince of New Orleans, where he resided until his death in his eighty‑eighth year, on December 18, 1863.


From the beginning to the present time, Louisiana Masonry has more or less recognised the cumulation of Rites. Thus, Polar Star Lodge, No. 4263, held its Charter from the beginning under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of France, and in 1811 it applied to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for a York Rite Charter. This Charter was granted on June 3, 1911, bearing the name Polar Star Lodge, No. 129. Moreau Lislet Constituted the Lodge and installed the following Officers on October 2o, 1811: Jean Pinard, Worshipful Master; Noel Fournier, Senior Warden; and R. Pamar, Junior Warden.


From the Minutes of Polar Star Lodge, No. 4263, we learn that its purpose in applying for a York Rite Charter was to attempt to harmonise the conflicting ideas and prejudices of the York Rite Lodges towards French, or Modern, Rite Masons. Although Polar Star Lodge could Work in either Rite, nevertheless the Minutes show that the Work in the French, or Modern, Rite was indefinitely adjourned.


When Louisiana was admitted to Statehood, on April 30, 1812, conditions were ripe for the formation of a Grand Lodge. One Charter had been granted by the Grand Lodge of South Carolina, one by the Provincial Lodge Sincerite, at Marseilles, France, two by the Grand Orient of France, one by the Grand Lodge of New York, seven by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, and one, to Bienfaisance Lodge, No. 1, by the Grand Consistory of Jamaica, on June 22, 1811. Bienfaisance Lodge, No. 1, Worked in the Scotch Rite, and later on May 27, 2‑42 FREEMASONRY IN LOUISIANA 1812, it affiliated with Concord Lodge, No. 117. There were, then, at that time, seven Lodges in full activity, and all working in the York Rite. They were: Perfect Union Lodge, No. 29; Charity Lodge, No. 93; Louisiana Lodge, No. 1; Concord Lodge, No. 117; Perseverance Lodge, No. 118; Harmony Lodge, No. 122; and Polar Star Lodge, No. 129.


Perfect Union Lodge, No. 29, had the honour to initiate the movement for the organisation of a Grand Lodge. In response to a circular issued by P. F. Dubourg, Worshipful Master of that Lodge, a meeting composed of three Dele gates from each Lodge was held in Perfect Union Hall at the corner of Camp and Gravier Streets, in what was known as the Suburb St. Mary, on April 18, 1812. The several Lodges were represented by the following Delegates: P. F. Dubourg, P. Pedesclaux, and Thomas Urquhart, of Perfect Union Lodge, No. 29; Dom. Rouquette, J. B. Dejan, and Cyprien Gros, of Charity Lodge, No. 93; J. B. Farrell, J. Watkins, and James Martin, of Louisiana Lodge, No. 1; J. B. B. >Baque, H. Mathieu, and G. Hubert, of Concord Lodge, No. 117; J. B. Pinta, N. Visinier pere, and J. B. G. Veron, of Perseverance Lodge, No. 118; Maunsel White, James Hopkins, and David Wright, of Harmony Lodge, No. 122; and J. Pinard, Ch. Roche, and J. B. Modeste Lefebvre, of Polar Star Lodge, No. 129.


These Delegates organised themselves into a " General Masonic Committee of the State of Louisiana to provide for the establishment of a Grand Lodge in the City of New Orleans " and elected P. F. Dubourg, President, and J. B. G. Veron and David Wright, Secretaries. The second meeting of this Committee was held on May 16, 1812. At that time Charity Lodge, No. 93, was not represented, and Louisiana Lodge, No. i, expressed the opinion that it was not yet expedient to organise a Grand Lodge. At this meeting the following resolution was unanimously adopted: " Resolved, That the W.‑. Master of the W.‑. Lodge Perfect Union, No. 29, the senior of the regular Lodges of this State, be requested to issue his summons to the Masters, Past Masters, and Officers of the several ancient and regularly Constituted Lodges in this State to meet in Convention, to take into consideration the interests of the true Craft and to deliberate on the necessity of establishing a Grand Lodge in this State." Pursuant to the above resolution, the summons was issued, and the " Grand Convention " met on June 13, 1812, with the Masters, Past Masters, and Officers of the following Lodges present: Perfect Lodge, No. 29; Charity Lodge, No. 93; Concord Lodge, No. 117; Perseverance Lodge, No. 118; and Polar Star Lodge, No. 129. The two English‑speaking Lodges, Harmony Lodge and Louisiana Lodge, withdrew from the Convention, and A. Guibert was appointed as Secretary to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of David Wright, of Harmony Lodge.


June 2o, 1812, was then appointed as the date for the election of Officers. At that time the " Grand Convention of Ancient York Rite Masons " met in Perfect Union Lodge Room and elected the following Officers: P. F. Dubourg, Worshipful Master of Perfect Union Lodge, No. 29, Grand Master; L. C. E. Moreau Lislet, Past Master of Polar Star Lodge, No. 129, Deputy Grand Master; FREEMASONRY IN LOUISIANA 2‑43 Jean Blanque, Worshipful Master of Charity Lodge, No. 92‑, Senior Grand Warden; FranCois Pernot, Worshipful Master of Concord Lodge, No. 117, junior Grand Warden; J. B. Pinta, Worshipful Master of Perseverance Lodge, No. 118, Grand Treasurer, J. B. Veron, Senior Warden of Perseverance Lodge, No. I I8, Grand Secretary; Mathurin Pacaud, Past Master of Polar Star Lodge, No. 12‑9, Grand Orator; Yves Lemonnier, Junior Warden of Charity Lodge, No. 93, Grand Pursuivant; Augustin Macarty, Junior Warden of Perseverance Lodge, No. 118, Grand Steward. The Officers were Installed on July 11, 1812‑. A Committee was also appointed to draft a Constitution and General Regulations. Each of the participating Lodges subscribed $Ioo towards the expense. Accordingly, a Constitution and General Regulations were adopted, and Charters were issued to each of the five constituent Lodges.


The following is a copy of the first Charter granted by the Grand Lodge of Louisiana. At the time, P. F. Dubourg was Grand Master; L. Moreau Lislet, Deputy Grand Master; J. Blanque, Senior Grand Warden; and FranCois Pernot, Junior Grand Warden.


TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN The Grand Lodge of Louisiana, Ancient York Masons, established at New Orleans, in the State of Louisiana, the 2‑oth day of June, in the year of our Lord 1812, and of Masonry 5812., according to the Old Constitutions revived by the Prince EDWIN, at York, in the Kingdom of England, in the year of our Lord 926, and of Masonry 4926, by the style and title of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, Ancient York Masons, and its Masonic jurisdiction, invested with full and sole powers and authority over all the Ancient Craft, and the Supreme Court of Appeal in all Masonic cases arising under its jurisdiction, agreeable to ancient form and usage‑Being assembled in Grand Communication in the City of New Orleans and State aforesaid SEND GREETING Know ye, that We, the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, by virtue of the powers and authorities duly vested in us as aforesaid, do hereby authorise and empower our trusty and well‑beloved Brethren, Peter Francis Dubourg, Master, Peter Pedesclaux, Senior Warden, and Augustin Macarty, Junior Warden, to open and hold a Lodge, designated by number One, and by the name Parfaite Union, under our Register and Jurisdiction, in New Orleans, in the State of Louisiana, or within three miles of the same; And We do likewise authorise and empower our said Brethren P. F. Dubourg, P. Pedesclaux and Augustin Macarty to admit, make, pass, and raise Freemasons according to the most ancient custom and usage of the Craft, in all ages and nations, throughout the known World, and not otherwise. And we do Further authorise and empower the said P. F. Debourg, Peter Pedesclaux and A. Macarty, and their successors, to hear and determine all and singular matters and things, relative to the Craft within the jurisdiction of the said Lodge number One, And Lastly, We do hereby authorise, empower and direct our said trusty and well‑beloved Brethren P. F. Dubourg, P. Pedesclaux and A. Macarty to install their successors, after being duly elected 2‑44 FREEMASONRY IN LOUISIANA and chosen, to invest them with all the powers and dignities to their offices respectively belonging, and deliver to them this Warrant, and such successors shall, in like manner, from time to time, install their successors, and proceed in the premises as above directed: Such installation to be u on or near the Festival of St. John the Evangelist, during the continuance ofpthe said Lodge forever; Provided Always, that the said above named Brethren, and their successors, do pay due respect and obedience to the Right Worshipful Grand Lodge aforesaid and to the ordinances thereof; otherwise, this Warrant to be of no force or virtue.


Given in Open Grand Lodge, under the hands of our Right Worshipful Grand Officers and the seal of our Grand Lodge at (Seal) New Orleans, this Fifteenth day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twelve, and of Masonry five thousand eight hundred and twelve.


Attest: VERNON, Grand Secretary J. B. PINTA, Grand Treasurer From the preceding short synopsis of the beginning of Masonry in Louisiana, one may see that although some of the Lodges of Louisiana had Worked in the French, or Modern, Rite, and although at least one had Worked in the Scotch, or Scottish, Rite, nevertheless the Grand Lodge was organised and made up of Lodges which had obtained Charters under the York Rite. Consequently, the Grand Lodge of Louisiana was formed as a Grand Lodge of York Rite Masons. Nevertheless, many Louisiana Masons leaned strongly towards the French, or Modern, Rite, and some few advocated the Scotch, or Scottish Rite. To understand the vital influences at work during the development of Masonry in Louisiana, one must not forget that all three elements played an important part.


A Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons was formed on March 8, 1813, by Concord Royal Arch Chapter and Perseverance Royal Arch Chapter, Working under Charters from the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Pennsylvania. The first Grand Chapter Officers were: P. F. Dubourg, Grand High Priest; Moreau Lislet, Deputy Grand High Priest; J. Soulie, Grand King; and Thomas Urquhart, Grand Scribe. At its first Session, the newly‑formed Grand Chapter granted Charters to Perfect Union Chapter, No. 3, and Polar Star Chapter, No. 4.


On April 13, 1913, the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania adopted resolutions extending recognition and fraternal correspondence to the Grand Lodge of Louisiana. This recognition was received with great satisfaction by Louisiana Masons as the first recognition emanating from the mother Grand Lodge of the majority of the Lodges which had formed the Grand Lodge of Louisiana. On June i9, 1813, pursuant to a Charter granted by the Cerneau Grand Consistory of New York, a Grand Consistory for the State of Louisiana was formed, its first Officers being Emanuel Gigaud, Jean Pinard, and Noel Fournier. This fact is mentioned at this point because of its influence upon the growth and development of York Rite Masonry in Louisiana, and because of the Consistory's attempt to assume jurisdiction over the first three Degrees, thus infringing upon FREEMASONRY IN LOUISIANA 2‑45 the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge. When this question was brought directly before the Grand Lodge on June 2‑7, 1818, the Grand Lodge of Louisiana adopted the following decree: " Resolved, That the Lodges of this Jurisdiction are forbidden to recognise any Grand or private Lodge of a Rite different from that of York, or any other Masonic Body, under whatever denomination it may be." This decree was the result of Communications from a society established at Havana under the title of Grand Consistory of the Havana.


While the Grand Lodge of Louisiana was resisting invasions of its jurisdiction made by more or less authentic Scottish Rite Bodies, a number of Brethren applied to the Grand Orient of France for a Charter to Work in the French Rite. The Charter was granted, and the Lodge was Constituted at New Orleans on April 2‑1, 1818, under the name of La Triple Bienfaisance, No. 7319. Its first Officers were C. Miltenberger, Worshipful Master; Spire Loquet, Senior Warden, and P. Caillou, Junior Warden. At the same time a Rose Croix Chapter was Chartered under the same name and registered as 732o. This was an invasion of the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge, and was one of the causes of the resolution of June 2‑7, 1818, which forbade all intercourse with Lodges other than those of the York Rite. From the date of its organisation to the close of 1818, the Grand Lodge of Louisiana had granted nine Charters, three of which were located in Louisiana, and six elsewhere. The names of the Lodges Chartered during that period are as follows: Friendship Lodge, No. 6, at Mobile, Alabama, September 4, 1813; Reunion Fraternal de Caridad, No. 7, at Havana, Chartered on April 2‑9, 1815; Los Amigos Reunidos, No. 8, at Vera Cruz, Chartered on April 30, 1816; Reunion a La Virtud, No. 9, at Campeachy, Chartered on April 12‑, 1817; LItoile Flamboyante, No. io, at Baton Rouge, Chartered on August 11, 1817; El Templo de la Divina Pastora, No. i1, at Matanzas, Chartered on February io, 1818; La Verite, No. 12‑, at Donaldsonville, Chartered on February 1o, 1818; Union, No. 13, at Natchitoches, Chartered on February 2‑1, 1818; and La Rectitude, No. 14, at Havana, Chartered on May 16, 1818.


Thus there were at the time eight Lodges in Louisiana under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge. Louisiana Lodge, No. i, which had declined to join in the organisation of the Grand Lodge, had ceased to exist, but Harmony Lodge, No. 2‑2‑, still holding its Charter under the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, was still active, and Feliciana Lodge, No. 46, holding a Charter under the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, was also in existence at this time. The latter applied to the Grand Lodge of Louisiana on March 9, 1828, asking for a Charter and stating that its Charter from the Grand Lodge of Kentucky had been surrendered. The Grand Lodge of Louisiana then granted a Charter designating the Lodge as Feliciana Lodge, No. 31. The Records of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky show that the original Charter granted by it to Feliciana Lodge, No. 46, was dated August 2‑7, 1817, the Lodge having previously Worked under a Dispensation granted during the recess of 1816‑1817 by William H. Richardson, Grand Master of Kentucky. The Records of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky also show that Feliciana Lodge, No. 46, was considered by its Committee on Delinquent Lodges 246 FREEMASONRY IN LOUISIANA in 1834, and that upon the recommendation of the Committee, it had been discharged from paying its dues and from its allegiance to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky and advised to attach itself to the Grand Lodge of Louisiana. This it had already done, having been under the impression that its Charter had been duly surrendered. Thus, though the Grand Lodge of Louisiana had to contend with an invasion of its Jurisdiction, it was nevertheless maintaining itself in a dignified manner and was enforcing its decree of non‑intercourse with Masonic Bodies holding Charters from foreign jurisdiction.


In 1819 the Grand Lodge of Louisiana granted Charters for the following new Lodges: Columbian Lodge, No. 15, at Alexandria; Eureka Lodge, No. 16, at Blakesly; and Washington Lodge, No. 17, at Baton Rouge, all in Louisiana.


On September 4, 1819, the Grand Lodge adopted a new Constitution, the principal object of which was claimed to be to facilitate the representation of country Lodges, but which was, in fact, to insure the control of the Grand Lodge by New Orleans Masons. This it did by carrying a provision that each country Lodge should designate a member of a New Orleans Lodge to represent it at the meetings of the Grand Lodge. This system resulted in the gradual creation of a Masonic aristocracy in New Orleans which dominated the affairs of the Grand Lodge until its reorganisation in 185o.


At about that time, French influence began to make itself felt in Louisiana Masonry, due to the great influx of French Masons to Louisiana, after the downfall of Napoleon and the restoration of the Bourbons. Those French Masons affiliated with the several Lodges in New Orleans in such numbers as to bring about the reintroduction of the French Rite. Consequently, most Louisiana Lodges applied for Charters from the Grand Orient of France. These received, the Lodges then Worked under the same name, but with different numbers, in both the French Rite and the York Rite. Thus, Polar Star Lodge, No. 5, Worked in the York Rite under its Charter from the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, and Polar Star Lodge No. 42‑63 Worked in the French Rite under its Charter from the Grand Orient of France. This Lodge went even further, for it was also authorised to Work in the Scotch Rite under Charter No. 7474. Polar Star Lodge cumulated its Rites, and the Minutes of that Lodge for November 2‑o, i82‑o show that members of the York Rite Lodge, Polar Star Lodge, No. 5, had the privilege of affiliating with the French Rite Lodge of Polar Star Lodge, No. 42.63 and with the Scottish Rite Lodge of Polar Star Lodge, No. 7474. The attitude of the Grand _Lodge toward the cumulation of Rites is evidenced by the fact that it granted a Charter on December 24, i82‑o, to Triple Bienfaisance Lodge, No. 2‑o, which already held a Charter in the French Rite registered as No. 7319. The first Officers of this Lodge were Louis Duhart, Worshipful Master; Joseph Calixte Cougourdan, Senior Warden; and Antoine Lamy Soalmon, Junior Warden. November 2‑o, i82o, really marks the beginning of the cumulation of Rites in Louisiana. Consequently, dual membership in Lodges was necessarily recognised at that early period of Louisiana Masonic history.


Charity Lodge, No. z, which had assisted in the formation of the Grand FREEMASONRY IN LOUISIANA 247 Lodge, became extinct in i821. Its Records cease after July 8 of that year. It is thought that the dissolution of that Lodge was caused by the influence of the French Rite, since none of its members seem to have belonged to that Rite, while Yves Lemonnier, a Past Master of the Lodge, who was Grand Master in i82o, became the Worshipful Master of a French Rite Lodge in December 1821. The French influence had now become so strong that at a special meeting of the Grand Lodge, held on November 16, 1821, resolutions were adopted recognising as regular the three Rites and authorising Lodges under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge to receive as visitors or candidates for affiliation, members of French Rite or Scotch Rite Lodges, and receive deputations from, and appoint deputations to, the Lodges Working in the French and Scotch Rites.


Another example of this peculiar situation is that of the York Rite Lodge Triple Bienfaisance, No. 2o, some of the members of which were granted a Charter from the Grand Orient of France on July 16, 1822, under the name of Loge des Amis Reunis, No. 7787. This Charter was received on February 16, 1823, and Officers were Installed on the following March 15, deputations from the Grand Lodge and from the city Lodges being present by invitation. Permission was granted all members of Triple Bienfaisance Lodge, No. 2o, to visit once, at which time they could, if they desired, become members of the new Lodge.


Thus the Grand Lodge acquiesced in the cumulation of Rites, for the Grand Lodge was dominated by the New Orleans Lodges and the New Orleans Lodges were dominated by advocates of the French Rite. It was only natural, then, that the French Rite should be encouraged by Grand Lodge influences. In 1823, there were five Lodges in New Orleans Working in the French Rite, while there were seven Lodges in the country parishes, which, with the exception of La Verite, No. 12, at Donaldsville, and L'Humble Chaumiere, No. ig, at St. Landry, were Working in English and in the York Rite. However, the country Lodges were not fully informed regarding the Work of the city Lodges, because the annual Proceedings received by the country Lodges made no reference to French or Scotch Rite, whereas the annual Proceedings published and circulated in the city of New Orleans gave the French and Scotch Rite rank of the various Grand Lodge Officers.


On November 7, 1824, Lafayette Lodge, No. 25, was granted a Charter by the Grand Lodge, and the Charter was issued on the following November 24. The first Officers were: Auguste Douce, Worshipful Master; Vincent Ramos, Senior Warden; and Jean Colson, Junior Warden.


At about this time an incident took place in Louisiana Masonry which resulted in mutual recognition and representation with the Grand Orient of France. On August 14, 1824, Gilbert Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, landed in New Orleans as the guest of the United States. Later, when General Lafayette, in the course of his progress through the States, arrived in New Orleans, the Grand Lodge held a Special Communication on April 14, 1825. Lafayette was admitted to the Grand Lodge with much ceremony, the address of welcome having been delivered by Grand Master John H. Holland. That concluded, 248 FREEMASONRY IN LOUISIANA General Lafayette, together with a large number of invited guests, adjourned to the banquet hall where a sumptuous repast had been provided.


This visitation of General Lafayette was an important episode in the history of Louisiana Masonry. There was at the time no Lodge in the City of New Orleans Working in English, for Harmony Lodge, No. 122, which had remained under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, had now become extinct. This state of affairs left English‑speaking Americans practically without opportunity for Masonic affiliation. To supply this need, Alexander Phillips and several other Brethren, who had been members of Harmony Lodge, No. 122, met together on January 1, 1826, and resolved to apply to the Grand Lodge of Louisiana for a Charter. This was granted to them under the name of Harmony Lodge, No. 26. The new Lodge was then Constituted and the following Officers were Installed by Grand Master John H. Holland on March 4, 1826: Alexander Phillips, Worshipful Master; Eben Fiske, Senior Warden; and Cotton Henry, Junior Warden. The Charter of this Lodge was not issued, however, until July ZS, 1826.


The Grand Lodge also granted a Charter to Numantina Lodge, No. 27, on September ZS, 1826, with the following as its first Officers: Joseph Baratino, Worshipful Master; Bartholomew Lopez, Senior Warden; Nicholas Bertoli, Junior Warden.


From this time forward, active antagonism seems to have existed between English‑speaking Masons and the adherents of the French Rite. The membership of Harmony Lodge, No. 26, was greatly augmented, and as the demand for membership in a Lodge Working in English greatly increased, some of the members of Harmony Lodge, No. 26, applied to the Grand Lodge for another Charter. This was granted on June 28, 1828. The new Lodge was called Louisiana Lodge, No. 32, and had the following Officers: Alexander E. McConnell, Worshipful Master; Eben Fiske, Senior Warden; and John W. Bigney, Junior Warden.


Thus there were then two Lodges in New Orleans Working in English, the members of wh