Note:  This material was scanned into text files for the sole purpose of convenient electronic research. This material is NOT intended as a reproduction of the original volumes. However close the material is to becoming a reproduced work, it should ONLY be regarded as a textual reference.  Scanned at Phoenixmasonry by Ralph W. Omholt, PM in May 2007.


















































































VOLUME VI General View of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial Frontispiece Inscription on Bronze Tablet in Memory of Daniel Coxe Daniel Coxe Key to Personages in "The Petition" The Petition Dispensation for Hiram Lodge, No. 4, of Mark Master Jewel Warrant Granted to Hiram Lodge, No. 4 Certificate Issued by Military Lodge, No.


Building Where Grand Lodge of New Jersey Was Formed in 1787 Washington's Headquarters, Morristown, New Jersey Masonic Temple, Trenton, New Jersey Old Quarters of Trenton Lodge, No. 5 Main Building of Masonic Hall, Burlington, New Jersey Boys' Unit, Masonic Home, Burlington, New Jersey Girls' Unit, Masonic Home, Burlington, New Jersey William W. Griffin David J. Miller Morristown, New Jersey 19 FACINC3 PAGE page 2 2 page 8 8 10 10 I2 14 14 16 18 18 20 24 24 34 34 xii ILLUSTRATIONS PACING PAGE Christopher ("Kit") Carson 34 Kit Carson's Rifle 34 Page from a Receipt Book of the Grand Treasurer 40 Badge Worn at the Dinner to General La Fayette 40 King's Arms Tavern, New York 42 The Rev. William Walter 42 The Committee Inspecting the New Sign 44 The Inauguration of Washington, 1789 46 Union of Grand Lodges of New York 46 Robert R. Livingston 48 Jacob Morton 48 Daniel D. Tompkins 48 DeWitt Clinton 48 The jail at Canandaigua, New York 54 Block House at Fort Niagara, New York 54 Three Views of the Masonic Washington Shrine at Tappan 56 Masonic Ceremonies, at the Dedication‑of the Worth Monument 58 Masonic Home, Utica, New York 6o Home and Hospital Farm 6o Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hospital 6o Scottish Rite Cottage for Children 62 Manual Training, the Boys' Electrical Shop 62 Parade of Masons at Utica, New York, April 22, 1922 64 ILLUSTRATIONS xiii FACING PAGE Masonic Ceremony at the Dedication of the Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hospital 64 Commission of Joseph Montfort 70 Swimming Pool, Oxford Masonic Orphanage 78 Open Air Lodge Room on Masonic Island 82 Masonic Marker at Pembina Masonic Park 82 Masonic Temple at Dayton, Ohio go Price Hill Lodge, No. 524, Cincinnati, Ohio 1100 Masonic Temple, Chillicothe, Ohio 1100 Masonic Temple, Norwood, Ohio 1100 Masonic Temple, Troy, Ohio 1100 Masonic Temple, Canton, Ohio 1100 American Union Lodge, No. 11, Marietta, Ohio 1100 The Temple of Scottish Rite, Oklahoma 11110 Masonic Home for the Aged, Guthrie, Oklahoma 11114 Masonic Home Industrial School 11114 Masonic Dormitory and Campus of Oklahoma University 1122 Master Mason's Certificate of Orrin Kellogg 1130 Couch and Company's Warehouse, Oregon 1130 Notice of the First Masonic Meeting Held West of the Rocky Mountains 1130 Title Page of Anderson's Constitution page 1145 A Colonial Masonic Custom, the Summons 1146 Trowel Used by Benjamin Franklin 1146 Two Interiors of the Masonic Temple, Allentown, Pennsylvania 154 xiv PACING YAGB Grand Lodge Hall, Masonic Home, Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania 156 Morgue of Syria Temple, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 156 The Burning of the Masonic Hall, Philadelphia, 1819 158 Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, Erected in 1873 158 Grand Chapter Hall, Philadelphia 16o Corinthian or Grand Lodge Hall, Philadelphia 16o Banquet Hall, Philadelphia 162 Oriental Hall, Philadelphia 162 Masonic Temple, Bacoor, Cavite 170 Masonic Temple, Tondo, Manila 170 Masonic Hall, East Providence, Rhode Island 176 Masonic Temple, Centredale, Rhode Island 176 Masonic Temple, Charleston, South Carolina 196 Masonic Female College, Cokesburg, South Carolina 196 Masonic Library, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 216 Masonic Temple, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 216 Andrew Jackson 244 James K. Polk 2‑44 Andrew Johnson 244 Wilkins Tannehill 244 Auditorium, Masonic Home, Nashville, Tennessee 250 Scottish Rite Cathedral, Nashville, Tennessee 250 Infirmary, Masonic Home, Nashville, Tennessee 250 Laying of the Corner Stone of the Masonic Widows' and Orphans' Home, ILLUSTRATIONS Fort Worth, Texas, in 1899 z8o ILLUSTRATIONS xv FACING PAGE Administration Building, Masonic Home and School, Fort Worth, Texas 28o Hospital Building, Masonic Home and School, Fort Worth, Texas 282 Home of Aged Masons at Arlington, Texas 282 Printing Department, Mason's Home and School, Fort Worth, Texas 282 Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Crippled Children of Dallas, Texas 284 Texas Scottish Rite Dormitory for Girls' University of Texas, at Austin 284 Masonic Temple, Salt Lake, Utah 292 Street in Salt Lake City in 1866 292 Masonic Temple, Rutland, Vermont 300 John Blair 318 Edmund Randolph 318 George Washington 318 John Marshall 318 Acca Temple Mosque, Richmond, Virginia 330 Old Masonic Hall, Williamsburg, Virginia 330 Alexandria, Virginia, Relics of Washington 352 Olympia Lodge, No. i, Olympia, Washington 362 Washington Masonic Home at Zenith, Washington 362 Masonic Temple, Ketchikan, Alaska 366 Scottish Rite Temple, Juneau, Alaska 366 Masonic Temple, Cordova, Alaska 366 Masonic Temple, Fairbanks, Alaska 366 Masonic Temple, Huntington, West Virginia 374 ILLUSTRATIONS Masonic Temple, Fairmont, West Virginia Masonic Temple, Clarksburg, West Virginia West Virginia Masonic Home, Parkersburg, West Virginia Masonic Temple, Parkersburg, West Virginia Masonic Home at Dousman, Wisconsin sAaNG PAGE 374 374 378 378 390 Benjamin T. Kavanaugh The Trout Stream at the Home First Masonic Hall in Wyoming, 1868 390 390 396 Masonic Marker at South Pass City, Wyoming The Whipple Letter Laying the Corner Stone The George Washington Masonic National Memorial The George Washington Hall page 396 405 .}o8 4o8 410 The Dedication Procession 412 Naval Officers Who Were Members of the Masonic Fraternity Joshua Barney, Isaac Chauncey, John A. Dahlgren, Stephen Decatur, David G. Farragut, John Paul Jones, Jacob Jones, James Lawrence, Lord Nelson, Edward Preble, Winfield Scott Schley, John D. Sloat, John L. Worden At end of volume GOULD'S HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY THROUGHOUT THE WORLD VOLUME VI A HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY THROUGHOUT THE WORLD VOL. VI FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY DAVID MCGREGOR HE oldest known membership Roll of a Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, that of the " Lodge of Aberdeen, No. 1 T.R," in Scotland, which dates back to 1670, is of great interest to all Freemasons every where. But it is especially interesting to the Masons of New Jersey, inasmuch as it contains the names of several men who were either directly or indirectly connected with the early settlement of the Scots in that Province, as early as 1682., and then also later. The first name on that Roll, that of " Harrie Elphingston, Tutor, and Master of our Honourable Lodge of Aberdeen," was that of the booking agent in Aberdeen who arranged passage for those desirous of emigrating to New Jersey on the ship Henry and Francis. The vessel was chartered for the purpose by George Scot, of Pitlochie, Fifeshire, under the patronage of the Earl of Perth, a Freemason, who was one of the chief proprietors of East Jersey. On that old Roll, too, are to be found the names of Robert Gordon, cardmaker; George Alexander, advocate; John Forbes, merchant; and John Skene, merchant; all " Meassons " and members of that old Operative Lodge which had by that time become largely speculative in character. Inasmuch as each of those men had purchased " proprietary interest in the enterprise of colonising New Jersey," they are of special interest to us in America.


In order to avoid confusion, let us remember that at that time New Jersey was divided into two provinces by a line which ran diagonally across the territory from Southeast to Northwest. The regions were known respectively as East Jersey and West Jersey.


Although John Forbes migrated to East Jersey in 1684 and settled at Plainfield, he returned to Scotland a year or so later. This left John Skene as the only one of those Aberdeenian Freemasons to make a permanent settlement in New Jersey. With his family, he arrived in New Jersey in October 1682.. He made his home at Burlington, the capital of New Jersey, and there served as deputy‑ 2 ‑ FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY governor of the Province from 1685 until his death in i6go. He has the unique distinction of being the first known Freemason in America.






Inscription on Bronze Tablet Erected in St. Mary's Episcopal Church, Burlington, New Jersey.


Norfolk, Grand Master of England, at the request of " several Brethren, Free and Accepted Masons, residing and about to reside in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania." The Deputation which was issued to Colonel Daniel Coxe, of New Jersey, named him Provincial Grand Master of those provinces. It was dated June 5, 1730‑ Colonel Daniel Coxe was the oldest son of Dr. Daniel Coxe, FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY 3 physician to the royal family of England. In 1687, after purchasing a controlling interest in West Jersey from the estate of Edward Byllinge, Dr. Coxe succeeded Byllinge as absentee governor. Dr. Coxe continued John Skene as his representative and deputy‑governor.


When the proprietors surrendered the government of the jerseys to the Crown, Dr. Coxe conveyed his landed interests in the province to his son Daniel, who had also studied for the medical profession. Nevertheless, the son there after devoted most of his time to the care and furtherance of his father's colonising enterprises in America. This brought him to New Jersey in 1702‑, at about the time of the arrival of Lord Cornbury, a cousin of Queen Anne, who was her appointee as governor of New York and New Jersey. It was Lord Cornbury who appointed young Coxe to be a colonel of the New Jersey militia and a member of the provincial Council. Colonel Coxe made his home at Burlington. There he was chosen president of the Board of Proprietors of West Jersey, a corporation then still in active existence and having its headquarters in that city. He also became an assistant judge of the Supreme Court of New Jersey, and took an active interest in the political affairs of the Province.


When Robert Hunter succeeded the deposed and discredited Lord Cornbury as governor of New Jersey, Colonel Coxe's relations with the new regime became strained, and he was finally deprived of his military, political, and judicial offices. Going back to London to appeal against Hunter's treatment of him, Colonel Coxe sought to have New Jersey placed on an independent footing, with a governor of its own. It is supposed that he expected to be appointed to that office in case his plans were followed. Although he failed to accomplish his purpose at that time, Coxe lived to see it realised in 1738, when Lewis Morris was appointed the first royal governor of New Jersey, then a separate and independent province.


During his first fourteen years of residence in New Jersey Coxe travelled extensively throughout eastern North America observing the products and trade of the several colonies. He later published the results of his travels in a book entitled, A Description o f the English Province o f Carolina, by the Spaniards call' d Florida, and by the French La Louisiane, as also of the Great and Famous River Meschacebe or Missispi. This book, a lengthy dissertation, was prepared with the object of encouraging the establishment of a great commonwealth covering a large part of the watershed of the Mississippi River. The enterprise was conceived and financed by Colonel Coxe's father to checkmate attempts of the Spanish and French to secure possession and control of that great waterway and the adjoining territory. In the same book Coxe proposed a plan whereby the recognised weakness of the several British colonies in protecting their common interests was to be overcome by uniting those colonies under a " legal, regular, and firm establishment," with a supreme governor to preside over the whole, together with a general council of duly elected representatives from each province.


This far‑seeing and statesmanlike plan was again proposed by Benjamin 4 FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY Franklin in 1784 as a solution for the difficulties that eventually led to the Revolutionary War and to the establishment of our Federal government under George Washington. Thus in the half century of political development which culminated in the Declaration of Independence and the final establishment of the United States, the names of three distinguished Freemasons, Colonel Daniel Coxe, Benjamin Franklin and George Washington, are closely associated with the founding of our republic.


In 172‑0, when William Burnet, son of Bishop Gilbert Burnet, succeeded Hunter as governor of New York and New Jersey, Colonel Coxe returned to Burlington and was again elected president of the Board of Proprietors. Later, he and his brother‑in‑law, William Trent, became so interested in the development of the village of Trenton that Coxe moved there with his family. There he remained during the rest of his life. Late in 172‑9, at the instance of the Board of Proprietors, Coxe again visited London, this time to protest against a proposed change in the boundary line between East Jersey and West Jersey, which would bring about the loss of a large amount of territory to them. Since he had previously become a member of Lodge No. 8, in London, during his stay there he presented a Petition to the Grand Master for a Deputation as Provincial Grand Master of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. On June S, 1730, this was readily granted for a period of two years.


As has already been said, this was the first Deputation to be issued for a Provincial Grand Master in America, and the first recognition of American Freemasonry by the Grand Lodge of England. The two‑hundredth anniversary of that first Grand Body in America was suitably celebrated here in 1930. His mission accomplished, Coxe returned to New Jersey in April 1730, and remained there until December of that year. Whether he ever actually exercised his authority to Institute Lodges in any of the provinces cannot be positively asserted owing to lack of acceptable documentary evidence. Nevertheless we have reason to believe that he Warranted the first Lodge in Philadelphia, known as St. John's Lodge, No. 1. We are sure that Lodge, with a membership of fifteen, was in existence early in 1731, and that Benjamin Franklin was Initiated into it on February 1 of that year. Too, it has recently been discovered that there was a regular Lodge in New York before Captain Richard Riggs, the second Provincial Grand Master of that Province, had acquired authority to Institute Lodges there. Therefore it seems quite probable that Colonel Daniel Coxe had granted the Warrant for that Lodge also.


Returning to London again, Coxe was present at a Quarterly Communication of the Grand Lodge there on January 29, 1731. At that meeting he was toasted as " the Provincial Grand Master of North America." We may reason ably believe that his warm reception and greeting were evidences of the London Lodge's appreciation of the pioneer Masonic work Coxe had accomplished, rather than a mere act of courtesy to one who had been derelict in the duty assigned to him by his Deputation. Upon his return to America shortly afterwards, Colonel Coxe resumed his duties as president of the Board of Proprietors, FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY 5 and was reinstated as assistant judge of the supreme court. He died on April 2‑5, 1739, at the age of sixty‑six. He was buried beside his wife at Burlington, in old St. Mary's Episcopal Church, of which he had been an active member and a loyal supporter. Thus passed into history the first Provincial Grand Master in America, a prominent citizen of early New Jersey.


Upon the death of Lewis Morris, the first royal governor of New Jersey, the office of governor was filled by Jonathan Belcher, a native of Boston. At the time of his appointment, on February 13, 1747, Belcher was a Freemason of forty‑three years' standing, having been admitted to membership in some British Lodge in the year 1704. Bro. Belcher was the first native‑born American to be made a Mason of whom we have any record. While serving as governor of Massachusetts, an office he held from 1730 to 1741, Belcher became a member of the first Lodge in Boston, which had been Instituted there in 1733. His son Andrew likewise became a member of that Lodge, and later served as the first Deputy Provincial Grand Master of that Grand Jurisdiction. During the ten years of his administration as governor of New Jersey, Jonathan Belcher devoted himself to his Province, and especially to the promotion of higher education within its boundaries. It was he who fathered New Jersey College, now known as Princeton University.


After four years' residence in Burlington, General Belcher moved to Elizabethtown in the hope of bettering his health. The Belcher Mansion there is still one of the landmarks of the city. When Bro. Belcher died there on August 31, I757, at the age of seventy‑five, his remains were conveyed to Cambridge, Massachusetts, where they were laid to rest in the family vault.


From the foregoing account it is clear that the following distinguished Masons lived and died in New Jersey. The first known Freemason in America, the first Provincial Grand Master in America, and the first native‑born Ameri can to be made a Freemason each resided for a time at Burlington, the capital of West Jersey and each took a prominent part in administering the public affairs of the Province.


Although New Jersey was the home of those early American Masons, it lagged in Instituting Masonic Lodges within its borders. Indeed, Lodges had been Instituted in ten of the original thirteen States before we find any record of the institution of a Lodge in New Jersey. Of those States, Delaware and Vermont alone were later than New Jersey in the Institution of Lodges.


The first Jersey Lodge of which we have any record was Instituted in Newark on May 13,. 1761. It was Warranted by R..W.‑.Bro. George Harison, Provincial Grand Master of New York, as St. John's Lodge, No. 1, with Wil liam Tuckey, a well‑known musician of New York and a temporary resident of Newark, as its Master. David Jamison was Senior Warden and James Banks was junior Warden. This Lodge, which has just commemorated the one hundred seventieth anniversary of its founding, ranks among the oldest Lodges in America. .


Just about a year later, Temple Lodge, No. 1, of Elizabethtown, received a 6 FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY Warrant from R.‑.W.‑.Bro. Jeremy Gridley, Provincial Grand Master of New England. Jonathan Hampton was appointed its first Master. Bro. Hampton was a native of Elizabethtown and one of those named as alderman in the new borough Charter which was granted in 1740. John Blanchard, who was another Mason appointed to Office was named Recorder. No Record of this Lodge of Elizabethtown has come to light, and no information regarding its other Officers or members is available. It is fairly certain, however, that the Lodge continued only a few years. The establishment of that Lodge was followed by another Warrant from the same source. That Warrant was granted to St. John's Lodge, of Princeton, on December 27, 1765, in answer to a Petition from seven Brethren, among whom was Richard Stockton. It was requested that the Warrant should be issued to him as the Lodge's Master.


Richard Stockton was the fourth generation of his family in New Jersey. The first Richard Stockton had come from Durham, England, and settled at Burlington in 1692, while the second had removed to Princeton and built a mansion, " Marven Hall," which is still used as a residence. The fourth Richard Stockton was among the earliest graduates of Princeton College, of which his father was one of the original founders. Having studied law and been admitted to practice in 1754, this Richard Stockton soon rose to eminence in his profession and became widely known. Indeed, his reputation extended even to England. In 1766, when he went to England and Scotland for the purpose of persuading Dr. John Witherspoon to accept the presidency of Princeton College, Stockton was received with unusual honours.


Later, Stockton became a member of the Provincial Council, a judge of the Supreme Court, and one of the representatives chosen by New Jersey to attend the General Congress in Philadelphia. There he took part in the deliberations of that historic assemblage which gave to the world the Declaration of Independence. In fact, Stockton's name appears on that famous document as one of its signers. For that and other patriotic activities he later suffered imprisonment and ill treatment which brought about his premature death. He passed away on February 28, 1781, at the age of fifty, a martyr to the cause of freedom. When or where he had been made a Freemason is not known, nor is it known how long he presided over the activities of Princeton Lodge. Nevertheless, we do know that he played an important part in the early Masonry of New Jersey.


Dr. John Witherspoon also signed the Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Jersey, and it has also been claimed that he, too, was a Freemason. Nothing has been produced that proves his connection with the Fraternity. Unfounded claims made by Bro. Henry Clark of Vermont, in 1879, have not withstood the test of critical examination. Another of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, who was a native of New Jersey and a Freemason, was Joseph Hewes. Although his name appears on that memorable document as a representative from North Carolina, he was a great‑grandson of William Hewes who came from England in 1674 and settled in Salem County, New Jersey. Aaron Hewes, father of Joseph Hewes, removed to Kingston, FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY 7 Somerset County, where Joseph was born on April z3, 1730, the very year that Richard Stockton was born at Princeton near by. Oddly enough, the birth of those two famous Masons was contemporary with the establishment of regular Freemasonry in America. Joseph Hewes acquired a common school education at Princeton, and then moved with his parents to Philadelphia, where he served first as an apprentice in a counting‑house and later entered upon a career. Some time between 176o and 1763 he removed to Edenton, North Carolina, where he was elected to Congress in 1774. From then on until his death at Philadelphia, on November io, 1779, he served in the Continental Congress when he was not engaged in military operations. Joseph Hewes was buried in Christ Church graveyard, at Philadelphia, the funeral service having been conducted by the Rev. Dr. William Smith, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.


The only evidence we have of Joseph Hewes's having been a member of the Masonic Fraternity is a record of the Minutes of Unanimity Lodge, of Edenton, North Carolina, which mentions his having attended the celebration of St. John the Evangelist's Day in December, 1776. However, nothing is known about where he was made a Mason, although it seems likely that he may have joined some Philadelphia Lodge while he was a resident of that city.


The next Warrant for a Lodge in New Jersey was issued by R.‑. W.‑. Bro. William Ball, Provincial Master of Pennsylvania. That Lodge, known on the Pennsylvania Registry as Lodge No. io, was Instituted at Baskingridge, in Somerset County, in 1767, the year Lord Stirling took up his residence there. The loss of early Records of Lodge No. 1o leaves us in the dark as to the extent of its activities. Though it was located in a decidedly rural district, however, it had sufficient vitality to survive the Revolutionary War and later to become the most powerful factor in establishing the present Grand Lodge of New Jersey. Its activities in that matter were carried on under the leadership of Dr. William McKissack, for many years Master of the Baskingridge Lodge.


The four Lodges named above are the only ones known to have been in New Jersey prior to the beginning of the Revolutionary War. Of them, two Lodges, those at Elizabethtown and at Princeton, had apparently ceased their Labours by that time. Like most American Lodges of the time, the other two went through a period of suspended animation, when Masonic activities were almost exclusively confined to the several Military Lodges in the army. Those Lodges were established with the sanction and encouragement of General Washington, who well knew how they would promote harmony and unanimity among the officers upon whom he depended for the ultimate success of the colonists' cause. Nothing, however, seems to have given so great an impetus to the revival and spread of Freemasonry, both in the army and among the civilians of the country, as did Bro. Washington's participation in the celebration of St. John the Evangelist's Day in December, 1778, at Philadelphia, which was at that time just recovering from the occupation by British troops.


During the five years following this public celebration, and before the disbanding of the Revolutionary army, the Grand Lodge of Philadelphia alone had FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY 9 issued Warrants for more than twenty Lodges. Of those, three were to be located in New Jersey and another was a Military Lodge established among New Jersey soldiers. The Warrant for the latter was granted on December 11, 1782, as Lodge No. 36, and named the Rev. Andrew Hunter, an army chaplain, as its Master. The two other Warrants were for civil Lodges. One Warrant, granted on December Zo, 1779, authorised the establishment of Lodge No. 23, at Middletown, in Monmouth County, Lieutenant William Bostwick was named Master, and was duly Installed at an Emergent Communication of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania held at Burlington on March 30 of that year. This was the first Lodge to be Instituted in New Jersey by a Grand Lodge. This was also the first time that the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania had assembled outside the city of Philadelphia. This was looked upon as a distinct honour, and was direct evidence of the paternal interest taken by that Grand Lodge in the spread of Freemasonry in New Jersey.


During the Revolutionary War New Jersey was the scene of a very important Masonic gathering, held by the Military Lodges at the winter headquarters of the army at Morristown, on December 27, 1779. At noon of that day, accompanied by a military band, some 104. members of those Lodges, all army officers excepting only the two Tylers, and ranging in rank from the ensigns to the commander‑in‑chief, General George Washington himself, marched to the church on the village green. There they took part in the service and then returned to the Lodge room in Bro. Jacob Arnold's tavern. They opened Lodge in the Entered Apprentice Degree, with W . . Bro. Jonathan Heart, Master of American Union Lodge, in the East. It was their purpose to consider " some matters respecting the good of Masonry," which were presented by a Committee in the form of a Petition to " the Most Worshipful the present Provincial Grand Master in each of the respective United States of America." Among the matters discussed was the re‑establishment of the Order " on the Ancient respectable foundation," by the appointment of a Grand Master in and over the United States of America. The Committee also urged that the growing irregularities within the Society should be checked, and that the distinction between the " Ancients " and " Moderns " should be erased, in order that the Craft might be established in unity and the established principles of its Institutions more universally extended. The evident intent of this movement was the election of General Washington as General Grand Master. Since the proposal was not acceptable to all the Grand Masters of the various States, however, nothing came of it.


Among the New Jersey Officers present at that meeting were BrigadierGeneral William Maxwell, Colonel Elias Dayton, Colonel Jacob Arnold, Lieutenant‑Colonel Anthony W. White, Major Jeremiah Bruen, Captains Thomas Kinney, John Armstrong, John Sanford, and Robert Erskine, Chaplain Andrew Hunter, Surgeon Jabez Campfield, and Lieutenant William Piatt. After the expiration of Daniel Coxe's Deputation as Provincial Grand Master, on June Z4., 1732, New Jersey became a sort of Masonic " no‑man's 10 FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY land." The Brethren found it necessary to apply to other Grand jurisdictions for authority to organise Lodges and to do Masonic Work. In consequence, we find that, prior to the Revolutionary War, one Lodge was Warranted by New York, two by Massachusetts, and three by Pennsylvania. The first three Lodges were " Modern," and the latter were " Ancient." As was to be expected, the need for a Provincial Grand Master early engaged the attention of the Provincial Grand Master and from it had received its Warrant and asked that a Provincial, or Deputy, Grand Master be appointed for New Jersey. But their plans went unheard, and it was not until the latter part of 1786 that a successful effort was made to Constitute a Grand Lodge in New Jersey. The prime mover in that attempt was W.‑. Bro. William McKissack, Master of Lodge No. 1o, at Baskingridge, who presided over the meeting called for the purpose at New Brunswick on December 18, 1786. Also present at that meeting were fifteen other members of Lodge No. 1o, including the two Wardens, two Deacons, and a Past Master. St. John's Lodge, No. 1, of Newark, although not then active, was represented by its Senior Warden, Moses Ogden, while two Brethren of New Brunswick represented Lodge No. igo U. D., presumably Working under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. The remaining Brethren present were members of Lodges outside New Jersey.


At that meeting the following Officers were nominated: the Hon. Lieutenant‑Colonel David Brearley, chief justice of New Jersey, as Right Worshipful Grand Master; the Hon. Colonel Robert Lettis Hooper, vice‑president of New Jersey, Deputy Grand Master; Lieutenant William Leddle, M.D., late sheriff of Morris County, Senior Warden; Daniel Marsh, representative in the Assembly of New Jersey, Junior Grand Warden; Colonel John Noble Cumming, Grand Secretary; Maskell Ewing, Jr., clerk of the assembly, Deputy Grand Secretary; Captain Joshua Corson, high sheriff of Hunterdon County, Grand Treasurer. Of these Officers, Daniel Marsh was a member of St. John's Lodge, No. 2, of New York. All other Grand Officers nominated were members of Lodges working under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. Later additions to the names subscribed in support of the Grand Lodge included four members of Burlington Lodge, No. 32. Thus, those engaged were following the precedent established by the Grand Lodge of England according to which four Lodges are represented in the Institution of a Grand Lodge.


There were in all fifty Brethren associated with the establishment of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, thirty‑seven of whom we can identify as members of some Lodge working under the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. It will thus be seen that the Grand Lodge of New Jersey was at its inception predominantly Ancient in character, and that 65 per cent of its Charter members had come from the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania.


The Grand Lodge Officers have been duly elected, the precedent established by the Grand Lodge of London in 1717 were again followed, and the Officers were Installed by " the oldest Master present, now a Master of a Lodge." Since W .'. Bro. William McKissack held that rank he had charge of the Installa‑ FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY tion service held at the White Hall Tavern in New Brunswick, on January 30, 1787. On the following day, R.‑. W.‑. Brearley granted Dispensations for five Lodges, one to be established at Newark, with Moses Ogden as Master; one at Bedminster, with Captain William McKissack, M.D. as Master; one at Elizabethtown, with Colonel Elias Dayton as Master; one at Morristown, with John Jacob Faesch, as Master; one at Freehold, with Colonel Jonathan Rhea as Master.


The Lodge at Bedminster, which was successor to Lodge No. Io of Baskingridge, was unanimously accorded the honour of being known as Lodge No. i. This honour was conferred upon the Lodge in recognition of the lead ing part played by its Master and other members in the organisation of the Grand Lodge. The other Lodges acquired their numbers by casting lots. Thus, St. John's Lodge, No. i, of Newark, became Lodge No. 2; Freehold Lodge became Lodge No. 3 ; Morristown Lodge became Lodge No. 4; and Elizabethtown Lodge became Lodge No. 5. The first four of these Lodges were duly Warranted and Constituted, but since the Lodge at Elizabethtown failed to materialise, its place on the Roll was later taken by Trenton Lodge, No. 5, which received its Warrant from the Grand Lodge on December Zo, 1787.


The men who organised this Grand Lodge had all been in military service during the Revolutionary War, and, as was to be expected, the Officers and members of the subordinate Lodges were mostly veterans, and in some cases wholly veterans. In fact, an honourable discharge from the military service appeared at that time to be almost a pass to membership in the Fraternity. An evidence of the widespread influence of the Military Lodges, brought about by the scattering of their members throughout the State after peace had been declared, is to be found in the Institution of Lodges in widely separated locations at the instance of those men who had enjoyed the privilege of meeting on the level for the purpose of Masonic Work and intercourse while yet in military service.


Within seven years there were twelve Lodges in New Jersey, duly Warranted as follows: Solomon's Lodge, No. i, at Bedminster, Somerset County; Captain William McKissack, Master; Warranted On July 4, 1787. St. John's Lodge, No. 2, at Newark, Essex County; Moses Ogden, Master; Warranted on July 4, 1787. Trinity Lodge, No. 3, at Freehold, Monmouth County; LieutenantColonel Jonathan Rhea, Master; Warranted On July 4, 1787. Hiram Lodge, No. 4, at Morristown, Morris County; Captain William Leddle, Master; Warranted on July 4, 1787. Trenton Lodge, No. 5, at Trenton, Hunterdon County; General Aaron D. Woodruff, Master; Warranted on December Zo, 1787. Union Lodge, No. 6, at Hackensack, Bergen County; Captain Robert Neil, Master; Warranted on December Zo, 1787. Unity Lodge, No. 7, at Kingwood, Hunterdon County; David Baird, Master; Warranted on January 23, 1788. Harmony Lodge, No. 8, at Newtown, Sussex County; Quartermaster Thomas Anderson, Master; Warranted on January 23, 1788. Brearley Lodge, No. 9, at Bridgeton, Cumberland County; Lieutenant James Giles, Master; Warranted on January 12 FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY 11, 1791. Nova Cxsarea Lodge, No. 1o, at Cincinnati, Ohio; Surgeon William Burnet, of Newark, New Jersey, Master; Warranted on September 8, 1791. Woodbury Lodge, No. 11, at Woodbury, Gloucester County; General Franklin Davenport, Master; Warranted on July z, 1792. Washington Lodge, No. 12, at New Brunswick, Middlesex County; General Anthony W. White, Master; Warranted on January 6, 1794. Of those twelve Lodges, only three remained active half a century later. They were St. John's Lodge, No. 2, Trenton Lodge, No. 5, and Brearley Lodge, No. 9.


Not only were New Jersey Freemasons represented among the signers of the Declaration of Independence, but also among those who signed the Constitution of the United States. One of the latter group was the first Grand Master of Freemasonry in New Jersey, R.‑. W.‑. Bro. David Brearley. A native of Lawrenceville, Trenton, where he was born in 1745, Bro. Brearley was admitted as a counsellor‑at‑law in 1767. He early took an aggressive part in the activities that led up to the Revolutionary War, and was appointed a captain of militia in 1775. The next year he was made lieutenant‑colonel of the Fourth New Jersey Battalion in the Continental Army. Still later, at the call of the New Jersey legislature, he was recalled from General Sullivan's expedition against the Indians of Pennsylvania to become chief justice of the supreme court of New Jersey. Among the early decisions he rendered in that capacity was one which provided for a citizen's right to a trial by a full jury of twelve of his peers. Later, as a measure of expediency provided by the Constitution, that decision was amended by the State legislature to permit a smaller number to constitute a jury. Thus, for the first time, " the judicial guardianship of the organic law in the Supreme Court, as against attempted or inadvertent encroachment by the ordinary law " was established, and the inviolable integrity of the Constitution was sustained. This famous decision has since become known among the legal profession as " the New Jersey precedent." Bro. Brearley had the further distinction of being the first person in the United States to be selected as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia. There he exercised a great deal of influence in the deliberations of that Convention. Later, when the Constitution was submitted to New Jersey for approval, Bro. Brearley was Chairman of the Committee which drafted the form of ratification by which it was adopted on December 18, 1787. That Act placed the State of New Jersey third among the constellation of stars that grace the azure field of our national flag. As a presidential elector, Bro. Brearley also helped to put the Constitution into actual operation by casting his vote for George Washington. In turn, Washington later appointed him to be the first judge of the United States Court in New Jersey. Bro. Brearley held the Office of Grand Master until his death in 1790, when he was succeeded, in order, by several distinguished men, including General John Beatty, of Trenton; General John Noble Cumming, of Newark; Governor Joseph Bloomfield, of Burlington; General James Giles of Bridgeton, who had served as Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of New York before taking up his residence at Bridgeton, where FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY 13 he Instituted Brearley Lodge and Brearley Chapter of the Royal Arch Masons; and General John S. Darcy, M.D., of Newark, first president of what is now the Pennsylvania Railroad in New Jersey.


The two Brethren mentioned had the honour of taking part in the reception tendered to Bro. General Lafayette at Elizabeth, New Jersey, on September 23, 1824, by Washington Lodge, No. 41, and other near‑by Lodges. At that time M.‑. W .'. Bro. Jepthah B. Munn, Grand Master in the name of the Brethren of New Jersey, extended to their illustrious guest " the deep veneration, the warm affection and friendship of his Masonic Brethren, inferior to none in ardour and sincerity." In response, Bro. Lafayette touchingly referred to " the persecutions which Masons and friends of human rights and liberty had ever experienced from the hand of intolerance." While Bro. Lafayette was thus speaking from personal experience, little did he think that his listeners and all other members of American Freemasonry were soon to experience just such persecution in an aggravated form, and that the closing years of the first half century of Freemasonry in New Jersey were to be clouded by unbridled antiMasonic agitation. That agitation has come to be known as the " Morgan excitement.' While the " Morgan excitement " is a matter that pertains particularly to the history of Freemasonry in New York, that being the seat of its origin, we cannot pass it by without a brief resume of its effects in New Jersey. Up till that time Freemasonry had been progressing slowly but surely, and the Grand Lodge had already granted Warrants for fifty‑six Lodges during the first forty years of its existence. Although seventeen of those Warrants had either been stricken from the Roll or been surrendered, there were still thirty‑nine Lodges in New Jersey at the time of the organisation of the anti‑Masonic Society at Le Roy, New York, in 1828. Although two other Lodges were Warranted before the end of 1832, a complete cessation of Warrant granting on the part of the Grand Lodge followed. As a result, when the Constituent New Jersey Lodges were remembered in 1842, it was stated that thirty‑three more Lodges had been stricken from the Roll, thus leaving only eight active Lodges in New Jersey. That meant that less than Zo per cent of the Lodges in the State had survived the ordeal. In New York, however, the loss was even greater, for only about 16 per cent of the Lodges in the Empire State survived. Proximity to New York and Pennsylvania, where the anti‑Masonic campaign raged most actively, together with the persistent agitation of some newspapers of New Jersey, especially the Palladium of Liberty, of Morristown, had almost accomplished the aim of the anti‑Masons‑the total extinction of Freemasonry in New Jersey! It may be said of the Grand Lodge, however, that it continued on its way in an even tenor, assembling at every regular Annual Communication and transacting its regular business even although its financial condition was such that it was not always able fully to meet its obligations. At times there were scarcely enough Lodges represented at every meeting of the Grand Lodge during those 14 FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY trying times when it was almost worth a man's life to be actively identified with the Fraternity.


Although St. John's Lodge, No. 2, failed to send a Representative to the Grand Lodge during five of those troublous years, when the active Lodges were renumbered in 1842, it was placed on the Roll as Lodge No. i. Although Tren ton Lodge, No. 5, was entitled to second place at that time, it preferred to hold its original number, and even to‑day it continues to be known as Lodge No. 5. It is the only Lodge bearing the original number given to it by the Grand Lodge of New Jersey in 1787. At the renumbering of 1842, Brearley Lodge, No. 9, became Lodge No. 2, and the eight other Lodges were numbered in accordance with their precedence on the original Roll. All other Lodges either restored or Warranted thereafter were numbered in the order of their application.


During the first half century of regularly Constituted Speculative Masonry in New Jersey, efforts were made to introduce Capitular Masonry. Indeed four Mark Master Lodges existed before 1812 and by the end of 1824 there were three Royal Arch Chapters Working under Warrants from the General Grand Chapter, and one other Chapter under authority of the Grand Chapter of Pennsylvania. Then, on January 5, 1825, a Grand Chapter of New Jersey was organised at Elizabethtown by the first three Chapters mentioned above. Later, however, after it had issued Warrants for two other Chapters, its progress was seriously retarded by the anti‑Masonic agitation, and it finally suspended activities in 1836. This left New Jersey without a Grand Chapter of its own for the next twenty years.


The beginning of the period of revival following " the Dark Age of Ni*sonry " was marked by a determination on the part of the comparatively few tried and true Brethren who had remained loyal and active supporters of the Fraternity to place it on a plane where it would be above suspicion with relation to such inuendoes and direct charges as had been made against it during the " Morgan excitement. " One of the principal charges which had been made against it in New Jersey was that it exercised great influence in the political life of the State and that it monopolised the chief political offices and dictated the character of legislation that should be enacted. This charge was based on the fact that many of the leading men in the Fraternity were living up to their obligations as citizens by taking an active interest in affairs of State. Another charge was alleged debauching influence of the Lodges upon members, through the serving of intoxicating refreshments at, or after, their meetings.


The annual meetings of the Grand Lodge had as a matter of convenience been scheduled immediately to precede the meetings of the State Legislature at Trenton. Since this gave some colour to the political charge the Grand Lodge determined to change the time of meeting from November to January. Further, the use of any alcoholic liquors within the Lodge room was strictly forbidden. This restriction against combining Lodge matters with local, State, or national politics, as well as that against the use of intoxicants in Lodge rooms, has ever since been an outstanding characteristic of the Fraternity in New Jersey. Thus, FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY 15 through the refining fires of persecution, this Ancient and Honourable Society in New Jersey has become an example of that political tolerance which has always been taught by its Ritual and in the Masonic lectures, and it has exercised an untold influence for bettering the social and moral life of the communities in which the Fraternity exists.


At about that time the return of prosperity was necessarily slow but none the less sure. By 1852, the Grand Master, having Zo Lodges and almost 600 members under his supervision, was able to congratulate the Grand Lodge .. that truth, justice, and freedom, had at last found a resting‑place in the great and glorious country." As time passed, progress of the Lodge in New Jersey became more and more marked so that by the end of the next decade there were 63 Lodges within the State, and in 1862 they totaled nearly 3400.


This brings us to the period of the war between the States, when North and South were pitted against each other in a life‑and‑death struggle for the maintenance of the Union, and for the abolition of slavery. But in spite of the strife at that time, Freemasonry advanced rapidly, and in New Jersey it almost doubled its membership during the six years 1861 to 1866, inclusive. This abnormal activity, which seems to be a concomitant of war, was still further emphasised by the Institution of 5o new Lodges during the next five years, thus bringing the total number of Lodges in 1871 up to 131, with a membership of nearly 1o,ooo, or an average of more than 70 members for each Lodge.


During the next few years an Institution of new Lodges was again carried on as it normally had been, but it took another third of a century to bring back a normal increase in their number. Nevertheless, the average member ship of the subordinate Lodges gradually increased till it was 123 by the year 1903, at which time there was a total membership of ZZ,ooo. That number was doubled before America entered the Great War. In the years immediately following the Great War each year saw a similar increase in the average of Lodges Instituted within the State. For example, there was an average of 3o Lodges Instituted during each of the three years from 1920 to 1922. There are now 274 Lodges having more than 97,000 members, and an average membership of 354 for each Lodge.


The abolition of slavery in the United States, and the granting of citizenship to the Negro, gave rise to hopes on the part of many persons for admitting the Negro to social and Fraternal equality. As a result, in several Grand juris dictions clandestine Negro Masons sought recognition and admission to the regular Masonic Lodges. But they were all unsuccessful, except in the case of New Jersey, while the Grand Lodge of New Jersey promptly refused a request for a Warrant for a Lodge by nine Negro Masons of Newark in 1870, on the ground of Petitioners' being clandestine and their Petition therefore irregular. Yet several regular members of the Fraternity residing in Newark, who were strong Abolitionists and who sympathized with the aspirations of the Negroes, determined to try and make it possible for them to secure such a Warrant as regular Masons. To do this, they proposed to secure a Warrant ostensibly for 16 FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY a Lodge of white Brethren in Newark, to be known as Alpha Lodge, but with the ultimate object of admitting Negro applicants to membership in the usual manner, and qualifying them to hold Office and to carry on the Work of a Lodge of their own. This they finally accomplished after very strenuous opposition.


In due time those nine Negro Masons who had been admitted to membership in Alpha Lodge, No. 116, demitted in a body and again applied to the Grand Lodge for a Warrant for a Lodge to be known as Sorgum Lodge. Their Petition was this time endorsed by the remaining white members of Alpha Lodge. But the Grand Lodge once more refused to grant their Petition, and went on record as being unwilling to grant a Warrant for a Negro Lodge. Nevertheless, it stated that it would not interfere with any Constituted Lodge in its choice of members, so long as they were men, free‑born and of lawful age, who declared their trust in God and had achieved the favourable verdict of the secret ballot. As a result of this action, the Negro Brethren reaffiliated with Alpha Lodge. In the course of time the white members severed their connection with the Lodge, thus leaving it entirely in the hands of Negro Masons. To‑day it remains the only Lodge of that character in the United States constituent to a Grand Body which is fully recognised by all regular Masonic Bodies of this country. The membership of Alpha Lodge now numbers about seventy, and its Masonic Work is conducted in a highly creditable manner, while its relationship with the Fraternity is most unobtrusive. In justice it must be said that throughout all the proceedings leading up to its establishment as a Negro Lodge, the Negro members of that Lodge acted frankly and honestly.


Just what may have been the characteristics of the Ritual Work of the early New Jersey Lodges we do not know. It was, however, along the lines laid down by the " Ancients." Nevertheless, we do know that a great deal of irregularity and diversity in the Work gradually arose. Again and again the lack of uniformity was brought to the attention of the Grand Lodge by one Grand Master after another, and occasionally efforts were made to remedy it. For a long time, however, the results were indifferent. Then in 1822‑, the Ritual as prepared by Bro. Jeremy Cross was recommended by the Grand Lodge as the standard Work for the subordinate Lodges. A Grand Lecturer, or Grand Visitor, was also appointed occasionally by the Grand Master to supplement the efforts of the Senior Grand Officers and to give personal instruction to the Officers of such Lodges as desired his service at their expense. Much improvement resulted from this plan, which was followed for nearly twenty years, and not abandoned till 1843.


At that time the Baltimore Convention of Grand Lecturers, representing sixteen of the twenty‑three Grand jurisdictions, formulated the " National System of Work " which was a compromise based on the various Rituals then being used in America. The plan was to have it become a uniform system and to have it adopted as a standard by all the Grand Jurisdictions in the United States. The New Jersey Grand Lodge was not represented at that Convention, and in consequence it was not until 1859 that it adopted the " Maryland Work " FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY 17 as it came to be known. This was done at the instance of M.'. W.‑. Bro. Joseph Trimble, Grand Master, who had been made a Mason in a Baltimore Lodge and had become highly proficient in the " Maryland Work." Two or three years later, however, an attempt was made to introduce what was known as the " Conservator Work," promulgated by Bro. Robert Morris of Kentucky, who claimed that his was the only genuine Webb‑Preston Work, and who characterised the " Maryland Work " as " the greatest humbug of the largest dimensions." But the Grand Lodge of New Jersey refused to have anything to do with Bro. Morris's Work and plainly forbade its use in the Lodges of the State.


With the coming of the war between the States a great deal of irregularity again crept into the Work of the Lodges. This was due, of course, to the lack of proper supervision at that time. But with the close of the war a determined effort was made to re‑establish uniformity and proficiency through the services of a paid Grand Lecturer, who devoted all his time to that Work. Although this plan was a marked success for several years, it was carried on at a cost beyond the resources of the Grand Lodge. Consequently, in 1874, the services of a full‑time Grand Lecturer were made available with seven District Deputy Grand Masters, part of whose duty was to instruct the Lodges in the Work appointed. One year of following this plan, however, was enough to show " that there could be no undeviable standing for the Work unless there were an unquestionable authority from which it shall emanate," with power to decide any difference that might arise. Consequently, the Grand Lodge created the Office of R.‑. W.‑. Grand Instructor. He was to be " Custodian and Conservator of the Standard Work of New Jersey," and District Deputies were to look to him for advice and instruction in the Ritual Work. This was the first time the Grand Lodge of New Jersey officially recognised the Office of Grand Lecturer, or Grand Instructor, as a part of the Grand Lodge organisation. By this arrangement it established a system of instruction that has since proved highly satisfactory.


The Grand Lodge has been highly fortunate in the choice of Brethren to fill the important Office of Grand Instructor. The first appointee, R.‑. W.‑. Bro. Heber Wells, held the Office for eight years, after which he was succeeded by R.'. W.'. Bro. Henry S. Haines, who gave unsparingly of his time and talents for a period of more than thirty‑eight years. Aided by a loyal and efficient staff of District Deputies, Bro. Haines placed New Jersey on a high level in regard both to the proficiency and the uniformity of its Degree Work. That splendid quality of the Work has since been maintained under the able leadership of M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Richard C. Woodward, Grand Instructor, and his twenty‑nine District Deputies. In 1907, a Committee on Ritual was appointed to " aid in conserving its form, diction, and accuracy." This Committee is now regularly represented by one or more of its members at each District Grand Lodge of Instruction. These meetings are held annually in each district. At that time the esoteric Work of the several Degrees is exemplified by the Officers of the Lodges in the district, under the critical observation of the Grand Instructor.


18 FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY Although‑ several Lodges in the State had, by consent of the Grand Lodge, for many years conducted their Work in German, that practice was discontinued on January i, i919. This change was due partly to the ill‑feeling stirred up at the time of the Great War and partly to a growing desire for complete uniformity. Since then the Grand Lodge has required all Degree Work to be conferred, all Lodge notices to be sent out, and all Records to be kept, in the English language.


During its early years the Grand Lodge of New Jersey undertook to provide aid for deserving persons. This was paid for from the proceeds of small regular assessments that were turned into the Grand Lodge Charity Fund. But in i86o this policy was changed and the responsibility for relief work was placed on the various subordinate Lodges. That responsibility soon proved, however, to be a great burden on some of the Lodges. In some cases the calls for assistance frequently exceeded the Lodge's financial resources. This was especially true in calls for help in caring for aged Brethren and the widows and orphans of deceased Brethren. Consequently the beginning of the second century of the Grand Lodge's existence was marked by the favorable consideration of a plan for the Grand Lodge itself to care for such cases. It was not until 1898, however, that the plan was put into effect. On St. John the Evangelist's Day of that year a Masonic Home was dedicated.


The Home is located about two miles south of Burlington, and at the start it consisted of a large stone mansion of 2‑o rooms, together with 26 acres of farm land. It was purchased for the sum of $25,ooo and was paid for by an assessment of two dollars per member. Purchases of adjoining tracts of land have been made at various times since, until the total area of the property is now about i5o acres. The cost of this additional land was $25,ooo. Additional buildings have also been erected to meet the ever‑increasing demands. By the end of the first year there were 18 guests in the Home, of whom only one was an orphan. During the first decade 84 men, 34 women, 9 boys and 12 girls were admitted. Of those, 43 had died and 22 had withdrawn at the close of 1907 leaving 74 persons in the care of the Home. To provide for the ever‑increasing applications for admission, following in the wake of a constantly increasing membership, has been one of the chief objectives among the various activities of the Grand Lodge. Fortunately, calls for additional support have always met with a ready response from the Brethren.* During the more than thirty‑two years of its existence in excess of 790 persons have been admitted as guests of the Home. Of that number iio were boys, and 87 were girls. Almost half of the aged who have lived there have passed to the great beyond from under the Home's sheltering roof, after spending their declining years in that peace and comfort which would not likely have been their lot had it not been for this stretching forth of Masonry's helping hand in their time of need.


The last report of the Home stated that there were 221 guests in it. Of those, *Lately the benefits of the Home have been extended to i20lude not only the indigent or helpless Master Mason, his wife, widow, or children, but also the mother, sister, or daughter of any deceased Brother who was at the time of his death chiefly dependent upon him for support.


FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY 19 78 were men, 89 were women, 32 were boys, and 2.2‑ were girls. The children are comfortably housed in modern brick buildings, the latest addition to which is the group of buildings for boys, erected at a cost of $ioo,ooo. Provision has also been made for the education of the children. Those in grades below the third are taught at the Home. The older children attend the public schools at Burlington, their transportation to and from school being provided by the Home.


Ordinary cases of sickness, most of which are ailments due to senility, are cared for in the hospital where from thirty to forty patients are attended by a visiting physician, a trained nurse, three practical nurses, and a pharmacist. A fully‑equipped dental room has also been provided by the Order for the Eastern Star. There a dentist is kept busy one day each week caring for the teeth of both young and old. In instances where the patient suffers some mental ailment or requires surgical attention, he is removed to some properly‑equipped outside hospital. The present value of the property is conservatively estimated to be some $92o,ooo, and the annual cost of maintenance is about $130,000.


As an auxiliary to this Home relief work, the Grand Lodge lately established what is known as the Charity Foundation Fund. This is derived from special assessments and voluntary contributions which at present amount to more than half a million dollars. Interest on this fund amounting now to about $Zo,ooo a year, is used for the relief of those who can best be cared for by being maintained in their own homes. This plan holds families together until they are able to care for themselves. This applies particularly to the families of the deceased Brothers, whose widows are given additional aid to supplement their own earnings and are therefore enabled to keep their families under their own care, rather than having to place their own children in the Masonic Home. Recently these two charities have been incorporated as the Masonic Home and Foundation of New Jersey, " to receive, hold, and administer endowments and funds exclusively for charitable, benevolent, and hospital purposes, and to insure absolute permanency of the Home and Foundation, and to encourage gifts to this benevolent cause." While these charitable activities of the Grand Lodge are for the purpose of helping those who are partially or totally unable to support themselves, another phase of helpfulness and one that commends itself to the support of every Mason is that of helping a Brother to help himself by assisting him to find employment when unemployed. It was with this aim in view that the Masonic bureau of New Jersey was established in 1914, at the suggestion of some practically‑minded Brethren. This Bureau was suggested by, and is managed along the lines successfully followed by, a quasi‑Masonic organisation known as the Universal Craftsmen's Council of Engineers, a nationwide organisation having three active local Chapters in New Jersey.


The work of this Bureau, voluntarily supported by a few Lodges at the annual cost of one cent per member, soon commended itself to the Grand Lodge, which in turn recommended it to the favorable consideration and support of all the Lodges of the State. It was not until I925, however, that the Grand Lodge zo FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY began to foster it by making all Lodges in the State members of the Masonic Bureau of New Jersey, Incorporated. Contributions at the above‑mentioned rate remain optional with each Lodge. A Committee on Masonic Bureau was established to have general supervision of its work. Since 19z8, the Grand Lodge has each year contributed $3,6oo towards the Bureau's support. That sum is approximately one‑third of the total cost of operation. Reports show that during the last two or three years the Bureau has been instrumental in securing about zzoo placements annually at an average cost of about $io each.


In addition to securing employment, the Masonic Bureau of New Jersey, in conjunction with similar bureaus in other jurisdictions, has rendered efficient and timely aid to Brethren who fall into distress because of sickness or accident while sojourning in foreign jurisdictions. Thus the helping hand of the Bureau stretches across the continent and beyond the borders of the United States. At the same time, through the vigilance of its agents, it has helped greatly to reduce and in some cases has eliminated the number of undeserving who seek to subsist on the credulity and good nature of the Brethren. Such people are ferreted out by the Bureau, their methods of securing help are investigated by due process of law. New Jersey Masonry has always been prompt to respond to the cry of distress from its own members. It has also been quick to render help to other Grand jurisdictions in times of dire distress brought on by famine, pestilence, or other disaster. It has also held a high place among those contributing to the George Washington National Memorial at Alexandria, Virginia.


The Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons for the State of New Jersey consists of the following Officers the Most Worshipful Grand Master, the Right Worshipful Deputy Grand Master, the Right Worshipful Senior Grand Warden, the Right Worshipful Junior Grand Warden, the Right Worshipful Grand Treasurer, the Right Worshipful Grand Secretary, and the Right Worshipful Deputy Grand Secretary.


All of these Officers are elected to their respective stations and places by the Grand Lodge at the Annual Communication held at Trenton in the month of April each year. At that time the following Officers are appointed by the Grand Master: the Right Worshipful Grand Chaplains, the Right Worshipful Grand Instructor, the Right Worshipful District Deputies, the Right Worshipful Senior Grand Deacon, the Right Worshipful Junior Grand Deacon, the Right Worshipful Senior Grand Steward, the Right Worshipful Junior Grand Steward, the Right Worshipful Grand Marshal, the Right Worshipful Grand Swordbearer, the Right Worshipful Grand Pursuivant, the Right Worshipful Grand Historian, the Right Worshipful Grand Organist, and the Right Worshipful Grand Tyler. All elected Past Grand Officers and Past Masters, while they remain members of regular Warranted Lodges in the New Jersey jurisdiction, and all present Masters and Wardens of those Lodges are members of the Grand Lodge.


Each Lodge is allowed three votes in all elections of the Grand Lodge. These may be cast by the Master and Wardens or by such of them as are present. In FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY 2I case all three are absent, the votes may be cast by duly elected proxies, properly accredited by the Lodge for which they are to vote. All other members of the Grand Lodge who are present are allowed one vote each and no more. Absentees have no voice in the decisions of the Grand Lodge by proxy or otherwise, as they do have in some other Grand Lodges.


The various activities of the Grand Lodge are cared for by the following Committees: (I) The Trustees of the Grand Lodge. Of these five, one is annually elected for a term of five years. (2) The Trustees of the Masonic Home and Charity Foundation. Of these nine, three are annually elected for a term of three years. (3) Of the following committees, each of the five members is appointed annually: Committee on Appeals and Grievances, Committee on Constitutions and By‑Laws, Committee on jurisprudence, Committee on the Masonic Bureau, Committee on Ritual. (4) The Committee on Foreign Correspondence consists of three members, each of whom is appointed annually. (S) The Advisory Committee consists of all elected Grand Officers, Past Grand Masters, Trustees, and the chairmen of the Committees already named in this paragraph. (6) The Audit Committee, the Committee of the Grand Lodge Charity Fund, and the Committee on the Grand Master's Address each consist of three members, all of whom are appointed annually. (7) The Committee on Dispensations and Warrants consists of five members, all of whom are annually appointed.


The State is divided into twenty‑nine Districts, each having a District Deputy appointed or re‑appointed for it. The duties of that Deputy are to instruct the Officers of the subordinate Lodges in the District in the standard Work of the Ritual; to make at least one official visit to each Lodge under his care during each year; to witness an exemplification of the Work; to examine the condition of the books and finances of the Lodge; and to perform such other duties and services as may be assigned by the Grand Master.


The Ancient Landmarks recognised by this Grand Lodge have been thus condensed and classified under the following Distinct heads I. GOD: A belief in God as the Great Architect and Supreme Ruler of the universe.


II. THE GREAT LIGHT IN MASONRY: The acceptance of the revealed Word of God as the rule and guide for our faith and practise, and its visible presence in every Lodge.


III. THE GRAND MASTER: The Grand Master is elected by the Craft and holds Office until his successor is duly Installed. He is the ruler of the Craft and as such is of right the Presiding Officer of every assemblage of Masons. He may within his jurisdiction convene a Lodge at any time or place and do Masonic Work therein. He may also create Lodges by his Warrant and arrest the Warrant of any Lodge he chooses. He may suspend during his pleasure the operation of any rule or regulation of Masonry not a Landmark. He may suspend the Installed Officers of any Lodge and reinstate them at his pleasure and he is not answerable for his acts as Grand Master. He may deputise any Brother to do any act in his absence which he himself might do if present.


22 FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY IV. THE LODGE: A Masonic Lodge must have a Master and two Wardens, and when convened for Masonic Work must be duly Tyled.


V. THE CANDIDATE: No person can be made a Mason unless he be a man, free‑born, of mature and discreet age, of good character and reputation, and have no bodily maim or defect that may render him incapable of learning the art or of being advanced to the several Degrees. But he may not apply for admission without solicitation, or take upon himself the Masonic obligations. He cannot be admitted to membership in a Masonic Lodge except upon a secret ballot by the Brethren of that Lodge.


VI. THE BRETHREN : Masons, as such, are equal. Each possesses the right to visit any Lodge or assembly of Masons where his presence will not disturb peace and harmony. If and when he has been aggrieved by any act of any Lodge, he may appeal to the General Assembly of Masons or to its substitute, the Grand Lodge.


VII. MASTERS AND WARDENS: No man may be elected the Master of a Lodge who has not first served as a Warden. Although the Master and the Wardens are elected by the members of their Lodge, they hold their Offices by virtue of the Warrant of the Grand Master until their successors have qualified. They are, in fact, his Representatives in the Lodge, and are not, therefore, responsible to the Lodge for their official acts. Nor can they be tried or disciplined by the Lodge during their term of Office.


VIII. JURISDICTION: Every Mason, for Masonic purposes, is subject to the jurisdiction of the Lodge within whose jurisdiction he resides.


IX. SECRECY: The legend of the Third Degree. The means of recognition. The methods of conferring the Degrees. The obligations of those Degrees. The ballot of every Brother. These are, and must continue to be, inviolably secret.


X. DEGREES: Ancient Craft Masonry includes only the Entered Apprentice Degree, the Fellow Craft Degree, and the Master Mason Degree.


Membership in a Lodge is automatically acquired when the candidate is Raised to the Master Mason Degree, or by a Master Mason through affiliation subject to the unanimous vote of the Lodge. Restoration of members suspended for N. P. D. may be granted by a majority of the votes cast, but in case of suspension for other reasons, or in case of expulsion, the restoration of the member requires a favorable two‑thirds of the votes cast. Dual membership is not permitted in the New Jersey Jurisdiction. Honorary Membership may be conferred as a mark of distinction, by a two‑thirds favorable vote of a Lodge upon a member of another New Jersey Lodge. The honour, however, carries neither voice nor vote in the affairs of the Lodge which confers it.


Life membership may be granted to anyone who has paid dues for consecutive years in any Lodge, provided that Lodge has previously adopted a By‑Law to that effect. To all others, life membership can be granted only upon payment of a sum not less than the equivalent of ten years' dues. Each member of a Lodge in New Jersey, who has been a Master Mason in good standing continuously for fifty years or more, is presented by the Grand Lodge with a gold button bearing FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY z3 the Seal of the Grand Lodge and a suitable inscription indicating that fact. In 1929, when these were first distributed there were 32.9 recipients of this token. While in some jurisdictions visitation is looked upon as a privilege, in New Jersey it is considered a right. That right, however, is subject to the will of any member of any Lodge who may be present. Such member may object to the admission or continuance of any visitor, excepting only Officers of the Grand Lodge. It is the duty of the Master of any Lodge to refuse admission to anyone thus objected to, or if already within the Body of the Lodge, to invite the visitor to retire, on the ground that his presence may disturb the peace and harmony of the Lodge.


In the early days of the New Jersey Grand Lodge, the elective Offices were held by the incumbents for several years. This was especially true in the case of the Grand Master. In fact, during the first thirty‑seven years of the Grand Lodge's existence, there were only eight Grand Masters. Of these, M.. W:. Bro. Aaron D. Woodruff held the Office for twelve years from i8os to 1816, inclusive. At the same time Bro. Woodruff was serving as Worshipful Master of Trenton Lodge, No. S, an Office which he held for thirty consecutive years. He held both Offices at the time of his death. Contemporary with him as Grand Master was R: . W.‑. Bro. William McKissack, Deputy Grand Master for fifteen years; R.: W.‑. Bro. Thomas Bullman, Senior Grand Warden for eleven years; R.'. W .'. Bro. General Franklin Davenport, grandnephew of R.‑.W.‑.Bro. Benjamin Franklin, Junior Grand Warden for ten years; R.*. W.‑. Bro. General Jonathan Rhea, Grand Treasurer for nine years; and R.‑.W.‑.Bro. George McDonald, Deputy Grand Secretary for fourteen years. During the eighty‑year period from 1824 to 1903, inclusive, there were thirty‑five Grand Masters. The average term for those years was a little more than two years. Since 1904, the four highest elective Offices have been occupied for a term of only one year by any one person. With only one exception, each Grand Master has also served a year in each of the other three Grand Offices. Thus, for almost thirty years, there has been a regular, unbroken line of succession through those four Grand Lodge Offices. To‑day there are nineteen Past Grand Masters still living. M.‑. W.‑. Bro. George W. Fortmeyer is the Senior Past Grand Master, having occupied that high and exalted Station during 1896 and 1897.


Fortunately, the Offices of Grand Treasurer, Grand Secretary, and Deputy Grand Secretary have seen few changes in personnel. R.‑. W.‑. Bro. Elias Phillips was Grand Treasurer for twenty years, R.‑. W.‑. Bro. Charles Bechtel, for thirty years, and‑R.'. W.'. Bro. William F. Burk, for twelve years. R.'. W.‑. Bro. Joseph H. Hough stands at the head of the list for length of service, having been Deputy Grand Secretary for five years and Grand Secretary for forty‑eight years. The present Grand Secretary, R.‑. W .'. Bro. Isaac Cherry, has a record of fifteen years, and it is hoped that he may serve many more years. R.'. W.‑. Bro. T. H. R. Redway was Deputy Grand Secretary for thirteen years, and R.'. W.‑. Bro. William Rutan held the Office for twenty years. The Grand Lodge of New Jersey may well be proud of such a record of continuity of service among its Officers. It may boast not only of the wisdom it has displayed in the choice of Grand Officers to 2‑4 FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY direct its affairs, but also of the long continuation of harmony and good will that has characterised its existence as a Grand Body, and is evidenced by the long service of its Officers.


Garret Augustus Hobart, the twenty‑fourth vice‑president of the United States, was born at Long Branch, New Jersey, on June 3, 1844, and continued a lifelong resident of the State. He graduated from Princeton in 1863, and after teaching for some time took up the study of the law in Paterson where he was licensed to practise in 1866. Three years later he was made a counsellor‑at‑law. In 1872‑ he was elected assemblyman, and two years later he became the speaker of that legislative body. In 1876 he was elected State senator, and was president of the Senate during 1881 and 1882‑. He was first to have the distinction of presiding over both branches of the New Jersey legislature.


At the same time an active business man, Hobart was associated with many industrial and public utility enterprises, and as he himself said, " engaged in politics for recreation." Nevertheless he put as much energy and ability into his political activities as he put into his regular vocation, and won nationwide recognition by being elected vice‑president of the United States in 1896. His public career was cut short, however, by his untimely death, on November 21, 1899, at the age of fifty‑five. At that time he was in the full maturity of his power and held high esteem of his fellow citizens for his ability and his integrity of character.


Bro. Hobart was Initiated in Falls City Lodge, No. 82‑, of Paterson, on July 9, 1867, and was raised on December 8, 1868. On November 6, 1871, he was Exalted a Royal Arch Mason in Cataract Chapter, No. 1o, of Paterson, and that same year he was Knighted in St. Omer Commandery, No. 13, Knights Templar. On January 1, 1876, he received the Thirty‑second Degree of Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite Masonry in New Jersey Consistory, of Jersey City. Then, on December 23, 1896, he was elected a life member of Washington Commandery, No. 1, at Washington, District of Columbia, just prior to his installation as vice‑president.


Born in moderate circumstances, Bro. Hobart, through his assiduous application, became the architect and builder of his fortune, and builded so well that he had reached almost the pinnacle of human ambition, both politically and Fraternally, before he was called to join the innumerable throng in that house, not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.


It has been claimed that another vice‑president of the United States, who was a native Jerseyman, was also a Freemason. We refer to Aaron Burr, second vice‑president of the Republic, a son of the Reverend Aaron Burr of Newark, New Jersey. But nothing has been produced positively to identify him with the Fraternity directly or indirectly. A complete Masonic Record of a man bearing the same name, who was elected, entered, passed, and Raised in Union Lodge, No. 40, of Danbury, Connecticut, between June S and September 13, 18o6, has been offered as proof of the claim. But if one will refer to Burr's biography one may see clearly that at that time he had something on his mind very different FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY 25 from taking upon himself the obligations of a Freemason. As a matter of fact, he was deeply engrossed in preparing for his filibustering expedition against Mexico, which has been satirically characterised as " being perhaps the most magnificent enterprise ever conceived on the American continent." Instead of being Raised to the sublime Degree of Master Mason on September 13, i8o6, as recorded in those minutes, he had, then, gone West six weeks before to embark on a scheme destined to bring him into the limelight as a conspirator and a traitor to his country.


It has also been stated that he visited Western Star Lodge, No. io, at Kaskaskia, Illinois, on April 4, I8I2. But, from his own journal, we learn that on that particular date he had sufficiently recovered from an attack of seasickness to partake of a good dinner of codfish and potatoes, on board the ship Aurora, as he returned from exile in Europe. Happy, indeed, are we to be thus able to remove the blot of his name from the Records of American Freemasonry.


ROYAL ARCH MASONRY IN NEW JERSEY Following the example of the Lodges in New York City, several of the early Lodges in New Jersey had Mark Master Lodges attached to them, working under the sanction of their Grand Lodge Warrants.


There is evidence of one being attached to St. John's Lodge, No. 2, of Newark, Essex County, in i8o5, and Paterson‑Orange Lodge, No. 13, of Paterson, Passaic County, had one in active operation in I8o6. Cincinnati Lodge, No. 17, of Hanover, Morris County, Instituted one in 1811, and Union Lodge, No. 2I, of Orange, Essex County, authorised one in 18i2, the Minute Book of which is still to the fore; and later we find the Mark Master Degree being conferred in one or two Lodges in the Southern part of the State.


The establishment of Royal Arch Masonry in New Jersey was brought up for consideration before the Grand Lodge in 1804 and it was agreed to permit the opening of Chapters under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge and by permis sion of the Grand Master. The following year Grand Master Beatty granted a Dispensation to Washington Lodge, No. I2, of New Brunswick, Middlesex County, to establish a Chapter, but it was not until 1813 that a Warrant was issued to it by the General Grand Chapter as Solomon's Chapter, No. 2.


This is as far as the Grand Lodge went in the matter of establishing Royal Arch Masonry in New Jersey, and it has ever since abstained from having anything directly to do with it.


Washington Chapter, No. I, was Constituted on August 7, 1813, by Dispensation from the General Grand Scribe and it received its Warrant from the General Grand Chapter on September II, I8ig.


The long intervals between the Instituting and Warranting of these Chapters by the General Grand Chapter was due to the fact that it met only once in seven years, instead of every three as at present.


26 FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY On October 16, 1815, Brearley Lodge, No. 9, of Bridgeton, Cumberland County, granted permission to several of its members to form a Chapter there, and on April 18, 1816, it was duly Consecrated and the Officers regularly Installed by Officers of the Grand Chapter of Pennsylvania, from which it received its Warrant, with General James Giles as its first High Priest.


This Chapter followed the policy of the Grand Chapter of Pennsylvania in maintaining an attitude of aloofness from the General Grand Chapter. This stood in the way of forming a Grand Chapter in New Jersey, when Washington Chapter, of Newark, and Solomon's Chapter, of New Brunswick, endeavoured to bring that about in 1817 and again in i82o, as these two Chapters were the progeny of the General Grand Chapter, and Brearley Chapter would have no association with them on that account.


Franklin Chapter, No. 3, was Constituted at Whippany, Morris County, in 1824, thus providing the third Chapter necessary to Constitute a Grand Chapter, which was consummated on January 5, 1825, at Elizabeth, Union County, when Comp. John E. Ruckle was elected Grand High Priest.


The Grand Chapter was duly Consecrated and the Officers Installed at New Brunswick on May 9, 1825, and it was quite fitting and appropriate that this ceremony should take place in the city where the Grand Lodge and the first Chapter in New Jersey were Constituted.


Hiram Chapter, No. 4, of Trenton, Mercer County, was granted a Warrant on June 24, 1825. It had been Working under a Dispensation from Elias J. Thompson, Deputy Grand High Priest, dated May 18, 1825. This Chapter con tinued to function during the anti‑Masonic agitation of 1826 to 1836, while the other Chapters and the Grand Chapter itself became defunct, and it thereby constituted the connecting link between the original Grand Chapter and the present Grand Chapter, thus maintaining the continuity of Royal Arch Masonry in New Jersey from 1805 to the present time, and it holds the proud position of the premier Chapter on the Roll of the Grand Chapter of New Jersey. It is located at Red Bank, Monmouth County, where it continues in a healthy condition with a membership of over 300.


The original Grand Chapter held its last Annual Convocation on November 8, 1836. Washington Chapter, of Newark, had become dormant in 183o but was resuscitated on January 30, 184o, and continued to function until March 28, 1844, when it again fell by the wayside and passed into history.


In 1848 the Deputy General Grand High Priest gave a Dispensation to Union Chapter and Newark Chapter, both of Newark, and these were duly Warranted by the General Grand Chapter on September 12, 185o, but they found it impossible to maintain two Chapters in that city and on March 25, 1853, the members of Newark Chapter affiliated with Union Chapter.


Enterprise Chapter, of Jersey City, was granted a Dispensation in 1854 from the General Grand King, and the General Grand High Priest gave a Dispensation for Boudinot Chapter at Burlington in 1856, both of which were regularly Warranted by the General Grand Chapter on September 1I, 1856.


FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY z7 The three Chapters, Hiram, Enterprise and Boudinot, organised the present Grand Chapter of New Jersey in Burlington on December 30, 1856, and the Grand Officers were duly Installed in Jersey City on February 3, 1857, the three constituent Chapters being recorded as Nos. 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and on September 9, 1857, a Chapter was again Warranted for New Brunswick, to be known as Scott Chapter, No. 4.


The first Grand High Priest of this Grand Chapter was M.‑. E.‑. Companion William H. Doggett, a native of Virginia, who took up his abode in Jersey City, was exalted in Enterprise Chapter, No. z, in 1854, became its high Priest in 1856 and was re‑elected the following year. He later became the Grand Commander of the Knights Templar of the State of New Jersey. He died in Jersey City on April 25, 18go, at the age of seventy‑five, and was laid to rest with due Masonic ceremonies by his Brethren and Companions who deeply mourned his loss.


It was not until 1851 that Brearley Chapter, of Bridgeton, was resuscitated, and neither it nor Union Chapter, of Newark, took any part in the organisation of the Grand Chapter, but in 1859 both of these Chapters became affiliated with it, Brearley coming in as No. 6, and Union as No. 7. In the meantime ThreeTimes‑Three Chapter, No. 5, had been Constituted at Trenton on May 4, 1858. Another Chapter was Warranted for the town of Bergen, Bergen County, on September 7, 1859, to be known as Mount Vernon, No. 8, and Harmony Chapter, No. 9, of Newark, was Warranted at the same time.


Thus at the third Annual Convocation of the Grand Chapter of New Jersey, local dissensions had been healed and all the subordinate Chapters to the number of three times three agreed in peace, love and unity, the Grand Chapter of New Jersey to support, and through it to recognise the authority of the General Grand Chapter of the United States of America.


Three more Chapters were Warranted in 186o, Cataract City, No. io, of Paterson, Passaic County; Pentalpha, No. ii, of Hoboken, Bergen County; and Temple, No. 12, of Phillipsburg, Warren County. Those 12 Chapters had at that time a total membership of 419, or an average of 35 per Chapter.


The Civil War checked further development for a few years, but the Chapters in existence held their own as to membership until peace was once more declared. At the close of the year 1865 the Grand High Priest was able to report the Institution of two new Chapters, Wilson, No. 13, of Lambertville, Hunterdon County, and Delta, No. 14, at Keyport, Monmouth County.


A rapid increase in the number of Chapters and a still more rapid increase in membership marked the years immediately following the Civil War, so that when the Grand Chapter had reached its twenty‑first Annual Convocation there were 35 Chapters and 2384 Companions on record in the State, being about 23 per cent of the membership of the Blue Lodges.


A reaction to this post‑war activity followed, the membership declined, and it was not until 1891 that it had entirely recovered its former status numerically, with 36 Chapters and about 285o members, being about Zo per cent of the Masons on record in the State. The membership continued to increase from that 28 FREEMASONRY IN NEW JERSEY time until the World War at an average rate of 195 per annum, and during the four years of the War there were about isoo added to the Roll.


As in the wake of the Civil War, so in that of the World War, an abnormal increase in membership ensued, more than doubling itself in six years. Then the usual reaction set in and a recession of annual increases followed until 1929 when the figures went in the red, so that now the total membership is over 19,ooo with 5 8 active Chapters, showing an average of about 340 members per Chapter, and a Zo per cent relative proportion to the Blue Lodge membership as of forty years ago.


As has been already stated the Grand Chapter of New Jersey is and always has been independent of the Grand Lodge as a Masonic Body, but it is of course entirely dependent on it for its personnel both as to its members and its Officers, and the progress of the one is reflected in that of the other. Two of the living Past Grand High Priests are Past Grand Masters of the Grand Lodge: M.‑. W.‑. Richard C. Woodward and M .'. W .'. Frank C. Sayrs, and the present Grand King is also a Past Grand Master, M.'. W .'. Donald J. Sargent; while one of the Chapters perpetuates the name of another Past Grand Master, M . . W . . Joseph W. Scott, of New Brunswick, and one of the youngest of the Chapters is named in honour of a distinguished member of the Grand Lodge, R.‑. W.‑. Henry S. Haines, Grand Instructor for many years both in the Grand Lodge and in the Grand Chapter. Thus in recent years has the Grand Chapter of New Jersey found itself patronised and Officered by some of the distinguished Officers of the Grand Lodge, thereby helping to bring the two Bodies nearer to that bond of Masonic relationship which existed in the early days, when it was declared that " Pure Ancient Masonry consists of three Degrees and no more, viz :‑those of the Entered Apprentice, the Fellowcraft, and the Master Mason, including the Supreme Order of the HOLY ROYAL ARCH." FREEMASONRY IN NEW MEXICO T is impossible to know when or by whom Freemasonry was first introduced into that great region from which was formed the State of New Mexico. Although a sentence or two which appears in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Texas indicate that in 1841 certain unnamed Brethren Petitioned for a Dispensation to form Santa Fe Lodge, No. 15, presumably to be Instituted in that city, no further Records remain to show what disposition was made of that Petition. Nevertheless, William B. Pearson, Grand Secretary of Texas, has stated that a Charter was issued, and that it was afterwards revoked in 1844. Bro. Pearson cited no authorities, however. If the Santa Fe Lodge ever actually existed, it was doubtless connected with the ill‑starred Texas‑Santa Fe Expedition. In that case the fate of the expedition precluded the possibility of its ever having held Communications in Santa Fe. At that time Texas was a republic, and it claimed as its Territory a large part of what is now New Mexico, a claim which stood until the settlement of boundary disputes in 185o. Perhaps that fact explains why the first known attempt to plant Masonry in New Mexico is believed to have been made by Texas.


Fortunately, the next item regarding Masonry in New Mexico rests upon unimpeachable documentary evidence. When the United States declared war on Mexico in 1847, a majority of the troops sent to the region now known as New Mexico were recruited from Illinois and Missouri. It happened among them was John Ralls, colonel of the Third Regiment of Missouri Volunteers, and also at that time Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri. Discovering among his officers and men a number of Master Masons, Colonel Ralls decided to organise a Military Lodge, and for that purpose he issued a Dispensation for Missouri Military Lodge, No. 86. That was on June 12, 1847. Three days later the Lodge was Instituted at Independence, Missouri, then the northern end of the Santa Fe Trail. Then, on October 14 of that year, a Charter was granted.


The second Communication of the Lodge was held at Santa Fe. During the time that had elapsed between the date of its Institution and that second Communication its members had marched some goo miles. That second meeting, coming as it did after weeks of weary marching by its members, was probably the first regular Communication ever held in the vast territory which lies between the Missouri River and the Pacific Ocean, bounded by Canada on the north and Texas and Mexico on the south. To‑day that vast region is the home of thirteen Grand Lodges. A majority of the members of that early Lodge were army officers from Illinois and Missouri. The Minutes, kept in a book only five inches by seven inches in size and having fewer than loo pages, are now in the possession of the Grand Lodge of Missouri. The last meeting which they record 29 30 FREEMASONRY IN NEW MEXICO was held at Santa Cruz, in Mexico, On July 5, 1848, at a time when Colonel Ralls was serving as Worshipful Master. Inasmuch as the Third Regiment was mustered out after the signing of the Guadalupe‑Hidalgo Treaty on February 2 of that same year, it may be supposed that the Lodge ceased to exist at about the time of its last‑recorded Communication.


When Colonel Ralls with his regiment was ordered into Mexico, those Illinois members of Missouri Military Lodge, No. 86, who remained in Santa Fe with the first Regiment of Illinois Volunteers, secured from that Lodge permis sion to Petition for a Dispensation to form another Lodge, to be called Hardin Lodge, No. 87. Therefore, on October 9, 1847, Colonel Ralls issued the Dispensation, and nine days later the Lodge was Instituted on a Charter which described it as existing " for the transaction of business in Masonry, within the regiment of volunteers from the State of Illinois, known as the First Regiment." The duration of the Lodge was limited to the length of time that the regiment should serve. That meant not only that Lodge No. 87 was a Military Lodge, but that it was also a regimental Lodge, and that it was to exist for a limited period only. The entire history of American Masonry records few, if any, other instances of Lodges formed according to such specifications. Immediately after its organisation, Lodge No. 87 was very busy helping Lodge No. 86 " clean its trestleboard," and until its last Communication, which was held on August 14, 1848, it carried on its Work both vigorously and wisely. H. P. Boyakin, first Worshipful Master of Lodge No. 87, was lieutenant‑colonel of his regiment. Among the Lodge's membership were also many other men prominent in military affairs, and yet others who remained in the West to take a leading part in the affairs of the new American Territory. From the latter, seven afterwards demitted to Montezuma Lodge, the first permanent Masonic Lodge in New Mexico.


For three years after the signing of the Guadalupe‑Hidalgo Treaty, which constituted New Mexico a Territory of the United States, no Lodge was formed to carry on the Work of Lodge No. 86 and of Lodge No. 87. The Grand Lodge of New Mexico, however, possesses the original Petition for a Dispensation addressed to the Grand Lodge of Maryland. Although it bears no date, it was probably written about the year 1850. Whether it was ever actually transmitted, and if so, what disposition was made of it, there is no way of discovering. The same may be said of another Petition, also in the possession of the Grand Lodge, addressed to the Grand Lodge of Missouri and signed by thirteen Master Masons. It also is undated and may possibly never have been transmitted. Nevertheless both those documents prove that during the three‑year interim Masons were living in Santa Fe, and that they were interested in Masonic affairs, even though they had no Lodge.


Fortunately, a third effort to establish a Lodge in New Mexico Territory was more successful, for on May 8, 1851, the Grand Lodge of Missouri granted a Charter for a Lodge to be held at Santa Fe, and to be called Montezuma Lodge, No. 1o9. Instituted on the following August 22, it was a success from the beginning. Into its membership came such nationally known leaders as " Kit " FREEMASONRY IN NEW MEXICO 31 Carson, Ceran St. Vrain, Lafayette Head, many judges and other public officials, merchants, army officers, and prominent miners and ranchers. The conditions under which the Lodge Laboured were rough and hazardous. For example, its first junior Warden, Robert T. Brent, was killed by Apache Indians on the dreaded Journado del Muerto within four months after taking Office, and was buried by the Lodge on December 2.2., 1851. But in a certain sense those conditions told in favour of the Lodge. Only a scattering of Americans were living in Santa Fe at the time, and among them were very few women. Consequently almost no social life was possible, except such as was furnished by saloons, brothels, and gambling houses, places of amusement to which those early Americans were less addicted than is usually supposed. There was not even a cemetery for the burying of the Protestant dead, and there were almost no church facilities for them at all. The Lodge, therefore, satisfied many needs, serving not only in its usual capacity, but also as a social centre, a church, and a club, all in one. Among its first acts, carried out in conjunction with a Lodge of Odd Fellows, was the establishment of a cemetery. For nine such years Montezuma Lodge was the only Lodge in the Territory, almost the only Lodge within a radius of a thousand miles. But it buried its roots deep, was well organised, generous, and free from dissension. Afterwards, and for a decade or more, it remained a kind of Mother Lodge which performed the unofficial functions of a Grand Lodge and otherwise fostered Freemasonry in a land where nothing was more difficult to carry on or more needed. When other Lodges arose, it assisted them, notably in the cases of Chapman Lodge, No. 95, and Aztec Lodge, No. io8. Likewise, when the proper time arrived, it took the lead in forming a Grand Jurisdiction.


Before describing the formation of the Grand Lodge, it is necessary to sketch rapidly the formation of a few other Lodges. First in order was a Lodge organised at Taos, that tripartite frontier settlement of Indians, Spanish‑Americans, and North Americans, which even yet retains the picturesque character of frontier days. Ten Master Masons, among whom were " Kit " Carson and Ceran St. Vrain, Petitioned for a Dispensation. On November 16, 1859, the Dispensation was issued by Judge Joab Houghton, then Deputy Grand Master for what was then the Twenty‑fifth District of Missouri. Then, on the following June i, the Charter was granted by the Grand Lodge of Missouri, and the new Lodge became known as Bent Lodge, No. 2.04. Despite the fact that Dr. David Waldo, a man famous in the history of the Santa Fe Trail, deeded a lot to the Lodge, and although other friends and members worked heroically for the Lodge's welfare, it was confronted by too many handicaps. During its first four years it conferred Degrees on only four candidates, and then, on November 9, 1864, it finally surrendered its Charter and regalia to the District Deputy, Bro. R. Frank Green. The Light thus extinguished was, however, rekindled long afterwards, when on October 2.o, 19o9, the Grand Lodge of New Mexico organised a new Lodge at Taos under the name of Bent Lodge, No. 42..


On June 2.o, 1862., the Grand Lodge of Missouri issued a Dispensation for 32 FREEMASONRY IN NEW MEXICO Chapman Lodge, No. 95, to be held at Fort Union, an army outpost. A Charter did not follow, however, until June 2, 1866. Then, on September 12, 1867, Grand Master John D. Vincil permitted the Lodge to be removed to Las Vegas, where it has since remained. The following year it constructed its first temple, an adobe building, at a cost of $2,5oo, $Zoo of which was lent by Montezuma Lodge, No. log. Chapman Lodge is now Lodge No. 2.


Aztec Lodge, at Las Cruces, received its Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Missouri on June 4, 1866, and its Charter on October 1g, 1867. It is now Aztec Lodge, No. 3. " Kit " Carson Lodge, No. 326, of Elizabethtown, at the time of the Lodge's establishment, a mere mushroom mining village, received a Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Missouri on August 1o, 1869, and its Charter on October 12, 1869. But when the mining boom collapsed, it succumbed to the inevitable and in 1878 M.‑.W.'. Thomas C. Ready, Grand Master, arrested its now useless Charter.


Silver City Lodge, No. 465, received its Dispensation on May 1, 1873, and its Charter on October 17 of the same year. Though it withheld from all participation in the formation of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico in 1877, it did later unite with that Grand Lodge in 1882 and is now Silver City Lodge, No. 8. Union Lodge, No. 480, which was organised first at La junta, then removed first to Tiptonville, and later to Watrous, and is now located at Wagon Mound, received its Dispensation On May 3, 1874, and its Charter on October 15, 1874. It is now Union Lodge, No. 4. Cimarron Lodge, No. 348, of Cimarron, the last Lodge to be formed before the organisation of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, was Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Missouri October 14, 1875, but surrendered its Charter in 1879. It was revived, however, by the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, on October Zo, 19o8, and is now known as Cimarron Lodge, No. 37.


As has been stated, every Lodge thus far mentioned, excepting only Santa Fe Lodge No. 15, was Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Missouri. Consequently, that Grand Lodge is entitled to be called the Mother of New Mexico Masonry. As every reader of history may suspect, this did not just happen to be the case. From early in the century until the railways had crossed the Rocky Mountains, St. Louis and its adjacent towns were the head of the Santa Fe Trail, the point from which all trade set out for New Mexico and to which it returned. St. Louis was the financial capital for the sparsely settled region to the westward, the place where commerce with it was planned and managed. Like every other contribution from the East, Masonry, too, reached New Mexico through St. Louis.


For two years after Mexico had surrendered all rights to the region, a part of which came to form New Mexico, that vast Territory belonged to the United States though it had not yet been legally organised as a Territory. The interior government, half military and half civil, was rife with disorder. Occasionally it was even bloody because of serious Indian and native Spanish uprisings, but shortly after 1850, the year in which a complete Territorial civil government was formed, conditions began to improve. Destined to endure, with a varying but FREEMASONRY IN NEW MEXICO 33 fairly satisfactory fortune, conditions in New Mexico grew rapidly better. More Americans came into the Territory, and among them was an increasing number of Masons By 1875 the Grand Lodge of Missouri had Chartered eight Lodges there, exclusive of Lodge No. 86 and Lodge No. 87. Of those, six showed signs of permanence, and forward‑looking Masons, especially the leaders of Montezuma Lodge, No. 1og, began to pave the way for a Grand Lodge of their own.


Montezuma Lodge, No. iog, had already made several attempts to call a Convention, but its efforts were not successful until 1877, when four other of the six active Lodges in New Mexico agreed to participate. The four Lodges willing to hold the Convention were Montezuma Lodge, No. 1og, Chapman Lodge, No. 95, Aztec Lodge, No. 1o8, and Union Lodge, No. 48o. Unfortunately, though, Delegates from Union Lodge, No. 48o, were not able to attend. Nevertheless, the Convention was held at Santa Fe, from August 6 to August 1o, 1877, with eight Delegates present at the opening session. Simon B. Newcomb, of Aztec Lodge, No. 1o8, was elected President, and Augustus Z. Huggins, of Montezuma Lodge, No. 1og, Secretary. A Committee of three, with Bro. Huggins acting as Chairman, drew up a Constitution and By‑Laws and designed a seal. With some amendments, all were adopted on the evening of August 7. The following Grand Officers were elected: William W. Griffin, Worshipful Master of Montezuma Lodge, being chosen Grand Master, and the afterwards‑famous David J. Miller, attending as a visiting Brother from Montezuma Lodge, being elected Grand Secretary. That same evening Grand Officers were installed, with Samuel B. Axtell, of an Ohio Lodge, acting as Master of Ceremonies. Then, on August g, after a great deal of discussion, a standard Work was adopted. That night a Third Degree was conferred in ample form upon Frederick F. Whitehead, of Montezuma Lodge. The following day a Committee on Foreign Correspondence, a Committee on Ways and Means, and a Committee on Charity were appointed, and that same night Max Frost, destined to a long career in New Mexico, was raised to the Sublime Degree. On the next day the infant Grand Lodge adjourned after setting the first Monday of the following January as the time for its first Annual Communication, to be held at Santa Fe.


In view of all the circumstances the Constitution that was there adopted was a remarkably able document. It gave the title of the new Body as " The Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of New Mexico." It provided for a Grand Lecturer, for District Deputy Grand Masters, and for ten Committees. In every other respect it was also complete. It made especially ample and farsighted provision for the future growth of the Grand Jurisdiction. The philosophically minded student of Craft history may easily see in that Constitution the advantage a recently established Grand Lodge has over the older ones. It can build on foundations that have already been tested, it does not need to waste its own time and energy groping in the dark or making costly experiments. In date and personnel the Grand Lodge of New Mexico was new. In its use of funded wisdom and crystallised experience it was as old as the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts or of Pennsylvania.


34 FREEMASONRY IN NEW MEXICO The first Annual Communication was not held at Santa Fe until January 6, 1879. At that time Grand Master William W. Griffin was able to report that eighteen other Grand Lodges, including that of Missouri, had officially granted Fraternal recognition, and that he had granted new Charters to the four member Lodges. The only trouble he had to report was that the Grand Lodge of Missouri, which, despite the fact that it had recognised the sovereignty of the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, had still continued its own functions in the jurisdiction. It had arrested the Charter of " Kit Carson " Lodge, and had appropriated that Lodge's properties. It had continued the Charters and collected dues from Silver City Lodge and from Cimarron Lodge, neither of which had yet joined the new Grand Lodge. The Grand Master reminded his hearers that ' ` Americans and resident Europeans " constituted " not more than ten to fifteen per cent of the entire population," that only during the year had the railway " crossed our border on the north," through the Raton Pass. While he refused to paint a pleasant picture of the future, he bade all to be of good cheer.


At the First Communication the Grand Treasurer also reported that he had received a sum of $368, all of which he had disbursed. In those early years the Grand Lodge was more than once obliged to resort to private subscriptions to replenish its treasury, and even to‑day‑though sojourning sufferers from tuberculosis seem to overlook the fact‑it is far from affluent. The Committee on Foreign Correspondence submitted a full report in writing, the four subordinate Lodges reported a total membership of 169 Master Masons, and the Proceedings of the First Grand Communication‑remarkably complete‑were ordered to be printed. Thus, at the end of its first sixteen months, the new Grand Lodge found itself making normal headway. Since then nothing has occurred to disappoint the early hopes of its members. In due time Silver City Lodge and Cimarron Lodge joined the rolls, other new Lodges were added as conditions warranted, and that which began as a family of four Lodges, having 169 members, is now a healthy Grand Jurisdiction of 57 Lodges, having a total membership of over 7000.


The Grand Lodge of New Mexico was fortunate in its early Grand Masters. The first, William W. Griffin, served for two years, and was succeeded by a line of men, among whom were persons well known in New Mexico affairs, such as William L. Rynerson, Simon B. Newcomb and Henry L. Waldo. The Grand Lodge was especially fortunate in its first Grand Secretary, David J. Miller, who for seven years served that Office with true frontier vigour and dash. A selfdrawn portrait of the man appears in a diary which he kept on a three months' hazardous trip he made in 1854, when he journeyed from Austin, Texas, to Santa Fe. That diary reveals Miller as having been a bold, courageous, inventive, manly, and unselfish person. When he passed away at St. Louis, Missouri, on December z3, 1887, he was buried in the Masonic burial lot in Bellefontaine Cemetery by the Grand Lodge of Missouri, with Grand Lodge honours. He was succeeded in Office by Alpheus A. Keen, who has served continuously ever since. Alpheus Augustus Keen was born in Pomeroy, Ohio, in 1855. Two years FREEMASONRY IN NEW MEXICO 35 afterwards his parents returned to New England, where, after attending the public schools, he graduated from the Highland Military Academy, of Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1876. In 1878 he removed to Chicago, and thence to Las Vegas, New Mexico, October 18, 1879, then the terminus of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Co., building from La Junta, Colorado, to El Paso, Texas. There, during the following year, he became connected with the First National Bank. In 189o he removed to Albuquerque to become cashier of the First National Bank. He has resided there ever since. Bro. Keen was initiated in Chapman Lodge, No. 2, of Las Vegas, on December 29, 1881, passed on January 26, 1882, raised to the Sublime Degree of Master Mason on February 16, 1882, and is still a member of that Lodge. On November i9, 1884, he succeeded David J. Miller as Grand Secretary. He has filled the Office continually ever since. In point of continuous service Bro. Keen is second only after Bro. Fay Hempstead of Arkansas (who has since died), dean of all living Grand Secretaries of America and probably of the world. He has been Grand Secretary of the Grand Chapter since its organisation on October 3, 1898, and Grand Recorder of the Grand Commandery since October 23, 1902. He was constituted a noble of the Ancient Arabic Order, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, in Ballut Abyad Temple, Albuquerque, on June 8, 1892. On November 1o, 19io, he received the Thirtysecond Degree of Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite Masonry in New Mexico Consistory, No. i, of Santa Fe. On October Zo, 1915, he was Knight Commander of the Court of Honour, Southern jurisdiction, and on October 19, 1917, he was crowned as Honorary Inspector General of the Thirty‑third Degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite Masons, Southern jurisdiction, at Washington, District of Columbia.


Better known, and equally devoted to the Craft, was Christopher Carson, or " Kit " Carson as he was usually known. This remarkable man, as modest as he was heroic, and always a gentleman, was born in what is now Madison County, Kentucky, on December 24, 18o9. After being apprenticed as a lad to a saddler at Franklin, Missouri, he ran away, went West, and afterwards became the West's most famous trapper, scout, trader, Indian fighter, and soldier. He was initiated into Montezuma Lodge on March 29, 1854, passed on June 17, 1854, and raised to the Sublime Degree of Master Mason on December 26, 1854. On April 30, 186o, he demitted to help form Bent Lodge at Taos. His application, written in his own scrawly hand, and his apron, are now in the possession of the Grand Lodge, and one of his rifles is owned by Montezuma Lodge, No. 1. Becoming Junior Warden, Bro. Carson worked constantly for that Lodge. Later, after the surrender of its Charter, he reaffiliated himself with Montezuma Lodge. Bro. Carson died at Fort Lyon, Colorado, on May 23, 1868, but his body was removed to Taos, where the Grand Lodge with Masonic ceremony erected a monument and placed an iron fence about his grave. Later his old home at Taos was purchased by the Grand Lodge, which cared for it until 1914 when it was turned over to the present Bent Lodge, which still holds it.


Bracketed in Southwestern fame with the name of " Kit " Carson is the 3 6 FREEMASONRY IN NEW MEXICO name of the martyred Territorial governor, Charles Bent. A native of Virginia, a graduate of West Point, Charles Bent early came to Colorado with his brother William. There, in 182‑8, he built Bent's Fort, the largest and most noted furtrading post in the whole Rocky Mountain region. Later the brothers established a store in Santa Fe. It was then that Charles entered into a partnership with Ceran St. Vrain. A man who combined far‑sweeping imagination with great executive ability, Charles Bent was literally one of the architects of the Southwest. It was fitting, then, that he should be selected as the first civil governor of the region after General Kearny took possession of it for the United States in 1846. But Bent's tenure of office was both brief and tragic. During the uprisings of 1847 he was assassinated in his home at Taos by a mob of Indians and natives. Bent, a Charter Member of Missouri Lodge, No. 1, of St. Louis, became one of the earliest Masonic leaders in New Mexico.


Many other men famous for their pioneering work were in one way or another connected with the Craft in New Mexico. There was Ceran St. Vrain, Bent's partner, a trader on a grand scale, an Indian fighter, hero of two wars, who was raised in Montezuma Lodge in 1855. And there was John W. Poe, Grand Master in 1897, a brave man who had been brought from Texas to crush a gang of desperadoes who operated in Lincoln County under the leadership of Billy the Kid. There was also Stephen B. Elkins, who later became a wellknown United States senator, whose life was saved in Missouri by G.H.S., and who lived for a time in Santa Fe, where he was an active Mason. General Lew Wallace, who finished writing his famous novel, Ben Hur, in the Governor's Palace at Santa Fe during his term as Territorial governor, was reputed to be an Indiana Mason. There were scores of others besides‑heroes, wealthy cattle men, Indian fighters, soldiers, and scouts. Perhaps no other Grand Jurisdiction in America has ever numbered among its members so picturesque a procession. Already half legendary, many of them await their proper places in the epic account of their fortunes which remains to be written.


In its institutional activities, the Grand Lodge of New Mexico has followed the familiar pattern. During its early years it maintained headquarters at Santa Fe, but afterwards removed them to Albuquerque, the State's metrop olis, where they were more centrally located and so more accessible to a great number of member Lodges. For a time it planned a building of its own, and Temple Lodge, No. 6, of Albuquerque, offered to donate a plot of ground on which to erect it, but lack of funds made the following of that plan impossible. In 1911, however, Temple Lodge erected a spacious temple of its own, in which were set aside appropriate quarters for the Grand Lodge's use. These it has occupied continuously ever since. The only Lodge outside the State to be Chartered by the Grand Lodge of New Mexico was White Mountain Lodge, No. 5, at Globe, Arizona, on January 18, 1881. The following year, however, it united with the Grand Lodge of Arizona.


Efforts to establish a Masonic Home in New Mexico were begun early. In i89o io per cent of the per capita tax was ordered converted into a Masonic FREEMASONRY IN NEW MEXICO 37 Home Fund with a view to raising an eventual total of $i2o,ooo. At present a sum of $114,ooo has been raised, but whether that sum will go into a building or will take the form of some permanent plan for administering outside relief is as yet undecided. Emergency relief is managed by a Committee on Masonic Relief which consists of the Grand Master, the Grand Treasurer, and the Grand Secretary, who have the use of a sum amounting to 50 cents per capita.


New Mexico Masons are by tradition open‑handedly generous. As early as 1867, the members of Montezuma Lodge contributed a sum of $965 to war sufferers among Brethren in the South, that having been the largest amount sent from any State or Territory. Of late years, however, they have found both their funds and their ingenuity taxed to the utmost to meet the claims being made upon them by sojourners coming into the State to seek relief from pulmonary affections, especially tuberculosis. New Mexico does all it can for those sufferers. The Grand Lodge annually contributes a large fund to the Sojourners' Club (United States Veterans' Hospital, No. 55), at Fort Bayard, and to the Trowel Club (The United States Marine Hospital, No. 9) at Fort Stanton, while the subordinate Lodges exhaust their resources for unfortunates who come into their respective communities. All the usual efforts are also made, with the usual high average of failures, to interest Lodges outside the State in their members who have become stranded in New Mexico, but to date all the assistance thus enlisted has not been enough. Sooner or later a better method of meeting the emergency must be found. The Grand Lodge did its full share in forming the National Masonic Tuberculosis Sanataria Association which was chartered in 1925, and it created a fund to cover its contribution by assessing one dollar per capita. A majority of the Grand Lodges elsewhere refused their support, however, and at present the plans of the Association remain in abeyance.


In 1923 the Grand Lodge created a Revolving Student Loan Fund, by appropriation and later covered by an assessment of fifty cents per capita, to make loans to " worthy students to complete their education in our State educational institutions." The first levy brought the sum of $3276 into the fund. Now this sum has grown to well in excess of $16,ooo.


In 1915 the Grand Lodge became a member of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial Association. By the end of 1930 it had paid towards its share in meeting the expenses of erecting the Temple the sum of $6453 Payments from other Masonic sources in New Mexico had brought the grand total for the State to $7762.


The history of the Concordant Orders in New Mexico shows a steady and normal development. The first Royal Arch Chapter, Santa Fe Chapter, No. 1, was Instituted on December 11, 1865. Following it came Silver City Chapter No. 2, Instituted on February 22, 1876; Las Vegas Chapter, No. 3, Instituted on March io, 1881; Rio Grande Chapter, No. 4, of Albuquerque, Instituted on January 12, 1882; Deming Chapter, No. 5, Instituted on February 28, 1885; and so on. The Grand Chapter was organised on October 3, 1898. At present it 38 FREEMASONRY IN NEW MEXICO numbers 15 Chapters and has a total membership of 1968. Knight Templarism followed a similar course, its Grand Commandery having been organised on August 21, 19o1. There are now 14 Commanderies within the State. These have a total membership of 1337 Scottish Rite Masonry began with the organisation of the Santa Fe Lodge of Perfection, No. 1, founded on February 1, 1883. It was followed by the Atzlan Chapter of Rose Croix, No. i, which dates from February 17, i9o8. The Coronado Council of Kadosh, No. 1, and the New Mexico Consistory, No. 1, were both formed on December 21, i9o8. The father of the New Mexico Scottish Rite was Harper S. Cunningham, an active member of the Supreme Council of the Southern jurisdiction, the only Inspector‑General the jurisdiction has ever had. The monumental temple at Santa Fe, the Alhambra‑like design of which is so appropriate to its setting, was his dream. It was made possible by his energy. Although he did not live to see it completed, it was finished under the leadership of his Deputy, Richard H. Hanna. What he had hoped for it came to pass, and, fittingly enough, his remains rest within the building.


The Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine began with the formation of Ballut Abyad Temple, at Albuquerque, on June 11, 1887. Ever since it has flourished, and to‑day it has 1919 members.


The Order of the Eastern Star began with the formation of Queen Esther Chapter, No. 1, at Raton, on April 11, 19o2. There are now 48 Chapters having a total membership of 5518.


In history, population, and geography, the State of New Mexico is in many respects unique among its sister States. Indeed, upon first entering the State, tourists and travellers from the East and the Middle West often feel that they are coming into a foreign land. There one finds a mingling of the sharp contrasts of the old and the new. White men entered the region sixty‑nine years before the Pilgrims set foot upon Plymouth Rock. Relics and customs of those early days exist side by side with airplanes and radios and modern ways. The State's population is bi‑lingual, and is divided among English‑speaking people, or " Anglos," Spanish‑speaking Americans or " natives," and Indians. Of the last named, some So,ooo to 6o,ooo who live within the State's boundaries occupy reservations covering about one‑fourth of the State's area. While they have been superficially recast to fit the mould of white civilisation, they remain essentially the same primitive people they were two thousand years ago. Tourists may leave the California Limited at Albuquerque to witness at Isleta, at San Domingo, or at San Felipe, within the hour, ceremonial dances which were already ancient when Cxsar crossed the Rubicon. Geographically, the State is a vast plateau, subsiding by easy stages to the level of Texas, broken by scattered and still wild ranges of the Rocky Mountains. Except for a few areas where sufficient rain sometimes falls, the desert lands are unarable except along the tiny rivers. Because of these conditions towns are small, few in number, and widely scattered. Most of them are mere hamlets consisting of flat‑roofed adobe houses. The State has existed under three governments‑Spanish, Mexi‑ FREEMASONRY IN NEW MEXICO 39 can, and American. Its history has been checkered throughout with every possible variety of frontier event and surprise, and to‑day the influence of the ancient Spanish culture, of which the Catholic Church is the principal embodiment, continues to dominate the lives of a majority of its people. It is against such a background and working on such a terrain, that New Mexico Masonry must be envisioned and judged. Those who are most familiar with both the Craft and the country know beyond all cavil that what Masonry has accomplished there, against many handicaps and under difficult conditions, is not the least of the trophies of Freemasonry's age‑long genius for tolerance, charity, and brotherliness.


FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK OSSIAN LANG EARLIEST LODGES AND PROVINCIAL GRAND LODGE HE membership of the first Provincial Grand Lodge of New York was made up almost exclusively of landed gentry and social leaders of the period. The Lodge was aristocratic. It chiefly served as a centre of union for the men who felt responsible for the course of affairs in the Province of New York. Political discussions and all reference to denominational religious matters were rigidly excluded. In itself that was a comfort at a time and in situations when men's convictions were constantly put to test. Since gentlemen met gentlemen there, the character of the Lodge was a guarantee that no violation of the moral code would be tolerated. Meeting as Brother with Brother, forgetting the dividing lines drawn by the code of etiquette peculiar to Colonial society, they could give free rein to their desire for enjoyment. They drank toasts‑many of them. They sang, and the songs had zest. They listened to addresses on subjects interesting to men of culture. The atmosphere of the Lodge was conducive to both seriousness and light‑heartedness. Having once assented to the obligations imposed by the Lodge, those no longer represented a weight. Rather, they were merely a mutual voucher of decency so that all members could be boys again, as real men will be when thev gather together as Brothers.


The first Deputation of Provincial Grand Master for any part of the world was issued on June S, I73o, by the Duke of Norfolk, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England, to Colonel Daniel Coxe for the Provinces of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The reason for the appointment given by the Duke was that " application has been made to us by our Rt. Worshipful and well beloved Brother, Daniel Coxe, of New Jersey, Esq., and by several of our brethren, free and accepted Masons, residing and about to reside in the said Provinces New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania that we would be pleased to nominate and appoint a Provincial Grand Master of the said Provinces." Colonel Coxe was an active, public‑spirited, and constructive leader in the affairs of the Colonies. He was the first to outline and propose a statesmanlike plan for the " Union of the British Colonies on the Continent of North Amer40 1l~ ~‑a < 0‑4,0 '2. ,2. o Page from a Receipt Book of the Grand Treasurer, Showing the Signature of John Jacob Astor, 1798.


In the collection of the Grand Lodge Museum, F. & A. M., New York.


Badge Worn at the Dinner Given by the Grand Lodge, Washington Hall, New York, September 2.o, 182.4, in Honour of the Distinguished Brother, General La Fayette.


In the collection of the Grand Lodge Museum, F. & A. M., New York.


FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK 41 ica," a plan which was revived half a century later, adapted to new conditions, and utilized by Benjamin Franklin in marking out the groundwork of the Constitution of the United States. Among Colonel Coxe's descendants were several who contributed noteworthy service to America. What Coxe himself did for Freemasonry, if anything, is yet to be determined, since only a beginning has thus far been made in carrying out necessary research.


Tantalising clues intimate that a Masonic Lodge was at work in New York as early as 1731, but tangible evidence of this is wanting. In those days, as is well known, Boston, New York, and Philadelphia were the chief North Ameri can seaports and trade centres. Anything that stirred gossip in Old London Town was sure to interest them. Masonic doings received frequent mention in the news prints of those days over there, and even catchpenny exposures of the " secrets " of Freemasons had been put on the market as early as 1730. References to Masonry appeared in the news prints of New York from 1733 onward, perhaps even from an earlier date.


Until Daniel McGregor, historian of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, started on his untiring search for evidences of American Freemasonry in the early days, and until he produced unimpeachable evidence in 1931 which showed that an active Lodge met regularly in New York City at the Black Horse Tavern, the soothing assumption had been fostered that search for signs of organised Freemasonry in New York of the earlier 173o's was a waste of time. In the New York Weekly Journal of January 24, 1737 (1738), Bro. McGregor found a news item saying that David Provoost, merchant, popularly known as " Readymoney Provoost," " being about to Depart this Province, at a Lodge held that evening, January 1g, 1737, desired leave to resign his Office " as Master of the Lodge, and that Captain Mathew Norris, Esquire, son of Sir John Norris, admiral of the British fleet, had been elected in his place. What the name of the Lodge was, when it was Constituted, and whether or not it was Warranted by Colonel Coxe, are questions not yet answered. A " letter to the editor " printed in the New York Gazette of November 26, 1737, warns the public that a dangerous " new and unusual sect of society " of Freemasons " at last has extended to these parts " and meets behind closed doors, with " a Guard at the Outside to prevent any approach near to hear or see what they are doing." The second Provincial Grand Master of New York was Captain Richard Riggs, commander of the Fusileers at Fort George on the Battery. While visiting London in 1737, he received his Deputation from the Earl of Darnley, Grand Master of England. He returned to New York on May 1g, 1738. Four months later the New York Gazette announced that " the members of the Lodge are desired to meet at four o'clock in the afternoon " on Wednesday, September 22, at the Black Horse Tavern. Here again the Lodge at the Black Horse Tavern is referred to. No other Lodge being mentioned, a reasonable inference is that there was none other in the town at that time. Captain Riggs died at New York in 1773.


The third Provincial Grand Master was Francis Goelet, appointed in 1751 42 FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK by Lord Byron, Grand Master of England. The celebration of the Festival of St. John the Baptist, in 1753, was reported in a local newspaper as shown below. At that " elegant Entertainment " the Brethren drank " his Majesty's health " and other loyal toasts " The Ancient and Right Worshipful Society of FREE and accepted MASONS of this City assembled at the Spring Garden, and being properly cloathed made a regular Procession in due Form to the King's Arms Tavern in Broad Street, near the Long Bridge, where an elegant Entertainment was provided." About the zeal of George Harison, the next Grand Master, there is abundant evidence. He established at least seventeen new Lodges during his eighteen years of service (1753‑7I), and most of them have survived to this day. His Deputation was dated June 9, 1753, but doubtless owing to delay in its transmission from London it was not received in New York till some time in October. An announcement in the New York Mercury " by order of the Grand Master," endorsed by " H. Gaine, Secretary," asked the members of the Provincial Grand Lodge of the Free and Accepted Masons in New York to meet at the King's Tavern on Wednesday, December 19, 1753.


Harison's Installation took place on St. John the Evangelist's Day. The following interesting account of the event appeared in the Mercury. The editorial " Query " was doubtless intended to confound the detractors of the Craft and to appease public opinion.


On Thursday last at a Grand Lodge of the Ancient and Worshipful Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons, a Commission from the Honourable John Proby, Baron of Craysfort, in the Kingdom of Ireland, Grand Master of England, appointing George Harison, Esquire, to be Provincial Grand Master, was solemnly published, we hear, to the universal satisfaction of all the brethren present after which, it being the festival of St. John the Evangelist, service at Trinity Church. The order to which they proceeded was as follows: First walked the Sword Bearer, carrying a drawn sword; then four stewards with White Maces, followed by the Treasurer and Secretary, who bore each a crimson damask cushion, on which lay a gilt Bible, and the Book of Constitution; after these came the Grand Wardens and Wardens; then came the Grand Master himself, bearing a trunchion and other badges of his office, followed by the rest of the brotherhood, according to their respective ranks‑Masters, Fellow Crafts and 'Prentices, to about the number of Fifty, all clothed with their jewels, aprons, white gloves and stockings. The whole ceremony was conducted with utmost decorum, under a discharge of guns from some vessels in the harbour, and made a genteel appearance. We hear they afterwards conferred a generous donation of fifteen pounds from the public stock of the Society to be expended in clothing for the poor children belonging to our charity school; and made a handsome private contribution for the relief of indigent prisoners. In the evening, by the particular request of the brethren, a comedy, called " The Conscious Lovers, was presented in the Theatre in Nassau Street to a very crowded audience. Several pieces of vocal music, in praise of the Fraternity, were performed between the acts. An epilogue suitable to the occasion was pronounced by FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK 43 Mrs. Hallam, with all grace of gesture, and propriety of execution, and met with universal and loud applause.


Query: Whether the performance of public and private acts of beneficence, such as feeding the hungry and clothing the naked, be most correspondent to the Genius of Christianity, or to the Institution of the Prince of Darkness? From this time on notices of individual Lodges began to increase. The Mercury of December 23, 1758, announced a celebration of the Festival of St. John to be held by Temple Lodge at Fountain Tavern. Nine years later the same paper mentioned a like celebration planned by " the brethren composing St. John's, Trinity, Union, and King Solomon's Lodges." We read that on January 2, 1768, the festival was celebrated at Trinity Church by several other Lodges, among them Hiram Lodge which on that occasion " contributed alone one hundred pounds " for poor relief.


Harison was for many years surveyor of the Port of New York. Later he held the position of city recorder. When revolutionary activities got under way in 1765, he was marked " loyal " on the roster of an exclusive social club that rated Robert R. Livingston as " disaffected." Harison died in May 1773, and was thus spared the trials of the War for Independence. Harrison Street in the lower part of the present Borough of Manhattan was named after him.


The following Lodges are known to have been Constituted by George Harison St. John's No. 2 (now No. 1). New York, December 7, 1757. Temple. New York, 1758 or earlier.


La Parfaite Union (French Lodge). New York, November 1, 1760.


Jean Baptiste Rieux was the first Master of this Lodge. He was named as such in the Warrant granted by Harison.


St. John's Independent Royal Arch No. 8 (now Independent Royal Arch No. 2). New York, December 15, 176o.


This Lodge may be even older. It was reconstituted on May 13, 1761. St. John's No. 1 (now No. 1 Grand Lodge of New Jersey). Newark, New Jersey.


St. John's No. 1. Fairfield, Connecticut, 1762. Zion No. i. Detroit, Michigan, April 24, 1764.


This Lodge wrote to the Grand Lodge of New York in 1816, saying that " owing to the late war " [1812‑14.1, in which Detroit surrendered, the Lodge had been " obliged to suspend its labours for so long a time as thereby to forfeit its Charter." It asked for a renewal and that was granted on March 6, 1816.


Union No. i (now Mount Vernon No. 3). Albany, February 2, 1765. This Lodge sprang from a military Lodge warranted by the Grand Lodge of Ireland in 1737 to Brethren of a regiment which was located at Albany from 1754 till 1758. It continued under copy of that Warrant until it was reconstituted by George Harison.


44 FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK St. John's No. i (now No. 6 Grand Lodge of Connecticut). Norwalk, Connecticut, May 23, 1765.


St. John's No. 1 (now No. 8 Grand Lodge of Connecticut). Stratford, Connecticut, April 22, 1766.


St. Patrick's No. 8 (now No. 4). Johnstown, May 23, 1766. Trinity. New York, 1767 or earlier.


This Lodge may have been established even before Harison's time. Its Charter was renewed by him.


Union. New York, 1767.


King Solomon's. New York, 1767.


Master's No. 2 (now No. 5). Albany, March 5, 1768. King David's. New York, February 17, 1769.


This Lodge was later located in Rhode Island. Hiram. New York, 1769 or earlier.


Solomon's No. i. Poughkeepsie, April 18, 1771.


This Lodge was constituted and its officers installed by Chancellor Livingston, Master of Union Lodge, New York City, 'as a personal representative of Harison.


The writer is indebted to Grand Secretary Henry C. Shellard, of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, for a photostat from the Records of that Grand Lodge which shows that on July 7, 1763, a Lodge, No. 399, was Constituted in New York City under a Warrant issued by the Grand Lodge of Ireland to " Jeremiah Van Renselaer, James Mullin, and Thomas Clark," to be respectively Master, Senior Warden and Junior Warden. Having made no Return for a number of years, this Lodge was struck from the Roll on October 7, 1813. Since the Grand Lodge of Ireland at that time entertained fraternal relations with the Ancient Grand Lodge of England and not with the premier body, and since the Grand Lodges of England, Scotland, and Ireland exercised joint Masonic jurisdiction in the colonies of Great Britain by common consent, the Constitution of Lodge No. 399 was justified and regular in every way.


Sir John Johnson, son of Sir William Johnson, distinguished diplomat and friend of the American Indians, was Harison's successor in Office. His Deputation by Lord Blaney was dated 1767, but he was not Installed until 1771. St.


George Lodge, No. 1 (now No. 6), of Schenectady, Constituted on September 14, 1774, appears to have been the only Lodge Warranted by him. Sir John was a Tory of the Tories. He went to Canada when the War for Independence began, and for some reason or other he took the Provincial Warrant with him. Before departing he appointed Dr. Peter Middleton as his Deputy.


Dr. Middleton was a son‑in‑law of Governor Cadwallader Colden and thus related to George Harison, whose Grand Warden he was in 1766 and as whose Deputy he later acted. It was he who Warranted St. John's Regimental, No. 1, a Lodge composed of Brethren in the Colonial army. In 1776 he re‑Warranted American Union Lodge, Constituted shortly before by Massachusetts while its members were in camp at Roxbury, Massachusetts, and before they were trans‑ FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK 45 ferred to New York. Deputy Grand Master Middleton changed the name of this Lodge to Military Union. It was the leading fraternal Organisation in the Colonial army and had a stirring history. In 1791 the later Grand Lodge of the State of New York received a letter from Marietta, then only a frontier settlement in that part of the Northwest Territory later known as Ohio, conveying the information that a number of Brethren had incorporated themselves into a Lodge under the Warrant of American Union Lodge, No. I.


The departure of Sir John Johnson with the Provincial Charter practically put an end to the Provincial Grand Lodge that had emanated from the Premier Grand Lodge of England.


SECOND PROVINCIAL GRAND LODGE The founding of the Grand Lodge in 1781 was chiefly the work of one Lodge, known as No. 169. This Lodge originally had its home in Massachusetts, having been Constituted in Boston by a Warrant granted to it by the Antient Grand Lodge of England and dated July 13, 1771. The latter Lodge, Constituted in 1751‑52, was called " Antient " to distinguish it from the premier Grand Lodge of England which had been established in 1717. The latter was dubbed " Modern " because, about 1730, it had departed, as some believed, from " antient practices and usages." When the War for Independence broke out, the Brethren of Lodge No. 169 remained loyal to Great Britain. The Rev. William Walter, rector of Trinity Church in Boston, was a member of that Lodge. He was a Harvard man, as his father and uncle and grandfather had been, and of illustrious family connections. It was said that he became a Mason in an Antient Lodge while he was in London in 1764. In 1776 William Walter followed the British troops to Nova Scotia and from there to New York.


After New York City was taken by General Howe, it became a haven of refuge for Loyalists from everywhere. Among the earliest to arrive were the Brethren of Lodge No. 169. They brought their Warrant with them. Some twenty or more Lodges connected with the regimental units‑dragoons, footguards, artillery, and horse‑were also there. These were of the Antient, and of the Scot and the Irish Constitutions with which the Antients were in close relation. The few Brethren who had remained in the town and were members of old St. John's, of King David's, of Independent Royal Arch, and of other Lodges of the Modern Constitution also held together in their particular groups. The Warrant of St. John's Lodge had been carried away by those who had followed General Washington, but the furniture of the Lodge Room, as well as the Jewels and Regalia, had been left behind.


Lodge No. 169 saw that with so many other Lodges present a Grand Lodge might be started. Consequently it called a meeting to which a number of the other Lodges were invited. On January 23, 1781, the called Assembly met as a Grand Lodge " in ample form." Bro. McCuen (McEwen) presided. William 46 FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK Walter was elected Grand Master by unanimous vote. For Wardens the Rev. John Beardsley, a native of Connecticut and a Yale man, and John Studholme Brownrigg, ensign of the 38th Regiment, were chosen. The London " Grand Lodge of Ancient York Masons," presided over by the Duke of Atholl, Grand Master, issued a Provincial Grand Lodge Warrant to Lodge No. 169 under date of September S, 1781. Since ocean travel was hazardous in those days, and they were willing to entrust the Warrant only to a ship sailing under convoy, it was not received in New York until late in 1782.


Meanwhile the inchoate Grand Lodge met frequently to complete its organisation and transact such business as occasion demanded. In June, 1781, the Brethren celebrated the Feast of St. John the Baptist by going to church and then dining together. The Feast of St. John the Evangelist was observed in like manner, as was also St. John the Baptist's Day in 1782. In connection with the celebration of the first‑named feast, the question arose as to whether or not Masonic propriety would admit of allowing Brethren of regular Lodges of the earlier Provincial Grand Lodge to participate. Some of the Lodges had legal scruples about this matter. Here the Grand Master stepped into the breach and addressed a letter to the Grand Lodge which not only removed all doubts but prepared the way for a later complete union of all Lodges of New York under the xgis of the Grand Lodge.


On December S, 1782, the Grand Lodge met in Roubalet's Assembly Hall, with the Rev. Dr. William Walter, Grand Master, presiding, and the other Officers mentioned in the Warrant at their several Stations. James McEwen, Past Master of Lodge No. 169, was appointed Provincial Deputy Grand Master. William Cock, Master of Lodge No. 212, was made Grand Secretary, and Joshua Watson, Master of Lodge No. 21o, was made Grand Treasurer. A Deputy Grand Secretary, four Deacons, and three Grand Stewards were also Installed. The Provincial Grand Lodge of New York was Constituted. Nine Lodges took part in the formation.


The first public appearance of the Grand Lodge occurred on St. John the Evangelist's Day, December 27, 1782, with all the Officers and Brethren marching in procession to St. Paul's Chapel, where Bro. the Rev. Dr. Samuel Seabury delivered the sermon. Dr. Seabury later became the first Bishop of the Independent Episcopal Church of America, having been consecrated as such in Scotland. The collection taken on this December day was donated to the charity fund of the Grand Lodge. On St. John the Baptist's Day, 1783, the Rev. Dr. Charles Inglis, rector of Trinity Church, officiated. The Lodges which attended those festivals of the two St. Johns were No. 169, No. Zio, No. 213, No. S2, No. 478, and St. John's Lodge, No. 4, composed of former members of St. John's Lodge, No. 2, which had been " healed and admitted into the mysteries of the Ancient Craft " on February 4, 1783, and granted a Warrant on February 13 of that year.


The Grand Lodge held regular monthly meetings in 1783. Several new Lodges were Constituted, among them Hiram Lodge, No. S, Concordia Lodge, FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK 47 No. 6, composed of German Brethren, and Lodge No. 7 " in His Majesty's Loyal American Regiment." Lodge No. go, an Ancient Lodge, was admitted by affiliation.


A rather interesting departure that occurred in 1783 was the appointment of a Committee to grant relief to the needy and to take care of the general affairs of the Craft during the interval between the quarterly Communications of the Grand Lodge. This Committee included the three oldest Masters of the Lodges. They, with the two Grand Secretaries, constituted a " Grand Steward's Lodge." Another noteworthy move was the establishment of a Committee made up of " the several Grand Officers, together with the respective Masters‑in‑theChair of the Lodges within the jurisdiction," to inaugurate " correspondence with the different Grand Lodges of America." This also took place in 1783. After letters of greeting had been sent to Lodges in the several States, among the very first acts of this Committee on Correspondence was the appointment of a sub‑Committee to respond to a request from Connecticut for advice as to how " to determine the most eligible mode for the Grand Officers‑elect of Connecticut obtaining a Grand Warrant from the Grand Lodge of England." Meanwhile peace had been declared. The independence of the United States had been recognised by a definitive treaty between Great Britain and the United States. The evacuation of New York by the British had been decided upon. That explains why nearly all the principal Grand Officers of 1781 had vacated their Offices and departed for Nova Scotia before the end of 1783. At about this time the Rev. John Beardsley was succeeded by William Cock, Master of Lodge No. 21o, as junior Grand Warden. Patrick McDavitt, a prominent New York merchant, Master of Lodge No. 16g, succeeded John S. Brownrigg as Senior Grand Warden. Samuel Kerr, a retired merchant, followed Archibald Cunningham as Deputy Grand Master.


In a Grand Lodge of Emergency held on September 1g, 1783, when the Rev. William Walter took affectionate leave of his New York Brethren to proceed with his family to Nova Scotia, it was " resolved that the Grand Warrant, by which this Lodge is established in the Province of New York‑should be left and remain in the care of such brethren as may hereafter be appointed to succeed the present Grand Officers, the most of whom being under necessity of leaving New York upon the removal of His Majesty's troops." There were present at this Grand Lodge of Emergency the Masters and Warrants of Lodges No. 16g, No. 21o, No. 212, No. 213, No. 441, No. 487, No. 4, and No. 6.


William Cock, Deputy Register of the Court of Chancery in New York, had taken over the Grand Mastership only temporarily. An agreement had been formed between him and William Walter as to who the first Grand Master of the independent Grand Lodge of the " State " of New York should be. Accordingly, at a Communication held on February 4, 1784, William Cock resigned and nominated the Hon. Robert R. Livingston for the Office of Grand Master. The nomination was greeted with enthusiasm, upheld by unanimous 48 FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK votc, and the new Grand Master was Installed by proxy. A letter preserved in the archives of the Grand Lodge of New York indicates that the great Chancellor would have been present in person if he possibly could have done so.


The Chancellor's acceptance of the Office was to be of the greatest importance to Freemasonry. In itself, the fact that the Rev. William Walter, an outstanding supporter of the British cause, could have been succeeded in the Grand Mastership by a great constructive leader who was second to none in forwarding the cause of the Colonies furnishes a striking example of the thought that lies at the root of Freemasonry: " All we are Brethren." Freemasonry drew together these two noble exemplars of its spirit after the conclusion of the War for Independence, when each could then again follow the inclination of his own heart and mind.


LIVINGSTON, MORTON, CLINTON, TOMPKINS‑0784‑I822) When Livingston, " the Cicero of America," became Grand Master, he was thirty‑six years old, having been born in New York City on November 27, 1746. He had been a delegate to the Continental Congress. He had been associated with Jefferson, Franklin, John Adams, and Sherman. He was one of the Committee which drafted the Declaration of Independence, and later a member of the Committee which drew up the Constitution of the State of New York. From 1781 to 1783 he was Secretary of Foreign Affairs for the United States. He held the supreme judicial office of the State of New York from 1777 to i8oi, when he became Minister to France. As such he negotiated the Louisiana Purchase which added to the United States all that territory extending from the northern border of Mexico to the Rocky Mountains and till then held by France.


While chancellor of the State of New York, and being then Grand Master, Livingston administered the oath of office to Washington at the President's inauguration. In connection with this event it is interesting to note that Gen eral Jacob Morton, then Grand Secretary and later Grand Master, was marshal of the day. General Morgan Lewis, who escorted Washington, was also a member of the Fraternity and its Grand Master from 1830 to 1844. The Bible on which the President was sworn was that of St. John's Lodge, No. 2 (now No. I). This Bible was later carried on a black cushion in the public procession in which the Grand Lodge and all Lodges under its jurisdiction took part at the funeral of Washington in 1799.


The first problem confronting Grand Master Livingston was to gather into the Grand Lodge all those Lodges that had been established under authority of the premier Grand Lodge of England. The fact that he himself had been Master of a Lodge (Union Lodge, No. 8) originally identified with the premier Grand Lodge made it easier to overcome existing scruples.


On March 3, 1784, Chancellor Livingston " was installed, inducted in the chair, and proclaimed Grand Master of this Right Worshipful Grand Lodge, FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK 49 after which he received the salutations of the several Lodges present, with the ceremonies usual on such occasions." The only Lodges on the Grand Lodge Register at the time of Livingston's election on February 4, a month before, were No. 169, No. 21o, No. zit, St. John's Lodge, No. 4, Hiram Lodge, No. 5, and Union Lodge, No. 8, all of which were located in New York City.


St. John's Lodge, No. z, presented its Warrant on March 3, was added to the Roll, and its Master and Junior Warden were appointed joint Grand Secretaries. " All other Lodges in the State, in the same situation as St. John's Lodge, No 2, and willing to conform to the Regulations of this Grand Lodge " were invited to be " received in a like manner as St. John's Lodge, No. 2, and be entitled to all the Rights and Privileges of the other Lodges now in this City." Royal Arch Lodge, No. 8, was enrolled on June 2. Other Lodges Constituted in Colonial times were admitted on June 23, 1784. They included Solomon's Lodge, at Poughkeepsie, which had been Constituted in 1767 by Robert R. Livingston while acting as Deputy of George Harison; Union Lodge, at Albany; Masters Lodge, at Albany; and St. John's Lodge, No. 1, at Clark's Town.


On June 3, 1785, the Grand Lodge was attended by Representatives of the following Lodges: No. 169, No. 21o, No. 4, No. 5, Union Lodge, No. 8, St. John's Lodge, No. 2, and Independent Royal Arch Lodge, No. 8, all of New York City. By Union Lodge and Masters Lodge, both of Albany. By Solomon's Lodge, of Poughkeepsie, and by St. John's Lodge, No. i, of Clark's Town. At this meeting the Grand Lodge granted Warrants for Lodges in Dutchess County, at or near Fort Edward and near Fishkill. It denied a Petition for a Lodge at Perth Amboy, New Jersey.


The first Book of Constitutions adopted by the Grand Lodge, printed in 1785, was dedicated To His Excellency, George Washington, Esq., In Testimony, as well of his exalted Services to his Country, as of his distinguished Character as a Mason, the following Book of Constitutions of the most ancient and honourable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons, by order and in behalf of the Grand Lodge of the State of New York, is dedicated.


By his most Humble Servant, JAMEs GILEs, G. Secretary.


In 1786 one Lodge asserted its independence. This called forth a ruling of the Grand Lodge that " no Lodge can exist in this State but under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge." Early in 1788 the Grand Lodge also decided that '` the word Provincial now on the Grand seal is inappropriate," and ordered `` that the Grand Secretary cause the seal to be altered," and " that the words Grand Lodge of the State of New York be sunk on the seal in place of the present inscription. " In the same year a Grand Secretary of Foreign Affairs was elected to have charge of correspondence with other Masonic Jurisdictions.


The rank of the New York City Lodges on the basis of priority of Constitu‑ 50 FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK tion was established on June 3, 1789. The resolution calling for such action had been passed, two years before. The list was as follows St. John's Lodge No. i (former No. 2).


Independent Royal Arch Lodge No. 2 (former No. 8). St. Andrew's Lodge No. (former No. 169).


St. John's Lodge No. 4 (;ormer No. Zio). St. Patrick's Lodge No. (former No. 212). St. John's Lodge No. 6 former No. 4).


St. John's Lodge No. 7 (former No. 5). Holland Lodge No. 8.


The last named Lodge, which had been Warranted on September Zo, 1787, was made up of descendants of old New Amsterdam families. Though it Worked in the Dutch language, the Grand Lodge required that it keep its Records in English as well as in Dutch, so as to make them available for inspection.


In 1795 a resolution was adopted declaring that " the Grand Master has full power and authority when the Grand Lodge is duly assembled to cause to be made in his presence a Free and Accepted Mason at sight, but that it can not be done out of his presence without a written Dispensation." The principle of exclusive territorial jurisdiction was proclaimed in 1796 by the following resolution: " Resolved and declared by this Grand Lodge, That no Charter or Dispensation for holding a Lodge of Masons be ever granted to any person or persons, whomsoever, residing out of this State, and within the jurisdiction of any other Grand Lodge." Keeping in mind the relative purchasing value of money then and now, it would appear that the per capita contribution, in dues and for relief, made by the Lodges of those times equals about four times the average contribution of to‑day. The sums expended by the Committee on Charity appointed in 1783 not infrequently amounted to as much as $Zoo for one needy person. The list of recipients of such charities is indeed interesting. Widows of Loyalists who had lost all their possessions appear as pensioners. Exiled Brethren from the Island of Madeira, victims of measures taken against Masons by the Portuguese Government, were formally received into the Grand Lodge, lavishly entertained, and given every comfort and needed aid. On one St. John the Baptist's Day a collection amounting to " )Cqo exclusive of coppers " was given to the Society for the Relief of Distressed Debtors Confined in Prison, " to be applied by them to the benevolent purposes of their institution." At another time )C1o was granted to a needy prisoner then confined in jail. The Committee which reported on the matter commented that the cause of the incarceration appeared to be of a family nature into which it was not their province to inquire as it would lead to an indelicate and impertinent inquiry. At one time prisoners confined in jail for debt were given permission, on request, " to congregate on St. John Baptist Day and celebrate as a Lodge." FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK When Chancellor Livingston was appointed United States Minister to France in 18o1, General Jacob Morton, one of the most popular citizens of New York, was elected to succeed him as Grand Master. The Deputy Grand Master elected at the time was Edward Livingston (1764‑1836), a brother of the chancellor, who was then mayor of the City of New York. From 1829 to 1831 Edward Livingston was a United States senator. He was Secretary of State for the United States from 1831 to 1833, and he served as United States Minister to France from 1833 to 1835. Distinguished leaders also filled the other Offices of the Grand Lodge at this time.


DeWitt Clinton (1769‑1828) succeeded General Jacob Morton as Grand Master. He was a constructive statesman, of phenomenal popularity in his time, who held the Grand Mastership for fourteen years, from 18o6 to 182o. In 18oo Clinton had been a United States senator, and at the time of his election as Grand Master he was mayor of the City of New York. He occupied this position for nine years. Later, in 1812, he was his party's candidate for President of the United States. He served as governor of the State of New York for two terms, from 1817 to 1823 and from 1825 to 1828, a total of nine years. He was founder and patron of several literary, scientific, art, and educational societies. Outstanding achievements, carried through by him almost single‑handed, were the establishment of the public education systems of both New York City and the State of New York, and the opening of the Erie Canal which connected the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean and thus gave New York City supremacy among American seaports.


Sincere by nature and keenly appreciative of the spirit and scope of Freemasonry, Clinton scrupulously upheld the non‑political character of the Institution. Yet whenever an opportunity arose for the Craft to render a public service consistent with its professions, he never hesitated to enlist the help of the Lodges. Two such occasions deserve mention as outstanding: One gave to the Fraternity the distinction of having shared in the support of a non‑sectarian educational undertaking from which sprang the common school system of the City of New York. The other afforded a demonstration of the Fraternity's patriotic zeal.


Before 18o8 private and church schools were the only institutions supplying elementary, education in New York City. Schools maintained by the churches, specially intended for children of the poor, were known as charity schools. The Craft's interest in these charity schools is revealed by the records of the Grand Lodge. On St. John the Baptist's Day, 1793, the Grand Lodge attended service at Trinity Church. Rev. Dr. Beach, Grand Chaplain, delivered the sermon. An anthem was sung by the children of the Episcopal Charity School. Odes from Handel's " Messiah " were recited. And " a collection made for the benefit of the Charity School of Trinity Church, amounting to X77, odd shillings," was taken up. At another celebration the collection was turned over to the charity school of the Presbyterian church on Beekman Street.


In i8o5, when New York City had a population of 75,700, a Free School 52.


FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK Society was established. DeWitt Clinton was the leader and first president of that organisation. A book containing the autograph signatures of the first contributors to the Society's fund, with Clinton's signature heading the list, is preserved in the library of the New York Historical Society. Early in 18og a Committee appointed " to devise and report a plan for the education of children of poor Masons " recommended to the Grand Lodge that a fund " sufficient to defray the expense of an establishment to consist of fifty children " be raised. In order to ascertain the cost of tuition, needed books, and other supplies, a conference was held with the trustees of the first free school, opened in Henry Street in i8og. The Society agreed to take over the fifty children of Masons for the sum of $3oo a year, " one half less than would be required for their education in a separate school." On St. John the Evangelist's Day, 18o9, the fifty children were "delivered over to the New York Free School. " All the Lodges of the city contributed their share of the expense involved by this undertaking, and in addition they contributed added money for supplying the children with proper clothing. About the close of the year 1817 this school passed under the control of the State school fund and its pioneer work as a privately supported institution thus came to an end.


During the War of 1812‑ DeWitt Clinton called upon the Lodges of New York City to relieve the destitution of the people of Buffalo. Every Lodge responded to his call. Under Clinton's leadership the Grand Lodge offered to perform one day's labour on fortifications at such time as the Committee of Defense should designate. In September the members of all the Lodges of New York and Brooklyn did the work assigned them. A second day of work was contributed to finish what later became known as Fort Masonic, on Brooklyn Heights.


In 1817 the Transactions of the Grand Lodge were printed for the first time. The publication of such proceedings has been uninterruptedly continued from that day to this.


Daniel D. Tompkins, who was Vice‑president of the United States from 1817 to 182‑5, held that office when he became Grand Master. At the very gathering which elected him, a difficult situation arose. Upstate discontent, due to the fact that practically all Grand Officers were members of New York City Lodges, had been brewing ever since Chancellor Livingston left for France. The up‑State Country Lodges also felt that they had no real share in legislation because the distance from headquarters imposed upon their Representatives considerable hardship and expense which few were willing to bear. Moreover, Past Masters had a vote in the Grand Lodge, and this gave further advantage to the New York City contingent. " Taxation without representation " had been the watchword of the War for Independence, and anything suggesting the recurrence of such a condition, this time in Masonry, appeared to be intolerable. The result was that the up‑State Lodges withheld dues.


Under the Grand Mastership of DeWitt Clinton a move had been made to allay sectional grievances by dividing the State into three Grand Districts with A Grand Visitor for each. Those liaison Officers were to serve as Instructors and FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK 53 Guides to promote harmony among the Lodges, and to collect outstanding dues, making allowance for their own expenses and for compensation for the time that had to be devoted to the Work. These Grand Visitors rendered their first reports on June 8, 182o. One of them turned in only $30. Ebenezer Wadsworth, another of them, turned in $1291.87, and $1130 was allowed him for compensation. Joseph Enos, another Grand Visitor, turned in $13oo, and the whole amount was allowed him for his Work. After deducting expenses from the reported sums, the Grand Lodge decided that the plan was too expensive and voted to do away with Grand Visitors. When this occurred, naturally the up‑State Lodges regarded the removal of those Officers simply as another attempt of the New York City contingent to retain control of the Grand Lodge.


Realising the seriousness of the situation, Daniel Tompkins called a Grand Lodge of Emergency. At its meeting the system of visitation by Grand Visitors was admitted to be " essential to the preservation of that intimate connection between the Grand Lodge and all Lodges under its jurisdiction." A Committee was appointed and ordered to submit an equitable plan in the following December. But nothing was reported at that time. The result was a Convention of western New York Lodges, held at Canandaigua. There it was proposed that the Lodges elect eighteen District Grand Visitors to represent them at Grand Lodge meetings as their accredited proxies.


In 1822 Grand Master Tompkins declined re‑election. Grand Visitor Joseph Enos, who had been a leading figure in the Canandaigua Convention, was chosen to succeed him.


DISSENSION AND THE MORGAN EXCITEMENT In 1823 the up‑State Delegates came prepared to elect as Grand Officers only men not connected with New York City Lodges. The result of this action was two Grand Lodges. One had Joseph Enos at its head. A schismatic " City Grand Lodge " had Martin Hoffmann as its Grand Master. He had been Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the State for sixteen years, from 1804 to 1820.


In 1825, Stephen Van Rensselaer, chancellor of the University of the State of New York, was elected Grand Master. With the help of DeWitt Clinton the schism of 1823 was healed. On June 7, 1827, the union was celebrated. On that day the official title became The Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free Masons in the State of New York.


Van Rensselaer remained Grand Master until 1830. Meanwhile a crisis arose which put the Masonry of New York to the severest test ever experienced by the world of English‑speaking Masons. This eight years' nightmare is commonly referred to as " The Morgan Excitement." The three principal actors in the " Morgan Excitement " were David Miller, a village printer; Thurlow Weed, a wily politician; and Captain William Morgan, a stonemason by trade and an adventurer by disposition. There were, besides, a score of supes and a million dupes. The scenes were laid in western 54 FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK New York, Canada, and the United States at large. The time was from 1826 to about 1840.


Captain Morgan was a Virginian by birth, at the time some fifty years old. He earned his title in the War of 1812 by his good work at the Battle of New Orleans. After that battle he tried his hand at trading; he operated a brewery in Canada, and when all had gone wrong he returned to his trade of stonemason and took his family to Batavia, New York, where he had friends. If, when, and where he was made a Mason has not yet been ascertained. The general belief is that he was " book‑made." Nevertheless he may have been Initiated somewhere, and in any event he visited the Lodge at Batavia. There, doubts arose as to his Masonic character. When he tried to take part in the formation of a Royal Arch Chapter, he was refused. This so angered him that he threatened to publish an exposure of all Masonic Degrees.


Miller, another of the persons involved, conducted a local newspaper at Batavia, and like Morgan had got himself into debt. He had been Initiated in the Batavia Lodge, but had been denied advancement because of his questionable business transactions. Morgan's threat interested him. The idea of printing an exposure of Masonic Degrees seemed likely to keep his press going day and night and to produce millions in money. Ever on the lookout for the " main chance,'' Morgan agreed to let Miller publish his promised exposures. All that was needed was money for bringing out the book. Miller made a start on the venture by announcing in his newspaper that a complete exposure of all Masonic Degrees would soon appear in print. Great excitement in that part of the State furnished water for the publicity mill. At this juncture Miller's printshop got afire. The blaze brought out the fire company but did no serious damage. All this was more copy for news, of course.


And just then the hoped‑for " angel " who would finance the undertaking appeared on the scene. He came from New York City. He had been expelled from the Fraternity there after having passed through Lodge, Chapter, and Com mandery, and was now ready to supply needed cash for Miller's proposed enterprise. Besides, he agreed to furnish information about Degrees of which neither Miller nor Morgan had any knowledge. A contract was signed whereby Morgan was bought out, but it later so turned out that the bills of payment given to him were not negotiable. Though Morgan rued his bargain, he could get no redress. Then he appealed to some of his friends and asked their help.


What happened afterwards is involved in seemingly impenetrable mystery. One story runs that some Brethren came to an agreement with Morgan that they would take him to Canada and give him enough money to start life there anew. The known facts are that he was thrown into prison for one of his many small debts. Bro. Loton Lawson paid the debt and so obtained the prisoner's release. As Morgan left the prison building he and Lawson entered a waiting carriage in which were seated Nicholas G. Cheseboro, Master of the Lodge at Canandaigua, Colonel Edward Sawyer, and John Sheldon. The carriage at once drove away, presumably to Canada. All else was obscurity which neither official nor private FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK SS investigations could ever dispel. So far the upshot of the matter simply was that Morgan had disappeared.


The four men in whose company Morgan rode away were later indicted, first, for conspiracy to seize William Morgan and carry him to foreign parts, there to secrete and confine him; second, for carrying the conspiracy into execution. That is the limit to which the charges could be brought.


Morgan disappeared on September 12, 1826, but Miller kept the excitement alive for his own advantage. It quickly spread to all parts of the State and even beyond. Masons were charged with having murdered Morgan. The favorite version of the incident was that he had been rowed in a boat to the middle of the Niagara River " at the black hour of midnight," and that, after heavy weights had been attached to his body, he had been " plunged into the dark and angry torrent. " Immediately after having obtained all facts officially ascertained in connection with Morgan's abduction, Governor Clinton, Past Grand Master and the foremost Mason of the State, issued a proclamation calling upon all officers and civil magistrates of the State to " pursue all just and proper measures for the apprehension of the offenders." In October the governor offered several pecuniary rewards for authentic information concerning any and every offender in the matter and as to the place to which Morgan had been conveyed. In a third proclamation the governor offered $looo " for the discovery of William Morgan, if alive; and if murdered, a reward of $Zooo for the discovery of the offender or offenders, to be paid on conviction." The immediate effect of all this was to give political pot‑hunters opportunity for riding into office on the wave of public excitement. Thurlow Weed's was the master mind that built up an antiMasonic political party as a consequence.


Seven months after Governor Clinton's third proclamation, and more than a year after Morgan's disappearance, a corpse was found on a beach of Lake Ontario. Thurlow Weed attended the inquest that was presently held, and there the body was declared to be that of Morgan. An elaborate funeral procession formed of anti‑Masonic partisans followed the corpse to the place of interment. A month after the burial the body was exhumed. At another inquest, held in the presence of the widow of the deceased, she identified the corpse as that of her husband, Timothy Munroe, and ordered it to be conveyed to Canada for burial.


An exciting political campaign being just then in progress, anti‑Masonic partisans insisted that the second inquest had been only a ruse perpetrated by the " Mingos," as they dubbed the Masons, for the purpose of deceiving the public.


The vote cast for avowedly anti‑Masonic candidates in that election afforded them much satisfaction. On being asked what he thought of the deceit practised on the voters, Weed replied in a cynical phrase which has held its place in the political vocabulary to this very day, " Well, anyway, it was a good‑enough Morgan till after election." Nineteen anti‑Masonic Conventions, two of them made up of " Seceding Masons," were held in New York State alone in 182‑7. In the national Presiden‑ 56 FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK tial election of 1832 the anti‑Masonic party polled 340,800 votes. That year Vermont cast its vote for the anti‑Masonic candidates for President and VicePresident. Despite all the anti‑Masonic activity, Andrew Jackson, an active Mason, was elected President. He carried three‑fourths of the States.


During " The Morgan Excitement " hundreds of Lodges in the State of New York stopped Work and either turned in their Charters or threw them away. Out of more than Soo Lodges, having a membership of some Zo,oo0 in 1829, only 52 Lodges, numbering about 1Soo members, remained in 1832. By far the largest defection occurred in rural sections of the State. Sorely tried as were the faithful members, they stood loyally by the Grand Lodge and acquitted themselves as men firmly persuaded of the beneficent mission of Freemasonry in the sight of God and resolved to carry on, whatever the consequences.


In 1830 Chancellor Van Rensselaer was succeeded in the Grand Mastership by Major‑General Morgan Lewis, son of Francis Lewis, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. He himself was noted for his outstanding services to the United States. He had been a close personal friend of George Washington. He had served the State of New York as chief justice, as governor, and in various other important public offices. During our second war with England he had been quartermaster‑general of the armies of the United States. His acceptance of the Grand Mastership did much to cause the people of the State to lose confidence in the anti‑Masonic demagogues.


Thurlow Weed, political leader of the anti‑Masonic movement, wrote the following in his autobiography The election of 1833 demonstrated unmistakably not only that opposition to Masonry as a party in a political aspect had lost its hold upon the public mind, but that its leading object, namely, to awaken and perpetuate a public sentiment against secret societies, had signally failed. The Jackson party was now more powerful than ever in three fourths of the States of the Union. The National Republican party was quite as fatally demoralized as that to which I belonged. This discouraging condition of political affairs, after a consultation with W. H. Seward, Francis Granger, Trumbull Cary, Bates Cook, Millard Fillmore, Frederick Whittlesey, John H. Spencer, Philo C. Fuller, Edward Dodd, George W. Patterson, Timothy Childs, Lewis Benedict, John Townsend, Thomas Clowes, Nicholas Devereux, James Wadsworth, Thomas C. Love, and others, resulted in a virtual dissolution of the Anti‑Masonic party.


Referring to the persecution to which the Craft had been subjected, General Morgan Lewis said the following when he was Installed as Grand Master: The circumstance is one to be contemplated more in pity than in anger, except, perhaps, as it regards those who certainly had the power, and whose duty it was rather to stifle than to fan the embers of discord, until they had blown them into a flame of persecution, better adapted to the darkness of the Middle Ages than to the enlightened period of the present day. When we behold these men connecting the excitement, which, if they did not create, they FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK 57 have certainly cherished and increased, with political party views, the conclusion is irresistible that they have been actuated by sinister and selfish, not by virtuous and laudable, motives.


The concluding part of General Morgan's address to the Grand Lodge also deserves mention. In this he said We have our mysteries. So has our holy religion. The writings of our patron saint are full of them. We shall not, therefore, I trust, discard the one or the other.


Our forms have also been made the subject of ridicule. A sufficient answer to this is that forms are essential to the existence of all societies. As they are arbitrary, they will sometimes give scope to the car pings of the too fastidious; but they never can with justice be held to derogate from the fundamental principles of any institution. I have been a member of this useful and honourable Fraternity for more than half a century, and have never till now heard the calumny uttered, that its obligations, under any circumstances, impugned the ordinances of civil or religious society. On the contrary, we hold ourselves bound to render unto Cxsar the things which are Cxsar's, and unto God the things which are God's; and I can with truth affirm that I never knew a man who became a Mason, and whose practise conformed to the precepts it inculcates, who did not become a better man than he had been theretofore.


NEW SCHISMS AND THE RESTORATION OF UNITY When the sky cleared after " The Morgan Excitement," and Freemasonry had been reinstated in public favor, the membership of the Order increased by leaps and bounds. Certain ambitious persons then resolved that the time had come to restore those solemn public processions on St. John the Baptist's Day which had been outstanding annual events of earlier times. The Grand Lodge had decided in 1826, however, that such exhibitions were " highly prejudicial to the interest and respectability of the Order," and that they were not to be permitted except by the Grand Master's Dispensation and " only upon very extraordinary occasions." Early in 1836, William F. Piatt, Master of Lafayette Lodge, No. 373 (now No. 6q.), submitted to the Grand Lodge a request endorsed by several New York City Lodges asking that a public procession be held on June 2.4. Assent was emphatically refused. The next year York Lodge, No. 367, invited other City Lodges to join in a public procession and feast on St. John the Baptist's Day. Three Lodges agreed to the plan. Henry C. Atwood, Master of York Lodge, No. 367, a pugnacious person by nature, took the lead in this undertaking. Aided by William C. Piatt the demonstration was carried out despite official interdicts.


Three months later both those Masters, together with a number of other recalcitrant Brethren, were expelled from the Craft. Within a week after that took place, 127 rebels adopted a " Declaration of Rights and Independence " 58 FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK and resolved themselves into a " St. John's Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of New York." Although a bargain price of nine dollars for the three Degrees was offered as an inducement for the purpose of gaining new members, Atwood had a hard time to keep his organisation going. Beginning in 1848 a triumvirate of influential leaders, John W. Simons, General Daniel Sickles, and Robert McCoy, took the initiative and made the schismatic body a formidable rival of the regular Grand Lodge presided over by the Hon. John Dwight Willard.


Having become persuaded of the illegitimacy of the " St. John's Grand Lodge," Simons and McCoy concentrated their endeavour upon effecting a union with the regular Grand Lodge. Their tactful handling of arbitration and the great willingness of Grand Master Willard brought about the desired result. On St. John the Evangelist's Day, 1850, the union was consummated and celebrated with imposing ceremonies. Twenty‑five Lodges of the dissolved Organisation were taken over and given new Warrants in return for those under which they had been Working.


Meanwhile another schism had taken place. Again an honest but aspiring and contentious person was the cause. His name was Isaac Phillips. Twice Phillips had been defeated in an attempt to be elected to Office, once to the post of Grand Secretary and the following year to that of Grand Master. As a lawyer he raised the issue that a change in the Constitution which deprived Past Masters of their former right to vote in Grand Lodge was " unconstitutional and revolutionary," and must be considered " void and of no force or effect." The change, originally made chiefly by the vote of the up‑State country Lodges, had later been revived. Phillips called upon those who stood ready " to continue the organisation of the Grand Lodge according to its original Constitution, to unite for that purpose." Among his associates were Past Deputy Grand Master Willis, Grand Treasurer Horspool, and Past Grand Secretary Herring. They seized the Records, monies and other property of the Grand Lodge, and with their following, which included a majority of the New York City Lodges, they formed a new Grand Lodge. This took place in 1849.


The Phillips Body managed to keep going for nine years. In 1858 a fusion with the regular Grand Lodge was effected on exceedingly generous terms. One of the articles of union provided that all Past Masters who had served one year in the Chair prior to December 31, 1849, were to be members of the Grand Lodge. All archives, funds, and other properties were returned. All difficulties were adjusted " freely and fully as though no differences had occurred heretofore." In 1859 Judge John L. Lewis, Jr., Grand Master, proclaimed, " We have effected a durable union of the entire Craft in our State under one governing body, and without sacrifice of principle." MASONIC HALLS AND RELIEF OF DISTRESS In 1843 the Grand Lodge decided to erect a Masonic Hall and to found " an asylum for worthy, decayed Masons, their widows and orphans:" At once the FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK 59 New York City Lodges energetically set to work to raise the needed funds. The anti‑Masonic hue and cry stopped progress for a while. After that came the schisms which have just been described. By 1858, however, the Hall and Asylum Fund amounted to about $28,ooo. Of that amount Bro. Edwin Forrest, the eminent tragedian, contributed $5oo. Then the outbreak of war between North and South, together with other troubles, again caused delay. It seems to have been highly unfortunate that the idea of the hall and the idea of the asylum were associated in the minds of the Brethren at the same time. That encouraged them in an ill‑grounded belief that the hall would in some way provide funds for the care of the unfortunate. This attitude, and a very natural desire for worthy, dignified headquarters, favored the immediate erection of a new Masonic Hall.


In 1871, when a terrible fire destroyed more than 14,ooo buildings in Chicago, the Grand Lodge of New York sent $17,536 to the Grand Master of Illinois to be used for relief purposes. Two years later $3404 of that amount was re turned as unneeded. This refund was then turned into the Hall and Asylum Fund. Presently a new interest was awakened, and in 1875 the Masonic Hall was dedicated. It stood at the northeast corner of Twenty‑third Street and Sixth Avenue, on the site now occupied by part of the monumental headquarters building that was opened in 1909. The hall of 1875 was noble and impressive both outside and inside. Napoleon Le Brun, one of the foremost architects of his day, was the designer of the edifice. At the head of the main stairway stood a beautiful marble statue of " Silence," sculptured by renowned Augustus SaintGaudens, who did the work at the suggestion of Past Grand Master Willard.


The Order's hope that the building would provide rental revenue sufficient j to establish and support an asylum was soon dissipated. A heavy debt that rested on the property kept the Brethren worried for more than a dozen years about the payment of interest. When Frank Lawrence became Grand Master, he made it his chief object to have that debt cancelled, and finally he succeeded. In 1889 he sent this cheering message to the Craft: " The great task is done. The last dollar is paid. We are free." Now the road was clear to push the plan for a Masonic Home to realisation. Various schemes were resorted to in order to raise additional needed funds. The aim appealed to Bro. Ole Bull, the famous blind Norwegian violinist, who donated the proceeds of his farewell concert* to the " Widows' and Orphans' Fund. " An extensive site for the proposed Masonic Home was acquired at Utica and there the corner‑stone of the first building was laid on May 1, 1891. At last the enterprise had been started. Since then many other buildings have been added *One number on the program Ole Bull rendered on that occasion was entitled " To the Memory of Washington." Upon being received in the Grand Lodge after the concert and invested with the magnificent regalia of the Grand Lodge, OIe Bull said, " The tribute to the memory of Washington is not my own. It is the tribute of the people of Norway which I only echo. The principles for which the people of this country drew their swords and shed their blood electrified the people of Norway and animated them in their exertions for liberty. The admiration of the Norwegians for the institutions of America and for their great founder were early implanted in my heart, and the admiration for Washington and the love of liberty, are impressed there and are eternal." 6o FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK to the establishment. Soon after the first building was completed, Bro. Edwin Booth, the eminent actor, donated $5,000 toward a Children's Building. That was opened in 1896.* The beautiful Daniel D. Tompkins Memorial Chapel was added as a tribute to the memory of that Vice‑President of the United States who became Grand Master. The Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of the State of New York supplied a building for housing girls, and the Scottish Rite Bodies donated a cottage for babies. A magnificent million dollar Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hospital was built by the whole Craft and opened in 192‑2‑. In addition to all the handsome and commodious structures mentioned, there are now modern cowbarns that house an excellent dairy herd which provides milk, cheese, and butter for the inmates of the Masonic Home, and in addition there are a hay barn, a silo, and many other buildings needed by the model farm that forms part of the institution.


On Round Lake, some forty miles from Utica, is a delightful Masonic Home Camp in a location unsurpassed for beauty and healthfulness. Here are a hospital, dormitories, a special building for babies, and all sorts of other require ments needed to supply real recreation to young and old. This establishment affords a welcome change of surroundings during the summer months. Ever since 19o6 William J. Wiley, Superintendent of both Home and Camp, has been the master mind that has inspired the splendid development of the extensive plant.


Charity work done by individual Lodges, by Districts, and by groups of Districts affords another chapter in the history of New York Masonry. In a recent year Brethren of the Craft raised more than $6oo,ooo for relief in their re spective,communities and in the country at large. To this sum must be added $2‑Soo sent to Porto Rico to aid stricken children; $zooo sent to Santo Domingo for relief; and $18,ooo contributed to the National Red Cross Society. These items and others, aside from $675,000 spent by the trustees on philanthropic work in their own charge, amounted to approximately $1,2‑79,Soo. Nor does this include expenditures for welfare undertakings maintained by the various Masonic Districts.


The Fifth Manhattan District, for example, sends about 8oo boys to summer camps. Other Districts also maintain camps. The Seventh Manhattan District maintains a camp for under‑privileged girls. In some Districts funds are maintained for aiding sufferers from tuberculosis, for aiding young people to obtain advanced education, for supplying Christmas cheer to the poor, and for other similar philanthropic purposes. The Ninth Manhattan District maintains a special organisation, similar to that of the Trustees of the Grand Lodge Hall and Asylum Fund. Lodges in this District are chiefly composed of Brethren of German descent who "not only loyally support the Work of the Craft at large but at their own cost also maintain at Tappan, New York, a Home for the aged. Families of these Brethren in the Old Country, as well as Ma *The Edwin Booth Theatre that formerly stood opposite the Masonic Hall on Twenty‑third Street, New York City, resembled it in architectural design.


FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK 61 sonic and other eleemosynary and educational institutions there, know that the heart of the Ninth Manhattan District does not forget. That knowledge is indeed a comfort in the dark days which seem to have no end. And since 1878 this District has owned its own Masonic Hall! Many Districts contain Masonic Halls that count among the noteworthy architectural monuments of the respective localities. There are a total of nearly 400 Masonic Halls in the State. The present headquarters of the Grand Lodge, extending from Twenty‑third Street to Twenty‑fourth Street, and twenty stories high, was opened in igo9. Aside from twelve splendidly equipped Lodge rooms and all that pertains to them so far as concerns the convenience and ceremonial requirements of members, the building also contains the offices of the Grand Master, the Grand Secretary, and the Trustees of the Hall and Asylum Fund. The Grand Lodge Library and Museum are housed in it, and it provides quarters for the Committee on Foreign Correspondence, the Masonic Employment Exchange, the Board of Relief, and for various other departments.


GENERAL ACTIVITIES Just as during former wars so also there was an abnormal influx of candidates into Masonry during and immediately after the World War. A Sea and Field Lodge was organised to hasten the admission of enlisted men who had been ordered overseas, and who desired to have the benefits of Masonic fellowship. No adequate understanding of the purposes of the Fraternity could be gained under such conditions. When the men returned it became evident that something would have to be done to disseminate instruction in order both to save the Craft from misuse of its privileges and to turn promising newcomers into forceful members. Lectures were provided, educational bulletins were broadcast, local study circles were initiated, and an official periodical was published. Finally, all these endeavours and others were focused in a program that was put in charge of a Board of General Activities.


One unexpected result was that many of the new members who had counted on gaining material profits from the Order were disappointed in their anticipations. They neglected their Lodges, they failed to meet their financial obliga tions, and in the end their names had to be struck from the Roll. On the other hand, however, a new spirit set to work among the younger Brethren who had caught the meaning of Freemasonry. One evidence of this awakening was that The Masonic Outlook, house organ of the Grand Lodge, was soon able to attract and hold more than go,ooo subscribers.


Under the leadership of the Grand Master, the Board of General Activities devised other constructive features designed to satisfy the demand for information. One of these was the preparation of twenty‑two educational booklets for free distribution. More than 8oo,ooo copies of those booklets were sent out. Another device was to make the Grand Lodge Library* accessible to members in *The library now contains more than ts,ooo volumes. Incorporated with it is a Grand Lodge Museum containing a mass of historical records and many priceless treasures. Among the latter is a letter written by George Washington the Great, to which a lock of his hair is attached.


62 FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK all parts of the State, by establishing a circulation department. Books ordered are mailed prepaid to any part of the State, simply with the understanding that the borrower shall pay return postal charges on them. No set courses of study are offered. The primary aim of the Board is to foster a desire for Masonic reading and study. As Brethren become interested in particular subjects, they tend to form their own courses of reading according to individual taste.


Another service that has attracted widespread attention is known as the Sojourner's Plan. It grew out of a desire to retain in the Fraternity the many Brethren who annually drift away and lose connection with their particular Lodges because of removal to new surroundings. Under this plan each Lodge is asked to supply the Grand Lodge promptly with notice of the removal of a Mason from his home Lodge to any other place within the State or outside it. Upon receipt of such information, a notification is at once sent to the Master,of the Lodge in that community in which the New York Brother has taken up his new residence. This gives the Brother's new address and suggests that an invitation to attend meetings be extended to him. At the same time a notice is sent to the sojourner telling him the name of the Lodge nearest his new residence, indicating the meeting night, and giving the address of the Master. The notice also states, of course, that the sojourner will be welcome, and that by visiting the Lodge he will be able to keep up his Masonic acquaintances. Officers of various Grand Lodges have become much interested in the Sojourner's Plan, which has from the outset proved very successful. In many cases correspondence is conducted entirely with them.


FOREIGN RELATIONS Since the very beginning of organised Masonry in New York endeavours have been made to maintain fraternal personal relations with other jurisdictions. Such efforts have included the appointment of a Committee on Foreign Corre spondence in Colonial times; the addition of a Foreign Grand Secretary to the Grand Master's staff in 1788; the pioneer move of 1838 which required that annual reports on foreign jurisdictions be submitted to the Grand Lodge. All these steps indicate a broad view of the central thought of Freemasonry.


In Colonial days each of the Provincial Grand Masters made visits to headquarters in London. Records of the English Lodges frequently mention the presence of visitors from New York. Those of Old Dundee Lodge, of London, tell of visiting Brethren from New York, in 1751. In 185o, during the time of the schisms, the Grand Master of England was asked to arbitrate between the factions. Both Judge Willard and Isaac Phillips wrote to him for suggestions. In 1851, Bro. Willard, then Past Grand Master, appeared in the Grand Lodge of England as the official Delegate of New York to explain the plans then under way for bringing about a union. The Grand Lodge of England stood by the " Willard Grand Lodge " and asked " the erring Brethren to reconsider their differences of opinion." Other visits to the Parent Grand Lodge included that of Grand Master Vrooman who held Office from 1889 to 1891. Upon his return he brought FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK 63 back facsimiles of Records relating to the connections of both the " Modern " and " Antient " English Grand Lodges with the Grand Lodge of New York. Among other treasures he brought back was a large water‑color portrait of John Studholme Brownrigg, the first junior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of New York. This had been painted by the Rev. John Studholme Brownrigg, M.A., a descendant. In 1919 an official Delegation of the Grand Lodge of New York attended the Peace Celebration in England. Another Delegation was present at the laying of the foundation‑stone of the great Masonic Peace Memorial of the United Grand Lodge of England in 192‑7. Since the close of the World War, Officers of the Grand Lodge of New York have held an annual Conference with Officers of the Parent Grand Lodge in London.


Records of the Lodges of Scotland also tell of visits paid by New Yorkers, and on May 7, 1874, General Charles Roome, then Past District Grand Master, later Grand Master of New York, attended a meeting of the Grand Lodge of Ireland. Judge Willard, whose presence in the Grand Lodge of England has already been mentioned, made frequent visits to Europe. On one occasion he had copied from the Records of the United Grand Lodge of England all documents relating to Provincial Masonry in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York. As the Grand Representative of the Lodges of the Grand Orient of France, located near New York, he attended meetings of that Body in 185o. He also visited the National Grand Lodge of Switzerland the same year. In 1855 he was delegated to represent the Grand Lodge of New York at a Universal Masonic Congress, held in Paris at the call of H. R. H. Prince Lucien Marat, Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France. The aim of this Congress was an interchange of social and fraternal expressions of mutual regard. New York City was proposed as the meeting place of a future Congress, but that never met.


While a resident of Staten Island, Giuseppe Garibaldi was made a Mason in Tompkinsville Lodge, No. 471, and on December 2‑o, 1870, Kalakaua, King of the Hawaiian Islands, was received as a Fellowcraft by Grand Master Anthon. The Third Degree was conferred upon Kalakaua in New York Lodge, No. 330. Though it may seem extraordinary that those distinguished foreigners entered Masonry while resident in New York City, this becomes more comprehensible when it is recalled that New York, as the chief port of entry and the metropolis of the United States, has from the first been the most cosmopolitan city in the country.


As has already been said, a French Lodge, La Parfaite Union, was Constituted in New York in 176o. Other French Lodges were Constituted there in the latter part of the eighteenth century. Of those, L'Union Fran~aise, Constituted in 1797, is the only one that remains. Two other French Lodges at work today are La Sincerite and La Clemente Amitie Cosmopolite, Warranted respectively in 1855 and 1857. In an open Grand Lodge of 1794, Bro. Reinier Jan Vandenbroeck Conferred the three Degrees on Jean Baptiste Couret by special resolution.


One German Lodge took part in the formation of the second Provincial 64 FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK Grand Lodge in 1781. The oldest German Lodge now in existence in this jurisdiction is Trinity Lodge, No. 12‑, which was Constituted in 1795. German Union Lodge, No. 54, was Constituted in 1819, and Pythagoras Lodge, No. 86, in 1841. After the collapse of the republican uprisings in Germany in 1848, many other German Lodges were added to the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of New York. In 1931 there were in New York City alone 2‑9 German Lodges having a membership of 792‑2‑. Those form the Ninth Manhattan District. At that time many of the German Lodges were Working in the English language.


The Tenth Manhattan District, commonly spoken of as the " Latin District," is composed of 2‑o Lodges; 4 are French, 2‑ are Spanish, 13 are Italian, and i is Greek. On January 1, 1931, the total membership of these Lodges was 5671. Damascus Lodge, No. 867, is composed of Syrian Brethren. Koaziusko Lodge, No. 1085, is Polish. In addition to these there are Czech, Hungarian, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Latvian, and Dutch Lodges, not to speak of those made up of Scotsmen, Irishmen, and men of other nationalities. Of necessity, an ideal situation showing the Masonic thought at work as a great unifying force encourages every endeavour to extend fraternal relations with foreign Grand jurisdictions which meet the rigid requirements for mutual recognition agreed upon by the Grand Lodge of New York.


In a sincere belief that the Great War had chastened the few Grand jurisdictions which had departed from the fundamental Landmarks of the Craft, the Grand Lodge of New York in 192‑o took the lead in promoting a Universal Masonic Congress for the purpose of forming acquaintances and removing obstacles in the way to a world‑wide union of regular Masons. As a clearing house, a Masonic International Association was formed at Geneva, Switzerland, The intrusion of an illegitimate organisation caused the first blockade. That out of the way, the domination of affairs by the Grand Orients of France and Belgium created a situation which rendered impossible a continuance of co‑operation by the Grand Lodge of New York. Fraternal intercourse with the Grand Orient of France had been interdicted ever since that organisation had abolished the requirement that no candidate can be admitted to Masonic fellowship unless he has first declared his belief in God. The French Grand Orient refused to recede from this position. Next, it turned out that the Grand Orient of Belgium actually, and the Grand Lodge of France practically, also ignore the fundamental requirement. Formal rupture of relations with the Belgium Body was voted by the Grand Lodge of New York, and the Grand Lodge of France never had been accepted into our fellowship. That ended New York's connection with the Masonic International Association.


Undaunted, the Grand Lodge of New York sought to realise its purpose by means of another plan. By a liberal interpretation of its scope, this plan has yielded results far greater than were ever anticipated. The plan was got under way in 192‑2‑ by Past Grand Master S. Nelson Sawyer, chairman of the Committee, who offered a resolution directing a Committee to obtain accurate information regarding foreign Masonic jurisdictions and to report its findings to FREEMASONRY IN NEW YORK 65 the Grand Lodge. This resolution was unanimously approved that same year. Meanwhile, requests had been received from countries in which no Grand Lodge then existed, asking that the Grand Lodge of New York establish Lodges there. Two of those requests were complied with, and as a result the Grand Lodge of New York set up Lodges in Finland and in Rumania. In 1923 came a call from Syria, endorsed by Masons connected with the American college at Beyrout. That call led to the establishment of two Lodges in Beyrout the next year, and the subsequent Constitution of others at Damascus. Amioun Lodge, Chouf Lodge, Zahle Lodge, and two other Lodges are now in Beyrout. The three New York Lodges Constituted in Finland in 1922 and 1923, located respectively at Helsinki, Tampere, and Abo, were formed into an independent Grand Lodge of Finland by Past Grand Master Arthur S. Tompkins in 1924. The nine New York Lodges in Rumania entered the Grand Orient of Rumania in 1926 by consent of Grand Master William A. Rowan. The seven Lodges in Syria prefer to remain in the jurisdiction of New York until they feel adequately prepared for maintaining an independent centre of union.


The harvest of the annual visits to Masonic jurisdictions in foreign lands is summarised admirably in five sentences of the address delivered in 1931 by Grand Master Charles Johnson at the isoth Anniversary of the Establishment of the Grand Lodge of New York: We point with much pride to our foreign activities. Our Masonic Brethren in many of the European nations have much to contend with in the way of opposition, both open and insidious. By personal contact we believe we have been able to encourage, help, sympathise with, and understand our Brethren in other countries, as no written correspondence could possibly enable us to do. The Grand Lodge of New York has recognised more foreign jurisdictions than any other Grand Lodge, and we may also say very definitely that these recognitions have been based upon personal and accurate knowledge of the Masonic situation in the respective countries. We have not depended upon correspondence, which is necessarily fragmentary and always incomplete, but from personal contact the Grand Lodge of New York has secured first‑hand information which may be considered reliable.


FREEMASONRY IN NORTH CAROLINA* FRANCIS D. WINSTON FOREWORD North Carolina Masonry subscribes to the following declarations! THE MASONIC BELIEF There is one God, The Father of all men. The Holy Bible is the Great Light in Masonry, and the Rule and Guide for faith and practise. Man is immortal. Character determines destiny. Love of man is, next to love of God, man's first duty. Prayer, communion of man with God, is helpful.


THE MASONIC TEACHING Masonry teaches man to practise charity and benevolence, to protect chastity, to respect the ties of blood and friendship, to adopt the principles and revere the ordinances of religion, to assist the feeble, guide the blind, raise up the downtrodden, shelter the orphan, guard the altar, support the government, inculcate morality, promote learning, love man, fear God, implore His mercy, and hope for happiness.


HE above declarations have the official endorsement of the Grand Lodge j of North Carolina. They formed part of the report of the Committee .l on Masonic Education which was submitted by its Chairman, R.‑. W.‑. Bro. J. Edward Allen. Other Grand jurisdictions have adopted similar declarations of principle.


The Colony of Carolina was fertile soil for the growth of Masonry. After the division of that Colony into North Carolina and South Carolina, the Institution of Masonry rapidly spread over the more thickly settled portions of our State. On St. John's Day, June 24, 1789, in an historical address before St. John's Lodge, now Lodge No. 3, of New Bern, Fran~ois Xavier Martin, jurist and publicist, gave the following narrative of Masonry's coming to the Colonies.


" Masons crossed the Atlantic with the first settlers of the British Colonies in America, and soon after the Grand Master of England appointed Provincial *The writer of this article wishes to acknowledge his obligations to the following persons for their kindness in supplying him with suggestions, material, and valuable help of other kinds: Hon. John H. Anderson, Past Grand Master, now Grand Secretary of Grand Lodge; Prof. J. Edward Allen, of the Committee of Foreign Correspondence of the Grand Lodge; Rev. C. K. Proctor, Superintendent of the Oxford Orphanage; F. M. Pinnix, editor of The Orphans' Friend and The Masonic Journal. Hon. Marshall DeLancey Haywood, late marshal and librarian of the Supreme Court of North Carolina and late Historian of the Grand Lodge of this State.


66 FREEMASONRY IN NORTH CAROLINA 67 Grand Masters and Constituted regular Lodges in the New World. The Carolinas, whose settlement is of later date, had no Provincial Grand Master until 2736 (A. L. 5736), when the Earl of Loudoun appointed John Hammerton, Esquire, to that dignity. From him a regular succession can be traced to Joseph Montford, Esquire, who was appointed by the Duke of Beaufort." This extract is quoted from the Ahiman Rezon and Masonic Ritual, published at New Bern in 1805 by John C. Sims and Edward G. Moss at the order of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina and Tennessee. The formation of the State of Tennessee out of part of North Carolina, in 1796, left Lodges in the new State operating under the Grand Jurisdiction of the Mother State. This was kept up for several years under an amicable fraternal arrangement, the final separation coming later.


Provincial Grand Master Hammerton (1736‑'37; 1741‑'43, etc.) was a South Carolinian. There are no records of any Charters in North Carolina issued by him or his successors in Office in that State. Several Lodges in the jurisdiction obtained Charters directly from England. Of those, St. John's Lodge, now Lodge No. i, of Wilmington, was so Chartered in 1755. That Lodge was No. 213 in the English Jurisdiction. In 1767 Royal White Hart Lodge, of Halifax, received English Charter No. 403. It has been at Work since November 1, 1764, " by virtue of a letter of authority obtained from Cornelius Harnett, Grand Master of the Lodge in Wilmington." There is no record of authority conferring the Grand Master's powers on Harnett. His high character is ample justification for saying that he would not have acted without authority.


An interesting historical fact in connection with the North Carolina jurisdiction is that dues have been received from North Carolina Lodges by the Grand Lodge at Boston. The Records of that Grand jurisdiction plainly show the fact. The " First Lodge in Pitt County " was formed under such authority. It held its meetings in the home of Colonel Allen, who resided on the public road leading from Halifax to New Bern. Major Henry Hanrahan Harding, late of Pitt County, a Mason and citizen of noble character, related this narrative. Colonel Allen was a native of Crown Point, in New York State, and a near kinsman of the celebrated Revolutionary hero, Ethan Allen. He came to Pitt County and established his home. His daughter married Henry Hanrahan. The Allen and Hanrahan home was about half way between Halifax and New Bern, and a convenient stopping place for judges and lawyers going to and from the towns named. Colonel Allen was an ardent Mason; he and his neighbours formed a Lodge which was Instituted under the name " Crown Point Lodge," thus bearing the appellation of the home of Ethan Allen. Major Harding remembered well that a certain room in the home was always called " the Masons' Room," and that it bore the legend of having witnessed " Masonic Mysteries and Secrets." Major Harding had in his possession a Certificate of membership in that " First Lodge in Pitt County," and permitted a copy of it to be made for the Grand Lodge. Bro. Edwin B. Hay, of Washington, District of Columbia, a government handwriting expert, made the copy. This was later presented to the 68 FREEMASONRY IN NORTH CAROLINA Grand Lodge and now adorns the walls of the Masonic Temple in Raleigh.* The following is an interesting copy of that document.


Right Worshipful Thrice Worthy And Respectable Brethren: We having found in the W. what we sought for, we duly arrise to greet you with our affectionate salutation together with our united wishes by the hands of our Esteemed Brother Clemant Holliday, hoping that all who profess the royal art do enjoy Health and Prosperity.


We therefore having due regard for our said Brother do recommend him as worthy and can testify that he has been regularly initiated in the three degrees of Masonry and as a Member of this Lodge. We are well assured he has the three grand principles at heart, And flatter ourselves he will be acceptable to you and that you will do him whatsoever services he may stand in need of and we shall esteem it as done ourselves and readily embrace every opportunity of returning the kindness.


We are truly Dear Sirs, Your most sincere Faithful and Affectionate Brethren, Thomas Cooper, M. Peter Blin, S. W.


John Simpson, J. W.


By the Master's Order Jas. Hass, Secretary From the first Lodge in Pitt County North Carolina the 27th. Day of March Anno Domini 1768 and of Masonry 5768.


It is apparent that the Officers who signed the Certificate are those named in the original Charter obtained from Henry Price, Grand Master of Masons in North Carolina. In confirmation of all the above, the following statement from Sidney Morse's Freemasonry in the American Revolution is of interest.


In North Carolina, Freemasonry was introduced from several sources, Warrants having been issued by the Grand Lodge of England, for Lodges at Wilmington (1755) and Halifax (1756); by Scotland, at Fayetteville; by Vir ginia, at Warrenton (1766); and by Joesph Montford, commissioned in 1771 by the Grand Lodge of England, as Provincial Grand Master of North America, for Lodges at New Bern (1772), Kinston (1777), Edenton (1775), and Windsor and Winton (1775). Thus, no less than eleven Lodges had been at Work in North Carolina, of which ten were of English, or Provincial, and one of Scotch origin, before the close of the Revolution. Unhappily, the bitter partisan strife of Whig and Tory caused the destruction of many of the old records. Partial Minutes have come down to us, however, which prove that the Lodges were as a whole intensely patriotic, since so many members were absent on military service during the Revolution that meetings were often impossible. Grand Master Monfort, his Deputy, Cornelius Harnett, and Colonel Robert Howe *See p. z86, vol. If, Nocaldre.


FREEMASONRY IN NORTH CAROLINA 69 were among the leading patriots in North Carolina, the last two having been excluded by Sir Henry Clinton from his general offer of amnesty. The Presidents of the three Provincial Congresses, and of the Provincial Council which exercised the authority of the State in the intervals between the Congresses, and many of the leading officers of the militia, and of all North Carolina Continental line, were Masons.


The following officers of the Continental line were Grand Masters of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina: Samuel Johnson, Richard Caswell, William R. Davie, William Polk, John Louis Taylor, John Hall, Benjamin Smith, and Robert Williams.


The oldest subordinate Lodge now Working in North Carolina is St. John's Lodge (now No. i), of Wilmington, which was Chartered in 1755 as Lodge No. 213 by the Grand Lodge of England. That number was later changed several times. When Royal White Hart Lodge, at Halifax, the second oldest Lodge now in the State, first began Work, on November 1, 1764, it was " by Virtue of a Letter of Authority obtained from Cornelius Harnett, Grand Master of the Lodge in Wilmington." Whether Harnett then held Provincial authority of any kind, as he afterwards did, or whether he acted upon a misapprehension as to his powers, cannot be said. At any rate, Royal White Hart Lodge later secured a Charter‑No. 403‑from the Grand Lodge of England, under date of August zi, 1767. That number likewise underwent several changes later on. Although the early Records of the Lodge in Wilmington are lost, many original Records of great value are still preserved in Royal White Hart Lodge, No. z, of Halifax; in St. John's Lodge, No. 3, of New Bern; and in Unanimity Lodge, No. 7, of Edenton. The Colonial and Revolutionary Records of Blanford Bute Lodge are also preserved, and are now owned by Johnston‑Caswell Lodge, No. 1o, of Warrenton.


The Records of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Boston show that as early as 1766 a Lodge called the " First Lodge in Pitt County" existed in North Carolina. Thomas Cooper was Worshipful Master of this Lodge. He was later made Deputy Provincial Grand Master, as shown by the following Commission which has been copied from the Records of the Grand Lodge of Boston.


. now, therefore, Know ye, That by Virtue of the Power and Authority committed to us by the Right Honourable and Right Worshipful Anthony, Lord Viscount Montague, Grand Master of Masons, Do hereby nomi nate, Appoint and Authorise our said Right Worshipful Brother, Thomas Cooper, to be our Deputy Grand Master within the Province of North Carolina aforesaid, and do empower him to congregate all the Brethren that at present reside (or may hereafter reside) in said Province, into one or more Lodges, as he may think fit, and in such place or places within the same as shall most redound to the general benefit of Masonry: He taking special care that Masters, Wardens, and all other Proper officers to a Lodge appertaining be duly chosen at their next Meeting preceding the Feasts of St. John the Baptist, or 70 FREEMASONRY IN NORTH CAROLINA St. John the Evangelist, or both, as shall be most convenient, and so on annually. Also no person be admitted into any Lodge within this Deputation at any time but regularly made Masons. And that all and every the regulations contained in the Printe Book of Constitutions (except so far as they have been altered by the Grand Lodge in London) be kept and observed, with such other instructions as may be transmitted by us or our Successors. That an Account in writing be annually sent to us, our Successors or our Deputies, of the Names of the Members of the Lodge or Lodges, and their places or abode, with the days and places of their meeting, with any other Things that may be for the Benefit of Masonry in those parts; and that the Feasts of St. John the Baptist, or St. John the Evangelist, be kept yearly, and Dine together on those Days or as near them as may be. That for each Lodge constituted by him, he is to Remit to the Grand Secretary in this place three guineas and one half, two of which is for Registering them here. Lastly a Charitable Fund must be established for the relief of poor distress'd Brothers in those Parts, in such manner as is practised elsewhere by Regular Lodges.


Given under our hand and the seal of Masonry at Boston, in New England, the thirtieth day of December, Anno Domini One Thousand, Seven Hundred, and Sixty‑seven; and of Masonry, Five Thousand, Seven Hundred and Sixty seven. Witness the Deputy Grand Master and Grand Wardens whose names are hereunto subscribed. John Rowe, D. G. M.


Archibald McNeill, S. G. W. John Cutler, J. G. W.


By the Grand Master's Command Abr'm Savage, G. Secretary.


So far as is now known, Deputy Provincial Grand Master Cooper never Chartered any Lodges by authority of this Commission. A few years later Joseph Montfort, Worshipful Master of Royal White Hart Lodge, at Halifax, received a Commission vesting him with higher authority than was at that time delegated to any other Provincial Grand Master in the Western Hemisphere. The original of this Commission is still preserved by the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, and is held in the Hall of History at Raleigh. It reads as follows Seal BEAUFORT, G. M.


To All and Every our Right Worshipful, Worshipful and Loving Brethren: We, Henry Somerset, Duke of Beaufort, Marquis and Earl of Worcester, Earl of Glamorgan, Viscount Grosmont, Baron Herbert, Lord of Ragland, Chepstow, and Gower, Baron Beaufort of Caldecot Castle, Grand Master of the most Ancient and Honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons, Greeting: KNOW YE that we, of the Great Trust and Confidence reposed in our Right Worshipful and well beloved Brother, Joseph Montfort, Esquire, of Halifax, in the Province of North Carolina, in America, Do hereby Constitute and Appoint him, the said Joseph Montfort, Provincial Grand Master of and for America, with full power and Authority in due form to make Masons and Constitute and Regulate Lodges, as Occasion may Require. And also to Do and Execute FREEMASONRY IN NORTH CAROLINA 71 all and every such other Acts and things ap ertaning to said Office as usually have been and ought to be done and executed by Other Provincial Grand Masters; he the said Joseph Montfort taking special care that all and every the Members of every Lodge he shall Constitute have been Regularly made Masons and that they do observe, perform, and keep all and every the Rules, Orders, and Regulations contained in the Book of Constitutions (Except such as have been or may be Repealed at any Quarterly Communication or other General Meeting), together also with all such other Rules, Orders, Regulations, and Instructions as shall from time to time be transmitted by Us, or by the Honourable Charles Dillon, our Deputy, or by any of our Successors, Grand Masters or their Deputys for the time being. AND we hereby Will and Require you our Provincial Grand Master to cause four Quarterly Communications to be held Yearly, one whereof to be upon or as near the feast Day of St. John the Baptist as conveniently may be, and that you promote on those and all other occasions whatever may be for the Honour and Advantage of Masonry and the Benefit of the Grand Charity, and that you yearly, send to us or our successors, Grand Masters, an Account in Writing of the proceedings therein and also of what Lodges you Constitute and when and where held, with a list of the members thereof, and copies of all such Rules, Orders, and Regulations as shall be made for the good Government of the same, with whatever else you shall do by Virtue of these Presents. And that you at the same time remit to the Treasurer of the Society for the time being at London, Three Pounds, Three Shilling sterling for every Lodge you shall constitute, for the use of the Grand Charity and other necessary purposes.


Given at London under our hand and seal of Masonry this 14th day of January, A. L. 5771, A. D. 17711.


By the Grand Master's Command Charles Dillon, D. G. M. Witness: Jas. Heseltine, G. S.


The choice of Joseph Montfort as Provincial Grand Master was very fortunate. The Minute Books of the Lodges at New Bern and Edenton, as well as in his home town, Halifax, show that he paid frequent visits to them. What is more important still, he Chartered a number of new Lodges, as will be shown. He also appointed a full complement of Grand Lodge Officers to aid him in carrying on the Work. James Milner was appointed Deputy Provincial Grand Master, but died soon thereafter, on December 9, 1772. A lawyer, he held a high place in his profession. In accordance with Bro. Milnor's request, his body was buried beneath the old church in Halifax. More than a century and a quarter later, when the debris of this old wooden structure was cleared away following its collapse, his tomb was brought to view. It is still in a splendid state of preservation and may be seen in Halifax.


Milnor's successor as Deputy Provincial Grand Master of America was Cornelius Harnett, Worshipful Master of St. John's Lodge, of Wilmington, now Lodge No. i. Harnett, one of the best‑known statesmen of his time, 72 FREEMASONRY IN NORTH CAROLINA finally fell a martyr to the cause of freedom. In addition to high offices held by him prior to the War for Independence, he took a leading part in the deliberations of the patriots during that war. Finally he was chosen President of the Council of the entire Province of North Carolina. Having been captured by the British while he was seriously ill, he was placed in an open prisoners' stockade at Wilmington, and died there in the spring of 1781.


The Provincial Grand Secretary of America under Provincial Grand Master Montfort was William Brimage, judge of the Court of Vice Admiralty for the Port of Roanoke, at Edenton, though his place of residence was in Bertie County during the greater part of his stay in North Carolina. When the War for Independence began, the Whigs elected Brimage to be a member of the Provincial Congress. He declined to serve, however, and soon afterwards he espoused the cause of the King. After various vicissitudes, including imprisonment on the charge of raising a Tory insurrection, judge Brimage left North Carolina and went to Bermuda. He resided there for a while, then went to England, where he died on March 16, 1793. Through his daughters, numerous descendants of judge Brimage still live in North Carolina, Tennessee, and elsewhere. None bear his name, however, for his only son who reached manhood died unmarried. The property of William Brimage was confiscated by the State, but was returned to him after the War for Independence. His legal residence was at Brimage's Neck, on Cashie River, in Bertie County. His membership was in Royal Edwin Lodge, No. 4, now Charity Lodge, No. S, of Windsor. Some of his descendants bearing the names Outlaw and Miller still live in Bertie County.


From the above it will be seen that of all the Masonic Officials who held Provincial authority in North Carolina during the Colonial period, not one was living in the State at the close of the War for Independence. Consequently there was not in the State any authority higher than that of the Particular Lodges, several of which had managed to preserve an existence throughout the progress of hostilities. When peace was finally declared, several of the Lodges were revived after having lain dormant throughout the war. It was therefore apparent to all that an independent Grand Lodge would have to be established in North Carolina. The first step taken toward organising this Grand Lodge was a circular letter sent to the various Lodges in the State by Union Lodge of Fayetteville, then Working under authority presumed to have been issued (but not yet proven) from the Grand Lodge of Scotland. This Lodge was afterwards Chartered, on November 18, 1789, under the name of Phoenix Lodge, by the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, upon agreement to surrender its previous authority. The establishment of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, after the War for Independence, is thus described by the historian, Fran~ois Xavier Martin, in the Ahinzan Rezon: The Great Architect of the Universe having permitted a dissolution of the political bands which united North Carolina to Great Britain, propriety seemed to point out that the lodges of this State should not remain longer under any FREEMASONRY IN NORTH CAROLINA 73 allegiance to or dependence on the Grand Lodge or Grand Master of that Kingdom. In (A.L.) 5786 the Union Lodge, of Fayetteville, being advised thereto by a number of visiting brothers from the different parts of the State, proposed that a convention of all the regularly constituted lodges of North Carolina should be held at Fayetteville, on the 24th of June, (A.L.) 5787 (A.D. 1787), to take under consideration the propriety of declaring by a solemn act the independence of the lodges of North Carolina, and to appoint a State Grand Master and other Grand Officers. The great distance to and small intercourse between the different parts of this extensive State having prevented a sufficient number of delegates from attending, the convention adjourned to the town of Tarborough, where the (Masonic) declaration of independence took place, and a form of government was adopted. The Most Worshipful Samuel Johnston having been appointed Grand Master, and the Right Worshipful Richard Caswell (then Governor of this State), Deputy Grand Master, the first Grand Lodge was held on the following day.


So far as is known, the Lodges which existed in North Carolina prior to the War for Independence were the following Solomon's Lodge, near the present town of Wilmington, said to have been Chartered by Viscount Weymouth, Grand Master of England in 1735 (but the existence of which has not yet been proven). (See History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders.) The North Carolina Records, however, show nothing concerning this Lodge.


St. John's Lodge, in Wilmington, Chartered in 1755 by the Grand Lodge of England. This Lodge, still in existence, is Lodge No. 1 on the Roll of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina.


Hanover Lodge, near Wilmington, is said to have been first Chartered as an army Lodge while the North Carolina troops were in the northern Colonies during the French and Indian War. There is no documentary proof, however, of the existence of this Lodge at that time.


Royal White Hart Lodge, in the town of Halifax, first began Work on November 1, 1764, " by virtue of a letter of authority obtained from Cornelius Harnett, Grand Master of the lodge in Wilmington," to quote the language of the old manuscript Records still preserved at Halifax. A new Charter, under date of August 21, 1767, was issued to this Lodge by the Duke of Beaufort when he was Grand Master. This Charter is still preserved in the archives of Royal White Hart Lodge, now No. 2 on the Roll of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina.


The " First Lodge in Pitt County," as it was called, was Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Boston as early as,1766, for there is mention of it on the Records at Boston. This Lodge probably passed out of existence, however, before the War for Independence began.


St. John's Lodge, in New Bern, has its original Records which show that it was Chartered by Provincial Grand Master Montfort on January 1o, 1772.. This Lodge is now No. 3 on the Roll of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina.


74 FREEMASONRY IN NORTH CAROLINA St. John's Lodge, in Kinston, was Chartered by Provincial Grand Master Montfort, though its original Records have been lost. It is now Lodge No. 4 on the Roll of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina.


Royal Edwin Lodge, in Windsor, is another Lodge that was Chartered by Provincial Grand Master Montfort, though its original Records are also lost. Immediately after the War for Independence it was made Lodge No. S . That number has since been assigned to Charity Lodge of the same town.


Royal William Lodge, in Herford County, which was Chartered by Provincial Grand Master Montfort, surrendered its Charter in November 1799. None of its Records are known to exist.


Unanimity Lodge, in Edenton, has its original Records, which show that it was Chartered by Provincial Grand Master Montfort. Its first meeting was held under Dispensation on November 8, 1775. It is now Lodge No. 7 on the Roll of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina.


Blandford, or Blandford‑Bute Lodge, was in Bute County. That county was eventually divided into Warren and Franklin Counties. The Lodge was of the Colonial period. It held its first meeting, probably by Dispensation, on April 29, 1766, and owes its origin to Blandford Lodge (No. 3) of Petersburg, Virginia. At a meeting held on December 12, 1788, this Lodge accepted a new Charter under the name of Johnston‑Caswell Lodge, the new Charter being issued by the Grand Lodge of North Carolina.


Dornoch Lodge, in Warren County, earlier known as Bute County, sent Delegates to the Convention which organised the Grand Lodge of North Carolina after the War for Independence. The Convention held that the Lodge's Delegates should be given seats on the floor, since they had been made Masons lawfully, but were not permitted to vote for the election of Officers.


As has been stated, the Convention which was to have been held at Fayetteville in June 1787 did not take place. The Convention which organised the Grand Lodge assembled at Tarborough in December of that year. John Mare, of Unanimity Lodge, in Edenton, was President of the Convention, and Benjamin Manchester, of St. John's Lodge, in New Bern, was Secretary. The following Officers of the new Grand Lodge were elected on December ii: Samuel Johnston, later governor of the State, was chosen to be Grand Master; Governor Richard Caswell, to be Deputy Grand Master; Richard Ellis, to be Senior Grand Warden; Michael Payne, to be junior Grand Warden; Abner Neale, to be Grand Treasurer; James Glasgow, to be Grand Secretary. The Lodges and their Representatives at the first session of the Grand Lodge were as follows: Unanimity Lodge, of Edenton, John Mare and Stephen Cabarrus; St. John's Lodge, No. 2, of New Bern, Benjamin Manchester and Abner Neale; Royal Edwin Lodge, No. 4, of Windsor, John Johnston, Andrew Oliver and Silas William Arnett; Royal White Hart Lodge, No. 403 (English Constitution), of Halifax, William Muir, Samuel McDougall, and John Geddy; Royal William Lodge, No. 8, of Winton, Hardy Murfree, Patrick Garvey, and William Person Little; Union Lodge (afterwards Phoenix Lodge), of Fayetteville, James Porterfield; Bland‑ FREEMASONRY IN NORTH CAROLINA 75 ford, Bute Lodge, of Warren County, Edward Jones and William Johnson; St. John's Lodge, No. 3, of Kinston, Richard Caswell, James Glasgow, and William Randall; and John Macon and Henry Hill, Dornoch Lodge, No. 5. In the earliest written Records of the Grand Lodge it is recorded that Old Cone Lodge, of Salisbury, was present at the meeting held in December 1787 and that John Armstrong was its Delegate; nearly a year later Old Cone Lodge received its new authority by the following action of the Grand Lodge, dated November Zo, 1788: " Brother John Armstrong presented a petition from sundry brethren in and near Salisbury, praying a warrant to hold a lodge at that place by the name of ' Old Cone,' which was granted, and the Worshipful Brothers James Craig appointed Master; Alexander Dobbins, Senior Warden; and John Armstrong, Junior Warden." In 1791, when there were eighteen Lodges on the Roll of the Grand Lodge, the much disputed question of seniority and precedence was settled by ranking the Lodges in the following order: No. i, St. John's Lodge, of Wilmington; No. z, Royal White Hart Lodge, of Halifax; No. 3, St. John's Lodge, of New Bern; No. 4, St. John's Lodge, of Kinston; No. 5, Royal Edwin Lodge (now Charity Lodge), of Windsor; No. 6, Royal William Lodge, of Winton; No. 7, Unanimity Lodge, of Edenton; No. 8, Phcenix Lodge (formerly Union Lodge), of Fayetteville; No. 9, Old Cone Lodge, of Salisbury; No. 1o, Johnston‑Caswell Lodge, of Warrenton; No. i 1, Caswell Brotherhood Lodge, of Caswell County; No. 12., Independence Lodge, of Chatham County; No. 13, St. John's Lodge, of Duplin County; No. 14, Rutherford Fellowship Lodge, of Rutherford County; No. 15, Washington Lodge, of Beaufort County; No. 16, Tammany Lodge, of Martin County; No. 17, American George Lodge, of Hertford County; No. 18, King Solomon Lodge, of Jones County.


In November 1797 the Grand Lodge of North Carolina was legally incorporated by Chapter X of the Laws of 1917, which reads as follows: " Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of North Carolina, and it is hereby en acted by authority of the same, That the Most Worshipful Grand Master, the Right Worshipful Deputy Grand Master, Wardens and Members, who are at present, or in the future may be, of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, be, and they are hereby, constituted and declared to be a body corporate under the name and title of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, and by such name they shall have perpetual succession and a common seal, and they may sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, acquire and transfer property, and pass all such by‑laws and regulations as shall not be inconsistent with the Constitution and laws of this State or of the United States, anything to the contrary notwithstanding." When North Carolina ceded to the United States its vast domain west of the mountains for the purpose of erecting the State of Tennessee, and when Masonic Lodges had begun to spring up in that region, the two States were under a single Masonic jurisdiction known as the Grand Lodge of North‑Carolina and Tennessee. This state of affairs continued for some years. On December 76 FREEMASONRY IN NORTH CAROLINA 2, 1811, a Convention of all the Lodges of the State of Tennessee met at Knoxville, and drew up a Petition filled with fraternal expressions of Brotherly love and asking that the establishment of a separate Grand Lodge in Tennessee be authorised. At the next Session of the Grand Lodge this Petition was granted, and the Grand Master was authorised to take such action as was necessary to carry out the wishes of the Brethren west of the mountains. On September 30, 1813, the Charter of the New Grand Lodge was sent to Tennessee. This, the only Charter for a Grand Lodge which has ever been issued, reads as follows SIT LUX et Fuit To All and Every of Our Right Worshipful, Worshipful, and Well‑beloved Brethren Greeting Know Ye, That the Most Worshipful Robert Williams, Esq., General, etc., Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina and Tennessee of Ancient York Masons, has ordained and directed as follows, viz.: I, Robert Williams, Grand Master of Masons, by the powers and authorities vested in me as such by the Ancient Landmarks of our Order, and by and with the advice and consent of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina and Tennes see for this purpose had and obtained, Do hereby Declare and Ordain that the following Lodges within the State of Tennessee, viz.: Tennessee Lodge No. 41, in the town of Knoxville; Greenville Lodge No. 43, in the town of Greenville; Newport Lodge No. 50, in the town of Newport; Overton Lodge No. 51, in the town of Rogerville; King Solomon Lodge No. 52, in the town of Gallatin; Hiram Lodge No. 55, in the town of Franklin; Cumberland Lodge No. 6o, in the town of Nashville; Western Star Lodge No. 61, in Port Royal, Be, and they are hereby, authorised and empowered either by themselves or by their Representatives, chosen for that purpose, to constitute a Grand Lodge for the State of Tennessee. And I do, as Grand Master of Masons, by and with the advice and consent of our Grand Lodge aforesaid, renounce and release unto the said Lodges all jurisdiction over them; and I do hereby transfer and make over to said Lodges all the powers and authorities which our Grand Lodge had, by ancient usage, a right to exercise over them or either of them, upon the following terms and conditions, to‑wit: That the said Lodges, or a majority of them, shall within twelve months after the reception of this authority by them, either by themselves or by Representatives duly appointed by them for that purpose, meet in Convention, and then and there make such rules, regulations or laws for the government of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee as they may think proper; and that said Grand Lodge, when thus constituted shall once in each year and every year elect a brother of our Order as Grand Master of said Grand Lodge; that they also shall elect a Grand Senior Warden, Grand Junior Warden, Grand Secretary and Grand Treasurer; and the Grand Master so elected and installed, under his own sign manual shall appoint a Deputy Grand Master, Grand Senior Deacon, Grand Junior Deacon, Grand Chaplain, Grand Pursuivant, Grand Marshal, Grand Sword Bearer, and one or more FREEMASONRY IN NORTH CAROLINA 77 Grand Tylers, also such members of Stewards and other inferior officers as he may from time to time think proper to make.


It is further Ordered and Ordained that the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, thus constituted, shall be vested with all powers and authorities which any other Grand Lodge, known among our Craft, has a right to use and exercise; and that they may make and constitute new Lodges at their discretion within their jurisdiction, and the Charters of each and every Lodge, as well as those by them to be made and those recited in this instrument, to arrest and dissolve upon such terms as the said Grand Lodge of Tennessee may think proper to prescribe.


And it is further Ordered and Ordained that the said Grand Lodge of Tennessee take special care that the Ancient Landmarks of our most ancient and honourable Institution shall be in every instance whatever solemnly kept and preserved.


In testimony whereof I do hereunto set my hand and cause the Great Seal of Masonry to be affixed, at Raleigh, this 30th. day of September, A. L. 5813, A. D. 1813. Robt. Williams. [SEAL] Test A. Lucius, Grand Secretary.


In the early part of the nineteenth century the Grand Lodge of North Carolina began to consider the desirability of erecting a building in which to hold its meetings. On the Feast of St. John the Baptist, June 24, 1813, the corner stone of a wooden building was laid. This building stood at the corner of Dawson and Morgan Streets in the city of 'Raleigh. A few years after the war between the States, efforts were made to raise funds for the erection of a Temple at the corner of Fayetteville and Davie Streets, opposite the present Municipal Building. Those efforts were unsuccessful. The Grand Lodge remained in its old quarters until about the year 1880. After that it met in the local hall of the Lodges in Raleigh, and continued to do so until the completion of the present Masonic Temple at the corner of Fayetteville and Hargett Streets. The corner‑stone of this Temple was laid on October 16, 1907. The first meeting of the Grand Lodge was held there on January 12, 1908.


In the Grand Lodge of 1838, a resolution was passed looking to the estabment of a charity school under the care of Grand Lodge. The State of North Carolina was then evolving its first workable public school law. In other Grand jurisdictions there were flourishing schools under the auspices of Masonry; such were contemplated for North Carolina. In 1847 Grand Lodge undertook such an establishment and unanimously passed a resolution declaring that " in this seminary of learning there was to be education free from charge for such poor and destitute orphans, and children of living brother Masons, who have not the means to confer the benefits upon their offsprings; upon a fair and equitable plan of admission to be determined upon by the Grand Lodge." In 1850 Grand Lodge took action as to the location of such a school.


78 FREEMASONRY IN NORTH CAROLINA Oxford, in Granville County, was finally selected. A Committee consisting of J. B. Bynum, of Lincoln County, J. A. Lillington, of Davie County, and Patrick Henry Winston, of Bertie County, was directed to prepare an address setting forth the system of education proposed and the course of study. The address was issued. It contained some startling statements. The following is a copy.


It is not to be disguised that in most of the colleges of the Union the system of education has not kept ace with the improvements of the age. It is the intention of the Grand Loge that their institutions shall be able to furnish all young men with as full and complete collegiate education as can be obtained at any similar institution in the Union. No gentleman's education can be regarded as complete, nor ought to be regarded as complete, without a knowledge of the dead languages, but it is certainly improper that two thirds of a young man's life should be occupied in this one branch of education‑to be forgotten in most instances very soon after he engages in busy avocations of life, to the exclusion of those other more useful species of knowledge which will better prepare him to act well his part as a man.


Remember that this was written and broadcast in our North Carolina press in 1851. The Committee urged in this address that something of astronomy, natural philosophy, chemistry, geology, electricity and galvanism, as taught in some schools, be combined, but that a larger emphasis should be placed upon architecture, the power of steam and its application to machinery, various processes of manufactures, metallurgy, natural history, and engineering.


Property was purchased in Oxford. An Act of the General Assembly was passed for a Masonic college to be called St. John's College. Contracts were let, and the building erected. On June Zq., 1855, the corner‑stone of St. John's Col lege was laid by Grand Lodge. It is an interesting story to read of the ups and downs of those in charge of the work. The college was opened July 13, 1858. When the war between the States came on, it was moved in the Grand Lodge that St. John's College be converted into a military school. This, however, was not carried; indeed, the suggestion received scant support. St. John's College went down before the wave of war that swept the State. After the war between the States various attempts were made to conduct a girls' school, and for a year or two such a school was conducted there. The property belonged to the corporation. The contractors and builders had never been paid. In 1868 a sale was held according to the terms of the deed of trust that secured the debt, and the Grand Lodge of North Carolina became the owner of the property.


Space does not permit the interesting story of the various efforts to bring the property to some useful purpose. The crucial hour came in the Grand Lodge held in December 1872. John H. Mills, giant in intellect, heart, and body, moved " That St. John's College be made into an asylum for the protection, training, and education of indigent orphan children. " It was a great hour. The argument was lengthy. A vote was taken. A tie vote was announced.


FREEMASONRY IN NORTH CAROLINA 79 Nichols, then Grand Master and afterwards member of Congress, favour of the orphanage, and the resolution was adopted. Bro. elected Superintendent, and arrangements were made to approally to the work. In February 1873 the first child was received n. A student of the Horner School witnessed the incident. remonial. The student, afterwards Grand Master of the Grand ied a bundle of clothing as a donation to the institution. John anding in the doorway looking down the path that led to the His greeting was gruff but honest. The bundle was placed as hen a carryall wagon came up the driveway. A dull cloud hung man in the wagon stopped at the front of the building. Superasked him his mission. His answer was indifferent. " I am man who wants this boy," he said. The boy was delivered. frame shook with emotion. He lifted the pale child from the h with the paw of a lion. He raised him above his head as if ing him as a votive offering to Heaven. He dropped the child reast, then kissed him. It was the kiss of love. From that hour was safe, though its struggles have been many. Thus orphanage our State. The example set by Masonry was soon followed by orders, and fraternities, and by individuals charitably inclined. phanage is now perfect in all its equipment. Five thousand chilcared for. The State gives $30,000 annually to its support. A major been those not o might well be Though it i to Masonic acti 12, 1914, the M boro to house t Lodge and its i Masons are now achievements of of the old days, true character.


FREEMASONRY IN NORTH DAKOTA WALTER LINCOLN STOCKWELL NORTH DAKOTA became a State on November z, 1889. The Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of North Dakota was organised at the town of Mitchell, now in the State of South Dakota, on June 12, 1889, when the Grand Lodge of Dakota Territory divided. A few of those who were present on that memorable occasion are still alive.


Part of the present State of North Dakota was in the original grant made by England at the conclusion of the War for Independence. The remainder of the State, that which is contiguous to the Missouri River, formed part of the Louisiana Purchase. Although the region had been visited by two white men, O. O. Verendrye and O. O. Thompson, even before 18oo, for the most part it remained unknown until after the middle of the nineteenth century. True it is that Meriwether Lewis and William Clark spent the winter of 1803‑0q. near the present site of Washburn, on the Missouri River, while on their famous expedition into the northwestern regions. This camp site will be marked by the Grand Lodge some day because of the Masonic connections of those two intrepid American explorers. There was a Hudson's Bay Company trading post and a settlement at Pembina more than a century ago, as well as other trading posts along the Red River of the North. The United States Government established posts at Abercrombie, Pembina, Fort Rice, Fort Totten, Fort Buford, Fort Abraham Lincoln, and one or two other points. Early Masonic history centres about those military posts.


The first Lodge in the present jurisdiction of North Dakota was established at Fort Pembina. On September 13, 1863, Grand Master A. T. C. Pierson, of the Grand Lodge of Minnesota, granted a Dispensation to form a Lodge. This Dis pensation was given to a detachment of soldiers who were going to garrison the post at Fort Pembina. The Brethren named in the Dispensation were Bro. C. W. Nash, afterwards Grand Master, Bro. L. L. Armington, Bro. A. F. Chamberlain, and Bro. Charles H. Mix, together with eight others. The Lodge was known as Northern Light Lodge. Its first meeting was held in January 1864 in the quartermaster's building, a site now owned by the Grand Lodge and suitably marked. That winter Degrees were conferred upon several Brethren from Fort Garry, now Winnipeg, Province of Manitoba, Canada. Because of the removal of the soldiers who had been interested in this Lodge, the Dispensation was renewed and the Lodge itself was later removed to Fort Garry. Bro. John Schultz was named as Worshipful Master. Bro. A. G. Bannatyne, the second story of whose trading house was used as the Lodge room, was Senior Warden. Bro. William 80 FREEMASONRY IN NORTH DAKOTA 81 Inkster was junior Warden. Though the Lodge was Chartered in 1867, the Charter was never delivered. Because of troublesome times in the late 6o's the Lodge ceased to exist. It had, however, already laid the Masonic foundations in this jurisdiction and in the Canadian Northwest.


After the Sioux Indian massacre that occurred in western Minnesota during the summer of 1863, troops commanded by General H. H. Sibley pursued certain bands of those Indians along Apple Creek, to the south of Bismarck. Attached to General Sibley's staff was Lieutenant Beaver, a young Englishman, an Oxford graduate, a soldier of fortune, and a Mason. In a skirmish with the Indians late in July he was killed. Among the troops were many well‑known Minnesota Masons, R.'. W .'. Bro. John C. Whipple, Deputy Grand Master, being one of them. An Emergent Lodge was convened on the last Sunday in July, 1863, with Bro. A. J. Edgerton, afterwards Federal judge in South Dakota, as Worshipful Master. Bro. J. C. Braden, afterwards Grand Master, acted as Senior Warden, and Bro. Patch, as junior Warden. The remains of Bro. Beaver were buried with Masonic honours in the rifle pits overlooking Apple Creek. Later the body was disinterred and removed elsewhere. A marker has been placed on the site of this first Masonic service in North Dakota. On August g, 1864, the Masonic funeral of Bro. Charles B. Clark, a soldier in General Sully's command, took place at Fort Rice, north of Mandan. Seventy‑eight Masons, officers and soldiers, were present. Bro. M. W. Getchell, Worshipful Master of Cataract Lodge, No. 2, of Minneapolis, presided. Not many days later, on August 25, another Masonic funeral took place at Fort Abercrombie at the burial of Bro. Frederic Duhn. Bro. C. W. Nash, who had been Worshipful Master of the Lodge established at Fort Pembina the preceding fall, presided at this funeral. Doubtless there were also other Masonic ceremonies conducted during those Indian campaigns but of them there is apparently no record.


The second Lodge established in North Dakota was Yellowstone Lodge at Fort Buford. A Dispensation was granted on January 26, 1871, to Bro. Asa Blunt, an army officer, and eleven others, six of whom were officers of the Seventh United States Infantry. Thirty‑two Master Masons were Raised. This Lodge was Chartered on January io, 1872, as No. 88. In June 1874 it ceased to exist because the removal of the troops left it without an Officer or Past Master. The site of the Masonic Hall on the Fort Buford reservation has been definitely located and so soon as this land can be purchased for a reasonable price it will be included in the State Park, and a marker will be placed there.


This brief account brings us to the beginnings of permanent Masonry in the State of North Dakota. The days of Military Lodges and military Masonic ceremonies were gone. The coming of the Northern Pacific Railroad to North Dakota in the early 7o's led to the establishment of a settlement known as Fargo, at the Red River Crossing on the North Dakota side. Fargo has for years been the chief city of the State. On November 22, 1872, a Dispensation was issued to organise Shiloh Lodge in Fargo. The Charter‑No. 1o5‑was granted on January 14, 1874. The first Master of this Lodge was Bro. W. H. Smith. Bro.


82‑ FREEMASONRY IN NORTH DAKOTA Samuel G. Roberts was Senior Warden and Bro. Jacob Lowell, Sr., was junior Warden. Both Bro. Roberts and Bro. Lowell were well‑known citizens who played prominent parts in the development of Fargo. The Northern Pacific Railroad reached Bismarck in 1872‑. At once a busy pioneer town sprang up, destined to play a very important part in the life of Dakota Territory and afterwards in that of the State of North Dakota. A Dispensation to form a Lodge was issued in 1874 but because of certain irregularities a Charter was refused and another Dispensation was issued. On January 12‑, 1876, a Charter was issued to Bismarck Lodge, No. 12o, with Bro. Colonel Clement A. Lounsberry as Worshipful Master, Bro. John B. MacLean as Senior Warden, and Bro. Colonel E. M. Brown as junior Warden.


Now comes one of the most interesting episodes in the Masonic history of the Dakotas. While Minnesota had been establishing Lodges in the northern part of Dakota Territory, the Grand Lodge of Iowa had been organising others in the southern part of the Territory, especially in that part of it adjacent to the State of Iowa. On June 2‑z and 2‑3, 1875, a Convention of the Lodges of Dakota Territory met at Elk Point and formed the Grand Lodge of Dakota Territory, as was their right. The claim was made that notice had been sent to Lodges in the northern part of the Territory, at least to the Lodge in Fargo and to the supposed Lodge at Pembina. Knowledge of a Lodge at Bismarck was disclaimed. In any event, neither Shiloh Lodge, No. 105, of Fargo, nor Bismarck Lodge, No. 12.o, was represented, and in consequence neither became part of the Grand Lodge of Dakota Territory. Those two Lodges continued on the Register of the Grand Lodge of Minnesota with the approval of the Officers of that jurisdiction, in spite of the well‑known American Masonic idea of territorial sovereignty. On this point a bitter controversy raged between these two Grand Lodges for several years. Finally, on June 7, 1879, Shiloh Lodge, No. io5, came under the jurisdiction of Dakota Territory as Lodge No. 8. Not until June i88o, however, did Bismarck Lodge, No. i2‑o, become a member of the Territorial Grand Lodge. Before that took place, three other Lodges, those of Pembina, of Casselton, and Acacia Lodge at Grand Forks, had been organised and Chartered. Thus, instead of becoming Lodge No. 2 on the register of the Grand Lodge of North Dakota, Bismarck Lodge became Lodge No. 5. During the 8o's, up to the time of the division of the Territory into a northern and a southern part, twenty‑six Lodges had been organised. Eight of them were along the main line of the Northern Pacific Railroad, and seven of them were south of that line. Sixteen Lodges were north of the Northern Pacific Railroad line and only two or three of the sixteen were outside what is commonly known as the Red River Valley.


With 31 Lodges having a total membership of 1322‑ Masons, the Grand Lodge of North Dakota began its separate existence. Among the Brethren who formed the Grand Lodge were some of the best‑known citizens of the State.


Bro. Dr. James W. Cloes, of Jamestown, was elected Grand Master; Bro. Frank J. Thompson, of Fargo, was Deputy Grand Master; Bro. John F. Selby, of Hills‑ FREEMASONRY IN NORTH DAKOTA 83 boro, was Senior Grand Warden; Bro. Dr. A. B. Herrick, of Lisbon, was junior Grand Warden; Bro. Charles E. Jackson, of Pembina, was Grand Treasurer; Bro. David S. Dodds, of Lakota, was Grand Secretary; Bro. Rev. W. T. Currie, of Grand Forks, was Grand Chaplain; Bro. William H. Topping, of Grand Forks, was Grand Marshal; Bro. William H. Gannon, of Ellendale, was Senior Grand Deacon; Bro. Warren S. Wilson, of Sanborn, was junior Grand Deacon; Bro. James H. Marshall, of Bismarck, was Senior Grand Steward; Bro. Roswell W. Knowlton, of Fargo, was junior Grand Steward; Bro. George L. McGregor, of Jamestown, was Grand Sword Bearer; Bro. Henry Baldwin, of Park River, was Grand Pursuivant; Bro. Louis B. Hanna, of Page, was Grand Tyler. During the more than forty‑five years that have elapsed since the organisation of the Grand Lodge of North Dakota, the entire State has been settled. The Register of the Grand Lodge records 12.9 Chartered Lodges having a membership of over 15,000.


The Grand Lodge of North Dakota has from the beginning emphasised the educational side of Freemasonry. Bro. Theodore S. Parvin, the distinguished first Grand Secretary of Iowa, who founded the Grand Lodge library, presented the Grand Lodge with the books which formed the nucleus of the collection. When that library was destroyed by fire in 1893, Bro. Parvin again furnished a nucleus from which, during the last thirty‑nine years, one of the most complete Grand Lodge libraries in this country has developed. The library is strictly a Masonic and reference collection. It serves not only members of the Craft but also every other seeker after Light. It is one of the fine cultural and educational institutions of the State, and its service is widely and favourably recognised. Since 1915 the library has been under the direction of Miss Clara A. Richards, a trained librarian.


For over twenty years the Grand Lodge of North Dakota has been carrying on a programme of service and education, and some ten years ago the Committee on Masonic Service and Education was established. According to the Grand Lodge By‑Laws, the function of this Committee is " to bring to the whole Craft information upon the laws, customs, traditions, symbolism, history, and philosophy of Masonry, and to translate Masonic principles into the life and conduct of individual Masons." A full‑time Executive Secretary is responsible for carrying this work forward. For several years Bro. William J. Hutcheson has been the Executive Secretary.


Since 1916 the Grand Lodge has maintained an Educational Fund, sometimes called an Educational Foundation. From this fund loans are made to worthy young people seeking a higher education. The Foundation now has a capital fund of more than $2.5,000. It has already made some 650 loans totaling more than $5o,ooo.


The relief work of the Dakota Grand Lodge has been under the direction of three Trustees. A fund of some $5o,ooo has been accumulated, and income from that is used to assist particular Lodges in their own relief work. An an nual contribution of fifteen cents per capita is contributed from the general 84 FREEMASONRY IN NORTH DAKOTA fund, and each newly made Master Mason also contributes $S to the relief fund. Beginning with the year 1932‑ a special tax of fifty cents per capita was collected to create a Home or Hospital Fund.


The Grand Lodge of North Dakota has in times past made substantial contributions to welfare work. In 1913 the Grand Lodge was assisted by the Grand Chapter, the Royal Arch Masons, and the Grand Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star to erect and furnish a sixteen‑bed cottage at the State Tuberculosis Sanitorium in Dunseith. This praiseworthy undertaking involved an expenditure of some $8ooo. During the summer of 1931 a cabin cottage costing $looo was erected at Camp Grassick by the Grand Lodge. This institution, which is maintained by the North Dakota Tuberculosis Society, is a summer camp for undernourished children.


The Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of North Dakota adheres faithfully to the fundamentals of Freemasonry. It believes that, since Masonry is a progressive science, the Fraternity must always adapt its pro gramme to the needs of the present. North Dakota Masons are forward‑looking and acting.


During the Spanish‑American War of 1898 the North Dakota Military Lodge under Dispensation No. i was attached to the First North Dakota Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Islands. During the World War, North Dakota Military Lodge under Dispensation No. z was organised for overseas Work with the 164th United States Infantry.


Needless to say, many leaders in the early life of the Territory and State were Freemasons. A majority of the governors, United States senators, members of Congress, members of the Supreme Court, and State officials have been Masons.


The other Bodies of Masonry are represented in North Dakota by the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons and by the Grand Commandery of Knights Templar which was organised when the Territory attained Statehood. The Grand Council of Royal and Select Masons was organised in 1916. The Grand Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star, closely allied with Masonry though not a Masonic Body, was organised in 1894. The Scottish Rite Masons have four Consistories under the leadership of Inspector‑General, Bro. Walter R. Reed. North Dakota is in the Southern Jurisdiction. The Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of North Dakota, which represents Freemasonry in this State, is indeed one of the constructive and stabilising influences in the Commonwealth.


FREEMASONRY IN OHIO NELSON WILLIAMS SYMBOLIC FREEMASONRY FREEMASONRY first made itself known in that part of the great region lying northwest of the Ohio River, commonly called the Northwest Territory, many years before any part of the region was crowned with the dignity and sovereignty of Statehood. On April 30, i8oz, the Congress of the United States passed an Act authorising the call for a convention to form a constitution for a new State to be known as Ohio, whose boundaries were to be essentially as they are at present. This convention assembled at Chillicothe on November I, i8oz. After almost a month of deliberation, a constitution of State government was ratified and signed on November z9, thus adding a new member to the sisterhood of States composing the Federal Union. There is positive proof, however, that Freemasonry was actively at Work in the Northwest Territory for more than a decade before the State of Ohio was carved from that vast domain, and undoubtedly this had much to do not only with creating sentiment in favour of Statehood but also with shaping the policies of the new State and solving its problems. Freemasonry came not as a thief in the night to pilfer from those of sturdy body and brave heart who with limited means were blazing a way through the unbroken forests that civilisation might advance. Rather, it came unheralded and without acclaim, as it always does. It came bearing aloft the torch destined to light the fires of fraternal brotherhood in the valleys and on the hills of the great territory then chiefly inhabited by Indians.


Previous to the Declaration of Independence, on February 15, 1776, to be exact, John Rowe, " Grand Master for North America and the territories thereunto belonging," who had been appointed by Lord Beaufort, Grand Master of Masons in England, commissioned " Joel Clark, Esquire, Master of the American Union Lodge, now erected in Roxbury (a part of Boston), or wherever your body shall remove in the Continent of America, provided it is where no Grand Master is appointed." Reference will be made later to the formal Organisation of this Lodge.


By an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1774, the whole of the Northwest Territory was annexed to the Province of Quebec and made a part of it. That Province had been created and established by the royal procla mation of October 7, 1763. Thus, when the Warrant for American Union Lodge, No. I, was granted, according to the statement already quoted, the entire 85 86 FREEMASONRY IN OHIO Northwest Territory was under the dominion of England. Since no Masonic Lodge or Masonic Grand Lodge had been established and organised in that region, the Grand Lodge of England was fully authorised under the fundamental law of Freemasonry as practiced in America, to issue a Warrant for a Masonic Lodge there, or for a Lodge which would function there.


The claim of the English monarch to that vast northwestern region was ceded to the United States by the treaty of peace signed at Paris on September 3, 1783. There is no evidence that the Grand Lodge of England ever claimed jurisdiction over that part of the Northwest Territory now included within the boundaries of the State of Ohio. It might be inferred, however, that this is shown by the granting of the Warrant for American Union Lodge, No. i. This Lodge was revivified and established as a permanent one at Marietta, in the Northwest Territory, in June 1790.


Precisely when Freemasonry first entered the Northwest Territory, and by whom it was first introduced, cannot be stated with certainty, but there is evidence that it manifested itself some years before any organised Lodge existed in the region. Good authority states that on January 1o, 1789, at the burial of judge James Mitchell Varnum, a disinguished Mason who was one of the pioneer settlers at Marietta, the funeral ceremonies were conducted by Masons without an organised Lodge formation. Representatives of the Six Tribes of Indians, then holding a parley with the settlers at Marietta in an effort to draw up a treaty of peace, participated in the ceremonies. The redskins marched two by two in the procession, so it is said, an unusual concession, since their invariable custom was to march in single file. The account of this funeral tells that the Indians showed much interest in the ceremonies, and that they apparently had some knowledge of Masonic signs and symbols. How and where they could have received instruction in the Secret Art is at present wrapped in a veil of mystery which will probably never be removed.


On January io, 1786, General Rufus Putnam and General Benjamin Tupper, distinguished military men and both Masons, who had been appointed by Congress in 1785 to survey lands that had been secured by treaty with the Indians in the territory northwest of the Ohio River, gave public notice to all citizens desirous of joining in the settlement of the Ohio River country to meet in Boston on March 1, 1786. Delegates were to be selected in counties where people had an interest in western settlement. On the appointed date a convention was held at the Bunch of Grapes Tavern, long a well‑known and favourite meetingplace of Boston Freemasons. After choosing General Putnam as Chairman, a land company to be known as the Ohio Company was organised.


A second meeting of the Ohio Company was held in Boston on March 8, 1787. General Putnam and two others were then appointed as a Committee to negotiate with Congress for the purchase of approximately a million acres of land along the Ohio River in the southeastern part of the Northwest Territory. Without mentioning many other details, it is enough to say that the land was ultimately purchased. During the winter of 1787 General Putnam and forty‑ FREEMASONRY IN OHIO 87 seven other pioneers, many of whom were Freemasons, crossed the mountains of Pennsylvania and made their way to the mouth of Youghiogheny River. There they built a boat, said to have been forty‑five feet long and twelve feet wide, and christened it the Mayflower. In this they floated down the Ohio to the mouth of the Muskingum River during the spring of 1788. They landed there and established the first white settlement in the Northwest Territory. The city of Marietta is built upon the very site of that early settlement.


No available record shows how many of these early pioneers were Freemasons, but it is known that several besides General Putnam, General Tupper, and Captain Jonathan Heart were members of the Fraternity. Those men carried the Rituals of Freemasonry in their heads, its principles in their hearts. Their lives were examples attesting the excellence of the Order's tenets and teachings, and of the virtues it enjoins. General Putnam was Master of American Union Lodge and Custodian of its Warrant, or Charter. Captain Heart, who was stationed at Fort Harmar on the bank of the Muskingum River opposite Marietta, was also a member of that Lodge and a Past Master, as well as a Past Grand Lecturer of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut. In 1777 this Lodge was within the jurisdiction of New York, where there was a Grand Master. Consequently it applied to him for confirmation of its Acts. The Deputy Provincial Grand Master of New York issued them a new Warrant as Military Union Lodge, No. i, but the Lodge continued to function under its old name.


On June zs, 1790, W . . Bro. Putnam, with ten other Brothers, held a meeting at Marietta to consider the subject of Lodge Organisation. A Petition signed by all those present was addressed to Bro. Jonathan Heart as Master of American Union Lodge, the army organisation, requesting him to revive and re‑establish the Lodge as permanently located. To this Petition Bro. Heart replied promptly. Since his letter and the conclusions he reached played such an important part in the organisation of the first Lodge in the Northwest Territory, the following quotation* from it is given here: Previous to the late Revolution, all authority exercised in America, with respect to Masonry, was derived from the Grand Lodge in Great Britain, delegated to deputies in and over certain districts, by virtue of which all regular lodges were then held. The Federal territories not coming within the district of any Grand Lodge holding under authority of the Grand Lodge of Great Britain, and the United States not as yet having formed a Federal head in Masonry, it may be in doubt whether, at this time, there is any power in America having jurisdiction over the Federal territories. From whence it follows, the power is still in the Grand Lodge in Great Britain, unless there can be found some ower which has been delegated other ways than through the present Gran Lodges, and extending its jurisdiction to this country. Whether the warrant under which you wish to be convened affords protection is the next subject of inquiry.


*Since the original of this letter was undoubtedly lost in a fire of r8or that destroyed the Records of the Lodge, what appears here is an exact reprint of an account that stands in an early history of American Union Lodge. The paragraph beginning with the words, " Wherefore, under every consideration with respect to . . . etc.," seems to be incomplete.


88 FREEMASONRY IN OHIO This warrant was granted* in the year 1776, previous to the Declaration of Independence, by Richard Gridley, Esq., Deputy Grand Master, whose authority extended to all parts of North America where no special Grand Masters were appointed, as may appear from the Book of Constitution, and as expressed in the same instrument. It will therefore follow that, there being no special Grand Master for this territory, a more ample authority for holding a lodge in this country could not be obtained, provided there was a competent number of the former members present. But there are only two, viz., Brother Putnam and myself, who were actual enrolled members. To remove this objection it is observable there are two others who are members and resident in this country ‑but at present at too great a distance to attend. There are also two of the petitioners who were constant visitors of this lodge during the war, one of them a Past Master [Brother Benjamin Tupper], who by custom is a member of all lodges. There are also others of the petitioners who have frequently visited the lodge at different times.


Wherefore, under every consideration with respect to your situation‑the difficulty of obtaining authority, a doubt whether more ample authority can at this time be obtained‑the right which is ever retained by the individuals of incorporating themselves where there is no existing power already lodged with particulars for that purpose.


Wherefore, being the present Master of the Lodge held under authority of said warrant, as may appear by having recourse to the records deposited in Frederick's Lodge, held at Farmington, State of Connecticut, and being the eldest Ancient Mason within said territory, I have thought proper, with the advice of Brother Putnam, member, and Brother Benjamin Tupper, Past Master, to grant the request contained in your petition, and will meet you in Campus Martius, on Monday, the 28th inst., at six o'clock P.M. for the purpose of forming you into a lodge.


I am, with every sentiment of respect, Brother, Your most obedient and humble servant, Jonathan Heart, M. A. U. Lodge.


In accordance with the decision he expressed in this letter, W.‑. Bro. Heart ordered that a meeting of the Petitioners be called for June 28, 1790. The following Brothers were present at that meeting: W.. Bro. Benjamin Tupper, Past Master, and Bros. Thomas Stanley, William Burnham, Griffin Green, William Mills, Robert Oliver, and William Stacy. The Lodge was opened in due form with W.‑. Bro. Jonathan Heart as Master; W.‑. Bro. Benjamin Tupper, Past Master, as Senior Warden; and W.‑. Bro. Rufus Putnam, Past Master, as junior Warden. The Warrant issued for American Union Lodge on February 15, 1776, by John Rowe, Grand Master of St. John's Provincial Grand Lodge, at Boston, was read. All those present were elected members of the Lodge, except Bros. Heart and Putnam who were already members. From then until the year 1815, American Union Lodge, No. i, as it was called, was recognised as a legitimate and regularly formed Lodge, of Master Masons.


*This statement is erroneous. Richard Gridley signed at the bottom as " Deputy Grand Master," but John Rowe, who issued the document, signed at the top as " Grand Master." FREEMASONRY IN OHIO 89 On March Z2., i8o1, the hall, the Charter and all other Records and papers of American Union Lodge, No. 1, were destroyed by fire. Although its old Records were nearly all reprinted in 1859, little is known about its activities during the period between its reorganisation, or rehabilitation, in 1790, and the year i8oi. After the destructive fire, American Union Lodge, No. i, requested the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, which was the Jurisdiction immediately adjoining on the East, to issue another Warrant to it, but this the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania declined to do. It then appealed to the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, which issued a conditional Dispensation authorising American Union Lodge, No. i, to continue as a regular Lodge until a Grand Lodge should be organised in Ohio. The Lodge was reorganised under this Dispensation in January 1804.


On October 15, 1788, judge John Cleves Symmes, a Freemason, together with certain associates, entered into a contract with the Treasury of the United States for the purchase of a large tract of land lying in the Northwest Territory between the Great and Little Miami Rivers and north of the Ohio River. They were able to pay for only part of the land purchased. On September 30, 1794, the government gave them a patent for 2.48,540 acres of the land covered by their contract. This land extended northward from the Ohio River. Meanwhile, the second white settlement in the Northwest Territory was established on the north bank of the Ohio River near the mouth of the Little Miami River and " in the Symmes purchase." At about the same time still another settlement, probably an offshoot of that on the Little Miami River, was established at a point nearly opposite the mouth of the Licking River. Both sites are now within the Cincinnati city limits. Some of the early pioneers in those settlements, among them General Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory, were Freemasons. Desirous of having an organised Lodge in their midst, these men Petitioned the Grand Lodge of New Jersey for a Warrant. Their Petition was granted, and on September 8, 1791, the Grand Lodge of New Jersey issued a Warrant for a Lodge to be known as Nova Cxsarea Lodge, No. 1o. This Lodge was formally organised under its Warrant on December 27, 1794, although neither the Worshipful Master nor the Senior Warden named in the Warrant was present. This Warrant, still in a good state of preservation, is now in possession of the Lodge known on the Grand Lodge Roll of Ohio as Nova Cxsarea Harmony Lodge, No. 2, and commonly called " N. C. Harmony Lodge, No. 2." The Record of the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey at its Annual Communication held in 1805 shows that up to that time no report had ever been made to it by Nova Coesarea Lodge, No. io, since the time of granting its Charter. Among the Records of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, however, is a copy of a letter dated December io, 1805, addressed to it by Matthew Nimmo, late Master of Nova Coesarea Lodge, No. 1o. He returned the Charter with the statement that the Lodge could no longer pay its dues to the Grand Lodge. Apparently this action did not meet with the approval of some other 9o FREEMASONRY IN OHIO members of the Lodge, for they requested the return of the Charter. This the Grand Lodge of New Jersey refused to do. Following this surrender of the Charter, a number of former members of Nova Cxsarea Lodge, No. io, Petitioned the Grand Lodge of Kentucky for a Dispensation granting the establishment of a Lodge in the city of Cincinnati. The Dispensation providing for the establishment of a Lodge to be known as Cincinnati Lodge, No. 13, was granted. This Lodge was organised, and on December 27, 18o5, its Master was Installed by three Past Masters of Nova Cxsarea Lodge, No. io. The Records of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky do not show just when the Dispensation for Cincinnati Lodge, No. 13, was issued, but that probably took place shortly before December 27, 18o5. The Records do show, however, that a Charter was issued to Cincinnati Lodge, No. 13, on March 19, 18o6.


It appears that although the Charter of Nova Cxsarea Lodge, No. io, had been surrendered to the Grand Lodge of New Jersey at the time when the Grand Lodge of Kentucky Chartered Cincinnati Lodge, No. 13, the Charter had not in fact been cancelled and annulled. Consequently there was conflict of opinion as to the relative rights and authority of the two Lodges. This conflict continued until the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of Ohio held on January 7, 1812. At that time a Petition was presented to the Grand Lodge of Ohio soliciting mediation in the affairs of the Cincinnati and Nova Cxsarea Lodges of Cincinnati.


A resolution adopted by the Grand Lodge of Ohio recommended that Cincinnati Lodge, No. 13, pay its dues to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, and that the Lodge have leave to withdraw its Charter from the Grand Lodge of Ohio and return it to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky. Further, that Cincinnati Lodge, No. 13, notify the Grand Lodge of New Jersey of any steps taken, request it to return the original Charter of Nova Cxsarea Lodge, No. io, and assure it that all delinquent dues would be paid. The resolution also provided that Cincinnati Lodge, No. 13, should be known and called by the name of Nova Cxsarea Lodge henceforth, that it should be represented in the Grand Lodge of Ohio by that name, and that upon complying with these provisions it should be entitled to a Charter. Otherwise it was to have none. The Records of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky show that the Charter of Cincinnati Lodge, No. 13, was surrendered on August 27, 1812.


At the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of Ohio held on January 5, 1813, it was reported that differences existing between members of Nova Cxsarea Lodge, No. io, and Cincinnati Lodge, No. 13, had been amicably set tled, that each Lodge had paid its dues to its Mother Grand Lodge, that each had surrendered its Charter, and that the two Lodges desired to be formed into a single subordinate Lodge under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Ohio. A resolution was thereupon adopted directing that a Charter be issued to the Petitioners for the establishment of a Lodge in Cincinnati to be known as Nova Cxsarea Harmony Lodge, No. 2. Upon later request, the Grand Lodge of New Jersey returned to Nova Cxsarea Harmony Lodge, No. 2, the Charter origi‑ FREEMASONRY IN OHIO 91 nally issued by it for Nova Cxsarea Lodge, No. 1o. This Charter is still safely preserved, as has been explained.


Another of the Masonic Lodges early established in the Northwest Territory was located at a place known as Old Mingo Town, on the west bank of the Ohio River three miles south of the present city of Steubenville. A War rant for a Lodge to be known as Mingo Lodge, No. 78, to be located in Old Mingo Town in the Northwest Territory, was granted by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania on March 4, 1799. On April 1o, 1799, the Grand Master issued a Dispensation to Absalom Baird, empowering him to open and Constitute the Lodge and to Install its Officers. The Dispensation returned to the Grand Lodge showed that an Installation of Officers of the Lodge had taken place on May 21, 1799. This Lodge had a brief existence of only seven years. It was not functioning when the Grand Lodge of Ohio was organised in 18o8.


On October 19, 1803, a Charter was granted by the Grand Lodge of Connecticut to Samuel Tyke and twenty‑one other residents of the Connecticut Western Reserve for the establishment of a Masonic Lodge in the town of War ren. This was to be known as Erie Lodge, No. 47. Bro. Samuel Tylee was sent by the Petitioners to the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut held at New Haven in 1804. Upon the granting of the Charter it was placed in Bro. Tylee's charge and he was appointed a Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut for the purpose of Constituting Erie Lodge, No. 47, and Installing its Officers. On March 16, 1804, the Deputy Grand Master, thus appointed and authorised, assisted by other Grand Officers pro tempore, appointed for the purpose from among the Brethren present, opened a Deputy Grand Lodge, Constituted the Lodge, and Installed the Officers who had been chosen by the Petitioners. Later the Grand Officers made a report to the Grand Lodge of Connecticut.


The Grand Lodge of Massachusetts granted a Charter to a number of Masons living in and near the village of Chillicothe, Ross County, Ohio, on November 22, 18o5. The Lodge was to be known as Scioto Lodge, No. 2, and to be located at Chillicothe. Colonel Thomas Gibson, Auditor of the Northwest Territory, was designated as the first Master; Jarvis Cutler, as Senior Warden; Nathaniel Willis, as junior Warden. This Lodge actively participated in organising the Grand Lodge of Ohio. After the organisation of the Grand Lodge this became Lodge No. 6 on the Roll of particular Lodges in Ohio.


On October i9, 1803, the Grand Lodge of Connecticut issued a Charter to a group of Brethren residing at or near the town of Worthington, in what had been the Northwest Territory, for a Lodge to be known as New England Lodge, No. 48, and to be located in Worthington. Rev. James Kilbourne was named as first Master. This Lodge continued to function under its Connecticut Charter until that was surrendered to the Grand Lodge of Ohio in exchange for a temporary Dispensation. At the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of Ohio held in 1814, a Charter was granted to the Lodge at Worthington under the name of New England Lodge, No. 4.


92 FREEMASONRY IN OHIO When the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania held its Annual Communication on June 24, 1805, it granted a Warrant for the establishment of a Lodge to be located at the town of Zanesville, Ohio, and to be known as Amity Lodge, No. 105. Lewis Cass was named as the Master, William Smyth as Senior Warden, and Peter Fuller as junior Warden. Because of lack of travelling facilities in those days, or some other reason, this Lodge was not Constituted until sometime in 1806. The exact date of its Constitution is not known. Since, however, its first meeting took place on September 26, 1806, this Lodge was doubtless Constituted and Organised at about that time. At its first meeting, a set of jewels was presented to the Lodge by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. At a meeting of Amity Lodge, No. 105, held on August 2, 1807, it was unanimously resolved that the Lodge coincide with the opinion of Erie Lodge, No. 47, and of Scioto Lodge, No. 2, that a Grand Lodge of Masons should be formed in Ohio. A Committee of three from this Lodge was appointed to promote such an organisation.


On January 4, 1808, Representatives of six Ohio Lodges met in Chillicothe, according to arrangements previously made, for the purpose of organising the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Ohio. These Lodges included American Union Lodge, No. 1, of Marietta, and Scioto Lodge, No. 2, of Chillicothe, both under obedience to the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts; Cincinnati Lodge, No. 13, of Cincinnati, under obedience to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky; Erie Lodge, No. 47, of Warren, and New England Lodge, No. 48, of Worthington, both under obedience to the Grand Lodge of Connecticut; and Amity Lodge, No. 105, of Zanesville, under obedience to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. Bro. Robert Oliver, of American Union Lodge, No. 1, was made Chairman, and Bro. George Todd, of Erie Lodge, No. 47, was made Secretary of the Convention. Although New England Lodge, No. 48, had been very active in arranging for the Convention, the Representative of that Lodge was denied a seat because he lacked the requisite credentials.


First of all, a resolution declaring it to be expedient to form a Grand Lodge in the State of Ohio was proposed. Pending a discussion of it, the meeting adjourned till the following evening. Then the resolution was unanimously adopted and a Committee was appointed to prepare rules necessary for carrying it into effect. The Committee's report was adopted, and at an adjourned Session of the Convention, held on the evening of January 7, 1808, the following resolution reported by the Committee was unanimously adopted Resolved, That a Grand Lodge be formed, to be known and styled the Grand Lodge of Ohio, whose powers shall be to grant charters and dispensations, on proper application, to all such as shall apply and shall be deemed worthy, and shall have jurisdiction over the same, and shall in all respects be clothed with full powers, as a Grand Lodge, according to ancient and due form, and agreeably to the rules and landmarks of Masonry.


The Convention also ordered that the first Annual Communication of the FREEMASONRY IN OHIO 93 Grand Lodge should be held on the first Monday of January i8og. At that time each Lodge was to surrender to the Grand Lodge a copy of its By‑Laws and the Charter under which it had been Working. The Grand Lodge was then to issue a new Charter to each Lodge and to number those Charters serially according to priority of date of the Charters surrendered.


After adopting this resolution, the Convention then elected Grand Officers to serve during the following year. General Rufus Putnam, of American Union Lodge, No. i, was elected as first Grand Master; Thomas Henderson, of Cin cinnati Lodge, No. 13, as Deputy Grand Master; George Todd, of Erie Lodge, No. 47, as Grand Senior Warden; and Isaac Van Horn, of Amity Lodge, No. ios, as junior Grand Warden. Other line Officers were also chosen. At the final Session, which took place on January 8, 18o8, it was resolved that members of the Convention should sign the Proceedings. When this was done, the Body adjourned. The Installation of the Grand Officers who had been elected was deferred until January 2, i8o9, the date of the first Annual Communication. This was probably done because General Rufus Putnam, Grand Master‑elect, was not present at the Convention that nominated him. These, then, were the steps leading to the organisation of the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Ohio, a Sovereign Grand Lodge that now has a place among the leading Grand Lodges of the world. The Grand Lodge of Ohio was the sixteenth Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons established in the United States. Those of Massachusetts, Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Georgia, New Jersey, New York, South Carolina, North Carolina, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, Kentucky, and Delaware had already been organised.


Early years of the Grand Lodge of Ohio were not without their perplexities. At the first Annual Communication, held at Chillicothe, this problem arose: Could a Grand Lodge function when only four of its Constituent Lodges were represented, if five Lodges had participated in the organisation Convention? American Union Lodge, No. z, of Marietta, sent no Representative to this Annual Communication, and New England Lodge, No. 48, of Worthington, whose Representative had been barred from participating in the organisation of the Grand Lodge, also sent none. Since only four Lodges had been represented, the question mentioned above was now raised.


The whole matter was referred to a Committee of three, of which General Lewis Cass, afterwards Grand Master of Masons in Ohio, was Chairman. The Committee's report stated that the presence of five Lodges was not essential to organising a Grand Lodge. It said that although Constitutions of several Grand Lodges, which had been examined, contained provisions requiring the presence of five Lodges in order to organise a Grand Lodge, and although the Committee thought it likely that such a requirement might properly be adopted by the Grand Lodge of Ohio whenever the number of its particular Lodges had increased, yet until the adoption of such a regulation by the Grand Lodge, so the Committee said, the precedent set by the Grand Lodge of England might 94 FREEMASONRY IN OHIO safely be followed. The report of the committee referred to a statement in Preston's Illustrations of Masonry in which it is said that, at the organisation of the Grand Lodge of England, which took place in 1717 at the Appletree Tavern in London, only four Lodges were represented. Those were the Lodge at the Goose and Gridiron Tavern in St. Paul's Churchyard; that at the Crown Tavern in Parker's Lane near Drury Lane; that at the Appletree Tavern in Charles Street, Covent Garden; and that at the Rummer and Grapes Tavern in Channel Row, Westminster. Those were the only four Lodges in the south of England at the time. In view of all this, the Committee stated that although the laws of most Grand Lodges require the participation of five Lodges, the ancient regulations of the Fraternity do not make any such requirement. The report as outlined here was finally adopted, and except for the Grand Master, who was not present, all the Grand Officers who had been elected at the Convention of the previous year were now regularly Installed.


A letter from the Grand Master‑elect, General Rufus Putnam, stated that his physical condition made it impossible for him to serve, and that he was obliged to decline the high honour which had been conferred upon him. To the great regret of everybody, the proceedings were carried on in his absence. This Installation of Grand Officers was merely formal, since it was necessary only in order to complete the organisation of the Grand Lodge that had been begun the year before. On the fourth day of the Session Grand Officers were elected and Installed. The Grand Master was M.'. W.'. Bro. Samuel Huntington, at that time governor of the State of Ohio. By incorporating a few necessary changes, the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky was adopted as the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Ohio. A code of By‑Laws consisting of forty‑six Articles was adopted for the government of the Grand Lodge.


At the second Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge, which convened at Chillicothe on January 1, 181o, New England Lodge, No. 48, of Worthington, was represented, but American Union Lodge, No. i, of Marietta, for reasons not stated in the Record of the Session, was not. Indeed, the old American Union Lodge, No. 1, was never again represented in the Grand Lodge of Ohio. At the Annual Communication held in 1816 its Charter was declared to be null and void. The reason for this action was that the authority of the Charter expired at the time when a Grand Lodge was formed in Ohio. It will be recalled that the Charter of American Union Lodge, No. i, held from the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, was largely a copy of the Charter granted by John Rowe to the Military, or Travelling, American Union Lodge. This Charter had been destroyed by fire, as has been explained.


American Union Lodge, No. 1, rebelled against the Grand Lodge's order that all particular Lodges surrender their Charters to it and receive new Charters. It refused to surrender its Charter. It even attempted to continue as an independent Lodge after the organisation of the Grand Lodge, although it had been one of the first Lodges to suggest an organisation Convention and had participated in the meeting. At the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge FREEMASONRY IN OHIO 95 held in 1815, strong resolutions condemning the attitude of American Union Lodge, No. i, were adopted. The Grand Lodge declared that by refusing to recognise its jurisdiction the rebellious Lodge had forfeited its right to Labour and had become an unauthorised and unwarranted Lodge. The resolutions barred all members of American Union Lodge, No. 1, and all Masons who should sit in it with knowledge of its attitude, from again visiting or holding membership in the loyal, legitimate Lodges of the State. American Union Lodge, No. 1, was granted the right to hold one meeting, however, to consider the resolutions that had been sent to it by the Grand Secretary. Having failed to take any favourable action in the matter, American Union Lodge, No. i, lost its Charter. An appeal was taken to the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, but it also refused to sanction American Union Lodge, No. i, in remaining independent of the Grand Lodge of Ohio.


At this same Annual Communication a number of members of American Union Lodge, No. 1, which had previously been under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, presented a Petition praying that a Charter for a new Lodge be granted them. They asked that the Charter be in the nature of a revivor of their former Charter and that it be under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Ohio. They also prayed that their original number be retained. This petition was granted. The Lodge became a constituent of the Grand Lodge of Ohio and from then on it was represented in the Grand Lodge at its Annual Communications. In accordance with earlier action by the Grand Lodge, its Roll of subordinates now retained American Union Lodge as No. i. Nova Cxsarea Harmony Lodge became No. 2; Erie Lodge became No. 3 ; New England Lodge became No. 4; Amity Lodge became No. 5 ; and Scioto Lodge became No. 6.


From the close of the first Annual Communication the progress of the Grand Lodge of Ohio has been remarkable. In 18og only 4 Lodges, numbering a small group of Masons, were represented. In 1931 the Grand Lodge num bered 618 Lodges having Zo8,SS9 Masons under their obedience. During the first ninety years of its existence the growth of the Grand Lodge of Ohio was not at all rapid. In 1898 it had Soo Lodges with a total membership of only 42,848. During this time it passed through two periods of stagnation. The first period began in 1826 and continued for several years during which " The Morgan Excitement " occurred. The second period of stagnation commenced in the early 8o's and also lasted for some years. During this time what was known as " The Cerneau Fight " was waged with much bitterness and determination. It resulted in complete victory for legitimate Freemasonry in Ohio. The civil court to which the case was carried held that the courts should not interfere and that the Grand Lodge was supreme since no property rights were involved. Shortly after this decision was made the Lodges displayed great activity. Their number increased rapidly, as has been said. The membership grew from 42,848 in 1898 to nearly Zo9,ooo, an average annual increase of Soon members throughout the first third of the twentieth century.


The Grand Lodge of Ohio may justly be proud that the membership Rolls 96 FREEMASONRY IN OHIO of its particular Lodges bear the names of many men who have distinguished themselves not only in Masonry but also in State and national affairs. General Rufus Putnam, elected as first Grand Master, was a distinguished American soldier of the War for Independence. General Lewis Cass, another of its early Grand Masters, also became Grand Master of Masons in the State of Michigan, to which he had removed and of which he became governor. The first Installed Grand Master was M.‑. W.‑. Bro. Samuel Huntington, who was governor of Ohio at the time of his election. Four Presidents of the United States have held membership in Ohio Lodges. Those were James A. Garfield, William McKinley, William H. Taft, afterwards chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, and Warren G. Harding. Many members of Lodges under obedience to the Grand Lodge of Ohio have held high place in other Masonic Grand Bodies of Ohio and in national Masonic Bodies. In all those positions they have shown a knowledge of the fundamental precepts and teachings of the Symbolic Degrees of Freemasonry and have strictly adhered to them.


CAPITULAR FREEMASONRY Capitular Freemasonry was co‑existent with Symbolic Freemasonry in that part of the Northwest Territory now known as the State of Ohio from the very establishment of the first settlement there, made at Marietta in 1788. No Chap ter was formally organised in the Northwest Territory, however, until 1792. Records show an " R. A." after some names of those present at Marietta on June 28, I79o, when American Union Lodge, No. I, was organised, or reorganised, as a Lodge to be permanently located there. These letters certainly indicate that the participants were Royal Arch Masons. And there can be no doubt that several of the pioneers who formed the settlements at Marietta and near Cincinnati had received the Royal Arch Degree, perhaps in organised Chapters of Royal Arch Masons, perhaps in connection with or supplementary to the Master Mason Degree in the Lodge. The first unquestionable evidence of any activity in Capitular Freemasonry in the Northwest Territory, however, was the organisation of American Union Chapter, No. I, at Marietta. This Chapter appears to have grown spontaneously out of the body of American Union Lodge, No. I. For in those early days other Degrees besides the Symbolic ones were often conferred under the authority of a Lodge Charter.


On June 16, I792, a Royal Arch " Lodge " was opened at Marietta by Robert Oliver, Rufus Putnam, and Griffin Green. Although described only as Master Masons, these men must have been Royal Arch Masons as well, as the following quotation from the Minutes of the meeting seems to show: ROYAL ARCH LODGE Under the Sanction of American Union Lodge No. 1 MARIETTA CAMPUS MARTIUS June 16, 1792 The Lodge convened and present Right Worshipful Brother Robert Oliver, FREEMASONRY IN OHIO 97 Right Worshipful Brother Rufus Putnam, and Right Worshipful Brother Griffin Green, when Brother Daniel Story, R. J. Meigs, Senior, and Joseph Woods, all of the degree of Master Mason, were regularly advanced through the several grades, from third to the seventh step of Masonry.


A second meeting of the " Lodge," by which is certainly meant the Royal Arch " Lodge," was held on December 5, 1792. At that time several persons who had not attended the first meeting were present. Whether or not they were members of a Chapter, and to what Chapter any of them belonged, are not shown by the Record of this meeting. On this occasion the Chapter was formally organised by electing Rufus Putnam as High Priest; Robert Oliver as King; Daniel Story as Scribe; R. J. Meigs as Secretary; and Joseph Woods as Treasurer.


The following year two meetings were held, at which three candidates were advanced to the seventh Degree of Masonry. In advancing candidates at that time, they received the Past Master Degree before obtaining the Mark Master Degree. Little or no other activity was shown, however, by the " Lodge," as they seem to have persisted in calling the Chapter, until March 4, 18oo. Then a meeting was held and two candidates were admitted to the Past Master Degree and the Mark Master Degree. The Minutes of that meeting read as follows Benjamin Tupper and Ichabod Nye, two learned and skillful Masters, having petitioned on the last regular Lodge night to be advanced to the Chair, they were balloted for and accepted, and being in waiting, thev were admitted to the degrees of Past and Mark degrees.


These two candidates received the Most Excellent Degree and the Royal Arch Degree On June 3 of the same year, but following that meeting no other was held until January 5, 1804. This is explained by the Record thus: On the night of the 22, March, 1801, the Charter under which the American Union Lodge prosecuted its labours was destroyed by fire, together with the furniture, etc., of the Royal Arch, and were not renewed until November, 1803, consequently the Royal Arch did not commence its labours until the 5th of January, 1804.


At the January meeting Rufus Putnam was appointed as High Priest, and Benjamin Tupper as Secretary. They were to act until the Royal Arch " Lodge " should be again regularly established and another choice made. At an election held the following day, Rufus Putnam was again elected High Priest and other Officers were also chosen. It is of interest that at a subsequent meeting of this Chapter, held on August 7, 1804, Lewis Cass, who afterwards served for three years as Grand Master of Masons in Ohio, received all the Chapter Degrees.


At a meeting held in 1914, a Committee was appointed to inquire into the authority under which this Chapter was established. An investigation failed to show, however, that any statement relating to this important event had ever 98 FREEMASONRY IN OHIO been made a part of the Record. What is even more deplorable is that Records of several Convocations of the Chapter held at about that same time are missing. Almost a quarter of a century after the first meeting of a Royal Arch Chapter took place at Marietta, some Companions of the Cincinnati Chapter sent a letter to the Marietta Companions suggesting the formation of a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons in Ohio. Upon receiving this letter, Joseph Wood, John Green, and Oliver Dodge, who signed themselves as the oldest members of the Marietta Chapter, called a meeting. At this meeting three Delegates were appointed to attend a Convention to be held in Worthington about October 28, 1816. Thomas Smith Webb, Deputy General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter of the United States, was to be present there for the purpose of assisting to form a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons in the State of Ohio.


Because of the incompleteness of the early Records there is some uncertainty as to the date of organisation of what is now known as Cincinnati Chapter, No. 2, Royal Arch Masons, which is located in Cincinnati. There is even more uncertainty as to the authority under which that Chapter was organised. At an early date it claimed the sanction of Nova Cxsarea Lodge, No. 1o, which was established at Cincinnati under a Warrant from the Grand Lodge of New Jersey. As has been explained, American Union Chapter, of Marietta, made a similar claim by stating that its organisation had been sanctioned by American Union Lodge, No. i. These contentions probably merely mean that those two Lodges understood that, under their Charters, they had authority and power to erect Chapters of Royal Arch Masons upon their Lodge structures without further authorisation from a Grand Chapter. There is no evidence that either the Chapter at Marietta or the one at Cincinnati had any Grand Chapter authority for its organisation or claimed to have. Nor did either claim to be organised under the Jurisdiction of any Grand Chapter. Obviously, those Lodges felt that under the authority of their Warrants they had the right to organise Chapters of Royal Arch Masons without higher or greater authority than the mere sanction of the Lodge itself. That such was the case is borne out by language used in the closing paragraph of the Minutes of a meeting of Nova Cxsarea Lodge, No. io, held on December S, 1799‑ It runs as follows: " Lodge adjourned to meet on Friday for the purpose of forming a Royal Arch Lodge." Although Cincinnati Chapter, No. 2, was formally organised into a Chapter in December 1799, with the sanction of Nova Cxsarea Lodge, No. io, as will be explained later, yet the extract below appears in the Minutes of a meet ing of that Lodge held on February 1g, 18oo. The quotation shows how the Chapter Degrees were conferred in the Lodge, but after closing in the Third Degree.


Present: Jacob Burnet, W. M.; Wm. McMillen, S. W.; Thomas Gibson, J. W.; J. S. Gano, P. M. S. D. P. T.; James Ferguson, J. D. P. T.; G. W. Burnet, Sec'y.; Abraham Carey, Tyler, and S. Sibley, Patrick Dickey, M. M., and R.


W. Bro. John Ludlow. After opening and closing in all three degrees as above, Sibley, Ferguson and Dickey withdrew upon request and Lodge opened in 4th.


FREEMASONRY IN OHIO 99 degree of Masonry. This trio then raised the 4th. degree and " passed the chair " in due form. Lodge closed and opened on 5th. degree. Sibley, Ferguson and Dickey then raised to 5th. degree of Masonry in due form and received the mark. G. W. BURNET, Sec'y.


The Records of Nova Cxsarea Lodge, No. io, show that at a stated meeting of the Lodge, held on December 5, 1799, the members were directed to meet " on Friday evening next at the Lodge room for the purpose of forming a Royal Arch Lodge." Such a meeting appears to have been held. Those who were not above the degree of Master Mason were requested to retire so that business might be done in the higher Degrees. There is no information, however, as to whether or not any formal organisation of a Chapter took place.


At this and subsequent early meetings of the Chapter, Robert Oliver and R. J. Meigs, both Past Masters and members of American Union Chapter, No. i, at Marietta, appear to have been the directing heads and to have had charge. The Minutes of a meeting under the sanction of Nova Cxsarea Lodge, No. 1o, held on " November 6, 1799," so the Record states, although this date should probably read December 6, 1799, say that " a Lodge was opened on the 4th. step of Masonry." These Minutes show that six candidates were " raised " to Past Master Degree. The " Lodge " was then opened on the fifth step of Masonry and the same candidates were " raised " to the Mark Master Degree.


Another meeting was held on December ii, 1799. At that meeting a Lodge of Most Excellent Masters was opened, the candidates were " raised " to that Degree, and the Chapter was then closed. It was then again opened, this time on the Royal Arch Degree, to which six candidates were " raised." The following excerpt from the Minutes of the next meeting show how this Chapter, or " Lodge," was proceeding.


At a meeting of the Royal Arch Chapter by order of the Worshipful Master under the sanction of Nova Cxsarea Lodge No. io, on the 11th. December A. L. 5799 Present: Robert Oliver, R. A., in the Chair; Edward Miller, R. A., R. J.


Meigs, R. A., Secretary Pro Tem. A Mark Lodge was opened, and no business presenting on this step the Lodge was closed and a Most Excellent Masters Lodge was opened, when Brothers Jacob Burnet, William MacMillen, Thomas Gibson, George W. Burnet, John S. Gano and Abraham Carey, all Mark Masters, made application to be raised to the degree of Most Excellent Master, and the Lodge being satisfied that they were worthy proceeded to labour in the 6th step of Masonry, and each of the applicants was raised accordingly. The Lodge was then closed in due form.


The last mentioned brethren having withdrawn a Royal Arch Lodge was opened, when the before mentioned Most Excellent Masters made application to be raised to the degree of Royal Arch Mason. The Lodge then proceded to labour on the 7th step of Masonry, and the applicants above mentioned were each of them raised to the Degree of Royal Arch Mason agreeably to their request in due and ancient form, and having received from the chair the proper instructions in the last mentioned degree were set to labour.


zoo FREEMASONRY IN OHIO Companions Oliver and Meigs informed the Companions that the distance to their place of residence [Marietta] rendered their regular attendance inconvenient and requested the Chapter to elect proper officers in their places, where upon the following Companions were duly elected: Jacob Burnet, H. P., William MacMillen, K., Thomas Gibson, S., G. W. Burnet, Secretary. The officers were then installed in their offices and respectively took their seats. The Chap ter was then closed. R. J. MEIGS, Sec. pro tem.


Following the meeting recounted in these Minutes all activity seems to have ceased for a while, since the next meeting of which the Record speaks took place on March 25, 1812. On that date, twelve Royal Arch Masons met for the pur pose of reviving interest in the Chapter Work. No real progress was made until November 16, 1812. At that time ten Companion Royal Arch Masons met in the Lodge room at Cincinnati and appointed a Committee of five members to arrange a uniform mode of Working. On November 28, 1812, the Committee made a report which was approved, and at the same time another Committee was appointed to procure paraphernalia for the proposed Chapter. Minutes of this meeting say that " it was unanimously agreed to be unnecessary to apply for a Charter; it was deemed legal where a sufficient number of Companions be found, and having a lawful Master's Warrant, to establish a Holy Royal Arch Chapter." The next day, November 2ca, 1812, plans were carried into effect, according to the Record.


On December 12, 1812, a Mark Master Lodge numbering eleven Companions was opened according to ancient custom. At an election, Edwin Matthews was chosen as High Priest, Samuel Ramsey as King, and John S. Gano as Arch Scribe. Other line Officers were also selected. According to the Minutes " the Grand Chief and Subordinate Officers being enrolled and seated in order, the Chapter was considered fully established, and the Scribe was ordered to Record the same,' bearing its date from this day, to wit: the 12th day of December, the year of Redemption one thousand eight hundred and twelve, and of Masonry five thousand eight hundred and twelve." From this time on the Cincinnati Chapter of Royal Arch Masons prospered. As has been said, in 1816 this Chapter first proposed forming a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons in Ohio, and sent out circulars asking the co‑operation of other Chapters in the State. In a letter written by Thomas Smith Webb, Deputy General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, some time prior to the organisation of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Ohio, he said he believed that the Cincinnati Chapter had a legal existence as early as 1798. As yet, however, no ground for any such belief has been found. On March 8, 1815, a Dispensation was issued by Alexander McCormick, Deputy Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Maryland, to James Kilbourne and others of Worthington, Ohio, granting permission for the location of a Chapter at that place. This was to be known as the Horeb Chapter of Royal Arch Masons. James Kilbourne was named as first High Priest. A resolution FREEMASONRY IN OHIO I0I adopted at a meeting of the Grand Chapter of Maryland held on November IS, 1815, gave the Grand Officers power to grant a Charter to Horeb Chapter of Royal Arch Masons in case application were made by February following. Meanwhile the Dispensation under which the Chapter Worked was to be continued. Maryland Records do not show that any such Charter was ever issued, nor is there any reliable information proving that Horeb Chapter was ever organised under a Charter.


Upon receiving the letter of October I, 1816, sent out by Companions of the Cincinnati Chapter, Delegates from American Union Chapter of Marietta, from Horeb Chapter of Worthington, and from Cincinnati Chapter of Cincinnati met at Worthington on October 2I to consider the formation of a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons in Ohio. Companion James Kilbourne, P. H. P., was chosen as Chairman of the Convention and Companion Benjamin Gardiner was chosen as Secretary. When the qualifications of the Delegates had been approved, those present adopted a resolution declaring it right and expedient to establish a Grand Royal Arch Chapter in the State. At an adjourned Session held on October z4., 1816, a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons was opened and the following Grand Officers were elected: Samuel Hoit of Marietta, Grand High Priest; Chester Griswold of Worthington, Deputy Grand High Priest; Davis Embree of Cincinnati, Grand King; Calvin Washburn of Cincinnati, Grand Scribe; Benjamin Gardiner of Columbus, Grand Secretary; and Lincoln Goodale of Columbus, Grand Treasurer. Other Grand Officers were appointed. Five days later, on October z9, 1816, the Chapter went as a procession to the Worthington Academy, accompanied by Thomas Smith Webb, Deputy General Grand High Priest, and Peter Grinnel, General Grand Treasurer of the General Grand Chapter. The former Installed the Grand Officers‑elect. At a meeting later held in the Chapter room, the three Chapters that had participated were Inscribed on the Roll of Grand Chapter Subordinates and a Charter was issued to each. The Chapters were American Union Chapter, No. I, Cincinnati Chapter, No. 2, and Horeb Chapter, No. 3.


And thus was formed the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the State of Ohio. Its existence of more than a century has been singularly free from internal strife. Its growth has been substantial and satisfactory, for it now has 2‑o9 Constituent Chapters with a total membership of over 76,ooo.


THE ORDER OF HIGH PRIESTHOOD As is well known, membership in the Order of High Priesthood is limited to Present and Past High Priests who have been elected to preside over Constituted Chapters of Royal Arch Masons. Those who receive the Degree are said to be Anointed, Consecreated, and set apart to the Holy Order of High Priesthood. In some States the organisation is known as a Convention, or Grand Convention, of High Priests, but in Ohio it has always been called a Council, or Grand Council, of Anointed High Priests.


102 FREEMASONRY IN OHIO On January 15, 1828, a regular number of members who had received the Order of High Priesthood met in Columbus, Ohio, and organised themselves into a Council of Anointed High Priests for the purpose of conferring the Order upon all qualified Masons who desired to receive it. At an election these Officers were chosen: John Snow, President; Charles R. Sherman, Vice‑President; Joshua Downer, Chaplain; Pratt Benedict, Treasurer; Bela Latham, Secretary; William Greene, Master of Ceremonies; James Gates, Conductor; and James Pearce, Herald. Minutes of annual meetings of this Order, if kept, have always been printed with the Proceedings of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Ohio. No Minutes appeared from 1830 to 1838 while " The Morgan Excitement was going on.


Ohio has the largest Grand Council of Anointed High Priests in the world. Although this Body has no way of showing its total annual membership, as do other Masonic Bodies, nevertheless the classes have annually averaged about loo members for the last thirty years. This is a far larger membership than can be shown elsewhere.


At the Triennial Convocation of the General Grand Chapter of the United States, held at Topeka, Kansas, in 1894, Officers of Grand Councils and Grand Conventions of Anointed High Priests of various States held a meeting. Most Eminent Companion John W. Chamberlin, who for ten years had been President of the Grand Council of Anointed High Priests of Ohio, was chosen Chairman of a Committee to revise and rewrite the Ritual of the Order. He did this very satisfactorily. The Ritual he prepared, known as the " Chamberlin Ritual," is now used in many States.


CRYPTIC FREEMASONRY The Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters of the State of Ohio was organised in Worthington on January 6, 1830. Five Councils represented at that meeting participated in the organisation. They were Cincinnati Council, No. I; Steubenville Council, No. z; Adoniram Council, NO. 3; Lancaster Council, No. 4, and Chillicothe Council, No. 5.


More than two years before, on October 24, 1827, thirteen Royal and Select Masters had assembled in the Masonic Hall at Cincinnati to consider the organisation of a Council of Royal and Select Masters in that city. After choosing Robert Punshon as Chairman and Elias Dudley as Secretary the meeting adopted a resolution declaring it expedient to form a Council of Royal and Select Masters in Cincinnati. The resolution also directed that Illustrious Companion John Barker, " Agent of the Supreme Council," then in Cincinnati, be solicited to organise the Council and grant it a Charter. A Committee advised Companion Barker of the wishes of those who had assembled and requested his presence in the Lodge room. After his introduction and reception, Companion Barker organised a Council of Royal and Select Masters in due form and " agreeably to the powers vested in him by the Supreme Council in the United States of America." At the election of Officers Robert Punshon was chosen as Thrice 102 FREEMASONRY IN OHIO 103 Illustrious Grand Master, Robert T. Lytle as Illustrious Deputy Grand Master; and Joseph Jonas as Principal Conductor of the Work. Companion Barker then granted a Charter for Cincinnati Council, No. i, to be held at Cincinnati. The Charter is signed " John Barker, K.H.S.P.R.S. Sovereign Grand Inspector General of the Thirty‑third Degree and General Agent of the Supreme Council in the United States of America." This Council has been active and flourishing throughout its entire existence.


The four other Councils which united with that of Cincinnati in 1830 to form the Grand Council of Ohio were also organised under Charters granted by Illustrious Companion Barker. These Charters were essentially like that issued to Cincinnati Council, No. 1, and of essentially the same form. The Charter of Adoniram Council, No. 3, is dated January 1, 1828, and that of Chillicothe Council, No. S, is dated January 18, 1828. The dates of the Charters issued to Steubenville Council, No. 2, and to Lancaster Council, No. 4, are unknown, but the former was probably issued in November or December, 1827, and the latter in January, 1828.


The authority of John Barker to organise Councils of Royal and Select Masters and to issue Charters to them, as agent of the Mother Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite Masons of the United States, seems never to have been questioned. It is, however, unusual for agents and even for Officers of Masonic Grand Bodies to issue Charters, since such Warrants are commonly issued only by the governing Body.


On January 6, 1830, in response to a request made by Cincinnati Council, No. i, Representatives from that Council and from Steubenville Council, No. 2, Adoniram Council, No. 3, Lancaster Council, No. 4, and Chillicothe Council, No. 5, met in Worthington to consider the advisability of forming a Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters in the State of Ohio. Companion Robert T. Lytle of Cincinnati Council, No. i, was chosen Chairman of the Convention, and Companion William James Reese of Lancaster Council, No. 4, was appointed Secretary. After the object of the Convention had been made known, a resolution declaring it expedient to form a Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters in the State of Ohio was unanimously adopted. At an adjourned Session of the Convention, held on the afternoon of the same day, a Constitution that had been prepared by a Committee was adopted. Next, Grand Officers were elected, Companion Robert Punshon of Cincinnati Council, No. 1, having been chosen as the first Puissant Grand Master. The Convention was then dissolved. Immediately afterwards the Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters was regularly opened. The Constitution that had been adopted was recognised as the Constitution of the Grand Council, and the Proceedings of the Convention were approved. Charters under which the five Councils had been Working were ordered to be transmitted to the Grand Recorder. He was to issue new Charters in exchange for them.


In such fashion the Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters in the State of Ohio was organised. The growth of this Grand Council has been remarkable, 104 FREEMASONRY IN OHIO and for many years it has been the largest in the world, with 98 Constituent Councils having a total membership in the neighborhood of 43,000.


THE ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD The Orders of Christian Knighthood have no Masonic connection whatever with Ancient Craft Masonry, yet membership in Lodge and Chapter is prerequisite to membership in a Commandery of Knights Templar. These Orders now form part of what is sometimes called the American System of Freemasonry. Consequently it is well to recount the organisation and early activities of the Grand Commandery of Knights Templar in the State of Ohio.


From the time of their establishment and, indeed, until 1867, the Templar Bodies of Ohio were known as " Encampments." In 1856, however, the General Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of the United States of America so amended its Constitution as to affect the use of that term. The word " Encampment " was left unchanged in its own title, but was changed to " Commandery " in the titles of all Encampments and Grand Encampments under its jurisdiction. The amendment also provided that the presiding Officer of each Grand Commandery was to be known as " Grand Commander," that of each Subordinate Commandery as "Commander." The Grand Encampment of Knights Templars in Ohio rebelled against these changes. It refused to comply with orders of the General Grand Encampment until it could hold an Annual Conclave. That was done in 1857. The Constitution was then amended, and the words " Commandery " and " Commander " have been used by the Grand and Subordinate Templar Bodies of the State ever since. It is a trifling matter of interest that the original Constitution of the Grand Encampment of Ohio used the double plural‑" Knights Templars." This double plural was also used in the Records of the Grand Commandery of the State until 192.2., since when only the word " Knight " has been pluralised.


Mt. Vernon Commandery, No. I, originally located at Worthington but now at Columbus, was the first Encampment established west of the Allegheny Mountains by the General Grand Encampment of the United States. On March 14, 1818, Thomas Smith Webb, Deputy Grand Master of the General Grand Encampment of the United States, answered a petition by issuing a Dispensation to John Snow, Knight Templar, Knight of Malta and of the Red Cross, authorising him to " congregate and assemble together in the Town of Worthington, in the State of Ohio, a sufficient and legal number of the above mentioned Orders, and to open a Council and Encampment in the said Town and therein confer said Orders upon such tried and worthy Companions of the Royal Arch as may make application for the same." Unless revoked, this Dispensation was to remain in force for a period of three months. It was then to be returned with a report of work done. Under authority of this Dispensation, Sir Knight John Snow summoned all the Sir Knights living within forty miles to assemble at the Masonic Hall in Worthington, Ohio. In obedience to this FREEMASONRY IN OHIO 1105 summons Thomas Smith Webb, hailing from the General Grand Encampment of the United States and from the Grand Encampment of Massachusetts and Rhode Island; John Snow, hailing from St. John's Encampment of Rhode Island; and Frederick Curtis, hailing from Ireland, met on March 15, 1818. After exchanging credentials those men proceeded to open a Council of Red Cross Knights, and to confer the Order upon two candidates. Five days later, on March z.o, 1818, an Encampment of Knights Templars was opened and the Order of the Temple and of Malta were conferred upon one candidate. Thus were the Orders of Knighthood formally organised in Ohio.


At the Triennial Conclave of the General Grand Encampment held in New York City on September 16, 1819, Sir Knight John Snow of Worthington reported the progress that had been made by Mt. Vernon Encampment under its Dispensation and asked that a Charter be granted to it. A resolution authorising the Charter was adopted and it was issued on the very same day. This Charter has been carefully preserved by the Mt. Vernon Commandery. Except that the signature of the General Grand Master, of the General Grand Captain‑General, and of the General Grand Recorder have entirely faded out, the document is still in a good state of preservation. Because of its historical interest it is reprinted in full below.


TO ALL WHOM IT MAY CONCERN The General Grand Encampment of Knights Templars the appendant Orders for the United States of America, convened and assembled in the City of New York in the State of New York, September 16th, A.D. 1819, send greeting.


Whereas a petition has been presented at this General Grand Encampment from John Snow, Chester Griswold, Roger Searle, Joseph S. Hughes, James Kilbourne, Levi Pinny, Benjamin Gardner, William Little, Chauncey Barber, Mark Seeley, residents in the town of Worthington in the state of Ohio, all true and courteous Knights of the Red Cross, Knights Templars and Knights of Malta, stating that they have heretofore assembled together under a warrant of dispensation from the late Deputy General Grand Master, Thomas Smith Webb, Esq., and therefore pray for a charter, extending and forming under them the right and privileges of a regularly constituted Encampment. Now be it known that the General Grand Encampment aforesaid, considering that the interest of the institution will be promoted by granting the prayer of said petition, have authorised and empowered, and by these presence, authorize and empower the said John Snow, his associates above named, to form, open and hold a regularly constituted Encampment of the valiant and magnanimous Orders of Knights of the Red Cross, Knights Templars and Knights of Malta of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, by the name, style and title of Mt. Vernon Encampment, to confer those Orders respectively upon tried and worthy candidates, made By‑Laws and ordinances for their own government, and to admit members and to do and transact all such matters and things as are lawful and proper to be done in such an assemblage, and furthermore we do hereby declare the rank and precedence of the said Mt. Vernon Encampment in the General Grand Encampment and elsewhere to be from the sixth day of io6 FREEMASONRY IN OHIO June, A.D. 1818 and from the said Mt. Vernon Encampment, we do name and appoint Sir John Snow to be the first Grand Commander, Sir Chester Griswold to be the first Generalissimo, the Rev. Sir Roger Searle to be the first Captain General, Rev. Sir Joseph S. Hughes to be the first Prelate, Sir James Kilbourne to be the first Senior Warden, Sir Levi Pinny to be the first junior Warden, and Sir Benjamin Gardner to be the first Treasurer, and Sir William Little to be the first Recorder, and we do hereby enjoin it upon said Mt. Vernon Encampment to be particular in making their return to the General Grand Recorder, and the payment of their dues to the General Grand Treasurer, and to conform in all things to the Constitution and edicts of the General Grand Encampment, otherwise the charter and the privileges hereby granted shall cease and to be of no further validity.


In testimony whereof we have hereunto set our hands and caused the seal of the General Grand Encampment to be hereunto affixed the day and year first above written. HENRY FoWLE, Deputy General Grand Master. JOHN Show, General Grand Generalissimo.


The Mt. Vernon Encampment was organised under its Charter on September Zo, 182o. Although it received no number on its original Charter, it became Encampment No. i because it was the first Encampment Chartered in the State. At the second Session of the Grand Encampment of Ohio, held at Columbus in October 1844, the Mt. Vernon Encampment was authorised to hold its meetings there from then on instead of at Worthington as provided in the Charter. From the beginning of its activities this Commandery has been a leader in the State.


On December 16, 1835, a Charter was issued by the General Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of the United States to some Sir Knights of Lancaster for an Encampment to be known as Lancaster Encampment, No. 2. On Sep tember 17, 1841, a Charter was granted and issued to Cincinnati Encampment, No. 3, of Cincinnati. The General Grand Encampment issued a Dispensation to some Sir Knights of Massillon on July S, 1843, authorising them to form and open an Encampment at that place to be known as Massillon Encampment, No. 4. On July 22, 1843, a Dispensation was issued by the General Grand Encampment for an Encampment at Mt. Vernon to be known as Clinton Encampment, No. 5.


Representatives from the five Ohio Encampments met at Lancaster on October 24, 1843, in response to a Warrant that had been issued on September Zo, 1841, by the General Grand Encampment of the United States. This War rant authorised the Ohio Encampments to Constitute a Grand Encampment of Knights Templar and appendant Orders for the State. Those present then formally organised a Grand Encampment of Knights Templars for the State of Ohio, and elected and Installed Officers. The Grand Encampment formed, now known as the Grand Commandery of Knights Templar of Ohio, has 79 Subordinate Commanderies on its Roll with a membership of over 32,000.


FREEMASONRY IN OHIO 107 SCOTTISH RITE FREEMASONRY That branch of Freemasonry known as the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite did not make its appearance in Ohio until long after the York Rite Bodies had been established. There is some evidence, however, that in 1827 John Barker, Thirty‑third Degree, member of the Supreme Council of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite for the Southern jurisdiction, conferred upon Masons residing in Cincinnati at least some of the Degrees of the Rite under claim of authority from that Supreme Body. Candidates were obliged to cross the Ohio River into Kentucky in order to receive the Degrees. The names of those early candidates are not now known, nor is there any evidence at all of their having been active in behalf of the Scottish Rite in Ohio.


The beginning of the correspondence that resulted in organising Scottish Rite Bodies in Ohio was a letter written by Absalom Death, of Cincinnati, to the Grand Secretary‑General of the Supreme Grand Council for the Northern Jurisdiction. The letter was received on December 13, 1848, though no immediate action seems to have been taken. Early in 1852, however, a Dispensation was issued for a Lodge of Perfection and a Council of Princes of Jerusalem at Columbus. These Bodies fitted up a Hall for their use but at the end of two years it was torn down to make way for business improvements. After two years of idleness the Dispensation under which the Bodies had been working was returned. Meantime, a Dispensation was issued to seven members who had received the fourteenth to sixteenth Degrees, inclusive, on December 17, 1852. It authorised a Grand Lodge of Perfection and a Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem to be located in Cincinnati. The Grand Lodge of Perfection received the name " Gibulum," a word used as an exclamation at that time but having no signification under the present Ritual. The name " Dalcho " was given to the Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem. Under authority of a Dispensation dated January Zo, 1853, those two Bodies were formally Instituted and their Officers were elected and Installed on the following April 27 by Killian H. Van Rensselaer, Thirty‑third Degree, Deputy for Western Pennsylvania and Ohio.


Under authority of a Dispensation issued by M. P. Edward A. Raymond, Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council, the Ohio Sovereign Consistory of Most Valiant and Illustrious Sublime Princes and Commanders of the Royal Secret was formally organised and Instituted at Cincinnati on December 27, 1853. Its Officers were elected that same day. This Dispensation granted authority to confer Degrees from the seventeenth to the thirty‑second, inclusive, but no candidate could receive the thirtieth, thirty‑first, or thirty‑second Degrees without a Dispensation from the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council or from his Deputy. William B. Hubbard, one of the most distinguished Masons of his day, was chosen as Sovereign Grand Commander. Killian H. Van Rensselaer, also well known for his Masonic activity, was chosen as First Lieutenant‑Commander and as Grand Secretary and Grand io8 FREEMASONRY IN OHIO Treasurer. On March 23, 1853, the Cincinnati Bodies under Dispensation applied to the Supreme Council for Charters. Because a resolution required six months of Work under Dispensation, the Charters were not granted at that time. On May 4, 1854, authority was voted by the Supreme Council for the granting of Charters to the Lodge, Council, and Consistory, but prior to 1857 none seem to have been issued under this authority. On May 14, 1857, the Committee on Returns in the Supreme Council recommended that Charters be granted to Gibulum Grand Lodge of Perfection and Dalcho Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem. Eleven days later Charters for Lodge, Council, Chapter, and Consistory were ready for delivery. Those were dated as follows: Lodge and Council Charter, March 24, 1853; Chapter Charter, May 14, 1857; Consistory Charter, January 8, 1856. All those Charters were destroyed by fire on December 24, 1884. On December 25, 1857, Cincinnati Sovereign Grand Chapter of Rose Croix, having received a Charter, took over the conferring of the seventeenth and eighteenth Degrees.


For the first third of a century after the granting of a Charter to the Ohio Consistory, Scottish Rite Freemasonry in this State did not rapidly increase in membership. About 1890, however, greater interest was shown and since then there has been a steady and satisfactory increase. There are now more than 36,ooo Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret in Ohio.


Other Bodies conferring the Degrees up to and including the eighteenth were organised in Ohio at the following places on the dates named: Cambridge, May 14, 1857; Cleveland, May i9, 1866; Columbus, September 1o, 1877; Dayton, September 22, 188o; Toledo, September Zo, 1881. Until the organisation of the Lake Erie Consistory at Cleveland under a Charter issued on September 18, 18go, all candidates from these Bodies were obliged to go to the Ohio Consistory in order to obtain the Consistorial Degrees. A Charter was granted to the Scioto Consistory at Columbus on September Zo, i_goo; to the Toledo Consistory on September 21, 1905; and to the Dayton Consistory on September 18, 1907; and to the Canton Consistory in 1932.


FREEMASONRY IN OKLAHOMA CHARLES E. CREAGEN HE story of Freemasonry in Oklahoma offers romance and comedy, personal sacrifice which almost touches the sublime, and such courage and fortitude as distinguish the pioneers of the Southwest. It is the story of a wonderful development, a triumph achieved only through ambition, determination, and patient perseverance. Who really sowed the first Masonic seed in what is now the State of Oklahoma, who nourished the tender shoots, or when and how those benefactors of mankind laid the first foundation‑stones will never be definitely known. It is sufficient to know, though, that from the very earliest days of the region that now constitutes Oklahoma, Masonic influence played an important part in every development.


The accurate historic Record of the Grand Lodge of Oklahoma begins with the Proceedings of a formal Convention assembled in Caddo, Indian Territory, on Monday, October 5, 1874. The date of the actual beginning of organ ised Masonry within the present jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge is the date of the Dispensation of the first Masonic Lodge, that is, November 9, 1848, when Cherokee Lodge, No. 2.1, came into regular existence under authority of the Grand Lodge of Arkansas. But in those days Arkansas Lodges, even those which formed the nucleus of the wonderful Grand Lodge of Arkansas, depended largely upon the support of Brethren who were residents of the Indian country. Kentucky gave Arkansas her first Lodge on June z4, 1818, but long before that such distinguished Brethren as Captain Zebulon Pike, the explorer, Colonel Matthew Arbuckle, the famous soldier who first established organised government under the Stars and Stripes in the Arkansas Valley, Matthew Leeper, Indian agent and personal friend of Bro. Andrew Jackson, Pierre Choteau, Indian trader and pioneer, and the famous Indian chieftains, Peter P. Pitchlyn, a Choctaw, and John Ross, a Cherokee, had " held Masonic Communication with their Brethren " in the Indian country.


It is impossible to write the history of industrial, social, or political Oklahoma without taking into serious account the important part played by Indians. Indeed, Indians are the real founders of what is now a great State and a great Grand Lodge. Without their consent, development measured by the standard of the white man's civilisation would have been utterly impossible, and without their assistance and influence very little could have been log i 1o FREEMASONRY IN OKLAHOMA accomplished in any worthy enterprise. Indian philosophy, Indian tradition, Indian religion, and Indian economics are all features which must be understood before the growth of the State of Oklahoma Masonry can be understood.


Popular ideas and notions concerning the Oklahoma Indian are for the most part, erroneous. Perhaps no people in all the world have been so unkindly treated by the historian and the fiction writer as the American Indian. Frequently the idea is given that the quality known as " courage " in a white man is " brutality " in an Indian. For example, the result of any battle was either a " victory " for the white man or a " massacre " by the Indian. Too, the notion is quite prevalent that the Indian is proverbially " lazy " because he procured food, raiment, and shelter by means other than those adopted by the less skillful and less patient white man. Thus odious comparisons have multiplied until the Indian up to this good hour is thoroughly‑and perhaps shamefully‑misunderstood.


For present purposes let it be simply stated that when the Indians of the Five Civilised Tribes, that is the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole groups, were driven from the Eastern coast and Tennessee‑at the point of the bayonet‑to lands west of the Mississippi River, they came with well‑organised socialistic governments, with schools and churches of their own, and (a fact too often overlooked) with a philosophy of their own. Like ours, their governments included three branches, legislative, judicial, and executive. Their laws, honestly and efficiently enforced, were a credit to the conglomeration of " statutes " made by the modern white man. Their courts were fair, impartial, and intelligent. The two outstanding Indian leaders of early Indian Territory were Peter P. Pitchlyn and John Ross‑both personal friends of Abraham Lincoln. Charles Dickens rendered to Chief Pitchlyn one of the highest compliments paid to any American citizen by that skilled social observer. Both chieftains were able statesmen. Both were Master Masons.


The affairs of the Indian country were administered from Washington through " agencies " established along the Arkansas frontier. Besides the Indian governments of the Five Civilised Tribes, the United States War Department exercised certain authority over the Indians. Among the officers who played important parts in the early drama were Colonel Arbuckle and other Master Masons. The effect of the influence of those great men is shown in the Oklahoma of the present and in the Masonry of the State.


For a long time the Lodges at Little Rock, Fort Smith, and Fayetteville, all in Arkansas, were the only Masonic homes which the Indian Territory Brethren could enjoy. Their membership, of course, represented almost every Grand Lodge from Connecticut to Louisiana. Quite a few were members of Lodges in Virginia and the District of Columbia.


Fort Gibson having been established at the confluence of the Grand, the Verdigris, and the Arkansas rivers, and Fort Towson on the Red River, the Brethren of the Indian Territory became eager to establish more accessible Ma sonic bases. Accordingly, the Brethren at Tahlaquah, seat of Cherokee Indian FREEMASONRY IN OKLAHOMA III activities, Petitioned the Grand Lodge of Arkansas for a Charter. The most prominent officials in the affairs of the army and of the Cherokee Indians became affiliated with this Lodge. It prospered from 1848 until the dark days of the Civil War. Not to be outdone by their Cherokee Brethren, the Choctaw Masons, also including many army men stationed at Fort Towson, Petitioned the Grand Lodge of Arkansas for a Lodge. As a result, November 4, 1852, saw Doaksville Lodge, No. 52, regularly Chartered. This Lodge also succumbed to the ravages of the war. At their Agency the Creek Indians also organised a Lodge which was Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Arkansas on November 9, 185 5. This was known as Mus‑co‑gee Lodge, No. 93. Among the members of this Lodge were Chief Justice George W. Stidham and tribal treasurer Ben Marshall. The latter held office without bond for more than thirty years. During his official career he received and disbursed more than $15,ooo,ooo, nearly all in currency, without a single discrepancy in his accounts. Then on November 9, 1853, a second Cherokee Indian Lodge was set to Work under another Charter from the Grand Lodge of Arkansas.


The difficulties which the four frontier Lodges were obliged to overcome will be better appreciated when it is understood that they were scattered over an area of more than 6ooo square miles. Yet those early Bodies not only served as social centres, but they were also the principal encouragement and support of the early missionaries and of the churches. They actually established and maintained schools. They housed the only available public libraries in the several communities. Brethren rode as far as a hundred miles on horseback in all kinds of weather to attend Lodge.


The Cherokee Indians were divided as to politics, feuds between two factions having been brought with them from the East. Nevertheless, leaders of both factions assembled before the Masonic Altar, performed their Masonic duties, and in their public lives discharged their Masonic obligations cheerfully and fully. It is recorded that during a severe dispute over the terms of a treaty then in negotiation with the government, the partisans attended a Communication of Federal Lodge, No. I, in Washington. At that meeting Chief Ross himself was Raised. The next day the dispute was amicably adjusted, and the treaty consummated.


Evil days fell upon the Indian Territory when the Northern and Southern sections of the country became involved in war. The Indian did not understand the situation. He was not concerned in the struggle except to grieve that men of intelligence and integrity should permit themselves to engage in civil strife. The Indian could not enter into the spirit of the times. He had no one to hate. Nothing in his own sphere was involved in the dispute. It was a white man's battle and he tried to stand aloof. But as actual hostilities developed, the Indian found himself more deeply concerned than he wished to be. The government of the United States, which had pledged protection, had all it could do to protect its own interests. Soldiers, placed at strategic points within the borders of the Indian country, were rushed away to defend more important cities and proper‑ III FREEMASONRY IN OKLAHOMA ties. The Indian's confidence in the government wavered. On the other hand, such a thing as a rival government was beyond his understanding. It was an experiment to him. Though Indian leaders admonished the observance of strict neutrality, both of the belligerent factions sent influential messengers into the Territory in the hope of enlisting sympathy at first and soldiers later. Before the Indian was really aware of what was going on about him, regiments of soldiers had been recruited by both North and South. Then came actual fighting, and without real warning the Indian country began to go to ruin between two fires.


While the storms of battle were raging, Indian homes were laid waste. Schools, churches, farms, and buildings were wiped out of existence. Lodges could not meet. A beautiful Masonic Hall at Doaksville was burned to the ground. Lodge furniture of all four Lodges in the region was destroyed or carried away. Long after the war the Charter of Flint Lodge was recovered from an Indian who had found it in the woods. There were no Communications, no reports to the Grand Lodge. Darkness completely shrouded the Masonic horizon.


At the height of hostilities, General Albert Pike of the Confederate Army, then unknown to Masonry, won the confidence and friendship of many leading Indians. His Indian agent for the Creeks and Seminoles was a young Baptist missionary from Georgia, the Rev. Joseph Samuel Murrow. The preacher‑agent distributed among the refugees, who were huddled in camps at safe distances from the firing line, such supplies of beef and other rations as he could procure. Religious meetings were held wherever and whenever opportunity permitted. Rev. Murrow earned the lasting love of those people.


The Indians recovered more rapidly from the devastation of the war than did the white people of the South. In their territory there were no railroads or factories or large cities to restore. New cabins rose from the ashes of the old. Willing hands, directed by such men as Murrow, soon built new churches and new schoolhouses. All four Lodges resumed Labour. But officially they had passed out of existence, for no reports had been sent to the Grand Lodge, no Representatives had attended its meetings. Though not revoked, Charters had automatically lapsed. An exception occurred, however, in the case of Mus‑cogee Lodge, No. 93. Its Charter was officially revoked, but the Brethren did not know of their Masonic " death, " so that they continued to Work, as lively Masonic " corpses " should do. The Lodge later became one of the constituent Bodies of the first Grand Lodge.


On July II, 1868, the Grand Master of Arkansas issued his Dispensation to Rev. Murrow and some other Brethren to establish a Lodge at Bogey Depot in the Choctaw Nation. Later it was Chartered as Ok‑la‑ho‑ma Lodge. Shortly afterwards, by consent of the Grand Lodge of Arkansas, Doaksville Lodge was revived. Meantime another Lodge had been Chartered in the Choctaw Nation near the present site of Wheelock Academy, but it was short lived. In due time one of the Cherokee Lodges was re‑established, and a Lodge was Instituted at Fort Gibson, under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Kansas. Still another FREEMASONRY IN OKLAHOMA Lodge was organised at Caddo, then a terminus of the newly built Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad. By this time the region had taken on new growth and was in its first stage of industrial development. Masonry flourished. The Brethren became ambitious. Town sites having been opened along the new railroad line, the ingress of white settlers made social problems more complex. The demands upon Masonry increased. There was little occasion for charity or Masonic courtesy, but the Lodges were in large measure regarded as civic centres, the Brethren as leading citizens. Though Masonry was in no sense made an instrument of law enforcement, the fact remains and should be recorded that in those days civic reforms frequently originated in Masonic Lodges.


On October 5, 1874, Representatives of Caddo Lodge, No. 31 I, Mus‑co‑gee Lodge, No. 93, and Doaksville Lodge, No. 279, met in Caddo for the purpose of organising a Grand Lodge. Since Murrow opposed the movement, Ok‑la‑ho‑ma Lodge was not represented, nor were Flint Lodge, Cherokee Lodge, and Fort Gibson Lodge. Only half the Lodges constituent to Arkansas were present, and less than half of the whole number were there. Nor was a majority of the total membership on hand. Nevertheless, those present deemed it both wise and expedient to launch the movement, and accordingly a complete organisation was effected with Bro. Granville McPherson as the first Grand Master.


The lineal descent of the Grand Lodge of Indian Territory was from the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, organised in 1754 under the allegiance of the " moderns." The Grand Lodge of Tennessee organised by Lodges constituent to the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, in 1807, and the Grand Lodge of Arkansas originally composed of Lodges that had been Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Tennessee in 183 5 .


The infant Grand Lodge of Oklahoma was regarded rather dubiously by most of the other Grand Lodges, and in consequence formal recognition of it by them came rather slowly. It was well known that the membership consisted largely of Indians whom persons not directly informed regarded as Masonic material of questionable value. The country was indeed " wild and wooly," as was commonly said, the hills of the eastern part of the region being the rendezvous of outlaws, renegades, and fugitives from justice.


Because of his literary attainments, his notable work as a missionary, and his Masonic activities, Bro. Murrow was more widely known than the Officers of the Grand Lodge. In his correspondence files are many letters of inquiry from Josiah Drummond, Albert Pike, and other distinguished Masons throughout the country, in which they inquire about the status of the new Grand Lodge and ask whether or not it would be proper to accept its Representatives. Bro. Murrow's replies were invariably considerate of the enterprise, and his praise for the Indian Mason and citizen commonly set the inquiring Masons right. Skepticism gradually vanished, and by 1876 two more Lodges (one of which was the Ok‑la‑ho‑ma Lodge headed by Bro. Murrow, having come into the fold, the Grand Lodge of the Indian Territory had been accepted by the Grand Lodges of Texas, Arkansas, Indiana, Maine, New York, Maryland, and some other States. Kansas, how‑ FREEMASONRY IN OKLAHOMA 115 the appointment was received, he and several other Brethren " had started after a bunch of horse thieves." They were gone ten days. Having been absent that long, it is quite evident that the trail was not abandoned and the fate of the pursued may be easily conjectured.


Masonic activities in the early days of Indian Territory were not confined to the narrow limits of the Lodge. Chief Ross and Chief Pitchlyn had been made Royal Arch Masons before the war between the States. Grand Master Mc Pherson had served as an Officer in the Chapter at Little Rock before he had cast his fortune with the Indians; Grand Master Murrow had been made a Royal Arch Mason in Texas before his Oklahoma Lodge had been Chartered. The eminent success which had attended the efforts of the Lodges was sufficient urge for the Royal Craft to enter the field, and accordingly, on February 23, 1878, M.‑. E.‑. General Grand High Priest John Frizzell issued his Dispensation to organise Indian Chapter, at McAlester, in the Choctaw Nation. Colonel E. J. Brooks, of the United States Army, then on duty in Indian Territory, was the High Priest, U. D., Companion Murrow was King, and Judge Stidham, of the Creek Supreme Court, was Scribe. The membership for the most part came from Bellevue Chapter, at Fort Smith, Arkansas. This beginning of Capitular Masonry flourished beyond the expectations of its sponsors. Although centrally located, it was not accessible to all the Masons who desired " further Light," and accordingly, on September 11, 1879, another Chapter was authorised to be located at Atoka, where Companion Murrow had moved from Bogey Depot. Sometime later in order that the Companions of the Cherokee country would not be obliged to spend three days away from home to attend a Convocation, a third Chapter was Instituted at Tahlequah. Later, an ill‑timed effort to encourage the Craft resulted in the establishment of another Chapter at Savannah, but it did not prosper. Still another effort at Burneyville failed for want of support. In order to set this Chapter to Work, Companion Murrow and several others drove teams across country, camped on the open prairie at night, and depended upon their rifles for subsistence. They opened the Chapter on June 24, called off and resumed in due courses until late in the night on July 27 in order to complete their Work, and then returned overland to their homes.


The large measure of success which had attended the Grand Lodge encouraged the Companions of the Royal Arch to undertake an identity of their own. During the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge in 1889, the Royal Arch Masons in attendance held a conference and proceeded in the regular way to organise a Grand Chapter. Later, a Convention was held. The matter was presented formally to General Grand High Priest Larner, who denied the Petition. Reporting his action to the General Grand Chapter at Atlanta, on November Zo, 1889, the General Grand High Priest, recalling several unfortunate situations in the Grand Lodge of Indian Territory, remarked: " the ethical tendencies of the Masons out in that wild country hardly commend them to membership in such a Body as this." Companion Murrow, who was present, resented the report in a vigorous speech from the floor, with the result that the 116 FREEMASONRY IN OKLAHOMA Petition of the Oklahoma Companions was taken from the Committee and a Charter was ordered by an overwhelming majority. Capitular Masonry has prospered from that time to the present.


Soon after the Institution of the Grand Chapter of Indian Territory, by authority of the Congress of the United States, Oklahoma Territory was organised. The western plains country was opened to settlement and homestead. There was a rush of pioneers. Towns and cities rose from the prairie in a day. By competent resolutions, recognised everywhere, Masonic jurisdictional lines by Indian Territory extended as far west as Texas and Colorado. Therefore, Lodges and Chapters organised in the newly‑created Oklahoma Territory owed their allegiance to Indian Territory Grand Bodies. This unprecedented increase in material brought a new era of prosperity to Indian Territory Masonry. Lodges and Chapters were organised at Guthrie, the first capital, at Oklahoma City, Kingfisher, Enid, and other towns. The newly‑enriched territory added power to the movements which the Grand Bodies had inaugurated, but naturally they also increased their responsibilities. While social, economic, and political life differed in the separate regions, the Masonic contingencies fitted into one another's purposes admirably. Later, however, because of a membership which seemed unwieldy in that early day, and because transportation facilities were sadly inadequate, a Grand Lodge of Oklahoma Territory was organised, with the consent of the Indian Territory Grand Lodge. Thus, two separate sovereignties controlled the Masonic situation.


The Grand Lodge of Oklahoma Territory was organised in a Convention called for that purpose at Oklahoma City, on November io, 1892‑eighteen years after the parent Grand Lodge had come into existence. There were present at the Convention Representatives from io subordinate Lodges, representing a total membership of 286 Master Masons, all owing allegiance to the Grand Lodge of Indian Territory. The first Grand Master was Bro. A. J. Sprengle, of Guthrie Lodge. It is interesting that the Lodge and the city of Guthrie were named in honor of M.. W.% Bro. John Guthrie, active Mason of Kansas, who was Grand Master at the time the Grand Lodge of Indian Territory was recognised.


At the time of the division, if in fact the creation of two separate organisations may be called that, the Grand Lodge of Indian Territory had grown in less than two decades from the modest beginning of 3 Lodges, having 6o members, to 48 Lodges, having a membership of 1705, and with cash resources on hand amounting to $2598, part of which had been set aside for the purpose of building and equipping an adequate Orphans' Home.


The Fates treated the new Grand Lodge more kindly than the parent Body. Recognition from other Grand Bodies came promptly, the first being from Indian Territory, whose Grand Master Installed the first Grand Officers. Other Grand Lodges followed in rapid succession. Within a very short time, the Grand Lodge of Oklahoma Territory was universally welcomed and Grand Representatives were exchanged. It produced Masons of national prominence.


FREEMASONRY IN OKLAHOMA 1117 The very first enterprise undertaken by the Oklahoma Masons was the establishment of an Orphans' Home. Bro. William Eagleton took general charge of this work, while Bro. Henry M. Furman had charge of a similar undertaking among the Indian Territory Brethren.


After ten years of activity, the Grand Lodge of Oklahoma Territory had developed into an organisation of 78 Lodges, having a membership of 3291 and a cash balance of $3302 on hand. For the same year, Indian Territory Grand Lodge received Reports from 98 Lodges, having a total membership of 4086, and a cash balance of $16,i59, which included the separate fund reserved for building a Masonic Home. In his annual address that year, Grand Master Allen made an appeal in behalf of the Home Fund in which he declared: " My brethren, we build Lodges, initiate candidates, and parade our moral excellence before the world, but if we fail in our duty to the friendless, homeless orphan, we have so far failed to be Masons." But during that very year various Lodges had on their own account provided books, clothing, and homes for 130 orphan children, in addition to paying their proportionate shares into the general Home Fund. One Lodge had completely exhausted its resources in providing food, clothing, and shelter for the destitute widow of one of its members.


In 1907, Congress made a State of the two Territories, and by proclamation of President Roosevelt, on November 17 of that year, the State of Oklahoma became the forty‑sixth member of the Union. Talk of amalgamation of the two Grand Lodges then became general. At each Grand Communication, resolutions were offered, considered and then postponed. The Brethren from every part of the State had become so thoroughly attached to their respective Grand Bodies, that it seemed to them a calamity to permit the death or re‑formation of either. Opposition to uniting the two came largely from Grand Officers and their partisans who were ambitious to receive Grand Honours. Although no petty jealousies developed in either Body, for four years the matter was the leading question before Masonry in Oklahoma.


Resolutions providing for the appointment of Committees to arrange all details for consolidation finally prevailed in both Bodies. In 19o9 the Grand Lodge of Indian Territory met at McAlester, while the Grand Lodge of Okla homa Territory met at Guthrie. Each completed all its routine business. Then the Grand Lodge of Indian Territory was called off, and the Brethren proceeded by special train to Guthrie where the Grand Lodge of Oklahoma Territory was in Session. Both Lodges were closed sine die. Then the Grand Lodge of the State of Oklahoma was organised. As such it has flourished. All the resources of every kind belonging to both Bodies were transferred to the new organisation. At the time of the consolidation, there were 296 subordinate Lodges represented. The combined cash resources, not including the properties of subordinate Lodges, amounted to approximately $24,000 in the General Fund, and to $iio,0oo in the Masonic Home Fund.


Of the many pathetic scenes which were enacted during the proceedings of final closing and amalgamation, none touched the hearts of the Brethren present 118 FREEMASONRY IN OKLAHOMA more deeply than the farewell address of Grand Secretary Murrow. True, he had not been present at the organisation of the Grand Lodge of Indian Territory nearly thirty‑five years before, but he was its second Grand Master and for thirty‑two years had been its Grand Secretary and moving spirit. He had aided or supervised the organisation of the older Lodges. He had officiated at the reception into Masonry of many of the Grand Officers. He had been at the head of all the other Grand Bodies and had served them faithfully and well.


While feeding the hungry, clothing the destitute, praying with the sick and wounded during the war between the States, the Indians called him " Father Murrow. " The little churches which he helped to erect with his own hands more than fifty of them‑are monuments of his zeal as a missionary and to the good country folk who made up his congregations, presented themselves to him for their wedding ceremony, or sent for him in times of sickness or distress, knowing he would not fail them. To them also he was known as " Father Murrow." It was through his influence and energy that Masonry revived after the war. It was his wise counsel and untiring zeal which brought the Grand Lodge to its feet; it was he who suggested the organisation of the first Chapter and the Grand Chapter; and it was his eloquence which won a Charter from the General Grand Chapter. Likewise, it was he who organised the first Council and first Grand Council; he, as Grand Secretary and Grand Reviewer, brought the Indian Templar to the attention of Christian Knighthood; he, who aided in the establishment of the Scottish Rite. Quite naturally did he come to be known as the " Father " of Oklahoma Masonry. His memory will be revered as ` Father Murrow " so long as Masonry thrives in the country in which seventyone years of his ninety‑four were devoted to the service of God and the welfare of humanity.


Although General Grand Master Josiah Drummond was unable to attend the Assembly of the General Grand Council held in Denver in 1883, he prepared his address in which he reported that he had authorised his personal friend, Companion Murrow, to act as his Special Deputy in Communicating the Degrees of the Cryptic Rite to such Royal Arch Masons as he deemed worthy, and that a Petition, signed by the requisite number of Royal and Select Masons thus made, had been presented for a Dispensation to open a Council, and that the Dispensation had been granted. He urged that a Charter be issued. The Committee on Charters and Dispensations reported that although there was no precedent for the action taken by the General Grand Master, they deemed it to be to the best interests of the Craft that a Charter be issued. The first Cryptic Work within Indian Territory, however unusual as it may have been, was a " tnouth‑to‑ear ceremony " until a sufficient number of members to ask for Dispensation had thus been collected. The date of the original Charter to Oklahoma Council is November 7, 1887, but in issuing it there was a delay of nearly a year, through some strange oversight. Royal Arch Masons from McAlester, Muskogee, Tahlequah, and other Indian Territory towns received the Cryptic Degrees in Oklahoma Council, which usually held its Assemblies at the same time and at FREEMASONRY IN OKLAHOMA 119 the same places as the annual Communications of the Grand Lodge. Oklahoma Territory had not been opened, but when Lodges began to spring up in the prairie region of the west, the Cryptic Rite entered into an era of prosperity there also.


Oklahoma Council enjoyed a sort of exclusive jurisdiction for several years until a Council (No. 2) was organised at Muskogee. Although the Brethren of the newer Territory had organised their own Grand Lodge, they never estab lished either a Grand Chapter or a Grand Council. Despite the facts that the Companions were obliged to travel hundreds of miles to attend the Annual Sessions, interest in both Rites steadily increased, and growth was rapid. In due time subordinate Councils were organised at McAlester and Muskogee. Soon after these Councils were Instituted, the three Bodies held a Convention at McAlester, where, on November S, 1894, they organised the Grand Council of Indian Territory. Eight of the Representatives who were present afterwards became Grand Masters.


The outstanding achievement of the Royal and Select Masters in Oklahoma was the excavation and erection of a Crypt on the side and top of a majestic mountain north of McAlester. The idea was conceived by Past Grand Master Edmond H. Doyle who was assisted in carrying it out by zealous Companions Christopher Springer, William H. Essex, Jabez Mann, Past Grand Masters, and Companion Edward Richards, who financed the enterprise. The Crypt occupies a site on the brow of the mountain which was named Mount Moriah. As nearly as physical conditions permit, the exposed superstructure resembles the original Temple. Secret vaults with appropriate arches and passages are cut out of the solid rock. This project was undertaken and completed by Union Council at McAlester, which carried the burden alone with no assistance from the Grand Council except the conferring of concurrent jurisdiction throughout the entire State so that the Council at McAlester may receive Petitions and so enjoy the benefit of fees and dues. Annual pilgrimages to Mount Moriah have been attended by General Grand Masters and by prominent Masons from every part of the United States and Canada.


The Royal and Select Masons of Oklahoma have been faithful and punctual in the discharge of all their obligations to Masonry. They have participated in every Masonic movement, engaged wholeheartedly in every general project undertaken.


Under the auspices of Companion Robert W. Hill and Joseph S. Murrow, the Order of High Priesthood was established within the two Territories during the Annual Convocation of the Grand Chapter held at Oklahoma City in 18gi.


Companion Hill was made the first President, Bro. Murrow, Vice‑President. Companion Past Grand High Priest Edmond H. Doyle was elected Secretary, but he surrendered the Station two years later to Bro. Murrow who held it until igi2. The Order of High Priesthood is held in high esteem by the permanent members of the Grand Chapter. As an auxiliary to that Body it has helped wonderfully in carrying out projects which might otherwise have suffered delay. Its Pro‑ 12‑0 FREEMASONRY IN OKLAHOMA ceedings are published annually in the same volume with those of the Grand Chapter.


After the Civil War the centre of Masonic activity in Indian Territory was within the territory of the Choctaw Nation. Brothers Murrow, Doyle, Coyle, and the other Masonic leaders all resided within the territory of that tribe. The first Lodges, Chapters, and Councils, and the first three Grand Bodies existed within the geographical limits of Indian Territory. And it should be remembered that until 1889, the area later known as Oklahoma Territory was nothing but a vast prairie, where millions of cattle were grazed under rental contracts with the Indians, chiefly the Cherokees, the Choctaws, and the Chickasaws.


Under treaties with the Indian governments, the Territory was acquired by the United States Government and as such was opened to home‑seekers as public land. Settlement began in 1889. Later, additional land was acquired. Known as the " Cherokee Strip," this was also opened to homestead in 1892‑. Until 189o, the country was occupied only by cattlemen, except for a few scattered bands of " squatters " who were repeatedly expelled from the country by detachments of the United States Army. It was impracticable, if not impossible, to establish Masonry permanently under conditions which existed in plains country prior to 1889, the year of the " opening." This explains why Masonic activity was up to that time confined to Indian Territory.


Then, in 18go, conditions were reversed. By that time several railroads had extended their lines across the region, and several towns had grown to sizable proportions. Chief among these, and lively rivals, were Guthrie, the capital, and Oklahoma City. Both towns represented every characteristic of western enterprise. Territorial Governor Cassius M. Barnes was prominent and energetic in all Masonic activities, as was also Bro. Harper S. Cunningham, who afterwards became Inspector‑General of the Scottish Rite in both Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory.


On July 12‑, 18go, a Dispensation was issued by the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar to Governor Barnes and his associates, empowering them to organise a Commandery. Knights from Oklahoma assisted in the movement and deposited their dimits. So soon as the Commandery was properly organised, receptions into the several Orders were rapid. Quite a number of Royal Arch Masons from the Indian Territory Petitioned to Guthrie Commandery, but the " Stalwarts," Hill, Murrow, and Doyle, took the position that the time was not quite right to undertake an establishment of Templarism, and counselled delay until such time as the Capitular and Cryptic Bodies already organised had become more firmly established. But the spirit of progress was in the air. Masons were too ambitious to permit any delays while the boom was on in the social, religious, commercial, and political life of the country. This feeling prevailed to such an extent that in 1891 another Dispensation was issued from the Grand Encampment, empowering the opening of a Commandery at Muskogee. The following year still another Commandery was Instituted at Oklahoma City. All these Commanderies prospered from the outset.


FREEMASONRY IN OKLAHOMA 121 Within a short time, additional Commanderies were organised by proper Warrants at El Reno, in Oklahoma Territory, and at Purcell, in Indian Territory. On September 3, 1894, a Commandery was authorised at McAlester in Indian Territory. It is true that in that " wild and wooly " country, Templarism on parade may not have been as thrilling or inspiring as well‑equipped Commanderies in older communities, but the Commanderies then existing never lost an opportunity to appear in public, in such uniforms as were available, to escort Lodges at funeral ceremonies or at the laying of corner‑stones.


Past Grand Master James A. Scott, the first to be dubbed in Indian Territory when the Commandery at Muskogee was Instituted, and who, as Grand Master, secured the first $iooo for the Masonic Home, remarked the appearance of a Commandery of the early go's and the splendidly equipped prize‑winning drill teams of the present generation. Admitting that there could be no real comparison, in displays, he offered the challenge: "As man an' boy, I'll bet most anything that we ole timers fed more hungry, handed out more clothes, bought more medicine and fuel, protected more good names‑man for man, I meanthan our crowd does to‑day. " It is a matter of record that the deeds of the first Commanderies in attending to charity and other noble duties spread their fame throughout the country.


Naturally enough, the question of organising a Grand Commandery presented itself. Some of the Brethren suggested that it was Oklahoma Territory's turn to domicile a new Grand Body, one which should include Indian Territory within its jurisdiction. Other Brethren maintained that inasmuch as all the other Grand Bodies had been established within the older Territory, the new Grand Commandery should be established there also, and should bear the same name, in order to avoid confusion in the Masonic world. The combined Templar strength was only six Commanderies. No one gave the idea of two Grand Bodies a second thought. But at the Triennial Conclave held in Boston in 1895, rival Petitions to organise a Grand Commandery were presented. The possibility of a complication was soon dissolved by authorising two Grand Commanderies. The respective groups returned to their homes, jubilant and determined. The Indian Territory Commanderies met at Muskogee on December 27, 1895, and organised under the auspices of V.‑.E.‑.Sir William H. Mayo, of St. Louis. Grand Recorder and proxy for the Grand Master R.‑.E.‑.Sir Robert W. Hill was elected and Installed as the first Grand Commander. The first business of the new Grand Commandery was to borrow $loo from the local Commandery with which to pay the expense of entertainment and the purchase of supplies and other necessary incidentals. The Grand Commandery of Oklahoma Territory was organised at Guthrie on February io, 1896, R.‑. E.'. Sir Cassius M. Barnes acting as the proxy for the Grand Master. The occasion made it a gala day for Masonry in the new region. Governor Barnes was elected first Grand Commander.


Chivalric Masonry did not enjoy (or suffer) the rapid growth which has attended the other Masonic Institutions. One reason for this was the general 12.2 FREEMASONRY IN OKLAHOMA business depression which prevailed throughout the country during those years, and another was the fact that the Asylums were vigilantly and valiantly guarded. There was little rivalry between the two Grand Commanderies. Their Representatives met each year at the Convocations of the Grand Chapter, compared notes, encouraged and helped one another. They grew apace. The " West Side " increased its numbers more rapidly because its general population was increasing more rapidly. It was not until several years later that the Indians of the Five Civilised Tribes divided their lands so that their allotments might be offered for sale. Until that time there were no lands available to white men except under leasing contracts, and those were under government and tribal supervision. Town sites had been established along the railroads, and white men entering the Indian country were obliged to live in those.


As early as 19os some of the Brethren began to admit that they doubted the wisdom of trying to maintain two separate organisations. Feeling came into evidence that one strong Commandery could be more useful than two weak ones. This impression grew in both Bodies. Committees were, therefore, appointed to confer upon the proposal of consolidation, but nothing was accomplished. Leading Knights from each Commandery visited the other to advocate definite steps toward consolidation, but no action was taken. Congress passed the Enabling Act which joined the two Territories into one State, and the other Grand Lodges consolidated, but until 1911 two separate Grand Commanderies, each with its jurisdictional lines, continued to operate. M.. E:. Grand Master William B. Melish addressed what was really an ultimatum, couched in diplomatic terms, urging Indian Territory to take the initiative and offering the assurance that any method or any terms agreed upon by majority vote in each Body would have the approval of the Grand Encampment. Later in the year, terms were agreed upon, the disposition of Offices was arranged, the designation of Commanderies determined, and on October 6, both Commanderies assembled in Special Conclave at Oklahoma City. Grand Master Melish was present to supervise the ceremonies, which were most impressive. Two Grand Commanderies were in Session in the same city at the same time; and two Grand Commanderies passed out of existence at the same moment, an event unprecedented in Templar history. The Grand Commandery of Oklahoma was then organised, its Officers were elected and installed, and one of the most active units in Christian Masonry became an established and busy identity. The Drill Team of Trinity Commandery, representing Oklahoma, was a close second in the contests at the Grand Encampment in 1931 and ran a brilliant first in 1934.


Masonry contributed generally to the soldiery of the United States for the Spanish‑American War. While the Grand Lodge was in session at Vinita, word was received that the Grand Tyler, Bro. William M. Simms, had been seriously wounded at El Caney and was in a critical condition. Steps were immediately taken to offer such relief as might be appropriate. Bro. Simms was one of the first of Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders to be struck. Although he recovered from his wounds, he was rendered a cripple. Nevertheless, he made himself FREEMASONRY IN OKLAHOMA 12.3 useful to Masonry for many years. Captain Allyn K. Capron and Private Cox, both soldiers in the Rough Riders contingent, and both Oklahoma Masons, were killed in the engagement before Santiago. Rolls of honor were proudly displayed in the various Lodge Rooms.


Although the Masons of the two Territories may be said to have been ambitious, it is certainly equally true that they were methodical. They undertook much and they accomplished a great deal. It was only natural that men with such spirit as that which prevailed among the Lodge members at Muskogee, Guthrie, Oklahoma City, and McAlester, who had already established every branch of American Masonry, should consider that the time had arrived for organising the Scottish Rite. Therefore Bro. Barnes and Bro. Cunningham, of Oklahoma City, and Bro. Robert W. Hill, of Muskogee, launched this enterprise so soon as Templarism had been firmly planted. Letters Temporary were first issued to the Brethren at Guthrie. Similar authority was then issued to Muskogee and Chickasha. The Guthrie Body prospered from the very beginning. Both Muskogee and Chickasha wanted to be known as "Albert Pike Lodge, No. i," but the Lodge of Perfection at Chickasha, for which letters were issued by Bro. Hill to Bro. Eugene Hamilton and others, was the first actually to show signs of activity. Neither of these two Lodges was ever completed.


The Transactions of the Supreme Council for 1897 show reports from Bro. Hill, Deputy for Indian Territory, and Bro. Cunningham, Deputy for Oklahoma Territory. The latter, who had been appointed in 189o, stated that he had made no permanent organisation until January i9, 1896. At that time the Lodge of Perfection was opened at Guthrie. He expressed the hope that a Chapter of Rose Croix would be established at least within two years. This ambition was realised. In his report, Bro. Hill was quite as enthusiastic in his survey of conditions, but his efforts were less fruitful. Within a few years the Scottish Rite was firmly and thoroughly organised at Guthrie, in each of its Bodies. A commodious cathedral was then erected. This was later turned over to the Grand Lodge, and a new two‑million‑dollar Temple erected. It is one of the most beautiful and completely appointed structures devoted to Masonry to be found anywhere in the United States.


Through the active efforts of Bro. Doyle, who succeeded Bro. Hill, Bro. Murrow and others, a Lodge of Perfection was organised at McAlester. This effort was permanently successful. It grew rapidly. Fortunate in its member ship, the young Lodge soon became famous for the character of its Work. The other Bodies of the Rite flourished, and long before statehood was achieved, under the ambitious leadership of Bro. William Busby, there was a beautiful Temple at McAlester. This structure, which includes a dormitory, has since been enlarged. Albert Pike Hospital is part of the McAlester organisation.


On February io, 19o1, the Consistories at Guthrie and at McAlester were placed under one jurisdiction and government by order of the Grand Commander. Bro. Cunningham was appointed Deputy over both Valleys. Several years later he was succeeded by Bro. William Busby. Upon the latter's death Dr. D. M.


124 FREEMASONRY IN OKLAHOMA Hailey, who had served in the Grand East of all the other Bodies, became his successor. The Scottish Rite Bodies in Oklahoma have been influential in every important public enterprise. They have sponsored the publication of the Oklahoma Mason, a monthly magazine devoted to the interests of the Rite and of the Grand Lodge. In times of crisis or emergency the Consistories are usually the first to respond to local appeals.


The experience of Masonry in Oklahoma during the Great War was not unlike that of the other American Grand Jurisdictions. The Grand Lodge and local Lodges rendered every public service to those Brethren who were called to the colors. The immediate wants of their families were by no means neglected. Since the war, Masonic auxiliary organisations, particularly the Craftsman's Club, have maintained constant contact with the patients at United States Veterans' Hospital, No. 9o, located at Muskogee, with the personnel at Fort Sill, and with those at other points where Masonry can be of service to its dependents.


The Grand Lodge of Oklahoma joined wholeheartedly in the Masonic Service movement, with the George Washington Memorial movement, and with the several gestures which intimated closer relation with the Grand Lodges or widened the scope of the Craft in its outlook upon social welfare.


Beginning early in the last century, Masons have since contributed liberally to the development of the social, civic, commercial, and industrial interests of what is now the State of Oklahoma. As already stated, all the outstanding chiefs of the several Indian tribes and the leading members of the several supreme courts have been Masons. This was true in Oklahoma Territory, nearly every Territorial governor having been a Mason. One of them, Governor Cassius M. Barnes, was a leader of the organisation of the Commandery and the Consistory, at Guthrie, and in the organisation of the Grand Commandery. Since the Territory was admitted to statehood, each governor, excepting one, has been a Mason. One of them was a Past Grand Master. The first United States judge in either Territory, Hon. John R. Thomas, was a Past Grand Master in Illinois. The oldest bank in the State was organised by Masons and is still controlled and operated by members of the Craft; a Master Mason stands at the head of the largest banking and trust concern in the State. Truly, Masonic ideals prevail in Oklahoma, and her most active public spirits are affiliated with the Craft.


FREEMASONRY IN OREGON LESLIE MCCHESNEY SCOTT PRODUCT OF PIONEER LIFE HE beginnings of Masonry in Oregon sprang spontaneously from associations of pioneer life, in which the ornaments of Brotherly love, relief and truth had more fitting use, perhaps, than in any other stage of American progress. The early settlement of Oregon marked a climax of more than two hundred years of westward frontier expansion. It presented phases of society that were peculiar to the conditions that produced them. The universal precepts of Masonry took hold the more firmly, because of the simplicity of human affairs. The pioneer habits have disappeared, but have left behind an enduring Masonic edifice.


These beginnings in Oregon were the first on the Pacific Coast; and, from the Oregon Jurisdiction, the Masonic Order spread to Washington, Idaho and Alaska.


There was need for the kindly precepts of human fellowship in the settlement of Oregon. This land, the first foothold of American empire on the Pacific Coast when the treaty between the United States and Great Britain defined the boundaries, June 15, 1846, was distant from the Middle West frontier of Illinois and Missouri ZSoo miles, a journey which consumed between five and six months of primitive travel. The hardships of this journey were severe, suffering and death were frequent, and poverty was the portion of each family that made the long migration. In the eighteen annual migrations between the years 1842 and 1859, there were not less than 3o,ooo deaths on the Oregon Trail, west of Missouri River. The shorter route by sea and the Isthmus of Panama was used only by a relatively few traders and merchants from the Atlantic seaboard. Oregon was peopled mostly by pioneers from the Middle West, who transported their large families and their few goods by means of ox teams, averaging fifteen miles or less a day, through the intervening and unpeopled wilderness. The trials of scant food, of sickness, death and Indian barbarity, afforded full scope for the exercise of truly Masonic precepts.


Accordingly, the records of the Oregon migration period, beginning, say, in 1842 and lasting for twenty‑five years, give clear evidence that many men who met as strangers in adversity knew one another as Brethren in the means of 125 126 FREEMASONRY IN OREGON relief, and that widows and orphans often recognised the lifting hand, although by comparison of modern days, the means may now seem crude and scant. And just as the pioneer colonists took the germs of social organisation first to Plymouth and Jamestown, their ox‑team successors bore them to Oregon, where, in 1843, they set up a provisional government, to rule the Oregon country, then consisting of the later States of Oregon, Washington and Idaho, and parts of Montana and Wyoming, until the United States should establish the national authority, which latter was accomplished by a territorial government in 1849, pursuant to the treaty of 1846 and a territorial Act of Congress of 1848. The pillars of this social structure were mostly the selfsame men who were founding and supporting the Masonic Organisation.


We find the Masonic Order springing into existence in 1846, just as government did three years previously. The call went forth on February 5, 1846, for a meeting of Master Masons at Oregon City on February 21, following, " to adopt some measures to obtain a charter for a lodge," and was published in the first issue of the Oregon Spectator, the first newspaper published on the Pacific Coast. These were not regular summonses, but they served the purpose of showing the need of Masonic fellowship. The signers of the call were Joseph Hull, Peter G. Stewart and William P. Dougherty. Bro. Hull became the first Worshipful Master of the Lodge thereafter constituted, known as Multnomah Lodge, No. 84, of Missouri. Bro. Stewart was a leader of the Oregon provisional government and in 1854, was Worshipful Master of Multnomah Lodge. Afterwards he took up residence at Tacoma, where he attached himself to the Masonic Jurisdiction of Washington Territory. Bro. Dougherty, then an enterprising merchant of Oregon City, was named Senior Warden in the Charter of Multnomah Lodge, although he was not Installed as such. Eight years later, in 1854, he acted as one of the founders of Steilacoom Lodge, which then was No. 8 of the Oregon jurisdiction, and, since 1858, has been No. 2 of the Washington Jurisdiction.


The called meeting at Oregon City took place sixteen days later, on February 21, 1846, attended by seven Master Masons: Joseph Hull, Peter G. Stewart, William P. Dougherty, Fendal C. Cason, Leon A. Smith, Frederick Waymire and Lot Whitcomb. These men addressed a Petition to the Grand Lodge of Missouri, praying for a Charter for Multnomah Lodge. Missouri was then the nearest member, excepting Iowa, of the family of States, and was the beginning of the route of the Oregon Trail. St. Louis was the metropolis of the frontier West, and the trade and outfitting centre of Western activities. Bro. Dougherty was a member of that jurisdiction, in Platte City Lodge, No. 56, and his agent there, Bro. James P. Spratt, was also a member of that Lodge, and held a sum of money as a credit for Bro. Dougherty, from which the latter instructed Bro. Spratt to defray the costs of securing the Charter for the Lodge in Oregon.


It thus appears to have been a natural and logical move to seek a Charter in Missouri. But the seat of the Missouri jurisdiction was nearly Zsoo miles distant, by the long route of the Oregon Trail, through a wild and unpeopled FREEMASONRY IN OREGON 127 country, infested with marauding bands of Indian savages; the only methods of travel afforded being those of walking, horseback riding and canoeing, each highly perilous for small parties because of Indian thievery and hostility. Needless to say, railroads, steamboats and telegraphs were unknown in the West, and the whole region, between the Willamette Valley in Oregon and the Missouri River crossing at Saint Joseph, was a barbaric wilderness.


Oregon City, in 1846, was the leading community in the Pacific Northwest, having a population of not exceeding 400. It was the only incorporated town, the recognised seat of American judicial authority on the Pacific Coast, as was evidenced by the filing there of the city plot of San Francisco, because being the place of the nearest United States Court. When the Brethren at Oregon City, early in 1846, undertook to establish a Masonic Lodge, California was yet a Mexican dependency, and San Francisco, Yerba Buena as then called, was a Mexican village. The Pacific Northwest had been claimed by both the United States and Great Britain for fifty years, and the dispute had made a dispute between the people of the two national powers. For a period of twenty years, ending in 1843, the British Hudson's Bay Company had governed the country. In the latter year, Americans set up a provisional government which supplanted the British rule. The years 1845 and 1846 were a time of strained relations. Both nations sent warships to represent their claims, and agents to pry into conditions. The population was less than io,ooo most of whom were Americans. The trade and political centre of American influence was Oregon City. The few settlers north of Columbia River, before the autumn of 1845, were practically all British subjects. The opposing nationalities were uneasy lest hostilities should break out. The Presidential election of 1844 had been won by James K. Polk on a platform of " Fifty‑four Forty or Fight," which asserted American claims as far north as the Southern limit of Alaska.


Oregon City was as far away from currents of the world, in 1846, as distant Tibet would be regarded at the present day. It was practically as remote in the eyes of that time as the distant country from which no traveller returns. News of the treaty of 1846, ratified by the United States Senate on June 15 of that year, did not reach the pioneer settlement of Willamette Falls until November following. Meanwhile, the boundary question remained a tense issue in Oregon affairs for five months after the line had been fixed between Canada and the United States at the forty‑ninth parallel. A war feeling thrilled the currents of affairs in this distant segment of the world. The year 1846 was the most eventful that Oregon ever had known. The provisional government was perfecting functions under the leadership of men who were accustomed to use the‑symbolic tools of Masonry. Many of these men were given to religious and devotional expression, apart from churches and missionary groups. The three churches at Oregon City, Methodist, Congregational, and Catholic, could not satisfy their longings for fraternal association and theistic worship. The intimate relationship which these men craved for purposes of religion and fellowship were those of a Masonic Lodge. And the sufferings of poverty, sickness 128 FREEMASONRY IN OREGON and death, in the outdoor affairs of daily life, called for the assuagements which Masonic practise affords. There was further scope for Masonic activities, in the softening of political asperities of the Whig and Democratic contentions of the period, and in the friction between British and Americans.


Oregon then had no steamboats, no railroads, no improved highways. Portland was but a name. The leading towns were Oregon City and Champoeg. American settlement of Puget Sound had just begun, and there were few in habitants north of Columbia River. There were but five or six small grist mills. Farmers had no agricultural machinery. Harvesting and threshing were performed by hand methods. The only markets, outside of those of the small population in Willamette Valley, were those of the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Vancouver, Cowlitz, and Fort Nisqually. Several small sawmills were in operation, as at Oregon City, Salem, Vancouver, Tualatin Plain and near Astoria. Nine years before, in 1837, a large herd of Spanish cattle had been obtained from California, and these, together with the cattle, horses, and sheep which the migrating pioneers brought with them by way of the Oregon Trail in the years 1842, 1843, 1844, and 1845, had stimulated the progress of animal husbandry. Protestant churches and public schools were but beginning in primitive community life. The amusements which we of to‑day regard as essentials were wholly lacking. Houses were small and crude; furniture was simple and scant; clothing was rough and plain. Luxuries of food and recreation were few. Everybody had to " live low and lie hard." But amid the crudeness and roughness of individual and community life, the amenities of fellowship rose up into spontaneous exercise to make life endurable and enjoyable,.to save human existence from solitude and monotony. Such life as this brings forth the best attributes of kindliness, sympathy, hospitality and fraternity. Thus it came to pass that Masonic Brethren found themselves drawn together as by the mysterious beauties of their profession. They interchanged felicities and confidences as Brethren of a speculative and honourable Craft. And then, to gain authoritative sanction for the designs upon their trestle board, they met together and addressed a Petition to the Grand Lodge of Missouri for a Charter.


To carry the Petition to Platt City, Missouri, the signers, led by Bro. Dougherty, chose the best messenger that Oregon then afforded. This was a highly enterprising man of thirty‑six years; a foremost figure in exploration of the West and in subsequent migration; a person of culture and humane sympathies. This man in October 1845, a few months before, had opened the route of the Barlow road across Cascade Mountains. Afterwards, in 1863, he blazed the route of the modern Columbia River Highway. He founded the town of Dayton, Oregon, was author of an Oregon trail guide which was published in 1847 and was used more than any other book by Oregon Trail pioneers. He built a grist mill at Dayton, Oregon, and engaged extensively in transportation in the placer gold activities of 1860‑70. Upon organisation of Multnomah Lodge in 1848, he was Installed as Secretary. Three years later he acted as an FREEMASONRY IN OREGON 129 Organiser, and in 1853, as Worshipful Master of Lafayette Lodge, originally No. 15 of the California ,jurisdiction, and later, No. 3 of Oregon. He was one of the most noted of the Indian agents of Oregon.


This messenger to the Grand Lodge of Missouri was Joel Palmer, who had arrived at Oregon City four months previously, on a tour of investigation of the Oregon Trail and of Oregon, and was preparing to return to Indiana in the spring and summer of 1846, and to come back in 1847 to Oregon, as the leader of that year's migration. No envoy more faithful could have been chosen for this mission. Doubtless he had been often tried as a true Mason in Indiana and on the Oregon Trail; the Oregon City Petitioners hardly could have trusted the fervency and zeal of any other emissary than the one of their own Fraternity. Bro. Palmer discharged the duty reposed in him and delivered the Petition; Bro. Spratt presented the Petition to the Grand Lodge of Missouri, and that Body granted a Charter on October 19, 1846, to Multnomah Lodge, No. 84, which later was Chartered as Multnomah Lodge, No. i of Oregon Jurisdiction, by the Grand Lodge of Oregon.


The journey of the Charter to Oregon was long delayed, by comparison with the time taken by Bro. Palmer to deliver the Petition. No travellers were setting forth for Oregon so late in the year as the date of the Charter, namely, October 19, 1846. On account of the length and hardships of the journey, travellers always started for Oregon in the spring, aiming thereby to arrive at the goal of their journey before the succeeding winter. Failure of the Donner party to cross the Sierra Nevada Mountains into California sufficiently early in 1846 resulted in the most terrible starvation tragedy of Western annals. For more than a year the Charter awaited transportation to Oregon.


Finally the opportunity came in the migration of 1848. Bro. B. P. Cornwall was outfitting a party bound for Oregon, in the winter of 1847‑48 at Saint Joseph, Missouri, and to him Bro. Spratt entrusted the Charter of Multnomah Lodge, in December 1847. The Cornwall party set out from Saint Joseph on the Oregon Trail in April 1848. Only five persons made up the party, and it was too small to travel safely among the hostile Indians. So Bro. Cornwall and his associates tarried at Omaha, Nebraska, until a large group of Ohioans came along, with whom they journeyed to Fort Hall, near the later Pocatello, Idaho, where they arrived in August 1848. There the trail divided, the left or southerly branch leading to California; the right, or westerly, leading to Oregon. Contrary to his original plans, Bro. Cornwall took the road to California, lured thither by tales of the golden Eldorado, which the Oregon pioneers in California, James W. Marshall and Charles Bennett, had discovered near Coloma, in the valley of American River, in January preceding. The migration of 1848 was electrified by these tales of riches easily gathered, and there followed a large diversion of pioneers to California, both from Oregon and from the Oregon Trail.


True to his promise of safeguarding the Charter of Multnomah Lodge, Bro. Cornwall sought hands as worthy and as well qualified as his own to bear 130 FREEMASONRY IN OREGON the document to Oregon City. These he found in the persons of Orrin and Joseph Kellogg, who, as father and son, were travelling from Ohio to Oregon. These latter men carried the Charter safely to the metropolis at Willamette Falls. The receptacle used to hold the Charter in transit was a homemade rawhide trunk owned by Bro. Joseph Kellogg.


Thus was discharged a duty which all members of the Oregon Craft have been glad ever since to acknowledge, pertaining to Emblems more ancient than the Golden Fleece or Roman Eagle.


Bro. Cornwall found his portion of the riches of California and became a prominent citizen and craftsman in that Commonwealth. Bro. Kellogg won fortune and distinction in Oregon.


Bro. Joseph Kellogg handed the Charter, at Oregon City on September ii, 1848, to Bro. Joseph Hull, who had headed the call for the Masonic meeting for February 21, 1846, and the Petition to the Grand Lodge of Missouri, and had been named Worshipful Master in the Charter. Bro. Hull on that same day summoned the members of the Craft for the Installation and immediately began the Work of organisation. Bro. William P. Dougherty owned a log store building at Oregon City, facing Main Street, and there, on the second floor, Bro. Hull called the Brethren to order; Masonic tradition relates, upon substantial authority, that a rough packing box served the uses of an Altar, and that the wages of corn, wine and oil were represented by a barrel of flour for the Master's Pedestal; by a barrel of whiskey for the Senior Warden's; and a barrel of salt pork for the junior Warden's.


Bro. Dougherty shortly before had gone temporarily to California to seek his fortunes in the gold fields, so that it was necessary to Install some other Craftsman as Senior Warden, this post having been assigned to Bro. Dougherty by the Grand Lodge of Missouri. Bro. Orrin Kellogg was chosen for this honour; Fendal C. Cason, Junior Warden; Joseph Kellogg, Treasurer; Joel Palmer, Secretary; Lot Whitcomb, Senior Deacon; Berryman Jennings, Junior Deacon; J. H. Bosworth, Tyler. Bro. Berryman Jennings acted as Installing Officer, and probably performed the ceremonies of Constitution of the Lodge. Owing to destruction of the Records of the Lodge in 1857, by fire, the narrative of the proceedings and of subsequent activities of the Lodge is meager. But we are informed that the first Session lasted sixteen hours, until the morning tints that gilded the eastern portals of September 12, 1848. Three candidates were elected and at once Initiated: Christopher Taylor, Asa L. Lovejoy and Albert E. Wilson. Bro. Taylor received the Master Mason's Degree that night, and it has been said that Bros. Lovejoy and Wilson also were Raised as Master Masons at that time, but this latter fact lacks verification. However, it is known that Bro. Taylor was the first Master Mason Raised in Multnomah Lodge, which means that he was the first person on the Pacific Coast to receive Masonic Degrees. The next Lodge on this coast to organise was in California, in October 1849, eleven months later.


Multnomah Lodge appears to have been inactive for two years after or‑ FREEMASONRY IN OREGON 131 ganisation. No further meetings seem to have been held, and no Officers were elected until the Lodge was revived in 185o, by Bro. John C. Ainsworth (Captain). The gold mines of California drew away from Oregon many men and caused the suspension of various activities in the territory. One of the professions thus rendered dormant was that of Masonry. Bro. Hull, Worshipful Master of the Multnomah Lodge, went to California soon after organisation of that Body, and did not resume Masonic Work.


Bro. Ainsworth became distinguished in the annals of Oregon Masonry and steamboat transportation. Born in Ohio, he had come to Oregon from Missouri in 185o. At once he proceeded to re‑organise Multnomah Lodge, and to report his doing to the Grand Lodge of Missouri, doubtless at the request of Officers of that jurisdiction. In a letter dated March 21, 1886, addressed to Bro. Peter Paquet, of Oregon City, Past Master of Multnomah Lodge, Bro. Ainsworth said In 185o I overhauled the records of Multnomah Lodge No. 8q., at Oregon City, and made a report of the situation to the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Missouri. I revived the old lodge, and after much labor, got it in working order, and was elected Master at the first election ever held under the charter, and was therefore the first elected Master of the oldest chartered lodge on the Pacific Coast.


The Senior Warden elected at this time was Bro. R. R. Thompson, later distinguished in steamboat activities; the junior Warden, Bro. Forbes Barclay, a physician at Oregon City, afterwards Treasurer of this Lodge twenty years, a man widely beloved.


Owing to destruction of the Records by fire in 1857, the detail of authentic history pertaining to this Lodge is small. The Records since 1857 are, however, intact. The consecutive activity of this Lodge may be said to have begun in i85o, when the Lodge was revived by Bro. Ainsworth. Among the Worshipful Masters of this Lodge were some of the most noted citizens of Oregon, among them being Captain J. C. Ainsworth, A. E. Wait, Lot Whitcomb, Amory Holbrook, Asa L. Lovejoy, David P. Thompson, Thomas Charman, Owen Wade, J. T. Apperson, George A. Pease, J. W. McCully, Peter Paquet, Franklin T. Griffith, Joseph E. Hedges, R. C. Ganong, and L. L. Porter. This Lodge has contributed largely to the social upbuilding of Oregon and to the amelioration of stressful episodes.


By resolution of the Grand Lodge of Oregon, dated September 15, 1851, to which this Lodge transferred constituency from Missouri, Multnomah Lodge was designated No. i of the Oregon jurisdiction, and the following indorsement was ordered made on the original Charter of the Lodge: This charter having been submitted to the Grand Lodge of the Territory of Oregon Ordered. That the lodge (Multnomah) be recognized as a legally con‑ 132 FREEMASONRY IN OREGON stituted lodge, under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge, aforesaid, by the original name; and that they (Multnomah, Willamette, and Lafayette Lodges) be numbered according to the date of their charters; and that this order be signed by the M. W. Grand Master (Berryman Jennings), the R. W. Deputy Grand Master (John Elliott), and the Grand Wardens (William J. Berry and R. R. Thompson), and countersigned by the R. W. Grand Secretary (Benjamin Stark).


The second Masonic Body in Oregon was Willamette Lodge of Portland, which began activity contemporaneously with the revival of Multnomah Lodge at Oregon City in i85o. Portland had grown to be a town of 400 or 5oo persons, but as yet was not incorporated and was less important in rank than Oregon City and Salem. But the community had become large enough to need the intellectual and fraternal activities of a Masonic Lodge. Multnomah Lodge at Oregon City was distant about four hours by canoe travel on Willamette River or by horseback on the rough trails through dense forests. Asa L. Lovejoy, afterwards a member of Multnomah Lodge, and Francis W. Pettygrove had laid out the town site of Portland in 1844, and John H. Couch, later a member of Willamette Lodge, had made his town addition adjoining.


A meeting of Master Masons at Portland, June 24, 1850, was called by Bros. Benjamin Stark, Berryman Jennings, and S. H. Tryon. This date was Saint John's Day. It is recorded that fifteen Brethren responded to the invita tion to meet together in a Masonic conclave, according to the ancient customs. The meeting took place in the store of Bro. Joseph B. V. Butler, at or near First and Alder Streets. The Brethren unanimously decided to take steps preparatory to organisation of a Lodge at Portland. As the Grand Lodge of California had been created two months before, in April, the Brethren decided to Petition the Grand Master of that jurisdiction for a Dispensation to open a Lodge.


The Petition, dated June 24, 185o, drafted by Bro. Benjamin Stark, was signed by the following Brethren: James P. Long, Ralph Wilcox, Thomas J. Hobbs, Albert E. Wilson, William M. King, Benjamin Stark, Jacob Goldsmith, Nathaniel Crosby, Samuel W. Bell, S. H. Tryon, Dennis Tryon, Joseph B. V. Butler, Robert Thompson (not R. R.), J. W. Whaples, and George H. Flanders. Benjamin Stark afterwards became Grand Secretary of the Oregon Jurisdiction (1851), Master of Willamette Lodge (1854), and Grand Master of the jurisdiction (1857); Berryman Jennings became the first Grand Master of the Oregon Jurisdiction (1851).


The following Officers were recommended for Willamette Lodge, which was to be opened by Dispensation: James P. Long, Worshipful Master; Ralph Wilcox, Senior Warden; Thomas J. Hobbs, Junior Warden; William M. King, Treasurer; Benjamin Stark, Secretary; J. W. Whaples, Senior Deacon; Dennis Tryon, Junior Deacon; Joseph B. V. Butler, Tyler.


To obtain the Dispensation from the Grand Master of California, Bros. Benjamin Stark and S. H. Tryon journeyed to San Francisco by steamship and on July 5, 1850, obtained the document, signed by M. W. Jonathan D. Steven‑ FREEMASONRY IN OREGON 133 son, first Grand Master of California, attested by John H. Gibon, Grand Secretary. Pursuant to this Dispensation, Bro. S. H. Tryon returned to Portland, carrying the proxy authority of the Grand Master of California, to organise the Lodge and set it to Work. This he accomplished on July 17, 185o, on the upper floor of John H. Couch's warehouse, on Front Street between Burnside and Couch Streets. The Lodge continued Work under Dispensation until the Session of the Grand Lodge of California at Sacramento, November 27, 185o, on which date a Charter was granted to Willamette Lodge, No. 11. Representing the Portland Brethren there were Bros. Jacob Goldsmith, Benjamin Stark, and S. H. Tryon, who had been delegated to apply for the Charter at a meeting of the Portland Brethren, October 21, 1850. On January 4, 1851, the following Officers were Installed: John Elliott, Worshipful Master; Lewis May, Senior Warden; H. D. O'Bryant, Junior Warden; D. H. Lownsdale, Treasurer; W. S. Caldwell, Secretary; W. H. Fisher, Senior Deacon; John H. Couch, Junior Deacon; Nichols DeLin, Tyler. We read in the narrative of Past Grand Master John M. Hodson, Masonic History of the Northwest, page 271: Under dispensation the lodge held thirty meetings, in which sixteen brethren participated as charter members, three were affiliated, ten were initiated, eight passed and eight raised, the fees and dues amounting to $678. The meet ings were held in the upper story of Couch & Company's warehouse, with the primitive furniture, rough boxes, barrels, etc., such as are usually found about such places, being used for stools, pedestals, and altars. It is related that the altar was a rough box, covered with a French flag obtained from a vessel lying at the wharf; the jewels were manufactured by a local tinner; and the tyler's sword was a present from Captain Couch, that had seen a quarter of a century's service on the high seas.


In the spring of 1851, Willamette Lodge changed the meeting‑place from the Couch warehouse to a building at Third and Alder Streets, but in February 1852, this building was destroyed by a windfall fir tree, and the Lodge repaired to a building belonging to Bro. George H. Flanders, at Front and Burnside Streets, where it continued to meet for twenty years, until 1872, when it moved to the Masonic Temple at Third and Alder Streets, which had been erected by the Masonic Building Association, a group of Masons who put up the money for the purpose. Later, the controlling ownership of this building came into possession of the Grand Lodge, through investment of the Educational Fund. In i9o6 this building was sold for $i5o,ooo, and the Masonic Building Association, under control of the Grand Lodge, built a Temple at West Park and Yamhill Streets, which was dedicated in December 1907, and to which Willamette Lodge and other city Lodges then removed.


The last meeting under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of California was held September 8, 1851, at which time Willamette Lodge became a constituent of the Oregon Grand Lodge, which organised at Oregon City, September 15, 1851.


134 FREEMASONRY IN OREGON Willamette Lodge then was designated as Willamette Lodge, No. 2. Among the well‑known Masters of this Lodge may be mentioned: John Elliott, Benjamin Stark, T. J. Dryer, Cicero H. Lewis, James W. Cook, T. J. Holmes, R. B. Wilson, Philip C. Schuyler, J. B. Congle, Thomas Mann, Henry L. Hoyt, George L. Story, Eugene D. White, Douglas W. Taylor, A. P. DeLin, A. C. Panton, D. Solis Cohen, Francis Sealy, Russell E. Sewell, Thomas H. Crawford, Jacob Mayer, Thomas Gray, William Wadhams, Edward Holman, Charles H. Dodd, Norris R. Cox, Frank Robertson, Hugh J. Boyd, Edward J. Failing, Omar C. Spencer, Earl C. Bronaugh. As the oldest Lodge in Portland, Willamette has exhibited a notable career of usefulness and efficiency.


About the same time in 185o that Multnomah Lodge at Oregon City was revived and Willamette Lodge at Portland received a Dispensation, Masonic Brethren at Lafayette were contemplating the organisation of a Lodge at that place. Lafayette was the most active centre of trade and politics on the west side of the Willamette River at this time. In 1852, the town had fifteen merchandise stores. Late in the year 185o and after the Grand Lodge of California had granted a Charter to Willamette Lodge, the Grand Master of that jurisdiction, Jonathan D. Stevenson, issued a Dispensation authorising the creation of Lafayette Lodge. The Grand Lodge of California, in second Annual Communication on May 9, 1851, ordered the issuance of a Charter to Lafayette Lodge, No. I5. In the report made to the Grand Lodge of California at that time, of the Work of Lafayette Lodge under Dispensation, the Officers named were: F. B. Martin, Worshipful Master; Joel Palmer, Senior Warden; A. J. Hembree, Junior Warden; W. D. Martin, Treasurer; David Logan, Secretary; H. D. Garrett, Senior Deacon; W. J. Martin, Junior Deacon; J. B. Walling, Tyler. Other Craft members of this Lodge were: Oliver Moore, S. Moore, S. Hibbed, George B. Goudy, S. M. Gilmore, Christopher Taylor, R. Clark and W. Blanchard. These Officers continued to serve under the Charter organisation. This Lodge withdrew from the California Jurisdiction in September 1851, and entered that of the Oregon Grand Lodge, in which it was designated Lafayette Lodge, No. 3. Among the Worshipful Masters of this Lodge have been: F. B. Martin, Joel Palmer, Ransom Clark, John R. McBride, T. V. B. Embree, Horace R. Littlefield, Christopher Taylor, Robert P. Bird, William H. Moore. After‑the decline of Lafayette as a town, the Lodge moved to Yamhill.


We come now to the organisation of the Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of the Territory of Oregon, effected on September 15, 1851. Be it remembered that there were three constituent Bodies of Masonry in Oregon at that time: Multnomah Lodge, No. 8q., of Oregon City, Chartered in Missouri in 1846; Willamette Lodge, No. 11, of Portland, Chartered in California in 185o; and Lafayette Lodge, No. 15 of Lafayette, Chartered in California in 1851. This was the requisite number of just and legally Constituted Lodges to authorise the formation of a Grand Lodge. Oregon Territory, until 1853, included the later areas of Washington and Idaho, and parts of Montana and Wyoming, and was not set apart as a State, within present boundaries, FREEMASONRY IN OREGON 135 until 1859. Oregon, therefore, included the pioneer settlements of Cowlitz River and Puget Sound.


The project of a Grand Lodge came from the Lodge at Oregon City, where on Saturday, August 16, an Assembly of Masons was held in the hall of Multnomah Lodge, Bro. Berryman Jennings, of Multnomah Lodge, Chairman, and Bro. Stark, of Willamette Lodge, Secretary. By resolution, the Brethren set for Saturday, September 13, 1851, four weeks later, at Oregon City, 9 A.M., " the assembly of delegates duly authorized to organize a Worshipful Grand Lodge." Secretary Stark was authorised " To address to the Worshipful Masters, Wardens, and Brethren of the several lodges in this territory, a communication suggesting the propriety of organizing a Worshipful Grand Lodge for the Territory of Oregon." The Record shows no other business transacted at this Assembly.


Oregon until 1851 had made but little progress since the Petition for the Charter of the first Lodge in 1846, but development thereafter was destined to be more rapid. The migration of pioneers of 1851 was just beginning to arrive, at the time of this call for organisation of a Grand Lodge in the fall of 1851. This was not a large migration; the largest influx of pioneers was to take place next year, in 1852., followed by lesser numbers in 1853 and 1854. Steamboat navigation was beginning in 1851. The steamboat Columbia had been built at Astoria the year previously, and the steamboat Lot Whitcomb had been built at Milwaukie and begun to ply the waters of Willamette and Columbia Rivers in March 185 1. These were the first steamboats in Oregon. Several other steamboats were added in 1851, so that this year saw an active expansion in transportation facilities. The original fare of $25 between Astoria and Portland was reduced to $15 in 1851. Previously two days were consumed from Vancouver to Oregon City, in bateaux of the Hudson's Bay Company. There were as yet no roads for wagon traffic. Indian hostilities were beginning to trouble the new settlements in the Rogue River country, but would not involve all the Oregon country until 1855. Oregon Territory had been functioning as a government for two years. Open lands for claimants under the donation land law, which gave 64o acres of land free to each pioneer family, were becoming scarce, because most lands were heavily timbered, and timber was an obstacle and a hardship to pioneer farmers. Portland was reaching out for trade by opening the Canyon Road to Tualatin Valley, and now was beginning to rival Oregon City, with 5oo inhabitants, but was agitated by the ambitions of Milwaukie, Linnton and Saint Helens. The population of all Oregon was 15,000, mostly in Willamette Valley. The industries were almost wholly agricultural, the only manufactured product being lumber in small quantities, which was shipped to California for use amid gold activities. Grain and fruits also were exported to that market. Farming machinery was not used until 1852‑, and toilsome hand methods of threshing continued as formerly.


On the appointed day, September 13, 1851, the Convention assembled in Oregon City, in the hall of Multnomah Lodge, and organised at 4 o'clock by 136 FREEMASONRY IN OREGON electing as temporary Officers: John Elliott, Chairman; and William S. Caldwell, Secretary, both being from Willamette Lodge at Portland. The delegates present were Multnomah Lodge, No. 84‑Bros. J. C. Ainsworth, R. R. Thompson, and Forbes Barclay. Willamette Lodge, No. ii‑Bros. John Elliott, Lewis May and Benjamin Stark. Lafayette Lodge, No. is‑Bros. William J. Berry, H. D. Garrett and G. B. Goudy.


The Committee on Credentials and Order of Business was declared, by vote of the Convention, to be the Worshipful Master of each of the three Lodges, namely, Bros. Ainsworth, Elliott and Berry, and proceeded to examine the Credentials of the Delegates, and " to ascertain and report the authority in them vested to organize a Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons for the Territory of Oregon." The Committee, reporting the same day, announced that the Charter of each of the three constituent Lodges had been regularly and legally granted by a competent Grand Lodge jurisdiction, and that the Delegates from these three Lodges bore proper and regular Credentials. Pursuant to this report and on motion of Bro. Benjamin Stark, the Convention declared that, inasmuch as there were then in Oregon Territory " the requisite number of just and legally constituted Lodges to authorize the formation of a Grand Lodge and delegates from said Lodges are now present, clothed with ample authority to organize and constitute such Grand Lodge," therefore, Resolved, That the representatives of the several empowered lodges proceed to the organization of a convention for the formation of a Grand Lodge for the Territory of Oregon.


Bro. John Elliott then was elected permanent Chairman of the Convention and Bro. William S. Caldwell, permanent Secretary. On motion, all " Master Masons in good standing " were invited to participate in the proceedings. This ended the afternoon Session, and in the evening a Committee of five members was authorised, " to draft a constitution for a Grand Lodge for the Territory o Oregon," and to report such draft on the following Monday morning. Chairman Elliott appointed, for this Committee, Bros. Berryman Jennings, Benjamin Stark, William J. Berry and John C. Ainsworth, to serve with himself as Chairman. The Convention then adjourned over Sunday, and met again on Monday morning at 7.30 o'clock. On that day Bro. Amory Holbrook appeared as proxy for Bro. John C. Ainsworth. The Committee reported a Constitution which was unanimously adopted, whereupon, a motion of Bro. Benjamin Stark, that " a lodge of Master Masons be opened in due and ancient form," carried and the following served as Officers Bros. John Elliott, Worshipful Master; R. R. Thompson, Senior Warden; H. D. Garrett, Junior Warden; W. S. Caldwell, Secretary; Forbes Barclay, Treasurer; Armory Holbrook, Senior Deacon; Benjamin Stark, Junior Deacon; G. B. Goudy, Steward; Herman S. Buck, Tyler.


FREEMASONRY IN OREGON 137 Grand Lodge Officers thereupon elected and Installed were: Berryman Jennings, M. W. Grand Master; John Elliott, R. W. Deputy Grand Master; William J. Berry, R. W. Senior Grand Warden; John C. Ainsworth, R. W. Junior Grand Warden; R. R. Thompson, R. W. Grand Treasurer; Beniamin Stark, R. W. Grand Secretary.


Bro. Amory Holbrook acted as substitute for Bro. John C. Ainsworth in the Installation. Bro. John Elliott, P. M., Installed Bro. Berryman Jennings, and M. W. Bro. Berryman Jennings Installed R. W. Bro. John Elliott and other Officers.


The Lodge of Master Masons then was closed in due and ancient form, and the Brethren repaired to luncheon, preparatory for the Grand Lodge Session. In the afternoon of September 15, 1851, at 2 o'clock, the Grand Lodge was opened by M. W. Grand Master Berryman Jennings, assisted by the Officers elected at the morning Session of the Convention, preceding, and by the following Grand Officers pro tempore : R. R. Thompson, Junior Grand Warden, in addition to his regular duties as Grand Treasurer; H. D. Garrett, Acting Grand Senior Deacon; Amory Holbrook, Acting Grand Junior Deacon; and Peter G. Stewart, Acting Grand Tyler. The Grand Lodge was attended also, so the Record states, by " a number of brothers, members of the Grand Lodge and visiting brothers," and was opened on the Master Mason Degree in ample form.


By resolution the Grand Lodge directed that the Charters of each constituent Lodge be endorsed as having been submitted to the Grand Lodge of the Territory of Oregon, and that each Lodge be recognised as a legally Con stituted Lodge, " under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge, by the original name;" that the three Lodges " be numbered according to the date of their charters," and that this order be signed by the M. W. Grand Master, the R.W. Deputy Grand Master, and the R. W. Grand Wardens and be countersigned by the R. W. Grand Secretary.


The three constituent Lodges were " requested " by resolution of the Grand Lodge to pay into the treasury of the Grand Lodge the sum of $Zso, as follows: Multnomah Lodge, No. i and Willamette Lodge, No. 2, each $ioo; and Lafay ette Lodge, No. 3, $So. Such was the beginning of the funds of the Grand Lodge of Oregon, which have grown to the substantial totals of the presentday.


As a Committee to procure a Seal for the Grand Lodge, M. W. Grand Master Berryman Jennings, Acting Grand Junior Deacon Amory Holbrook and R. W. Grand Secretary Benjamin Stark were appointed by resolution. As a Committee to prepare a Code of By‑Laws, supplementary to the Constitution, M. W. Grand Master Berryman Jennings, R. W. Deputy Grand Master John Elliott and R. W. Grand Secretary Benjamin Stark were named by resolution.


The M. W. Grand Master appointed the following Officers and Committees: Grand Chaplain, David Leslie; Grand Marshal, Lewis May; Grand Standard Bearer, William S. Caldwell; Grand Sword Bearer, H. S. Buck; Grand Senior Deacon, R. R. Thompson; Grand Junior Deacon, H. D. Garrett; Grand Stewards, 138 FREEMASONRY IN OREGON G. H. Harrison and F. A. Clark; Grand Tyler, William Holmes; Committee on Grievance, John Elliott, W. J. Berry, John C. Ainsworth; Committee on Foreign Correspondence, Benjamin Stark, R. R. Thompson, Lewis May.


The Grand Lodge then closed in ample form, to meet in second Annual Communication on June 14, 1852‑ These beginnings of Masonry in Oregon were seemingly small in a primitive far‑away country, but small only in material and numerical proportion; just as every part of nature's things is miniature by comparison with the whole. The precepts of the constituent Lodges and of the Grand Lodge of Oregon Territory were as large and far‑reaching as in the Grand Jurisdiction of New York State, which had been created in 1781.


The Jurisdiction of Oregon Territory, at the time of the creation of the Grand Lodge, 1851, had but 116 constituent members. This number has since grown to some 8o,ooo in the States of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and the Terri tory ofAlaska. Of this total the figures for 1935 show, Washington and Alaska, 44111; Idaho, 9462‑; Oregon, 2‑5,866. The number of Lodges has increased from 3, at the time of the organisation of the Grand Lodge of Oregon in 1851, to 52.o as follows: Oregon, 173; Washington, 2‑66; Idaho, 81. Of the 116 Master Masons, members of the 3 original Oregon Lodges, Multnomah Lodge had 48; Willamette Lodge, 34; Lafayette Lodge, 34. Nine months later, at the second Annual; Communication, June 14, 1852, the membership of Multnomah Lodge had grown to 6o; of Willamette Lodge to 55, and of Lafayette Lodge to 41. The names of the founders of Masonry in Oregon, members of constituent Lodges in 1851, are those of men well known as builders of the Commonwealth: MULTNOMAH LODGE, NO. I John C. Ainsworth Andrew Jackson John L. Morrison Lot Whitcomb H. S. Buck H. M. Chase ‑ R.1.R. Thompson George Walling Aaron E. Wait William Barlow J. L. Barlow J. R. Ralston Amory Holbrook J. S. Holland J. E. Hurford A. Lee Lewis Forbes Barclay A. K. Post William Hood A. Holland C. McCue John McLoskey Berryman Jennings Fendal C. Cason Jacob Kamm Wm. P. Dougherty Peter G. Stewart George W. Jackson Asa L. Lovejoy John P. Gaines M. Davenport A. F. Wilson Samuel J. Oakley Wm. C. McKay William Holmes R. Crawford James A. Graham Orrin Kellogg James G. Swafford G. A. Cone J. B. Backenstos Jeremiah Collins D. B. Hanner B. B. Rogers William C. Dement Jacob Rinearson W. W. Buck Neil McArthur FREEMASONRY IN OREGON 139 WILLAMETTE LODGE, NO. 2 John Elliott F. H. McKinney Ellis Walker Benjamin Stark Wm. W. Chapman Robert Hall Robert Thompson S. H. Tryon J. Menzie Thomas J. Dryer Dennis Tryon W. H. Harris George H. Flanders F. Dewitt Lewis Day A. C. Bonnell A. G. Tripp T. G. Robinson James Logie Clark Drew J. Warren Davis Eli Stewart Isaac Kohn Fred A. Clark James Loomis Andrew Weisenthal John H. Couch P. Fulkerson Charles Hutchins H. D. O'Bryant Z. C. Morton R. Hoyt D. H. Lownsdale George H. Ambrose LAFAYETTE LODGE, NO. 3 Joel Palmer D. P. Barnes Chris Taylor Oliver Moore P. Hibbed H. C. Owens H. H. Snow S. Moore J. Y. Lodd E. D. Harris E. Horner John Monroe A. B. Westerfield M. R. Crisp E. R. Geary S. Ransdel M. Gilman William Blanchard J. A. Campbell J. Richardson F. Doress J. Odle C. Richardson S. E. Darnes F. B. Martin Jerome Walling A. Henry H. D. Martin C. M. Johnson George B. Goudy W. Martin From these beginnings, Masonry in the original Oregon country has grown like a progressive science, until there are now three Grand Lodge jurisdictions, together with the several kindred affiliations of the York and Scottish Rites. A separate Grand Lodge jurisdiction was created in Washington Territory on December 9, 1858, the four constituent Lodges being those Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Oregon Territory, as follows: Olympia Lodge, No. 5, June 15, 1853; Steilacoom Lodge, No. 8, June 13, 1854; Grand Mound Lodge, No. 21, July 13, 1858; Washington Lodge, No. 22 (Vancouver), July 13, 1858. These four Lodges, in the new jurisdiction, took the new consecutive numbers of one to four, and the old numbers are blank in the Oregon Jurisdiction. Washington had been made a territory in 1853. After the State was created by Congress, in 1889, the title of the Grand Lodge was changed conformably.


Similarly, Masonry in Idaho Territory grew out of that of Oregon. The Grand Lodge of Oregon Territory Chartered the three first Lodges of Idaho, as follows: Idaho Lodge, No. 35, at Bannock, June 21, 1864; Boise Lodge, No. 37, June 2o, 1865; Placer Lodge, No. 38, at Placerville. The Grand Lodge of Washington Territory Chartered the fourth Lodge in Idaho Territory, Pioneer Lodge, 142 FREEMASONRY IN OREGON The project for this Home first was proposed by the Grand Chapter, Order of Eastern Star, in 1897, as a refuge for widows and orphans. In 1917 the Grand Lodge took up the project, augmented the funds and carried the plans to reali sation in 1922. The fund of the Eastern Star for this work, when the Grand Lodge adopted the plan in 1917, was $io,ooo. A joint Committee of the two Orders undertook the work in 1918, composed of the following: Will Moore, Frank J. Miller, Loyal M. Graham, and J. S. Roark, representing the Grand Lodge; Pauline Moore Riley, Rose J. Wilson and Lena C. Mendenhall, representing the Eastern Star. The sum of $5o,ooo was raised in 1919. The joint Home Committee selected the site in 1919, the east half of the land being given by Holbrook Lodge, No. 30, of Forest Grove. W. C. Knighton was architect. The Eastern Star contributed $40,000 for construction and the Grand Lodge, the balance of the cost of $479,000. M. W. Grand Masters Earl C. Bronaugh and William J. Kerr worked out the plans for raising the funds in 1919‑2o.


The management of the Home is directed by a Committee consisting of the Grand Lodge Trustees and three members from the Eastern Star, with the Grand Master as Chairman.


The Educational Fund, amounting to some $28o,ooo in securities and cash, is the product of eighty years of growth, which began in 1854, when the Grand Lodge appropriated $i5o for this purpose, and adopted a plan of member con tributions. At the next Annual Communication, in 1855, the Committee in charge, J. D. Ainsworth, Berryman Jennings, and A. M. Belt, reported that the fund stood at $525.97. In 1856 the same Committee reported $1,201.71; in 1857, $2,673.02; in 1858, $3,816.64; in 1859, $4,766.72; in 1860, $6,139‑33; in 1861, $7,34029; in 1862, $8,612.39; in 1865, $io,493.8o; in 1866, $11,333‑42. In 1879 the fund, amounting to $19,40492, was used to buy 635 shares of the Masonic Building Association, of Portland, and from that time afterwards, until the year 1920, the Grand Lodge remained a stockholder of that Association, acquiring additional stock from time to time, until it became the controlling owner, and finally sold to the Knights of Pythias and converted the proceeds into an active fund for relief of needy children of Master Masons in education.


The original plan of this fund, adopted in 1854, contemplated expenditure for facilities of education for children of indigent Brethren, but the development of the public school system caused the plan to be modified to that of the present practise‑financial aid to such children who are attending public school. The first plan for the fund is contained in a report to the Grand Lodge in 1854 of a Special Committee‑W. S. Caldwell, A. W. Ferguson, and Thomas J. Dryer ‑and their recommendation was adopted that " Every Master Mason within this jurisdiction be and is hereby requested to contribute a sum not exceeding five dollars." The first Committee named to receive and hold the fund was composed of J. C. Ainsworth, A. M. Belt and Berryman Jennings. In 1860 the members were John McCraken, A. M. Belt and A. E. Wait. In 1861, T. J. Holmes and Ralph FREEMASONRY IN OREGON 143 Wilcox were appointed. Other members were S. F. Chadwick, C. H. Lewis, Philip C. Schuyler, J. W. Cook, A. G. Walling, R. R. Thompson, J. R. Bayley, Alex Martin, J. B. Underwood, W. H. Brackett, Daniel H. Murphy, Jacob Conser, J. B. Congle, W. F. Alexander, Robert Clow, John Myers, J. H. Albert, David Froman, R. P. Earhart, T. McF. Patton, I. W. Pratt, W. D. Hare, Robert Thompson, T. G. Reames, J. C. Moreland, and Jacob Mayer.


By investment of this fund, the Grand Lodge became controlling owner of the Masonic building at Third and Alder Streets, Portland, which was completed in 1872‑, and which was sold in 19o6; and also controlling owner of the Masonic building built in 19o6‑1907 at West Park and Yamhill Streets. The Knights of Pythias bought the latter building in 192.o, thus releasing the educational fund for present uses.


It thus appears that the Grand Lodge of Oregon and the 173 constituent Lodges compose an active fraternal utility, and that they are engaged in conspicuous benevolent activities. Masonry in Oregon has progressed with the growth of the Commonwealth, from pioneer beginnings. The most distinguished men of Oregon, both in public life and in private business, have been votaries at the Shrine of Masonic usefulness.


FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA FREDERIc E. MANSON N any historical consideration of Freemasonry in Pennsylvania, it has to be remembered that many of the Masons resident in the Province left the mother country before the organisation of the Grand Lodge of England in 1717. This is indicated by the old land records, names on which afterward appeared in connection with Masonic events chronicled in the press. Masonic events were recorded in the Pennsylvania Gazette for many years. Naturally such Masons, acquainted with the customs, usages, and proceedings of Operative Masonry, and uninformed or only partially informed concerning the changes brought about and contemplated by the Grand Lodge of England, clung to the former until authoritatively advised concerning the latter. To them a Lodge was a meeting‑place, a Grand Lodge the Annual Assembly, and the Work of the Lodge was the reading to Initiates of the old Constitutions and Charges. As they became better informed, however, the Lodge became a unit of organised Masonry, the Grand Lodge became the supreme governing Body, and Work was the ceremonials employing Rituals in the conferring of Degrees. But the meeting‑place, the Annual Assembly, and the old Constitutions were not only the beginnings of organised Masonry but also prime factors in the evolution of organisation‑they were the first steps in Masonic growth and in the progress of ' an institution.


Those early Masons possessed a purpose to which they adhered, and to the fullest extent of their Masonic knowledge and ability they carried it out. And their successors in Pennsylvania Masonry, in the Grand and Subordinate Lodges, have credited them with planting Masonry in the Province, of nurturing it, and of developing it into a Masonic jurisdiction that has preserved Ancient York Masonry for the Masonic world. Therefore Pennsylvania Masons to‑day hold to those early beginnings of Masonry as marking the birth of the Craft in the Keystone State, and in so doing they have the support of the Grand Lodge of England. In 1930 that Grand Lodge conveyed its felicitations to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, and in 1931 the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania and the Subordinate Lodges of the State celebrated two hundred years of Freemasonry in Pennsylvania and the bicentenary of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. The two hundred years celebrated do not include the period in which Lodges were purely voluntary gatherings of Masons. In his address at that celebration Bro. Henry S. Borneman, District Deputy Grand Master, said The fundamental and vitalising purpose of Freemasonry is to build; to build an ideal; particularly to build that impressive portion of the great Tem 1 FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA 145 ple of Truth which is dedicated to the beautiful art of fine living. The faith of a Freemason has at least three essentials: First, adherence to a belief in a Supreme Being, the Great Architect of Heaven and Earth, the Giver of all good gifts and graces. Second, the adoption of a Supreme Book of the Law, the THiy CONSTITUTIONS O F THE FREE‑MASONS.


CONTAINING THE Hi.Firory, Charger, Regulations, &c. of that moft Ancient and Right Worfhipful FRATERNITY.


For the Ufe of the LODGES.


L O N D O N Printed; Aa00 S723'Re‑printed in 'Phdadrlpf.ia by fpcviol Order, far the We of the Brethren in NORTH‑AME R ICA. in the Year of Msfonry t)34, Am 11rNMr 1;34 Title Page of Benjamin Franklin's Reprint (1734) of Anderson's Constitutions of 172‑3The first known Masonic book published in America. In the collection of the Grand Lodge Museum, F. & A. M., New York.


Holy Bible, as the only infallible guide of his faith and practise. Third, the enjoyment of the blessed hope of a state beyond this life, where his personality persists and his soul reigns in immortality. The practises and conduct of a Freemason are in a Brotherhood which teaches that the burden of each is the burden of all; that the deepening twilight of old age with its weakness of body and fret of mind must be illumined; that the terrors of the open grave must be assuaged; that in their despair the widow and the orphan must be supported 146 FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA and encouraged, that he must tender his staying hand to every Brother if he is worthy and his cause just.


There were Freemasons in Pennsylvania in the early years of the eighteenth century. St. John's Lodge, of Philadelphia, in particular, is known to have existed in 172.7. As indicated by the document itself, this Lodge probably pos sessed the Carmick Constitutions, the original manuscript of which is preserved in the library of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia. On December 8, 173o, Dr. Benjamin Franklin printed in the Pennsylvania Gazette the statement that '' there are several Lodges of Freemasons erected in this Province." Undoubtedly these Lodges were voluntary organisations Working under no authority or supervision, and active mainly for social purposes and for the celebration of St. John's Day. The Carmick Constitutions, so called because they bear the signature of " Tho. Carmick," were evidently copied from older Constitutions" from Prince Edwin's‑according to their title and text. They provide that seven Masons may form a Lodge, or six with the consent of the seventh. Thus the statement of Dr. Franklin may have been true in a sense, though not true as we understand the word " Lodge " to‑day. On the other hand, such voluntary Lodges evidently resulted in authorised Lodges.


Authorised Masonry did not appear in the Province until after the Grand Lodge of England granted a Deputation to Daniel Coxe. This Deputation implies, if it does not confirm, the residence of Masons in the then Provinces of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. It is significant that, though Daniel Coxe may never have organised a Grand Lodge, following this Deputation there resulted at Philadelphia the Provincial Grand Lodge of June 2.q, 173 Whatever Daniel Coxe may have done with it, the Deputation is interesting. It is dated June S, 1730. In part it reads as follows: Whereas application has been made unto us by our Rt. Worshipful and well beloved Brother Daniel Cox, of New Jersey, esqr., and by several other brethren Free and Accepted Masons residing and about to reside in the said Provinces of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania that we would be pleased to nominate and appoint a Provincial Grand Master of the said Provinces Now know ye that we have nominated, ordained, constituted and appointed, and do by these presents nominate, ordain, constitute and appoint our Right Worshipful and wellbeloved Brother Daniel Cox, Provincial Grand Master of the said Provinces of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, with full power and authority to nominate and appoint his Deputy Grand Master and Grand Wardens for the space of two years from the Feast of St. John the Baptist now next ensuing; after which time it is our will and pleasure and we do hereby ordain that the brethren who do now reside or may hereafter reside in all or any of the said Provinces, shall and they are hereby impowered every other year on the Feast of St. John the Baptist, to elect a Provincial Grand Master who shall have the power of nominating and appointing his Deputy Grand Master and Grand Wardens; and we do hereby impower our said Provincial Grand Master and the Grand Master Deputy Grand Master and Grand Wardens FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA 147 for the time being, for us and in our place and stead to constitute the brethren (Free and Accepted Masons) now residing or who shall hereafter reside in those parts, into one or more regular Lodge or Lodges as he shall think fit, and as often as occasion shall require he, the said Daniel Cox, and the Provincial Grand Master, Deputy Grand Master and Grand Wardens for the time being, taking special care that all and every member of any Lodge or Lodges so to be constituted have been or shall be made regular Masons and that they do cause all and every the Regulations contained in the printed Book of Constitutions, except so far as they have been altered by the Grand Lodge at their Quarterly Meetings, to be kept and observed, and also all such other Rules and Instructions as Shall from time to time be transmitted to him or them by us, or Nathl. Blackerby, esqr., our Deputy Grand Master or the Grand Master or his Deputy for the time being; and that he, the said Daniel Cox, our Provincial Grand Master of the said Provinces and the Provincial Grand Master for the time being or his Deputy, do send to us or our Deputy Grand Master and to the Grand Master of England or his Deputy for the time being, annually an Account in Writing of the number of Lodges so constituted with the names of several members of each particular Lodge together with such other matters and things as he or they shall think fit to be communicated for the prosperity of the Craft; and, lastly, we will and require that our said Provincial Grand Master and the Grand Master for the time being, or his Deputy, do annually cause the Brethren to keep the Feast of St. John, the Evangelist, and dine together on that day or (in case any accident should happen to prevent their dining together on that day) on any other day near that time, as the Provincial Grand Master for the time being shall judge most fit, as is done here, and at that time more particularly and at all Quarterly Communications he do recommend a general charity to be established for the relief of poor Brethren of the said Provinces. Given under our hand and Seal of Office at London this fifth day of June, 1730, and of Masonry 5730 This Deputation not only appointed Daniel Coxe to be Provincial Grand Master of the three Provinces, with full power and authority to nominate and appoint his Deputy Grand Master and Grand Wardens for the space of two years, but it also ordained that " the Brethren who do now reside or may thereafter reside in all or any of said Provinces shall, and they are hereby impowered every other year on the feast of St. John the Evangelist to elect a Provincial Grand Master who shall have the power of nominating and appointing his Deputy Grand Master, and Grand Wardens," and so on. This Deputation appears to have been retained by Daniel Coxe as his personal property. Though he remained at home during 1730, and evidently during most of 1731, according to documentary evidence, he seems not to have been interested in Masonic matters. Yet he was active in business, and in political and social affairs. This is indicated by the minutes of the Council of Proprietors of the Western Division of New Jersey from 1730 to 1732, and by letters written by him during this period. His wife came from Philadelphia, which was only twenty miles distant from Burlington, New Jersey, where he resided. But documentary evidence is lacking 148 FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA that directly connects him with the Provincial Grand Lodge of 1731, and the weight of the evidence would seem to indicate that that Grand Lodge was organised independently.


The date of the organisation of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania has been determined from "Liber B," the account book of St. John's Lodge of Philadelphia, now in possession of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. From this book is learned the name of the first Provincial Grand Master of Pennsylvania, William Allen; that of his Deputy Grand Master, William Pringle; and the place of meeting, The Tun Tavern. From the " Masonic Notices " in the Pennsylvania Gazette there are known the names of sixteen of the Grand Masters who served from 1731 to 1755, during which period Pennsylvania Masons were " Moderns." Dr. Franklin was Provincial Grand Master in 1734 and 1749. William Allen was Provincial Grand Master eight times. This Provincial Grand Lodge of Moderns made no report to the Grand Lodge of England, so far as the Minutes of that Body show. Because it was independent it evidently had no accounting to make. Nor do the Minutes of the Grand Lodge of England contain any item which indicates that that Body endeavoured to secure reports from the Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, so far as has been ascertained. However, the Grand Lodge of England and the Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania affiliated to the extent that the latter approved and adopted the changes in the Ritual made by the former subsequent to 1730. It also adopted changes made by the former in the Anderson Constitutions, of which an American edition was printed by Dr. Franklin in 1734.


Had the Records of this first Provincial Grand Lodge not been lost or destroyed there might have been preserved some very important and interesting data, probably explanatory of the transition from Moderns to Ancients, which was undoubtedly taking place between 1755 and 1761 when Pennsylvania York Masons apparently were gaining the ascendancy. About all we have is the fact that on July 15, 1761, a Provincial Grand Lodge of Ancient York Masons was organised with William Ball as Grand Master. It subsequently received a Warrant from the Ancient York Grand Lodge of England. Of this second Provincial Lodge of Pennsylvania more is known. It was very active and it extended its jurisdiction to other Provinces, even to the West Indies, by Warranting Lodges in them. While it extended its ,Jurisdiction, it also multiplied its troubles. For though it planted Ancients in detached territories it could not combat the tendency therein to become Moderns. As Masonry in these provinces grew, all but one Grand Lodge obtained Warrants from the Grand Lodge of England.


The break in Pennsylvania from Moderns to Ancients, according to its Minutes of December z7, 1757, appears to have begun in Tun Tavern Lodge, which had been suspended by the First Provincial Grand Lodge. As the result of deliberations then held, and again on January 3, 1758, a Petition for a Warrant was on January io, 175 8, sent to the Grand Lodge of the Ancients in England. It issued the Warrant prayed for on June 7, 175 8. This Warrant was recorded as No. 1 in Pennsylvania and No. 69 in England. The Lodge severed all relations FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA 149 with the Provincial Grand Lodge and Subordinate Lodges of the Moderns. The Minutes of this Lodge contain the By‑Laws of the Lodge transmitted from the Ancient York Grand Lodge of England by Laurence Dermott, Grand Secretary.


Lodge No. 1, afterwards Lodge No. 2 on the Roster of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Ancients, appears to have been the moving spirit in the organisation of that Grand Lodge. It had everything to gain and was favored by the growing prejudice against England. Indeed, it may be said that for a time this Lodge was a Grand Lodge, though Representatives of other Lodges were included in the membership of the Grand Lodge. The Lodge was decidedly aggressive in promoting Ancient York Masonry. It is regrettable that the Minutes of the Grand Lodge up to 1779 were " mislaid or carried away by some enemies to the Royal Art during the confusions of the present war," as the preface to a reprint of the Minutes of 1779 says. At the close of the year 178o the Grand Lodge had granted thirty‑three Warrants, including Warrants for Army Lodges, and before the momentous meeting of September ZS, 1786, it had granted a total of forty‑five Warrants. At that meeting the following resolution was unanimously passed: Resolved, That this Grand Lodge is, and ought to be a Grand Lodge, independent of Great Britain or any other Authority Whatever, and that they are not under any ties to any other Grand Lodge except those of Brotherly Love and Affection, which they will always be happy to cultivate and preserve with all Lodges throughout the Globe.


The following day a Grand Convention of thirteen different Lodges, Working by virtue of Warrants from the late Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, with full power from their constituents to act, formed themselves into a Grand Lodge to be called the " Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania and Masonic jurisdiction thereunto Belonging." On September 28 the Act of that Convention was ratified by the new Grand Lodge thus formed. The new Grand Lodge recalled Warrants granted to Subordinate Lodges and substituted therefor " fresh Warrants " granted by its authority. In 1789 the Grand Lodge made "Rules and Regulations" for its government. At the close of the century the Grand Lodge had granted eightyone Warrants all told.


During the period of the War for Independence, and for several years thereafter, however, the Grand Lodge was not without its troubles. The Ancients as a rule sympathised with the Colonists, and many of their members entered the Colonial army. At times the Grand Lodge met with vacant Stations and had to fill them pro rempore, and some Subordinate Lodges had no meetings at all. This resulted in more or less confusion. To prevent utter disorganisation, the Grand Master, at the conclusion of the War for Independence, was compelled to call upon Subordinate Lodges to produce their Warrants. Some did so, others did not, and the Grand Lodge, with its Minutes lost, was forced to adopt measures to obtain knowledge of " the state of the Craft." At the Grand Lodge Communication in December 1779 ten Subordinate 150 FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA Lodges produced their Warrants, among them Lodge No. z, or Lodge No. 69 on the Register of the Grand Lodge of York. This Lodge was old Lodge No. i, before the second Provincial Grand Lodge was formed. In this old Lodge the then moving spirit was Alexander Rutherford, a born organiser, later Deputy Grand Master, and finally Grand Master. Rutherford conceived the idea of having the Grand Lodge vacate on the Register the numbers of those Subordinate Lodges which, within a specified time, failed to produce their Warrants. The resolution to this effect, unanimously adopted by the Grand Lodge, became a rule which obtains to this day. Vacant numbers on the Grand Lodge Roster are thus accounted for.


One practice that more or less obstructed Grand Lodge reorganisation was the proxy system. Representatives from Subordinate Lodges in Philadelphia and adjoining towns could easily attend Grand Lodge Communications. Not so Representatives from country Subordinate Lodges, which, to insure representation at Grand Lodge Communications, employed Masons residing in Philadelphia to attend Communications and represent them. Those proxies frequently found it as difficult to communicate with the Subordinate Lodges they represented as did the Grand Lodge. Furthermore, those proxies were not always upheld by the Subordinate Lodges they represented, so far as concerned what they did in Grand Lodge. Yet unsatisfactory as such representation in Grand Lodge was, the system continued almost up to the time of the war between the States. The proxy system was also one of the chief obstacles to the efforts of the Grand Lodge to extend supreme authority over the Subordinate Lodges. The Grand Lodge sought uniformity in fees, dues, procedure, and recognition of its authority. The Subordinate Lodges were inclined to be independent, disregardful of form and precedent, and distrustful of the efforts of the Grand Lodge to bring order out of chaos. Several Subordinate Lodges were mildly disciplined, and one was deprived of its Warrant before the Grand Lodge's authority was recognised.


For several years the greater the number of Subordinate Lodges Warranted, the greater became the task of maintaining the authority of the Grand Lodge and of securing uniformity in procedure and Ritual. One Grand Master after another essayed the task with indifferent results, until finally Grand Master James Milnor gave those matters his personal attention. His method was that of making Grand Visitations, during which he instructed the Lodges and checked their Officers. By 1813 he had succeeded to such an extent as to report to the Grand Lodge that there was conformity to laws, rules, and regulations, and uniformity of procedure and Ritualistic work.


Toward the close of the eighteenth century the Grand Lodge was confronted by a situation for which it had made little or no preparation. The Subordinate Lodges it had Warranted in other Provinces were inclined to change from Ancient to Modern. Several of them that developed themselves into Grand Lodges did so, and obtained Warrants from the Grand Lodge of England. Noting the fact that the Grand Jurisdiction of Pennsylvania was shrink‑ FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA 151 ing, the Grand Lodge of New Jersey suggested an amalgamation of Ancients and Moderns, but the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania would not seriously consider the proposition. During this period, too, on January 13, 1780, to be exact, the Grand Lodge passed a resolution favouring a Grand Master of Masons throughout the United States, and proceeded to elect " His Excellency George Washington, Esquire, General and Commander‑in‑Chief of the United States," to that office. The Grand Lodge then directed that copies of the Minutes of this action be sent to the other Grand Lodges in the United States. The feasibility of such a project was questioned by several Grand Lodges, among them that of Massachusetts. Discussion of the matter gradually subsided, and nothing ever came of it. However, the Grand Lodge on June 18, 1787, presented General Washington a copy of the Book of the Constitutions, and early in 1792. presented him with an address, as follows To His Excellency, George Washington President of the United States Sir and Brother.


The Ancient York Masons of the Jurisdiction of Pennsylvania, for the first time assembled in General Communication to celebrate the Feast of St. John the Evangelist, since your Election to the Chair of Government in the United States, beg leave to approach you with congratulations from the East, and in the pride of Fraternal affection to hail you as the Great Master Builder (under the Supreme Architect) by whose Labourers the Temple of Liberty hath been reared in the West, exhibiting to the Nations of the Earth a Model of Beauty, Order, and Harmony worthy of their Imitation and Praise.


Your Knowledge of the Origin and Objects of our Institution; its Tendency to promote the Social Affections and harmonise the Heart, give us a sure pledge that this tribute of our Veneration, this Effusion of our Love will not be un grateful to you; nor will Heaven reject our Prayer that you may be long continued to adorn the bright list of Master Workmen which our Fraternity produces in the terrestrial Lodge; and that you may be late removed to that Celestial Lodge where Love and Harmony reign transcendent and Divine; where the Great Architect more immediately presides, and where Cherubim and Seraphim, wafting our Congratulations from Earth to Heaven, shall hail, you Brother.


By order and in behalf of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in general Communication assembled in ample form. J. B. Smith, G. M.


Attest. P Le Barrier Duplessis, G'd. Secy.


This address, which is still preserved, brought a brief reply from Washington. It reads as follows Gentlemen and Brothers. ‑ I received your Kind congratulations with the purest Sensations of fraternal affection, and from a Heart deeply impressed with your generous wishes for my present and future Happiness I beg you to accept of my thanks.


152 FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA At the same time I request you will be assured of my best wishes and earnest prayers for your Happiness while you remain in this terrestrial Mansion, and that we may hereafter meet as brethren in the Eternal Temple of the Supreme Architect.


G. Washington This reply is also preserved among other Washingtonia, including an address and Washington's reply thereto on his retirement from the Presidency. In 1779 a Committee from the Grand Lodge, upon invitation of the Committee of Arrangements of Congress, attended the " funeral oration in Honour of the late Lieutenant‑General George Washington as directed by order of Congress." Perhaps the most noteworthy event in the history of Pennsylvania Freemasonry near the close of the eighteenth century was the resumption of Fraternal relations with the Grand Lodge of England. In this the Grand Lodge of England, so far as the Minutes of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania disclose, took the initiative, the former having received the Book of the Constitutions of the latter. The communication from London in 1792 contains the following: It having, however, pleased the Almighty Architect of the Universe to erect the Province of Pennsylvania into a sovereign state, we coincide with you in opinion, that it became expedient to remove those doubts which either had or might be entertained by the uninformed upon that point, by declaring in the most explicit manner the independence of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, the full and ample Authority of which, limited only by the unchangeable Landmarks of the System, as it cannot be increased, so neither can it ever be diminished by Political Changes or Revolutions.


The Grand Lodge of England informed the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania that it had communicated to other Grand Lodges in Fraternal relations the action it had taken.


By the opening of the nineteenth century the Moderns had almost disappeared and the Independent Grand Lodge looked for an increasing number of Subordinate Lodges and for prosperity throughout the jurisdiction. It did Warrant several new Lodges but it was soon confronted by two disturbing intrusions‑clandestine Masonry and the anti‑Masonic movement. For several years regular Masons ignorantly or carelessly visited spurious Lodges, and irregular Lodges entertained visitors from regular Lodges. The Grand Lodge disciplined members of Subordinate Lodges as well as the Lodges themselves. But not until the Grand Lodge circularised both Lodges and members did it succeed in preventing the practice. It was twenty years before the Grand Lodge stemmed the anti‑Masonic movement, and then only after taking drastic measures. Its Communications to Subordinate Lodges were ignored. It received neither reports nor dues, and, when it threatened to lift Warrants if dues were not paid, it received more Warrants than dues. Lodges suspended Work or went entirely out of existence. The situation for a time challenged FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA 153 the Grand Lodge, its Deputies, and Instructors. But finally, as excitement abated, the Grand Lodge appealed to reason and to loyalty, and in many cases aided the resuscitation of Substitute Lodges.


These interruptions only delayed the expected growth of the Fraternity. Just before and immediately after the war between the States, Subordinate Lodges increased in number, and many of them gained unprecedented member ship. Similar conditions prevailed at the time of the Spanish‑American War. The Fraternity became stronger and stronger as the century advanced, until, as the new century opened, it exerted a tremendous and healthful influence on society throughout the State. It did so largely because it numbered among its members some of the foremost members of society.


Soon after the opening of the twentieth century the World War broke out. Both Subordinate Lodges and members again increased, the latter in such numbers as to alarm the more conservative members of the Fraternity. But again growth was retarded by adverse economic conditions resulting from the war. In the midst of these conditions the Grand Lodge celebrated two hundred years of organised Freemasonry in Pennsylvania, and what was approximately the bicentenary of the Right Worshipful Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. The ceremonies took place from October 11 to 14, 1931. Representatives from thirtythree Grand jurisdictions participated in the celebration, among them the M.‑. W.‑. Deputy Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England, the R.‑. W.‑. Grand Secretary, and the V.‑. W.‑. Deputy Master of Ceremonies. All Representatives were greeted by R.‑. W.‑. Grand Master William S. Snyder and other Grand Officers, and their felicitations ‑were gratefully received.


On December 2, 1934, the Grand Jurisdiction of Pennsylvania included'568 Subordinate Lodges, and had about Zoi,6i8 members. These Lodges were divided into 52 Districts, each under a District Deputy Grand Master. More than a score of Subordinate Lodges had over iooo members each, and the state of the Craft was excellent in every respect.


The names of eighty‑three Grand Masters are now known, despite the loss or destruction of the Grand Lodge Minutes. The large majority of them served in the several places and Stations before elevation to the Oriental Chair. Many of them served more than two terms. William Allen, Grand Master of the First Provincial Grand Lodge, served eight terms; William Ball, Grand Master of the Second Provincial Grand Lodge, served at least twelve terms and still another term after the Grand Lodge had declared its independence. James Milnor, elected Grand Master in 18o6, served eight terms.


In Subordinate Lodges, the Worshipful Masters in early times served several terms, sometimes consecutively. Yet in these Lodges, in recent years, Masters have, with few exceptions, come up through the line. Only a few Master Masons in large Lodges ever get in line, which fact supplies the argument for smaller Lodges. To this argument it may be said, to the lasting credit of Pennsylvania Masons, that loyalty to Masonry remedies this situation.


The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania has always met at Philadelphia. It was 154 FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA organised in 173, at the Tun Tavern, where it met in 1732. In 1735 it met at the Indian King Tavern, and in 1749 at the Royal Standard Tavern. However, in 1755 it began to meet in Freemasons' Lodge, the first building in America 'erected for Masonic purposes, which was dedicated with extensive ceremonies on June 24, 175 5. From 1769 to 1790 the Grand Lodge met in its " building on Videll's Alley," and during the War for Independence it met at the City Tavern. From 1790 to 1799 its meeting‑place was the Free Quaker Meeting House. From 18oo to 1802 it met in Independence Hall, and from 1802 to 1810 it met in Pennsylvania Freemasons' Hall. The following nine years it met in Masonic Hall, which was later destroyed by fire. In 1819 and 1820 the Grand Lodge resumed its meetings in Pennsylvania Freemasons' Hall. Then it returned for the next fifteen years to Masonic Hall, which had been rebuilt. From 1835 to 1855 it met in Washington Hall, and from then till 1873 in the New Masonic Hall. Since the last named year the Grand Lodge has met in Masonic Temple, which it still occupies. Masonic Temple was dedicated on September 26, 1873, the ceremonies taking place in Corinthian Hall. Grand Master Perkins presided. The Temple is a noble example of Norman architecture. Of its three main towers, the Grand Tower at the southwest corner rises some Z5o feet. However impressive the exterior may be, there are exhibited in the interior those splendid illustrations of the builder's art that make the Temple a symbol of the art of building temples not made with hands.


ANCIENT YORK CEREMONIALS The Grand Jurisdiction of Pennsylvania has from the beginning Worked under the Old Constitutions. The old voluntary Lodges could have had no other guidance, though St. John's Lodge probably had the Carmick Constitutions.


Those contained a history of the Art, the Ancient Charges and the Apprentices' Charge, which closed with an " admonition." As in England, before organised Masonry, all these were read to the neophyte, and to them he assented. Evidently there was also secret Work, for the " admonition " contained the following: " Thus let the man that is a Mason choose out of the Lodge one to be his tutor who is to instruct him in the secrets that are not to be written." These secrets largely pertained to the means of recognising a Brother Mason, and of being recognised by him. But whether or not they were the same as those employed to‑day is not known. Fundamentally, they may have been so. Some Masonic writers claim that they were.


The first Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, that Of 1731, undoubtedly Worked under the Anderson Constitutions. Where the Pennsylvania Masons may have obtained those Constitutions matters little at this time. The more impor tant matter is that, by direction of the Provincial Grand Lodge, Dr. Franklin reprinted the Anderson Constitutions. In 1906 the Grand Lodge reprinted the Franklin edition of those Constitutions, evidently that Of 1723, since it is addressed to the Duke of Montagu. These Constitutions contain the history of Masonry, its Laws, Charges, Orders, Regulations, and Usages, and directs how FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA 155 they shall be employed. The history is more extensive than that of the Carmick Constitutions, which at least causes one to infer that the latter was based upon, or copied from, older Constitutions. The Charges contain the much‑discussed direction " Concerning God and Religion," and the much‑quoted definition of a Lodge as " a place where Masons assemble and work," a definition which plainly came from Operative Masonry. Both the Carmick and the Anderson Constitutions of 172‑3 omit the oath administered to the Entered Apprentice Mason, which was published in the Old Constitutions of Freemasonry by J. Roberts in 172.2. This was " taken from a Manuscript Wrote About Five Hundred Years Since. " Under these Anderson Constitutions, Subordinate Lodges " made " Masons at first, simply by reading the Charges and by placing emphasis on those portions pertaining to the conduct of a Mason. Then, after the candidate had taken an oath, the secret Work was communicated.


According to the most reliable authorities, the Rituals of the First and Second Degrees were obtained by Pennsylvania Masons about 1738, but that of the Third Degree not until 1741 or 1742. As the Rituals were obtained chiefly from English Masons visiting the Lodges, and as each visitor relied on his memory and differed from other visitors in some detail or other, the Lodges never had the Work uniformly perfect. In consequence the ceremonials differed more or less from one another.


The Second Provincial Grand Lodge of 1761 was better circumstanced as regards instruction in Degree Work. Several years before this Grand Lodge was organised, Ancient York Masons from England visited Lodge No. 1 and imparted to the members of that Lodge Ancient York Work. The members of the Lodge carried their knowledge of the Work into the Grand Lodge, which early secured from the Ancient York Grand Lodge of England a copy of the Ahiman Rezon. Correspondence with Laurence Dermott, Grand Secretary of the Ancient York Grand Lodge, finally resulted in the Provincial Grand Lodge's revising the Ahiman Rezon in 1790. Since, however, Modern Lodges were coexistent with this Second Provincial Grand Lodge, and since Fraternal relations existed among them, the purity of Ancient York Work was gradually lost. just before the Provincial Grand Lodge declared its independence in 1786, Lodge work, according to one commentator, was " neither Modern nor Ancient." According to a statement made in the Independent Grand Lodge twenty years later, " a mistake has been made in not providing Subordinate Lodges with a key or monitor," but so far as can be learned from the Minutes of Grand Lodge and from other sources, neither the one nor the other was ever provided, except for The Free Mason's Companion, by John Phillips. It was not until i8o6 that Grand Master Milnor undertook to obtain uniformity in Degree Work, Ritually and otherwise. Grand Master Milnor appointed an Instructor whose business it was to visit the Lodges and correct errors and inaccuracies. For a time visits were confined to Lodges in and about Philadelphia, but according to the Minutes of the Grand Lodge and the histories of Subordinate Lodges, Lecturers were subsequently sent to Lodges remote from Philadelphia.


156 FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA In 1817 Grand Master Kerr recommended to the Grand Lodge that it appoint District Deputy Grand Masters to supervise Subordinate Lodges. These Deputies were also to grant Dispensations. About that time clandestine Ma sonry and the anti‑Masonic movement monopolised the attention of those Deputies, and Degree Work again suffered. To remedy the situation, Grand Master Read in 1837 organised a Lodge of Instruction, Worked the Degrees, and delivered lectures on them. In 185o Grand Master Whitney continued this Lodge of Instruction, as did also subsequent Grand Masters. In 1879 Grand Master Nisbet established the Grand Lodge's Temple School of Instruction. Early in the twentieth century District schools of Instruction were established throughout the State, with Instructors for a time from the Temple School of Instruction of the Grand Lodge at Philadelphia. With Degree Work so thoroughly supervised, there is now a uniformity throughout the State that could not otherwise obtain. While the Ritual has undergone changes, principally in the nineteenth century, it is to‑day practically identical with that used more than a hundred fifty years ago. And this Ritual is employed by no other Grand Jurisdiction in the United States‑it is what makes Pennsylvania Masonry distinctive. Beyond this, Pennsylvania has also preserved our fundamental laws, customs, usages, and traditions of Ancient York Masonry.


Pennsylvania Work is not dramatised. It consists largely of ceremonies and lectures, and these lectures rehearse the ceremonies and explain their symbolism. The lectures are an expansion of the Ancient Charges of Operative Masons, too. The subject‑matter, if not the form, has been traced back to a period five hundred years earlier than the organisation of the Grand Lodge of England, in 1717. In these lectures and in other parts of the Ritual, some of the language is retained with only slight changes. Use is made of expressions and words having meanings not easily understood until their ancient signification is learned. Changes in word and construction have from time to time been made, but the Ritual still shows its ancient origin. Pennsylvania Work has never been " communicated " as a whole, or taught. The jurisdiction has never had a printed Key, and so far as investigation shows, it has had only one monitor. That was frowned upon by the Grand Lodge. The Work has been imparted as it was received, and this fact has ever been a source of pride to Pennsylvania Masons.


Organisation, Work, everything, were jeopardized early in the nineteenth century by the anti‑Masonic movement. During this movement the Pennsylvania Legislature passed a resolution and summoned Grand Master Dallas be fore a house inquisitorial committee. Among other accusations, the obligations administered to Initiates were represented to the Legislature to be blasphemous. The committee gained no information, since Grand Master Dallas stood on his constitutional rights and refused to answer questions. The Legislature was none the wiser, although it claimed to have secured the " secrets " of the Order from a man who had been a Mason.


When the war between the States broke out, the Pennsylvania Masons FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA 157 fraternised with Masons from other jurisdictions, Ritualistic differences were gradually forgotten in the greater gratification of Masonic association. Mutual toleration of differences brought about mutual respect, with the result that after the war ended jurisdictional controversies were more or less forgotten, although there was not in all jurisdictions, and there is not to‑day, any respect for rejection in a Lodge of Pennsylvania Masons.


Several peculiarities of Pennsylvania Work have aroused curiosity in other jurisdictions. Among them is the prerogative of the Grand Master peremptorily, for cause, to remove a Worshipful Master and in his place Install a member of the Lodge with the customary honours from the Brethren. Another prerogative is his power to make a Mason " at sight." Without petition, recommenders, committee of inquiry, or ballot, the Grand Master directs the conferring of Degrees, with the result that the Initiate is made a Mason but not a member of any Lodge. The Mason made " at sight " may petition some Lodge for membership. The Grand Master may deputise a District Deputy Grand Master to make a Mason " at sight," though there has been recorded only one instance when this was done.


In consequence of all this, Pennsylvania Masons have been compelled to create practically all their Masonic literature. Early in the eighteenth century two Philadelphia Masons attempted an exposition of Pennsylvania Work, but the Grand Lodge suppressed their proposed publication. The Grand Lodge had earlier passed a resolution prohibiting any publication unless the sanction of the Grand Master were first obtained. About the middle of the nineteenth century all addresses in Subordinate Lodges were prohibited unless they had first been submitted to the Grand Master and had been given his approval. Not until 1922, when the Grand Lodge created the Lecture Corps, was such close supervision relinquished, and then only on condition that lectures conform to outlines approved by the Grand Master. These outlines pertain to the history of Masonry in Pennsylvania, to the ethics, the philosophy, and the Symbolism of Masonry. Supervision of such lectures was placed in the hands of the Committee on Lectures which annually reports to the Grand Lodge.


Such literature as the Grand Lodge possesses is largely of an historical character. Much of it was written by Dr. Julius F. Sachse, for many years librarian and curator of the Grand Lodge library. Some of it was prepared by historians of Subordinate Lodges throughout the States and by members of the Grand Lodge Library Committee. It also includes scores of addresses by Grand and Subordinate Lodge Officers and members, prepared for special occasions. But it is without books or pamphlets on the speculative or dogmatic phases of Masonry, principally because publication has been and still is so controlled by Grand Lodge that there is little incentive for students of Masonry to attempt it. For very much the same reason, the Grand Lodge has no magazine or periodical through which to promote Masonic education throughout the jurisdiction. These deficiencies, if they may be so regarded, are compensated for by other agencies, among them the District Deputy system, the District schools of 158 FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA instruction, the division among the Officers of the Work in the Subordinate Lodges, and the Subordinate Lodge Committee on Masonic Instruction. Through these agencies, Pennsylvania Masons have been given opportunity to learn the Ritual, its interpretations and application. Since these agencies have been supplemented by the lectures given by members of the Grand Lodge lecture corps, there has been built up a splendid and effective system of Masonic education.


Pennsylvania has always boasted of its " unwritten Work." For many years it was the only jurisdiction that could boast such Work. Prior to 1824, when the most radical change was made in its Ritual, there is evidence of the existence of only handbooks for ceremonies and services, such as the laying of corner‑stones, the consecration of Masonic Temples, and the burial of deceased Brethren. Since that date even these have been done away with. The forms now appear in the Ahiman Rezon. Because the Work is unwritten it has never been obtainable except in the regular way, though the Rituals of several other Grand jurisdictions have been reproduced to some extent by would‑be exposers of the Craft. Furthermore, Pennsylvania has had no catechism. Aside from certain formalities, its examination of visitors is conducted in whatever way Lodge Committees deem most effective for determining the Masonic knowledge of the stranger. Pennsylvania Work has always been conducted in the Lodge Room‑not in two or three compartments of it. For many years it has been conducted without music. Pennsylvania makes the Lodge Room Masonry's workshop, and the Work a solemn undertaking not to be disturbed by anything that does not contribute to it. Furthermore, its symbolism is limited to Masonry's Working tools, and the Lights, the means to enable users to employ them more effectively. It knows nothing of Jacob's Ladder; it has no use for chalk, charcoal, and clay; it makes no reference to globes, lilywork, network, or the pomegranate; it has no winding stairs; it contains only a slight reference to Geometry, the Lost Word, and such. Its symbolism comports with its mission and undertaking‑character building in man‑and this is divested of every superfluity of symbol as well as of speech. Indeed, the English of the Pennsylvania Ritual has repeatedly been commended for its classic purity. Its beauty is found in its simplicity.


PENNSYLVANIA'S MASONIC CHARITY For the early years of authorised Masonry in Pennsylvania there are no Records of Masonic charity. Early Masons were gentlemen, landed proprietors, clergymen, lawyers, physicians, business men. They belonged to the aristo cratic class of the population of the Province. Not till the organisation of the Subordinate Lodges comprised in the second Provincial Grand Lodge are there found on the Minutes items referring to relief extended to members and to the families of members. The membership of Ancient Lodges was more largely democratic, to use the terminology of one historian. For example, on the Minutes of Lodge No. 2, under date of February I2, 1765, appears an item to the effect that " between three and four pounds had been collected for the relief FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA 159 of Widow Power." This would indicate that the Lodge had no charity fund. Yet on the Minutes of this Lodge, under date of November 14, 1769, is an item which might indicate the contrary. It reads: " A committee is appointed to meet to‑morrow evening to consider the case of Bro. Bell and grant such relief as circumstances of the Lodge may admit of." Careful study of the Minutes of both the Grand Lodge and the Subordinate Lodges now available, however, indicates that neither had charity funds nor charity committees. The Grand Lodge had no regular charity committee until early in the nineteenth century. Furthermore, all funds, except those raised by subscription or otherwise for Hall construction purposes, were pooled into a general fund. Even then the Minutes of the Grand Lodge indicate that charity was not extensive and that there was frequently available less money than demands required. On those occasions the Grand Lodge borrowed from Officers and members. It may be truthfully said that in neither the Grand Lodge nor the Subordinate Lodges was there organised Masonic charity until after 1831. On December 28 of that year there was read in the Grand Lodge the will of Stephen Girard. Item VII of the will was as follows VII: I give and bequeath to the gentlemen who shall be Trustees of the Masonic Loan at the time of my decease the sum of Twenty Thousand Dollars, including therein ten thousand and nine hundred dollars due to me, part of the Masonic Loan, and any interest that may be due thereon at the time of my decease, in trust for the use and benefits of The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania and Masonic jurisdiction Thereunto Belonging, and to be paid over by the Trustees to the said Grand Lodge, for the purpose of being invested in some safe stock or funds or other good security and the dividends and interest arising therefrom to be again invested and added to the Capital, without applying any part thereof to any other purpose, until the whole Capital shall amount to Thirty Thousand Dollars, when the same shall forever after remain a Permanent fund or Capital of the said Amount of Thirty Thousand Dollars, the interest whereof shall be applied from time to time to the relief of poor and respectable Brethren, and in order that the real benevolent purposes of Masonic institutions may be attained, I recommend to the several Lodges not to admit to membership or to receive members from other Lodges unless the applicants shall absolutely be men of sound and good morals.


The Masonic loans mentioned in the above item of Stephen Girard's will were for the payment of the cost of the Masonic Temple on Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. Furthermore, the Stephen Girard bequest was the foundation stone on which the Grand Lodge established its charities. By means of appropriations and added interest the conditions of the bequest were complied with, and within twenty years the interest from the bequest was being used for charitable purposes. In 1930 the Girard bequest amounted to $io8,295. It had so stimulated gifts to the Grand Lodge that more than a hundred bequests, ranging from a few thousands of dollars to more than a million and a half, had, with 16o FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA the accumulated interest, brought the total amount to approximately $15,ooo,ooo. More than a third of this amount is invested in the plant and endowment of the Elizabethtown Masonic Homes. Besides all this, the Grand Lodge owns the magnificent Masonic Temple at Broad and Filbert Streets, in Philadelphia.


The Elizabethtown Masonic Homes are the greatest Masonic charity in the world. Inaugurated during the administration of Past Grand Master George B. Orlady, in 19o8, the first permanent building, Grand Lodge Hall, was occupied in 1913. There were in 1935 more than a score of buildings, including homes for both adult and children guests, schools, hospitals, and housing facilities for the staff and employes. These buildings are situated upon a thousand acres that are laid out in farms, fruit orchards, gardens, and pleasure courts. The property has water, sewerage and heating systems. In 1934 the Homes sheltered some 700 guests, of whom zoo were boys and girls. In addition, the Grand Lodge rendered assistance to 175 children during the year elsewhere. Grand Lodge Hall, over 400 feet long and three stories high, is constructed of Holmesburg granite and limestone in the Tudor style of architecture. The majority of the permanent buildings, also similarly constructed, combine to create a harmonious setting for this remarkable institution. They are of striking architecture and the institution is unique in its method of entertaining guests. The Homes are maintained by Grand Lodge appropriations, by bequests, gifts, and other donations specifically designated, and by income derived from the Masonic Homes Endowment Fund. In 1935 this endowment fund was approaching $1,ooo,ooo. In these Homes the Masons of Pennsylvania take justifiable pride.


The first authoritative suggestion for the Masonic Homes of Pennsylvania was made in 19o2 by Past Grand Master Edgar A. Tennis. At the Quarterly Communication of March 4, 1903, a resolution was unanimously adopted that the District Deputy Grand Masters be constituted a Committee to confer at once with the Lodges in their several Districts, and report at the next Quarterly Communication of the Grand Lodge upon the subject of establishing, in central and western Pennsylvania, Homes for the care of indigent Brethren, their aged wives, their widows, and their orphan children. Admission to the Homes was to be absolutely free. The management was to be under the complete control of the Grand Lodge.


On September 2, 1903, Bro. William B. Meredith offered in the Grand Lodge a series of resolutions covering the establishment, location, and necessity of such Homes. Those resolutions were adopted. On December 2, 1903, he also offered a resolution appointing a Committee on Masonic Homes. On June 6, 1904, that Committee made an elaborate report in which it said, among other things, that " it is evident that there is a widespread desire on the part of the Craft to have a home for Masons, their wives, widows, and orphans established in another part of the State (i.e., other than Philadelphia), and it is a desire that should be gratified." When at the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge on December 27, 19o4, other resolutions were adopted, looking forward FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA 161 to establishing a Masonic Home, the Committee on Masonic Homes submitted an amendment to the Ahiman Rezan. After postponement this was adopted in December, 1906.


The establishment of Masonic Homes was a serious problem for the Grand Lodge. It thoroughly investigated the need for such an institution, and the financial ability of the Grand Lodge so far as concerned maintaining it. It also considered where the institution should be located if it were constructed, and how it should be financed. Although the Grand Lodge had a large sum of money invested in real estate and in various funds, the income from those funds was practically all allotted to specific purposes. Consequently it could not be applied to the erection of Masonic Homes or to maintaining them. At this time, December 1907, there were in the State 470 Lodges having a total of 84,341 members. The income of the Grand Lodge for 1907 was $180,429, and the expenditures were $139,193. This left a balance of $41,236.


On December 2, 1908, the Committee on Masonic Homes was authorised to purchase real estate, to employ architects and a superintendent, to adopt plans and specifications, and to make contracts for the erection of Masonic Homes and other buildings. The resolution called for the location of the institution near a main line of railroad, in central location, with abundance of water, and in the country. The purposes of the Committee were made known through the Lodges and the newspapers. After full consideration and the personal inspection of a number of the more favourably located properties, the choice of Elizabethtown was decided upon. The tract at that time contained 967 acres and was priced at $135,297. This amount was later increased by donations, and iooo acres were bought.


Year by year the funds of the Grand Lodge are increased by the gifts and bequests of members. It is also increased by the funds of Subordinate Lodges which extend financial assistance to sick and unfortunate members by means of Charity Committees. Because of the large membership of Subordinate Lodges, small contributions amount in the aggregate to considerable sums. Therefore, in the middle of the nineteenth century the Grand Lodge changed the form of trusteeship of such funds in order to conserve charity funds in both the Grand Lodge and Subordinate Lodges. It created Almoners of its own funds, and stipulated that the Worshipful Masters and Wardens in Subordinate Lodges should act as Charity Committees. The Almoners of the Grand Lodge adopted by‑laws which made regulations for the Charity Committees of Subordinate Lodges. These regulations limited the employment of Lodge funds to the relief of Masons. Such limitation was subsequently extended to limit all Lodge funds to purely Masonic purposes. At the same time the charitable activities of both the Grand Lodge and the Subordinate Lodges were constantly extended. Through funds given to it and through co‑operation of the Subordinate Lodges, the Grand Lodge assists in the education of the orphaned children of Masons and in making Christmas cheer for the children at the Elizabethtown Homes. The Grand Lodge bureaus in Philadelphia and in Pittsburgh assist the unem‑ 162 FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA ployed at all times. It promotes other charitable activities, all of which involve the expenditure of several hundred thousand dollars each year.


One of the most beautiful things about Masonic charity in Pennsylvania is the secrecy with which it is dispensed. There is no published roster of the guests at the Elizabethtown Homes. There is only limited local knowledge regarding admission of the guests, and such information as may be gained locally through correspondence. Frequently the announcement of the death of a guest in the Home is the first news of residence there. The report of Almoners of charity funds carries no names of Masons aided, nor does it carry the names of those helped in finding employment or otherwise assisted. Except in extraordinary cases, the names of Masons relieved by Subordinate Lodge Charity Committees are also kept secret. At no time is Masonic charity made public.


DISTINGUISHED PENNSYLVANIA MASONS From the organisation of the first Provincial Grand Lodge, many distinguished Pennsylvanians have been Masons. Old St. John's Lodge numbered among its members men of culture and prominence in the life of the Province ‑men of character and social standing, of civic and political rank. In a new world they were the builders of its institutions and social and political fabric. William Allen, the first Provincial Grand Master of Pennsylvania, was a judge of the Orphans' Court of Philadelphia County when first mentioned in the Records of St. John's Lodge. When elected Grand Master, he was a judge of the Common Pleas Court of that county. He was mayor of Philadelphia in 1735, and chief justice of the Province of Pennsylvania in 1741. According to the records of city and State, William Allen was a very prominent and influential citizen.


Dr. Benjamin Franklin was distinguished as a scientist, philosopher, statesman, and diplomat. He was clerk of the Pennsylvania Assembly in 1737; postmaster of Philadelphia in 1744; a member of the Provincial Assembly in 1747; judge of the Court of Common Pleas in 1749; justice of the Orphans' Court in 1752; postmaster‑general in 1754; commissioner to England for the Provinces of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Maryland, and Georgia from 1756 to 1759; a member of Congress and president of the Committee of Safety in 1775; ambassador to France in 1776; and governor of Pennsylvania in 1785. Franklin was a member of St. John's Lodge in 1731. He was junior Grand Warden of the first Provincial Grand Lodge in 1732, Grand Master of it in 1734 and 1749, and Deputy Grand Master from 1750 to 1755 Other distinguished members of St. John's Lodge who became Grand Masters were the following: Humphrey Murray, mayor of Philadelphia in 1745 ‑ James Hamilton, who became governor of Pennsylvania in 1748. Thomas Hopkinson, who in 1741 was sole judge of the Vice‑Admiralty Court in Philadelphia. William Plumstead, who in 1764 was president‑judge of the Court of Quarterly Sessions in Philadelphia. Joseph Shippen, a scientist, and Philip FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA 163 Syng, treasurer of the American Philosophical Society. Of twenty‑three members whose names appear on the pages of Liber B, nine were lawyers, seven were judges, four were mayors of Philadelphia, two were high sheriffs of Philadelphia County, two were physicians, two were coroners of Philadelphia County, two were governors of Pennsylvania, and one, Benjamin Franklin, was a signer of the Declaration of Independence.


In the account of the period of the War for Independence, the name of one Pennsylvania Mason stands out prominently because of his patriotic service to the Colonies. It is that of General John Peter Muhlenberg, whose gallantry during the Battle of Stony Point won for him a commendation from General Washington. Born in Philadelphia in 1746, Muhlenberg went to Virginia, and at the outbreak of the war he raised a regiment there. For meritorious service he was promoted step by step from the rank of colonel to that of majorgeneral. After the war he returned to Pennsylvania. He served as vice‑president of the Supreme Executive Council in 1787 and 1788. He was a representative in Congress from 1789 to 1791, from 1793 to 1795, and from 1799 to 1801. In 1801 he was elected a member of the United States Senate. Muhlenberg's membership has not definitely been determined, though one authority states that he was made a Mason in an Army Lodge. Muhlenberg College was named in honour of this distinguished patriot and Mason.


An outstanding Grand Master of the early nineteenth century was James Milnor, clergyman and member of Congress. His constructive work in unifying the jurisdiction and in securing uniformity in the Ritualistic ceremonies won for him the gratitude and veneration of the Craft. This was expressed in an address prepared by a Committee of the Grand Lodge at the time when he retired from active service: Of such value were Grand Master Milnor's addresses to the Craft that they have been preserved in the Reprint of the Minutes of the Grand Lodge, and are to‑day referred to with profit by Officers who consult them.


As has already been explained, the Girard bequest to the Grand Lodge was the corner‑stone on which it built its charities. Stephen Girard was born in France in 1750, and settled in Philadelphia in 1776. He was a shipowner and merchant who rapidly accumulated wealth. In 1810 he assisted the Federal Government to bolster up its finances. Later he established the Bank of Stephen Girard. In 1814, when the government called fora loan of $50,000,000 and was able to secure only $Zo,ooo,ooo, Girard advanced the whole amount needed, a vast sum in those days. He devoted his time and money to the upbuilding of Philadelphia, and when he died, in 1831, he left a fortune of $9,ooo,ooo, up to that time the largest fortune accumulated by an individual in this country. He bequeathed that fortune in ways that he thought would do most good. His most famous bequest was his provision for Girard College. Girard was made a Mason in 1788. His Certificate showed membership in Union Blue Lodge, No. 8, under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Ancient York Masons of Charleston, South Carolina.


Among world‑famed scientists the name of Dr. Elisha Kent Kane stands 164 FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA out brilliantly. He was an honour student in science at the University of Virginia, and after being graduated from the University of Pennsylvania Medical School he entered the navy. Serving in the capacity of naval surgeon, he accompanied Lieutenant De Haven on an expedition to the Arctic regions in search of Dr. Franklin, the lost explorer. Unsuccessful at first, Dr. Kane made a second expedition. He again failed, but he did discover an open polar sea. There his ship became ice‑bound. Abandoning his ship, he marched overland i2oo miles to a Danish settlement in Greenland. Brought home by a government vessel, his health broke and he died in Cuba in 1857. Dr. Kane's scientific reports were very valuable. He was a member of Lodge No. 134, in Philadelphia.


Major‑General Winfield Scott Hancock was made a Mason in Charity Lcdge, No. go, at Norristown, on October 31, i86o. He served with distinction in the Mexican War and in the war between the States. He was a popular officer.


General George B. McClellan was also a Pennsylvanian, having been born in Philadelphia in 1826. He was by Dispensation entered, passed, and Raised in Willamette Lodge, No. 2, of Portland, Oregon, on December 9, 18 Pennsylvania has had only one citizen to occupy the Presidential chair: James Buchanan, the fifteenth President. He was Raised in Lodge No. 43, at Lancaster, on January 24, 1817, made junior Warden on December 13, 1820, and made Master on December 23, 1822. In 1858 he was given a life membership in the Lodge. Buchanan became a District Deputy Grand Master on December 27, 1823. On May Zo, 1826, he was Exalted in Royal Arch Chapter, No. 43, of Lancaster.


Governors of Pennsylvania who have been Masons were Joseph Hiester, of Perseverance Lodge, No. 21; George Wolfe, of Lodge No. 152; William Fisher Packer, of Perseverance Lodge, No. 21; Andrew Gregg Curtain, of Belle fonte Lodge, No. 268; John White Geary, of Philanthropy Lodge, No. 225; John Frederick Hartranft, of Lodge No. 1go; Henry Martyn Hoyt, of Perseverance Lodge, No. 21; Robert Emory Pattison, of Union Lodge, No. 121; Daniel Hartman Hastings, of Bellefonte Lodge, No. 268; William A. Stone, of Allegheny Lodge, No. 223; Samuel W. Pennypacker, of Lodge No. 59; Edwin S. Stuart, of Lodge No. 271; John K. Tener, of Lodge No. 371; Martin Grove Brumbaugh, of Lodge No. 300; William Cameron Sproul, of Lodge No. 236; and John A. Fisher, of Lodge No. 313.


Besides those just named, other Pennsylvania Masons have occupied important political offices. Among them was John Wanamaker, who was made a Mason at sight. Bro. Wanamaker was Postmaster‑General. Andrew Mellon, also made a Mason at sight, was Secretary of the Treasury. William B. Wilson and James J. Davis were Secretaries of Commerce and Labour.


The list of distinguished Pennsylvania Masons also includes Bishop John Henry Hopkins, who was made a Mason in Pittsburgh about 1817; Bishop H. Odenheimer, of New Jersey, who was a member of Franklin Lodge, No. 134, at Philadelphia; Bishop Bedell, who was Knighted in Holy and Undivided 166 FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA the Grand Lodge and elected Michael Nisbet to be Grand High Priest. The Grand Chapter, however, has never affiliated with the General Grand Chapter. The Grand Chapter now has 153 local Chapters having a total membership of over 49,ooo.


CRYPTIC MASONRY Just when the first Council of Royal and Select Masters was organised in Pennsylvania is uncertain. Two councils at least existed prior to October 26, 1847, for on that date, at Pittsburgh, action was taken which resulted in the creation of " The Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters of Pennsylvania and Masonic Jurisdiction Thereunto Belonging. " This Grand Council comprised Washington Council, No. I, of Washington, Mt. Moriah Council, No. 2, of Pittsburgh, and Lone Star Council, No. 3, of Washington, Texas.


From the first there was controversy concerning the rights of the Council to its Degrees. The Royal and Select Master's Degrees were intimately connected with the Royal Arch Degree of the Chapter, and there was question as to whether or not those Degrees did not belong to the Council of Princes of Jerusalem of the Scottish Rite. The Grand Chapter tried several times to relinquish the Degrees. In the meantime the Grand Chapter was outlawed by the General Grand Chapter. The old question of Grand Lodge authority was also involved. In 1864 the Grand Council decreed that " the Degrees of Royal Master and Select Master shall be conferred in Councils of Royal and Select Masters, which, with the Super‑excellent Master's Degree, shall constitute the system of Cryptic Masonry." Nevertheless the Grand Council subsequently endeavoured to rid itself of the Royal and Select Master's Degree, but without success. Finally, in 1877, the Grand Council settled for all time the proprietary rights of the Chapter, and a little later it made the Chapter Degrees prerequisite to the Council Degrees. It then endeavoured to induce the Grand Commandery of Knights Templar to make Council Degrees prerequisite to the Templar Degrees, but without success.


There are no Minutes of the Grand Council from 1847 to 1851, and the Minutes immediately thereafter are not complete enough to supply information regarding several matters in controversy. They do show, however, that the Grand Council of Pennsylvania was made independent of the General Grand Councils and that on January 11, 1874, it declined to act with other Grand Councils in several matters pertaining to Cryptic Masonry. Now the Grand Council governs 39 Subordinate Councils that have a total of about 11,733 members.


TEMPLAR MASONRY Pennsylvania claims to have had the first Grand Encampment of the United States. It was Constituted on May 12, 1797, as the outcome of a Convention held at Philadelphia which was attended by Delegates from local Encampments No. I and No. 2, of Philadelphia; Encampment No. 3, of Harrisburg; and Encampment No. 4, of Carlisle. Those Encampments came into existence between FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA 167 1793 and the date of the Convention of 1797. That Grand Encampment appears to have undergone some changes in its component units and to have been followed in 1814 by a second Grand Encampment which styled itself the " Pennsylvania Grand Encampment with Masonic Jurisdiction Thereunto Belonging." The second Grand Body existed until June Io, 1824.


The Grand Encampment recognised as its superior authority the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, and for this reason its Delegates left a Convention in Philadelphia on June 16, 1816, which was attended by Delegates from other jurisdictions. The Pennsylvania Delegates could not agree with those from other jurisdictions concerning Degrees. After this occurrence interest in Templar Masonry waned, and in 1824 all local Encampments, except St. John's Encampment No. 4, ceased to Labour. However, in 1852, St. John's Encampment, No. 4, with four others organised a third Grand Encampment under the authority of the Grand Lodge. But in 1857 the Grand Lodge declared that it had no authority over the Degrees of Knighthood, and both existing Grand Encampments then acknowledged the General Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of the United States. Thus Templar Masonry alone, of the York Rite, has membership in a national organisation. This affiliation settled the Degree question, and the Templar system then definitely comprised the Illustrious Order of the Red Cross, the Order of Malta, and the Order of the Temple. Now the Pennsylvania Grand Encampment has a Roster of 96 Subordinate Commanderies. Their total membership approaches 36,ooo.


SCOTTISH RITE MASONRY In the library of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania is an attested copy of the Minutes of a Grand Chapter of the Scottish Rite held at Philadelphia on June 25, 1781. That was the first Grand Chapter of the Scottish Rite in America of which there is documentary Record. Bro. Solomon Bush, Deputy Grand Inspector for Pennsylvania, was in the Chair. The Chapter, which appears to have met in the room of Lodge No. 3, adopted rules and regulations. The Minutes‑book now in the Grand Lodge library indicates that a Lodge of Perfection was subsequently active until February 21, 1789. Then the Minutes and the Seal were taken away by Augustine Prevost, a lieutenant in the British Army.


In 1790 this same Prevost appointed Peter De Barbier Duplessis to be Deputy Inspector‑General. He in turn deputised John B. Tardy, who seems to have taken a very active interest in the Rite, especially in other States. Duplessis himself seems not to have been active, though he and other Scottish Rite Masons attended Supreme Council meetings in New York and there witnessed the conferring of Degrees. In Pennsylvania, however, the Rite seems to have lacked leadership, at least so far as concerned bringing Scottish Rite Masons together into properly organised Bodies. Not till 1852 was a permanent Lodge of Perfection organised. This was at Pittsburgh. There, in 1857, a Council of Princes of Jerusalem, a Chapter of Rose Croix, and a Consistory were also Chartered.


168 FREEMASONRY IN PENNSYLVANIA The Pennsylvania Council of Deliberation dates from 1870. Now Pennsylvania has 15 Lodges of Perfection, 12 Councils of Princes of Jerusalem and Chapters of Rose Croix, and 11 Consistories. The total membership of the Lodges is 79,237, of the Councils, 76,668, of the Chapters, 76,548, and of the Consistories, 76,462.


In an address delivered at Philadelphia in 1925, the late Illustrious James Isaac Buchanan, Thirty‑third Degree, in sketching the history of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite in Pennsylvania, said that, from the organisation of the Chapter of 1781, the Grand Lodge and the Scottish Rite had lived together in harmony. The Grand Lodge early disclaimed any authority over the Degrees of the Rite, and in early years it informed the Bodies of the Rite about the suspension or expulsion of Masons from Blue Lodges. On the other hand, the Scottish Rite recognised its dependence on the Subordinate Lodges of the York Rite for its members, and consequently, so far as it can, supports the Grand Lodge, in all Masonic undertakings that are plainly in the interests of Masonry as a whole.


FREEMASONRY IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS J. HuGO TATSCH HE historian of Freemasonry can never afford to neglect the economic and social background against which the story of the Craft rests, for without this setting, the Fraternity itself does not appear in its proper light. The background is all the more important when the story to be told deals with regions and races differing greatly from those of the British Isles where our Institution had its birth and also its greatest development. Philippine Freemasonry offers no exceptions to this generalisation.


The story of the Craft in the Philippines is developed under three headings. It has its traditions which cannot be supported by complete documentary or other authentic evidence; it has a second phase coming under the history of Spanish rule in the Islands; its third aspect, and its highest, is synchronous with the advent of the Americans in 1898, and presents features which require an appreciative and sympathetic understanding of Far East problems, many of which have not been encountered elsewhere in the development of Freemasonry. The historian of the future will doubtless treat of a fourth development, as coming events are already casting perplexing shadows over Philippine Freemasonry.


THE TRADITIONAL ASPECTS One Craft historian has found traces of Freemasonry in the Philippines as early as 1752., while more definite information is had four years later, when two Irishmen, James O'Kennedy, a merchant, and Dr. Edward Wigat, a phy sician, were arrested because of their Masonic connections, which had been forbidden under a Spanish royal decree. Their trial before the Inquisition at Manila brought them no greater punishment than a reprimand, as their accusers took cognizance of their British citizenship.


More solid ground is attained in 1762., when a British expedition from India reached the Islands. England was at war with Spain, and sent an expedition from Madras on August I to capture and occupy Manila. This was accomplished successfully on October 6. Shortly after the departure of the British for other stations in 1764, complaint was made by the Archbishop of Manila against the desecration of the local cathedral by its use for Masonic meetings. He proposed to burn the edifice in order to purify the premises, but this extreme remedial measure was not concurred in by the ecclesiastical authorities in Spain.


The Archbishop's correspondence in the archives at Sevilla is the only tangible evidence we have of Masonic Work in Manila during the period of 169 170 FREEMASONRY IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 1762‑6q.. Exhaustive researches have failed definitely to identify any Lodges or individuals involved in the reported activities, though it is highly probable that there was a field Lodge with the British forces.


FREEMASONRY DURING THE SPANISH REGIME The unrelenting hostility of the Roman Catholic Church towards Freemasonry was responsible for numerous decrees against the Fraternity. Freemasonry was forbidden, by governmental decree of 1812, in Spain and the In dies. The discovery of a case of Masonic books, entitled Illustraci6n a la Masoneria, in a shipment to Manila in November 1829, brought about strict regulations in 1830 for the examination of vessels for such prohibited literature.


The year 1856 marks the definite establishment of Freemasonry in the Philippine Islands. In that year the Lodge Primera Luz Filipina (First Light of the Philippines) was founded at Cavite by two lieutenants in the Spanish Navy, Jose Malcampo y Monge and Casto Mendez Nufiez, under Warrant from the Gran Oriente Lusitano (Grand Lodge of Portugal). Membership was restricted to Spanish naval and governmental officials; natives were not admitted. The first Filipino to be made a Mason, so far as is known, was Jacob Zobel y Zangronis, member of the Royal Academy of History at Madrid, and Secretary of the second Lodge in the Islands. He held membership in a Lodge formed by foreigners, mostly Germans, the Lodge being attributed to authority from Hong Kong. A third Lodge was formed at Manila by British Brethren, and to which distinguished natives were admitted.


The Grande Oriente Espafiol founded the fourth Lodge, composed of resident Spaniards, many of them exiles, who admitted natives in order to gain their confidence and support. Representative Filipinos, residing in foreign coun tries, were admitted to the Fraternity there, among them Dr. Jose Rizal and Marcelo H. del Pilar, who were destined to take first rank among the Masonic patriots and martyrs of the Philippines. They were members of Solidaridad Lodge, No. 53, formed at Madrid, consisting entirely of Filipinos.


The light of Masonry was eclipsed in the period of 1872‑88. An uprising against the government in 1872, at Cavite, was laid at Masonic doors, and a number of Brethren exiled. Freemasonry raised its head again in 1875, only to go into retirement once more when Malcampo, a founder of the first Lodge, returned to the Islands as captain‑general. He was fearful that Masons were meddling in political matters, and the adoption of restrictive methods was so provocative of intrigue and dissension, that the Lodges declined. The native element was forced out of the Fraternity. Not until 1889 were the Lodge doors re‑opened, largely due to the efforts of educated Filipinos who had studied abroad and had affiliated with Lodges there. Several Lodges were formed in Spain, among them Solidaridad, already mentioned. Their members became marked men in the Philippines, where the friars wielded great influence, soon to be used against the enlightened Brethren.


The first Filipino Lodge was Nilad, No. 144, Manila, formally Constituted FREEMASONRY IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 171 March 12, 1892. Again the ecclesiastical authorities became alarmed, for the activities of the Freemasons in diffusing doctrines of intellectual and spiritual independence aroused the enmity of the friars, whose influence, power and revenues were in danger because of the enlightenment acquired by the Filipinos. Vigorous opposition was instituted in 1893, which only aroused the people further. The dreaded Kataastaasan Kagalanggalang Katipunan Society was formed to overthrow the friar rule. This society, which had borrowed the secrecy and general forms of Freemasonry, unavoidably brought down a relentless persecution of the Freemasons themselves, who were in no way responsible for the acts of the Katipunan Society. Says Fischer: The panic‑stricken Spanish community, urged on by the friars, blamed the Masons for the uprising, as they identified the Katipunan with our Order. Wholesale arrests of Masons, trials which were a travesty of justice, preceded in many cases by torture, and the shooting of innocent victims on the Luneta or,'some other public place were the characteristic features of the last months of 1896 and the early part Of 1897. On December 30, 1896, Dr. ,Jose Rizal, an enthusiastic Mason, died heroically at the hands of a firing squad on the field of Bagumbayan at Manila. On January II, 1897, the same field drank the blood of eleven other Masons, one of whom had to be carried to the place of execution and shot lying down, because his limbs had been dislocated by the torture to which he had been subjected. Executions, murders, and torture all over the islands quenched Masonry in blood.


The story of Spanish influence in Philippine Freemasonry concludes with the activities of the Gran Logia Regional, formed in 1907, nine years after the first American Lodge was founded. This regional Grand Lodge, operating under the Grande Oriente Espanol, was formed of the older Spanish Lodges, and presented some problems of jurisprudence, when the present Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands was formed in 1912. The regional Grand Lodge went out of existence in 1917, when the twenty‑seven Lodges under its Jurisdiction accepted the sovereignty of the new Grand Lodge.


THE COMING OF THE AMERICANS History repeats itself in the coming of the Americans to the Philippines, for again Freemasonry followed the flag. A Dispensation was issued June I, 1898, by Grand Master Robert M. Carothers of North Dakota to Lieutenant Colonel William C. Treumann, Major Frank White and Major John H. Fraine, Master and Wardens, respectively, for a field Lodge in the North Dakota Regiment of Volunteer Infantry. The Lodge held its first meeting August 21, 1898, in a building situated at old No. 69 Calle Nueva, Malate. When the regiment left the Islands July 31, 1899, the Lodge had received one hundred applicants for the Degrees, conferring the Entered Apprentice and Fellowcraft Degrees only, as the outbreak of the Filipino insurrection February 4, 1899, prevented 172. FREEMASONRY IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS a meeting at which the Master Mason Degree was to have been Worked. During one meeting in the field, on February 22, 1899, the Work was conferred with the Officers wearing side arms, and during the administering of the obligation bullets crashed through the roof of the church where the meeting was being held.


As the Philippine Islands were open territory for the introduction of Freemasonry from any legitimate source, Lodges were also formed by other Masonic powers, as follows Source Lodge Date Grand Orient of France Rizal Minerva, Isarog, Tayabbas; 19o1 and later various places.


Grand Lodge of Scotland Perla del Oriente, No. 1034 1907 Cebu Lodge, No. IIo6 1912 Grande Oriente Lusitano Minerva Lodge, Manila 1912 FORMATION OF THE GRAND LODGE The difficulties encountered by the Craft from 1898 to 1912, when the present Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the Philippine Islands was formed, present material for a voluminous work. The roots of the Grand Lodge spread in many directions, but a stout one reached into the Sojourners Club of Manila, which held its first meeting April z, 19oo. Out of this grew Manila Lodge, No. 342, Chartered by the Grand Lodge of California October Io, 1901, and was followed by Cavite Lodge, No. 350 (October 15, 1903) and Corregidor Lodge, No. 386 (October io, 1907). These three Lodges met in Convention, upon invitation to each of them and also to the two Scottish Lodges at Manila and Cebu, November 17, 1912. As the Scottish Lodges had not taken action upon the invitation to participate in the formation of the proposed Grand Lodge, the first formal Convention was not held until December 12. The Grand Lodge was actually formed December 18‑i9, 1912. The Scottish Lodges erroneously believed they had no power to act without consent of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, and held themselves aloof. Recognition was granted in due course to the new Grand Lodge by the Grand Lodge of Scotland with the proviso that the rights and privileges of resident Scottish Brethren were not to be impaired. Lodge No. 1034 is still on the Scottish Register, but No. 1106 has been removed.


The French Lodges in the Islands merged with the Gran Logia Regional, or went out of existence.


Efforts made in 1904 to unite Manila Lodge, No. 342 and Cavite, No. 350, and the three Spanish Lodges, Modestia, Dalisay and Sinukuan, into a Grand Lodge had failed. Hence it was not until 1917 that the then existing 27 Spanish Lodges, with 1139 members, came under the banner of the Grand Lodge formed in i91z, and which, in 1917, consisted of 11 Lodges and approximately 8oo FREEMASONRY IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 173 members. The Portuguese Lodge, Minerva, at Manila, relinquished its original Charter of 19i2 and accepted a new one as No. 41 in 1917.


The merger brought an overwhelming Filipino majority into control, Brethren familiar with the Freemasonry of the Latin countries. These yielded to the influence of the others, and many dropped the Spanish Ritual and adopted that of the English‑speaking Grand Lodge, which used California Work. A gentlemen's agreement to alternate the Office of Grand Master by an American one year and a Filipino the next, has been faithfully observed.


Lodges have also been Chartered by the Grand Lodge in China. Amity Lodge, No. 1o6 was Instituted May 25, 1931, at Shanghai; Nanking Lodge, No. io8 on September 11, 1931, at Amoy; and Pearl River Lodge came into existence at Canton February 7, 1934. Another distant Lodge is Charleston, No. 44, located at Agana, Guam, Marianas Islands, Chartered in 19i9.


Statistics published in 1935 reveal a list of 104 Lodges with 5458 members, covering 3100 islands with a population of 11,ooo,ooo. The Grand Lodge is accumulating funds for a Masonic Home, School and Dormitory, and has sup ported the usual charitable activities in keeping with the best traditions of the Fraternity. The Grand Lodge publishes a capably edited official journal of exceptional merit and high literary standards, The Cable Tow, founded as a monthly in 1923. It contains scholarly articles in English, Spanish, and native languages, and in recent years has carried the reports of the Committee on Correspondence, thereafter omitted from the annual Proceedings.


SPURIOUS AND IMITATIVE BODIES Philippine Freemasonry has been much troubled by spurious Bodies. One of them is the " Gran Logia Soberana del Archipielago Filipino," composed of spurious Lodges Chartered by the Grand Orient of Spain since 1922. Another is the " Gran Logia National de Filipinas," created in 1924 by a so‑called general Assembly of Master Masons. Other organisations barred to the regular Craft are the " Gran Oriente Filipino," " Martires de Filipinas," and " Gran Luz Masoneria Filipina," and all of their Lodges or branches in the Islands and abroad. There is also a " Supremo Consejo del Gr. 33 para Filipinas " which is a spurious Scottish Rite Organisation. The American Masonic Federation, Working many Rites and Degrees and suppressed by the Federal Court at Salt Lake City, Utah, in 1922, had also been active at Manila in 1917‑18.


Labour organisations which have adopted Masonic emblems as a part of their insignia have given trouble to the Masonic authorities. Among them was the " Legionarios del Trabajo " (Legion of Labourers), which used the square and compasses, with a rising sun in the centre, as its emblem, as well as the double‑headed eagle of the Scottish Rite. Aprons, collars, and Scottish Rite caps were also used. The Ritual of the organisation was based upon old Spanish Craft texts. Not only were such Bodies established in the Islands, but members for new organisations were recruited from Filipinos residing in the United States, as " Lodges " were known to exist in the Pacific Coast States, 174 FREEMASONRY IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS as well as in New York and Massachusetts. Local difficulties were adjusted in 1927, when the organisation finally agreed to drop all Masonic resemblances and confusing activities.


OTHER MASONIC AND RELATED BODIES Scottish Rite Freemasonry is active in the Islands. There are four Bodies of the Rite at Manila, Working in English; another set, known as the Philippine Bodies, also at Manila, Works exclusively in the Spanish language for the benefit of Filipino Masons preferring that tongue. Other Bodies exist elsewhere in the Islands, all of them under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Council Thirtythird Degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, U. S. A. There are York Rite Bodies which do not admit natives. The Red Cross of Constantine and the Royal Order of Scotland are represented, as is also the Order of the Eastern Star. The Sojourners, an organisation consisting of Masons holding Commissions in the six uniformed forces of the United States, has Chapters at Manila and Camp Stotsenburg. The Ancient Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine is represented by a Shrine Club at Manila. The national organisation is not in good favour among the Representative Masons because of difficulties it has created by disturbing the sovereignty of the Grand Lodge by ignoring matters in which local policies and situations peculiar to the Far East were factors worthy of most serious consideration.


FREEMASONRY IN RHODE ISLAND EDWARD M. WHEELER RADITION and legend are often intermingled when harking back to the origin of societies and organisations, and the beginnings of the Masonic Fraternity in Rhode Island are no exception to the rule. In exploring the past in an endeavour accurately to ascertain whence and where the organisation began its existence, we almost immediately run up against the mythical statement as recorded by Bro. ,J. L. Gould of Connecticut in his publication in 1868 of the " Guide to the Chapter " when he says The earliest account of the introduction of Masonry into the United States is the history of a Lodge organised in Rhode Island, A.D. 1658, or fifty‑nine years before the Revival in England, and seventy‑five years before the establishment of the first Lodge in Massachusetts.


Then, as if to corroborate the above paragraph, here is a quotation from a History of Rhode Island compiled by Rev. Edward Peterson, who stated therein: In the spring of 1658, Mordecai Campennell, Moses Peckeckol, Levi, and others, in all fifteen families, arrived at Newport from Holland. They brought with them the three first degrees of Masonry, and worked them in the house of Campennell, and continued to do so, they and their successors, to the year 1742.


And lastly, in the way of quotation, this information, contained in a letter from Bro. Nathan H. Gould, formerly of Rhode Island, but later of Texas, is cited, wherein he reported that his father in administering the estate of a distant relative had found in an old dilapidated trunk certain papers, one of them in a tender state and very much worn, reading as follows The ye (the day and month were obliterated) 1656 or 8 (not certain which, as the place was stained and broken: the three first figures were plain) Wee mett att ye House off Mordecai Campunall and affter Synagog Wee gave Abm Moses the degrees of Maconrie.


After careful and painstaking study and examination of the subject by the Masonic historians of Rhode Island, no authentic information has yet been uncovered which will confirm the actuality of these early gatherings of Rhode Island's Masonic ancestors. The document in question cannot be found or accounted for. And so the legend and tradition, while interesting and entertain I75 176 FREEMASONRY IN RHODE ISLAND ing reading, must be considered unworthy of further notice and the statement of plain facts resorted to, as revealed in undisputed records.


December 2‑7, 1749, is the first positive date on which a Masonic starting point may be pinned, for at that time Saint John's Lodge in Newport was Warranted under authority of Thomas Oxnard, Provincial Grand Master of the Pro vincial Grand Lodge having its see at Boston. Caleb Phillips was the first Master, and because of the fact that for some unknown reason he withheld the Dispensation granted to the Lodge, a second Warrant was issued bearing date of May 14, 1753 These Warrants permitted the conferring only of the first two Degrees, but this limitation evidently carried no weight with our ancient Brethren, for the Record has it that they proceeded in due course to exemplify the Master Mason's Degree as well, and on being taken to task for the apparent assumption of authority not contained in the Warrant, they gave so plausible an explanation of the matter that the Grand Lodge confirmed the action by giving them a Charter empowering them to hold a Master's Lodge, this document being dated March 2‑o, 1759.


In the meantime, another Saint John's Lodge had begun its existence, this one in Providence, under a Charter granted by Jeremy Gridley, Provincial Grand Master of North America, under date of January 18, 1757. This Lodge func tioned for six years; then for a similar length of time met spasmodically; and from June 1769, to December 3, 1778, was entirely dormant; being revived on this latter date, since which time it has had an uninterrupted history.


Now must be chronicled the temporary decline of Saint John's Lodge in Newport and the organisation on June 7, 178o, of a new Lodge in that city, King David's by name, under authority of a general Warrant purporting to issue from George Harrison, Esq., Provincial Grand Master of New York, who for a time resided in Newport. While there has been some question as to the regularity of this Lodge, nevertheless it prospered and maintained itself for ten years, and finally, on October i9, 1790, it was merged with the original Saint John's Lodge, which had been revived in the meantime. This Lodge, together with Saint John's in Providence, on June 2‑7, 1791, organised at Newport the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island, with 113 members in Newport and 12‑4 in Providence.


A season of prosperity then ensued and during the next twenty years eleven new Lodges came into being.


It was during this period that the distinguished Mason and eminent Craftsman, Thomas Smith Webb, loomed large in the Masonic world. Webb came to Providence from Boston, probably in 1799, and at once became a power in at least three branches of Rhode Island Masonry. For the present his record in the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island is only alluded to, which comprised service as junior Grand Warden for one year, Senior Grand Warden for three years, Deputy Grand Master for two years, and as Grand Master in 1813 and 1814, declining a re‑election.


FREEMASONRY IN RHODE ISLAND 177 He died suddenly in Cleveland, Ohio, July 6, 1819, and was first buried in that city, but later on the Grand Lodge and other Masonic Bodies in Rhode Island arranged for the removal of his body to Providence, where it was brought by a two‑horse wagon in two relays, at a total cost of $13 S . On November 8, 1819, it was given an honoured Masonic burial in the North Burial Ground, an unpretentious memorial erected by the Grand Lodge marking the spot.


Rhode Island, like other of its sister jurisdictions, suffered severely from the Morgan excitement and Anti‑Masonic crusade, and here the feeling against Freemasonry has been declared as more intense and longer protracted than in any other State, with the possible exceptions of Vermont and New York.


The storm of opposition was slow in gathering, but in 182.9 it broke in terrible fury, culminating in a bitter political contest such as heretofore had been unknown in the State, and resulting in alienation and division between friends and neighbours.


The accusation was made that the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island sanctioned the Morgan " outrage." The General Assembly was memorialised to make an investigation anent " the designs, principles and practices of Freemasons, be lieved to be adverse to religion and morality, subversive of civil government, and incompatible with all social and civil virtues." A State convention of Anti‑Masons issued an address to the people of Rhode Island strongly opposing Freemasonry and controverting any good in the Institution.


A special committee of the State Legislature conducted an investigation of the Masonic organisation, its report showing the worst accusations against the Fraternity absolutely false and substantially exonerating it from all criminal charges preferred against it.


But to satisfy the overwrought public mind it recommended that the Masons owed it to the community to discontinue the Institution, which recommendation was adopted by the General Assembly and later responded to by the Grand Lodge in resolutions declaring " a determination peacefully to adhere to our Institution through evil as well as good report." The high point in the excitement was reached when the General Assembly in 1834, in response to a memorial, repealed the civil charter of six of the Lodges, but leaving quite a number of others still in effect.


However, not a single one of the nineteen Lodges relinquished its Masonic Charter. They met infrequently and maintained their respective organisations. But the time of testing had its effect upon the membership, for while " there were giants in those days," yet many of the Brethren for political and other reasons forsook the organisation, and when in 1840 the storm may be said to have subsided, the returns to Grand Lodge indicated a total membership of 9So, about one‑third the number reported ten years previously.


As the clouds and mists eventually cleared away and brighter skies appeared, Lodges again began to function and evidences of renewed prosperity became apparent. And so it has continued until the financial depression of 1929 178 FREEMASONRY IN RHODE ISLAND hit the country, Freemasonry in this State, as in all the others, seriously feeling the effects of that catastrophe.


At the present time there are 43 Lodges constituent to the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island, with a total membership of 17,462 as last reported.


True patriotism and love of country has never been wanting among the Masons in Rhode Island. The first conflict and exchange of shots between contestants representing the British Government and the American Colonies was on June 8, 1772, when the British schooner Gds& was captured and burned in Narragansett Bay, a considerable number of Craftsmen participating in the successful enterprise.


Another evidence of loyalty is shown during the War of 1812, whey on October 3, 1814, the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island met in Special Communication, and at eight o'clock in the morning paraded with music to Fox Point, in the southern part of Providence, where a breastwork 430 feet long, 1o feet wide and 5 feet high was erected and dignified by the Grand Master, Thomas Smith Webb, with the name of Fort Hiram. Two hundred and thirty Brethren, representing nine Lodges, participated in this work, the undertaking and the name given to it receiving the sanction of the governor of the State on the same day.


The same spirit of devotion to country was shown during the Civil War, as well as in the World War, the records revealing 227 Rhode Island Masons as having been enrolled in the former conflict, with 9 of them giving up their lives for the cause, while in the latter strife 1254 Brethren are listed, with 17 of them making the supreme sacrifice.


During war times two efforts looking to the organisation of " Army " Lodges have been made. The first was in 1861, when a Dispensation was granted for the formation of " American Union Lodge " to be attached to the Rhode Island regiment of Volunteer Militia, this Lodge not to make Masons but to meet simply for fraternal and social purposes. It failed to function, however, as no place or room easily accessible or properly secluded could be found for the meetings, and the Dispensation was returned.


The second attempt, made shortly after the close of the World War, resulted more successfully, Overseas Lodge, U.D., having been organised in the Army of Occupation at Coblentz, Germany, on April 24, 1919. This Lodge, which receives as candidates and members only those who have served during the World War in the army and navy, or in the auxiliary service connected therewith, is unique in having been organised in the enemy's country and the only Lodge originating in the American Expeditionary Force which has been perpetuated, it now being known as Overseas Lodge, No. 40, on the register of the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island.


THE CAPITULAR RITE The first recorded mention of any action taken looking to the formation of a Chapter in Rhode Island appears in the Master's Lodge Record book of Saint John's Lodge, No. I, Providence, a record of business appertaining only FREEMASONRY IN RHODE ISLAND 179 to the Master's Degree being kept in that book, at a meeting held July ZS, 1793 At an adjourned meeting held six days later it was voted that the Officers of the Lodge be empowered and ordered to apply to any legal Royal Arch Chapter in the United States for authority to organise.


Acting under this authority, the Worshipful Master, Bro. Daniel Stillwell, personally journeyed to New York City during the following month and was successful in securing a Charter from " A Washington Chapter of Royal Arch Masons in the City of New York," bearing date of September 3, 1793, and the title " Providence Chapter, No. 2, of Royal Arch Masons." Would that we knew authoritatively what became of this " mother " organisation! This Charter was presented on October S, 1793, at a meeting of " a number of the brethren of sublime degrees in Masonry, members of Saint John's Lodge, No. i, Providence." At this meeting it was suggested that before the Royal Arch Degree could be conferred on waiting candidates a Lodge be immediately opened to Initiate them in the Degrees between Master Mason and Royal Arch, and six Brethren forthwith received the several Degrees of Mark Master Mason, Past Master and Most Excellent Master. Two meetings followed in October for a similar purpose.


Thus, it will be observed, that these preparatory Degrees were conferred in Saint John's Lodge before Providence Royal Arch Chapter was Constituted, which ceremony did not take place until November 23, 1793, on which occasion nine Brethren were Exalted to the Royal Arch Degree.


This raises the question‑where did the " founders " get the Degrees? Perhaps one guess is as good as another, but it is altogether possible that they received them in or " beside " (as the language of the day then put it) Saint John's Lodge under authority then believed to inhere in a Charter granted to any Lodge by competent Masonic authority, and while there is no actual record which authentically reveals this to be the case, yet it is a significant fact that to this day the jewels worn by the Deacons in Saint John's Lodge are the Working tools of the Royal Arch Degree.


The next outstanding event in the life of Providence Royal Arch Chapter was its participation with nine other similar Bodies in the formation at Hartford, Connecticut, on January 2‑4, 1798, of the " Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the Northern States of America," which later was designated as the General Grand Chapter of the United States of America.


On March 12, 1798, the three principal Officers of Providence Chapter met to form a Deputy Grand Chapter for the State, which one year later took upon itself the title of Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, thus giving to it the indisputable prestige of being the first Grand Body to be organised in this particular Rite.


Just about this time Thomas Smith Webb became a resident of Rhode Island and at once took an active part in the doings of the Capitular Rite, serving for two years as High Priest of Providence Chapter and for eleven years as Grand High Priest, and being in the forefront in the organisation of the General Grand 18o FREEMASONRY IN RHODE ISLAND Chapter, filling the Station of General Deputy Grand High Priest at the time of his decease in i8i9.


For a period of eight years Providence Chapter was the only constituent Body of the Grand Chapter, but in I8o6 a Chapter was formed at Newport, followed in later years with similar Bodies in Warren and Pawtucket.


As the Lodges suffered from the stress and strain of the Anti‑Masonic excitement, so the Chapters endured a corresponding experience, a few faithful and resolute members bearing the financial burden as well as shaping the course necessary to counteract the attacks of unprincipled antagonists.


The present statistics for this Rite show 16 Royal Arch Chapters constituent to the Grand Chapter, with 8642 Companions enrolled therein.


THE CRYPTIC RITE On March 28, 1818, ten Royal Arch Masons, who had somewhere received the Degree of Royal Master, met in Saint John's Hall, Old Market House (now the Chamber of Commerce), in Providence and " agreed that it is advisable to establish a Council of Royal Masters and transact business appertaining to said Degree until it can be ascertained where or how a regular Dispensation can be obtained." In passing it is interesting to note that the Old Market House above alluded to was at that time the seat of the town government of Providence. The Brethren of Saint John's Lodge, No. I, after having obtained the necessary permission from the authorities, added, at their own expense, a third story to the building, and this became the first Masonic Hall in the city, being occupied as such from 1797 to 1853.


One week later these same Companions, together with several others, again met, adopted By‑Laws, elected Officers and completed the organisation of Providence Council.


At a subsequent meeting held on May i9, 1818, the Degree of Select Master was attached to the Council, which from that time until September 27, 1819, proceeded to carry on without a Charter. On the latter date it received this important document at the hands of Jeremy L. Cross, " free from expense," the same signed by him as D.G.P. (which we translate Deputy Grand Puissant), and purporting to issue from the Grand Council of Maryland, authorising the conferring of the Degrees of Royal and Select Master.


For over six years these were the only Degrees exemplified, but on April 14, 1826, appears the Record that the Super Excellent Master's Degree was given to four Companions, " all the other Companions having had that Degree." The Morgan excitement affected Providence Council in like manner as the other Masonic Bodies in Rhode Island, but occasional assemblies were held until early in the year 1833, when it was voted to unite with Providence Royal Arch Chapter on terms and conditions mutually satisfactory, the consolidation being confirmed in due course by the Grand Chapter of Rhode Island. However, the Records of Providence Chapter fail to show that the Cryptic FREEMASONRY IN RHODE ISLAND 181 Degrees were ever conferred in that Body, and on February 15, 1841, the union was dissolved and Providence Council again became an individual entity and has since so continued.


For a considerable number of years Rhode Island was open territory to the adjacent jurisdictions so far as the Cryptic Rite was concerned. Hence we find a Council established in Pawtucket in 1847 under the authority of the Grand Council of Massachusetts, and another at Warren in 186o sanctioned by the Grand Council of Connecticut, while since 1848 the Cryptic Degrees had been conferred in Newport by virtue of particular authority vested in the Lodge of Perfection in that city contained in a Special Warrant later referred to when considering Scottish Rite Masonry in Rhode Island.


Whether, in these early days, there existed in Newport an actual Council organisation, or whether the Cryptic Degrees were given in the Lodge of Perfection by Officers bearing the appropriate titles, is a matter of conjecture, no Records extant revealing the actual facts. Report has it that when in the later years of his life Ill.‑. Nathan H. Gould, prominent for a long time in Scottish Rite affairs in Rhode Island, removed from this State to Texas, he carried with him certain Record Books, which may contain the key to the situation.


Be that as it may, an autograph letter of Companion Gould, now in the Archives of the present De Blois Council at Newport, and dated March 3, 1870, positively states that the following had served as Thrice Illustrious Master of De Blois Council: Nathan H. Gould from 1848 to 1851, and again from 1857 to March 1870; Henry D. De Blois from 1851 to 1854; Gilbert Chase from 1854 to 1857.


From its inception in 1818 until the year 186o, Providence Council was a law unto itself, standing entirely alone and apart from any governing authority, but 'on October 30 of the latter year the Grand Council of Rhode Island was Instituted by Representatives from the Councils in Providence, Pawtucket and Warren, and began its honoured and successful career. The Companions at Newport were invited to participate in the enterprise, but held aloof from the organisation at that time, ten years later, however, coming into the fold and accepting a Charter from Grand Council.


As time advanced and all branches of Masonry flourished, other Councils sprang up from time to time, so that now the Grand Council of Rhode Island boasts 8 constituent Bodies, with an aggregate Of 4533 Companions on its Rolls.


THE CHIVALRIC ORDERS Thomas Smith Webb is the undisputed leader and pioneer in the introduction and Organisation of the Orders of Christian Knighthood in Rhode Island, for on August 23, 18o2, he, in company with five others, formed and opened Saint John's Encampment in Providence, Webb becoming the ranking Officer, then styled Grand Master.


Five of the six Sir. Knights present had, without‑doubt, been Templars for 182 FREEMASONRY IN RHODE ISLAND some years, although when and where they received this signal honour has not as yet been brought to light.


Webb was especially gifted as a leader and organiser, and less than three years had elapsed after the Institution of Saint John's Encampment when he was instrumental in and largely responsible for the formation of a " Grand Encamp ment of Knights Templar," which organised on May 13, 18os, in the Old Market House in Providence, heretofore referred to, with Representatives present from Encampments in Boston and Newburyport, Massachusetts, as well as from the Providence Encampment.


A Constitution was adopted and Officers elected, with Webb, as might well be expected, chosen to the highest Office, then known as Grand Master. Thus was started on its glorious existence a Grand Body, which later became known as the Grand Commandery of Massachusetts and Rhode Island.


The uppermost achievement in Webb's Masonic endeavours has been declared to be the organisation at New York City, in June 1816, of the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of the United States, a project in which he was intensely interested and actively engaged.


It has been authoritatively stated that Webb was urged to become the first Grand Master, but yielded the honour to DeWitt Clinton, taking for himself the lesser position of Deputy Grand Master, which Office he was filling at the time of his decease.


The second Encampment to appear in Rhode Island was Washington at Newport, which was founded on December 26, 1812, under the authority given in a Charter granted by " The Grand Consistory " in New York City, of which Joseph Cerneau was Commander and DeWitt Clinton, Deputy Grand Commander. However, after a time, the Newport Fraters found difficulties in the way in acting under this New York Charter, and in June 1814, they Petitioned the Grand Encampment organised in Providence for admission thereto, and their prayer being granted, they became allegiant to the Grand Body of which they are now a part.


These two Encampments were the only Bodies of Templars existing in Rhode Island until after the violent popular feeling against the Masonic Fraternity, occasioned by the Morgan incident, had died out. During this season of fanaticism and opposition the Body in Newport merely had a name, but the Fraters in Providence remained faithful and unyielding, meeting occasionally for business and instruction and never failing to hold the annual election of Officers.


However, in due time the storm clouds of strife and acrimonious discussion gave way to the bright sun of toleration and clear thinking and Templarism, like all other branches of Masonry, came into its own and continually went forward, until at this writing 7 Commanderies of Knights Templar within the confines of the State of Rhode Island pay allegiance to the Grand Commandery of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, with a total membership of 3997 Sir Knights.


FREEMASONRY IN RHODE ISLAND 183 THE SCOTTISH RITE With no desire to enter into any controversial discussion as to whether this or that branch of early Scottish Rite Masonry in the United States was genuine or spurious, suffice it to say that a Supreme Council of " Sovereign Grand Inspectors‑General for the United States of America, its‑ Territories and Dependencies," headed by Joseph Cerneau, gave authority to certain Brethren in Newport to organise a Consistory in 1813, about which time Bro. John A. Shaw of that city became Deputy Inspector for Rhode Island, under which sanction the Sublime Degrees were Conferred for the succeeding twelve or fifteen years.


According to Bro. Nathan H. Gould, for many years Deputy for Rhode Island, there were earlier meetings of this branch of Masonry, for in his report to the Supreme Council in 1876 he stated that at a meeting of the Council of Deliberation held a short time previous he had taken occasion " to give a resume of the introduction into the State of our beautiful Rite, from the year 1768 by Moses Michael Hays, Thirty‑third Degree under patent of authority from Henry Andrew Franken, Thirty‑third Degree to the resuscitation in 1848 by Ill.‑. Bro. Killian Henry Van Rensselaer and Giles Fonda Yates." Then the Anti‑Masonic hysteria came along, during which period the aforesaid Supreme Council succumbed and never was resuscitated. Likewise the Consistory at Newport became dormant and so remained until the latter part of 1849, when, in response to a Petition from the Brethren in Newport for permission to convene as Scottish Rite Masons, Charters were granted by the Supreme Council, Northern jurisdiction, under date of September 16 of that year, permitting the holding of all four Bodies of the Rite, these documents bearing the signatures of John J. J. Gourgas as M.‑. P.‑. Sovereign Grand Commander, and Giles F. Yates as Deputy Grand Commander.


The Records of the Supreme Council show that on January 14, 185o, the Charters were delivered to and Officers elected in the Lodge of Perfection and the Council of Princes of Jerusalem. The Chapter of Rose Croix and the Con sistory evidently did not effect an organisation until somewhat later, the latter Body being inaugurated by Edward B. Hays, Sovereign Grand Commander, on May 18, 1863, and the former beginning its existence a few weeks later, Returns to the Supreme Council meeting in May 1864, showing about twenty‑one members in each Body.


The Charter of the Lodge of Perfection gave full power and authority for ` ` a Council of Select Masons of 27 **** and the appendant Degrees of Royal Master and Super‑Excellent Master," and under this sanction the Cryptic De grees were Conferred in Newport until the authority was revoked by the Supreme Council in 1870.


King Solomon's Lodge of Perfection began its existence in Stonington, Connecticut, under a Charter dated in 1848, being placed under the Superintendence of the Council of Princes of Jerusalem in New Haven. It apparently 184 FREEMASONRY IN RHODE ISLAND met with little success, for ten years after its organisation the membership numbered but eleven, and on May 25, 1859, the Supreme Council approved its removal to Providence, where the first meeting was held just one year later.


Providence Council of Princes of Jerusalem, Providence Chapter of Rose Croix and Providence Sovereign Grand Consistory were all organised on the same day, January 2.o, 1869, by Ill . . Bro. Nathan H. Gould, Deputy for Rhode Island.


The four Bodies in each of the two cities apparently functioned with small measure of success, for III.‑. Bro. Thomas A. Doyle, then Deputy for Rhode Island, reported to the meeting of the Supreme Council in September 188o, that interest in the Rite seemed almost to have ceased, and verbally suggested that the Bodies be placed under the care of another jurisdiction, but no change in the situation was made.


However, in 1883, the proposal for a consolidation of the Princes of Jerusalem, Rose Croix and Consistory Bodies received the favourable consideration of the Supreme Council, and on June 16, 1885, the merger was consummated, the three Bodies taking the names in vogue in Newport, viz.: Rhode Island Council Princes of Jerusalem, Rhode Island Chapter of Rose Croix, and Rhode Island Consistory.


By the terms of the merger all regular meetings of the three Bodies were to be held in Providence, but the Triennial election in the Consistory was to be held in Newport. This provision maintained for five years, but on September 17, 18go, the Grand East was changed to Providence.


The 4 Bodies in Providence, together with Van Rensselaer Lodge of Perfection in Newport, now constitute the organisation of the Rite in Rhode Island, with a total membership of 1911.


FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA GEORGE T. HARMON "I hear the tread of pioneers Of nations yet to be, The first low wash of waves, where soon Shall roll a human sea." ri HESE prophetic lines reveal the emotions of the poet as he breathes the atmosphere of humble beginnings. A kindred emotion stirs the heart of the Masonic student as he scans the meagre documents of those early days that mark the beginnings of Freemasonry in America. He, too, breathes the atmosphere of humble beginnings, and in addition he enjoys a privileged advantage over the poet, in that his perspective has been shifted by two centuries of marvellous realisation. This great nation bears testimony to the fulfillment of the poet's vision and prophecy, and, in no less degree, the vast structure of Freemasonry existing in America to‑day bears witness to the dream of the Masonic pioneer.


Unmistakable traces of the Masonic pioneer in North America are to be found along the Atlantic seaboard from the coast of Massachusetts to that of Georgia. Boston, Philadelphia, Charleston, and Savannah are the points‑of romantic interest that engage the attention of the Masonic historian. But since the scope of this treatise is confined to the history of Freemasonry in South Carolina, the attention of the reader is directed to only one of those ports of great historic interest‑Charleston.


The early history of Colonial America reveals that South Carolina was the favourite Province of the Mother Country. This being true, it is readily understood why constant intercourse was maintained with the new country, not only by the British Government, but also by the business, religious, and benevolent institutions of England. Not least among those was the Institution of Freemasonry, which had been characterised by such a widespread revival of interest as to culminate in the formation of the Grand Lodge of England in 1717. Under the circumstances, then, it is not beyond reasonable belief that, by the process of fortuitous filtration, Freemasonry began to find expression among the Colonists shortly thereafter. Such inference becomes so apparent that the student of Masonry is led to believe that South Carolina is a cradle of Freemasonry in North America.


However, the faithful historian is not permitted to indulge in surmise. Rather, he must base his claims upon unmistakable evidence. In this respect the South Carolina historian is at an unfortunate disadvantage, for from its =8s 186 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA earliest days the city of Charleston has been the victim of storms and earthquakes with their resultant conflagrations. Such devastations occurred in 1777, in 1822 and in 1838, at which times most of the Records of the Colony, including those of Freemasonry, were forever lost. The writer is, therefore, confined to the use of such authenticated historical sources as fortunately remain, chief among which are the various Official Lists of the Grand Lodge of England. Many of the facts regarding the early days of the Order in South Carolina are taken from the tabulations contained in The Official English Lists for 1760; the Sixth Edition of Jachin and BoaZ, published in London in 1765: A New and Correct List of All the English Regular Lodges in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, according to their seniority and Constitution; By order of the Grand Master, brought down to February 1768; and a List o f Lodges (with their numbers) as altered by the Grand Lodge, April 18, 1792.


The name of the first Lodge at " Charles Town," South Carolina, appears for the first time in The Official English Lists for 1760. It is given there as No. 251, but later it took the place vacated by Bristol Lodge and became Lodge No. 74 Its Warrant was granted by Lord Weymouth, who was Installed as Grand Master on April 17, 1735, and the Lists accredit the Warrant to the year 1735. The date of the Constitution of this Lodge is given in the Sixth Edition of Jachin and BoaZ as November 12, 173 Past Grand Master Melvin M. Johnson, of Massachusetts, Editor‑in‑Chief of this volume, author of The Beginnings of Freemasonry in America, and a Masonic student of marked intelligence and unimpeachable integrity, in commenting upon this date says that " no reliance can be placed upon this month and day. Bristol Lodge, Gloucestershire, Constituted on November 12, 1735, was No. 74 in the 1755 listing. That Lodge was erased in 1757, but the date of Constitution was retained in the Lists against the number, although no Lodge was given. This is the case in the 0. flicial List for 1761 (the original of which is in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts), where `Solomon's Lodge in Charles Town, South Carolina, meeting the 1st and 3rd Thursdays', is given as Lodge No. 251, with 1735 as the date of its Constitution. Later, Solomon's Lodge was assigned the No. 74 which had been vacated by the Bristol Lodge. This brought it in with the Lodges of the year 1735, where it should properly have been, but the date of the constitution of Bristol Lodge was left. Thus the date (other than the year) clearly does not belong to the South Carolina Lodge." The List of English Regular Lodges in Europe, Asia, Africa and America gives the following tabulation: "74. Solomon's Lodge, Charles Town, South Carolina; First and Third Thursday, 1735," and " 75. Savannah, at Savannah, in the Province of Georgia, 1735." The List of Lodges (with their numbers), as altered by the Grand Lodge, April 18, 1792, shows that Lodge No. 45 was Warranted in 1735, under the name of " Solomon Lodge, of Charles Town, South Carolina." This entry is followed by another, showing that Lodge No. 46 was Warranted in 1735, under the name of " Solomon's Lodge, No. 1, of Savannah, Georgia." This does not mean, however, that both those Lodges were organised during the year 1735, nor does FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA 187 the position of the South Carolina Lodge in the List indicate priority of the Constitution. Nevertheless, the fact is established by documentary evidence that both those Lodges received their Warrants from Lord Weymouth, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England, in the year 1735.


Fortunately, it is not left to conjecture when Solomon's Lodge in Charleston was actually organised. Another contemporaneous source of equal importance is found in the South Carolina Gazette, a weekly journal published in Charleston during its early days. In the issue of Friday, October 29, 1736, the following interesting news item is recorded: " Last night a Lodge of the Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons was held, for the first time, at Mr. Charles Shepheard's, in Broad Street, when John Hammerton, Esq., Secretary and Receiver General for this Province, was unanimously chosen Master, who was pleased to appoint Mr. Thomas Denne, Senior Warden, Mr. Tho. Harbin, Junior Warden, and Mr. James Gordon, Secretary." This item convinces us that Solomon's Lodge, of Charleston, South Carolina, unquestionably received its Warrant from Lord Weymouth, Grand Master, in 1735, and that it was organised on October 28, 1736.


It is interesting to note that the first Master of the first Lodge organised in South Carolina was the first Provincial Grand Master of South Carolina. In the List given on page 195 of the Second Edition of Anderson's Constitutions, pub lished in 1738, we read: " Loudoun, G .M., granted a Deputation to John Hammerton, Esq., to be Provincial Grand Master of South Carolina in America." In the List of Visitors who attended the Quarterly Communication of the Grand Lodge of England, held on April 16, 1738, we also find the name of " John Hammerton, Esq., Provincial Grand Master of South Carolina," registered. Mr. Hammerton exercised his prerogatives as Master of the Provincial Grand Lodge of South Carolina until July 21, 1737, when he was succeeded by James Greame, as we learn from an item which appeared in the South Carolina Gazette, on July 23, 1737. The item reads as follows: Last Thursday, John Hammerton Esq; Receiver General of his Majesty's Quit Rents, Secretary, and one his Majesty's Honourable Council, who has been the first Master of the Lodge of the ancient and honourable Society of Free Masons in this Place, and intending to embark on board the Ship Molly Gally, John Carruthers, Master, for London, at a Lodge held that evening, resign'd his Office; for the true and faithful Discharge of which he received the Thanks of the whole Society, who were 30 in Number. James Greame Esq; was then unanimously chosen Master in his room, and having been duly install'd into that Office with the usual Ceremonies, was pleased to chuse and appoint James Wright Esq; who was junior Warden to be Senior Warden, and Maurice Lewis esq; Junior Warden.


This is only one of many items of news concerning Masonic activities which appeared in the South Carolina Gazette in those days. The great number of those items and the character of them indicates the interest in Freemasonry 188 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA and the esteem in which the early Society was held by the people at large. Others of those items will be quoted from time to time in the course of this article.


The exact date of the formation of the Provincial Grand Lodge of South Carolina will probably never be known, but documentary evidence establishes the fact that it was in existence prior to December 27, 1737. This is proved by the following account which appeared in the South Carolina Gazette on December 29, 1737: On Tuesday last, being St. John's Day, all the Members of the ancient and honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons in this Place met at Mr. Seaman's, Master of Solomon's Lodge, from whence they proceeded all properly cloth'd, under the Sound of French Horns, to wait on James Graeme Esq; Provincial Grand Master, at his House in Broad street, where they were received by all the Members of the Grand Lodge. After a short Stay there, they all went in Procession, and with the Ensigns of their Order, into the Court‑Room at Mr. Charles Shepheard's House, making a very grand Show, there, to a numerous Audience of Ladies and Gentlemen, who were admitted by Tickets, the Grand Master made a very elegant Speech in Praise of Masonry, which, we hear was universally applauded. Then the Grand Lodge withdrew in order to proceed to the Election of a Grand Master for the ensuing Year, when James Graeme Esq; was unanimously re‑chosen Grand Master, who appointed James Wright Esq; D. G. M., Maurice Lewis Esq; S. G. W., John Crookshanks Esq; J. G. W., James Michie Esq; G. T., and James Gordon Esq; G. S.


That the Grand Lodge was in existence prior to December 27, 1737, is made clear by the above account, for it is stated that the members of the Ancient and Honourable Society of Freemasons " proceeded to the house of James Greame, Esq., Grand Master, where they were received by all the members of the Grand Lodge," and that later " the Grand Lodge withdrew in order to proceed to the election of a Grand Master for the ensuing year." As a matter of fact, the Grand Lodge had been in existence for many months, if not a year or more, and the above account establishes the fact that it was Constituted some time before December 27, 1737.


Open your ears; for which of you will stop The vent of hearing, when loud rumor speaks? 1, from the Orient to the drooping West, Making the wind my post‑horse, still unfold The acts commenced. . .


In the preceding pages we have traced the beginnings of Freemasonry in South Carolina. It is significant that many of those whose names appear in the Official Lists of the early organisation were among the most prominent men of the Colony. This is indicative of the favour and esteem in which the Order in the Colony was held from the very beginning. It is not surprising FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA 189 then, that we find many references to its social and benevolent activities in the weekly journal of that day, as well as entries regarding it in the English Lists. On May 28, 1737, the South Carolina Gazette contained another item of interest to the student of Masonry. The item reads as follows On Thursday Night last, the RECRUITING OFFICER was acted for the Entertainment of the ancient and honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons, who came to the Play‑house about 7 o'Clock, in the usual Manner, and made a very decent and solemn Appearance; there was a fuller house on this occasion than ever had been known in this Place before. A proper Prologue and Epilogue were spoke, and the entered Apprentice's and Master's Songs sung upon the Stage, which were joined in Chorus by the Masons in the Pit, to the Satisfaction and Entertainment of the whole Audience. After the Play, the Masons returned to the Lodge at Mr. Shepheard's, in the same order observed in coming to the Play‑House.


Still another item appearing in the same journal on January 26, 1738, indicates the formation of a new Lodge in the Colony. It reads as follows We hear that at Mr. William Flud's at the Sign of the Harp and Crown, is held a Lodge of the ancient and honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons, belonging to the Lodge of St. John, Doct. Newman Oglethorpe being chosen Master.


Several other issues of the South Carolina Gazette, appearing from time to time over a period of years, announce the various arrivals of the sloop Free Mason. The fact that a vessel had been so named is still another indication of the high favour in which Freemasonry was held among the seamen of that day. Perhaps, though, no more convincing evidence of the popularity of Freemasonry and the interest that it inspired in the Colony can be found than that conveyed by the description of the Festival of Saint John the Evangelist, appearing in the December 27, 1738, issue of the South Carolina Gazette. That account reads as follows Yesterday being the Festival of St. John the Evangelist, the Day was usher'd in with firing of Guns at Sunrise from several Ships in the Harbour, with all their colours flying. At 9 o'clock all the Members of Solomon's Lodge, belong ing to the ancient and honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons, met at the House of the Hon. James Crokatt Esq; Master of the said Lodge, and at io proceeded from thence properly clothed with the Ensigns of their Order, and Musick before them, to the House of the Provincial Grand Master, James Graeme Esq; where a Grand Lodge was held, and James Wright Esq; elected Provincial Grand Master for the ensuing Year, then the following Officers were chosen, viz. Maurice Lewis Esq; D. P. G. M., Mr. George Seaman S. G. W., James Graeme Esq; J. G. W., James Michie Esq; G. T., and Mr. Ja: Gordon G. S.


19o FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA At eleven o'clock, both Lodges went in Procession to Church to attend divine Service, and in the same Order returned to the house of Mr. Ch: Shepheard, where in the Court‑Room, to a numerous Assembly of Ladies and Gentle men the newly elected Provincial Grand Master made a very eloquent Speech of the Usefulness of Societies, and the benefits arising therefrom to Mankind. The Assembly being dismissed, Solomon's Lodge proceeded to the Election of Officers for the ensuing Year, when Mr. John Houghton was chosen Master, Doct. John Lining S. W., Mr. David McClellan J. W., Mr. Arthur Strahan S. and Mr. Alex. Murray T.


After an elegant Dinner, all the Brethren were invited by Capt. Th : White on board the Hope; there several loyal Healths were drunk, and at their coming on board and return on Shore, they were saluted by the Discharge of 39 Guns, being the same Number observ'd in each of the different Salutes of this Day, so that in all there were about z5o Guns fired. The Evening was concluded with a Ball and Entertainment for the Ladies, and the whole was performed with much Grandeur and Decorum.


At intervals throughout succeeding years, other accounts of Grand Lodge meetings, Masonic processions, and celebrations of Saint John's Day Festivals appeared in the various issues of that journal. The first public mention of benev olent activity was made in the November 18, 1740 issue, which also carried an account of the conflagration that destroyed every house between Church Street and East Bay Street, in Charleston. From this source we learn that a solemn fast was proclaimed, and that contributions were taken up for the sufferers, and that " The Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons contributed the sum of Two Hundred and Fifty Pounds." Thus, Freemasonry continued an uninterrupted development in South Carolina. New Lodges were Constituted, and the activities of the Grand Lodge spread to other parts of the Colony. In 1743 the Grand Lodge of England granted a Warrant for Prince George Lodge, at Georgetown, in South Carolina, and in 1756 a Warrant was granted for Port Royal Lodge, in South Carolina. Although space forbids a listing of the many Lodges that were formed between 1756 and 18oo, the fact that they were established in so many sections, that is, in the Colonial Districts of Charleston, Georgetown, Beaufort, Barnwell, Kershaw, Chesterfield, Abbeville, Fairfield, Chester, Spartanburg, Greenville, Cokesbury, Edgefield, and Colleton, indicates the rapid and widespread growth of the Order. In 1754, a re‑organisation of the Grand Lodge was effected, when Peter Leigh, Chief Justice of South Carolina, was elected Grand Master. At that time the other Offices of the Grand Lodge were also filled by some of the most distinguished men of the Colony, so it is not surprising that their interest in Freemasonry stimulated the Fraternity's prosperity and growth.


We now come to a most interesting phase of Colonial Masonic history. The Provincial Grand Master having left the Province in 1776, John Wells, Jr., issued the summons for the Annual Communication " by order of the Grand Lodge. " Shortly after this, the Colonies having declared their independence FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA 191 of England, the Grand Lodge severed its relationship with the Grand Lodge of England and established the Independent Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, with the Honourable Barnard Elliott acting as Grand Master. This Body was the lineal descendant of the Provincial Grand Lodge, which had been established during the year 1737. The Provincial Grand Lodge was never dissolved; it effected the change of its status by virtue of its own resolution of independence.


In 1787 another Grand Lodge appeared in South Carolina under the name of the Grand Lodge of Ancient York Masons. This Body had been formed by five Lodges of Ancient York Masons which did not acknowledge allegiance to the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of South Carolina. Two of its Constituent Lodges had derived their Warrants from the Athol Grand Lodge of England, while the other three had received theirs from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, that Body being Ancient York in its Masonry. Fortunately, however, the influence of the saner leaders of the rival Bodies ultimately prevailed, and a union was effected in 1817. This resulted in the establishment of the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free Masons of South Carolina, which has " ever been deemed, held, and taken as the true and only lawful Grand Lodge of Freemasons in South Carolina; and which contains the true and supreme Masonic Authority thereof." Thus the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free Masons of South Carolina, the lineal descendant of the Provincial Grand Lodge of South Carolina, which was organised during the year 1737, and which had preserved an unbroken continuity until the present day, will enjoy the undisputed privilege of celebrating its Bicentennial in 1937 At a special Communication held February 18, 1818, the first Communication of the Grand Lodge held after the union of the two Grand Lodges, Dr. Dalcho's Ahiman Rezon was adopted for the government of the Grand and sub ordinate Lodges in the jurisdiction, until a new Code of By‑Laws should be agreed upon. It was also ordered that the numbers of the Lodges should be agreed upon, the old Warrants surrendered, and new ones issued. Provision was also made for the incorporation of the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free Masons of South Carolina, which was consummated by the Legislature of South Carolina during December 1818. This act of incorporation is perpetual, and is the one from which the Grand Lodge of South Carolina derives its civil powers.


During this same Communication, a letter was received from sundry Masonic Brethren at Havana, praying a Warrant for a Lodge to be established at that place, and at the Quarterly Communication, March z.7, 1818, a Warrant was granted for the formation of the Lodge in the city of Havana, Cuba, known as La Constancia Lodge, No. So.


This incident is worthy of mention in this article, since it indicates that South Carolina is the Mother of Freemasonry in the Island of Cuba. No invasion of jurisdiction was involved in this action, because Spain, the governing power of the island, had no Grand Lodge of Masons, and, therefore, had no Masonic jurisdiction.


192 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA At the Quarterly Communication on March 26, 1819 a like Petition was presented from Masons who had migrated westward and settled in what was known as the Territory of Alabama. This Petition was honoured and a Dis pensation issued on June 7, 18 19 at the Quarterly Communication for the formation of a Lodge to be known as Clairborne Lodge, No. 51; and thus South Carolina became the Mother of Freemasonry in Alabama.


At a Special Communication held on June 18 of the same year the Committee which had been appointed at the preceding Communication to form a new set of By‑Laws, made its report. This report was adopted in part, and at a subsequent Special Communication, held on June 23, after making certain alterations, the new By‑Laws consisting of thirty rules in all, were adopted. Those By‑Laws continued to be the code for the government of the Grand Lodge until 186o, when they were displaced by the present Constitution.


At a Quarterly Communication held in 1822, resolutions were adopted establishing the Office of Grand Lecturer. This was found to be necessary in order to preserve uniformity in the Work. The salary was fixed at $500 a year.


At the same Communication, a group of Masons in Washington, District of Columbia, proposed that a General Grand Lodge should be established, but their proposal was rejected. Although the Grand Lodge of South Carolina was once favourable to such a proposal, the action of 1822 placed that Body on record as being opposed to such a movement. It has ever since maintained that attitude.


Coincident with the visit of General Lafayette to South Carolina in 1825, the Grand Lodge issued a Dispensation to Kershaw Lodge, No. 29, for the purpose of laying the corner‑stone of a monument erected to the memory of Baron DeKalb. This event was a red‑letter day in the history of Freemasonry in South Carolina. The corner‑stone of the monument was laid on March 9, 1825, by General Lafayette, assisted by the Officers and members of Kershaw Lodge and by many visiting Masons from distant parts of the country. The silver trowel used by Lafayette is still in possession of the Grand Lodge of South Carolina, and has ever since been used by the Grand Masters of the jurisdiction in laying other corner‑stones. The monument to Baron DeKalb still stands in the city of Camden, and is a perpetual reminder of the patriotism of the Masons and citizens of Camden, as well as of the visit of that distinguished Mason, General Lafayette.


For many years after the opening of the nineteenth century, the Grand Lodge of South Carolina entertained the idea of erecting a Masonic Temple in the city of Charleston. For a long time the financial condition of the Grand Lodge militated against the realisation of this ideal, but that obstacle was finally overcome, and in 183 5 a lot was purchased at the corner of Meeting and Market Streets. Plans were then rapidly completed for the building of the Temple. When the actual construction had been begun, the Grand Lodge was convened in Special Communication on August 23, 1837, for the purpose of laying the corner‑stone. This was a memorable occasion in the history of Free‑ FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA 193 masonry in South Carolina, and much prominence was given to it. The ceremony was carried out in due Masonic form, and an address was delivered by the Most Worshipful Grand Master, Bro. J. J. Alexander, who said: " The fabric which will arise from this foundation will give to Masonry an abiding place, to our city its first Masonic Temple." But this desire was not to be realised, for on the night of April 2.7, 1838, a fire which broke out in Charleston consumed nearly a third of the city, including the unfinished Temple. Nevertheless, the history of this building is given here to preserve a record of the site of the first Masonic Temple in the city of Charleston. To‑day the old Charleston Market, at the corner of Market and Meeting Streets, stands where that first Temple was begun. The Temple site was sold to the city of Charleston during the year 1839. Then, in 1840, a new site was purchased by the Grand Lodge, at the corner of King and Wentworth Streets. At the Annual Communication of that year, a resolution was introduced by Alexander McDonald, who, having for twenty years promoted the idea of erecting a Temple for the Grand Lodge, succeeded in committing the Grand Lodge to a building programme involving the sum of $12,ooo. Actual construction was begun during the same year, and the corner‑stone was laid with imposing ceremony. The building was completed during the following year, and September Zz., 1841, was set as the day of dedication. An impressive programme was given on that occasion, which was indeed an epochal day in the history of Freemasonry in South Carolina. Although other Temples have since been built, all have stood on the same site, which is still preserved as the location of Charleston's Masonic Temples.


During the 1844 Communication, the first attempt was made to create Masonic Districts and the Office of District Deputy Grand Master. Although an amendment providing for both was adopted, its provisions were never carried out, and it was omitted in a subsequent revision of the Constitution. During the same year the Grand Lodge concurred in the opinion declared by the Baltimore Convention that a subordinate Lodge had no right to try its Master, but that he is amenable to the Grand Lodge. In due time this opinion found expression in the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of South Carolina. It is embodied in the Constitution that now governs that Body.


The matter of duelling received attention at the 1848 Communication, and the Grand Lodge expressed its attitude toward it in the following words " The practise of duelling is repugnant to the principles of Freemasonry, and in all cases where two Brethren resort to this mode of settling their disputes, it becomes the duty of the Lodge, or Lodges, of which they are members, forthwith to expel them from all rights and privileges of Masonry, subject, as usual, to the confirmation of the Grand Lodge." It was at the 1852 Communication that the Ahiman Rezon, or Book of Constitutions, prepared by Albert G. Mackey, was adopted for the use and government of the Grand Lodge of South Carolina and the Lodges under its jurisdic tion. This Work took the place of the one that had originally been prepared 194 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA by Dr. Dalcho. It contains a system of monitorial instruction, which, with a few amendments, is now in force in the Grand Jurisdiction of South Carolina. On November 4, 1852‑, the Grand Lodge, assisted by a number of subordinate Lodges throughout the State, met at Hibernian Hall, in Charleston, and celebrated the centennial anniversary of the Initiation of George Washington into Freemasonry. The programme was an imposing one, and a copy of it is now in the possession of the Grand Secretary. This event is worthy o record here, since the Grand Lodge of South Carolina has ever been foremost among those that honour the memory of that great man and Mason. This was shown years ago when it made its contribution to the purchase of the Mount Vernon property, and, in recent years, when it took part in the construction of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial, at Alexandria, Virginia. From its earliest days in this country to the present time, the question of conferring Degrees in less than the statutory time seems to have troubled the Craft all over America. In the Grand Lodge of South Carolina, as in many other Grand Bodies, the question was agitated at intervals for many years. Then, during the Communication of 1856, the Grand Lodge took action in the matter that is of historic interest. At that time the Grand Lodge adopted a resolution imposing a tax of $5o on all such applications. We find no instance, however, where this provision was ever carried out. In South Carolina the conviction has always prevailed that the Landmarks of Freemasonry fix the dispensing power as an inherent prerogative of the Grand Master. The action of 1856 was, therefore, later repealed, and such prerogative continues to be exercised by the Grand Master.


For a number of years preceding the year 1859, a topic of great importance commanded the attention of the Grand Lodge. Three matters were involved; they were (1) the proxy system, (z) paid representation from all Lodges, and (3) Quarterly Communications. Obviously, those three matters were inseparably connected. The proxy system obtained by virtue of the absence of the Master or Wardens of a distant Lodge. Such absence was, of course, made necessary by the expense of transportation. This expense was all the greater when Quarterly Communications were held. In fact, the holding of such frequent meetings made it practically impossible for distant Lodges to be regularly represented, and made it necessary for such Lodges to be represented by Past Masters who were able to be present, regardless of the Lodge to which they belonged. Under such circumstances, it is not surprising that the proxies sometimes influenced action and legislation that did not always reflect the desires of the Lodges they represented. As a result, the balance of power was exercised by proxies within, or immediately adjacent to, Charleston, the Grand East of the Jurisdiction. But the time came when this practice became unbearable, and Grand Secretary Albert G. Mackey headed a movement which gathered momentum as the years passed and finally reached a decisive issue at the Communication of 1858. At that time the proxy system and the Quarterly Communications were abolished and a paid representation from all Lodges was FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA 195 provided for. The fees and dues of the several Lodges throughout the jurisdiction were then so equalised as to insure the equitable distribution of such expense. This policy has been preserved until the present time.


South Carolina has always maintained the position that the Grand Master possessed the prerogative of making Masons " at sight." In this matter it follows the example of the Grand Lodge of England, which has always sanctioned the practice and whose Grand Masters have frequently exercised such prerogative. The first instance of this practise recorded in South Carolina is found in the Proceedings of the year 1859, when Grand Master Henry Buist summoned an Occasional Lodge, and conferred the Degrees of Masonry on Colonel Charles Augustus May, a distinguished officer in the United States Army, who was visiting Charleston at the time. The character of his profession and the transient life that he lived were deemed sufficient reasons for such extraordinary procedure. Nevertheless, this prerogative has been exercised by Grand Masters in South Carolina only a few times.


In 186o the Annual Communication was held outside the city of Charleston for the first time. That year it met at Greenville. This temporary change of meeting‑place was effected by the Representatives of country Lodges, who were deeply interested in securing the adoption of a Constitution, revised particularly to fix the relationship of Past Masters to the Grand Lodge. Up till then, Past Masters had been considered to be active members of the Grand Lodge, and in as much as the Annual Communication was always held at Charleston, the large number of Past Masters in that city unduly influenced the voting power in the Grand Lodge. The revised Constitution, though strongly opposed by those who favoured the retention of Past Masters as active members, was adopted at this Communication, and the disfranchisement of Past Masters was accomplished. Since then Past Masters have been recognised as members of the Grand Lodge to the extent of enjoying the privilege of the floor and of being eligible for election to Office, but they have no right to vote on any question.


Perhaps no more trying years were experienced in the history of the Freemasonry of South Carolina than those between 1861 and 1865, the period of the war between the States. Nevertheless, during that troublous era, Free masonry in South Carolina endeavoured always to maintain those principles of Brotherhood which have ever characterised our beloved Institution. The following statement, taken from the Encyclical Letter of Grand Master David Ramsey to the Brethren throughout the jurisdiction during those dark days, is characteristic of the attitude of Freemasonry, and is worthy of a place in this narrative BRETHREN. The Grand Lodge, anxious for your prosperity, and desirous that, as members of the great mystic family, you should preserve in unfaded brightness the light of Masonry which has been entrusted to your keeping, has requested me to direct this letter to you.


Special matters remain concerning which I have to charge you. Walk circumspectly in the present evil time, ever mindful of solemn undertakings on 196 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA your part in the presence of Almighty God; be faithful in observance thereof towards all and singular Brethren, whether these be met in Lodges dedicate, or only known to you by divers means, in darkness or light; in health or sickness; in wealth or want; in peril or safety; in prison or escape of freedom; in charity or evil‑mindedness; armed or unarmed; friend or seeming foe; and to these, most certainly as towards Brethren, when Masonically met on, by, or with all due and regular communication and intelligence. You have registered words which cannot be unspoken or recalled, antedating, as they will survive, all disturbances among men and turmoils in State; words which in fullest force and meaning should be ever present unto you in thought, utterance, and deed. Time with its affairs will soon to everyone be past. We are at labor for a short while only in the work of Him who hath no respect of persons, building us, if vouchsafed unto us so to be edified, into another and enduring Temple; and it will never be regret to remember any good deed done in the name of a common Master and Father to whatsoever Brother, even to him whom the profane would call an enemy.


Such was the spirit of Freemasonry. As is well known, some of the most touching incidents that occurred during the war between the States grew out of the relationship of Brotherliness and kindred sympathy engendered in the hearts of men by the principles of our beloved Order‑principles that have been preserved throughout the ages. During those troublous days many Travelling Lodges were organised by Dispensation for the benefit of the soldiers in various regiments. From time to time appropriations were also made by the Grand Lodge for the alleviation of their suffering and want.


The same fine spirit was revealed in the attitude of many Grand Lodges and Brethren throughout the Union towards the destitute Lodges in various parts of South Carolina immediately following the destruction of property that was experienced during the closing period of the war. The Proceedings of 1866 mention the following donations and thoughtful Returns received at that time: " One Thousand Dollars from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania and Two Hundred dollars from the Grand Lodge of Maine." They also state that " some worthy Brethren in Boston have presented a set of jewels to Orange Lodge, No. 14, and a worthy Brother in New York succeeded in obtaining there a Past Master's jewel which had been abstracted, and restored it to Landmark Lodge, No. 76, while a Brother in Syracuse, New York, has interested himself to recover the jewels of Claremont Lodge. Sumter has supplied such as could not be recovered, and restored them. A Brother from Illinois has recovered and kindly restored the Warrant of Constitution of Allen Lodge, and several similar acts of kindness have been extended to Lodges of this State." Records for the following year also state that other donations were received from the Grand Lodges of New York, Illinois, Ohio, Minnesota, and New Mexico, aggregating the sum of nearly $6ooo. Thus the spirit of Freemasonry was influential in spreading the cement of Brotherly love and affection in a hitherto divided and discordant land.


FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA 197 During the bombardment of Charleston by the Union fleet, the Records of the Grand Lodge as well as many of the Subordinate Lodges were sent to Columbia for safekeeping and in the burning of the city of Columbia by the Union General, Sherman, much of the property was destroyed and carried away.


In the Records of Union Kilwinning Lodge, No. 4 in 1871, there is a communication between Bro. W. T. Walter, W. M. of Richland Lodge at Columbia, in regard to a silver compass, one of the jewels of this Lodge, which a Brother in Earlham, Iowa, J. E. Parkins had given to him by one of his employees, and desired to return it to its proper owner. The compass was enclosed in a paper slip which states, " Presented as a war Trophy by one of Shermans Bummers, Columbia, South Carolina, February 18th. 1864." This trophy is now in the archives of Union Kilwinning Lodge.


The dedication of the second Temple, also built on the corner of King and Wentworth Streets, in Charleston, took place on December 1o, 1872. This building, with added improvements made during subsequent years, is still used by the Grand Lodge. Its erection was a great undertaking for the Grand jurisdiction of that day, and its dedication was marked by imposing ceremonies. The issue of the Charleston Daily News for December 11, 1872, gives the following description of the setting in which those ceremonies took place: " The Grand Lodge Room of the Temple was densely crowded with ladies and gentlemen, most of whom were seated in chairs provided for the occasion. Against the west wall, in the centre of the room, was a platform about fifty feet long, ten feet wide, and three feet high. The platform was in the form of a half oval, and was reached by a row of steps extending around the entire front. In the centre of this platform was a white Pedestal bearing Masonic inscriptions, and directly behind it was the Grand Master's chair. At either end of the platform was a similar pedestal and chair for the two Grand Wardens. The platform was also provided with chairs for members of the Grand Lodge. Upon the floor of the Room, directly in front of the Grand Master's pedestal, was the Ark of the Covenant. It was made of black walnut and bore the usual amount of mysterious inscriptions. Before it, on the side next the audience, was a woolen mat of bright and varied colors, and a symbolic G worked in the centre. In front of the platform, at its south end, was a white marble Altar, and ranged around the Altar, resting upon the floor, were three gigantic brazen candlesticks which bore lighted candles. These candlesticks, about five feet in height, were presented to Union Kilwinning Lodge No. 4, of this city, by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, in the year 1759." The oration delivered on this occasion was made by Past Grand Master Henry Buist. It bears all the marks of Masonic scholarship and is well worthy a conspicuous place in the Masonic literary annals of South Carolina.


Since 1872 no radical change of any kind has taken place within the Body of Freemasonry in South Carolina. Later years have been characterised by peace and harmony and a steady and uninterrupted growth of the Order. In South Carolina, as in all other jurisdictions throughout the United States, the 198 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA greatest influx of members took place during the Great War. At that time much unworthy material found its way into the warm embrace of our beloved Institution. As were nearly all other organisations during those days, Freemasonry was moved by patriotism and sentiment. It felt that nothing which could be done was either too much or too good for the boys who were on their way to the battle front. Fortunately, most of the unworthy material that came in at that time has gradually been eliminated by the process of suspension, and normal conditions have been restored. It must also be remembered that not all the material taken into the Order during those feverish days was undesirable. On the contrary, some of the finest material within our ranks to‑day came in at that time, and is now woven into the fabric of Freemasonry in South Carolina.


Inspired by the principles that constitute its foundation, Freemasonry in South Carolina has always been actuated by the highest ideals. Its leadership has always been made up of men of irreproachable character and recognised ability. It has taken second place to no institution in advocating those measures and movements that have contributed to the highest and best interests of the State, and it has never failed to condemn whatever might prove to be ruinous. It has fostered the educational and benevolent interests of the people, and it has appropriated large sums of money for promoting those interests. It has at all times ranked high among the Grand Lodge of America in promoting the interests of the nation.


Be no longer a chaos, but a world, or even a worldkin. Produce, produce; were it but the pitifulest infinitesimal fraction of a product, produce it, in God's name.


There are, in the Masonic world, two schools of thought so far as concerns Masonic activity. One insists that it is the business of Freemasonry to inculcate the principles of morality, relief, and truth, leaving it to the individual Mason to translate them in terms of a virtuous and beneficent life. The other insists, with equal ardour, that an Institution which inculcates such principles should exemplify them in its own corporate life. Freemasonry in South Carolina has pursued a middle course between these two extremes. Though it has always refrained from entering the field of institutionalised benevolence, its history is rich in beneficent and constructive service, both in promoting the welfare of its own constituency and that of mankind at large.


Naturally, the relief of destitution and suffering has always commanded the serious consideration of Freemasons. It is, indeed, one of the cardinal teachings of the Order, and South Carolina Freemasonry has exemplified it from the very beginning. Although it is impossible to trace the history of the administration of relief by the Grand Lodge during the first century of its existence, items from the news columns of those days clearly indicate that our early FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA 3199 Masonic fathers were responsive to this great tenet of the Order. As early as 31740, when a devastating fire swept the city of Charleston, it is recorded that " the Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons contributed the sum of Two Hundred and Fifty Pounds " for relief purposes. This occurred when the Provincial Grand Lodge was only three years old. When we reflect that our Brethren were few in number at that time, we have full assurance that this was no small sum of money for them to contribute. Other items telling of similar contributions appeared from time to time. It must be remembered, too, that such items referred only to public contributions. However, they indicate that the administration of relief, both public and Masonic, commanded the serious attention of the Grand and Subordinate Lodges during those years.


The following statement from the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge for 31822 proves that the administration of relief had assumed organised form long before that year. It reads as follows: " The fees directed to be paid to the Charity Fund of the Grand Lodge by the Subordinate Lodges in the country may be retained for charitable purposes: Provided they make an annual return of the sum collected for that purpose; the name or names of every Brother or Brother's family whom they have relieved, and the amount of the charity bestowed." Many other entries in the Proceedings of succeeding years reveal that relief work grew rapidly, for various regulations were adopted concerning it. Although the matter of establishing a Masonic Home was discussed from time to time, the Grand Lodge seemed always to be averse to the idea of any sort of institution and continued to confine its charitable work to dispensing the regular assessment that was levied for that purpose.


The matter of a permanent relief fund began to take shape at the Communication of 319o6. The original resolution contemplated the erection of a Masonic Home for the support and education of the children of deceased Master Masons, but after serious deliberations, the Committee to which the matter was referred advised that it would be better to build up a permanent Masonic Relief Fund than to erect a Home. The proceeds from such a fund, together with the regular assessment for relief, should be used to assist worthy distressed Master Masons, their widows, and orphans, who resided in their customary surroundings, or lived in institutions already existing. This policy was adopted, and as a result, the Masonic Relief Fund began to be built up. It has now reached a total of more than $15o,ooo, and the proceeds from it, together with the regular assessment, aggregate a total of more than $35,ooo a year. This sum is expended by the Trustees for the relief of Masonic dependents. By this means, thousands of needy Brethren, their widows, and orphans have been assisted throughout the years. Wherever possible those dependents are supported in their own homes or in the homes of relatives or friends. The orphans are cared for in various orphanages. South Carolina Masons believe this method of caring for its dependents serves the double purpose of keeping them better satisfied and of relieving the Grand Lodge of the additional expense of maintaining an expensive Masonic Institution.


Zoo FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA The story of the origin, growth, and development of the Masonic Relief Fund would be incomplete without mentioning the Masonic leadership responsible for its inception and development. This leadership was composed of the following Brethren: Frank E. Harrison, James R. ,Johnson, George S. Mower, George T. Bryan, Claude E. Sawyer, and William W. Wannamaker. These Brethren, later all Past‑Grand Masters, were not only the promoters of the movement, but they also served for years as Trustees of the Masonic Relief Fund. Too much praise cannot be accorded to their painstaking efforts and sacrificial service in building up this fund, safeguarding it, and promoting its effectiveness.


For many years the question of tubercular relief has been a matter of deep concern to the various Grand Lodges of America. The story of the immigration of our Brethren afflicted with this dread disease, to the arid climate of Arizona and New Mexico, is well known. We are familiar with the fearful problem that it created for the Grand Lodges of those two States, and with the many appeals for assistance. In the course of time, when the nature of this fearful malady and its treatment became better understood, and when it was discovered that the cure might be effected in almost any climate by means of rest, sunshine, and proper diet, the several Grand Lodges began to confine their assistance to institutions within their own bounds. Excepting its response to calls for help from distressed Masons who had immigrated to the above mentioned arid States, the Grand Lodge of South Carolina took no definite action in this matter until 192.8. Credit for the splendid contribution which the Grand Lodge has since made to this need is due entirely to one person‑Most Worshipful Bro. Charlton DuRant.


At the close of Bro. DuRant's administration as Grand Master, he reviewed in his annual address the matter of tubercular relief and called attention to what had recently been done in adjoining jurisdictions. He urged that the Brethren of his own jurisdiction give some attention to it. Bro. DuRant's earnestness and sincerity in advocating this worthy cause brought results that surpassed his most sanguine hopes. The atmosphere of the Grand Lodge became saturated with the desire to do something at once, and a resolution was adopted appropriating the sum of $1o,ooo for the purpose of building an additional unit for men at the State Sanitorium. This course was adopted because Bro. DuRant thought it best for the Freemasonry of South Carolina to exercise its beneficent influence in leading the people of the State to a better understanding of the situation and to making a greater effort to cope with the problem. The history of this movement has proved his wisdom. Since then, the Legislature, backed by a growing public sentiment, has responded to the interest of the Masonic Fraternity in the matter, and has provided more adequately for solving the problem than it might otherwise have done.


This, however, was only the beginning of a movement destined to be received ever more enthusiastically. From the outset, Bro. DuRant, Chairman of the Committee on Tubercular Relief, was in constant touch with the authori‑ FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA Zo1 ties of the sanitorium and with the institution's needs. Encouraged by the response which the Grand Lodge made to his original appeal, and convinced of the need for an additional woman's building to take care of a long waiting‑list of tuberculous mothers, Bro. DuRant enlisted the co‑operation of Dr. Robert Wilson, dean of the Medical College of South Carolina at Charleston and chairman of the State Board of Health. After the need and the plan proposed to meet it had been explained, the Grand Lodge ordered a campaign to be launched during the next year to raise by voluntary contributions the amount necessary to erect such a building. As a result, the sum of $50,000 was raised and a splendid unit was erected for the use of tuberculous mothers irrespective of their Masonic connections. The building was named DuRant Hall in honour of our distinguished Brother who laboured so faithfully to bring about the completion of it.


The Grand Lodge of South Carolina has taken such a conspicuous part in the promotion and realisation of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial that its efforts deserve to be told in any history of the Freemasonry of South Carolina. As most Masons know, the idea of erecting a memorial to " George Washington, the Man and the Mason," was long considered in many Grand Lodges. It remained, however, for a small group of Masonic leaders, of whom Most Worshipful Bro. James R. Johnson, of South Carolina, was one, to translate the idea into terms of a great undertaking on the part of the Grand Lodges of the United States. Most Worshipful Bro. Johnson has served as first Vice‑President of the Association created for that purpose, since its organisation in igio. The story of this great objective is so familiar to the Masonic Fraternity that it does not need to be repeated here. The impressive monument at Alexandria, Virginia, stands as a perpetual reminder of the love and appreciation of the Freemasons of America for that greatest American, who was also an ardent and devoted Mason.


The Grand Lodge of South Carolina has done its share in making this monument possible by contributing a sum equal to 139 per cent of the original amount of it. Thus it has maintained a position near the top of the list of those Grand Lodges that have contributed beyond their original quota.


The writer of this article has been told by a member of the group that originally proposed the George Washington Masonic National Memorial that Most Worshipful Bro. Johnson, of South Carolina, offered the resolution that launched the undertaking. Thus, the Grand Lodge of South Carolina has reason to be proud of that magnificent memorial at Alexandria, of the part she has taken in it, and of James R. Johnson.


The Grand Lodge of South Carolina also contributed generously to the fund raised for purchasing Mount Vernon, once the home of George Washington. In 1858, when that beautiful estate was being purchased by the Daugh ters of the American Revolution, this Grand Lodge contributed $1359, the largest contribution made by any Grand Lodge in America. That movement was initiated by a South Carolina woman, Pamela Cunningham.


 201 202 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA The early history of the educational and benevolent work of Freemasonry in South Carolina cannot be traced from Official Records. Only a few items in the public prints of the early days suggest such activity, and those refer to benevolent services rendered in behalf of soldiers of the Continental Army, work doubtless similar to that which was carried on by the Grand Lodges of America during the recent Great War. However, the Records from 1840 to the present furnish ample evidence of the many efforts put forth to encourage Masonic and public education. During the war between the States a great deal of benevolent work was done not only in behalf of the soldiers but also for their families.


Masonic education is a matter of recent development. It seems that the Brethren of earlier days were chiefly concerned about Ritualistic perfection, and judging from what we may learn of them, they were proficient in that Work. Although the Office of Grand Lecturer was established in the early part of the nineteenth century, even the Work of that Officer was confined largely to instruction in the Ritual. This Office was later abolished, and District Deputy Grand Masters were appointed, whose duties consisted in visiting the several Lodges in their districts and preserving uniformity in the Work.


In matters pertaining to the education of the masses and to public welfare, Freemasonry in South Carolina has always played an important part. Even in its early days many resolutions were passed to encourage whatever move ments were inaugurated within the State for the enlightenment and betterment of the people. As early as 1851, the Grand Lodge contributed to the education of young women. The Masonic College at Cokesbury, now extinct, was built by the Masons of that section. Though the Grand Lodge did not own the institution, it made large contributions towards its erection and assumed support of a professorship for it. The mother of the writer of this article was a graduate of that school in the class of 1859. The writer now treasures her diploma as a valuable Masonic relic. The document is a beautifully designed parchment, at the top of which appears an Altar bearing the three Great Lights of Masonry. These are surrounded by the three lesser Lights. At either side of the parchment the columns, Jachim and Boaz, are artistically portrayed.


It is needless to give details of the service work done by the Grand Lodge of South Carolina for the benefit of American soldiers in the Great War. The history of the Masonic Service Association of the United States is well known throughout the world. The Grand Lodge of South Carolina was a member of that Association, and Past Grand Master Samuel T. Lanham was Chairman of the South Atlantic Division, a position which was later occupied by the writer of this article. In all this work the Grand Lodge of South Carolina nobly did its part, both throughout the State and the nation. In later years, when disasters overtook our Brethren in the Mississippi Valley, Alabama, Florida, and Porto Rico, the Grand Lodge of South Carolina played no small part in raising the magnificent sum of more than $9oo,ooo for their relief. The story of this work has been published by the Masonic Service Association. A copy of it FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA zo3 was placed in the hands of every Grand Lodge Officer, both past and present, throughout the United States.


It was not until I9z7 that the Grand Lodge of South Carolina committed itself to a definite programme of Masonic education. This movement was inspired by Grand Secretary O. Frank Hart, whose contact with the Craft at large had made him realise the need of some agency whereby the Craft might be led into a clearer understanding and deeper appreciation of the meaning and purpose of Freemasonry, its rich history, its contribution to the world, and its potential usefulness. In order to promote this undertaking, Bro. Hart enlisted the co‑operation of the author of this article, who was Grand Chaplain at that time. After a careful canvas of the Craft, those Brethren presented the matter to the Grand Lodge and secured an enthusiastic response. The Grand Lodge then appointed a Service Committee, and the sum of $io,ooo was appropriated for its use. The work of the Service Committee has been most valuable to the jurisdiction, as the Grand Master and the Craft at large have repeatedly testified. Past Grand Master Charles K. Chreitzberg was employed as Educational Director, a position which he held for four years. Although this position has since been abolished, the Service Committee still carries on the work efficiently and at less expense. It has encouraged the reading of Masonic literature, assisted in increasing the attendance upon District meetings and the usefulness of them. It has inspired inter‑Lodge visitation, set up District Programme Committees, conducted educational meetings throughout the jurisdiction, and furnished speakers wherever needed. Its Official Bulletin, known as Masonic Light, has become so popular that many Lodges, though supplied with a certain number each month, order from fifty to a hundred additional copies. The Grand Lodge has no thought of discontinuing this work, whose usefulness will doubtless increase during the coming years.


Lives of great men all remind us We can make our lives sublime, And, departing, leave behind us Footprints on the sands of time.


Freemasonry in South Carolina has been enriched by the lives of a host of men who have been identified with its growth and development. Any detailed history would be incomplete without mention of their names and an appreciative recognition of their contributions. However, since this is only a limited history of Freemasonry in South Carolina, the names mentioned here are only those of the more widely known Masons in or from the jurisdiction of South Carolina. Of those, the first three to be mentioned are John Hammerton, James Greame, and Peter Leigh.


John Hammerton was the first Provincial Grand Master of South Carolina. His intelligence and ability caused him to be recognised by the parent government, and in 1732 he was appointed Receiver General of his Majesty's Quit Rents. Two years later he was appointed Secretary of the Colony. Bro. Ham‑ Zo6 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH CAROLINA born in Charleston, on March 12, 1807, and died at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, on June Zo, 1881.


William Gilmore Simms, an ardent and devoted Mason, achieved a place of distinction in the field of American literature. His books have been widely read. Bro. Simms's history of South Carolina is perhaps the most faithful in detail of any that has ever been written; on that account it was for many years used as a textbook in the schools of the State. William Gilmore Simms lived a long and useful life and was ever an honour to the Fraternity that he loved so well.


Eight Grand Masters of South Carolina have been governor of the State. They were: John Drayton, Paul Hamilton, John Lyde Wilson, John Geddes, David Johnson, James Lawrence Orr, Robert A. Cooper, and Ibra C. Black wood. Five of those occupied the exalted position of Grand Master and of governor at the same time: They were John Drayton, Paul Hamilton, John L. Wilson in the early part of the eighteenth century, and James L. Orr was Grand Master of Masons and governor of South Carolina immediately after the close of the war between the States. Ibra C. Blackwood was Grand Master of Masons and governor of South Carolina in 1931‑32‑ Among the Grand Secretaries of South Carolina who have come into national prominence are Albert G. Mackey, Charles Inglesby, Jacob T. Barron, and the present incumbent, O. Frank Hart. Charles Inglesby and Jacob T. Barron proved their worthiness as the successors of Bro. Mackey. Both came to be widely known through their national Masonic contacts and through their contributions to the literature of Fraternal Correspondence. The wealth of instruction and information which they annually bestowed upon their Brethren throughout the Masonic world has been appreciated by Masons everywhere. O. Frank Hart, Grand Secretary of South Carolina, is doubtless one of the best known Masons in the United States. Since his ability as an executive has long been recognised, he is constantly being drafted for service in national circles. His position as General Grand Master of the General Grand Council of the United States has brought him into touch with Masons in every section of this country, Canada, and Mexico. He has been the efficient Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of South Carolina since 1910; a more ardent or more devoted Mason cannot be found.


FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA GEORGE A. PETTIGREW T is impossible to give the exact date on which the region now known as South Dakota was first visited by the white man. Yet there is reason to believe that the territory may have been penetrated by the French some time early in the 168o's. In fact, it is thought that Charles Le Sueur may have ventured into the region, near the present site of Sioux Falls, at about that time, and that French trappers and traders may have engaged in some little trade with the Indians of southeastern Dakota before 1700. But all this is only conjectural, for the first authentic record of the white man's entrance into that stronghold of the Sioux Indians deals with the explorations of the Verendrye brothers. Coming down from Canada, in 1743, in what proved to be a futile search for a " Western Ocean," those adventuresome explorers travelled across the region now known as North Dakota, then southward through the Black Hills and eastward to a point on the Missouri River where now stands the city, of Pierre, South Dakota.


In spite of this early penetration, however, forty or more years were to elapse before the white man paid much attention to this part of the country. And even then those distant regions were visited only occasionally by fur traders, some of whom came up from St. Louis or Wisconsin, others down from the French settlements in Canada. There was, indeed, nothing permanent about any of those early trading expeditions, and it was not until 1794 that white men thought it worth their while even to erect a single building in that vast stretch of land from which two States were later to be carved. In fact, it was only after the consummation of the Louisiana Purchase Treaty, in 1803, and the consequent transfer of the territory from French to American ownership, that the country was really opened up to settlement.




. Freemasonry was established in Dakota Territory in 1862 by a Warrant of Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Iowa granting a Charter for St. John's Lodge U. D. 166 Iowa that subsequently became St. John's Lodge, No. I, and is the Mother Lodge located in the Mother City of the Dakotas.


Here was the principal village of the Yankton Indians. Here Pierre Durion, the French‑Canadian hunter and trapper in 1780 became the first permanent white settler of the Dakotas. This white man, Pierre Durion, in 1804 was the Zo8 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA guide of the Lewis and Clark expedition from St. Louis to Yankton. Here they held their first council with the Dakota Indians. Here in the Valley between the James and the Sioux Rivers dwelt the Yankton Sioux Indians under Chief Strike‑the‑Ree and when the Lewis and Clark expedition found its way up the Missouri River and as the expedition neared the mouth of the James River, an Indian swam to the boat and informed them that a large body of Indians encam ed in the vicinity. Captain Lewis dispatched his men with Durion to confer with the Indians and arrange for a council that was held on Calumet Bluff. This is the hill overlooking the river in the west part of Yankton. The expedition proceeded to the meeting‑place and planted the Stars and Stripes on the top of this hill, and here the council took place between the bodies of the Lewis and Clark expedition and the Yankton Sioux. An event is recorded in the outline of Dakota history to the effect that during the time the Indians were encamped near Calumet Bluff, a baby was born in the Sioux camp. The information reached the captain of the expedition, and they requested the child to be brought to them and they clothed it in the Stars and Stripes with ceremony. The child grew up to be the notable " Strike‑by‑theRee " or " Old Strike." The boy grew to manhood a loyal citizen and his services were most valuable in the interest of the government during the Minnesota outbreak.


History further tells us that Pierre Durion had a son, Pierre Durion, Jr., who likewise followed the footsteps of his father and was the guide for the Astorian expedition that Washington Irving described in that classic of Amer ican literature, " Astoria." These two pioneers lived and died and are buried here at Yankton. They were buried according to the ancient custom of being buried in the tree tops. They had respectively guided the most important exploring expeditions that ever crossed the continent.


Yankton was the principal Indian trading post of the Northwest. It was the capital of Dakota Territory by decree of President Lincoln in 1861. The following year the Indians became restless and hostile in our neighbouring State and the Minnesota massacre occurred. The settlers became alarmed when the outbreak came and here at Yankton on the site of our present court‑house is a monument marking the place where the Yankton stockade was built. It was the principal haven and refuge for the settlers from all over this part of the country.


ADDRESS OF THE MOST WORSHIPFUL GRAND MASTER My Brethren In sending to you the first Masonic Bible in the Dakotas from ‑the Mother Lodge, I do so with a feeling of joy upon one hand and regret upon the other; joy because it brings to you some historic interest, and a regret because it must leave our Altar for an indefinite time. From an historic standpoint, it is not known just when the first Mason paddled his bark canoe up the Mississippi River, or the Missouri River, its tributary, nor the exact time or place where a member of the Craft, travelling westward in search of a home for himself and FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA 2.09 family, first set foot on the soil of the Dakotas. However, tradition asserts that long years ago certain white trappers, claiming to be Masons, were greeted and " hailed " by a red chieftain in a strange Dakota wigwam. This may be true or it may be false, but we are fairly convinced that Masonry was represented in the Lewis and Clark expedition that encamped for several days, in the summer of 1804, on the townsite of what is now the city of Yankton. Since then Masonry has had a known but unmentioned place in the early history of the States formed and settled in the nineteenth century; yet in no State has Masonry been more beneficial and helpful than in our own.


The hardships and privations endured by our Masonic forefathers, in their efforts to found the new Order in Dakota, seem to have quickened their judgment and enlarged their vision as to the necessity of action. Their wisdom and care account for the stability of the foundation of the structure erected by them, to be later enlarged and adorned by their successors.


Was it chance, fate or providence, that caused the first Lodge in Dakota Territory to be organised at Yankton, the Mother City of the Dakotas and the camping ground of the first known Mason in the Dakotas? With this historic background, St. Johns Lodge graciously lends to you this Old Bible, hallowed by so many years of Masonic Work. Our hope is that its message of love and affection will aid and assist in a time of need, and will bring joy and happiness to the hearts of our Brethren.


This Great Light, my Brethren, is supposed to have been given to St. Johns Lodge by Rev. Melancthon Hoyt, its first Worshipful Master, and the first rector of the first church (Christ Church Episcopal) in Dakota Territory located at Yankton. This Bible comes to you with the heartiest fraternal greetings and best wishes of the Mother Lodge of the Dakotas for your prosperity and welfare. Its sacred pages are worn by the touch of thousands of hands that have rested upon it. It is consecrated by their solemn obligations, and there seems to reecho the murmur of the silent voice of those sturdy pioneers, those " Builders " of the " Incompleted Tem le." Those brothers have long since passed on, but they left us an heritage ofpcourage and devotion, they gave to us the strength and the energy to work faithfully and diligently so that at the close of the day we would receive masters' wages.


May this visitation of the " Great Light " of St. Johns Lodge increase and strengthen your belief in the value of its every‑day lessons.


It has been truly said that " Somewhere in the secret of every soul is hidden the gleam of a perfect life." It is the mission of this historical pilgrimage to your Lodge to fan that little gleam until it becomes a beacon to light and point out the way to the grandeur of ideal manhood.


" Masonry breathes into the every‑day, the common life of men, the glory of the ideal. Human standards have been raised, human hearts have been soothed, comforted and strengthened and in word and deed, God has been glorified." Let us turn for guidance and inspiration to this momentous occasion; for in this re‑consecration a sacred trust to God and humanity is administered. Looking beyond our own lives we shall, by our loyalty and worthiness as just and upright Masons of to‑day, forecast the destinies of our Institution, yes, of mankind, until verily the facts shall outrun our faith, and war, and misery, and evil shall fade away and be blotted out from human consciousness and from 210 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA human experience, so there shall be established on earth and in the hearts and lives of men the world over, the glorious sovereignty of brotherly love. Most fraternally yours, Sanford G. Donaldson.


Yankton, South Dakota, M. W. Grand Master.


January io, 1934 AL5934 Within a year after the purchase of Louisiana Territory by the United States, the Dakota region was visited by the members of the famous Lewis and Clark expedition, and from then on settlements there began to develop. Thirteen years later, in 1817, Joseph La Framboise built a fort which soon became the centre of the fur trade in the Dakota country. This fort, named after its founder, served as the nucleus for the first real settlement in that part of the United States. On the site of old Fort Framboise the present city of Pierre now stands. In 1855, this fort, together with other holdings in the region, was sold by its owner, the American Fur Company, to the United States Government.


Then followed a new era in the history of Dakota. At last its fertile plains, especially those in the southeastern section, began to attract attention as a promising agricultural region. Sturdy pioneers, eager to put the virgin soil under cultivation, came in by the hundreds. But the early agricultural settlements which they established in the Sioux River Valley were doomed to failure, for frequent outbreaks by the Indians made life there unsafe for the scattered white farmers. Nevertheless, in 1859, a permanent settlement was finally made at Yankton. Two years later an Act of the United States Congress created the Dakota Territory. By the same Act, the newly founded Yankton became the territorial capital. Yet settlement continued to be very slow, and for several years Yankton and Sioux Falls were the only important villages in the entire territory.


The year 1874 stands out as one of great importance in the history of Dakota. For it was then that the members of the Custer expedition discovered gold in the more rugged section to the West. This startling discovery led to the opening up of the hitherto unsettled part of the territory. Coming in search of the precious metal, men flocked into the Black Hills region by the thousands. Custer and Deadwood soon became famous, while other bustling mining centres sprang up almost overnight. Excitement ran high. Then, in 1876, the Homestake lode was discovered. News of this great find sent other thousands of prospectors and miners into the forbidding, rugged sections of the territory. Soon Lead City was a thriving metropolis of several thousand inhabitants. Since those days the Homestake Mine alone has produced more than $Zoo,ooo,ooo worth of ore. To‑day South Dakota ranks fourth among the goldproducing States of this country.


The next ten years brought rapid advancement for Dakota. Busy pioneer towns sprang up all over the territory, and thousands of homesteads were entered. Population increased rapidly, railroads were built, stagecoach lines were FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA 211 established, and agriculture and mining throve. It is not surprising, then, that all this increased activity brought a demand for a Grand Lodge of Freemasons for the newly‑awakened Dakota. But before we discuss that movement, let us review the earlier Masonic history of the territory.




I suppose that it will never be known who was the first Master Mason to come within what is now the State of South Dakota. There seems good grounds for believing that there were Brethren of our fraternity among the members of the Lewis and Clark expedition. But we know that Masonry had its adherents among the French of Canada; and it is possible, indeed it is probable, that some of those eighteenth century traders and trappers along the Missouri and other streams of our Commonwealth were of the Craft.


However, historic Masonry in our State began almost immediately after the opening of the territory to settlement in 1859, and by permission of the Grand Lodge of Iowa. So far as the southern section of the State is concerned it would seem eminently fitting that it was from Iowa that Masonry was introduced. It is an interesting fact not generally known, I think, that for a very brief period the nine southeastern counties were actually a part of the State of Iowa. For when Congress in 1846 enacted the legislation admitting Iowa into the Union, it established the northern boundary of the new State as the parallel of 43 3o' N. Lat. and reaching from the Mississippi to the Missouri. But the new State, unwilling to undertake the responsibility of caring for that great stretched‑out arm of land at its northwest frontier, asked Congress to change the boundary, extending the line only to the Big Sioux River. That, of course, is a little aside from our story, but it is a matter of curious interest.


In April 1862, the Grand Master of Iowa granted a Dispensation to F. J. DeWitt and nine others to open a Lodge to be known as Dakota Lodge at Ft. Randall. At the Grand Lodge meeting the following June the Grand Master was authorised to renew the Dispensation if he deemed wise. Nothing further ever came of this; the little population of Ft. Randall composed as it was mostly of soldiers, was constantly changing, and if the Lodge ever was formally Instituted it quickly ceased to exist.


On December 5, of that same year, a Dispensation was granted by the Deputy Grand Master, E. A. Guilbert (the Grand Master, Col. T. H. Benton, Jr. being with his regiment in active service) to open a Lodge at Yank ton, Dakota Territory. This was granted to Rev. Melancthon Hoyt and others. The following year, upon June 3, 1863, a Charter was granted, the Lodge to be known as St. John's Lodge, No. 166.


Other Dispensations and Charters soon followed, their order being: Incense Lodge, Vermillion; Elk Point Lodge, Elk Point; Minnehaha Lodge, Sioux Falls; Silver Star Lodge, Canton; and Mt. Zion Lodge, Springfield. In date of Dispensation Silver Star Lodge is ten days older than Mt. Zion Lodge; 212 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA in date of Charter, June 3, 1875, they are twins. It is of interest as showing the rapid growth of Masonry during those years in the Iowa jurisdiction to note that St. John's Lodge, Chartered in June 1863, is No. 166; Mt. Zion Lodge, Chartered twelve years later to the very day, is No. 346. The number of Lodges had increased 18o in twelve years.


On June 22, 1875, a Convention of these Lodges that had been Instituted in Dakota Territory was held in Elk Point. The Charter of Mt. Zion Lodge did not reach it in time for that Lodge to be represented, but Representatives of the other five were present, and the Grand Lodge of Dakota was organised, and Bro. T. H. Brown of Sioux Falls was elected as the first Grand Master. Since not all the elected and appointed Officers were present a later meeting was arranged for the Installation; and accordingly in July the Grand Lodge convened in the hall of Incense Lodge, Vermillion, and then marched in procession to the Baptist Church, where an address was delivered by the pastor, Rev. Bro. J. H. Magoffin, following which the Officers were publicly Installed by Past Master T. S. Parvin of Iowa. The six Lodges deposited their old Charters with the Grand Lodge, and new Charters were issued, numbered from one to six.


There were at this time two other Lodges within the territory, one at Fargo (Shiloh Lodge) acting under Charter from the Grand Lodge of Minnesota, and the other at Bismarck, acting under a Dispensation from the same Grand Lodge. The Grand Lodge of Dakota claimed jurisdiction over both of these, and for some years there was considerable correspondence between the two Grand Lodges over the matter. But finally Shiloh Lodge surrendered its Charter in 1879, and received a new Charter as No. 8, and the next year Bismarck Lodge did the same thing, its new Charter giving it the number 16.


Deadwood had in the meantime been granted a Charter as No. 7. The next application disclosed the extent of the Grand Lodge jurisdiction, being from Pembina. It received a Dispensation in May 1878, and a Charter in June i89o, when it became No. 1o, Golden Star Lodge at Lead being No. 9.


When the Grand Lodge met at Mitchell in 1889 statehood was under way and the Grand Master recommended that the Representatives of the northern Lodges be permitted to withdraw and form a Convention to organise the Grand Lodge of North Dakota. This was done and the Representatives of twenty Lodges withdrew and organised the Grand Lodge of North Dakota.


F The Grand Lodge also amended its Constitution to change its own name to the Grand Lodge of Ancient and Accepted Masons of South Dakota. It apointed a Committee to make recommendations regarding the division of the unds. This Committee found that in jewels, in other property including a considerable library, and in cash, the Grand Lodge had approximately $4,600. Since there were seventy‑three Lodges in the south, and twenty‑six in the north, they recommended that the new Grand Lodge of North Dakota be given onethird of that amount. This was done. Then, upon their invitation, the new Grand Lodge joined them, and Past Grand Master George H. Hand duly Installed the Officers of both Grand Lodges.


Following the Installation two actions were taken by the Grand Lodge of South Dakota. One of those was the adoption of a resolution making all Past Elective Grand Officers who were now members of Lodges in North Dakota FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA 213 honorary members of the Grand Lodge of South Dakota. (A reciprocal action was later taken by the Grand Lodge of North Dakota, when they reconvened.) The other action was the presentation to the Grand Lodge of North Dakota of the Jewels of the Grand Lodge of Dakota. Needless to say this unexpected and generous gift deeply moved the hearts of the Northern Brethren, and presently they passed a resolution of appreciation, declaring that they would hold the jewels as a lasting memorial of their past fraternal relations, and an offering of affection that should " forever unite and cement ' them as Brethren to the Grand Lodge in the South. These jewels are still preserved and used by our Brethren of North Dakota.


Such are some of the highlights of the beginnings of our Masonic Fraternity in South Dakota.


As is usually the case, among the early pioneers in Dakota were a number of devoted Masons eager to continue their Masonic activities in their new homes and hopeful of offering the benefits of the Craft to others there. It is not sur prising, then, that the enterprising pioneers should have early sought to organise a Lodge in the territory. Indeed, the first permanent settlement had been founded less than three years when a number of devoted Brethren applied to the Grand Lodge of Iowa for a Dispensation to form a Masonic Lodge at Fort Randall. Their application was approved, and a Dispensation was granted on April 27, 1862. Bro. Franklin J. De Witt was named Worshipful Master, Bro. A. G. Fuller, Senior Warden, and Bro. M. R. Luse, Junior Warden. A Charter was never granted to it, as no Work was done. Several years later, upon the death of Bro. De Witt, one of the interesting documents found among his effects was the Dispensation for this Lodge. It was signed by Grand Master Thomas H. Benton, of Iowa, and countersigned by Bro. T. S. Parvin, Grand Secretary of the Iowa Body.


The year 1862 was, however, an important one in the history of Dakota Masonry. For on December S of that year, the Iowa Grand Lodge issued another Dispensation for a Lodge to be formed in Dakota Territory. This Lodge, at Yankton, became permanent. Indeed, it is to‑day one of the most vigorous of South Dakota Lodges and is often referred to as the " mother of Freemasonry " in this State. This Lodge, known as St. John's Lodge, No. 166, was granted a Charter on June 3, 1863. The Rev. Bro. Melancthon Hoyt served as its first Worshipful Master; Bro. D. T. Bramble as Senior Warden, and Bro. John Hutchinson as junior Warden. The Lodge's initial membership numbered eighteen. In 1913, at the Annual Communication held in Yankton on June io, the Grand Lodge of South Dakota celebrated the fiftieth anniversaryof the founding of St. John's Lodge, the first permanent Lodge in South Dakota, which when Chartered had perhaps the largest territorial jurisdiction of any Lodge in the United States.


Six years elapsed before another Lodge was formed in that part of the territory which was later to be known as the State of South Dakota. Then, in 1869, St. John's Lodge, No. 166, recommended that the Grand Lodge of Iowa issue a 214 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA Dispensation to a number of Brethren at Vermillion, in Dakota Territory. This was done on January 14, and a Charter was granted on the following June 2. This Lodge was called Incense Lodge, No. 257, and is to‑day also active in South Dakota Masonry. The following Brethren served as its first Officers: Bro. A. G. Fuller, Worshipful Master; Bro. J. C. Damon, Senior Warden; and Bro. H. E. Austin, Junior Warden.


The next year saw the issuance of a Dispensation for a Lodge at Elk Point. This Dispensation was also granted by the Grand Lodge of Iowa, on March 23, 1870. Bro. H. H. Blair was its first Worshipful Master, Bro. Elias Howe, Senior Warden, and Bro. E. H. Webb, Junior Warden. A Charter was granted on June 8, 1871, and the Lodge became No. 288 on the Iowa Roster.


On July 13, 1873, the Grand Lodge of Iowa issued still another Dispensation for a Lodge in Dakota Territory. This was granted to Minnehaha Lodge, of Sioux Falls. The first Officers of the new Lodge were: Bro. T. H. Brown, Wor shipful Master, Bro. R. C. Hawkins, Senior Warden, and Bro. Edwin Sharpe, Junior Warden. This Lodge received its Charter on June 4, 1874, and was thereafter known as Lodge No. 328.


Silver Star Lodge, of Canton, was the next Lodge to be organised in that part of the territory which was later to become South Dakota. The Dispensation for this Lodge was granted by the Grand Lodge of Iowa on February 6, 1875.


The first Officers of the Lodge were: Bro. William Miller, Sr., Worshipful Master, Bro. Mark W. Bailey, Senior Warden, and Bro. S. H. Stafford, Junior Warden. A Charter was granted to Silver Star Lodge on June 3, 1875, and it was assigned No. 345 on the Iowa Grand Lodge Roll.


Mt. Zion Lodge, of Springfield, was also granted a Dispensation by the Grand Lodge of Iowa in 1875 ‑ on February 16, to be exact. Its first Officers were Bro. B. E. Wood, Worshipful Master, Bro. John L. Turner, Senior Warden, and Bro. Daniel Niles, Junior Warden. A Charter for this Lodge was issued on June 3, 1875, and the Lodge became known as No. 346. As will be shown later, the failure of this document to reach Mt. Zion Lodge before the date of the founding of the Dakota Grand Lodge kept its Delegate from taking part in the proceedings which brought that Grand Body into being. By the time the Grand Lodge was Instituted, a month later, however, the Charter had been received, and Mt. Zion Lodge took an active part in Instituting the territory's governing Masonic Institution.


Meantime, Lodges had also been formed in that part of the territory which was later to become the State of North Dakota. Rather than give an account of those here, however, the reader is referred to the article on the Freemasonry of that State which appears elsewhere in this work. There the history of the Craft in the more northern part of the territory is set out at length. A brief survey will show that the status of Freemasonry in Dakota in June 1875 was as follows.


As has been said, there were in the southern part of the territory five active Chartered Lodges and one other active Lodge Working under Dispensation ‑ FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA 215 all under the authority of the Grand Lodge of Iowa. Besides those, there were, in the northern part of the territory, one active Lodge ‑ Shiloh Lodge, No. 1o5 ‑ Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Minnesota, and another active Lodge ‑ Bismarck Lodge u. D.‑ Working under a Dispensation from that Grand Body.


For some time, now, the Brethren in Dakota had been informally discussing the expediency of organising a Grand Lodge within the territory, but no steps were taken to bring this about until the spring of 1875. Then, Elk Point Lodge, No. 288, feeling that the time was ripe for such a move, called a Convention of Delegates from all Lodges in the territory for the purpose of considering the matter. Notices were sent out to every known Lodge within the territory inviting each to send Representatives to Elk Point on June 21, 1875. In response to this invitation, Delegates from the following Lodges assembled in the Elk Point Hall at the appointed time: Elk Point Lodge, No. 288, of Elk Point; St. John's Lodge, No. 166, of Yankton; Incense Lodge, No. 257, of Vermilion; Minnehaha Lodge, No. 328, of Sioux Falls; Silver Star Lodge, No. 257, of Vermilion; and Mt. Zion Lodge u. D., of Springfield. When it was found that no Delegates had been sent from the Lodges in northern Dakota, and that those Lodges had made no response to the invitation sent them, the Delegates from the six Lodges represented expressed their deep regret. But since most of the Lodges in the territory were represented, those present set about to carry out the purpose for which they had met.


The Convention was called to order by Bro. H. H. Blair, of Elk Point Lodge, No. 288. Bro. Franklinj. De Witt, of St. John's Lodge, No. 166, acted as Chairman, while Bro. Mark W. Bailey, of Silver Star Lodge, No. 345, served as Secretary. Since Mt. Zion Lodge u. D., of Springfield, had not yet received its Charter, its Delegate, Bro. John L. Turner, was invited to a seat in the Convention, although he could not legally take part in the proceedings.


The following resolution was then adopted: " Resolved, That this Convention deem it expedient, for the good of Masonry, that a Grand Lodge be organised for Dakota." It was also resolved that the President should appoint a Committee to draw up a Constitution and a code of By‑Laws for the government of the Grand Lodge. This Committee, consisting of one member from each of the five actively participating Lodges, was, therefore, appointed and asked to submit a report at its earliest convenience. Those chosen to serve in this capacity were Bro. Mark W. Bailey, Bro. H. H. Blair, Bro. George H. Hand, Bro. R. F. Pettigrew, and Bro. H. J. Austin. On the following day, June 22, 1875, the Committee reported, and a Constitution and By‑Laws were then adopted. This done, the following Grand Officers were elected: Bro. Thomas H. Brown, of Sioux Falls, as Grand Master; Bro. Franklin J. De Witt, of Yankton, as Deputy Grand Master; Bro. Calvin G. Shaw, of Vermilion, as Senior Grand Warden; Bro. H. H. Blair, of Elk Point, as junior Grand Warden; Bro. George H. Hand, of Yankton, as Grand Treasurer; Bro. J. C. Damon, of Vermilion, as Grand Chaplain; Bro. Leonidas Congleton, of Yankton, as Grand Marshal; Bro. William H. Miller, Sr., of Canton, as Grand Senior Deacon; Bro. O. P.


2.16 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA Weston, of Sioux Falls, as Grand Junior Deacon; Bro. Thomas Robinson, of Vermilion, as Grand Senior Steward; Bro. Charles F. Mallahan, of Elk Point, as Grand Junior Steward; Bro. S. H. Stafford, Jr., of Canton, as Grand Sword Bearer; Bro. P. W. McManus, of Elk Point, as Grand Pursuivant; and Bro. D. W. Hassen, of Elk Point, as Grand Tyler. Bro. Franklin J. De Witt, of Yankton, who was elected as Deputy Grand Master at the organisation of the Grand Lodge in Vermilion and unanimously chosen as Most Worshipful Grand Master the next year enjoys in Masonic history the unique distinction of being the only man who has ever refused the Office of Grand Master.


The Convention then adjourned to meet in Vermilion on the following July 21. After adjournment, invitations were again sent to the Lodges in northern Dakota, asking them to send Delegates to the reassembling of the Con vention and apprising them of the formation of the Grand Lodge of Dakota. Nevertheless, when the Special Convention met in July in the First Baptist Church of Dakota Territory just across the street from a log cabin, which was the first school house erected in Dakota, thus demonstrating clearly the close relationship of the triumvirate, Masonry, religion and the public school, no Delegates from the northern Dakota Lodges were present; nor had any response been received from those Lodges. In spite of this fact, the Grand Lodge was finally Constituted and its Officers Installed by Bro. Theodore S. Parvin, Past Grand Master and Grand Secretary of Iowa, who had been invited to attend for that purpose. To‑day a large boulder marks the place where the Grand Lodge was Instituted on July z1, 1875. Later, a circular letter was sent to every Grand Lodge in America ‑ that of Minnesota included ‑ telling them of the formation of the new Grand Body of Dakota. Shiloh Lodge, No. 1o5, of Fargo, and Bismarck Lodge, which had by that time been Chartered as Lodge No. izo, of Bismarck, were also informed of all that had taken place.


When the Grand Lodge of Iowa was told of the organisation of the new Grand Lodge, it very graciously and at once passed the following resolution " Resolved, That the Grand Lodge of Iowa hereby recognise the new Grand Lodge of Dakota ... and extend to it a hearty welcome into the fraternity of Grand Lodges and invite an interchange of Representatives." In 1876, in his address at the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge, the Grand Master of Iowa made the following statement: " It has been customary to note the appearance of new stars in the constellation of Grand Lodges of this country, and to hail with fraternal recognition every new accession to our ranks. We gladly welcome to the sisterhood of Grand Lodges one in whom we feel an especial interest, and who should receive our most fraternal greetings. The Grand Lodge of Dakota, organised by R .'. W.‑. Bro. Theodore S. Parvin, Past Grand Master, On July 2.1, A. D. 1875 (A. 1,. 5875), now unites those who were formerly under our protection and who received from us their first instructions. While we regret to part with our good fraters of Dakota, we can but approve their course in having arrived at maturity, now desiring to fight the battles of life alone. The Lodges present in Convention were all Iowa Lodges." FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA 217 Unfortunately, this attitude was not also taken by all the near‑by Grand Lodges. And soon a bitter controversy arose between the Grand Lodge of Minnesota and the Grand Lodge of Dakota. The two Dakota Lodges Chartered by the former Grand Body took no steps to yield to the authority of the latter, and the Grand Lodge of Minnesota itself continued to ignore all correspondence from the Grand Lodge of Dakota. In fact, it did not even recognise the newly‑formed Grand Body, and it upheld the right of the two Dakota Lodges to continue Working under their Charters from Minnesota. Although this was contrary to the American law regarding territorial sovereignty, the Officers of the Minnesota Grand Body approved the action. As was to be expected, relations between the two Grand Lodges became more and more strained. This unfortunate condition continued to exist for several years, and only healed through the active efforts of Dakota's Masonic Godfather, Bro. T. S. Parvin, Grand Secretary of Iowa. Finally, however, in 1879, Shiloh Lodge, No. io5, became a member of the Dakota Grand Lodge and was thereafter known as Lodge No. 8. The next year, Bismarck Lodge, No. i2o, also came under the jurisdiction of the Grand Body of Dakota and became Lodge No. 16. This transfer of allegiance more or less ended the unhappy controversy, and by 1881 the Grand Master of Dakota was able to announce that " the Grand Lodge of Minnesota has not only recognised this, the Dakota Grand Body, and extended to it a warm and fraternal greeting, but it has also recognised the principle of exclusive jurisdiction for which we have so earnestly contended." This announcement brought great pleasure to the Grand Body of Dakota, for everybody connected with it was relieved to have the unfortunate difficulty at last settled.


At the special meeting held in Vermilion in July 1875, the pioneer member Lodges of the Grand Lodge were renumbered. Thus, St. John's Lodge, of Yankton, became Lodge No. i; Incense Lodge, of Vermilion, became Lodge No. 2; Elk Point Lodge, of Elk Point, became Lodge No. 3 ; Silver Star Lodge, of Canton, became Lodge No. 4; Minnehaha Lodge, of Sioux Falls, became Lodge No. 5 ; and Mt. Zion Lodge, of Springfield, became Lodge No. 6.


During the next fourteen years conditions in Dakota grew steadily better. There were, of course, certain setbacks, but on the whole the territory made great advancement. Agriculture was put upon a firm basis, new towns were established throughout the territory, and nearly half the area was homesteaded. Industries grew up here and there, while the deep mines of the Black Hills region continued to produce vast amounts of gold and silver. By 1889 the population had passed the three‑hundred‑thousand mark, and there was a great deal of agitation for statehood among the inhabitants. It was also being urged that the territory should be divided into two States.


All this improvement had, of course, greatly increased the strength of the Fraternity in Dakota. As was natural, the rapid settlement and increase in population throughout the territory had been attended by an amazing spread of the Craft there. As new towns had sprung up, demands for new Lodges had been presented to the Grand Body in ever‑increasing numbers. These demands had 218 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA been met, and scores of new Lodges had been formed. The Grand Lodge, which had been organised in 1875 with 6 Constituent Lodges having a total membership of 195, now numbered on its Roll 99 active and flourishing Lodges having a total membership of 4595. Grand Lodge finances had never before been in better condition. The balance on hand had grown from $181.37 at the end of the Grand Lodge's first year of existence, in 1876, to $4,590.79, in 1889.


This, then, was the status of the Craft in Dakota when the Grand Lodge met at Mitchell, on June 11, 1889, to hold its fifteenth Annual Communication. On the preceding February 22, the United States Congress had passed an Act providing for the division of the Territory and its admission into the Union as the States of South Dakota and North Dakota. The inhabitants of South Dakota had already practically adopted a constitution, and there was little doubt that each of the proposed States would become such in fact within the next few months. This meant that, if Dakota Masonry was to conform to the American plan of territorial jurisdiction, it must either provide for the division of its Grand Lodge or erect a new Grand Lodge in North Dakota. Since there was no precedent to follow in this matter, a Committee on Division was appointed on the opening day of the Communication.


In rendering its report on the following day, the Committee said: "Whereas, the division of the Territory within the jurisdiction of this Grand Lodge, and the creation of two States under the provisions of the act of Congress approved on February 22, 1889, will undoubtedly be accomplished within the next six months; and whereas, the Representatives from the Constituent Lodges north of the seventh standard parallel have appeared before this Committee and unanimously expressed the desire to withdraw from this Grand Lodge and organise a Grand Lodge to be known as the Grand Lodge of North Dakota, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons; and whereas, it is made apparent to your Committee, on account of the full representation from the Lodges of North Dakota, that this would be the most convenient time to take the necessary preliminary steps in the organisation of a new Grand Lodge, we would, therefore, most respectfully recommend the adoption of the following Resolution " Resolved, That in response to the unanimously expressed desire of the Representatives from the Lodges existing in Dakota north of the seventh standard parallel, this Grand Lodge does hereby accord to the Representatives from what is known as North Dakota, with fraternal regards and kind wishes, full, free, and cordial consent to withdraw from this Grand Lodge for the purpose of organising a Grand Lodge in North Dakota, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, to occupy and hold exclusive Masonic jurisdiction in all that portion of Dakota north of the seventh standard parallel. " It was also " Resolved, That a Committee of ten [should] be at once appointed to report a just and equitable division of all monies and other Grand Lodge property." These resolutions were then adopted. Thus the Grand Lodge of Dakota became the Grand Lodge of South Dakota and those Lodges located in that part of the territory that was to become the State of North Dakota were permitted FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA 219 to form a Grand Lodge of their own, to be known as the Grand Lodge of North Dakota.


Following the recommendations made by the Committee on the Division of Property, one‑third of the property belonging to the Grand Lodge of Dakota was turned over to the Grand Lodge of North Dakota, and two‑thirds were retained by the Grand Lodge of South Dakota. And thus, on June 12, 1889, a division of the Grand Lodge which corresponded with the political division of the territory was finally decided upon.


The Grand Lodge of South Dakota has at all times shown a keen interest in the dissemination of Masonic information. Almost at the beginning of its career it undertook the collection of a library designed to supply all who sought it with information about the Craft. This library, which is to‑day one of the finest in the State, was begun by our distinguished benefactor, Bro. Theodore S. Parvin, Past Grand Master and first Grand Secretary of Iowa, whose interest in Dakota Masonry has caused him to be called the " Father of the Grand Lodge of South Dakota." Within the first year of the Grand Lodge's existence, Bro. Parvin presented it with a number of valuable books which were to serve as a nucleus for to‑day's splendid collection. To these, others were constantly added. So great was the library's growth that within three years after its founding the Committee on the Library was able to report that it had already progressed in a most gratifying manner. At that time the library consisted chiefly of a number of copies of Proceedings of the various Grand Lodges of the world, a few choice works on Masonry donated by generous Brethren, and several Masonic magazines and other publications. So promising had the library at that time already become, that the continuance of it was strongly recommended. By 1887 the library had grown to such an extent that the Grand Master, in his annual address that year, made the following statement concerning it " Our library has now assumed such proportions that more attention must be paid to its safe keeping and better and more convenient arrangement. The Proceedings presented to this Grand Lodge by M . . W .'. Bro. Theodore S. Parvin have all been bound and comprise five hundred volumes. They contain the Masonic history of the century, the exposition of Masonic law and ethics by the ablest and most illustrious of Masonic writers, and in completeness they are not surpassed by any like collection in any Masonic library in the world ... The volumes have been bound under the kind supervision of Bro. Parvin, and at the low price of $351‑75." Within the year, Bro. Parvin had made another generous gift to the library. This consisted of 227 volumes of Proceedings of the various Grand Lodges in the United States, 132 volumes of Grand Chapter Proceedings, loo volumes of Grand Commandery Proceedings, and a number of other valuable works ‑ in all, 468 volumes, all of which had been " bound in a uniform manner and in appropriate colors." Thus it may be seen that the nucleus of our magnificent library, which is of inestimable value to the Fraternity in Dakota, was largely the beneficent gift of Bro. Parvin.


ZZO FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA Every year since its founding, the library has been improved. From the beginning it has been connected with the Office of the Grand Secretary. Since 192‑5 it has occupied beautiful fireproof quarters in the handsome Grand Lodge Build ing at Sioux Falls. During the last few years a great interest in Masonic literature has become very noticeable in South Dakota, and the Craft is beginning to realise what a wonderful Masonic library is at its disposal. A thoroughly competent librarian is in charge of the collection at all times. This librarian is always glad to send books and other literature to the Lodges and to individual Masons, as such materials are requested. Indeed, during the year 1932‑‑1933 nearly 2‑5oo books were distributed to all parts of the State. Members interested in Masonic history, biography, and other subjects relating to the Craft find the library a rich source of information. During a recent single year, more than looo volumes were added to this interesting collection. During that same year, the South Dakota Daughters of the American Revolution placed their library in the genealogical section on our shelves.


For a number of years now, the Grand Secretary, Geo. A. Pettgrew, Thirtythird Degree, who has held Office since 1894, has been eagerly collecting as many mementoes of days gone by as he can find. In time these are to become part of a proposed Masonic museum for the State. Already several priceless collections and single accessions have been secured with this end in view. These are being carefully preserved until such time as proper display cases can be purchased. Then they will be placed on exhibition in the Grand Lodge Building at Sioux Falls.


During its entire career the Dakota Grand Lodge has played a prominent part in the civic life of the region, at first, in that of the Territory, later, in that of the State. It has, of course, laid the corner‑stone of many of the important structures erected within its jurisdiction. As early as 1887 it had charge of such important ceremonies as laying the corner‑stone for an opera house at Watertown, an Episcopal church at Castleton, a building for the Dakota Normal School, at Madison, and a new normal school building at Spearfish. Almost every year since then the Grand Lodge has taken part in similar ceremonies for other churches, hospitals, colleges, elementary and high schools, court‑houses, and so on. On June 2‑_5, i9o8, at an Emergent Communication, the Grand Master had charge of laying the corner‑stone for the new State capitol at Pierre. Besides these, the Grand Lodge has, of course, laid the corner‑stone for many fine Masonic Halls and Temples throughout its jurisdiction. One of the most impressive of such ceremonies was that of June 6, 1924, when the corner‑stone of the new Grand Lodge Building in Sioux Falls was laid.


The year 1899 marked the twenty‑fifth anniversary of the establishment of the Grand Lodge of South Dakota. When the Quarto‑Centennial Communication was held at Yankton on June 13 and 14 of that year, it was quite apparent that Freemasonry in South Dakota already had a record of which it might well be proud. Peace and harmony existed among all the Lodges of the State, and the Grand Lodge's relationship with its sister Grand Bodies was above reproach.


FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA 221 During its twenty‑five years of existence the Grand Lodge had grown in an amazing manner. From 6 Constituent Lodges in 1875, it had increased its number to 93. The total valuation of the cash, furniture, fixtures, and other property of these Lodges was about $95,ooo. Lodge finances were in excellent condition, and membership had increased in a highly satisfactory manner. There were in the State at the time 4250 Masons in good standing. It was evident that Masonry had kept step with other institutions of both the State and the nation.


On June 13, 19oo, the Masonic Veterans' Association of South Dakota was organised. This Association was made up of those who had been Master Masons for at least twenty‑one years. Although the number belonging to this organisation at the time of its establishment was only twenty‑eight, its membership has since increased to several hundred. To‑day the organisation is in a thriving condition.


For years now, the Grand Lodge has presented a medal to each Mason who has been a member for fifty or more years. This honour is bestowed in the belief that any man who maintains membership over such a long period of time has in his heart a veneration and esteem for the Craft that merits an honorary reward. It has been found that the awarding of these service medals not only increases the enthusiasm of the recipients, but that it also creates a great deal of interest among the younger Masons of the State, causing many of them to strive for the honour.


South Dakota Masonry has at all times shown an eagerness to do honour to the memory of our country's greatest Mason ‑ Bro. George Washington. Like many of its sister Grand Bodies, the Grand Lodge of South Dakota properly observed the centennial anniversary of President Washington's death. At its Annual Communication of igoo, an appropriate ceremony honouring the memory of the Father of our Nation was held at Aberdeen. Eleven years later the South Dakota Grand Body endorsed the movement for the erection of a Memorial Temple at Alexandria, Virginia, under the auspices of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial Association, and began at once to solicit funds to help defray the expense of that great undertaking. As one of our Grand Masters so aptly put it, most South Dakota Masons regarded the erection of this memorial as " the greatest co‑operative effort ever undertaken by American Freemasonry." It is not surprising, then, that the South Dakota Lodges soon associated themselves with the association in charge of erecting the memorial. When the corner‑stone of the magnificently handsome structure was laid in 1929, our Grand Lodge sent Representatives to that function. In like manner, it was represented at the dedication of the handsome structure in 1932. Although unfortunate financial conditions prevented our Grand Lodge from contributing as liberally as it desired, still it did give a considerable sum towards the accomplishment of this great memorial to George Washington, the Man and the Mason. In 1932 the bicentennial of Washington's birth was also appropriately celebrated by the Lodges of South Dakota.


From its very inception, Freemasonry in South Dakota has interested itself 222 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA in the charitable aspects of the Fraternity's guiding principles. Nor has it confined its work in this field to its own jurisdiction. Whenever the call for assistance has been made, it has been answered willingly and freely. Until 18go, the funds for such welfare and relief work were raised by the various Lodges, but in a more or less haphazard way. Until that time there was at least no uniformity in the manner of levying assessments for charitable undertakings. Nor was there any Grand Lodge fund for relief purposes. So far, the Lodges had been able to meet the demands made upon them, but it was becoming apparent to all that a special Grand Lodge fund should be established. Consequently, at the Annual Communication of 189o, the Grand Master recommended that the Grand Lodge take steps to establish two funds, one to be known as the Grand Charity Fund, the other as the Widows' and Orphans' Fund. The aim was, of course, to provide for the relief of aged, poor, and distressed Brethren and to protect the widows and orphans of deceased Masons. The Committee which was appointed to consider the proposal recommended that both funds be established and that the monies of each " be kept separate and distinct." In order to raise money for this purpose, it was also recommended that " the attention of each subordinate Lodge be called to this matter as soon as practicable, and that each Lodge be required to contribute such sums as its circumstances and ability would permit." Five per cent of the Grand Lodge receipts were then set aside to take care of the Funds for the ensuing year, and it was also decided that all monies received from contributions and bequests, and those accruing from the sale of property of suspended and defunct Lodges, should also be used for that purpose.


In 1893 the Grand Lodge decided to merge the two Funds into one, which was to be known as the Grand Charity Fund. Later, the By‑Laws were amended in various ways to provide for the raising of sufficient sums to carry on the beneficent work of this department. From time to time, gifts, too, have added to the amount available for charitable purposes. Among those was a bequest of $Zooo received in 1927 under the will of Mrs. Elizabeth Pfeffer, widow of Charles Pfeffer, former member of Acacia Lodge, No. io8, at Eureka. In 1928 the Grand Charity Fund was further enlarged by the bequest of a substantial amount willed to it by the late Bro. P. F. McClure, of Pierre. Despite the increase of the Fund, however, it is now apparent that it is not sufficiently large to meet the demands being made upon it. This has especially been the case during the last few years of nation‑wide depression. Speaking of this matter at the Annual Communication of 1933, the Grand Master said in part: " Late experience has taught us that our Grand Charity Fund is not of sufficient amount to cope with the demands made upon us during these periods of depression. Although we had hoped to have special donations during the year, on account of the general depression none has been made, with the exception of Antelope Lodge, No. 2‑o9, it having contributed $1 per member, for the Fund. Several years ago each of a few Lodges insured one member with a life insurance policy ‑ made out to the Grand Charity Fund. But lately some of these policies have been surrendered, and paid‑up policies taken in exchange, or the accumulated amount withdrawn.


FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA 223 . . . This department of Masonry in South Dakota is our memorial to those great tenets of our Order ‑ Love and Charity. It is the symbol of our lives which leads us to discharge our duty even though at times through sacrifices. The exercise of relief should be considered not alone an obligation, but also a privilege and a joy. Calls from our Brethren for relief and assistance are becoming more and more persistent and urgent. Owing to the economic conditions during the past few years, many Lodges have been caught in bank failures and are faced with embarrassing financial situations. For many years the relief work of our Grand Lodge has been carried on from our temporary Grand Charity Fund, which has been provided from the earnings of income from investments of our permanent Grand Charity Fund. Now we are faced with the task of providing adequate funds to answer demands satisfactorily." This statement of conditions was then followed by an appeal for a contribution of $i from each member of each South Dakota Lodge ‑ an appeal which is likely to be answered. For even though the various Lodges have been seriously affected by the present depressing conditions, all are willing and eager to help in caring for every needy member of the Craft. Indeed, all are eager to continue the good work they have carried on so well in the past, and to execute the mandate of the Biblical admonition that " it is more blessed to give than to receive." The Trustees who have supervised the Grand Charity Fund have already done a wonderful work and are continuing to do so. They have given of their time, effort, and talent. They have worked without remuneration and only for the satisfaction of having done their work well. They have put into action the genuine principles of Freemasonry, and we may be very sure that they will continue to render assistance to those in need or distress whenever and wherever they are able to do so. Already, hundreds of needy Brethren, and the widows and orphans of deceased South Dakota Masons, have been relieved through the Grand Charity Fund. The work thus far accomplished is incalculable, and there is every reason to believe that it will increase during the coming years.


During the years 1932 and 1933, the Grand Lodge Trustees passed a resolution diverting $Sooo.oo in the next biennial from the receipts that should accrue to the Permanent Grand Lodge Charity Fund for the temporary Grand Charity Fund to meet the great call for assistance. This matter was brought to the attention of the Subordinate Lodges that it was very necessary that a portion of this fund should be replaced. A plan was conceived to send the Oldest Masonic Lodge Bible in the two Dakotas, on a visitation to all of the Subordinate Lodges in the State. This Bible is the property of St. John's Lodge, No. 1, the Mother Lodge of the two Dakotas. Special programmes were prepared for its reception and usually a ceremony of re‑consecration to Masonry was impressively held and at the close of the meeting a voluntary contribution was made to the Grand Charity Fund.


It is the sincere belief of every Mason that the quiet waters of Masonic endeavour stirred anew by the vital lessons of this volume, sanctified by the touch of thousands of Masonic hands and invaluable with its priceless memo‑ 224 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA ries of the dead past,will spread in ever‑widening circles through the distant years. At the Annual Communication held at Huron, in June 1922., the Grand Secretary recommended the erection of a suitable building to house the office and library of the Grand Lodge and other Masonic Bodies of the State. At the same time it was reported that the Masonic Bodies of Sioux Falls had purchased a suitable plot of ground and were prepared to tender it to the Grand Lodge, provided a building would be erected upon it. The matter was referred to a special Committee who recommended the acceptance of the land and the erection of a Grand Lodge Building. On June 6, 1924, the corner‑stone of this building was laid. The following year, which marked the semi‑centennial of the organisation of the Grand Lodge, saw the completion of the fine, new structure. The building was dedicated on June 9, 1925. These quarters have since become the home of the Grand Lodge of South Dakota. The building, which was erected at a cost of $75,876, is one of the finest structures in the whole State. At the time of its dedication, which fittingly fell on the fiftieth anniversary of the establishment of the Grand Lodge, there were in the State 167 Lodges having a total membership of 19,296.


The Grand Lodge of South Dakota believes in the fundamentals of Freemasonry and has at all times done everything possible to carry them out. It has always taken great interest in the Work of its Constituent Lodges and has made every effort to fit every member both " mentally and morally for a citizen's part in promoting unadulterated Americanism." It has at all times striven to keep its recruits alive in Masonry and to offer every member an opportunity to do something constructive in advancing both the fraternal and civic life of the State. For this purpose it has long carried out a satisfactory programme of Masonic service and education.


From the time of the establishment of the various co‑ordinate Bodies of the State, they have shown a sincere desire to advance the best interests of Craft Masonry. The relationships of the Grand Chapter, the Grand Commandery, the Scottish Rite Bodies, the various groups of members of the Order of the Mystic Shrine, and the Order of the Eastern Star have been harmonious and pleasant. The first Chapter of Royal Arch Masons in Dakota was Chartered by the General Grand Chapter of the United States on August 24, 188o. This Chapter was known as Yankton Chapter, No. i. On February 25, 1885, this Chapter, together with the following Dakota Chapters, organised the Grand Chapter of Dakota Territory: Sioux Falls Chapter, No. 2; Dakota Chapter, No. 3; Siroc Chapter, No. 4; Casselton Chapter, No. 7; Cheyenne Chapter, No. 9 u. D.; Huron Chapter, No. 10 u. D.; Keystone Chapter, No. 11 u. D.; Watertown Chapter, No. 12 u. D.; Jamestown Chapter, No. 13 u. D.; and Aberdeen Chapter, No. 14U. D. The first Annual Convocation was held on June 8, 1885. When the division of the territory took place in 1889, the Grand Chapter of Dakota Territory gave permission to the Lodges located in the newly‑formed State of South Dakota to organise a Grand Chapter of South Dakota. This was done at a meeting held at Yankton on January 6, 189o. Three days later, the Grand FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA 22.5 Chapter of North Dakota was organised. Representatives from the following Chapters participated in the formation of the Grand Chapter of South Dakota Yankton Chapter, No. i; Aberdeen Chapter, No. 14; Mitchell Chapter, No. 16; Brookings Chapter, No. 18; Orient Chapter, No. i9; and Rabbon Chapter No. 23.


The first Commandery of Knights Templar to be established in Dakota Territory was known as Dakota Commandery, No. 1. Since it was located in that part of the territory which later became the State of South Dakota, it may also be considered the first Commandery in South Dakota. On May 14, 1884, the Grand Commandery of Dakota was organised at Sioux Falls. This action was taken by Representatives from the following four Commanderies: Dakota Commandery, No. 1; Cyrene Commandery, No. 2; De Molay Commandery, No. 3 ; and Fargo Commandery, No. 5. Later, after the division of the territory, the name of this Grand Commandery was changed to that of the Grand Commandery of South Dakota.


The first Council of Royal and Select Masons in Dakota Territory, which was known as Fargo Council, No. 1, was Chartered on November 19, 1889. Since this Council was located in the northern part of the original Dakota Terri tory, after 1889 it came to be regarded as the first Council of the State of North Dakota. There was no General Council in Dakota Territory. The first Council to be established in South Dakota was Alpha Council, No. i, at Sioux Falls. A Dispensation was issued to this Council on April 11, 1891. On the following July 2.i, a Charter was granted to it by the General Grand Council of the United States. At a meeting of Representatives of this and the other Chartered Councils of South Dakota, held on June 9, 1916, a new Grand Council was Constituted.


A Consistory of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern jurisdiction, was established at Yankton in 1888. The Charter for this Consistory was dated December 22 of that year. On March 1o, 1887, a Council of Kadosh, known as Robert de Bruce Council, No. i, was Chartered in South Dakota. A Council of Rose Croix, known as Mackey Council, No. 1, was Chartered on February 27, 1882, while a Lodge of Perfection ‑ Alpha Lodge, No. i ‑ was Chartered on February 8, 1882. The Grand Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star was organised. In his address before the Annual Communication of 1919, the Grand Master of South Dakota said: " The Grand Lodge Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of South Dakota was the first to recognise the Grand Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star in this State and to exchange greetings at the time of their annual session." During the year 1933 St. John's Lodge, No. 1, was again honoured for the fifth time in its history with the selection of a member of that Lodge for the Office of the Most Worshipful Grand Master of the Grand Lodge, namely, Bro. Sanford G. Donaldson, Thirty‑third Degree Mason, active member of the Supreme Council A. S. A. S. R., Southern Jurisdiction, United States of America, said to be the youngest man ever given that honor and one of the youngest men ever selected Grand Master of South Dakota.


2.26 FREEMASONRY IN SOUTH DAKOTA Of national Masonic interest was placing South Dakota among the few States of the Union that have had a member of the Supreme Council serving as Most Worshipful Grand Master.


From this brief account of Freemasonry in the State of South Dakota it may be seen that the Craft has prospered here. Despite many handicaps, it has gradually increased in numbers and in influence. According to the last report there were 2.18 Chartered Lodges and one Lodge under Dispensation. The total membership was over 18,ooo. Although this figure represents a slight decrease from the high enrollment of 19,843 attained in 1931, nevertheless there is every reason to believe that Freemasonry will continue to spread in this State. Although the depression of the last few years has caused a decrease in the number of Petitioners, the members are confident that as general conditions improve, so, too, will Freemasonry go forward, just as it has in the past. Certainly, it has already proved itself to be one of the truly great forces for enlightenment in the State of South Dakota.


FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE CHARLES COMSTOCK AND K. W. PARKHAM WHEN the American explorers and settlers crossed the great divide that marked the western boundary of the early seaboard Colonies, we know not who among them may have been members of the Mystic Tie. The Spirit of Brotherhood somehow lingered there, even before the firing of that rifle shot which resounded in Lexington and so roused the slumbering forces of liberty. Even while Greer and Dugger and Boone were hewing timbers for their primitive cabins, the Mystic Builder's Art was keeping pace with the advance guard of civilisation. Speedily the new settlements lured from Virginia and North Carolina such stalwart pioneers as James Robertson, John Sevier, John Anderson, John Rhea, Joseph Martin, Landon Carter, and Daniel Kennedy. They came westward before or during the War for Independence. Afterwards they were joined by Archibald Roane, Andrew Jackson, Howel Tatum, Robert Searcy, Bennett Searcy, James Grant, Hugh Montgomery, and George Roulstone, who eventually published the first newspaper in Tennessee. Other of those early pioneer Masons were Stephen Brooks, a Methodist minister, John Sommerville, James Trimble, Anthony Foster, Colonel Hardy Murfree, William Lytle, Joseph Dickson, later a member of Congress, George Washington Campbell, Patrick Campbell, Edward Douglass, William P. Chester, Benjamin Dulaney, Elkanah Roberts Dulaney, John Kennedy, John Williams, William Tait, Robert Hays, and John Overton. There were many others, too, whose names appear on the Rosters of our early Lodges. Except for Howel Tatum, Patrick Campbell, and John Campbell, and John Williams, we cannot tell where those Brethren first beheld the Mystic Light. They were loyal Craftsmen, however, who wielded great influence for the spiritual and material upbuilding of America's sixteenth Commonwealth. Whether their restless footsteps followed along upon the mountain tops, or beside the winding Tennessee and Cumberland rivers in a western course to the great Father of Waters and even beyond, wherever opportunity lured them or duty impelled them to go, they resolutely bore aloft the banner of progress. Their influence was felt at the memorable Battle of King's Mountain on October 7, 178o. They broke the power of the redskins at Horseshoe Bend, and there Bro. Sam Houston received his baptism of fire on March 27, 1814. And at New Orleans, on January 8, 1815, Andrew Jackson, the only Past Grand Master who ever occupied the White House, gained renown as a soldier. There, too, he was at last compensated for the wound he received when a cowardly British officer struck him at Waxhaw years before. He it was who defeated the British, and so freed our American Union from foreign aggression. It was another Tennessee Craftsman who won the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836, and thus became first President of the Lone Star 227 228 FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE Republic. Still another, Past Grand Master Archibald Yell, paid the price of his life for Texas's final liberation at the Battle of Buena Vista on February 22, 1847. In peace, however, as well as in war, in statesmanship, in science and in art and in humanitarian endeavour, Tennessee Masons have gained distinction.


At historic "Blockhouse," in the northwestern part of the present Sullivan County, dwelt Colonel John Anderson, veteran of the War for Independence and assistant justice of the State of Franklin. It is likely that North Fork Lodge, No. Zo, the first Masonic Lodge to be held west of the Alleghany Mountains, met in that commodious pioneer structure. Of the Lodge's origin, by what authority it was held, we do not know. We have conclusive evidence, however, that the Lodge did exist, and that Bro. Anderson, doubtless its Master, was one of its leading members. The names of two other members, Benjamin Crow and John Sevier, Jr., the latter a son of Governor Sevier, have also been preserved, though the Record of the Lodge's activities and the Roster of all other Craftsmen who paid allegiance to it are no longer known to exist. Like the Lodge of Fredericksburg, Virginia, where George Washington was Initiated, this too was probably an " inherent privilege Lodge. " It bore a number which strongly indicates that it had been established and started on its way by authority of some governing Body. Diligent search, however, has revealed only one numberNo. 2.o‑issued by Grand Lodge, of those days, which can reasonably be conceived as having been this Lodge's number. In the autumn of 1779 the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania issued its Military Warrant, No. Zo, to Craftsmen of the North Carolina Line, then with Washington's army. It has long been supposed that this document was lost in the disastrous South Carolina campaign which took place during the following year. We have no proof, however, either of its loss or of its preservation. The present writer's opinion is that the old Pennsylvania Warrant was preserved, probably brought to East Tennessee after the Battle of King's Mountain, and then used as a basis for North Fork Lodge, No. Zo.


When the Grand Lodge of North Carolina held its Annual Communication on November 18, 1789, it received a Petition sent by several Brethren of the Mero District (Nashville), who asked for a Charter empowering them to hold a Lodge to be called by the name of Saint Tammany. One of the Petitioners, a certain Bro. Anderson, was probably William P. Anderson. This Petition was granted on November 24, 1789. No information regarding this Lodge appears in the Record until December 17, 1796. Then the Grand Lodge of North Carolina granted a Charter for Saint Tammany Lodge, No. 29, which was Lodge No. 1, of Tennessee, to be held at Nashville. This Lodge's name was later changed to Harmony Lodge, No. 29, at the Annual Communication of i8oo. The only known Record of this pioneer Lodge, now preserved at Raleigh in the archives of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, is a letter which was sent to the Grand Secretary in 18oo. It was signed by Bro. Robert Searcy, Treasurer and Acting Master, by Bro. William Dickson, Senior Warden, by Bro. William Tait, Junior Warden, and by Bro. Bennett Searcy, Secretary. The printed Proceedings of the FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE 229 Grand Lodge of North Carolina and Tennessee for the year 18o5 give a complete Roster of this Lodge's membership. The Master of the Lodge was Bro. Howel Tatum, who formerly was a member of Royal White Hart Lodge, No. 2, at Halifax, North Carolina. Bro. Robert Searcy was Treasurer, and Bro. Bennett Searcy was Secretary. The list of names of the forty members includes those of Andrew Jackson, John Overton, James Robertson, Robert Hays, Anthony Foster, and others who were among the founders of Tennessee's capital city. At the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, held on December 9, 18o8, the Charter of this pioneer Lodge was forfeited because of the Lodge's failure to make annual reports.


On January 15, 18oo, Colonel William Polk, Grand Master of North Carolina, issued a Dispensation establishing Polk Lodge U. D., which was to be located at Knoxville, then the capital of Tennessee. Governor John Sevier was to be Master, Major James Grant, Senior Warden, and George Washington Campbell, Junior Warden. The first meeting of this Lodge was held at Samuel Love's tavern, in Knoxville, on March 24, 18oo. The Lodge's distinguished Master presided, while judge Edward Scott, father of Bro. Charles Scott who was twice Grand Master of Mississippi, acted as Secretary. On this occasion two distinguished visitors were present. One was Theodore Bland, of Alexandria Lodge, No. 22, afterwards known as Alexandria‑Washington Lodge. The other visitor was Andrew Jackson, a member of Harmony Lodge, No. i, of Nashville, at that time judge of the superior court of Tennessee. A complete Record of this meeting and subsequent ones held as late as November 1, 18oo, is in the archives of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina at Raleigh. This, and a Roster of the Lodge's members for the years i 8o5 and 1807, which appear in the printed Proceedings of the North Carolina Grand Lodge, are the only known Records of Tennessee Lodge, No. 2, the name under which this Lodge was Chartered on November 30, i8oo. Although the Lodge probably continued to Work for some twenty years, nothing is known about its later activities. It is represented in the Convention held at Knoxville on December 2, 1811, preparatory to forming the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, and again at the first Annual Communication, held on December 27, 1813, when the Grand Lodge was organised. At that time three members of Tennessee Lodge, No. 2, became Officers of the Governing Body of the Grand Lodge. On February 2, 1826, this Lodge was succeeded by Mount Libanus Lodge, No. 59, which had been formed under a Dispensation issued by Grand Master Matthew Delamer Cooper. A Charter was granted to the newly‑established Lodge on October 3, 1826.


At its Annual Communication held on December 9, 1798, the Grand Lodge of North Carolina approved a Dispensation for a new Lodge at Greeneville, Tennessee, with Colonel Waightstill Avery as Worshipful Master. Because the Master lived at Morganton, North Carolina, and was unable to visit Greeneville during the year, the Lodge was not organised. In November 18oo, a new Petition was presented, and a Dispensation was authorised for Greeneville Lodge, No. 43, which was also designated as Lodge No. 3, of Tennessee. George Wash‑ 230 FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE ington Campbell, Junior Warden of Tennessee Lodge, No. 2, was appointed Master of the newly‑established Lodge, while Jenkin Whiteside and John Rhea, also members of Tennessee Lodge, No. 2, were respectively appointed Senior Warden and Junior Warden. Under such authority the Lodge was formally organised on September 5, i8oi, with Bro. Campbell presiding. Before November i, i8oi, several other meetings of this Lodge were held. A Record of those meetings which was sent to the Grand Secretary at Raleigh is still preserved in the archives of the Grand Lodge there. This pioneer Lodge, whose Charter was granted on December 11, 18o1, is still at Work. It is the oldest Lodge now on the Roster of the Grand Lodge, although it was inactive for more than three score years. During its period of inactivity, a new Lodge was formed under a Dispensation issued in 1845 by Grand Master Edmund Dillahunty. The Dispensation was continued at the next Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge, and a Charter was not finally granted to the new Lodge till October 5, 1847. This substitute Lodge, long known as Greeneville Lodge, No. 119, continued to Labour until January 31, 1907. On that date the original Tennessee Charter of Greeneville Lodge, No. 3, which was issued on October 6, 1814, was restored to it. The Lodge now ranks as the senior of the Volunteer State, since both Lodge No. 1 and Lodge No. 2 have been defunct for more than a century. The Work of the Craft was always successfully performed in Greeneville Lodge, No. 119. It steadily progressed in adding new members and in influence, except during the period of the war between the States. Then Masonry everywhere suffered a great deal, and at the time all this Lodge's Records that antedated 1857 were destroyed. This Lodge justly claims a distinctive honour in that it Initiated, Passed, and Raised one whom American Masons may well hold in deep veneration: Andrew Jackson, governor of Tennessee, United States senator, and seventeenth President of the nation‑a man who suffered persecution, yet triumphed over all obstacles and ever earnestly and fearlessly served his people.


The Grand Lodge Records of North Carolina‑Old North State, our Masonic Mother‑show that on December 5, 18o6, a Charter was granted for Newport Lodge, No. 5o‑Lodge No. 4, of Tennessee‑which was located at the thriving settlement of Newport, on French Broad River. Henry Stephen was the Lodge's Master, Nathaniel Mitchell its Senior Warden, and Augustine Jenkins its junior Warden. Since the Records of this Lodge were destroyed long ago, little is certainly known about its early activities. After participating in the formation of the Grand Lodge, in 1813, it seems to have become inactive, for it made no reports of either its Work or its membership. After the year 182‑4 even the name of the Lodge no longer appears on the Roster of the Grand Lodge. On October 3, 1854, some forty years after this Lodge was last mentioned in our Records, a Charter was granted for Newport Lodge, No. 234. The organisation, established on the obscure foundations of the old Lodge, has continued to be successful and prosperous.


In the Records of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina and Tennessee, under FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE 2.31 date of November 21, 1807, is an order for a Charter to be issued to Overton Lodge, No. 5i‑Lodge No. 5 of Tennessee. The Lodge was to be located at Rogersville, Tennessee, and to have the Officers who were named in the Dispensation that had been issued on December 14, 1805. Those were: Bro. Samuel Powell, Master, Bro. Jonathan Stryker, Senior Warden, and Bro. John Johnston, Junior Warden. Early reports of this Lodge are missing, and no Record of it antedating 1823 has yet been discovered. The Lodge has survived however, and is to‑day both prosperous and successful. This Lodge participated in the formation of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee in 1813, and on October 4, 1819, it was re‑Chartered as Lodge No. 5.


On December 9, 1808, the Mother Grand Lodge authorised a Charter for Lodge No. 52‑Lodge No. 6 of Tennessee. It was to be located at Gallatin, in Sumner County, a civic unit named after a distinguished Craftsman of Revo lutionary times, General Jethro Sumner, of North Carolina. The new Lodge was to have the following Officers: Bro. John Johnston, Master, Bro. Andrew Buckham, Senior Warden, and Bro. John Mitchell, Junior Warden. This Lodge Laboured successfully until October 5, 1836, when its jewels and its Tennessee Charter were surrendered to the Grand Lodge by the Master, Bro. John Bell, cousin of the distinguished statesman, John Bell of Tennessee. On October 8, 1840, a new Charter was granted to King Solomon Lodge. Now known as Lodge No. 94, it was to succeed the original pioneer Lodge‑No. 6. Bro. John Bell was to be Master, Bro. George W. Parker, Senior Warden, and Bro. Samuel R. Anderson, Junior Warden. This Lodge is still active and prosperous.


Hiram Lodge, No. 7, at Franklin, largely owes its existence to one of Tennessee's early distinguished citizens, Lieutenant‑Colonel Hardy Murfree. Founder of the Murfree family in this State, this distinguished Mason was grandfather of Mary Noailles Murfree, who used the pen name Charles Egbert Craddock. Colonel Murfree was a North Carolina veteran of the War for Independence. A devoted Craftsman, one of the founders of the Mother Grand Lodge, first Master of American George Lodge, No. 17, of North Carolina, Bro. Murfree was largely responsible for the founding of a pioneer organisation known as the Franklin Lodge. After Bro. Murfree passed within the Mystic Veil on April 6, 1809, this Lodge was established under Dispensation later in the summer. On December 11, 1809, it was Chartered as Hiram Lodge, No. 55 ‑Lodge No. 7 of Tennessee. The following were the Officers: Charles McAlister, Master; Guilford Dudley, formerly of Royal White Hart Lodge, No. 2, of North Carolina, Senior Warden; George Hulme, Junior Warden. Although the early Records of this Lodge have also been destroyed or lost, it has maintained an unbroken existence up to the present, and is still vigorously active. This Lodge took the initiative in forming the Grand Lodge of Tennessee by making the suggestion for a preliminary Convention to be held at Knoxville on December 2, 18 11. On May 27, 1814, this Lodge received a new Dispensation, and in October of that year it was Chartered.


Cumberland Lodge, No. 8, at Nashville, was the direct successor of Har‑ 2‑32‑ FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE mony Lodge, No. 1, which ceased to work in December 18o8, by order of the Grand Lodge at Raleigh. At that time several members of the pioneer Lodge became Charter applicants for a new Lodge. They included judge John Overton, an intimate associate of Andrew Jackson's who became first Master of Cumberland Lodge, No. 8. In the spring of i8iz, Robert Searcy, oldest Past Master of Harmony Lodge, No. i, journeyed on horseback to Raleigh. He later returned with the Dispensation by virtue of which he formed the new Lodge and Installed its Officers on June 2‑4, 18iz. On February 8, 1814, after the formation of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, this Lodge received a new Dispensation and on October 2o of that year it was Chartered. On the Roster of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, this Lodge was known as No. 6o.


Shortly before Cumberland Lodge, No. 6o, was formed, on May 1, 1812‑, to be exact, a Dispensation was issued by Grand Master Robert Williams empowering the establishment of Rhea Lodge at Port Royal, in Robertson County, Tennessee. The Lodge was organised on the following June 2‑4, with Bro. John Baker as Master, Bro. John E. Turner as Senior Warden, and Bro. H. James Norfleet as junior Warden. This was Chartered Western Star Lodge, No. S 1Lodge No. 9 of Tennessee‑on November 2‑1, 1811. The Lodge continued to operate successfully at Port Royal until January S, 1818. Then the Grand Lodge granted it permission to remove to Springfield, official county seat of Robertson County, and there the Lodge remains active and vigorous. It received a new Charter from the Grand Lodge of Tennessee on October 1, 1814, and under that Charter it has Laboured for over twelve decades.


Philanthropic Lodge, No. 12‑, another Lodge established in Tennessee before the Grand Lodge was formed, also lasted a few years and then quietly passed out of existence. In Davidson County some ten miles east of Nashville, not far from the historic " Hermitage," once the home of Andrew Jackson, and on a part of his plantation, lies the famous Clover Bottom field where Old Hickory raised his blooded horses. Several Brethren who lived in that region, desiring to form a Lodge conveniently nearby, united in a Petition for a Dispensation early in 18o5. This Petition was erringly presented to the Grand Master of Kentucky instead of the Grand Master of North Carolina, whose jurisdiction included all Tennessee. The application was approved, and Philanthropic Lodge U. D. speedily set to Work. A Charter was granted at the next Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, held on September 18, 18o5, and this Lodge was enrolled on its Roster as No. 12‑. One of the Petitioners for this Lodge was Hutchins Gordon Burton, a member of a North Carolina Lodge then sojourning in Tennessee, who later returned to his native State and twenty years afterwards became Grand Master of his Lodge and Governor of the Commonwealth. The formation of Philanthropic Lodge, No. I2‑, provoked an extended controversy between the Grand Lodge of Kentucky and of North Carolina, since the former claimed that the Lodge was in unoccupied territory and therefore properly open to any Grand Lodge. Kentucky's side of the controversy was conducted by Bro. Henry Clay, who afterwards became FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE 2‑33 Grand Master. North Carolina was represented by Bro. Burton. The whole matter, a detailed account of which cannot be related here, was finally brought to a satisfactory conclusion when the Grand Lodge of the Blue Grass State adopted a resolution at its Annual Communication held on August 29, i8i2, in which it agreed to recall the Charter of Lodge No. 12, provided the Lodge should be permitted to continue its Work until June 24, 1813. This proposal having been accepted, the Lodge at Clover Bottom ceased to exist after the date stipulated. Most of its members then became attached to other Tennessee Lodges. Though it has often been claimed that Andrew Jackson was a member of Philanthropic Lodge, No. 12, there is no evidence that he ever was. A Roster of the Lodge's members now in possession of the present writer does not include Andrew Jackson's name at all.


In conformity with the plan that had been set forth in an invitation which Hiram Lodge, No. 7, of Franklin, had extended to the other Tennessee Lodges, a preliminary Convention was held at Knoxville on December 2, 1811, for the purpose of arranging for an independent Grand Lodge for the Volunteer State. The following Representatives attended: George Wilson and William Kelly of Tennessee Lodge, No. 2. Rev. Stephen Brooks of Greeneville Lodge, No. 3. Edward Scott, as proxy for Newport Lodge, No. 4. John A. Rogers and John Williams of Overton Lodge, No. S. John Hall of King Solomon Lodge, No. 6. Archibald Potter of Hiram Lodge, No. 7. Neither Cumberland Lodge, No. 8, nor Western Star Lodge, No. 9, was represented, since they had not yet been formed.


When the Convention opened Bro. Stephen Brooks was chosen to be Chairman, and Bro. John A. Rogers, Secretary. A series of Resolutions setting forth the purpose of the Convention was then adopted, and a Committee was ap pointed to prepare an address for presentation to the Grand Lodge of North Carolina and Tennessee, the title by which the Mother Grand Lodge had been designated since December 1803. The aim was to get that Grand Body to approve the effort to form an independent Grand Lodge for the Volunteer State. The address was prepared and eventually presented to the Grand Lodge at Raleigh. That Body deferred action on this matter until it held its Annual Communication on November 21, 1812. Then the address was formally approved, and Grand Master Robert Williams was instructed to prepare a so‑called " Great Charter," stating that the Grand Lodge of North Carolina and Tennessee relinquished its authority over the trans‑Alleghany Lodges, and permitted them to form a Sovereign Grand Lodge for the Commonwealth of Tennessee. This document was then sent to the Tennessee Representatives.


Acting upon the authority thus granted to them, the following Tennessee Masons assembled at Knoxville on December 27, 1813, and formed the Grand Lodge of Tennessee: Bro. George Wilson, Bro. Thomas McCorry, Bro. John Bright, Bro. John Anthony, and Bro. William Kelly, of Tennessee Lodge, No. 2, at Knoxville. Rev. Bro. Stephen Brooks of Greeneville Lodge, No. 3. Bro. Edward Scott, as proxy for Newport Lodge, No. 4. Bro. John Williams, and 2‑34 FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE Bro. George Wilson, as proxy, representing Overton Lodge, No. S, at Rogersville. Bro. John Hall and Bro. Abraham K. Shaifer, of King Solomon Lodge, No. 6, at Gallatin. Bro. Thomas Claiborne, of Hiram Lodge, No. 7, at Franklin. Bro. Thomas Claiborne, as proxy for Cumberland Lodge, No. 8, at Nashville. Bro. William L. Williams of Western Star Lodge, No. 9, at Port Royal.


Rev. Bro. Stephen Brooks, who had been Chairman of the earlier Convention, temporarily presided over this Assembly. The following Grand Officers were unanimously elected and regularly Installed: Thomas Claiborne, as Grand Master. George Wilson, as Deputy Grand Master by appointment. John Hall, as Senior Grand Warden. Abraham K. Shaifer, as junior Grand Warden. Thomas McCorry, who had been Treasurer for East Tennessee, as Grand Treasurer. Edward Scott, as Grand Secretary. The other Offices were temporarily filled by appointment, and then the Grand Lodge of Tennessee was opened in ample form. At the very outset, Bro. Stephen Brooks, Bro. John Hall, and Edward Scott were appointed a Committee to prepare a Constitution for the government of the Grand Lodge. This was subsequently presented to those present, and formally adopted. A code of by‑laws presented at the same time was signed by the Grand Officers and the Representatives. Following that, Rev. Bro. Stephen Brooks was appointed to be Grand Chaplain, and Bro. John Bright as Grand Tyler.


In such fashion, then, the Sovereign Grand Lodge of Tennessee was formed. Eight Lodges, Chartered by the Mother Grand Lodge of North Carolina, or as it had been known for the last ten years, the Grand Lodge of North Carolina and Tennessee, consummated the formation of this New Grand Lodge by authority of the Great Charter that had been issued to them. And now, the new and virile Grand Body was to become an active and important factor in the westward progress of our Ancient Craft, whose duly constituted authority, emanating from the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns), had thus far been successively wielded by Joseph Montfort, Provincial Grand Master, and the Grand Lodge of North Carolina and Tennessee.


Only once in twelve decades has the Grand Lodge been convened elsewhere than at Nashville, the State capital. Then it met at Knoxville, almost on the very spot where it was brought into existence in 1813. The occasion was the celebration of its centennial ceremonial. On December 27, 1913, just at the close of a hundred years, the Grand Lodge was convened in Special Communication. The event took place in Staub's Theatre, on South Gay Street, in the historic City of the Hills, Tennessee's first capital. The seventy‑fourth Grand Master presided, while many Representatives and Officers of the Grand Lodge, together with visitors from other jurisdictions, commemorated the event.


The numbers of the Tennessee Lodges have been rigourously maintained. The series with Harmony Lodge, No. i, of Nashville, which was Chartered by the Mother Grand Lodge on December 17, 1796. Though this Lodge ceased its activities in 1808, it is still No. i on the Roster. It is immediately followed by eight other North Carolina Lodges that formed the Grand Lodge of Tennes‑ FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE 2‑35 see. Later Lodges have been numbered in the order of their establishment, the last number now being No. 742‑ Of the 2‑85 Lodges missing from the Grand Lodge Roster, 13 were formed outside the limits of Tennessee. They were the following: Lodge No. 12‑, Lodge No. 2‑5, and Lodge No. 2‑8 were formed in Missouri. On April 23, 182.1 these Lodges together formed the Grand Lodge of that State. Lodge No. 15 and Lodge No. 17 were formed in Mississippi. Together with one other Lodge, Chartered by the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, they formed the Grand‑Lodge of Mississippi on July 2.7, 1818. Lodges No. 2‑1, No. 2‑3, No. 3o, No. 33, No. 34, No. 40, and No. 41 were formed in Alabama. Excepting only Lodge No‑ 2‑3, all these Lodges united to form the Grand Lodge of Alabama on June 15, 1821. Lodge No. 29 and Lodge No. 35 were formed in Illinois. The former united in the formation of the first Grand Lodge of Illinois on December i, 182.3. Lodge No. 82‑ was formed in Arkansas. On November 2, 1838 it assisted in the formation of the Grand Lodge of that State.


Of those inter Jurisdictional Lodges, the following still survive: Missouri Lodge, No. 12.‑now known as Missouri Lodge, No. 1‑at St. Louis, Missouri; Jackson Lodge, No. 15‑now known as Jackson Lodge, No. 2‑‑at Natchez, Mississippi; Washington Lodge, No. 17‑now known as Washington Lodge, No. 3‑at Port Gibson, Mississippi; Alabama Lodge, No. 2‑1‑later known as Lodge No. 2‑, of Alabama, which, by consolidation with Lodge No. i, became Helion Lodge, No. 1‑at Huntsville, Alabama; Rising Virtue Lodge, No. 30now known as Rising Virtue Lodge, No. 4‑at Tuscaloosa, Alabama; Moulton Lodge, No. 34‑now known as Moulton Lodge, No. 6‑at Moulton, Alabama; and Farrar Lodge, No. 41‑now known as Farrar Lodge, No. 8‑at West Birmingham, Alabama. It was the Charter Master of this last‑named Lodge, Thomas W. Farrar, who, in 182‑1, became the first Grand Master of the new Grand Lodge of Tennessee.


Through these and their successors, the line of descent extends from North Carolina, through Tennessee, and throughout the great West, excepting only Texas. When the Grand Lodge of that mammoth jurisdiction was formed on December 2.o, 1837, a Tennessee Mason, General Sam Houston, presided over the Convention.


In 1848 the Grand Lodge of Tennessee fostered a Masonic college at Clarksville. Although the college was operated successfully for two years, lack of financial support by Masons finally brought about the disposal of it to non Masonic holders. However, the Craft in the Volunteer State has always striven to forward the cause of education, and the particular Lodges have promoted j and maintained numerous schools. This was especially true during the era preceding the introduction of the free school system into the State. In 1867, a few ardent Craftsmen urged the Lodge to erect and equip a Masonic home for the care and protection of the widows and orphans of deceased Brethren. Owing to subsequent financial depressions, the plan materialised only slowly, but in 1886 some few Masons at last got the movement under way. To‑day, 2‑36 FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE the Masonic Widows' and Orphans' Home of Tennessee is an outstanding example of the Mystic Builder's Art. It has an estimated value of half a million dollars, and an endowment fund of more than $750,000.


Markus Breckinridge Toney, Past Master of Cumberland Lodge, No. 8, a former private in the Confederate Army, whose Masonic aspirations were awakened in Federal prison camps during the war between the States, and Wil liam Hill Bumpus, at that time Master of Lodge No. 8, were on August 6, 1886, selected to act as president and secretary, respectively, of the Masonic Widows' and Orphans' Home Association, Incorporated. It was through their efforts that the original was built within a period of six years from the date of the laying of its cornerstone. The cost of this structure was met by voluntary contributions. When Bro. Toney and Bro. Bumpus turned it over to the Grand Lodge, it was free of incumbrance. Later in a similar manner, they assisted in the erection of the Old Masons' Home, a splendid monument to Masonry's exalted interpretation of the Master's Creed. Of course, other devout Craftsmen nobly supported the efforts of these two Brethren, but they are acknowledged to have been the source of inspiration for all. For thirty years prior to his death in 1929, Bro. Toney served as chairman of the endowment commission of the Home. Bro. Bumpus served as Grand Master in 1898, and thereafter he was continuously connected with the management of the Masonic Home until he passed within the Mystic Veil on October 27, 1926. For thirty years he published the Tennessee Mason solely in the interests of the Institution with which he was actively connected for twoscore years.


In the year 1873, and again in 1878, a very serious epidemic of yellow fever raged throughout certain portions of the State. As was usual in such emergencies, members of the Craft gave themselves unfalteringly to allay the pesti lence, aided by generous contributions from their own and other jurisdictions. For a large number of the Brethren it was the last fight. Among those who fell victim to the dread disease were Past Grand Master and Past Grand High Priest, Andrew Jackson Wheeler, and Grand Commander of Knights Templar, Edward R. T. Worsham.


From fewer than 300 Master Masons, in 1813, the Roll has gradually increased until, in 1929 it passed the 50,000 mark. Since the peak of the latter year, it has, however, sustained a loss of a few hundred members. During the first sixty years, membership rose to more than Zo,ooo, but at the close of the seventy‑fifth year, it had been reduced to fewer than 15,000. Since 1888 the increase has been steady and constant, except for the period of the Great War, when it may possibly have been too rapid.


Through one hundred twenty‑two years of activity, ninety‑seven Grand Masters have presided over the Craft in Tennessee. Five of those, John Frizzell, Wilbur Fisk Foster, Henry Martyn Aiken, Thomas Owen Morris, and Ben jamin Haller, presided over all Grand Bodies of the American Rite. One Grand Master, Andrew Jackson, occupied the White House, and another, John Calvin Brown, served as governor of Tennessee while presiding in the Grand East.


FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE 237 Still another, John Frizzell, served as General Grand High Priest from 1877 to 188o, while James Daniel Richardson served as Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite in the Southern jurisdiction from 1904 to 1914.


Tennessee has given our nation three Masonic Presidents, Andrew Jackson, James Knox Polk, and Andrew Johnson. All were natives of North Carolina who journeyed through the Volunteer State to the national capital. The first two were Royal Arch Masons, while President Johnson was a Knight Templar and a Master of the Royal Secret. One Past Grand Master, Matthew Delamer Cooper, served for more than half a century, and another, Philip Neely Matlock, an officer of the Confederacy, accompanied Sam Davis on that memorable scouting expedition which cost Davis his life, when he was condemned to death for refusing to divulge the names of his comrades. One Grand Master, Archibald Yell, fell pierced with a Mexican spear at the Battle of Buena Vista, while leading the Arkansas Regiment on February 22, 1847. Another, Benjamin Swett Tappan, served as Grand Master of two Jurisdictions, Mississippi and Tennessee, while two others, Robert Looney Caruthers and James McCallum, were members of the Confederate Congress. Four others, Thomas Claiborne, Andrew Jackson, Archibald Yell, and James Daniel Richardson, were members of the Federal Congress, while one of them, Old Hickory, sat in the United States Senate before he went to Washington as President.


Twenty Tennessee members of the United States Senate have been Masons, and twenty‑one Craftsmen have occupied the executive chair of the Commonwealth. Of these, Robert Looney Caruthers was elected governor in 1862‑, but in as much as Bro. Andrew Johnson was at that time serving as war governor under President Lincoln, the governor‑elect could not be inaugurated. Tennessee's first Grand Master was a native of Virginia, a descendant of that William Claiborne who came to America in 162o and later became prominent in colonial affairs. Like Washington, he could trace his lineage back through twenty centuries, in fact, back to Odin, King of Escadia. Massachusetts also supplied Tennessee with three of her Grand MastersOliver Bliss Hays, Benjamin Swett Tappan, and Wilbur Fisk Foster. The last named presided over all Grand Bodies of the American Rite. Serving as a major of engineers in the Confederate Army, he had charge of constructing the historic fortifications at Fort Donelson in 1862. New York also sent three Yankees into the Southland to preside over the Craft. They were Charles Arnold Fuller, Douglass Russell Grafton, and Charles Comstock. From Pennsylvania came Wilkins Tannehill, who served as Grand Master through seven terms which extended over a period of twenty‑six years. He also served as Deputy Grand Master of Kentucky in i 84o.


Two of Tennessee's Grand Masters came from across the sea, from the Emerald Isle. They were Thomas McCulloch, of Scottish lineage, and George Cooper Connor, an Irishman from Dublin. South Carolina, Kentucky, and Ohio each sent Tennessee two of her Grand Masters. They were Matthew Delamer Cooper and Elihu Edmundson, from South Carolina; Philander Mc‑ 238 FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE Bride Priestley and Joseph Norwell, from Kentucky; and Henry Martyn Aiken and Henry Hurlburt Ingersoll, from Ohio. One Grand Master also came from each of the following jurisdictions: From Maryland came John Snyder Dasheill; from Maine came Andrew Jackson Wheeler, a namesake of Old Hickory and heroic martyr to the yellow scourge in 1878; from Georgia came Edmund Preston McQueen; from Indiana came Teda Asabel Hisey. From Missouri came Robert Virgil Hope. One other, Julius Cxsar Nichols Robertson, was born within the confines of what is now the State of Tennessee; in 1792, when this region was known as The Territory South of the Ohio River. The other Grand Masters were natives of Tennessee.


From time to time the Craft of Tennessee has entertained many distinguished visitors. Two of those visits are of unusual historic interest. On June 8, 1819, Nashville was visited by President James Monroe, a member of Williamsburgh Lodge, No. 6, of Virginia. Although a lack of time prevented the assembling of the Grand Lodge, Grand Master Tannehill promptly convened Cumberland Lodge, No. 8, and entertained the distinguished guest in ample form. At the close of the day, Bro. Andrew Jackson took the President to the " Hermitage," where he was given a royal welcome. Then, in 1825, it was announced that the distinguished French patriot and Craftsman, General the Marquis de Lafayette, would visit Nashville. Upon his arrival on May 4, he was given a warm welcome both by the public and by the Masons of the State. Among the courtesies extended to him was an introduction to the Grand Lodge in Special Communication. He was presented to the Grand Lodge by Past Grand Master Andrew Jackson, who was assisted by Bro. George Washington Campbell, the eminent jurist, statesman, and diplomat. The Marquis de Lafayette was also made an Honorary Member of the Grand Lodge.


An unparalleled event occurred in the Tennessee Grand Lodge during the trying period just preceding the war between the States. Early in 1861, when the thunder clouds of civil strife were hovering darkly over the country, the Grand Master of that Grand Body, James McCallum, was importuned to call the Grand Lodge into Special Communication to undertake to avert the impending calamity. Realising the futility of this action, he wisely declined, but on May i of that direful year the leaders of the Craft assembled at Nashville to confer about the situation. This Conference resulted in the issuance of a " peace circular " which contained a fervent plea for the amicable adjustment of differences, and urged that, if war might not be averted, the Craftsmen of each side should constantly be alert in displaying the Spirit of Brotherhood to their opponents. The circular was signed by James McCallum, Grand Master; John Fletcher Slover, Deputy Grand Master; Lucius Junius Polk, Grand Commander of the Knights Templar. It was also signed by Thomas McCulloch, Past Grand Master; Archelaus Madison Hughes, Past Grand Master; Charles Arnold Fuller, Past Grand Master and Grand Secretary; John Snyder Dashiell, Past Grand Master; and John McClelland, Master of Cumberland Lodge, No. 8. A copy of this circular was sent to every Grand Lodge in the United States.


FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE 239 Only within recent years has a copy of it been found in the archives of the Grand Lodge of New York. The printed Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee for the year 1861 also carry a complete copy of the " Peace Circular." Pursuant to a resolution presented at the Annual Communication held on February I, Igi2, a special Committee was selected to consider and report a plan for an appropriate observance of the hundredth anniversary of the forma tion of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee. The Grand Lodge had been brought into existence at Knoxville on December 27, 1813. As was most proper, on January 30, 1913, at the Annual Communication, the Committee recommended that the centennial ceremonial be held at Knoxville on December 27, 1913, and that a Committee of seven members be appointed to prepare a suitable programme and to make all necessary arrangements for the celebration. Under the supervision of Past Grand Master Ingersoll, acting as Chairman, and with the co‑operation of Bro. VanDeventer, acting as Secretary, the Committee arranged a splendid programme which was ably executed in the presence of a large and appreciative audience. Thus was completed the first century of the existence of the Sovereign Grand Lodge of Tennessee.


ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED RITE OF FREEMASONRY SOUTHERN JURISDICTION It seems almost certain that the earliest resident of Tennessee to receive the Degrees of Scottish Rite Masonry was James Penn, a native of Virginia. Born in that State on September 22, 1796, at the age of twenty‑one Bro. Penn was Initiated, passed, and Raised in Marshall Lodge, No. 39, of Lynchburg. Then, in I8i9, he was Exalted in Richmond Chapter, No. 3. Later he became High Priest of Eureka Chapter, No. I, of Lynchburg. On May 2, 182o, he was elected Grand High Priest. In January of that year he had also received the Cryptic Degrees from Companion James Cushman, who is thought to have Communicated to him the Ineffable Degrees, including the Thirty‑second Degree, at some time prior to November 1824. Under date of August 6, 1826, a Diploma was issued to him by the Supreme Council at Charlestown. Bro. Penn was also Master of Washington Council, No. 6. On February 16, i82o, he was authorised as a Royal and Select Master at Lynchburg.


During twenty years' residence in Alabama, from 1825 to 1845, Bro. Penn served as Grand Master, Grand High Priest, and Grand Master of the Grand Council. Then, upon coming to Memphis in 1845, he immediately became active in Masonic Work there also, and in 1853 he was chosen to be Most Illustrious Grand Master of Cryptic Masons. In the spring of 1859 he received the Thirty‑third Degree at the hands of Grand Commander Albert Pike. Two years later he was chosen Lieutenant Grand Commander of the Supreme Council, an Office he was compelled to resign in 1866 on account of his impaired health. He was then made an Emeritus Member of the Supreme Council. On April 16, 240 FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE 1866, John Jennings Worsham succeeded Bro. Penn as Inspector‑General for Tennessee.


At the Session of the Supreme Council held on May 8, 1868, Grand Commander Albert Pike reported that since the last Session several Bodies of the Rite had been established at Memphis. The first of these was Memphis‑Hermes Lodge of Perfection, No. i. This Lodge was established in 1866, and Henry P. Woodward Thirty‑second Degree was its Venerable Master. It was followed by Mithras Lodge of Perfection, No. 2, with George Mellersh Thirty‑second Degree as Venerable Master; Cassiphia Council, Prince of Jerusalem, No. 1, Benjamin K. Pullen Thirty‑second Degree; Calvary Chapter of Rose Croix, No. i, with Charles W. Adams Thirty‑second Degree Most Wise Master; Philippe de Plessis Council of Kadosh, No. 1, with Henry P. Woodward Thirty‑second Degree as Commander; Consistory of West Tennessee, with John Ainslie Thirtysecond Degree as Commander‑in‑Chief. The two Lodges of Perfection were consolidated in 1870. At that time the membership of these Bodies was reported to be as follows: Mithras Lodge of Perfection, No. 2, twenty‑one members; Calvary Chapter of Rose Croix, No. 1, thirty‑nine members. Philippe de Plessis Council of Kadosh, No. 1, twenty‑three members, and Consistory of West Tennessee, twenty‑three members. In 1872 Mithras Lodge of Perfection, No. 2 was reported to be defunct. John Chester Lodge of Perfection, No. 1, at Jackson, which was established by Bro. Frankland and of which Bro. Benjamin Rufus Harris Thirty‑second Degree was Venerable Master, was Chartered on January 15, 1879.


Pitkin Cowles Wright Thirty‑third Degree, Deputy for West Tennessee, reported the following activities at Nashville: On October 9, 1881, Degrees from the Fourth to the Fourteenth, inclusive, were Communicated to a class of nine, including James Daniel Richardson, Past Grand Master, afterwards Grand Commander of the Supreme Council, and Charles Hazen Eastman, afterwards Grand Commander of the Knights Templar and Deputy Inspector‑General. The Fifteenth to the Eighteenth Degrees, inclusive, were also Communicated to James D. Richardson and William Stockell. Grand Commander Albert Pike assisted in the latter portion of the Work. On the next day Degrees from the Nineteenth to the Thirtieth, inclusive, were Communicated to James D. Richardson and William Stokell. Then, on October 11, 1881, Emulation Lodge of Perfection, No. 3 was formed and duly Constituted. There were sixteen Charter Members, including John Frizzell Thirty‑third Degree. Bro. Charles H. Eastman was chosen Venerable Master. Then on the night of October 27 of that year the Thirty‑first and the Thirty‑second Degrees were Communicated to William Stockell and to James Daniel Richardson. On October 29, 1881, Sinai Lodge of Perfection, No. 4, at Murfreesboro, was Constituted with William David Robison Fourteenth Degree acting as Venerable Master.


At the Session of the Supreme Council held in October 1884, James Daniel Richardson Thirty‑second Degree, Benjamin Rufus Harris Thirty‑second Degree, Benjamin Franklin Haller Thirty‑second Degree, afterwards Grand Mas‑ FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE 241 ter, and Henry Martyn Aiken Thirty‑second Degree, Past Grand Master, were elected Knights Commander of the Court of Honour. At the same Session they were elected to be Honorary Inspectors‑General. On October 23, James Daniel Richardson and George Fleming Moore, of Alabama, were nominated for active members of the Supreme Council.


Mizpah Lodge of Perfection, No. S, which was formed at Memphis in 1882, received a permanent Charter on October 19, 1892. Mithras Lodge of Perfection, No. 6, of Chattanooga, was formed on May 14, 18go, by virtue of a Dispensation issued by George Cooper Connor Thirty‑second Degree, a Past Grand Master and Past Grand Commander of the Knights Templar who was also a Deputy Inspector‑General. At the time of its formation, the Lodge had a membership of sixteen, twelve of whom were Masters of the Royal Secret. John Bailey Nicklin Thirty‑second Degree, a Past Grand Commander of the Knights Templar, was chosen Venerable Master. Some years later the Lodge became inactive. Then, on January 22, 19oi, a second Dispensation was issued by Archibald Nevins Sloan Thirty‑second Degree, a Past Grand Master, Past Grand Commander of the Knights Templar, at that time Deputy InspectorGeneral. This second Dispensation called for the revival of the Lodge, and a permanent Charter was later granted to it on October 2‑4, 1 go I.


Since Mizpah Lodge of Perfection, No. 5, of Memphis, had become inactive, John Chester Lodge of Perfection, No. I was some years ago removed thither from Jackson. Philippe du Plessis Council of Kadosh, No. I, of Mem phis, having become inactive, Cyprus Council of Kadosh, No. I was Chartered in lieu of it on August 14, 1893. Tennessee Consistory, No. I was also Chartered on October 14, 1894, to succeed the former Body. To‑day those four Bodies in the Bluff City, together with the four Bodies at Nashville, not only remain active but are also strong in membership. All other Bodies Chartered in Tennessee have ceased to function. Consistory No. I has an enrollment of 31 Thirty‑third Degree members and 397o Thirty‑second Degree members. Consistory No. 2 enrolls 34 Thirty‑third Degree members, 3749 Thirty‑second Degree members. Among the members of the latter Body is Garnett Noel Morgan, who is an Active Inspector‑General and also Treasurer‑General of the Supreme Council.


ORDER OF HIGH PRIESTHOOD The earliest available Record of the conferring of the Order of High Priesthood in Tennessee dates back to the Annual Convocation of the Grand Chapter which was held in October 1829. At that time the Order was conferred on four prominent Companions between Sessions. Those were: Wilkins Tannehill, Past Deputy Grand High Priest, who was advanced to the Grand East at that time; Moses Stevens, retiring Grand High Priest; Dyer Pearl, Past Grand Scribe, who afterwards served as Grand High Priest; and George Washington Churchwell, Grand Scribe. It seems that during the next three decades the Order was conferred at intervals in a similar manner.


241 FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE At the Annual Convocation of the Grand Chapter which met in October 186o, a Convention was assembled and fourteen eligible Companions were duly Anointed and Consecrated.


The Grand Council of the Order of Anointed High Priests for Tennessee was then formed and the following Officers were elected; Grand President, Robert S. Moore; Grand Vice‑President, John S. Morrill; Grand Chaplain, Jonathan Huntington; Grand Treasurer, John Frizzell; and Grand Recorder, John McClelland.


Excepting only the years of 1861, 1863, and 1864, during the troublous period of warfare, the Consecrated leaders of the Royal Craft have regularly held their Annual Conventions, Anointed those who have been chosen to the exalted Station of High Priesthood in Royal Arch Masonry, and thus incited one another to higher and nobler standards of service in the construction of the Mystic Temple. .


During the passing years sixty‑one Grand Presidents have presided over the deliberations of the Grand Council. Of those, thirteen have been Grand Masters of Masons, while twenty‑three have been Grand High Priests.


Of the sixty‑one Grand Presidents, some of whom have for many years been regular attendants at the annual gatherings, sixteen survive to‑day. Fifteen hundred ninety‑five persons have been Anointed to the sacred Office of High Priest.


MASONIC VETERANS ASSOCIATION In answer to an invitation issued on January 2‑3, 1894, by Bro. George Cooper Connor, Past Grand Master, fifty representative Masons of the Volunteer State, including the Grand Master, Bro. Bernard Francis Price, and eight Past Grand Masters, assembled at the Masonic Temple in Nashville on Monday evening, January 29, 1894, and proceeded to organise the Masonic Veterans' Association of Tennessee. Bro. Connor presided over the deliberations of this meeting, at which the following Officers were elected for the ensuing year: John Frizzell, Past Grand Master and Grand Secretary, President; Andrew Jackson Weldon, Past Master of Lodge No. 115, Vice‑President; George Cooper Connor, Past Grand Master, Secretary, and William H. Morrow, Treasurer.


The chief aim of the association is to strengthen the tie of Brotherhood among those who have rendered not fewer than twenty‑one years of loyal service to the Craft; to bring together those devoted supporters of the Craft, annually at the time of the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge; to renew the pledges and friendship of the passing years around the festal board; and to render fraternal homage to those who during the past year have passed within the Inner Veil of our Mystic Temple. Some veterans of the Craft were even then finding themselves unable to attend annual meetings of the association, and when the Roll was called in 1895 the President and Secretary, among others, had already passed across the Mystic Border.


Annually, on Wednesday night of the Grand Lodge's Session, survivors FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE 2‑43 of the original membership of the association, together with others who have joined them from time to time, assemble and together spend a joyous social hour recalling pleasant memories of the past and voicing tender recollections of those who will gather with them no more in this life. Of the fifty Masons who originally formed the association, the writer recalls only one, Bro. Charles Hazen Eastman, Past Grand Commander of the Knights Templar.


PERSONAL Foremost in the annals of time and in exalted accomplishment, an invincible leader of men, John Sevier, Tennessee's first governor, will always hold a high place among those dauntless empire builders who crossed the Alle ghanies and, amidst the alluring valleys which grace the western slopes, laid deep and strong the foundations of America's sixteenth Commonwealth. Born in the historic Valley of the Shenandoah, on September 2‑3, 1745, partly of Huguenot extraction and descended from that notable family of Xaviers who were intimately allied with the monarchs of France during the sixteenth century, possessed of an exalted ruggedness of character, John Sevier yielded to the urge for adventure. Crossing the mountain barrier some years prior to the War for Independence, he established his home in the beautiful Valley of the Watauga and Nolachucky Rivers. From the outset he was a recognised leader among those resolute men who formed the advance guard of pioneer settlement in its march from the Great Smoky Mountains westward towards the sunset goal of progress. In the annals of Indian warfare and the Battle of King's Mountain, John Sevier's record is inscribed in fadeless crimson on the white escutcheon of America's fame.


Bro. Sevier was chief executive of the historic State of Franklin, and was later unanimously chosen first governor of the Volunteer State. He was a member of North Carolina's earliest Constitutional Convention, and of the First Federal Congress of 1790. In 1811 he was returned to the Congress of the United States. John Sevier's record as warrior, as statesman, and as an empire builder remains unsurpassed more than a century after his death.


We know not where or when Bro. Sevier was made a Mason, but we do know that while he was governor of the State he served as the first Master of Tennessee Lodge, No. 2‑, at Knoxville, which was formed in 18oo under North Carolina authority. John Sevier died on September 2‑q., 1815.


Twenty governors of Tennessee have been members of our Ancient Craft, while twenty‑two Masonic statesmen have represented the Commonwealth in the United States Senate. Among the State's members of Congress have been many who wore the lambskin. Other Tennessee Masons served as members of the Confederacy's Congress during the early 186o's. Others of the Craft have been prominent in the United States diplomatic service and in the courts of the State and of the Republic. Of these we can mention only a few of the more outstanding.


With records similar to that of John Sevier, other distinguished Tennessee 244 FREEMASONRY IN TENNESSEE Masons who have