The “Mitchell” history precedes both Robert Gould’s 6-volume History (1885) and Albert Mackey’s 7-volume history (1898). Prior to 1858, there was nearly a void of Masonic history, save for such as “Anderson’s Constitutions” (1723) and the “Monitorial” work of those such as Preston and Webb.


Dr. James W.S. Mitchell (PGM of Missouri) was the first to venture a major history, with a distinct bias toward the Antients. In the end, between the quality of the actual books (two volumes, bearing few graphics and published with small print), they are little known, today. It is perhaps validly said that Mitchell’s chief contribution was intellectual stimulation and contrast.


In 1858 Mitchell published “The History of Freemasonry and Masonic Digest.” By 1869 it was in its seventh edition, ranking second only to the works of Preston and Oliver; it was the most widely-read Masonic book in America. Vol. I of that edition contains 720 pages; Vol. II contains another 719 pages. Together, they covered the histories of Operative Masonry, Speculative Masonry, the High Grades, the Egyptian Mysteries, and included much material about Solomon; given that Mitchell followed Oliver in believing that Solomon was the first Grand Master.


Mitchell began his composition of Masonic history in 1855; ten years after Mackey published his “Lexicon;” containing a collection of brief articles and certain of Mackey's early Masonic theories. Both Mitchell and Mackey suffered from the void of reliable Masonic literature; there were no Masonic libraries. The authority up until that time was Oliver. Thus, Mitchell is entitled to credit for a massive undertaking, regardless of modern agreement with his views. Certainly, it took the best efforts of men such as Mitchell, Gould and Mackey to provide the foundation for modern Masonic history.


It should be noted that Mackey’s history was only half completed at the time of his death (1881); his work was completed and amended posthumously.


Mitchell’s work illustrates what was known, believed and practiced in Masonry in the United States, in the 1860s time frame – also the period of the American Civil War. Lacking a better foundation, Mitchell was obligated to reason and speculate, based on what little material was available; augmented by his best judgment and intuition. Certainly, Mitchell’s presented facts are both sincere and valuable, as are the facts presented in Oliver's books. Mitchell’s chapters on jurisprudence present an interesting set of positions on what was believed and practiced in the 1850's; that work being invaluable for comparison with modern jurisprudence.


Mitchell’s work was preceded by the "Baltimore Convention of 1843", held May 8th through the 17th, in an attempt to agree upon a standardized "mode of work" to be  recommend to the various Grand Lodges. The intent being to create a Masonic ritual which could become the uniform standard in America.


The background to this convention came from the catechism form of the lectures of the day, which came to this country with Freemasonry. That system evolved from Anderson and Desaguliers; revised and "improved" by those such as Martin Clare, Thomas Dunkerly, William Hutchinson and William Preston.


The spread of the Prestonian work was largely credited to Thomas Smith Webb, who published his "Freemason's Monitor" in 1797. Webb supposedly received the Prestonian work from a pupil of Preston's, one John Hanmer. Webbs work was popularly received in almost every jurisdiction (Pennsylvania excepted). In general, the radical majority of the U.S. jurisdictions adopted some or all of Webb's modifications of Preston’s work. In turn, Webb's labors were greatly enhanced by Jeremy Cross, in his "True Masonic Chart," illustrated by the Connecticut engraver, Amos Doolittle.  That work was the foundation of the art seen today o­n the various Masonic charts and lecture slides.


In the early days of Masonry in America, there was no standardized work. As described by Rob Morris: "The catechism being committed to memory the learner was supposed to possess the method of work, that is, the drill and drama, or ceremony of Masonry, which was made literally to conform to the lectures."


In the end, the Baltimore Convention adopted the lectures as taught by Thomas Smith Webb, making o­nly three major changes of importance; recommending their adoption by the Grand Lodges, then in existence.


The matter of ‘ritual’ having been decided, the assembly of a viable history was mandated.


It is undisputable that Dr. Albert Mackey’s later illustrated encyclopedia and history prevailed in terms of both content and quality. While out of print by nearly a hundred years, the Mackey Encyclopedia (three volumes in its final format) and seven-volume History is also available in CD format.




Know James W.S. Mitchell: 




IT has been said that the business of a historian is to detail facts unaccompanied by his opinions in favor of, or against particular theories. Others go further, and say that a theory in history is preposterous." Now all this sounds very well; as all men would be likely to agree in saying that the collation and proper arrangement of facts does indeed constitute history. But it is a question of grave importance, whether, under certain circumstances, it does not become the duty of the historian to do something more than this. How should we, at the present day, be able to arrive at a knowledge of some of the most important events of the middle ages, had not historians, after having detailed the known facts, reasoned tom cause to effect, in order to prove the existence of other facts, not self-evident ? One class of historians give us a very interesting and somewhat detailed account of the reign of Queen Semiramis, while another class, equally honest and intelligent, tell us that no such Queen ever lived, though both agree in stating the important facts of the supposed reign. Here is a palpable contradiction; and yet is it possible, by the use of other facts and reasonable deductions, drawn from thence, to determine which is right. Even at the present day, witnesses are being exhumed from the bowels of the earth, which, of themselves, speak no language now understood, but, when submitted to the antiquarian tests and compared with other and known developments, are made to testify of important truths which have been buried from the knowledge of men for ages past. It is a historical fact, that Cortes found a stone at the city of Mexico, so large that no man of his, or the present age, has been able to say by what power it had been elevated to its then situation. And must this mystery forever remain necessarily unsolved, because nothing can be found on record to explain it? On the contrary, should the means be discovered for raising similar bodies, would it not be the business of the historian, after detailing this fact, to reason upon the probability of the use of a similar power by the aborigines of Mexico? It is a historical fact, that the said stone contained a great number of devices and hieroglyphics, which could not be explained, even by the natives. And should this, or any future age, discover a key capable of clearly unraveling a part of these mystic symbols, may not the historian, after detailing this fact and its developments, proceed to explain the relative position of the remainder, and deduce from thence the probable reading of the whole?

 In, like manner, where truth has been covered up, or mystified by fiction, it would seem to be the writer's duty to hunt up and bring to bear all accredited testimony within his reach. in order to lift the veil and expose the deception.


We have reason to believe that Masonry was, originally, a secret Society, and was, governed by laws known only to the members. We read of old manuscripts being in the hands of private members, at an early day, but we have evidence tending to show that those manuscripts bad reference alone to the fundamental laws, so far as they could be written, together with, such usages, as, at an early day, were    not considered to belong exclusively to the Lodge room; and yet, even these were held to be exclusively the property of the initiated, and with which the world had no right to become acquainted.


            Such, it is thought, was the condition of things until the seventeenth century, when some publications were made, but so meagre and unsatisfactory to the world, as to serve only to whet the curiosity of the lovers of ancient lore. Soon after the reorganization of Masonry in London; and the establishment of the present Grand Lodge system, a spirit of inquiry was set on foot by Grand Master Payne, for all reliable evidences of the true laws, usages, and, if possible, evidences of the history of the Society. As early as 1719, the Grand Lodge made a request to all private Masons, to bring, or send forward all manuscripts in their hands; which request was generally complied with, though a few, who still adhered to the old teaching, that no publications were allowable, committed to the flames some Masonic papers, rather than risk them in the bands of their descendants. It is believed, however, that no, material loss was sustained by the burning of said manuscripts, as those that were preserved contained all the important facts which had ever been written. And yet, after they were all carefully examined, it was found that they furnished but little more than an index, pointing to the rituals and traditions of the Order. Doctor Anderson was appointed a committee to collate the old laws, and, as far as practicable, write a history of English Masonry; and, while we have reason to believe that he faithfully collated and digested the laws, we are at a loss to account for the position he assumed in fixing the origin of Masonry. The Doctor did not claim that the manuscripts collected furnished his data; on the contrary, it was then generally believed that no such manuscripts had ever existed. We further know that he did not rely upon the legends or traditions of Masonry, for these all go to disprove his theory, viz.; that the Institution was as old as the world. It is hardly fair to suppose the Doctor did not know that, down to that period, the Fraternity believed that the origin of Masonry was known only from the teachings of the Lodge room; and yet be seemed to attach more importance to the supposed examination of a brother by Henry VI., in which the witness is made to say that "Masonry was known to the man in the West, before the man in the East," and, in assuming the hypothesis that Masonry was about as old as the world, very properly avoided any reference to those traditions which point to the man who was the instrument in bringing it into being, and perfecting its teachings.


When Doctor Anderson wrote, Masonry was but just emerging from the dark gloom of threatened annihilation, and it is not unfair to suppose that its first historian was more or less influenced by a desire to win for it, popularity: and if the great body of men were then, as now, more readily won by marvelous tales, than by simple and plain truths, we may conclude it was a master-stroke of the pen to deal in fiction; and this the more readily, because, admitting that he knew the Lodge room alone could furnish reliable testimony; be knew that Masons would not then have tolerated a publication of the facts. Certain it is, that the position be assumed carried with it the privilege of entering the broad field of conjecture, and afforded him an opportunity to feed the fancy of his readers with both facts and fiction: and the latter is equally as safe from criticism, for nowhere upon record could be found anything which would disprove either his hypothesis or his conclusions; in short, as the facts had never been published, the world was not prepared to gainsay his (the most extravagant) claims of its antiquity, nor to pronounce his theory “the baseless fabric of a dream!"


Since the publication of Anderson's Constitutions, containing a very faithful account of English Masonry, and a fancy sketch of its origin,






many sketches have been written, claiming to be historical, no two of which, it is believed, agree as to the time when the Order was inst> toted. These writers may be classed under four heads, and may be designated as follows: First, those who, in the main, agree with Anderson as to the origin of Masonry, but who undertake to fix the precise date‑some at the Garden of Eden, some in the days of Enoch, some in the days of Noah, and last, though not least, a celebrated divine of the present day fixes its existence in "the great empyrean of space, before this world was created." The second class, conceiving that something very like Freemasonry was absolutely necessary to relieve the descendants of Noah from the curse which God entailed upon them, by confounding their language, assume the hypothesis that Masonry was instituted at the Tower of Babel, before the dispersion, thus affording the tribes a universal language. The third class charge that the preceding classes are dependent upon mere theory, unsupported by any known facts for their conclusions, and, therefore, resolved to have, themselves, authentic testimony of the existence of the very oldest secret society, and, in their success in proving, from authentic records, the early existence of the Egyptian Mysteries, very wisely conclude that it is worse than useless to go further in their antiquarian researches, and jump to the conclusion that either Freemasonry is the mother of the Egyptian Mysteries, or vice versa. Thus, by some of this class, Masonry is the mother, and by others she is the daughter. The fourth class take exceptions to all the doctrines of the foregoing ‑deny the antiquity claimed for the Society, and undertake to show, from recorded testimony, that Masonry originated with the Orders of Knighthood, during the Crusades to the Holy Land. And now another adventurer enters the field, and, though " solitary and alone," he has the temerity to venture the opinion, that his predecessors were all wrong‑that the origin of, Masonry is not a matter of doubt, or should not be, to any well informed Mason. whose special attention has been called to a few well known facts; on the contrary, that its origin is so clearly and minutely detailed in the Lodge room, that all Masons must be brought to see that there alone can the whole truth be learned. This being the hypothesis of the Author of this work, it will






be seen, from the facts before stated, that it would be impossible for him to write what he believes to be a true history of the Order, and throughout confine himself to a detail of recorded facts. And, aside from the consideration of the origin of Masonry, by what means may he proceed to detail its rise and progress throughout the civilized world, relying alone on recorded testimony, while only detached parcels of the whole truth have ever been published? Doctor Anderson has given us more historical detail than any other writer, and yet his investigations were confined mainly to England, Scotland, and Ireland; and, indeed, strictly speaking, his history is only complete, so far as it relates to the South of England, or, more properly, the city of London. Preston copied from Anderson, and brought down the history of the Grand Lodge of England, and its dependencies, to his own time. Doctor Oliver extended Preston's history through a period of ten years, but confined himself almost exclusively to his own Grand Lodge. Laurie's history is almost a literal copy of Anderson's, except of the Order in Scotland, which is much more minutely given. There are many volumes in the German and French languages, written with great ability, but, as far as the Author can judge, they all have reference to the various modern degrees, called Masonry. From what has been said, it will be seen that the Author relies upon the traditions for much, very much of the material upon which to found his history, and, therefore, he must reeds do all in his power to clear away the rubbish, and bring to light those sacred truths which have been thrown over by careless and unskillful workmen, and which, for more than a century, have been covered up, deeper and deeper, by fancy sketches of imaginary theory. If the traditions of Masonry are not reliable as authority for the foundation of a historical detail, then are they the merest phantoms of a distempered imagination, and we should blush to use them in the Lodge room, as the foundation of all our instructions. On the contrary, if they merit the high place they now occupy, as teachers of those great truths which, for ages past, have served to unite the discordant materials incident to man's nature, and link together a mighty Brother. hood, then are they entitled to all credit, and, by their aid, may the origin of Masonry be clearly pointed out, and a true history of the Order may be written and published to the world, with outlines sufficiently broad, and details sufficiently clear, to answer the just demands of the 




uninitiated, and with still more precision to the understanding of the Craft; and all this, without doing violence to the laws of secrecy. With these convictions, the Author has undertaken to prove that Masonry took Its origin just where, and in the precise manner pointed out by our rituals and traditions; and whenever and wherever authenticated fact were to be found, he has endeavored to detail them impartially, without pausing to inquire whether they tended to prove or disprove his peculiar opinions. And where facts were not available, he has endeavored to glean the truth by analogy and sound deductions. In his history and review of the great batch of modern degrees, called, by their inventors, Masonic degrees, the Author has endeavored to have but one great end in view, viz., to show what is, and what is not Free masonry, and to warn the true Fraternity against amalgamations or entangling alliances with all outside institutions, however praiseworthy their objects and ends may be.






Death of Solomon....................... 1

Freemasonry a Secret Society.............. 17

Division of Solomon's Kingdom........... To the Traditions are we indebted for the Influence of Solomon's Masons............ 96

Early History.......................... 17

Death of Josiah, King of Judah......... 97

The origin of Masonry Investigated......., 18

Destruction of Jerusalem.................. 98

Preston's Views...................... 18

The Early History of the World............ 20


Dr. Oliver's Opinions Reviewed............ 23

Liberation of the Jews from Captivity...... 101

The Cabiri........................ 38

Reign of Cyrus......................... 102

Dr. Oliver's Initiation of Moses by Jehovah.. 39

Artaxerxes, Reign of................. 103

Laws by Moses to Lodges and Chapters,‑ Darius, Reign of...................... 103 Oliver................................ 40

Zerubbabel.......................... 104

Masonry the True Religion................. 46

Second Temple.................... 104

Masonry Aids to Spread the Gospel to Heathens............................... 47

Pythagoras.......................... 106




The Author's Opinion of the Origin of Masonry........................... 60

Death of Alexander the Great......... 113

Masonry is of Divine Origin.............. 53

Euclid.......................... 113

Solomon the instrument in establishing Masonry............................... 54

Alexandrian Libry.............. The Three Degrees of Masonry, History of... 61

Tower of Pharaoh........................ 11

Entered Prentice.................... 63



Asdrubal's Wife Curses Her Husband....... 121

The Fellow Craft, History of.............. 66

City of Rhodes.......................... 7

Lodges allowed to confer only the Apprentice Degree............................ 68

Colossal Statue........................... 118

Wall of China........................... 12

Second Section of the Fellow Craft's Degree.. 71

Lord Amherst's Visit to China.... 123

Distinction between Fellow and Fellow Craft. 74

The City of David................. 76




King Solomon to King Hiram.............. 77


Fall of Carthage.................. 12

Hiram Abiff...................... 78

The Tuscan Order of Architecture......... 127

Classification of the Workmen on the Temple 80

Pompey the Great........................128




Masonry in Rome............ 128

Masonry in Judea................12

Solomon's Temple..............83

Reign of Herod 3 ............. 1

Celebration of the Cape‑Stone.............. 86

Dr. Oliver's Traditions of the Curious Stones. 88




Solomon the First Master.................. 89

ThBuildings Erected oy Solomon......... 90

Before Christ Forty Years................. 13)

Flight of Herod....................... 136

CHAPTER V. Judea in the Hands of a Stranger.......... 13

Lodges Established‑Grand Lodge at Jeru‑ Masonry Neglected........................ a.esm................................ 92 Charlemagne, Reign of............... 141


Page XIV


            ziv CONTENTS. PAGE. AOIL The First Treatise on Architecture......... 143 CHAPTER XVI. Architecture of the Sixteenth Century Cor‑ Union of Scotland and England....... 204 pared......................... 145 Reign of James I................... 204 Inigo Jones,.............~............... 206 CHAPTER XI. Nicholas Stone........................... 207 Masonry in England, Introduction of..... 146 The Massacre of Four Thousand Protestants Introduction of the Saxons into England.... 151 in Ireland............................. 208 london Inclosed with a Stone Wall....... 151 Charles I. and Cromwell.................. 209 Origin of the Name England.............. 153 Cromwell, Washington, and Bonaparte..... 209 Masonic Records Lost in the Wars with the Restoration of Charles II.......... 210 Druids............................ 154 The'Kings call for a Masonic Assembly.....210 Prince Edwin................,.,... 154 General Assembly of Masons, 1663.......210 Grand Lodge at York.................... 155 Regulations of 1663.................... 213 King Athelstan.......................... CHAPTR I. First Prince of Wales.................... 161 Oxford College Built..................... 161 Operative Masonry Abandoned.... 2.... 214 The Templars Erect their Dormus De....... 161 Sir Christopher Wren................. 21 Celebration of the Cape‑Stone of Westminster Great Fire in London, 1666.............. 216 Abbey............... 161 Roofing for Houses in the Seventeenth CenOld Records of Masonry in the Reign of Ed‑ tury............................. 218 ward III.................... 162 Rebuilding St. Paul's Church........... 219 Sir Christopher Wren's Deputy............ 223 CHAPTER XII. Walbrook Church....................... 223 Edict of Henry VI. against Masons......... 164 Death of Charles II........................ 224 Tne Bat Parliament....................... 166 Reign of William and Mary............ 225 Winchester's Hostility to Masonry........ 166 Masonry Neglected................. 225 A Regular Lodge at Canterbury in 1400.... 171 CHAPrYf XVm. C~HAtI'i xAli. Masons Should Again Take Charge of Archi‑'The White and Red Rose.................. 173 tecture............................... 227 JLtter from John Locke.................. 173 Grand Master Wren's Letter of Instructions The Old Bodleian Manuscript.............. 174 to Builders........................... 229 Abrac............................. 181 G. Master Wren's great Age compels him to CHAPTER XIV Neglect Masonry....................... 234 The Churches of St. Paul and St. Peter..... 234 Reign of Henry VII................. 183 Apprentices Members of G. Lodge......... 235 A Lodge of Masions in 184 Re‑organization of Masonry m the South of ons of Masons Initiated at Eighteen Years of England............................... 236 Age................................. 185 Grand Ma ter Payne's Administration...... 239 Henry VIII. and his Parliament deny the Occasional Lodge for the Duke of Lorraine.. 249 Right Divine of the Pope.............. 186 The Old Gothic Constitutions ordered to be Reign of Elizabeth..................... 187 Revised by Dr. Anderson, 1721.........241 Districting England‑Provincial G. Masters. 190 Committee cf Fourteen............. 241 The Character of Queen Elizabeth,........ 191 Masonry Popular in England....... 243 CHAPTER XV. CHAPTER XIX. Masonry in Scotland................... 194 Masonry at York.................... 260 Origin of the Scots.................... 195 Masonry Neglected in London............. 250 Macbeth's Descendants................ 197 Grand Lodge of England sends a Charter to Robert Bruce........................ 199 York............................. 251 Masons Lived in Camps or Huts............ 200 Committee of Charity..................... 253 Kilwinning and York the Nurseries of Ma‑ Stewards Admitted to Seats in G. Lodge... 255 sonry.................................. 200 Novelties in Grand Lodge.................. 255 Ordered by the King that the Masons Pay Frederick, Prince of Wales, Initiated... 256 the G. Master.......................... 201 Attempt to remove a Landmark....... 257 William Sinclair, G. Master............... 202 Second Edi:ion of the Book of Constitutons.. 257 diary Queen of Scots................ 202'

Clandestine Makings................ 261


Page XV


            CONTENTS. XT PAGE. rAC6. Only Members of Lodges Ertitled to Charity. 259 Anti‑Masonry ir Holland and France....... 8. Rupture between G. Lodge of England and Bull of Pope Engenius against Masonry...... 81A that of York...................... 260 Imprisonment of Masons by the Inquisition. 329 Seceders and Ahiman Rezon.............. 260 Masonry in Switzerland................ The First Form for a Procession............ 262 The Council of Berne against Masonry.....30 Action Against the Ancient Masons........ 265 Synod of Scotland against Masonry....... 831 CHA'PTER XX. CHAPTER XXV. Reign of Georgem.................. 268 Masonry in Ireland...l.............. 332 Initiation of the Dukes of Gloucester and Address of the Grand Lodge of Ireland to the umbtlation of the of G.loucester and. Cumberland.......................... 269 Duke of Sussex........................ 339 Taxing Grand Officers to Build a Hall....... 279 The Duke's Reply................. 3 Past G. Officers May Wear Gold JewelsCelebration in Dublin in 1838............. 341 Past G. Officers May'Wear Gold Jewels..... 270 Difficulty between G. Lodge and the Lodge of France, Germany, and America made the Antiquity............................. 274 CHAPTER XM. CHAPTER XXVI. History of Lodge of Antiquity‑Continued... 276 Masonry in Scotland.....................34 Initiation of Omdit‑ul‑Omran Bauhader.... 279 Monument to Bro. Robert Burns...... 349 Grand Officers with Robes................. 280 The Throne of a Grand Lodge..... 362 Regulations against Non‑affiliated Masons... 281 Monument to the Memory of Sir Walter Scott 366 New Regulations Adopted.............. 281 Laying a Corner‑Stone in Scotland..... 367 Fines for Non‑attendance................ 282 CHAPTER XXVII. CHAPTER XXII. Masonry in England.............. 361 Foundation Laid for the Female Orphan Charges against Brethren for Visiting Ancient School..~ S ‑Lodges. 361 i~,ules fSchoolo................................. 361 Rules for the School........... 287 Portraits of Grand Masters......... 862 Address of the G. Lodge to the King....... 290 Resolutions of Grand Lodge....... 363 Address of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts Revoking Innovations........ 364 to Brother George Washington........... 293 Great Dinner, January, 183.......... 366 Washington's Reply..................... 294 CHAPTER XXVIII. Washington as a Mason.............. 294 fWashino as on.g294 The Dukes of Sussex and Kent Grand Masters Death of Washington‑Funeral...........295 of the two Grand Lodges.. 373 of the two Grand Lodges................ 378 CHAPTER XXIII. Union of the two Grand Lodges........ 373 Articles of Union.................... 374 The Jesuits and Masonry.................. 298 Consequences of the Unio. 382 Consequences oftheUnto.,............ 382 Expulsion of the Jesuits from all Countries W o o What is Spurious Freemasonry............ 384 except the United States............... 299 eete id t.29...... A Clandestine Mason Contending at law for Expose of the Articles of Union of the Jesuits 300. 301‑a Fee for Making a Mason............... 386 Weishaupt's Society....................... 301.................. Insubordination of Masons at Liverpool..... 386 Baruel and Robinson's Opposition to Masonry 302 Prince of ales Lo Prince of Wales Lodge.................. S8 Revolution in France..................... 305 Influence of Masonry on a Pirate........... 389 Inhuman Treatment of American Prisoners. 307 Beautiful Ceremony of Laying a Corner‑Stone 390 Robinson's Proofs of Conspiracy........u... 308 Extract from Dewitt Clinton's Address...... 315 CHAPTER XXIX. Expulsion of the Jesuits in 1847............ 3'8 Initiation of King William IV.‑The Offices Masonry Meddles not with Politics or Re‑ He Filled.............................. 393 ligion............................. 319 An Asylum for Decayed Freemasons........ 393 Address to the Duke of Sussex............. 396 CHAPTER XXIV. Masonry in the Nineteenth Century........ 401 Masonry in France....................... 320 The Duke of Wellington's Initiation......... 408 New Degrees..................... 324 Badges of Mourning.................... 410 Masonry n the East Indies................ 325 Belgian Proscription of Masonry..... 4.... 410 Organization of the G. Lodge of Ireland..... 325 Anti‑Masons Differ in Different Countries... 413 The Order of Knights Templar instituted.... 335 Lodges in the Army Opposed.......... 417 Warrants sent into Russia and Spain....... 326 Hindoo Opinions of Masonry............,. 421


Page XVI


            Xvi CONTENTS. PAGE. Pi CHAPTER XX. The Compact of 1827................, 12 Masonry in the United States.............. 423 Rupture and New Grand Lodge............ 4 Was Masonry Among the Indians Before the CHAPTER XXxV. Times of Columbus..................... 427 The Greek Language among the Indians.... 427 Rupture of Union of St. John's Grand Lodge with the Indian Medicine Lodge.................... 431 Indian Medicine Lodge................ Grand Lodge of New York............... 530 No Evidence of Masonry among the Indians. 434 Lodges Established by a Council of Thirty Welsh Language among the Indians........ 435 third Degree....................... 553 third Degree.......................: CHAPTER XXXI. Union of 1858...................... 554 Was Freemasonry Known to the Aborigines Masonry in Pennsylvania.............. 555 of the South?.......................... 441 Smiths Aliman Re........... 55 he Ancient Mysteries of Mexico.......... 442 General Grand Lodge Recommended........ 6 The Great Temple of Mexico............. 444 Establishment of an Independent Grand Initiation Ceremony..................... 445 Lodge CHAPTER XXII. CHAPTER XXXVI. the Early Setflers in the United States..... 453 Masonry in Georgia....... 56 Discovery of this Country by Icelanders iever was any Athol Masnny in Mas 1003 of ta chusetts.................................. 53 6 1003..sachusetts............................ 56 Voyage ofColumbus.................. 454 Masonry in South Carolina............. 571 Voyage of John Cabot.................. 455 Masonry in North Carolina......... 576 Voyage of Sebastian Cabot................ 456 Masonry in Virginia..................... 578 Voyage from France................... 456 GGrand and Deputy Grand Masters of Virg;‑ia 586 Ponce de Leon's Vovage.............. 467 Grand Lodge of New Jersey............... 587 De Soto's Voyag...................... 458 GrandodgeofMaryland.587 Indians Carried into Slavery..... 458 MasonryinConnecticut............. 58 French Colony..462 Hiram Lodge, No....................... 589 Colony of Hugenots....................... 463 Grand Lodge of Rhode Island.............. 597 Malendez, the Spanish Assassin.......... 464 Grand Lodge of Vermont................. 5 Sir Walter Raleigh's Colony 4........... 466 History of Masonry in Kentucky........... 59 Manteo, an Indian Chief................... 467 Masory in Delaware......... 603 What Became of Raleigh's Colony......... 469 Masonry in Ohio........................ 60 Settlement at Jamestown............. 470 MasonryinteDistrictofColumbia. 09 Pocahontas and Smith................... 472 Masonry in Tennessee................... 610 The First Warrant sent to America......... 477 Masonry in Missiippi................. 60 Masonry in Louisiana.................... 611 CHAPTER XXXIII. Old Records of G. Lodge of Louisiana....... 612 Masonry in Massachusetts................ Masonry in Missouri................... 622 St. John's Provincial Grand Lodge Estab‑ Masonry in Alabama...................... 629 lished................................ 482 Masonry in Illinois........................ 638 St. Andrew's Grand Lodge Established..... 484 Masony in Florida....................... 638 Joseph Warren appointed Provincial Grand Organization of the G. L. and G. Chap. of Fla. 640 Master............................... 486 Masonry in ioi,........................ 642 Both Grand Lodges Suspended in 1775..... 487 Masonry in Texas........................ 645 Battle of Bunker Hill.................... 487 Grand Lodge formed................. 649 Re‑organization of St. Andrew's G. Lodge... 487 Grand Chapter........................ 653 St. John's Grand Lodge Resumes Labor..... 488 Masonry in California.................... 656 Union of the Two Grand Lodges............ 489 Masonry in Kansas Territory............... 661 CHAPTER XXXIV. Masonry in Nebraska Territory........... 662 History of Masonry in New York........... 498 Masonry in Oregon Territory..........6.... St. John's Lodge, No. 1................... 00 Masonry in Minnesota Territory.......... 664 A Thrilling Story of an Escaped Prisoner.... 501 CHAPTER XXXVII. The Athol Warrant for a Grand Lodge in New Royal Arch Masonry.............6.... 660 York........................... 503 Doctor Folger's Letter.................... 1 Establishment of the Present Grand Lodge.. 505 Council of Royal and Select Masters..... 700 Origin of Difficulties in New York......... 508 History of the Council Degrees in Alabama.. 710


Page 17




            FREEMASONRY was strictly a secret Society for more than two thousand, years; its members were forbidden to publish any thing, either in relation to its origin or teaching; and yet, throughout all that period, its history was transmitted from generation to generation, unspotted by time, and unadulterated by the sacrilegious hand of the innovator. Nor is this difficult to be accounted for, when it is remembered that the legends ‑ the traditions of the Order, have ever constituted a portion of the teaching, intimately connected with, and inseparable from, the ritual of the Lodge room. And these instructions have not only been communicated to all initiates, but they have been required so to impress them on their minds as to be able to teach in turn. Thus, while the middle or dark ages enveloped in oblivion the very footprints of the world's history, leaving us but the merest fables of Heathen Mythology to tell of Time's onward course, our Order, having been transmitted from society to society, from man to man, in the same unmistakable and unalterable symbolism, preserved its identity, and perpetuated its existence in the upward and onward mission it was instituted and sent forth to accomplish. We believe it is susceptible of the clearest proof that to the universal language of Masonry, and its unerring method of transmission, is the world indebted for a knowledge of the most remarkable events of seven hundred years of the world's history; and, to well informed Masons, it satisfactorily appears that by divine permission, it was made the instrument, not only for the preservation, but the discovery of the five books of Moses, after a lapse of four hundred and seventy years of lawless disorder. And, if there were no other interesting features in the general aspect of Masonry, these, it would seem, are abundantly sufficient to rivet the attention and excite the


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careful investigation of every inquiring mind, in relation to its true history and principles. But before we attempt to fix the point of time at which our Society was instituted, it becomes our unpleasant task to clear away the rubbish which has been thrown over it by unskillful and unfaithful workmen. The distinguished Preston says: "From the commencement of the world we may trace the foundation of Masonry; ever since symmetry began and harmony displayed her charms, our Order has had a being." If the author had stopped with the first part of the paragraph here quoted, we could readily have reconciled it with the facts, as we believe they exist, that the foundation was then laid. That some one or more of the great principles taught by Freemasonry were known from the foundation of the world, no well informed Mason is likely to question; but the existence of that principle, or even a knowledge of all the principles at that period, which are inculcated now by the Craft, does not prove that the system or art of teaching those principles was then known or practiced; and hence the objectionable part of the paragraph is that which declares "the existence of our Order ever since harmony displayed her charms." Now, this is a declaration that Masonry, as a Society, has existed ever since the creation of the world, for we must regard it as something more than the knowledge of certain principles, separate and distinct, or in chaotic confusion. Masonry is an Order, a Society of individuals, having a systematic art of teaching certain principles, and linking its recipients together by certain indissoluble ties which enable them to distinguish each other, and place them under obligations to befriend and relieve each other from the withering blight of misfortune; and it is as impossible to conceive of the existence of the Order without a community of individuals to constitute that Order, as to suppose the existence of a government without subjects to be governed. We desire the reader to satisfy himself in relation to the correctness of this position, for upon it depends the fitness of much about to be said; and we desire to use no terms which do not convey our meaning, nor assume grounds which are not sustained by facts. Preston, we believe, was a good man, and a devoted


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Mason; loved its principles and practiced them; but it is matter of extreme regret that he has done little more than to copy Anderson, and enlarge upon his wild theory. Had he traced Masonry to that period to which the written records point, or where Masonic tradition places it, his labors would have been rewarded by the plaudits of those who are seeking after true Masonic light. But his work would, in this particular, have possessed none of those charms of miraculous mystery after which the world is running with almost frantic rage. That this declaration is true, we have only to refer to the light literature of France, the very trash of which is read with more avidity and eager delight at the present day, than the ablest productions in the investigation of the means which conduce to man's true and lasting happiness; nor is this the only example of man's love of the wonderful. Science is being perverted and thrown into ridicule to suit the vitiated taste of the age. A gentleman, whose character for ability and learning in the literary world places him high as an instructor, may propose to deliver a lecture in any of the departments of science, and he can not, in any town in the United States, obtain half the number of hearers as can be had by the most illiterate vagabond who professes to close his eyes by an impenetrable hoodwink, and look with the eye of the mind through his own skull and distinctly see any object placed before him. Alas! how true it is, that while posterity will accord to this generation a rapid march in the onward course of improvements, they will also set us down as a race of men taking pleasure in being deceived; a people who are best pleased when most deceived, and the more ridiculous the manner used, the more fascinating the deception; and thus it is with Masonry, we delight to call our Institution" ancient and honorable;" ancient as having existed from time immemorial' and to confirm the belief of this oft repeated sentence, the historian is encouraged to date its origin back to a period anterior to that which affords any proofs for or against it; which leaves the writer at liberty to manufacture a tale of its origin and rise, as senseless and miraculous as the tuste of the age demands. Ia order that we may the better exhibit the ground we


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occupy, it will be necessary to inquire into the early history of man; this we shall do only so far as is absolutely necessary to the elucidation of the subject before us. If we were in possession of a clear and well defined history of the world, from its creation to the present day, we might arrive at correct conclusions with much less difficulty; but, unfortunately, the first eighteen hundred years are almost buried in impenetrable oblivion; for down to the time of the Flood, we know very little more than the genealogy of the Patriarchs, together with their vices and ultimate destruction by the Deluge. If we take civil history, we find its first dawn is to be traced only as far back as the foundation of the ancient kingdom of Babylon, or the Assyrian Empire; and even there its light is shrouded by many mists, penetrated by dubious rays. This period is about a century and a half after the Flood. Nimrod, the founder of Babel, was the great grandson of Noah, and even of his reign and government we know nothing, save from the writings of Moses, which are confined to a few particulars. That Ham and his sons rebelled against the authority of Noah seems probable, if we rely on the opinion of most chronologers; whereupon, Noah and his followers crossed into Persia, or India and China, and as Shem, whom he considered in the line of the Messiah, was doubtless a favorite with his sire, it follows as probable that they settled in the same country. That, while Elam, the eldest son of Shem, settled in Persia, Noah went still further East; and, though we are not well informed of the history of the Chinese Empire, its antiquity, the language of the people, their numerous traditions of the flood, render it probable that Noah was the first to give it being as a nation; it was certainly founded by the wisest men. To which may be added the somewhat singular fact, that Moses is silent in relation to Noah's history after the Flood; which is accounted for by writers on the ground that Noah had left Western Asia before the time to which Moses alludes, and his history is mainly confined to that scene. If Masonry existed and was operative in those days, then might we expect to find it in a higher state of perfection than at any subsequent period; for of all the cities, ancient or modern, of


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which we have an account, none, perhaps, will be found to surpass ancient Babylon, either in extent or grandeur. It was built on a fertile plain, watered by the river Euphrates, which ran through it, and was encompassed by a wall three hundred and sixty feet high, eighty‑seven feet thick, and inclosed a square of ground, each side of which was fifteen miles in length, so that a circuit of sixty miles was made in passing around the wall. There were fifty great streets, one hundred and fifty feet wide, crossing at right angles, and terminating in four other streets of two hundred feet in width at each side of the wall. The entire space within was improved with splendid edifices and beautiful gardens; the buildings were three and four stories high, and of superior workmanship; there was also, around, a square building of four hundred feet on each side, carried up to the height of the wall, and a platform of immense stone laid thereon, upon which earth was placed, which not only served to produce splendid hanging gardens, but supported large trees; these gardens were watered by an engine from the river. These people also erected the Tower of Babel, the height of which is variously estimated. We are inclined to fix it at something over six hundred feet; its base was forty rods square. Whether this was built by Nimrod, Ninus, or Semiramis, is not clearly shown. Ninus was much occupied in building and beautifying the city of Nineveh. Semiramis has also the reputation of giving to the world a reign of more splendor for her great works in architecture, as well as achievements in arms, than any other sovereign for many generations; but it is difficult to form any well grounded opinion of those who succeeded her; for although we are told she abdicated the throne in favor of her son Ninyas, it is not stated in what year of the world, nor do we know any more of the history of the Assyrian Empire for more than one thousand years. Tradition has scarcely given us the names of the monarchs; it is probable, however, that a knowledge of the arts and sciences was lost, and that the people became corrupt, dissolute, and idle; that the monarchy was totally destroyed. One thing is certain, we can not rely upon any of the details of civil history, until the reign of Nabonassar, which was about seven hundred and


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fifty years B.C. Nabonassar was cotemporary with Jotham, King of Judah, and his reign was within five or six years of the founding of Rome: to this period only, can we trace civil history with any certainty. About six hundred years B.C.. Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, invaded the Assyrian Empire, and destroyed the city of Nineveh; two years after he laid siege to Jerusalem, and after two years of untiring efforts he took and destroyed it, burnt Solomon's Temple, and carried the Jews captive to Babylon. This brings us down to a period after the introduction of Masonry, as we believe; and although the sketch is imperfect, it is sufficient to enable the reader fairly and clearly to estimate our own views, as also those from whose writings we shall make extracts. We say the reader must be prepared to judge with what accuracy the history of Masonry could be traced back to the anti-deluvian world, even if it then existed, by any thing which we find in profane history, when we remember that the link is more than once broken, and for a period of time which renders it impossible ever to be united by any power of the human mind. This being true, we are left only two other sources of information:‑1. The Bible; 2. Tradition; and we give full credit to each; but we are not to be understood as saying If such a revelation can be found in a Mormon Bible, we are prepared to admit its truth; nor are we willing to admit the bare declaration of any man that a tradition exists establishing the fact that Adam was a Mason. But if the Holy Bible, or that only true and holy tradition which has been regularly transmitted from age to age, through the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry, places the Society in the antideluvian world, we will admit that we have learned Masonry in vain, and promise to commence de novo. If we could conscientiously believe that Freemasonry is Lux; that Lux is the true religion; that the true religion was revealed to Adam, then would we admit that Adam, Shem, Ham, Japheth, Enoch, and Noah were Masons ùthat Masonry dates its birth at the creation of the world‑and we could bring to our aid the testimony of nearly all the able writers who have figured as Masonic historians for the last one hundred years. Yea, we could reap the advantage of the testimony of


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one of the most learned writers of the present day, were we to take the ground that Masonry was instituted by a man who lived in the East, before Adam was created. Should we assume that Masonry is the uncontaminated worship of the only living and true God, we should be sustained by the same celebrated divine; and it would follow that, inasmuch as God had direct communications with Adam, and Noah having been pronounced a just man, these, at least, were "Ancient Free and Accepted Masons;" and as there is no evidence that Noah or his descendants departed from the true principles of religion, for at least one hundred years after the Flood, it would seem all were Masons until they rebelled against the authority of Noah, and assembled themselves together in the plains of Shinar, and attempted to build a tower, whose top should reach the starry heavens. If Masonry is Geometry, then were all the Antediluvians members of the Order; for Adam and Eve, especially the latter, gave evidence of a knowledge of this science. But we will more methodically accomplish the object in view, by taking up the works of Dr. Oliver, an eminent divine of England, who has written more on the subject of Masonry, in the form of books, we believe, than any other man. To say we are anxious for the result of an effort on our part to point out some of the inconsistencies and false positions assumed by so distinguished a historian, but poorly expresses our feelings; for the high position he justly occupies would deter us from the attempt, did we not believe his works are likely to do much mischief. As a Mason, we should not, in any case, tolerate a misrepresentation, but especially are we under obligation to expose spurious theories, when they tend to excite the ridicule and contempt of those who are not Masons, thereby bringing reproach upon the Craft. The first extract we shall make, is that to which we have already alluded, namely: "But Ancient Masonic traditions say, and I think justly, that our science existed before the creation of this world, and was diffused amidst the numerous systems with which the grand empyrean of universal space is furnished." * To this singular * Oliver's Antiquities of Freemasonri, page 26.


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            if not Quixotic declaration, we deem it scarcely necessary to say more than simply deny its truth. We here assert that there is no such tradition; and in making this declaration, we feel called upon to state that we have taken all the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry, together with the Christian and appendant degrees; in short, all the degrees recognized in the United States as Masonic. With the traditions of Ancient Craft Masonry we profess to be familiar, and we assert here that there is no such tradition; but we do not regard the traditions of any degrees of so called Masonry, above or aside from those of Ancient Craft Masonry, as entitled to implicit confidence these we hold in such veneration, that we feel bound to speak plainly when an effort is made to misrepresent them. Had Dr. Oliver given it as his opinion that Masonry, in all its simple beauty, existed in millions of worlds, and from all eternity, we should not have complained; for, although it might have produced the impression on our mind that it displayed the recklessness of a fanatic, or hired advocate of a bad cause, still, as we could neither show that the position is incorrect, nor satisfy any one else that he did not honestly entertain the opinion, we would be justified in remaining silent. But we regard Masonic tradition as the very highest order of testimony which can be found, to establish any event which happened anterior to that period to which clearly defined written history leads us, and, therefore, can not permit spurious traditions to be substituted to establish every chimera of the brain, emanating from those who may cater to the public taste. We will not say that the principles of the science were not diffused throughout the empyrean of space from all eternity, for the simple reason that we do not know it to be untrue; we only say, there is no such Masonic tradition. The Doctor says that "Masonry is Lux ‑ that Lux is the true religion." Then it follows that none can be saved but Masons, for we do not suppose false religion will save any one. If he had said that true religion and true Masonry consist simply in the belief of the existence of one Supreme Being‑the enlightenment of the soul, showing a self‑existent and eternal first cause, then all men are, and ever have been, Masons; for every


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            nation, kindred, and tongue, from the Anglo‑Saxon down to the wild savage of our own forests, have a law written on their hearts, pointing to the Father of Spirits. But Dr. Oliver tells us what Masonry is, and, therefore, we know what he conceives true religion to be:' Speculative Masonry is nothing else but a system of ethics, founded on the belief of a God, the Creator, Preserver, and Redeemer; which inculcates a strict, obedience of the duties we owe to each other; inspires in the soul a veneration for the author of its being, and incites to a pure worship of the Creator." * That this is true to the letter, all well informed Masons will testify. Freemasonry is a system of ethics; it cultivates and enforces the most sublime truths in relation to man's present and eternal being, and it incites and encourages its votaries to look to God, and ask His blessings and instructions; it points to the Bible as the great book of God's revelations; but it does no more. It seeks not to renovate the soul and make sacrifice for sin, by pointing to the Lamb of God, who taketh away the sins of the world. It points neither to circumcision nor baptism for the remission of sins. It is a system of morals only. It is not religion; it is not in reality any part of religion. It is, as the Doctor here declares it to be, a system of ethics; and yet, next to the Christian religion, it is the most perfect system ever known to man; but does it follow that God gave to man, at his creation, a system by which an association of men were to be formed into a secret society, for the cultivation and preservation of our sacred rites? The fact that Masons, in all ages, since the introduction of our Order, have taught one or more of the principles of the true worship and knowledge of God, is no more evidence of its coexistence with the creation, than is the fact that every religious society in Christendom, teaching, at this day, one or more of the same principles, proves their respective existence, as such, in the garden of Eden, or even in the days of our Saviour's sojourn on earth. Oliver's Antiquies, p. 28


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            We fraternally ask the reader to remember the extract above, made with a view to compare it with others which we shall make in the course of this investigation; for, notwithstanding the Doctor takes the ground that Masonry is the true religion, it seems to us that the next, to which attention is here called, tends to prove that Masonry is no part of religion: "Placed in the Garden of Eden, Adam was made acquainted with the nature of his tenure, and taught, with the worship of his Maker, that science which is now termed Masonry., This constituted his chief happiness in Paradise, and was his only consolation after, his unhappy fall."* Now, if this science was communicated to Adam with a knowledge of the true worship, then it could not have been more than an appendage to, and not even a constituent part of, the true worship; but as this constituted Adam's chief happiness in Paradise, then are we left to infer that God revealed to Adam the plan of salvation for fallen men, viz., repentance and faith in Jesus Christ, before he fell, because, the Doctor says, this transpired in the Garden of Eden; but we must suppose that Adam did not repent until after his disobedience, for this would be to suppose an impossibility; on the contrary, if we take the ground that Adam was a Mason before his fall, then must we believe that Masonry is something more than religion, as we understand it; for we suppose the true religion embraces an acknowledgment of guilt on the part of the creature, and an outpouring of sorrow for sin to the Creator; but man's primeval purity in Paradise, before the worm of corruption polluted his soul, needed no repentance, as without sin there could be no sorrow, or pain, or guilt. In short, Adam was created holy, upright, and pure, and needed not a knowledge of the true religion to add to his felicity. Again, if it constituted his chief happiness before his fall‑when he could not have felt the want of a plan of salvation‑and was his only consolation after his fall, it could not have been mere religion. The Doctor is not content with showing that Adam was a Mason, but evidently endeavors to produce the impression that his partner was also a Mason: * Antiquities, p. 41.


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"Seduced by these specious declarations, the mother of all Masons violated the sacred injunctions of God, and, through her entreaties, Adam followed the pernicious example, and both miserably fell from a state of innocence and purity, to experience all the bitter fruits of sin, toil and labor, misery and death." * If the author had said that Eve was the mother of all men, then would we have understood him as not differing from other historians; but to assert that Eve was the mother of all Mormons, or all Odd Fellows, or all Masons, presupposes her acquaintance with, and practice of, all the peculiarities of the particular sect of which she was the mother. Abraham was the father of the faithful, because he practiced that faith so perfectly, that God was pleased to declare that through him should all the nations of the earth be blessed; and if Eve was the mother of all Masons, a question of somewhat serious import might arise. There is an opinion among the vulgar that Masons have dealings with the devil, and it is sustained by quite as well authenticated a tradition as some of those mentioned by the Doctor. Now, if Eve was a Mason before she partook of the forbidden fruit, may it not be said that the devil communicated to her the secrets of Masonry,in order that she should fall, and thereby become the mother of all Masons? This opinion is quite as tenable as that Masonry is the true worship; that the true worship was understood and practiced by her, and yet failed to arrest her disobedience, and thereby save the world from sin and death. The Doctor says that when Cain slew his brother, he fell from the true principles of Masonry; that the earth was cursed; that a mark was placed upon the fratricide, and evil pronounced against his posterity: "His race forsook every good and laudable pursuit, along with Masonry, and degenerated into every species of impurity and wickedness." t Yet to these people he traces the origin of operative Masonry ‑another evidence that Masonry was the work of the wicked * Antiquities, p. 47. t Ibid p. 46.


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one. Jabal invented the use of tents; Jubal, his brother, invented music; and Tubal‑Cain, his half‑brother, invented the art of forging metals: who, together with their great grand sire and his descendants, erected the first city, which they named lanoch, after Cain's eldest son. Now, that the descendants of Cain were the inventors of the arts above named is asserted by Moses; but, when we remember that they were under the curse of God, were wicked and rebellious, how are we justified in attributing to them the practice of Masonry, if it is the true religion, and especially when the Doctor tells us that they had lost all their Masonry? But, anon, the Doctor turns with holy horror from this wicked and rebellious people to the family of Seth, the son of Adam: "Who was educated by his father in the strictest principles of piety and devotion, and, when he arrived at years of maturity, was admitted to a participation in the mysteries of Masonry, to which study he applied himself with the most diligent assiduity. The progress he made in this study is fully demonstrated by the purity of his life. Associating with himself the most virtuous men of his age, they formed Lodges, and discussed the first principles of Masonry with freedom, fervency, and zeal." * Reader, strange as it may seem, the above extract comes from the pen of one of the most learned divines of the age‑one to whom it would seem we had a right to look for light and instruction; to whose moral guidance the novitiate, at least, might safely confide the direction of his footsteps in the pathway of moral purity and true piety, which alone lead to unfading glory. Were it an extract from that quarter where the marvelous is known to predominate, where the pens of the ablest writers are prostituted to the corrupted morals of an infidel people, and true piety is driven into exile, we might hope its effect would be as evanescent and harmless as the dreams of infidelity; but the works of Dr. Oliver are intended for preservation, to be placed in the archives of the Lodges, and handed down as a rich legacy to future ages, and we are responsible to Antdque, p. 48.


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2' posterity, should the humblest among us permit the coinage of fiction, the mere invention of a tale, though emanating from the highest source, and that, too, in the enlightened nineteenth century, to go down to future ages as the first and only true history of Masonic events happening more than five thousand years ago, and not raise our warning voice. We will not deny the fascination which this new theory throws around the study of Masonry. With what pride would we reecho the glad tidings to the zealous and devoted Mason, that the long sleep of oblivion which has shrouded our history has passed away; that the mist of ages has been dispersed by the brilliant rays of Lux; that the vail has been rent by this celebrated divine, and we permitted to behold the standard of our Order, planted by Seth, the son of Adam, who, together with his brethren, actually" met in Lodges, and discussed Masonry with freedom, fervency, and zeal." We repeat, this would be news worthy to be chronicled abroad, were it only sustained by well authenticated history, either written or traditional; but, alas, so far from this being the case, we are constrained to regard even the theory of our author as leading the mind to disbelieve his own declaration; for if Masonry is the true religion and worship of God, and if Seth was educated by his father in the strictest principles of piety and devotion, what are we to understand the Doctor as teaching, when he uses the following language: "When Seth was arrived at the age of maturity, he was admitted into the mysteries of Masonry?" Could Adam have taught Seth, anterior to his maturity, the principles of true piety and devotion to God, without a knowledge of the true religion? Could he have been taught the principles of religion, without a knowledge of Masonry? In short, if the true religion and Masonry are one and the same thing, was not Seth, by the Doctor's own showing, taught the secrets of Masonry before he arrived to years of maturity? But, above all, we might ask What proof is there that Seth was a Mason? Give us the proof, and then, and not till then, are we prepared to‑believe that Seth and his brethren actually met in Lodges, and discussed the' great principles of Masonry with freedom, fervency, and zeal.


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             "The seven liberal sciences, originally invented by Masona, were transmitted almost solely through their indefatigable zeal before the invention of printing." Here we are in the same lamentable dilemma as before. How much we regret that some known facts are not produced in support of this declaration. If a sufficient reason could be found to satisfy the inquirer after truth that Masonry existed in any form at this period, and that then, as now, it recommended the study of the sciences, the declaration of the author might be received as probable; but, can we flatter ourselves that well informed men will be prepared to admit, that because Masonry has been known for several past centuries to teach the arts and sciences, together with all the moral and social virtues, and points to the necessity of a knowledge of the one only living and true God, and a strict obedience to the divine law, that therefore Masonry was instituted in the Garden of Eden, or at any time during the antediluvian age? If history, sacred or profane, recorded the fact, or if the traditions of Ancient Craft Masonry could be brought to its support, then would we gladly give our adhesion; but it can not be thus traced. We will not deny that there are degrees called Masonic, and a great number of them, from which we may glean a tradition, leading back to the remotest period, and pretending to elucidate almost all the religions ever known or professed in the world; but where is the well informed Mason who does not spurn them as the production of modern times ùthe invention of men whose Masonic peddling propensities make them a scoff and a by‑word to the good and true everywhere? We boldly assert, and hold ourselves prepared to vindicate its truth, that there is no Masonic tradition emanating from Ancient Craft Masonryand we acknowledge no other as being true Masonry‑proving the existence of such an order of men anterior to the building of the Temple at Jerusalem; and even to that period, we shall have some difficulty to trace it,to the satisfaction of those who are not Masons, for the reason, that the most reliable traditions are hid from the world by the established usages of the * Oliver's Antiquities, p. 54.


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            Institution, still we do believe that the candid reader, who will summon the moral courage to wade through our somewhat tedious investigation, will be constrained to admit that our conclusions are drawn from a reasonable supposition of their truth. Dr. Oliver seems to be aware that there might be some who would not be willing to regard his simple declaration as sufficient proof that Masons invented the sciences, and, therefore, uses the following most singular argument: "To trace these sciences back to their original, may be counted an adventurous task; but if, amidst the doubtful evidence which remains of these times, we find strong presumptive proof that they were in the exclusive possession of Masons in the most early ages of the world, it will show that Masonry is not a negative Institution, but that it is of some actual benefit to mankind."* Now, his conclusions would be, in the main, correct, if his premises were not false. He might find presumptive proof, perhaps, that the sciences were in the exclusive possession of Masons at the time to which he alludes, provided he could find presumptive proof that Masonry then existed; but the total absence of any proof, save the naked declaration of modern writers, leaves the author's deductions worthless. The science of numbers is said to have its origin with God, because Hecomputed time at the creation. Enoch invented an alphabet, to perpetuate sounds, which is called the first rudiments of grammar. Some are of opinion that Enoch communicated this knowledge to Methuselah; by the latter it was given to Noah, and by Noah to his sons, and thence to the world, after the Flood. The descendants of Shem have the honor of so improving on the original, as to produce the Hebrew tongue, while Ham and his sons conveyed the same alphabet to Egypt, whose priests, some hundred years after, dispensed with its use by introducing hieroglyphical characters, in order that their superior attainments might be kept secret from the masses. That astronomy and geometry were cultivated by the Antediluvians * Oliver's Antiquities, p. 81.


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is equally true. Josephus says that God found it necessary to give man long life, so that he might cultivate virtue and a knowledge of the sciences. That, as all heavenly bodies returned to their original places every six hundred years, a life of at least six centuries was required to obtain a knowledge of their relative motion, etc. The Pythagorean Society taught the sciences; but it does not follow, a priori, that the Pythagorean Society existed in the days of Adam, when it is known that the founder of that Society was born more than two thousand years after Adam's death? We think not; and yet there is quite as much reason for this belief as that, because Masonry has been known to exist several centuries, and inculcated a virtue or recommended the study of a science, a knowledge of which was possessed by Adam and his immediate descendants, therefore, Adam and his immediate descendants were Masons. The laws of Great Britain are founded upon, and inculcate many of the moral precepts of the laws of God; which principles were known to the Antediluvians, and yet it will not be contended that the British Government existed in the days of Adam; in like manner, Masonry teaches and enforces many of the injunctions giving to Adam, Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Moses, but it does not follow that Masonry was practiced by all these men. "Enoch practiced Masonry, of which he was now elected Grand Master, with such effect, that God vouchsafed, by immediate revelation, to communicate to him some peculiar mysteries in token of His approbation." Here again the Doctor fails to produce any proof that Masonry existed in the days of Enoch, nor does he say by whom, or for what purpose, Enoch was elected Grand Master. Had the Antediluvans a Grand Lodge? Where did it hold its Grand communications, and who were its other officers? But, if the Doctor was at our elbow, he would doubtless readily answer al1 these questions, for it is not more difficult to have all the stations and places occupied, in this case, than it would seem to be in the days of Moses, and there he points out the very individuals who were in all the principal offices, even that of Deputy Grand


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Master, an officer not heard of, we think, before the eighteenth century, and certainly not before nine hundred and twenty‑six. To make the Doctor consistent, we must ask to draw some deductions which naturally follow. Masonry is Lux‑Lux is the true religion. God pronounced Enoch a just man, therefore, Enoch was a Mason, hence all good men having the knowledge and fear of God before their eyes, and living in obedience to His known commands, are also Masons, and either the Society of Christians or Masons is wholly unnecessary at this day; and we contend that there are especial reasons for the total abolition of Masonry, for we must not be so illiberal as to claim that we, as Masons, are in the possession of the only true mystic light of God's unsearchable riches and goodness, which can lead the world to worship at the footstool of His sovereign mercy, where alone the signet of truth is to be found, by the use of which we may enter the Grand Lodge of saints and angels, and be crowned with the royal crown of never fading glory, and yet withhold acknowledge of these ineffable gifts and graces from one‑half of the world. Surely our mothers, wives, and sisters should be permitted to enter within the veil of our holy sanctuary, and become partakers with us in our righteousness and redemption from sin. The following extract will astonish the enlightened American Mason, who has occupied a certain station and become well acquainted with the means which qualify him for it, as it exhibits one of two things equally remarkable, either that the same history of the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry is not given alike in England and the United States, or that the author is seeking to engraft Scotch Rite Masonry, so called, upon the ancient stock, as this pretended history is taken from the thirteenth degree of said rite. In speaking of Enoch, he says "Being inspired by his Maker, and in commemoration of a wonderful vision on the holy mountain, in which these sublime secrets were revealed to him, he built a temple in the bowels of the earth, the entrance of which was through nine several porches, each supported by a pair of pillars and curiously concealed from human observation. The perpendicular depth 3


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of this temple was eighty‑one feet from the surface, ieoch, Jared, and Methuselah were the three architects who constructed this subterranean edifice; but the two latter were not acquainted with the sacred motives which influenced Enoch in causing this cavern to be dug. The arches were formed in the bowels of the mountain which was afterward denominated Calvary, in the land of Canaan; and the temple was dedicated to the living God. He then made a plate of gold in the form of an equilateral triangle, each of whose sides was eighteen inches, which he enriched with precious stones, and incrusted it on a triangular agate of the same dimensions. On this plate he engraved the ineffable characters he had seen in his vision, and alone, in silence and solitude he descended through the nine portals into the temple, and placed this invaluable treasure upon a cubical pedestal of white marble. When the temple was completed, Enoch made nine secret doors of stone, and placed them at the entrance of the portals, with an iron ring inserted in each, for the facility of raising, in case any wise and good man of future ages should be led to explore the secret recesses of this sepulchral vault. He then closed up the whole, that the secrets there deposited might remain in perfect security amid the anticipated destruction of mankind, for the contents of this temple were not intrusted to any human being. Enoch paid occasional visits to the temple, for the purpose of offering up his prayers and thanksgiving, in a peculiar manner, to God, who vouchsafed to him alone such distinguished favors." * If the Doctor is correct in supposing that God communicated to Enoch,in his visions on the mountain, the secrets of Freemasonry, then we must believe that Adam was not a Mason. If the author had said, that God communicated new secrets in Masonry, then might we still grant that Adam was a Mason, made so by God, in the Garden of Eden, but he only received instructions in the lower degrees; perhaps he was only an Entered Apprentice: true, we should find some difficulty in believing that God ever communicated as freely of holy things to any man after the fall, as he did to Adam while he was *Oliver's Antiquities, p. 83


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permitted to converse with God face to face; but, be this as it may, if Masonry is the true religion which God communicated to Enoch, is it reasonable to suppose that he would have buried the secret in the bowels of the earth, without even making those who assisted him in the erection of his work acquainted with the only means by which they could escape eternal banishment from the presence of God? Would he have straightway buried the true religion from the eyes of men, until some good and wise men of future ages should discover and bring it to light? We hope never to call in question the mandates of Jehovah, though our finite mind may not be able to comprehend the reason which dictated them, and if it were recorded in the Bible, that God communicated to Enoch the secrets of Freemasonry, and directed him to bury them in the bowels of the earth, we would be the last to call in question its truth, but the same high veneration for His holy law, impels us to protest against that doctrine which tends to pervert His known will, in order to establish, as true, that which in reality, can be nothing more than mere conjecture, founded on premises originating only in the imagination. But in addition to the fact that there is no tradition in Masonry, as we understand it, which points to Enoch as the builder of a secret vault, there is a little defect in the manner of finishing this noble temple, which seems to place this ingeniously invented story at the door of some writer not quite so, learned as we know Dr. Oliver to be; had he devised the plan of the work, the rings which were placed in the several portals would have been made of gold or some other metal not liable to decompose, for as the design was evidently to conceal the secret for the use of future generations, after the flood, the Doctor never would have used iron rings, with the expectation that they would continue to exist as such, so long a time. The authorship of this invented tale is probably due to Debonville, Chevalier Ramsey's successor. Before we leave the subject, so often referred to, viz.:‑that Masonry is true religion, we feel called upon to notice one other fact, which seems to be inconsistent with this theory. In all the works of Dr. Oliver, he attributes to Masonry the discovery of the arts and sciences, and the practice of piety,


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while the fact,is staring him in the face that the very people known to be destitute of the true religion discovered and brought to light nearly all the sciences; for, in addition to what we have said in relation to the posterity of Cain, and much as we may boast of the influence of Masonry and the true worship of God, we marvel that our philosophers so little excel a Socrates, a Plato, or an Aristotle; we wonder that our mathematicians are so little superior to Euclid or Archimedes; would think it strange that our better writers are but a step ahead of a Demosthenes and a Cicero, or that in history so few stand above Herodotus. We say it is wonderful that, after the lapse of ages, each claiming to be wiser than the past, when Christianity and Masonry have, arm in arm, or, as the Doctor will have it, "united in one," been enlightening and improving mankind, developing the rich resources of the human mind, that even now we are so little superior to the heathen, for the above named men were all so. We wish to be distinctly understood as reviewing Dr. Oliver's opinions of Masonry, with no vain hope of measuring arms, as a historian, with him. We frankly acknowledge his infinite superiority in learning and research, but the true and well authenticated history of Masonry is attainable by all who have entered within the vail; and when we find errors and false doctrines inculcated, the higher the authority the more injurious the consequences which are likely to result; and the more necessary is it that all, who can wield a pen or talk upon the subject, should boldly stand up to the work, respectfully, but firmly contending for the doctrine once delivered to us by our fathers, and thus, in the might and majesty of truth, put to shame those who may so far forget their duty to the Craft and to posterity as to set up a theory having no foundation in fact. More especially is it our duty to enter our solemn protest against such a theory, if it shall manifestly tend to bring ridicule and disgrace upon our beloved Institution. We fraternally ask whether the course pursued by Dr. Oliver is not calculated to produce that effect? To illustrate some portions of his theory, we will relate a dialogue between Mr. Wilkins, an intelligent gentleman, entertaining a favorable opinion of


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Masonry, and really desirous of information; and Bro. Jones, who has taken all the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry: Mr. Wilkins.‑Where do you date the origin of Masonry? Brother Jones.‑In the Garden of Eden. Wilkins. ùMay I not ask you for proof that Adam was a Mason, as I find no account of it in profane or sacred history? If any exists, it must be traditional, and from my knowledge of the antiquity of your Society, I am inclined to think favorably of any Masonic tradition coming in a regular and well authenticated manner. Jones.‑Well, sir, we have no tradition to that effect, but Dr. Oliver, a celebrated divine, a learned historian, says, that Adam was a Mason, because Masonry, being the true religion, Adam evidently received it from God, who freely communicated with him in the Garden of Eden in reference to holy things. Wilkins.‑Whether God communicated to Adam, before his fall, the plan of salvation denominated the true religion, is by no means apparent from any thing we find in the Bible; but, aside from this, have you any tradition that Masonry ever was regarded as the true religion? Jones.‑We have not; but Dr. Oliver says, that inasmuch as Masonry, as now practiced, inculcates some of the principles of the true religion, and as God communicated freely with Adam, face to face, Adam must have been acquainted with, and in the practice of, the true religion, and therefore Adam was a Mason; and, beyond all doubt, Enoch was a Mason, because God revealed a secret to him in a vision on the holy mountain. Wilkins.‑My dear sir, if this be the best evidence of the antiquity and original principles of Masonry, you must excuse me for saying that I shall be compelled to regard the Institution as having claimed a standing and importance in society which it by no means merits, and the arguments of Dr. Oliver as too visionary to merit a serious answer. We appeal to the candor and good sense of the fraternity to say whether the conclusions of Mr. Wilkins are not such as every intelligent man would arrive at. "The Patriarch Shem continued, until the time of his death,


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to practice those principles of the Masonic science which he had learned from Lamech, Methuselah, and Noah, before the Flood. He communicated to his immediate descendants the mysteries of Enoch's pillar, and hence his sons, the Cabiri, became fraught with that knowledge, which rendered them so celebrated throughout the world." * We are aware that several historians entertain the opinion that the Cabiri were the sons of Shem, and among the number is the learned Bishop of Cumberland; but to show how uncertain this opinion is, it is only necessary to say that these authors are not agreed whether there were three or six of them, whether they were Axieras, Axiakersa, and Axiakersos, corresponding with Ceres, Proserpine, and Pluto; or whether Jove, Dionysius, and some others, not remembered, were of the number. Nor is it at all clear, that the Cabiri were in any way connected with Shem, or that they lived at the same time, much less is it settled that Shem or the Cabiri knew anything of Masonry. To us it is by no means satisfactory to say that because a secret society existed at that day, whether Dionysian, Elusinian, or Cabiric, that, therefore, Masonry was understood and practiced; nor is it plain to us that, because the Cabiri, in conjunction with Thoth and a host of other heathen, had succeeded in substituting their mysteries for the truth, thereby leading the descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth from the true worship, that, therefore, they were Masons; nor yet because Abraham was called of God to restore the true worship, he was necessarily a Mason. We would, however, confess, that there is more reason for supposing that the Cabiric mysteries were Masonic, than that Abraham was a Mason, because both the Cabiric and Masonic,were secret Associations, while Abraham was called of God to do a work of faith and obedience to his Divine Master, which God intended should be an example to all men. for, through him the children of the promise were to arise, and there is no reason to suppose that God made Abraham anexample of perfect obedience through any secret confederates or associations with men. We are *Oliver's Antiquities, p. 141.


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aware that there is a tradition attached to one of the degrees of Masonry, as now given, that leads us to suppose, upon a superficial view, that Abraham was a Mason when he returned from Egypt and settled in Mamre; that his nephew, Lot, was a Mason: aye, and the sametradition, so called, makes Melchizedeck, the priest of the Most High God, who had neither beginning of days nor end of years, a Mason! But who does not regard the degree as of modern introduction, got up with a long line of antiquity attached to it, in order to make it acceptable to those who may be placed in a situation to receive it? The traditions of Ancient Craft Masonry teach nothing which is inconsistent with reason, and which can not be reconciled with the known events of the age; but the trumpery which has been appended, by the introduction of new ceremonies, within the last one hundred years, and the calling them Masonic degrees, enables the writer who desires to embellish, and amuse the curious, to indulge his propensity to the full, but the consequences must be great loss to the cause of truth, and a tendency to subject the Fraternity to ridicule and contempt. Moses was ordained of God to deliver the children of Israel from bondage, and long before he escaped into Midian, he received manifest tokens of God's favor, by receiving instructions in the true worship; and yet, Dr. Oliver says, that Moses had been instructed in the mysteries of spurious Masonry in Egypt. "But when he fled to Jethro, he made him acquainted with the mysteries of true Masonry." Now, the reader will bear in mind that Jethro was a priest of Midian, an open and acknowledged worshiper of idols, and therefore could not have been well informed in the true worship; and if Masonry was the true religion we should certainly be inclined to suppose that Moses was better prepared to instruct Jethro, than Jethro him, for although there is some evidence that this idolator was favored of God, still, we are not at liberty to believe that he was qualified to give holy instructions to one whom God had inspired and taught. When Moses had erected the twelve pillars, Dr. Oliver says: "After solemn sacrifice, Moses disposed the people according


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to their tribes, and opened the first Lodge of which we have any certain tradition since the time of Joseph." It is scarcely necessary to say to the well informed Mason. that there is no tradition of any sort, from the degree of Entered Apprentice to the Select Master‑and no one contends that Ancient Craft Masonry embraces any degrees above‑that either Joseph or Moses were Masons, and certainly there is not the shadow of testimony to be found that Moses was ever Grand Master, and yet listen to the learned divine: Here he (Moses) held a solemn convocation to the Lord, and the people returned thanks for their miraculous deliverance, and entered into those indissoluble vows which implied unlimited and united obedience to the commandments of God. Over this Lodge presided Moses as Grand Master, Joshua as his Deputy, and Aholiab and Bezaleel as Grand Wardens." We feel called on to apologize to the reader for extracting so much from the writings of Dr. Oliver, tending as the above does to show his total want of knowledge of Masonic traditions, or his recklessness as a writer, but, as before intimated, the author's elevation of character gives him the power to do much good or harm, and, as many of our readers have not access to his works, we prefer the method here adopted of making full extracts, that it may be seen whether we do him injustice or not. We continue to make a further exhibit of the Doctor's views of the Masonic life of Moses, after he descended from the mountain, his face being covered with the glory of God. The Doctor says: "As a means of securing the practice of Masonry, and with it true religion, among the children of Israel, until a prophet like himself should appear among them to expand its blessings and convey them to all the nations of the earth, Moses convened a general grand assembly of all the Lodges, whether speculative or operative Masonry, to consult about erecting a tabernacle for divine worship, as no place,since the creation of the world had been exclusively appropriated to religion and dedicated to the true God, which He had condescended to honor with His


* Oliver's Antiquities, p. 258.


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immediate presence. In obedience to the mandate of Moses, the Masters of all the newly formed Lodges, the principals of the Chapter, the Princes of the tribes, with other Masons, assembled to receive instructions of their Grand Master. To this Grand Lodge Moses gave wise charges."* Now, reader, in all candor, what think you of this as coming from a learned and reverend gentleman, and brother Mason, who is engaged in writing for posterity? Moses, Grand Master I Joshua, Deputy Grand Master I etc. An assembly of all the newly formed Lodges I And if it be possible to conceive of one thing as being more ridiculous than another in this extract, it is that the principals of the Chapter were present at this Grand Lodge! If the author had intended in the use of the term Chapter to refer to an assembly of the clergy, as this term is sometimes used, he would not have connected it with Masonry, as he has done; but all doubt is removed when he says " the principals of the Chapter, the Princes of the tribes, and other Masons, asselmbled to receive instruction from their Grand Master;" so that he evidently means a Masonic Chapter. To this we have only to ask, whether Dr. Oliver, or any other Mason, will undertake to trace the existence of a Masonic Chapter to a period earlier than nine hundred and thirty‑four years before the coming of our Saviour? Can one jot or tittle of testimony, written or traditional, be found which will point to a period beyond the reign of Cyrus, King of Persia? We answer, positively, that there is not. Nay, is there any proof that a Royal Arch Chapter was known before the days of Chevalier Ramsey? We heard an Odd Fellow say that the Order of Odd Fellowship dated its origin to the Garden of Eden, declaring that Adam was an Odd Fellow; and, certainly,there is more truth in this than in many of the positions assumed by Dr. Oliver, for,we suppose,Adam was odd before he had afellow, while for many of the Doctor's opinions there is not even such a pretext. But that we regard some things connected with our beloved institution too sacredly to write about them as the Doctor * Antiquities, p. 266.


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has donl, we could make extracts, and not a few, that would astound the reader, who has not seen his works, and which clearly show that he is culpably ignorant of true Masonic traditions, as well as Masonic secrets; or,he is recreant to the cause he professes to espouse. We repeat, that if we have studied Masonry to any purpose, if we have received the degrees in due form, with the correct traditions belonging to the same, then has Dr. Oliver written what we could not. He has misplaced and transposed the degrees, and last,though not least, has antedated the origin of the Institution, without any sort of testimony which is entitled to credit. While Preston, Hutchinson, and others, have asserted that the principles of Masonry are coeval with the creation, no one, whose writings we have read, has been reckless enough to declare that Adam and all his prominent descendants, down to the Flood, were Masons. But it is reserved for Dr. Oliver unblushingly to publish to the world who were the distinguished officers of Grand Lodges, Chapters, and other Masonic Assemblies. If the author had said the same things in a different manner, if he had given it as merely his opinion, that Masonry was practiced in those days, and given a list of the Grand officers which he supposed existed, the Institution could not have suffered much; but when he gives these opinions as founded on Masonic tradition, the matter at issue assumes altogether a different aspect. We recollect but one instance in his Initiations or.Antiquities, where the reader is left to the choice of believing or not, by reason of his declaration depending on mere opinion. In speaking of the celebrated paper said to have been found in the Bodlyan Library, in which the witness on behalf of Masonry is made to say, that Masonry originated with the first man in the East, before the first man in the West, the celebrated Mr. Locke remarks, that " Masons believe there were men in the East before Adam." Dr. Oliver pronounces this opinion a mere conjecture, and this not being a conjecture of his, but of Mr. Locke's, the reader would be left to suppose that the Doctor writes alone by the authority of Masonic tradition, were it not for the fact, that, by turning to page 26 of his.ntiquities, we find this language has been already


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extracted, viz.: "But Ancient Masonic traditions say, and, I think, justly, that our science existed before the creation of this globe," etc. We can not but be struck with the difference which the Doctor makes between tweedle‑dum and tweedle‑dee. While the declaration of Dr. Locke goes to show that Masons believe Masonry existed before Adam was created is mere conjecture, the Doctor asserts, as by authority of Masonic tradition, that Masonry did exist before this world was created. We ask, whence comes the Doctor's traditions? We have learned, what has ever been esteemed the only true Masonry, viz., that which has been handed down to us by England. We attach no value to any French or modern rites. We profess to know and practice " Ancient York " Masonry, or Ancient Free and Accepted Masonry as coming to us through the Grand Lodge at York, in England. There is no other Masonry taught in the United States, except in Louisiana, which is not acknowledged elsewhere, and we assert, and challenge contradiction, that there are no traditions regarded as well‑founded or coming through any truly Masonic channel, either in the United States or England, which traces Masonry beyond the Temple of Jerusalem. But, after some two years labor and reflection, the Doctor has had a change come over the spirit of his dreams.. Since writing the works already referred to, he has produced a large work, entitled the Historical Landmarks, and in volume 1st, page 270, he says: "When Jacob fled to his uncle Laban, at Mesopotamia, to avoid the resentment of Esau, the servants were directed by his mother to carry the Masonic stone of foundation along with him, in the hope that its virtues might prove a talisman of protection in that long and perilous journey." To this the Doctor adds a note, and says: "The authority on which this tradition rests, is exceedingly doubtful," and closes by saying: "I shall, therefore, introduce the traditions of Masonry as they occur, without imposing on myself the trouble of vouching for their truth. The brethren may estimate them according to their apparent value." Now, is this what we had a right to expect? Corild we


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have supposed that Dr. Oliver would write some five or six volumes on the antiquity and traditions of Masonry, giving us line upon line in tracing it back to Adam by tradition, asserting in positive language that Enoch, Noah, Shem, Ham, Japheth, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joshua, Moses, Aholiab, and Bezaleel were all Masons, and several of them Grand Masters, and never give us reason to believe his traditions came in a questionable shape? Yet, after the lapse of two years, he lets us know that he is only writing the romance of Masonry; that it is his business to give all the idle traditions and superstitious tales of by‑gone ages, without being at the trouble to vouch for their truth, and giving the reader the glorious privilege of adopting whatever he may think proper! We hold that there are no false traditions in Masonry; all the traditions which we receive with the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry are true; they have ever been in substance the same; they must ever continue the same,if Masonry is permitted to remain,where it ever has been, unconnected with, and untrammeled by, any creeds, confessions, or associations of men; and that tradition which comes in any other way is not truly Masonic, and should not be introduced and used as such. We might bring together a thousand tales of ancient and modern times, representing Masonry to be any and every thing that the ingenuity or wickedness of man is capable of inventing, and, as a book of notions, we might sell our labor;but, we repeat, we were not prepared to expect this from Dr. Oliver. Thousands are likely to be misled by his works, from the fact that there are no records showing the origin of the Institution; and Masonic traditions stopping short at the Temple, those who are fond of the marvelous, and would fain persuade themselves that Masonry is religion enough for man's present and eternal happiness, will be too likely to adopt his opinions; there is the more danger of this, because he is an authorized teacher of religion. That he is deeply learned in ancient lore, no one.will doubt, and we only dare suppose that he is in the same situation where thousands of other learned men (who are Masons) are, viz., unlearned in the true Masonic traditions. If this be his situation, and he writes at all upon the subject, he


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must collect his testimony from the writings of others, and in the multiplicity of stuff to be found in.the world in reference to Masonry, it is impossible to separate the true from the counterfeit, unless the workman is acquainted with the signet. But even though we take this horn of the dilemma, the effects of Dr. Oliver's labor is not the less pernicious on the minds of those who prefer the romance of fiction to the plain and unadorned truth, which can only be acquired by receiving from the few who are qualified to teach the unwritten history of our Order. We may be asked if any high‑minded', honorable Mason would attempt to give to the world a history of Masonry, without a thorough acquaintance with all its mysteries and secret traditions? We answver unhesitatingly, Yes; and for confirmation of this opinion, appeal to the observation of the Craft everywhere. We ask them to institute an inquiry, and answer the following questions:‑How many Masonic orations have you heard? Who delivered them? What portion of these expounders of our doctrine and traditions were qualified to take the Chair, confer the degrees, and give the Masonic lectures which teach the traditionary history of the Institution? Alas, brethren, is it not true that, nine times out of ten, men are selected to give to the world the history and principles of Masonry, who are little more than able to pass themselves as Masons? How often is the inquiry made as to the brother's Masonic learning? If he is talented, acquainted with profane and biblical history, and of sufficient notoriety to command an audience, he is considered just the man, and such an one will collect from other writings such as he thinks calculated to please, without being able to determine how much of it is Masonic tradition. We know a worthy brother who has published a book on all the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry, and several modern ones, which was designed as a standard work (and by the way, it is somewhat widely circulated), who, to our knowledge, declined being examined as to his qualifications to sit in a Lodge of a certain degree, about which he had written learnedly, giving as the reason that he could not pass himself. This iame author, in social Masonic talk, frequently said things


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which those present had no right to hear, not really knowing to which particular place they of right belonged. We have no means of knowing what position in this particular Dr. Oliver occupies, but the most charitable construction we can at present place upon his course is, to suppose he is very defective in Masonic learning; we can not believe there is so much difference between true Masonic traditions of England and the United States. We frankly acknowledge that Ancient Craft Masonry has been shamefully subdivided, and that our English brethren are less'to blame for this than we are, of which we may speak hereafter; still, the truth is not to be lost sight of that the same traditional history is afforded by each. Say that in England Ancient Craft Masonry is all taught In three or four degrees, while in the United States nine are necessary. When one has taken them all, he is entitled to all the Masonic traditions; we believe we have them, and therefore believe Dr. Oliver has not. We fear the reader is growing weary of this somewhat lengthy notice of the productions of one author, to the neglect of those who have claimed to occupy somewhat similar ground. To this we beg to say that, but for the appearance of Dr. Oliver's works, it is not probable that we should have written a single page as preparatory to our contemplated history. We had supposed the opinions advanced by those who wrote from 1720 to 1808, had become almost obsolete, so far as they tended to antedate the existence of Masonry. We had thought that Anderson's History and Constitutions of Freemasonry was written at a period when the Institution was but just rising into newness of life, from a long sleep of feeble, if not sickly, existence, and that the man who was best qualified did not write its history. So we thought of Smith's Use and J.buse of Freemasonry. So we believed of Preston's Illustrations, and Hutchinson's Spirit of Masonry. But, above all, we had been so long in the habit of teaching and hearing taught, in the Lodges, the Masonic traditions blended with, and making part of, the degrees, that we were not prepared to encounter a dozen volumes, written or commented upon and enlarged, near the middle of the nineteenth century, by an eminent brother living in


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the home of our fathers, near the very halls in which our honored sires received the mystic light, and where they received authority and instructions to plant the glorious standard of our Order in the New World. We repeat,that we were not prepared to hear from that quarter, much less from such a brother, that Masonry was practiced by Adam, that Masonry is the true religion, when, by our laws, no such doctrine is or ever was taught. Masonry never knew but one religious test to give admittance within the walls of her holy sanctuary. A belief in the true religion or a false religion was never required by the traditions or rules of the Craft. A firm belief in the existence of the one living and true God is, and,we believe,has ever been, the only religious test. We are aware that efforts have been made to exclude that very people who, in the days of their glory and renown, established our time‑honored Institution. A race of men degraded and humbled down by the tyrannical laws of bigotry and oppression. A people who, though once the chosen of God, are now taught to feel the scourge of a malignant and inhuman power, crushing their energies and blighting their hopes of equal rights with other men. And why? Is it because they have no religion? No, but because they have not the particular religion of the powers that be. The heathen oppress them, because they are not heathen; the Catholics oppress them, because they are not Catholics; the Protestants oppress them,because they are not Protestants. Every religion is true or false, as men adopt or repudiate it. Masonry furnishes a refuge from all sectarian persecutions and distinctions. Its doors are ever open to those who believe in a Supreme Being, and whose character for morality and good deportment make them fit associates for gentlemen. We will not deny that invidious distinctions have been attempted by some Lodges in the United States; they have passed edicts requiring candidates for Masonry to subscribe to sectarian dogmas in the Christian religion. But such are the materials of which our Fraternity is composed, such the veneration for the Ancient Landmarks, that when departures of this sort have been kindly reproved, the offending brothers have cheerfully retraced their steps. If Masonry is the true religion, then should its ~privileges and


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benefits be restricted to the truly pious; and as we firmly believe in the truth of the Christian religion, we should confine Masonry to Christendom, and to a small number even here. Then would Masonry cease to be universal; then would we travel from land to land and from sea to sea, and rarely meet with the footprints of Masonry; then would it become sectarian in all its features; and so long as the Christian Church is not swallowed up by the"Masonic Church,"so long would our Lodges be filled with bigots, fanatics, and hypocrites‑just such materials as constituted nearly all the secret societies of the heathen. God save us from such an alternative. No. my brethren, let us go on in the even tenor of our way, teaching Brotherly Love, Relief, and Tru with the motto of "Faith, Hope, and Charity;" let us send it forth into the uttermost parts of the earth; let us make it what God designed it should be‑a moral preparation for holier things‑a stepping‑stone from virtue to grace‑a handmaid to lead us on, by gentle pursuasion, to higher and nobler deeds; and God, who never yet withheld the protection of his outstretched arm, will continue to shield and defend it through all ills. It may be, and we are tempted to believe it will become, one of the means employed by Jehovah to run through heathen lands and bring every knee to bow and every tongue to confess that Jesus is the Christ, not because it is the true religion, but because it inculcates all the moral precepts of the Holy Bible, and persuades all men to search that record. Yea, they can not be accomplished Masons in any other way. And how often has it happened, how often may it happen again, that, while its votaries are searching for Masonic truths, the Spirit of the Most High God will illumine their understandings, and light them on to ineffable glory. If the sacred truths which our Institution teaches may but make us better men, better citizens, better moralists, then it is worthy to receive the hearty welcome of all good and virtuous men, whether they be Christians or Pagans. But if it shall be able to accomplish more; if its tendency is to lead its votaries from the contemplation of sublunary things to the enduring blessings of another and a better world if it point to the great book of nature and revelations.


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a3 the source from which we may learn to escape impending ruii, and "lay hold of the hope set before us," then should it command the prayers of the virtuous, for then will it have. aj we believe it ever has had, the strong arm of Jehovah to succor and sustain it through all time. Should we ask more? Does justice demand more? Dare we claim more? Does Dr. Oliver, as aChristian, believe the plan of salvation revealed in the Scriptures at fault, that we need Masonry to perfect it? We answer, No, no; even he can not believe it! As educated Christians,we may believe that Masonry is calculated to lead men from the evil of their ways, and point to the glorious plan of redemption; it may go forth,like John the Baptist; proclaiming its heavenly mission to prepare the way for a mightier than it. It may point to the cross of a risen Saviour; it may tell of the wonderful works of Him who spake as never man spake; it may even lead the weary and fainting invalid to the Pool of Siloam, and tell of'the miraculous virtues of the water of life; bat its holy mission stops here; it can not wash the polluted soul from the disease of sin; it can not, because God has not so appointed. We claim for Freemasonry very much. We claim for it some powers which will be denied by those who do not. believe it points to the Christian religion; and while we respect their feelings, and question not their motives, we claim the same freedom from censure. We confidently look forward to the day when the great system of missionary labor, which has been so nobly begun in this land of ours, will be cheered on and powerfully aided by the mild and genial influence of Masonry. When the missionary shall go forth with the Holy tfible in one hand, and our Book of Constitutions in the other; when he shall plant the standard of our holy religion, and open a Lodge and preach the principles of Masonry in the imposing and solemn forms peculiar to our ceremonies, we venture to predict that the heathen Mason will be the first to embrace the Christian religion. Nor can it be otherwise, because to a proper understanding of Masonry, he must search the Bible. We now close our remarks as introductory to our history, only remarking that we shall doubtless have occasion frequently to refer to them in the progress of our history. I


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HAVING, as we humbly conceive, clearly shown that Dr. Oliver has claimed for Freemasonry a degree of antiquity not sastained by any reliable testimony, and some principles which its votaries never practiced, we have only to add that our arguments will apply with equal force to all others who, in like manner, have attempted to throw a romance around its origin and early history. It now remains for us to show, as near as may be, when Masonry was instituted, and what were the principles taught in its primeval purity. We have said it was not known in the Garden of Eden; we have said it was not known to the Antediluvians; we have said that the fancy sketch which clothes Enoch, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, and a host of ‑thers, with the royal robe of Grand Master, is too deeply covered with fiction to stand the mirror of truth; and we have further said, that there is no testimony upon which a prudent man would risk his character, as an author, going to show that it had abeing until the building of the Temple at Jerusalem. There, we believe, it was introduced and perfected. With every Mason who has become acquainted with the third degree, we shall have no difficulty to establish this truth. But how difficult does it become to satisfy those who are not Masons, that our venerated Institution has even this antiquity? For when we have given a true and faithful account of the excellent tenets of the Order, and traced it back to the most remote period of which there is the slightest recorded evidence, still is there a mighty interregnum to be filled by other means than sacred or profane history. We have stated that we rely more implicitly on a well defined tradition, transmitted from age to age, from one organized association to another, in support of any supposed event happening anterior to the dark ages, than upon any profane


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history, and we apprehend this is the opinion of most well informed men. The Mason, therefore, who has the tradition upon which we shall rely, will be constrained to admit our position to be correct, while those who know nothing of that tradition, are called upon to exercise a liberal faith in our declaration of what is, and what is not, clearly defined tradition; and we ask this the more earnestly, not because we care so much whether it has this or that much antiquity, but because Masonry has no history aside from, and independent of, its traditions. Strip it of its sacred lineage, as handed down from generation to generation, through the medium of oral communications, from father to son, from brother to brother, from society to society, and you reduce it to a level with the lowest schemes that were ever invented to delude a credulous or superstitious people. All our talk about "Ancient Land. marks," "Ancient Usages," becomes an idle tale, if Masonry originated before or since the building of the Temple. The entire fabric becomes a flimsy tissue of misrepresentations, worthy only of the ridicule of all. On the other hand, admit its origin as stated, the great good which it was designed to accomplish, and it stands forth in all the moral grandeur and magnificence of the first, the greatest, the most powerful auxiliary to our holy religion‑the only Association that, through weal or woe, through sunshine or storm, through evil as well as through good report, has never failed to inculcate and propagate the inimitable truths of God's holy law. All other associations have come and gone, because they were conceived in sin, or brought forth in iniquity. God's withering blight has been laid upon them, because corruption was in their midst. We say we must fix its origin at the erection of the Temple, because all Masonic traditions go to, and not beyond, that period of time. There is not an Ancient Craft Degree that does not point to the Temple, there is not a lecture that does not go back to the Temple, there is not a ceremony that does not lead the mind to that beloved spot. King Solomon was our first great teacher, he it was who conceived the plan and,‑'ght the beautiful system into being; and, while the excellent lessons taught by Masonry would remain just the same. we


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repeat, that if the Institution took its origin anywhere else, all the forms, ceremonies, and reasons for their use are false, and should be indignantly rejected. And with a view that our readers, who are not Masons, may the better understand and appreciate our views, we voluntarily give the most sacred pledge that we will not put forth and claim as Masonic history, that which we do not sincerely believe to be sustained by the tradition of the degrees; nor will it be difficult to confine ourself to the truth. The Ancient Craft Degrees are the same everywhere; their history is the same, and though the simple truth may strip the lectures of some gewgaws and trappings of modern innovators, and though they be deprived of some of the fascinations of modern refinement, the fault is not ours. As a faithful historian, we do not feel at liberty to write for those who expect us to tickle the fancy, and captivate the imagination, by dealing in the miraculous. We intend to have no interest in misleading any one. We expect our work to stand upon its merits for truth, believing, as we do, that much harm has already been done to a great and good cause, by claiming for it more than is warranted by the facts. Truth assumes many of the appearances, if not attributes, of falsehood, when it is overdrawn or clothed in fiction. There lived, in the early ages of the world, men whose excellent qualities and noble conduct rendered them, doubtless, ornaments to society, as the benefactors of mankind; but instances are numerous, where a just appreciation of their worth was merged into a blind deification and worship of their names, until so much fable attaches to their history, that, at this day, the most saga. cious are at a loss to determine whether such men ever lived, except in the imagination of an idolatrous world. We are not ashamed to say, that we tremble for the history and con. tinuance of Masonry, if it is to be enveloped in the mists of mere conjecture. We tremble at the judgment of an enlighten. ed community, if you prove that Masonry existed at a period when no traces of its good works can be shown, or at a period when every secret association, of which we have an account, was strictly idolatrous, and, as we believe, in every essential particular, save the account of the Flood, directly at war with


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our holy religion, and the laws of God. Prove to the well informed historian, that Masonry existed before the days of Solomon, and afterthe Flood, and he will be bound to declare, that it was a heathen Institution in all its original designs. Tell him that it existed beforetheFlood,and he will ask you, What for? What was it designed to perform? Was it to build the Ark? Was it to cause Adam to partake of the forbidden fruit, in order that he might learn the mystic art of making an apron? Or, was it to bring Adam to repentance after his fall? We believe Masonry has been made, by different writers, to do all these things; and yet is the history plain and simple when once understood. But when men have not given themselves the trouble to become acquainted with the well defined traditions of the Order (and great labor and time is required to do so), if they write its history, they must necessarily be groping in the dark. We here state, as our opinion, that God is the author of Masonry. Start not, reader; we do not mean to say that the Great Jehovah condescended to form Lodges, and preside in their midst, but we do mean to say that it was the result of a divine gift, as we shall presently attempt to show. We believe one of the objects designed to be accomplished by its introduction, was the overthrow of those secret societies that tended so powerfully to enslave the minds of the great masses, and subject them to the whims and caprices of the few, who governed and controlled the world through the machinations of priestly superstitions. Age on age had rolled away, since the great body of the people worshiped the one only living and true God. Here and there only was His name to be found engraven upon the hearts of men. Sodom and Gomorrah could not furnish ten who knew and acknowledged His divine law. The city of Jericho could furnish but one famnily, while many others were destitute of a soul to acknowledge His immaculate power. Even the children of Israel, that chosen people, selected for the purpose of receiving the manifestations of His mighty power and great glory, who were the daily recipients of His miraculous mercy and unceasing goodness, too often spurned the hand that fed them, and defied


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the power that preserved them from impending ruin. To us it seems strange, that when God made Himeelf known as the avenger of their wrongs, snatched them from the galling yoke of slavery, commanded an East wind to open them a way through the Red Sea, and when their mighty and relentless foe, like blood‑hounds, were at their heels, caused the river to give back its mighty torrent, and engulph Pharaoh and his host beneath its flood; we say, it seems strange that these people should ever cease to feel grateful, and fail to worship at His footstool. But, alas I how melancholy a picture does their after history present. The truth is, as we suppose, that the world had long been engrossed in the thick darkness of idolatrous worship, and the remembrance of Egypt's abominations was rolled under their tongues as a sweet morsel, for they longed for the flesh‑pots of their task‑masters, rather than the glory of their Heavenly Father. When Solomon was called to the throne of Israel, there were a number of secret societies in successful operation, all professing to teach the wonderful mysteries of nature, the miraculous power of certain gods, and teaching all initiates how to escape all evils in this,and the world to come. When we shall come to speak of these societies, the caverns, incantations, and ceremonies, every Mason will see that there is no shadow of resemblance between them and Masonry; but such was the regard entertained by the Egyptians for them, and such the estimate placed upon the admission to their honors, that few men lived without the hope of being permitted to enter the sacred Society, pass through the secret cavern, and be crowned with a knowledge which would serve as a talisman against all evil to which man is heir. And he who failed to perform the inhuman penance necessary to initiation, was ever after regarded as an outcast, unworthy the society of men, dead to the world, and cursed to all eternity. To counteract the direful effects of all this, could a better method have been devised than the establishment of a new secret Society, clothed with all the paraphernalia of secret ceremonies, signs, and symbols which Masonry has ever used? We wish not to be misunderstood: we do not believe that this was all that was to be effected by


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Masonry. Nor do we say that tradition tells us that it was created for this purpose at all. But we do say that the teachings of Masonry, instead of inculcating a belief in the power and miraculous influence of heathen gods, laid the foundation of a knowledge of that God and that religion which could alone enlighten the mind, and point to a glorious immortality. While we are constrained to admit that this opinion, as to one great end of the Institution, is probably expressed for the first time, and may, at first view, appear altogether visionary, we ask whether it is not in accordance with the general plans of the great Jehovah? Has He not, in all ages, adapted His instructions to the habits of His people? Has He not given numerous instances, clearly showing that He requires the use of means on the part of His created intelligences, to the accomplishment of the great end to be attained? Noah was required to build an Ark, in which he was to be saved; when, if it had been in accordance with the divine plan, Noah could have been saved without the use of any such means. In like manner, Moses was commanded to cast his rod upon the ground, and take it again; to thrust his hand in his bosom and take it out; to thrust it in a second time and take it out; to take water from the river, and pour it upon the dry ground; all these things were commanded to be done, as a prelude to the miracles intended to be exhibited to an unbelieving and gazing multitude;and yet, no one attributes the performance of these miracles to any power in Moses, except so far as God had bestowed. No one supposes that, by striking the rock, Moses possessed the power to make that act bring forth water. God used Moses as a means, through which infinite power was manifested. So with our Saviour, when He spat upon the clay, and with that clay opened the eyes of the blind. When He commanded the invalid to go to the Pool of Siloam, and wait for the troubling of the waters, in order to be healed, no one doubts the power of God to have effected these events by a simple act of will; indeed, the whole plan of salvation, the coming, death, and ascension of Jesus Christ, clearly exhibit the general plan of using means, and those means were always suited to the capacity, and, in many instances, agreeable to the


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preconceived habits of receiving and communicating instruction; and as John the Baptist was sent to prepare the way, wean the people from wickedness, and turn them to the Redeemer of the world, is it far‑fetched to suppose that Masonry was instituted to prepare the way, wean men from their secret, as well as open abominations, turn them from a blind worship of idols, and the machinations of a corrupt Society, to the great truths of God's holy law? The world has ever run after the marvelous and hidden mysteries of life; and while Masonry presented to the uninitiated all the charms of other secret societies, and surged him, by the same superstitious views, to seek admission, no man ever entered within the vail of its holy sanctuary without being taught to tremble beneath the strong arm of the mighty Jehovah, venerate His holy name, love and adore Him, as the chief among ten thousand and altogether lovely. It is not likely that any who were initiated into Masonry were ever after blind idolaters, for the very name which Masonry bore indicated to the world around, and reminded the initiated, that theirs was a knowledge above all the trappings of heathen mysteries. They were called the "Sons of Light," and truly were they a lamp to light the footsteps of a dark and benighted people, from the worship of a thousand immaginary gods, to a rational homage of Him " Who sits upon the whirlwind, and rides upon the storm." From the days of Abraham to the reign of Solomon, a period of more than fourteen generations, the Jewish nation continued to rise in power and influence among the nations of the earth; and yet it can not be supposed that this was owing to their superior attainments in knowledge, for, in the arts and sciences, they were greatly behind their neighbors. It must, therefore, have been the result of God's special care over them, and this protection of divine Providence continued about the same number of generations. We now proceed to notice some of the prominent events attendant upon the erection of the Temple. Those who are conversant with the Bible will remember that David desired to erect a house to the Lord, in which to. deposit the Ark of the Covenant, and afford a fit resting place for the


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great Shekinah, made every preparation in his power, amassing and laying up money for that purpose, and sought to learn the spot of ground upon which it had been decreed the house should stand, but God had determined that he, whose hands were stained with blood, should never build the Holy Temple. Yet, David being a man after God's own heart in all the outpourings of a benevolent spirit, God was pleased to promise him that the great and glorious work should be executed by his seed. When Solomon was called to the throne of Israel, out of the fullness of his soul to promote the happiness of his people, and cause them to live to the honor and glory of their Lord and Master, he devoutly prayed that his Heavenly Father would endow him with wisdom, adequate to the proper government of the great nation over which he had been called to preside. God, being pleased with the motive which prompted this thirst after knowledge, answered his prayer by granting him greater wisdom than had ever been bestowed on any king, and added thereto such riches as would enable him to perform the mighty work without let or hindrance. From the earliest period of his reign, Solomon commenced preparations and contemplated the speedy completion of the Temple; and, as he received superior wisdom as a divine gift, and as God set apart this work to be performed by him, is it not fair to suppose that this superior wisdom was given for the purpose of enabling him to perform the task assigned him in a manner which no other man was qualified to do? Solomon, as our traditions inform us, and as is recorded in the Bible, sent to Hiram, King of Tyre, to purchase timbers for the Temple. Hiram, being ardently desirous to assist in the glorious undertaking, cheerfully agreed to comply with the request; and, moreover, offered to have the timbers felled, hewed, marked, squared, and numbered, and delivered at whatever place might be designated by Solomon, without charge. Solomon desired to pay for them, and Hiram agreed to receive what would feed his workmen. " I will do all thy desire, concerning timber of cedar and timber of fir. My servants shall bring thom down from Lebanon unto the sea; and I will con


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vey them by sea in floats, unto the place thou shalt appoint me, and will cause them to be discharged there, and thou shalt receive them; and thou shalt accomplish my desire in giving food for my brotherhood."‑1 Kings v. 8, 9. Upon this contract, Solomon sent to Hiram, annually, corn, wine, and oil. (See 1 Kings v. 11.) All the workmen were under the supervision and control of Solomon, as to the plan of the work and style of execution. He also sent into Tyre,and procured the services of Hiram Abif, generally known as the "Widow's Son," in contra‑distinction to Hiram, the King. The mother of Hiram Abif was of the tribe of Naphthali; and consequently, an Israelite, but his father was a man of Tyre. Hiram Abif, therefore, was only a Tyrian by courtesy, and not by the strict laws of the land. It is said, by some historians, that early in life he attracted the favorable notice of Abibalus, the father of Hiram, King of Tyre, who, foreseeing the preeminent talents of the young man, gave his powerful influence in advancing the young artist, and this kindness was rewarded by young Hiram's devotion to the advancement of his country's glory, and the happiness of the people; and though cut down in the bloom of years, he had acquired the well earned reputation of being the ablest artificer on the earth. Our traditions inform us that, in the mere form of the building, Solomon took for his model the Tabernacle which Moses erected in the wilderness. But we candidly confess our belief that too much latitude has been given to this history, as it seems to us the Tabernacle of Moses only served as a model for the Sanctum Sanctorum, and not for the entire edifice. We have said that Solomon instituted and established Masonry, and we now proceed to give some of the reasons which present themselves to our mind, in addition to those which we are not at liberty to publish. And first, as already stated, all our traditions point to him, as its first great founder. Second, he was the first Most Excellent Grand Master, of which we have any account. Third, Hiram, King of Tyre, and Hiram Abif, were King Solomon's confidential friends and counselors; and during the building of the Temple, and until it was neally completed, these three constituted the only Master Masons in the


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world; from them emanated all the instructions in the degrees ‑nor were any conferred but by their authority, and the third degree, as now in use, was instituted by King Solomon, as well to perpetuate an important event, and transmit to future ages a striking example of unprecedented integrity and moral firmness, as to serve the invaluable purposes contemplated by the great founder of a Society, whose very elements would be calculated to bind together, in one common union, a band of brothers in every age, cemented by those sacred and indissoluble ties which an association of benevolent spirits always engender. Fourth, Solomon foresaw that if the children of Israel continued in their rebellion against the holy laws of God to do them, their enemies would be let loose upon them, that their city and Temple would be sacked and destroyed, and the remnant of the Jews be carried away into captivity, and this, too, by barbarian force, the delight of whom would be to destroy every vestige of the arts and sciences, and especially the Holy Law and all the holy vessels. To guard, as far as God permitted against this impending evil, Solomon instituted a plan, by which a knowledge of the degree which was lost at the building of the Temple, a copy of all the holy vessels, a knowledge of the arts and sciences, together with a true copy of the Book of the Law given by Moses, were all safely deposited, preserved, and transmitted to after generations. Other reasons crowd themselves upon our mind, but, for the present, we pause to inquire the probable weight which should be given to these. We here repeat, that the clearly defined traditions of the Craft unequivocally teach all we have stated above. Then, is it not remarkable, that if Masonry existed before the days of Solomon, some of its traditions do not point to the time, place, or persons engaged in its practice? Is it notstrange, that Solomon is reputed as the first Grand Master, if Masonry existed in the antediluvian age, or in the days of Noah, Enoch, etc.? For if, down to the time of Solomon, Masonry had been in practice, how comes it that, at the time of the building of the Temple, Solomon and the two Hirams were for several years the only Master Masons in the world? Can it be believed that


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Masonry existed for ages before, and yet at the period of which we speak,but three could be found, even admitting our traditions to be silent as to their being the first? Will not the well informed Mason, who adopts the opinion that Masonry has existed in all ages, marvel that when the degree of Master Mason was lost, because of the peculiar condition in which Solomon and Hiram, of Tyre, had voluntarily placed themselves, that none others could be found upon the broad spread earth who were not so situated, but that it was necessary it should remain buried to the world for the space of four hundred and seventy years? But, say these lovers of extreme antiquity, Masonry was remodeled by King Solomon, and assumed a new form at the building of the Temple. To this we have only to answer that, while we can not absolutely prove that Masonry did not previously exist, we are driven to the conclusion, that if Masonry was remodeled by King Solomon, it was so done as to leave no traces of its previous existence in any form whatever‑for no man ever has, nor is it likely ever will, furnish one jot or tittle of testimony that Masonry at the Temple owed its existence to, or had any connection with, any secret association of previous existence. We, therefore, marvel that the man has ever been found to hazard his reputation by saying that Masonry, as a Society, is coeval with man, when this opinion is sustained alone by the supposition that its principles are such as must have been more or less in use in all ages. Nor have we ever been able to appreciate the desire of these men so tenaciously to adhere to this flimsy doctrine of extreme antiquity. We admit Masonry is endeared to our hearts by having a head made venerable by long ages; and we glory in the remembrance that it triumphantly marched through countless revolutions, and nobly withstood the crush and ruin of kingdom after kingdom, empire after empire, and still lives and shines on earth, as a star does in bright glory. We say, we rejoice in this, because it furnishes evidence, not easily rejected, that an all‑wise and over‑ruling Providence has shielded and protected it from the pelting of the pitiless storms that have been hurled against its bulwarks. But what need we more? Need we break through the barriers of truth, and trace


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its genealogy through the dark vista of time, until the very imagination is lost in the flitting clouds of other times and other worlds? Must the gray hairs, which have adorned its noble brow for more than twenty‑eight hundred years, be silvered over with a few hundred generations more, in order to gratify our propensity for the marvelous, and thus attach us to the Order? For ourself, we see not the necessity nor an apology for such a course. We now proceed to give what we believe to be the clearly defined history of the three first degrees. There were employed at the building of the Temple one hundred and fifty‑three thousand three hundred workmen. Whether these were all selected from the true descendants of the twelve tribes of Israel, or indiscriminately from all parts of the world, is not of vital importance to the proper understanding of our subject; but we hope always to give a preference to the Holy Bible, especially when it is conflicted with by men who undertake, without any superior light, to set it at naught by mere declamation. Some such as these have stated, as historians, that, inasmuch as some Greek artists settled in Asia Minor about fifty years before the reign of Solomon, and as the Greeks were the best workmen in architecture then in the world, therefore, Hiram, King of Tyre, must have sent some of these to Solomon. We regard this as worse than mere conjecture, because it amounts to an effort to account for the unparalleled splendor of the Temple, when completed, on other grounds than those plainly taught in the Bible: "And King Solomon raised a levy out of all Israel, and the levy was thirty thousand men. And he sent them to Lebanon, ten thousand a month, by courses; a month they were at Lebanon, and two months at home, and Adoniram was over the levy." "And Solomon had three score and ten thousand that bare burdens, and four score thousand hewers in the mountains. Besides the chief of Solomon's officers, which were over the work, three thousand and three hundred, which ruled over the people that wrought in the work."‑1 Kings v. 13‑16.'The difficulty arising in the minds of some, in admitting the selection to be made from the Jews is, that this people were


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not accomplished workmen in architecture.' But of how little importance is this obstacle, if we admit the truth of the Bible, in stating that God gave Solomon superior wisdom; while, on the contrary, if we set out with the calculation that none worked on the Temple but the very best Greek artists, the superior style and finish of the building can not be thus accounted for; for whether we take, the statements of the Bible,or of Josephus, it is represented as so far transcending all others made by human hands, as to stand forth the wonder and admiration of the world‑and it will not do to say that it was remarkable only because of the rich and costly ornaments, for we are told in so many words, that " when the building was completed, its several parts fitted with that exact nicety, that it had more the appearance of the handy work of the Supreme Architect of the Universe than of human hands.' And it seems to us, idle to attribute the honor to any other than God Himself,operating through Solomon. It was erected by divine command‑and is it unreasonable to suppose that God would take care of His own house, and give wisdom to man for its completion in such a manner as to surpass all others? To us, there is nothing inconsistent or difficult to be understood in all the plan and execution of the work, if we will but consider that the Supreme Architect drew the plan, and if our brethren would read the Bible more, and mere speculators less, we should have much less difficulty to contend with in the history of our Order, and much more clearly understand our duty to God, our neighbor, and ourselves. The workmen were' divided into classes or Lodges, according to their skill and ability to perform higher or lower orders of work, and their advancement in knowledge and virtue. We will not stop to give in detail, our reasons, but we must be permitted to say, that we believe Masonry wasSpeculative as well as Operative in its original plan, and at a proper time we shall attempt to show that since the days of Sir Christopher Wren (the last Operative Grand Master), we have thrown off Operative, and retained, not substituted, Speculative Masonry; and that, whenever the Ancient Landmarks are well defined and clearly set forth, the valuable lectures of Brothers Webb, Cross,


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and others, must be shorn of much of their fanciful ornaments, which have been introduced to adapt the Institution to the times and circumstances under which we live. We believe that Entered Apprentices at the Temple were those who came forward and had their names recorded to serve till the work was completed‑that, thereupon, Solomon gave them a lesson, or set of instructions adapted to their capacities, calculated as well to promote their own interests and happiness, as to forward the great work; and as soon as they had proved themselves worthy, by having acquired an intimate acquaintance with said instructions, he gave them privileges and benefits which were enjoyed by none who were not engaged upon the Temple. Our traditions clearly teach that he gave them certain secret signs and tokens, by which they would be able to make themselves known as SONS OF LIGHT, whithersoever they might be dispersed. And we would ask, What advantage could result to them from this ability to recognize and be recognized by the Fraternity, if they were strictly operatives, and in possession of no skill as workmen, superior to thousands of the Greeks? We are inclined to the belief that Entered Apprentices,then,were qualified to do better work, and were better instructed in the arts and sciences, and a knowledge of God and his holy law, than were many of the most accomplished Greeks, and hence were they prepared, should any event prevent their further advancement in Masonic degrees, to go forth and reap the benefit of instructions received at the hands of one sent of God. This degree is justly esteemed of greatly less value than the third or even second; and yet, when we properly appreciate the moral lessons here taught, we are struck with the conviction that a God‑like wisdom must have instituted it. The very first lesson teaches the candidate that humility is necessary to the acquisition of all true knowledge, and here is shown a striking likeness between this great system of ethics and that sublime system of Christianity taught in the Holy Bible. To whom does Masonry promise its benefits and blessings? To those only who humble themselves to a proper condition to receive‑to those who come forward as deperdent creatures.


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To whom does God promise the benefits and blessings of Chria tianity? To those only who humble themselves as suppliants at the footstool of his sovereign mercy. To whom does Masonry promise those invaluable secrets by which the Mason is permitted to enter the company and enjoy the advantages of the Sons of Light? He who voluntarily enters into a covenant to keep sacred and inviolable the mysteries of the Order, and obey its ancient and established laws. To whom does God promise those inestimable secrets of His holy council, which enables the recipient to exclaim, "I know that my Redeemer liveth?" To him only who will enter into a solemn covenant to walk in His statues and keep His commandments. To whom does the Entered Apprentice's degree promise a recompense of reward? To him only who shall divest himself of all the vices and superfluities of life, stand upon the Square of Virtue, live by the Plumb‑line of Truth, and thus form the corner‑stone upon which he may safely build his spiritual and eternal edifice. To whom does God promise a recompense of reward? To him only who will deny himself all ungodliness and worldly lusts, and live soberly and righteously in this present evil world. Thus we think may be traced even in this, the preparatory and least important degree, a striking likeness between the divine teachings of our Heavenly Father and the Institution of Masonry. Nor are these salutary lessons the invention of modern times. They were taught at the building of the Temple ùthey have been taught ever since, and palsied be the arm that shall be raised to oppose or withhold them. Who then will say that Masonry was Operative only in former times? Who shall say it was anti‑Christian in its formation? And, above all, who shall say that the finger of God does not point to its origin, and Hisright arm guard it in its onward march to the accomplishmaent of its divine mission of " peace on earth and good will to man." The Entered Apprentice is presented with a white garment, as an emblem of that purity of life and rectitude of conduct, so necessary to his gaining admission into the celestial Lodge


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above, where presides our Supreme Grand Master. He is taught so to divide his time, that he may devote eight hours to the service of God and a distressed worthy brother, eight to the common avocations of life, and eight to refreshment and sleep. He is further taught to use the " common Gavel " to divest his mind and conscience of all the vices and superfluities of life, thereby the better fitting his body, as a living stone, for tha. spiritual building, that house not made with hands, eternal i.. the heavens. He is taught to look with wonder and adrnira tion at yonder "cloudy canopy, and starry‑decked heavens, whither every good Mason hopes to arrive by the aid of th6 theological ladder which Jacob, in his vision, saw ascending from earth to heaven, the three principal rounds of which are denominated Faith, Hope, and Charity, and admonish us to have Faith in God, Hope in immortality, and Charity toward all mankind; but the greatest of these is Charity, because Faith may be lost in sight,Hope ends in fruition, but Charity extends beyond the grave, through the boundless realms of eternity." The Entered Apprentice is pointed to the Mosaic pavement, the indented tassel, and the blazing star, to remind him that this life is checkered with good and evil, that around it hangs a beautiful tesselated border of comforts and blessings, which we may enjoy by a faithful reliance on divine Providence, the hieroglyphic star of the Entered Apprentice Mason. He is taught that the Mason's Lodge, in which our brethren formerly ceased from their labor and sunk to sweet repose, conscious of a well spent day in toil, and labor, and brotherly kindness, and charity, is typical of that Grand Lodge where saints and angels assemble around the throne of God to welcome the returning prodigal with songs of rejoicing and hallelujahs to the Lamb for ever and ever. This, this is Apprentice Masonry, and who does not discover the finger of God in all this? Oh! how must theChristian Mason's heart bleed at hearing this glorious Tnstitution wantonly assailed I


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As THE second, or Fellow Craft's degree, as now conferred, is infinitely less important than it was at the building of the Temple, and, as a faithful historian, it will devolve on us to show why this is so, we shall not shrink from the task when the appropriate time shall arrive; but, as we are now considering the earliest history of our Order, we think it proper to lay before our readers Masonry as it then was, and in tracing its somewhat obscure advancement through several ages, arrive at, and account for, the changes alluded to, as best we may. That the Fellow Craft's degree embraced a much larger amount of valuable instruction, both in reference toSpeculative andOperative Masonry than is now to be found in the degree, we think the well informed Mason can not rationally doubt. Who and what were the eighty thousand Craftsmen employed at the building of the Temple? We hesitate not to say that they were accomplished workmen; that,while it was the business of the Entered Apprentice to prepare the Rough Ashler, it was the business of the Fellow Craft to polish and perfect the stone for the builder's use, to accomplish which great skill and experience were necessary; that these workmen were inferior only to the three thousand and three hundred whom Solomon had qualified by still superior instructions to take charge of and oversee the work, must be apparent to all; that the most vigilant watch was kept over them, in order that no imperfect work might be assigned to, or find a place in, the edifice; and that,to insure this result,the most perfect system of checks and balances were instituted. If we understand the degree, as then in use, the work of those men was regularly brought up to the Temple for inspection and careful examination by such as were fully competent; and the system of examination was so


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perfect as to admit of no infractions, nor was it possible that the Craftsmen could be imposed upon, should a corrupt overseer be placed to examine the work, for every Craftsman was furnished with means by which he was safely protected from having it appropriated to the use of another. So in reference to thi wages, which we are traditionally informed were paid regularly on the evening of every sixth day. No mistake or injustice could be done. Every man who had, in obedience to the established rules of the Order, accomplished a piece of work, had a right to demand, and always received, the wages justly due. And here we are struck with the simplicity and perfection of the system, as adding another evidence of the divine hand that directed; for, so infinitely perfect was the system, as noticed, that while the workmen were guarded and protected in all their rights, in like manner did it safely and completely protect King Solomon from any imposition, even to the smallest sum demanded by that vast multitude of Craftsmen. It is worthy of remark, that after the lapse of so many ages, and all the powers and inventions of man have, from time to time, been brought to bear, in order to facilitate easy and correct settlements of accounts and the speedy liquidation of just demands, no system has ever been discovered or brought into use that will at all compare with that to which we now allude, but which the Mark Master Mason of the present day can alone understand. We are aware that we lay ourselves liable to ridicule by those who are unacquainted with Masonry, in stating the fact that one man paid off regularly, justly, and satisfactorily, every Craftsman; and, when the number is considered, we are aware how natural it is for those who have not become acquainted with the simple plan, to declare the thing utterly impossible, and yet he who has witnessed an exhibition of the work has probably wondered more that he had not thought of so simple a method, than that the thing was impracticable. It will be seen, therefore, that we believe the Mark Master's degree, as now given, is part and parcel of the Fellow Craft's degree; that this is true, is manifested by a variety of reasons, few of which, however! can be written, but which must suggest themselves.


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To the intelligent Mark Master, indeed, the history of our Order shows that, in England, as late as the middle of the last century, subordinate Lodges had no power to confer higher degrees than the Entered Apprentice. The right to confer the Fellow Craft and Master's degree was reserved alone to the Grand Lodge, or to a Lodge summoned by the Grand Master. Again, the history of the degrees, as detailed in the Fellow Craft and the Mark Master's, embraces much of the history of the Temple, as also of the Institution of Freemasonry; and here we learn, most conclusively, that Masonry at the building of the Temple was Speculative, as well as Operative, in its character. The recipient of this degree is taught, not only the operative use of the Plumb‑line and Square, but the moral application of these important symbols to the life and conduct of man,as an intelligent and responsible being; he is forcibly impressed with the two‑fold representation that, while King Solomon decreed that all good and true men, who wrought their regular hours, and produced such work as the overseers were authorized to receive, should reap the reward of their labor in temporal things, so should he, whose life and conduct passed the Square of the Grand Overseer, in the final day of accounts, be entitled to receive and feed on "the corn of nourishment, the wine of refreshment, and the oil of joy." He is forcibly taught, that as man was created a rational and intelligent creature, capable of the highest enjoyments in this life, so should he be constantly employed, not only in the industrious exercise of his physical powers, in producing and promoting man's comfort and convenience, by providing shelter from the inclemency of the seasons, but he is required to bring into active exercise all those higher and ennobling attributes of the mind, which render him only a little lower than the angels. The study of the arts and sciences, and their proper application to the melioration of the condition of man,is not only recommended, but, we apprehend, was formerly made to constitute a pre requisite to admission to this degree. We are prepared to admit that much of the lecture, as now given in the FellowCraft's degree, is of modern introduction‑still do we believe that the principle is retained. That the five orders of


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architecture were presented to the attention of the Masons in the order they are now used, or that the seven liberal arts and sciences were all classified, and given for the study of the candidate, in the manner we now use them, we do not believe; but we do believe that the history of theBrazen Pillars, the manner and end for which they were erected, and a close application to the study of astronomy, geometry, etc., were not only advised, but enforced, as a qualification for advancement to this degree. Nor is this a far‑fetched conclusion, when we remember the mission that Solomon was called to perform. Can any one suppose that God gave Solomon superior wisdom for no other purpose than the erection of the Temple? We think not. We can not conceive of an extraordinary exercise of infinite power for the accomplishment of a finite end onlynor does the moral condition of the world, at the period of which we write, authorize such a belief; but we are forcibly driven to the conclusion that the great end to be attained by that King, called of God, was to elevate the standard of moral excellence, by all means calculated to impress the mind of man with the belief of his immortality and dependence upon his great Creator. Tle working man was lifted from his low and degraded condition, to a level with the most favored of his species. The accomplished mechanic stood proudly preeminent among the most honorable and praiseworthy of men. Nor was this effect temporary in its character; for many centuries after, yea, down to the time of Sir Christopher Wren, princes and rulers sought for, and labored to obtain, a place among the architects of the land. But this elevated platform, upon which mechanics formerly stood, was not attained by mere machines, or by simply imitative beings;but the genius, the energy, the power of intellect was called into requisition. The recipients of the mystic tie were taught to throw off the worship of pagan gods, and the mummeries of debasing superstition; they were instructed to regard the law of Moses as emanating from the divine will of the only living and true God; they were taught to look upon vice as tending to mar the happiness of man on earth, and endanger his happiness to all eternity. They were persuaded and entreated, by all the beauty of


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holiness, to cultivate and practice every virtue, as a means of contentment on earth, and a final passport to another and a better world, where the righteous Judge will reward every man according to his merits‑when the good and true shall inheri the kingdom prepared for them, from the foundation of the world; and,as a powerful means of impressing the mind with the unlimited power of the great Jehovah, the student of Masonry, the humble but faithful Fellow Craft, was pointed to the starry heavens, hung with the rich drapery of God's handiwork; he was taught to look to the bending arch which overspreads this vast universe, and contemplate the illimitable power and great glory of that God, whoby His fiat spoke into being and harmonious action another and another, yea, worlds on worlds, until our own is lost, or stands as but a speck in the constellation of countless worlds, all ruled by the same unerring law of the Divine Architect of the Universe. How contracted and unsatisfying to the reflecting mind must be the doctrine that Solomon taught Operative Masonry alone. How false and ridiculous must our ceremonies appear, if they are, or ever were, intended only to minister to the temporal wants of man. How ridiculous to teach the novitiate the sublime truths contained in our lectures, as handed down from time immemorial, if these are all but a tale of modern invention? But how beautifully sublime, how ennobling to the soul, are all these lessons of instructions, if we feel assured they emanated from that man, called of God to teach mankind the secret of happiness, and furnish a password that shall gain us an entrance into the supreme Grand Council of Heaven. Masonry was evidently designed to lift the soul of man from its fallen and degraded condition, superinduced by a blind worship of a plurality of gods, to a knowledge of that system which can alone supply the wants and save from endless ruin; and he who is brought to study the heavenly bodies, and the arts and sciences, must have a mind strangely perverted, that does not behold the wonder‑working hand of our supreme Grand Master, and who will not acknowledge the rational homage due to the Creator and Preserver of all things. We do not believe that Masonry and geometry were ever


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synonymous terms, but we do believe that a study of geometry was made incumbent upon all who sought to obtain advancerent in Masonry. A knowledge of geometry, and an acquaintance with the liberal arts and sciences, was necessary to a proper understanding and appreciation of the divine attributes and powers of Jehovah; and, as intimated before, Solomon had a two‑fold mission to perform; it was his business, as well as pleasure, to erect a building to the honor and glory of God, and to teach mankind, through the medium of Masonry, how to fill that aching void in the soul,and satiate that longing after immortality. We have thought much upon the subject of this degree, and have come to the conclusion that, in the subdivision, the end has been made the beginning, and vice versa. We think the entire degree of Mark Master constituted the major part of the work of the degree of Fellow Craft, and the second section of the Fellow Craft's degree, as now given, is a modern invention. If the Fellow Craft's degree, as used at the Temple, was not founded upon a certain stone spoken of in the Bible, we would ask upon what event or transaction it was founded? And this inquiry is the more apparently proper, as all other degrees are founded upon some great transaction, either alluded to in the Bible, or handed down through our sacred and unerring traditions. The degree, as now conferred, is not sufficiently marked to characterize it as so important as the degree was at the building of the Temple; but,take it in connection with the Mark Master, and it at once presents a well defined history of the causes which led to its introduction, the great end to be accomplished by it, both in reference to the benefits it bestowed on the working class of the community, as mechanics, and the moral bearing and influence it was destined to exercise on all who were permitted to come within its pale and claim its benefits; yea, we doubt whether anything has ever been presented to the mind of man, so well calculated to restrain the wild passions of the human heart, draw the cords of love and reciprocal friendship so closely around the affections, and incite to noble and benevolent action. Where is the true Craftsman that would not feel drawn by the sacred ties of Brotherhood, when hailed


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by the sign of distress or suffering? Who would not feel it a privilege to administer to the wants of that) brother whom misfortune has assailed, or disease prostrated? Who would fail to recognize the stone spoken of in the Revelations of St. John: "To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna; and I will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth, saving him that receiveth it."‑Rev. iii. 13. " He that hath an ear to hear, let him hear." Psalms:‑" The stone which the builders refused is become the head‑stone of the corner." Chronicles ii.:‑"And we will cut wood out of Lebanon, as much as thou shalt need; and we will bring it to thee in boats by sea to Joppa, and thou shalt convey it up to Jerusalem." Ezekiel xliv., 1 and 5:‑" Then he brought me back the way of the gate of the outward sanctuary, which looketh toward the East, and it was shut. And the Lord said unto me:'Son of man, mark well, and behold with thine eyes, and hear with thine ears, all that I say unto thee concerning all the ordinances of the house of the Lord, and all the laws thereof; and mark well the entering in of the house, with every going forth of the sanctuary." How beautifully illustrative of the important truths inculcated by this degree, is a proper understanding and application of the Scripture here quoted! How infallible are the means here unfolded, of securing secret relief for suffering humanity I How simple, and yet how perfect, the plan here taught, of protecting all men from falling a prey to the cravings of hunger I We marvel, not so much that this degree was instituted for mutual protection of all its recipients, but that the means adopted are so simple and easy of execution, that all may understand‑ and practice them. That the secrets of this degree, which enabled the brother to recognize and claim the friendship and protection of the brethren everywhere, were given by King Solomon to all those who proved themselves worthy, we believe the traditions of the Order sufficiently show. That the eighty thousand Craftsmen were accomplished workmen and scientific


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men, we appeal to the perfection of the work as proof. That they were under the influence of the most perfect system of moral government, superinduced by the most sacred ties of that holiest of all the holy principles of Christianity‑love‑love to God and love to man, we may safely refer, not only to our traditions, but to the history of the building of the Temple, as given in the Bible. That so many men could be restrained from a violation of the law, by any other means short of divine influence, or the teaching of our holy religion, we think can not be seriously claimed, even by the skeptic, and that a mistaken view of the claims of justice, on the part of the Craft, and a corresponding dissatisfaction growing out of such an error, was readily determined and satisfactorily adjusted by a proper understanding of the true meaning and intent of the law (such as occurred on one occasion), can only be accounted for by the supposition that a power divine, a religious influence, was operating and harmonizing the whole. We dare not believe that men, in those days, were exempt from vicious desires, and uninfluenced by mercenary motives; we can not rationally suppose that so vast a concourse of men wrought together in perfect harmony, patiently submitting to the government of one man, influenced alone by the wages received, or the advancement they made in a knowledge of mere Operative Masonry. No, no; the omnipotent power of an omnipotent God was working in them to do of His own good pleasure. They had learned, not only valuable secrets, to render them efficient and accomplished workmen, but their judgments were convinced of the rational homage due to the Great Source of all good, and hence the exercise of moral principle upon their lives and conduct; hence their obedience, cheerfully and heartily given, to the Moral Law; and, while we boast of the rapid strides in intellect and moral culture, and the still onward march of mind, we could wish the evidence was before us that Masons of the present day stood shoulder to shoulder, an harmonious band, prepared to do as well as did these primitive Masons. How mortifying to the philanthropist, how heartrending to the Christian Mason, must be a comparison of the present with the past! Where is the spirit, the genius of


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            7'4 ‑ HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.


Masonry, that once united the Brotherhood in the bonds of love, made holy by the mystic tie? Where is the plastic hand that once spread the cement of affection, and united the Fraternity into one common mass of pure and disinterested friendship? Has the spirit departed, or does it sleep, only to arise in might, and majesty, and great glory, to shed around its benign and vivifying influence over this broad land? Brethren, are you prepared to answer? God is waiting to be gracious. and it is with us to say whether our light shall be made so to shine, that others, seeing our good works, may glorify our supreme Grand Master. Let us, then, awake from the lethargy of our slumbers, put on the armor of our fathers, and go forth, resolved to do and dare all things for the glorious cause. The field is larger, and we have, perhaps, more discordant materials to amalgamate than had the primitive Masons, and, therefore, the greater the necessity for a more vigorous and powerful effort to subdue our passions, and improve ourselves in Masonry. Could we all live in strict obedience to the rules of our Order, could we show forth, in our lives and conversation, the spirit of the lessons we are all taught within the Lodge, how beautiful‑how incomparably beautiful would be the spectacle to a gazing and admiring world I We confess ourself involved in some difficulty in treating of the Fellow Craft and. Master's degree, because, in the first place, if we turn to the writings of Bro. Anderson, the author, or rather the compiler, of the Ancient Constitutions, in 1722, or Bro. Entick, who wrote in 1756, we are instructed that on some, indeed, on all occasions, it was then common to call Master Masons, Fellows; and, unless we are careful, a misconstruction of the author's views will be the result. It, however, appears plain to us that at that day it was common to speak of all Master Masons, not in authority, as Fellow Crafts, that is, Brother Craftsmen; while lie who had charge of the immediate work of erecting a building was called the Master Mason. This is manifest as late as the time of Sir Christopher Wren. who was the Grand Master of Masons, and superintended the erection of so many buildings in the city of London, after the great fire. Bro. Wren could not have been more than


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75 the designer, the great architect, while the Craftsmen were divided into Lodges, with a Master at the head of each, who was careful to see that the designs of the Grand Master were carried out while it is quite probable that very many of the Craftsmen or members of the Lodges were Master Masons. Second, because if the Master's degree had not been given, up to the time at which our traditions place it (iz., sear the completion of the Temple), we are at a loss to determine what was the degree of advancement of those three thousand three hundred overseers. But as the Master's degree, referred to in our traditions, intended to be given to the Craft after the Temple was completed, evidently embraced a set of instructions altogether superior to those in possession of the overseers, and, as these were never given by King Solomon, Hiram, King of Tyre, and Hiram Abif, is it not probable that the overseers received most of the instructions contained in the present Master's degree, and, after the completion of the Temple, these, and all other worthy Craftsmen, received the remainder of the degree, which enabled them to become undertakers, by having the power of drawing designs upon the Trestle Board, and that the instructions were given through the medium of the degree, then introduced and now in use? We can not believe that the overseers were no better instructed than the Fellow Crafts; and the beautiful system, introduced by King Solomon, for rewarding merit, and yet holding out inducements for all the workmen to remain engaged upon the Temple until its completion, may be seen and appreciated if we take this view of the subject, for while all were advanced in knowledge and an increase of wages, in strict conformity to their industry and skill, none were allowed to receive the crowning degree, embracing those instructions which qualified them to become undertakers or master builders, until after the completion of the Temple, for it must be manifest that if this instruction had been received at an early period, most, if not all, the workmen thus instructed would have left the Temple unfinished, and gone forth in the world as undertakers, as by this course they would have amassed great fortunes, and established themselves a name as superior workmen and architects, while the Temple could


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not have been completed at the time it was. We, therefore, suppose that King Solomon gave to three thousand and three hundred of the most accomplished Fellow Crafts,an additional set of instructions in architecture and the arts and sciences, thereby qualifying them to oversee the execution of the work assigned to the Craft; and this is the more probable, when we remember that these overseers were not qualified to inspect or superintend all the work. It is known to the well informed Mason, that our traditions inform us that some portion of the work was not intrusted to any but the three Grand Masters. Now, it is not likely that this would have been necessary, or that the time of these distinguished men would have been occupied in manual labor, had not some great reason operated to withhold a knowledge of the art of accomplishing the finest and most secret work from those engaged on the Temple. As the degree of Master Mason includes many of the most important rules for the well being and happiness of man, and the moral influence of its teachings are forcibly impressed upon the mind by appropriate symbols, we propose to return and give the reader a more minute account of the events that led to the introduction of the Order, and trace its history down to the present time. We have said that David desired to build the house of the Lord. to afford a resting place for the Ark of God, but not until near the close of his reign do we find him engaged in any important work of architecture. When he had taken the city of Jebus from his enemies, and fixed his residence at Zion we are informed that he employed workmen in repairing and beautifying the walls and public edifices, and so much was Zion improved, that this, in connection with his residence there, gave it the name of the city of David, and he gave to the old city of Jebus the name of Jerusalem. But while David was aware that God would not permit him to build the house of the Lord, we have evidence that he did all in his power to prepare for the work, for, a short time before his death, he assembled all the chiefs of his people, and informed them that he had gathered together an immense treasure, laid up large quantities of rich materials, and plans and models for the different parts of the building, acquainting them with the will of God,


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77 that the house was to be executed by his son Solomon, and he urged them to give their assistance and cooperation when the time should come. Shortly after, the King died, in the seventieth year of his age, having reigned seven years in Hebron, over the house of Judah, and near thirty‑three over all the tribes. The fraternal letters which passed between Solomon and Hiram, King of Tyre, although familiar to many of our readers, seem, nevertheless, necessary here, as a connecting link in this history. We, therefore, give the one most important and interesting to Masons: "King Solomon to King Hiram, greeting:‑Be it known unto thee, O King, that my father David had it a long time in his mind to erect a Temple to the Lord, but, being perpetually in war, and under a necessity of clearing his hands df his enemies, and make them all his tributaries, before he could attend to his great and holy work, he hath left it to me, in time of peace, both to begin and finish it, according to direction, as well as the prediction of ALMIGHTY GOD. Blessed be His great name for the present tranquility of my dominions; and by His gracious assistance, I shall now dedicate the best improvements of this liberty and leisure to His honor and worship. Therefore, I make it my request that you will let some of your people go along with some servants of mine to Mount Lebanon,to assist them in cutting down materials toward this building, for the Sidonians understand it much better than we do. As for the workmen's reward or wages, whatever you think reasonable shall be punctually paid them." King Hiram returned the following answer: "King Hiram to King Solomon:‑Nothing could have been more welcome to me than to understand that the government of your blessed father is devolved, by God's providence, into the hands of so excellent, so wise, and so virtuous a successor. His holy name be praised for it. That which you write for shall be done, with all care and good will; for I will give order to cut down and export such quantities of the fairest cedars and cypress trees as you will have occasion for. My people shall bring them to the sea‑side for you, and thence


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ship them away to: what port you please, where they may lie ready for your own men to transport them to Jerusalem. It would be a great obligation, after all this, to allow us such a provision in corn in exchange as may stand in your convenience, for that is the commodity we islanders want most." Solomon, thankfully accepting of this generous offer, ordered a yearly present to be sent to Hiram of twenty thousand measures of corn, twenty thousand measures of wine, twenty thousand measures of oil, twenty thousand measures of fine oil for his household, and twenty thousand of barley, and it was agreed that the timbers were to be delivered at Joppa. Hiram, the King, also sent Solomon a man of his own name, a Tyrian by birth, but of Israelitish descent, who was more than a second Bezaleel. In 2. Chronicles ii. 13, he is called Hiram Abif, the most accomplished and skillful workman on earth. Anderson, in his Ancient Constitutions, makes the assertion that, in Solomon's absence, Hiram Abif filled the office of Deputy Grand Master, and in his presence was Senior Grand Warden, or principal surveyor and master of the work. We make the following extract from the same work, pages 18 and 19:‑" In 2 Chronicles ii. 13, Hiram, King qf Tyre (called here Huram), in his letter to King Solomon, says,'I have sent a cunning man, El Hiram Abif,' which is not to be translated like the vulgate Greek and Latin, Hiram, myfather, for his description, v. 14, refutes it, and the words import only Hiram, of myfather, or the chief Master Mason of my father Abibalus. Yet, some think that King Hiram might call the architect Hiram his father, as learned and wise men were wont to be called by royal patrons in old times. Thus, Joseph was called.Tbuch, or the King's father, and this same Hiram, the architect, is called Solomon's father, 2 Chronicles iv. 6." But the difficulty is over at once by allowing the word Abif to be the surname of Hiram, the artist, called in the Scriptures Hiram Abbi, and again Hiram Abif, as in the Lodge he is called Hiram Abif, to distinguish him from Hiram, the King, for this reading makes the sense plain and complete, viz.:‑that Hiram, King of Tyre, sent to King Solomon the cunning workman called Hiram Abif. He is described in two places in the Bible,


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79 viz.:‑1 Kings and 2 Chronicles. In the first, he is called the Widow's Son, of the tribe of Napltali; and in the other, he is called the son of a woman of the daughters of Dan‑but in both that his father was a man of Tyre, that is, she was of the city of Dan, in the tribe of Naphtali, and is called a widow of Naphtali, as her husband was a Naphtalite, for he is not called a Tyrian by descent, but a man of Tyre by habitation, as Abed Edom, the Levite, is called a Gittite, and the Apostle Paul a man of Tarsus. But though Hiram Abif had been a Tyrian by olood, that derogates not from his vast capacity, for the Tyrians were now the best artificers, by the encouragement of King Hiram, and those texts testify that God had endowed this Hiram Abif with wisdom, understanding, and mechanical cunning to perform everything that Solomon required, not only in building the Temple, with all its costly magnificence, but also in founding, fashioning, and framing all the holy utensils thereof according to geometry, and to find out every device that might be put to him; and the Scriptures assure us that he fully maintained his character in far larger works than those of Aholiab and Bezaleel, for which he will be honored in Lodges till the end of time. In confirmation of the above,it may be proper to state that Hiram Abif was not only celebrated for his skill in building, but his superior knowledge extended to all kinds of work, whether in gold, silver, brass, or iron, as also in linen tapestry, or embroidery. Dires, the historian, is of the opinion that the love of wisdom was the chief inducement to that tender and devoted friendship which so long existed between Solomon and Hiram‑that they proposed to each other difficult and deep hidden problems, and Entick states that " Menander, of Ephesus, who translated the Tyrian annals out of the Philistine tongue into Greek, also relates, that whenever any of these propositions proved too hard for those wise and learned princes, Abdymonus or Abdomenus, the Tyrian, called in the old Constitutions, Amon, or Hiram Abif, answered every device that was put to him, and even challenged Solomon, though the wisest Prince in the world, with the subtility of the question he proposed." Now, that Hiram Abif solved all the difficu14


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problems put to him by Solomon, or Hiram, King of Tyre, is true, because the Scriptures declare as much. But we proceed to notice an important discrepancy between the statements of Anderson and nearly all the writers of the present day, in the subdivision of the Craft at the building of the Temple. Dr. Oliver, we believe, is the only one who agrees with Anderson, and he quotes the language and uses the figures of the latter, without exercising the magnanimity to give the credit. The following is an extract from Anderson's Constitutions " To carry on this stupendous work with greater ease and speed, Solomon caused all the Craftsmen, as well natives as foreigners, to be numbered and classed as follows: " 1. Harodim, Princes, Rulers, or Provosts, in number three hundred. " 2. Overseersand comforters of the people in working, that ‑were expert Master Masons, three thousand three hundred. "3. Stone squarers, polishers, and sculptors, and men of newing. and setters, layers,or builders, being able and ingenious Fellow Crafts, eighty thousand. "4. The levy out of Israel, appointed to work in Lebanon one month in three, ten thousand every month, under the direction of noble Adoniram, who was the Junior Grand Warden, thirty thousand. " All the Freemasons employed in the work of the Temple, exclusive of the two Grand Wardens, were one hundred and thirteen thousand six hundred, besides the Ish, ormen of burden, the remains of the old Canaanites, amounting to seventy thousand, who are not numbered among Masons." It will be seen, by the foregoing extract, that the three thousand three hundred overseers were, in the opinion of Bro. Anderson, not only Master Masons, but expert ones. But while we are gratified at being able to bring such high testimony in support of a theory we have been teaching for many years, viz., that the overseers were advanced above Fellow Crafts, much like the first section of the Master's degree advances at the present day, still we are not satisfied; for, as before remarked, if the tradition handed down to us is true, the Master's degree was not given until the completion of the Temple, that is, the degree


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81 which we now have, and overseers could not have had the one that was lost, for the same tradition informs us that, up to that period, none were in possession of it but the three Grand Masters. We also learn from Bro. Anderson another evidence in support of a theory in reference to Entered Apprentices, which we have taught for many years, and, until now, sustained only by the fact that Solomon was endowed with superior wisdom, and, therefore, was capable of giving to Entered Apprentices instructions in architecture and the arts and sciences, which would make them superior to any others in the world who were not under his control. If the opinion of Webb, Cross, and others, were true, that Entered Apprentices were bearers of burden only, of course our conclusion as to their superior knowledge was erroneous, but we never could bring our mind to believe that Solomon would admit seventy thousand men to the degree of Entered Apprentice Mason, or in any way unite them in fraternal bonds, and make them bearers of burden. Again, Anderson says that, while the Fellow Crafts were parceled off into Lodges, with Wardens over them, for the purpose of receiving the commands of King Solomon in a regular way, and the better to take care of their tools and jewels, they took Entered Apprentices, and educated them, with the noble purpose of perpetuating their succession, and handing down those valuable secrets from generation to generation. Nor is there any other opinion well sustained, for it is idle to suppose that Solomon instructed each, in person, daily; and, on the other hand, how much instruction could these Entered Apprentices have received, directly from the Fellow Crafts, or indirectly from King Solomon, if they were daily engaged in carrying the hod? On the contrary, take the ground assumed by Bro. Anderson, and a beautiful system is presented, by which the strong bonds of union and love, created by mutual friendships, are cemented by the holy ties of affection, never to be broken; for each ministered to the other's wants, comfort, and happiness, and the advancement of each, in knowledge and virtue, served but to heighten the enjoyment of all. How beautifully sublime appears this great plan of benevolence, when we are able to harmonize its several parts, and trace its 6


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foundation to Him only who could speak it into being! TWe marvel, not that all men do not study the benign principles of Masonry, and spread more widely the cement of Brotherly Love, but we do marvel that Masons, who are Christians, do not all study its beautiful proportions, and discover its intimate connection with our holy religion, and the strong arm of its power in bringing men nearer, and yet still nearer, the throne of grace. Can any man be a good Mason, and not remember that God is gracious? Can any man understand Masonry, and not feel that he has no right to violate His holy law? We answer, No, no; and every Christian Mason should use its principles as a means of reforming others.


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THE traditions of our Order, and the old records which were brought together by order of the Grand Lodge of England, in 1718, and carefully examined by Bro. Anderson and a Committee of the Grand Lodge, agree in fixing the time of laying the foot‑stone, or corner‑stone, of Solomon's Temple on the second day of the month Zif, which answers to the 21st of April, in the fourth year of the reign of King Solomon, the third after the death of David, and four hundred and eighty years after the passage of the Children of Israel through the Red Sea, in the year of the world two thousand nine hundred and ninety‑two, after the Flood one thousand three hundred and thirty‑six, and before Christ one thousand and twelve. This mighty structure was finished on the eighth day of the month Bul, which answers to the 21st of October, being the seventh month of the sacred year, and the eleventh of the reign of King Solomon. We presume a minute description of the Temple will not be necessary here, as we hope our readers are all familiar with the Bible; but we have made some estimates, which are not generally found in Masonic works, of interest to the reader of Masonic history. The length of the Holy Place, or Temple proper, from wall to wall, was sixty cubits, sacred measure. the breadth twenty cubits, and the heighth to the upper ceiling, thirty cubits, being every way just double the size of the Tabernacle. The Oracle, or Most Holy Place, was a perfect cube of twenty cubits. The wall of the outer court, or Court of the Gentiles, was seven thousand seven hundred feet in circumference, and all the apartments would contain three hundred thousand people. The Oracle and Sanctuary were


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lined with massive gold, beautified, embellished, and adorned with sculpture and numerous gorgeous and dazzling decorations of diamonds and all kinds of costly stones. It has been conceded, on all hands, that no edifice has ever been constructed that will at all compare with this in exact proportions and beautiful decorations, from the splendid portico in the East, to the glorious and revered Sanctum Sanctorum in the West. Men, in extreme vanity, have attempted to surpass this masterpiece of Masonry, but it has never been equaled, nor ever will, unless God shall again condescend to plan and oversee. We would venture an opinion upon the subject of religion with great diffidence, but we can not but think the construction of this Temple was intended to prepare the world for the religion of our Saviour; for, while the Jews would not worship with the Gentiles, and despised them as being unworthy the favor 2f Heaven, God put it into the heart of Solomon to provide a place for the worship of all nations, thereby preparing the minds of the Jews for that doctrine which offers salvation freely to all, placing all men on a level, and pointing all to the one only living and true God, as the source of every good and perfect gift. To those who deny that Solomon erected the Temple under the influence of supernatural power, we beg to propound a question, viz.: Why is it, that in the lapse of so many ages, with the onward march of mind, with all the improvements in the arts and sciences, no specimen of architecture has ever been produced to equal the Temple, either in exact proportions or beauty of finish? Why is it that no near approximation to it has ever been made? Anderson, in his ancient Constitutions, states that a short time before the consecration of the Temple, Hiram, King of Tyre, came to take a view of that mighty edifice, and inspect the different parts thereof, that he was accompanied by King Solomon and the Deputy Grand Master, Hiram Abif, and that after a thorough examination he pronounced it to be the utmost stretch of human art. Thathere it was that Solomon renewed the league with Hiram, the King, and made him a present of the Sacred Scriptures, translated into the Syriac tongue, which is


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said still to be extant among the Maronites and other eastern Christians, under the name of the Old Syriac Version. This,he states, took place in the year of the Flood 1356, before Christ 992. Now, the above statement that Hiram, the King, left at that particular time to visit the Temple, is all true, but the manner in which the author makes the representation, carries the idea to our mind that he intends to say that this was the only time Hiram ever visited the Temple, and our Masonic readers will perceive that this opinion conflicts with our traditions; for we are not only taught that Hiram, the King. spenlt much of his time at the Temple, but that in the erection of a certain piece of work he was an operative; hence, it becomes a grave questior with us, whether our traditions in relation to the Temple have not, by inattention and ignorant teachers, confounded the two Hirams, for we candidly confess our inclination to believe Anderson more nearly correct, as it does not seem reasonable to suppose that the King would leave his own people and kingdom, and devote a great portion of his time to(the erection of the Temple of Solomon. But Anderson is mistaken in stating the date of King Hiram's visit; he says:" It was a short time before the consecration, and in the year of the Flood 1356." Whereas, if this building was commenced in the year 1336, one thousand and twelve years before Christ,and was finished in little more than seven years, it must have been dedicated about one thousand and five years before Christ, instead of nine hundred and ninety‑two. We know there is a difference in the calculation of some chronologers of four years between the era of Christianity and the birth of Christ, but there is nowhere a difference of thirteen years. We are hence driven to the necessity of supposing the calculation incorrect, unless we adopt the opinion (not sustained by proof, that we know of), that the Temple was not dedicated until thirteen years after the laying of the cape‑stone. Again, Anderson states that the celebration of the cape‑stone was interrupted by the death of Hiram Abif, which every Master Mason will see is at variance with our traditions as given at the present day, but we will give the author's language. He says: "The Temple of Jehovah being finished under the auspices of


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the wise and glorious King of Israel. Solomon, the Prince of Architecture, and the Grand Master Mason of his day, the Fra ternity celebrated the cape‑stone with great joy; but their jo] was soon interrupted by the sudden death of their dear an( worthy Master Hiram Abif; nor less was the concern of Kin~ Solomon, who, after some time allowed the Craft to vent thei] sorrow, ordered his obsequies to be performed with grea solemnity and decency, and buried him in the Lodge near the Temple, according to the Ancient Usages among Masons; anc long mourned for his loss.' After Hiram Abif was mourned for, the Tabernacle of Moses,and its holy relics,being lodged in the Temple, Solomon in a general assembly, dedicated or consecrated it by solemi prayer and costly sacrifices past number, with the finest music vocal and instrumental, praising Jehovah, upon fixing the hol3 Ark in its proper place between the cherubims; when Jehoval filled His own Temple with a cloud of glory." The Master Mason will perceive that we can not enter intc an argument here to sustain or disprove Bro. Andersonu' views, but we may be permitted to venture the opinion thal they are the deductions of his own mind, drawn from some other source than old manuscripts. First, because we do not believe there is a particle of tradition to sustain him; and second, we do not believe a manuscript was then in existence detailing that portion of Masonic history; for we must all believe that much greater care and caution was used in committing to writing anything in reference to Masonry, than at the present day‑and his opinions go to show that the traditions of nearly all the degrees, as given at the present day, are incorrect, and for this we are not prepared. Dr. Oliver also states that Hiram Abif's death occurred during the dedication of the Temple, and that the dedication services continued twice seven days. Now, if Anderson is correct in saying that Hiram Abifs death interrupted the ceremonies, and a reasonable time was given to the Craft to mourn the loss of their beloved Master, how could the ceremonies have continued, as stated by Dr. Oliver, twice fourteen days? For we suppose he means successive days.


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87 We will make another extract from Anderson's Constitution* in reference to the splendor and magnificence of the Temple, and refer the curious reader to Josephus and the Bible for a more extended and minute account. " The Same of this grand edifice soon prompted the inquisitive of all nations to travel, and spend some time at Jerusalem, and survey its excellences, as far as was allowed to the Gentiles; and they soon found that the joint skill of all the world came infinitely short of the Israelites in the wisdom, strength, and beauty of their architecture, when the wise King Solomon was Grand Master of all Masons at Jerusalem, and the learned King'Hiram was Grand Master at Tyre, and the inspired Hiram Abif had been Master of the work; when true, complete Masonry was under the immediate care and direction of Heaven; when the noble and the wise thought it their honor to be the associates of the ingenious Craftsmen in their well formed Lodges; and so the Temple of Jehovah, the one true God, became the just wonder of all travelers, by which, as by the most perfect pattern, they resolved to correct the architecture of their own countries on their return." The fame which the Temple acquired was not based upon the size or extent of the edifice, for if we bear in mind that it was only one hundred and fifty feet long, by one hundred broad, it will be seen that, at that day, there were many buildings much larger. The Egyptian Temples, which could not be compared with Solomon's in proportion, style of execution, or beauty of finish, were, many of them, vastly more extensive in outline, and massive in form. The palace at Carnac, from West to East, is about twelve hundred feet, and this measurement does not include any of the appendages or apartments beyond the main building. The breadth is more than three hundred and thirty feet. The Temple of Jupiter, at Agrigentum, in Sicily, is three hundred and forty‑two feet long, one hundred and sixty‑one feet wide, and one hundred and nineteen high. The dimensions of St. Paul's, in London, as we learn from Sir Christopher Wren, is,from East to West, five hundred and twenty feet, and from North to South, exclusive of the portico doors, is two hundred and eighty‑one feet. The Temple of Solomon astonished and


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confounded the world, because of the perfection of all its parts, and by its evidences of the wonder‑working hand of God, the Ark of the Covenant and the Mercy Seat, overshadowed by the Shekinah, the Urim and Thummim, the Holy Fire, and the OracularVoice of Jehovah. In reference to the costly stones used in beautifying the Temple, we insert, as a matter of curiosity, an extract from Dr. Oliver: "An old Masonic tradition relates that, about four years before the Temple at Jerusalem was commenced, Hiram Abif purchased from some Arabian merchants several curious stones and shells, which they informed him were discovered on the shores of the Red Sea by some persons who had been shipwrecked. Hiram, the King, hearing of this circumstance, deputed Hiram Abif, with certain vessels, to examine the place, for the purpose of making further discoveries. After some experiments, he succeeded in finding the Topaz in great abundance, intermixed with other stones of inferior value." Whether the Doctor intends to be understood that these formed a portion of the precious stones that David had laid up to ornament the Temple‑for this would answer to the same year that he abdicated the throne to Solomon ùwe can not surmise, nor can we say through what channel he acquires a knowledge of this "old Masonic tradition;" but, if we credit the story, and this was the first discovery‑of the Topaz, then it proves that the breast‑plate of the High Priest, spoken of in the Bible and by Josephus, was not used until after the building of the Temple, or within four years of its commencement, for the second stone in the breast‑plate was a Topaz, which was said to refer to Simeon. There is one remarkable feature iL the writings of Dr. Oliver, viz., a propensity or habit of taking the surmises of his predecessors, and adopting them as the result of his judgment, formed from investigation; and very often he uses almost the precise language of another historian, without giving that author the credit. For example, the following extract from Anderson's Constitutions, in a note, found, in substance,stated on page 339 of Oliver's.tnti, quilies, not as an idle tradition, but as historically true:


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89 "The tradition is, that King Hiram had been Grand Master of all Masons; but when the Temple was finished, Hiram came to survey it, before its consecration and to commune with Solomon about wisdom and art; and finding the Great Architect of the Universe had inspired Solomon above all mortal men, Hiram very readily yielded the preeminence to Solomon Jedidiah, the beloved of God." The reader will at once see, we mean the Mason, the fallacy of this so called tradition, when he remembers that all our traditions taught in the Lodges represent King Solomon as the first Grand Master. Indeed, any other view of this subject would produce the most perfect confusion in the Craft, by making the entire traditions an absurdity, or a tissue of nonsense. The doctrine of the divine origin of Masonry would be thrown to the winds, unless, indeed, we should be so credulous as to fall into the views of Dr. Oliver, and say, that God taught Freemasonry to Adam in the Garden of Eden. Dr. Anderson, though he styles the story a tradition, evidently does not regard it as coming through an authenticated channel, or he would have recorded it as true; but Dr. Oliver, who,we suppose, gets it from some one of the editions of Anderson, gives it as Masonically or historically true. When Doctors differ, how are the unlearned to learn? The truth is, we do not wonder that some of the oldest and best informed Masons of the present day, entertain doubts about the good resulting from writing so much about Masonry, for it is a melancholy fact that most of the authors tend to lead us deeper and deeper into the mazes of conjecture, doubt, and difficulty. For the cure of this evil we know of but one plan, and the day may come when it will be adopted, viz., require every man who writes a book for sale, purporting to give the history of Masonry, to exhibit the work and lectures, and prove, thereby, that his history agrees with the well‑defined traditions, as taught in them; then, and not till then, will the young Mason be able to lay hold of a work upon which he may safely rely for correct information. For the present, we can only recommend him to acquire a knowledge of the lectures, and, in reading history, to reject all which does not conform to the


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traditions taughtin the Lodges; for it will be found that they, when properly understood, are inconsistent with no principle of common sense, but constitute, as a whole, a beautiful illustration of the Catholic, or universal religion, as taught in the lives of the Apostles and Prophets. King Solomon did not send his workmen away after the completion of the Temple, but employed the Craft in carrying on his other works. He built two palaces at Jerusalem for himself and Queen; the hall of judicature, with an ivory throne and golden lions; and Millo, or the Royal Exchange. This was constructed by filling up the gulf between Mount Moriah and Mount Zion; strong arches were thrown over, upon which many beautiful piazzas were erected, with lofty colonnading on either side, and between the columns was a spacious walk from Zion Castle to the Temple. He also built the House of the Forest of Lebanon, upon four rows of cedar pillars. This was his summer‑house, or place of retreat from the cares and toils of his administration. It was furnished with a watch‑tower, overlooking the road to Damascus. Solomon built several cities between Jerusalem and Lebanon, many store‑housesWest of the Jordan, and several towns or citiesEast of that river, to furnish a safe deposit and carry on commercial trade; and,last of all, he erected that famous city, called by him Tadmor. This was situated in the desert toward Syria, in the direction to Babylon. It was one day's journey from the river Euphrates and six from Babylon; this city had a lofty palace in it. In after times, this city was called by the Greeks, Palmyra of the Desert. We are informed by travelers, that the ruins of this once mighty city are yet to be seen. How the heart of the good and true Mason‑the lover of ancient lore‑must beat on beholding the mighty pillars, the royal arches, and other specimens of the greatness and grandeur of the reign of Solomon, fallen, broken, and dilapidated by the withering blasts of time, and the ruthless hand of hostile invaders! How must his soul sink within him, when he reflects upon the ever fading glory of man, and the perishableness of all earthly things! And yet; if the spirit of Freemasonry, the principles of our holy religion, animate his


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91 bosom, with what joy may he look from nature up to nature's God, and behold, in the perspective, a mighty city, a glorious habitation, spoke into being by the fiat of Him who builds for eternity I Aye, though we grope in thick darkness through this world of change, and mourn over the wreck of matter and the crash of worlds, the fall of kingdoms, principalities, and powers, the long sleep of our ancestors, and then, in the bitterness of heart, turn away to the new made grave of a father, a mother, a sister, a brother, a child, or companion, and give evidence of the poignancy of our sorrow, by dropping a tear upon the green sod of the cold earth; oh I how must that bosom's pang be alleviated, how must his sorrow fade away, or mingle in sweet melody with those. life‑giving words, " Come ye blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world." Brethren, we read in vain, we go through the forms of initiation in vain, we lecture in vain, if we fail to apply the great moral principles of our Order to out walk in life. In vain we preserve the Ancient Landmarks of the Craft, if we make no effort to live up to their teachings.


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            CHAPTER V. IMMEDIATELY after the completion of the Temple, Lodges were formed in various parts of the kingdom. Anderson says tlat old Constitutions relate the fact that Solomon annually assembled all the Masons in a Grand Lodge at Jerusalem, " to preserve the cement of fraternity,and transmit their affairs to the latest posterity." Just here we are met with a difficulty which we do not remember to have seen satisfactorily explained. Solomon seems to have been the Father of Masonry, or the instrument in God's hands to establish it. We believe Masonry always taught all the morals, all the virtues, that are inculcated in the Holy Bible. We have said,elsewhere, that Masonry was originally Speculative, as well as Operative; and though we do not believe, with Dr. Oliver, that it ever was the true religion, we most sincerely think all its teachings were in strict conformity to the principles which that religion teaches. It is nothing without the Bible; our traditions are false if the ground‑work of Masonry is not laid in the Bible; and though we may be compelled to admit that it has since been made subservient to other religions, and dance attendance to other gods, its tenets ever have, and ever will, point to the God of Moses, and to that religion which was pointed out, or promised to the seed of Abraham‑and hence we find it difficult to reconcile the early life of Solomon with the great principles and tenets of the Order. It does seem strange, that one endowed with superior wisdom should, by means of that wiscom, bring a set of principles into practice, bring all its recipients under obligations to live in conformity thereto, and yet be the first to depart from them; yea, it would seem that, at the very period when he was most engaged in disseminating the truths of Masonry, he was setting at naught the very


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93 doctrine which gave it power over all other institutions to do good; for while it taught the power,and might,and majesty,of the one only living and true God, Solomon was worshiping the various gods of his concubines. But this is not more remarkable than that God should choose him as the instrument to build His holy Temple, who so soon departed from the true worship; but how beautifully is the immaculate wisdom of our heavenly Father displayed in the life and character of Solomon, endowed, as he was,with wisdom such as man never had, and with riches, and honors, and pleasures, to the overflowing, and permitted to enjoy them all to the full extent, yet at last be constrained to cry out:" All is vanity without the fear of God and the keeping of Hiscommands, which is the whole duty of man." How strikingly illustrative of the phantoms after which man continues to run, through this short but eventful life; and how, like Solomon, do we all fail to find the haven of rest, and peace, and happiness, here below. Three years only was Solomon truly wise, and these were his last. He died A.M. 3029, in the fifty‑eighth year of his age. Even before the death of Solomon, many of those who received their instructions from him, and were, therefore, called Solomon's workmen; traveled into foreign countries in search of employment, delighted with an opportunity to disseminate the benign and holy principles of Masonry. We hear of them in Syria, Asia, Mesopotamia, and Scythia. We read of them in Assyria, Chaldea, Media, Bactria, India, Persia, Arabia, and Egypt, and also in many parts of Europe. It may seem singular that we have no historical account of their traveling into Greece or Italy, which can only be accounted for by supposing that the Greeks considered themselves sufficiently advanced in a knowledge of architecture, to do without the assistance of Solomon's builders, or the loss of an account of their work in this country has been the result of oversight. But the tradition is, that they traveled to Hercules' pillars on theWest, and China on theEast; and the old Constitutions affirm that one called Ninus, who had been at the building of Solomon's Temple, brought the refined knowledge of the science and the art into Germany and Gaul.


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If this tradition be true, it seems to us probable that Greece generally was supplied with Solomon's Masons, and especially when we remember the great, the unlimited fame of the Temple, and the accomplishments of the workmen, we can not suppose the Greeks would suffer the surrounding nations to surpass them in architectural embellishments. We ask the reader to bear in mind the opinion which we have given in relation to the manner of accepting an Entered Apprentice, as we shall soon see that the character which was given by Solomon to the workmen, continued to operate advantageously to them and their successors. Thus, we see that soon after the Masons commenced traveling, so highly were they esteemed that, in many places, they acquired privileges and immunities granted to no other people; they were called Freemasons, because they taught the art only to the freeborn. They built Lodges or rooms, in which they lived. in the vicinity of any building they undertook to erect: and by their proxnlity to the great and wealthy, who employed them. the moral principles taught, and so rigidly lived up to, attracted general notice. which, together with their superior knowledge of the arts and sciences, soon influenced men of the greaters and of the highest order of talents to solicit and obtain association with them; and,if we are to believe the man‑;(clipt:s brought forward in 1718, kings, princes, and potentates sonn after became Grand Masters, each in his own dominion; and this is the more likely, as Solomon, the wisest King, had set the example. It is probable that Solomon endeavored to unite the world in the strong bonds of love. and encourage the study of the sciences, by a. tmitting arl those sages and learned persons who visited him,to see t.r T''emple and learn of his wisdom, into the mysteries of MaoL' i, and in this manner was a knowledge of the art so soon;arried to all parts of the world, and hence kings and princes becamo Grand Masters, or patrons of Freemasons in t\eij respective countries. In the year A.M. 3034, Solomon's dominions were divided into Israei and Judah. but such was the influence of moral worth, that Solomon's Masons, or, as they were called after his death, Solomon's travelers, found favor in the eyes of all good


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95 men, and; moreover, their skill in architecture and the arts and sciences were acknowledged to be superior to all others, and hence the division of empires and the wars of nations did not seriously affect them. About the period mentioned above, Jeroboam employed them to build him two palaces, one at Sichem, and the other at Penuel. They also erected for him two curious statues of the golden calf, with Temples for its worship; one was erected in Bethel, and the other in Dan, and to these the Israelites repaired to worship until they were carried away by Salmanesar. Soon after, King Baasha employed Solomon's travelers to build Tirzah, and King Omri built Samaria for his capital, at which place his son, King Ahab, afterward erected a large and sumptuous Temple for his idol Baal. He also built a palace of ivory, besides many castles and cities. The Temple of Baal stood, a monument of the skill of the builders and the folly of the founder, until it was destroyed by Jehu. The royal descendants of King Solomon continued to fill the throne and patronize the noble art of Freemasonry, either directly or through the High Priest, until the reign of Josiah, the last good King of Judah. Wit‑h io people did Solomon's Masons seem to exercise a greater and more beneficial influence than the Gentiles. The Syrians built a lofty Temple, and a royal palace at Damascus. Many beautiful structures were reared at Sardis, in Lydia, at Ephesus, and other cities on the coast. About thirty‑five years after the death of Solomon, the Temple of Diana, built by some Japhetites, in the days of Moses, was burned down, and the kings of Lesser Asia rebuilt and ornamented it with one hundred and twenty‑six columns of the best marble. each sixty feet high; but this mighty edifice was not finished until the seventh year of the reign of Hezekiah. King of Judah, about two hundred and twenty years after its commencement, and in the year, A.M. 3283. This Temple was four hundred and twenty‑four feet long, two hundred and twenty feet wide, and constructed by the Ionic order. It was regarded by all as preeminently magnificent, and hence became the third of the seven wonders of the world. Even Xerxes.


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who waged war against image worship, and destroyed nearly everything connected with it, spared this Temple in his passage to Egypt, and it remained a monument to the Mason's art, until it was burned down by an obscure and infamous individual, for the sole purpose of notoriety. It was afterward rebuilt by Democrates, the architect, at the expense of the neighboring princes. In the twelfth year of Jotham, King of Judah, A.M. 3256, Sardanapalus was besieged by his brother Tiglath Pul Eser and Nabonassar, until, in despair, he burned himself and concubines, and all his treasure in the old Palace of Nimrod, when the Assyrian Empire was divided between Tiglath Pul Eser and Nabonassar. This Nabonassar, we are told, erected a city near the old Tower of Babel, in the year A.M. 3257, and called it Babylon. In the days of this Prince, who ruled over Chaldea, much attention was given to the study of astronomy, and so great was the advancement made in the science, that after generations styled this the astronomical era. In one of the degrees of Masonry, we have a tradition that after Noah safely landed on Mount Ararat, and offered up sacrifice to God on an altar which he erected, that he turned his attention to the cultivation of the earth, for one hundred years; when, his posterity becoming numerous, he ordered them to disperse themselves and take possession of the earth, according to the partition which he made; that they traveled a westwardly course, until they came to the plains of Shinar, when they counseled together, and, fearing the consequences of a separation, and being desirous to establish for themselves a name, gathered themselves together in great multitudes, and built the city of Babylon and the Tower of Babel. Now, if this be true, there must have been a city there before the time of Nimrod. In short, Babylon is the first city of wlich our traditions give an account aftertheFlood;but the reader will bear in mind that this tradition is not attached to either of the Ancient Craft Degrees, and, therefore, is not entitled to implicit belief, and the less so, because the city of Babylon is not spoken of by any author, if we are not mistaken, until the days of Isaiah, the prophet. By a reference


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            HISTORY, OF FREEMASONRY. 9V' to Isaiah xiii; 39, and chapter xlvii., it‑ will be seen tlhat he described the.inhabitants of the city, and foretold its destruction. It is true, he does not, we think, inform us when it was built, but, from the language used, we should infer it had been the pride of the Chaldeans for at least a century; and yet, if this Nabonassar was the Baladan spoken of in the Bible‑and some authors think so‑ he could not have built the city, for Baladan is spoken of by Isaiah as being King of Babylon at the time he foretold its destruction. We will not undertake to trace Masonry into every country, and point out the various cities that were built or adorned by Solomon's travelers, but will be content to look at some of the more prominent places. Masonry not only flourished in Eastern Asia, but it took a western direction also. Boristhenes, in Pontus, was about the period of which we are writing. Prusias and Cnalcedon, in Bithynia, Constantinople (then called Bizantium), and Lampsacus, in the Hellespont. The travelers also penetrated into Rome, Ravenna, Florence, and many others in Italy; Granada, and Malaga, and others in Spain; and also on the coast of Gaul. While these banded brethren were engaged in improving and ornamenting Damascus, they erected a public altar of such curious outlines and richness of finish as to completely captivate Ahaz, King of Judah, who ordered a pattern to be taken and sent to Uriah, the High Priest of Jerusalem, who had one built in imitation, and set it up in the Temple, in lieu of the old one. In A.M. 3394, Josial, King of Judah, was slain in battle by Pharaoh Necho, from which may be dated the commencement of heavy misfortunes to Jerusalem, and, indeed, all Judah; for, soon after the fall of Josiah, Nebuchadnezzar made Jehoiakim (who succeeded his father Josiah) his vassal, and, for his revolting, was ruined. Nor did the ambitious views of Nebuchadnezzar stop here. He captured all the royal family, and the flower of the nobles of Judah, making prisoners of the best Craftsmen, laid waste Israel, overrun and destroyed every festige of the arts and sciences, demolished or burned every thing that appertained to the one only living and true God,


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and at last glutted his vengeance in beholding the ruins of the masterpiece of architecture‑the inimitable, the glorious Temple of Solomon. Nebuzaradan, Nebuchadnezzar's Captain of the Guards, entered Jerusalem on the seventh day of the fifth month, four hundred and sixteen years after the completion of the Temple, took out all the sacred vessels, removed the two famous pillars, robbed the city and the King's Palace of all the riches they contained, and then, by order of his master, on the tenth day of the month, set fire to the Temple and city, overthrew the walls of the Towers, in short, made the whole a scene of desolation. This occurred, according to our computation, 588 years B.C., or A.M. 3416, though we believe it is generally recorded four years earlier. The remnant of the, Jews, whom Nebuchadnezzar carried away captive into Baby. lon, included very many of those noble‑hearted Giblemites, who descended from the builders of Solomon's Temple; and Masonic tradition informs us that they continued to hold secretly their Lodge meetings, and, in this way, taught their children the secrets of Freemasonry and the principles of the revealed religion of their fathers; for it will be remembered that, previous to the fall of Jerusalem, the power and authority to transcribe the law was confined to the Scribes, and hence but a small portion of the people were in possession of a copy, every copy found being destroyed by the infidel invader. The captive Jews, therefore, could only perpetuate their religion by teaching it to their children from memory, as they did Masonry. All the captive Masons were compelled, for the space of fiftytwo years, to devote their time, labor, and skill in finishing and ornamenting the buildings which the King of Babylon and his predecessor had commenced, as also the erection of new ones. In this way, the Chaldean masons, who wrought with the captive Jews, perfected themselves in architecture, for the specimens of their joint labor made Babylon the fourth of the seven wonders of art, and the boasted mistress of the world. The most remarkable structures were the walls of the city, the Temple of Belus, the King's Palace, and the hanging gardens. The Temple of Belus was ornamented with those famous pillars, taken from the Temple at Jerusalem, and also the Brazen Sea.


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99 Jf what we read of the wonders of Babylon be true, the magnificence and extent of the works surpassed all others; and yet, for beauty of proportions and elegance of finish, nothing compared with the Temple of Solomon; nor did the wall which surrounded the city equal in extent the famous Wall of China. Nebuchadnezzar also erected, in the plains of Dura, a golden image of his idol god, Baal. This immense work of folly was sixty cubits high and six broad, and, according to Diodorus, contained upward of seven thousand drachms of pure gold, amounting in value to upward of fifteen millions of dollars. Thus labored and toiled the true: descendants of the twelve tribes of Israel, borne down with oppression and slavery, and denied the privilege (dear to the heart of every Jew) of wor shiping the God of their fathers; but their long sufferings were destined to result in good; for the very opposite effect to that sought by Nebuchadnezzar was the result of their long and painful captivity, for when the proclamation of Cyrus was issued for the liberation of the Israelites, according to the word of God, these architects were the better prepared to return to the land they so much loved, and lay the foundation for the rebuilding of the Temple and the city of Salem. Cyrus ascended the throne immediately after Belshazzar was slain, A.M. 3468, and removed his imperial residence to Persia, and thus put an end to the Babylonish Empire, which had stood more than two hundred years. About one hundred and seventy years before the period just mentioned, the tribes became famous for their skill in architecture; for, under the reign of Dioces, they enlarged, beautified, and adorned Echbatana so wonderfully, as to command the admiration of all Greece, and although neither this city nor Persepolis were to be compared with the Temple, and other works of Solomon, the Greeks contended that Dioces was the founder of theFraternity of Freemasons. Dr. Anderson contends that Cyrus appointed Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, his Provincial Grand Master in Judah, with the High Priest Jeshuah, his Deputy. That Cyrus was Grand Master of Masons, even in his own country, our tradition does not inform us; but whether he was or not is of little


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consequence to this history, for the Bible and Josephus inform us that he was a friend to the Jews, and commissioned Zerubbabel to take charge of those who were liberated, and ordered the King's treasurer, Mithredath, to deliver into his hands all the silver and gold vessels that Nebuchadnezzar had brought from Jerusalem, amounting to fifty‑four thousand; these Zerubbabel carried to Jerusalem, and the remainder were afterward, viz., in the reign of Artaxerxes Sangimanus, carried back by Ezra. Dr. Anderson does not mention Haggai as having any thing to do with the rebuilding of the Temple, and yet our traditions attribute to him the important part of constituting one of the Grand Council, that met and deliberated upon the best method of commencing and carrying on the work. We have stated elsewhere,* that it was determined in this Grand Council, for reasons known only to Masons, that none but the true descendants of the twelve tribes of Israel, should participate in this glorious undertaking. One reason of this decree, aside from that to which we allude is, in our estimation, of the highest importance, viz., if God had erected the first Temple, through the instrumentality of that people whom he had chosen to be peculiarly His‑if Masonry were instituted by divine command, as the handmaid and co‑worker with the true religion, it is but reasonable to suppose He would not suffer Idolaters to take part in the second, though He did not intend the great Shekinah should dwell therein.t But, as we shall have occasion to consider this branch of our subject more at large when we come to treat of the higher degrees, we proceed now to continue our chain of Masonic events. * Masonic Address, delivered in Fayette, Mo., June 24, 1843. t Yet, now, be strong, O Zerubbabel, saith the Lord; and be strong, 0 Joshua, son of Josedeck, the High Priest; and be strong all ye people of the land, saith the Lord, and work, for I am with you, saith the Lord of Host.Haggai ii. 4.


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            CHAPTER VI. THE Jews were liberated from Babylonish captivity, B.C. 636. See Ezra i. 2., Isaiah xliv. 28., from which it will be seen, that if the seventy years of captivity foretold by Jeremiah were completed in the first year of the reign of Cyrus, King of Persia, that captivity must have commenced twenty‑eight years before the destruction of Solomon's Temple and the city of Jerusalem, as from this period to the reign of Cyrus was only fifty‑two years. If we examine carefully the history of events, we shall find no diffiulty in supposing that the captivity of the Jews commenced at that period, when Nebuchadnezzar, the Great reigned in conjunction with his father; for the Bible informs us that he reigned forty‑three years alone, and onhe year and ten months with his father. In the first year of the reign of Cyrus, he issued the following proclamation: "Thus sayeth Cyrus, King of Persia, the Lord God of heaven hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth, and hath charged me to build him an house at Jerusalem, which is in Judah," etc., etc. This proclamation was issued twenty‑six years after the death of Nebuchadnezzar. By reference to the thirty‑second chapter of Jeremiah, we are authorized to believe that the captivity of the Jews commenced before the destruction of Jerusalem. Jeremiah was himself made a captive two years before, viz., B.C. 590. Furthermore, we know that Jehoiakim, who was placed on the throne by Pharaoh, was dethroned, bound in fetters and imprisoned by Nebuchadnezzar. This Jehoiakim was placed on the throne B.C. 601 years, and reigned eleven years; so that his captivity was eleven years before the destruction of Jerusalem, which, if added to the fifty‑two, accounts for sixty‑three of the seventy years of prophecy! And


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that these years may be computed is to be inferred from the fact. that at the same time Jehoiakim was dethroned, vessels of the house of the Lord were taken and carried to Babylon; and we have every reason to believe, that many of the Jews were made captives at the same time. See Chron. xxxvi. 6, 7. We have been thus particular in giving our views of this subject, because in one of the degrees of Masonry, this portion of Biblical history is, as we think, generally given improperly, and is calculated to produce an injurious effect. We allude to the number of years these Masons were in captivity, who, under the proclamation of Cyrus, returned to rebuild the Temple. The history, generally given by Masons is, that they were seventy years servants to Nebuchadnezzar and his successors, after the destruction of the Temple, and the intelligent inquirer after truth will likely ask if Masons, in these days, were not made until they were twenty‑one years old; then, the three distinguished individuals, spoken of in the Royal Arch Degree, must have been at least ninety‑one years old when they returned, which, when taken in connection with the active and important part performed by them after their return, does not seem reasonable. Now, we think they were in captivity only fiftytwo years, and may have been Masons before they left Jerusalem, and be only seventy‑three years old when they returned. But it is not necessary to the consistency of the tradition that they should have been Masons before their captivity; for our traditions represent that the captive Jews continued secretly to hold Lodges in Babylon, and the worthy individuals to whom we refer may have been present, in their youth, at the destruction of the Temple, and afterward became Masons in Babylon; but, as we before intimated, there are no good reasons to doubt their having taken the degrees before they left their native land. As long as Cyrus reigned, the Jews were protected in their much loved efforts to rebuild the Temple, but his successor Cambyses, being engaged in an effort to conquir Egypt, for this people had revolted, neglected or disregarded the workmen on the Temple. Some writers regard Amasys, the last ot Mitzraim's race, as acting Grand Master, in Egypt,when this


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108 revolt took place; certain it is, that he was held in high estimation by the Craft; for, as a manifestation of their high regard, they cut from a solid stone, a house twenty‑one cubits long, twelve broad, and eight deep, and brought it to Memphis a present to him. More than two thousand Masons were engaged upon this work for three years. Amasys had done much for the science of Masonry, he contributed largely to the building of the Temple of Apollo, at Delphi, in Greece, but at the very moment when this good man was building up and beautifying various cities, Cambyses was preparing to pull them down, by marching an army into Egypt, and destroying temples, palaces, and other monuments of Masonic art. Amasys did not live to witness this havoc, he died about the time Cambyses reached Egypt, and Cambyses died on his return, A.M. 3482. Upon the death of Cambyses, Smerdis, the Magian, assumed the name of Artaxerxes, and usurped the throne, who, being a wicked and corrupt man, was soon made the instrument, in the hands of the infidel and barbarous nations, to arrest the building of the Temple. They sent to him a memorial, charg‑ing that the Jews had ever been a rebellious people, against the authority of kings, and warning him that if they were suffered to rebuild the Temple and city, and congregate as formerly in large numbers, no king would be safe on his throne. To which he sent back a reply that he had had the old records examined, and found truly that the Jews had ever been enemies to kings, and, therefore, ordered that they be required to desist, from building the Temple and city. This edict was not conveyed to them in the usual way, but, it being in possession of their enemies, they hastily assembled an armed force, marched against the workmen and compelled them to disperse. The false Smerdis was, however, soon dethroned, and succeeded by Darius, B.C. 520. Although this Prince is represented by Masonic tradition as knowing nothing of the mysteries of Masonry, the memory of no man of his day is held in higher estimation by the Fraternity. Our traditions inform us that Zerubbabel made heavy personal sacrifices, and traversed the Persian dominions for no other purpose than to procure


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an interview with Darius, and, by reminding him of his early vows in favor of the Jews, endeavor to win his favor and protection in the great work of rebuilding the Temple and city. The King having heard of the fame of Zerubbabel, as a wise and accomplished Freemason, and being favorably impressed with the value of the Institution, demanded to know what the secrets were, and promised in return to raise Zerubbabel to one of the highest offices in his gift. The reply which Zerubbabel made was of such a character as to convince the King, not only of the great worth and importance of Freemasonry, but of the manifest impropriety of his request; whereupon, the King declared his determination, not only to protect the workmen until the Temple and city were completed, but made proclamation encouraging his loyal subjects to give gifts, and do all in their power to assist the Jews in their much loved enterprise. He also made large contributions from his own treasury to aid in carrying on the work; and in the sixth year of his reign, Zerubbabel finished the Temple, and celebrated the cape‑stone twenty years after he had laid the foundation thereof. Thus was that scripture fulfilled which declared that Zerubbabel should lay the foundation, and his hands should finish it. The consecration or dedication took place the next year, viz., B.C. 515. The Sidonians were equally as liberal in furnishing timbers for this as they had been in the days of Hiram, for the first Temple. We are informed that they prepared timbers in the forests of Lebanon, and, as formerly, conveyed them on floats to Joppa. An order to this effect had been issued by Cyrus, which they cheerfully obeyed, as also when it was renewed by Darius. During the reign of Darius, a new sect of religionists sprung up, under their great leader, Zoroaster. This sect were called Magians, and Zoroaster was styled their Grand Master, and hence they have been regarded by some as a Society of Freemasons, with how much truth we can not say. We suppose, however, that Masonry then, as now, was anti‑sectarian, and that Masons were to be found in all religious societies. Zoroaster was certainly a learned man, and encouraged teio


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1 05 study of the liberal arts and sciences, for his followers became celebrated everywhere, for their learning and knowledge, especially of geometry. The Greeks styled Zoroaster the teacher of all human and divine knowledge. This sect worshiped the sun, and were engaged in building fire temples, mostly in Eastern Asia, where they flourished until the drays of Mahomet. About 460 years B.C., Ahasueras married Queen Esther, who was regarded the greatest beauty of the day, and an accomplished Jewess. Under this reign Ezra was chosen head of the Craft. He built many synagogues in Judea. Nehemiah succeeded him, B.C. 455, who built the strong walls of Jerusalem. This work was prosecuted while the workmen were compelled to stand guard against their enemies. The history of the Craft in that portion of the world of which we have been speaking, presents nothing of striking interest for a long period of time. We call attention to Lesser Asia, B.C. 368, in order to show the state of Masonry and a remarkable evidence of the customs regulating marriages. In this year Mausolus, King of Cana, died; and though his reign was not marked by any notable deeds, his death was rendered famous by Artemisia, who was his sister and wife, who deeply bewailed his loss, and erected to his memory that famous monument at Halicarnassus, which was regarded as the fifth of the seven wonders of the world. This monument presented an exception to the general rule of building Masonic edifices, its length being from North to South. It was four hundred and ten feet in circumference, one hundred and forty‑one feet high, and sixty‑three cubits long. It was surrounded by one hundred and thirty‑six columns of the most beautiful sculpture. The East and West fronts had mammoth arches, seventy‑three feet wide, and on the side wall was erected a pyramid, terminating in a triangle, upon the top of which was constructed a coach and four horses, full size, admirably chiseled out of one immense block of pure marble. The Masons who had the superintendence of the work were Timotheus, Briax. Scopas, and Leocleares. We new turn our attention to Greece, where, as before


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            ].06 HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.


intimated, we are involved in doubt and difficulty as to the time the royal art commenced flourishing. Some authors contend that it flourished there, as in other countries,shortly after the building of the first Temple, while others equally entitled to credit, fix the time at, or near, the completion of the second. We adopt the former opinion, for the reason that the evidences of a highly cultivated architecture is to be found in the ruins at Lemnos, Athens, Sicyon, and Candia, and they afford evidence of having been built before the Trojan war. But weare, nevertheless, constrained to admit that the history is so dark as to assume the character of fable, until the days of the Olympiads, which was B.C. 775, about twenty‑nine years before the founding of Rome. Whether the Temples of Minerva and Apollo, and their gymnasiums, were erected at an earlier period or not, they did not become famous until after the building of the second'Temple, at Jerusalem. If any of them were built before the Trojan war, they must have been greatly enlarged, beautified, and adorned after the time of Zerubbabel. The first of whom we have any authentic account, as a philosopher or architect, was Milesius, who acquired his knowledge in Egypt,and flourished in Greece B.C. 540, only some eight or ten years before the proclamation of Cyrus. About this time,Pythagoras, who had been a pupil of Milesius, traveled into Egypt. Our Masonic tradition represents Pythagoras as traveling through Asia, Africa, and Europe, and being initiated into several orders of High Priesthood, and raised to the sublime degree of Master Mason. We think this tradition is not sustained by any respectable history, nor by the life of the man. We deem it proper to state here, that our views may possibly, be somewhat influenced by our preconceived and expressed opinions. We have frequently said, in delivering the lecture on the Master's degree, that we did not believe Pythagoras was a Mason, and we now proceed to an examination of the subject from the best lights we have. We have no evidence that the travels of Pythagoras were so extensive as the traditions represent. He went directly to Egypt in A.M. 3457, during the reign of Pisistratus, the


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            IlSTORY OF FREEMASONRY. 107 tyrant of Athens. He lived twenty‑two years in Egypt, when Cambyses sent him to Babylon and Persia, in 3480, where he remained, learning legerdemain, for aught we know, of the Chaldean Magians, and picked up scraps of religion from the Babylonish Jews, and returned to Greece in 3489. Here he became the head of a sect or society, not of Masons, but religious fanatics, made up of all other religions, and resembling Masonry less,perhaps,than any, except that his followers were initiated into his Society with secret forms and ceremonies, but so different in their character, as at once to furnish strong presumptive testimony that he knew nothing of Masonry. He taught that God is a soul, everywhere in nature; that the souls of men are derived from this supreme soul, which is immortal: and the principle of all things being unity, he believed that between God and man there is an infinite number of spiritual agents, ministering from one to another to the great supreme soul. He taught the doctrine of metempsychosis, or transmigration of souls, that even the desires of one animal passed,at its death, into another. Pythagoras was the first that assumed the name of philosopher, or lover of knowledge, and so extensive and profound was his knowledge, that he soon became celebrated, and thousands sought to be connected with his Society; and the more anxious were they, because he required five years severe and inhuman penance before they were permitted even to behold the great philosopher,thus producing the impression that the discoveries would be not only wonderful at initiation, but that temporal and eternal happiness would be their inevitable portion. The Pythagoreans lived abstemiously, eating no flesh, shunning all pleasures, so called, and held all property in common. They forbade the use of oaths, although every initiate was hound by the most solemn oath not to reveal any of the secrets which he instituted; and yet, if we take the opinion of some authors as authority, he only taught one secret, viz., the forty‑seventh problem of Euclid. He ascribed all things to fate or destiny, required his followers to live without the use of any drink but water; but the most remarkable, as well as the most ridiculous, was the injunction of five years silence before admission into the mysteries.


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            ,%08:HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.


That Pythagoras was the greatest man of his day can not well be questioned; indeed, such was the estimation in which he. was held by those who first wrote his biography, that they entertained the belief that he was, like Solomon, endowed with superhuman knowledge. He was a devoted student for thirtyfive years before he undertook to teach his followers in Greece; indeed, before he left for Egypt, his inordinate love of knowledge was apparent to his friends. His knowledge of the arts and sciences was so thorough, compared with any others of his day, that he must needs leave behind him the character of a learned and great man; but with all we must regard him as a religious fanatic; his doctrines were made up of the shreds and patches of all others, and differing from all in the singular combination of wisdom and superstition‑for while it was wise to teach his followers to bridle the tongue, how ridiculous to require five years total silence. While his code of morals, which taught that true wisdom tended to elevate man to a near resemblance to God, seemed the result of a most profound knowledge of the divine economy, how weak and groveling was that doctrine which taught that, after all the probation and penance endured, the soul, though purified, should enter again into a struggle with temporal life and earthly corruption, either in the bosom of another human being or an inferior animal. And so, in reference to all his doctrines; they were a system (if we may be allowed the term) of contradictions and inconsistencies. And now we ask our Masonic Brethren, in what does any or all the doctrines and teachings of Pythagoras resemble Masonry? Is it in his teaching morality? Some, men in all ages, have taught morality, who were not Masons. Is it in his teaching a knowledge of the arts and sciences? These, though ever encouraged by Masons, have never been confined to them. Is it in his requiring the applicants for admission into his Society to do penance five years? Masons never required a penance of any sort, nor a longer probation than was deemed necessary to know the applicant was worthy. Is it his sectarian doctrines of religion? Masonry has ever been opposed to sectarian religion, other than that which was delivered to the twelve tribes of Israel, upon


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109 which grand level all good men might meet‑a willing obedience to God's revealed will and benevolence to all mankind, has ever been the groundwork upon which is erected the noble structure of Freemasonry; and in what does this resemble the teachings of Pythagoras? For aught we know, he may have been a Mason, but we do know he was not a good one. Masonry has ever been opposed to superstition, fanaticism, and bigotry, and if the doctrines of Pythagoras did not abound in these, then have we learned them imperfectly. We are aware that the views we have here advanced are at war with the opinions of all, so far as we know, who have written of Masonry; and we have not the vanity to suppose they will be lightly adopted, if at all, nor do we care, only so far as the truth is concerned. We promised to give,what we believed to be a true history of Masonry, and this we shall do,if God shall give the ability, without stopping to inquire whether it is likely to be popular or unpopular. We think idle tales of modern invention have been dignified with the name of Masonic tradition long enough, and if we do no more than to awaken inquiry, and stimulate abler hands to separate the true from the counterfeit, we shall have accomplished much, very much, for the Fraternity of after time, and though our opinions be cast before the winds, if they are superseded by those that shall restore our beloved Order to, its primitive purity, divested of all the gewgaws and tinseled trappings of modern innovators, we shall have done more than if we had established anew doctrine or a new sect. To this end we labor, for this object we shall continue to labor, if our brethren will stand by and sustain us, until our Supreme Grand Master shall close our earthly career, and call us to render an account of our stewardship.


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            CHAPTER VII. WHILE the doctrines of Pythagoras laid the foundation for t plausible system of infidelity, the influence of which may be traced through every age down to the present day, his thorough knowledge of the arts and sciences, or, we should say, his superior knowledge of them, wrought a mighty revolution in Greece. Geometry and architecture became the passion of the age, and, taking man as the model of architecture, the fine arts were cultivated with great energy. No man was esteemed an accomplished sculptor or painter, unless he was master of geometry and architecture. The academies of Athens and Sicyon were filled with the sons of the wealthy and best born of the land, and a knowledge of the arts and sciences became the stepping‑stone to power and influence. Masonry had ever taken the lead in cultivating and storing the mind with useful knowledge, and disseminating the principles of morality and virtue; and noW, more than ever, did it flourish in Greece, and very soon this nation of people, who had long been borrowing a knowledge of architecture from Egypt, became the teachers, not only of Egyptians, but the whole world. No country on the face of the earth can now boast c.fhaving had half the number of learned and great men. Greece had her Perseus, Philostratus, Appolodorus, Eupompus, Pamphilus, Artamones, Socrates, and Methrodorus. At this age lived Theodorus Cyreneus, the master and teacher of Plato, Xenocrates, and Aristotle, who became the teacher of Alexander the Great. At no age of the world did Freemasonry exercise a greater influence on the public mind. The sacred principles of the Institution found their way into every department of government. The laws were framed for its protection and support.


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Ill It was decreed that no slave should be permitted to study the arts and sciences; only the free‑born could become geometricians or architects; none but the free‑born could gain admission into a Lodge of Masons; and hence some believe this was the period when Solomon's travelers acquired the name of Freemasons, and that because the noble, the learned, and wise of Greece sought admission into, and were said to be accepted by the Maisons, that here it was they obtained the name of Accepted Masons. B.C. 335, Alexander, the Macedonian, gathered together an army, and gave Darius Codomanus battle at the Granicus, in which Darius was defeated. Alexander was equally successful at Issus and Arbela, and, taking possession of Tyre and Gaza, soon overrun and conquered all Egypt. Darius fled into Bactria, and was there assassinated by one of his own generals. The Persian Empire had existed two hundred and seven years, and terminated with the death of Darius; and in Alexander began the Grecian Empire, B.C. 334. To recapitulate the wanton and unprovoked outrages perpetrated by Alexander, would only go to show what an isolated case abundantly proves‑that he was one of those rare monsters of human nature, who was prompted by a sordid selfishness, and a reckless disregard of the means necessary to be used in ministering to his base passions. We read of monarchs, in former times, who were murderers either for the gratification of mere per. sonal revenge, or for the supposed perpetuity of their crowns, and we try to regard these events, or deeds of wickedness, as only taking place in the dark ages of the world; but is this true? No age in British history is so renowned for the wisdom cf the ministry and the intellectual equanimity of the sovereign, as the close of the seventeenth century, and yet Elizabeth became a heartless assassin. The truth is, as we think, that unlimited power in the hands of the few ever has, and ever will beget a spirit of tyranny, and whenever and wherever that power is concentrated in a single head, untrammeled by checks and balances of power, that head will likely show forth only the baser passions of the human heart. We doubt whether the aggregate amount of knowledge and virtue of the present day'


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is much greater than in the days of Alexander the Great; bul the spirit of freedom which begets a knowledge of personal rights is abroad in the land; and fear, not wisdom or virtue, restrains the wicked passions of crowned heads. Especially since the days of the lucky blunderer, Cromwell, have the people been learning that they were not created to be made foot‑pads for kings; and as a knowledge of personal rights is spread and communicated, a corresponding dimination of the principles of the one man power has been the result, until, as by a miracle, the model Government of the world sprang into being; and though the present movements in the old world may not, and most likely will not, immediately disenthral the nations of the earth from the chains of oppression, the good seed has been sown broadcast over the land, and the day is rapidly rolling on when the Goddess of Liberty will stand upon every hill, and wave the proud banner of freedom over the valleys of the earth. We have no evidence that Elizabeth was either a tyrant or a wicked woman, until power corrupted her heart. We have no reason to believe that Alexander was an unprincipled despoiler, until unlimited power, aided by the wine cup, brought forth the beastly passions of poor, corrupt human nature. At what period of Alexander's early life could he have been induced to set fire to the city of palaces, the beautiful Persepolis? But when corrupted by a knowledge of his unlimited sway, and maddened by the inebriating cup, he could, in a mere frolic, will to destroy the most splendid specimens of human art and ingenuity. And such were the debasing influences of tyranny, that willing tools were at hand to execute his behests. Even the renowned Democrates,who stood proudly preeminent, as the most learned and accomplished Mason of the day, could so far forget his own dignity as a man,as to pamper the vanity of his vicious Emperor. He it was who proposed to Alexander to convert Mount Athos into a statue of himself, with a lake in one hand, and a city in the other; which advice was approved, and woujd have been executed, but‑ for his desire first to build a city, to be his seat of power. He commenced building the city of Alexandria about the year B.C. 332, which became the


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13 capital of the kingdom. It is stated in Pliny's NJatural History, that Democrates first discovered the use of the papyrus. It is described as a species of bulrush, growing in the marshes of Egypt, especially ia the vicinity of the Nile. It grows about fifteen feet high; the stalk is about six inches in diameter, the bark of which, or, as some authors say, the leaves were converted into paper, upon which Democrates drew his designs of the city. Alexander died, drink,at Babylon, B.C. 323, and soon after his empire was divided between his generals. During the reign of Ptolemy Soter, B.C. 304, Euclid, the accomplished geometrician of Tyre, visited the Court of Ptolemy, who encouraged him to teach the noble science, especially to the sons of the lords of the land. We find in Anderson's Constitutions, extracts from the regulations of Euclid, which we believe to be the oldest record of Masonry now extant, and which, if true (and we have no reason to doubt it), should entitle Euclid to the high station in the estimation of the Fraternity which Pythagoras has occupied. When Ptolemy granted Euclid a commission to open a school, or Fraternity, for teaching the arts and sciences, Anderson states that an old Masonic record contains the following: "Euclid having received commission, he taught such as were committed to his charge the science of geometry, in practice. to work in stone all manner of worthy work that belongeth to building of altars, temples, towers, and castles, and all manner of buildings, and gave them a charge in this form: "First, That they should be true to their King and the lord they serve, and to the fellowship whereof they are admitted; and that they should be true to, and love one another; and that they should call each other, Fellow or Brother; not servant, nor knave, nor any other foul name; and that they should truly deserve their pay of their lord, or the master of the work, that they serve. "Secondly, That they should ordain the wisest of them to be the master of the work, and neither for love nor lineage, riches‑nor favor, to set another that hath but little cunning, to be master of the work, whereby the lord shall be evil served, 8


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            114 HISTORY OF i'EhEMASONRY'. and they ashamed; and,also, that they should call the governor of the work, Master, in the time that they work with him. And many other charges lhe gave them, that are too long to relate; and to all these charges, says my author, he made them swear a great oath, that men used at that time. "And he ordained for them a reasonable pay, whereby they might live honestly; and, also, that they should come and assemble together every year once, to consult how they might work best, to serve the lord for his profit, and to their own credit; and to correct, within themselves, him that had tres passed against the Craft. "And thus was the Craft grounded there; and that worthy clerk, Euclid, gave it the name geometry, which now is called Masonry." Some of our friends will remember having heard us question the theory of Bro. Cross, and others, who have taught that geometry and Masonry were originally synonymous terms, will here see proof to the contrary. We are not surprised that Masonry has been called by other names in several ages of the world. Had the late efforts of the anti‑Masons in the United States, succeeded in rendering the Institution odious to the people, we do not hesitate to say that it would have lived, in all its simplicity and purity, under some other name; but, in all its attributes and ends, Freemasonry. So, perhaps, in the days of Euclid, Masonry.may have been called geometry by this eminent scholar; but the charges just quoted will satisfy any well informed Mason that they bear upon their face the very impress of our venerated Order, and it is to be deeply regretted that the other charges to which the old manuscript alludes were not preserved. It is matter of surprise to us that Dr. Anderson, when he was compiling or collating tile Ancient Charges and Constitutions, did not also give us the evidences of their antiquity, as presented on the face of the old manuscripts. For example, he gives us the Ancient Charges, as said to exist from the foundation of the Order, and, asit is not pretended that any alterations were ever made in them, they are satisfactorily handed down to'usi; bilt not so with the Ancient Constitutions. We are simply told;that this is an old Regulation',


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115 and that is a new Regulation; and although the date of the new Regulations can generally be traced, the old ones can not; and whether by the old Regulations. the author means those which were adopted by the Grand Convocation which assembled at York, in A.D. 926 or simply refers to an indefinite period anterior to the collation, we are not informed. "According to the old Constitutions," says Anderson, "Ptolemy, Grand Master., with his Wardens, Euclid and Straton, the Philosopher, built his palace at Alexandria, and the curious museum or college of the learned, with the library of Bruchiam, near the palace, that was filled with four hundred thousand manuscripts or valuable volumes." This immense library was the depository of the greatest minds of the day, from the surrounding country, and was much the largest collection of literary and scientific matter the world had ever seen; and no event, from the days of Noah, tended so powerfully to bury in the rubbish of oblivion the true history of the world, and a knowledge of the arts and sciences, as its destruction. It was burnt during the wars of Julius Cesar. Ptolemy Soter founded the tower of Pharo, or, as some authors call it, the ‑obelisk of Queen Semira mis. It was a tower twenty‑five feet square, and, when completed, was one hundred and fifty feet high. This pyramid was completed by Ptolemy Philadelphus, who succeeded his father. It was so constructed, we are told, as to present the image of Queen Semiramis, cut from a large stone, with smaller ones representing tributary kings. This opinion leads us into some difficulty; for it is not pretended that there was more than one Queen named Semriramis, and she, according to Aristotle, was the builder or ornamenter of Babylon and Nineveh.'This history represents her as not being so ancient, iby several centuries, and as being Queen to Nabonassar. The tower was built on an island, and was intended, as we think, mainly, if not entirely, to serve as a lighthouse for the Alexandrian harbor, and when completed, was regarded as the sixth wonder of the world, Philadelphus founded a number of cities, and rebuilt old Rahab, calling it Philadelphia. Ptolemy Philadelphus was evidently an eminent architect and encourager of the arts and sciences;


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indeed, so perfect was his style of architecture regarded, that for a long period the best and most perfect specimens were called Philadelphian. In his reign, or that of his son, another library was built near or adjoining the old one. It is said that Cleopatra afterward added to this library two hundred thousand manuscripts, presented to her by Mark Antony. As there is a remarkable similarity in the force of the reasons given by the great Emperor for the destruction of this great library, and those used by the great Alexander Campbell, of the present day, for the downfall of Masonry, Odd Fellowship, and Sons of Temperance, we will here give them in full. The Belchium, or Alexandrian Library, had often been subjected to the depredations of barbarian invaders during the revolutions and commotions of the Roman Empire, but it was as often repaired and replenished, until Alexandria was taken by the Saracens. At the period of the destruction of the library, there lived at Alexandria the famous Aristotelian philosopher, Johanes Grammaticus, who was a great favorite of the Saracen General, Amrus Ebnol. And he, being a great lover of the arts and sciences, requested, as a great favor, to be presented with this library, to which the General replied that the Caliph alone possessed the power to dispose of it, but that he would write to the Emperor and urge his request, which being done, the Emperorreturned for answer:‑" That if those books contained what was agreeing with the J.lcoran, there was no need of them, for the Alcoran was amply sufficient of itselffor all truths; but if they contained anything that disagreed with the.Jlcoran, they were not to be tolerated or endured; and, therefore, ordered that, whatsoever they contained, the whole must be destroyed without delay." Where. upon, they were distributed among the public baths, and served as fuel to heat all the baths of Alexandria for six months.


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            CHAPTER VIII. B. 0. 304. When Antigonus was near eighty years old, and during his wars with Cyprus,'he demanded succor of the Rhodeans, to which they sent back for answer a request that he.could not compel them to take up arms against their friend and ally, Ptolemy. This reply so offended Antigonus, that he sent against them his son Demetrius, with a fleet of two hundred ships of war, one hundred transports, with forty thousand men, accompanied with about one thousand small vessels with provisions, etc. Rhodes was known to be a city of great wealth, and the soldiers under Demetrius expected rich booty. Demetrius was one of the most learned and scientific men of his day, as well as a brave and accomplished officer, and carried with him great numbers of those vast machines, then in use, for throwing arrows and battering down walls. The Rhodeans had, after sending away useless citizens, but about six thousand Rhodeans and one thousand strangers, together with a few slaves, to defend the city; but, at that period, the city held many eminent architects, and all were called upon to exert their best skill, and fight for their homes; and, notwithstanding the many scientific plans of assault resorted to by Demetrius, the Rhodeans were successful in counteracting them, till, after a siege of twelve months, Demetrius was willing to make an amicable adjustment and compromise of their difficulties; and, in order to leave behind an evidence of his high regard for their science and bravery, he made them a present of all the machines of war which he had employed against them. As an evidence of the high estimation in which the arts and sciences were held by this distinguished chief, we will here relate, upon the authority of Pliny and Vitruvius, that at that time there was living in Rhodes a celebrated painter, named Protogenes. The rooms he occupied


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were situated outside of the city, and,consequently,exposed to the violence of the soldiers of Demetrius; but, as though noth ing could disturb his mind, or draw it from the pursuit of his profession, he continued his labors, unmoved by the noise of war; and on being asked by Demetrius for an explanation of his conduct, replied: "Because I am sensible you have declared war against the Rhodeans, and not against the sciences." Whereupon, Demetrius ordered a guard to preserve him unharmed. This artist's masterpiece was the Inlysees, a historical picture of a heathen god, or hero, said by the Rhodeans to be the founder of that city. Pliny thinks that this painting was the cause of Demetrius' raising the siege, as he states it hung in that quarter of the city where alone it was possible for a successful assault to be made, and that sooner than expose so fine a specimen of art to destruction, Demetrius abandoned his enterprise; but this historian is not sustained in this opinion by those who wrote about the same time, and the idea is ridiculed by Rollin and others. We have said thus much about Rhodes, at the period referred to, for the purpose of showing somewhat of the history of the last of the seven wonders of art. The Rhodeans sold the machines which had been given to them by Demetrius, for three hundred talents, upward of three hundred thousand dollars, with which, together with a sufficient sum raised from other sources, they built the great Colossus across the mouth of the harbor. Charles of Lindus, a celebrated Mason and architect, was employed by the city to‑perform this stupendous work, which occupied him and all his craftsmen twelve years. It was built of brass; and when we remember its hightseventy cubits, or one hundred and five feet‑and that its form‑that of a man‑was perfect in all its parts, we may form some estimate of this vast human statue. Contemplate a human figure, with one foot on either shore, and a natural stride sufficiently wide to allow the largest ships, under sail, to pass between its legs. This mighty Colossus stood only sixtysix years, when it was thrown down by an earthquake, B.C. 236. We have no accurate account of the amount of materials


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19 employed in its building; but a tolerably correct estimate may be drawn, when we consider that it remained prostrate until A.D, C72. about eight hundred and ninety‑four years, subject to the waste of time and the purloining of men, and then weighed over eight hundred thousand pounds. The sixth Caliph of the Saracens, having taken Rhodes in the year above named, sold the brass to a Jew merchant, who loaded nine hundred camels with it, and it is fair to suppose each camel carried nine hun dred pounds. We are at a loss to determine what great purpose this great statue, much the largest in the world, was designed to answer. We know this people worshiped the sun, and that the statue was dedicated accordingly; but we can find nothing in their religion which would suggest the idea of such a statue, and it was certainly not so constructed as to afford a place of'worship. If left to our conjecture, we should be inclined to say that it was intended for the two‑fold purpose of serving as a fit place for a beacon‑light to approaching vessels, and to excite the wonder and admiration of the world; though, at the present day, we should be inclined to regard it as a specimen of their folly. Certain it is, whatever may have been the design of th9 Rhodeans, it did not long answer the end for which it was designed; for, like the Tower of Babel, the vengeance of Heaven was poured out against it. The city of Carthage, so renowned in ancient history, and to which we have already barely referred, was founded byElisa, or Dido, who married a near relative named Ascerbas, who, for his wealth, was murdered by Dido's brother, Pygmalion, King of Tyre. She, however, eluded his avarice, by secretly withdrawing from the country, carrying with her all her late husband's wealth, and after long wandering, landed on the coast of the Mediterranean, near Tunis, and purchasing some lands from the inhabitants, settled, with her few followers, about fifteen miles from that town, and afterward commenced building Carthage‑signifying new city. Dido was afterward courted by Jarbas, King of Getulia, and threatened with a war in case of her refusal to marry him. This Princess having made a solemn vow to her husband never to consent to a second marriage,


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and not being capable of violating that vow, desired time to return an answer, when she ordered a pile to be raised, and ascending to its top, drew a concealed dagger and plunged it to her own heart, thus setting an example of integrity and virtue which tended no little to stamp the character of Carthagenians for many ages. How many monarchs or presidents of the present day would sacrifice their own lives sooner than involve their nation in a war? When we contemplate the growth and prosperity of Carthage‑the vast power and influence which it long exercised, not only over Africa, but her conquests were extended into Europe, invaded Sardinia, took nearly all of Sicily and Spain, and for six hundred years was mistress of the seas‑and by her great wealth, intelligence, and bravery, was prepared to dispute preeminence with the empires of the world ‑we are struck with the wonderful ways of Providence. Here was a mighty nation of people, brought into being and power by a single act of a mercenary assassin. For a long period before the Romans acquired any fame for architecture, or the science of government, the Carthagenians had established wise laws, built several thousand cities, ornamented with stately castles, etc. Their skill in masonry was of that kind which tends to show them to have been an intelligent and warlike people. Their marble temples, gold statues, splendid palaces, good ships, and well constructed forts, point out this people as occupying the most prominent position of any in the world; and when we consider that their ships sailed on every known sea, carrying on a trade with all the known world, we are not surprised that they so long disputed with the Romans the right of universal empire. But the envy and ambition of the Romans never slept or slumbered; they had a pretended prophecy‑' Delenda est Carthago "*‑Carthage must be demolished‑which after several long and bloody wars was accomplished by Scipio, B.C. 150. This was the constantly reiterated expression of Roman Senators, and served to keop alive the hostile feelings of the people to the envied fame of Carthage, but it is very questionable whether there was even a pretended prophecy in those words


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121 It is not a little curious that a lady, also,figured somewhat conspicuously at the fall of Carthage. After the main city was given up, Asdrubal, his wife and two children, with nine hundred soldiers who had deserted from Scipio, retired to, and fortified themselves in, the Temple of Esculapius, and,owing to its favorable position, might have held out a long time; but the cowardly Asdrubal came out, and,with an olive branch in his hand, threw himself at Scipio's feet, begging for his life. The Temple was then set on fire, when Asdrubal's wife presented herself and two children in view of the army, and addressed Scipio in a loud voice: ù" I call not down curses upon thy head, O Roman, because thou only takest the privilege allowed by the rules of war; but may the gods of Carthage, and those in concert with them, punish, according to his deserts, the false wretch who has betrayed his country, his gods, his wife, and children!" Then turning to Asdrubal she said:‑" Perfidious wretchl! thou basest of men, this fire will presently consume both me and my children; but as to the unworthy General of Carthage, go, adorn the gay triumph of thy conqueror; suffer in the sight of all Rome the tortures thou so justly deservest." She then seized her children, cut their throats, and threw them into the flames, and, with a bound, followed after them. The Sicilians, who had descended from the Greeks, early practiced geometry and architecture at various places, but especially at Syracuse; for when Marcellus brought his Roman army against that city, it was twenty‑two miles around it, and could not, therefore, be subdued by a siege. Nor was Mar. cellus more successful in storming it, because of the able devices of the learned Archimedes, the Master of the Masons of Syracuse, whose plans were so skillfully laid, that he was able to counteract every movement of the Roman army, and it is probable that Marcellus would have utterly failed, but for the love the people of the city had for their festive day; for it was while they were occupied with one of these, that a single tower was permitted to be imperfectly manned, which the Roman general took advantage of, and, making himself master of it, the city soon fell into his hands. Marcellus gave strict orders to save Archimedes, but this great architect was so. deeply


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engaged in devising means to repel the Romans, that he was not aware of the city being in the hands of the enemy, and was murdered by a common soldier. Marcellus was a lover of the arts and sciences, and deeply mourned the loss the world had sustained in the death of Archimedes, and gave him honorable burial. This occurred B.C. 212. We have every reason to believe that Greece, Carthage, and Sicily sent out architects and builders into many parts of Europe, particularly Italy and Spain, and also on the coast of Gaul; but we know very little of Masonry in these countries until after they were overrun by the Romans. We do not recollect how many works of art have been claimed as constituting the seven wonders of the world, but there is no specimen of Operative Masonry which, to our mind, presents so much mystery as the celebrated Wall of China, which, though it has long occupied a place on the map, we do not, to this day, know when or by whom it was built. Our knowledge of the Chinese Empire is of modern date. We think it was near the close of the sixteenth century that some Jesuit priests entered, by some stratagem, within the wall, and after remaining some time brought away, or professed to do so, the secret of making their ware. The Chinese believe that they have occupied the same spot of ground from the creation of the world, which they make some two thousand years older than it appears fiom the accounts of Moses. They have an account of several floods, but deny that even the great deluge reached China. This people have a few learned men who are somewhat acquainted with astronomy; for they record all remarkable eclipses and conjunctions of the planets, and but for the modern improvements and discoveries in astronomy, we should be driven to the Bible alone, to set aside their chronological calendar; but the celebrated Cassini, observing their account of a remarkable conjunction of sun, moon, and some of the planets, which took place, according to their showing, shortly after the creation, or about six thousand years ago‑calculated back, and proves that such a. conjunction actually took place in China one thousand eight hundred and twelve years before Christ, or in the time of Abraham, ibout


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123 four hundred years after the Flood; which, if true, shows the government to be very ancient, and that their account of the creation is incorrect. One thing seems to be very certain, viz., that this people possessed a knowledge of architecture in an eminent degree, before they built their GreatWall. That they have retained that knowledge or improved upon it, without any assistance from other nations, furnishes another evidence that architecture was better understood by the ancients than it is at the present day; for,in point of magnitude, the world never saw anything to equal the Wall of China. We state from memory, that it is fifteen hundred miles long, and sufficiently thick for carriages to be drawn and pass each other on its top. Different opinions are entertained in reference to the style of the work; but we think the length of time it has stood, underwrites the quality of the work. We think it probable that this people had been surrounded by warlike tribes, and being themselves lovers of science, and averse to war, inclosed themselves in a wall; and so rigid and complete became their seclusion, that they lost even a knowledge of‑other nations. We read, some twenty‑eight years since, Lord Amheist's account of the manner and customs of the Chinese, ffom a personal intercourse with them, inside the Great Wall. We are not positive as to the particular stratagem used on this occasion to gain his admission, but, if our memory is correct, he bore a present of a fine carriage from George III., of England, with the condition that it was to be delivered to the Emperor in person, and Lord Amherst states that, after great precautions and blindfolding, he was admitted. He informs us that the policy of the government is, in many respects, the very reverse of any Anglo‑Saxon nation. For example, while we are using every power of mind to do away with manual labor, the canals are so built that all goods are landed at the most distant point of the empire, from the place of final destination; and that no means of conveyance is then allowed but that of manual labor; nor is this so very'remarkable, when we remember that they forbid emigration, and must needs seek to give employment to all citizens; for it will be remembered that the business houses,


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which are situated outside of the wall, in order to carry on commerce with other nations, furnish employment to a very small portion of the citizens. Since, in these latter days, the Chinese have permitted a more liberal intercourse with other and Christian nations, we have some prospect that the effect will be a conversion to Christianity, a cessation of infanticide and idolatrous worship, and a turning to the true worship,aand a general system of slaughtering adults under the sanction of Chinese laws abandoned. England has already given them a foretaste of coming events. Lord Amherst represents the common people as being a faithless, lying set of ignorant beings; but,in giving credit to the man. ner of his reception, we are left at liberty to infer that they may have been instructed to deceive him, with the intention that he should know as little as possible of their true character and condition. We think this author states that when the carriage was presented to the Emperor, he ordered his best workmen to make one just like it, and conceal or destroy the original, showing a determination not to let the people know that he would use any article of foreign manufacture. In relation to the ignorance of the people, we should be surprised to hear any other account than that given by Lord Amherst; for the nature of their language, and character of government, must ever confine any very extensive knowledge of the arts and sciences to the few who are privileged by birth or wealth. It matters not to which of the sons of Ncah we trace this people. It is very evident that they understood‑Operative Masonry at an early period; but, as far as we know, there is no account, either historical or traditional, ofan organized Society of Freemasons in the empire, even to the present day. Yet, it is not impossible that it does there exist; and, if so, its traditions might tend to remove much of the obscurity which shrouds a portion of Masonic history. But we have strong reasons for supposing that no such Society ever (xisted there until introduced by Englishmen,within a short period. All the traditions and teachings of Masonry, as iar as we understand them, are founded on, and corroborative of, the Bible; and the traditions of the Chinese are at open and direct variance


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125 with that holy volume. But, if the opinions of Dr. Oliver are correct, that geometry is Masonry, and that Masonry is the true religion, then have that people been long Masons, and the true religion is not to be found in the Bible. The great works of the Chinese leave no room to doubt their early knowledge of geometry and architecture; and,of course, as their religion and traditions ante‑date the accounts of the Bible, and give altogether a different history, their religion can have no connection with the Christian religion. So that, if they have the true, we have the false religion. We have read and heard, again and again, that Masonry is universal; that we have brethren of the mystic tie in every inhabited part of the globe, and, for aught we know, it may be so; but we are not prepared to believe, as true, mere declamation, unaccompanied by proof of any kind. Masonry is universal in its principles, upon one important condition, viz., the belief in one Supreme Being; but we have nowhere any authority for making Masons of those who believe in a plurality of gods. We have heard that we have brethren among the various tribes of Indians; but, while there is nothing in their faith to disqualify them (they all believe in a Supreme Being), we ask if we have any account of Masonry among the Indians prior to their intercourse with the whites? A few have been made, as Brant was, by the whites, who knew them to be worthy from an intimate acquaintance; and a few others have been made also by the whites, as was recently done in Ohio, with6ut any knowledge of the moral fitness or qualifications of the candidates. In the case alluded to in Ohio, our brethren seek to find an excuse in the fact that an Indian interpreter, a half‑breed, had with him a precious relic, on which was painted some mysterious characters, the tradition of which, from what we can learn, was about as much like "ancientDruidism," or the "Society of Red Men," as Masonry. But as the half‑breed was, from his own account, somehow connected with some Indian mystery, ergo, it was spurious Masonry, and he deserved to be healed. If Masons are thus carelessly and recklessly made at this day, when the Institution is so gloriously in the ascendant, is it


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remarkable that Chinese Masons are to be found in the persons of those who have visited Christendom? Point us to the Lodge, among the Indians or Chinese, that can trace its origin to a period anterior to their intercourse with a Christian or civilized people, and we may be prepared to credit the story of universal Masonry. To us it does seem strange that so many able writers labor to make Masonry so much more than common sense will bear them'out in; when, if its well known history and character is given without exaggeration, it will appear proudly above all other human associations, as a system of ethics, capable of being understood by all; and it is the more remarkable, when we reflect that these extraordinary claims are calculated to excite the ridicule and animadversions of the thinking historian. Tell an intelligent man that Masonry is the true religion, and that its members are to be found in every tribe, kindred, and tongue ‑one portion acknowledging the Bible as the rule for the government of their faith, another the Koran, another without any written law, but worshiping the sun. moon, stars, animals, sticks, or stones and what must he think of you, orof Masonry? We can find a reason for believing animal magnetism, clairvoyance, Millerism, Mormonism, enchantment, or even witchcraft, or any other imposition of the day; but we are at a loss to conceive of a single reason going to show that Masonry is the wonderful system of palpable contradictions,which makes it the true religion and spurious religion, Christian andanti‑Christian, and, withal, as old as the world, and as wide‑spread as the universe of man. The Chinese evidently understood architecture at a period long anterior to our knowledge of their internal government; the immense wall alone proves this. And if we take the account of Moses, as much may be said of the Antediluvians; but does it, therefore, follow that the Antediluvians, Chinese, and Christians have ever practiced the same system of ethics, through the medium of the same organized Society, Freemasonry? We find the task a difficult one, to trace, satisfactorily, the Association from the days of Solomon to the great Convocation of York, in England, in 928.


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            CHAPTER IX. THE Hetrurians used the Tuscan order of architecture at a very early period of their history, but from the Greeks, who never used this order, they learned the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders; and when Turrenus, the last King of the Tuscans, bequeathed his government to the Romans, B.C. 279, they had built many splendid specimens of their art. The Romans, seeing these, invited their workmen to Rome, where they taught their knowledge of architecture. When Marcellus took possession of the rich spoils of Syracuse, he imitated the great Archimedes, by becoming the Grand Master, or patron of Masonry, and employed all the most accomplished Fellow Crafts to build the celebrated theatre at Rome; also a Temple to Virtue, and one to Honor. But the Romans still remained greatly in the rear of the Greeks, until the time of Scipio Asiaticus, B.C. 190, who led the Romans against the King of Syria, and took, by force, the country West of Tarsus. Here they beheld the magnificent specimens of Grecian architecture with wonder and admiration, and they sought carefully to imitate them. Soon after this event, there followed a series of conquests, which tended powerfully to foster and build up a love of the arts and sciences. In the time of Scipio Africanus, who was an encourager of the arts and sciences, Carthage, the great rival of Rome, was taken, and by order of the Senate destroyed, B.C. 146, but not until Scipio, who mourned to see such specimens of magnificence destroyed, had learned much of Carthagenian architecture. Nor is this all that tended to establish the glory of the Roman Republic. About, the same period,lumnmius entered and sacked Corinth, the queen city of Greece, from which were taken, not only the finest specimens of art, but the learned in science and


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            128 HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY architecture were invited'to Rome, from which period Rome assumed a proud stand among the nations of the earth. The noble palace of Paulus Emilius, the triumphal arch of Marius, in Gaul, and the three theatres at Rome, rose in their splendor One of these theatres was so remarkable in size and style of finish, that we are induced to give a brief description of it here. This building was capable of holding eighty thousand persons. The interior was divided into three separate divisions or lofts of scenery, one above another, supported by three hundred and sixty columns; the first row of marble, the second of crystal, and the third of wood. Between these columns were three thousand human statues,beautifully formed of brass. In the days of Tarquinus Superbus, the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was built, and their god, Jupiter, was made of clay; but this Temple being destroyed, the great Sylla had the columns taken from Jupiter Olympus in Greece, and used them in building the new Temple in Rome, and made Jupiter of pure gold. Pompey the Great built a splendid theatre near his palace, that held forty thousand persons. At this period, no people were so fond of shows of all kinds as the Romans; and though in all ages theatrical amusements have seemed to lead to the toleration of more or less obscenity and immorality, it is nevertheless true that to this species of public amusement are we much indebted for the advancement of this people in literary taste, and a love of knowledge and virtue. We have been speaking of the proudest days of Rome, all things considered, but now a mighty struggle commenced between two great men‑Pompey and Julius Caesar contending for supremacy. The struggle was between two great Generals, of giant intellects, and long was the effort of doubtful result; but finally, Pompey was routed at Pharsalia, and murdered in his attempt to escape, and thus the Republic of Rome, which had existed for more than one hundred years, fell to rise no more. Caesar was proclaimed perpetual Dictator and Imperator. The High Priest reformed the Roman calendar, B.C. 48. It is stated by Pliny that Julius Caesar built the great Circus, three furlongs in length and one in breadth, which was capable of holding, at the shows, two hundred and jai4ty thousand


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HISTORY OF FREEMASON RY. 129 people. He built Caesar's Palace, the beautiful Temple of Venus, and ordered Corinth and Carthage to be rebuilt about one hundred years after they were destroyed. But how shall we reconcile this statement with the short period which elapsed between his ascension to power and his death? We do not say that he did not accomplish all the great works assigned to him, but we believe that,if he did so, they must have been commenced long before he was declared Dictator, for he was murdered at Pompey's statue, by his ungrateful friend Brutus, B.C. 44. It must ever remain a matter of opinion and doubt, whether the fall of Caesar was, or not, a national calamity. On the one hand, the lovers of liberty and republican government will contend that as a tyrant he deserved to die, that Rome might return to her republican form of government; while on the other, it may with truth be said that the Roman people had lost their capacity to govern themselves; but all agree that the consequences which followed resulted in the glory of the Roman Empire, for the conquest of Egypt, the death of Cleopatra, the fall of the Grecian monarchy immediately followed, and ushered in the magnificent Augustan age, which was destined to throw a halo of glory around the Roman Empire, making it not only the seat of imperial power, but the nursery of the arts and sciences; and though eighteen hundred years have now rolled away, the magnificence and glory of that age furnishes a fruitful theme for the pen of the scholar, statesman, and orator. Augustus was not only a lover of science, and a great encourager of the arts, but some of the greatest men of any age then lived, and were co‑workers with him to give imperishable fame to the RomanEmpire. We doubt whether, since the days of Solomon, a man has lived who, as Grand Master, or overseer of the Craft, has done more to advance the interest and prosperity of Operative Masonry than did Vitruvius, who wrote learnedly on the subject of geometry and architecture; and under the patronage of Augustus, assisted by Agrippa, commenced building B.C. 29. He first employed the Craft in repairing the public works which had been torn down or injured during the wars. He then built the bridge at Arminium, and at Rome he erected the Temple of Apollo, the Temple of 9


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Mars, the great Rotunda, the splendid Forum, the Palace of Augustus, the beautiful statue in the capitol, and many other statues in the palaces, the library, the portico, the park, and the splendid Mausoleum; and placed in the Temple of Venus a gold statue of Cleopatra,which had been brought from Egypt. But we shall look with wonder and admiration at this golden age of Operative Masonry, when we contemplate the effect which the erection of these public edifices had upon the private citizens of Rome, who, becoming disgusted with their old brick mansions, and enamored with the Augustan style, tore them down and rebuilt of pure marble, so that, in the death hour of Augustus,he could with truth say, "I found Rome built of brick, but I leave it built of marble." The remains of the very buildings of which we have been writing have been found and faithfully described by travelers in the nineteenth century, from which we may fairly raise the question whether architecture has marched forward or receded for the last nineteen hundred years. We believe it has receded, ind will continue to do so until a revolution in the classifica‑:ion of employment is produced. So long as it shallbe regard3d more honorable recklessly to advocate a bad cause, or shield and defend villainy in a court of justice, or ignorantly tamper with human life by every species of deception and fraud, or stand behind the counter and live by misrepresentations, or even to spin street yarn and live a drone in the hive of nature. ‑we say, so long as the world shall regard all these occupations more honorable than to be master of a noble science, men of, the best minds and ample means will not become master builders or accomplished architects. Men are not now, as formerly,: educated for architects. The European crowned heads and best born make only the learned professions honorable; while. Americans, grateful for foreign crumbs of fashion, not only trucklingly ape foreigners in this, but seek to excel them by placing a well dressed scientific gambler greatly above a pennyless scientific mechanic. That this is all wrong, few if any will question; every intelligent, thinking man, who desires the honor and prosperity of his country, must admit that the present state of society is not likely to promote the progress


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131 of the mechanic arts. There was a time when architecture was practiced by the most learned and wise men of the day; then architecture flourished, and that people who excelled in this became the great people of the age. There was a time when the science of medicine was in the hands of barbers, and it dwindled into insignificance. If the day shall ever come when men will be esteemed in proportion to their merit, skill, and knowledge of their business ùwhen the learned and accomplished mechanic shall stand as high in the community as the learned lawyer or doctor‑then, and not till then, will the art of building be cultivated, and the science of geometry once more engage the attention of the learned and wise. But to whom shall we appeal with the hope of even beginning this reformation? Our attention was forcibly called to this subject by our learned and able correspondent " G." whose article may be seen in the first and second numbers of the Signet. He calls upon Freemasons to go back and redeem the noble science of architecture from its fallen condition, and place it before the world in its former grandeur. He boldly makes the charge (and no mechanic has offered to refute it) that there is not a brick mason in the city of St. Louis who is capable of ascertaining what amount of pressure a brick,made of the ordinary clay, is capable of sustaining. He instances the shot tower that fell in this city a few years since; he states that the neighbors became alarmed, thinking there was danger of its falling,; that some scientific mechanics were called upon to examine it, and they pronounced it safe, and the next day it fell. He calls upon the Masons to educate the orphan children, and make accomplished builders of them. In short, he calls upon us to assume control of the science, and so encourage its study, that once more the world may know that the Society of Freemasons could at any time furnish competent builders. We know there is no probability that these suggestions will lead to any immediate practical good; but there is hope "if the tree be cut down, the tender branches thereof will not cease." There is hope that these remarks may, at some future day, awaken the mind of some lo er of the noble, but decaying science, and stimulate him to lay the foundation of a glorious revolution.


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Should the day come when a Grand Lodge would offer premiums for the best specimens of architecture, that Grand Lodge will have begun the good work. We return to our history, by carrying our readers into Judea, B.C. 180. At this period, the High Priests of Jerusalem had charge of Masonry under the Kings of Egypt, and hence they are styled by Anderson and others Provincial Grand Masters, until Seleucus Philopater, King of Syria, seized upon Palestine. His son, Antiochus Epiphanes, persecuted the Jews with great cruelty, until they were rescued by the Asmonean Priest, Judas Maccaboeus. This High Priest was not the regular descendant of Joshua,the High Priest, but came of the line of Joarib, the great grandfather of Mattathias, the Priest of Madin. The lineal successor of Joshua was Onias, who, being deprived of his right by the Syrian Kings, traveled into Egypt, and built a Temple at Heliopolis; and being greatly assisted by the Jews then in Cyrene, he endeavored to make this Temple resemble the one at Jerusalem. He commenced it B.C. 149, and being speedily completed, stood until A.D. 73, a period of two hundred and twenty‑two years, when it was destroyed by Vespasian the Emperor. Mark Antony induced the Senate of Rome to create Herod, the Edomite, Khig of Judea, B.C. 33. Herod, by the help of the Romans, conquered Antigonus and mounted the throne at Jerusalem. He got rid of all the Asmonean Priests, and by his fiat made and set up High Priests according to his own will and pleasure. Herod became the greatest builder of his day‑he was regarded as the patron or Grand Master of all the Lodges in Judea, and greatly added to the knowledge of Masonry,by sending to Greece for the most expert Craftsmen, whose superior knowledge of architecture was of great service to the Jews. After the battle ofActium, B.C. 30, Herod being reconciled to Augustus, began to show his great powers of mind, and exemplify his knowledge and taste in architecture. He erected a splendid theatre at Jerusalem, after the Grecian order; he next built the city of Sebaste, or Augustus, in which he built a small Temple after the model of the great one at Jerusalem. He built a Temple of pure white marble at Paneas; also the cities


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133 of Antipa tris, Phasaelis, and Cypron, and the tower of Phasael at Jerusaiem. But that which added most to his fame throughout the world, was his rebuilding the Temple of Zerubbabel. Herod seems to have had two great objects in view in this great undertaking‑first, to win the attachment of the Jews; and, second, to establish his name among the nations of the earth as a wealthy and scientific Prince. The Temple at Jerusalem had been standing about five hundred years, and was much decayed and injured by the many wars to which it had been exposed; but the attachment of the Jews to this venerable edifice may be seen when Herod gathered them together,and informed them that he designed throwing down the old Temple for the purpose of rebuilding it anew, for the alarm which this intelligence produced was such that Herod was compelled to promise that the Temple should not be pulled down until everything was in readiness to rebuild; and accordingly he set about preparing materials, employing great numbers of masons and one thousand wagons, in collecting the stones and timbers. Herod acting as Grand Master, divided the masons‑ten thousand in number‑into Lodges, and selected two learned Rabbins ‑Hillel and Shammai‑his assistants, or Wardens. Within two years he had got all things in readiness for the new Temple, when he pulled down the old one, and laid the corner‑stone, or foot‑stone as it was then called, just forty‑six years before the first Passover of Christ's personal ministry. The reader will remember to have read in John ii. 20, that the Jews said to Christ, " forty and six years hath this Temple been in building." Now, this may seem inconsistent with the historical facts handed down to us, if we are not careful to interpret the meaning of these Jews correctly. We learn that the Temple proper, or the most holy place in theEast, and the porch in theWest, and passage leading to both, were finished at an immense cost in the short space of one year and six months from the laying of the corner‑stone; and all the balance of the building as planned by Herod, and constituting the original design as drawn by him on the trestle board, in eight years more, when the capestone was celebrated by the Fraternity with great pomp aid splendor; and the more so,because the day was the same in the


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year that Herod received the crown. But a great number of masons were retained in adding outer buildings, so that if the Jews intended to refer to these as part and parcel of the Temple, it was in building forty‑six years at the Passover, and was continued all the time our Saviour sojourned on earth, and several years after, and up to the time when Gesius Florus, who was made Governor of Judea, discharged eighteen thousand masons, which gave great offense to all the Jews; for they were constrained to regard this as a stroke, not only at their Temple, but also at their worship. Josephus describes this Temple as a magnificent marble edifice, set off with a great profusion of costly decorations, and as being the finest building upon earth since the days of Solomon. It was much larger than the Temple of Zerubbabel, and was modernized with the Grecian order of architecture. This Temple was not finished, in all its parts, until about six months before its destruction, A.D. 64. And now we approach that wonderful and interesting period when peace and tranquility was to cover the face of the earth. When all wars and rumors of wars were to be swallowed up in glad tidings of great joy. When the new Star of Bethlehem should decorate the heavens,and guide the wise men of theEast to the manger. The Temple of Venus was closed, as if ashamed of the superior light which was soon to burst upon a gazing and admiring world. Augustus had reigned twenty‑six years after the conquest of Egypt; his reign was made glorious by his many works of art, and his liberal encouragement of the sciences, but now become still more famous by his having lived and reigned at that period, when the Word was made flesh; when Christ, the Saviour, the mighty Prince of Peace, was born into this world,to be a propitiation for our sins and a lamp to our feet, to lead us from the errors of our way and point us to the glorious morn of the resurrection, when our bodies shall rise and become as incorruptible as our souls; when, if we have walked in newness of life and kept the faith as once delivered to the saints, we may all hope to arise and ascend higher, and yet still higher, through the countless realms of never ending bliss, and live with Him in eternal glory.


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            CHAPTER X. WE do not feel it to be our duty to enter into a biblical research in order to show all the striking evidences furnished by man, when and how the Messiah would makeHia advent into the world‑this task appropriately belongs to doctors of divinity‑but as being intimately connected with the authentic history of mankind, and especially with the Jewish nation, the birth‑place of Masonry, we think it not out of place to quote the following prediction of the Patriarch Jacob. When his spirit was about to leave its tabernacle of clay, and appear before the awful Judge of quick and dead, he assembled his twelve sons, who were the chiefs of the twelve tribes, and foretold many things which would befall that people, and among them the following stands conspicuous: "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come, and unto Him shall the gathering of the people be." We will now trace some of the prominent events which transpired shortly before the coming of our Saviour, from which we may learn how far the above prophecy was fulfilled. About 40 years B.C., Phcorus, son, of the King of Parthia, entered Syria with a powerful army, and from thence sent a strong detachment into Judea, with instructions to place Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, upon the throne. Several prominent Jews, among whom was a brother of Herod's, were enticed to the army of the enemy, under a pretext of compromise, when they were placed in irons. Herod, at this critical period, escaped from Jerusalem. When the Parthians entered the city, not finding Herod, they placed Antigonus on the throne, and delivered the prisoners into his hands. Phasael, knowing that an ignominious death awaited him, dashed out his brains against the wall of his prison. Hyrcanus had his


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            136 TISTORY OF FREEMASONRY. life granted, but, in order that he might never be able to enter the priesthood, Antigonus caused his ears to be cut off, knowing that the Levitical law required that the High Priest should be perfect in all his parts or members. In the life of Hyrcanus may be seen a striking exemplification of the devoted attachment of the Jews to the Holy City. After he was mutilated as above, the Parthians took him to Silencia, in Babylonia, where he remained a prisoner until Phraates received the crown, who caused his liberty to be restored and allowed him to have free intercourse with his countrymen, who regarded him as their King and High Priest, and raised him a revenue to keep him in splendor; yet the love he bore to his native country caused him to disregard these advantages and comforts. He returned to Jerusalem, whither Herod had invited him, and who afterward had him put to death. When Herod escaped from the city, he went to Egypt and thence to Rome. Antony was then enjoying the high power conferred upon him by the triumvirate. Herod desired Antony to procure the crown for Aristobulus, to whose sister he was betrothed; but Antony caused the crown to be conferred upon him, in violation of all Roman usage; for until now they had not ventured to interfere with the rights of royal houses in behalf of a stranger. But in this case, even the Senate bowed obedience to the will of Antony, by declaring Herod King of Judea, and caused the consuls to conduct him to the capitol, where he received the usual honors; but it was by no means certain,for some time,that he would be4able to keep his position. Antigonus refused to resign a throne which he had acquired at so much cost, and for two years maintained his defense. In the winter, B.C. 38, Herod made vigorous preparations for a suetessful campaign in the spring, and opened it with the sieze of Jerusalem. Antony had given orders to Sosius, Governor of Syria, to use his utmost to reduce Antigonus, and give Herod full possession of tie throne, and the two armies, being united, amounted to sixty thousand, and after a siege of six months, took the city. This army, contrary to the orders and will of Herod, put thousands of the Jews to the sword, and flooded the land with blood. Antigonus, being thus defeated, threw


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137 himself at the feet of his conqueror, who sent him in chains f Antonv. Herod, not feeling secure while Antigonus lived, induced Antony to have him put to death. He was tried, condemned, and executed as a common criminal. This was a violation of Roman usage, his being a crowned head. Thus this unexampled event, by which the sovereign authority of the Jews was given into the hands of a stranger, and the reign of the Asmoneans, which had continued one hundred and thirty years, substituted by an Idumenian, was the prophecy being fulfilled‑thus was the sceptre about to depart from Judah, and the prediction of Jacob about to be fulfilled:‑Judah should reign over all other tribes until Shiloh come; the Jews should exist as a nation, and be governed by Judah until the coming of the Messiah. The tribe of Judah has no longer the right to rule‑the magistrates are no longer taken from thence, for Shiloh has come, "and untoHim shall the gathering of the people be." Herod had been made King contrary to all law; but the decree of Heaven had gone forth ‑the sceptre had departed from Judah, and King Emanuel was to commence his peaceful reign on earth. In the twentysixth year of Augustus, the Temple of Janus was closed up, because the whole world was at peace; the WORD was made FLESH; Jesus Christ was born‑after Solomon's reign nine hundred and seventy‑one years, in the year of Rome seven hundred and forty‑five, in the year of Herod thirty‑four, and in the year of the world four thousand. Four years after the birth of Christ, A.M. 4004, or Anno Domini 1, the Christian era begins. Augustus was a great friend and patron of Masonry, giving employment and respectability to all worthy Craftsmen; he reigned with great splendor forty‑four years, and was succeeded by his colleague, Tiberius, under whose reign the Lord Jesus Christ was crucified by Pontius Pilate, the Roman Governor of Judea. Tiberius afterward banished Pilate for this deed of injustice. Under this reign the Augustan style of architecture continued to be cultivated, and the Crafts men met with great encouragement. Nero built a splendid palace about this time, and erected a brass statue of himself, one hundred and ten feet high.


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In the year A.D. 64, Vespasian sent his son Titus to subdue the Jews. and take possession of Jerusalem. When his soldiers were sacking the city, one of them, contrary to orders, set fire to the Temple, and soon after the whole city was leveled with the earth, so that not one stone was left upon another; and that the prophecies might be fulfilled, the conqueror caused a plow to be run over the ruin thereof, as a testimonial of its total and final desolation. Vespasian has the honor of introducing the Composite order of architecture, when he erected his splendid amphitheatre. This Prince ordered the Jewish Temple in Egypt to be demolished, A.D. 73, and died A.D. 77. When Titus had overrun the country' of the Jews, he returned and caused a triumphal arch to be raised, and adorned it with splendid engravings and rich sculptures; also his noble palace and other public buildings. Domitian rebuilt the Temple of Capitolinus, which he overlaid with plates of pure gold. He also built the Temple of Minerva,and a palace,more splendid than that of Augustus, containing stately galleries, halls, baths, and beautiful apartments for his women. He died A.D. 83, and was succeeded by Nerva, who died A.D. 95, having adopted Trojan, who, by aid of the renowned architect and geometrician, Apolodorus, constructed a splendid bridge over the Danube, built two triumphal arches, a palace, circus, and his famous column, one hundred and twenty‑eight feet high, with one hundred and twenty‑three stairs. In those days no public buildings were erected without having mystical inscriptions, evidently designed to hand down to the Masons of future ages the mysteries of the Order. This noble column was ornamented with mystical figures, ascending in spiral lines, from the base to the capital. In A.D. 130, Adrian, who was a Mason of great learning, built the Roman Wall, in England, the remains of which are probably yet to be seen in Northumberland. He also built a bridge at Rome, his Mausoleum, etc., etc. We are now approaching a period when Masonry was neglected. We read of Antoninus, Marcus, Aurelius, Comnmodus, and others, as having built some edifices, and, more or less, patronizing Masonry; but nothing remarkable is recorded


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139 until the reign of Constantine the Great, who reared at Rome the last triumphal arch after the Augustan style. In A.D. 306, this great Prince removed to Byzantium, which he called Constantinople. He took with him many monuments of Italian art, and the best artists, that he might ornament Constantinople, where he expended large sums in the employment of the Craft, to erect many magnificent structures, including his own equestrian statue; and died A.D. 336. Architecture, and, indeed, all the arts and sciences, now dwindled at Rome, and as an evidence of the liability of man to pass to extremes, we are constrained to notice that this state of things was much owing to the mistaken zeal of the Christians; for such was their hatred of idolatry, that they injudiciously destroyed many of the noble monuments of art, until the Roman Empire was divided between Valentinian and Valens. The former died A.D. 374, the latter A.D. 378. The northern nations of Europe, the Goths, Vandals, Huns, Allemans, Dacians, Franks, Saxons, Angles, Longobards, and many others, had grown in power and boldness in proportion as Rome became weak. They invaded Greece, Asia, Spain, Africa, and Gaul, and even Italy itself, overrunning, like a mighty avalanche, the civilized world, trampling under foot every specimen of polite learning, and waging open war against the arts and sciences. How wonderful will appear the ways of Providence, when we remember what the Anglo‑Saxon race once was, and what it is now! Verily, "the first shall be last, and the last shall be first." Amid the gloom of Masonic desolation, of which we have been speaking, one bright spot appeared and tended to preserve our noble art. Theodosius the Great ascended the throne in the East A.D. 378. who arrested the onward march of' tile barbarians; and so devoted was he to our Order, that he enacted a law exempting all the Craft from taxation. Soon after he became sole Emperor of the East andWest, and then partitioned the Government between his two sons, Honorius and Arcadius. They both expended much of the rich spoils ot war, from Greece, Egypt, and Asia, in building, etc. When Justinian the First came into power, he determined,


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at all hazards, to support and sustain the noble Craft, and suto ceeded in restoring the Roman Empire almost to its former grandeur. In A.D. 526, finding the arts and sciences in great peril of being for ever lost, he dispatched his brave General Belisarius, with a powerful army against Totila, the Goth. who. at the head of an army of savages, took old Rome, and set fire to it, which, after burning thirteen days, left poor remains to be rescued by Belisarius. From this period may be dated the downfall of the arts and sciences in Italy. The Augustan style of architecture was here lost‑the harmony of Lodges was broken Masonry was overthrown and well nigh destroyed by Gothic ignorance. Justinian succeeded in arresting from savage vengeance the substance of the civil law, and by the assistance of his wise councilmen, digested a code which bears his name. He rebuilt the church of St. Sophia, at a cost of three hundred and forty thousand talents in gold, which he vainly attempted to make equal to the Temple of Solomon. The world is indebted to Justinian for great achievements, and his name is venerated for many accomplishments and virtues; but there is one dark spot upon his fame that centuries more will not efface. He caused the eyes of Belisarius to be put out, and left him in abject poverty, and only able to preserve life by begging alms at the gates of St. Sophia. As if to hold up to derision and scorn the dastardly conduct of Justinian, the faithful historian has recorded the words of the royal beggar: "Give a halfpenny to Belisarius, whom virtue had raised and envy depressed." From the period of which we have been speaking, the arts and sciences declined for several ages. Persecutions and bloody wars succeeded in quick succession. Emperor after emperor was murdered by his successor; cruelty and rapine covered the land and disgraced the very name of Christian, and led to still more disastrous results. In the beginning of the seventh century, the Mohammedans had become numerous, and stimulated by the vindictive spirit of their opponents‑goaded on by the wild and merciless bigotry of their faith‑they came forth, as an avenging host, carrying fire and sword over the land, laying waste every vestige of elegance or refinement. The e...~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


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141 noble specimens of art were torn down or consumed, and even the gigantic tree of Masonry was shorn of its beautiful foliage, and drooped beneath a cloudy sky for many ages. The Augustan style was here lost, and if not dug up amid the ancient ruins, in the nineteenth century, is lost for ever. When, after the lapse of years, the Goths began to assume some pride and taste for building, it was but too manifest that the very principles were unknown; for with all their wealth and ambition, and the unceasing study of their ablest.designers, aided, too, by the secrets of the Order, which had been transmittcd from father to son, and from Lodge to Lodge, they succeeded only in bringing forth that uncomely order, ever since called the Gothic, which to this day is sometimes used in massy structures‑occasionally in a church or convent; but the taste that admires this order more than the Grecian or Roman style, must, we think, prefer disorder and disproportion to form and symmetry. Yet the laudable efforts of the Goths to supply the loss of the old style of architecture tended, finally, as we shall see, to restore, in some measure, the earlier and mlre perfect orders. Toward the close of the eighth century, Charlemag e endeavored, by every means in his power, to reestabli h Lodges, and resuscitate the ancient orders of architecture. A taste for fine building was thus engendered, and the French kept up unceasing efforts for the cultivation of architecture, geometry, and the sciences, in the days of Hugh Capet; and the result was, that, before the close of the tenth century, the Fraternity had so improved on the Gothic style that they ran into the other extreme, making their work as much too slender and delicate, as the Gothic had been too massy and cumbersome. The church of St. John, at Pisa, in Tuscany, under the direction of a Greek undertaker, Buschatto, presented somewhat the appearance of the ancient style of building, which was improved upon by others down to the sixteenth century; but the first prince who publicly took steps to produce a revival of the ancient style was Charles of Anjou, King of Naples. He employed Nicholas and John Pisan, father and son, to build an abbey in the plain of Taglia Cotzo, where


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Charges had met and overthrown the pretender Couradin. They built the King's new castle at Naples, and other edifices, that did credit to the age. They, together with Cimaboius, took apprentices, and educated in their Lodge many young men, who became master builders; but the most distinguished was Giotto, who became an eminent architect, and established an academy, as Lodges were then properly called, and from this Lodge proceeded a fund of knowledge in geometry and architecture, that sent forth an undying influence over all Italy, A.D. 1300. Nor did the community, as now, fail to appreciate their learning and skill; their being mechanics was no bar to public favor or public honors. Many of them took part in the important offices and affairs of the government. One of the pupils educated in the Lodge above named,Laurentio Ghiberto, framed the two brazen gates of St. Johns, which, after standing long years, were seen by Michael Angelo, who in rapture exclaimed, "they are fit to be the gates of Paradise." We pass over several who became distinguished as undertakers and as men of science, and call attention to Dominigo Ghirlandais, who was the master of Michael Angelo, and several other distinguished men. But, up to this time, much of the Gothic style of building was used at Florence, when‑Bruneleschi ‑who served an apprenticeship, and studied at Rome the beautiful and just proportions of the old Roman buildings, then lying in ruins‑returned and introduced the pure Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite orders. In this noble effort, he and his successors were aided and encouraged by the Princes of the house of Medicis‑for John de Medicis, and his son, Cosmo 1., were educated in the Lodge at Florence, and each became Grand Master; and the Society or Lodge was called the revivers, because they were mainly instrumental in reviving the Augustan style. Cosmo erected a large library building, and filled it with manuscripts from Greece and Asia. To this library was attached a cabinet, containing everything which he could collect that was either rare or curious. He established an extensive commerce by sea and land, and acquired the title of the father of his country. He died lamented by all and mourned for by the Masons, A.D. 1464.


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148 Peter de Medicis succeeded him, and was a friend to the Craft; he died A.D. 1472, and was succeeded by his son, John Julian de Medicis, who was said to be the most remarkable youth of his day. He was the most beautiful, the most accom0lished, and withal the best operative mechanic in Florence. He did much to restore and reestablish the ancient style of architecture. He died A.D. 1498. His grandson, Laurenzo, built a great gallery in his garden, for the education of the most promising youths of the country. His second son, John, afterward elected Pope Leo X., was Grand Master of Mi sons In erecting the cathedral of St. Peter, at Rorne. His (c: usin, Julius, afterward Pope Clement VII., was also Grand Master, and continued the building of St. Peter's; thus it will be seen that the whole family were devoted to arts and sciences, lovers and encouragers of Masonry, until Cosmo II. was created Grand Duke of Tuscany, A.D. 1561, who became so'eminent in his knowledge of architecture and his devotion to Masonry, that Pope Pius V. and the Emperor Ferdinand styled him the great Duke of Tuscany. He was the Grand Master of all the Masons of Italy. He established the famous Academy or Lodge at Pisa, for the education and improvement of Entered Apprentices. He died in his fifty‑sixth year, A.D. 1574. At the beginning of the fifteenth century, the Augustan style of building revived in Italy. Leon Baptista Alberti was the first author in modern times who wrote on architecture; so says Anauetel, Anderson, Reece, and others. If this be true, it is not wonderful that Masonry remained so long at a low ebb. This author, it seems, gave an impetus to science, and ere another century passed away, a greater number of distinguished architects lived than in any other age of the world. The Popes, Princes, and the States of Italy, all united to encourage and give character to the learned Masons, and thus promote its cultivation in the higher classes of society. The celebrated Bramante studied Masonry at Milan, examined the sleeping remains through all Italy, and became so proficient in the art as to be employed, by three successive Popes, to build at Rome the cloister of the church of Peace, the paiace at Chancery, and many other splendid and tastefully decorated


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edifices, including a beautiful little church at Mount Orio. Under Pope Julian II., Bramante was ordered to draw the design of St. Peter's, at Rome, and at the head of a large assembiage of Cardinals, Clergymen, and Craftsmen, he leveled the corner stone, A.D. 1507. This mighty structure now stands the proudest specimen of human art upon the earth, but Bramante only lived to conduct the work seven years. He died A.D. 1514, and, by order of Pope Leo X., was buried in the church. Raphael, a celebrated painter, had studied Masonry under Lramante, and succeeded him as superintendent of St. Peter's, until he died A.D. 1520. Had he lived, he was to have been made a Cardinal. Next came Jocunde and Antony San Gallo into the office of superintendents or overseers of the work, until they died A.D. 1535, when Pope Paul III. appointed Michael Angelo, now the most celebrated draughtsman, and, afterward, the most distinguished architect of that, or, perhaps, any other age. He found fault with the draughts of his predecessors, hence made a new model, by which that lofty and magnificent Temple was carried on to completion. It would be tedious to mention all the buildings, the designs of which were drawn by Michael Angelo; suffice it to say, that his long life was spent in the glorious cause of both Operative and Speculative Masonry, and at the advanced age of ninety years, he left behind him a fame as imperishable as the world's history. It will not be uninteresting to illustrate the high estimation in which accomplished Masons were then held by kings and princes, by stating that Cosmo the great Duke of Tuscany, stole the corpse of Michael Angelo and solemnly followed him at the head of an immense procession of Masons to St. Cross, at Florence, where he was interred with Masonic honors, and a tomb erected to his memory, which was beautifuiiy adorned with three marble statues, representing Architecture, Painting, and Sculpture. Vignola, aided by Ligorio, as his Warden, succeeded Michael Angelo, the latter was discharged from his office by Pope Gregory XIII., for altering the model of Michael Angelo. Vignola acquired a high reputation as a draughtsman, and died A.D. 1573, and was succeeded by Maderni, who built the


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145 frontispiece of the Temple. During this age, as intimated, many distinguished men lived and astonished the world with their learning and devotion to Masonry; but we shall mention only one more, and hasten to close thij part of our history, that we may commence considering the history of our Order in England, about which all American Masons feel the deepest in ter2st. About the period of which we have been writing, Andrea Palladio, of Venice, became distinguished by the publication of his opinions of the old orders of architecture, giving accurate descriptions of the most magnificent Temples of the ancients. This work is spoken of in such terms, as to cause us to regret our inability to lay hands on it. We now leave Italy, at the close of the sixteenth century, having been once the mistress of the world, by the strong arm of power, and twice the great cradle of learning, and the homre of the arts. In this golden age of Masonry, Lodges were truly what they should be‑academies of learning. Convocations were held, not alone for the practice of Masonic ceremonies. but also to foster, protect, and encourage the cultivation of true knowledge and virtue. Masons were educated and rendered scientific architects, learned draughtsmen, and practical builders. The world knew to whom application might be safely made for a competent and honest workman, to design and superintend the erection of substantial and beautiful buildings. How strikingly would a minute description of the house in which we are now writing, illustrate the falling off in architecture since the sixteenth century! Why, reader, several of our friends have warled us of the imminent danger we are supposed to be in of being buried in the ruins of this our land lord's new four story house. The front wall is supported by wood pillars, said to be a little larger than poke‑stalks, and made to present a tolerable appearance by being boxed up in one‑inch plank; and as for our office, the wind is now coming in so freely, above, beneath, and at each side of the doors, that our light, a good old fashioned tallow candle, is blown hither and yon. a,


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            C HAPTER XI. BY those who are well acquainted with the history of Eingland, as found on record, we shall not be expected to fix the date when Masonry was introduced into that country, with any reliable accuracy. There is intermingled so much fable with all the early accounts of the settlement of that Island, that go one at this day can distinguish between the romance of Heathen Mythology and sober truth. Whether Bladud, who lived about 900 years B.C., was educated in Athens, and coming here, built Bath, and produced the waters there, and pifterward, in an attempt to fly with artificial wings,fell from the Temple of Apollo or that the entire story is a fiction, can lnot now be determined. Whether the Druids of Britain prac ticed many of the customs and usages of Masons near 1100 bears B.C., or whether fheir story is not something like the surmises of the present day, that because one of the red men of the forest is found in possession of a piece of bark, or bone, with some unintelligible characters engraven thereon, ergo, he is a Mason‑we shall not undertake to decide; but we venture the opinion that there is about as much reason in the one as the other. The Druids are supposed to have been Masons, because they had their secret societies, and refused to publish what transpired therein. Now, if it could be shown that this was the only secret Society in existence at the time, then we should be constrained to conclude that it was a Masonic Society; or that no Society of Masons then existed; but it is easy to show the existence of quite a number of secret societies, all teaching and practicing the doctrines of false gods, about the period alluded to: and, if we rely upon our traditions,/it must be manifest that Masonry was not then instituted, and though it came into beipg very soon after, it never did teach the doctrine of a plurality oi gods; so that the authors who make the ancient Druids a


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147 Masonic Society must oe reckless of truth, or know but little of the traditions of our Order, for the Druids were infidels, or believers in a plurality of gods. In the history of England we have another proof that geometry and Masonry never were one and the same thing; for there is abundant proof that, while the Island was inhabited by bands of savages (and long before the visit of the Romans), they erected dwellings, and even built towns, the remains of which are yet to be seen. In applying the term savage to the first settlers of Britain, we do not use the term to be understood in the ordinary acceptation of the present day. We do not mean to say that they knew nothing of the arts‑far from it‑for they must have not only understood much about architecture, but also the science of navigation; while they were, nevertheless, savages in their manners and customs. The cities of York an4 Edinburgh were built before Masonry was instituted, and the only way in which writers can succeed in ante‑dating Masonry is by making it exclusively Operative; and hence it will be found in the writings of all these lovers of the marvelous, that every monarch who caused any building to beerected is set down as, not only a Freemason, but the Grand Master of Masons; and, indeed, we must use some caution in the examination of this subject, or we are liable to be deceived, because until the eighteenth century, a very large proportion of the members of our Order were operatives; but it must not be inferred that they were not also Speculative. On the contrary, our traditions clearly show that, at the building of Solomon's Temple, the principles of morality.and the doctrines of Moses were clearly taught. We have before stated, that for many centuries no employment or occupation was regarded more honorable than that of architecture‑the best men and the best minds were employed or occupied in the cultivation of a practical knowledge of the art of building; and, hence, when we now read an account of the building of cities in former times, we are bound to infer that Masons were employed therein; but it is a great mistake to suppose that all workmen employed on every building were Masons, or members of the Society. A mistake very much like this has been the


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            148 HISTORY OP FREEMASONRY. cause of a very incorrect account of the number of Masons employed at the building of Solomon's Temple, a large propor tion of writers having regarded all that workedontheTemple or in the forests, as Fellow Crafts, or Entered Apprentice Masons, when it would seem to us as ridiculous to suppose King Solomon would make a levy of thirty thousand men, and unconditionally introduce them into the Society, a leading characteristic of which has ever been that no one could be admitted but by a voluntary request, leaving it very certain that drafted men were not likely to obtain its benefits. On the other hand, we know of no period since the building of the Temple, when architecture flourished, that it was not mainly in the hands of Freemasons, either under this name, or that of " Solomon's Builders;" and, hence, in writing the history of the Order through the middle, or dark ages, we are authorized to infer that Masonry was prosperous or depressed much in pro portion as architecture advanced or declined. But there is the more difficulty in fixing the period at which our Order was introduced into England, because of the perpetual wars and changes which were so long kept up. The first account upon which we can rely for information, in relation to the inhabitants, is to be found in Caesar's Commentaries, about 50 years B.C. Dr. Anderson gives a singular reason to account for Caesar's not pursuing his conquest‑viz., that he wished to be Grand Master of Rome‑unless the Doctor regarded every king or ruler as holding that office. Agricola is, probably, the first Roman that undertook any buildings of magnitude; nor have we any evidence that he did much more than to throw up a wall of earth, to protect the Romans from the incursions of the Picts, whom he had defeated, or rather, for a time, driven before him, until they were reinforced: for they soon broke over the wall, and continued their barbarous warfare upon the South, rendering the Roman possessions a scene of continual bloodshed. Adrian came in person, A.D. 120, and W'ilt Adrian's Wall, which also failed to protect the Romans. About ten years after this, King Lud is spoken of as being the first Christian who ruled on the Island; out during his reign the Romans suffered so many and heavy


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149 losses at the hands of the Northerners, that they were compelled to purchase peace at a heavy sacrifice of money. Then came Severus, A.D. 207, who, in his efforts to subdue the barbarians, lost over fifty thousand men, and was glad to retire within Adrian'sWall, and rebuild it with stone. The first edifice of any note, of which we have an account, was a temple built by Chrispiness, the altar‑stone of which was found in the beginning of the eighteenth century. We read of one, called the Worthy Knight Albanus, who, A.D. 303, was converted to the Christian faith, and became a great encourager of the Craft; and as he was the first who suffered martyrdom for Christianity, it may not be difficult to account for his name having come down to us as "St. Alban." Dr. Anderson says, that " the old Constitutions affirm, and the old English Masons as firmly believe it, that Carausius employed St. Alban to environ the city of Verulam with a stone wall, and to build therein a fine palace; for which that British King made St. Alban steward of his household, and chief ruler of the realm. St. Alban also loved Masons well, and cherished them much, and he made their pay right good, viz., two shillings per week, and three pence to their cheer; whereas, before that time, through all the land, a Mason had but a penny a day and his meat. He also obtained of the King a. charter for the Freemasons, for to hold a General Council, and gave it the name of Assembly, and was thereat himself as Grand Master, and helped to make Masons, and gave them good charges and regulations." It is a curious fact, and well worthy of notice, that several writers who contend that Masonry originated in the Garden of Eden, or, at least, in the days of Enoch, and continued to be practiced in all countries, but especially in Greece and Rome, yet contend that Masonry was not introduced into Britain until the twelfth century, when it was sent there by a Lodge then recently established in Kilwinning, Scotland. Now, if Masonry was flourishing in Rome, A.D. 55, when Caesar visited Britain and laid the foundation of a colony, it is by no means unreasonable to suppose Masonry was soon after introduced, and we have no evidence of its introduction before the time of St. Alban, viz.,near the close of the third century after


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Christ, can only be accounted for on the ground that the Roman settlers were almost unceasingly harassed by the Picts, Saxons, and other northern tribes, for more than two hundred years, and it may be that no attempt had been made to establish a Lodge until the days of St. Alban, and yet it is not unlikely that traveling Lodges existed in the Roman army, from the time of the first invasion, a record of which may have been lost. At any rate, we can not think it unreasonable to believe that St. Alban was a Mason, and that the Institution flourished in Britain during his day; for it will be remembered that,long before this period, the natives in theSouth part of tie Island had adopted the manners and customs of the Romans, and imitated them in the erection of buildings, and the cultivation of some of the sciences; indeed, historians inform us that many of the more wealthy sent their sons to Rome, where they received a knowledge of the polite arts and the sciences, as taught in the best schools. Leland informs us that St. Alban was thus educated, and soon after his return home he was converted to the Christian faith by his fellow traveler, Amphibalus. Being a man of unblemished integrity, and unwavering in the honest discharge of all his duties, it may easily be seen that from his conversion he left no fit occasion unemployed to promulgate the doctrines of Christianity‑thus rendering himself obnoxious to the hatred and unrelenting persecutions of the infidels, in A.D. 303, when, in honor of his high birth and eminent learning, they condescended to behead him. Guthrie, in his History of England, tells us that the Emperor Carausius, who governed the Island at this period, was not only an accomplished architect, but gave great encouragement to learning and learned men, and he induced many distinguished architects to remove from Rome, so that at the close of his reign he had gathered around him a large body of accomplished workmen, many of whom were doubtless Masons; for about this period the city of Autun is spoken of as having suddenly grown into a beautiful town by the rebuilding of the ancient houses, and erecting splendid temples,and other public edifices, which attracted attention to the "Roman Brotherhood," by which title the Masons were then best known in Britain.


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151 The British Empress Helena, wife of Constantius Chlorus, enclosed London with a stone wall A.D. 306. After the death of Constantius, Constantine the Great, his son, ruled with great wisdom, encouraging learning and the Christian religion, and during his reign the Emperor enjoyed the blessings of peace and prosperity. But soon after his death, A.D. 336, the Northerns joined with the Saxon pirates,and renewed hostilities with the South, which was continued, from time to time,with opposite results,until A.D. 410, when Honorius was forced to renounce the Roman sovereignty over Britain; but, being reinforced, changed again the fortunes of war, until A.D. 426, when the Roman Legion was withdrawn, leaving the Southrons at the mercy of the northern barbarians, who overran the country, and destroyed many fine specimens of Roman art and Masonic skill. Masonry noW dwindled into ruin on the Island, for the few Romans that remained became identified with the Southrons, and lost their influence with the natives. But many specimens of their Masonic art are still to be seen, among which is "Arthur's Oven," a temple erected by the Romans to their god Terminus. About A.D. 450, the Southrons invited the Saxons of Lower Germany to come over and assist them, which invitation was accepted by Prince Hengist, who brought over a small army, consigting of only two thousand men, and here commenced laying the foundation upon which was destined to be raised the great Saxon race. For more than three hundred years the Romans had tried in vain to maintain their foothold: they had lost in a single campaign fifty thousand men, and suffered innumerable defeats and disasters, until finally they were forced to withdraw their forces and abandon their claim; but now two thousand Saxons joined the Southrons, drove before them the Scots and Picts; and, being from time to time reinforced, they succeeded in establishing seven kingdoms, when the Anglo‑Saxons rapidly increased in numbers and power until King Arthur died, leaving the Britons with only a few petty Kings, whose powers were soon surrendered or taken from them. The Anglo‑Saxons were a blood‑thirsty, savage people, unacquainted with any science, unless a skill in butchering


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            152 HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY, human beings be dignified with that appellation‑then, indeed, would they have high claims, for they deliberately murdered three hundred nobles at one time. But, nevertheless, the material for a great and chivalrous people lurked in their composition; for very soon after they were converted to the Christian religion, the fruits of great and energetic minds were manifested. A.D. 597, about forty monks, sent by Pope Gregory, converted,all the Kings of the Heptarchy, when the Island commenced changing its appearance as by a magic wand ‑churches, monasteries, and towns sprung up, and the arts and sciences were industriously cultivated‑but they knew nothing of any but the Gothic order of architecture. The Cathedral of Canterbury was built A.D. 600; Rochester, A.D. 602; St. Paul's, London, A.D. 604; St. Peter's, Westminster, A.D. 603; but they were greatly deficient in the art of building until A.D. 710, when Kenred, King of England, sent to Charles Martel, then Grand Master of Masons in France, with a request that he would send some of his most skillful Masons to instruct the Anglo‑Saxons, not only in geometry and architecture, but also in the ancient customs and usages of the Order. Martel cheerfully complied with this request; and while we have reason to admire the rapid strides that were soon after made in the cultivation of the arts and sciences, and the great moral influence exerted by the introduction of the Christian religion, we are, nevertheless, furnished with a striking instance, tending to show the proneness of man to pass suddenly from one extreme to another. This people had but recently emerged from barbarism and irreligion; they had but recently held in contempt the people and doctrines of Christianity; and yet, as soon as they embraced the doctrines of the Bible, no act was too rigorous, no taxes too high, to enforce the consummation of any and every plan devised by their priests to promote the interests of the Church. Masons were in high favor, and were courted by kings and princes; for they alone could be relied on to erect churches and build splendid monasteries in every nook and corner of the earth. The common people were taxed until the Church owned nearly half the real estate in Britain and Scotland, and were lorded over until they


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153 became, in effect, slaves to the Church,instead of worshipers of God. Nor did religious fanaticism stop here; piety was not estimated by a godly walk and conversation, and an effort to reform the world by the mild teachings of our Saviour; but a spirit of bigotry and intolerance crept into the Church, until practical religion assumed the appearance of a scourge, rather than a blessing to mankind. Thousands, both male and female, secluded themselves in cloisters, and ‑thus hid themselves from the face of men, spending the remnant of their days in moping from cell to cell, with a woebegone and ghastly countenance, as if God had created and filled this world with the rich bounties of His munificent hand, to be appreciated and enjoyed by the beasts of the field and fowls of the air, while man was doomed to pass his pilgrimage on earth in a living grave I But this inordinate religious zeal effected much good in the cultivation of the arts and sciences. Kings and queens, princes and nobles, priests and laymen, vied with each other in cultivating a knowledge of geometry and architecture, in order that costly churches, gorgeously ornamented, might spring up all over the land. Masons were courted and caressed by the heads of the Church, and although down to the close of the Heptarchy nothing was known about the use of brick, architecture continued to advance, though confined to the clumsy Gothic order. The Anglo‑Saxons had always called the Britons Gualish or Walishmen, until after the days of King Arthur, when they denominated the settlement beyond the Severn, Walishland, or Wales. All the old French writers call this people Galles, from their ancestors, the Gauls. During the barbarous wars on the Island, for more than one hundred and sixty years, Operative Masonry was almost entirely neglected; but that Lodges continued to meet and practice their speculative, or moral rites, in Wales, we have reason to believe; indeed, Operative Masonry did not lay dormant long, for, before the days of Martel,we find in that country numerous churches and other public buildings, erected by the Brotherhood. When Egbert succeeded to the sovereignty of the Six Kingdoms, A.D. 830, the Angles were more numerous than any ither tribe, and hence he called the country England, and the


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people Englishmen. Masonry continued to flourish under his reign, as also under those of Ethelwolf and Edward, Sen., who was succeeded by Ethred, deputy King of Mercia, the husband of Edward's sister; she who became renowned as the great heroine of Mercia, because by her daring bravery she drove out the Danes. The next who had charge of the Craft was Ethelward, who founded the University of Cambridge, A.D. 918. The King died A.D. 924, and was succeeded by his son, Ethelstan, whose mother was a concubine. This King made his brother Edwin overseer of the Craft. Historians are divided in opinion as to whether Edwin was the brother or son of the King, and long, as well as contradictory, articles have been written to prove the one and the other, and to show that the Kingdid, and did not, murder his son or brother. Dr. Anderson makes the following extract from the old Masonic records, which, in our opinion, settles the question that Edward was brother to the King: "That though the ancient records of the Brotherhood, in England were most of them destroyed,or lost in the wars with the Danes, who burnt the monasteries where the records were kept, yet King Athelstan (the grandson of King Alfred), the first annointed King of England, who translated the Holy Bible *nto the Saxon language,when he had brought the land into rest and peace, built many great works, and encouraged many Masons from France and elsewhere, whom he appointed overseers thereof. They brought with them the charges and regulations of the foreign Lodges, and prevailed with the King to increase the wages. "That Prince Edwin, the King's brother, being taught geometry and Masonry, for the love he had to the said Craft, and to the honorable principles whereon it is grounded, purchased a free charter of King Athelstan, his brother, for the Freemasons, having among themselves a CORRECTION, or a power and freedom to regulate themselves, to amend what might happen amiss, and to hold a yearly communication in a General Assembly. "That, accordingly, Prince Edwin summoned all the Free and Accepted Masons in the realm to meet him in a congress


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155 at York, who came and formed the Grand Lodge under him as their Grand M/aster, A.D. 926. "That they brought with them many old writings and records of the Craft‑some in Greek, some in Latin, some in French, and other languages; and from the contents thereof they framed the CONSTITUTIONS of the English Lodges, and made a law for themselves,to preserve and observe the same in all time coming." Preston makes, in substance, the same extract, but prefaces them with the following rather singular remarks, viz.: " A record of the Society, written in the reign of Edward IV., said to have been in the possession of the famous Elias Ashmole, founder of the Museum at Oxford, and which was unfortunately destroyed, with other papers on the subject of Masonry, at the Revolution, gives the following account of the state of Masonry at that period." * We regard these extracts as furnishing conclusive proof that the opinion that Masonry was first introduced into England through Kilwinning Lodge,of Scotland, in the twelfth century, is without foundation; for the standing of Dr. Anderson, as an honorable and impartial historian, was too elevated to leave grounds to suppose he would give the foregoing, as extracts from the old records,if they were not to be found there; and, moreover, it will be remembered that his history was, by order of the Grand Lodge of England, submitted to the severe scrutiny of a learned Committee, before it was sanctioned by that Grand body; but, above all this, we have a tradition which not only clearly points to the Convocation at York, in 926, but sets forth the more important and unpublished reasons for the holding of said Convocation at that particular time. Indeed, the tradition referred to satisfactorily accounts for the addition of the word York to those of Ancient Free and Accepted Mason. The intelligent and accomplished Mason will readily understand to what we allude, and agree with us that, although a change was not made in the body of Masonry, an important change was made in a portion of our ritual, which * Preston's Illustrations, p. 141.


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change has ever been approved, and sacredly regarded by all good and true Lodges of Ancient Craft Masons. The addition of the word York has ever been used to show that the Masons approve of, and are governed by, the edicts of the said communication. If the change here alluded to had operated only in England, it might not now be regarded as a principle engrafted into our rules, but as it became a fixed law throughout the world in conferring the two first degrees, we hold that no Grand Lodge is at liberty to drop the word York from the body of her charters‑not that the name is essential to any principle or practice of our rites, but because it is commemorative of the event which made such action necessary, and points to a prominent evidence of the recuperative power of our time‑honored and heaven‑protected Institution, when assailed by traitors from within, or malevolence from without. Bro. Preston makes no allusion to the tradition of which we have been speaking; he thinks the term York has grown into use because the first Grand Lodge in England, of which we have an account, was established at York. He says: "From this era we date the reestablishment of Freemasonry in England. There is, at present, a Grand Lodge of Masons in the city of York, who trace their existence from this period. By virtue of Edwin's charter, it is said, all the Masons in the realm were convened ata General Assembly in that city, where they established a GENERAL or GRAND Lodge for their future government. Under the patronage and jurisdiction of this Grand Lodge, it is alleged, the Fraternity considerably increased, and kings, princes, and other eminent persons, who" had been initiated into Masonry, paid due allegiance to that Grand Assembly. But, as the events of the times were various and fluctuating, that Assembly was more or less respectable; and ia proportion as Masonry obtained encouragement, its influence was more or less extensive. The appellation of ANCIENT YO:‑. MASONS, is well known in Ireland and Scotland; and the universal tradition is, that the brethren of that appellation originated at Auldby, near York. This carries with it some marks of confirmation, for Auldby was the seat of Edwin. There is every reason to believe that York was deemed the


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157 original seat of Masonic government in that country; as no other place has pretended to claim it, and as the whole Fraternity have, at various times, universally acknowledged allegiance to the authority established there; but whether the Association in that city was always entitled to that allegiance, is a subject of inquiry which it is not in our province to investigate. To thatAssembly recourse must be had for information. Thus much, however, is certain, that if a General Assembly, or Grand Lodge,was held there (of which there is little doubt, if we can rely on our records and Constitutions, as it is said to have existed there in Queen Elizabeth's time), there is no evidence of its regular removal to any other place in the kingdom; and upon that ground, the brethren at York may probably have claimed the privilege of associating in that character. A number of respectable meetings of the Fraternity appear to have been convened, at sundry times, in different parts of England; but we can not find an instance on record, till a very late period, of a GENERAL meeting (so called) being held in any other place than York. To understand the matter more clearly, it may be necessary to advert to the original institution of that Assembly, called a GENERAL or GRAND LODGE. It was not then restricted, as it is now understood to be, to the Masters and Wardens of private Lodges, with the Grand Master and his Wardens at their head; it consisted of as many of the Fraternity AT LARGE as, being within a convenient distance, could attend once or twice in a year, under the auspices of one general head, elected and installed at one of these meetings, and who, for the time being, received homage as the sole Governor of the whole body. The idea of confining the privileges of Masonry, by a warrant of constitution, to certain individuals, convened on certain days, at certain places, had no existence. There was but one family among Masons, and every Mason was a branch of that family. It is true, the privileges of the different degrees of the Crder always centered in certain numbers of the Fraternity, who, according to their advancement in the Art, were authorized by the Ancient Charges to assemble in, hold, and rule Lodges, at their will and discretion, in such places as best suited their


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convenience, and, when so assembled, to receive pupils and deliver instructions in Masonry; but all the tribute from these individuals, separately and collectively, rested ultimately in the General Assembly, to which all the Fraternity might repair, and to whose award all were bound to pay submission. As the Constitutions of the English Lodges are derived from this GENERAL Assembly at York; as all Masons are bound to observe and preserve those in all time coming; and as there is no satisfactory proof that such anAssembly was ever regularl) removed by the resolution of its members, but that, on the contrary, the Fraternity continued to meet in that city under this appellation, it may remain a doubt, whether, while these Constitutions exist, as the standard of Masonic conduct, that Assembly might not justly claim the allegiance to which their original authority entitled them; and whether any other convention of Masons, however great their consequence might be, could consistently with those Constitutions withdraw their allegiance from that Assembly, or set aside an authority to which, not only antiquity, but the concurrent approbation of Masons for ages,and the most solemn engagements, have repeatedly given a sanction. It is to be regretted that the idea of superiority and a wish to acquire absolute dominion should occasion a contest among Masons. Were the principles of the Order better understood, and more generally practiced, the intention of the Institution would be more fully answered. Every Mason would consider his brother as his fellow, and he, who by generous and virtuous actions could best promote the happiness of society, would always be most likely to receive homage and respect. King Athelstan encouraged the Craft by paying them marked attention, and employed them in building many castles to keep in subjection the Danes. He also built the Abbey of St. John, in Yorkshire; Milton Abbey, in Dorsetshire; rebuilt the city of Exeter, and made some improvements at York. He died A.D. 940. From this period, during the reign of several kings, we read of nothing interesting, only so far as it relates to English history; indeed, there is nothing of much interest to Masons


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159 for about one hundred years. In the reign of Edward the Confessor, who came to the throne A.D. 1041, a collection and compilation of the Saxon laws was made by order of the King. He was a lover of the arts and sciences, gave countenance to men of learning, and encouraged the Earl of Coventry, who was remarkable for his wealth, as well as learning, to become the overseer of the Craft, and at their head he erected the Abbey of Coventry. The King rebuilt Westminster Abbey, and a number of other houses of worship. He died A.D. 1065. Harold IIe succeeded, and reigned less than a year, when he was slain in the battle of Hastings by William, Duke of Normandy, afterward, and to this day, known as William the Conqueror. This battle was fought A.D. 1066, about six hundred and seventeen years after the Anglo‑Saxons entered Britain, under Hengist. William the Conqueror, reigned twenty‑one years. He gave to Freemasons a powerful influence throughout the kingdom, for this proud Norman, having subdued the English, improved every opportunity to make his conquest secure, and hand down the government in safety to his Norman successors. He strengthened all his military posts; to effect which he placed the Earls of Rochester and Shrewsbury at the head of the Craft; who, in turn, appointed their deputies, or overseers, and all the Masons being organized into Lodges, they built the Tower of London, and the Castles of Hereford, Warwick, Winchester, Exeter, Durham, Dover, Stafford, York, Rochester, and New Castle; thus, in a single reign he accomplished more to render permanent the crown and perpetuate the monarchy than had been done by all previous kings. Nor was he unmindful of sacred architecture, for he built a splendid abbey near Hastings, and in honor of the great victory he won there, he called it Battle Abbey. He also built a number of other abbeys, and during his reign there were erected monasteries and other religious houses, amounting to about sixty in number. Both Operative and Speculative Masonry were much benefited by the introduction of many accomplished Masons from France. The King died A.D. 1087. William II., succeeded his father, and employed the Craft in rebuilding London Bridge and a wall around the Tower. He


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            160 HISTORY OF FREEMASONRYo called all the master builders together, who, after due consul tation, advised the King to build the Castle of Westminster connected with which was the largest room in the world. Westminster Hall, as this large room is called, is two hundred and seventy feet long and seventy‑four feet wide. The King died A.D. 1100. Henry I. succeeded, who granted to the Barons the first Magna Charta. During the reign of this King, more than one hundred churches were built. He died A.D. 1135, and was succeeded by Stephen, who was perpetually occupied in civil wars, urged on by himself and the Empress Maud. But, notwithstanding all the confusion and misrule consequent on civil commotions, in no reign of England's Kings were so many castles built. The nobles and gentry were equally courted by the King and the Princess, and, taking advantage of this state of things, they erected over eleven hundred castles. The Masons were constantly employed, as well as the soldiers. The Masons were under the government of Gilbert de Clare, as Grand Master. The King died A.D. 1154, and in him terminated the Norman line of Kings, after a reign, including William, the Conqueror, of eighty‑eight years. Here commenced the reign of the Plantagenets. Henry II., of Anjou, now ascended the throne. We find nothing in this reign of interest to Masons, except that the Knights Templar built their temple in Fleet Street, London. We do not remember that we have any account of the existence of this Society in England prior to this period. It is proper to observe, that Masonry continued to flourish; they built a number of castles, and about one hundred churches in this reign. The King died A.D. 1189. Richard I., reigned ten years, and died A.D. 1199. King John now ascended the throne. His chaplain, Peter, was chosen Grand Master, and under his superintendence London Bridge was rebuilt with stone, or rather it was commenced by Peter and finished while William Almain was Grand Master, A.D. 1209. After Almain, Peter de Rupibus was chosen Grand Master, and Fitz Peter was principal overseer of work, or, as modern writers would style him, Dcputy


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            lISTORY OF FREEiMSONRY. 161 Grand Master. The King died A.D. 1216, and was succeeded by Henrv III., a minor of nine years old, when Peter de Rupibus was chosen his guardian, who laid the corner‑stone of Soiomnivi's Porch, in Westminster Abbey, A.D. 1218. The King died A.D. 1272. During this reign the famous College at Oxford was built, and the Templars erected their temple at Dover, which waa called Domus Dei. Edward I. now reigned, and soon became involved in wars, but the interests,of the Craft were not neglected, for the excellent Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, was chosen Grand Master, and Ralph, of Mount Hermer, principal overseer. The King's son, Edward, who was the first Prince of Walesthe Welsh having submitted to his father‑was born A.D. 1284. The cape‑stone of Westminster Abbey was celebrated by a great concourse of Masons, with great pomp, A.D. 128o. The King died in camp at Solway, after a short illness, on July 7, A.D. 1307, and was succeeded by Edward II., under whose reign Walter Stapleton was chosen Grand Master, and wisely governed the Craft. The King died A.D. 1327. Edward III. was the next King, who not only encouraged the cultivation cf the arts and sciences, but used every fit occasion to do honor to Masonry. He it was who erected, at Windsor, a table, in a circular form, six hundred feet in circumference, for the purpose alone of feasting the Craft. This Prince, by general consent, assumed the government of tle Fraternity as Grand Master, and appointed the most skillful and accomplished workmen overseers, among whom was John de Spoulee, who was styled Master of the Giblim,* and who rebuilt St. George's Chapel, in which place the King instituted the Order of the Gater, A.D. 1350. William Wickham was overseer of four hundred Masons, and Robert Barnham of two hundred and fifty.,About this time Henry Yeuele, who is spoken of as the King's Freemason, superintended the building of the London Charter House, Queensborough Castle, and rebuilt St. Stephen's Chapel, afterward the House of Commons in Parliament. But this * Master of the Etone squaera l1


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            1]6..2 HISTORY OF FREEM kSONRY. reign is most interesting to Masons on account of some additional regulations for the government of the Craft, adopted by a Convention of Masons and approved by the King.* It may he observed in this as well as all other instances, where any amendments have been made to the ancient rules, great care was taken to make no change in the Landmarks of the Order;'but the custom,in all ages,leaves no doubt on our mind that Masons are, at all times,at liberty so to modify and ciange the rules, having reference to the moral government of the members, as to adapt them to the political and religious condition of a God‑fearing people; and hence it is that Masonry, more than any moral Association of men, may be admirably suited to all * An old record of the Society runs thus: "In the glorious reign of King Edward III., when Lodges were more frequent, the Right Worshipful the Master and Fellows, with consent of the lords of the realm (for most great men were then Masons), ordained, "That,for the future, at the making or admission of a brother. the Constitution and the Ancient Charges should be read by the Master or Warden. "That such as were to be admitted Master Masons, or Master of work, should be examined whether they be able of cunning to serve their respective lords; as well the lowest as the highest, to the honor and worship of the aforesaid Art, and to the profit of the lords; for they be their lords that employ and pay them for their service and travel." The following particulars are also contained in a very old MS., of which a copy is said to have been in the possession of the late George Payne, Esq., Grand Master in 1728: " That when the Master and Wardens meet in a Lodge, if need be, the sheriff of the county, or the mayor of the city, or alderman of the town, in which the eongregation is held, should be made Fellow and Sociate to the Master, in help of him against rebels, and for the upbearing the rights of the realm. ".That Entered Prentices, at their making, were charged not to be thieves or thieves' maintainers; that they should travel honestly for their pay, and love their fellows as themselves, and be true to the King of England, and to the realm, and to the Lodge. "That at such congregaeions, it shall be inquired, whether any Master or Fellow bas broke any of the articles agreed to; and if the offender, being duly cited to appear, prove rebel, and will not attend, then the Lodge shall determine against him, that he shall forswear (or renounce) his Masonry, and shall no more use this Craft; the which, if he presume for to do, the sheriff of the county shall prison him, and take all his goods into the King's hand till his grace be granted himn and issued. For this cause principally have these congregations been ordained, that as well the lowest as the highest should be well and truly served In ihis Art aforesaid, throughout all the Kingdom of England, Amen, so mote t be."


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163 religions where a belief in one God is held. But we can not too forcibly impress upon the minds of our readers the fallacy of that theory which represents Masonry as being practiced in every land and by every people. If it is the same everywhere ‑and it must be so‑how can that people, who deny the supremacy of God, or sub‑divide His attributes among a variety of finite beings and even inanimate things, practice Masonry, when the most imperative and unalterable rule demands, as a prerequisite to admission, an unconditional and unwavering belief in one God? If a Lodge exists in any part of the world where its members are Atheists, or hold to the existence of a plurality of gods, it has been introduced there by some Godforsaken wretch, and can never be recognized as one in our midst. To us, it seems passing strange that the Quixotic notion that Freemasonry is everywhere to be found is tolerated by those who assume to have studied its principles and undertake to teach its doctrines to the Craft and to the world. It is not remarkable that men, stimulated by a love of gold, should collect together a bundle of novelties, and prate about the timeless antiquity and unlimited existence of Masonry, if, when they have published the jumble, it is to be lauded and praised, quoted from and republished by teachers of Masonic principles and Masonic law. Men who are governed by no higher views than to "put money in their purse," will print and publish that which will sell best. Whatever may be the course of others, ours shall be the task of lending whatever of moral aid we can command, to throw over among the rubbish every stone that is not fit for the builder's use, and do honor to those whose work will pass inspection.


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            CHAPTER XII. KING Edward's son Edward, commonly styled the Black Prince, died A.D. 1376, the King died the next year, and was succeeded by Richard II. Under his reign, the Bishop of Winchester was chosen Grand Master, who rebuilt Westminster Hall, and, at his own expense, built New College, at Oxford. He also founded Winchester College. While the King was on a visit to Ireland, his cousin Henry, Duke of Lancaster, who was intriguing for the crown, raised a large army, met and seized the King, and overawed the Parliament to depose him, and was thus enabled to mount the throne as Henry IV., A.D. 1399. Fitz Allen, Earl of Surrey, was now Grand Master, who founded Guild Hall, and superintended the building of several other public edifices. The King died A.D. 1413, and was succeeded by his son, Henry V., whose reign presents nothing of much interest to Masons. He died A.D. 1422, and was succeeded by Henry VI., a minor nine months old. In the third year of this reign, a Parliament, composed of men admirably portraying the gross ignorance and superstition of the age, attempted to put down Masonry by the passage of the following act: "3 Hen. VI. cap. 1. A.D. 1425. " MASONS shall not confederate in chapters and congregations. " v'hereas, by the yearly congregations and confederacies made by the Masons in their General Assemblies, the good course and effect of the statutes of laborers be openly violated and broken, in subversion of the law, and to the great damage of all the commons; our sovereign lord, the King, willing, in this case, to provide a remedy, by the advice and consent aforesaid, and at the special request of the commons, hath ordained and


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165 established that such chapters and congregations shall not be hereafter holden; and if any such be made, they that cause such chapters and congregations to be assembled and holden, if they thereof be convicted, shall be judged for felons: and that the other Masons, that come to such chapters or congregations, be punished by imprisonment of their bodies, and make fine and ransome at the King's will." But the Masons so far disregarded it as to laugh at the founders and officers of the unjust law, and this stupid act of Parliament was never enforced. At this period, Archbishop Chicheley was at the head of the Craft, as Grand Master, by whose authority new Lodges were formed at various places, great harmony prevailed in them, and, if we make proper allowance for the depressed condition of learning, we must believe that the principles of Masonry were practiced as generally after the passage of the prohibitory act, as before. But as the Masons of the present day may feel interested in knowing the causes which led to this action on the part of Parliament, we give the most accurate detail we have anywhere met with, in the language of Mr. Preston: The Duke of Bedford, at that time regent of the kingdom, being in France, the regal power was vested in his brother Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester,* who was styled Protector and Guardian of the Kingdom. The care of the young King's person and education was entrusted to Henry Beaufert, Bishop of Winchester, the Duke's uncle. The Bishop was a prelate of great capacity and experience, but of an intriguing and dangerous character. As he aspired to the sole government of affairs, he had continual disputes with his nephew,the Protector, and gained frequent advantages over the vehement and impolitic temper of that Prince. Invested with power, he soon began to * This Prince is said to have received a more learned education than was usual in his age: to have founded one of the first public libraries in England. and to have been a great patron of learned men. If the records of the Society may be relied on, we have reason to believe, that he was particularly attached to the Masons, having been admitted into their Order, and assisted at the initiation of King Henry,in 1442.


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show his pride and haughtiness, and wanted not followers and agents to augment his influence."* The animosity between the uncle and nephew daily increased, and the authority of Parliament was obliged to interpose. On the last day of April, 1425, the Parliament met at Westminster. The servants and followers of the peers coming thither armed with clubs and staves, occasioned its being named the BATT PARLIAMENT. Several laws were made; and, among the rest, the act for abolishing the Society of Masons.t The Masonic * In a Parliament held at Westminster on November 17, 1443, to answer a particular end, it was ordained, "That if any person committed for grand or petty treason, should wilfully break out of prison, and, escape from the same, it should be deemed petty treason, and his goods be forfeited." About this time one William King, of Womolion, in Yorkshire, servant of Sir Robert Scott, Lieutenant of the Tower, pretended that he had been offered by Sir John Mortimer (cousin to the lately deceased Edward Mortimer, Earl of March, the nearest in blood to the English crown, and then a prisoner in the Tower), ten pounds to buy him clothes, with forty pounds a year, and to be made an Earl, if he would assist Mortimer in making his escape; that Mortimer said he would raise forty thousand men on his enlargement, and would strike off the heads of the rich Bishop of Winchester, the Duke of Gloucester, and others. This fellow undertook to prove upon oath the truth of his assertion. A short time after, a scheme was formed to cut off Mortimer, and an opportunity soon offered to carry it into execution. Mortimer, being permitted one day to walk to the Tower wharf, was suddenly pursued, seized, brought back, accused of breaking out of prison and of attempting his escape. He was tried, and the evidence of King being admitted, was convicted, agreeably to the late statute, and afterward beheaded. The death of Mortimer occasioned great murmuring and discontent among the people, and threatened a speedy subversion of those in power. Many hints were thrown outboth in public and private assemblies, of the fatal consequences which were expected to succeed this commotion. The amazing progress it made, justly alarmed the suspicions of the ambitious prelate, who spared no pains to exert his power on the occasion. t Dr. Anderson, in the first edition of the Book of Gbnstitutions, in a note makes the following observation on this act: This act was made in ignorant times, when true learning was a crime and geometry condemned for eonjuration; but it can not derogate from the honor of the ancient Fraternity, who, to be sure, would never encourage any such confederacy of their working brethren. By tradition it is believed that the Parliament were then too much influenced by the illiterate clergy, who were not Accepted Masons, nor understood architecture (as the clergy of some former ages), and were generally thought unworthy of this Brotherhood. Thinking


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167 meetings being secret, attracted the attention of the aspiring prelate, who determined to suppress them.* thev had an indefeasible right to know all secrets, by virtue of auricular con‑'ession, and the Masons never confessing any thing thereof, the said clergy were highly offended, and at first suspecting them of wickedness, represented them as dangerous to the State during that minority, and soon influenced the Parliament to lay hold of such supposed arguments of the working Masons, for making an act that might seem to reflect dishonor upon even the whole Fraternity, in whose favor several acts had been before and after that period made." * The Bishop was diverted from his persecution of the Masons by an affair in which he was more nearly concerned. On the morning of St. Simon and St. Jude's Day, after the Lord Mayor of London had returned to the city from Westminster, where he had been taking the usual charges of his high office, he received a special message, while seated at dinner, from the Duke of Gloucester, requiring his immediate attendance. He immediately repaired to the palace, and being introduced into the presence, the Duke commanded his Lordship to see that the city was properly watched the following night, as he expected his uncle would endeavor to make himself master of it by force, unless some effectual means were adopted to stop his progress. This command was strictly obeyed and at nine o'clock the next morning the Bishop of Winchester, with his servants and followers, attempting to enter the city by the bridge, were prevented by the vigilance of the citizens, who repelled them by force. This unexpected repulse enraged the haughty prelate, who immediately collected a numerous body of archers and other men at‑arms, and commanded them to assault the gate with shot. The citizens immediately shut up their shops and crowded to the bridge in great numbers, when a general massacre would certainly have ensued, had it not been for the timely interposition and prudent administration of the Mayor and Aldermen, who happily stopped all violent measures, and prevented a great effusion of blood. The Archbishop of Canterbury and Peter, Duke of Coimbra, eldest son of the King of Portugal, with several others, endeavored to appease the fury of the two contending parties, and, if possible, to bring about a reconciliation between them, but to no purpose, as neither party would yield. They rode eight or ten times backward and forward, using every scheme they could devise to prevent further extremities; at last they succeeded in their mediation, and brought the parties to a conformity; when it was agreed that all hostile proceedings should drop on both sides, and the matter be referred to the award of the Duke of Bedford; on which peace was restored, and the city remained in quiet. The Bishop lost no time in transmitting his case to the Duke of Bedford; and in order to gloss it over with the best colors, wrote the following letter: "Right high and mighty Prince, and my right noble, and after one leinest [earthly] lord; I recommend me unto your grace with all my heart. And as you desire the welfare of the King, our sovereign lord, and of his realms of England and France, your own weal [health] with all yours, haste you hither. For, by my troth, if you tarry long,we shall put this land in jeopardy [adventure


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            163 BISTORY OF FREEMASONRY. The sovereign authority being vested in the Duke of Gloucester, as protector of the realm, the execution of the laws, and all that related to the civil magistrate, centered in him; a with a field, such a brother as you have here; God make him a good man. For your wisdom well knoweth that the profit of France standeth in the welfare of England, etc. The blessed Trinity keep you. Written in great haste at London, on All‑hallowen‑even, the 31st of October, 1425. "By your servant, to my lives ends, "HENRY, WINCHESTER." This letter had the desired effect, and hastened the return of the Duke of Bedford to London, where he arrived on January 10, 1425‑6. On February 21, he held a great council at St. Albans; adjourned it to March 15 at Northampton, and to June 25 at Leicester. Bats and staves being now prohibited, the followers of the members of Parliament attended with stones in a sling and plummets of lead. The Duke of Bedford employed the authority of Parliament to reconcile the differences which had broken out between his brother and the Bishop of Winchester; and obligated these rivals to promise before that assembly that they would bury all quarrels in oblivion. Thus the long wished for peace between these two great personages was. to all appearances, accomplished. During the discussion of this matter before Parliament, the Duke of Gloucester exhibited the following charges, among five others, against the Bishop of Winchester: "That he had, in his letter to the Duke of Bedford, at France, plainly declared his malicious purpose of assembling the people, and stirring up a rebellion in the nation, contrary to the King's peace." The Bishop's answer to this accusation was: " That he had never had any intention to disturb the peace of the nation, or raise a rebellion; but that he sent to the Duke of Bedford to solicit his speedy return to England, to settle all those differences which were so prejudicial to the peace of the kingdom; that though he had indeed written in the letter THAT IF HE TARRIED WE SHOULD PUT THE LAND IN ADVENTURE BY A FIELD, SUCH A BROTHER YOU HAVE HERE, he did not mean it of any design of his own, but concerning the seditious assemblies of masons, carpenters, tylers, and plasterers; who. being distasted by the late act of Parliament against the excessive wages of those trades, had given out many seditious speeches and menaces against certain great men, which tended much to rebellion; * that the Duke of Gloucester did not use his endeavor, as he ought to have done in his place, to suppress such unlawful assemblies; so that he feared the King and his good subjects must have made a field to withstand them; to prevent which he chiefly desired the Duke of‑Bedford to come over." As the Masons are unjustly suspected of having given rise to the above civil commotions. I thought it necessary to insert the foregoing particulars, in order to clear them from this false charge. Most of the circumstances here mentioned are extracted from Wolfe's Chronicle, published by Stowe. *The above particulars are extracted from one of Elias Ashmole's MSS. on the subject of Fra _",u


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1I9 fortunate circumstance for the Masons at this critical time. The Duke, knowing them to be innocent of the accusations which the Bishop of Winchester had laid against them, took them under his protection, and transferred the charge of rebellion, sedition, and treason from them to the Bishop and his followers; who, he asserted, were the first violators of the public peace, and the most rigorous promoters of civil discord. The Bishop, sensible that his conduct could not be justified by the laws of the land, prevailed on the King, through the intercession of the Parliament, whose favor his riches had obtained, to grant letters of pardon for all offenses committed by him, contrary to the statute of provisors, and other acts of praemunire; and five years afterward, procured another pardon, under the great seal, for all crimes whatever, from the creation of the world to the 26th of July, 1437. Notwithstanding these precautions of theCardinal, theDuke of Gloucester drew up, in 1442, fresh articles of impeachment against him, and presented them in person to the King; earnestly entreating that judgment might be passed upon him according to his crimes. The King referred the matter to his council, which was at that time composed principally of ecclesiastics, who extended their favor to the Cardinal, and made such a slow progress in the business, that the Duke, wearied out with their tedious delays and fraudulent evasions, dropped the prosecution, and theCardinal escaped. Nothing could now remove the inveteracy of the Cardinal against theDuke; he resolved to destroy the man whose popularity might become dangerous, and whose resentment he had reason to dread. The Duke having always proved a strenuous friend to the public, and, by the authority of his birth and station, having hitherto prevented absolute power from being vested in the King's person, Winchester was enabled to gain many partisans, who were easily brought to concur in the ruin of the prince.* * The Bishop planned the following scheme at this time to irritate the Duke of Gloucester:‑HisDuchess, the daughter of Reginald Lord Cobham. had been ac. cused of the crime of witchcraft, and it was pretended that a waxen figure of the


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To accomplish this purpose, the Bishop and his party concert. ed a plan to murder the Duke. A Parliament was summoned to meet at St. Edmondsbury, in 1447, where they expected he would lie entirely at their mercy. Having appeared on the second day of the sessions, he was accused of treason, and thrown into prison, where he was found, the next day, cruelly murdered. It was pretended that his death was natural; but though his body, which was exposed to public view, bore no marks of outward injury, there was little doubt of his having fallen a sacrifice to the vengeance of his enemies. After this dreadful catastrophe, five of his servants were tried for aiding him in his treasons, and condemned to be hanged, drawn, and quartered. They were hanged accordingly, cut down alive, stripped naked, and marked with a knife to be quartered; when the Marquis of Suffolk, through a mean and pitiful affectation of popularity, produced their pardon, and saved their lives; the most barbarous kind of mercy that can possibly be imagined! The Duke of Gloucester's death was universally lamented throughout the kingdom. He had long obtained, and deserved the surname of GooD. He was a lover of his country, the friend of good men, the protector of Masons, the patron of the learned, and the encourager of every useful art. His inveterate persecutor, the hypocritical Bishop, stung with remorse, scarcely survived him two months; when, after a long life spent in falsehood and politics, he sunk into oblivion, and ended his days in misery. * King was found in her possession; which she, and her associates, Sir Roger Bolingbroke, a priest, and one Margery Jordan, of Eye, melted in a magical manner before a slow fire, with an intention of making Henry's force and vigor waste away by like insensible degrees. The accusation was well calculated to affect the weak and credulous mind of the King, and gain belief in an ignorant age. The Duchess was brought to trial, with her confederates, and the prisoners ‑ were pronounced guilty; the Duchess was condemned to do public penance in London for three days, and to suffer perpetual imprisonment; the others were executed. The Protector, provoked at such repeated insults offered to his uchess, made a noble and stout resistance to these most abominable and shameful proceedings, but it unfortunately ended in his own destruction. The wickedness of the Cardinal's life, and his mean, base, and unmanly


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1Il After the death of the Cardinal, the Masons continued to hold their Lodges without danger of interruption. Henry established various seats of erudition, which he enriched with ample endowments, and distinguished by peculiar immunities; thus inviting his subjects to rise above ignorance and barbarism, and reform their turbulent and licentious manners. In 1442, he was initiated into Masonry, and, from that time, spared no pains to obtain a complete knowledge of the art. He perused the Ancient Charges, revised the constitutions, and with the consent of his council, honored them with his sanction. The ancient records show that, during this King's minority, a Lodge was in successful operation at Canterbury, and the name of Thomas Stapylton is recorded as Master, John Morris Custos as Warden; also, fifteen Fellow Crafts, and three Entered Apprentices are named in the same record. It may also be seen in a record,made in the reign of Edward IV., the following language is used:‑" The company of Masons, being. otherwise known or termed Freemasons, of auntient staunding and good reckoning, by Means of affable and kind Meetings dyverse tymes, and as a loving brotherhood use to do, did frequent this mutual Assembly in the tyme of Henry VI., in the Twelfth yeare of his most gracious reign, viz., A.D. 1434, when Henry was aged thirteen years." The same record says further:‑"That the charges and laws of the Freemasons have been seen and perused by our late sovereign king, Henry VI., and by the lords of his most honorable council, who have death, will ever be a bar against any vindication of his memory, for the good which he did while alive, or which the money he had amassed could do after his death. When in his last moments, he was heard to utter these mean expressions: " Why should I die, who am possessed of so much wealth? If the whole kingdom could save my life, I am able, by my policy, to preserve it. or, by my money to purchase it. Will not death be bribed, and money do every thing? The inimitable Shakespeare, after giving a most horrible picture of despair, and a tortured conscience, in the person of the cardinal, introduces King Henry to him with these sharp and piercing words: Lord Cardinal, if thou think'st on heaven's bliss, Lift up thy hand make signal of that hope." ù He dies, and makes no sign.‑HEN. VI., Acr 3. "The memory of the wicked shall rot, but the unjustly persecuted shall be had In everlasting remembrance."


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allowed them, and declared that they be right good and reasonable to be holden, as they have been drawn out and collected from the records of auntient tymes," etc., etc. From this it appears that, before the troubles which happened in the reign of this unfortunate prince, Freemasons were held in high estimation. The Grand Master, Chicheley, died 1443, after having governed the Craft with great skill, and superintended the building of All Souls, Bernard, and other colleges and public buildings. Indeed, the reign of Henry VI. is remarkable for the number of colleges founded and built. After the death of Chicheley, Wanefleet was chosen Grand Master, who superintended the building of Eton College, Cambridge, and Queen's College, and a number of churches at various places. This Grand Master erected, at his own cost, Magdalen College, at Oxford. But Masonry, as also the arts and sciences, were destined to be greatly interrupted in this reign, which for a time promised so much for the cause of learning. The King had done all that a wise and prudent Prince could do to raise his subjects from the low and degraded condition in which he found them, to an' elevated station among the nations of the earth; but the bloody civil wars, the inhuman butcheries of seventeen years, between the white and red roses, or the royal houses of York and Lancaster, struck a death blow to learning, and Masonry languished. m1


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            CHAPTER XIII. RICHARD, Duke of York, son of Richard, Earl of Cambridge, and Ann Mortimer, claimed the crown in right of his mother. The house of Lancaster were the descendants of John a Gaunt, and adopted the red rose as an insignia by which its followers were krown. The house of York, for similar reasons adopted the white rose. The civil wars which arose and were carried on by these two houses, were not induced by a desire of either party to establish any new principle in government, nor in any way to benefit the masses, but simply to determine which of the families should have the honor of furnishing England with her kings; and after deluging the country with blood, the red rose was defeated. Nor were the dominant party satisfied with victory and a ruling prince of their party, but Henry VI. was murdered, and the males of every branch of his family were cut off by assassination. As it seems to be pretty well authenticated that Henry VI. was a Mason, and did much to advance the interests of the craft, we feel it to be our duty to give the celebrated paper, said to have been found in the Bodleian Library, in the handwriting of Henry. We give the paper in the same language it was said to have been originally written in, together with the letter and comments of the learned John Locke:.J Letter from the learned Mr. John Locke, to the Right Honorable, Thomas, Earl of Pembroke, with an old JManuscript on the subject of Freemasonry: MAY 6th, 1696. MY LORD:‑I have at length, by the help of Mr. Collins, procured a copy of that MS. in the Bodleian library, which you were so curious to see; and in obedience to your Lordship's commands, I herewith send it to you. Most of the notes annexed


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to it are what I made yesterday for the reading of my Lady Masham, who is become so fond of Masonry, as to say, that she now more than ever wishes herself a man, that she might be capable of admission into the Fraternity. The MS.,of which this is a copy, appears to be about one hundred and sixty years old; yet (as your Lordship will observe by the title), it is itself a copy of one yet more ancient by about one hundred years; for the original is said to be the handwriting of King Henry VI. Where that Prince had it, is at present an uncertainty, but it seems to me to be an examination (taken perhaps before theKing) of some one of the brotherhood of Masons; among whom he entered himself, as it is said, when he came out of his minority, and thenceforth put a stop to a persecution that had been raised against them. But I must not detain your Lordship longer by my preface, from the thing itself. I know not what effect the sight of this old paper may have upon your Lordship; but, for my own part, I can not deny that it has so much raised my curiosity, as to induce meto enter myself into theFraternity, which I am determined to do (if I may be admitted) the next time I go to London, and that will be shortly. I am, My Lord, your Lordship's most ob't and most humble servant, JOHN LOCKE. Certayne Questyons, with.insweres to the same, concerning the Mystery of MACONRYE; writtene by the hand of kynge IHENRYE, the sixthe of the name, and faithfully copyed by me * JOHNA LEYLANDE, dntiquarius, by the commande of his Highnesse.t They be as followethe, Q.‑What mote ytt be?: * JOHN LEYLANDE was appointed by Henry VIII., at the dissolution of Monasteries, to search for and save such books and records as were valuable among them. He was a man of great labor and industry. t His Highness, meaning the said King Henry VIII. Our kings had not then the title of Majesty. t What mote ytt be? That is, What may this mystery of Masonry be? The answer imports that it consists in natural, mathematical, and mechanical knowledge. Some part of which (as it appears by what follows), the Masons pretend to have taught the rest of mankind, and some part they still conceal.


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175 A.‑Ytt beeth the skylle of nature, the understondynge of the nuyghte that ys hereynne, and its sondrye werkynges; sonderlyche, the skylle of reckenyngs, of waights and metygnes, and the true manere of faconnynge al thyngs for mannes use; head lye, dwellings, and buyldyngs of alle kindes, and all odher thynges that make gudde to manne. Q.‑Where dyd it begynne i A.‑Ytt dydd begynne with the * fyrste manne yn the este, whych were before the * fiyrste manne of the weste, and comyinge westlye, ytt hath broughte herwyth alle comfortes to the wylde and comfortlesse. Q.‑Who dyd brynge ytt westlye? A.‑The * Venetians, whoo beynge grate merchaundes, comed ffyrste ffromme the este ynn Venetia, for the commodyte of marchaundysynge beithe este and weste bey the redde and myddlonde sees. Q.‑How comede ytt yn Engelonde? A.‑Peter Gower,t a Grecian, journeyedde ffor kunnynge yn * Fyrste menne yn the este, etc. It should seem by this, that Masons believe there were men in the East before Adam, who is called the' fiyrste manne of the weste;' and that arts and sciences began in the East. Some authors of great note for learning, have been of the same opinion; and it is certain that Europe and Africa (which, in respect to Asia, may be called western countries), were wild and savage, long after arts and politeness of manners were in great perfection in China and the Indies. * The Venetians, etc. In the times of monkish ignorance, it is no wonder that the Phenicians should be mistaken for the Venetians. Or, perhaps, if the people were not taken one for the other, similitude of sound might deceive the clerk who first took down the examination. The Phenicians were the greatest voyagers among the ancients, and were in Europe thought to be the inventors of letters, which, perhaps, they brought from theEast with other arts. t Peter Gower. This must be another mistake of the writer. I was puzzled at first to guess who Peter Gower should be, the name being perfectly English; or how a Greek should come by such a name; but as soon as I thought of Pythagoras, I could scarce forbear smiling, to find that philosopher had undergone a metempsychosis he never dreamed of. We need only consider the French pronunciation of his name, Pythagore, that is, Petagore, to conceive how easily such a mistake may be made by an unlearned clerk. That Pythagoras traveled for knowledge into Egypt, etc., is known to all the learned; and that he was initiated into several different orders of priests, who, in those days, kept all their learning secret from the vulgar, is as well known. Pythagoras also made


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            1?68 HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.


Egypte, and in Syria, and yn everyche londe whereas the Venetians hadde plaunted maconrye, and wynnynge entraunce yn al Lodges of Maconnes, he lerned muche, and retournedde, and woned yn Grecia Magna,* wacksynge, and becommynge a myghtye wyseacre, t and gratelyche renowned, and her he framed a grate Lodge at Groton, T and maked manye Maconnes, some whereoffe dyde journeye yn Fraunce, and maked manye Maconnes. wherefromme, yn processe of tyme, the arte passed yn Engelonde. Q.‑Dothe Maconnes descouer her artes unto odhers? A.‑Peter Gower, whenne he journeyede to lerne, was fiyrste ~ made, and annone techedde; evenne soe shude all odhers beyn recht. Natheless Maconnes 1 hauethe alweys yn everyche tyme, from tyme to tyme, communycatedde to mannkynde soche of her secrettes as generallyche myghte be usefulle; they haueth keped backe soche allein as shulde be liarmfalle yff they every geometrical theorem a secret, and admitted only such to the knowledge of them as had first undergone a five years' silence. He is supposed to be the discoverer of the forty‑seventh proposition of the First Book of Euclid; for which, in the joy of his heart, it is said he sacrificed a hecatomb. He also knew the true system of the world, lately revived by Copernicus; and was certainly a most wonderful man. See his life by DION. HAL. * GRECIA MAGNA. A part of Italy formerly so called, in which the Greeks had settled a large colony. t " Wyseacre." This word at present signifies simpleton, but formerly had a quite contrary meaning. Wiseacre in the old Saxon is philosopher, wiseman, or wizard; and having been frequently used ironically, at length came to have a direct meaning in the ironical sense. Thus Duns Scotus, a man famed for the subtlety and acuteness of his understanding, has, by the same method of irony, given a general name to modern dunces. t " Groton." Grotou ig the name of a place in England. The place here meant is Crotona, a city of Grecia Magna, which, in the time of Pythagoras, was very populous. ~ " Fyrste made." The word MADE I suppose, has a peculiar meaning among the Masons. Perhaps it signifies initiated. 11 "Maconnes haueth communicatedde," etc. This paragraph has something emarkable in it. It contains a justification of the secrecy so much boasted of by Masons and so much blamed by others; asserting that they have, in all ages, discovered such things as might be useful, and that they conceal such only as would be hurtful either to the world or themselves. What these secrets are we see afterward.


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177 comend yn euylle haundes, oder soche as ne myghte be holpynge wytllouten the techynges to bejoynedde herwythe in the Lodge, oder soche as do bynde the freres more stronglyche togeder ey. tlhe proffytte and commodytye comynge to the confrerie her fromnle. Q. ùWhatte artes haueth the Maconnes techedde mankynde? A.‑The artes, * agicultura, architectura, astronomia, geomteria, numeres, musica, poesie, kymistrye, governmente, and relygonne. Q. ùIowe commethe Maconnes more teachers than odet menne? A.‑The hemselfe haueth allein in t arte of ffyndynge neue artes, whyche arte the ffyrste Maconnes receaued from Godde; by the whyche they fyndethe what artes hem plesethe, and the treu way of techynge the same. Whatt odher menne doethe ffynde out, ys onelyche bey chaunce, and herfore but lytel I tro. Q.‑What dothe the maconnes concele and hyde? A.‑Thay concelethe the arte of ffyndynge neue artes, and thatt ys for here own proffytte, and preise: $ Thay concelethe the arte of kepynge ~ secrettes, that soe the worlde mayeth *' The artes, agricultural etc. It seems a bold pretense, this of the Masons,.that they have taught mankind all these arts. They have their own authority for it; and I know not how we shall disprove them. But what appears most odd is that they reckon religion among the arts. t " Arte of ffyndynge neue artes." The art of inventing arts must certainly be a most useful art. My Lord Bacon's Novum Organum is an attempt toward somewhat of the same kind. But I much doubt that, if ever the Masons had it, they have now lost it; since so few new arts have been lately invented and so many are wanted. The idea I have of such an art is, that it must be something proper to be employed in all the sciences generally, as algebra is in numbers, by the help of which new rules of arithmetic are and may be found. " Preise." It seems the Masons have great regard to the reputation, as well as the profit of their Order; since they make it one reason for not divulging an art in common, that it may do honor to the possessors of it. I think, in this particular, they show too much regard for their ownSociety, and too little for the rest o" mankind. ~ " Arte of kepynge secrettes." What kind of an art this is, I can by no means imagine. But certainly such an art the Masons must have; for though, a some people suppose, they should have no secret at all, even that must be a secret which being discovered would expose them to the highest ridicule; and, therefore, it requires the utmost caution to conceal it, 12


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nothinge concele from them. Thay conceletl e the arte of wunr derwerckynge, and of foresayinge thynges to come, that so thlv samne artes may not be usedde of the wyckedde to an euvcll ende. Thay also concelethe the arts * of chaunges, the wey of wynnynge the fa.ultye t of Abrac, the skylle of bccommyUng gude and parfyghte wythouten the holpynges of fere and hope; ind the universclle t longage of maconnes. Q.‑Wylle he teche me thay same artes? A.‑Ye shalle be techedde yff ye be werthye, and able to lerne. Q.‑Dothe all maconnes kunne more then odher menne? A. ùNot so. Thay onlyche haueth recht and occasyonne more then odher menne to kunne, but manye doeth fale yn capacity, and manye more doth want industrye, that ys pernecessarye for the gaynynge all kuinynge. Q. ùAre maconnes gudder men than odllrs? A.‑Some maconnes are not so virtuous as some odher mcnne; but, yn the moste parte, thay be more gude then thay woulde be yf thay war not maconnes. Q.‑Doth maconnes love eidher odher myghtylye as beeth sayde A.‑Yea, verylyche, and yt may not odherwise be: for gude * " Arte of chaunges." I know not what this means, unles it be the trasniutation of metals. t "Facultye of Abrac." Here I am utterly in the dark. t " Universelle longage of maconnes." An universal language has been much desired by the learned of many ages. It is a‑thing rather to be wished than hoped for. Butit seems the Masons pretend to have such a thing among them. If it be true, I guess it must be something like the language of the Pantomimes among the ancient Romans, who are said to be able, by signs only, to express and deliver any (ration intelligibly to men of all nations and languages. A man who has all these arts and advantages, is certainly in a condition to be envied. But we are told that this is not the case with all Masons; for though these arts are among them, and ail have a right and an opportunity to know them yet some want oapacity, and others industry, to acquire them. However, of all their arts and secrets, that which I most desire to know, is " The skylle of becommynge gude and palrfyhte, " and I wish it were communicated to all mankind. since there is nothing more true than the beautiful sentence contained in the last answer, " That the better men are, the more they love one another." Virtue having in txelf something so aniable as to charm the hearts of all that behold it.


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179 menne and treu, kennynge eidher odher to be soche, doeth always love the more as thay be more gude. [Here endethe the questyonnes and awnsweres.] A GLOSSARY OF ANTIQUATED WORDS IN THE FOREGOING MANUSCRIPT. AUtein, only. Middlelonde, Mediterranean. Alweys, always. Myghte, power. Beithe, both. Occassyonne, opportunity. Cowimodytye, conveniency. Odher, other..Confrerie, fraternity. Onelyche, only. Faconnyinge, forming. Pernecessarye, necessary, absolutely Foresayeinge, prophesying. Preise, honor. Feres; brethren. Recht, right. Ileadlye, chiefly. Reckenyngs. numbers. Hernpleseth, they please. Sonderlyche, particularly. HIwsetfe, themselves. Skylle, knowledge. Ier, there, their. Whereas, where. Hereynne, therein. Woned, dwelt. lfeiwyth, with it. Wunderwerckynge, working miracle. Ilolynge, beneficial. Waksynge, growing. hKuEne, know. Werck, operation. Kunnynge, knowledge. Wey, way. Jlke gudde, are beneficial. Wylde, savage. Mctynges, measures. Wynnynge, gaining Mote, may. IYnn, into. We have no good reason to question the statement that this paper was'found in the Bodleian Library, and it is not improbable that it was in the handwriting of Henry VI.; but we are not prepared to regard the answers given to the questions propounded, as evidencing a thorough knowledge of the subject, and the honesty of the witness. And yet the answers are not much more ridiculous than many of the popular theories of the present day. Now, we can not feel prepared to adopt the opinion of Mr. Locke, that, even in the benighted days of Henry VI., Masons believed that the Society was instituted by a man in the East, who lived befole Adam. Nor, on the other hand, are we inclined to coincide with Preston, in supposing the words, "man in the Elast" were used by the witness to convey any hidden or Masonic meaning. We believe that the answers were gien in such a manner, as to throw around the sutject as much mystery as would be most likely to operaio


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            8‑0 aHISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.


favorably on the mind of the King; any other view will prove that the witness was grossly ignorant of the traditions of the Order, as they clearly point to the building of Solomon's Temple. Again: the declaration that Pythagoras, who (according to Pliny, Livy, and some others) lived in the reign of Servius Tullius, in the year of the world 3472, communicated the secrets of Freemasonry to the members of his Society at Crotona in Italy; that thence they were spread over France, and found their way into England‑we can give no sort of credit to. We have heretofore shown‑conclusively, we think‑that Pythagoras never was a Mason, or at all acquainted with the principles of Masonry, only so far as they are, and ever have been, connected with science. At any rate, the principles of Masonry, as we understand them, never were taunght by him. With a view to the just appreciation of this Bodlcian paper, it is proper to consider the time and the circumstances by which the Masons were surrounded when this witness testifies. The Bishop of Winchester, whose power and influence were second only to the King's, was then engaged in persecuting, by every possible means, the Society of Freemasons. The deep‑seated hatred and deadly hostility manifested by him to the Masons. was in strict keeping with his character. His object was power, and he sought to obtain it by low cunning, bribery, or any other means within his reach; and that society, or set of men, whom he could not suborn to subserve his purposes, would, of course, come under his condemnation. Under this state of things, it was very important that the Masons should be able to enlist the King in their behalf. It was an age of superstition and gross ignorance; and when questioned as to the origin of the Society, he who said it originated with the manl ill the East, before the man in the West, went only a step further than Dr. Oliver, who traces it to the Garden of Eden, and even adds another envelope to the bundle of mystery, by giving it as his opinion, that Masonry existed in other worlds, before this of ours was created. Now. as the Doctor has many admirers, we infer they love this sort of extravagant method of mystifying mystery; and it is quite as reasonable to believe:


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181 that King Henry's witness understood how to please his royal listener. But, with the exception of the manifest effort to give a long and undefinable antiquity to the Order, the paper is to be regarded as highly interesting; for our principles are, certainly, very correctly set forth. That part of the answers relating to " Facultye of Abrac " which to Mr. Locke was unintelligible, conveys to our mind a clear apprehension of one of the most important features in Masonry. The use of the word "Abrac" is universally traced * Mr. Hutchinson, in his ingenious treatise, entitled, Ihe Spirit of Masonry, gives the following explanation of the word ABRAC, which, as it is curious, we shall here insert in that gentleman's own words:. "A1RAC, or ABRACAR, was a name which Basilides, a religious writer of the second century, gave to God; who, he said, was the author of three hundred and sixty‑five. " The author of this superstition is said to have lived in the time of Adrian, and that it had its name after ABRASAN, or ABRAXAS, the denomination which Basilides gave to the Deity. He called Him the Supreme God, and ascribed to Him seven subordinate powers, or angels, who presided over the heavens; and also, according to the number of the days in the year, held that three hundred and sixty‑five virtues, powers, or intelligences, existed as the emanations of God; the value, or numerical distinctions of the letters in the word, according to the ancient Greek numerals, made 365: A B P A X A Z. 1 2 100 1 60 1 200. "Among antiquaries, ABRAXAS is an antique gem, or stone, with the word AimAXAS engraved on it. There are a great many kinds of them, of various figures and sizes, mostly as old as the third century. Persons professing the religious principles of Basilides, wore this gem with great veneration, as an amulet, from whose virtues, and the protection of the Deity‑to whom it was consecrated, and with whose name it was inscribed‑the wearer derived health, prosperity, and safety. "There is deposited in the British Museum such a gem, which is a beryl stone, of the form of an egg. The head is in cameo, the reverse in taglio. "In church history, ABRAX is noted as a mystical term, expressing the Supreme God, under whom the Basilidians supposed three hundred and sixty‑five dependent deities. It was the principle of the Gnostic hierarchy, whence sprang their multitude of thrones. From ABRAXAS proceeded their PRIMOGENIAL MIrND from the primogenial mind, the LOGOS, or word; from the logos, the PiIRONXASIS, or prudence; from the Phronesis, SOPHIA and DYNAMIS, or wisdom and strength; from these two proceeded PRINCIPALITIES, POWERS, and ANGELS;. and from these, other angels, to the number of three hundred and sixty‑five, who were supposed to have the government of so many celestial orbs committed to their care."


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            182 BISTORY OF FREEMASONRY. back to the second or third century when it was understood to convey the idea of a great First Cause ùeither the only God, or He who ruled over and controlled all other gods. Now, that the secret traditions of Masonry furnish evidence of God's will to man, in the preservation and' transmission of His holy law to future generations, through the Society of Freemasons at the building of the Temple, is a fact known to} every well‑instructed Mason, who has taken all the degrees appertaining to Ancient Craft Masonry. In short, Masonic traditions furnish proof of the power and wisdom of God, in addition to those handed down by the writings of Moses. We therefore incline to the belief that the witness meant to be understood as saying that Masons, more than others, were enabled to comprehend the will of God to man. We certainly prefer this construction to the one put upon his language by Mr. Preston, viz., that he meant to say that Masons understood the art of working miracles.


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            CHAPTER XIV. WHEN the blood) struggle between Richard III. and Henry Tudor, then Earl of Richmond, terminated in the death of the former, the army proclaimed the victor Henry VII., King of England, 1485. His wife, Elizabeth Plantagenet, daughter of King Edward IV., being the true heir of all the Plantagenets, conveyed hereditary right of royalty to all her offspring. In this reign the Cape of Good Hope and America were discovered; the former in 1487, and the latter in 1493. We find by a reference to the History of Italy, that at this period the Gothic style of architecture was totally abandoned in that country, and the Augustan style revived; while in England the Gothic arrived at its greatest perfection, and continued to be used, as we shall hereafter see, down to, and more or less during, the reign of Elizabeth. Without stopping here to enter into a defense of the principles of Masonry, or inquire into the causes which led to the denunciations of the Pope of Rome against the Order, we call attention to the fact that so long as architecture was in the hands of Masons, the Roman Catholic Church was their zealous and steadfast friend. We can not affirm that this was caused by a devotion to the principles which Masonry inculcates, or the restrictions which its ritual places upon its members, whereby they may not become slaves to the confessional, so far as to reveal the secrets of the Society. But we rather infer that tho great moving cause was the necessity which the Church was then under to obtain the services of competent workmen for the erection of fine churches, monasteries, etc. However this may be, it is certainly true that down to the time of Henry VIII. most of the Catholic Priests were Masons, and generally officers of the Society. Indeed, such was to some extent the case in the days of Sir Christopher Wren.


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            184 fISTORY OF FREEMASONRY. In the reign of Henry VII., the repairs of Westminster Abbey which had been long before commenced, were completed, in 1493, from which period it stood untouched, and finally neglected. This work was finished under the superintendence of John Tslip, Abbot of Westminster. This magnificent structure was il a dilapidated condition in the middle of the seventeenth century; when, at the expense of government, Sir Christopher Wren restored it to its former grandeur. In 1500, the Grand Master of the Order of St. John's, then at Rhodes and afterward at Malta, issued his order and assembled all the Sir Knights in grand convocation, and chose Henry VII. their protector. This royal Grand Master appointed John Islip, the Abbot of'Westminster, and Sir Richard Bray, Knight of the Garter, his Wardens, through whom his summons was issued, calling a Lodge of Master Masons at his palace on June 24, 1502; and when so assembled a grand procession was formed, and under charge of the King in person walked to the place appointed. East of Westminster Abbey, and laid the corner‑stone of the King's Chapel,in manner according to the usages of the Order. This fine edifice was completed and the cape‑stone duly celebrated in 1507; and soon became famous as the most perfect specimen of Gothic architecture:in the world. Some idea may be formed of the estimation in which this splendid edifice.wa. ‑1 1,:" +1 fact that Leland, the distinuiished antiquarian, regarded it as constituting the eighth wonder ot the world. By order of the King, Grand Warden Bray rebuilt the‑ Palace of Sheen, on the Thames, and called it Richmond. Bray also superintended the enlargement of Old Greenwich Castle, which the Kingcalled Placentia, near which was erected a somewhat singular building called the King's Box, or the Queen's House. Bray also raised the Middle Chapel of Windsor. The King built a number of religious houses, two colleges‑Jesus and St. John's, at Cambridge, and Brazen Nose at Oxford rebuilt Bayard Castle, and converted the old Castle of Savoy into a hospital. The King died in 1509, leaving his crown to his son, Henry VIII., aged eighteen years. Here is another exemplification of the unalterable principles of our Order It will be recollected that in all former times theKing


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185 was regarded as Grand Master by hereditary right, provided he was or should become a Mason, and not otherwise. In every age it has ever been the interest and desire of the Fraternity to have the favorable opinion and patronage of the ruling sovereign Yet, so sacred and inviolable have ever been the rituals of the Order, that even when persecutions were most bitter and vindictive, never was a prince permitted to take charge of, or be considered Grand Master, unless he had first become a Mason. Nor have we an account of a single instance where the rule has been departed from, in order to initiate even a king before he was of mature and discreet age. It has been (we shame to say it) reserved to the nineteenth century, to the land of America, to the old Grand Lodge of Louisiana, and to the Grand Orient of France, influenced by the Scotch Rite, to attempt an innovation in the body of Masonry, by declaring that the sons of Masons might be initiated at the age of eighteen; but we would not leave our readers of after time unadvised of the fact that so far from any other Grand Lodge in the United States imitating or approving of this attempt to trample under foot and set at defiance the ancient usages of the Order, every Grand Lodge has put her seal of disapprobation upon the action of that Grand body in this particular. Every good and true Mason loves to be enrolled. among those who aim to adhere strictly to that immemorial usage which requires a man to be of lawful age beifore H6 dan hoe made a Mason; ard should any Grand Lodge go behind this rule, under the flimsy pretext that " mature age" conveys a meaning subject to a latitudinarian construction, and presume to make Masons of men not twenty‑one years old, they must expect that all such will be regarded as clandestine, and unfit to be acknowledged as Fellows and Brothers. In the case of Henry VIII., though a King, and eighteen years of age, not even a proposition was entertained for his initiation, and because of this, Cardinal Woolsey was chosen Grand Master. He built the College of Christ's church, Oxford, Hampton Court, and White Hall, and several other edifices, which, upon his disgrace. were forfeited to the Crown in 1530. After the Cardinal incurred the displeasure of the King and the Fraternity, he was removed, and Thomas Cromwell, Earl of


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Essex, was appointed Grand Master, who, by order of th King,built St. James' Palace, Greenwich Castle, and Christ' Hospital. This King and his Parliament disowned and denounced th( right divine of the Pope of Rome, and Henry was openly declared the Supreme Head of the Church in 1534. This ecclesiastical revolution was productive of some momentous events, destined to be felt throughout long ages; for, though it was not to be expected that the heretofore acknowledged supreme power of the Pope would be abandoned without a struggle, yet did this movement of Henry VIII. lay the foundation for the freedom of English subjects. We would not, however, be misunderstood: we do not mean to say that in throwing off the yoke of Rome, the protesting party were governed by a iust conception of their religious duties alone; far from it. It is the nature of nen to pass from one extreme to the other, as well in religious as political matters; and in this case, the dominant party were as unjust, bigoted, and unyielding in all their dogmas, as had been the Church of Rome. Near a thousand religious houses were suppressed, and the landed estates connected therewith forfeited to the Crown. Cromwell, the Grand Master, was falsely charged, unjustly condemned, and fell upon the scaffold a sacrifice to party bigotry and religious intolerance. After his death, Lord Audley was chosen Grand Master, and notwithstanding the suppression of so many churches, and the panic which ensued, consequent upon this religious revolution, Masonry did not languish, even its Operative department continued in requisition, and the style of architecture greatly improved. The religious houses and the landed estates connected with them, which, as before stated, were confiscated to the Crown by the King's order, were sold to the nobility and gentry on such liberal terms, that they readily converted many of them into stately mansions, furnishing employment for the Masons. Grand Master Audley erected Magdalen College, and the great house of Audley End. The Kingdied 1547, and was succeeded by his son, Edward VI., who was the son of Queen Jane Seymour. He was but nine years old when he came to the throne, and reigned under the


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187 regency of Edward, Duke of Somerset, who exerted all his power and influence in favor of the Protestant religion and as Grand Master of the Masons, built Somerset House, which was forfeited to the Crown when the regent was beheaded in 1552. John Poynet was then chosen Grand Master; but the next year the King died, and Mary Tudor, daughter of Queen Catharine of Aragon, succeeded her brother as Queen Sovereign, who restored the Catholic religion; and maddened by a recollection of the wrongs which she thought her favorite Church and people had endured, she became more vindictive and blood‑thirsty in her unholy zeal against the Protestants, than had either of the preceding sovereigns been against the Catholics. She mar. ried Philip II., king of Spain, fought several battles, lost Calais, and died without issue, 1558. Although this queen reigned but about five years, and left few if any monuments of her wisdom and virtue, still will her name live in the Protestant Church history, through all time, as the "Bloody Mary." During her reign we know but little of the condition of Masonry, as from the death of Henry VIII. until the reign of Elizabeth, we have no account of the assembling of the Craft, or of their having a Grand Master; and yet we must believe that Lodges continued to meet and practice their rites. Elizabeth next ascended the throne, A.D. 1558. She wa, the daughter of Queen Ann Boleyn. As the arts and sciences and general literature were greatly encouraged and cultivated during this reign, and as there transpired many events of deep interest to the Craft, we may be expected to devote somewhat more time to it than either of the reigns which immediately preceded it. Elizabeth was evidently a woman of a strong and masculine mind. We are aware that the fame which this administration so justly acquired has been very generally attributed to the wisdom of her ministry, and that this is partly correct can not be successfully dsnied; for we doubt whether any reign in English history, from the days of the Heptarchy down to the present period, has been blessed with such an accumulation of towering intellect and plodding sagac ity as was brought to bear in the reign of Elizabeth. But can we overlook the fact that in order to concentrate and keep


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together this galaxy of genius and learning, the effortQ of a wise head, keen perception, sound judgment, and unyielding firmness was absolutely necessary? And these qualifications were admirably blended in this queen. When we remember that England had only just emerged from an age of almost gross darkness, we can the more readily accord to Elizabeth powers of discrimination rarely met with in either sex. If her administration be carefully examined, it will be seen that almost all her movements were the result of preconceived schemes, of deep and far‑seeing policy. Even her acts of benevolence and kindness were prompted, not by impulse, but by a subtle calculation of cause and effect, Her love affairs, where the dearest affections of her heart were at stake, were made to yield to a cold political calculation. So, also, do we look upon her reestablishment of the Protestant religion, for it has never seemed at all clear to our mind that the feelings of her heart did not lean to the Catholic Church. All things, with her, seem to have been made subservient to a craving ambition, which we suppose to have been her ruling passion. True, it does not appear that she courted that fame which monarchs acquire by the sound of the clarion and gaudy trappings of war. She sought not to live in the annals of the world's history as the heroine of great battlefields, but she longed for the more enviable and imperishable name of being the wisest among her equals; and pity it is that she did not more earnestly strive to be thought good as, well as wise. At the period of which we are now speaking, no one but initiates knew anything of Freemasonry; no publication of its principles had ever been made. For the most part, it had been governed or influenced by the priesthood, whose policy was to keep a knowledge of the arts and sciences from the masses; mnd hence, not even the true objects of the association were known with any accuracy beyond the halls of the Lodge. Masons had their public processions and public ceremonies it is true; but this dumb show of a portion of their rites remained unexplained, as also the greater, and purer, and holier principles of the Order. Masons were known to hold their meetings in secrecy, andia


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189 their intercourse with the world studiously avoided conversations in relation to the principles of the Association; and, strange though it may seem, the very secrecy thus observed created a degree of awe and reverence for the Institution in the minds of some; others were very naturally led to entertain doubts and suspicions of its purity, and we marvel that through so many ages of bigotry and superstition‑through so many reigns of tyranny and oppression‑so few instances are recorded of organized opposition to the Society. Were a secret society of the present day to refuse to make an expose of the leading objects sought to be attained, they would most likely enlist the opposition of the community; more especially if that society was becoming numerous. We are not then surprised that Queen Elizabeth, who held the sceptre by a doubtful tenure. and whose ambition could brook no opposition, should entertain fears that, perchance, something might be concocted where her secret emissaries dare not go, which might lead te an investigation of the hereditary rights of Mary, Queen of Scots, whose claims to the very crown which Elizabeth wore were, to say the least, quite plausible; and hence, as a stroke of policy, the more securely to guard against secret conclaves. she sent an armed force to York on the 27th of December, 1561, with orders to break up the Grand Lodge, and forbid the Masons to assemble together or hold their Lodges. When th leaders and most trustworthy of the Queens officers presente4 their instructions to Sir Thomas Sackville, who was theio Grand Master, he initiated some of them, and expounded the principles of the Institution, whereby they became convinced of the utility and purity of Masonry, and lost no time in repre senting to the Queen that she had misconceived the character of the Institution and the practices of theSociety. They testified that the Institution was one of pure benevolence, inculcating a love of virtue and the practice of charity; that it did nol tolerate or permit a meddling with affairs of State or Church, etc. These representations were made in the form of a petition, signed by the members of the Grand Lodge, and subscribed to by the Queen's officers above alluded to; and whether at heart she entertained doubts of their truths, or secretly harbored


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enmity against the Order, it is quite clear that after these representations.were made public, a hostile demonstration against the Society would have proved unpopular; and while it may be that we do the character of the Queen injustice, in withholding the meed of praise generally awarded to her for abstaining from further molestation, we attribute her forbearance to other causes, for the reason, as before stated, that a shrewd, selfish policy marked her course throughout. It is fair to suppose that the same reasons which prompted her fear of their enmity, operated in causing her to use suitable means to make them her friends, when assured they had not been her enemies. Certain it. is, that this event tended more to render Masonry popular than anything which had previously occurred, for the reason that it was the first public testimony ever made in its behalf. In this reign the arts and sciences were encouraged and cultivated. The Augustan style of architecture, which had been so long neglected, was brought into use and favor by means of travelers into Italy, where they not only acquired a knowledge of the superior architecture of that country, but brought with them copious drawings, which enabled the architects of England to appreciate tneir excellence and imitate their improvements. The Gothic style was, therefore, neglected; and it is quite probable that in no age would England have been more beautified and adorned with splendid edifices, had the Queen been disposed to patronize the work. In 1557, Sir Thomas Sackville resigned his office of Grand Master, and as Masons had now become numerous in the South of England, it was deemed proper to district the kingdom and appoint a Grand Master for each. Accordingly, Sir Francis Russell, Earl of Bedford, was chosen to take charge of the Masons in the northern division, and Sir Thomas Gresliam of the southern. The General Assembly, or Grand Lodge, continued to meet at York, where all the records were kept. Sir Thomas Gresham superintended the building of the first Royal Exchange. At his suggestion the more wealthy citizens of Londoir purchased a Diece of ground, upon which he erected a house for the benefit of commerce. The corner‑stone was laid


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191 on the 7th of June, 1566, just one hundred years before the great fire, and such was the expedition with which the work was carried on, that it was finished in November of the next year, 1567, and was called the Bourse until 1570, when the Queen, laving dined with Sir Thomas, and being accompanied by him in a thorough examination of the building‑being particularly pleased with the plan of a gallery, which surrounded the entire structure, and being divided into shops, then filled with the most fashionable merchandise‑she caused the edifice to be proclaimed, by herald and trumpet, the Royal Exchange. Under the superintendence of Sir Thomas Gresham, many fine buildings were erected, and the Craft flourished in the South under his administration. Charles Howard, Earl of Effingham, was next chosen Grand Master, and presided in the South until 1588, when George Hastings, Earl of Hlintingdon, was chosen Grand Master, and served in that office until the death of the Queen, 1603, when the crowns of England and Scotland were united by the ascension to the throne of James VI. (Stewart), King of Scotland, who was proclaimed at London James I., King of England, France, and Ireland‑ ‑Scotland not yet being added to the kingdom, though governed by England's crown. Tile life and character of Queen Elizabeth is not such as wins upon the better feelings of thle heart. We may admire her lofty and independent spirit in many tilings; we may be fascinated with her powers of mind, but a knowledge of the fact that the whole was made subservient to an unholy ambition, not even curbed by the moral suasion of a pure heart, we turn from her praise with a feeling akin to disgust. She that could refuse to marry a man for whom she felt a warn and abiding attachment, for no otlier reason than that a husband might, perchance, clog or divide her fame, was capable of perpetrating even crime, did her interests demand it. Her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, being defeated in battle. fled from Scotland. thlrew herself at the feet of England's queen, and appealed to tile affections of a relative for safety and protection. Could any but a wretch, lost to every sense of feeling, save that of selfishness, betray the trust thus reposed? Elizabeth imprisoned her, not for a day, nor a month, not for a year only. but, if


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            192 HISTORY OF REEMASONRY. we remember correctly, for seventeen years. Some writers have thought that this act of cruelty was prompted by a jealousy felt on account of Mary's superior beauty‑that being herself vain of personal admiration, she dreaded the appearance of her cousin at court; but we think this a short‑sighted view of the subject, when we consider the true character of the Queen. We know that she was a slave to ambition, and while we must declare our want of opportunity now to look up authorities, we may be permitted to say that, in our reading the history of England in early life, we became satisfied‑and that from English authors, Robinson and others‑that had justice been done, Mary, the beautiful Queen of Scots, would have swayed the sceptre of England in place of Elizabeth. We think, therefore, that jealousy, not of personal charms, but of hereditary right to reign, was at the foundation of this fiendlike cruelty. Some of the English writers attempt to account for Elizabeth's conduct on the ground that the popularity of Mivary with the people rendered it almost certain that if she had been liberated; the country would have been involved in civil wars‑to prevent which they justify the Queen in the murder of Mary. But be this true or false in reference to the early period of Mary's imprisonment, she had ceased to be remembered by the people‑all excitement had died away, and no excuse or apology can be offered for the cold‑blooded, heartless conduct of Elizabeth in having her beheaded in prison, denying her even the comforts of her confessor. Had the reign of this Queen been thrice illustrious, this single act of brutal barbarity would snatch from her brow the last bright gem in her wreath of glory.


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            CHAPTER XV. IT may be thought by some a little singular that, in writing the history of Freemasonry, we have so nearly confined our investi;gations to England for reliable testimony since the Christian era; but we think it will not be so regarded by those who hlave examined the subject for themselves, and who are not disposed to receive and adopt legendary tales in lien of fI(cts. Dr. Robertson, the able historian and ready writer,:ays, " History which ought to record truth and teach wisdom, often sets out with retailing fiction and absurdities." If this was tlhe case in his day, how much more so now, and especially in relation to Masonry? When Anderson, Preston, Smith, Hutchinson, and others of the eighteenth century wrote, how little did they think that the idle tales which they detailed in order to show how ridiculous had been the superstition of some, would in the middle of the nineteenth century be rewritten, embellished, and sent forth as solemn truths! The truth is, that if some master hand is not found to expose the gross absurdities of the present day, and snatch the pure history of the Order from the rubbish with which it is being covered up, the day will indeed come, when our brethren will not be able to distinguish between the pure system of Ancient Craft Masonry, and the new degrees of Scotch and Modern Masonry. But why is it that he who writes the history of Masonry can more easily impose nc the reader by deceptive tales? We think the reason is to be found in the fact that before 1722, so little had ever been published. All things connected with the Order were either transmitted from age to age by oral tradition, or a iew rare parchments sacredly withheld from the public gaze. Asido from tradition, the history of Masonry is so difficult to trace, that the writer may impose on his readers without the fear


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of being exposed. Judging by what we have seen, we do not hesitate to believe that Macauley, or any other distinguished writer, could send forth to the world a work purporting to be a history of Masonry, and it would become popular, though its only merit should consist in an effort to show that the Order tt only existed in its primitive purity with the aborigines of.America, but was practiced in its highest perfection when Columbus landed on this continent. Nor could he be wanting in admirers should he claim that the ceremonies of the Indian medicine dance is Masonry, only a little adulterated by savage peculiarities. We set out in this history with a determination that though we might enlighten our readers but little, and amuse their fancy less, we would state nothing to be true which we did not believe to be so; and herein is to be found the reason of our confining our investigations mainly to England. If we were writing the romance and poetry of Masonry in modern times, we should go to France for the gewgaw and tinsel wherewith to deck our work. We should find there, and without turning back to musty documents two centuries old, that Masonry is not a pure system of morals, inculcating the sacred truths of the Bible; but a splendid pageant to captivate the eye and feed the vanity of man. Nor should we be wholly wanting in material for novelty were we to go only to the old Lodges of Loi~isil)a. where the old iron‑sided genius of Masonry has been bfrced into an unholy matrimonial alliance with the flippant jade of'France. But in our search after the substance rather than the shadow we have been forced to rely mainly on Engla‑d. Masonry has been clogged with novelties and has greatly deteriorated almost everywhere but in England and Scotland; and by those who do not know that Scotch Rite Masonry is not, nor ever was, recognized as the Masonry of Scotland, it may be supposed that the purity of the Institution has been lost even there. As we have arrived at that period in our history where the crowns of England and Scotland were united, it seems to be proper to turn our attention for a time to the latter kingdom. In entering upon this task we are met with difficulties at the very threshold. We are not able to fix, with any certainty, upon the


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195 period at which Masonry was introduced into Scotland. This may be accounted for by the incessant wars in which that country was involved. When the Romans invaded England, thay found the country occupied or alternately overrun by the Gauls, Picts, Welsh, Danes, Scots, and other barbarous tribes. Tacitus is of opinion that the Scots are descended from the Britons of the South, others think they are of Caledonian origin, and hence they were called a wandering people; but whether they descended from the one or the other, they are of Celtic origin. The Roman General Agricola, found, A.D. 81, the northern part of Great Britain occupied by the Caledonians, a fierce and warlike people; and, having repulsed them, erected strong walls, or forts, between the Friths of Forth and Clyde, which was regarded as the northern boundary line. In A.D. 121, Adrian erected a stronger wall, and much further South, extending from New Castle to Carlisle; but at no period did the Romans enjoy peaceable possession of the country claimed; and a part of the time the Caledonians had possession at least as far as the old wall. After Agricola was recalled, the Scots passed the walls, and put to the sword all the Romans coming in their reach. In return, they were repulsed by Marcellus, a Roman General, who succeeded Agricola. A predatory warfare was kept up with alternate success, until Rome sent an immense army who reconquered the Scots at a cost of fiftythousand men. The Emperor, who in this invasion commanded in person, had not m(re than left the island when the Scots became disgusted and incensed against his son, who had been left as regent, and took up arms; but a treaty of peace was soon after entered into, under Donald I., who is regarded as the first Christian King of the Scots. He died A.D. 216. From the reign of Donald I. to Eugene I., a period of one hundred and thirty years, no interesting events are handed down to us in an authentic way. In the reign of Eugene I., tie Romans and Picts united against the Scots, and the latter were defeated in a battle in Gallaway county; but Maximus, the Roman General, being called away to quell some disturbances in the South, the Scots defeated the Picts. The following year, Maximus marched again against the Scots, and defeated them.


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The King and many of his nobles fell in battle, and the Scots were driven out of the country. Some took refuge in Scandinavia; but most of them went to Ireland, from whence they made frequent flying attacks on their enemy. The Picts were, for a. time, pleased with the part they had taken against the Scots; but when they found that the Romans required them to submit to Roman laws, and look for no other than a Roman ruler, they repented of their course, and invited the Scots to join them against the Romans. In 421 the Picts, Goths, and Scots united against their common enemy, and together with other northern tribes, compelled the Romans to withdraw their forces, which left the Britons at the mercy of all the barbarians; and being harassed and hunted down on all sides, they dispatched to Rome that celebrated petition, called the "Groans of the Britons.".But this failed to bring relief, and they called in the aid of the Saxons, which, through a series of events, finally led to the overthrow of all Britain's foes, and the permanent establishment of the British government. Three hundred years now pass without affording anything of interest in Scottish history, except what is embraced in the history of England. In 787, the Kings of France and the Scots entered into a treaty which was observed down to the union of the crowns of England and Scotland. After this treaty, the King of the Scots, Dugall, claimed the right also to the Pictish crown, which being disputed, a resort to arms was the result. King Alpin, who succeeded Dugald, was defeated, taken prisoner and beheaded. Kenneth II., son of Alpin, succeeded to the throne, and seeking revenge for the death of his father; collected his forces, gave battle, and so signally defeated his enemy, that he got possession of all Scotland; and may, therefore, be justly regarded as the founder of the Scottish Monarchy. He removed the seat of his government from Argyleshire to Scone, by transferring the celebrated black stone, held so sacred by the Scots. This stone was afterward taken to Westminster, England. After Kenneth's death, his brother, Donald, reigned; when the Picts called on the Saxons to join them against the Scots promising that all the benefits arising from the war should inure to the Saxons. By this confederation the Scots


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197 were defeated, and the Saxons gained possession of all the country South of the Forth and, Clyde‑the Forth being considered the boundary line. The Picts, as in the cave of the Romans, received the most cruel treatment from their allies. Most of them fled to Norway. Donald, having been dethroned, put an end to his own life, and was succeeded by his nephew, Constantine. son of Kenneth MacAlpin. It was during this reign that the Danes, who had long been the enemies of the Britois, first invaded Scotland. They were at first victorious; but afterward defeated, and driven out of the country. In this war Constantine was taken prisoner and beheaded by the Danes, A.D. 874. For the next hundred years Eth, Gregory, Donald III., Constantine III., Malcolm. Iudulfus, and Cullen, severally reigned. They were perpetually at war with one tribe or another‑sometimes with the Picts, sometimes with the Danes, Irish, and British. Kenneth III., who succeeded Cullen, A.D. 970, was a strong friend to the poor. He caused them to be relieved from the unreasonable exactions of the nobility. During this reign the Danes again invaded Scotland. Kenneth gave them battle. His army were being defeated, and were flying, when they were stopped by a yeoman named Hay, who induced them to turn and renew the fight, which soon resulted in the defeat of the Danes. Kenneth was murdered, A.D. 994, at the instance of a lady whose son he had caused to be put to death. The throne was then usurped by one Constantine, who reigned eighteen months, and was succeeded by Grime, who was killed by Malcolm, son of Kenneth, who was the true heir to the throne. Malcolm II. reigned about thirty years. He was engaged in war most of the period, and it is said he was the first to compile the laws of Scotland in a book, called the Regiurr JMajestatum. He partitioned the land into baronies, and founded the bishopric of Aberdeen, in honor of his defeat of the Norwegians at that place. He was a lover of the arts and sciences; encouraged architecture by fortifying his castles and towns, and at last. at the advanced age of eighty years, fell by the hand of an assassin, A.D. 1034. He was succeeded by his grandson, Duncan I.


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Another grandson, the celebrated Macbeth, whose character Shakespeare has so graphically portrayed, signalized himself against the Danes; and becoming ambitious, murdered Duncan and usurped the throne, to the exclusion of the rightful heir, Malcolm, son of Duncan. Macbeth commenced removing all who seemed to be at all in his way; he caused one of the most powerful Thanes to be murdered, and sought the life of his son, who only escaped by flying to Wales. Macbeth plotted against the life of Macduff, the Thane of Fife, who fled to England; whereupon, Macbeth murdered his wife and children, and confiscated his estate. Macduff took an oath to have revenge. To this end, he encouraged Malcolm to set up his rightful claim to the crown, and by their united forces, Macbeth was defeated in battle, and fled to the most secure retreats in the highlands, where he successfully defended himself against all enemies for two years; but his day of retribution came at last. Macduff finally met him in personal conflict, and slew him, 1057. Malcolm III. being now seated on the throne, was, like his predecessors, engaged in almost incessant warfare. He espoused the cause of the Saxons against William of Norway, who, on conquering England, subjected Malcolm to many humiliating terms. On the death of William the Conqueror, Malcolm again espoused the cause of Edgar Atheling; but William II., surnaraed Rufus, ascended the throne of England, and Malcolm and his son fell in battle, at Alnwick, A.D. 1093. The throne of Scotland was then usurped, first by Donald Bane, and then by Donald; but by the influence of Henry I. of England, Edgar, the rightful heir, was placed on the throne. He died A.D. 1107, and was succeeded by his brother Alexander. This prince assisted the English in a war against the Welch, and died A.D. 1124. David, his younger brother, succeeded him. Owing to the great piety of this king, and his liberality to the church and clergy, he was called St. David. He was engaged in war by espousing the cause of Maud against Stephen, the rival aspirants to the English throne. He died A.D. 1153. Malcolm IV. succeeded him‑a prince of a feeble mind. He died in 1165, and left the crown to his brother William, who waged war against England, was defeated and taken prisorer.


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199 ID order to gain his freedom he entered into an engagement with Henry to become his vassal, and do homage for his whole kingdom., with which terms he complied until Coeur de Lion, who succeeded Henry, declared Scotland an independent kingdom. William died 1224. This King built a palace at Aberdeen, and rebuilt the town of Perth, after it had been destroyed by fire. Doctor Anderson tells us that this King was an excellent Grand Master, but by what authority does not appear. Alexander II. succeeded his father and died A.D. 1249. His son, Alexander, a child eight years old, was crowned Alexander III. He was betrothed to the Princess Margaret of England, and married her 1251. This prince had a fierce.contest with the Pope, who sought to destroy the freedom of the Scottish Church. He was engaged in a bloody war with the Norwegians. He was thrown from his horse and killed, A.D. 1286. Here commences a series of events highly interesting in Scotland's history. Alexander, at his death, left no children. His daughter Margaret had married Eric, King of Norway, and died before her father; leaving a daughter, Margaret, known in history as the "Maiden of Norway;" she was the undoubted heiress to the crown. Edward, King of England, was scheming for the purpose of uniting Scotland to his dominions, and with that view agreed to marry his eldest son, Edward, to the Queen,but she died before reaching Scotland; thus was Scotland left without an heir to the throne except through the descendants of the Earl of Huntingdon, son of David I. Among these were Robert Bruce and John Baliol. Bruce was the son of Isabel, Earl David's second daughter. Baliol was the grandson of Margaret, the eldest daughter. Each of these aspirants were supported by large factions, and, to prevent an appeal to arms, they mutually agreed to refer their claims to Edward, King of England, and abide his decision. Edward meanly sought, and nearly succeeded, in destroying the independence of Scotland. He first obtained an oath from the contending parties, and nearly all the nobles, to regard Scotland as a fief of the English crown, and then gave the crown to Baliol, as the least formidable person. Edward soon forced Baliol to resign the crown that he might seize it under a pretext that his


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            200 HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY.:subjects in Scotland had rebelled. Sir William Wallace now appeared upon the stage of action, and by his achievements in arms acquired the fame of a great patriot and hero. His history and unexampled exploits are too well known to require a further notice here. He at length fell into Edward's hands, was tried and condemned as a traitor, and suffered an ignominious death. Robert Bruce, the grandson of Baliol, next came forward to vindicate the honor of his country. The nobles crowded to his standard, and, by the many hard fought battles with their English oppressors, Scotland's well earned fame has been securely recorded in the world's history; and the names of her heroes are being sung in every land. We have thus far given a skeleton of Scotland's history, not because it has directly any necessary connection with the history of Masonry, but that our readers may see the reason of so much uncertainty in dating its introduction and continuation in that kingdom. No one can reasonably expect any connected and authentic account of a benevolent institution from a people who were perpetually engaged in warfare. But that Masonry was early introduced into Scotland we do not doubt; and we now proceed to give the most reliable testimony within our reach. We make the following extract from the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, as the most concise and impartial view of the subject we have any where met with; and though it appears the writer was not a Mason, we do not question but that his information was derived from‑the old records of the Society, and, therefore, give full credit to the statements as follows: "The earliest appearance of Freemasonry in modern times was under the, form of a traveling Association of Italian, Greek, German, and French artists, who were denominated Freemasons, and went about erecting churches and cathedrals. The members lived in a camp of huts.* They were under a surveyor who directed the establishment, and every tenth man was called a Warden, and overlooked those under his charge. By means of this traveling Association the mysteries of Masonry seem to * Solomon's builders so traveled and lived, and it is believed that their tue of tog huts gave rise to the term Lodge.


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201 have been introduced into Kilwinning, in Scotland, and York, in England, at a very early day." About the same views here expressed are entertained by Wren in his Parentalia; but we are still left to conjecture the precise time of its introduction into Scotland. That it existed there during the Roman invasions, we believe; but, aside from the romance of some side degrees called Masonic, we know but little of it until the twelfth century. We have a very accurate account of Masonry in Scotland from the union of the crowns, and many of these accounts show that the brethren of that period had both written and traditional accounts of its existence there long anterior to the twelfth century. Under the reign of James I., Henry Wardlaw, Bishop of Andrews, was Grand Master until the young King was ransomed and crowned, A.D. 1424. This King proved to be a wise and prudent ruler. He was a friend and encourager of the arts and sciences, and finally acted as Grand Master. This fact, which is authenticated by the traditions of Scottish Masons, goes far to prove that Masonry not only existed in Scotland at that day, but that it was so well organized as to leave no doubt of its previous existence. King James instituted a law requiring each Master Mason to pay four pounds Scots annually to a Grand Master, to be chosen by the Grand Lodge and approved by the crown. He also ordained that every candidate at initiation should pay a fee to the Grand Master. The Grand Master had not only the superintendence of the Craft, but to him was given the power to regulate and determine all matters of controversy, and settle claims arising. between the members, thereby preventing law suits among Masons. In the absence of the Grand Master, appeals were authorized to be made to the nearest Warden. This wholesome regulation remained in full force until the civil wars of 1640. King James turned his attention to architecture, repaired and fortified all his castles and seaports, which greatly influenced the nobility to follow his example in giving employment to the Craft. This King reigned thirteen years, much beloved by all his subjects, and especially by the Masons. He was basely murderel by his uncle, Walter Stewart, Earl of


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            202 HISTORY OF rREEMASONRY. Athrall, A.D. 1437. His son, James II., succeeded to the throne, but, being only seven years old, reigned under the regency of Lord Callender. William Sinclair was Grand Master in this reign, and built Roslin Chapel, near Edinburgh, which was regarded as a masterpiece of Gothic architecture. Bishop Turnbull, of Glasgow, was chosen Grand Master in 1450; and four years after founded the University of Edinburgh. The King encouraged and gave employment to the Craft. He died A.D. 1460, leaving his son, James III., to ascend the throne at seven years old. This King early acquired a love of architecture, and employed the Craft in the finest work. He erected a spacious hall at' Stirling; and, under the direction o' Robert Cochran, then Grand Master, built the Chapel Royal in the Castle. Soon after Lord Forbes was Grand Master, and held the office until the King's death, A.D. 1488. James IV., aged sixteen years, succeeded his father, Bishop Aberdeen, now Grand Master. The King employed him tc build the University of Aberdeen, A.D. 1494. Elphinston was the next Grand Master and founded at his own cost the bridge at Dee, which was finished by his successor, Bishop Gavin Dunbar. The King turned his attention to ship building and greatly increased his navy. He died in battle on Flodden Field, A.D. 1513. From the issue of this King proceeded the right to the British throne after the death of Elizabeth. His wife was Margaret Tudor, eldest daughter of Henry VII., of England, by whom he had James V., a minor of seventeen months. This King, when of age, encouraged the cultivation of the sciences and held in high estimation all learned men. During this reign, Gavin Douglass, Bishop of Dunkel, was Grand Master, and after him, George Crighton, Abbot of Holy Rood House, Patrick, Earl of Lindsay, and Sir David Lindsay, were. in turn, Grand Masters. The King died, A.D. 1542. By his wife, Mary, daughter of Claud of Lorain, Duke of Guise, he left Mary Stuart, Queen Sovereign of Scotland. only seven days old. She became Queen consort of France, and. after the death of her husband, King Francis JI., she returned to Scotland A.D. 1561, and brought with her some fine. architects. She married a second time, Henry Stewart,


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203 Lord Darnley, A.D. 1565. The Queen was doubtless fond of admiration, and so far indulged in a gratification of this propensity as to lead to the most unhappy consequences. Darnley it would seem never shared largely in her affections, for she very soon showed a decided preference for an Italian musician, who, through jealousy, Darnley murdered. Soon after she contracted an intimacy with Bothwell, a man of loose morals; and most historians tell us that the general impression prevailed at the time, not only in Scotland, but throughout Europe, that she and Bothwell caused the house in which Darnley was sick to be blown up, thereby causing his death; and in confirmation of this opinion, she married Bothwell so soon after the death of her husband as to excite the indignation of her subjects, upon which her nobles forced her to resign in favor of her infant son James VI. Pending the investigation of the charges brought against her of participation in the murder of Darnley, she managed to escape, raised an army, and gave battle to her opponents, was defeated, fled for protection to her cousin Elizabeth, who confined her in prison for many years, and then caused her to be beheaded, as already mentioned. When James VI. succeeded to the throne of England as James I., he omitted to appoint, as was his right, a Grand Master for Scotland, but the Scottish Masons (in Grand Lodge we suppose) granted two Charters to the Saint Clairs of Roslin. These old Charters are said to be still in existence in Hays',collection of MSS. in the Advocate Library. King James was a warm supporter of the Protestant religion, and as had been done in England, the property of the Catholic churches was divided between the nobility and gentry, and they built many stately edifices from the ruins, which gave active employment to the Masons. At this period the Augustan style of architecture was cultivated in Scotland. The King was made a Mason by Lord Patesley, who was Grand Master before the union of the crowns. Previous to this period, the King, the nobility, and chiefs of clans lived in fortified castles. The clergy also erected monastries and churches which would favorably compare with any Gothic buildings in Europe.


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            CHAPTER XVI. WE have already intimated that with Queen Elizabeth the royal family of Tudors lost all claim to the crown of England. Soon after Mary, Queen of Scots, was beheaded, a question arose as to whom Elizabeth's successor would be. The Infanta of Spain had a party ready to urge her claims, as had Arabella Stuart, but the nobility, with but few exceptions, turned their eye to King James VI., of Scotland. Nor is it remarkable that the far‑seeing Britons should quietly acquiesce in the reign of the Stuarts, when we remember that it had long been a favorite project with the Kings and Parliaments of England, to bring Wales, Scotland, and Ireland under the government of England; and thus far having failed to consummate their wishes by means of the sword, recourse was had to diplomatic policy. While we do not question the right which James derived by royal descent, we very much doubt whether the English would have submitted quietly to be governed by a Scotchman, had it not been for the grasping propensity of the Saxon race to extend their dominion. James had not been idle; on the contrary, he instructed his ambassador at the English Court, Edward Bruce, to use all his efforts to obtain from the Queen, a promise to name him as her successor. This, however, at the time, she declined doing; when Bruce was instructed to sound the nobility, which he did, with so much effect as to gain the promise of nearly all the prominent men that James should have their preference against all pretenders, which may have had some effect upon the mind of the Queen, as she did, shortly Defore her death, and when she was most probably deranged, name her cousin as her successor. His claims being thus settled, immediately on the death of the Queen, 1604, the lords of


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20b the council declared James King of England and Scotland, and Sir Charles Perry and Thomas Somerset, were dispatched to bear the tidings to him, having a letter of congratulation, etc., signed by all the peers and privy councilmen then in London, which had the effect to suppress all further efforts in behalf of the Infanta, Arabella Stuart, and the Earl of Hertford. Thus did James I. commence his reign, without serious opposition Here we date the beginning of Scotland's downfall. That noble love of independence and martial spirit, which so eminently characterized that people, was swallowed up in a spirit of rejoicing at having the opportunity of furnishing their ancient enemies with a king; and along with this, the opinion prevailed that the effect would be to enlarge the commerce and greatly increase the prosperity of Scotland; but, instead of reaping the advantages expected, a depression succeeded, and Scotland was soon regarded as only an appendage of England. We will, however, better instruct our readers, by making the following extract from Dr. Robertson, the able historian. He says: " The Scots, dazzled with the glory of giving a sovereign to their powerful enemy, relying on the partiality of their native prince, and in full expectation of sharing in the wealth and honors which he would now be able to bestow, attended little to the most obvious consequences of that great event, and rejoiced at his accession to the throne of England, as if it had been no less beneficial to the kingdom than honorable to the King." By his accession, James acquired such an immense increase of wealth, power, and splendor, that the nobles, astonished and intimidated, thought it vain to struggle for privileges which they were now unable to defend. Nor was it from fear alone they submitted to the yoke; James, partial to his countrymen, and willing that they should partake in his good fortune, loaded them with riches and honors; and the hope of his favor, concurred with the dread of his power in taming their fierce and independent spirits. The will of the Prince became the supreme law in Scotland, and the nobles strove with emulation who should most implicitly obey commands which they had formerly been accustomed to contemn. The extensive rights, vested in


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a feudal chief, became, in their hands, dreadful instruments, and the military ideas on which these rights were founded, being gradually lost or disregarded, nothing remained to correct or mitigate the rigor with which they were exercised; for the King, satisfied with‑ having subjected the nobles to the crown, left them in full possession of their ancient jurisdiction over their own vassals. The nobles, exhausting their fortunes by the expense of frequent attendance upon the English court, and by attempts to imitate the manners and luxury of their more wealthy neighbors, multiplied exactions upon the people, who durst hardly utter complaints which they knew would never reach the ear of their sovereign, nor move him to grant them redress. "From the union of the crowns, to the revolution of 1688, Scotland was placed in a political situation, of all others the most singular and unhappy; subjected at once to the absolute will of a monarch, and to the oppressive jurisdiction of an aristocracy, it suffered all the miseries peculiar to both these forms of government. Its kings were despotic, its nobles were slaves and tyrants, and the people governed under the rigorous domination of both." We have said that James omitted to appoint a Grand Master in Scotland, which may have been owing to the fact that, by his elevation to the throne of England, he became, by prerogative, Grand Master of England, and therefore left to the Grand Lodge of Scotland to choose a Grand Master; for we find him yielding the same right to the Grand Lodge of England, and approved of their choice of Inigo Jones. The King ordered him to draw a plan of a palace at Whitehall, whereupon the old banqueting house was pulled down, and the King, with Grand Master Jones, his Warden, William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, and Nicholas Stone (Master Mason to His Majesty), together with many of the Fraternity, proceeded in ample form to lay the corner‑stone of a new banqueting house. The ceremony of laying the corner‑stone was the same then that it is now, except that it was then customary to hear the sound of trumpets and the huzzas of the spectators when the Grand Master used his gavel upon the stone. It was also customary to find on the stone a large purse of gold, either presented


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201 by the King, or contributed by the people, for the benefit of the Masons. Now, we are not disposed to quarrel with oui brethren of the present day for dispensing with much of the noise and parade formerly used, but we much regret that the good old custom of taking up a collection on such occasions for the benefit of infirm brothers, or the widows and orphans, has been done away with. Almost all other benevolent societies appeal frequently to those who are not members to contribute to their associations, and we can see no good reason why Masons should not do the same. While we may not so far violate the venerated custom of our Order as to furnish any statistics of benefits bestowed or relief afforded, nor publish to the world the manner or the amount of alms annually given, we do feel at liberty to say that the Masons expend more in benevolence, in proportion to their numbers, than any other society in the world; and the only reason why this fact is not generally known is, that the rules of our Order require us to act, in this particular, under the instructions of the Bible‑giving all alms in secret. But to return. The new banqueting hall was supposed to be the finest specimen of pure architecture in the world; since the days of Augustus. The room set apart as the banqueting hall was thought to be the largest in the world. In a manuscript of Nicholas Stone, which was burned in 1720, it is said that " the best Craftsmen from all parts resorted to Grand Master Jones, who always allowed good wages, and seasonable times for instructions in the Lodges, which he constituted with excellent By‑Laws, and made them like the schools and academies of the designers of Italy. He also held the quarterly communications of the Grand Lodge of Masters and Wardens, and the annual general assembly and feast on St. John's day, when he was annually rechosen until A.D. 1618, in which year William, Earl of Pembroke, was chosen Grand Master, and being approved by the King, he appointed Inigo Jones his Deputy Grand Master." Historians tell us that Masonry flourished in this reign. The King, being a Mason, was qualified to judge of the great merit


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            208 HISTORI OF FREEMASONRY. of patronizing the Society, and he did do all he could, under the circumstances, but his extravagant manner of living, and the mean and niggardly supplies voted him by Parliament, prevented him from carrying on any extensive improvements. Indeed, such was the jealousy of the English Parliament to anything Scottish, they even withheld a decent supply for feai the King would lavish a portion of it upon some of his brothel Scotchmen. The King died A.D. 1625, and was succeeded by his son, Charles I., aged twenty‑five years, who had been previously made a Mason, and waiving his right to Solomon's chair, the Earl of Pembroke continued to fill that office until he resigned in 1630. The King was well skilled in the arts, and a lover and encourager of the sciences. He encouraged foreign painters, sculptors, and statuaries; but, justly regarding Inigo Jones the ablest and best architect in the world, he permitted no foreign er to furnish a design for any public building. Upon the resignation of the Earl of Pembroke, the Grand Lodge made choice of Henry Danvers, Earl of Danby, which selection was approved by the King. This Grand Master made Inigo Jones his deputy, who drew the plans of all public buildings. In A.D. 1633, Thomas Howard was chosen Grand Master, and was succeeded in A.D. 1635, by Francis Russell, Earl of Bedford, who soon after resigned, and Inigo Jones was again chosen to fill Solomon's chair. During the government of this distinguished architect and able Grand Master, civil war broke out which almost set at naught all statutory laws, and introduced a destructive anarchy. The Puritans had, within a few years, become so numerous as to furnish Parlia ment with scores of fanatics, and, as is generally the case, that party which clamored loudest for tolerance, no sooner possessed the power than it became far more intollerant than the party it opposed. The Roundheads, or Puritans, so far succeeded as to get the control of all the measures of state policy. About this time the Roman Catholics of Ireland rose en masse, and massacred forty thousand Protestants without regard to sex or age. This inhuman and fiendish butchery, perpetrated in the name of the holy religion, caused the King


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HISTORY OF' FREEMASONRY. 209 who wasa warm cllurclman, to convene the Parliament, and again ask for supplies; but the Puritans, being in the majority, and feeling almost as much hatred for churchmen as Catlolics, refused to furnish the money necessary to preserve peace in the kingdom, and even insinuated that the King was at the bottom of the massacre. Charles pursued a vacillating course toward his enemies, sometimes threatening the severest and most summary punishment, and next conceding all that was asked, until, emboldened by this advantage, Parliament threw off all disguise, and raised an army for the avowed purpose of protecting the liberties of the people, but in reality with no other design than to establish their fanaticisms and jargonl, as the religion of the kingdom. In repeated battles, the Royalists and Roundheads were alternately victorious, until the gambling brewer, Oliver Cromwell, made his appearance, and became the great leader of the rebellion. This illiterate street brawler soon acquired more unlimited power than had been exercised by any king of England for centuries before; nor did he fail to exercise that power in such manner as tended most certainly to his own elevation. Cromwell was not only brave and daring, but if nature ever designed men to lead armies to bloodshed and slaughter, Cromwell and Napoleon were of the number. The immortal Washington was not better fitted to lead a little band of patriots in defense of their liberties than was Cromwell to direct the wild enthusiasm of a bigoted, besotted, and ignorant multitude. Who, for example, but Cromwell could have sent five hundred men under the command of a journeyman tailor, remarkable only for his ignorance and (brutality, to take the person of theKing from his palace, and convey him as a prisoner to the camp, and thus lay the foundation of his overthrow and death. After retaining the King as long as he thought good policy required, Cromwell instituted a mock tribunal, and giving him a mock trial, had him condemned and beheaded, A.D. 1649. in no country has Masonry flourished while that country was cursed with civil commotions. The genius and spirit of the Institution, covet the shades of retirement and the gentle smilesa 14


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of peace and quietness; love‑the strong bond of union‑can not bloom in its wonted freshness and vigor while civil wars are turning neighbor against neighbor, and father against son; but now, as ever, though its light burned but dimly, still did it continue to burn. Its altars were much neglected, but not forsaken. Masons occasionally held their meetings and practiced their sacred rites. Partly to prove this fact, and partly to indulge our fondness for the preservation of old documents, we here insert an extract from the manuscripts of Elias Ashmole. He says: "I was made a Freemason at Warrington, Lancashire, with Colonel Henry Mainwaring, of Kenthingham, in Cheshire, by Mr. Richard Penkle, the Warden, and the Fellow Crafts (whose names he gives), on the 16th of October, A.D. 1646." From the best light we have, this was about five years before the death of Inigo Jones, though Preston says lie died in this year; but as Hume, Anderson, and others agree in stating this event as happening in A.D. 1651, we infer that Preston is mistaken. Indeed, we are tempted to believe that Preston's statement of the time is an error in print, for we can not believe that historians should differ about the time of the decease of the most distinguished architect the world probably ever produced. He it was, that introduced the Augustan style of architecture into England, and,if we may believe some of the most judicious and unprejudiced writers, there are specimens of his skill still to be seen, that amply prove the merit of his great fame. On the restoration of Charles II., in 1660, who had suffered much in exile, and knew the value of Masonry, he now embraced the earliest opportunity to restore the ancient Order to its wonted prosperity. On the 27th of December, 1663, a general assembly of Masons was held under the following authority of the King: " Whereas, amongst our regal hereditary titles (to which, by Divine Providence, and the loyalty of our good subjects we are now happily restored), nothing appears to us more august, or more suitable to our pious disposition, than that of Fathe‑r of our Country, a name of indulgence as well as dominion, wherein we would imitate the benignity of Heaven,


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211 which, in the same shower, yields thunder and violets, and no sooner shakes the cedars, but, dissolving the clouds, drops fatness. We, therefore, out of a paternal care of our people, resolve, together with those laws which tend to the well administration of government, and the people's allegiance to us, inseparably to join the supreme law of salus populi, that obedience may be manifestly, not only to the public, but private felicity of every subject, and the great concern of his satisfactions and enjoyments in this life. The way to so happy a government, we are sensible, is in no manner more facilitated than by the promoting of the useful arts and sciences, which, upon mature inspection, are found to be the basis of civil communities and free governments, and which gather multitudes by an orphean charm, into cities, and connect them in companies; that so, by laying in a stock; as it were, of several arts and methods of industry, the whole body may be supplied by a mutual convenience of each other's peculiar faculties, and, consequently, that the various miseries and toils of this frail life may, by as many various expedients ready at hand, be remedied or alleviated, and wealth and plenty diffused in just proportion to one's industry; that is, to every one's deserts. And there is no question, but the same policy that founds a city, doth nourish and increase it; since these mentioned allurements to a desire of cohabitation do not only occasion populosity of a country, but render it more potent and wealthy than a more populous, but more barbarous nation; it being the same thing to add more hands, or by the assistance of art to facilitate labor and bring it within the power of the few. "Wherefore, our reason has suggested to us, and our own experience in our travels in foreign kingdoms and states, hath abundantly confirmed that we prosecute effectually the advancement of natural experimental philosophy, especially those parts of it which concern the increase of commerce, by the addition of useful inventions tending to the ease, profit, or health of our subjects; which will best be accomplished by a company of ingenious and learned persons, well qualified for this sort of knowledge, to make it their principal care and study, and to be constituted a regular Society for this purpose,


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endowed with all proper privileges and immunities. Not that herein we would withdraw the least ray of our influence from the present established nurseries of good literature and edu. cation, founded by the piety of our royal ancestors and others,, to be perpetual fountains of religion and laws ùthat religion and those laws, which, as we are obliged to defenrd, so the holy blood of our martyred father hath inseparably endeared to us; but that we purpose to make further provision for this branch of knowledge, likewise, natural experimental philosophywhich comprehends all that is required towards those intentions we have recited; taking care in the first place for religion, so next for the riches and ornament of our kingdoms: as we wear an imperial crown in which flowers are alternately intermixed with the ensigns of Christianity. "And whereas, we are well informed that a competent number of persons of eminent learning, ingenuity, and honor, concording in their inclinations and studies towards this employment, have for some time accustomed themselves to meet weekly, and orderly to confer about the hidden causes of things, with a design to establish certain, and correct uncertain, theories in philosophy; and by their labors in the disquisition of nature to approve themselves real benefactors of mankind: and that they have already made considerable progress by divers useful and remarkable discoveries, inventions, and experiments in the improvement of mathematics, mechanics, astronomy, navigation, physic, and chemistry‑wo have determined to grant our royal favor, patronage, and all due encouragement to this illustrious assembly, and so beneficial and laudable an enterprise." How many of our readers will be able to discover in this singularly worded document, a warrant authorizing the Masons to hold an assembly, we can not divine; for we confess, if we had found it disconnected with the subject of Masonry, we never should have suspected its connection with the Society. But we find it recorded by Dr. Anderson" who says it was drawn by Dr. Christopher Wren, father of the celebrated Sir Christopher Wren. Of one thing we feel satisfied, that if this charier is to be regarded as a fair specimen of the legal instro.


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213 ments of that day, men must have possessed a much keener penetration then than now; for it is to be presumed that no document of the kind would emanate from the King which did not admit of being understood by others than the writer. At the assembly held under and by the authority of this, charter, Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans, was chosen Grand Master, who appointed Sir John Denham Surveyor General of the Royal Marks. Mr. Christopher Wren and Mr. John Webb were appointed Grand Wardens. On December 27, 1663, this Grand Master held a general assembly and feast, when the following regulations were adopted: " 1. That no person of what degree soever. be made or accepted a Freemason, unless in a regular Lodge, whereof one to be a Mason or Warden in that limit or division where such Lodge is kept, and another to be a Craftsman in the trade of Freemasonry. " 2. That no person hereafter shall be accepted a Freemason but such as are of able body, honest parentage, good reputation, and an observer of the laws of the land. "3. That no person hereafter who shall be accepted a Freemason shall be admitted into a Lodge or assembly until he has brought a certificate of the time and place of his acceptation from the Lodge that accepted him unto the Master of that. limit or division where such Lodge is kept, and the said Master shall enroll the same in a roll of parchment, to be kept for that purpose, and shall give an account of all such acceptations at every General Assembly. "4. That every person who is now a Freemason shall bring to the Master a note of the time of his acceptation, to the end that the same may be enrolled in such priority of place as the brother deserves; and that the whole Company and Fellows may the better know each other. " 5. For the future the said Fraternity of Freemasons shall be regulated and governed by one Grand Master, and as many Wardens as the said Society shall think fit to appoint at every annual General Assembly. " 6. That no person shall be accepted unless he be twenty‑one years oid, or more.'


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            CHAPTER XVI1. WE now approach that memorable period in the history of Freemasonry when it was about to assume a different position in society. We have seen that in the original formation of the Institution a beautiful and harmonious combination of operative and speculative principles cemented the Fraternity into a scientific, moral, and mechanical community, alike useful to the world and beneficial to themselves. In every age of the world the great mass of mankind has been influenced and swayed by the few, whether in religion, politics, or ethics. From the days of Solomon to near the close of the seventeenth century, we have no reason to doubt that the wisest and best men held in veneration the sciences of geometry and architecture; indeed, so universal was this sentiment, that by common consent the standing of a nation or people was commensurate with their skill in architecture; and hence, it is not strange that the sons of kings and nobles sought to become operative workmen and scientific architects, and hence was the science better understood then than now. So soon as the learned and wealthy came to regard labor as discreditable, the scientific laborer was reduced to a level with the most illiterate hireling, and it was to be expected that a society having within its body a large number of the higher classes of the community, would so far yield to the influence of public opinion, as to remodel the system in accordance with the views of its members. Thus, while the rituals of the Order were retained, our Institution ceased to require its initiates to become either accomplished workmen, or even cultivate a knowledge of the sciences. It is true, the lectures continued to recommend the study of the arts and sciences, but Masonry ceased to be an academy of learning; and it was not long ere it was regarded as altogether proper to initiate men who possessed nothing


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215 better than a negative character for honesty, though they knew not a hatchet from a hand‑saw, and though they were not expected to devote any time to mental culture. To preserve Freemasonry from total ruin and disgrace, however, the same‑ moral lessons were preserved and kept in use; and now, while one‑half of the noble tree has been suffered to wither and die, the other half blooms in immortal green, and points the beholder, through faith, to the immortality of the soul in another and eternal world. Yes, though Masonry stands forth shorn of one of its beautiful proportions, still does it present the most sublime reality (the Christian religion alone excepted) that the mind of man ever conceived of. The period we are now about to review is, therefore, one of great interest, and it becomes our duty to deal somewhat more in detail in relation to those important events, as also of the individuals who distinguished themselves as prominent actors. The city of London had been built mainly of wood, which, together with the narrowr and crooked streets, rendered it, not only unsightly, inconvenient, and unhealthy, but very liable to be consumed by fire. The city had long been a fruitful generator of contagious diseases. The year 1665 was unusually one of scourge, from the plague, and it continued its ravages up to that period when the greatest of all fires occurred in London in 1666. This fire burned over three hundred and seventy‑three acres of ground, consumed thirteen thousand houses, eighty‑nine parish churches, and a number of chapels. It also destroyed the Royal Exchange, Custom House, Guild Hall, Blackwell Hall, St. Paul's Cathedral, and some fifty‑odd halls belonging to companies and societies. The direct loss is estimated at ten millions of pounds sterling‑nearly fifty millions of dollars; in short, the great city was left in almost total ruin. At this trying period the King displayed in a wonderful degree his keen penetration in the selection of competent men to devise plans, and tako charge of the rebuilding of the city, in such a manner as would render it more beautiful and less liable to a similar catastrophe. The King appointed Sir Christopher Wren Surveyor General. and principal grand architect. At this period he was acting as Deputy to the Grand Master:; but as he was long in the


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service of his country and the Fraternity, as Grand Master, and became prominent for the skill and ability with wlich he presided over the Craft, and for his learning in architecturs, we feel called upon to transmit through our pages something of his early history, and this will be read with the more interest because he was the last Grand Master of Operative Masonry. Sir Christopher Wren, the only son of Dr. Christopher Wren. Dean of Windsor, was born in 1632. If we may rely on his biographers and the Fraternity of his day, the great genius and love of science which were so fully developed in after life, were to be seen in Sir Christopher Wren when he was but thirteen years old, as at this age it is recorded that he invented a new astronomical instrument‑the Pan‑Organum‑and wrote treatises on rivers, which attracted the notice and wonder of the learned. He invented a new pneumatic engine, and a curious instrument to solve this problem, viz.; On a known plane, in a known elevation, to describe such lines with the turning of rundles, to certain divisions, as by the shadow the style may show the equal hours of the day. At the early age of fourteen he was admitted into Windham College, where he enjoyed the advantages of the learned instructions and warm friendship of Drs. Wilkens and Ward. He assisted Dr. Scarborough in anatomical preparations and experiments on the muscles of the human body, from which experiments, it is said, originated the geometrical and mechanical speculations in anatomy. He wrote an able paper on the variations of the magnetic needle, by which to find the velocity of a ship under sail; one on the improvement of galleys; one on using artillery on shipboard; how to build on deep water; how to build a mole into the sea, without cisterns; and one upon the improvement of navigation by connecting rivers, which, in our opinion, embraces the outlines of that system of constructing canals by means of feeders, which is now so generally in use, and the nvention of which, we believe, is generally attributed to DeWitt Clinton. We regard the life and achievements of Sir Christopher Wren as displaying, in a striking point of view, the great powers of the mind; for when we remember that ho


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217 was early employed in public and active business, and so continued to near the close of his long life, we can scarcely conceive of an opportunity for him to use his pen otherwise than in connection with his daily vocations; and yet, this remarkable man wrote so much as to draw from Preston the following language: "In short, the works of this excellent genius appear to be rather the united efforts of a whole century, than the production of a single man." It will be seen in the course of this history, that Sir Christopher Wren devoted his time and preeminent talents both to Operative and Speculative Masonry. His services in the former capacity are better known to the general reader, for the reason that the great fire of 1666 called forth his talents as an Operative Mason, and everything connected with the rebuilding of London was carefully chronicled in history while his services in Speculative Masonry are known only through the traditions of our Order, nothing having then been published in relation to the moral teachings and principles of Speculative Masonry. It is not more singular than true. that while every one is ready to ridicule or censure those who, in laying oft towns, make the streets so narrow as to be inconvenient, unsightly, and unhealthy; yet, when by means of fire, the same men are afforded an opportunity of so widening them that most, if not all, the inconveniences would be avoided in the rebuilding, there are generally a sufficient number of contrary or meanly contracted landholders to thwart the praiseworthy efforts of the balance. This difficulty was clearly seen in the burnt district of St. Louis, Mo., after the great fire of May, 1849. The plan drawn up by Sir Christopher Wren for the rebuilding of London was a masterly effort, and presented the singular merit of so widening and straightening the streets as to have made it one of the handsomest cities in the world, and do little or no injury to any one of the landholders; and yet, because some of them by that plan would not have received the precise spot of ground once occupied by them, they refused their assent, and thus defeated the accomplishment of an object that would have benefited the inhabitants for ages to come. But even this obstacle did not paralyze the efforts of the great architect; for he so remodeled his plan as to give satisfaction to all, and


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though all could not be accomplished that was desirable, he rebuilt the city, greatly surpassing in beauty and convenielce the old one. One of the first houses of magnitude rebuilt was tht Custom House for the port of London. This was erected in A.D. 1668, built so as to contain both the Tuscan and Ionic orders of architecture. The length of this building is one hundred and eighty‑nine feet; the breadth varies from twenty‑five to sixty feet. In A.D. 1669 the Royal Exchange was opened, supposed to be the finest in Europe. In this building was placed a statue of each of the kings of England. The first house built exclusively by the taste, and under the direction of Deputy Wren, was the great Theatre at Oxford, which was erected by the private means of Gilbert Shelden. This edifice was modeled, in many respects, after the Theatre of Marcellus, at Rome, and with a view to do justice to the great architect, we make the following extract from Dr. Plat's notice of this building, from which our readers may judge whether improvements are still being made in the art of covering houses. The Doctor says: " It was an excellent device, whoever first contrived it, of making flat floors or roofs of short pieces of timber, continued to a great breadth. without either arch or pillar to support them, but sustained only by the side walls and their own texture; for by this means many times the defect of long timber, or the mistakes of workmen, are supplied or rectified, without any prejudice to the building. Of this sort of work we have an example in the schools in the floor of the uppermost room of the Tower. There is also a diagram of such work in the architecture of Sebastian Serlio. But Dr. Wallis was the first that demonstrated the reason of this work, and has given divers forms for it, besides the aforementioned, in his book De Motu. But of all the flat floors having no pillars to support them, and whose main beams are made of divers pieces ot timbers, the most admirable is that of the Theatre of Oxford, from side wall to side wall eighty feet over one way, and seventy the other; whose lockages are so quite different from any before mentioned, and in many other particulars, as perhaps not to be paralleled in the world.


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219 In 1671, Sir Christopher Wren commenced the monument of London, built in memory of the great fire. This work was completed A.D. 1677. It exceeded in hight the pillars of Trajan and Antoninus at Rome, as also that of Theodosius at Constantinople. Its altitude is two hundred and two feet; the diameter of the shaft of the column is fifteen feet; the ground bounded by the plinth, or base of the pedestal, is twentyeight feet square, and the pedestal is forty feet high. On the inside is a stoneway of three hundred and forty‑five steps of black marble, ten and a half inches broad, and six high. Over the capital is an iron balcony, encompassing a meta thirty‑two feet high, supporting a blazing urn of brass. It is said to contain near thirty thousand feet of solid Portland stone. The shaft contains four thousand eight hundred superficial feet. TheKing, having adopted one of the many plans furnished for rebuilding St. Paul's Cathedral, and having appointed comnlissioners, consisting of lords, spiritual and temporal, and noblemen, together with Sir Christopher Wren, Doctor of Laws, proceeded, on the 12th day of November, 1673, to issue the following remarkable proclamation: " WHEREAS, since the issuing out of our commission (viz., Anno 1663), the late dreadful fire in London hath destroyed and consumed the Cathedral church of St. Paul, to such a degree that no part of the ancient walls or structures can, with any safety, be relied upon, or left standing; in so much that it is now become absolutely necessary totally to demolish and raze to the ground all relics of the former building; and in the same place, but upon new foundations, to erect a new church; (which, that it may be done to the glory of God, and for the promotion of His divine worship and service therein to be celebrated; and to the end the same may equal, if not exceed, the splendor and magnificence of the former Cathedral church when it was in its best estate, and so become, much more than formerly, the principal ornament of our royal city to the honor of our government and of this our realm, we lha caused several designs for that purpose to be prepared by Dr Christopher Wren. surveyor general of all our works and buildings, which we have seen, and one of which we do more


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especially approve; and have commanded a model thereof be made after so large and exact a manner, that it may remain a perpetual, unchangeable rule and direction for the conduct of the whole work.) And whereas, our former commission, in which the upholding and repairing the ancient Cathedral church is only designed and mentioned, doth not sufficiently authorize and empower our said commissioners therein named, to begin and complete a new fabric upon new foundations‑KNOW YE, etc. " The Royal Warrant, under the Sign Mlanual and Privy Seal, for beginning the works of the new Cathedral of St. Paul, transcribed from the original, annexed to the Surveyor's drawing: " Charles R. WHEREAS, we have been informed that a portion of the imposition laid on coals, which by act of Parliament is appointed and set apart for the rebuilding of the Cathedral church of St. Paul, in our capital city of London, doth at present amount to a considerable sum, which, though not pro portionable to the greatness of the work, is, notwithstanding, sufficient to begin the same; and with all the materials and other assistances which may probably be expected, will put a new quire in great forwardness; and whereas, among divers designs which have been presented to us, we have particularly pitched upon one, as well because we found it very artificial, proper, and useful, as because it was so ordered that it might be built and finished by parts. We do, therefore, by these presents, signify our royal approbation of the said design hereunto annexed; and do will and require you forthwith to proceed according to the said design, beginning with the Eastend or quire, and accomplishing the same with the present stock of money, and such supplies as may probably accrue according to the tenor of the commission to you directed, and for so doing, this shall be your warrant. Given at our court at Whitehall, the 14th day of May, 1675, in the 27thl year of our reign. By His Majesty's command, " HENRY COVENTRY. "To our Commissioners for rebuilding the Cathedral of St. Paul, London." In connection with the commencement of this great building, there is some evidence that tends to throw a doubt over one of


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            HISTOlY OF FREEMASONRY. 221 our Masonic traditions; and this is entitled to the more attention because of Bro. Wren's familiarity with, and love of all, our rituals. Every Mason,at the present day, will remember where, according to our traditions, the first or corner‑stone should be laid, and it would seem remarkable that the rule, if then considered an established one, should have been disregarded at laying the foundations of St. Paul's; but as there may be a difference with builders between laying the foundation and that of the corner‑stone, with which, technically, we are not acquainted, we make the followixg extlact from Anderson's Constitutions: "In the progress of the works of the foundations, Deputy Wren met with one unexpected difficulty. IHe began to lay the foundations from the West end, anld had progressed successfully through the dome to the last end, where the brick earth bottom was very good; but as he went on to the northeast corner, which was the last, and where nothing was expected to interrupt, he fell, in prosecuting his design, upon a pit, where all the potearth had been robbed by the potters of old times. Here were discovered quantities of urns, broken vessels, and pottery ware of divers sorts and shapes. How far this pit extended northward, there was no occasion to examine. No ox skulls, horns of stags, and tusks of boars were found, to corroborate the account of Stow, Cambden, and others; nor any foundations more eastward. If there was formerly any temple to Diana, he supposed it might have been within the walls of the colony, and more to theSouth. It was no little perplexity to fall into this pit at last. He wanted but six or seven feet to complete the design, and this fell into the very angle northeast. He knew very well that under the layer of pot‑earth there was no other good ground to be found, till he came to the low‑water mark of the Thames, at least forty feet lower. His artificers proposed to him to pile, which he refused, for the piles may last for ever when always in water (otherwise London Bridge would fall), yet, if they are driven through dry sand, though sometimes moist, they will rot. His endeavors were to build for eternity. He therefore sunk a pit of about eighteen feet square, wharfing up the sand with timber, till he came forty feet lower into


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the watr and sea shells, where there was a firm sea beach which confirmed the opinion of many that the sea had been, in ages past, where now St. Paul's church is. He bored through this beach till he came to the original clay; being then satisfied, he began, from the beach, a square pier of solid, good masonry, ten feet square, till he came within fifteen feet of the present ground; then he turned a short arch, under ground, to the former foundation, which was broken off by the untoward accident of the pit." When Deputy Wren was surveying the ground to begin this mighty fabric, an occurrence happened that was regarded by many as an omen of great good. Having determined the outward lines for the foundation of the building, he found the centre, and sent a common laborer for a stone to mark the spot, who, seizing upon the first that presented among the rubbish, happened to bring a part of an old grave‑stone, having on it but a single word of the original engraving, viz., Resurgam. Although this church is not so large as St. Peter's, it is regarded by many as affording evidence of a higher order of scientific skill, and a more refined taste in the architect. We should not subserve the purposes of this history by entering into a minute detail of each, or any one of the many public buildings erected in London by the Freemasons, under the supervision of Sir Christopher Wren. Those who may desire this sort of information may have their desires fully met by a reference to any of the historians of that day. Suffice it to say, that it is probable no man has ever lived who superintended so much work, or so justly acquired high fame as an architect and Mason, as did Sir Christopher Wren. He seems, from the commencement, to have risen above the restraints of settled rules in architecture, and conceived the bold design of following either or all the orders of architecture only so far as they were adapted to the location and design or use 6f the building. Many of his edifices would be condemned if judged by the rules laid down in the books; but he, as we apprehend all able de. signers would do, was, as before remarked, governed by surrounding circumstances, and to meet the end in view, boldly exercised a discriminating judgment and sound taste, whether a


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223 rule was laid down in accordance therewith or not. This is so strikingly manifested in the steeple of Bow church. that we extract Dr. Plat's notice of it. He says: "The steeple of Bow church is another masterpiece of Sir Christopher Wren's, in a peculiar kind of building, which has no fixed rule to direct it, nor is it to be reduced to any settled laws of beauty. Without doubt, if we consider it only a part of some building, it can be esteemed no other than a delightful absurdity; but if either considered in itself, or as a decoration of a whole city in prospect, not only to be justified, but admired. That which we have now mentioned is, beyond question, as perfect as human imagination can conceive or execute, and till we see it outdone, we shall hardly think it to be equaled." Of the fifty‑four churches, however, erected by Deputy Wren. the one which most wins upon the taste of foreigners is St. Stephen's Wallbrook church; and an English writer, whose name we omitted to take when we made the following extract on our memorandum book, speaks of it in the same light. He says: "Wallbrook church, so little known among us, is famous all over Europe, and is justly reputed the masterpiece of the celebrated Sir Christopher Wren. Perhaps Italy itself can produce no modern building that can vie with this in taste or proportion. There is not a beauty which the plan would admit of, that is not to be found here in its greatest perfection; and foreigners very justly call our judgment in question for understanding its graces no better, and allowing it no higher degree of fame." Dr. Wren early called to his aid Mr. Robert Hook, Professor of Geometry in Gresham College, who was engaged in measuring and laying off private streets, lanes, and sites for private buildings. During the rebuilding of London, theKing failed not to remember the interests of his people elsewhere. He commanded Sir William Bruce, then Grand Master of Scotland, to rebuild the palace of Holy Rood House, at Edinburgh, which was executed by that architect in superior style. Thus it will be seen, that only accomplished and scientific architects were deemed qualified to take charge of the Craft. True, it often happened that by prerogative the reigning 7 0 inrV‑U 1~~V r L


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            224 HISTORY OF FREEMASONUY. King was Grand Master, who, if ever so well quaifired, sH['lim took the superintendence of the Craft in Operative Masonry. but the high reputation which the Society had obtained as a school of learning, was never lost sight of‑for the King appointed aDeputy from among the most learned of the profession. George Villiers, Duke of Bucks, was chosen Grand MtLaster in 1674; but he had neither the industry nor skill necessary for the times, and the responsibility mainly devolved on Deputy Wren. Henry Bennett, Earl of Arlington, was the next Grand Master, but he was so deeply engaged in politics that he attended to Lodge duties but imperfectly, and in Speculative as well as Operative Masonry, Dr. Wren was universally looked to as the great leader. Our knowledge of the action of Lodges in this reign are imperfect, for the reason that many of the records were destroyed in the revolution of James III., and Dr. Anderson says that many of these records were destroyed in his day, when the Grand Lodge was endeavoring to procure them in order to preserve and transmit a true history of the Order It seems that such was the prejudice against publishing anything in relation to Masonry, or the action of Lodges, that some of the old Masons, disapproving the edict of the Grand Lodge, burned the records in their possession, rather than run the risk of them getting into print in after ages. King Charles II. died in 1685, and was succeeded by James II., Stuart. ThisKing was not a Mason, and the Institution was much neglected in his reign. But on the death of Grand Master Arlington, the Fraternity assembled and elected Sir Christopher Wren, 1685. He appointed Mr. Gabriel Gribben and Edward Strong, Grand Wardens. It does not appear that this Grand Master appointed a Deputy, indeed we are well satisfied that a Deputy was formerly appointed only when thle Grand Master was incapable of superintending the Craft. Grand Master Wren was an active member of the Lodge of Antiquity, and usually met the brethren to observe and preserve the old usages of the Craft until the revolution of 1688, when the Prince of Orange landed, and King James sailed to France, and died, 1701.


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225 After James left, a convocation of states was held, and the crown of England was entailed upon James' two daughters, Mary, Princess of Orange, and Ann, Princess of Denmark, and their issue; and in the event of a failure of issue, then on William, Prince of Orange‑his mother, Mary Stuart, was King James' eldest sister; but he was to reign only during life. Accordingly, in 1689, King William III., and his wife Queen Mary II., were proclaimed king and queen, joint sovereigns of England and Scotland. Masonry began to decline about this period; indeed, we do not learn of more than half a dozen Lodges in the South of England that held regular meetings, nor are we fully prepared to account for this sudden falling off. The King was made a Freemason, and expressed his approval of the choice of Wren as Grand Master, and extended his encouragement in the rebuilding of St. Paul's Cathedral, and the great addition to Hampton Court. The King also built his palace at Kensington. Sir Christopher drew up a petition to the King and Queen, praying them to convert the site and buildings of their royal palace to the noble purpose of & hospital for old seamen, etc. To this petition he procured the names of many of the lords, and their prayer was granted. To the speedy erection of this extensive and magnificent building, Grand Master Wren devoted his unremitted attention, without compensation or reward in any way; indeed, this was only characteristic of his whole life ùhe ever preferred the good of the public to any private interests, and never sought to enrich himself. About this time, Charles Lennos, Duke of Lennox and Richmond, was chosen Grand Master. Wren was again appointed deputy, and Edward Strong, Sen., and Edward Strong, Jr., Grand Wardens. As heretofore, Dr. Wren was the efficient head of the Craft, and in 1698 he was again elected Grand Master. Queen Mary died 1694, and King William 1702. Ann Stuart. wife of George, Prince of Denmark, now ascended the throne as Queen sovereign. The Queen united the kingdoms of England and Scotland into one kingdom, Great Britain, May, 1707. Sir Christopher Wren had now become so old that he could is


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not attend to the active duties of Masonry, and Lodges were shamefully neglected, insomuch that the few who attended the annual assembly, being willing to do all in their power to revive it, enacted a law abrogating the ancient rule which required the initiates to be either architects or students of the arts and sciences. The doors being thus thrown open as well to the illiterate as the learned, the members rapidly increased. Masonry revived at the cost of the downfall of the noble science of architecture. We have elsewhere said, that even yet, after the innovations and miserable blunders of the eighteenth century, though architecture has been declining for one hundred and fifty years, still may it be revived and brought back to its wonted grandeur. Yea, more; would Masons make their Lodges, as of old, academies of learning, a brighter day would dawn upon our Craft ùfor with the improvements of the age, and the onward march of mind, architecture would rise far above its former glory.


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            CHAPTER XVIII. WE feel, as we have intimated before, that if we could do or say anything to induce the brethren of our Order to institute an inquiry into the propriety of again taking charge of architecture, we should become a public benefactor. We know that in the days of Sir Christopher Wren, the science was not as much understood as it had been by the ancients. In every age, from the building of Solomon's Temple down to the abolition of Operative Masonry, the science of geometry and the art of building languished or flourished in proportion as Masonry was cultivated or neglected. For several centuries anterior to the time of our last operative Grand Master, Masonry and sound morals were so little attended to as almost to leave covered up, in the rubbish of ignorance and superstition, every vestige of the noble science. As Masons had the entire charge and control of architecture, it must needs have suffered almost a total overthrow; and as the wisdom of the people and their national greatness had been commensurate with their knowledge of the arts and sciences, and more especially architecture, it is not to be wondered at that literature became unpopular, and ignorance the standard of worth. After the reign of Henry VI., Masonry several times revived and again languishcd, until the beginning of the eighteenth century. One of these revivals was under Sir Christopher Wren; and we are not left to tradition only to learn that as Masonry flourished architecture advanced and the nation prospered. No man, perhaps, ever did so much to reestablish the fallen glory of our venerated Order; no man did more to render it honorable, in the eyes of wise and good men, to be an accomplished and scientific mechanic. In his day, kings, princes, and nobles esteemed it a high privilege to become Masons and accomplished artisans


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and it is a matter of astonishment and regret that, so soon after his noble example, Sir Christopher's successors should have taken down the great pillars of the edifice, by admitting street loungers, ladies' dolls, and illiterate drones, into the Order, to take charge of its concerns. From that day commenced the fall of Masonry from the proud stand of giving tone and influence to mechanism, engendering a love of the sciences, and shedding lustre and glory over the government that patronized it. From that time, while science and art generally have advanced with the progressive age, architecture has stood still, if, indeed, it has not receded. Masons, more than any, have the power to correct that vitiated taste which makes it more honorable to be ignorant, with money, than learned, without it. Mechanics themselves have it in their power to elevate their standing above those who sneer at them. Let Lodges become what they once were‑schools of learning; let mechanics learn to be more than mere imitative beings; let them become scientific workmen; and the day is not distant when even the purseproud ignoramus will be ashamed to say, " That is a very clever man, for a mechanic." We wish not to be misunderstood. We would not have our Lodges to be less devoted to the inculcation of a high standard of moral principle; we would not have them lose one jot or tittle of Speculative Masonry; but we only desire, once more, to see them take charge of architecture as a science, and, not only bring it back to its once elevated position, but push it forward, step by step, with the other noble sciences. This is not a fit place to suggest the details of a plan, nor do we feel qualified to do so, if it were; but we again call attention to the subject, and with a view to furnish some data, and call attention to architecture of the seventeenth century, we will here extract entire, from Anderson's Constitutions, a letter written by Sir Christopher Wren, in his old age, which was designed as a letter of instruction to those who might succeed him: Since Providence, in great mercy, has protracted my age to the finishing the Cathedral church of St. Paul, and the parochial churches of London, in lieu of those demolished by the fire (all


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229 which were executed during the fatigues of my employment in the service of the Crown, from that time to the present happy reign); and lbing now constituted one of the commissioners fbr building, pursuant to the late act, fifty more churches in London and Westminster, I shall presume to communicate, briefly, my sentiments, after long experience; and, without further ceremony, exhibit to better judgment what at present occurs to me, in a transient view of the whole affair, not doubting but that the debates of the worthy commissioners may hereafter give me occasion to change, or add to these speculations. "I.‑I conceive the churches should be built, not where vacant ground may be cheapest, purchased in the extremities of the suburbs, but among tie thicker inhabitants, for convenience of the better sort, although the site of them should cost morethe better inhabitants contributing most to the future repairs, and the ministers and officers of the church, and cllarges of the parish. " I.‑I could wish that all burials in churches might be disallowed, which is not only unwholesome, but the pavements can never be kept even, nor the pews upright; and if the churchyard be close about the church, this is also inconvenient, because the ground being continually raised by the graves occasions in time a descent by steps into.the church, which renders it damp and the walls green, as appears evidently in all old churches. " III.‑It will be inquired, Where then shall be the burials? I answer, in cemeteries seated in the outskirts of the town. And since it has become the fashion of the day to solemnize funerals by a train of coaches (even where the deceased are of moderate condition), though the cemeteries should be half a mile or more distant fiom the church, the charge need be little or no more than usual; the service may be first performed in the church. But for the poor and such as must be interred at the parish charge, a public hearse, of twc wheels and one horse, may be kept at small expense, the usual bearers to lead the horse and take out the corpse at the grave. A piece of ground, of two acres, in the fields, will be purchased for much less than two rods among the buildings. This being inclosed with a


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strong brick wall, and having a walk round and two cross walks decently planted with yew trees, the four quarters may serve four parishes, where the dead need not be disturbed at the pleasure of the sexton, or piled four or five upon one another, or bones thrown out to gain room. In these places beautiful monuments may be erected; but yet the dimensions should be regulated by an architect, and not left to the fancy of every Mason; for thus the rich, with large marble tombs, would shoulder out the poor, when a pyramid, a good bust on a pedestal, will take up little room in the quarters, and be more proper than figures lying on marble beds. The walls will contain escutcheons and memorials for the dead; and the area, good air and walks for the living. It may be considered, further, that if the cemeteries be thus thrown into the fields, they will bound the excessive growth of the city with a graceful border, which is now incircled with scavengers' dung stalls. IV.‑As to the situation of the churches, I should propose they be brought as forward as possible into the larger and more open streets, not in obscure lanes, nor where coaches wil be much obstructed in their passage. Nor are we, I think, to observe Easter Westin the position, unless it falls out properly Such fronts as shall happen to lie most open in view, should be adorned with porticos, both for beauty and convenience, which, together with handsome spires or lanterns, rising in good proportion above the neighboring houses (of which I have given several examples in the city, of different forms), may be of sufficient ornament to the town, without a great expense for enrichnmg the outward walls of the churches, in which plainness and duration ought principally, if not wholly, to be studied. When a parish is divided, I suppose it may be thought sufficient if the mother church has a tower large enough for a good ring of bells, and the other churches smaller towers for two or three bells, because great towers and lofty steeples are sometimes more than half the charge of the church. "V.‑I shall mention something of the materials for public fabrics. It is true the mighty demand for the hasty worl‑ of thousands of houses at once after the fire of London, and the fiauds of those who built for the great, have so debased tX*


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231 valle of materials, that good bricks are not now to be had without greater prices than formerly, and, indeed, if rightly made, will deserve them. But brickmakers spoil the earth in the mixing and hasty burning, till the bricks will hardly bear weight, though the earth about London, rightly managed, will yield as good bricks as were the Roman bricks (which I have often found in the old ruins of the city), and will endure, in our air, beyond any stone our island affords; which, unless the quarries lie near the sea, are too dear for general use: the best is Portland or Rock‑abbey stone, but these are not without their faults. Tie next material is lime. Chalk‑lime is in constant use, which, well mixed with good sand, is not amiss, though much worse than hard stone‑lime. The vaulting of St. Paul's is rendering as hard as stone; it is composed of cockleshell lime, well beaten with sand‑the more labor in the beating the better and stronger the mortar. I shall say nothing of marble (though England, Scotland, and Ireland afford good and beautiful colors); but this will prove too costly for our purpose, unless for altar pieces. In windows and doors, Portland stone may be used, with good bricks and stone quoyns. As to roofs, good oak is certainly the best, because it will bear some negligence. The churchwarden's care may be defective in speedy mending drips; they usually whitewash the church, and set up their names, but neglect to preserve the roof over. their heads. It must be allowed that the roof, being more out of sight, is still more unminded. Next to oak is good yellow deal, which is a timber of length and light, and makes excellent work at first, but if neglected, will speedily perish, especially if gutters (which is a general fault in builders) be made to run upon the principal rafters, the ruin may be sudden. Our seaservice for oak, and the waves in the North Sea, make timber at the present of excessive price. I suppose ere long we must have recourse to the West Indies, where most excellent timber may be had for cutting and fetching. Our tiles are ill made, and our slate not good. Lead is certainly the best covering, and being of our own growth and manufacture, and lasting, if properly laid, for many hundred years, is without doubt the most preferable, though I will not deny but an excellent tile


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may be made to be very durable. Our artisans are not yet instructed in it, and it is not soon done to inform them. " VI.‑The capacity and dimensions of the new churches may be determined by a calculation. It is, as I take it, pretty certain that the number of inhabitants for whom these churches are provided are five times as many as those in the city who were burnt out, and probably more than forty thousand grown persons that should come to church, for whom these fifty churches are to be provided (besides some chapels already built, though too small to be made parochial). Now, if the churches could hold, each, two thousand, it would yet be very short of tile necessary supply. The churches, therefore, must be large; but still, in our reformed religion, it should seem vain to make a parish church larger than that all present can both hear and see distinctly. The Romanists, indeed, may build larger churches. It is enough if they hear the murmur of the mass, and see the elevation of the host; but ours are to be fitted for auditories. I can hardly think it practicable to make a single room so capacious, with pews and galleries, as to hold above two thousand persons, and all to hear the service, and both to hear distinctly and see the preacher. I endeavored to effect this in building the parish church of St. James, Westminster which I presume is the most capacious, with these qualifications, that batl yet been built; and yet, at a solemn time, when the church was much crowded, I could not discern, from a gallery, that two thousand were present. In this church I mention, though very broad, and the middle nave arched up, yet as there are no walls of a second order, nor lanterns, nor buttresses, but the whole roof rests upon the pillars, as do also the galleries, I think it may be found beautiful and convenient, and, as such, the cheapest form I could invent. "VII.‑Concerning the placing of the pulpit, I shall observe‑A moderate voice may be heard fifty feet distant lefore the preacher, thirty feet on either side, and twenty behind the pulpit, and not this. unless the pronunciation b‑o distinct and equal, without losing the voice at the last word of th'e sentence, which is commonly emphatical, and if obscured, spoils the whole sense. A Frenchman is heard further than an


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233 Ernglish preacher because lie raises his voice and never sinks his last words. I mention this as an insufferable fault in the pronunciation of some of our otherwise excellent preachers, which schoolmasters might correct in the young, as a vicious pronunciation, and not as the Roman orators spoke‑for the principal is in Latin, usually the last word, and if that be lost, what becomes of the sentence? " VIII.‑By what I have said, it may be thought reasonable that the new church should be at least sixty feet broad, and ninety feet long, besides a chancel at each end, and the belfry and portico at the other. These proportions may be varied; but to build more room than that every person may conveniently see and hear is to create noise and confusion. A church should not be so filled with pews, but that the poor may have room enough to stand and sit in the alleys, for to them equally is the Gospel preached.* It were to be wished there were to be no pews, but benches; but there is no stemming the tide of profit, and the advantage of pew keepers, especially, too, since by pews in the chapels of ease, the minister is principally supported. It is evident these fifty churches are not enough for the present inhabitants, and the town will continually grow; but it is to be hoped that hereafter more may be added, as the wisdom of the government may think fit, and therefore the parishes should be so divided as to leave room for subdivisions, or, at least, for chapels of ease." The foregoing extract, while it is replete with good sense, presents a style of writing that in some respects would not be sanctioned at the present day; nor would the opinions of tile author, in relation to some things, be more acceptable. We have heard one or two pulpit orators, Europeans, whose style was such as Sir Christopher admired, but to us it was anything but agreeable to the ear. About the period here referred to, many splendid mansions * Query? Is the Gospel preached equally to the poor, where all the seats are owned, ‑though not always occupied‑from which the preacher can be distinctly heard? Does not the preacher of the present enlightened age preach directly for the benefit of the rich. and incidentalq for the poor? Is not the house of the Lord again ccupied by money‑changers? Do not rich sinners elbow out poor saints


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were erected throughout England, but the most beautiful specimens of the Augustan style of architecture, were to be seen in the new chapel of Trinity College‑Christ's church College. Sir Christopher Wren lived to see London laid in ashes‑to see it more beautifully and conveniently rebuilt. He had the honor of designing and laying the corner‑stone of St. Paul'. church, in 1673, and finished it in 1710. The highest and las stone on the top of the lantern was laid by his son, Christophel Wren, Esq., who had been deputed by his father to do so. Thi was done in the presence of the great architect, Mr. Strong and his two sons, Grand Wardens, and a large concourse of Masons. Thus was this splendid edifice, second only to the church of St. Peter at Rome, begun and finished in thirty‑five years, by one architect, and under one bishop (Dr. Henry Compton), while St. Peter was in building one hundred and forty‑five years, under twelve successive architects, assisted by the Roman See, and, as was supposed, by the best artists in the world, under the reigns of nineteen Popes, viz.: Julius II., Leo X., Hadrianus VI., Clemens VII., Paulus III., Julius IIT., Paulus IV., Pius IV., Pius V., Gregorius XIII., Sextus V., Urbanus VII., Gregorius XIV., Innocentins IX., Clemens VIII;, Paulus V., Alexander VII., Urbanus VIII., and Innocentius X. The great age of Sir Christopher Wren obliged him to discontinue his frequent visits to the Lodges, and his assistance in their internal management; and strange to say, so long had the Fraternity been looking up to him for instruction and guidance, that his retirement had the effect to produce the most culpable neglect of all their most sacred duties, until the number of Lodges in the South of England were reduced to seven or eight. Queen Anne died without issue, 1714. She was the last of the race of Charles I., who ascended the throne, because, by an act of Parliament, the crown had been settled upon the Protestant heirs of his sister, Elizabeth Stuart, whose daughter, the Princess Sophia, the rightful heir, died a short time before the Queen; and by said act of Parliament, her son George, Elector of ‑Hanover, was entitled to the crown. Accordingly, he made a magnificent entrance into London, on the 20th of September, 1714. After


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            HISrORY OF FREEMASONRY. 235 the rebellion of 1716, a few zealous Masons made an effort to resuscitate the Order, and as they regarded their long apathy and inattention to the Institution as being mainly owing to the inability of their aged Grand Master to attend to the duties of his office, the following Lodges met in council, viz.: one held at the Goose and Gridiron, in St. Paul's Churchyard; one held at the Crown, in Parker's Lane; one at the Apple Tree Tavern, in Charles street, Covent Garden; and one at the Rummer and Grapes Tavern, in Chancel Row, Westminster, together with some old brethren, who were not connected with either assembled at the Apple Tree Tavern, and put into the chair the oldest Master Mason, who was at the time Master of a Lodge. They thereupon constituted themselves into a Grand Lodge pro tempore, in due form. At this convocation or assembly, they revived the quarterly communications of the Masters and Wardens of the Lodges who alone had constituted the Grand Lodge. We here call attention to an error into which many Masons in the United States have fallen, in relation to the Grand Lodge of England. The general impression seems to be, that the Grand Lodge of England proper, only met once a year, viz., on Feast Day; while, if the history of that branch of the Fra ternity is well understood, it will be seen that the Grand Lodge was made up of the Master and Wardens of the particular Lodges, whose duty it was to meet quarterly in Grand Lodge, and transact such business as the interest of Masonry and the particular Lodges seemed to demand. At these meetings none others than members were permitted, while at the great annual feast, although the Grand Lodge was convened, the doors were more widely thrown open. It was a day of rejoicing and fellowship with all. Past Masters were there, and were perritted to participate; Entered Apprentices were there, and permitted to participate; in short, the annual feast was a convention of all the Masons, and in relation to some things, Apprentices had a voice in the Grand Lodge; but at this reorganization, the doctrine is clearly set forth that none but the Masters and Wardens of the Lodges for the time being are entitled to seats in the Grand Lodge, as members, but the


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Grand Lodge claimed and exercised the right to amend and alter its own Constitution, and hence held and exercised the power, at an after period, of admitting others to membership. The assembly above alluded to did not fully reestablish the Grand Lodge of England, but advised that the old custom of holding an annual feast should be revived, and that the Grand Master, according to custom, should then be chosen. Accordingly, in the third year of the reign of George the First, on St. John the Baptist's day, 1717, the assembly and feast were held at the Goose and Gridiron. Anderson informs us that "before dinner, the oldest Master Mason (being the Master of a Lodge) being in the Chair, proposed a list of proper candidates, and the brethren, by a majority of hands, elected Mr. Anthony Sayer, gentleman, Grand Master of Masons, who, being forthwith invested with the badges of office and power by the said oldest Master, and installed, was duly congratulated by the assembly, who paid him the homage." We think it may be seen by this, that at this assembly of Masons all the brethren were equally permitted to take part; but the very first act of power exercised by Grand Master Sayer was, in effect, to declare who were the members of the Grand Lodge, for he ordered the Masters and Wardens of Lodges, only, to meet him in quarterly communication. To this order, Anderson makes a note, in which he says:" It is called a quarterly communication, because it should meet quarterly, according to ancient usage." Now, if Anderson, who lived at the time, and assisted in reestallishing the Grand Lodge of England, then spoke of this order of the Grand Master, requiring the Masters and Wardens only to assemble in Grand Lodge, as an ancient usage, with what propriety can we say that Past Masters are members of the Grand Lodge by ancient usage, when, for fifty years after that period, we have no evidence that they were considered members, or ever had been at any previous period? At the assembly and feast held on June 24, 1718, George Payne, Esq., was elected Grand Master of Masons; and here we will insert the language of Dr. Anderson, who was present. in order to elicit inquiry into the true history and origin of


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237 the Past Master's degree, which we do not believe belongs to, or has any connection with, Ancient Craft Masonry. The Doctor says:" Bro. Sayer, having gathered the votes after dinner, proclaimed aloud, our Bro. George Payne, Esq., Grand Master of Masons, who being duly invested, installed, congratulated, and homaged, recommended the strict observance of the quarterly communication." This is as full as any description given in any part of Anderson's history of the installation of the Grand Master; and we suppose the custom then was to require the Grand Master simply to promise faithfully to discharge the duties of the office, and that no other ceremony was used than to8k place in the presence of all Master Masons. The investigation of this subject will be more fully entered into in the appropriate place. At this communication, the Grand Master requested the brethren to bring to the Grand Lodge any old writings and records concerning Masons and Masonry, in order to show the usages of ancient times; and Anderson informs us that this year several old copies of the Gothic Cohstitution were produced and collated. John Cardwell, city carpenter, and Thomas Maurice, stone cutter, were chosen Grand Wardens. As Grand Master Payne's administration may be justly esteemed as marking out an era in the history of Freemasonry, we will proceed at once to the further consideration of that subject. The eminent character and peculiar fitness of Grand Master Payne for the office he held tended powerfully to render the Institution popular, and caused many applicants, from the higher walks of life, for the mysteries of Masonry; nor were his very efficient services overlooked by the Craft, for although at the annual communication in June, 1719, the Rev. Dr. Desaguliers was elected Grand Master, Bro. Payne was again elected in June, 1720. It was during his administration, and especially in 1720, that a number of valuable manuscripts concerning ancient usages, charges, and regulations, were brought forward, and at this period while the Grand Lodge was using every effort to perpetuate these things, many valuable documents were destroyed by those, who regarded it as a violation of solemn duty


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to suffer anything having a direct reference to Masonry to be published; among the number so destroyed was one written by Nicholas Stone, a Warden of Inigo Jones. This paper had been seen by many of the old brethren, and by them regarded as of the very highest importance. How remarkable to the light thinker of the present day does this conduct seem, especially when he can find at every turn a modern publication in which is to be found almost everything but the mere ritual, and in some, even much of that. We sincerely think that the true course would have been between the two extremes, and that the Grand Lodge of England in 1722 adopted that course. Those brethren, who feared to publish to the world the principles, objects, and ends of Freemasonry, and who believed that such a publication would tend to the overthrow of the Order, greatly erred; for every community has a right to know the true principles upon which are based the existence of all secret associations within its borders. No set of men have a right to congregate together in secret conclave from month to month, from year to year, without giving assurances, and reliable testimony, that the end is not detrimental to the well‑being and good order of society, and for this purpose the Grand Lodge of England wisely ordered the publication of the Ancient Charges which clearly set forth the terms of cement and the principles of the Association, the result of which was, to remove the vulgar prejudices and idle tales, then in vogue in reference to Masonry; and it did much more than this, it rendered the Institution popular with all classes, except those whose moral character was so defective that they were excluded from its benefits. But, on the other hand, we are not prepared to say that this passion for publishing has not led to an evil more alarming and ruinous in its consequences than the other extreme. We ask the reader, who is a Mason, to take up the writings of Dr. Oliver, the.ncient Landmarks for example, read it carefully, and then tell us in sober seriousness if the Doctor has not printed too much. What are the secrets of Masonry, that may not be published to the world; aye, and if his history be received, what becomes of our traditions? We know we are treading on ground held sacred by some, we have been made to feel the consequences,


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239 in a pecuniary point of view, of our temerity il presuming to call in question anything coming from that distinguished Englishman; but, nevertheless, all this and much more will not make us swerve from our course; our purpose is to reject the rubbish and imperfect work, whether presented by the Mastei or the Apprentice, offend whom it may; and though we seek not to measure arms with any one, we stand prepared to prove, whenever it shall be questioned, that if Dr. Oliver's history of the first three degrees in Masonry is true, then are our traditions an idle tale. We can not but feel deeply concerned about the reception and use that will be made of Oliver's works in the United States; already do we see evils which may be traced as having their origin there‑already are we hearing much which may be found in Webb's Monitor, as belonging to modern Masonry, given as the true lecture of the Royal Arch degree. In one instance, we asked the lecturer if he was aware that much of his lecture was in Webb's Monitor, and he assured us that he got it from Dr. Oliver as belonging to the Royal Arch. We repeat, therefore, that we are at a loss to determine wl] ther it would not have been better never to publish a line than to run wild with a desire not only to have all the truth in print, but a vast amount of iction and irrelevant matter. If we were to be governed by the fashion of the day, as a Masonic historian, we could not tell what it is we may not publish. Until since the difficulties in New York, for example, we really did not know it was right to speak of the use of the Gavel as some Grand Lodges and journals have recently done, we thought that instrument was so intimately connected with our ritual and strictly belonged within the walls of a Lodge, that its use was, or should be, known only to Masons, aye, and we thought its true and mystic use was known only to those who have been called, constitutionally, to preside. We remember a time when it was very common to hear a lecturer say," Masonry is a progressive science," and, verily, if all we read be true, and all we see published be admissible, Masonry is truly a progressive science," and if its end is not nigh, it is only because it is under the supervision and control of a kind Providence. Who are the men that tolerate and give sancticn to the


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publication of so much, and such an amount of trash as belonging to Masonry? we answer, as far as we know, they are generally those who have taken the Ineffable degrees, where the same rule against writing does not exist that is to be found elsewhere. We sometimes see a brother who is an Odd Fellow and who thinks it strange that the same rules which obtains in Odd Fellowship will not apply in Masonry; in like manner those who devote most attention to ScotchRite degrees are much inclined to regard the careless manner of concealing those secrets as applicable to Ancient Craft Masonry, while, in fact, there is no connection between them. Now, we have no objection to the teachings of any of the degrees called Masonic; but we must say, strictly speaking, that most of them are only so in name, and regarding Ancient Craft Masonry, as we do, worth greatly more than all the rest, we protest against any amalgamation which would infringe upon, or violate any of, its sacred rules; but we will not further pursue this subject here, as an occasion may offer and circumstances may require a separate article on this subject. In 1721, the Duke of Montagu was elected Grand Master, which greatly rejoiced the brethren, as it inspired them with the hope that the time was again coming round when the Fraternity would be governed and patronized by the nobility. At this communication, the power was given to the Grand Master to appoijt his Deputy and Grand Wardens. A great feast was held at this meeting and the question having arisen, whether waiters, not Masons, might be employed to wait on the table, it was determined that no one could be admitted to be present who was not a Mason, when some of the most respectable and worthy brethren volunteered as waiters. It is needless to say that in America, at least, the practice is very different now. After dinner, the noble prince, Duke of Montagu, was con ducted into the oriental chair, and was installed with all the pomp and ceremony then in use, in the presence of one hundred and fifty brethren, twelve Lodges being represented. In this, as in other instances, there is not the slightest allusion made to the Past Master's degree, nor any other ceremony which did not take place in the presence of the entire company of Masons


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241 then in attendance, including Entered Apprentices. As we embrace every opportunity to give our readers extracts fiom old records, whenever of an interesting character, we give the following from Dr. Anderson, who was an eye‑witness to this ceremony:‑" Bro. Payne, the old Grand Master, made the first procession round the hall, and when returned he proclaim ed aloud the noble prince, and our brother, John Montagu, Duke of Montagu, Grand Master of Masons; and Bro. Payne having invested his grace's worship with the ensigns and badges of hia office an(l authority, installed him in Solomon's Chair, and sat down on llis right hand, while the assembly owned the Duke's authority with due homage, and joyful congratulations upon this revival of the prosperity of Masonry." The manner of these congratulations will be given when we come to speak of the election of the Duke of Richmond. On the 29th September, 1721, the Grand Lodge assembled in ample form at the King's Arms, sixteen Lodges represented. "His grace's worship and the Lodge, finding fault with all the copies of the old Gothic Constitutions, ordered Bro. James Anderson, A.M., to digest the same in anew and better method." At a communication on the 27th of December, 1721, the Grand Master, at the request of the Grand Lodge, appointed fourteen learned brothers to examine Bro. Anderson's manuscript, and to report thereon. The meeting was made unusually interesting by lectures of some old Masons. Mr. Preston says, that Grand Master Payne appointed Dr. Desaguliers and James Anderson, A.M., to revise, arrange, and digest the Constitutions. But as Preston does not give any testimony in support of his declaration, that Dr. D. was placed on that committee, and as we can not for a moment suppose that one standing so high in the estimation of the world, as a literary man and good Mason, as Dr. Anderson, would fail to mention this fact, and especially so soon after the occurrence, we do not hesitate to receive the statement made in his history of Masonry, that Anderson alone was placed on that committee; indeed, any other conclusion would leave a stain on his good name, which his whole life contradicts; but we know that his manuscript was subjected to the most rigid scrutiny of 16


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fourteen learned men and Masons, and that the Grand Lodgo authorized tle publication of the work, approved of it after 11. publication, and this it could not have done had Dr. Anderson meanly deprived another brother of the hlonor of being associated with him in this noble work. Bro. P'rcston seems to have fallen into another error, botl at war with the truth and at variance with the above statement. ‑le says in another place tllat Grand Master Payne compiled the Gcreeral Regulations, in 1721. Now, it is true tlhat to Grand Master Payne are the Fraternity indebted for setting on foot tills inestinmble uublication: for, at the period of Ills election, tlhe Craft hlad fallen into many errors because the usacges were not well understood, a‑nd no one could determine, with certainty, in what they consisted. To remedy tils evil, Bro. Payne spared neither labor nor pains to collect and compare all the old manuscripts lie could gain access to, and finally urged upon the Grand Lodge the importance of a compilation and digest; but more than this is nowhere attributed to him, save in l'reston's writings, and those who hlave taken his declaration as true, without an examination of tlhe subject. As we notice several Grand Lodges are in error as to the time at which Anderson's Constitutions were received and acknowledged as the fundamental law of the Grand Lodge of England, and deeming it a matter of importance tllat this error should not exist, we make the following extract from Anderson's History:" Grand Lodge met at the Fountain Tavern in the Strand, in AMPLE form, March 25, 1722, with formner ‑Grand Officers and those of twenty‑four Lodges. The said committee of fourteen reported that they had perused Bro. Anderson's manuscript, viz., the history, charges, regulations, and Master's song, and, after some amendments, had approved the same. Upon which the Lodge desired the Grand Master to order it to be published." We have noticed in the reports of the different Grand Lodges in the United States that tlle time of the adoption of the Constitutions and Ancient Charges hlave been variously set down at 1718‑19‑20‑21‑22 and 23. These discrel)encies, we presume, hav. grown out of the action had by the Grand Lodge of England ‑uon that subject in each yeaC; but,


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243 ns before stated, they were adopted in 1722, and again approved of and recommended to the perusal of the brethren in 1723, at which meeting printed copies were before the Grand Lodge. Masonry had now again become popular in England, especially with the nobility and gentry; and so highly was tloffice of Grand Master esteemed, that, to wear the honors, a man, standing high in the estimation of the world, condescended to all that low truckling and trickery of electioneering whiclh have given notoriety to some little men of our day and our own country. The Duke of Montagu had administered the affairs of the Craft so wisely and well, that a large majority desired to retain him in office another year, but knowing that another brother, a mere novice in Masonry, was jealously ambitious, and who was using every means to supplant him, they delayed the grand feast, but the ambitious aspirant, Philip, Duke of Wharton, succeeded in getting a number of Masons together at Stationer's Hall, June 24, 1722, who having no Grand Officer present, put into the Chair the oldest Master Mason then present, and who was Master of a Lodge, and by the great power in him vested, proclaimed Philip Wharton, Duke of Wharton, Grand Master of Masons, and Joshua Tinson and William Hawken, Grand Wardens; but in the overjoy of his heart at his high elevation, he forgot to appoint a Deputy, and even forgot that it was necessary to open and close his Grand Lodge in AMPLE form. Our brethren over the water are hereby informed that in cases of emergency we can do things better than this in the United States; for example, at the meeting of the Grand Lodge, in the city of New York, on the 5th of June, 1849, a brother, in open Grand Lodge, proclaimed the Grand Lodge dissolved (of course by the high power in him vested), and actually went through the flummery of electing Grand Officers in open defiance of the legally installed Grand Master and his officers. And this fungus Association had the effrontery to claim to be recognized as the Grand Lodge of the State of New York. But this breach of Masonic faith and common decency has been healed. As soon as it was known that Wharton had been illegally proclaimed Grand Master, the good brethren refused to recognize his authority, and Grand


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Master Montagu convened the Grand Lodge, and Wharton came forward with a suitable apology and pledged himself to submit to all the regulations of the Craft, and to be true and faithful; which humiliation moved upon the feelings of Grand Master Montagu, and he suffered himself to commit a wrong by causing Wharton to be proclaimed Grand Master. He appoint ed Dr. Desaguliers Deputy Grand Master, and Joshua Timsor and James Anderson, Grand Wardens. This communicatior was held on January 17, 1723, at which time Anderson present ed printed copies of his Constitutions, etc. The Grand Lodge again convened on the 25th of April, 1723, the Grand Officers and thirty Lodges represented. The Lodges were called by the Grand Warden, Anderson, there being no Grand Secretary yet appointed. Grand Master Wharton proposed for his successor the Earl of Dalkeith, who was duly approved and unanimously elected. The tickets for the next feast were ordered to be ten shillings. At the assembly and feast on June 24, 1723, Grand Master Wharton came, attended by eminent brethren, in their coaches; he sent for the Masters and Wardens of Lodges, who came and formed the Grand Lodge, presided over by Bro. William Cowper, now Grand Secretary. Dr. Anderson informs us that at this feast there were four hundred Masons, all dressed in their regalia, and that they dined in due form. After dinner, Francis Scott, Earl of Dalkeith, was duly installed. At a meeting April 28, 1724, Grand Master Dalkeith proposed for his successor the most noble Duke of Richmond, then Master of a Lodge, who wasi joyfully saluted Grand Master‑elect. "At the assembly and feast, June 24, 1724, Grand Master Dalkeith, his Deputy, and Wardens visited the Duke of Richmond,in the morning, at his house in Whitehall, who, with many brothers duly clothed, proceeded in coaches from the West to theEast,and were handsomely received at the hall by a vast assembly." "The Grand Lodge met and having confirmed their choice of Bro. Richmond, adjourned to dinner. Dinner being ended, Grand Master Dalkeith made the first procession round the tables, viz., Bro. Clinch to clear the way; the Stewards two and two abreast, with white rods; Secretary Cowper, with the


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245 bag, and on his left, the Master of a Lodge, with one greatlight; two other great lights borne by two Masters of Lodges; former Grand Wardens proceeding one by one, according to juniority; former Grand Masters proceeding according to juniority; Sorrel and Senex, the two Grand Wardens; Desaguliers, Deputy Grand Master, alone; the Sword carried by the Master of the Lodge to which the Sword belonged; the Book of Constitutions on a cushion carried by the Master of the Senior Lodge present, Richmond, Grand Master elect, and Grand Master Dalkeith. During the procession round the tables three times, the brethren stood up and faced about with regular salutations; and when returned, Bro. Dalkeith stood up and, bowing to the assembly, thanked them for the honor he had of being Grand Master, and then proclaimed aloud the most noble prince and our Bro. Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond and Lennox, Grand Master of Masons. The Duke having bowed to the assembly, Bro. Dalkeith invested him with the ensigns and badges of his office and authority, installed him in Solomon's Chair, and, wishing him all prosperity, sat down at his right had. Upon which the assembly joined in due homage, affectionate congratulations, and other signs of joy." The Grand Master appointed Martin Folkes, Deputy Grand Master, George Payne, P.G.M.; and Francis Sorrell, Grand Wardens. At a meeting of the Grand Lodge, November 21, 1724, P.G.M. Dalkeith proposed a fund of general charity for the poor brothers which was unanimously adopted. This is the first account of a charity fund we read of. We have reasons to believe that, prior to this, relief was given alone by individual contributions. At a meeting of the Grand Lodge, November 27, 1725, Grand Master Richmond proposed for his successor Lord Paisley, and at the assembly and feast on December 27, 1725, the Grand Master was proclaimed, etc. Dr. Desaguliers was appointed D. G. Master. We believe Grand Master Paisley did not attend a meeting of the Grand Lodge until December 12, 1726, when the Earl of Inchiquin was chosen Grand Master, and William Cowper, Deputy Grand Master. In June, 1727, King George I., after a reign of thirteen years, died and was succeeded by


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his brother King George II. The King was forty‑four years old when he, with his Queen Caroline, was crowned October 11, 1727 In examining the history of George I., our attention has been called to a sentiment of Dr. Anderson, which is at war witl a portion of our present lecture on the E. Apprentice's degree We thought it had ever been customary to lay the first stone of a building in the north‑east corner, until we read a description of the manner in which the foundation of St. Paul's church was laid, after the great fire in London; and here again, more than sixty years after, the south‑east corner is spoken of, but for the satisfaction of the reader, and especially the Mason, we will make the following extract from Anderson: " But St. Martin's church in the Fields was, at the sole charge of the parishioners, rebuilt, strong and irregular, and it being a royal parish church, King George I. sent Richard, Bishop of Salisbury, his lord almoner, as Deputy, and Thomas Hewett Esq., his Surveyor General, attended by Bro. Gibls (the architect of that grand pile), with many Freemasons, in a solemn procession from the palace, to level the foot‑stone in the south‑east corner, by giving it three great knocks with a mallets in the King's name, and laying upon it a purse of one hundred guineas; when the trumpets sounded, all joined in joyful acclamations, and the Craftsmen went to the tavern to drink." Masonry flourished in great prosperity throughout the entire reign of George I., and the great number of fine buildings erected not only shows that the Craft, as operatives, were much employed, but that architecture was much cultivated and improved. On the 19th December, 1727, the Grand Lodge was assembled, and the Deputy Grand Master, being authorized by the Grand Master, who was absent, proposed Lord Colerane, who was saluted; and on the 27th of the same month, Henry Hare, Lord Colerane, was duly installed, who appointed Alexander Choke, Deputy Grand Master, and Nathaniel Blakesley and Joseph Highmore, Grand Wardens. On the 27th December, 1728, Lord Kingston, of Ireland, was installed Grand Master, who appointed Blakesley his Deputy. In 1729, Thomas Howard, Earl of Great Britain, Duke of Norfolk, was installed with


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247 more pomp and ceremony than any, perhaps, who had preceded him. The very large assembly of Masons, including six Past Grand Masters, formed a procession in chariots and carriages. The annual assembly, or feast, had become a place of agreeable resort to all Masons, and we notice that in all those annual processions the most distinguished men took part, the most wealthy and the noble born were there; indeed, if we may judge from what is recorded by Anderson, Preston, Smith, and others, we conclude no Mason in good health failed to join the procession, because of the weather being too warm, or too cold, nor any other trivial reason; all good Masons then turned out, and so they do now, hut it would seem that the number of good Masons are now proportionably small; we have seen nearly as much drumming to get up a respectable procession as is sonuetimeu ecaessary to get up a respectable thanksgiving. 4'


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            CHAPTER XIX. DURING the administration of the Duke of Norfolk as Grand Master, he sent from Venice, where he was on a visit, twenty pounds to be placed in the Charity Fund, and a large folio book, elegantly bound, to serve as a record book. He also sent the sword, formerly the property of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden; afterward it was worn by the brave Duke of Saxe Weimar. This sword the Grand Master caused to be orna. mented and suitably engraved, and presented it to the Grand Lodge, to be worn ever after by the presiding Grand Master. It was called the Masonic Sword of State. At the communication of the Grand Lodge in 1731, Lord Lovell was chosen Grand Master. As the question has been mooted, whether it is proper to install by proxy, we make the following extract from Anderson's History of Masonry. He says: "Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, Grand Master, proposed the Right Honorable Thomas Coke, Lord Lovell, to succeed His Grace in Solomon's Chair for the year ensuing. But Lord Lovell, being ill of an ague, returned home and left Lord Colerane his proxy for the day. All things being regularly transacted as above, Deputy Grand Master Blakerby proclaimed aloud our noble Bro. Thomas Coke, Lord Lovell, Grand Master of Masons. Lord Colerane being invested in his name, appointed Thomas Batson, Esq., Deputy Grand Master, and George Douglass and James Chambers, Grand Wardens." In May, 1731, Grand Master Lovell and his officers, and the Masters and Wardens of thirty‑seven Lodges, met in Grand Lodge. At this meeting it was resolved that the Committee of Charity should be restrained from giving more than five pounds to any petitioner for charity. We notice the passage of a resolution at this meeting, which would seem to us of the present day rather singular. It was found that, inasmuch as


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249 it was made the duty of the Grand Secretary to transmit to the subordinate Lodges a copy of the minutes of the quarterly communications, his labors had become burthensome, and by resolution the Grand Lodge authorized them to be etched. Now, if by this it is meant to engrave them on a plate so that impressions could be taken, and be thus transmitted, we cal not see why the more convenient and economical plan ot printing with type was not adopted; for in either case a publication was made, and we also know that before this time Anderson's History of JMasonry was printed, in which he had published the proceedings of the Grand Lodge from time to time, more full and complete than would likely be done by engraving. We have said elsewhere, that formerly subordinate Lodges were only authorized to confer the degree of Entered Apprentice; the Grand Lodge, or Grand Master, alone having the right to confer the degrees of Fellow Craft and Master Mason. In 1731, Grand Master Lovell issued a dispensation authorizing a special Lodge to be held at the Hague, for the purpose of initiating and passing His Royal Highness Francis, Duke of Lorain, afterward Emperor of Germany. At this making, the Rev. Dr.Desaguliers presided as W. Master. During the same year Lorain visited England, and the Grand Master formed a special Lodge, and raised the brother to the degree of Master Mason. In 1732, Lord Viscount Montagu was chosen Grand Master. In 1733, the Earl of Strathmore was chosen Grand Master, who, being absent in Scotland, was installed by proxy. In this year we find that the new colony of Georgia, in North America, was recommended by the Grand Lodge of England to the benevolence of the subordinate Lodges. We suppose the brethren of Georgia are now able and willing to return the favor, should an occasion offer. We confess our surprise that Dr. Anderson should publish to the world a history, purporting to be the history of Masonry, V id. Old Rulaios, xiii


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and yet so studiously abstain from saying anything of the Grand Lodge at York. If he had been employed to write the history of the Grand Lodge in the South of England alone, lie should have so told the world; but lie who undertakes to write the. history.of Masonry will fail of his aim, if lie withholds an account of the oldest Grand Lodge then known. We are aware that an unpleasant feeling long existed between the two Grand Lodges; but this feeling was engendered mainly after Anderson wrote; but whether or not, we can conceive of no reason that could have justified his course. We regret it the inore, because the Grand Lodge of York, as far as we know, never ordered a publication of its proceedings, and our knowledge of its origin and history is very imperfect; indeed, in reference to its origin but little is known, save what may be inferred from a tradition in the Fellow Craft's degree. As we have heretofore given so much of the early history of the Grand Lodge at York, as authentic information would authorize, we will consider now that period embraced between the seventeenth century and the dissolution of that Grand body. About the close of the seventeenth century, Masonry had become very much neglected in the North as well as the South of England, but still a few Lodges continued to meet and work. In 1705, there was an assembly of Masons at York, ever which Sir George Tempest presided as Grand Master. At this conmunication many Masons were made, consisting not only of the citizens of York, but of the surrounding country. The Right Honorable Robert Benson, Lord Mayor of York, was the next Grand Master, and to his administration were the Masons in tlheNorth of England much indebted; for he was not only a lover of the Order, and well qualified to preside over the Grand Lodge, but he gaoe so much attention to the promotion of the Craft, that something like a revival took place, and the annual feast which was held under his Grand Mastership was numerously attended, and justly regarded as one of the most splendid exhibitions of the kind ever witnessed in the city of York. Sir William Robinson was next chosen Grand Master, and


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251 under his administration the Society flourished both in numbers and respectability. Sir Walter Hawkesworth was the next Grand Master, and after his term of service expired, Sir George Terrpest was again chosen to preside over the Craft in the year 171 1. He was succeeded by Charles Fairfax in 1715. In 1716 Sir Walter Hawkesworth was again chosen Grand Master, who presided with great dignity and usefulness until 1718. when he was succeeded by Edward Bell, Esq. In 1719, Charles Bathhurst was chosen Grand Master. In 1720, Edward Thompson, M.P. In 1722, John Johnson, M.D., was Grand Master, and in 1724, John Marsden was filling Solomon's Chair at York, and during all the period above named, the Craft in the North of England continued in great prosperity. These facts are taken from the old records of the Grand Lodge, and for many years there is nothing to be found whicl goes to slhow the slightest unpleasant feeling on the part of this Grand Lodge toward the Grand Lodge held at London. Nor is it likely that any serious difficulty would ever have existed lhad the Grand Lodge of England held, at London,confined itself to a strict observance of the Ancient Landmarks, and issued charters for Lodges only within a reasonable distance of its location; but that this newly constituted Grand Lodge did introduce some innovations, the history and testimony of the three oldest Lodges in London clearly:how; and yet does it seem that the old Grand Lodge of York was, for the sake of harmony, disposed to overlook all this; but the Grand Lodge of England seemed to desire a rupture between the two bodies, for it appears that at a period when both Grand Lodges were prospering in the highest degree, a few discontented or bad Masons at York, in bitterness of spirit, applied to the Grand Lodge at London for a charter:o form a new Lodge in the city of York, and their request was granted. This bearding of the lion in his den was anything but courteous or Masonic, and the lookers on did not fail to visit such conduct with marked disapprobation; for though the Grand Lodge at London continued to grow in strength and influence, mainly because it was patronized and visited by the noblemen and those in high places, the Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland avoided intercourse with it: nor is this


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remarkable when we remember that it had been everywhere believed that the Grand Lodge of York was the oldest organ. ized body of Masons that ever issued charters for the making of Masons. This Grand Lodge had ever held sacred the original tenets of the Order, and throughout the world Masons prided themselves as being made under that authority which directly or indirectly emanated from the Grand Lodge at York; and now that near a century and a half has passed since the organization of the Grand Lodge at London, old Masons are generally desirous to be considered York Masons. The Grand Lodge at London has time and again disregarded and trampled under foot the ancient usages of the Craft. It assumed the doubtful right of publishing its proceedings; it removed an Ancient Landmark, by throwing off all connection with Operative Masonry; it sent a charter into the very city in which the old Grand Lodge held its annual meetings; it added to the number of those who had ever constituted the Grand Lodge. No one pretends to deny that, up to the period here alluded to, the Masters and Wardens of particular Lodges alone constituted the Grand Lodge; but the Grand Lodge at London added thereto, first, the P.G. Masters, then. the P.D.G. Master, then the P.G. Wardens, and not only the Masters and Wardens of the Stewards' Lodge, but fifteen of the members also. Nor was this all. At a later period, viz., 1813, even P. Masters of particular Lodges were made members of the Grand Lodge. Who, then, will wonder that with the sober and discreet Masons the Grand Lodge at London was looked on with distrust? But such is the power and influence of money and birth, that the very Grand Lodge who committed the first and only violations of Masonic usage and Masonic law, trampled under foot the Ancient Landmarks, and introduced novelties unknown to the Fraternity, was ere long destined to triumph over all opposition, and stand forth before the world as the only Grand Lodge in England, with the assumed title of the Grand Lodge of all Masons. Our readers need not start at this declaration, for that it is true, look to their proclamation of the election of Grand Master, and it will be seen that they always declared him to be, not the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England, but


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253 the Grand Master of Masons. The Grand Lodge at York styled itself the Grand Lodge of all England, while that a. London was called the Grand Lodge of England. The Grand Lodge at York continued to decline from the period first named until early in the nineteenth century, when it was dissolved, and the Grand Lodge at London, alias the Grand Lodge of England, has enjoyed since undivided authority over the entire island. As intimated, the Grand Lodge of England, as early as 1723, adopted a system of disbursing charity through a committee, similar in its character, and likewise in its component parts, to the committee now acting in St. Louis, Missouri, called the Board of Relief. Under the Grand Lodge of England, the disbursement was intrusted to seven brothers; soon afar nine more were added; and, finally, the acting Masters of twelve city Lodges and the Grand Officers constituted the Charity Committee, to whom all applications were made by those in want of assistance. The Committee met four times a year by order of the Grand Master, or Deputy. At those meetings the Committee passed upon all applications and disbursed to each from time to time, five pounds, and, if peculiar cases required more, the matter was presented to the Grand Lodge. This system, or something like it, is necessary in every large town. A brother applies for assistance, and if unknown to the Fraternity, it is the duty of the Charity Committee to make diligent inquiry to learn whether the applicant is worthy. About the period when Lord Lovell was Grand Master, the Masons of Wales voluntarily came under the control of the Grand Lodge of England, and a Provincial Grand Master was appointed for the South, and another for the North of Wales. As early as 1729 a Provincial Grand Lodge was, by Deputy, established in New Jersey, America, and a Provincial Grand Master was appointed for Lower Saxony. Indeed, as far as we can judge, the Graqd Lodge of England gave character, and, in most instances, created nearly all the Lodges beyond the island, save those established by the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland. In 1734, the Earl of Crawford was installed Grand Master.


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At this meeting Bro. Anderson informed the Grand Lodge that a new edition of the Book of Constitutions was needed, and that he had been preparing materials for that purpose, whereupon he was ordered to lav the said materials before the present and past Grand Officers to be examined and reported upon. He was also ordered to collect the names of all the patrons or Masonry as far back as possible, and to insert the names of the Stewards from the time of Grand Master Montagu. At this communication the following edict was passed:‑" That if any Lodge, within the bills of mortality, shall cease to meet during twelve calendar months, the said Lodge shall be crossed out of the list; and if reinstated shall lose its former rank." Another regulation, designed to encourage the brethren to serve in the Boardi of Stewards, was made, namely, That all the Grand Officers, except the Grand Master, should be elected or chosen from the Stewards' Lodge. At this meeting also a report was made, showing that there were, in the city of London. several illegal assemblies of Masons, styling themselves Lodges, in which persons were given the degrees of Masonry for a nominal sum of money. Grand Master Crawford suffered himself to commit another outrage on the rights of the Grand Lodge at York, by tonstituting two Lodges within its district, and without the approbation or consent of said Grand Lodge, granted deputations‑one for Northumberland, one for Lancashire, and one for Durham. This act of open disrespect and defiance so incensed the Grand Lodge at York, that they no longer held any communication with, or acknowledged the legal existence of, the Grand Lodge at London. A total estrangement followed, which is alluded to by Bro. Anderson rather cavalierly in his edition of the Constitutions of 1738. He uses the following language, after giving the names of the Provincial Grand Masters appointed by the Grand Lodge of England: "All these foreign Lodges are under. the parentage of our Grand Master of England; but the old Lodge at York City and the Lodges of Scotland, Ireland, France, and Italy, affecting independence, are under their own Grand Masters, though they have the same constitutions, charges, regulations, etc., for


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*255 substance, with their brethren of England, and are equally zealous for the Augustan style, and the secrets of the ancient and honorable Fraternity." In April, 1735, Lord Weymouth was installed Grand Master and to give our readers some idea of the estimation in which the Fraternity was then held by the nobility and gentry, we mention the following individuals as being present on that occasion, viz., the Dukes of Richmond and Athol; the Earls of Crawford, Winchelsea, Balcarras, Weyms, and London; the Marquis of Beaumont; Lords Cathcart and Vene Bertre; Sir Cecil Wray and Sir Edward Mansell. Under the administration of Lord Weymouth, a deputation was granted to the Duke of Richmond to hold a Lodge at his seat at Aubigny, in France; thus wholly disregarding the powers and jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of France. He also issued a warrant to open a Lodge at Lisbon, and another at Savannah, Georgia, in America. He further caused patents to be issued for Provincial Grand Masters in South America and West Africa. At a meeting of the Grand Lodge, December 11, 1735, the twelve Stewards, headed by their Master, Sir Robert Lawley, appeared with their badges on. Previous to this they had not been recognized as having any right to a seat in the Grand Lodge, but the scene which followed furnishes another proof of the readiness of the Grand Lodge to introduce novelties and new regulations. On this occasion, a proposition was made to allow the twelve Stewards seats and votes in the Grand Lodge, which was resisted with such earnestness that utter confusion pervaded the Grand Lodge, and, to avoid further evil, the Grand Master was compelled to order it closed; but the Stewards eventually accomplished their wishes, and ever after held seats in the Grand Lodge, although no order was ever passed, or, if passed, never entered on record to that effect until 1740, when twelve of the Stewards' Lodge were, not only declared members, but authorized to take precedence of all other Lodges in rank. The Earl of London was chosen and installed Grand Master in 1736. During his administration he granted provincial


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deputations to New England, South Carolina, and one to Cape Coast Castle, Africa. The Earl of Darnly was chosen and installed Grand Master in 1737. " On November 5, 1737, an occasional Lodge was held at the Prince of Wales' palace at Kew, near Richmond, by the Rev. Dr. Desaguliers (formerly Grand Master), Master of this Lodge. Mr. William Goften and Mr. Erasmus King, Grand Wardens. The Right Honorable Charles Calvert, Lord Baltimore, the Hon. Col. James Lumsley, the Hon. Major Madden, Mr. D. Noyer, Mr. Vraden; and when formed and tyled, His Royal Highness, Frederick, late Prince of Wales, was in the usual manner introduced and made an Entered Apprentice and Fellow Craft. " Our said Royal Brother Frederick was made a Master Mason by the same Lodge, that assembled there again for that purpose." * Dr. Anderson does not say whether this particular Lodge which conferred the degree of Master Mason was convened by order of the Grand Master or not; but we are left to infer that such was not the case, as no allusion is made to the manner ol constituting it with such authority. It is true that we find a Past Grand Master present, but up to this time, as far as we know, the Grand Lodge, or Grand Master presiding, always conferred the Master's degree. The article just quoted settles another vexed question, so far as a usage no older than this can do, viz., that it is not illegal to give the two first degrees at the same meeting. But we trust the reader, who has thus far followed us with care. is prepared to question the propriety of regarding the action of the Grand Lodge of England as constituting a fundamental law for oar government. If that Grand body had strictly adhered to the Ancient Landmarks as laid down in the Ancient Charges, we would not hesitate to regard all her early enactments as furnishing a basis and guide for ours, but we have seen that again and again, the most sacred rules have been trampled under Anderson't Cmstitutions, edition 1756, p. 123.


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257 foot whenever and wherever expediency seemed to call for it. The question may arise‑To what source, if not to the Grand Lodge of England, shall we go for correct precedent or ancient laws. While we acknowledge that to the Grand Lodge of England we are indebted more than to all other sources for authentic information in relation to the usages of the Order and while we receive as authority that which was collated and published by that body,as constituting the fundamental law for the government of Masons throughout the world, we can not consent to bow with submission to those edicts of the Grand Lodge of England, which contravene or make void the very laws which they proclaimed to the world as fundamental. We are, therefore, left with no other reliable source from which to learn what ancient usage is than the Ancient Charges found in Anderson's Constitutions. Any action of the Grand Lodge of England in the eighteenth century which does not interfere with said charges, should be looked upon with the respect due to their age and the distinguished brethren who enacted them; but to go further than this is to lose sight of the very principles which they set out to maintain. There is scarcely a year in our time that we do not learn of some Grand Lodge, being at the moment ignorant of the spirit and intent of the ancient landmarks, committing the greatest blunders, superinduced by expediency. Even the Grand Lodge of England, to whom all would willingly pay homage, and gladly look for a bright example, set at defiance, blotted out, expunged one of the very landmarks preserved and handed down by that Grand body, and regarded everywhere as being as sacred as any one in the whole code of fundamental laws. A mere matter of expediency, begot in fanaticism, has led that body to strike out " born," and insert " man," so that liberated slaves might be made Masons. At a regular communication of the Grand Lodge, January 25, 1738, Anderson's new edition of the Book of Constitutions was approved and ordered to be printed. April 27, 1738, the Marquis of Carnarvan was chosen G. Master, who appointed John Ward, Esq., Deputy G. Master, Lord George Graham and Captain Andrew Robinson G. Wardens. u


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We make the following extract from the minutes of the Grand Lodge, in order to show with what zeal the Masons of that day attended to the business of the Fraternity: "Grand Lodge held at the Devil's Tavern on Wednesday, January 31, 1739. PresentThe Marquis of Carnarvan, G. Master; William Grseme, as D. G. Master; Lord George Graham, Senior G. Warden; Andrew Robinson, Junior G. Warden; George Payne, John T. Desaguliers, LL.D., F.R.S., Earl of Loudon and Earl of Darnley, P. G. Masters; Thomas Batson, Esq., late D. Grand Master; Mr. Jacob Samball; Martin O'Conner, Esq., Martin Clare, A.M., F.R.S., late G. Wardens; Robt. Tomlinson, Esq., Provincial G. Master of New England; John Hammerton, Provincial Grand Master of Carolina; And the Masters and Wardens of ninety‑two Lodges." From this we may form some idea of the rapid growth and prosperity of Masonry in England, when we remember that little more than twenty years previous to this period only four Lodges could be found in the South of England to take part in forming a Grand Lodge. In May, 1739, Lord Raymond was chosen Grand Master, who appointed William Graeme, M.D., F.R.S., Deputy Grand Master; John Harney Thursby, S. G. Warden; Robert Fay, Esq., J. G. Warden. In June,of this year, a complaint was laid before the Grand Lodge, charging that some of the brethren had been guilty of making Masons in a clandestine manner; but the subject wa~ postponed, and was again taken up in December following, when the brethren charged came forward with suitable acknowledgments, and were pardoned. At this communication twenty pounds were appropriated for the relief of a brother, who had been inhumanely treated by the Inquisition at Florence,for no other reason than that he was a Mason, and true to his trust. We wish our readers to bear this in mind. for the reason that iome Grand Lodges in the United States have passed resolutions declaring that is i no part of the business of a Grand


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25, Lodge to give alms. In the history of the Gra:d Lodge of England we learn that at almost every communication more or less funds were appropriated for the relief of the distressed; and, in addition, the Grand Lodge had a Charity Committee. whose business it was to afford relief when the Grand Lodge was not in session. We confess our surprise at the attempt to estab lish this new doctrine, that a Grand Lodge was only a legisla tive body. We hope never again to hear of a brother, a widow, or orphan. knocking at the door of a Grand Lodge for relief and receive for an answer, " Though we tax subordinate Lodges in order to create a charity fund, yet it is no business of ours to disburse it." In 1740, the Right Honorable John Keith, Earl of Kintore, was chosen Most Worshipful Grand Master, or, to use the language of the Grand Lodge of England, Right Worshipful Grand Master. Here we obtain the first evidence of a departure from the Ancient Regulations, which requires every Mason to be and continue affiliated with some Lodge. rWe make the following extract from the minutes of the Grand Lodge, held July 23, 1740: "This Lodge put in force the regulation which requires every petitioner for charity to have been a member of some regular Lodge within the space of five years." On a"other occasion, the Grand Lodge passed a resolution that every petitioner for charity should, at the time, be a member of some regular Lodge. About this time, a number of brethren, either from disappointed ambition, or, it may be as they professed, from a belief that. innovations had crept into the Grand Lodge of England, withdrew their connection and support from the regular Lodges, formed themselves into new Lodges, and took upon themselves the power to make Masons without authority from any Grand Lodge; and so reckless did they become, that, in order to increase their numbers and enlarge their influence, they initiated, passed, and raised for a mere nominal sum of money. The Grand Lodge took notice of this irregular conluct, and the brethrer thus censured, availing themselves of


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the misunderstanding and unbrotherly feeling existing between the Grand Lodge of England and that of York, openly charged the former with introducing innovations, and themselves assumed the cognomen of York Masons. It will be remembered that the Grand Lodge of England had given just cause of offense to the Grand Lodge at York, by interfering with its acknowledged jurisdiction, and it is not to be supposed that the latter would make an effort at reconciliation; indeed, it is probable that the members of the Fraternity holding under the Grand Lodge at York rather encouraged the schism. The arrogance of the Grand Lodge of England, and the high veneration in which the Grand Lodge of York was held by the Scotch and Irish Masons, tended rather to create distrust and disaffection; and though the measures adopted by the Grand Lodge of England for the punishment of those who acted in defiance of Masonic law had the effect to check the lawless outbreak, it only had this effect for a short time. At every meeting of the Grand Lodge, or the quarterly communications, turmoil and confusion was produced by complaints against the regular Lodges on the one hand, and efforts to heal the breach and punish the leading offenders on the other. The edicts of the Grand Lodge,enforcing the penal laws against those who participated in the establishment of clandestine Lodges, caused the seceding Masons to call in question the authority of that body. There were now so many clandestine Lodges in London, that some decisive measure became necessary, and we are told that one was adopted by which all who were clandestinely made could be detected, and thus prohibit them from visiting the regular Lodges. This, more than anything, tended to exasperate the seceding party, and they openly declared their independence of the Grand Lodge of England, assembled themselves together and formed what they chose to call the Grand Lodge of Ancient Masons.* They constituted new Lodges, denounced all the Lodges held under the Grand Lodge of England as being modern Masons, and pretended to justify their course by ~ Established in 1753.


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HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY 261 declaring that the Ancient York Constitutions sustained and upheld them; and that this might the more plausibly appear to their followers and the world, they published a garbled and mangled collection of the Ancient Charges and Constitutions, styling it the.Jhiman Rezon. This book, under the authority of this clandestine and illegal Grand Lodge, found its way into the American Colonies, has been republished by Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina; and, indeed, until recently it has been regarded generally as a true copy of Anderson's Constitutions; but any brother can readily satisfy himself that such is not the fact, by taking up either of the above named editions, and comparing them with Anderson. When we come to treat of the history of Masonry in the United States, we shall probably have occasion to refer to this spurious book again; but lest we should be misunderstood, we wish it distinctly borne in mind that we do not say the dJhiman Rezon contains no part of the Ancient Charges and Ancient Constitutions; on the contrary, it contains the greater part of these old documents; but so much is added and intermixed with the ancient law that no man living would be able to determine what was ancient and what modern, unless he had a copy of Anderson's Constitutions with which to'compare. It is truly said that a "rose will smell as sweet by any other name;" and it is equally true, that the fact of calling the clandestine Lodge of London the Grand Lodge of Ancient Masons, by no means made it what its name imported; but it is a fact, nevertheless, that the fascinating title or name thus impudently assumed did mislead quite a number of worthy, and some prominent and otherwise well‑informed men. This irregular Grand Lodge was, for a time, presided over by men of the highest standing, and when we remember that the Masons of Scotland and Ireland acknowledged it, and repudiated the regular Grand Lodge, from a false supposition that the latter was governed by modern rules, while the former was working under the York standard, or ancient law‑we say, under this state of things it is not remarkable that charters from this irregular Grand Lodge found their way into America, and became the standard of Masonic light; but this state of things can not long


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exist;, for all who will make a strict and impartial examination must become satisfied that this new Grand Lodge had beer founded in error, and made bad worse by so mutilating th ancient laws, and adding new and unauthorized regulations, a. to throw the Craft into confusion and disrespect. Even thos who had with pain witnessed departures from the Ancient Landmarks by the Grand Lodge of England, were constrained to admit that the new Grand Lodge had erred in this respect, to a much greater extent; and the sober, thinking, and discreet of the brethren, were daily deserting its jurisdiction. On March 19, 1741, the Earl of Morton was chosen Grand Master. Under his administration the Grand Treasurer, Secretary, and Sword Bearer, became members of the Grand Lodge. Lord Ward was chosen Grand Master in April, 1742. This royal brother is represented as being well versed in all the rites, ceremonies, and usages of the Fraternity, as well as the government of the Craft, having filled every office, from Secretary in a private Lodge to Grand Master. The wisdom and moderation with which he presided over the Grand Lodge tended much to break down the bitter feelings which had grown up between the members of the two Grand Lodges in London. During his administration, which lasted two years, perfect harmony was restored in all the Lodges under his jurisdiction, owning allegiance to his Grand Lodge. He established several new Lodges, and appointed a Provincial Grand Master for Lancaster, three for the Island of Jamaica, and one for North America. About this time we find the first rule laid down for the order of a procession. We present the following, taken from Anderson:‑" On a motion by a late Worthy Grand Warden, it was now ordered that the procession in the Hall, at all future Grand feasts, be made by the following brethren and in the following manner, viz., Tyler to clear the way before the Musick. The Musick. The 1st LIGHT, carried by the Master of the 4th Lodge. The Wardens of the Stewards' Lodge. The Master of the Stewards' Lodge.


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            HIETORY OF FREEMASONRY. 263 The Grand Secretary with the bag. The Grand Treasurer with the Staff. The Provincial Grand Masters, juniors to walk first. All Past Junior Grand Wardens, juniors to walk first. All Past Senior Grand Wardens, juniors to walk first. The 2nd LIGHT, carried by the Master of the 3rd Lodge. All former Deputy Grand Masters, juniors to walk first. All former Grand Masters, juniors to walk first. The 3rd LIGHT, carried by the Master of the 2nd Lodge. The Junior Grand Warden. The Senior Grand Warden. The Deputy Grand Master. The Master of the Senior Lodge, with the Constitution on a cushion. The Grand Master‑elect. The Sword Bearer, carrying the Sword of State. The Grand Master." The following new regulation was adopted at the same comniunication: "Bro. Fatherly Baker proposed for a law or order of the Grand Lodge, that no brother do presume to print, or cause to be printed, the proceedings of any Lodge, or any part thereof, or the names of the persons present at such Lodge, but by the direction of the Grand Master or the Deputy Grand Master, under pain of being disowned for a brother, and not to be admitted into any quarterly communication or Grand Lodge, or any Lodge whatsoever; and of being rendered incapable of having any office in the Craft. It was unanimously agreed to, and ordered to be entered as a law of the Grand Lodge." In May, 1744, Earl Strathmore was chosen Grand Master, who was absent during his whole term, and the business devolved on the other officers. He appointed a Provincial Grand Master for Bermuda. Lord Cranstoun was chosen Grand Master in 1745, and continued in office for two years. Under his administration Masonry greatly revived; several new Lodges were formed. About this period mock processions were gotten up, with a view to throw the Fraternity into ridicule. This disgraceful proceeding was traced to Masons who had become offended,


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and professed to be disgusted with these public shows. The Grand Lodge discontinued public processions. Lord Byron was chosen Grand Master in 1747, and held the office for five years. His zeal and ability tended very powerfully to elevate the standard of Masonry, and the more so from the wisdom manifested in the selection of his assistants. Few men in the eighteenth century equaled his Deputy, Fatherly Baker, in a thorough knowledge of the laws and usages of Masonry; and whether in the absence of the Grand Master, or in his company, the confidence and respect of the Fraternity was inspired wherever he visited. Two such officers as these the Grand Lodge of England seldom had. Preston says that he issued a patent (charter) for Denmark, Norway, Pennsylvania, Minorca, and New York. This latter parchment we have no account of, as far as recollected, in the history of Masonry in New York. A charter was issued in 1737 and in 1781, to form a Provincial Grand Lodge in New York; the former by the Grand Lodge of England, and the latter by the illegal Grand Lodge of Ancient Masons, so called, but we know nothing of the charter of 1750. Lord Byron was succeeded by Lord Carysfort, 1752, who not only sustained an equally proud stand with his efficient predecessor, but in some things greatly surpassed him. He was remarkable for his judicious management of the funds of the Grand Lodge, and no Grand Master ever evinced more tact and management in the preservation of order and harmony in the Craft; and this was the more easily and effectually done because of his readiness, on all occasions, to visit the Lodges, and encourage a strict conformity to the usages. He is represented as being prompt in his decisions, affable and kind in his manners, and candid in all things. His Deputy, Dr. Manning, was also very efficient in his aid to the Grand Master. It is therefore, not remarkable that Lord Carysfort was reelected in 1753. On examination we find that Preston speaks of a patent issued by this Grand Master, also for New York. We hence infer that what are termed patents by Anderson and Preston in these cases, are to be understood only as charters for particular Lodges, and not, as we had supposed for the formation of Grand Lodges, Provincial.


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265 The Marquis of Carnarvan was chosen Grand Master in 1754. He ordered the Book of Constitutions reprinted, under a resolution of the Grand Lodge. The following brethren composed the committee to revise, correct, and make such additions as were required, viz.: The Right Worshipful Grand Master; the other present Grand Officers; George Payne; the Earl of Loudoun; Lord Ward and Lord Carysfort, late Grand Masters; Sir Robert Lawkey; Edward Hady, M.D.; Thomas Smith; Rev. John Entick, M.A.; Arthui Beardmore; and Edward Bowman. The edition which this Committee were appointed to prepare was published in 1756, a copy of which is now in the possession of the author of this History. It is styled Entick's Edition of.Jnderson's Constitutions. From this work we make the following extract, purporting to be the minutes of the Grand Lodge, March 20, 1755: " The Grand Lodge then took into consideration a complaint against certain brethren,for forming and assembling under the denomination of a Lodge of Ancient Masons, who, as such, consider themselves as independent of this Society, and not subject to our laws, or to the authority of our Grand Master; when the Deputy Grand Master (presiding) took notice of the great necessity there was to discourage all such meetings, not only as the same were contrary to our laws, and a great insult to the Grand Master and the whole body of Free and Accepted Masons, but as they likewise tended to introduce into our Craft the novelties and conceits of opinionative persons, and to create a belief that there have been other societies of Masons more ancient than that of this ancient and honorable Society; and the question being put, that the meeting of any brethren of this Society, as or under any denomination of Masons other than as brethren of this our ancient and honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons, is inconsistent with the honor and interest of the Craft, and a high insult on our Grand Master and the whole body of Masons, it was carried in the affirmative." On May 18, 1757, Carnarvan was succeeded by Lord Aberdour. We have now passed over a long period of time, throughout


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all of which we have seen the Fraternity, though occasionally in trouble, yet in the main flourishing to a greater extent thai during any period of time of the same length. The reign of George II. was a brilliant one for Masonry; the governmen of the Society was in the hands of the wisest and best men, not only in England, but elsewhere. The nobility were proud of their membership, and delighted in the ritual and teachings of our Order. Nor were the clergy less the encouragers and patrons of the Institution. King George II. died October 5, 1760, and on the next day George III. was proclaimed. The reign of this Prince calls up in the minds of American citizens reminiscences of the glorious struggle of the noble spirits of'6; it calls to mind that document (the Declaration of Independence) which is destined to be handed down and held in veneration whenever and wherever the stars and stripes shall wave over the sons of freemen; and it may be that the wrongs inflicted by the King and his Parliament upon our forefathers may tend to blind our judgment to a proper estimate of the King's wisdom and virtues. Indeed, we doubt whether any true American is qualified to write his history. That his popularity at home was founded on a belief of his private virtues and profound wisdom can not be denied. No king ever ascended the throne with a purer reputation, and none was more loved by his subjects. Indeed, it is very questionable whether England contained another man who could so long have kept an army quartered in the American colonies, making war upon their kindred and friends, ill violation of every principle of justice and the inalienable rights of freemen. It is a fact not as generally known as it should be, that many, very many of the most effective battles for American independence were fought in the beer‑shops, taverns, and private families in England. The great body of the people, though proud of the honoi of British arms and British valor, disapproved of the courst pursued by the ministry, in making war upon the American Colonies; and a much longer continuation of hostilities would most likely have led to a revolution in England. The reign of George III. is marked by the onward march of the sciences. Distant regions were explored, and every encouragement


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267 was given to the dissemination of knowledge. Masonry had now become a powerful auxiliary in the cultivation of the arts and sciences, and a means by which the pure principles of morality were diffused through every ramification of society over the civilized world. Its benign influence was being felt and acknowledged where,but a short time before,its foot‑prints were never known, or had been so dimmed by time as not to be distinguished. But we must not lose sight of the fact that, while Masonry arose in might and majesty, and spread far and wide a happy influence upon the minds of men, its very increas‑.ng popularity tended most powerfully to the introduction of novelties and innovations, from which it is not known that it can ever recover. It will be seen in the course of the following pages, that, instead of the original three degrees, innumerable others have been instituted, no one knows where, or by whom; until, at the present day, no man knows when he has taken all; nor has this alarming increase yet ceased. Every year we hear of from one to a dozen side degrees never heard of before, and it requires no spirit of prophesy to foresee that many of these are likely, at no distant day, to be engrafted nto and made part of the so called regular degrees. But as the subject here alluded to will be treated of in its appropriate place, we dismiss it for the present, and return to the order of our history.


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            CHAPTER XX IN the early part of the reign of George III., Masonry flourished throughout the kingdom of Great Britain, and extended its influence in other and distinct countries. The Constitutions, as preserved and transmitted by the Grand Lodge at York, were then, as now, universally acknowledged as the only written authority going to show the Ancient Landmarks and usages of the Order, and hence was the Grand Lodge of England applied to for authority to establish and constitute Lodges in various quarters of the civilized world. Lord Aberdour remained at the head of the Fraternity five years. During his administration, the public festivals and yearly communications were regularly observed. We confess our surprise at the number of Provincial Grand Masters appointed by this Grand Master, though some of them we believe were appointed to fill vacancies. He appointed one for Antigua, and the Leeward Caribbee Islands, also for the towns of Norwich and Norfolk; for the Bahama Islands; for 11amburg and Lower Saxony; for Guadaloupe; for Lancaster; for Georgia; for Canada; for Andalusia; for Bermuda; for Carolina; for Mosquito Shore; and for East India. Lord Aberdour was succeeded by the Earl Ferrers, in 1762, from which date it seems Masonry was much neglected. The nobility and gentry, in a great measure, withdrew from the Society, or ceased to attend the meetings of the Lodges, and even the annual feasts were much neglected. At this falling off, no one acquainted with the tendency of human associations, whether religious, moral, or benevolent, should be surprised. Each have their revivals and depressions. We will not stop to enter into a metaphysical disquisition in order to show the causes which ever have and ever will produce these seemingly unnatural changes in human affairs, believing it only necessary


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269 to say here, that such events are to be looked for in almost every department of life. Gen. John Salter was Deputy Grand Master under Ferrers, and to him is the Fraternity indebted, more than to the Grand Master, for the preservation of order and the maintenance of the principles of our Institution. In 1764, Lord Blainey was chosen Grand Master. During his administration the Dukes of Gloucester and Cumberland (brothers to theKing), were made Masons. Eleven warrant were issued under this administration. Thomas Dunckerley was justly esteemed a luminary in Masonry, and to him much is due for his prominent and untiring efforts to restore the Order to its wonted dignity. The Grand Lodge, being aware of his valuable services, did him the honor to order that he should rank as a P. Senior G. Warden, and in all processions take his station next to the acting officer of that grade. In Blainey's administration we have an evidence of the undue influence which birth is sometimes made to exercise, even in Masonry, where one of the first lessons taught is that all meet upon th6 level. The following resolution will exemplify our meaning: " Resolved, That, as the Grand Lodge entertains the highest sense of the honor conferred on the Society, by the initiation of the Dukes of Gloucester and Cumberland, each of their royal highnesses be presented with an apron lined with blue silk; and that, in all future processions, they shall rank as Past Grand Masters, next to the Grand Officers for the time being." A similar resolution was passed in reference to their brother, the Duke of York, who, in his travels, had been made a Mason. The Duke of Beaufort was chosen Grand Master,in 1767. In 1768, letters were received from the Grand Lodge of France, proposing to open and keep up a regular and fraternal correspondence and interchange of Masonic courtesies between the two Grand Lodges, which was cheerfully agreed to by the Grand Lodge of England, and, forthwith a copy of the English Constitutions, together with a list of subordinate Lodges, was ordered to be forwarded to the Grand Lodge of France.


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            270 HISTORY OF FREEMASON RY. Beaufort interested himself warmly for the promotion of the prosperity and harmony of the Order. He it was who first propo3ed to apply for a charter of incorporation of the Grand Lodge of England. Some of the brethren misconceiving his object, ind the effect of being incorporated, opposed the measure, and the Fraternity was soon warmly divided into parties upon the subject; but, on the final vote, the Lodges sustained the proposition, one hundred and sixty‑eight to forty. three. A bill wa3 introduced into parliament to incorporate the Society, by the Hon. Mr. Dillon; but on its being opposed by one of the members, at the request of some Masons, Mr. Dillon moved its indefinite postponement, which was carried. About this time, and during the pendency of this question, Hon. Charles Dillon, D. G. Master, introduced a proposition to raise funds for building a grand Masonic Hall, by taxing the officers of the Grand Lodge, and all who should apply for initiation into the mysteries of Masonry, also those brethren who should apply for membership in the Lodges. Some have doubted the right of the Grand Lodge of Missouri to levy a contribution upon the candidates for degrees, to be applied to the use and support of the Masonic College; but, aside from other and unanswerable arguments, it must be admitted, that if the Grand Lodge of England possessed the power to levy and collect fees from the applicants for degrees, for the purpose of building a hall, surely it is competent for a Grand Lodge to levy and collect a tax, to be applied in the education of the sons of Masons,or any others. At this period the Grand Lodge had on deposit, in the three per cent. fund bank, one thousand three hundred pounds,standing in the name of Berkley Beardmore, which the Grand Lodge ordered to be transferred to the names of their Grand Officers. This order was resisted by Beardmore; but soon after, in consequence of his death, the transfer was made without opposition. The rapid increase of foreign Lodges, holding under the Grand Lodge of England, suggested the propriety of constituting an office, the incumbent of which should have the special


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            BISTORY OF FREEMASONRY. 271 auperintendence of said foreign Lodges. The Grand Lodge, therefore, appointed a Provincial Grand Master for all foreign Lodges, to whom the reports of particular Provincial Grand Masters and foreign Lodges, where there was no such officer should be made. Grand Master Beaufort also appointed an Inspector General for that district, known to be within the bills of mortality; but this measure met the decided disapprobation of the city Lodges, nd the office was soon after abolished. In 1770, a communication was received from Baron de Boetzelaer, Grand Master of the National Grand Lodge of the United Provinces of Holland and their dependencies. This communication asked to be acknowledged as an independent Grand Lodge, and proposed to the Grand Lodge of England that, if it would, for the future, refuse to give warrants for establishing Lodges within the provinces as named, the Grand Lodge of Holland agreed to yield to England the exclusive jurisdiction over all countries in which the Grand Lodge of England then had subordinate Lodges. These terms were acceded to, and articles of fraternal friendship and intercourse were freely entered into between the two Grand bodies. In 1772, Lord Petre was chosen Grand Master. At this period a considerable sum of money had accumulated in the hands of the Grand Lodge, belonging to the hall fund, and a Committee was raised for the purpose of carrying out the plan of erecting a hall. By their report in 1774, they had contracted for the purchase of a lot of ground, situated in Great Queen street, for the sum of three thousand one hundred and eighty pounds. The cost of erecting the hall was estimated, by the same Committee, at three thousand pounds, and yet, twenty years after, it appears the hall had cost about twentyfive thousand pounds, which sum was raised mainly by the sale of annuities for life, of five pounds for every share of fifty pounds. On the first of May, 1775, the foundation‑stone was laid in solemn form. This handsome structure was completed in about twelve months, and on the 20th of May, 1776, it was dedicated in Masonic form to MJasonry, Virtue, Universal Charity,, and Benevolence, in the presence of a large and brilliant


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assembly. This Masonic Hall, we believe, is still standing and is occupied in part for Masonic purposes. It may be a matter of wonder to some that, in the great metropolis of England, the Masons are unable to set aside the whole building for Masonic purposes, but those who have lived in large cities and have witnessed the large and perpetual drain upon the funds of the Society, for the relief of suffering humanity, will not bt surprised. We do not hesitate to say that generally the smal country Lodges are much more apt to have surplus funds or hand than any situated in a city or commercial town. About the period here referred to, a fraternal correspondence and interchange of Masonic courtesies were opened between the Grand Lodges of England and Germany. It seems that the latter, whether as a condition or not of this arrangement of amity and brotherly intercourse, agreed to contribute annually to the Charity Fund of the former. In 1776, the Grand Lodge of England resolved that all Past Grand Officers should wear a gold jewel, the ground enameled blue ùall the jewels were worn pendent to a blue ribbon. About this period clandestine Masonry again attracted attention; in reference to which the Grand Lodge issued the following edict, in 1777: ù" That the persons who assemble in London and elsewhere in the character of Masons, calling themselves dJncient JMasons, and at present said to be under the patronage of the Duke of Athol, are not to be countenanced or acknowledged by any regular Lodge or Mason under the Constitution of England. Nor shall any regular Mason be present at any of their Conventions, to give a sanction to their proceedings, under the penalty of forfeiting the privileges of the Society. Nor shall any person initiated at any of their irregular meetings be admitted into any Lodge, without being remade.* That this censure shall not extend to any Lodge or Mason * Preston says:‑" This censure only extends to those irregular Lodges in London which seceded from the Fraternity, in 1738, and can not apply to the Grand Lodge in YorkCity, or to any Lodges under that ancient and respectable banner, whose independence and regular proceeding have been fully admitted and authenticated by the Grand Lodge in London, in the Book of onmstitdioe, printed under their sanction, in 1738.'


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273 made in Scotland or Ireland, under the Constitution of either of these kingdoms, or to any Lodge or Mason made abroad, under the patronage of any foreign Grand Lodge in alliance with the Grand Lodge of England, but that such Lodge arc' Masons shall be deemed regular and constitutional." The foregoing furnishes a useful commentary upon the writings of some prominent Masons of the present day. How many, even in the state of New York, have written largely about the charter received from the Grand Lodge of England in 1781, Athol, Grand Master? How many more in other states, not excepting Missouri, have quoted from the.Jhiman Rezon, as the highest authority of ancient Masonic law, without taking the trouble to inform themselves that the clandestine' body of Masons in the city of London, to guard against whoim the foregoing edict was issued, not only sent a charter for the formation of a Provincial Grand Lodge in New York, but also to two or three other points in the United States; and, having reprinted a garbled extract of Anderson's Constitutions, called it the Jihiman Rezon, and not only used the same as containing all the ancient regulations, but sent it to America, where it was afterward republished in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina. We have examined two or three of these republications, and feel called upon to admonish the brethren everywhere that the Ancient Regulations are so mixed up with various modern regulations that, without a copy of Anderson's Constitutions, it is utterly impossible to separate them. In 1777, the Grand Lodge of England ordered an appendix to the Book of Constitutions, embracing the principal proceedings of the Grand Lodge from the date of the last edition. About the same time, the Grand Lodge ordered an annual publication, called the Freemasons' Calendar, the profits of which went to the Charity Fund. This Calendar, we suppose, was intended to answer about the same purposes that are now effected in the United States by printing the proceedings of the Grand Lodges. The Grand Lodge passed a resolution prohibiting any subordinate Lodge from initiating for a less sum than two guineas. Most of the Lodges were in the habit, and continued to charge' is


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five guineas for initiation. The Grand Lodge also directed that the name, age, and occupation of every initiated and affiliated brother should be recorded in the books of the Lodge. In 1777, the Duke of Manchester was chosen Grand Master; under whose administration arose a difficulty between the Grand Lodge and the Lodge of Antiquity. It will be remembered by our readers that, in the course of this history, we have had occasion to allude to the claim set up by the Lodge of Antiquity to an immemorial charter. The difficulty originated in an open violation of one of the edicts of the Grand Lodge, by the Master and Wardens of the Lodge of Antiquity, in dressing in their regalia, and, with the Lodge, walking to and from church in procession, without permission of the Grand Master or Deputy. A charge to this effect being brought before the Grand Lodge, the subject continued to agitate that body for more than twelve months. Whether the law prohibiting processions, without the consent of the Grand Master, or his Deputy, was either necessary or proper, is, we think, extremely doubtful; but whether or not, while the law was in being, no good Mason should have disregarded it, and the Grand Lodge could do nothing less than maintain its dignity by asserting the conduct of the Lodge of Antiquity a violation of duty; and it is quite likely that the subordinate Lodge would have seen and acknowledged its error, but for another difficulty, in which, we think, the Grand Lodge transcended its powers. The Lodge of Antiquity expelled three of its members for alleged gross unMasonic conduct. The Grand Lodge, without proper course of law, and in violation of the rights of subordinate Lodges, ordered them to be reinstated. The Lodge set up its claim to the right, in all cases, of determining who should be its members, and refused to comply with the edict of the Grand Lodge. While we hold that it is the bounden duty of every Subordinate Lodge to yield obedience to the edicts of the Grand Lodge, not subversive of the ground‑work and principles of the Order, we can not conceive of a sufficient reason for denying to any Lodge the right to judge in the choice of their private society. Had the Grand Lodge restored the expelled brothers to the privileges of Masonry, and stopped there, we should hold their


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275 action as unquestionable; but it is not only a wholesome, but necessary right, guaranteed by the very nature of things, of every Lodge to say who shall sit within its walls. No brother should be at liberty to visit without the consent of the Lodge; and surely, if a Lodge may refuse to admit a proposed visitor, it may refuse a brother membership. The Grand Lodge of South Carolina has recently taken precisely the position which the Grand Lodge of England occupied; and it may be, that it will seek justification by the precedent laid down by the Grand Lodge of England; but two wrongs can not make a right.


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            CHAPTER XXI. IMMEDIATELY after the unauthorized edict of the Grand Lodge, reinstating individuals regularly expelled b) the Lodge of Antiquity, this Lodge began to set up its claims to independence, on the ground that they had not received its charter from the Grand Lodge, nor had they ever surrendered its immemorial charter, when it came under the control of the Grand Lodge. To such an extent of bitterness was this discussion carried, that both parties seem to have forgotten the original cause of difference. Stringent edicts were hastily passed by the Grand Lodge, which were answered by resolutions of defiance on the part of the Lodge of Antiquity. Memorials and remonstrances were presented to no effect. The Lodge of Antiquity appointed committees for the purpose of examining the ancient records of the Lodge from which it was found that its existence was traceable greatly beyond the establishment of the Grand Lodge of England, nor could there be found any written testimony that they had derived their authority from the Grand Lodge at York, and hence they chose to call theirs an immemorial charter. They applied to the Grand Lodge at York and the Grand Lodge of Scotland (both, as we have seen, were prepared to take grounds against the Grand Lodge of England) for advice; not only refused compliance with the resolutions and edicts of the Grand Lodge, but issued protests against its authority, discontinued attendance upon the Grand Lodge, and the Charity Committee; published a manifesto, giving notice of its separation, and acknowledged its alliance with the Grand Lodge of all England, at York. The Grand Lodge of England enforced its edicts, s6veral members were expelled, and the most bitter animosities were engendered. In vindication of the course of the Grand Lodge, the following resolution was passed by the Committee of Charity, in 1779:


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277 "Resolved, That every private Lodge derives its authority from the Grand Lodge, and that no authority but the Grand Lodge can withdraw or take away that power. That though the majority of a Lodge may determine to quit the Society, the constitution or power of assembling remains with, and is vested in, the rest of the members who may be desirous of con tinuing their allegiance; and that if all the members withdraw themselves, the Constitution is extinct, and the authority reverts to the Grand Lodge." The Lodge of Antiquity took the ground that this resolution might properly be made applicable to all Lodges deriving their existence from the Grand Lodge; but, inasmuch as that Lodge claimed an immemorial existence, it was not, nor could it be made, applicable to them, " for," said they, " the Lodge not only claims its prior existence, but the Grand Lodge has repeatedly admitted it." Bro. Preston, in reviewing this subject, fully concurs with the Lodge of Antiquity, that, inasmuch as that Lodge did not derive its being from the Grand Lodge, nor at any time surrender its ancient authority, and take a charter under the Grand Lodge, therefore it was clearly independent of it. As we can not concur with this eminent writer upon this subject, we subjoin a reason or two upon which our judgment is formed. Those of our readers who have read carefully our history of the establishment of the Grand Lodge of England will bear in mind that there were then in London four Lodges, one of them, the Lodge of Antiquity, claiming an immemorial charter. These Lodges assisted in forming the Grand Lodge, acknowledging its authority; indeed, were its principal material of existence, and therefore did not need a charter from that Grand Lodge. Not long after, these old Lodges became jealous of the rapid growth and power of the new Lodges, complained to the Grand Lodge, and demanded an edict securing to them authority and dignity, in the Grand Lodge, against future contingencies‑and everything they asked was granted. After which, the Lodge of Antiquity submitted to the authority of the Grand Lodge from 1717 to 1778. Had the Lodge of Antiquity held itself aloof from the Grand


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Lodge at its formation, and ever after, then would the conclu. sions of Bro. Preston be correct; but if, at any time, that Lodge voluntarily came under the authority of the Grand Lodge, it surrendered all its original rights, except such as were reserved, and there is proof, not only that this Lodge did come under said authority, but it was for weal or woe, in part responsible for the existence of the Grand Lodge, and, as stated, it again acknowledged its authority by demanding and receiving conditions for the continuance of that authority. We hold that a formal surrender of the charter is not at all necessary to the acknowledgment and the exercise of authority; but that the overt acknowledgment of such power is all that is necessary. It is true, as Preston asserts, that up to the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Masons, by the Ancient Charges, had a right to assemble in sufficient number at any place they chose, call a brother to the Chair, and open a Lodge, receive and act upon applications for the mysteries, and, furthermore, to make Masons. A record of such proceedings was made, and he who acted as Master of the Lodge for the time being was not necessarily Master at any other meeting. Indeed, there was no such thing as a Lodge with regular and permanent members; but all members of the Fraternity were alike at liberty to form a Lodge to make Masons, and the officers were only so for the time being. The present system of the Grand Lodge, or Grand Master constituting Lodges by the appointment of regular Masters and Wardens, was not known. The Ancient Charges were the only authority appealed to, nor were any laws or regulations made or attempted to be made in addition to the charges. There was a Grand Master of Masons, not of a Grand Lodge, properly speaking; for what we now regard or speak of as the Grand Lodge at York, was simply an assemblage of all Masons who chose to attend; that assembly adopted such regulations as they thought proper. It was presided over by the Grand Master; but beyond such meeting the Grand Master had no power delegated to him. All Masons were truly upon one common level, and amenable only to each other,under the authority of the charges,when assembled at York. When a Lodge was formed by the assemblage o.


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279 a sufficient number of brethren, the attestation of those brethren was the highest authority of its legality, and the only written testimony offered in proof of the making a Mason. By this ancient regulation, Preston asserts the Lodge of Antiquity was always governed. But this, we have shown, could not have been the case, for that it did come under and act by the authority of the Grand Lodge of England is matter of history, not questionable in its character. The difficulties between the Grand Lodge and the Lodge of Antiquity continued, though not with the same bitterness, about ten years. In 1790, all differences were reconciled, and the Lodge of Antiquity once more took its place as a member of the Grand Lodge. In 1779, news was received by the Grand Lodge of England. that Omndit‑ul‑Omrah Bahauder, son of the nabob of the Carnatic in India, had been made a Mason, under the authority of the English Constitution. The Grand Lodge feeling honored by the association of this distinguished man, sent him a congratulatory letter, a copy of the Constitutions, etc. On the receipt of which, he returned a letter so replete with good sense, and so tastefully written, that we are induced to copy it entire.* ~V T THE RIGHT WORSHIPFUL, flis Grace the Dulce of Manchester, Grand Master of the illustrious and benevolent Society of Free and Accepted Masons, under the Conslitution of England, and the Grand Lodge thereof: MUCH HONORED SIR AND BRETHREN:‑An early knowledge and participation of the benefits arising to our house from its intimate union of counsels and interests with the British nation, and a deep veneration for the laws, constitutions, and manners of the latter, have for many years of my life led me to seize every opportunity of drawing the tie between us still closer and closer. By the accounts which have reached me of the principles and practices of your Fraternity, nothing can be more pleasing to the Sovereign Ruler of the Universe, whom we all, though in different ways, adore, or more honorable to his creatures; for they stand upon the broad basis of indiscriminate and universal benevolence. Under this conviction, I had long wished to be admitted to your Fraternity, and now that I am initiated, I consider the title of an English Mason, as one of the most honorable that I possess. For it is at once a cement between your nation and me. the friend of mankind. I have received from the Advocate General of Bengal, Sir John Day, the very acceptable mark of attention and esteem with which you have favored me; it has been presented with every circumstance of deference and respect that the situation of things here and the temper of the times would admit of, and I do assure your grace and the brethren at large, thai


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In 1777, a Grand Lodge, provincial to the Grand Lodge of England, was formed in India, and Brigadier Gen. Horne was elected first Grand Master. This Grand Lodge,as soon as organized, issued a charter for a new Lodge at Madras, under the name of Perfect Unanimity Lodge, No. 1, and the Grand Lodge performed the ceremony of consecration in the following October. About this time, the Grand Lodge of England donated one hundred pounds for the relief of brethren in America, who had suffered by the Revolution, or, as the English writers style it, rebellion. In 1778, a number of brethren, fascinated with show, introduced into the Grand Lodge a proposition, requiring the Grand Officers and P. G. Officers to provide themselves with robes in which to appear on all public occasions. This proposition was favorably received, but it being referred to a committee, it was found to be at direct variance with the usages of the Order, and therefore was abandoned. The Grand Lodge ordered that no brother should hold two offices in the Grand Lodge at the same time. The Grand Lodge of Germany applied for and obtained leave to send a representative to the Grand Lodge of England, who was given a rank next to the Past Grand Officers. In 1782, an effort was made on the part of the Grand Lodge to establish fraternal communion between that body and the Grand Lodgesof Scotland and Ireland, but the old prejudices were too deep rooted to be lightly or speedily removed. We make the following extract from Preston, to show that in times he has done ample justice to the commission you have confided to him, and has executed it in such a manner as to do honor to himself and me. I shall avail myself of a proper opportunity to convince your grace, and the rest of the brethren, that Omdit‑ul‑Omrah is not an unfeeling brother, or heedless of the precepts he has imbibed; and that while he testifies his love and esteem for his brethren,by strengthening the bonds of humanity, he means to minister to the wants of the distressed. May the common Father of all, the one Omnipotent and Merciful God take you into His holy keeping, and give you health, peace, and length of years, prays your highly honored and affectionate brother, OMDIT‑UL‑OMRAH BAHAUDSB.


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281 past, Freemasons, as well as others, have been title‑worshipers, notwithstanding our boast of meeting on the level: "At this meeting, also, the pleasing intelligence was communicated of the Duke of Cumberland's intention to accept the government of the Society. This having been regularly stated in the Grand Lodge. His Highness was proposed Grand Masterelect, and it was resolved, in compliment to him, that he should have the privilege of nominating a peer of the realm as acting Grand Master, who should be empowered to superintend the Society in his absence, and that, at any future period, when the Fraternity might be honored with a prince of the blood at their head, the same privilege should be granted. "At the annual grand feast, on May 1, 1782, the Duke of Cumberland was unanimously elected Grand Master; and it being signified to the Society that His Highness meant to appoint the Earl of Effingham acting Grand Master, that appointment was confirmed, and His Lordship presided as proxy for His Royal Highness during the feast." The following new regulations were adopted at this meeting: 1. That no brother, initiated since October, 1768, shall be appointed to the honor of wearing a blue or red apron, unless the Grand Secretary certifies that his name has been registered, and fees paid. 2. That no brother, initiated since that time, shall be appointed Master or Warden of a Lodge, or be permitted to attend any Committee of Charity or Grand Lodge, unless his namehas been registered, and fees paid. 3. That every petitioner for charity, initiated since that time, shall set forth, in his petition, the Lodge in which, and the time when, he was made a Mason, in order that the Secretary may certify by indorsement, on the back of the petition, whether his name has been registered, and the fees paid. 4. That every Lodge shall transmit to the Grand Secretary, on or before the general feast in each year, a list of all persons initiated, or members admitted, together with the registering fees, or notice that they have not initiated or admitted any, that their silence may not be imputed to contempt.


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5. That to prevent the plea of ignorance or forgetfulness, a blank form shall be printed and sent to each Lodge to be filled up and returned to the Grand Secretary. 6. That the Grand Secretary shall lay before the first quarterly communication after each Grand Feast, an account of such Lodges as have not registered their members within the preceding year, that they may be erased from the list of Lodges, or be otherwise dealt with, as the Grand Lodge may think expedient. 7. That to prevent any injury to individuals, by being excluded from the privileges of the Society, through the neglect of their Lodges, in their names not being duly registered, any brethren, on producing sufficient proofs that they have paid due registering fees to their Lodges, shall be capable of enjoying all the privileges of the Society; but the offending Lodges shall be rigorously dealt with for detaining fees that are the property of the Society. 8. That ten shillings and six pence be paid to the Grand Lodge for registering the name of every Mason, initiated in any Lodge, under the Constitution, after May 5, 1788. 9. That no Lodge shall be permitted to attend or vote in the Grand Lodge, which has not complied with this regulation. At this meeting, also, the precedent of inflicting fines for non‑attendance was set. The Grand Lodge ordered that the Deputy Grand Master and Wardens should be fined for failing to attend the communications of the Grand Lodge. It will be seen that this penalty did not include the most important Grand Officer, the Grand Master, for the reason, as we suppose, that they could not "frame" to pronounce a royal personage guilty of Masonic wrong. Now, we are far from wishing to withhold from the meritorious the meed of praise; on the contrary, we hold it to be right and proper, if for no other reason, to stimulate the rising generation to emulate the example of the good and great, that public honors should be bestowed upon all whose noble deeds or benevolent acts tend to elevate the character of man, and honor the Great Creator; but we do desire to see those honors given to the truly meritorious, and withheld from those whose only claim is the


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283 accidental distinction of being born of a certain lineage. If royalty and virtue were known to walk hand in hand, we would not complain; but when it is not difficult to see, that of all classes of mankind, in proportion to their intelligence, the royal families are most corrupt, we do complain that Masons, professing to know no distinctions other than merit, should, spaniel‑like, cringe and fawn at the feet of certain of their brethren, only because of high‑sounding titles. Away with the square, level, and plumb, if they are to be desecrated to unholy purposes. We would see the standard of Masonry brought up to the sublime and ennobling principles it inculcates; nor is this a consummation less devoutly to be wished at this day than at the period about which we have been writing. Masons in America do not worship royalty of birth; but a sort of royalty less dignified and of baser materials has sprung up in this country, to which even Masons bow a willing knee. Money! money! no matter by what means obtained, wins upon the beholder, and cringing adulation is too often seen paid to the merely wealthy, even in the Lodge‑room; while the humble mechanic, who, though standing upon the topmost round of Masonic knowledge, may pass through life, in the faithful discharge of his Masonic duties, and, for all his toil, only hear it said, " He is a very clever fellow,for a mechanic!" No people worship titles more than Americans do wealth. This is all wrong; and whose duty is it, if not the Masons, to work out a change? Let the Masons unite in the fulfillment of that command, to give " honor to whom honor is due," and, by the principles of our Order, it will be found to be due only to the virtuous and good, the benevolent and wise.


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            CHAPTER XXII. IN 1787, Chevalier Bartholomew Ruspini, a very zealous Mason, conceived the plan of establishing, under the patronage of the Fraternity, a place of refuge and school for the maintain ance and education of orphan female children of indigent Masons. Failing immediately to interest his brethren so far as to embark in the enterprise, he applied to Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Cumberland, who immediately seized the opportunity to manifest an animated interest and embark in the enterprise, by heartily giving her open and avowed patronage and influence to its accomplishment; and to her fostering hand is owing the establishment of the Institution in 1788. She warmly commended it to the patronage of the royal family, nobility, and gentry of both sexes. A house was hired for the purpose, and, on January 1, 1789, fifteen children were admitted. This, we believe, is the first Masonic school ever established ù at least, it is the first of which we have a published account. This truly benevolent design soon attracted the attention. not only of the Masons of the South of England, but the brethren of.India also contributed liberally to it. The object of the Institution was to train up orphan children in a knowledge of virtue and religion. We have often thought it strange that the governments of England and America have not long since taken measures to insure the proper training and education of destitute orphan children. Thousands of dollars are annually contributed by benevolent individuals for the immediate relief of the suffering poor; and, under existing circumstances, it is the best that can be done to mitigate the sufferings and sooth the sorrows of the distressed; but was the sum thus distributed systematically applied, under a system of laws and salutary rules, how much more efficient and extensive would be the relief afforded, and the good accomplished. Let us exemplify our meaning by supposing that fifty dollars is given to a poor family to purchase


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285 fuel, clothing, and the necessaries of life for the winter; when spring arrives, the family are not only as destitute of means as at the commencement of winter, but no moral or religious instructions have been given to the children‑no new stimulus to exertion or habits of industry have been inculcated; and we can not but see that a large proportion of the poverty and suffering is to be found among those who live in ignorance, and necessarily become more or less degraded and indolent. Let the children of the same family be taken into a house of refuge, under the control of competent teachers, and governed by wholesome laws, and the fifty dollars will go far to support the children; and, what is of more consequence, they are so instructed that, at an early age, habits of industry will be acquired, self‑respect and a commendable pride will be engendered, and not only will they be able to maintain themselves, and, if need be, contribute to the comfort of an aged mother, but they become lifted up from degradation to a fair respectability, and form, ever after, useful members of society. There is strength and influence in concert of action and unity of purpose. Benevolent societies accomplish much more good, according to the means employed, than is or can be done by individual alms‑giving; and yet, how much more might be accomplished were the government to take the matter in hand. But we are aware that it might be thought Quixotic in us to suggest a plan, or the outlines of a system, with any hope of its attracting the attention of law‑makers, who spend their lives in legislating for the benefit of property‑holders, not caring to give even a portion of their time and talents for the benefit of that numerous but uninfluential class, the humble poor. We are aware that it might not comport with our habits of thinking, and, many would say, with the spirit and genius of our government, to become the dispenser of alms directly. And why not, pray? The government is for the good of the people; and what people are, or can be, truly great and truly good, whose government permits a large moiety of its citizens to drag out a life of degraded morals, wretchedness, anr want? No government of a civilized, much less Christian, people should suffer a pauper‑we mean a street pauper‑in the land. What must


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after ages think of England, with all her boasted freedom and her inimitable laws, with all her rapid march in the knowledge of religion and virtue, with all her vast domain " on which the sun never sets,"‑we say, with all her boundless resources, what must future and more enlightened ages think of her eight millions of paupers, and the long list of deaths from absolute starvation? But we are aware that this subject more fitly belongs to another place; and yet would we fain hope that our remarks, if they do no more, will stimulate our brother Masons to adopt a system in their alms‑giving that will result in the greatest amount of permanent good. He who gives a dollar here and a dollar there to feed the poor does well; but he who throws all these dollars into a fund, to be distributed by wholesome rules, will do much better. In 1793, the funds raised through the Masons for the benefit of the Masonic school of which we have been speaking, had so far increased that they were enabled to build a spacious schoolhouse, at a cost of two thousand five hundred pounds. It was large enough to accommodate one hundred children, but we are not informed that it was ever filled.* We subjoin some of the more important and interesting rules adopted for the government of the school. Every child admitted was required to be the daughter of a Mason, who had been initiated three years, and whose name had been registered in the books of the Grand Lodge; and such child, at the time of entering, must be between the age of five and ten years; not afflicted with any disorder or contagious disease, or constitutional infirmity; must have had the small pox,t and free from any corporeal or mental defect. Children so received were retained in the Institution until they were fifteen years old, during which time they were carefully instructed in every domestic branch of female employment, and when discharged from school they were placed out as apprentices, either to a trade, or as servants, as might seem best. * This school maintains and educates seven hundred daughters of indigent Masons now. t A very unjuat and unnecessary requirement.


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287 The Institution was controled by a Board called the Governors, who held their stated meetings quarterly. A general committee, consisting of life governors and thirty annual governors, met once a month to receive reports of the sub‑committees and give such orders as they thought proper, subject to the confirmation of the first named Board of Governors. Twelve of the last named committee constituted a Eoutse Committee, to whose especial care was given the internal arrangement. They visited the school weekly, examined the provisions, condition of the rooms, etc., and reported accordingly. A Committee of Auditors, composed of twelve of the general committee, met quarterly to examine the vouchers of the treasurer and collector, and saw that disbursements were not imade unless authorized.* * RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE SCHOOL. 1. Every person subscribing one guinea annually is deemed a governor or governess during the time such subscription is continued. 2. Every subscriber of ten guineas or upward is deemed a governor or governess for life, and such governor is a member of the General Committee. 3. The Master, for the time being, of any Lodge subscribing ten guineas, is a member of the Committee for fifteen years, and on each Lodge paying the further sum of ten guineas within the space of ten years, such Master for the time being is a governor and member of the Committee so long as such Lodge shall exist. 4. The Master, for the time being, of any Lodge subscribing twenty guineas, is a perpetual governor, so long as such Lodge shall exist. 5. Any subscriber who has already made a benefaction of ten guineas, or the Master of a Lodge who has contributed twenty guineas, and chooses to repeat such donation, is entitled to the privilege of a second vote on all questions relative to the charity. 6. The executor of any person paying a legacy of one hundred pounds for the use of the charity, is deemed a governor foy life; and in case a legacy of two oundred pounds or upward be paid for the use of the charity, then all the executors proving the will are deemed governors for life. 7. Every govcrnor has a right to vote at all quarterly and special courts, and every nobleman, member of parliament, lady, Master of a country Lodge, and governor residing within the bills of mortality, have a right to vote by proxy at all ballots and elections; but no person being an annual governor can be permitted to vote at any election until the subscription for the current year (and arrears, if any) are paid to the Treasurer. 8. Any governor supplying this Institution with any article, wherefrom any emolument may arise, shall not vote on any question relative thereto, nor can such governor be a member of any committee during the time he serves the charity.‑PRESToON' IUlsration of Freemasonry.


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At the time Preston wrote his Illustrations, he informs us that so highly had the school flourished, that the sale of the work done by the children who were inmates, amounted to as much as two hundred pounds annually. On February 10, 1790, the Grand Lodge voted an annual subscription of twenty‑five pounds to the school, and recommended it to the charity.of the subordinate Lodges, and soon after a new impetus was given to this charity by the addition of considerable sums donated by them. One remarkable donation is mentioned. Shakespeare Lodge, at Covent Garden, and the individual members thereof, paid above a thousand pounds to the fund. The Duke of Cumberland continued to be Grand Master until his death in 1790. Masonry never flourished more in England than during the Grand Mastership of Cunberland; indeed, we have been compelled to notice that our Institution has ever flourished or declined in that country very much in proportion as it was patronized by the nobility. High sounding titles seem to be necessary to the growth and prosperity of almost any association in a monarchical government, and nowhere more than in England. During Cumberland's administration, nearly all the males of the royal family became Masons, and hence at the grand feast of 1790, at which the royal Masons attended, there were over five hundred brethren in attendance. In the latter part of 1790, the Prince of Wales was chosen Grand Master. We say chosen, because such is the language of English historians; but we assert, without the fear of contradiction, that there is to be found no instance where the election of any candidate of the royal family was ever opposed by any candidate, not of royal blood. On the contrary, the most cringing adulation was perceptible in the Craft whenever one of royal blood would condescend to serve as‑Grand Master ‑and this, too, without even expecting theso called and elected Grand Master to fill or perform the duties of that office; but while sending forth to the world the name of the Prince of Wales, or any other prince, as Grand Master, he was requested to choose an acting Grand Master, who performed all the onerous duties of the office. The spirit of man‑worship is not


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289'onfined to a monarchical government. How often do we find it the case in the United States? In choosing a Grand Master, the brethren sometimes lose sight of Masonic worth, Masonic qualifications, and faithful servitude in the glorious cause, and choose some one having no other claim than that of having occupied some prominent station in religion or politics, and who, it is to be expected, will lead the Craft into errors, if not confusion, for the want of Masonic light. At the grand feast in 1791, the members of the Lodge of Antiquity were reinstated by the Grand Lodge to all their Masonic privileges, after having been under suspension or expulsion for more than ten years. Among these was Bro. Preston, author of the Illustrations of Masonry, which, to our mind, accounts for his strange notions in regard to the rights of the Lodge of Antiquity, because of its immemorial charter, referred to in our last chapter. When the Prince of Wales consented to accept the office of Grand Master, the Grand Lodge ordered three elegant chairs and candlesticks to be provided for the use of the Grand Lodge. At the next grand feast, these chairs and candlesticks were paraded before the public, but, unfortunately for the royalblood‑loving masses, His Royal Highness was not present to occupy one of the chairs. He was, however, elected Grand Master by acclamation. It is due to the memory of the Prince of Wales, to say that he was not at all responsible for the extravngant devotion to blood manifested by the brethren; on the contrary, we have reason to believe that after he assumed the government of the Craft, he faithfully performed the duties of his office, so far as his engagements in public affairs would permit; nor did he encourage or tolerate any departures from the ancient and established usages of the Order, and for one who was heir apparent to the crown, courted and caressed by all classes, it is only remarkable that he qualified himself so well to discharge his Masonic duties. Indeed, if we may rely upon the opinions of Preston (who, by the way, was rather a cringing royalist), the Prince of Wales was one of the best presiding officers the Grand Lodge of England ever had. The lodges throughout the kingdom vied with each other in 19


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manifestations of gratitude and loyal submission to his person and office, and this seemed the more admissible, even in Masons, when we remember that about this time the French Revolution broke out and spread its influence into England. Attempts were made to sow the seeds of discord and rebellion by secret emissaries throughout the kingdom, and, therefore, in order to strengthen and give confidence to the throne, many addresses were signed and forwarded, while the Masons chose generally to speak through their illustrious Grand Master, giving assurances of their attachment to his person and family. In 1793, the Grand Lodge adopted the following address, which was delivered in person by His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, Grand Master:" To the King's.Most Excellent Majesty, the humble address of the Grand Lodge of the lncient Fraternity of Free and J.cceptea Masons, under the Constitution of England " MOST GRACIOUS SOVEREIGN:‑At a time when nearly the whole mass of the people anxiously press forward and offer, with one heart and one voice the most animated testimonials of their attachment to Your Majesty's person and government, and of their unabated zeal, at this period of innovation and anarchy in other countries, for the unequaled constitution of their own, permit a body of men, Sire, which, though not known to the laws, has ever been obedient to them‑men who do not yield to any description of Your Majesty's subjects in the love of their country, in true allegiance to their sovereign, or in any other of the duties of a good citizen, to approach you with this public declaration of their political principles. The times, they think, demand it of them, and they wish not to be among the last, in such time, to throw their might, whatever it may be, into the scale of order, subordination, and good government. " It is written, Sire, in the Institute of our Order, that we shall not, at our meetings, go into religious or political discus sions; because, composed, as our Fraternity is, of men ot various nations, professing different rules of faith, and attached to opposite systems of government, such discussions, sharpening the mind of man against his brother, might offend and disunite.


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291 A crisis, however. so unlooked for as the present, justifies, to our judgment, a relaxation of that rule, and our first duty as Britons, superseding all other considerations, we add, without further pause, our voice to that of our fellow subjects, in declaring our common and fervent attachment to a government by King, Lords, and Commons as established by the glorious Revolution of 1688. " The excellence of all human institutions is comparative and fleeting; positive perfection or unchanging aptitude to its object, we know, belongs not to the work of man; but when we view the principles of government which have recently obtained in other nations, and then look upon our own, we exult in possessing, at this time, the wisest and best poised system the world has ever known‑a system which affords equal protection (the only equality we look for, or that indeed is practicable) and impartial justice to all. It may be thought, perhaps, being what we are, a private society of men, connected by invisible ties, professing secrecy, mysterious in our meeting, stamped by no act of prerogative, and acknowledged by no law, we assume a part and hold a language on this occasion to which we can urge no legal or admitted right. We are the free citizens, Sire, of a free state, and number many thousands of our body; the heir apparent of the empire is our chief; we fraternize for the purpose of social intercourse, of mutual assistance, of charity to the distressed, and good will to all; and fidelity to a trust, reverence to the magistrates, and obedience to the laws, are sculptured in capitals upon the pediment of our Institution. And,. let us add that, pervading as we do every class of the community, and every walk of life, and disseminating our principles wherever we strike root, this address may be considered as speaking in epitome the sentiments of a people. "Having thus attested our principles, we have only to implore the Supreme Architect of the Universe, whose Almighty hand hath laid in the deep the firm foundation of this country's greatness, and whose protecting shield hath covered her amia the crash of nations, that HE will continue to shelter and sustain her. May her sons be contented and her daughters happy


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and may Your Majesty, the immediate instrument of her present prosperity and power, to whom unbiased posterity shall thus inscribe the column: " To George, the friend of the people and patron of the artsi which brighten and embellish life, with your amiable Queen and your royal progeny, long, long continue to be the blessing and the boast of a grateful, happy, and united people. " Given unanimously in Grand Lodge, at Freemason's Hall, this 6th day of February, 1793. Signed, "RAWDON, A.G.M. Countersigned, "PETER PARKER, D.G.M. "WILLIAM WHITE, G.S." After the Grand Master had waited on the King and deliv ered the address, the Grand Lodge unanimously adopted a complimentary and fraternal address to His Royal Highness, expressive of their high sense of his services to the Craft, and the powerful influences his name had exercised in favor of the Institution. Masonry, at this period, flourished with great prosperity throughout Europe; nor were the brethren in America less alive to the interests of the Order. The struggle for independence, through which they had just passed, the heavy burdens which fell upon all classes, in order to recover, in some degree, from the evils of a protracted and unequal war, and the downtrodden credit of the national government, all did not, all could not, arrest the onward march of Freemasonry. Nay, it had flourished to a limited extent even upon the battle field, and amid the wounded and dying. Many and oft were its holy and benign principles brought into requisition to shelter the afflicted, bind up the wounds, and pour consolation into the soul of the dying soldier. The tent of Washington was often a rendezvous for the members of the Craft, who never failed to find in the breast of that great chief and good man, a safe repository of their secrets and a heartfelt sympathy for their deprivations and sufferings. No wonder, then, that the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts should remember with gratitude their brother, thb father of his country and theirs, when the struggle was ended and they were freemen:


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293 " address of the Grand Lodge of Free and accepted Masons, of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in JNorth JAmerica, to their brother, George Washington: "While the historian is describing the career of your glory, and the inhabitants of an extensive empire made happy in your unexampled exertions‑while some celebrate the hero, so distinguished in liberating United America, and others the patriot who presides over her councils, a band of brothers, having always joined the acclamations of their countrymen, now testify their respect for those milder virtues which have ever graced the man. "Taught, by the precepts of our Society, that all its members stand upon a level, we venture to assume this station, and to approach you with that freedom which diminishes our diffidence without lessening our respect. Desirous of enlarging the boundaries of social happiness, and to vindicate the ceremonies' of their Institution, this Grand Lodge has published J. Book of Constitutions (and a copy for your acceptance accompanies this), which, by discovering the principles which actuate, will speak the eulogy of the Society, though they fervently wish the conduct of its members may prove its higher commendation. " Convinced of his attachment to its cause and readiness to encourage its benevolent designs, they have taken the liberty to dedicate this work to ONE, the qualities of whose heart, and the actions of whose life,have contributed to improve personal virtue, and extend throughout the world the most endearing cordialities; and they humbly hope he will pardon the freedom and accept the tribute of their esteem and homage. "May the Supreme Architect of the Universe protect and bless you, give you length of days and increase of felicity in this world, and then receive you to the harmonious and exalted Society in heaven. "JOHN CUTTER, G.M., "JOSIAH BARTLET, S.G.W., "MUNGO MACKAY, J.G.W. "Boston, Dec. 27, A.L. 5792." To the address of the Grand Lodge, General Washington replied in the following words:


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"Answer to the Grand Lodge of Free and accepted Masons of Jliassachusetts: "Flattering as it may be to the human mind, and trul) honorable as it is to receive from our fellow citizens testi monials of approbation for exertions to promote the public welfare, it is not less pleasing to know that the milder virtues of the heart are highly respected by a Society whose liberal principles are founded in the immutable laws of truth and justice. "To enlarge the sphere of social happiness is worthy the benevolent design of a Masonic Institution; and it is most fervently to be wished that the conduct of every member of the Fraternity, as well as those publications that discover the principles which actuate them, may tend to convince mankind that the grand object of Masonry is to promote the happiness of the human race. " While I beg your acceptance of my thanks for the Book of Constitutions, which you have sent me, and for the honor you have done me in the dedication, permit me to assure you that I feel all those emotions of gratitude which your affectionate address and cordial wishes are calculated to inspire, and I sincerely pray that the Great Architect of the Universe may bless you heire, and receive you hereafter into His immortal temple. " GEO. WASHINGTON." We are aware that, in the world's history, a faithful record will be made of the life and character of WASHINGTON. We know that he who was " first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen," needs not the aid of our pen to render sacred his illustrious name. But we write of him in this connection because it is our privilege, and we rejoice that it is so, not only to ornament our pages with the name of one who, to his other high claims to admiration, may be added that of a just and upright Mason, but because his whole life will serve as a model to others. From the period of Washington's initiation, through a long and eventful life, he sought to inculcate and practice the sublime principles of Masonry. Whether at he fireside of home or upon the tented field, he was, every


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295 where and at all times, good and true. While, therefore, the Christian, the statesman, the warrior, and civilian, justly claim the privilege of enrolling his thrice‑honored name upon the broad scroll of their history, we, too, the SONS OF LIGHT, while in the exercise of Faith, Hope, and Charity‑while urging to the practice of Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth, claim the right to point the Entered Apprentice, the Fellow Craft, and Master Mason to the name of Washington, as an incentive to noble exertions and glorious achievements in the cause of benevolence and virtue. We claim him as the great luminary, the Masonic beacon of the eighteenth century. All good Masons will derive a melancholy pleasure in seeing recorded in the history of our Institution, an account of his death. General George Washington died at his residence, Mount Vernon, on the 14th of December. 1799. On the 18th, a solemn and imposing procession was formed about three o'clock, at Mount Vernon. The commencement of the ceremonies was announced by the firing of minute guns from a vessel in the river. The procession moved in the following order: The Cavalry, Infantry, and Guards marched with arms reversed. Music. Clergy. The General's horse, with his saddle, holsters, and pistols. The Corpse, borne by Colonels Little, Gilpin, Payne, Ramsay, and Simms, as pall‑bearers. The Mourners. Freemasons. Citizens. The procession having arrived at the lower part of the lawn on the banks of the Potomac, where the family vault was placed, the cavalry halted, and the infantry marched toward the mount and formed their lines. The clergy, followed by the Masons and citizens, then descended into the vault, where the burial service was performed. After which, three general discharges were given by the infantry, while the cavalry and eleven pieces of artillery, which lined the banks of the river at the back of the vault, paid the last military honors to the departed hero, soldier, and civilian, the Christian and Mason, the father of his country, the immortal Washington.


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It has often been truly said that his achievements are engraven upon the hearts of all true Americans; but this is not enough, for, in every country beneath the sun, where freemen dare be free, his name is known and appreciated; aye, and there is not a patriot battling for liberty and the rights of man, whose bosom does not heave with a new and nobler impulse at the sound of that venerated name. And if, for another century, the American people shall continue to rally round the bloodbought banner of their glorious Union, the day will come when the very sound of that name will rouse to arms millions of down‑trodden and fettered slaves, whose battle‑cry will be "Washington and liberty, or death!" Already may be heard the deep‑toned mutterings of a gathering storm. A little while, and the battle‑cry of all Europe shall sweep like an avalanche over the whole civilized world, dethroning kings and demolishing thrones, till not a monarch shall be left to bind again the chains of slavery. To this beloved land of ours, the home of Washington, all eyes are turned. The experiment is here being made, which, through all time, must determine whether the people are capable of self‑government. Three‑quarters of a century have passed away since the banner of the Union and liberty was unfurled by a band of veterans. The United Colonies have become United States, they have waxed old and powerful. Other States have been added to the confederacy, until the new are stronger than the old; but they are all actuated by the same glorious principles which governed the sages of'76. It is true that now and then we hear the dastardly croaking of the Pharasaic religionist of theNorth, whose soul knows no higher aim or more noble impulse than the love of self, and whose love of country is measured by the same laws. But these are not all who are becoming disturbers of the peace and harmony of society. The noble bearing of the generous South is sometimes converted into the intemperate and fiery shout of the revolutionist. But what of all these? They are but atoms floating in boundless space. They are but drops of poison cast upon the bosom of the calm and sleepy ocean; they may disturb the surface for a moment, but will soon be lost to view, and live no more in the memory of men.


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297 The great body of the people are sound, and the Union is safe. Oh would not the withering blight of an offended Jehovah palsy the hand that would attempt to sever the cord that binds our States in one, and our people into a fraternity of friends and brothers? We envy not the notoriety of the northern abolitionist or the southern disunionist. But neither are to be feared, for impulsive as are the people of America, they are not prepared for the yoke of a monarch, or the anarchy of petty governments. The Saxon loves to breathe the air of freedom; his stalwart arm will ever be raised against an enemy from without, or a traitor from within. Yea, all true Americans will rally around the standard of their country, and they have no country but in the Union. We return from this digression.


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            CHAPTER XXIII, WE have now arrived at a period in the history of Masonry when the principles of the Institution had become so generally known, that Lodges were established all over Europe; indeed, its glorious banner had been flung to the breeze in every civilized land. We are, therefore, no longer compelled to look alone to England for materials with which to fill our work. But the rapid march and growing popularity of the Order did not shield it from the foul aspersions of the bigot and the time‑serving demagogue. It is somewhat singular that, of all the persecutions practiced in the world, none is so bitter and unrelenting as that which originates with religious societies; and of all the societies the Jesuits greatly excel in a. spirit of vindictive and relentless persecution. We know some who are so exceedingly afraid of wounding the feelings of some brother who may be connected with that Church, that they would have us cover up the truth, and withhold any censure or exposure of our deadliest enemies. But to such timid, cringing Masons we beg to say, we are writing for the lovers of truth; we are writing that after ages may learn, through our pages, the true and unadorned history of Masonry; and if, in so writing, it becomes necessary to expose to public gaze the corruptions of a sect who profess the religion of our Saviour, the fault is not ours; nay, we should merit the scorn and detestation of the Brotherhood in all time to come, did we fail to record the simple truth, offend whom it may. But the writers of Masonic history are not the only class who have and will continue to call in question the purity of the motives of the Jesuits. Go to the history of nations, examine the records for the last three hundred years, and we believe it will be found that,in every country where they have assembled


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299 in considerable numbers, the Jesuits have been expelled by national authority. But lest we be charged with promulgating slanders against a religious sect, we call attention to a few facts from the records of history. Before doing so, however it may be proper to say that we have not taken this course because of any pleasure we derive in prostrating the influence of one religious denomination and elevating another, but the Jesuits have time and again attacked Masonry; yea, wherever they had the power, they have persecuted the members of the Order even to the death, and it is a privilege we shall take, to defend our Institution from falsehood and foul slander, and we shall not withhold our knowledge of the corrupt motives which have actuated our enemies. If it could be made to appear that the Jesuits had shown hostility or opposition to no other society than Freemasonry, it might seem probable that their enmity arose from some practice or doctrines of our Order, at war with the Christian religion; but we charge that the Jesuits have never failed to use every means in their power to prostrate every association, whether religious, moral, or political, which they could not suborn to their unholy purposes. We are aware that this may seem to be mere declamation and hearsay. We ask the reader's attention to a few historical facts, viz.: the Jesuits were expelled from Saragossa in 1555; they were expelled from Valteline in 1566; from Segovia in 1578; from Portugal in 1578 and 1759; from Vienna in 1568; from ATignon in 1570; from Antwerp in 1578; from England in 1579, 1581, 1586, 1601, and 1604; from Japan in 1589 and 1613; from Hungary in 1588; from France in 1594, 1762, and 1847; from Holland in 1596; from Tournon in 1597; from Berne in 1597; from Dantzic and Thorn in 1606; from Venice in 1606 and 1612; from Bohemia in 1618; from Moravia in 1619; from Naples in 1622; from Malta in 1634 and 1768; from Russia in 1676, 1723, and 1816; from Savoy in 1729; from Spain in 1767; from the Sicilies in 1767; from Parma in 1768; from Rome and nearly all Christendom in 1773; fiom Bordeaux in 1789; from the Netherlands in 1622; from China and India in 1622; and we are not by any means certain that we have been able to find an account of all their expulsions,


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But, for all the purposes of their bitterest enemies, we have certainly found enough; and now we ask our readers to draw their own deductions. We ask if there is a single reason to suppose that any society, not wholly corrupt, would have been expelled from the several communities in which they lived, fortyodd times in less than three hundred years? Nor is it the least remarkable in the history of this corrupt Society, that, in nearly all cases, they have been expelled from the midst of a people who were Catholics. We think it was during the reign of Charles of France, that their expulsion was brought about somewhat in the following manner: A Jesuit, who was engaged largely in some sort of traffic, failed for a very large amount. The creditors obtained some evidence that the Society of Jesus held all property in common, and, if so, the Society was legally responsible for the debts of any one of its members. It, therefore, became of the highest importance to get hold of their articles of association, that the principles of the confederacy might be laid before the proper tribunals. Accordingly, legal process was issued, requiring the Society to bring forward the articles of association. At this they became alarmed, and the General (who is a personage between the Pope and the people), appealed directly to the, and demanded the interposition of his authority to prevent their exposure. The King, in turn, demanded to see the articles before taking further steps, and, as he was a good Catholic, the General supposed he would be able to manage the King, and, therefore, laid before him all their secret articles of compact. But, unfortunately, the General proved too much. He notonly showed that whenever he chose, he could set at naught the bulls of the Pope, but that he was, through his secret agents, able to dethrone any prince he chose. Now the King was a good man, and, withal, not willing to have under his immediate wing a set of wire‑workers, whose principles, by their own showing, would lead them to adopt the basest schemes to dethrone the King of France, should it be to the interest of the Society so to act. It is said the King expressed astonishment and horror, at the thought that such an organized band of unprincipled men had obtained so powerful a foothold in


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301 France, and immediately issued his order for their expulsion from the kingdom. Now, reader, these are the men, this is the secret Society (opposed to all secret societies), who have ever been ready to use any and all means against the prosperity of Masonry. It is known to every well informed Mason that, though the precepts and doctrines of Masonry have no connection directly with politics, they do tend to freedom of thought, to the cultivation of the mind, and, consequently, beget a love of free institutions of government. It is also known that the doctrines and policy of the Jesuits tend inevitably to the opposite extreme. The power and influence of their religion upon the minds of the people,are precisely in proportion to the ignorance and superstition of the masses. Will any intelligent man doubt the power of the present Pope to take the toe‑nail of some beggar, cause it to be exhibited as a relic of our Saviour, and have millions of poor deluded human beings bowing before it, even at the cost of their last farthing? Near the close of the eighteenth century, perhaps about 1775, a secret society was established at Bavaria, founded by the celebrated Dr. Weishaupt, Professor of Canon Law in the University at Ingolstadt. This philosopher and his adherents professed to have at heart (and, for aught we know, sincerely) the well being and happiness of the human race. The Abb6 Barruel, a Jesuit priest, of whom we shall speak more at length presently, informs us that this secret Society gravely contended that all the religions existing were but so many clogs in the onward path of man's happiness, and, therefore, their effort would be exerted to subvert them all,and raze their very foundations. This theory did not stop here, but,necessarily,led to a like hostility to all civil governments, and Barruel charges that they did seek to destroy all political and social relations, that the mind might be left to untrammeled thought and unrestrained action. 1. He says they sought to demolish the altar. 2. The throne. 3. All ties of social union. These, he goes on to say, were suggested first by a sect of philosophers, who aimed at the destruction or the altars of Jesus Christ, and His Gospel


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The second were the Sophists of rebellion, who conspired against the thrones of kings, and the third called themselves the Illuminati, who united with the two former, and then affiliated with the Freemasons. We will here remark that, from our reading we know but little of the first two named Societies, we mean from an authentic source, but we venture to say that we have good authority for believing that the Society of the Illuminati had for their leading object to improve the condition of mankind, by cultivating the minds of the masses. They were visionary‑they were infidel in some of their religious notions, but, certainly,they had in view to encourage education among the common people‑a consummation devoutly to be wished by all except despots, and that class of religionists whose policy has ever been to keep the people in ignorance, and through their superstitions enslave them. At the close of the eighteenth century, Masonry had spread over France and Germany, and was becoming very popular; its influence was thefore feared by the Jesuits, and the first favorable opportunity was seized upon to make an unfavorable impression on the public mind in relation to its objects and ends. Few men were better qualified to‑ do the dirty work of slander, and none,. certainly, ever had less regard for the truth than this Jesuit priest, Barruel. It will be remembered that pending the Revolution in France the Assembly so far reorganized the Church, as to require all priests and ministers of the Gospel to subscribe and swear to obey certain articles, which tended in some degree to freedom of conscience. The priests, dear souls, could not do this; not, as they said, because there was anything wrong in the thing itself, but because it was a direct attack upon God's holy lawalias, the Churh;. and thus it has ever been with that class of men; if an attempt is made to enlighten the common people, that is an attack upon God's law which gives to Peter and his successors the right to expound the law. If an attempt is made to relieve the common people from the necessity of taking bread out of their children's mouths,.tol purchase luxuries for the priests and build churches for their mummeries, the whole priesthood rise as one man and cry out " profanity," and charge all philanthropists with being infidels.


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303 The Abbd Barruel was one of those sacred personages who could not stoop to subscribe to liberal articles, and he fled to England, where he wrote and published the bitterest invectives against all who dared to gainsay the divine right of the King and the holy Catholic Church, under the title of Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism. Barruel was an ultra royalist (what Jesuit is not?) and that his writings might not give offense in England, where most of the royal family were Masons, he charges the Society in France with uniting with the before named secret Societies, all infidel in their character, and thus united caused the Revolution, while he admits that the Masons in England were not only in favor of the Christian religion, but free from any connection with the abominable doctrine of republicanism. The following extract will afford the reader a specimen of Barruel's attack upon the Masons of France: " I saw," says he, "Masons, till then the most reserved, who freely and openly declared,'Yes, at length the grand object of Freemasonry is accomplished, equality and liberty; all men are equal and brothers, all men arefree. (Monstrous!) That was the whole substance of our doctrine, the object of our wishes, the whole of our grand secret!' Such was the language I heard fall from the most zealous Masons‑from those whom I have seen decorated with all the insignia of the deepest Masonry, and who enjoyed the rights of'venerable' to preside over Lodges. I have heard them express themselves in this manner before those whom Masons could call profane (uninitiated), without requiring the smallest secrecy, either from the men or women present. They said it in a tone as if they wished all France should be acquainted with this glorious achievement of Masonry." [See Hartford edition, 1799, vol. ii, p. 149.] We once believed the foregoing to be, not only false, but maliciously so; but a thorough examination of the subject has developed the fact that Ransey's Ineffable degrees, falsely called Scotch Rite Masonry, were introduced into France about 1740, and had for their leading object, the propagation of the theory that Masonry was merely a part and parcel of the Egyptian Mysteries; and its doctrines little more than the inculcation of the philosophy of their priests and hieroplanta.


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But for a time the Ineffable degrees were neglected or lost sight of until De Bonville, or a convocation of his followers, reproduced them, so remodeled, that their teachings opposed all kings, all governments, all religions, and sought to erect upon their ruins the religion of REASON, LIBERTY, and EQUALITY; and soon after Weishaupt, who claimed to have instituted the Illuminati, adopted said degrees as the foundation of his Society, requiring all initiates to have taken them before en tering his Association. Before the French Revolution, and, therefore, before Barruel wrote, this new system of so called Masonry had become popular in France, and was there spoken of and regarded to be truly Freemasonry, and not only became a part and parcel of the leveling schemes of the Illuminati, but gradually crept into the Jacobin clubs, and thus wielded an influence in bringing about the great Revolution. At a proper time we will give the history of Ineffable, or Scotch Rite Masonry (improperly so called), and it will then be seen that though Barruel's motives were purely selfish and sectarian, he had apparently good grounds for charging Masonry with being a political and disorganizing Institution. Barruel correctly states that the Masons of England had never been known to meddle with politics or religion; and had he known what Masonry truly was, truth would have demanded of him to say it had nowhere so meddled; but as he was not a Mason, he was justified in supposing that what was regarded to be Masonry in France was truly so called; and in this view of the subject, the denunciations heaped upon Barruel by Masons everywhere are uncalled for. The motto of the Illuminati was " Liberty and Equality." The motto of Scotch Rite Masonry, Ancient and Accepted, was, and is now, " Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity." That some Ancient Craft Masons, truly so called, were concerned in bringing about the French Revolution is very probable, but nowhere, throughout the world, have our Lodges permitted even the discussion of politics in any shape or form. In the American Revolution, Washington, and a host of other Masons, joined the standard of rebellion, and nobly fought for our independence, but no one dreamed of charging the Lodges with originating, or having anything to do with the revolt.


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305 The people of France had been downtrodden under the most slavish surveilance‑they were even made to bushwhack all night, to keep the frogs from croaking, and thus disturb the slumbers of the best born. In the reign of Louis XVI., no common citizen was safe. It is a fact, not now denied, that Louis was in the habit of signing, in blalk, letters de cachet; in other words, blank warrants or orders, directing the keeper of the Bastile to take charge of, and carefu!ly lodge, the persons named. These orders could be had for a few francs; and while the King was reveling in luxuries and gluttony, the purchaser filled the blank with the names of such persons as his interest, hatred, or whim close to single out for destruction; for, be it known, that punishment, at least in prison, took place without any trial, and very often without any crime being charged. When that dismal prisonhouse was thrown open by the revolutionists, hundreds came forth wlio could not tell for what they had been imprisoned. One man, it is stated, had been a prisoner forty years, and never knew why he had been placed there. A Revolution in France was the necessary consequence of the wrongs inflicted upon the people; it was demanded by the state of things then existing, and, for a time, the struggle was a noble one; aye, and it was being crowned with that success which an oppressed and downtrodden people deserved. Nor would it have stopped short of the independence and freedom of the people, protected by free institutions of government, but that even patriots, goaded on by the drunkenness of success, lured and misled by such soulless monsters as Robespierre, commi tted crimes so black and horrible as to turn the best men of the republican party against the party, and beget an impression in the minds of the disaffected, in and out of France, that no people were capable of self‑government. The royalist party are wont to point to Robespierre as a model infidel republican, while the truth is that he was a professor of religion‑a hypocrite, of course, for he was a merciless assassin. But so far from his being a fair specimen of a true republican, it is now generally admitted that he was in the employment of the royalists; that he committed excesses and caused the most revolting 20


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murders and other crimes to be perpetrated, in order that the thinking portion of the people, whether royalists or republicans, might become disgusted with the liberty party, and render them again willing to see the return of a monarchy. No nation of people ever labored under so many difficulties in shaking off the chains of slavery as did the French. Myriads of hired emissaries of royalty were in their midst, and such confusion existed that they seemed to know no other law than to kill their own countrymen, each in self‑defense. All Europe was opposed to the principles of the Revolution; the republican party had no friends abroad, save the little handful of Americans, who, upon principle, repudiated all entangling alliances, and hence could render no service to the friends of liberty in France. Under this state of things it is not remarkable that impulsive Frenchmen, having no great and good spirit to lead them to victory, and at the same time restrain their passions, should have run pellmell into utter ruin. We do not undertake to excuse the excesses committed by the republican party, but we will not admit that those excesses were the necessary result of republican principles. On the contrary, the American Revolution stands out in bold relief, proclaiming to after generations, and to the confusion of monarchists everywhere, that a weak and almost defenseless people, a little band of veteran republicans, were able, amid their victories and defeats, to set an example of moderation, forbearance, and mercy, worthy the imitation of the wisest and most powerful nations of the earth. Where is the Englishman whose cheek does not crimson with the blush of shame, in reading an unvarnished tale of that memorable struggle? On the one hand, a nation the most powerful, a people the most polished and christianized, the model nation of civilization, was engaged in hiring savage bands, not only to make war upon a small number of half‑armed Christian people, but encouraged those savages in all the most inhuman and barbarous cruelties perpetrated in cold blood upon prisoners of war. Yes, civilized England, Christian England, savagelike, trampled upon the laws of nations, the laws of humanity, and the laws of God, by murders unprovoked, by assassinations


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307 and butcheries the most fiend‑like that ever disgraced the most barbarous people. Nor is this all; the suffering, starvation, and death, on board their prison‑ships, were no less revolting to humanity than the tomahawk and butcher knife of the Indian.* On the other hand, the prisoners taken by the Ameri cans were treated, not only humanely, but with kindness. The truth is, the American army was led on and governed by high and noble spirits; by men who were republicans in principle, clothed with the holy armor of justice and mercy. Away, then, with the foul charge that republicanism is chargeable with the crimes of the French Revolution. The republican party of France had no WASHINGTON; they had not the moral worth and sterling virtue that composed the convention of'76; they had no such Congress as the Colonies had. The republican party of France was headed by corrupt men, and the people became corrupt; and hence the loss of nearly all the good designed to be accomplished by the Revolution. Had Barruel been an honest man‑had it been his intention to show to the world the true causes which led to the Revolution, and the reason of so much crime and bloodshed in its prosecution, he was every way disqualified to accomplish the end sought, for he was no politician or statesman; he believed no political movement to be correct, unless it tended to honor and increase the power and wealth of the clergy. With him the cause of the Catholic Church was the cause of God, and he who offended a priest offended God; and hence did he and thousands of others refuse to take the oath of allegiance to the new government, alleging such an act to be dishonoring God. The publication of Barruel was soon after followed by a similar one from Robinson; and as the Masons of England had not then learned the true character of the new system called * During the six years that Howe and Clinton commanded at New York, eleven thousand Americans died on board the prison‑ship Jersey, stationed at that point to receive prisoners, and starve them to death. The number who perished amid famine and disease, in their jails, dungeons, and prison hulks, were in proportion to the above. The immense number of cases of massacre and cruelty to indivi duals are so revolting to humanity. that we can scarcely associate them witb s civilized people.


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Masonry in France, they were alarmed and deeply grieved at the appearance of these grave charges, sustained, as they were, by respectable testimony, against their beloved Order. Thus did a scheming political society, anti‑Christian in its character, bring unmerited reproach upon Ancient Craft Masonry by the name it assumed, and by selecting its members from among the Masons. Mr. Robinson was Professor of Natural Philosophy, and Secre tary of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and, very naturally, an ultra royalist. He published a book entitled Proofs of Conspiracy against all the Religions and Governments of Europe, carried on in the Secret Meetings of the Freemasons, Illuminati, and Reading Societies. Robinson, like Barruel, wrote to promote his own aggrandizement. Mr. Burke had written what was termed an unanswerable argument against republicanism, and proving the divine right of kings, for whiah inestimable service he received a large pension from the British govern ment. Robinson, very likely, looked forward to a like renuneration; but, even in the event he failed in this end, he had. nevertheless, everything to gain and nothing to lose by the publication, for he enjoyed a very lucrative situation in the gift of the royalists, and nothing was more likely to win their confidence and beget their gratitude than an attack upon the friends of liberty; and the reckless slanderer is less likely to be exposed in essaying against secret Societies than anything else; for, inasmuch as secret Societies can not make known afl the transactions of their meetings, the malignant villifier is only known to be so to the members of those Societies. Robinson pursued the same illiberal and unmanly course that was carried out by Barruel, attributing the Revolution in France to secret Societies, but mainly to Masonry and Illuminati. And, although an investigation by the English Masons proved him to be an unprincipled slanderer, his publication had the effect to prejudice the minds,of a great many persons against the Institution. It is true that Robinson had the same proof that Barruel had, and, in like manner, charged that the Illuminati and Freemasonry united in France, and together raised the Illumination war‑whoop‑" Peace to the cottages, and war with palaces." We


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309 find an excuse for Barruel's vindictiveness in his probable ignorance of the principles and character of Freemasonry; but no such apology can be found for Robinson; for, though he was not a Mason, he was in daily contact with those whom he knew to be Freemasons, and to be gentlemen of the highest character; and again, had he desired to know more of the true principles of the Order, he had the means at hand, and would have been furnished with unmistakable evidence that, in Scotland and England, Masonry had never been known to meddle with politics or religion, and though he had shown that those calling themselves Masons had so interfered in France, every true Mason in Scotland, England, and everywhere else, would, as they did, openly disavow and repudiate the course pursued by reputed Masons in France. But Robinson had a purpose to serve, and truth and honesty had no part or lot in it, or he never would have quoted the flimsy and coarse arguments of Louis XV. to establish the divine right of kings. Both Robinson and Barruel, like all others who have made an attack upon Masonry, obtained for their writings but a transitory influence, and for themselves a fame as unenviable as their bitterest enemies could desire. The motives which actuated Barruel may be inferred from the following language, held by Rabaut de St. Etienne, who was a member of the National Assembly‑an eye‑witness to the scenes of the Revolution, and who wrote its history; he was a clergyman of the Protestant religion, and may, like ourself, have felt some bitterness against Jesuit priests; but, as he was a man of unexceptionable character, we may fairly infer his prejudices, if he had any, were forced upon his mind by the corrupt course pursued by the priests. He says: " The oath required of the clergy was one of the pretexts used for endeavoring to create one of those quarrels which are termed schisms, and in which men separate into parties, and then fight for the sake of abstract questions which they do not understand. The National Assembly had given the title of Civil Constitution of the Clergy,to what was nothing but its organization. It would seem that the assembly would have done better in not engaging in this affair, since each profession and each professor can arrange themseivo


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agreeably to their own mode of proceeding, saving the superin tending power of the government. It ran the hazard of reviving, under one form, a body which it had destroyed under another. But priests maintain such a fast hold of all temporal affairs, and attach themselves so closely to the interests of the government, that it is difficult to separate them from these affairs and these interests; and, take the matter up in what shape you may, the priesthood still meets you at every corner. This creates a degree of embarrassment in every country where the sovereign, be it what it may, has a serious inclination to be master. "The National Assembly, then, having organized the clergy according to the principles of the French Constitution, required of the priests the oath which had been taken by every citizen to support the Constitution, but it required at the same time that they should swear to maintain the civil Constitution of the clergy. Of all the military men who have taken and broken the civic oath, not one ever thought of saying that heaven was injured by the military organization; their pretext hath been, that they had already taken an oath to theKing, which rendered the latter null and of no effect; but priests are in the habit of identifying themselves with God, and whoever offends them offends Heaven. Accordingly, certain subtle minds soon discovered the means of creating a schism in asserting that this Constitution was a spiritual affair‑nay, more, that it was another religion; that to require such an oath was a restraint of the freedom of conscience; that it was putting priests to the torture and exposing them to suffer martyrdom. They even desired death, and that they might be led to execution‑well assured that the National Convention would never do any such thing. "There was found in the kingdom a considerable number of well meaning persons, who imagined that their consciences had received a material injury by this new organization of the clergy‑for what men most believe, is very often what they least understand. Meanwhile, the nonjuring priests were obliged to quit their parishes, and pensions were allotted to themn; but they endeavored to preserve their influence over their parishioners and interest them in their favor, by all those


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311 means which continually lie within reach of those to whom men have committed the government of their reason. This division inspired the enemies of the Constitution with the hope that the French might be seduced into a civil war for the sake of the priesthood, since they would not go to war for the sake of the nobility, which, in truth, had no abstract ideas to present to the subtle minds of the discontented. The courtiers and the friends of privileges on a sudden became devout; they were devout even at court; nay, they were devout even at Worms and at Coblentz. But the citizens of Paris, even such as were least enlightened, did not become the dupes of this mummery. Now, without Paris, there can be no civil war."‑London Edition, p. 200. We are aware that it is with some difficulty any one can determine who, or whether any, have written an impartial account of the French Revolution. Not only was all France divided into parties, but all Europe partook more or less of the same feelings‑all were partisans; and whether we read after a royalist or republican, we are called upon to make allowances for the bias which the author's mind had received by his connection with the excitements of the times. On the subject of Masonry, however, or any other secret society, we think the case is different. We know that those who set themselves up as competent judges, and who undertake to pronounce judgment against Freemasonry, or any other truly benevolent institution, must needs do so from corrupt motives, and at the expense of common honesty; for, were their motives pure, they would not condemn what they did not understand; and were they honest, they would admit that, not being members, they had not the means of knowing what Masonry is. We may not be able to convince the world that Robinson and Barruel wrote from corrupt motives,and in disregard of the truth; but, no Mason can fail to believe it. But while we look with contempt upon those who have wantonly villified Freemasonry, we can not overlook the fact that, at the very period referred to, or a short time before, the foundation was laid for innovations which have spread over France and Germany; and even in this land of ours, where we so much love the Ancient Land


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marks, tile innovations referred to have crept in; and though Ancient Craft Masonry has not been ousted, Modern Masonry has been added on, and so far tolerated as to endanger the identity of Ancient Masonry. Some are of opinion that although Modern or French Rite Masonry was introduced before the institution of the Society of Illuminati, still had that Society much to do in giving birth to the great flood of new degrees, yclept Masonic. Some are of opinion that the great attch of degrees, now attempted to be called Masonic, were originally practiced in the occult Lodges of the Illuminatithat a great many Masons became members of the Illuminati, as they at this day become Odd Fellows, without the one interfering with, or trampling on, the rights of the other; but the Illuminati being desirous to occupy the elevated station Ma sons had ever occupied, sought to assimilate theirs, as far as possible, to the Institution of Freemasonry, and hence soon passed a law that no one should become a member of the Illuminati without previously receiving the first three degrees in Masonry. Whether there is any truth in this suggestion we know not; but that the founder of the Illuminati sought, in the outset, to create the impression that Masonry, true Masonry, was what he proposed teaching, the following extract from a circular of his will clearly show: "I declare," says Dr. Weishaupt, " and I challenge all man kind to contradict my declaration, that no man can give any account of Freemasonry‑of its origin, of its history, of its object, nor any explanation of its mysteries and symbols, which does not leave the mind in total uncertainty on all these points. Every man, therefore, is entitled to give an explanation of the symbols, and any system of the doctrines that he can render palatable. Hence have sprung up that variety of systems which,for twenty years,have divided the Order. The simple tale of the English, and the fifty degrees. of the French, and the Knights of the Baron Hunde, are equally authentic, and have equally had the support of intelligent and zealous brethren. These systems are, in fact, but one. They have all sprung from the blue Lodge of three degrees, take these for their standard, and found on these all the improvements by which each system is


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313 afterward suited to the particular object which it keeps in view. There is no man nor system in the world which can show, by undoubted succession, that it should stand at the head of tho Order. Our ignorance in this particular frets me. Do but consider our short history of one hundred and twenty years. Who will show me the mother Lodge? Those of London we have discovered to be self‑erected in 1716. Ask for their archives, they tell you they were burnt. They have nothing but the wretched sophistications of the Englishman, Anderson, and the Frenchman, Desaguliers. Where is the Lodge of York, which pretends to the priority, with their King Bouden, and the archives that he brought from the East? These, too, are all burnt. What is the Chapter of old Aberdeen and its holy clericate? Did we not find it unknown, and the Mason Lodges there the most ignorant of all the ignorant‑gaping for instruction from our deputies? Did we not find the same thing at London? And have not their missionaries been among us, prying into our mysteries, and eager to learn from us what is true Freemasonry? It is in vain, therefore, to appeal to judges; they are nowhere to be found; all claim for themselves the sceptre of the Order; all, indeed, are on an equal footing. They obtain followers, not fiom their authenticity, but from their conduciveness to the end which they proposed, and from the importance of that end. It is by this scale that we must measure the mad and wicked explanations of the Rosicrucians, the Exorcists, and Cabalists. These are rejected by all good Masons, because incompatible with social happiness. Only such systems as promote this are retained. But, alas, they are all sadly deficient, because they leave us under the dominion of political and religious prejudices, and they are as inefficient as the sleepy dose of an ordinary sermon. " But I have contrived an explanation which has every advantage; is inviting to Christians of every communion; gradually frees them from all religious prejudices; cultivates the social virtues, and animates them by a great, feasible, and speedy prospect of universal happiness in a state of liberty and moraL equality, freed from the obstacles which subordination, rank, and riches continually throw in our way. My explanation is


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accurate and complete; my means are effectual and irresistible. Our secret Association works in a way that nothing can with stand, and man shall soon be free and happy. "This is the great object held out by this Association, and the means of obtaining it is illumination‑enlightening by the sun of reason, which will dispel the clouds of superstition and prejudice. The proficients in this Order are, therefore, justly named the Illuminated. And of all the illumination which human reason can give, none is comparable to the discovery of what we are‑our nature, our obligations, what happiness we are capable of, and what are the means of obtaining it. In comparison with this, the most brilliant sciences are but amusements for the idle and lascivious. To fit man by illumination for active virtue, to engage him to it by the strongest motives, to render the attainment of it easy and certain, by finding employment for every talent, and by placing every talent in its proper sphere of action, so that all, without feeling any extraordinary effort, and in conjunction with, and completion of, ordinary business, shall urge forward with united powers the general task. This, indeed, will be employment suited to noble natures‑grand in its views and delightful in its exercise. And what is this general object? The happiness of the human race." We leave the reader to make his own comments upon the egotistical views of the Doctor, with the simple remark that all may see the fallacy of attributing modern Masonry to the Society of Illuminati, as the founder of this Society tells us the French had been giving fifty degrees for twenty years before. We can not close our notice of the malicious slanders of Barruel and Robinson, without expressing a feeling of pity for such men. Theirs was a species of depravity, the like of which we are called upon too often to witness. Men of strong and well cultivated minds, are often led astray by an overweening desire to do or write something to perpetuate their names, without exercising a sound discrimination in the selection of a subject, and hence are they liable to leave behind that which will consign their names to the contempt and derision of good men.


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315 We make the following extract from an address of De Witt Clinton, delivered at the installation of G. M. Van Rensselaer, of New York, in 1825, not only because of its application to Barruel and Robinson, but also because it strikes at another class of enemies to Masonry, now doing much more harm. We repeat what we have said elsewhere in this history, that Dr. Oliver is doing Masonry more injury than its bitterest enemies, by the ridiculous claims he sets up in its behalf. Had Clinton seen and read the writings of Oliver, he could not have denounced them in more forcible and appropriate terms than do his remarks in 1825: "Our Fraternity has suffered under the treatment of wellmeaning friends, who have undesignedly inflicted more injuries upon it than its most violent enemies. The absurd accounts of its origin * and history, in most of the books that treat of it, have proceeded from enthusiasm operating on credulity and the love of the marvelous. An imbecile friend often does more injury than an avowed foe. The calumnies of Barruel and Robinson, who labored to connect our Society with the Illuminati, and to represent it as inimical to social order and good government, have been consigned to everlasting contempt, while exaggerated and extravagant friendly accounts and representations continually stare us in the face, and mortify our intellectual discrimination by ridiculous claims to antiquity. Nor bught it to be forgotten that genuine Masonry is adulterated by sophistications and interpolations foreign from the simplicity and sublimity of its nature. To this magnificent Temple of the Corinthian Order there have been added Gothic erections which disfigure its beauty and derange its symmetry. The adoption, in some cases, of frivolous pageantry and fantastic mummery, equally revolting to good taste and genuine Masonry, has exposed us to much animadversion; but our Institution, clothed with celestial virtue, and armed with the panoply of truth, has defied all the storms of open violence, and resisted all the attacks of insiduous imposture, and it will equally *Dr. Oliver says it is reasonable to suppose Masonry existed before this world was created!


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triumph over misguided friendship, which, like the transit of a planet over the disc of the sun, may produce a momentary obscuration, but will instantly leave it in the full radiance of its glory." We make the following extract from Robinson, that every Mason may at once see the evidence upon which he founds his opposition to Masonry:‑" In 1789, or the beginning of 1790, a manifest was sent from the Grand National Lodge of Freemasons (so it is entitled) at Paris, signed by the Duke of Orleans, as Grand Master, addressed and sent to the Lodges in all the respectable cities in Europe, exhorting them to unite for the support of the French Revolution‑to gain it friends, defenders, and dependants; and, according to opportunities and the practicability of the thing, to kindle and propagate the spirit of revolution throughout all lands. This is a most important article, and deserves a very serious attention. I got it first of.all in a work written by L. A. Hoffman, Vienna: 1795. f * *X Hoffman savs that he saw some of those manifests; that they were not all of one tenor‑some being addressed to friends of whose support they were already assured. One very important article of their contents, is earnest exhortations to establish, in every quarter, secret schools of political education, and schools for the public education of the children of the people, under the direction of well principled masters, and offers of pecuniary assistance for this purpose,and for the encouragement of writers in favor of the Revolution, and for indemnifying the patriotic booksellers who suffer by their endeavors to suppress publications of an opposite tendency." It will be seen, when we come to speak of Scotch Rite Masonry, that, at the time Robinson refers to, the National Grand Lodge of France had lost its identity with Ancient Craft Masonry, and had adopted the political Masonry, so called, of Chevalier Ramsey, modified and.anti‑christianized by De Bonville. The witness brought forward by Robinson is not of the best character; indeed, he had no other motive than that of stooping to the lowest and most scurrilous abuse of the Protestants; and had we none other than the testimony of


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317 foffman, we should be justified in calling in question his statements; but the weight of testimony goes to show that the National Grand Lodge, having accumulated the Scotch Rite degrees, or Ineffable Masonry, trampled under foot the teachings of Ancient Craft Masonry, and, in open violation of its sacred injunctions, did take part in concocting political schemes in unison with the Illuminati; but, while even the best citizens of France might well have believed that the said Grand Lodge acted in obedience to the principles of true Masonry, we repeat that Robinson could not have so believed. His facilities for knowing better were too easy of access; indeed, the testimony was forced upon his notice by daily intercourse with Masons, remarkable for their piety and devotion to law and order. No man of observation has lived where Masonry was practiced, without being compelled to see that to the Institution belonged men of all religious and political creeds; that the Constitutions and usages forbid their interference, in any way, with religion or politics, nor could they successfully do so,were a majority so disposed, for the reason that men of all creeds belong to the Order, and, of course, there would be opposition to, and, consequently, exposure of, any effort of the majority to carry out a partisan measure. This fact was well known to Robinson and Barruel, and hence they make an effort to show that the Masons had affiliated with the Illuminati; that the members of this Society were all liberty men, and hence the Masons associated with them were in favor of universal freedom. Now, to an American, it seems strange that any private citizen, with a cultivated mind, and who is not in the pat of royalty, should be opposed to the liberation of all or any portion of the human race from the yoke of monarchy; but no dispassionate, unprejudiced man can fail to see that both Barruel and Robinson have, throughout their publications, perverted the truth in order to effect their object. We know it was the policy of every royalist to influence, if possible, the minds of the people of all Europe against the party who brought about and carried on the Revolution of France, for it is too manifest a truth that, had France succeeded in throwing off entirely the bondage under which her people had been


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groaning, and established a republican form of government, the example would have been speedily followed in England and other portions of Europe. Robinson admits, rather injudiciously we think, that the example of the Americans operated powerfully in France. He says: " The French officers and soldiers, who returned from America, imported American principles, and, in every company, found fond hearers, who listened with delight to their fascinating tale of American independence. During the war, the minister was obliged to allow the Parisians to amuse themselves with theatrical entertainments, where every extravagance of the Americans was applauded as a noble struggle for native freedom. All wished for a taste of that liberty and equality which they were allowed to applaud on the stage; but, as soon as they came from the theatre into the streets, they found themselves under all their former restraints. The sweet charm had found its way into their hearts, and all the luxuries of France became as dull as common life does to a fond girl who lays down her novel. In this irritable state of mind, a spark was sufficient for kindling a flame. To import this dangerous delicacy of American growth, France had expended many millions, and was drowned in debts." We repeat, that we do not doubt that a large majority of the Masons of France were in favor of Republican principles, and we rejoice in the belief that such was the case; for, while we are constrained to admit that the revolutionists signally failed to accomplish the great end of their outbreak, still did they leave France in a much better condition than it was at the commencement of the struggles, and then it was that the seeds were sown that are now beginning to shoot forth tender branches that must sooner or later grow and overshadow the land. The expulsion of the Jesuits, in 1847, caused the people to inquire into the nature and objects of that Association, and no one can fail to see that the masses have undergone a great change in relation to the rights and powers of the priests. In France, as in America, there are thousands of good Catholics who are still clinging to the imaginary idea that the Pope is supreme and infallible in all spiritual things, but who as stoutly deny his right


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HISTORY OF FhEEMASONRY. 319 to interfere with temporal, and especially political affairs; and whenever the people of France shall become independent of the priesthood, they will no longer have any use for, nor will they tolerate, a monarchical government. But Masot:iry, as a Society, has had nothing to do with the politics of France. Masonry meddles with neither Church nor State. The members of the Order have ever taken a stand for or against political revolutions, according to their individual views and opinions of right; but no rule is older or better estanlished in the government of the Institution, than that, in the Lodge room, no discussions in relation to politics or religion can be tolerated. This rule must ever exist and be lived up to, or Masonry will cease to exist. Were it possible to make it a partisan Institution, it would cease to be Masonry. Not so with the Ineffable degrees; they were originally, and are still, political in their teaching. The Rose + was originally, not only a christian, but also a military degree, the order of Knights Templar (which is in substance the Rose +), is now both christian and military. What encampment of Knights Templar could deliberately fold their arms in the event an assault was made upon the Christian religion? All the members of this Order are Christians in principle; it is their duty to uphold and sustain it on all fit occasions, and, we believe, as valiant and magnanimous Knights, they would never prove recreant to their trust. There are some Sir Knights who, from recent developments in the General Grand Encampment of the United States, would even be willing to go further, and throw themselves into the breach, should an attempt be made to dissolve the union of the States; but, as before stated, we wish it to be distinctly understood that when we speak of the principles and government of Masonry, we mean Ancient Craft Masonry. In no association of Masons, from the Entered Apprentice to the Royal Arch, will politics or religion ever enter. These degrees are in the possession of all creeds and professions. No religious tests, other than a belief in one God, can by them be exacted; nor can the applicant be required to say whether he is a royalist or republican, a unionist or disunionist, a whig or democratbut all, all meet upon one grand level at the shrine of MASONRY


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