WE think it, will be seen, when we come to detail the history of Modern Masonry, so called, that the Encampment degrees, called Orders of Knighthood, were invented and introduced into France about the middle of the last century ; but as the generally received opinion is, that they are but a continuation, with slight modifications, of the Christian and military Orders of the eleventh century, it becomes our duty, in deference to said opinions, to present, at least, a historical sketch of the Hospitalers and Templars of the Crusades.


But, even at the threshold, we feel that our situation is an embarrassing one. The reader can not fail to perceive how difficult is the task to make our sketch both truthful and interesting, if, at every step, we are forced to feel cramped for want of room. To collate the history of the Orders of Knighthood, in a manner congenial to our feelings,,and to the full satisfaction of the student of history, we should require as much space as a large volume would afford; while such is our arrangement, and such the wish, we think, of a large majority of our readers, that we can only claim to occupy a few pages upon this important branch of our history. Believing that a liberal public will be prepared to make due allowance for the circumstances under which we write, we will proceed, as best we may, to the accomplishment of our task.


 As the acts of the celebrated false prophet Mohammed Iaid the foundation for the original military Orders of Knighthood, it will serve the better to illustrate our subject, to briefly notice the life and character of this remarkable man.


 Readers, not given to thinking closely,.are predisposed to re. gard Mohammed as having been the very worst man of his day. or that he acted under the influence of a peculiar species of  IQ




 derangement. But when we remember that it is the nature of men to seek for power, and, when attained, equally their nature to abuse it ; when we reflect that the rise and fall of nations. in all past ages, tend to show that there are times when the "strong men shall bow themselves," and the weaker shall rise up and take their places; when great nations are destined to be humbled, and obscure tribes, in their turn, wield the scepter of power‑we say that when these things are known to follow in the train of human frailty, we shall not be so much surprised at the wonderful power acquired by Mohammed and his followers.


The close of the sixth century beheld the setting star of Rome's long continued and proud glory. True, she was not yet humbled, for Heraclius, who was Emperor in the early part of the seventh century, made some well‑timed demonstrations, which seemed, for a while, to plume anew the Roman eagle. By his splendid achievements, he caused his banner to be unfurled beyond the Tigris, and had the proud satisfaction of seeing it wave over most of the plains of Assyria, and he was so elated with success, that lie was about laying plans for sending the Roman eagle still further, when a new and unlooked for enemy appeared.


At the critical period when Rome and Persia were engaged in mortal strife, Mohammed made his appearance. He was born about the end of the sixth century, at Mecca, in Stony Arabia, and so remarkable did his career prove, that it would seem lie was sent into the world to scourge and humble the proud nations of the earth.


His biographers claim that he dewended from Kedar, the son of Ishmael, and, hence, his followers hold that he was of the progeny of Abraham. His parents were idolaters, as also were the tribe to which he belonged. He was left an orphan at an early age, and was raised and educated under the direction of Aboo Taleeb, his uncle; afterward he entered the service of Khaidjah, a rich widow, who made him her factor, and soon after gave him her hand and fortune. Mohammed was naturally subtle and ambitious, and this sudden acquisition of wealth served to nerve his arm for bold and daring achievements, and, doubtless, laid the foundation for that blood and carnage which at one time threatened to deluge the whole of Christendom.


At the time he made his appearance, the religion of Arabia was divided into a variety t1 crc,eua. These were Idolators, Jews, Christians and Schismatics. Mohammod saw, as by intuition, that a new religion could be sucńessfully introduced. Suddenly he pretended to become a strict item, and retired Into a cave near Mecca, where; under the cloak of religious fervor, he devised and matured his schemes. This being done, he affected to make a confidante of his wife, telling her that the Angel Gabriel bad made to him special revelations from heaven. He often affected to be in a trance, and,, on such occasions, professed to be filled with heavenly extaties, caused by his direct communication with God's messenger. He charged his wife not to breath8 to any human being a word, in relation to this wonderful occurreIIce, wisely foreseeing that this was the most certain way of producing an effect upon the ignorant multitude, whom he felt convinced would soon have, as a great secret, an exaggerated account of his communion with heaven.


And in this he was not mistaken, for his wife, believing the truth of all lie said, in the joy of her heart, could not withhold the wonderful tidings from a few particular friends, under the pledge of secrecy ; these communicated the news to a few of their friends, and very soon it was currently reported that Mohanitned was a prophet. As soon as he became surrounded by a few friends, upon whom he could safely rely, he proclaimed his divine mission, clothed himself in the richest oriental dress, covered over with emblems and hieroglyphics. To prevent the oppo˛ sition of any and all creeds, he bad so prepared his doctrines, that all were enabled to recognize the shadowing forth of their own peculiar faith.


After the death of Aboo Taleeb, the authorities of Mecca, having become alarmed at the growing popularity of this impostor, proscribed him as a blasphemer, and he was compelled to fly for safety to the city of Yatrib.


This flight is termed in the Koran the Hejira.


The first year of the Moslem era is A. D. 822.


After the proscription at,Mecca, Mohammed informed his dis^iples that his, mini.steriug angel had brought him a scimiter from heaven, to be used in subduing all his opponents and eu m*w The_ Arabian tribes were addicted to depredatory war1a svd, with great enthusiasm, flocked to his standard, willing 3" MODERN FREEMASONRY.


hltnrlly led whithersover he chose; and soon this unprinciy E,d impostor became a powerful military chief, a merciless conqueror, and the scourge of the East. Nor did blood and carnage cease with the death of him who instituted the sword as the strong arm of his religion.


His followers continued to wage war in all directions, not waiting for provocation, but with the avowed purpose of compelling all to embrace the Mohammedan faith. They invaded Palestine and Syria; took Antioch, Jerusalem, and Damascus ; dethroned the Persian Monarch, and subdued Egypt and the whole of Northern Africa. The islands o˙ Cyprus, Rhodes, Candia, Malta, and Sicily, were invaded and brought to bow before the mighty Juggernaut.


In the early part of the eighth century, they seemed upon the point of accomplishing their great aim‑the subjugation of the whole Christian world.


At this period, they carried their bloody banner beyond the Pillars of Hercules, and founded a new empire in Spain.


But, happily for the civilized world, the giant strides of these bloodthirsty Infidels were checked by internal feuds, caused by a struggle for power in their own ranks.


The supreme authority became a fruitful source of contention and party strife, and, as there were quite a number of Califs who claimed to be the legitimate successors cl' the Prophet, the Moslem world was employed in deciding these disputes, instead of unitedly subjugating foreign nations.


When we remember that the Cross of Christ had remained planted upon the walls of Jerusalem, for near three successive centuries, under the protection of the Christian Emperors of Byzantium, and that, from the reign of Constantine the Great, the Greek and Latin Christians had annually made Jerusalem their place of pilgrimage, to obtain the remission of their sins at the Saviour's tomb; it may be readily seen that the conquest of the Roly City, by the followers of Mohammed, created dismay and lamentation throughout all Christian lands.


The Mohammedans professed to reverence Christ as a prophet, but they did not hesitate to levy and enforce the collection of a neavy tax upon the Christian votaries who flocked to His sepulchre.


The struggle for power between the Califs renderea d pilgrimage to the Holy Land one of great personal dangn‑ 9m l ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.


13 even those who escaped violence, were subject to encounter deprivations and hardships on the way. A suDersitious belief pervaded Christendom that the reign of anti‑Christ was at hand, and, during the tenth century, the whole `Vest continued to pour forth its thousands of Palmers to the Holy City. These pilgrims carried a staff and leathern scrip.


On their return home, they generally carried some of the dust of Palestine, as also the sacred palm‑bough (hence they were called Palmers), and hung it near the altar of their Parish church, as a sort of pious trophy. For a time, the Califs protected the pilgrims for the sake of gain, and, after their arrival in Jerusalem they were preserved from violence for the same reason. But after the lapse of years, even this comfort was denied them, and they were insulted and robbed by the Infidels.


But, the causes which led to their greatest hardships, arose from a disunion of the Latin and Greek Churches.


This dispute arose so high that the pilgrims found it almost impossible to obtain shelter beneath friendly roofs, even with those bearing the name of Christian.


About the middle of the eleventh century, some merchants of Italy undertook to provide an asylum for the Latin pilgrims. In their commercial intercourse with Egypt, they, by means of presents, secured the friendship of the Calif Moustrassenbillah, and obtained from him permission to build a Latin church within the walls of the Holy City. Accordingly a chapel was there erected near the Holy Sepulchre, which was dedicated to the Virgin, under the title of Mary ad Latinos.


To this were added two hospitals, or houses of reception, for Latin pilgrims who might be sick or destitute.


The hospital was dedicated to Saint John the Almoner.


History informs us that this Saint John had been Patriarch of Alexandria, who, for his deeds of benevolence, was surnamed the charitable. Hallam's Middle .dges, informs us that " when Jerusalem first fell into the hands of the Saracens, he sent money and provisions to the afflicted Christians, and supplied such as fled into Egypt.


Under the patronage of Saint John the Almoner, the Orders of Knighthood were first established, but when they became numerous, and assumed a military character, they removed this Saint, and thence dedicated their Orders to Saint John the Baptist.


Soon after the erection of the hospital, several pious pilgrims determined to return no more to their native homes, and thence devoted themselves to the service of the sick and afflicted wanderers, who continued to pour in from Western Europe. This hospital was kept up mainly by alms annually collected in Italy, by the benevolent founders. Within its walls the sick were kindly nursed and skillfully treated, and those who had been stripped of their little all, by the robbers with whom the road was infested, were clothed and fed, and all who died received Christian burial.


The Hospital of the Almoner furnished the germ, the founds; tion of the Orders of Knighthood, whose splendid achievements; for near two hundred years, caused them to be denominated " the sword and buckler of Christendom in the Paynim war." The Hospitalers continued to increase in numbers, and to extend their relief to all Latin pilgrims who required aid, until the fame of the Institution extended over the Christian world.


For more than sixteen years, this charitable Association was permitted, silently and efficiently, to bestow alms, and offer relief to suffering humanity; but then a new enemy appeared. The Turkomans, a nation of barbarians, who, by their invincible valor;,crossed the Caspian, trade conquest of all the country bordering on the Euphrates, and turning their attention westward, suddenly burst upon Palestine, and, by order of Malek Shalt, the most renowned warrior of the Si1jookian race, the Saracens were driven out of Jerusalem and the garrison massacred. In this barbarous attack the most inhuman butcheries were perpe.




The Hospital of St. John was despoiled, and avarice alone saved the Holy Sepulchre from the destroyer's hand. By augmenting the tribute to be paid by each pilgrim, the bar barians made this the means of a valuable revenue.


In many instances, the tribute demanded was beyond the ability of the poor Christian pilgrims, and it is recorded that some expired at the gates of the city; without being able to behold the Sacred pomb.


In view of the foregoing facts, it is easy to account for the wonderful excitement which soon after pervaded all Western Europe.


Those who were so fortunate as to be able to ittarh the hirdshipF4 and escape the dangers, incident to i sgb to the Holy Land, returned with an account of the dinner in which the Holy Sepulchre was desecrated, and the n sufferings entailed upon the pilgrims.


These "o'er true tales" were repeated, until the very mentiorti of Palestine *Ie Wflated to stir the blood of every Christian, and nerve %e eta of the Christian warrior.


For a time, the excitement ofd without even the suggestion of a remedy.


At this sh obscure Frenchman, Peter; surnamed the Hermit, who f 'experienced the inhuman treatment of the Turkothrew himself at the feet of Pope Urban II., and fit His Holiness to arouse the Princes of the West to a sense of the insult, and demand that a sufficient force be t to drive the enemies of the Crops from the Holy Land. The Spre lent it favorable ear to the pleadings of the Hermit, but during to lead in so great an undertaking, he encouraged the pious enthusiast to visit the Christian countries, with a view ‑9, stirring up the people; promising to embrace the first favor itble opportunity to give encouragement to the scheme.


Thus ‑eh


; Pemr, his body emaciated by fasting, traveled vi*eat ‑oevering for his head or feet, making speeches every Vi**


he singular humility of the man,* his holy life, his fine i


ve all, the well‑told story of the pilgrims' aritiudesdd all Europe, till there was scarce a man or WOMM who waa not carried away by the excitement.


In lese Gin a year the people of Christendom were in arms, and opposition would have been useless from their rulers, but, so far from being the etc; the enthusiasm seems to have especially per4d the higher Tanks. In this state of things, the Pope called A*6E Grand Councils, and had no difficulty in inflaming the `mood: To the common people it seemed that their rulers '


>tm slow is their movements, and thus an inconsiderato W d" ftrsbed to the standard of Peter the Hermit, to the ri




ty thousand, and besought him to lead them to the y Lind


The majority of those had sold everything they ˛ For a description of the personal appearance of Peter the Hermit, m Yuolw Si"y of da 2WkL t wwft possessed, and esteemed it an honor to employ the last shilling in the holy cause. Husbands deserted their wives‑wives rejoiced in the cause which led to the separation‑widowed mothers sent forth their sons, firmly convinced that it was the will of God Led on by the Hermit and his Lieutenant, Walter Senavier, this rabble army reached Constantinople. Every species of vice, to which such a multitude might be supposed to be subject, was perpetrated.


Thousands of women, mostly of the lower order, but including many of high respectability, followed in the train. Already had intemperance, prostitution, and almost every vice marked their progress, and rendered their approach a source of uneasiness and alarm to Alexis, the Greek Emperor. The atrocities perpetrated by this so called army, so disgusted the Hermit, that, after in vain trying to reform them, he left them immediately after they entered Asia.


Walter remained, still endeavoring to restore subordination, but all in vain. Seduced by a false rumor, that the rich spoils of the city of Nice were to be had without resistance, they rushed headlong, in disorder and confusion, upon the city, when, by the preconcerted plan of Soliman, the Turkish Sultan, they were surrounded by the Infidel army and slaughtered, almost to a man.


Thus ended the first expedition in the Paynim war.


The loss of this rabble army neither dismayed nor dampened the ardor of the grand army, which was soon to follow, under proper discipline, and commanded by Kings and Dukes.


When this great army rendezvoused at Constantinople, and went into winter quarters, it is said, " a more glorious army the sun never shone upon." t


The Knights and their attendants alone amounted to one hundred thousand fighting men; the pilgrims, bearing arms, to about six hundred thousand.$ The first warlike demonstration of this army was against the city of Nice, where the Hermit's army had perished.


Soliman was prepared for their reception by having thrown a numerous garrison of Turkomans into the city, which, being strongly fortified, he supposed himself able to cope with the Christians, and for six weeks resisted, but was then con.


˛ Fuller.




t Gibbon.


i Ibid.




17 polled to capitulate, or surrender, under a stipulation that the City should be left in possession of the Greeks.


The news of this victory gladdened the hearts of thousands at home, who had felt deeply grieved at the inhuman butchery of the Hermit's army. And now, more than ever, the clank of Christian steel, like a storm god, filled the air.. Western Europe was literally in arms for the Crusade. On the other side, all the warlike tribes of Asia, as one man, rose to repel the invaders,


The Sultans of Aleppo, Bagdad, Antioch, and Persia, levied mighty armies; but, with a knowledge of all this, the enthusiastic Christian leaders marched boldly on.


At Dorylteum, a bloody battle was fought, in which four thousand Christians and three thousand Paynim Captains were slain. The camp of Soliman was taken, and his army disbanded. This victory was followed by the conquest of most of Anatolia., and, thus victorious, the grand army descended into the Syrian plains, where they found Tarsus in possession of Tancred, one of the Christian leaders, who had approached by a different route.


At the beginning of winter, the army of the Crusaders approached and besieged Antioch, the once renowned capital of‑Assyria. It was surrounded by a double wall, and garrisonad by twenty thousand veteran troops, who, for seven months, resisted every effort of the Christian army, and fell, at last, through the treachery of one of the inhabitants (1098). During this protracted siege, the Christian army lost, by pestilence and famine, upward of one hundred thousand men, and many of the eurvivors were reduced to the necessity of feeding on carrion, and even human flesh.


Discord prevailed among the leaders, end crimes the most detestable disgraced the Christian banner. When the Crusaders left their native homes, Jerusalem was possession of the Turks; but the Calif of Egypt, who had soveral times been driven from possession of the Holy City, took advantage of the approach of the Crusaders, to send on army into Palestine,,which drove the Turkomans from every town, and soon planted his standard again in the Holy City, This news neither surprised nor dismayed the Crusaders.


To them it was of out little moment whether their enemies were !A MODERN FREEMASONRY.


the Turkomaris or the Fatimite dynasty, and, hence, when Mostati, the Egyptian Calif, proposed a treaty which pledged his' friendship, but provided for his continued possession of the Holy City, and the immediate return of the Christian army, the officers of the latter rejected the proposal with scorn, and sent the Calif word that they would open the gates of Jerusalem with the same keys which they had used at Nice, Tarsus, Antioch, and Edessa.


In May, 1099, the remnant of the Christian army took up their march, and such was the terror which their victories had produced, that they were enabled to pass unmolested through Tripoli, Sidon, Tyre, Cwsarea. Jaffa, and Ramla, and, finally, beheld the towers of the most famous city in the world. The ehout of exultant joy, which burst from the lips of those in front. was taken up and carried back upon the line, until the whole gave forth one continued roar of applause.


The more pious manifested their joy by casting themselves upon the ground, kissing the earth, and moistening it with their tears.


On the 7th of June, 1099, the army of the Crusaders encamped before the walls of Jerusalem. And here we might pause, and find lamentable cause for a sad commentary upon the fortunes of war. The Christian army, thus far, had lost too battle : victory had perched upon its banner, and triumph marked its onward march, yet what was its present appearance, compared with that which it presented in the plain of Bythynia ? Of the seven hundred thousand fighting men, scarce twenty‑two thousand, capable of bearing arms, encamped before the Holy City, the hope of seeing which had served to stimulate all who had left their homes and their friends.


The number who fell in battle was comparatively small, but disease, desertion, and those left to hold possession of the conquered' cities, had thus reduced the glorious army, and left to this small remnant the honor of contending for possession of the tomb of our Saviour. At this period, Jerusalem was not the impregnable city it had been,. when it so proudly resisted the attacks of the sovereigns of Babylon and Rome, nor was it defended by that band of brothers who fought in defense of the city of their fathere. From the :days of Adrian, the Jews had been scattered over ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.


19 the face of the earth, without a home, without friends, yea, without a spot of earth upon which they could walk in broad day, shielded by the mantle of justice. No wonder, then, that this persecuted race. stood aloof, and, unconcerned, beheld the bloody conflicts for the possession of the home of their fathers. They were encouraged to take up arms for the Saracens, only by the prospect of imprisonment and starvation.


On the other hand, they had nothing to expect from the Christians but injustice and stripes.


The walls of the city included Golgotha,, Bezetha, Moria; and Acna.


Mount Sinai, once a populous portion of the city, had long been deserted, and was not now within the walls.


The city was defended by forty thousand regular troops, under command of Istakur, the most renowned General of the Calif. Twenty thousand of the Mohammedan inhabitants also took up arms.


All the Christians in the city were thrown into prison, including Peter Gerard, the Superintendent of the Hospital of St. John, whose well known piety and universal benevolence, had won for him the admiration of the Infidel inhabitants.


To annoy and cripple the efforts of the Crusaders, the v: ells and cisterns in the neighborhood had been filled up, and all the adjacent timber, capable of being used in the construction of warlike engines, was collected and burned.


The Counts of Normandy and Flanders occupied a position northward of the city; Godfrey and Tancred, on Mount Calvary; and Raymond, of Toulouse, to the South of Mount Sion. On the fifth day of the seige, the first attack was made by the Crusaders, and, so furious was the onset, that amid a storm of arrows and fire‑balls, they broke through the first barrier, and boldly attempted to surmount the walls of the escalade ; but the want of engines and ladders rendered their bravery and zeal of no avail, but subjected them to be driven back to their camp, with great slaughter: To the mortification of this defeat, was added extreme suffering for provisions and water. So extreme was their thirst, that many dug holes in the ground, and pressed the damp earth to their lips. Godfrey and Raymond then selected some Genoese mariners, from Jaffa, who built two large moveable towers out of timber brought from Lichem, thirty miles distant.




On the night of the 15th of July, these towers were silently rolled to the fortification.


Drawbridges were made to extend from the tops of the towers to the battlement.


And now, when the sun rose upon the inhabitants of the city, they belield theso great towers standing at their walls, crowded with chosen warriors, impatient for orders, and an opportunity to grapple, in mortal strife, with their Moslem foe.


The besieged, with great fury, hurled fire‑brands against the towers, and, so dexterously was this done, that Raymond's tower took fire, and burned so rapidly that it.was deserted.


Godfrey had posted himself on the summit of the other, and for a time, unaided, his bowmen maintained the battle.


" But, at the hour," says the Monk Robert, '' when the Saviour of the world gave up the ghost, a warrior named Letalde, who fought in Godfrey's tower, leaped the first upon the ramparts.


He was followed by Guicher ; Godfrey was the third, and all the other Knights rushed on after their Chief."


Each, as he leaped upon the ramparts, threw away his, bow and arrows, and drew his sword, " at the eight of which, the enemy abandoned the walls, and ran down into the city, whither the soldiers of Christ pursued them, with loud shouts." The Moslems were pursued from street to street, from house to house, and were indiscriminately mowed down; for such Was the panic, that no regularly organized resistance was made.


At about three o'clock in the afternoon, the standard of the Cross was seen to wave in triumph on the walls.


Thus was the Holy City rescued from the hands of Infidels, after having been controlled by the enemies of Christianity, for more than four hun dred and sixty years.


Here, again, we find food for reflection.


One would suppose that the fol!owers of the meek and lowly Saviour would, after achieving a great victory, have the consistency to display the principles which He taught, by showing mercy to the vanquished; but, alas for human nature 1 it is too much the same., in both the civilized and savage breast.


The victory of the Crusaders was, indeed, a glorious triumph; for it was acquired under the banner of justice, and the result of that bold and daring ' Knolls.




21 brag, which alone could have prevailed.


But how was its brilliancy tarnished, and the holy cause disgraced, by the forn city, yea, the brutality of the conquerors?


For three whole days, an indiscriminate massacre was kept up, accompanied by a licensed pillageeof the city.


Old and young were put to the sword, and even suckling babes were inhumanly put to death. Nor was this arrested until the Crusaders were worn down with the fatigue of killing, after having slain ten thousand wretched and helpless human beings.


But, more inconsistent still, these human butchers had no sooner tired of their work of death, than they washed the blood of their victims from their hands, and, bare‑footed, walked to the tomb of Christ, kissing it with (as they would have the world believe) holy fervor, and Sending up their anthems of praise, and repentant groans to the bar of Justice.


Anon, their enthusiasm was so hightened, that they fell at the feet of Peter the Hermit, praising God as glorified through him.


At the time the city of Jerusalem was taken by the Crusaders,


' a large army was on its march from Egypt, Bent by the Calif to its succour. This army the Crusaders routed before it reach ed the city.


The victory secured, for a time, exemption from molestation, and the Christians were.enabled to attend to the evtablishment of their civil and religious institutions.


By the feudal polity, the conquered territory was divided among the ew oommanders, who, after taking formal possession, suffered the Moslem remain in vassalage.


Godfrey is represented as being a devoted and good man, and hence one of his first'accts was‑the institution of several new churches:


He also mwde it his duty to visit the Hospital of St. John, which he found crowded with wounded soldiers, and so loudly did its inmates extol the Hospitalers, that Godfrey was moved to regard the Institution as worthy of being sustained by substautial aid, and, accordingly, bestowed on it the lordship of Montboire, in ‑Brabant, with all its dependencies.


His example was followed by the principal chiefs of the Crusade.*


Thus, in a abort time, the Hospitalers had the revenues of a great number of rich towns, both in Europe and Asia.


0 Sutherland.






To the period of which we have been speaking, the Hospital of Saint John had been simply a secular Institution, but when Gerard was made Rector, and the large benefactions were entrusted to his care, he proposed to the brothers and sisters the propriety of becoming a religious fraternity.


The number of Hospitalers had now greatly increased.


Among those who first determined to devote their lives to these charities, and took the habit of the Order, were Raymond du Puis and Dudon de Camps, of Dauphiny, Gastus, of Berdihz, and Canon de 14Iontaign, of Auvergne.


Others not less pious and equally respectable followed their example, and it is proper to remark that the Institution was well supplied with devotees before it received the above named patrimonies.


Gerard, seeing that these men and women had formally renounced their homes and their relations, in order to devote their lives to acts of charity, readily imagined their happiness would be promoted by making the links that bound them partake of the holy religion, and, therefore, proposed that they should dedicate themselves at the altar, as the servants of the poor and distressed, and of Christ and His cause.


His suggestion met with a hearty approval, and, accordingly, they solemnly renounced the world. The Brotherhood assumed a uniform habit, which was a plain black robe, with a white linen cross of Light points, fastened on the left breast.


Here is the foundation upon which was finally established the great power and influence of the Orders of Knight. hood:


No sooner did this remarkable Brotherhood renounce the world, and take upon themselves monastic vows, than Pope Paschal II. commenced. lavishing upon them his favors: He confirmed all their endowments, exempted the property from tithes, and conferred on the brethren the privilege of electing their Superior, independent of all ecclesiastical or‑secular influence.


Thus endowed, and thus protected by the head of the Church, it is easy to perceive why it was that the noble band increased, and, with their increase in numbers, wealth also increased, and their popularity became universal. Godfrey was soon left with but two thousand infantry and three hundred horse.


The small remnant of the once large army returned to Europe, and such w+ts their account of the battles, and the ORDERS of KNIGHTHOOD.


2s ;


mphs, that a new zeal filled Christendom with martial qhamor. New companies of Crusaders were formed everyImbere,and resolved to make the attempt to reach the Holy ,.City, and strengthen the hands of Godfrey.


Multitudes of pilSr mp abandoned their homes, and, headlong, bent their way to *e tomb of Christ.


From the character of this motley crowd, it could but be expected that a large number 'would reach Jerusalem, worn out with fatigue, and totally pennyless, and hpace the Hospitalers found constant employment in mitigat˛ their suffering.


These Palmers, on their return home. far and wide an account of the charitable deeds of the Hospitalers, and so universally were they beloved, that, ere long,olmost every Province in Christendom had given the Hospital manorial rights.


Being thus enriched, the Rector erected a fine'ehurch on the _ spot which tradition stated was the retreat of Zacharias, the father‑ of John the Baptist, to whom he dedicated it.


He also ‑ increased the buildings necessary for the Hospitalers.


But his master‑stroke of policy, was to. connect the Institution more closely with the countries from which it had received endowtpents; to which end, he established subordinate Hospitals, or Commanderies, in"many of the maritime Provinces of the West. here is the origin of the term Commanderies, and of the sub erdinate Institutions of charity.


They were so situated, that ey were of inestimable value to the Palmers who were ou their pilgrimage to‑ the Holy Land.


Here they found an asylum hem want and penury, and guides to ‑conduct‑*them on " their, 'gay, and guard them from the enemies of the Cross.


Of these subordinate Commanderies, we may mention the houses of St: Miles, in Provence; Tarento, in Apulia ; Messina, in Sicily, and Seville, in Andalusia. These Commanderies were severally protected, and granted special privileges by the successive P Godfrey lived to govern Jerusalem but little more than one year, and was succeeded by Baldwin, his younger brother, who, not having the pious scruples of his predecessor, assumed the title, and was proclaimed the first Christian King of Jerusalem. Baldwiu's reign was, literally, eighteen years of warfare..Bv a~ MODERN FREEMA30NRt.


his valor and warlike skill. he greatly extended the Christian possessions. During an expedition to the frontiers of Egypt, ~n 1118, he fell a victim to the fatigues of war, and, like hig brother, his remains were consigned to a tomb in the church of the Holy Sepulchre, an honor bestowed upon none but Latin kings in after time.


About this period, the venerable (,ler˛.rd died, and the Hoapitalera unanimously elected Raymond du Puis as their Chief.


With this Chief originated the military character which, in after years, so distinguished the OTdere of Knighthood. Raymond was tried in courts and camps, and when he came to rule over a band of religious friars, whose lives ,were pledged to deeds of benewlence and pure bereeftcence, he became discontented with the simple robe of the Hospftaler, and, thez~afore, favored the project of uniting the duties of the monk with those of the soldier.


For this purpose, he gave. to the Fraternity a martial Constitution, which bound the Brother= hood to defend the holy places, and, soon after, it was eo amended, as'to require them to wage perpetual war against the enemies of the Cross. The condition of things, when Raymond was elected Chief, seems to have justified hie plans ; for, all ovw tire country, regularly organized bands of robbers, onsaposed of 5aracena, were to be met with, who watched every opportunity to fall upon Christian pilgrims, and deprive them of their littla ~ll.


The Tnrkomans were ever on the watch for a favorable opportunity to rush upon,and destroy the unfortified Christian towns, and massacre the inhabitants.


On. the other hand, the Egyptians neglected no opportunity to harraas the Christians; from which,, it will be seen that the Latins had no respite, and it is not wonderful that even the Hoapitalera were willing to take up arms in' defence of the holy cause.


They did not abandon their. attention to the sick and wounded, but voluntarily took an obligation to be ready, at all times, to leap into .,heir saddles, and, at the point of the lance, to repel. their enemies.


Raymond organized the Hoapitalera into three classes.


The, 5rst class was composed of men of patrician ancestry, and high military station ; ~ the second of priests ; and the. third of sere ing men.


The first class, he termed Knights of Justice, wta ODDn8 OF KNIGHTHOOD.


25 rpointed to bear arms, and who enjoyed all the dignities p(kder. The priests were divided; the one part, to perreligious services in the field ; and the other, to attend to iW dufe&


There was still another class, called Sergena, itf Knights, who served either in the field or hospital, as k,.,be necessary.


This class, afterwards, acquired great ,md added much to the military renown of the Orders of ` iaimdidate could be received into the first class, unless he ~W‑t#at he was of noble descent.


At the introduction dk


ther,hetook the monkish vows of obedience, poverty, cbasfpy, and the Knightf, in addition, bound themselves to with their swords, the Christian banner.


The banner John had a white cross on a red field, and it was agreed spy Knight who should abandon it, or otherwise dishonor Botherhood. in the Paynim war, should be publicly deprived Fps antis and his‑knightly habit.


J~wh ww the prevailing enthusiasm for military glory in the f ..was,. that, ere long, the ranks of the devoted Knights trowded with young men of high birth and fortune, from fr1t;istiau land.


The Brotherhood could no longer claim osed of Latins, and, for the better regulation of the division of the Order was made to suit seven different viz : of Provence, Auvergne, France, Italy, Arragou, and Germany.


7'~a ifrst fame acquired in battle by the Knights was at the O*pg of Antioch, in bloody battle against the Turkomans r


nR in 1119.


0ant this period,* Hugh de Paynes, Geoffrey de St. Omer, iothee gentlemen of France, formed the praiseworthy keWording protection to the Palmers, on their pilgrimage 4t #lie Holy Land.


They imitated the Hospitalers &log their Association consist of both military and religFor several years these nine Knights, destitute of protection from the head of the Church, continued 0 i pilgrims, and guard them against the assaults of m


et of Father Hay given the origin of the Templare in 1117.






rocbers, etc.


So obscure were they, that, for several years, no new members joined them, but true to their solemn vows, they continued, with unabated zeal, to devote themselves to the assistanae and protection of the unprotected small companies of Palmers.


The fact of their union and their zealous devotion to so praiseworthy an object, reached the ears of the King, and, finally, those of the Pope, and they were, by both, encouraged to persevere.


The Pope gave his sanction to their desire, like the Hospitalers, to constitute themselves a military Order. Thus, from this Association of nine poor and friendless men, sprang the Knights Templar, who, for more than twq centuries, equaled, and, in many respects, rivaled, the Hospitalers in power and influence.


The Hospitalers encouraged this new Association, granted it means, and, in various ways, assisted to give it character and permanency.


The members of this new Order were originally called Soldiers of the Pilgrims.


They wore a white mantle over their military dress, as their distinctive insignia, to which was afterwards added a red cross (a symbol of martyrdom), emblazoned on the left breast. Their helmets, in token of humility, had no crest, and their beards remained uncut.*


Their banner was of white linen, striped with black, and ornamented with a red cross.


Hugh de Paynes, the founder, traveled over a great part of Christendom, in order to make known the objects of the Association, and add to the members.


On his return, in 1129, he brought with him three hundred young men of noble families.


The Constitution of the Templars, as did that of the Hospitalers, required chastity and obedience‑"and the Ancient Templars are said to have been so outrageously virtuous, that they held it a tempting of Providence to look a fair woman in the face, and scrupled to kiss their own mothers."t


From the foregoing historical facts, our Companion Sir Knights will be %ble to gather some truths, which should have due weight in considering the ancient usages of the Order. We shall not undertake to advise a change in the present dress or regalia of the Order, and certainly not to introduce our ancient brethren'@ Ces Mill.' liirnry 4( Cbtvank




‑dread of lovely woman, but we would like to see Sir Knights ‑vtisfied with a regalia approximating more nearly to that Vueiently used.


There seems to be no definite understanding as ''the proper dress of a Knight Templar when on parade.


We have seen hats and plumes, chapeaux and plumes, of all shapes emd colors, and yet we find that, as a token of humility, our aacient brethren wore no plume or crest of any kind upon their belmets. Why, then, should we seek to do so? The first important support given to this new Association, came from the thaoas Bernard Clairvause, who ably advocated the second *asade.. He gave his special patronage and personal influence $a behalf of the Templars, and was the means of greatly enrich ing their treasury, and adding to their ranks.


There were many `gentlemen who, not willing to devote themselves to the servile daties of the Hospital, were nevertheless inclined to devote themselves to the cause of the pilgrimage, and these preferred to join the Templars, as theirs was more strictly a military Order.


Before the second Crusade, the Templars had repeatedly distinguished themselves in battle ; indeed, there existed a generous Avalship between them and the Hospitalers, and, in no instance, were either known to shun danger or falter in battle. On the watrary, the Brotherhoods were always foremost in battle, and ss[o wonder that they were soon regarded as the strong arm in The Paynim war.


The second Crusade was mainly furnished by France and Germany, and consisted of upward of two hundred thousandwe can not say men, for certain it is that a part of these soldiers, in the second Paynim war, were ladies. There were bands of high born dames, headed by Eleanor, of Guienne, the toneort of the French King.


These modern Amazons put on military insignia, and appeared in the parades, but history has ‑failed to award them any further distinction in arms. For this, liowever, an apology might be found by the women's rights party of the present day, as, it might truly be said, that but iew laurels were won in the second Crusade, even by the veteran 'seldiers.


In the few noted battles in this Crusade, the Hos ‑pitalers and Templars most distinguished themselves.


Conrad SH




and the French King, who had the united forces, besieged Damascus, and, but for treachery, occasioned by a wrangle for authority over it when taken, the Brotherhood world have achieved a victory. The treachery spoken of was the work of the Latin Christians of Syria and Palestine, who had learned that Conrad and the King of France had determined to give the government of Damascus to the Count of Flanders, Thierri Soon after the failure of the siege, the two leaders of the army became disgusted with the conduct of the Christians of Syria and Palestine, and, with the remnant of their followers, returned to their homes. having done but little more than " march up the hills, and then march down again." Raymond Du Puis had been Grand Master of the Hospitalers near forty years, and had never yet seen his Knights flee in battle.


In 1158, the greatest battle since the taking of Jerusalem, was fought on the plains of Putaha, between the Turkomans and Christians. This was the last witnessed by the venerable Grand Master and here, too, he was permitted to behold the undaunted bravery of the Brotherhood, and the victory of the Christian army, after the fall of six thousand Turkomans.


Raymond Du Puis died in the sanctuary of his Order, A.D. 1160,'beloved by all Knights and Christians. ‑ Auger De Bulben, a Knight of Dauphiny, succeeded Raymond, by the unanimous voice of the Brotherhood, who lived to fill the office but about three years.


The next Grand Master was Arnaud De Comps.


He was advanced in years when his brethren chose him as their head, and lived but a short time, and was succeeded by Gilbert De Sailly.


Down to this period the Hospitalers and Templars had moved on in harmony, hand in hand, in all battles. But the King of Jerusalem, having conceived a plan for subjugating . Egypt, mainly with a view to the immense treasure to be thus gained, applied to the Hospitalers and Templars to second his scheme, promising to share with them the spoils.


The Grand Master of the Hospitalers readily gave his consent, but his will was subject to the Council or Chapter.


This body was much divided, for it had to be admitted that the contemplated in vasion had no connection with their duties, either as Christian 29 sights or Hospitalers, but the temptation was too strong to ~It3'egisted, and the majority decided in favor of the invasion at the King. Large sums were borrowed to meet the expenses, *#d the Grand Master proceeded to hire mercenaries, until his force became a formidable one in numbers. The Templars Vtwmptly spurned the bribe tendered them, as the cause was in no way connected with their duty, and, moreover, because the !invasion would be in direct violation of a treaty signed by the A'ing, and approved by the Hospitalers and Templars. This Wcwdition of Amaury, the.Kipg, proved a total failure, as he bean deceived and out‑maneuvered by the Turkoman and ptian commanders. The expedition returned in 1169. The afad Master, Gilbert, became so universally unpopular, because 4( faise reasons which he had used to obtain the consent of the Council to this unfortunate expedition, that he was forced to resign his office.


Gastus was next chosen Grand Master of the Hospitalers, but his government lasted only a few months, vW Joubert, of Syria, was chosen as his successor.


About this time, their enemies had made such inroads upon the Christian possessions, that the King of Jerusalem became alarmed, far fear of the total expulsion of the Christians from Palestine, sod sent out an able messenger to beseech the Western Princes to; send another Crusade; and historians say that he left his .kjAgdom under the care of the Hospitalers and Templars, conjglutly, and repaired to Constantinople to solicit the immediate aid of the Emperor Manuel. And now a new enemy appeared, in the person of an Armenian Prince, Milon by name, who, according to some historians, is represented as having been a Templar, while others speak of him as an apostate Hospitaler, who renounced his covenant, to prosecute a claim he had to the ,Aomeignty of his country. It seems that the Latins had favored * pretensions of another aspirant, and this so incensed him spinst the entire Christian band at Jerusalem, that he sought tW most dastardly means of revenge. He entered into a league with the Infidels, and proceeded to overrun the Principality of Autioeh with fire and sword, and soon appeared on the frontiers of Judea. This apostate Knight practiced greater cruelties than wan the Turkomans.


Against the Hospitalers and Templare ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.


31 feeling indignant at the impudent request, and the unwise course pursued by the King, ran upon the envoy and slew him with hit sword. The King was enraged at this conduct, and demandel of the Templars that Du Mesnil be instantly given into his hands. This the Templars refused to do, alleging that their guilty brother could only be tried by their own laws, and the head of the Church, at Rome.


This answer of Odo, the Grand Master of the Templars, was in strict conformity with the privileges granted by the Popes of Rome, nor was it givers with a view to shield the murderer, for he was already in irons, awaiting his legal trial.


But this defiance of kingly power was not likely to find favor in palaces, and certainly not in the one at Jerusalem, for, in defiance of Odo's will, the King took Du Mesnil and threw him into prison, from which it is not likely he would have escaped, but for the death of the King, which soon after occurred, 1173.


Amaury was succeeded by his son, Baldwin IV., who was not only under age, but a sickly and indolent youth. Raymond, Count of Tripoli, was appointed regent until the King arrived of age.


This Prince bad several battles with Saladin, in the first of which he won a great victory, and caused his enemy to make his escape upon the back of a dromedary ; but his triumph was of short duration, as he suffered a terrible defeat at Jacob's Ford, on the Jordan.


In this battle the entire Christian army fled, except the Templars and Hospitalers, 'who alone maintained the battle, and, being so few, comparatively, they were mowed down, neither seeking or receiving quarter. The Grand Master of the Hospitalers, Joubert, now in his old age, was covered with wounds, and bravely fought until he saw nearly all his Knights perish, and then threw himself into the Jordan, and succeeded in swimming across it.


The Grand Master of the Templars was borne down and captured by the enemy. Saladin offered to exchange him for one of his relations, but the fearless Grand Master refused the proposition, alleging that it would disgrace the Order, who were pledged to conquer or die; ‑)r their head to set the example of surrender with the hope of being exchanged. It is said, that in this battle, a Templar, named James De Maille, mounted on a white horse, ,32




fought so bravely, that the Saracens gave him the title of Saint George, and hoping thereby to acquire his great courage, actually drank his blood.


The disasters consequent on this defeat were well nigh fatal to Christianity in Palestine. The Christian army was disbanded, the whole country was overrun by the barbarians, the King was an inefficient, sickly monarch, .Ioubert was incapable of service by reason of his wounds and great age, and Odo, the Grand Master of the Templars, was in close captivity. Tinw were both Orders without a leader. In this eitiemity, the venerable Grand Master of the Hospitalers, over‑estimated his physical powers, by throwing himself at the head of a few chosen Knights into the castle of Margat, to defend it from a strong force sent against Saladin.


The defense made by the Knights covered them with honor, as did all their battles. The otd Grand Master beheld the ramparts strewed with the bodies of his brave Knights, and, yet, true to the pledge of the Order, lie spurned the demand to capitulate.


At this the enemy became enraged, made a desperate attack, and succeeded in carrying the fortress.. 3oubert, though courting death, was compelled to behold the last of his companions hewn down at his post, and then found himself a captive, tb be thrown into a dungeon, where he was cruelly deprived of the very necessaries of life, and thus terminated his illustrious life, in 1177.


The Order elected Roger De Moulins, a Norman Knight, as his. successor.


About this time, a series of misunderstandings and petty quarrels rendered the military Orders nearly as hostile to each other as they were to the Infidels. Christian charity and true piety no longer held together the bonds of union, but instead thereof a spirit of rivalry, fed by a desire for office and distinction, created jealousy and hatred, until the cause which they had sworn to mantain was in danger of being lost. For remedy the King appealed to the Pope, who, well knowing that the welfare of Palestine depended mainly upon the united efforts of the Orders' of Knighthood, issued an order commanding them to abandon their feuds, and sign an article of recon,iliation, based upon their pledge to mantain the cause of ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.


39 fanity in Palestine, etc., which they reluctantly obeyed, kh, for a time, restored harmony, but afterward seemed to redpen and make wider the breach.


in the period above to the year 1186, every thing bad ned unsettled in the kingdom whose crown thus changed New efforts had been made at the Courts of France Ingland for a new Crusade, with but partial effect, and the dealers and Templars continued to wrangle about place. !1611' the storm, so long threatened, burst upon the kingdom. had succeeded in making a traitor of the Count of Trit d, being thus aided by a willing tool at Jerusalem, marcharmy, composed of chosen men, into Palestine, in 1187, Wd siege to Acre.


The Grand Masters of the Hospitalers ~Wd:Templars threw themselves into the fortress with a strong 'ready of Knights, who now seemed to forget their quarrels, and unite for the safety of the kingdom.


The commanders deteruipned to give battle to Saladin, and, accordingly, marched out '`ore day, and fell upon the sleeping enemy.


For a time, conZ3 and confusion took possession of the Saracens, and tory seemed to declare in favor of the Christians, but the ttan presented himself in the midst of his panic‑stricken ldiers, and, by his well known voice, rallied them in battle y: The Knights, to a man, fought bravely and well. The d Master of the Hospitalers repeatedly charged 'the enemy skill and courage. but, at last, his horse received a deadly and, and fell, with his rider under him. The Hospitalers, ig him fall, formed around his body, which thus became the centre of mortal conflict between Christian and Saracen.


The ~OodT of the brave De Moulins was found buried under a pile of "dead, chiefly Turkomans and Saracens.


He was interred at with the honors of the Order, lamented by all the nation. ier, of Syria, Grand Prior of England and‑Colonel Gem I of the infantry of the Order, succeeded to the Grand chip .


To avert suspicion, Raymond, the traitor, proposed to Saladin ;tte should attack his own possessions, and accordingly laid Tiberias.


The town fell into the Sultan's hands. but Princess, being ignorant of her husband's treachery, retired s 34




with the garrison into the castle, and made preparations for resolute defense.


These facts were communicated by Raymond to the King, urging, at the same time, a large force to defend the important place.


The King adopted his perfidious advice, drained all his fortresses of the troops for their defense, and croa ded his ranks. with citizens and peasants, who were totally ipor. nt of war, and, thus prepared, took the field.


The traitor occupi;,d a. prominent position in this army.


On arriving near the po: ition of Saladin, Raymond prevailed with the King to select a position where he knew water could not be procured:. Within . wenty‑four hours, the King discovered his error, by perceiving that lie must either have water or suffer a defeat,and he ordered an attempt to be made to force a passage to the river. The Templars, with their accustomed bravery, volunteered to lead the van, ankrushing upon Saladin, they charged the Saracen line with so much effect that it was immediately broken.. But, at this eventful moment, when it was made the duty of the Count of Tripoli to follow and support the charge, the traitor turned his‑back and fled. His command returned to their former position, and thus the Templars were left at the mercy of the enemy, and were all slain or made captives.


The Christians, having failed to make a passage to water, were compelled to pass another night, suffering the torments of thirst. All discipline was lost sight of, and, in this condition, Saladin attacked them, and, with very little resistance, annihilated the entire army.


The carnage is represented as being dreadful, as the Infidels showed no quarter, and the life‑blood of thirty., thousand Christians ran in currents among the rocks.


Among the captives taken by Saladin were the King, the Grand Master of the Templars, and a. great number of Lords. The Grand Master of the Hospitalers, after performing many feats of valor, and seeing the battle irretrievably lost, cut lxi& way through the enemy and fled to Ascalon,and soon after died.. Saladin spared the lives of all except Reginald De Chatillon who was not improperly put to death, as he had certainly con ducted himself with less humanity than the great majority of barbarian commanders. It, is worthy of remark, that Saladin was not only one of the wisest, but, we. drink, the very best.




35 $Wton with whom the Christians had to contend.


Deeds of lsevolence and acts of kindness and. mercy were performed by k 1m;


all occasions, and these traits of character, together with his sense of stern justice, were witnessed on the occasion above Referred to, While he demanded of Reginald De Chatillou immediately to renounce his religion, and struck his head off on 11ie‑refusal, he did not do so without reminding him of his crimes. He further exhibited his noble traits, by sparing the lives or his other captives, without exacting a. similar indignity. They wore *at prisoners to Damascus.


The kingdom of Jerusalem seemed now to be drawing rapid˛ 1~ to a close.


The King and the principal nobility were in captivity, and the military Orders were nearly extinct.


The remnant of the Hospitalers met, it is true, to choose a Grand Master, to fill the place of their venerable Chief, who fell at the battle of Tiberias ; but, so far from hearing wringing, for elfice, that of Grand Master was no longer an object of competition, but so evidently pregnant with hardships and perils, that the Brotherhwid, with difficulty, prevailed upon Ermengurd Daps to accept it, which he did, under a solemn conviction that and his companions were only left the privilege of seeking an honorable death, and which, he hoped, would occur before the final fall of Jerusalem. This Grand Master was installed in; 1187.* Soon after the events above recorded, Saladin, who had. Rot been inactive, but continued his conquests, laid siege to Jerusalem, which was now defended: by only a few thousand Christians, a great portion of whom were followers of the Greek Church, end, therefore, hostile to the Latin rule. The Queen, seeing no hope, offered to capitulate, but Saladin, knowing the weakness of her forces, rejected her proposition, and. declared that, if the city did not immediately surrender, he would scale the ram ‑ ports, and avenge himself by an indiscriminate massacre of the the inhabitants, upon whose skirts still hung the Moslem blood shed by Godfrey, of Bouillon.


This answer fired the Latins to desperation, and, to a man, they determined to die in defence "One or two historians say thatlis installation took place !n 1151.




37 ‑the Christian temples to be broken, " and the Patriarchar which had originally been a magnificent mosque, built the Calif Omar, on the ruins of the former Temple of lomon, was carefully purified with rose‑water, and again ted to infidel rites." :After being compelled to admire the character and liberal ng of Saladin, we are surprised to learn that he descended klJielow his high reputation for wisdom and religious toler to order the great cross which surmounted the dome ;fee, L'ttitriarehal church to be torn down, and, for two succesxWe, to be dragged through the streets of the city.


*ad now, after near a century of war and bloodshed, in the Christian world bad more or less participated, the ,Sepulchre was once more in possession of the MohamIone, and nowhere in Palestine did the Christian Cross apas' a rallying point to its followers, except at Antioch, &,.and Tyre; and very many Of the fugitives‑from Jernsw xWding their cause as forever lost, left the country and iu the West.


0 6utherland.




Tsa lose of aerusalem, it is, said, so wrought open the fags of Pope Urban III., that he fell a prey to grief.


Dismay and sorrow pervaded Europe. The Cardinals at Rome repounced all temporal pleasures, and declared 'themselves and 'flocks as unworthy to wear the name of Christians, so lax


as the Holy City remained in possession ‑of the barbarians ; but these loud professions of piety and valor, were afterward proven to be professions only, for when William, of Tyre, besought their personal services in another Crusade, they could only be inducted to recommend others to,engage in it.


Philip II., of Prance, and Henry II., of England, agreed to settle their diffictilties, and unitedly enter upon a new Crusade, for the deliverance of the Holy Land from Mohammedan rule, and measures were forthwith adopted to raise the means for fitting‑ out a largo force. Before the expedition was in readiness, Henry died, and was succeeded by his son, Richard I., who was afterward known as Coeur de Lion.


He immediately took steps to carry out the plans of his father, in furtherance of the Crusade.


Frederick Barbarossa, of Germany, and about seventy of the Princes of his empire, entered heartily into the enterprise, and, indeed, all Christendom, Spain excepted, took part in the new Crusade, the Christian communities alone w thholding their contributions, under the pretest that they should not be taxed to carry on wars, it being their business to pray for the prosperity of Christian arms.


The Crusaders commenced arriving at Acre in 1190, and famine began its work of destruction in the. Christian ranks. Here originated a new Order of Knighthood. The German Crusaders, finding that famine and disease were carrying off their brethren‑in‑arms, knew not where to look for relief. About this time, a company from Bremen and Lubeck arrived OBDSRS OF KNIONTHOOD.


38 ‑and feeling compassion for their countrymen, who were from Alisease, aggravated by exposure, benevolently ăortuth iplan :of making a large tent from the sails of the ship tbiatlont'the sick were nursed and cared for by those who vAuKamed their services, and thus originated the Teutonic. &4w of Knights, which was confined to the Germans. By an oiiitttvf Pope Celestine, dated February, 1192, this new Order required to frame its laws after those of the Knights Hosso far. as related to benevolence, and after the Templars.


ug military operations.


This Association was known IM, title of the Teutonic Knights of St. Mary, of Jerusalem. Awiirdrass wns:a white mantle bearing a black cross, trimme& with gold.


e' King of France arrived before Acre, which had been beedged by the forces raised by the lute King of Jerusalem, amposed of newly arrived Crusaders, and the then military DrdwL


The King of France did not see proper to make ail ANvoWt to :take the city, until the arrival of the King of Engjwi4which.took place on the 8th of June, 1191), who soon after nguished'himself by his bold


acing, whence he was styled Awa on hearted King.


Mainly owing to his skill and braver* AL*ondactiRg the attack, the city capitulated on the 18th of and the standard of the Cross was once more raised in ,tiatnaus city.


But glorious as this conquest was esteemed `0 tua ,dearly purchased, as it is computed that more than one `Imadred thousand Christians perished before the walls, ‑mainly is famine spa# disease.


Hospitalers, since the fall of Jerusalem, had held theirr rid quarters at Margat, but now they substituted Acre. Their mod master baying died, they elected Godfrey de Duisson, aged Knight, in 119:1.


Tire taking of Acre constituted the only achievement of im, ittanoe effected by this Crusade, for, soon after it, Philip of aeturned to his kingdom, and desertions continued to Uo. ~&e ranks of Richard, until he was left powerless.


$ut ‑shad :quite z sufficient force to retake Jerusalem, and, burning desire to 'do ,sa. had approached within. a day's march 4 ‑tile city, and Saladin, feeling his inability to hold ovt 4A


MODERN FREEMASONRY against him, was revolving in his own mind the terms of capi. tulation, when, from some cause, a panic fell upon the Christian army, which being composed of volunteers, Richard was not able to restrain them from a determination to abandon the country, and return to their homes. And thus terminated the third Crusade. Richard, on his return to the West, was thrown into an Austrian prison, and soon after died.


Scarcely had the Christians deserted Palestine when Saladin sickened and died, beloved by his people and respected by his enemies.


Indeed, it may be truly said, that the character of no Christian, engaged in the Paynim war, stands out more resplendently than that of Saladin, who, though a barbarian in name, possessed all the wisdom and virtue of the most refined of his age.


Grand Master Duisson died, and was succeeded by Alphonso, of Portugal, 1202. This Grand Master undertook to reform the habits of the Knights so far as to confine them to poor and spare diet, and otherwise to enforce obedience to his will in all things, which rendered him unpopular, and he was compelled to resign.


He was succeeded by Geofrai le Rot, a Frenchman, 1203, who found the Order resting on their arms because of the six years' truce, signed by Richard and Saladin.


But a failure in the Egyptian crops was producing universal distress in Palestine, and thousands were dying of famine daily.


It is said, at this period, the Hospitalers possessed principalities, cities, towns, and villages, both in Asia and Europe, and held, within Christendom, no less than nineteen thousand manors.* The Templars had also large possessions, though nit equal in value to those of the other Order.


And, now that Palestine did not require their united services in the field, their ancient jealousies were renewed, which led to several battles, and peace was only finally restored by the interposition of the Pope.


About .'this time, another Hermit, or Bernard, made his appearance, in the person of Fulk, a priest of Neuilly. By this man's cunning, the spirit of chivalry, which had only subsided in Europe, was revived, and soon a large number of ' Manor, as here used, signifies the tillage of a plow and two oxen.‑MATasw Aum ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.


41 Ir em and men of renown assumed the insignia of the Cross, and. .ph.cing themselves under Boniface, engaged to prosecute another Crusade to the Holy Land. This Crusade engaged the Doge of Venice to transport them by sea to St. Jean d'Acre, but not being able to pay the sum agreed upon, entered into the employment of the Doge, and fought his battles, and afterwards hired to a Greek Prince to do likewise, and thus the Crusade, while it won, as well as wore the name of the fifth Crusade, was, nevertheless, not a Crusade to the Holy Land.


In 1206, both the King Lusignan and his consort died.


On their death, Mary, daughter of Isabella and Conrad, of Tyre, succeeded to the crown.


Palestine being thus again destitute of a king, and the Christians, being convinced that nothing short of an able and efficient Prince could preserve order within, and prevent attacks from without Palestine, sent to the King of France, requesting that he would name a proper person to espouse the Queen.


The Sovereign nominated John, of Brienne, a noble Knight of Champagne. The Christians of Palestine built their hopes high upon this union, not doubting the ability of their chosen champion to bring with him a large and disciplined army, but, with his utmost exertions, he was only able. to take with him three hundred Knights. But his fame as a warrior, was of itself a host, and, immediately after espousing the young Queen, lie mounted his war steed, determined to signalize his honey‑moon by deeds . of valor on the frontier of the enemy.


But his efforts were vain, as the Sultan was able to bring against him a force which he had not the power to resist. For a remedy, he represented to the Pope the deplorable condition of the Christian cause in Palestine, and besought his aid. The Pope summoned the Princes of the West to meet him in Council, but various causes prevented obedience to this mandate until June, 1215, when a deputation from almost every monarch is Christendom, together with a great number of priests, assem. `bled at Rome.


The result of this Council was a unanimous determination to send out another Crusade.


Andrew, King of Hungary, was the first leader to unfurl his banner.


Joined by the chivalry of Austria and Bavaria, he embarked, with his fol lowers, in Venetian vessels, having despatched an invitation to 42 MODERN FREEMASONRY.


the Grand Master of the Hospitalers to meet him in Council at Cyprus.


The Grand Master, attended by his officers, accord ingly obeyed this invitation.


The King manifested the highest veneration for the courage and warlike skill of the Hospitalers, and, at his request, was received as a member of the Order. In giving testimony afterwards in behalf of the Knights of Saint John, the King said : " Lodging in their house, I have seen their feed daily an innumerable multitude of poor; while the sick were laid in good beds, and treated with great care, the dying were assisted with an exemplary piety, and the dead were decently buried.


In a word, this noble militia are employed sometimes, like Mary, in contemplation, at other times, 'like Martha, in action ; and thus ‑consecrate their days t(, deeds of mercy, and to a maintenance off constant warfare against the infidel Amalekites, and the enemies of the Cross." The King of Hungary remained with the Crusaders but little more than three months, and though having done but little for the cause, he returned home, leaving the Christian army destitute of a great leader. But this misfortune was soon remedied by the arrival of William, Count of Holland, who broub rt with him quite a large addition to the Crusaders.


In a Grand Council called by the King of Jerusalem, it was determined to turn their arms against Egypt, and, first, to attack Damietta, the strongest fortification in that country.


Landing near the mouth of the Nile, they debarked, 1215.


In this action the Knights distinguished themselves by being al*ays foremost in encountering danger.


After long and continued efforts, made with the,most enthusiastic zeal, a machine, invented by the German Crusaders, was brought to bear against the town, and the post was taken. At this timelarge reinforcements arrived in the camp of the Crusaders, and, at their head, was Cardinal Pelagius, a proud, overhearing priest, as Legate from the Holy See.


_ Grieved at the straightened condition of his favorite city, Saphadin terminated his reign, by dividing between his sit eldest sons his dominions.


Damietta fell to the portion of Coradine, who set his heart upon its delivery, and, being urged on by the same spirit of chivalry which bad actuated his father, he no 'sooner learned the improbability of his being ‑ible to o8D')M oX XNIGRTsOOD.


43 Ahrow assistance into the garrison, than he commenced negotialions, and, in his zeal fertile sufferers within, he offered to give I`he Christians Jerusalem, Thoran, and several other cities, and Ao restore the Holy Cross, which his uncle Saladin had taken at Tiberias. The King and the Grand Master of the Hospitalers inclined to accept the offer, but the Legate Pelagius imjected it, and his arguments prevailed with the council.


At 'last, after a siege of seventeen months; the city was taken ; and tye‑witnesses tell us that it wore the appearance of one vast l 'tomb‑more than eighty thousand men having perished, and the 'few who were left were so reduced by famine, that they had 'barely strength to crawl from door to door. This victory was Poon after avenged by the enemy, who so hemmed in and sur. rounded the Legate, with water let out of the river, when lie had 'been seduced to a given place, that, no means of escape effering, Ire agreed to restore the captured city.


Thus terminated this unfortunate Crusade.


The Knights of St. John expended, in this expedition, about eight thousand byzantines in the public service, and yet they did not entirely escape the tongue of slander, as it charged them with appropriating to themselves some temittances from Europe‑all which, however, they triumph. aomtly proved to be false.


In 1222, a Grand Council was held at Ferentino, in 'the 10ampagna di Roma. This Council was attended by the Pope, the Emperor Frederick II., grandson of Barbarosa, John de '$rienne, King of Jerusalem,‑ the Patriarch of that city, the Legate Telagius, Guerin De Montaigu, Grand Master of 'the $ospitalers, and Deputies from the Templars and Teutonic Orders.


Frederick, who was not inclined to bow very obsequioasly to the Holy See, was induced to take' an interest in' the cause of Palestine, by a promise of marriage to Violante, only daughter of the King, and heiress to the crown of Jernsatem.


Thus bethrothed, he promised to lead, within two years, ample forces to expel the Infidels from the Holy Land.


But 1here is good reason to believe that the Emperor was better Oessed with the "pomp and circumstance of war," than with 4he 'hardship and dangers of the battle‑field, for he made ,acuses, and delayed this promised expedition four years, and ,44




then, being overtaken by a storm at. sea, had a, fit of ague, and, rider the advice of his physician, put into the first harbor, where he remained inactive, until the naturally ill temper of Pope Gregory IX. was so excited, that he publicly excommunicated ,him. This holy curse was, in those days, fatal to every prince, .for all. believed they were doing, God's service, to treat with contempt prince or peasant, against whom the thunders of the Vatican had been poured out.


The churches were closed, Lent .was proclaimed, and the people were prohibited all indulgences and pleasures, and Frederick found himself to be the occupant of a throne, without the obedience of his subjects.


This Prince .boldly stood out against the tyrannical mandates of the Pope .for a long time, but was finally compelled to supplicate for mercy.


During all, this time, the Christians of Palestine were in a deplorable condition.


Living under a truce, the military Orders were out of their element, as it were, and were wrangling with each other.


The reinforcements sent by Frederick were insufficient, and the Grand Master of the Hospitalers, being most of the time in Europe, they were without a leader in whom . they had confidence.


 In 1228, after his excommunication, Frederick arrived at St. Jean d' Acre, where it was not known that he was under the holy curse, but the Pope was not tardy in sending a dispatch with this intelligence, when the Hospitalers and Templars, always obedient to the Holy See, refused to follow his standard. But Frederick had the friendship of the Teutonic Knights, and, with the forces he could command, unfurled his banner, and took up his march. The Hospitalers and Templars could not hear the Christian war‑cry and remain inactive, and, hence, were soon found following, under pretense of protecting the probable retreat of Frederick's army.


This Prince knew well the importance of the friendship of these Orders, and soon compromised with them, by agreeing that all orders should be issued in the name of " God and Christendom." Thus were the Knights reconciled, by withholding the name of Frederick from all orders, though known to be issued by him. This army entered Jaffa without opposition; and commenced rebuilding the fortifications. But intelligence soon reached Frederick ORDF'IG9 OF KNIGHTHOOD.


that the deadly hatred of the Pope was being displayed against him, by an attack upon his Italian dominions.


Frederick had, through his agents, sought a reconciliation with the Pope, but His Holiness spurned all overtures, and made war against his authority. This unholy war of Christian against Christian, by order of the great head of the Christian Church, caused all Europe to stand aghast, and especially did all Christendom look with horror upon this deadly strife, when they beheld the merciless butcheries perpetrated to avenge personal hatred.


Frederick finally entered Jerusalem in triumph, but here Ira was compelled to behold the extent to which a blind worship of the edicts of the Pope was capable of leading ; for now he was to be crowned King of Jerusalem, but there was no one who dared place the crown upon his head, and he was compelled to take it from the altar of the Holy Sepulchre, and place it upon his own head, and request the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights to pronounce an eulogium.


Here follows some testimony, greatly reflecting upon the honor and integrity of the Hospitalers and Templars. A plot was laid for the purpose of delivering up the Emperor into the hands of the Saracens ; and, though historians differ in their version of its origin, the weight of testimony tends to prove that the Pope was at its foundation, and that he commanded the Knights to perpetrate the dastardly deed, in order that he might be .rid of his enemy.


Certain it is, that information was communicated to the Sultan of Egypt, that the Emperor was about to return to Italy, and, immediately before his departure; he would visit Jordan, in order to bathe in its sacred waters, and suggested that a band of Saracens be sent to intercept and put him to death, or make him a prisoner.


But the Sultan; proving himself to be more of a Christian, Infidel as he was; than the head of the Church and his sworn followers, received the proposal with abhorrence, and promptly sent the treacherous epistle to the Emperor.


This noble act of Coradine led to the most happy results, as it produced negotiations, and, finally, a ten years' truce, and, straage to say, the terms were altogether in favor of the Christians, which must have resulted more froni 46




a sympathy felt by Coradine for the Emperor, or. account of the malignant persecutions of the Pope, than from any fear of the Christian army. By this treaty, Jerusalem, Nazareth, Bethlehem, Tyre, and Sidon. were restored to the Christians, with full liberty to rebuild their fortifications. Equal privileges, both civil and religious, were guaranteed to Christians and Mohammedans within the Holy City, and all that was reserved exclusively to the Mohammedans, was the Mosque of the Temple, with the court and enclosure, where they believed their Prophet commenced his nocturnal journey to heaven.


No sooner did Frederick return to Europe, than his personal influence decided in his favor the war which the Pope had waged against him. But the moment the head of the Church was whipped at his own game, he availed himself of his imperial prerogative to wreak his vengeance, by adding to the excommunication of Frederick a bull, which absolved the sub jects of the Emperor from all allegiance to him as their lawful prince..


This crowning act of Iwly meanness at. once had the effect to humble Frederick, and cause him to supplicate for mercy.


Frederick, being now otherwise occupied, failed to send assistance to his subjects in Palestine, and he ceased to feel or care for the country, and, but for the supervision the Hospitalers and Templars exercised over the country, the very order of society, necessary to its existence, would have been destroyed.


In 1230, the Grand Master of the Hospitalers died,. and w4b succeeded by Bertrand De Texis.


During the Grand Mastership‑ of Texis, a serious dispute arose between the Bishop of Acre and the Hospitalers,. in relation to tithes. The Bishop was foiled at home, and an appeal to the Pope. still further condemned his cause, and justified the course of the Knights, whereupon, this malignant priest instituted a catalogue of charges against the Brotherhood, of a most. serious character. He charged, before tho Pope, ,that the Knights were false to their vows of chastity; kept loose women in their houses;, protected robbers, murder em and heretics. and altered the wills of those who died ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.


47 under their care, etc., etc.


These charges were most probably as false as were the principles of the Bishop who made them. but such testimony of their truth was furnished, as induced the Pontiff to believe them true, for he dispatched an order, threatening punishment, unless speedy reformation was produced. It is rather singular that we can find nothing on record, going to show that the truth or falsehood of these charges were ever established by investigation, and thus, with the generally upright conduct and consistent morals of the military OrderR, tending to prove them entirely groundless, we are not permitted so to declare by any court of inquiry.


In 1231, Bertrand De Tesis died, and ‑was succeeded by Guerin De Montacute.


In 1236, Montacute died, and was succeeded by Bertrand De Comps.


Palestine, being now deserted by the Emperor, and notbeing subject to his representatives, was divided against itself. In all these disputes, the Hospitalers and Templars were found to be in opposition to each other.


Their ancient jealousies were always revived when they were resting upon their arms.


In short, it would seem, from the history of these Orders, that their noble bearing and high moral integrity were best seen on the battle‑field. The Hospitalers were no longer the humble attendants upon the sick, but arrogant tyrants, under the influence which their immense wealth bestowed upon them.


The Templars, though not so wealthy, were, nevertheless, possessed of large estates, and they, too, had become slaves of their passions. At this period, had not the Sultans of Egypt and Damascus been at variance, Palestine could have been easily overrun and conquered ; but both these Sultans were striving for the friendship of the Knights, and, hence, neither was inclined to make war upon the Christian possessions.


Indeed, so feeble had been the forces of the Latin Christians from the days of Saladin, that, at almost any time, Palestine could have been wrested from the followers of the Cross, had there been concert of action between the Mohammedan rulers.


About this time, another effort,was made in Western Europe to get up AM another Crusade into the Holy Land.


The truce 'a




which had been sinned by the Sultan of Egypt and the Emperor Frederick had expired, and the Sultan, hearing of the contempla ted Crusade, determined to drive the Latins out of Jerusalem. Soon after, the vanguard of the seventh Crusade landed at Acre, under command of Thibald, Count of Champagne. The Infidels allowed them to reach Ascalon without opposition, but, near Gaza, they were completely defeated by an inferior body of Saracens, and Thibald returned in haste to Europe.


The Earl of Cornwall, brother of Henry III., King of England, arrived soon after Thibald's departure. Cornwall brought with him the chivalry of England, and boldly advanced to Jaffa. where lie was met by an envoy from the Sultan of Egypt, with a proposition for a new truce. This led to a treaty, whereby it was stipulated that Jerusalem should become entirely a Christian city ; that the Christians should possess all the villages betweeu the capital and the coast, and that they should be at liberty to fortify all the restored posts. To this treaty the Hospitalers gave their assent, but inasmuch as they had refused to sign the one previously entered into by the Templars, the latter, influ enced by spleen, refused their approval of this.


This produced great confusion, for, notwithstanding there were two truces, one of the Orders continued at war with the Sultan of Egypt, and the other with the Sultan of Damascus, and these two Sultans being at variance, there seemed but little hope of terminating the matter by amicable negotiations.


But whatever feelings animated the bosoms of the jealous Knights, all Christian hearts were once more rejoiced to behold the insignia of the Cross, from the Jordan to the Mediterranean Sea. Priests now returned in swarms to the city of Jerusalem. The churches were cleansed and reconsecrated, and the Hospitalers expended everything in their treasury, and levied contributions from other Command cries, in order to insure the rebuilding of the fortifications.


Grand Master Bertrand de Comps died in 1241, under the following circumstances : The Turkomans having invaded the territories of the Prince of Antioch, lie entreated the assistance of the military Orders, and the Grand Masters of the Hospitalars and Templars promptly responded to the call, led their Knights to the scene of war, and gave the Infidels battle. In this bloody ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.


49 Conflict, both armies fought with intrepid valor.


Indeed, the Infidels fought so resolutely, that the Grand Master of the Hospitalers became enraged, and threw himself headlong into the midst of the, enemy's squadrons. .This daring act was mainly instrumental in defeating the enemy, but the Grand Master came forth so wounded, that he survived but a short time.


t The Chapter chose, as, the nest., Grand Master, Peter de Ville.






THE Christian population of the Holy City had uow increased to about six thousand, but the rebuilding of the walls advanced but slowly. Thus defenceless, the Korasmians, a savage people from the shores of the Caspian, who had been driven from their deserts by the arms of the Moguls, now, like an avalanche, poured into Palestine, in 1243.


These " Parthian shepherds" practiced their peculiar Pagan rites, and were equally hostile to Christians and Mohammedans, and Christians and Mohammedans saw it to be alike their interest, to unite and drive back this threatened tornado. of merciless beings; but their combined efforts were vain.


Had Malek Kamel, the late wise and generous Sultan of Egypt, lived, it is quite probable that the result would have been different; but his successor, Nogemadin, stood aloof.


Feeling himself secure, he cared little for his brethren of Aleppo and Damascus, and still less for the fate of the Christians of Palestine.


He not only refused to take part in the struggle, but, professing to have some cause of complaint against the Templars, hb communicated with the' Korasmian leaders, and informed them of the defencelessness of Jerusalem.


The Korasmians had been driven, with merciless barbarity, from their homes, and, with no less barbarous feelings, they aought a new home, careless in what direction it might be found, or at what expense of blood. Barbacan, their Chief, no sooner received this information, than, at the head of twenty thousand horse, he speedily entered Palestine, before the Christians were aware of his intentions.


The military Orders, as we have intimated, were generally quarreling in time of peace; but the war‑cry of the Cross united them as brothers. They were now the only hope for the defence of the Holy City, and they at once saw that resistance would not only be vain, but, finally, fatal to the ir habi. tants, and, therefore, all were enjoined to evacuate the city, and ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.


5 1, repair to Jaffa.


The Knights went not to Jaffa ; but, taking to the open country, prepared to seek a favorable opportunity to give the enemy battle.


Some of the inhabitants of the city, who could not bring themselves to consent to leave it, threw up some temporary defences, and determined to remain. The Korasmians found no difficulty in overcoming this feeble opposition, and, entering the city, sword in hand, spared neither age nor sex.


That they might celebrate their victory with still more massacres of defenseless human beings, they replanted the Christian standards upon the towers, and, thus deceived, many re. turned, as they thought, to their houses and their friends, onl~ to be butchered by the barbarians.. The Holy Church of Cal= vary was profaned by these barbarians, and, that they . might seem less merciful than the wild beasts of` the forest, they 001lec'ted, and drove to the Holy Sepulchre, a crowd of old men; nuns, and helpless children, and there massacred them, as if for pastime.


We pause, at this point in our history, to contemplate, as we may be permitted, the wonder‑working mysteries of divine Providence. If we turn our thoughts back, and behold the, pride and pomp of the various armies sent forth from all Europe, for no other purpose than to win, by their blood and treasure, possession of that spot of ground where, it is supposed, one* rested the body of our Saviour; if we undertake to enumerate the millions of lives sacrificed, in order to keep up the show of Christian devotion, and more firmly to establish the divine and temporal supremacy of the head of the Church, and, above all, if we remember that the whole originated in a deep laid scheme to bring the world under subjugation to the See of Rome, we shall wonder less why it was that the splendid military achievements of kings and princes were made to vanish into nothingness, before a wild, unknown, and unlooked for bafld of barbarians, at a time when Christendom was beginning to regard the Holy Land as permanently and peaceably in possession of the nominal friends of the Cross. Can we believe that, if the cause of the Crusaders, concocted and put on foot by the Pope, had been the cause of Christ and His holy religion, tha God of battles wpuld have permitted twenty thousand strangeM 59




without opposition, to enter the Holy City, never more to be regained or occupied by a Christian people? Well might Fuller, after recounting the thrilling incidents connected with its history,, exclaim:‑" Sleep, Jerusalem, sleep in thy ruing; at this day of little beauty and less strength: famous only for what thou hast been." After the fall of Jerusalem, the Sultan of Egypt sent a body of troops to cooperate with the Korasmian leader, while tl+e Sultan of Damascus gave assistance to the Christians, at, the earnest solicitation of the Knights. Thus situated, the Koranmian strength was numerically much the greatest, and yet the Christians gained several inferior victories, till,, at length, at the urgent solicitation of the Patriarch, who, for the time, laid aside his holy calling, in order to give aid to military, opera˛ tions, it was determined to hazard a general engagement. All. things being, ready, the war‑cry, was heard, and the Christians_ went into the fight with high hopes of victory, tbough the enemy stood five to one in the field; and to render this inequality much greater, no sooner did the battle rage with. fierce. ness than, through fright or treachery, the troops sent by the Sultan of Damascus broke ground and fled.


Thus deserted,. 'out not dismayed, the Christians stood their ground, and fought valiantly for two whole days.


Hospitalers and Templars vied with each other,: to be, foremost in the battle, and, by their prowess; the field was strewn with the slain of their enemies:;, but their lances were too few, to penetrate the dense barriers= continually being filled up and presented against them, and, finally, borne down by the might of numbers, the Christian; Knights, one. by one, yielded up their lives at the foot of their banner.


The Grand Master of the Hospitale A, the Grand. Master of the Templars, and the Commander of the Teutonic Knights, each and all fell valiantly fighting at the head of their companions, and there escaped only thirty‑tree Templars, sixteen Hospitaler#, and three Teutonic Knights.


This disastrous and bloody battle was fought on the sew coast, near Gaza, 1244, and well nigh completed the ealwnidep of the Holy Land; for it almost annihilated: these valiant band& of military Knights, who from the. days of Godfrey htwl




`SH the bulwark of Palestine‑the strong arm of tire Paynim war. "The little remnant who escaped the Infidel massacre threw themselves into Acre, where the Hospitalers chose William De Chateauneuf as their Grand Master.


:Scarcely had the refugees recovered from exhaustion, and before they had time to seek reinforcements, or even to organize for defence, the Korasmians, with their Egyptian allies, encamped before Acre, at the same time that they invested ‑Jaffa. Sir Walter de Brienne, the Lord of the latter city, had been taken captive in the late battle, and now, in order to :strike terror into the hearts of the inhabitants; and induce them to yield without an effort, the Korasmians showed him, sitting ,on a gibbet.


But, to the surprise of his enemies, lie earnestly addressed his soldiers, beseeching them to put no faith in the promises made to them.


This magnanimous daring was not punished by his immediate death, but he was reserved for even a worse fate, in an Egyptian dungeon.


Here, again, we would pause in wonder and astonishment, xt `the handiwork of divine Providence. After the entire chivalry of Europe had, for near one hundred and ninety years, contended manfully and successfully against the united powers; of the East, for possession of the Holy Land, an obscure tribe of barbarians, unknown in the annals of warfare, indeed, scarcely heard of as inhabitants of the earth, suddenly burst upon the Syrian deserts, march to, and, almost without a blow, take possession of the Holy City, despoil and desecrate every venerated relic, and then, with irresistible force, devastate and destroy wherever in Palestine they directed their course.


And to render this mystery the more remarkable, this very people had scarcely accomplished the seemingly destined object of their mission, when a fatal spell appeared to fall upon them.


They bad scourged the Latin Christians ; but, in turn, a still more fatal scourge was pending over their own heads. Domestic quarrels arose in their camp, deadly feuds ensued, and, man to man, they were seen in mortal combat.


Like locusts they had suddenly overrun the Syrian deserts, and when they bad strip.. ped the country of its beautiful foliage, they commenced devour, ing each other.


And still a greater number fell by the hands 54




of the Syrian peasants, who, finding all organization and concert of action abandoned by these barbarians, pursued and destroyed them wherever they wandered over the country. So fatally did the two causes above named operate upon the Korasmians, that before the final expulsion of the Latin Christians from Palestine, this tribe of barbarians were annihilated, for, from that period, their existence is not known‑their name is scarcely mentioned in the history of the world.


The Patriarch of Jerusalem and his Bishops laid before Pope Innocent IV. the facts of the desolation of that City, and depicted the horrid massacre of the brave champions, in such terms as moved to tears his counselors, and they united in beseeching the Pope to summon, once more, the Christian nations to. send out another Crusade to the Holy Land. While Jerusalem wa^ being taken. and the Christian banner down‑trodden, the banner of St. John was waving triumphantly against the Moors in Spain, and the Tartars in Hungary ; and, even before the news of the fall of Jerusalem was known, the western nations were agitating the eighth Crusade; and, though their enthusiasm was not so wild as in former times, a Council at Lyons decided that a Crusade should be preached throughout Christendom.


Nor was that preaching in vain, when the eloquent speakers depicted the sufferings and inhuman slaughter of the followers of Christ, at the verge of the tomb of our Saviour.


Louis IX., of France, a Prince of the best virtues, having pious notions, partaking of extravagance, while suffering under a painful sickness, made a vow to visit the Holy Land with an army, if God would restore him to health.


As soon as this was known, his three royal brothers, the Counts of Artois, Poitiers, arid Anjou, and also the Duke of Burgundy, with numerous friends, announced their determination to follow him.


When the King assumed the Cross, he threw off all pomp, exchanging the royal purple for the pilgrim's habit.* The military Orders were everywhere encouraged by the prospect of efficient aid, and they drew from the European Bi*ry of St. Lore&, by Joinville.




55 Prf Ties their men and treasure ;but three years elapsed before the King of France was prepared to take the field.


0a the 12th of June, 1248, Louis went in procession to the Abbey of St. Dennis, where the Pope's Legate, in solemn form, delivered to him the Oriflamme,* with the Palmer's scrip and staff. Having made his mother, Blanche, regent of his kingdom, he embarked.for Cyprus, and arrived at that place on the 28th of August.


In consequence of the slow arrival of his forces, Louis was detained at Cyprus eight months, during which time he was piously engaged in advancing the Christian cause. Through his influence, a reconciliation was effected between the Hospitalers and Templars, who had imbibed some little jealousies; and now that they were once more on good terms, they consulted Louis as to the best manner of effecting the liberation of those members of their respective Orders; held as captivesby the Sultan of Egypt, and, it is said, the propriety of entering into amicable arrangements with the Mohammedan Prince; which proposition, Louis, in his Christian zeal, rejected with disdain.


This incident, unimportant as it may seem, gave rise to a charge of grave importance against the Templars. Though the proposition, if made at all, came equally from both Orders, yet the enemies of the Templars, only, effected anything. They charged that the Grand Master of that Order was a secret ally of the Sultan, which bad been entered into, by each opening a vein and causing their blood to mingle in the same bowl. We have examined with some care for proof of the truth or falsehood of the above allegation, and have to confess, that we are still left in doubt.


On the one hand, we know that the Templars had ever been governed by that well nigh inhuman law, which made it their duty to abandon any member of the Order, who would suffer himself to be taken alive by the enemy from which it would seem unreasonable to suppose they would, on the occasion referred to, not only depart from this' law; but also propose an alliance with their bitterest enemy. On the other hand, we find nearly all the writers, including Joinville, teem to favor‑the truth of the charge,


Fuller tells as. that the Oriflamme. the banner of St. Deanis.


v 50




custom of giving sanctity' to' treaties, by suffering; the blood of the parties to flow into the same bowl, belonged to the Infidel nations‑that they were 'in the habit of mixing the blood,, mingled with'wiiie,'and drinking it as a sacred ‑libation. The Knights Templar, of the present day, think they have strong reasons for believing, that this,` or a very, similar =custom, was practiced by the 'Order' 'itself, and, therefore, suppose it to be of Christian origin.


Louis, at length;'haaing received all his forces and supplies, accompanied by his Quoen and the Princes Charles and Robert, made ready to spt sail for the Paynim coast, on Trinity Sunday, 1249: And what a'spectacle was there presented l eighteen hundred sails dotting the seas of Cyprus, ' within full view. France had been almost depopulated, and its treasuries exhaust ed, to gratify the pious King.


Sixty thousand men were here being led by that wild and misguided zeal which had been enkindled, mainly, by designing Popes, and had already cost Christendom millions' upon millions of treasure, and thousands upon thousands of lives.


 About a week after he set sail, Louis, clothed in complete armor, and overshadowed by the Oriflamm, leaped upon the shore of Egypt, and gave battle to the enemy, who wero there ready to receive him. This battle was of short duration, but though the Christians were victorious, it was not without a hard struggle, and the loss of many valuable lives.


At Damietta, near where he landed, Louis was ‑joined by the two Grand Masters of the military Orders, from Acre, at the head of a band of chosen Knights; and, also, by Longespee, the fellow‑crusader of Cornwall, who, on this occasion, suffered his earldom to be confiscated. rather than obey his King, and remain at home. 'Louis called a Council, and, while the older and more experkence4 soldiers recommended ,an attack upon Alexandria, and 'a cautious movement onward, he yielded to the advice of his brother, Count of Artois, ‑backed by some young and impetuous Barons, and marched direct for Grand Cairo. On their march they found no inhabitants, or appearance of the enemy, until they came near Massoura, when five hundred Egyptian horsemen came forward, and reported ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.


ST themselves as deserters from the Mohammedan army.


The wing received them without suspicion, and made guides of them. detachment of the Templars, having advanced a considerable try ahead of the main army, the Mamalukes suddenly drew 'heir swords and charged them with fury.


But the Knights were not to be intimidated by Saracen war‑shouts ; they rallied 4tronnd their intrenid Grand Masters, and bravely kept their ground until reinforced, when the Mamalukes were slain to ~a ~lnan.*


The King came up with the enemy, encamped on the '.ink of the Asbmoum Canal, which was too deep to ford, and ‑the attempted to throw a bridge across it, but the enemy set fire to and burned the timbers as fast as they were put up.


At lftngth, an Arab yielded to a large bribe, and pointed out a 'lord, which the Count of Artois begged leave to secure.


The King, fearing to trust entirely to so rash and headstrong a `leader, hesitated, but, finally, agreed to it, on condition that Knights of the Hospital and Temple should take the van, Abe Count pledging himself to go no further until the main "srmy came up.


At the head of fourteen hundred Knights and ''lao hundred English Crusaders, under the celebrated Longespee, the Prince threw himself into the ford, and, though they were "stet on the opposite bank by three hundred Egyptian horse, they passed the ford with but slight loss. ‑ But no sooner was this effected, than the Count forgot his pledge, and, in despite 'of the warning of the Knights, pursued the fugitives to their `tintrenchment, and entered pellmell.


A panic seized the enemy, `who supposed the whole Christian army were upon them, Iastily fled, and, even the garrison of Massoura, threw open its gates, and joined their countrymen.


The Prince, carried away `by his success, instantly proposed to the Grand Masters, to ':proceed at once to storm the town. The Knights entreated '‑him to pause until the main army came up, urging that, as soon ~as the Saracens should discover their small number, they would tally in full force, and cause them a disastrous defeat.


The 'Prince answered: " I now see that it is not without reason that the Knights of the Temple and Hospital are accused of favoring Camden.


troops to oppose the approach of the King.


And now com menced the work of slaughter.


The inhabitants of the town, perceiving the small number of the Christians, openly attacked them in the streets, and stones, arrows, and Greek fire were showered down upon them from the tops of the houses.


It is Eaid that the Count, seeing all was lost, repented of his harsh language, and cried out to Longespee : "Fly, fly, for God fights against us."


The English Earl replied: " God forbid that my father's son should fly from the face of a Saracen ;" and, though unhorsed and wounded, he dashed into the thickest of the fight, and gave up his gallant spirit on a pile of the slain.


Only three Templars, four Hospitalers. and three Teutonic Knights survived. The Grand Master of the Hospitalers was captured, and the Grand 11Saster of the Templars, with the loss of an eye, and covered with wounds, cut his way through the enemy, so exhausted from loss of blood, as to be barely able to reach the King;* who, enraged at the account of the battle, charged the Egyptian army in,person, and was ever to be seen in the thickest of the fight.


The Grand.Master of the Templars, in this onset, received a wound in the other eye, which terminated his life.


The Christians and Saracens each claimed the victory of this battle ; but, be this as it may, it was fatal tt the Christians.


The Saracens cut off all communication between the Christian army and the coast ; the air became pestilential, from the unburied slain, and a fatal disease was added to famine. Louis was contemplating a retreat, when the Saracens burst into his camp, and commenced a general slaughter of the sick and helpless.


The King, though laboring under disease, seized his battle‑axe, and rushed to the scene of conflict.


Sir Godfrey Sergines finally withdrew Louis, and carried him to a village, where he was afterward taken prisoner, together with the Counts of Anjou and Poitiers, and nearly all his followers who remained alive.


Louis ransomed himself and his army, by the payment of about sixteen thousand livres, and a ten years' truce was agreed to ; and the King, with the remainder of his army departed thence, 1250, to Acre, where he remained about ˛ 7otnville.






Four years, 'not being willing to return to France without accomplishing something for the cause of Christianity. During his stay at Acre, lie received a message from the Old Man of the Mountains, who sent two of his Assasins to demand the usual tribute, or safety bribe. These messengers stated that Frederick, of Germany. Andrew, of Hungary, the Sultans of Egypt, and many other monarchs, had paid it, knowing that their lives were, at all times, in the hands of the old Chief, and that Louis must either pay or obtain the Old Man's exemption from the tribute, . ivliiclt lie was bound to pay to the Grand Masters of the Temp Tars and Hoapitalers.


On being asked why they did not sacrifice the Grand Masters, they replied that if a Grand Master be slain, anctlier would, at once, spring up, and nothing would be effected.


The King refused to pay, or negotiate with the messengers, but referred them to the Grand Masters, who declared !hat their characters as deputies alone saved them from being thrown into the sea, and ordered them to return, and tell their Chief that, if lie did not make satisfaction to the King, for the insult, within fifteen days, the Knights of the two Orders would see to his chastisement.


Within the time, a present of a shirt and a ring, was sent to the King, as a token of friendship and protection.


In the four years Louis remained at Acre, we find nothing which can satisfactorily account for that sojourn from his kingdom. True, he rapaired the fortifications of that city, and rebuilt two or three at the neighboring towns, and left some. troops and money with the Syrian Christians ; but, in all that transpired during this, or the second Crusade, made in his old age, we find nothing, save a wild zeal'for the Church, calculated to give him character or renown.


He almost beggared France, by draining its treasure, and made thousands of widows and orphans, by, the lives which lie sacrificed in the Paynim war ; but we are left in doubt Whether either, or both, called for his canonization.


Palestine being without a king, the Grand Masters of the two Orders were now in unlimited power, and none were better qualified for the trust, lead there been the proper good feeling subsisting between the Orders themselves ; but, unfortunately, ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD. ˛


61 while they knew that. party feuds, among the Syrian Chris. `1ksns, were at the foundation of the most of their troubles, and, NW.the kingdom of Jerusalem could not be maintained, except. 1W concert of action, still were, they ever ready to burst out in.. open, quarrels, superinduced by a jealous watchfulness as to pre"dency, and an ambitious desire each felt to obtain superior military renown.


When engaged against the common enemy,.


wire ever united, and equally invincible; but no sooner : they resting under a. truce or treaty, than their quarrels "ld be renewed, leading often to bloody conflicts between.


s *liridual Knights, and, sometimes, skirmishes,. or hard fought "`4attles between detachments. In 1259, a battle was fought by. 0 the distinguished Knights of both Orders, and, so desperate. was the conflict, that, though the Hospitalers proved victorious; it. was not accomplished until the last Templar had fallen. Before the Templars could gather, from their European Com˛ manderies, a sufficient force to avenge this defeat, their attention was called off by a. demand for their united efforts against the enemy. In this year, the Grand Master of the Hospitalers, William De: Chateauneuf, died, and was succeeded' by Hugh De Revel.


Shortly after his installation, Pope Alexander IV. gave authority to this Order to wear a black cloak (clamydes nigras) hospital, and a red tunic and a white cross‑ in: camp, to. disdaguish them from the"Serving Brothers,"* and further honornd diem, by giving their Commander the title of Grand Master.


Bendocdar, the Mamaluke. who defeated' Prince Robert, and Bnally captured Louis, made his wary to the Egyptian throne ,means of superior talents, aided by assassination, and com, seneed his reign by invading Palestine. He demolished the churches at Nazareth, and fortress of Mount Tabor, and then hwested the. Castle of Assur (1265), where ninety chosen Hoe.


tilers were among the defenders.


Bendocdar, finally took the Castle, but not until. he was compelled, in the breach,. to walk over the dead body of the last of the Christiansń for every fell doing battle.t In 1266,.the Knights‑.of the Temple met a similar fate: Aft .


˛ Sebastian Pao&


t Vertot.






ravaging all that country around, Tyre, Tripoli, and even to the vicinity of Acre, Bendocdar laid siege to Saphet, which made a brave defense, but, at length, the Prior of the Temple, who was Governor, seeing that resistance could no longer be maintained, agreed to capitulate on condition that his Knights, and other troops, six hundred in all, should have safe convoy to a Christian station. But, as soon as their arms were surrendered, Bendocdar very cooly informed them, that they had the liberty of choosing between conversion to Islamism and death.


The Prior at once chose death rather than apostacy, and such was the decision of all.


Bendocdar, maddened with with their firmness, ordered the Prior to be flayed allve, and a general slaughter of the others ensued.*


Thus were the Templars in Palestine, once more almost totally destroyed. Bendocdar followed up his triumphs, reduced Jaffa, the Castle of Beaufort, and marched to Antioch, which great city, through fear, threw open their gates to the merciless barbarian who rewarded their cowardice by putting to death seventeen thousand, and carried into slavery one hundred thousand.


He then besieged Karac, occupied by the Knights of St. John, who refused all offers of capitulation, and the Sultan finally entered the city over their remains.


In 1271, Louis, King of France, raised another army, larger than his first, with the hope, in his old age, of retrieving his character as a military chieftain, by driving the Infidels from Palestine. Prince Edward, of England, agreed to join him in Leis the ninth and last Crusade;, but Louis' mighty, army never reached the Holy Land. Edward having withdrawn from Louis, very soon after the Crusade took up its march, carried his little force of one thousand men directly to Acre.


His arrival inspired new hope in the hearts of the Christians, and, notwithstanding the small force, the Sultan became uneasy, and withdrew his troops, apprehending that Edward, a descendant of ‑ Ceeur‑de‑Lion, would snatch from him his well‑earned laurels. Edward attacked and retook Nazareth, and put the enemy to Right, but stained his name with unwonted cruelty to his ˛ Mills' Hint. of tlu Gtirumdat.




Sickness attacked his army, and he himself, suffering with disease, narrowly escaped three several efforts of a hired assassin, who, by a false tale, gained admittance, and thrice wounded him with a poisoned dagger, when the Prince dashed him on the floor, and, with the same dagger, stabbed him to the heart.* The Princess Eleanor, Edward's consort, it is said, saved his life by sucking the poison from his wound.


Edward assisted the Knights in obtaining a ten years truce with the Sultan, and, with his followers, returned to England.


And now we behold Palestine deserted by every Christian monarch, and left solely to the defense of a little broken band of Hospitalers and Templars. Thus situated, the two Grand Masters, availing themselves of the truce, started together to Europe, hoping to induce the Western Princes to send aid to the Holy Land.


Gregory %. then filled the Chair of St. Peter, and the Grand Masters found him using all his influence to stir up another Crusade.


He summoned a Council, which met at Lyons, on the 2nd of May, 1274, when it was determined again to arouse Christendom to raise another Crusade.


Two emperors and two kings pledged themselves to this Crusade. and great hopes were entertained for the result, but before any thing was accomplished Gregory died, and with him the enterprise.


The Christians in Palestine thus left unaided, were, to a great extent, at the mercy of the Infidels, who soon found reason to ‑declare the ‑truce violated, and at an end, and, sending army after army, Bendocdar and his successor took place after place, until, in 1278, Acre alone remained in possession of the Christians, and it became filled with refuges, from all parts of Palestine. About this period Henry IT., of Cyprus, was de. olared King of Jerusalem; and he obtained a truce, which deferred the downfall of the last Christian possession in Pales4ine. The Grand Master of the Hospitalers now visited Rome. and appealed to the Pope, Nicholas IV., for si3, and obtained Sfteen hundred men‑the scum of all the lta::an States, why proved to be but a band, of robbers. Acre being already 0 Fuller's Holy ‑Par.






crowded with a disorganized population, the introduction of thaws, base soldiers tended but to add to the disorder, and hasten ita, downfall. Strange, that at this, the most critical, it', indeed. not the most desperate period of the, Christian cause, the Chris,, tians themselves could not be brought to submit to a sound and rational government, but, instead, there were no less than seven, teen tribunals, all claiming superior control.* The troops furnished by the Pope, soon displayed their true, character, by making marauding excursions upon the Moharw; melon settlements, and thereby, gave cause to the Infidels to declare the truce violated.


The Sultan, however, demanded only a reasonable indemnity, which the Grand Masters earnestly urged the propriety of granting, but there was, in truth,. no organized head to whom the appeal could be made with success, and the Sultan was driven to make preparations for. a renewal of war, and soon raised a mighty army. But on his march he was poisoned by his Lieutenant‑General, and, upon his death‑bed, enjoined. it apon his son, Khalil, to reduce Acre.


Qn the 5th of April, 1291, Khalil, with an army of sixty. thousand horse, and one hundred and forty thousand foot, sar. rounded the city, the last that. Christian chivalry was destined to behold.


Many of the inhabitants fled to the vessels in the bay.


By acclamation, Peter De Beaujeq, Grand Master of the Templars, a Knight of. known ability and valor, and " who had grown old in the command of armies," was called to the corn, mand.


The first effort of the Sultan was to bribe the Grand Master, but his. advances were met with so much scorn by the old Knight, that he very soon learned that if he entered the city at,all; it must be by force,


And now the last stronghold of the Christians in Palestine is attacked by an overpowering force: Again and‑ again, the Grand Master sent out a sortie, until the very. atmosphere became tainted with the blood of the Saracens, slain by. the matchless skill and, indomitable valor of the Chris. %tan Knights; but all in vain, for the enemy were too, numeroge to be conquered or driven back by the few thousand Ghrisuanq.




The Sultan, sure of his power and ultimat6 'success, slowly moved forward his works. He burrowed under the fortifie*~ Lions, threw down towers,‑among which was the Cursed Tower, which was looked upon as the chief defense of the city. In this tower the King of Cyprus commanded'his Islanders; and maintained a desperate conflict until night came on, but then lie prevailed on the Teutonic Knights to take his'p'.ace,and adopting the safest personal argument known to the soldier, viz., He who fights and runs away, May live to fight another day," Basely deserted his post, drew off his men, fled to the ships, and sailed for Cyprus.


Next morning the horns of the Saracens announced a renewal of the assault. The Teutonic Knights, though basely deserted, defended the breach with irresistable fury, but, like chaff before the storm they were swept away by the numerous foe.


And now they are being overpowered, the shout of the Saracens is heard, proclaiming their triumph, but, at this critical moment, the Marshal of Saint John flew to the rescue of the German Knights, and, so impetuous was the united charge, that the Saracens were driven back through the breach, leaving it almost choked up with the slain.


On the following day these scenes of blood and carnage were acted over again. Phalanx after phalanx of the Saracens were broken, but, as if careless of human lives, the Sultan ordered forward another and another, until the Knights were exhansteA with the slaughter of their enemy.


Night parted the combat ants again. The next morning the Infidels made an assault upon that portion of the fortifications where the two Grand Masters fought, who knew how desperate was the conflict, and fought as if they were seeking only an honorable grave.


Nor Were the Saracens less brave, but, ‑eeming determined to rival the renowned Knights, they often selected man for man, and died, shoulder to shoulder.


But the work of death was telling rapidly upon the smaller force‑the Knights were sinking down, one by one, until the living were so few that they could not hope for victory.


And now the brave Marshal of the Hospitalers has fallen in the breach, seeing which, the Grand Mast u a 05 BA




of the Templars turned to the Grand Master of Saint John, and exclaimed: "We can hold out no longer! The day is lost unless you make a diversion against the enemy's camp, and allow us time to refortify our post." Calling on a few chosen lancers to follow him, John De Villiers leapt into his war‑saddle, and, with five hundred horse, he dashed out of the city, into the open plain.


But the Sultan was prepared for every emergency ‑his cavalry soon drove back the detachment, and, on reenter˛ lng the city, he learned that the Governor, Peter De Beaujeu, had fallen by a poisoned arrow, that the flower of his Knights lead fallen, and that the Saracens were victorious everywhere: The Grand Master, seeing further efforts to be vain, turned his attention to the safety of the little band who crowded around ‑trim, ready to do and die at his bidding.


He, with his few remaining followers, fought their way to the deck of a vessel. Three hundred Templars, who endeavored to do the same, were surrounded by an overwhelming force, and they threw themselves into the Tower of the Temple; determined to perish in its ruins.


After several days of brave resistance (when they knew the very foundations of their retreat had been sapped), they agreed to evacuate it, on condition that they should have an `honorable departure, and that on insults should be offered the Christian women ; but, no sooner were the gates thrown open, than the agreement was violated by the Mamalukes, in their brutal insults to the women ; and again the Templars drew their swords, and fought their way (shielding the women) back .nto the tower, which, being sapped, could not bear their weight, and, falling with a crash, buried the combatants and women in the ruins.


And now commenced the last sad tragedy.


Palestine had long since become the world's bloody ground ; but Palestine had never witnessed the bloodshed and carnage of Acre. Sixty thousand persons either perished in the city, or were carried Into slavery.


It is recorded, by the Monkish historians. that the Nuns of the Convent of Saint Clare cut off their noses, and disfigured their faces in various ways, in order to render them. Selves ob;ects of disgust ‑to the Saracens, hoping, thereby, to escapo their insults; and truly did they so disgust the ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.


!67 Xamalukes, that they instantly slew them. ' Many of the citizens 4sttempted to. escape by sea ; but a storm was raging, and they peiished in the waves.


Thus terminated a war that had lasted one hundred and Ainety‑four years, then, and now, called the "Holy War;` "a war," says Fuller, " for continuance, the longest; for money spent, the costliest; for bloodshed, the cruelest; for pretences. ,the most pious ; for the true intent, the most politic the world ever ,Saw." After the fall of Acre, the Sultan razed the fortifications of ;every city on the coast, with the view to deter the Christians from another attempt to invade Palestine. The military Orders were reduced so low, that they made no attempt to maintain a position in Palestine. The remnant of the Order of St. John took refuge in Cyprus, as the nearest Christian town to the country they had sworn never to abandon to the Infidels. The few remaining Templars finally assembled in the same town. The Teutonic Knights retired to Prussia, without hope of ever' again seeing the Holy Land.


Pope Nicholas IV. had made no effort to render assistance to the inhabitants of Acre; but, no sooner did he receive ,an account of its fall, and the expulsion of his follower than he commenced operations for the purpose of stimulating the Western Princes to send another Crusade to the Holy Land. But in two centuries of incessant wars, during which the plains of Palestine had been copiously fertilized with Christian blood, having grown wise by long experience, they could no longer be moved by the insidious appeals of the Papal throne. The East, too, was equally averse to any further sontention for a spot of ground, of no direct value to the Greek, or the Armenian schismatics.


The King of Cyprus assigned to the Templars and Hospi3alers, as a place of retreat, the town of Limisso, and the Grand Master of the Hospitalers, John De Villiers, summoned all ]knights, who were dispersed throughout Christendom, to repair to his banner; and, in answer to this call; the Commanders throughout Europe sent forth their Chevaliers, who poured into Cyprus, burning with a desire for revenge. The Knighto ' 1IA~bERir FRNEM'A86NRr.


called a Chapter, and this Council determined that, while‑ the Brotherhood would 'continue to protect the pilgrims, who still, continued to visit the Holy Land, their method of doin; so,' and the more effectually to annoy the Saracens, would be to 'become a sea‑faring Society, and operate, especially, on the Mediterranean.


The Kings of. England and Portugal took t' he ground that the property which the military Orders held within their respective dominions, belonged to them only upon the condi tion that they 'continued to hold possession of the Holy Land, and, tlrereforep as the ;Knights had deserted that country,, their ' property was confiscated.


Pope Boniface VIII., who had 'reached the Papal ‑throne by a series of crimes and artifice's, 'thundered forth his menaces, and thus procured a revocatioih "of the acts of confiscation.


The Orders becoming strong in numbers, the King of Cyprps became alarmed, least they, should become as powerful as they had been in Palestine, and, there. fore, forbid them the privilege of purchasing land in his dominions; and further required that they should, in common with his subjects, pay a poll tax.


The Pope attempted to drive him from hi*positiory by threats ; but he persisted in his course.


' About this time, a quarrel arose between Boniface and Philip ,the Fair, King, of France, about the Papal supremacy, and, in an evil' hour, the Templars promised that, in the event of an open' rupture, they would sustain the Pope.


This so incensed the king against the Templars, that he resolved upon their destruction.


Boniface soon after died, and his successor lived but a short time.


And now Philip succeeded in placing upon the Papal throne, a vile instrument, Bertrand De Gat, who, in 'order to obtain the influence of the King, and thus secure his election, basely pledged, himself to ‑the ‑performance of six articles, one of which was not named until after his electi‑)n, and which proved to be the total extinction of the Templark This corrupt and soulless Pope, Clement V., was entirely wil`Iing to` thin proposition,, as, by it, he would obtain half the "property held by the Templars. Philip instituted charges ' against the Templars, accusing them of the blackest crimes, "whereupon, the Pope summoned the two Grand Masters to ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.


Fq air before him, 1306, under a pretense that he wished to ‑CpnAilt them, in relation to a new Crusade. The Pope's letter ~' reached the Grand Master of the Hospitalers, on board of his tree:, at a time when he was taking important steps to get p"session of Rhodes, and he wrote, excusing himself, to the ‑,Fops. , But Jacques De Molai. Grand Master of the Templars, gbeyed the summons. In his train, he carried sixty chosen $nights, and one hundred and fifty thousand florins of gold, thud a quantity of silver, amounting to twelve horse loads.


The grand Master met with a kind and honorable reception, not pnly from the Pope, but the King also, who had not yet matured Peir plans.


The Templars had left Cyprus without intending yo return, being annoyed by the exactions of Henry ; and it is quite probable that the Grand Master intended to establish himself and the Order in France, as his treasure was sent to the house of the Temple, in Paris.* Not yet having a justifiable pretext, Philip could not effect his diabolical designs against the Templars, and, for several years, we hear but little of them, and nothing of their military achievements.


The Hospitalers made a descent upon Rhodes, and, by their intrepid valor, conquered and took possession of that island, stud there established their independent government. After The reason of the Templars leaving their Fellow‑Knights at Cyprus, ie nowhere ;tstisfactorily explained; but, from all˛ the facts, we are inclined to believe that they disapproved of the conclusions of the Council held at Cyprus, by order of the Grand Master of the Hospitalers. The Templars were, for the most part, composed of men descended from the best families of every Christian people; they ‑lod knowmnotidng, of a seafaring life, and if they foresaw that the Hospitalers sonld. only maintain ,their independent existence as a maritime Society, by looking prizes at sea. it is not improbable that they revolted at the idea of becom ing rovers, corsairs, or pirates.


And this suggestion was strengthened by the 1ket that, though they were everywhere taunted with their inactivity and supine ,'rise, they never after united witb,tbe Hospitalers, even in an expedition against elite Infidel&


In short, it appears that, when the Templars could no longer act In concert with the Crusaders, and meet the enemies of the Cross on land, the ffreat object of the organization ceased ; and, while they declined less honorable ;,:: employment, preferred to stand aloof, hoping that the time would coat. whop thay could again take the field, sustained by the voice and means of the Christian Mdoas.




Ift ‑‑that they sacrificed human beings to an idol which they worshiped‑that they had roasted a Templar's bastard and drank his blood‑that they had sold the Holy Land to the Infidels, and, in short, that " their houses were stained with every damnable sin." Thus armed with the testimony of a wretch, who would not have been believed on oath, under other circumstances, Philip urged the Pope to execute the secret article. The Pope, by this time, seemed anxious, if possible, to avoid its fulfillment, he having become more securely seated upon his throne, and feeling somewhat more independent of the King's power, he promised, however, that, if the Knights were found guilty of the charges, their property should be taken from them, and set apart for aho purpose of redeeming the Help Land'.


The Pope's answer by, no means satisfied this blood‑thirsty and unprincipled Monarch. He denied the right of the Pontiff to determine the matter, and sent secret instructions to all his governors to arm themselves on the 12th of October, 1307, and, on the following day, all the Templars in France were thrown into prison. The King selected his confessor, his Chancellor, and a man named Plesian: all men who were willing to do his bidding, right or wrong, as a council to try the Knights.


This news created great astonishment throughout Christendom; for, though the Temple load become unpopular, because of their supineness, they had not 1mu suspected with being guilty of the crimes charged against thW.


The Pope, feeling that he would be sustained by public pentiment, addressed a letter to Philip, reproaching him with. osurping the privileges of the Holy See, and demanding that tho Templars and their effects should be delivered into his Wds.


Philip answered, that " God abhorred nothing so mach as, the backwardness the Pope showed in cooperating with him ie the prosecution," etc.


Pope Clement was startled by the toss of this reply, and, remembering that Philip treated his predecessor, Boniface, with contempt, and plucked his beard in Italy, brought himself to a compromise with the King, wherein Wwas agreed that the prisoners, though guarded l'y the King's 0 Fuller.


ME 49 subjects. should be kept, nominally, under the orders of the J?ope., This state of (things produced great excitement throughout Europe, and yet, Edward II., of England, was the only Monarch who made any effort in behalf of the persecuted Templars. On receiving a letter from Philip, proposing that he should suppress the. Order in his kingdom, and confiscate their possessions, he regarded the charges as totally incredible calumnies, and wrote to the Kings of Portugal, Castile. Arragon, and Sicily, beseeching them to, treat with caution the rumors set forth against the Knights:


But the Pope, being now again an instrument in the hands of Philip, issued an edict, reiterating the charges, and commanding Edward to imitate the King of France, by placing the Templars,aad their goods, within his kingdom, in safe keeping.


Edward could stand forth boldly against the injustice and fPluimanity of kings, but he lacked the courage to disobey the elandates of a Roman Pontiff.' All the Templars in England were thrown into prison, and the persecution extended to Ireland, gcotland, and ‑Vales, but nowhere were they so barbarously treated as in France.*


The Templars'were thrown into prison in the dead of winter, and not only deprived of their religious habits, but of tke visits of the priests, and every other comfort gnd consolation.


Every stratagem was resorted to, by the King's order, to Induce the Knights to confess the charges true, promising release and honorable exemption, and such as would not be thus suborned, were put to the torture, and such shrieks and groans were heard to issue from all the prisons in France. as would have moved to tears any other than a brute in human form. Many who were put upon the rack died, proclaiming the innocence of the. Order, but all were tortured in the presence of others, who,: when called upon to confess, trembled at the ceiWnty of being torn, piecemeal, and, relying upon the promise of exemption, criminated themselves and the Order. The Pope examined‑ seventy of these in person, to whom he read a real or pretended letter from Jacques.De Molai, admitting several of MODERN FREEMASONRY.


˛ NP.ay. .




7$ the charges, and exhorting all others to do the same, and, in this trap, they were caught. But before the work was completed, the Pope and King were put to a stand, by the announcement that many who had confessed their guilt had repented, and now scorned the pardon, which, for a time, the dread of torture had induce? them to seek, by black falsehoods.


These were sent te. Paris, where it was announced that they had renounced Christ, and, on the 12th of May, 1310, fifty‑four Templars were burned alive, by slow fire, in the city of Paris, every one of whom died asserting the innocence of the Order.


The Grand Master, De )itolai, was brought forth in chains, and asked if he had any defense to offer, when he replied:


" I am a plain soldier, more skilled in war than in forensic subtlety, and, therefore, can not undertake the defense of the Order, or the Knight, as an advocate ; but, in any Knightly way, I should be proud, to maintain their innocence, in the face of the whole world."


He then asked permission to hire counsel, but was told that heretics were not entitled to such a privilege.


They then read over a confession, to which he had affixed his name, but so altered by ioterlining, as totally to change its very character.


On hearing it read, he declared that the three Cardinals who had subscribed it, deserved that death which the Saracens and Tartars visited .upon liars.


The Pope and King, being uncertain how the ful. 5lknent of their designs would be received by the civilized .world, delayed final action, and industriously employed the ,time in raising an excitement against the Order; but, finally, the King determined to bring the matter to a close, and held a Council with the Pope, at Vienna, in November, 1311.


At this Council, there were three hundred Bishops, and one of the most singular. facts in the persecution is, that only three of these ..were willing to yield to the known wishes of the Pontiff and .Philip; but openly and firmly maintained that this illustrious ,Order of magnanimous Knights, who had stood, for near two centuries, one of the bulwarks of Christendom, shc ild not be swept away without being heard; but, alasl though united, they were powerless when opposed by a bigoted dotard, occur eying the Chair of St. Peter, and a dastardly King, bent; on the wnmplishment of his fiendish ends.


After six months, sport 74




in an effort to bring over the Bishops, without effect, the Pope rose suddenly, and said that, "since they would not gratify his den: son, the Sing of France, by passing a judicial sentence against the Templars, the Papal authority should be brought to bear." Thus was the fate of the Order decided.


Thus did two men bring to condign punishment, a class of men, the very meanest of whom was a less disgrace to Christianity, than either the Pope or King.


And, at once, it was easy to be seen what had been at the foundation of this inhuman persecution.


Had the Templars possessed no wealth, history would never have had occasion to record the events of a persecution against them. No sooner did the Pope make known his decision, than the question was sprung: " What shall be done with the princely possessions of the Order?" The King and his partizans were in favor of establishing a new Order in France, to whom this property should be given.


The. Pope, seeing this would be a total loss to him, and knowing that the Hospitalers, or, as they were now called, the Knights of Rhodes, had become pliant subjects in the hands of Papal authority, took ground in favor of giving the whole property to them, which was, in effect, retaining it in his own hands.


A majority of the Council sus. tsined his views, and Philip was thwarted by the very moLu he had used to carry out his bloody design.


In the following year, 1313, the Grand Master Jacques De Molai ; Guy, Grand Prior of Normandy, brother to the Prince of Dauphiny ; Hugh De Perale, Grand Prior of France, and the Grand Prior of Acq˛iitain, were finally arraigned before a commission appointed by the Pope, at Paris.


The persecutors, seeing that the sympathies of the people were in favor of the Templers, were anxious that these, the most renowned Knights, should make a. publio confession of their guilt, and, to insure this, promises of favor were _ held out the more willingly, because it was known that the fires that had been kindled all over France, to burn the Templars. had shocked and disgusted all Europe. The prisoners were placed on a scaffold, exposed to public view, and in sight of a pile of faggots, which, they were told, should be made to con emne them, if they did not adhere to their previous confessions ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.


is An address was delivered to the people, discanting upon the wickedness and abominations of the Order, and, when condieded, the prisoners were called upon to confirm the charges i+t the hearing of the multitude. The Priors of France and Aoquitain obeyed; but when the Grand Master was permitted, he sl:ook his chains, advanced to the margin of the scaffold, and st the top of his voice, exclaimed : " It is but just, in this terrible day, and, in the last moments of my life, that I should expose the iniquity of falsehood, and make truth to triumph.






WHAT GOOD PURPOSE WOULD IT SERVE ME, TO PURCHASE A FEW MISERABLE DAYS, BY THE CONFIRMATION OF 12E BLACKEST CALUMNIES ?" iF The valiant old Knight would have spoken longer, but the minions of the Pope dreaded the consequences, and stopped him. Guy, Grand‑ Prior of Normandy, made his recantation in equally strong terms, and they were both burned alive on the slime pile of faggots, on the same. ground now occupied by a statue of Henry IV.t The Grand Master said he deserved death for bavina, in a moment of weakness, stained his name with a falsehood, and with his latest breath he maintained the innocence of the Order.


Megeray states that it was generally said at the time, that, when Jacques De Molai was stifling in the flames, he cried out: " Clement, thou unjust judge and bar. barous executioner, I cite thee to appear, in forty days, before *e judgment seat of God."


It is probable that this story way 0 QertoL t Mills.






not circulated until after the,death of the Pope, which occurred soon after De Molai's death.


Thus perished the last Grand Master of the military Order of the Temple, beloved and venerated, not only by his followers, but by the great body of the people, who gathered up and preserved his ashes. And thus passed.away the most renowned, as well as the most noble, band of Christian warriors the w('rld ever saw ; for while in valor they fully equaled the Hospitalers, they surpassed them in all that constitutes the higher, the nobler, and praiseworthy principles of the soldier, the Christian,. avid the man.


Throughout all Europe, Portugal alone excepted, the Templars, met a similar fate, through the influence of the Pope, who desired that his servile instruments, the Hospitalers, should be placed in possession of their large estates, who disgraced themselves, and dishonored the cause they espoused, by accepting' wealth, filched from their comrades‑in‑arms by the foulest murders.


And, to this day, historians consider the question as unsettled, whether the Templars were guilty or innocent of the charges alleged against them. This we think strange, indeed, for when the character of the charges is considered, and when we remember the high birth, and the irreproachable character of I the families from whom all the leading Templars descended, it is next to impossible to suppose them capable of acting as was charged, for, while it might be believed that they had degenerated, and may have adopted some of the superstitions of the Infidels, it is absurd to charge that they had denounced the Christian religion, and spit upon the Cross of Christ ; and, be`side, awe would take the dying declaration of the Grand Master, especially as it was given, accompanied by self‑condemnation, ‑; against the hired testimony of thousands of the Pope's minions. That the Templars had become proud, arrogant. idle yea, drunk ards, if you will, we may admit, but that they proved recreant to their trust, mean and dishonorable‑Never! never! This merciless persecution annihilated the Templars as a military Order, but the high moral principles, which had ever an;mated the Brotherhood lived in the hearts of the remnant wti escaped.




?fi In Portugal, where the fulminations of the Pope failed to v+tuch them, the Templars were only required to change their rune from the Order of Knights Templar to that of Soldiers of‑Christ.


It is generally believed by Templars of the present 4ay, that De Molai, seeing his end drawing nigh, and feeling satisfied that the Templars who might escape would not be 1pertnitted to meet and elect a Grand Master, appointed his successor. That appointment was necessarily kept a secret from the world, and, hence, we have not been permitted to know on whom, it fell, but the archives in the Temple at Paris, and Che preservation of their rituals, banners etc., in Portugal, Move, as some believe, that the original Institution has been pieserved and kept up.


At Stockholm, in Sweden, there is an Encampment of Knights Templar, claiming that Peter D'Aumont was the Knight appointed by De Molai, and that they have ever kept up, and continued their organization; and they produce a list of Grand Masters from D'Aumont to the present day; but we have no 'proof that this organization has ever been acknowledged to possess the merits claimed, except by the Masonic, system of Vriet Observation.* In France, The Order of the Temple claim that John Mare Iarmenius was the Knight appointed by the Molai, and in proof of their having kept up the original organization, they show a list of Grand masters down to the present da‑.˛.


We can see no good reason for denying a continuance of the &eiety, as claimed, for, after the death of the Pope and Philip, land especially after the Templars' wealth had been given to the Hospitalers, there were none so interested against them as to ‑reader the organization either impracticable, or dangerous, buc "it is preposterous to suppose that each are right in their ,claim to the Grand Master appointed by De Molai ; indeed, there is no satisfactory proof that any such appointment was made, nor are we informed of any important end to be attained :4y, keeping up the organization, for even before the death of De Molai, no reasonable hope was entertained, that the services Gourdin of s. C.




79 views we entertain, of the claims of Baldwin Encampment, at Bristol.


The Order of Knights Templar was set on foot in 1119, by Hugh De Payens, Godfrey De St. Omer, and seven other gentlemen of France, having for their object, to give escort and protection to the Palmers. In 1129, the founder, Hugh De Payens, returned from a tour through Europe, with three bun dred recruits, all from the noblest families.


Fulk, Count of Anjou, was among the first benefactors of the Order ; he died in 1141, leaving two sons, Baldwin and Almeric.*


The Encampment, afterward established at Bristol, adopted the name of the first of the above Princes, who was one of the best and bravest kings of Jerusalem.


Previous to this period, we have no evidence that Encampments and Commanderies were gcncra'.ly established throughout the Western Kingdoms. Those who joined the Knights repaired to Palestine, and remained there, performing religious and military duty.


In 1182, a Crusade was preached throughout England, stimulated by commissioners from both military Orders, but, as yet, we have no account of the establishment of Encampments there.


In 1189, Henry II., of England, yielded to the popular cry for the Paynim War, and raised thirty thousand foot, and five thousand horse, intending to lead them in person in the third Crusade, but his death occurring, elevated his son, Richard IL, to the throne. Richard, being filled with all the enthusiasm of the age, and being ambitious to distinguish himself in t'_ie field against the Infidels, proceeded to carry out the p''‑ans of hij father, set sail from Dover, passed into Normandy, and joined Phillip Augustus on the frontiers of Burgundy, and proceeded to Cyprus, where he remained until the spring of 1191, and finally landed at Acre on the 8th of June.


Richard remained 1n Palestine about two years, during which period he distinguished himself by being foremost in every battle, courting dxnger so fearlessly, that, by common consent, he won the apeltzion of Ceeur‑De‑Lion, the justice of which title may be infer:W by the fact, that when a remnant of the ninth and last 10 1




Crusade, consisting of but two hundred men, reached the Hole Land, they struck terror into the heart of the enemy, for a tint" aplely because they were commanded by a Planta‑'em‑t‑a descendant of the lion‑hearted King. Ceeur‑De‑Lion left Palestine in the spring of 1193,* and, if we consider the time of his imprisonment in Austria, his sickness and death, it brinus fully to that period when we know the Templars had i)ecorne possessed of immense estates in all the Christian nations, and nowhere were their possessions so valuable as in England.


Wn argue, then, that it is reasonable to conclude that Encampments k,were established in England, as. claimed by Baldwin Errcaur),ment, near the close of the twelfth century, for the purpose or lgoking after, collectinń, and transmitting the proceeds of their landed estates.


These encampments were situated at Bristol, Bath, and York, and the Grand Commandery was held at London, presided over by the Grand Prior, who soon after occupied a seat in Parliament, and exercised an immense influence in the councils of the nation.


When the persecutions of Philip the Fair broke out,Edward !I., of England, openly espoused the Templars' cause, proclainrlng their innocence C'%f the foul charges, and wrote letters to the Kings of Portugal, Arragon, and Castile, urging then to be on their guard against the inhuman machinations of the French King. Thus did he leave on record the highest testimony of the standing and noble bearing of the English Templars.


What though he afterward became alarmed for the safety of his crown. and meanly truckled to the command of the Pope, by throwing into prison the very men lie had defended, neither his high position, nor the cringing partiality of his biographers, could weaken the strength of his testimony, nor remove the odium which must ever attach to his name, by reason of his dastardly conduct toward those he knew to be. innocent o crime, and his superiors in virtue.


The Encampments at York and Bath long since discontinued their meetings, and became extinct. Baldwin Encampment, therefore, with much seeming propriety, claim that they are the ' Hovedem ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.


81 fi


and only original organization of the Orders of Knightt, "A‑‑A. ;;hiesd.


But the Grand Conclave, a modern Institution, claims `


st the Encampments at York and Bath, before they dissolved, f‑reefed all power and authority in said Conclave, and, therefore, Mend for supremacy over the Order in England and Wales.


We incline to the opinion that, if Ancient Templarism exists aywhere (which we doubt) we may expect to find it in ildwin Encampment.


We have been induced to give thus much of the history ,9‑the military Orders of Knighthood, in deference to the opin0a of those who think that Templarism, of the present day, is tvontinuation of those Orders. . We have already said that ‑41e regard nothing as Masonry except Ancient Craft Masonry, aud, if this position be correct, it will seen that neither the ancient nor modern Orders of Knighthood, can have any claims to be considered as forming a part of, or, in any way, hold legitmate connection with Freemasonry. History tells us how, and for what purposes, the Knights of St. John the Almoner, Knights Templar; and Teutonic Knights were organized; and ~history also tells us what their forms and ceremony of intro" duction were. We know they first banded together for purPOses of pure benevolence, superinduced by that ardent and Founded zeal, which so remarkably characterized the Chris 4an nations, for near two hundred years.


We know that the ony of introduction consisted mainly of solemn oaths Btu dedicate their lives to the cause of the Almoners to the ~Aoly Land, and when they assumed, not only the habit of the r":aaonk, but also of the military, they bound themselves to die a


use of the Christian religion; in all which we can see appearance of Freemasonry, nor,have we the slightest testi01ony that they, themselves, ever laid claim to a connection #h our Order.


Ancient Templarism was strictly a Roman olic Institution, requiring its members to believe in the *th, divinity, vicarious death, and resurrection of Christ, as `God, man, the Saviour of the world, the second person in the f'Aiorable Trinity. And hence, in the days of the Crusaders, even Abwe Christians who believed in the doctrines of the Greek ;`0rurch, were not admitted into the Brotherhood.


6 82




We are pleased to see that Bro. Godrdin, of South Carolina, whose learning and research have tended in an eminent degree, to enlist the attention of the Knights Templar of the United States to a true history of their Order, has influenced the General Grand Encampment to set on foot an investigation, which, we sincerely hope, will result in the full development of facts. But we do not think, with Bro. Gourdin, that a visit to France, England, or Italy, will enable him, or any other writer, to show the legitimate descendants of De Molai, for the simple reason, that we do not think the organization was kept lip anywhere.


It is true that in Paris may be seen, probably, the very banners of the Crusaders, and many other relics of the ancient Orders of Knighthood, but this no more proves the continuous existence of the organization, than do the relics exibited by the modern Druids establish their legitimate descent from the ancient Society of that name.


We love to plod on through the mouldering pages of by‑gone days, and pluck from oblivion the gems of ancient lore, but we dare not magnify wolehills into mountains, for the sake of gratifying the marvelous propensities of the age.


Had the ancient Orders of Knighthood been connected with Freemasonry, the historians of the day would have known and published the fact. Had the organization of the Templars continued down to the present day, the fact could be clearly shown. We do not,say that an organization, claiming to be Templars, descended from the old stock, did not participate in the battle of Bannockburn, nor do we deny that organizations can now be found laying claims, as Baldwin Encampment does, to an uninterupted continuance, from the days of the lion‑hearted King ; but when it appears that, for a long period of time, nothing is known of Ancient Templarism, we should, with hesitation, admit that the Templarism of the eighteenth century, which suddenly made its appearance as an appendage of Freemasonry, and claiming to constitute a part and parcel of it, is truly entitled to be regarded as of ancient origin.


We know that the rituals and teachings of the Rose ‑~degree, as practiced in the Scotch Rite, are essentially the same as the rituals and teachings of the Templar's degree, as prao‑ ORDERS OP KNIGHTHOOD.


$S heed in the United States. We know that some of the first, aye, the very first Encampments established in the United States, were instituted by Consistories, or Councils of the Scotch Rite, Ancient and Accepted ; and we apprehend that when all the facts are known, it will be found that Templarism, of the present day, dates back no further than to Chevalier Ramsey, in 1740, and that Encampments were established in the United States by the same Deputy Inspectors General who planted here Rose ‑j‑ Chapters, and Consistories of Princes of the Royal Secret.


We regret that a want of room has compelled us thus briefly to throw out hints, in place of entering into an investigation and exhibition of the proofs upon which our opinion is based.


Encampments are now established in nearly all the States of this Union. In a State or Territory where there is no Grand Encampment, nine Sir Knights may petition the General Grand Encampment in Conclave, or either of the first four officers in vacation, for a warrant, which, when issued, runs until the next meeting of the General Grand body.


In States where Grand Encampments exist, the authority, in like manner, emanates from those bodies.


The Grand Encampments meet annually, and the General Grand Encampment meets triennially.


The Encampments are authorized to confer three degrees, viz., Red Cross Knight, Knight Templar, and Knight of Malta, or St. John, of Jerusalem, but, so far as we have been able to learn or appreciate them, there are, in fact, but two degrees: The degree, so called, of Malta, or St. John, of Jerusalem, crept in, we suppose, by means of a bungler, who, not knowing enough of the ritual to confer it properly, satisfied himself by simply adding a few words in the ceremony of dubbing, and thus, by the addition of a few signs and words, but imperfectly understood, constituted a Knight Templar also a Knight of Malta, and so the matter stands to this day.


We may be asked to explain how a union was effected between Freemasonry and this foreign Institution, and though we can not be positive, we think it fair to suppose that it was forced upon Masonry much as was the Illuminati in France and Germany. Encampments have ever confined the Orders of Knighthood to those who were in possession of Ancient Craft 81




Masonry, which, together with the name assumed by the Encampments, viz., Christian Masonry, tended to produce a quiet, acquiescence, in this assumed alliance, without pausing to inquire into its propriety. All the Modern Rites make Ancient Craft Masonry their foundation ; not, perhaps, because of any attachment or partiality to the principles taught by our Order; but to lead Masons on to a toleration of the various systems, well knowing that any, the most ridiculous, or dangerous doctrines, may be taught under the banner of our Institution, weighed in the scales of long centuries without condemnation. Scotch Rite, Ancient and Accepted, now struggling for that power in the United. States, which it has long since attained in France, and elsewhere in Continental Europe, attempts to do nothing, save under the cloak of Freemasonry.


They confer no degrees, except upon Master Masons, and though they claim the original right to confer all the degrees in Masonry, we suppose it would be difficult, yea, impossible for them to show, that they had acquired that right in a constitutional or Masonic manner. All these foreign degrees have been insidiously palmed on Freemasonry, and ignorance of their character and history, but especially a careless inattention to the claims of Freemasonry, to be kept and transmitted, pure and uncontaminated with foreign institutions, have thus far caused the brethren to lose eight of the importance of standing aloof from all and every other association. We do not object to the Encampment degrees, if given to Christians as an association, outside of, and unconnected with Masonry. They are properly Roman Catholic degrees, originally designed, we suppose, to unite the members of the Church, and all Catholic families, by strong ties of fraternal interest and obligation, to arrest and put a stop to tho alarming conversions being made to the Protestant religion in the eighteenth century; and though the degrees, as given in the United States, have passed out of their hands, and have been so modified, as to suit our locality, it does not and can not justify us in giving consent to, much less encourage, the application of the name of Freemasonry to them, as, by so doing, we sanction a union where none cau properly exist, and practice a fraud upon the world, by calling that Freemasonry which has no Masonry in it.




85 We think Freemasonry teaches every moral virtue inculcated by the Holy Bible. We think the system. as a whole, and in all its parts, is perfect‑perfect beyond the inventive genius of man.


It can suffer no alterations without material injury, and can amalgamate‑with nothing without su$ering corruption. The Christian religion is alone its superior, and yet, an amalgamation with that, even were it possible, would tend to destroy its identity, and mar its usefulness.


We think Freemasonry maintained its purity more than twenty‑seven hundred years, and, to us, it seems that the blush of shame should mantle the cheek of that Mason, who can openly declare that a newly invented system of degrees is capable of adding to the beauty, much less to the exemplification, of the true teachings of our venerated Order. It is a lamentable misfortune that innovations were ever attempted, but it is passing strange that those innovations ever found favor with the true Craftsmen.


Day by day, we are made to feel the evil consequences of the innovations spoken of. The duties of the Lodge room are too often neglected by those who are led captive by the allurements of high‑soxnding titles, in the so called higher degrees.


The manifestations of lukewarmness for the simple but solemn duties of Freemasonry, creates heart‑burnings, jealousies and dissensions, destructive of the best interests of the Craft.


If these are evils now perceptible, while yet true Freemasonry is in the ascendant‑‑‑if these are the consequences of the first hundred years of these higher degrees, who will predict the end? We will add a sketch of the early history of the Encampments in the United States,‑‑and close this Iiranch of our history.


The first Encampments of Knights Templar, established in this country, were located at New York City and Stillwater, in the State of New York, but we have not been able to learn either the date of their establishment, or by what authority they were planted. We know, however, that they were in existence prior to 1797, for in May, of that year, an Encampment was established in Philadelphia, and the records of that, shows the previous existence of the two former Encampments. It is known that other Encampments were established in this country i1 86




by Consistories, and also by the mere authority of a Deputy Inspector General, and, therefore, we conclude that the first Encampments of Knights Templar were planted under the authority of the Ineffable or Scotch Rite.


In 1802, a few Knights met in Providence, Rhode Island, and, without any authority whatever, resolved themselves into an Encampment. In 1805, a Convention was held in Providence, composed of Delegates from the Encampments in New York City, Stillwater, and Albany, N. Y.


Encampments Nos. 3, 13, and 24, of Maryland, and two Encampments in Massachusetts, one of which, situated in Boston, was an Encampment of the Rose ‑}‑.


This Convention resolved itself into a Grand Encampment.


In 1812, the above named Grand Encampment resolved itself into a General Grand Encampment, and made its Constitution to correspond ; and, in 1816, it again resolved itself into a General Grand Encampment of the United States of America, and again remodeled its Constitution, and provided for the estab lishment of State Grand Encampments. This is the General Grand Encampment which now meets triennially, at such time and place as is designated by that body and the General Grand Chapter.


This National Grand body of Templars disowns and denounces all Encampments which do not hold under her, either directly or through State Grand Encampments.


The regulations for the establishment of new Encampments are very similar to those for the government of Chapters. Each State Grand Encampment issues warrants for new Encampments within the State, when petitioned for by eleven Sit Knights. In Territories where there is no Grand Encamp ment, the General Grand body issues warrants; the prie, is ninety dollars for a dispensation, and ten dollars additiotui r˛, a warrantor charter.


st ha id, an ;e, rk 3, 1uof nd ‑If on en,nd zb ral me nd nd Let its ell ip'5it iP' CHAPTER IT.




Fxox a careful examination of the history, legends, and teachings of Freemasonry, the author feels authorized in saying. it is not a cunningly‑devised fable, but a great system of ethics, teaching the doctrine of one living and true God‑the Author and Upholder of all things‑that it was instituted by King Solomon, to whom God gave superior wisdom, and had as its great leading object, not only the perpetuation of the knowledge of God among the Jews; but, by opening its doors to a select few of all nations, thus spread and communicated that knowledge of the great I AM, which bad been lost to the heathen nations ; that it has been faithfully accomplishing its mission, in the subversion of the Heathen Mythology, and slowly, but surely, wending its way through evil, as well as good report, from generation to generation ; and, though there is a period of about seven hundred years, when its history, in common with the history of the world, is but dimly discernible, the traditions and legends of the Order tend most clearly to show that, though we do not now find it clothed in all the lovely simplicity of its primitive purity, it is sufficiently pure to prove its identity and importance. It is believed that we can go nowhere to find the embodiment of its principles and rituals so nearly perfect, as that afforded by the long and careful investigation of the Grand Lodge of England, from 1717 to 1723 ; and, certainly, that it is not safe to rely upon a modern Institution to supply any portion of its body or members, which may have been lost during the middle or dark ages: and, especially, if it shall appear that the latter had its origin with those who used it for political and sectarian ends.


If the fact ‑was not notorious, it would seem strange to believe that Freemasons can now be found, who openly proclaim theabsurdity of the traditions and doctrines of Ancient Craft 88




Masonry, and, at the same time, contend that Masonry, in its pure rituals and teachings, may be found in the so called Scotch Rite, Ancient and Accepted.


Seeing that this Modern Society has wormed its way, until, by its fascinations, it has banished from some portions of Continental Europe every Lodge of Ancient Craft Masonry ; and, believing that untiring efforts are being made by many of the leaders of this system, to plant its standard throughout this country, the author believes it to be his duty to give his readers opportunity of judging of its claims to popular favor, by giving its origin, history, and teachings. But, important as the subject is esteemed to be, a condensed sketch is all that can be given here.


To guard against evil surmises, the author deems it proper to state that, in 1847, the Rt. Rev. Bro. Walker, then an Episcopal minister at Chicago, and Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Illinois, invited, or called a Convention of Royal Arch Masons, from that and the surrounding States. To this Convention Bro. Walker exhibited his authority, given him by the Grand Council of New York, over which Bro. J. J. J. Gougas presided. The author was invited to deliver a public address to said Convention ; and, during his visit, Bro. Walker, in the presence of the late Bro. Barnes, communicated to him all the degrees of said Scotch Rite.


When he received the 33rd, and the charges appertaining, he respectfully, but firmly denounced the whole, as inconsistent with, if not opposed to Freemasonry ; whereupon, Bro. Walker, very properly, withheld from him such documents as, otherwise, he would have been entitled to. And now, he is told by the brother who claims to have:written and delivered said authority, that Bro. Walker transcended his powers.


Be this as it may, the recipient feels no sort of concern, as he has never sought or desired intercourse with the Society, but he confesses that, with the imperfect knowledge of the degrees as communicated, he did seek and desire to know more of their history.


So far as the teachings of the Scotch Rite are concerned, the author feels that no censure should attach to him, should he hint at them, as derived from the ritual, as said ritual may be seen by any one, in almost SCOTCH BITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


89 any of the cities of the United States.


Premising, boa ever, that no startling exposures will be made‑certainly fewer than if he had never taken the degrees, he will at once enter upon the history.


In 1740, Chevalier Ramsey, a Scotch nobleman, and a strong adherent of the Stuarts, gave his celebrated lectures in Paris and *Bourdeaux, concerning the origin and objects of Freemasonry. Taking the three degrees, and subdividing them into numerous parts, he concocted degrees for those parts, and made his philosophic lectures explain each, to suit his purposes. He established a Lodge, which he called Harodim, but the French Masons, generally, styled it a Lodge of the Scotchman's Rite Masonry ; and, finally, it assumed the imposing title of Perfect and Sublime Masonry.


Bro. Le Blanc De Marconay, then Grand Orator of the Chamber of Deputies in the Grand Orient of France, thus writes, in 1853 " The first Lodge known in France was constituted in 1725, by the Grand Lodge of England, in the York Rite.


" Until 1756, the Grand Lodge in France bore the title of English Grand Lodge of France. It was only during this year that it took the name of Kingdom, and, until this time, French Masonry practiced but three degrees, viz., the Symbolic, entitled Apprentice, Companion, and Master.


" It was about the year 1758, that the Ineffable degrees were introduced into Masonry‑they were not practiced by the Grand Lodge, but by an authority named the Supreme Council of Emperors of East and West, and had no more than twentyfive degrees, the last degree of which was Prince of the Royal Secret.


" It was in the year 1761, that Stephen ‑Morin received, in France, the power to propagate the Ineffable degrees in America. He received only twenty‑five degrees, and, with them, the title of Inspector General, which title was given him, in his patent, not as a degree, but a function, which he was to etercisb in America." Ragon in his Othodoxie Maconnique, says 11 The Council of East and West was formed in Paris, in 90






It consisted of twenty‑five degrees, divided into seven classes.


" The Council was formed from the ruins of the Chapter of Clermont. formed in 1754, by the Chevalier De Bonnville.


" On the 27th of August, 1761, a patent of Deputy Inopector General, was given to Stephen Morin (a Jew), by the Council of Emperors East and West. Stephen Morin's business c<dled him to St. Domingo, where he intended to propagate the Rite of Perfection.


The Council of Emperors never imagined, for a moment, that such an audacious juggler as he was, would take possession of the Rite, to make a profit out of it.


They never dreamed that he would not only make it an article of traffic, but that he would remodel and modify it at Charleston, South Carolina, and introduce it forty‑three years afterward into Paris, surcharged by eight new degrees, and all attested by the illustrious Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, who was never received in the Ancient and Accepted Rite, and had all the higher degrees in horror‑he opposed them during his whole life.


" September 21, 1762.


The Council of Emperors of East and West, and the Council of Princes of the Royal Secret, at Bordeaux, drew up the regulations of the Masonry of Harodim, or Masonry of Perfection, in thirty‑five articles.


" A new Council was also erected called Knights of the East.


" August 17th, 1766.


The Grand Lodge of France, in which the Council had its Chamber, and was in union with the same, being dissatisfied with the arbitrary and unmasonic proceedings of Stephen Morin, annulled his patent, recalled his power and placed the W. Bro. Martin in his place.


They state that, considering the carelessness and the various alterations introduc^d in the Royal Art by W. Bro. Morin, her late Inspector, the W. Grand Lodge annulled the brief of Inspector, granted to Bro. Morin, and deems proper, for the good of the Royal Art, to cause him to be replaced by W. Bro. Martin," etc.


As Bro. Yates and others, who hold in veneration the Grand Council at Charleston, take the ground that Stephen Morin received his patent from a Convention of Sublime Masons, and van of :tor Icil led ,ite for tke ver fir, 3n, Lrd ted Io gad his nd at Im, SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


81 not from the Grand Lodge, and, therefore, the recall of that patent by the Grand Lodge, in 1766, was illegal ; and as the proof is at hand for the final settlement of this question, the following extract is inserted "To the G. 0. T. G. A. 0. T. U. and under the will and pleasure of H. Most S. H. 111. Bro. Louis, of Bourbon, Count of Clermont, Prince of the blood, Grand Master, and Protector of all the Lodges.


" At the East of a place well lighted, and where dwell Peace, Silence, Concord, Anno Louis 5761, and according to the Christian Era, August 27, 1761.


" Lux ex tenebris veritas, concordia fratrum.


" We, the undersigned, Substitutes General of the Art Royal, Grand Wardens and Officers of the Grand and Sovereign Lodge of St. John, established at the Grand East of Paris, and we, Sovereign G. Master of the G. Council of the Lodges of France, under the protection of the Sovereign Grand Lodge, under the sacred and mysterious numbers, do hereby declare, certify, and ordain to all BB. Knights and Princes, spread throughout both hemispheres, that, having assembled by order of the Deputy General, President of the Grand Council, a request, to us communicated. was read at our sitting.


"'That our dear Bro. Stephen Morin, Grand Elect Perfect, formerly Sublime Master, Prince Mason, Knight and Sublime of all the Orders of the Masonry of Perfection, member of the Trinity Royal Lodge, etc., being about to leave for America, and wishing to be enabled to work regularly to the advantage and improvement of the Art Royal, in all its perfection, may it please the Sov. G. Council, and the Grand Lodge to grant him letters patent for constitutions. Upon the report which has been made to us, and being acquainted with the eminent qualities of Bro. Stephen Morin, we have, without hesitation, granted this satisfaction for the services which he has always rendered to the Order, and the continuation of which is to us guaranteed by his zeal.


' Wherefore, and for other good reasons, after approving and ennfirmintr Bro. Morin in his designs, and wishing to give him testimonies of our gratitude, we have unanimously constituted 8$




and instituted him, and, by these presentg, do constitute and institute him, and we do give full power and authority to said Bro. Stephen Morin, the signature of whom stands in the margin of the presents, to form and establish a Lodge for the purpose of receiving and multiplying the Royal Order of Freemasons, in all the Perfect and Sublime degrees, to take due care that the general and particular statutes and regulations of the Grand and Sovereign Lodge be kept and observed, and to admit therein none but true and legitimate BB. of Sublime Masonry.


" To regulate and govern all the members which may compose his said Lodge, which lie is authorized to establish in the four parts of the world, whither. he may arrive, or where he may dwell, under the title of Lodge of St. John, and by sur name, Perfect Harmony.


" Power is, hereby, to him granted, to select such officers as he may think proper, to help him in the government of his Lodge, to whom we command and enjoin to obey and respect him ; we do command and ordain to all Masons of regular Lodges, spread all over the earth, and of whatsoever dignity they might be, we request and enjoin them, in the name of the Royal Order, and in presence of our most Ill. G. Master, to recognize, as we do ourselves hereby recognize, our dear Bro. Stephen Morin as Worshipful Master of the Perfect Harmony Lodge, and we commission him as our Inspector, in every part of the New World, to rectify the observance of our laws in gen˛ eral, etc., and, by these presents, we do institute our dearest Bro. Stephen Morin, our Grand Master Inspector, authorizing him, and giving him full power to ,establish Perfect and Sublime Masonry in every part of the world, etc., etc.


"We, therefore, request the brethren, in general, to grant to said Stephen Morin, such aid and assistance as may lie in their power, and we do require him to act in a similar manner toward all the brethren, members of the Lodge, or such as he might have admitted or constituted, or whom lie might hereafter admit and constitute, in the Sublime degrees of Perfection, which we grant him, with full power and authority to make Inslxctors wheresoever the Sublime degree has not been SCOTCH BITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


93 established, as we are well satisfied with his great information and capacity.


" In testimony whereof we have delivered him these presents, signed by the Deputy General of the Order, Grand Commander of the White and Black Eagles, Sublime Prince of Royal Secret, and by us, Grand Inspectors, Sublime Officers of the Grand Council and of the Grand Lodge, established in this capital, and we have hereunto affixed the hand seal of our 111. Grand Master H. R. H., and that of our Grand Lodge and Sovereign Grand Council.


" At the Grand East of Paris, A.L. 5761, or of the Christian Ira, August 27, 1761.




CHAILLOU DE JOIVILLE, Deputy Gen. of the Order, etc. PRINCE DE ROHAN, Master o f the Grand Lodge, etc. LACoRNE, Deputy Grand Master, etc. SAVALETTE DE BUC%OLY, Grand Keeper of the Seals, etc. TAUPIN, Prince Mason.


BREST DE LA CHAUSVE, Grand Elect Prince Mason.


11 By order of the Grand Lodge.




DAUBERTIN, Grand Elect, etc." If the foregoing document be genuine, and this, it is thought, never has been questioned, the following facts are evolved 1. That in 1761, Louis, of Bourbon, Count of Clermont, Prince of the blood, was Grand Master and Protector of all the Lodges in France, and that Chaillou De Joiville, was his Deputy, and not the Deputy of Frederick the Great.


2.. That the body granting powers to Stephen Morin was the Sovereign Grand Lodge, holding in its body the Sovereign Grand Council, and that said act was done by the united and unanimous concurrence of the officers and members then present, of both bodies.


3. That Stephen Morin's authority authorized him to constitute a Lodge of Perfection, wherever he might sojourn, and  94 MODERN FREEMASONRY.


u Bro. Ragon continues required it to take the name of Perfect Harmony, and regard him as its Worshipful Master.


4. That the Masters of all regular Lodges, throughout the world, were commanded and enjoined to regard Stephen .florin as Worshipful Master of Perfect Harmony Lodge.


5. That, in 1761, a union and fusion had been effected between the Grand Council and Grand Lodge, as the instrument declares the Grand Inspectors to be " officers of the Grand Council, and of the Grand Lodge." 6. That Stephen Morin's authority had the seal of His Royal Highness, Louis, of Bourbon, and not that of Frederick the Great, as head of the Order, nor is any allusion, whatever, made to that Monarch.


7. That, whatever may be thought of the union and fusion, above alluded to, Stephen Morin's authority is ordered by the Grand Lodge, and, therefore, it is proper to suppose the Grand Lodge acted with full authority, five years after, when it annulled the patent, and recalled the power granted to him "in 1761." 1",f, "The Council of Emperors of East and *West, strengthen themselves by recruiting men of low station, for whose money they made them Prince Masons. A certain number of Princes of the Royal Secret formed their Supreme Council of Prince Masons, and the dignitaries of this Council took the title of Grand Inspectors General. January 22, of this year, the Council of Emperors East and West, issues a circular, stating that it takes the title of the Sublime Scottish Mother Lodge of the Grand French Globe, Sovereign Grand Lodge of France.


"This Council would be a rival to the Grand Lodge of France, and, in consequence, crushed herself‑she fell asleep 1781.


Thus goes out the Rite of Harodim.


"In 1784, from the broken remains of the Council of Emperors East and West, and the Council of the Knights of the East, there arose, with the assistance of many brethren of the high degrees, and officers of the Grand Lodge of Franca, a Grand Chapter General of France.


yard the i as nt nd e e d SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


95 "On the 27th of February, 1786, the Grand Chapter General of France united with the Grand Orient of France by treaty ; by which it will be seen that the Grand Orient has thus gathered in its hands, all the powers of the several authorities, and has thus become the sole possessor, and the immediate successor to the founders of the Rite of Perfection, of the Consistory of Princes of the Royal Secret, and of all the Scottish System, Ancient and Accepted, which was practiced, not only in the Council of the Emperors East and West, but also in the Scotch Consistories of Bourdeaux, known under the title of Sublime Scotch Mother Lodge, and which was conferred on Stephen Morin in 1761, and recalled in 1766.


" Stephen Morin, on his arrival in St. Domingo, commenced the propagation of his Masonic work in the Rite of Perfection, consisting of twenty‑five degrees. He also created Inspectors, R hich title did not designate the arbitrary powers and prerogatives that some silly writers have supposed, but merely the power of constituting Lodges.


He also, notwithstanding tho annulling of his patent,. and his recall in 1766, went on constituting Chapters and Councils, in different parts of America. Between 1766 and 1782, the Revolution progressed in the Island, and the Rite of Perfection slumbered.


But, in 1783, it awakes with thirty‑three degrees, for, in that year, Morin and his coadjutors erect, in the city of Charleston, S. C., a Grand Lodge of Perfection, but the Prince Masons of Charleston, not satisfied with the Rite of Perfection, consisting of twenty‑five degrees, erect eight‑degrees more, making, in all, thirty‑three degrees, and on their own authority, without any Masonic legal right whatever, constitute themselves the Supreme Scotch Council of the French Possessions in America.


"In 1797, John Mitchell, Frederick Dalcho, EmanuelDe La Motte, Abraham Alexander, and Isaac Auld, are the five persons who create a Supreme Council of the 33rd degree in Charleston.


" fn 1802, the Count De Grasse Tilly received the 33rd degree in Charleston, and returned to France in 1803, and reported himself as the Supreme Chief of the 33rd degree, which, at this time, was not known in France." 1,1 MODERN FREEMASONRY.


Bro. Le Blanc De Marconay says The Ineffable degrees were formerly practiced in France, and continued to be so practiced, viz., from 1761 to 1804. Then Bro. Count De Grasse Tilly, who had taken the 33rd degree in the Grand Council of Charleston, brought them to France as a novelty, or curiosity‑not with the title of Ineffable degrees, as of the Rite of Perfection, under which title they had always hitherto been known, viz., the twenty‑five degrees, but under that of ncotch Rite, Ancient and Accepted.


"The administration of the Scottish Rite was adopted in France, by the Grand Orient, only in the year 1810‑11, after the fall of the Empire. Until then, this rite had been under the jurisdiction of a particular administration, not recognized by the Grand Orient, but which administration possessed the right of conferring the same from 1799, by virtue of various treaties, entered into by that body with the Grand Orient." The administration to which Bro. Le Blanc De Marconay alludes is, most likely, a Consistory ; but, if so, his account of the time of its establishment does not agree with that fixed by Bro. Ragon, and, as the latter writes from the records for publication, his account is most probably correct.


He says "On the 19th of December, 1804, the Grand Orient declares that, henceforth, it possesses all the rites ; and, on the 22nd of same month, the Supreme Council of the 33rd degree was erected, and provisionally organized at Paris." Thus, it would seem, that Count De Grasse Tilly carried Scotch Rite Masonry into France in 1803, instead of 1799, and that, in 1804, the Grand Council was established. Bro. Ragon further says "Joseph Serneau, a jeweler, initiated by Stephen Morin into the Rite of Perfection, in St. Domingo, and forced to leave on account of the insurrection of the blacks, goes to the city of New York, in 1806, and founds, in 1807, a Supreme Consistory, which is recognized by the Grand Orient of France, in 1812." The history of the above named Grand Consistory is vsriously stated by good men. in the city of New York, swayed, most likely, by their party prejudices. On the ono SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


97 hand, Serneau is represented as a bad man, who, without any authority whatever, established his Consistory, and, by the assistance of a few others, inveigled De Witt Clinton into it. While, on the other hand, it is said that Serneau had precisely the same authority which Morin had, and, certainly, as much: authority as any Inspector General appointed by said Morin ;, that any other view of the subject would only prove that there never was a legal Consistory established in the United States. And, it is further contended, that De Witt Clinton was regularly made the second officer in the Grand Consistory, and soon became the actual Commander; that said Consistory gave the degrees to many eminent men, De Witt Clinton presiding ; that all the degrees were conferred on Lafayette, and, as a mark of distinction, Clinton resigned his office, a..d made him Commander, during his sojourn in the United States; that Clinton resumed the command on the return of Lafayette to France, and continued its Acting Grand Officer until h6t death, in 1828.


Bro. Ragon continues "In 1812, some Masons, having received the 33rd degrem in America, and, joined by some other Masons in Paris, erect a, rival Supreme Council in Paris, under the title of Council; )f America, of which the Count De Grasse Tilly was Grand Commander.


" On the 5th of August, 1813, De La Motte (a Jew), Treasurer General of the Grand Council of Charleston, founds a Supreme Council in New York City, of which Daniel D. Tompkins is made by him Most Puissant Sovereign Grand Commander; Richard Riker, Samson Simson, J. J. J. Gougas, and M. L. M, Peixotto, members of the same. This Council continued its operations in New York but a short time, and then went to sleep." The reader may remember that, about the time above alluded to, two great rival political parties existed in New York, headed by De Witt Clinton, on the one side, and Daniel D. Tompkins, on the other, and, whether tr‑ie or false, rumor then said that this rival Council was designed to forward the inter,eat of Tompkins, and thus counteract the influence which, the old Grand Council gave to Clinton.


14 r.






Lc Blanc Dc Ma,rconay says " From 1807 until 1912, there was, in New York, only one Lod`iro (Atilier) of thirty‑two degrees, of which Bro. Serneau was Grand Commander. It was about this time that Bro. Sernea.u founds a Supreme Council of thirty‑three do‑rces, which obtained the acknowledgement of the Grand Orient of France, in 1822." Bro. Ragon says "In blay, 1821, a union and fusion took place between the Supreme Council of France, and the Council of America, in Paris. " In 1828, the regular Supreme Council of New York, of whicli Hon. De Witt Clinton was Grand Commander, went to 'sleep, in common with all the Masonic bodies'in that re‑ion.


" In 1832, the Count De St. Laurent comes to New York, and reorganized the Supreme Council of De Witt Clinton, deceased, and Flias Hicks was then Grand Commander. It was duly constituted, and proclaimed by the title of the United Saprente Council 33rd." The Supreme Council of the 33rd degree, Ancient and Accepted Rite, of France, is entirely separate from the Grand 'Orient. It was established, as stated, in, 1811, united to the rival Council of America in 1821, and continues now in existence, in Paris, separate from, but in acknowledgment and cor respondence with the Grand Orient.


Thory was its defender, and opposed to the Grand Orient, while Ragon was the de"'fender of the Grand Orient, and opposed to the Grand Council.


In the United''States, each of the above bodies have their 'friends, and each have their opposes. The Charleston wing holds the Grand Orient in derision, charges it with assuming control of the Scotch Rite, without authority‑that it is truly ‑',a, Grand Lodge of Modern, or French Rite Masonry, and should ‑confine itself to that Rite.


The old Grand Council of New York contends that, by the treaties here referred to, the Grand Orient has 4‑ally obtained control of all the Rites, and, so far as the Scotch Rite is concerned, it is sufficient to say that, even the Grand Council of Fr nee admits her legal right to take charge of said system.




Bro. 1,, Dc Marconay says The regular Supreme Council of New York (possessing, in 1807. only thirty‑two degrees), since 1812, omnipotent for the 3rd. passed, in succession of time, from the 111. Bro. De Witt Clinton to 111. Bro. Hicks, and, finally, arrived in the Grand Commandery of Ill. Bro. Henry C. Atwood.


'As for the Snpreine Council of Louisiana,. thus it is : It was established by the Supreme Council of New York, in 1813, first as a Grand Consistory of Princes of the Royal Secret. This Consistory was confirmed, in 1833, by the United Supreme Council of the Western Hemisphere (the same Supreme Council that created it), and. in 1835, it took the name and title of Supreme Council of 33rd. and founded a power for Louisiana which was admitted to the correspondence and acknowledgment of the Grand Orient of France, in 1842." About 1851, Bro. John Gedge, Grand Master of Louisiana, who had previously written and published a historical account of the Scotch Rite degrees, denouncing their claims to Masonry in the strongest terms, took charge of a Consistory, under authority from the Grand Council at Charleston, which new. Consistory soon took precedence in public favor, or, more properly, with the American Masons of New Orleans; and, in 1855; the old Grand Council yielded up its right to that jurisdiction.


Whatever may have been the motives which induced said surrender, it is certainly too late now to inquire, and any attempt to reestablish it must be regarded as illegal. True, it may be justly said, that the Charleston Council established a Consistory there illegally, because the ground had been, and was occupied, but as one wrong can not justify another, the friends of the old Grand Council can not be justified in an effort to resuscitate the old (which would be impossible), or establish a new one.


From all. the facts referred to, and others which may be stated, the following objections may be urged against Scotch Rite Masonry 1. That if the Ancient and Accepted Rite. in its first three degrees, or elsewhere, teaches, essentially, the same truths thut 100




are, and ever have been taught by Ancient Craft Masonry, then are they not necessary, nor can there be any legal authority for this new system of administering them.


2. If they are essentially different, either in ritual or doo. trine, from Ancient Craft Masonry, then are they falsely called Masonic degrees, and should be denounced by good and true Masons.


8. That if the Scotch Rite has taken charge of, and subdivided Masonry into various parts, and instituted a degree for each part, the founder or founders have violated their plighted faith to Ancient Craft Masonry, by a bold attempt to make innovations in the body of Masonry, and that to tolerate, encourage, or practice those degrees, is to sanction those innovations and justify violated vows.


4. That the degrees of Perfection were originally political and sectarian.


5. That while the Exalted degrees in the Scotch Rite were, originally, and, if properly conferred, are still strictly Christian degrees, and exclude all but Christians, there is proof that they have been, and still are, given to Jews, Infidels, and even revilers of Christ's holy mission.


6. That no legal authority can be shown for the introduction of the Rite of Perfection, or Scotch Rite, Ancient and Accepted, into the United States.


7. That Frederick the Great never had anything to do with the system of Perfection, or Scotch Rite Masonry.


8. If all, or any part of the foregoing charges are true, then should no one who believes in the teachings of Ancient Craft Masonry; no one who can not sanction innovations in the body of Masonry ; no one who believes that Masonry should have nothing to do with politics or religion ; no one who believes that the Grand Lodge system of 1717 should be sustained ; and, certainly, no friend to Christianity, should tolerate, much less encourage, the propagation of said degrees.


To the first charge, it is only necessary to say that all Scotch Rite Masons admit, nay, they claim as a reason why Ancient Craft Masons should not object to them, that the three first degrees are essentially the same; and thus are we plainly asked SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


101 to admit that a Society, having the very germ of its origin as late as 1740, or, at farthest, 1650, has the right to administer the first three degrees of Masonry, though no Grand. Lodge authority is sought for to legalize the assumed right. In short. we are asked to admit that it was in the power of Chevalier Ramsey to take charge of Masonry, institute a new formula for it, remodel and change, as he pleased, the ritual, and that now, this new system has not only equal, but paramount claims to be cultivated.


What answer should the honest Mason make? Can lie do less than denounce, disown, and repudiate the attempt at innovation ? ‑Suppose our friends, the Odd Fellows, were to adopt the three first degrees of Masonry, as a part and parcel of their system of degrees, and suppose they were to administer them precisely as they are given in our Lodges, could we, dare we recognize them as legal Masonic degrees? But we shall see, before the close of this article, that Scotch Rite Masons do more than ask us to acknowledge and recognize their first three degrees.


The second charge conditionally embraces a self‑evident truth, and, therefore, need not be commented upon; and the same may be said of the third charge. In noticing the fourth charge, that the degrees were originally political and sectarian, it will appear necessary, in the absence of positive proof, to present the highest presumptive testimony.


It is the opinion of some writers, that the Ineffable degrees were instituted in Scotland, immediately after Cromwell caused Charles I. to be beheaded, and while Charles II. was an exile in France, and that the association had for its leading objects, first, to restore the Royal exile, and second, to bind all Roman Catholics never to change their religion. The Reformation in England, Scotland, and Wales had progessed so rapidly as to alarm the Pope and his adherents, seeing, as they did, that without some well‑planned and combined effort, the supremacy of that Church would be forever lost in the kingdom of Great Britain, if, indeed, the force of example did not spread through out Europe.


To meet the emergency, and to arrest the conversions to the Protestant faith, it was deemed proper to form a seeret Society, which, while it gratified the initiates with a    102




 great amount of tinsel and show, in a very imposing ceremony, accompanied with high‑sounding titles, and the investment of V.reat powers, especially to the standard‑bearers, also bound the recipients by a solemn oath, never to change heir religion. This Society, it is said, was secretly organized throughout the kingdom. That they adopted Freemasonry as a model, but, instead of the teachings and legends of the third degree, known ‑to every MaEter Mason, they taught that, under the symbol of the Lost Wot d, thhey were to understand the murder of Charles I., which Word could be restored and brought to lialht by the restoration of the son of the murdered King to the throne of England, and the reestablishment of the Roman Catholic religion.


Bros. Nichola and Bode felt themselves authorized to 'relieve this was the origin and true version of Freemasonry. Scltroder, also, took this view of the subject, and says that the siguification of the whole ceremony of the third degree goes to show its origin and teaching, as above stated.


But we have no reliable testimony, going to show the institution of the Ineffable degrees, until Chevalier Ramsey visited France, about 1740. That the Society, when first, known in France, was a political. As well as Roman Catholic Institution, is, we think, beyond all reasonable doubt ; the ritual of the degrees, even as .they are now used, and especially the old copies, go to establish this fact; .and, certainly, it may, with truth, be said that, previous to the days of Ramsey, no charge of intermeddling in politics or religion had ever been sustained against Ancient Craft Masonry but to show that the. Jesuit Priest, Barruel, was correct in charging that Masons in France had connected themselves with :the Illuminati and Jacobin clubs, and were instrumental in fomenting the Revolution of 17239, the open declaration of Bro. Ladabat, of Louisiana, is given here. In defending the old Grand Council at New Orleans, in 1853, lie says " French Masonry is not nonsense!


It works!


The world is full of its wonders ; and if the ideas of Liberty and Equality are now in the heart of all Europe, it is French Masonry we must thank for it.












She (France) waged war with Old aristocracy, priestocracy, and kingoeracy.


She stood alone is the midst of the globe, fought against all the nations of   SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


103  world combined against her, and forced into them Freemasonry; that i.,‑, LIBERTY, EQUALITY, and, ultimaIcly, FRATERNITY.


The French armies have carried into every land of Europe, the ideas which had been matured by French Afasonry." Here is plainly set forth they ery doctrines, the very teachings of Weishaupt, the founder of the Illuminati. He sets out with tli~ broad basis, that the enlightenment of the people‑thd masses‑will lead to the downfall of all kings, all priests, all religions, and establish upon their ruins, Liberty and Equality: Bro. Ladabat seems resolved not to be misunderstood, as lid proceeds to quote from. Barruel, to prove that this great credit can only be claimed for French Masonry, as Barruel, in hit denunciation of Masonry, exempts English Freemasonry, as hd declared that Masonry, in England, never interfered in politics: Nor is Bro. Ladabat alone in his views of the political charge= ter of Scotch Rite Masonry, though he is, perhaps, more open and manly in his proclamation.


Bro. Albert Pike, of Louisiana,;, in an address before his Grand Lodge, in February, 1858, iii speaking of Scotch Rite Masonry, says "It is the preacher of LIBERTY, FRATERNITY, and EQUALITY. 0 And he enters into detail, sh0wing that it advocates and preaches " a decent and well regulated Liberty, a sober Fraternity, and political Equality." Again Bro. Pike says: " Masonry was made to be the ORDER OF THE PEOPLE.


1l`t has ever exerted its influence on the side,of civil anti religious liberty ;" and then presents the following extract as the motto of Scotch Rite Masonry " ` Devotion to the interest of the people; detestation ff Tyranny; haired for the rights of Free Tho"ht, Free Speech, and Fred+ Conscience; implacable hostility to Intolerance, Bigotry, drroggnce and Usurpation; respect and regard.for labor, which makes hunidtil nature noble; and scorn and contempt for all monopolies, that minister to insolent and pampered luxury.' " Here we have a published account of the objects and ends or the Scotch Rite, Ancient and Accepted.


It was instituted 11br the people, in opposition to tyrants.


It is intended to fl‑*e4 15 104




the mind of man from religious restraints‑from the dogmas of all religions, and as it was made for the "dear people," "it holds in scorn and contempt all monopolies that minister to intolerant and pampered luxury," that is to say, all royal families tnd liereditory claimants of power; to all priests and ministers, who monopolize the high places, and live in luxury, on the sweat of the poor laborer. Now all this sounds well in the ear of a n American, but this motto is not given as the motto of a politieal club, but is sent forth by a brother Mason, as the true motto of Freemasonry, while the members of the Order have proclaimed, far and near, that it has nothing whatever to do with politics, or religion, that it neither teaches monarchy, anar chy, nor republicanism.


It neither teaches the right divine of the Pope, the temperal powers of the Bishop, nor the freedom from all the religious restraints of Priests and Churches. Scotch Rite Masonry, then, was not only political and sectarian, in the beginning, but it is still so, as shown by its ablest advocates.


From the best light available, it appears to be probable that Ramsey subdivided the degrees of Masonry, or, rather, added thereon, a set of degrees, which he termed philosophic explanations of true Masonry. That, in addition to these explanatory degrees, lie, in conjunction with the Jesuit Priests of France, concocted one or more strictly Christian degrees, and almost as purely Romish, for the very hangings and imagery representations, from Christ's body to the Cross, portray the forms of worship o6 that Church alone.


The Rose Croix, is the great Christian degree of the Scotch Rite, which has been remodeled to furnish the Templar's degree of the United States, but in doing this the original Rose Cross was not given up, but is now practiced by the said Scotch Rite, either in its original purity, or under.various modifications, to suit persons and localities.


We do not know how many degrees were invented by Ram. sey. Some writers say he instituted but three, and that they were by him intended, not as innovations upon Masonry, but to ridicule the pomp and show with which he found Masonry incumbered in Paris, and that he succeeded so far beyond of `it in. ies rs, at an tito 0th rm B. f.




105 his intention, in pleasing the show‑loving French, that they adopted the Scotchmau's Rite Masonry, in lieu of that which they had received from England. Be this as it may, it appear+, that Ramsey's Masonry went to sleep for a time, as, for several years, we hear nothing of it, until it reappears under the guardianship of De Bonnville, who was regarded as Ramsey's successor, and then we find it under the name of the Masonry of Harodim, or Ineffable Masonry, and soon after, the Sublime Masonry of Harodim. and had twenty‑five degrees, the Prince of the Royal Secret being the last. And here it is that we find the Rose Cross, representing the crucifixion, burial, ascension, pas. cover, libations. etc., and all exhibited and explained so pleilosophtcaUy, that they were made acceptable to all, whether Jew, Chris tian, or Infidel.


Though this may seem to be a charge difficult to sustain, the facts force the mind to believe its truth. It is true, that these degrees have been so often modified and changed, to suit purposes and localities, that scarcely any one charge will strictly apply to all.


In 1823, the Grand Council, over which De Witt Clinton presided. issued a circular, bearing his signature, denouncing the Charleston Council, because they conferred the higher degrees‑the Christian degrees‑upon Israelites, while the Grand Consistory of New Orleans, the creature of the very same Council, held that there was nothing to exclude the Jews from taking them.


In this work, there is no intention or desire to recur to the particulars of the party quarrels which have ever marked the footsteps of this new system of secret degrees, called Alasonic, both in France and America; certain it is that, while these quarrels have tended to bring reproach upon Masonry, because of the assumed title, they have, nevertheless, tended to expose and lay bare, not only the teachings, but the very rituals of the Order, copies of which are to be found, not only in the breasts of the good and true, but in black and white, and often differing as widely from each other, as does the ritual of Odd Fellowship from that of Masonry; but it is believed that, in every part of the world, the Scotch Rite retains the leading features of the Rose Croix degree, and, therefore. it is everywhere,appurently, a purely Christian degree, greatly more impressive and theatrical 106




than the Templar's degree is, as given in the Eneampruents of this country ; and yet, how abundant the proof, that the bitterest enemies of Christ, and the very blasphemers of His holy name, are deemed fit subjects to take that, and all the other Christian degrees. If we go to France and begin with Voltaire, who, if we may believe the account published by Bro. Mackey, in the first number of his JJIasonic .Miscellany, was received into the degrees with almost shoutings of praise, certainly with speeches in which lie was complimented and thanked, as the great and efficient means of freeing the minds of millions from the thraldocn of superstition. We might pass from Voltaire down to Lafayette, and it would be difficult to find a single prominent Scotch Rite Mason, who was a true believer in any branch of orthodox religion.


And how much better is it in the United States?


Who are its leaders, and what are their religious sentiments?


It is known that many good Christians have taken the degrees in this country, but, generally, they gradually and silently absent themselves from the Lodges and Consistories; but as it would be improper to be personal; other proofs will be referred to.


We have seen, in the early part of this work, and alluded to the fact in this article, that Weishaupt was a great fanatic, and claimed to be the founder of a system of infidelity, so wisely arrant,ed, as finally and speedily to banish all religion, save the religion "of Reason, of Liberty, and of Equality." Weishaupt adopted French Masonry as the groundwork of his system, and permitted none but Masons to enter his asylum.


It is known that the Charleston Council contends, and has ever done so that Scotch Rite Masonry is indebted to Frederick the Great, of Prussia, for the institution of a part of the degrees, and for, at least, the ratification of the fundamental law for their government.


Now, we admit that all this does not amount to proof positive that the Charleston brethren regard the system as teaching anti‑Christian principles, but we leave it to the candid read^r to say, whether such an inference is not legitimate, for we dare not charge that they are ignorant of the fact that Frederick was as much opposed to Christianity as his relig ious teacher, Voltaire himself.


No one, who has read the various SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


107 biographies of that Monarch, can believe that lie would have lent his name or aid for the propagation of any system or theory, having even the appearance of Christianity.


It is known that Stephen Morin, who brought the Rite of Perfection (including the Rose Cross) to this country, Ryas a Jew, and, therefore, an enemy to Christianity. It is known that nearly all the Deputy Inspectors General, appointed by him, were Jews ; and the same may be said of the acting Deputies, for fifty years after.


We proceed to give the names of as many of the early Inspectors as we can call to mind, viz., De La Motte, Abraham Alexander, M. M. Hayes, Isaae Do Costa, Col. John Mitchell, and Frederick Dalcho, were severally appointed for South Carolina. henry Frankin, for Jamaica; Solomon Bush, for Penntiylvania ; Barend M. Spitzer, for Georgia; A. Forst, for Virginia.


Of the foregoing, we think Bros. Mitchell and Dalcho, alone, were not Jews.


In speaking of Do Grasse Tilly, Bro. Radon says "According to the Count's own showing, Morin conferred the degree on Frankin (a Jew), Frankin rave it to Moses flays (a Jew), Hays gave it to Berend D1. Spitzer (a Jew). These had a reunion in Philadelpliia, in 1781, and gave it to Moses Collen (a Jew), Cohen gave it to Isaac Lalang (a Jew), and Lalang conferred it upon Count Dc Grasse Tilly." Cohen also gave the degree (or, more properly, the appointment of Deputy Inspector) to Abraham Jacobs (a Jew), who, in 1802, initiated eight brethren in Savannah, Georgia. and opened a Sublime Lodge. From 1802 to 1810, Jacobs movements are not known to us, but about the period last named, we hear of him in the city of New York, and, certainly, not under the most favorable circumstances. Whatever may bethought of the legality of the old Consistory of New York, it will hardly be denied that it was occupying the ground, and doing work, and yet Jacobs conferred the whole of the degrees, or as many as lie himself possessed, upon nineteen brethren in New York, in violation of the known laws of the Cousistory. We are told that Jacobs excused himself by taking his novitiates to Trenton‑sixty, miles away from the Consistorv‑‑˛ before he could conscientiously complete the degrees.


But, after li 108




all, we do not know that Jacobs (a poor man, who must needs live by his wits, for he would not go. to hard labor) is much more censurable than was the old Grand Council of New York, in planting a subordinate in Charleston, knowing the ground to be occupied, or than the Grand Council of Charleston, in planting a subordinate in New Orleans, under similar circumstances.


In 1802, the Grand Lodge of South Carolina evinced some dissatisfaction, if not distrust, at the establishment of a new system, called Masonic, in that jurisdiction ; whereupon the Grand Council appointed a Committee, consisting of Frederick Dalcho, Isaac Auld, and F. De La Motte, who, on the 4th of December, of that year, issued a circular, historical and explanatory of said new degrees. In this document are to be found many curious things, among which are tire following " It is well known to the Blue Master, that King Solomon and his royal visitor were in possession of the real and pristine word, but of which lie must remain in ignorance, unless initiated into the Sublime degrees. The authenticity of this word, as known to us, and for which our much respected Master died; is proven to the most skeptic mind. from the sacred pages of holy writ, and the Jewish history, from the earliest time.


Dr. Priest ley, in his letters to the Jews, has the following remarkable pas sage, when speaking of the miracles of Christ: `and it Iraq been said by your writers, that he performed his miracles by means of some Ineffable name of God, which he stole out of the Temple!"' We learn, from the foregoing, 1. That King Solomon, and Hiram, King of Tyre, were in possession of the pristine word, of which the Master Mason of Ancient Craft Masonry must remain in ignorance, unless lie consent to be initiated into this new system of Masonry, by whose founders the great and hidden mysteries of Masonry have been brought to light. The honest truth is not admitted, that this new system subdivides the degrees of Masonry, and abstracts from tire Master's degree that full and complete explanation of the pristine word, and all the legends of Masonry which were given to the Master Mason, until after this trew t needs s much f New no. tile harlessimilar d some a new ou tho ~derick 4th of !xplan. found lomon ristine nitiatlrd, as ied, is holy 'riest e pas t l: as es by f the re in n of s lie by )nry ;ted, and e xn ry lew SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT ANI1 ACCEPTED.


109 system, or so much of it as relates to the Royal Arch, was introduced into England by the coined influence of Ramsey and Dermott.


2. We learn that if the extract from Dr. Priestley means anything, it is used here to leave the impression on the mind that the charge made by the Jews against Christ was true ; that He did perform His miracles by means of this pristine word, the Ineffa611e name, which He stole from the Temple. And this is the true Masonic Institution, teaching Ancient Craft Masonry in the first sixteen degrees, and Christianity in the remainder 1 It is true, that what is infidelity with one, may be esteemed good religion with another, as the one or the other may be influenced by a self‑erected standard of truth.


If the Holy Bible is true only in part, then is it not infidelity, in part, to deny its truth, and the Charleston Committee may not be charged with favoring infidelity.


But if, as we suppose, the Bible is true, as a whole, and in all its parts, it sounds like blasphemy, to us, to indorse the truth of the charge made by Dr. Priestley.


If Christ was an imposter, it may not be wrong to charge Him with theft and a juggling use of the stolen word, but if he was the Son of God‑God‑man‑what must be thought of the manner in which the Committee use the words of Dr. Priestley ? Again, the Committee says : "Another very important discovery was made in the year 5553, of a record in Syrian characters, relative to the most remote antiquity, and from which it would appear, that the world is many thousand years older than given by Mosaic accounts‑an opinion entertained by many of the learned." From the above extract, we are left to suppose the Committee attached to this wonderful discovery, the existence of satisfactory testimony that the Bible is not true, at least, so far as Moses is to be esteemed an author. We know that some learned men do believe that the world is older than the Bible represents it to be, but we have yet to learn that this theory is in accordance with the Bible.


From published documents and the rituals, we know that Scotch Rite Masons represent the Rose Cross degree and that lieu




of Kadosh, as teaching Christianity.


In the former, the crucifixion, resurrection, ascension, and passover, are represented ; and, yet, we find among the recipients, Jews, Moliammedans, and 1 ufidels, of all grades ; and this is made to appear consistent, by having the degree philosophically explained, and the philosophy of French T‑lasoury is very flexible and expansive. For example, if it fits the taste, or, so called religion, of the initiate, all the representations of Christ and His institutions are philusophicady explained to mean any and everything, but the divine mission, divine mediation, divine death, divine ascension, and His divine laws, are explained to mean only that Christ was a good man, and offered good temporal laws, philo sophically considered, for the government of mankind.


While, with the Voltaire branch of this system, it is more openly taught that these representations of Christ and His sufferings, are made to show the fallacy of the doctrines of Christianity. Then, again, there are those who profess to be Christians, and practice piety, who take a medium course. Within the last forty‑eight hours, one of the most distinguished Scotch Rite Masons in the United States, in conversing upon this subject, exclaimed, " What, pray, has the divinity of Christ to do with Christianity."


Such as lie would doubtless hold that Christ was a creature of God, a man, mortal as are all men, commissioned by God to do and perform certain temporal things; vii., to prea%h the Gospel, establish Churches, and give laws for their temporal government.


Thus it will be seen that these Exalted and Sublime Christian degrees are made palatable to all.


In one of the Lodges, perhaps the 28th degree, " Old Adam presides as Chief Commander," and the Lodge is made up of beings, called "Perfect Angels," but so philosophical are these degrees, that it would be esteemed an evidence of downright ignorance to hint at the seeming impiety of such a representation as this.


The Rose ‑}‑, under various rite‑about eighty in nunibereven been tacked on to Ancient of Knight Templar, and though it is not here recognized, or names, is practiced in every known to the world. It has Craft 3fasonry, under the title recited ; Lans, conthe ive. the ons but Tnliat iloile, ily ty. nd St to th st s e 0 SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT ARID ACCEPTED.


ill claimed to be a part or parcel of Masonry, it assumes that aspect before the world, because none are admitted to the Orders of Knighthood but Freemasons. As practiced in the United States, the Rose Croix, or Templar's degree, is only given to those who believe in the divinity, vicarious death, ascension, and mediation of Christ, but the Rose Croix, or Templar's degree, in the Scotch Rite, is given. as is seen, to the professors of any religion, or of no religion, and certainly to Lnti‑Clii‑istians.


The author hopes not to be misunderstood.


lie does not Dpposc this new system of Masonry, so called, because it does .wt teach Christianity; on the contrary lie has ever contended that Masonry has nothing directly to do with Christianity, or any other sectarian religion‑that the only religion it has, is the belief in one God‑‑Jehovah.


But he holds that it would be quite as foreign to Masonry to teach anti‑Christianity, as to become a Christian sect ; and lie sincerely believes, that while in the Rose +, and Knight of Kadosli, the image worship of our Saviour is taught, Jews and Infidels are permitted to enter, and trample under foot the doctrines Ile carne to promulgate. This blow hot and blow cold Christian Masonry is either too grossly blasphemous, or too philsophically refined, to amalgamate or hold fraternal ties with Ancient Craft Masonry.


And can these objections to the higher degrees of the Scotch Rite be considered out of place, when it is remembered that they claim to have "the original right," not only to administer the three degrees in Masonry, but to govern and control all Masonry. It is true that the Grand Council at Charleston said, in 1802 "The Sublime Grand Lodge, sometimes called the Ineffable Lodge; or the Lodge of Perfection, extends, from the 4th to the 14th degree inclusive, which last is the degree of Perfection.


The Sublime Masons never initiate any into the Blue degrees, without a legal warrant obtained for that purpose from, a Symbolic Grand Lodge." Was this true when it was spoken ? if so, wonderful strides after power have since been taken ; for, throughout Continental Europe, indeed, everywhere that Scotch Masons have obtained the ascendency, they have not applied to a Symbolic Grand t12




Lodge, but their Consistorics‑about which Symbolic Masons know nothing‑have issued authority, established Lodges, and worked the degrees in the Scotch Rite. This has been done in New Orleans; and, so far as their system may be right and proper, they acted correctly, and more manfully than the other wing, who, for popularity, abstain from taking charge of Symbolic Masonry, so far as the three degrees, but, at the same time, openly declare their "original right" to do so.


The Charleston Council, having obtained a foothold, and becoming more bold, or more grasping, than she was in 1802, declares end proclaims, in 1845, that " In deference to the Constitutions of the York Rite, practiced in this country, it waives its rights and privileges, so far as they relate to the first three degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry, which, long before the establishment of any Supreme Council in this hemisphere, were under the control of Symbolic Grand Lodges." The Northern Grand Council, under J. J. J. Gougas, reiterated this proclamation. Now this waiving of power over Ancient Craft Masonry, or, rather, that part of their Craft Masonry which they call the first three degrees, stands in a tljreatening attitude, warning us that they have the original right to confer all the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry‑that they have only waived that right‑aye, and they will continue to waive it, provided we will harken to their advice and dictation.


These conditions were very plainly set forth in a printed communication, sent to the Grand Lode of Louisiana, by the Consistory at New Orleans, in February, 1858. What then is the condition of Ancient Craft Masons, made in what we esteem true Masonic Lodges, legally constituted by warrants from Grand Lodges? If we ask whence their authority for taking charge of Freemasonry, under new rituals, new degrees, new doctrines‑no, not new doctrines, but antiquated doctrines, remodeled for modern uses 1 we shall be answered variously, according as the local body has obtained its authority.


In France, we shall be told the original power was derived from Chevalier Ramsey, modified and improved by De Bonnville, the Chapter of Clermont, and, finally, the finishing touch is dur to DUB Lad in Lad her rmme .'he ing res ticas ry, icil .Ld erLnry ng Per Iv it, ed ie is In In ~g %V y. n n e 0 SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT ANI) ACCEPTED.


113 Std:hen Morin. Ask in Scotland, where it is claimed the., degrees were practiced long before the days of Ramsey, and the Grand Lodge tells us that this now system was never heard of there, until a communication was read from an AmericAu Council, to which she replied in substance‑"depart front: us, we never knew you, we do not wish to know you." Ask;, one arm of the American Society, and they will give much the,. same history that is afforded in France, and refer us to the Grand Orient for further light.


Ask the other arm, and they, will, tell you that the Grand Orient is not good authority for‑, facts; and reason very clumsily to sustain false positions‑that, the degrees originated in Scotland, at some remote period, noQ now to be ascertained‑that Ramsey carried them from Scotland:' to France‑that afterward, Frederick the Great, added to andperfected them, and condescended to make laws for then: government.


Ask in Prussia, and we are told that Frederick the Greet, was never more than a Master Mason, and that, the degrees of Perfection, or Scotch Rite, never was, and is not now known there. And yet, by this mammoth innovator, we are told we˛ Must enter, with them, into a concordat of mutual agreement, and, mutual defense, and, in default of such concession, it is. plainly intimated that they will no longer feel under obligar tions to waive their right to control the first three degrees;;; and, the logical deduction is, that if we will, not, throw open, the door of the Masonic Sanctum Sanctorum, we shall be regarded as interlopers, money‑changers, and desecrators of the sacred Temple, and, as such, though we be found kneeling at the alters of our fathers, we shall be ejected, to make place for, those who have the original right to occupy it.


In vindication of the sixth charge, viz., that no legal authority. can be found for the introduction of the Scotch, or Rite of Perfection, into the United States, we have only to recapitulato., some facts already stated, viz., that all the Councils and Consistorles, now in existence, or which once existed, have, and do trace their authority to Stephen Morin, and as no Council or, Consistory is claimed to have been established before 1783, iit; Wows that none existed here until. mure than twenty years,, a 114


)(ODERN FREEMASONRY, after Morin's power and authority ceased to exist.


His patent was issued in 1761, and annulled in 1766.


Bro. Giles F. Yates tells us that a Sublime Lodge of Perfection was " established in Albany, in 1767," by Henry A. Frankin, one of the Deputies of Stephen Morin, and if Frankin received his authority from Morin, before the recall of his patent, it would seem that this Lodge, and this alone, was legally planted.


But, after all, it is of but little consequence whether any, or all the Councils, Consistories, or Lodges were regularly established, because, whether legal or illegal in their origin, all irregularities have been healed by one of the two great fountain‑heads of France. Every Council or Consistory ever planted in this country (if it lived long enough to open up a correspondence), has been ratified and acknowledged, either by the Grand Council or Grand Orient of France, and as they themselves recognize each other as legal Masonic bodies, we must acknowledge that. Scotch Rite Masonry, in the United States, is as legally practiced as it is in France.


The seventh charge, that Frederick the Great never had any thing whatever to do with this system of Perfection, or Scotch Rite Masonry, may, it is thought, be readily sustained. Tne author thinks he has read every respectable biography of Frederick the Great, written or translated, in the English Ian guage, and, without the fear of successful contradiction, he asserts, that nowhere is his name mentioned in connection with any other than the three degrees given in a Symbolic Lodge. And is it at all probable that his connexion with these degrees ryas as important and public as is stated, and that the fact escaped the notice of all his biographers, especially as we know that some of them were minute in their details? They all tell us of his Initiation, Passing, and Raising in a Symbolic Lodge, and some of them very plainly intimate his want of admiration for Freemasonry.


Lord Dover kept and published an account of almost everything Frederick did or said, from his rising in the morning to his retirement at night, and yet, not a word of his connection with this Rite.


It has been so long and so often stated, in this country, that Frederick the Great was the Sovereign Grand Inspector General of both hemispheres Gt e d a n s s SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


115 and the author of the Secret Constitutions, etc., etc., that, for aught we know, it may be thought rash in us to deny their truth ; but all we ask, is an opportunity to present a moiety of the testimony that might be brought forward, and we think it will be seen that, while it must be admitted that Frederick the Great had quite as many sins of his own to answer for as the heart of his bitterest enemy could desire, it will yet be made appear that he did not lend his name to make innovations in the body of Masonry. The time selected for him to mature the system is singularly unfortunate, as a moment's reflection will satisfy every historian, that at no period of his wars was he so incessantly occupied with his armies, as in 1762'˛ and Dr. Dalcho tells us that " the higher Councils and Chapters could not be opened without his presence, or that of his substitute, whom he must appoint." Stephen Morin claimed that his authority to confer the higher degrees emanated from Frederick, and the following extract will show (if true) that this Monarch wore his Masonic honoys a long time, and still they escaped the notice of every historian of his day. The Charleston Grand Council says "On the 1st of May, 1786, the Grand Constitution of the 33rd degree, called the Supreme Council of Sovereign Grand Inspectors General, was finally ratified by His Majesty the King of Prussia, who, as Grand Commander of the Order of the Prince of the Royal Secret, possessed Sovereign Masonic power over all the Craft. In the new Constitution, this high power was conferred on a Supreme Council of nine brethren in each nation, who possess all the Masonic prerogatives, in their own districts, that His Majesty individually possessed, and are Sovereigns in .Masonry." By what authority the foregoing statements were made, does not appear, but it is most likely that they were the invented tale of Morin ; certain it is, that not a line or sentence of it is sustained by any historical record. Bro. Albert Pike, who is an open and devoted friend, and holds allegiance to the Charleston Council, said, in his address to the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, in February, 1858, that he did not believe Frederick the Great had 11G




anything to do with those degrees; but we offer testimony from the fountain‑head in Prussia, as conclusive upon this su'l,tecL The following is the original translation of the.,document., hi 6t10 Oerman language, deposited in the Grand_ East, of France, :.


" To Bro. Le Blanc De Marconay, Esq., of New York MOST LEARNED BROTHER:‑We thank you very much for your obliging letter of May 25th, and for the information ii, contains about, the situation of the Art Royal. in America.


You wish to receive from us 1. A notice concerning the establishment, the progress, and. the actual situation of Masonry in our East.


" 2. The. Tableaux which were printed by the


supreme authorities, and particularly the,Lodges thereto belonging.


3. A copy of the publications which took place.


` In order to comply with your wishes, it would be necessary far you to cover the expenses by a credit, as they are far above our means.


But to satisfy you as much as it is in our power, without, exceeding the limits of a letter, and, as a token of our gratitude toward you for the interesting information you have com municated to us, we will only say, that our National Grand Lodge has been founded under the auspices of Frederick the Great, first :'Mason and Grand Master of his Empire, on the 13th of September, 1740. She has now ninety‑nine daughter Lodges, and is composed of the representatives of said Lodges but she is not in the dependency of any other foreign Lodge, and exists only under the protection of our august King, who: confides entirely in her as authorized Mason, first, free, legislative, and administrative. `She is the center of all her daughters, who are devoted to her.' " Concerning the opinions prevailing among you, we inform you that Frederick the Great is partly the author of the system, adopted by our Lodge, but that he never interfered with her affairs, or prescribed any laws to the Masons over whom lie: extended his protection throughout his estates.


The Grand Lodge, as far. as she is concerned, confines. leer jurisdiction to the Blue degrees of St. John.


A special.




Committee, composed of members elected by the brethren. and "called Supreme Interior East, directs the works of the highor degrees, which do not exceed seven.


_ " The Scotch Lodge of this Interior East, presided by a 'superior Scotch Master Mason, spreads over all the Scotch Lodges, united with the Lodges of St. John, and forms 'a total kith them all.


,"We recognize, as a superior authority, the old Scotch Directory, which is formed by elections in the Grand Lodge. " Such is the state of things. and all that is rumored gmoug you about the prescriptions and ordinances of Frederick the Great, had of a superior Senate, stands on no ground whatever: "Independent of this Grand Lodge, we have, in Berlin, two'bther Grand Easts; equally recognized, and provided with royal privileges, as well as this one, to wit: The National Grand Lodge of Germany, the Grand Royal York Lodge of Friendship.


Each one has a certain number of der~endip$ Lodges, and it is a national law that none can exist, in this kingdom, unless it be the dependent of, or united with, these three Lodges.


" We recognize these two Lodges as true and regular Masonic Lodges, and we live with them in perfect harmony, notwithstanding the difference of usages and forms existing between us.


" We hope that these informations will suffice, and we are ready to continue, with pleasure, our correspondence, and tp enter into more strict intercourse with the Grand Lodges of your country. We can even send you full powers and authority, if our letter be insufficient, and we expect your further advice.


`' We salute you with esteem and fraternal love, by‑three times three.


"Berlin, August 17, 1833.


" The old Scotch Directory of the National Grand Lodge b the three Globes.




" POSELGER, National G. Master. `' KOLGE, Sen. Warden.








The Grand Lodge, Royal York, of Friendship, follows no other system but that of Festler, which has but nine degrees ; and the National Grand Lodge of Germany is governed by the system of Zinnendorf, which has but seven degrees. We see, then, that the three Grand Lodges of the kingdom, working in different Rites, have not, collectively, as many degrees as the Rite of Perfection originally had ; and it is known that many of their degrees are the same, differing only in ritual.


How idle, then, to attribute to Frederick the Great the authenticity of any portion of the Scotch Rite degrees, or of instituting laws for their government.


Both Ragon and Marconay deny the existence of any Secret Constitutions, and as the Grand Councils in this country hail from France, it would seem that Bro. Marconay is right in paying . " If the Scotch Rite must be known, interpreted, vindicated. and observed, it must be through and by the Grand East of ,France, which is the oldest, authority‑the stock and tradition of said, Rite." Bro. Pike, in his address before the Grand Lodge of Louis iana, in February, 1858, claims that Scotch Rite Masonry originated in Charleston, and claims that the Charleston Couii 'cil is, of'right, the governing power.


He takes the ground that the addition of eight degrees to the Rite of Perfection changed that Rite, and justified the assumption of a new name‑that this change took place at Charleston, and the name Scotch Rite, ‑Ancient and ./accepted, was added‑that from Charleston the higher degrees, the eight additional ones, and the new name of the new Rite, was sent to France, and hence the Charleston Council is the mother of the Rite.


And, certainly, so far as the addition or cumulation of the eight degrees are concerned, Bro. Pike's statements are confirmed by the French writers, but the difficulty in sustaining the claim set up in behalf of the rights of the Charleston Council, are, 1. That the Council itself did not claim to have added the degrees, or to constitute a new rite, on the contrary, they, de novo, set up the claim that the additional degrees and laws for their SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


110 ‑ government, came to them from Frederick the Great ; and this doctrine has been manfully maintained by that Council, from its origin to the present day.


And, 2. If the Sublime Masons of Charleston originated the Scotch Rite, in 1801, that Rite could not have a code of laws, made specially for its government, before the rite was known, viz., in 1801 ; and yet, not only the Charleston Council, but Bro. Pike himself, contends that the Constitution claimed to ha‑Te been ratified by Frederick, in 1786, is, and ever has been, the paramount law'of the Scotch Rite, Ancient and Accepted. It must be apparent, then, that the claim to the institution of the Rite, in Charleston, is not sustained, as it would be incon, sistent to suppose that Frederick the Great ratified a code o˙ laws for the government of a Society, fifteen years before than Society was instituted.




Having now introduced as much testimony as seems to bd necessary to elucidate our subject, it may be proper to say a few words as to the credibility of the witnesses. And first of Bro. Ragon, whose book, Orthodox .Masonry, has been long before the world, and, so far as we know, has been held in high estimation, as a truthful, though partisan work. He, as stated, was the prominent defender of the Grand Orient of France, and opposed to the Grand Council.


Bro. Thory, on the other hand, was the defender of the Grand Council and opposed to the Grand Orient.


The brother who translated the extracts we have used front Ragon, says that the facts and dates are corroborated by Thory, but as we have no translations from the latter, we could noti use him as a witness.


` Bro. Le Blanc De Marconay received the Scotch Rite de‑i green, in the old Grand Council of New York, removed to Paris and was received a member, and made Grand Orator of the Chamber of Council and Appeals. The report from which we have extracted, was not at the time adopted by the Grand Orient, nor do we know that it has been since; but it was made in his official capacity, and though it might not be illiber~ al to charge that he would be influenced by a partiality for they 120




Council in which he had been Exalted. his facts must be credited when, as they are, in conformity to those published by Ra;goo. The author has had no means of stating the number and places of meeting of the Lodges and Consistories, established at various periods by the old Grand Council of New York, or the Grand Council of Charleston, but from a Tableau, printed by the De Witt 'Clinton, or old Grand Council of New York, in 1820, it may be seen, that they had planted a Consistory is New Orleans, La., one in Newport, R. I., one in Philadel hia, Pa., and one in Charleston, S. C. This publication bears, the written signature of De Witt Clinton, as Presid^nt c`_' the Council, and the signatures of the other officers.


2nd it is but rair to suppose the Charleston Council had been, and continues to be quite as industrious in planting subord nates. .On the Foe hand, the De Witt Clinton Grand ' Council has ever demounced the Grand C^.:ncil of Charleston and its subordinates, and has been sustained in doing 3o by the Grand Orient of France.


On the other hand, the Charleston Grand Council and its subordinates, have evo3r (at !east, since 1813) denounced the De Witt Clinton Council, and with it the Grand Orient of France, and have been aided in doing so by the Grand Council France. This quarrel has become so embittered in the Ulnited States, that now, if one will patiently listen to, and besieve all the statements made, lie would be forced to believe that w honest and honorable man ever occupied any prominent station with either party. Be this quarrel among them. It has already had the effect to lay open to dissection the so called Scotch Rite Masonry, and if the dissection shall ever be made by a skillful operator, the whole system will stand forth a ghastly Skeleton of that political and religious machine, erected by Jesuitical machinations, to batter down the Protestant altars, and erect upon their ruins that mammoth system of image 7ror ship, upheld and sustained by the divine right of Popes, Kii.aa and Priests. This may seem strong language. but is the picture overdrawn? To every Christian, whether Catholic or Protestant, who has sat in a Chapter of Rose ‑}‑, and seen the free worked, an appeal is hereby made.


Does not the whole ceremony tend to prove, most conclusively, that it was institutes SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


121 !n the manner, and for the purposes stated in this article? Why are two Crosses, with a Rose, veiled in the Sanctuary, and suddenly exposed to view when the Chapter is opened ?


Do they not portray a portion of the Catholic worship ?


Why, in }gassing these fi +, are you compelled to bow and make a Romis'i Yign to them? Is it not a part and parcel of the Catholic worship?


What means the drawn dagger and the solemn vow `that accompanies it? Are you not thereby pledged to spill your heart's blood in defense of the Catholic religion?‑the Catholic, because it is evident that was the religion which the founders of this degree made all its recipients swear never to vcleunge.


What means the Holy Font of the Rose +?


Is it 'not a basin of water made holy by the mummery of priestcraft?


What means the Passover and Libation, if they are not used as the most solemn manner of renewing your


covenant and plighting, soul and body, in defence of the Christian feligion But, after all, the most important and momentous question leas yet to be propounded, and it would be but justice to the cause of truth, were it publicly answered: " What means the ceremony of breaking the bread, and drinking the wine?"


Do they not constitute a representation of the Lord's Supper?


It will, doubtless, be denied, by some Scotch Rite Masons, that the Sacrament is administered in a Rose ‑{‑ Chapter, because in some localities this portion of the ceremony, as we are informed, has been stricken out or changed, but we are authorized to say, that in the French Rose + Chapters, this ceremony is regarded to be the true ordinance, as efficient and holy as when administered by the Apostles.


They hold that all who have taken the Sacrament in a Rose + Chapter are ordained priests, having, thereby, full power to administer it to others‑to anoint with holy unction, bury the dead, and do all other things which are lawful and proper in ordained ministers of the Gospel.


The reader has, perhaps, shuddered at the thought, that the foregoing may be true, and that there is a society of men in Christendom, who, under the cloak of teaching morality and virtue, thus trifle with the holy ordinances of God.


The author is aware that he runs the risk of raising a strong ff 122




and influential opposition, not only to this article, but because of it, to the sale of his work ; but if, in consequence of his plain manner of laying bare the truths, as he understands them‑it the performance of a duty, unpleasant, indeed, but no less a duty, which he owes to his brethren and the community at large, must cause the labor of a long life to be regarded as worse tLan useless, and the fruits of that labor, the favorite work of his life, to fall still‑born, he will not be deterred from his course.


It is no answer to the objections urged against Scotch Rite Masonry,.dncient and .dccepted, to be told that this Rose Chapter, and that Rose ‑}‑ Chapter, do not work the degrees according to the ritual here hinted at, because, as before stated, various changes have been made, but it is here asserted that the representations made are, to the full, to be found in the old rituals in this country, and the essential portion of them must be used by all Chapters, who work the degrees, or they, have violated their vows and changed their religion.


But the misfortune is, that, for the most part, the degree is not worked, but communicated, and the recipient may not know, or be able to fathom the whole scheme.


And now, brethren of the old and true school Masonry, are you prepared to amalgamate, or enter into compacts with this Society, who claim to have the Ancient and Accepted Masonry, and who profess to hold in their body the Sovereigns of all Masonry? We have seen the heart‑burnings, discord, and confusion introduced into the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, by the union and fusion of Scotch Rite, and Ancient Craft Masonry, in 1833.


We have seen that, wherever, on the Continent of Evirope, the Scotch Rite has been introduced, every effort has been made, and generally, with success, to root out and superceed the Masonry of our fathers. Must this revolutionary system continue?


Can Freemasons, good and true, admit that ;t is in the power of men to make innovations in the body of Masonry ?


Can intelligent and consistent Freemasons admit, that it is lawful and proper to practice Freemasonry, by a new and modified system ?


If there is a reality in Masonry, there can be but one Masonry, one system, one ritual, one teaching, SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


123 one code of fundamental law; and if that Masonry, that system, that ritual, that doctrine, and that code of laws, which have been transmitted to us through the Grand Lodge of En 0 land, be essentially correct, can we, dare we regard any other as legal and proper ? Can we lose sight of the fact, that if the Scotch Rite teaches Masonry at all. it is an innovation upon the body of Masonry.


Through the instrumentality of Chevalier Ramsey, a few Jesuit. Priests, and Lawrence Dermott, we have now tacked on to Masonry a series of degrees, amounting to nine in this country, some of which are purely sectarian, purely Christian, and from which we are compelled t.o exclude the true descendents of the twelve tribes‑the founders of Masonry; and shall we further degrade Freemasonry, by adopting a system of thirty‑three degrees, openly and boldly proclaiming, as they do, that, though of modern origin, they teach true Freemasonry, and have the original right do do so ? What would become of our solemn engagements to permit no innovations? What would become of that system of Grand Lodge government universally adopted since 1711 ?


We are all pledged not to recognize, as a brother, any one who has not been made in a legally constituted Lodge ; and, since 1717, Lodges can be made legal only by authority of Grand Lodges. It is true that the Grand Lodge of France accommodates all applicants, whether of the Symbolic, Scotch, or Modern Rite, but if our old and beloved Order has been down‑trodden there, shall we, too, bow the knee, and yield obedience to this unblushing innovator ?


Does it justify' us in legalizing these innovations, by being told that this new system prevails extensively throughout Continental Europe, and we have recognized Masons made there?


Nay, this oft repeated tale of electioneering for the Scotch Rite, is but a poor apology for the violated faith of those who have solemnly promised never to make or tolerate innovations, and who, having taken the Scotch Rite degrees, must know them to be so.


If France has lost the Freemasonry planted there by the Grand Lodge of England, and if South America has never known any other than Stephen Morin's Masonry, does it follow that the Masons of the United States, of Scotland, England, Ireland, Prussia, etc., etc., 124




ihali desert t,ieir post, and, in a 'dastardly manner, surrender tie Venerable Temple of Masonry to an Institution, young in ears, but old in schemes for change, and more remarkable for high‑sounding titles than a uniform system of morals Were it practicable to institute a world's Convention, instructed and clothed wish power to bring Masonry back to its primitivi; purity, or if this were not practicable, at least to that simplicity which distinguished it throughout the days of Sir Christopher Wren, and down to that period when Ramsey and Dermott entered the Holy of Holies, and stole away many of its sacred and valued jewels, future ages would applaud and venerate their deeds, for then we should have all of Freemasonry in three degrees, and all the historical and traditionary lore, which, by the American system, is given in nine degrees, would be communicated to the Master Mason. But so long as this desirable end is beyond our reach, it is to be hoped there will remain a chosen few, who will rise proudly above the fascinations of high‑sounding titles, and the allurements of power sup. posed to be vested in Sovereign Grand Inspectors General of Freemasonry, and stand forth resolved to permit no more interferences with the rituals and teachings of our Order.


If the American subdivision, requiring nine instead of three degrees, or Dermott's four degrees must continue, let us not tax our descendants with the expense and mystifications of a new and enlarged system, interspersed with Masonry, Egyptian philosophy, Paganism, Christianity, and anti‑Christianity. Nay, rather let us plant our standard on the outer walls of of Ancient Free and Accepted Masonry, the only Freemasonry ever known, and, as its Virgin banner floats in the breeze, let passers‑by behold its motto: "REMOVE NOT THE LANDMARKS SET BY YOUR FATHERS." When about half of the foregoing article on Scotch Rite Masonry had been set up for stereotyping, we remembered and referred to an able and learned lecture upon the legends of the third degree, from the pen of Bro. T. S. Gourdin; of South Carolina, which we published in the Signet, in 1852. As we then stated, Bro. Gourdin is the first writer after whom we have rea 1, whose opinions corroborate our own, in relation to the SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


126; oń~jects and, ends of Freemasonry, and as his article will go fate f4,.elucidate,the subjects connected with the Scotch Rite, :i,ncient i sn Accepted, we take the liberty of giving it in fall, though, . iiii regret we lead not first, asked permission of ifs author, sell; uoy beg, liis acceptance of our reasons, above stated, aa, 4!ir. apology: I THE. HISTORICAL REFERENCE OF THE LEGEND OF THR THIRD DEGREE.


BY THEODORE s. WURDL21i, w. Il. of IAndmark Lodge, No. 76. Uiarleston, a. Q " In the wide field of Masonic investigation, there is, perhaps,, Ip subject which leas been the. theme of so much discussion, as. tip true historical reference of the legend of the third degree. And it is almost vain to hope that these differences of opinion gill ever be reconciled. I shall, however, endeavor briefly to, present some of the various views entertained upon this `vexed question.' '` Many brethren in Europe suppose this legend to be as a#ronomical allegory. In their opinion `the Masters degree represents the autumn, this last, season, when the sun ends his,. epurse, and, like the Phoenix, which was the type, dies to be reborn from,his ashes. It represents mature age, the epoch of. life., when man reaps the fruits of his labors and of his studies. Ixs,emblem is, the tracing‑board, on which are delineated the plans‑‑that is to say, the lessons of morality and of exper‑, ience, the duties of the Fellow Crafts and the Apprentices."* "The evil principle, which has been represented in all the. appient fables as a jealous prince, ravisher of the power of his, chief, whom lie pursues unceasingly, and at last kills,.t is here. symlbolized. The twelve persons who play so important a part (French Rite) in this degree, are supposed to refer to the twelve signs of the Zodiac through which the sun travels.


The three. inferior signs, the signs of winter: to wit, Libra, Scorpio, and e (burs 1'hilosophique et Interprelatif des Initiations Anciennm el Modernes, par d. IL. Qagon, p. 153.


Paris : Berlandier.


t lbid, p. I tit.






Sagittarius, about the middle of autumn occupy these three points in the heavens, in such a manner that the first is found on the decline, or to the West, the second at its right ascension to the South, and the last begins to appear in the East, which is represented by the East gate, where the sun dies in Sagiti˛ tarius.


It is reborn immediately, or recommences a new year in Capricornus.*


`The sun can not depart from our universe, or from the temple of nature.'


Observe the course which the sun makes, `whether on the first day of spring, if we suppose this star taking up his abode in the sign of Aries, or on the last day of his triumph at the summer solstice, or, finally, the day before his death, which takes place in Libra, whither he descends to the horizon by the western gate ; if, then, we go back upon the sphere, and examine the position that Aries takes in the East, we see near him the great Orion, his arm raised holding a club in the attitude of striking ; to the North we see Perseus, with a weapon in his hand; and in the attitude of a man ready to inflict a deadly blow.


From this moment his inclination toward the southern hemisphere appears so prompt, that it resembles a fall ; behold him then cast into the tomb; will he reappear, will he be restored in accordance soith our prayers?


It is this uneasiness which is suppcsed to have overcome the first men, which is represented by the search.`h


The catastrophe `viewed in the figurative or allegorical sense, is, like the suffering of Osiris, of Adonis, of Atys, or of Mithras, an act of the imagination of the astronomical priests, whose object was to depict the absence of the sun from the earth, in order to represent, by this circumstance, the triumph of the evil principle, or darkness, over light, or the good principle."


If we 1Qok toward the western horizon, when the sun sets in Aries, we will distinguish around this constellation, ` Perseus, Phaeton, and Orion, surrounding in this manner the constellations which adorn the heavens, in this position ;. and, we will remark, to the North, Cepheus, Hercules and Bootes ; and to the East will appear Centaurus, Serpentarius, and Scorpio.'1 "The six days which elapse, are supposed


to be `still a Mid, p. 147.


t Ibid, p. 163.


1 Ibid, p. 163.


1 Bid, pp. 163‑64.




12,7 dontinuation of the same clcstial theme ; for these six days are the representation of the six months which the sun passes in the inferior signs, before reappearing in the East, in the sign of dries, or the mediatorial lamb. And the discovery which is made on the seventh day, is a symbol of the resurrection of the sun, which actually takes place in the seventh month after his passage into the inferior signs‑a passage which his disappearance has caused to be considered as his death, or as his descent into hell (loci inferi, lower regions).'* "''The degree of Master,' remarks Bro. Ragon, `retraces to us allegorically the death of the solar god. Whether we only consider this god as the physical sun, dying in winter, to reap pear, and to be resuscitated in spring, at Easter‑that is to say, at his passage into the mediatorial lamb‑and to restore life to nature ; or, as the philosopher, we see only a figurative commemoration, an emblematic painting of Chaos, from the bosom of which issues forth the eternal light; or whether (what amounts to the same thing) the putrefaction expressed by the word


, apparent death of the body, but in exhaustiblo source of life, by which the germ in spring receives its development.' " ` When in December the winter sun appears to leave our climate to reign over the southern hemisphere, and seems to us to descend into the tomb, Nature, then, is the widow of her husband‑of him from whom she receives each year her joy and her fecundity. Her children mourn; justly, then, do the Masons, pupils of Nature, who, in the degree of Master, describe this beautiful allegory, call themselves the children of the ˛ Ibid, p. 158.


John Fellowes, A.M., after citing from Dapui's (L'Origine de tons les cultes) an account of one of the Pyramids


of Egypt, supposes that the fourteen days alude to the period before the Spring Equinox (the precise period at which the Persians celebrated the revival of Nature), when the sun would cease to cast a shade at midday‑and that it would not again cast it till fourteen days after the Fall Equinox (Bxpasition of the Hy8teries, etc., of the Ancient, FgWians, Pythayoreans, and Druids, p. 297.


New York: 1835).


And, in another place, he seems to think that the fourteen days refer to the gradual diminution of the Canary light, during the fourteen days that follow the full moon (Ibid, p. 296) The fourteen days comport with the allegory of Osiris and Isis (Ibid, p. 306).






widow (or of Nature), as upon the reappearance of the goal. they become the children of light.'* "All this is very beautiful l but is it true ?


I fear that our brethren of the `Rite Moderne' have strained matters a little, in order to give to this degree an astronomical signification. But of this hereafter.


"Bro. George Oliver, D.D., one of the greatest Masonie writers,of the present age, on the other hand, rejecta entirely the astronomical signification of the Master's degree.t


Put he is also opposed to a literal interpretation of its legend $


`The historical foundation of the legend of Speculative Mae‑)nry,' lie observes, 1 ` I am persuaded had a spiritual reference to something of a higher and more supernal character‑sometHng coui.ected with our best and most valuable interests, both in time and eternity‑even to the unhappy fall of our first parent:, to which the penalty of death was attached, which all mankind, unite in deploring.


. . .


It referred also to their restcration, to life and holiness, by the promise of a Mediator, and a resur rection from the dead.


Thus, then, it appears that the h‑storlcal reference of the legend of Speculative Masonry, in all ages of the world, was to our DEATH IN ADAM, and LIFE IN CHRIST. What then, was the origin of our tradition? Or, in other words, to what particular incidents did the legend of initiation refer aefore the flood ? I conceive it to have been the offering and assassination of Abel, by his brother Cain, the escape of the murderer, the discovery of the body by his disconsolate parents, and its subsequent interment, under a certain belief of its final, resurrection from the dead, and of the detection of Cain by. Almighty vengeance.'  This interpretation, though ingenious, is purely speculative. It is impossible for us to say to what historical event the origi.. nal legend of our Order referred ; but we think that w e may sgfely assert that the present legend does not refer to the death, of Abel.


˛ Ibid., p. 164.


t .The I?istoricd Landmarks, etc., I. p. 181, Note 86, by. Richard Spencer. Ion : 1845.


t Ibid. pp. 154 aad 170.


1 Ibid, pp. 170‑72‑73.




129 "Our learned brother then adds:*


` This incident, I conceive, was the archetype of the legend of Osiris and Typhon, in the Spurious Freemasonry, as well as any traditionary relations of a s'milar character among ourselves.


In each case, we find an assassination, a loss, a discovery of the body, and a rising to a more decent interment, as in the original legend of Abel.


And it is a curious coincidence, that tire Messiah, of whom Abel was a legitimate type, in like manner, suffered a violent and unmerit=ed death‑was concealed for three days within the bowels of the earth‑raised Himself triumphantly from the tomb of transgression‑and triumphantly ascended to take possession of His seat in heaven, while His betrayer inflicted summary punish, ment on himself by becoming his own executioner.


Ile hanged himself in Aceldama, and, falling headlong, lie burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out ; and there he lay, a spectacle to all mankind.' "`I admit,' be continues,t `that this interpretation of a well known legend may appear overstrained, as it is novel ; but, on a reference to the general construction of the Order, it appears to me the most rational metbod of preserving its consistency. The types and allegories of Freemasonry are illustrative of the sacred truths of religion ; but they embrace those points of doctrine only which are common to all mankind, and it is to exemplify these doctrines, and to make them conducive to the practice of morality, that the details of our consecutive degrees have been arranged.


"`1. The candidate is taught ]low, under the theocracy of the patriarchal dispensation, the worship of God consisted in a few simple rites of devotion, which were accepted according to the sincerity of the devotee ; and hence religion was merely the practice of morality, based on the love of God, and His promise of reconciliation to His creatures.


"`2. The candidate is passed on to a view of the Mosaic disponsation, shadowing forth a Cliurch triumphant, when the fullness of time should come. And when the theocracy ceased, and a regal government began, the candidate was shown (in Hietorieal Landmarks, Vol. L, p. 171


t Ibid, p. 177 9 136




the details respecting the erection of the Temple), to the l aiddle chamber. There, as a Fellow Craft, lie was entitled to penetrate, but, no farther‑a type of a more glorious revelation pf the divine Shekinah was represented in the two famous pitJjLps, and their spherical crowns, which were placed at the entrance of the porch.


" ` 3. He is raised to a higher and more comprehensive vicar of the beauties of the system, by a scenic display of the resur1Rection from the dead ; and is introduced into the Sanctum Ra,nctorum, where lie beholds the ark and propitiatory, over! ehadowed by the true Shekinah, which in a former degree wa;; only indicated by a symbol. This is a type of the Christian dispensation, which was established by that Sublime Being, of vhom the Jewish Shekinah was the glory or radiant appearance ; and, therefore, it was with manifest propriety that the :resurrection was shadowed forth in this substituted degree, Veeause in no preceding religious system was that doctrine fully ;revealed and exemplified.' `Such,' says this distinguished brother,* ` are my opinions of the origin and application of the .legend which forms the mechanism of the third degree of Masonry ; but I am bound, in candor, to add, that there are veasonable objections to the hypothesis.'


In this I concur with liim, viz., that there are reasonable objections to his theory con cerning the origin of the legend.


Many of these will, doubtless, lndtantly present themselves to the minds of those brethren who have paid the slightest degree of attention to our core monies.


I shall, therefore, merely remark, that if the present legend refers to the death of Abel, it has been most strangely perverted; indeed, so much so, that, from it alone, one could never arrive at a knowledge of the fact that there ever lived ~uph a person as Abel ? With the moral interpretation of the third degree, above mentioned, we feel satisfied. But as this is not the subject of our essay, we will not dwell upon it.


" Our late talented brother, William Hutchinson, whose leg ters, originally composed for the use of the Barnard Caetle ˛Historloal Landmarks. Vol. 1., p 181.


Note 36.




131 ‑Wge, of Concord. over which he presided for several oucceeive years, were first published in the year 1775, under the .unction of the Grand Lodge of England, also believes that $be three degrees refer to the three dispensations, viz., the Patriarchal, the Mosaic, and the Christian.* He, however, supposes the third degree was instituted since the death of Christ. Confidently does he assert that ` the ceremonies now *pown to Masons prove that the testimonials and insignia of .ihe Master's order, in the present state of Masonry, were devis#4 within the ages of Christianity ; and we are confident that there are not any records in being, in any nation, or in any ;lapguage, which can show them to be pertinent to any other ;pystem, or give them greater antiquity.'t


And, in endeavoring to account for the origin of Freemasonry in England,‑he speaks ,of 'the propagators of the Christian doctrine, who brought with them the principles of the Master's Order, and taunht the converted those sacred mysteries which are typical of the Christian faith, and professional of the hope of the resurection ,of the body, and the life of regeneration.'$


And again, he says:


` The members of our Society at this day, in the third ‑ptage of Masonry, acknowledge themselves to be Christians'' the vail of the temple is rent‑the builder is smitten‑and we are raised from the tomb of transgression.' II


And, in another place: `Thus the Master Mason represents a man under the ,Christian doctrine, saved from the grave of iniquity, and raised to the faith of salvation.' 1 "The late Rev. Bro. Frederick Dalcho, M.D., who was for many years the Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge of this Mate, seems in some measure to have adopted the opinion of the learned author last cited ; but he differs from him in this while Bro. Hutchinson supposes that the third degree alone was instituted within the ages of Christianity,l( Bro. Dalcho oelieves that the three degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry were unknown before the the time of Christ.


' I have long been of The Spirid N. MCraonry, by Wm. Hutchinson. New Edition


London: Id43 p. 155.


f Ibid, p. 164


t Ibid, p. 203.


O Ibid, p. 57


1 Ibid, p. 159:


11hid, p. 16$‑64 1,32




opinion,' says he, * `Tlsstt Freemasonry was unknown until after the Christian era. There are evidently so many allusions in Masonry to the Trinity, and otlici‑ doctrines of the Cliristiai+ revelation, that it requires but little reflection to discover the allegory.'


After admitting that ' the origin of the Society, however, as an institution distinct from other associations, is involiedin impenetrable obscurity; and, notwithstanding the learning and zeal of many industrious Masons, it will, I fear. forever remain unknown ;' 'h he declares that `neither Adam, nor Noah, nor Nimrod, nor Moses, nor Joshua, nor David, nor Solomon; nor Hiram, nor St. John the Baptist, nor St. John the Evangelist, belonged to the Masonic Order, however congenial their principles may have been.


It is unwise to assert more than we can prove, and to argue against probability.


Hypoth esis in history is absurd.


There is no record, sacred or profane, to induce us to believe that these holy and distinguished men were Freemasons, and over traditions do not go back to their days. To assert they were Freemasons, may " snake the vulgar stare,' but will rather excite the contempt, tlsan the admiration o˙ the wise.


"And, in support of his position, lie advances the following extraordinary argument : 'If St. John was a Freemason. then it is impossible that Solomon should have been one, because his Lodges could not have been dedicated to St. John, who was not born until a thousand years sifter the first Temple was built, therefore, there would have been in St. John's day what there was not in Solomon's, which would be contrary to our known principles. And besides, if both these personages were Freemasons, then we have the evidence that Solomon was the greater Mason of the two, and our Lodges should be dedicated to him instead of St. John.


But if Solomon "was a Freemason, then there could not have been a Freemason in the world, from the day of the creation down to the building of the Temple, as must be evident to every Master Mason.'$ " Now, I would ask, if this weak attempt at argument would ˛ An Akin= Itaon, etc. Charleston, S. C.: 1822, p.10.




+ Ibid, p.5.




I =bid, p. 5.






133 become the youngest member of our Order?


After admitting that lie is ignorant of the origin of our Society, lie asserts that our traditions do not, as they pretend, go back to the time of Solomon. As regards the dedication of our Lodges, no one would have ever dreamed of the objectio>l, that they could not have been dedicated to St. John before his birth‑that,is to say, to St. John in. fWuro.


The learned Doctor appears to have been ignorant of the fact, that Jewish Masons still continue to dtflicate their Lodges to Solomon, as .formerly ; while Christian Masons dedicate them to the two St. Jollus‑for reasons known to every Entered Apprentice. I wish some equally skillful brother would demonstrate, to our satisfaction, the truth of that part of Dr. Dalcho's proposition, which he pronounces to 'be evident to every Master 11ason.' We should feel, under great and lasting obligations to him for enabling us to see tire light. And these are specimens of `the scientific and explanatory notes,' which, in the opinion {unanimously expressed) of the 3(. W. G. Lodge of Ancient Froemasons of South Carolina, ` will be found highly interesting and instructive to the Fraternity, and calculated to promote tire respectability of the Order among those who are ignorant of its principles.' "I will add one more instance of the numerous mistakes which our late worthy brother committed is discussing the scientiio beauties of Freemasonry. In that most remarkable Masonic production which it has ever befallen us to read (his Oration delivered on the 21st March, 1803), he declares that our legend is `founded on tile grossest errors of accumulated ages,' t and complains that a word is demanded which the neophyte has never received.


I deem it a sufficient answer to to this, and all similar statements contained in that address, to remark, that our Rev. l3rother seems entirely to have lost sight of the dramatic character of the degree.


But Bro. Dalcho professed to be, a learned man, and a very bright Mason.


Indeed, it was at one time the fashion of tire brethren in this State, to regard the author of the 'scientific' notes to the Ahiman Rexon, as the 11dd. Sanction. Jnne 28th. 5825 (1821). t Dalchds Orations, p. 43.






fourth great light of the Order.


Is it then at all Furprising that our sublime mysteries should, in the hands of such an expositor, have sunk, not only in the eyes of the profane, but also in the estimation of the bretliren?


And this is the ittevitalk result o˙ placing men in situations which they are incompetent to fill. ' "But to return to the subject of our essay.


Aeeotding to the Rite of Misraim, Jubal, Tubal Cain, and other distinguished Masons of that day, determined to construct a sacred place: 'The tradition o˙ the Order,' says Bro. Mare Bedarrido, 'gives the details of this Holy sanctuary, and of the events which occurred during the lengthy period of its ebnstrtictif (Seven. y ears), as well as of the mournful lass, and of the immortal memory of the celebrated Hario‑Jubal‑Abi, occasioned by the perfidy,of the, infamous Hagana, Iiakina, and Haremda.


After this sad and unhappy


event, the worthy patriarch, Tubal Cain (seventh mortal descendant of Adam in the direct line), was charged with the general diredtidn of the works of the secret place, which was finished with pomp and mao,nificence, to be the depository of the documents containing tire secrets of nature, the dogmas, and the scientific part of dvr sublime Institution.' 'I'Others,' says Robert Ragon,t' explain the degree of Mw ter by circumstances relative to the tragic end of Charlog L, forgetting that these symbols of death were, by all antiquity, received in Chaldea, in Syria, in Persia ; thett they hart e moral signification which we explain, and a physical gignificatittn interpreted by the phenomena of Nature. Tertullidn speaks of them, on the subject of Eleusis, and the sixth book of 1Eneifl describes them with tke accuracy of a ritual.' "` As for those who ascribe this degree:' ebntirios the same learned author,' to the tragic end of the Order of the Temple, they are ignorant of the historical documents which mention the Masons before, during, and after the Order of the Templb.


˛ De L'Odre Mag. de Mismim Benard et comp.


Paris: 1845.p.24.


t Quma da Initidim. etc.. p.141.


Note 1.


t For a very inter ˛atlng account of this , Innovation, see S'aal"tii and {{'warn iltbmnie MeacdRrny, Charleston, S. C.: 1850. p. 5.




1Sl1 We possess Masonic degrees practiced by the Templar1 three hundred years before their tragic end.' Time will not permit me to notice all the different intcrpretatibna given‑by friends and by foes‑to this truly subliW agree.


But 1 can not think of laying aside the pen, irithont mentioning the theory of Barruel (one of the most virulWA enemies to our Order), who deduces our origin from the itnpoe˛ tar Manes, the founder of the Basilidean sect of Christian&: `In the degree of Master,' lie says, `everything dohotes mourn0 and sorrow.


The Lodge is hung in black, iii the middle ii sarcophagus resting on five steps, covered with A phll. Around it the Adepts, in profound silence, inonrin the death of a man whose ashes are supposed to lie in this tomb. This mkit ig at first said to be Adoniram, then Do Molay, whose death is to be Avenged by that of all tyrants.


The allegory is rathor inauspicious to kings; but it is of too old it date not to hd anterior to the Grand Master of the Temple.


The whole dt. this Ceremonial is to be found in the aihcient ihysWries of the disciples of Manes.


This eras the ceremony Which tliCy calldd Bema.


They also assembled round a sarcophagus, "resting dtt five steps, decorated in like manner, and rendered great liondra ib him whose ashes it was supposed to contafti.


$ut they Overt, all addressed to Manes.


It was his death that thdy celebrated , and they kept this feast precisely at the period *lieu the Chr'r* tistis celebrated the death and resurrectlof of Christ.' *


F All history asserts that Manes was adopted by the vtidOW to whdid Budda, Scythian's disciple, fled for refuge ; aid that the here siarch inherited all the riches he left her.'t


This interpret&ti6n is sufficiently ridiculoius to suit the purposes df its author. It id a gufcient answer to the misreproseiitatioiis of the learAi . bbe; td state that he says that lie was initiated iv thbut an ff: B.


This assertion at once stamps him an impostor.


"The general belief of Masons, At tho present day is, that ''offer the union of Speculative and Operative Uas6iiffy, and when the Temple of Solomon was completed, a legend of sublime and symbolical meaning was introduced into the 2 Sat. Jae., p. 401


f I6 id, p. 408.








system, which is still retained, and consequently known to all Master Masons.' " The principal objection to this opinion, so prevalent among the brethren, or, in other words, to a literal interpretation of our legend may, we think, be reduced to the following six ,.grounds " 1. That tile presumption is, that the Chief Architect was 1 present at tile dedication of the Temple. t " 2. And that lie afterwards returned to Tyre, and was the jLdviser and principal confident of Hiram, its King; and is said to have made the famous circumnavigation of Afnica, which is mentioned by Herodotus, and other authors, as a most wonderful undertakin(r. $ "3. That it would scarcely have been adopted by Solomon to consecrate the memory of his humble associate, however, his .virtues and services might merit the continued respect of the brethren of all ages and times, because the naked fact, even if ‑it were true, would have afforded a very poor apology for the basis of an Institution which was destined to extend to every nation of the earth, and to endure.forever. It would have been surpassed in ingenuity of invention, as it was in splendor of 3isplay, and the imposing effects of its machinery, by the legend :)f the Spurious Freemasonry, relative to the death and resurrection of Osiris or Bachus. I '~ 4. That our tradition is corroborated by neither sacred nor profane history.1 "5. The repeated, allusions to Christianity embodied in the third degree. (a) " 6. The similarity between our legend and that of the ancient heathen mysteries, proves that they must have had a common origin. The latter being solar allegories, the former must be a solar allegory also.1 " The first,olilection is predicated upon the following texts of scripture: 1 Kings vii. 40, 51 ; 2 Chronicles iv. 11, v. 1. The 2 Oliver's Elise. Landmarks. p. 169.


t Ibid, p. 154.


f lbid, p. 154.



(1 Ibid, p. 170.


1 Dalcho's Oradoas. (a) On this ground Bro. Hutchinson has based his arguments.‑Spires,/ Nowry.


1f Ragon, Court dear Anilialioru; p. 158.




137 prgument is most clearly stated by the Rev. Dr. Oliver * in the following words "' I am decidedly of opinion that our tradition is merely wllegorical, for there can be no doubt but the Chief Architect was present at the dedication of the Temple. Thus we frA that "Hiram made an end of doing all the work that lie had made Kin‑ Solomon for tile house of the Lord."


(1 Kiugs vii. 40.) Lest this plain intimation should be perverted, the above chapter enumerates all tile wonderful works of Hiram, wad, in tile last verse, which is in the same connection with his luakiur an end of all of his work, it is said, "so was ended all the work that King Solomon made for the house of the Lord."


Then. according to the sacred writer, the very next thing was the dedication of the Temple.


To place the fact of IIiram's being alive at the finishing of the Temple beyond all doubt, it is said (2 Citron. iv. n)," And Hiram finished the work that he was to make for King Solomon for the house of God."


And again in the first I verse of the next chapter, " thus all the work that Solomon made for the house of the Lord was finished."' "I admit that the Chief Architect lived to complete the Temple. The passages of Scripture above cited fully prove it. Indeed, the old traditions of Masonry expressly declare this to be tile fact. They say "' The Temple of Jehovah being finished, under the auspices of the wise and glorious King of Israel, Solomon, the Prince of Architecture, and the Grand Master Mason of his day, the Fraternity celebrated the cape‑stone with great joy ; but their joy was soon interrupted by the sudden death of their dear and worthy Master, Hiram Abiff; nor less was the concern of King Solomon, who, after some time allowed to the Craft to vent then sorrow, ordered his obsequies to be performed with great 'solemnity and decency; and buried him in the Lodge, near the Temple, according to the ancient usages among Masons, and long mourned for his loss.


"'After Hiram Abiff was mourned for, the Tabernacle of Moses and its holy relics being lodged in tile Temple, Solomon, 2Ilia. landmarks, p. 166.


Note 2.






in a ,oncral assembly, dedicated or consecrated it by solemn prayer and costly sacrifices past number, with the finest music, vocal and instrumental, praising Jehovah, upon fixing the Holy Ark in its proper place, between the Cherubim ; when Jehovah filled his own Temple with a cloud of glory.'* "` We have an old tradition,' says the Rev. Dr. Oliver, t 'delivered dawn orally, that it was the duty of II A. B. to superintend the workmen ; and that the reports of his officers were always examined with the most scrupulous exactuos3. At the opening of the day, when the sun was rising in the East, it was his constant custom, before the commencement of labor, to go into the Temple and offer up his prayers to Jehovah for a ltlessing on the work. And, in like manner, when the sun was setting in the Vilest, and after the labors of the day were closed, and the workmen had left the Temple, lie returned his thanks to the Great Architect of the Universe for the harmonious proted tion of the day.


Not content with this devout expression of his feelings, he always went into the Temple at the hour of high twelve, when the men were called off from labor to refreshment, to inspect the work, to draw fresh designs upon the tracingb6 ard, if such were necessary, and to perform other scientific . lots‑never forgetting to consecrate his duties by solelnfn prayer. These religious customs were faithfully performed for the first six years in the secret recesses of his Lodge, and for the last year in the precincts of the most holy place. At length, on the very day appointed for celebrating the cape‑stone of the building, he retired, as usual, at the meridian hour, and did not return alive.' " $ut, because lie was prosont at the completion of the Temple, it by no means follows as a necessary consequence that he wa1 pt˛esent at the dedication of it. Oti this point, the Scripturio tire silent, and we are entirely dependent on our traditions‑ The Constitutions of the Ancient and honorable. FrakWy or Free and Am‑#a Masons, containing their History, Charges. Regulations, etc., colliroted and digested by order of the Grand Lodge, from their old records, faithful traditions, &ad Lodge hooks, for the use of the Lodges, by chines Anderson, D. D. A neir edition carefully revised and continued to the present time. pp. 24, 25. London printed for G. Kearsly, Ludgate street, 1769.


t 2 Kist Landmarks, p. 151.


Note 30.




130 ilehich expressly assert to the contrary.*


The Scriptures dS riot mention what space of time elapsed between the completion and the dedication of the Temple.


Not are we to suppose that the sacred writers intended to give us an account of the manner In which the Israelites passed every moment, nor even every day of their time.


To read history, written after this Fashion, would be a herculean task, which one could never accomplish, though lie were to live to be as old as Methuselah.


It is. therefore a fair presumption to suppose that several days, or even weeks, perhaps, necessarily intervened between the completion and the dedication of that superb structure, in order that those to whom the business was intrusted might have sufficient time to make the preparations requisite for the appropriate cclebration of the latter event‑a celebration which certainly was in a style of splendor commensurate with the magnificence.of that edilice, which was to be the peculiar abode of the only true god.


And the circumstances mentioned in our tradition might Well have occurred during that interval.


W e know not on what ground the presumption is raised, that the Chief Architect, after the dedication of the Temple, returned to Tyre, and was the adviser and principal confidant of Hiram, its King. unless it be the silence o˙ the sacred historians concerning his fate ; and shall, therefore, postpone the consideration of this question until wo discuss the fourth objection. We are aware, however, that 13r'o. Marc De Bedarride is opposed tb us on this point, for lie says t that `Solomon, fully satisfied with all that Hiram Abilt had prepared for the embellishment df the Temple of God, congratulated him and loaded him with tnvors.


Hiram Abi1t returned to the bosom of his family (tA Tyre; we presume), where lie passed, without a cloud, the rest o1 his days in ,opulence.' " 1 laving never enjoyed the exquisite happiness of being ins dated into the sublime mystet‑ies developed in the ninety degrevr of the Rite of Misraim, we know not by what authority this as. wrtiotn is supported.


Not does Bro. Bedarride condess,end ˛ &uthern and We+fete Mamie Muxetlany, 1. p. 285. t Ills L'Ordre Mae. de Misraim. 1. p. 118.






to inform us from what source lie derives this piece of ;‑‑fi.rmation. But we do know that the G. 0. of France (who has always been remarkably liberal in her views) refused, in ISO, to acknowledge this Rite.* We also know that it has been asserted that it was invented and brought to maturity by two Jewish Masons called


Bedarride t (but this Brother Mare Bedarride


stoutly deuics), $








entertained whether it be so old as the commencement of the present century: II " It is unnecessary for us to endeavor to refute the last clause of the second ohjoction, inasmuch as our learned brother who proposed it confesses, with 'his usual candor, that lie has no confidence in it. 'This,' says lie,1 `is evidently an anachron ism, for this expedition was performed during the reign of Nechus, King of Egypt, many years afterwards.' " We admit, that after so great a lapse of time, it may at first appear incredible, that Solomon should have endeavored `to consecrate the memory of his liumble associate ;' but we think that, upon mature reflection, this, the third ol>,jection to a literal interpretation of our legend, will also readily disappear. Let us for a moment, in imagination, place ourselves in the situation of Solomon, and see how we should have acted under similar circumstances.


 "'The Temple was not only the most magnificent building of the age, but it was the only earthly house of the ever‑living God‑of 'I'. G. A. O. T. U., who vouchsafed, in an especial manner, to dwell therein ; thereby declaring his approbation of that edifice, and of the motives which prompted the erection of it. Surely the architect who planned that elegant structure, and made all the holy vessels for its service‑‑that architect who surpassed all others of his day in knowledge and wisdomthat architect who, even in that barbarous age, equaled (at least) the most skillful of our times, was deserving of all honor and praiso I


For to what man, in this the nineteenth centw‑y, ˛ Ragon, Gbnrs des Gtilialions, p. 344.


Note 1.


t 2 Oliver 'A //isl. Landmarks. p. 76.


t JJe L'Ordre Mae. de Maraim, p. 8.


1 Oliver's Rat. Landmarks,‑p. 76.


1 Mid, p. 154.


Note 38.




eim the description in Holy Writ given of Hiram, with anv degree of truth be applied?


` A cunning man, endued with understanding, .






skillful to work in gold and in silver, in brass, in iron, in stone, and in timber, in purple, in blue and .n fine linen, and in crimson ; alsa to grave every manner of graving, and to find out every doN,'ce which may be put to hirn.' " If we believe in the truth of the Old Testament at all, it seems to us that we must believe that, to use the language of the venerable Book of Constitutions,f ` this inspired Master was, 'without question, the most cunning, skillful, and curious workman that ever lived, whose abilities were not confined to building Only, but extended to all kinds of work, whether in linen, tapestry, or embroidery , whether considered as an architect, sculpture, founder, or designer, separately or together, lie equally excelled. From his designs, and under his direction, all the rich and splendid furniture of the Temple, and its several appendages, were begun, carried on, and finished.' "If.. then, this be a faithful description of the intellectual attainments of our ancient Grand Master (and we have no reason to doubt it), is it at all surprising‑nay, is it not highly probable, that Solomon, who, though the wisest of his nation, had found his equal, if not his superior, in the chief architect of the Temple, being reduced to the necessity of changing the original legend of Masonry, should have endeavored, with that generosity which is the peculiar characteristic of noble minds, to immortalize the name of one who had served him so faithfully and so well?


Why, this is what all nations have endeavored to do for their benefactors.


This is what we still endeavor to do‑not only for the truly great and good, but even for the humblest and least deserving of our relatives, as the tombstones in our churchyards daily testify.


The great and the good, in all ages, and among every people, have been glorified, canon~ed, or deified.


The only difference is this, that Solomon has. accomplished his object more effectually than some others. Another proof of his wisdom I


He has erected to the memory 2 Chrmidea ii. p. 13,14.


tBool of Cbnotitutions (Anderson), p. $0.






of his unfortunate friend an imperishable monument in tht+ hearts of the brethren‑a monument which will outlast all others now on the face of the globe‑‑a monument which can be destroyed only with the whole human race 1 And was it not noble?‑was it not right? " That our legend would have been surpassed in ingenuity of invention, as it was in splendor of display, and the imposing effect of its machinery, by that of the spurious Freemasonry relating to the death of Osiris or Bacchus, is no argument against its truth. The chief difference between the mode in which the false systems of religion and the true one inculcate their doctrines, is this : the former appeal to the senses, while the latter addresses itself to the judgment‑that faculty which places man so far above the brute creation.


'1 'he former endeavor to retain their followers. in `captivity by acting upon their imagination and their fears‑‑while the latter, despising the meretricious ornaments of falsehood, seeks to display tile truth in all her naked loveliness.


" Even so it leas been with Freemasonry.


Tie spurious systems attempted, by the ingenuity of their fables. to mislead the judgment‑by the richness of their decorations, to dazzle the eye‑by the splendor of their ceremonies. to captivate tile fancy‑by the power of their maciduery, to excite terror in tile mind of the votary ; and, finally, to cause the Victim to prostrate himself before the altar of error, instead of before that of truth.


"Not so the true system.


She lias no pampered priests to support in idleness, no vanity to gratify, no cud to gain, save that of acquiring and preserving a knowledge of tile truth. Slie seeks neither by the splendor of leer decorations to lure tire unsuspecting into leer embrace, nor by false terrors to enslave the weak.


No, she addresses herself to us as rational beingsas men whom the omniscient Father of the universe has endowed with reason and powers of reflection.


Slie abliors the fetters of XperAition, and points out the way of troth.


In letters (it flame she proclaims that truth, whioli is the same yesterday, today, and forever.


And this is effected by means of a sublime allegory, founded on fact, and narrated in a plain, but highly impressive manner.


To a well‑regulated mind, the remarkable SCOTCH RITE. ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


143 simplicity o˙ our legend certainly constitutes one of its chief merits.


"The fourth ground (by some deemed an insuperable objection) I consider one of the strongest arguments in favor of the truth of our tradition.


"The Scriptures do not inform us what became of the Chief Architect of the Temple ; but they relate, in two different places,* the circumstances connected with the death of Adoniram, who was by no means so distinguished a man as H. A. B. Either the writers of the holy books did know what became of H. A. B., after the completion of the Temple, or they did not. If we suppose that they did not know what became of him, their silence is sufficiently accounted for. But this supposition is altogether inconsistent with probability. So great a man as the Chief Architect of the Temple could hardy have left Jerusalem without the people being cognizant ol the fact.


Nor could he, after having successfully accomplished so arduous and glorious a task, have lived in obscurity at Jerusalem.


" We are, therefore, reduced to the alternative of admitting that the authors of the first book of Rings, and the second book of Chronicles, did know what became of the architect.


If he returned to Tyre, why do they not say se ?


Did he continue to live in Jerusalem?


Then, why are they silent?


But, he nei',her returned to Tyre, nor continued to live in Jerusalem. Why, then, do they not tell us what became of him ?


Surely, not because he was too insignificant a personage to be again noti:ed by the historian!


But rather from conscientious motiveo; or, perhaps, in obedience to the direct command of Solomon, who, intending to make use ol facts which had but recently occurred, as the basis of a new degree, and desirous of perpetuating the i ecollection of the virtues of his friend, determined to intrust their preservation, orally, to a chosen few.


Our traditions supply this link in the historical chain. ,kpd, when rightly viewed, there is nothing improbable or unnatural in them.


On the contrary, the circumstances are such 0 1 Kings xIi. 18; 2 Chronicles:. 18 144




as were very likely to have occurred, when we consider the vast number of workmen assembled at the building of the Temple. and the almost infinite variety‑ of dispositions and tempers with which our three Grand Masters had to contend. `The true stress of tradition lies in an appeal to the common sense of all mankind. It is a reliance upon the testimony of men. considered as men, and not of persons of this or that people or persuasion, actuated by principles implanted in that nature, which the whole species partake of, and not influenced by the power of such as are peculiar to any community or religion.'* " ` On this prihciple,' says the reverend brother whom wo have so often cited,and for whoscopinionwe entertain the highest respect, `have the traditions of Masonry been transferred from father to son, along with the knowledge of God's eternal existence and the immortality of the souUt " ` Ancient traditions,' observes another learned brother,$ `have often afforded occasional assistance to history, by stepping in to supply the want of existing monuments and records ; and, even at this time, in remote countries, where letters are little, if at all known, common tradition hands down past events with an artless sincerity, sometimes wanting where such events are liable to be perverted for indirect purposes. But Masonic tradition stands upon much firmer ground ; the chief bond of connection among Masons, in all agc3, having been FIDELITY.


It is well known that, in former times, while learning remained in few hands, the ancients had several institutions for the cultivation of knowledge, concealed under doctrinal and ritual mysteries, that were sacredly withheld from all who were not initiated into a participation of the privileges they led to, that they might not be prostituted to the vulgar.


Among these institutions may be ranked that of Masonry ; and its value may be inferred from its surviving those revolutions of government, relitr ion, and manners, that have swallowed tip the rest. And the traditions of so venerable an Institution, claim an attention far superior to the loose oral relations or epic songs of any uncultivated people whatever.' Stanhope's Boyle Led.


t Oliver's Andigrsitim of Frctmaaonry p. 1. t North. Gbnd., Part 1. Chap. 1.




145 "The evident allusions to Christianity embodied in the third degree, we respectfully submit, do not prove, as Bros. Hutchin. non and Dalcho suppose, that it was invented within the ages of Christianity. If the Christian religion, as is generally believed by learned divines of the present day, is destined to overshadow the earth, and take the precedence of all other systems of worship, we presume *at it will result from the fact of its being founded in truth.


If, then, it be founded in truth, it can not be a new system of religion.


But it must be the original ,,system, or rather a development of the original system of religion, established in the beginning by JEHOVAH Himself.


There cats not be a system of religion which is true at one period of the world, and false at another.


For God, the Author of religion, is unchangeable.


He is the same from all eternity.


To give laws to‑day, and to repeal them to‑morrow, would be an inconsistency which, though excusable in human legislators, is utterly at variance with the omniscience of Deity.


As, therefore, to suppose Him to be inconsistent with Himself, would be an insult to His majesty, so it is equally an insult to suppose that He has ever radically changed the original plan of salvation‑or, in Masonic language, that He has ever altered a landmark thereof.


" If, therefore, Masonry really is what she professes to be, the. handmaid of religion,' we must expect to find clear and repeated i allusions to that religion of which she is the humble handmaid, viz., the true religion ;* the religion established in the beginning. And in this we are not disappointed ; for the proofs are evident to every reflecting mind.


" It is true that Ancient Craft Masonry requires merely that we should conform to those general principles of natural religion in which all men agree ; and wisely, for her object is to unite the human race in one sacred band of brothers, ` among whom no contention should ever exist, but that noble contention; "If Masonry, or its idolatrous substitute, be considered under the worst and most forbidding forms, it invariably preserved the moral dogmas and institutes of each national religion. It is true that false religion produced false Masonry ; and the latter, faithful to the principles by which it was supported, proceeded na Nrtkt‑r than an idolatrous worship would sanction.'


Oliver's Sigm and ńprods.


Sherwood, Gilbert k Piper.


London: 1837.


Preface, p. Al.


10 246




or rather emulation, of who can best work, or best agree."' But having commanded dais, she offers to instruct those who are willing to learn ; and, by a sublime allegory, points out the salvation. And this she does in so clear a manner, that even the dullest among us can not fail to comprehend her intent.


" But if the allusions to Christianity be deemed an argument against the antiquity of the Masonic Institution, they must be equally so against the antiquity of the Mosaic dispen. sation ; and, indeed, against the mysteries of all nations ; for. the Mosaic dispensation was merely typical of the Christian, and even in the heathen mysteries, it seems there are to be found allusions to the system of Christianity.t And yet who will lye found mad enough to assert that either the Mosaic system, the Egyptian, Eastern, Persian, Eleusinian, Bacchic, Tyrian, Celtic, British, Gothic, or American mysteries, were invented since the death of Jesus of Nazareth?


With what propriety, then, can it be said ` the ceremonies now known to Masons prove that the testimonials and insignia of the Master's order, in the present stage of Masonry, were devised within the ages of Christianity ?' " 6. Others have argued that the similarity between our legend and that of the ancient heathen mysteries, prove that they must have a common origin ; and, hence, that as the latter were solar allegories, the former must be a solar allegory also.$ "While I admit the premises (because it is foreign to my purpose here to discuss the question), I deny the conclusion.


" I believe that the original object of Freemasonry, like that of the ancient heathen mysteries, was to preserve a knowledge of the true God, the omnipotent Creator of heaven and earth‑and to inculcate that reverence which is due to His most holy name. In the early ages of the world, the masses, following the evil propensities of their nature, began to worship the M. M. degree.


Crone' Chart, p. 36.


T On this subject we recommend to the brethren that erudite and highly inrn'nctive work, entitled,The history of Initiation, by Rev. Geo. Oliver, D.D. Riche std $pedeer : London ; and also Warburton's Divine Legation, Book If.


4 This appears to be the argument of M. Ragon. burs den Initiations, p. 137.




147 shadow instead of the substance‑the creature instead of the Creator. ` Whatever produced a lively impression on the ‑senses ; whatever excited pleasure or pain, astonishment, admiration, or alarm ; whatever banished evil or secured good; the elements, the phenomena of nature, animals, stones, vegetables, mountains, rivers, and forests, became objects of worship. Imagination, acting on the hopes and fears of ignorance, invested brute matter with intelligence and active power; and, as inanimate substances were supposed to contain within themselves certain occult virtues, they formed the divinities of fetishism.'* "Next followed Sabaism,orAstro‑Theology.


The sun; moon and stars, which were at first regarded merely as symbols of the Divine power, in course of time themselves became objects of adoration.


"And, finally, those men who had in any way distinguished themselves during life‑either by their virtues or their vices‑.when dead, were glorified as heroes, and then worshiped so gods. This is heroism‑the third and last variety of ancient heathenism.


"Ignorance, superstition, and crime raged throughout the earth ; and truth fell a victim to their machinations. In this deplorable state of affairs, the enlightened few who still preserved a knowledge of the truth, united together for the ,purpose of mutual improvement and instruction in the sublime doctrines of religion.


The multitude, being the children of darkness, could not bear the light.


The philosophers‑for so I shall call these religionists‑of the early ages of the world were forced to conceal their doctrines under the vail of alle. gory. Had they made public their views, they would have been denounced as atheists, and have met with persecution even unto death.


Hence arose those institutions known among the ancients as the Mysteries.t


In these secret assemblies the philosophers instructed those who had proved themselves worthy, by having undergone long and dangerous trials, in a knowledge ;of the true God, and in those principles of religion which had been revealed by Him in the beginning.


Religious and Profane Antiquity, by Jonathan Duncan, B.A.


Chap I., p. 1.


t warburton remarks, that it was an universal opinion that the heathen m y& teries were instituted pure.






"Among their esoteric doctrines there was one, at least, which is of the utmost importance to man‑the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, and the immortality of the soul. This doctrine, universally taught in the Ancient Mysteries, was alway:! illustrated by a beautiful legend, which was susceptible of two interpretations‑the historical and the moral; or allegorical. The probability is, that as all the various mysteries were derived from a common source, the legend was originally the same in all.


But, in the course of time, it varied in different countries. And this diversity in the historical interpretation of the legend was occasioned by many local circumstances, such as the religion, occupations, manners, customs, and habits of each nation ; until, at length, the original legend, became amalgamated with the history of that divinity to whom the mysteries were, at first, only ostensibly dedicated.


And as in most countries, the sun, from the infinite blessings which it bestows upon animal and vegetable nature, was, by the people, worshiped as the chief god‑the author and giver of life and light‑so it is not at all surprising that, in those countries, the legend of the mysteries should, in process of time, come to be considered typical of the supposed revolution of that great luminary around the earth.


"The moral interpretation of the legend, however, was preserved for a much longer period.


But, at length, the mysteries became perverted.


Originally the temples of virtue, they became the dens of vice. The moral interpretation of their legend was forgotten ; and the votaries abandoned themselves to every species of vice and crime, alleging, in extenuation of their conduct, the examples set them by their‑gods.


The Almighty declared vengeance against their abominations‑and earthly legislators were forced to supress them.


Such was the spurious Freemasonry of the ancients.


" But let us return to genuine Freemasonry.


I shall not here discuss the question whether the present system be, as the Rev Dr. Oliver supposes,* the mother whence the various systems sprung, or, as my esteemed friend, and highly gifted brother ' Metoq of Initiation, p. 13, Note.


S~gns aad Symbols, Preface, xiii. Lect. xii~ pp. 224, 235, Sect. l‑3.




149 Dr. A G. Mackey, contends,* it is the offspring of a union oetween tt.e 7yrian mysteries and the Jewish religion; but will merely state that, from the construction and design of our Order, it must necessarily, from the period of its first organization, have had~a legend of death and the resurrection.


With out such a legend, the Order would not be Masonic.


And I conceive that this legend must also necessarily have been embodied in the third degree.


Owing to the antiquity of our InE5 and the absence of written records, it is impossible for us to say what was the original legend of Freemasonry, or, in other words, what legend it was the original intention of our three Grand Masters to transmit to their descendants. But, after the completion; and before the dedication of the Temple, certain circumstances occurred which made it necessary that Solomon should create a new degree. In other words, he substituted a new degree for the original one ; and this apparent violation of a Landmark (if our Order can properly be said to have had any Landmarks at so early a period of its history) was fully justified by the peculiar circumstances of the case. Of two evils, he wisely chose the least.


Nor is it an objection to this view to say that, according to our own traditions, there were employed at the building of the Temple three thousand three hundred Overseers, or Master Masons ; for these three thousand three hundred Master Masons may not have had authority to do that which, our tradition asserts, was expressly, restricted to the three Grand Masters.


"I am aware that some minor objections have been urged against the truth of our legend.


These I shall not attempt to discuss.


It is proper that we should keep our essay, as well ourselves, within due bounds.


But I think, that I have shown, as clearly as the cirumstances of the case will admit " 1. That the presumption is, that the Chief Architect was not present at the dedication of the Temple.


"2. That he did not afterward return to Tyre.


"8. That it is natural, and highly probable, that Solomon ˛ Southern and Western Masonic Muedlany, II., p. 105.






should have endeavored to consecrate the memory of his humble associate.


" 1. That though our tradition is corroborated by neither sacred nor profane history, it is not `founded on the grossest errors of accumulated ages ;' but that, on the contrary, it is substantially worthy of credence.


5. That, the allusions to Christianity, in the third degree, do not militate against its antiquity.


"6. That from the similarity between the legends of the heathen mysteries and Freemasonry, admitting the former to' be solar myths, it does not necessarily follow that the latter is a solar myth also.


x In conclusion, therefore, I respectfully submit that, substantialdy, the incidents related in the legend of the third degree, are to be understood as historical facts." Sincerely believing, as we do, that the Scotch Rite, Ancient and Accepted, is incapable of exemplifying any principle in Masonry, not as clearly taught by Freemasonry itself ; and that it is, and ever has been a foreign incubus upon our Order, which every true Craftsman should aid in throwing off, it is to be expected we will present the highest order of available testimony, tending to show the correctness of our views ; and to. this end, we know of no witness so likely to be credited as one who deservedly stands at the head of Scotch Rite Masonry, as its most learned and accomplished teacher and expounder. These remarks will explain our motives and serve as an apology‑if apology be needed‑for transferring to our pages the follow ing, which appeared in our journal, in March, 1853.


It may be proper to add that we do this the more willingly, because, in our review of the learned author, we give him the benefit of his views, loth for and against Scotch Rite Masonry MACKEY vs. MACKEY.


Immediately after returning from the South, our attention was called to a remarkable article in the last September number of the Masonic Miscellany, upon the subject of York and Scotch Rite Masonry, from the pen of the editor.




151 and_ regret, we find that no notice has been taken of it by, our cotemporaries. While we cheerfully admit, that it is our duty, as a Masonic editor, to expose and denounce error in the theory or practice of Masonry, come from what quarter it may, we can not but think it rather hard that our brethren of the press should seemingly avoid a fair proportion of the responsi oility.


It is exceedingly unpleasant to us to find fault with any of the little Spartan band engaged in battling for the cause of Masonry, but it occasionally happens that we are driven to this necessity in the performance of our duty. Sincerely believ˛ ing this to be our unenviable position in relation to the article above referred to, we proceed to insert it entire, and to subjoin such remarks as, in our judgment, are imperiously called for.




" The extension, within the last few years, of the Scotch Rite, and its favorable acceptance by many of the most distinguished members of the Fraternity, are circumstances thathave awakened, in the minds of some over zealous brethren, a fear that it may encroach upon the prosperity of the York Rite, and, perhaps, at length, in places, extirpate it. But all such fears are utterly groundless‑they arise altogether from a misconception of the nature and design of the Scotch Rite, and are to be best combated by a candid explanation of the history and character of that Rite.


" It is admitted (at least by all English and American Masons, and, probably, would be by all impartial writers, of every other country), that the York Rite is the most ancient, the, most authentic, and the most simple, as well as consistent, of all the Masonic Rites. But, as it originally existed, it presented to us only the three degrees of what are emphatically called `Ancient Craft Masonry,' namely, the Entered Apprentice, the Fellow Craft, and the Master.


The more modern definition is, that these include the Order of the Holy Royal Arch.


In all probability, we might almost safely say, that, without doubt, the, Royal Arch, at one time, constituted a part of the Master's degree, and, that, about the middle of the last century. it was, torn from its .appropriate place, as an historical illustration of, 152




and emendation to that degree, and made a distinct and separ rate one. Be this as it may, it can not be denied that the Ancient York Rite consisted only of three degrees, with the Royal Arch as in some way supplementary.* The intermediate degrees of Mark, Past, and Most Excellent Master, and the additional ones of Royal and Select Master, and of the Red Cross Knight, and Knight Templar, have nothing whatsoever to do with the York Rite, properly so called.


The Mark, Royal, and Select Master were originally honorary degrees of the Scotch Rite, were intrgduced by the possessors of that Rite into this country, and were, until recently (comparatively speaking), under the jurisdiction of that Rite.


We have abundantly shown, in some of the earlier numbers of this journal, that what are now called the' Council Degrees,' or those of Royal and Select Master, emanated from the Supreme Councils of the Thirty‑third, and we published, in a very late number, a copy of a warrant of constitution for a Mark Lodge, in the city of Charleston, in 1802, granted by the administrators of the Scotch Rite.


It is, probably, to Webb that the York Rite is indebted for the adoption of the Mark degree, as well as that of Most Excellent Master, into a series of degrees.


The Past Master's degree, as it is called, is not so much a degree as a ceremony of installation, and constitutes no part of the distinctive Rite.


" The Knight of the Red Cross, every Prince of Jerusalem knows, has been borrowed from the Scotch Rite, and the Knight Templar and Knight of Malta are degrees of chivalry, independent of all rites.


" We thus, by divesting the York Rite of these meretricious ornaments, with which we think it has not very wisely been laden, reduce it to the three primitive degrees of the Ancient Temple, to which we are permitted to add the illustrative history of the Royal Arch.


˛ ‑1 The Grand Lodge of Scotland confines what it calls' St. John's Masonry' to these first three degieca, without any reference whatever to the Royal Arch, which is not acknowledged by that body. But it must be evident to the scholar that, unless the Royal Arch be inAcded, the Masonic legendary history to not complete." SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


153 "lt is, then, at this point that the Scotch Rite comes forward, to continue the series of instructions, which every student of Masonry is obliged to listen to, if he desires a thorough knowledge of the science to which he is devoting his investigations. The Scotch Rite, it is true, has also its three primitive degrees; out they are no longer practiced by its possessors. Still, even these degrees are more consonant with the same degrees of the York Rite, than those of any of the other rites.


" A York Mason, then, having arrived at the Master's degree, and finding an `hiatus valde deglendus'‑a something missing, and yet greatly to be desired‑a synopsis, rather than a full history of important circumstances, in which he has, by this time, become most interested, seeks further light, by receiving the degrees of the Scotch, or Ancient, and Accepted Rite. He is already a Master Mason, under the York Rite, and he proceeds, by taking the 4th, 5th, 6th, and so. on, to the 14th degree, in the Lodge of Perfection, to obtain an abundant mass of traditionary knowledge, all of which illustrates the unfinished or :mperfect legend which he had already received.


He does not, oy this, lose his reverence or respect for the York Rite.


On the contrary, by this augmentation of knowledge, he finds his admiration increased.


Many things which he had previously looked upon as trifles are now shown to be matters of importance‑many things which were formerly wholly inexplicable, he now fully comprehends‑and many things which once seemed to be discrepancies, militating against each other, and destroying the harmony of the system, are now found to be reconcilable, as consistent parts o˙ `one stupendous whole.'


With the brief expositions of the York Rite, he was as a spectator passing through a gallery of paintings, without a guide.


The pictures, emanating from the pencils of the first masters, delight his taste and warm his imagination ; but, ignorant of the subjects thus delineated, his judgment is unsatisfied, and the impressions made upon his heart and mind are transitory.


But the Scotch Rite comes to the assistance of the unsatisfied Mason, as a ' catalogue raisonnee' does to the wanderer among the pictures, and, by its copious legends, its more minute traditions, and Its new detail of circumstances, it leads him thoroughly to 154, MODERN FREEMASONRY.


understand, to appreciate, and, of course, to admire, what had been before incomprehensible, or, at least, unsatisfactory. "Proceeding still farther, the 15th and 16th degrees make' him acquainted with many circumstances of Masonic history which were not preserved in the York Rite, and which are yet of so much importance, as to be essential to a full exposition of Masonic history.


" In the 17th and 18th degrees, still more brilliant light darts its rays into his mind, Masonry begins to present him with a holier and purer symbolism, and he returns again to the York. Rite, to wonder that in its simplicity he did not see its admir‑. able adaptation to the solemn explanations of the Rose Croix.


" From this degree to the Thirty‑second or Sublime Prince of: the Royal Secret, be finds in the.pbilosophical degrees an abundance of material for wholesome reflection, and many sublime teachings of truth and morality, all founded on the early lessons lie had received, during his initiation into the first principles of Masonry, in the York Rite. The instructions of, these higher degrees are not, it is true, so essential to the ful, understanding of the Masonic system ; but they are sufficiently interesting to claim attention and reward the investigation of the Masonic student.


" In all this we see no antagonism to the York Rite‑not even a generous rivalry‑but rather a coincident pursuit of the same great object : the investigation of Masonic truth. The Scotch Rite, as now .practiced, begins from the Master Mason. None but Master Masons of the York Rite can become Scotch Rite Masons, and, therefore, the two Rites mutually aid and illustrate each other.


The York Rite furnishes the solid foundation ; the Scotch supplies the beautiful superstructure. Hence, our illustrious brother, Henry Udal, one of the Sovereign Inspectors and Members of the Supreme Council of England, at a meeting of that body, in June last, very truthfully said, that `the system of Sublime and Ineffable Masonry does not encroach upon, or interfere with Craft, or Symbolic Masonry.' " We repeat, that the Scotch Rite is not antagonistic to the York Rite, but is subsidiary to it. And we are not willing to rest the truth or value of this assertion on our own unsupported SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


155 tutbority.


Dr. Frederick Dalcho, one of the leading members of the Sec tch Rite in this country, in an address delivered as far back as the year 1803, before the Sublime Grand Lodge of Perfection, at Charleston, thus defined the relations between ,‑he two Rites "'The Sublime Masons* view the Symbolic system with reverence, as forming a test of the character and capacity of the initiated. They are bound, by their laws, to support and cherish the original principles of that Institution ; and they watch, with a jealous eye, all who appear disposed to profane it. It is the door of their sacred Temple, through which all must pass to arrive at perfection. They are equally interested in the splendid establishment of those degrees, and in the union and happiness of their members.' "We have made these remarks, because, as we have already said, we have understood that some well‑meaning, but mistaken brethren have been opposed to the extension of the Scotch or Ancient and Accepted Rite, from the fear that it would interfere with the success of the York Rite. We desire to see these objections removed, because we sincerely believe that it is only by a united study of both Rites, that a Mason can expect to become thoroughly learned in his profession.


A true Masonic scholar must listen to the instructions of both ; he must investigate the legends and traditions of both ; and he must collate and compare the history and the philosophy of each with the other.


Without diligent union of both Rites in his researches, he must always remain a disciple rather than a master in Israel ‑‑his learning will, after all, be rather foolishness than wisdom, and his draughts at the fountain of Masonry may wet his lips, but will never satiate his thirst. And we all recollect the maxim of Pope, that A little learning is a dangerous thing; Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring.' 11 The Mason whose knowledge is confined to the York Rite, will be apt to entertain narrow and insufficient views of the 11 This is a title, technically used to designate those members of the Scotch We who have advanced as far as the 14th degree." 15B




sublimity of the Masonic system.


Let those views be enlightened and enlarged, by a zealous study of the Scotch Rite, and, in reply to every cavil, let us say: 'In our Masonic studies we belong to the Scotch Rite; in our Masonic allegiance we belong to the York Rite."' In the foregoing, Bro. Mackey sets out by saying that the fears entertained by some over zealous brethren, that Scotch Rite Masonry will encroach upon the prosperity of the York Rite, are to be best combated by a candid explanation of the history and character of that Rite, from which we were led to hope that he was about to give us, what we have never seen, a true history of that so called Masonic Rite; but we regret to say, the author leaves us quite as much in the dark, upon this subject, as we were before.


We have elsewhere stated, that there are no Rites in Masonry; that Masonry is a unit; a great system of ethics, complete in itself, and that everything differing from it, or which was originally no part of it, is not Masonry at all, the assumed name to the contrary notwithstanding ; but, for the sake of convenience, we may, on the present occasion, recognize the term Rites, in noticing the position assumed by Bro. Mackey.


In the second paragraph, the author asserts, truly, that originally Masonry consisted of only three degrees, including the Holy Royal Arch.


Now, this being admitted, and granting, as he does, in another place, that Masonry was instituted by King Solomon, we ask, in all seriousness, whether any system of Rites, subsequently instituted, can be considered part and parcel of the original? But, not feeling it to be our duty to pursue this subject here, we beg to call attention to the singular statement made in the paragraph referred to, that the degrees of Mark, and Royal and Select Master "have nothing whatsoever to do with the York Rite, properly so called." We had supposed, that the degree, now called Mark Master, teaches and inculcates that which was originally taught and inculcated in the Fellow Craft; in short, that it was made up of the better half, torn, impropely, from the Fellow Craft degree, by modern innovvktoT s. who left, in its stead, what is now called the second SCOTCH RIT". ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


157 motion, which did not, originally, and, consequently, does not now, constitute any part of Masonry, properly speaking. But whether our views, in this respect, are true or false, we are certainly not mistaken in saying that Bro. Mackey is the first intelligent Masonic writer, to venture the assertion that the Mark degree has nothing to do with Freemasonry, or, as he says, the York Rite ; and what is even more remarkable, the author does not agree with himself. From an address delivered by Bro. Mackey, on the 27th of December, 1850, and published in the suceeding number of the .Miscellany, we make the following extract "The degree of Mark Master, which is the fourth in the Masonic series, is historically consitl'ered of the utmost importance, since we are informed that, by i* influence, each Operative Mason, at the building of the Temple, was known and distinguished, and the disorder and confusion which might other wise have attended so immense an undertaking, was completely prevented." In the address from which the foregoing is taken, the author emphatically asserts that "the whole system of Freemasonry is divided into seven degrees," and he includes the Mark as one of them: How Bro. Mackey will justify himself in contradicting, in September, 1852, what he asserts as true in December, 1850, we are unable to conjecture.


Since the speech above referred to was delivered, the brother has discovered that the Grand Council of the Thirty‑third, at Charleston, did, as early as 1802, issue a charter for a Mark Lodge, and as we know he is engaged in an effort to plant Scotch Rite Masonry in the several States, it may be that his preference for that Rite is leading him to claim for it as much of Ancient Craft Masonry as it can obtain the control of.


If the fact that the Grand Council issued a charter for a Mark Lodge, proves that the Mark degree belongs to the Scotch Rite, the fact that the Grand Council, at New Orleans, the Supreme Grand Council of France, and the Grand Orient of France, have issued charters for Lodges of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Mason, equally proves that these degrees also belong to the Scotch Rite; and, especially when we remember that the Grand 158




Councils at New York and Charleston, not long since asserted that they had the original right to control Ancient Craft Masonry, but waived that right in this country, because Symbolic Masonry was under the control of Grand Lodges when the Scotch Rite was introduced here.


We are not surprised that the admirers of Scotch Rite Masonry, so called, should seek to get under their control all the degrees of Craft Masonry, for, if we are not misinformed, the Secret Constitutions of that Rite require this at their hands, and we can not conceal the fact, that occurrences have transpired, since December, 1850, which may have had a powerful influence in producing this "presto change" in Bro. Mackey.


In the article of September, 1852, Bro. Mackey calls all the degrees now given, as belonging to Ancient Craft Masonry, except the first three, "meretricious ornaments," while, in his address of 1850, he makes the number to consist of seven, and forcibly illustrates the appropriateness and importance of each, in the system of York Rite Masonry.


Bro. Mackey alludes to an article published by himself, claiming that the Grand Council of the Thirty‑third, at Charleston, introduced into this country the degrees of Royal and Select Master. If the reader will turn to a report to the Grand Chapter of Vermont. from the pen of Bro. Tucker, in which the author takes up this subject, and, we think, proves that the assumption of the editor of the Miscellany i9 without a shadow of foundation, these degrees having been cultivated in the United States long before the Charleston Council was established.


In his speech of 1850, Bro. Mackey admits that " the substance of the degrees is contained in the Royal Arch" Therefore, to ne consistent in his claims, he should come out as have some other Scotch Rite advocates, and claim that the Royal Arch also belongs to the Scotch Rite.


But we proceed to notice a still more remarkable theory, attempted to be propagated by Bro. Mackey.


In September, 1852, he gravely tells us that the brother who cultivates no more than the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry, is as a " spectator passing through a gallery of paintings urithout a guide," whereas, if he will, in addition, tako SCOTCH‑ RITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


159 the Scotch Rite degrees, all things will be explained.


Verily, if this be true, we shall feel prepared to agree with the distinguished brother, in saying, as he does, in his speech of 1850, that " Masonry is a progressive science."


Can it be possible that a batch of trumped up degrees, some of them claimed to have been instituted by Frederick the Great, in the last century, some of them by somebody else in the seventeenth century, are capable of explaining any seeming mysteries in the great system of Freemasonry,‑ which, according to Bro. Mackey himself, was instituted more than twenty‑eight hundred years ago ? Should we, for the sake of argument, grant that these Scotch ,Rite degrees are Masonic degrees, we have Bro. Mackey's admission that they are of modern origin, compared with the York Rite.


And does he expect his readers to believe that modern Masonry is capable of resurrecting those legends of Ancient Craft Masonry, which may have been buried in the rubbish of the dark ages? Can he believe himself that these lost legends were found by Frederick the Great, or Chevalier Ramsey ?


But why should we spend time in racking our brain to find out what Bro. Mackey really believes, when we have it in our power to prove, by Bro. Mackey himself, that he does not believe his own teachings to be true.


From the memorable speech of 1850, we make the following extract "Among us, and perhaps three‑fourtbs of the Masonic world, where the right of Ancient York Masonry is practiced, the whole system of Freemasonry is divided into seven degrees, which receive the name of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, Master Mason, Mark, Past, and Most Excellent Master; and, finally, of ,the Holy Royal Arch.* Within these seven degrees, are included all that is really and essentially necessary to be known of the science, the philosophy, and morality of Masonry.


Other degrees, indeed, there are above and beyond these.


They are, however, but illustrative and explanatory, and, by Masonic students, may be, and often are, very advantageously cultivated, "' 1 have not here inserted the degrees of Royal and Select Master, because I ba,7e always contended, and, I think, elsewhere proved, that they belong to the Scotoh and not the York Rite. With us, their substance is contained in th4 Royal Arch Degree." 160




for the purposes of laudable curiosity and intellectual improvo ment, just as the metaphysician might study the subtile, but now exploded dialectics of Aristotle, or the theologian amuse himself with the visionary disquisitions of Thomas Aquinas.


"To these seven ancient and universal degrees of. Masonry which, like the seven prismatic colors of the rainbow, contain, within themselves, the whole substance of light, we shall, on this occasion, confine our investigation." How very full, clear, and explicit is the foregoing.


There is no hanging back, no doubt entertained, nor even a difficulty suggested. Will the reader mow turn back and read again what the author says about the importance of the Scotch Rite degrees, in a later paper.


There he tells us that the Mason, " without this diligent union o˙ both Rites in his researches, must always remain a disciple, rather than a master in Israelhis learning will, after all, be rather foolishness than wisdom, and his draughts at the fountain of Masonry may wet his lips, but will never satiate. his thirst ;" and, to enforce this idea, he quotes from Pope, " A little learning is a dangerous thing," etc., and, finally, as a cap‑sheaf, he adds : "The Mason whose knowledge is confined to the York Rite, will be apt to entertain narrow and insufficient views of the sublimity of the Masonic system." And yet, in 1850, he emphatically proclaims that "all the degrees above and beyond Ancient Craft, or York Rite Masonry are to be ` cultivated for purposes of laudable curiosity, as are the exploded dialectics of Aristotle, or as the theolologian would amuse himself with the visionary disquisitions of Thomas Aquinas."'


In one article he condemns the student of Masonry to a life of ignorance, unless he acquires a knowledge of the Scotch Rite degrees, while, in the other, he tells him that the " seven degrees of universal Masonry, like the seven prismatic colors of the rainbow, contain, within themselves, the whole substance of light."


What, then, are we to infer are the teachings of the editor of the Miscellany ?


Why, that the wisdom of the brother who possesses the whole substance of light in Masonry, is mere foolishness, while he who penetrates " above and beyond," obtains a knowledge of the exploded doctrines‑the shadow of Masonry‑‑thereby becomes a 4' Master in Israel." SCOTCH RITE, ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED.


161 We feel that further comment from us would be wasting the time of our readers, and shall, therefore, hasten to close.


It is known to the readers of our writings that we are among those " well‑meaning brethren," who fear an effort is being made to bring Ancient Craft Masonry under the control of that trumpery yclept Modern Masonry, or Scotch Rite Masonry. We have shown that the Grand Council of, France, and the Grand Orient (Grand Lodge) of France, have succeeded in gaining control over Craft Masonry. We have shown. that the Grand Council of New Orleans, under the sanction of the Grand Orient of France, for many years controlled the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, and openly declared that, by the Secret Constitution of the Order, every Grand Council is recreant to' its solemn obligations, who fails to make an effort to exercise control over all the degrees in Masonry.


We have shown that the Grand Councils of New York and Charleston, openly proclaimed the"original right" to control the three first degrees in Masonry, and only waived that right, because they were under the Grand Lodge system when Scotch Rite Masonry was introduced into this country, and, lastly, we think it will now appear that Bro. Mackey, an officer of the Grand Council of the Thirtythird, at Charleston, has put up a finger‑board, so plainly indexed, that even the wayfarer in Masonry cannot be misled thereby.


We grant that our "little learning" in Scotch Rite Masonry may be considered a dangerous thing. It might have been better that we had never known anything about the degrees, for we have just learned enough to be able to join in with Brn. Cross, and others. in declaring the whole thing to be a mere imposition, a trumpery of high‑sounding titles, a system of degrees fit only to be cultivated, as Bro. Mackey declares, "as the theologian would amuse himself with the visionary disquisitiona of Thomas Aquinas." Long before Bro. Mackey used the foregoing language, he occupied a prominent position in his Grand Council, and was generally looked upon as its champion ; he can not, therefore, plead ignorance of the teachings of the Scotch Rite.






tw the early part of this history, we undertook to show that M: scurry originated at the building of King Solomon's Temple, and we promised, at a proper time, to treat separately of the Egypt:an Mysteries, and give our reasons for supposing they had no connection with, nor any well‑defined likeness to Freemasonry.


That we shall be able to give satisfaction to all, we do not indulge the slightest hope. Nor do we expect that we shall be able even to meet the expectations of those who feel inclined to examine the subject for themselves.


For, were we ever so well qualified to meet and combat the visionary theories of some modern writers, who would make Masonry the receptacle of a heterogeneous mass of principles, as dissimilar as were the supposed contents of Pandora's box, the space which we have allowed ourself would be too limited for the accomplishment of the end.


If, therefore, we shall be able to enlist the attention, and call into action the services of those whose higher qualifieations fit them to mature and finish, what we aim only to set on foot, we shall have accomplished all we hope for: We know we are undertaking a herculean task; for the simple reason that, as far as we are informed, our views of Masonry, though strictly in accordance with its traditions, and similar to those entertained and taught in the Lodge room, by nine‑tenths of the Masons in the United States, and, probably, in England, Scotland, and Ireland, we are not sustained by the conductor of any Masonic journal, or historian. We arrogate to. ourself no higher powers of penetration than are possessed by others, and hence, if our views are found to be more correct than theirs, we can only account. for it by supposing that, to the aeglect of other duties, we have seen proper to dex ote more EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES UNLIKE MASONRY.


16.'3 ,,.me to the investigation of this particular subject, than has euited the interest or taste of others.


We have been readh% most of our life.


For thirty years we have been a student of Masonry, and deeply interested in its history ; and, we can truly say that, whatever our views may be, they are emphatically our own, and we have never paused to inquire whether they were popular or unpopular.


We have never admitted that any man was too exalted to be in error, nor have we supposed a man too humble and obscure to do his own thinking, to arrive at the truth.


Claiming to occupy a position with the class last referred to, we do dare to attack the opinions of the exalted, when, in our judgment, those opinions tend to do harm, and if this seeming presumption should occasionally excite the ire of a little mind, who, for the lack of ability to make an argument, chooses to blow off his extra steam by means of illnatured epithets, we shall try to pity, rather than censure him.


Most historians have set out by declaring Masonry to have originated in the garden of Eden, or with the immediate descendants of Adam. This hypothesis they attempt to establish 'by assuming (falsely, we think,) that Masonry was originally purely Operative, and hence, the first builders of tents or huts are set down as Masons. Now, whether those men were Masons, as the term is usually applied to certain mechanics, we will not be at the trouble to inquire, but that they had formed themselves into a Society, and that the Society of Masons, or Freemasons, we utterly deny.


But, having examined this subject, at length, elsewhere, we will not further pursue it here.


The class of writers above referred to, fail to find proof that Adam was a Mason, in any sense, while in the Garden of Eden. And, by the way, there is more evidence that Eve was a Mason, for she certainly commenced a very important branch of mechanical labor, and as her material, fig leaves; was not of the test, we have a right to suppose she was a skillful operative. But our learned historians pass over this event, and make a bold dash to show that the Egyptian Mysteries were Masonic Mysteries, that the Egyptian Secret Societies were Masonic Societies, under another name.


Though we think there is not a single testimony which tends MODERN'FREEMASONRY.


to date Masonry at a period anterior to the Temple, we shall proceed to notice such as have been relied on, and, inasmuch as some of our readers may not be familiar with the history of the Egyptian Mysteries, we shall proceed with some prelimi‑' nary remarks, as introductory to the main question at issue.


Until the latter part of the seventeenth century, the fabulous accounts of the heathens, except so far as the divinity of their gods was concerned, were received as so many revelations of truth; but the bold and energetic writers who sprung up about that time, and who so effectually exposed the fallacy of the Heathen Mythology, that, since their time, every branch of history has been somewhat rationally viewed, except that which refers to Masonry, and to the Church of Rome. The members of the Roman Catholic Church, who undertake to write its history, still retain all the mummery of the days of bigotry and superstition.


They still tell us the most fabulous and ridiculous stories that were ever penned, and anathematize us if we can not, or do not believe them to be holy truths.


We are asked to believe that blood has continued to issue, periodically, for hundreds of years, from certain walls, thereby affording evidence that God's anger is periodically enkindled for crimes there perpetrated, in the days of primitive Christianity.


We are asked to believe that a transparent liquid, in a sealed vial, is made to turn to blood, that the world may, thereby, know the true descendants of Peter have power of Jehovah to work miracles.


We are asked to believe that relics of our Saviour are still in possession of the Church, and that those who will bond down and worship them, accompanied with certain donations of money, shall receive absolution from their sins.


We are asked to believe a thousand tales, no less ridiculous than these, in order to prove that the holy Church of Rome is the only refuge from the vengeance of an offended God.


Protestant Masons sneeringly point to these bold and unblushing schemes, intended to impose on the credulity, and alarm the fears of the ignorant and priest‑ridden Roman Catholic people, and yet many of these very Protestants will gulp down even more ridiculous and mischievous stories, told of the history and principles of Masonry.




IfiS The Roman Catholics have no where attempted to vitiate, or set at naught the Word of God, so far as to make religion consist in a knowledge of either of the arts or Sciences; while, by a Protestant divine, we are asked to believe that geometry is Masonry, and that Masonry is the true religion.


 Now, men who are paid for writing this worse than nonsense, can be excused only on the ground that money is of more value to them than the simple truth.


Is it enough to tell us that the author is an eminent divine ,of England? Is it enough to say he is a man of learning? Why, can not learned men, even beyond the waters, have some weak points? ˛Can not they write a romance, "founded on facts," and call it history? We are not inclined to quarrel ‑with any one, whose taste runs that way, for worshiping great men, and their errors, so long as he is willing to worship alone; but when he seeks to induce others to bow down to his Moloch, his efforts become of public interest, and must be publicly met, by those whose business it is to guard the public 'against error.


It is a singular fact, that the same class of writers who hold that Freemasonry originated from, or originally constituted the Egyptian Mysteries, are loudest in denouncing the bare suggestion that the true religion originally formed part or parcel of the Pagan Theology, and yet, if the likeness of two things is to be taken as evidence of their identity, we think it would not be difficult to show that there is a greater resemblance between the religion of the heathens and that of the. Mosaic Dispensation, than there ever was<between the Egyptian Mysteries and Freemasonry. He, who is at all familiar with ancient history, can not fail to notice a striking likeness in the religious observances of the Hebrews, to those practiced by ' nations given over, by all Christendom, to the grossest idolatry We know that a very convenient method is resorted to, in ‑order to account for the resemblance, by the use of the hack' neyed saying, that the existence of a counterfeit proves the existence of the genuine, and that wherever the likeness spoken of exists, whether in the manner of worshiping their gods, their reliance upon their oracles. and auguries, or any of their 166




peculiar rituals, are but counterfeits of the usages and ritual@ of the true religion.


Now, while we think that, aside from the foregoing reason, it would not be difficult to show that the idolatry of the heathens, and the religion of the Christian, did not spring from the same great law‑giver, there is much more testimony, going to show the original identity of these two systems of religion, than there is to prove the original identity of Masonry and the Ancient Mysteries.


It is contended that the indispensable use made of the Bible by Freemasons, by no means proves that Masonry originated with Moses, or even at a period so late as the days of Solomou, but that it does somekoto show that the Hebrews, who systematized and perfected Freemasonry, had preserved and did imitate the usages of the more ancient nations. The learned antiquarians, for the last hundred and fifty years, have wisely undertaken to penetrate the Egyptian Mysteries, by endeavoring to trace out and interpret the words and symbols used in those days; and though we are constrained to say that many of the definitions given us are far‑fetched and uncertain, yet, granting them all to be correct, we think they wholly fail to prove that Freemasonry was ever part of, or had its origin in the Egyptian Mysteries.


It is true, that the heathens did, as now do the savages of the forest, use the pictures of animals, etc., to express their meaning and wishes, but a slight examination will show how little reliance can be placed in our knowledge of their application to specific things.


It is known that the descendants of Ham, who were left in Lower Egypt, discovered that the overflowing of the Nile was preceded by an annual wind, blowing from North to South. They further discovered that the overflow was preceded ay the appearance of a brilliant star, showing itself only for a bhort space of time, between the dawn and the rising of the sun. Regarding it, therefore, as a warning messenger, seat specially to bid them prepare to fly to the higblands, they called it Tayant (the dog) ; they also called it Anubis (the barker). And hence, they resorted to the use of a painting, representing EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES UNLIKE MASONRY.


lfi'l 1k dog, and this symbol, exposed in public places, under parties ular circumstances, and at particular periods, serve(l to apprise the inhabitants that the Nile Star had made its appearance, and all must remove from the Delta. But, surely, it will not be contended that whenever the symbol of a dog was represented, the same meaning was attached to it. On the contrary, it was sometimes used to denote fidelity, or friendship, or as a warning against danger of any kind. And so, in reference to the symbols used in the Egyptian Mysteries, it will not do, arbitrarily to select the meaning of a symbol; suited to a preconceived opinion or theory, and jump to the conclusion that, because, in some cases, it was designed to signify that particular thing, therefore, it was always so used in the Mysteries.


If this method be adopted, very many and contradictory things may be shown, and we think this method has been resorted to, by those who have undertaken to prove that Masonry was identical with, or derived from the Egyptian Mysteries.


The representation of the blazing star is used in our teachings of the principles and ends of Freemasonry, and we suppose it is designed simply to commemorate the recollection of the blazing star, which pointed out the birth‑place of our Saviour, and zoe think it has been introduced into our Lodges since the event to which it refers. We know there are men, learned men, who are not satisfied to claim so littlt for that symbol, but who, with marvelous, penetration, have discovered that the, blazing star of our Lodge room is the symbol of the dog‑star oU the Egyptians, and designed to teach us prudence, and to warn us from all evil.


Thus it will be perceived, that he who desires to give us a romantic account of Freemasonry, and prove, thereby, that it originated at some point, too remote for the ken of human thought, will find it convenient to study Heathen Mythology, and draw largely from its rich storehouse of unexplained and unintelligible symbols.


The overflowing of the Nile, if it did not give birth to, tended, in a powerful degree, to the study of astronomy, for so important was it, that the people should be correctly informed of the signs which indicated the approach and receding of the waters.






that men, the best qualified, were employed, and paid from the .public treasury, to discover and portray those signs ; and hence, the early attention of the Egyptians to the movements of the heavenly bodies. As letters were unknown, symbols were resorted to, to give expression to ideas, but it will be seen that it was utterly impossible to use a distinct symbol to reprevent each idea, as such a language would have proved more aurthensome than that used by the Chinese, inasmuch as the ,Egyptians resorted mainly to the pictures of animals, instead of arbitrary characters, therefore, their symbols were made to represent general ideas, made special by the time of use, or the surrounding circumstances.


The monitors of the present day contain the symbol of the Mosaic pavement, to represent human life, checkered with good and evil. Now, the Egyptians, doubtless, had a method of representing , the. same thing, but it would‑ require more than ordinary credulity, to believe that they used the Mosaic pavement at the introduction of the Mysteries, long anterior to the days of Moses. In like manner, though symbols were used by the Egyptians, and are now used by the Masons, it neither proves that the Egyptian Mysteries and Masonry were originally identical, nor that the one is derived from the other. It seems to us somewhat singular, that learned brethren, who trace Masonry back as far as they can find anything to liken even one of its principles or symbols to, lose sight of the fact that, for the last hundred years, men have been successfully introducing additional degrees and additional symbols into Masonry.


An eminent divine,* in a late article in the Union, has undertaken to show that the degrees of M. Master, Past Master, atnd, M. E.; Master, were actually instituted and practiced at the building of King Solomon's Temple, as separate and distinct degrees, and for separate and distinct purposes. While we as firmly believe that the Mark Master's degree was originally part and parcel, yea, the better half of the Fellow Craft's degree, and that the second section of the Fellow Craft degree, 0 Rev. Salem Town.




169 u now given, is of modern invention, introduced at the time of the subdivision, to fill the vacancy thus created.


We believe the Past Master's degree, or, as New York has it, the Installation Ceremony, was introduced by Lawrence Dermott, and without having, then or now, even a well‑defined resemblance to Masonry. And as for the M. E. Master's degree, we can only say that, if the writer above referred to is correct, in supposing it was given at the building of the Temple, we shall be forced to the conclusion, that the shadow existed autscedent to the substance, for the event, which the degree is designed to commemorate, had not then transpired. We think these degrees, above the third, were unknown until after the present system of Grand Lodges was established, and, even at this day, they are not recognized in any country where Ancient Craft Masonry has been preserved in its purity.


Neither Eng. land, Ireland, nor Scotland recognizes them as having any legitimate connection with Masonry, and, if given at all, they are given as side degrees. We mean, of course, to except the Mark Master's, or Mark degree., from this category.


We introduce the subject here, to show that the ancient degrees have been subdivided, and new degrees added, dignified with the name of Masonry, which do not bear the landmarks of purity ; and to say that, if degrees have been added, it is fair to suppose additional symbols have also been introduced, and meanings attached to them that were unknown to the Ancient Egyptians, and for three thousand years thereafter. Will any one say, that the Ancient Egyptians used two perpendicular parallel lines, to represent St. John the Baptist, and St. John the Evangelist? Could the Egyptians have used symbols to represent the five orders of architecture, before they were invented?


Could they have given us the representation of the forty‑seventh problem of Euclid, before it was discovered, and before Euclid, or Pythagoras, lived?


It must be borne in mind that most of the symbols to be found in our monitors, distinctly point us to the events which transpired at the build. ing of the Temple, and we must regard it as ridiculous, to sao they are but the symbols of the Egyptian Mysteries.


We are referred to the point within a circle, as conclusive 171




evidence that Masonry and the Ancient Mysteries were identical, because the ancients used the circle to represent the Divinity; and yet, strange to say, the same writers say nothing about the balance of the same picture, and, especially, the two lines representing Christianity.


In the Mark Master's degree our emblems all refer to Solomon's Temple. In the Past Master's degree, we are pleased to say, there is not a single emblem that does not belong to the preceding degrees‑‑the inventor being satisfied to work off his novelties in the way of ceremony alone.


Every emblem in the M. E. Master's degree refers to the events which the R. A. degree is intended to commemorate, and the same may be said of the Royal and Select degrees.


But who can fail to perceive that, even in the R. A. degree, a symbol has been introduced which has no sort of connection with the events, either upon which the degree was founded or intended to commemorate. What connection has the appearance of the Angel of the Lord to Moses, in a burning bush, with the destruction of Jerusalem and the captivity of the remnant of the Jews?


None whatever.


We can not find even an apology for this symbol in the place it now occupies, save that it serves to fill up a certain time necessary for half learned officers to prepare for the ceremony which follows in the ritual of the degree, and as far as the use made of the symbol in the lecture, as now given, is concerned, we regard it as very like the second section of the F. C. degree; it serves to divert the mind of the candidate from the true purposes and intent of the degree, until they take the two R. and S. degrees, which have been improperly taken from the R. A., including the true R. A. lecture.


That the symbols which have been introduced and added, in modern times, are made to teach useful moral lessons, will not be denied, but we can not, therefore, rely upon them as constituting _ Ancient Landmarks in Masonry.


On the contrary, we think if the student of Masonry will ascertain what Ancient Crall Masonry, in its primitive purity, was intended to portray of accomplish, it will not be difficult to define the appropriate symbols.


It is no proof that, because a symbol is now found in our Lodges, representing a particular thing, that, therefore, it EGYPTIAN MYST8RIES UNLIKE MASONRY.


11˛1 has always been used for the same purpose.


Nearly all the side degrees, of which we have any knowledge, have a tradition attached to them, running back to various periods, as best suited their inventors‑some to the days of Moses, some to Abrat:am, some to Noah, and one or two go into the Garden of Eden. the degrees of Oddfellowship have a tradition quite as ancient as those of Masonry, and will it be said, therefore, that. Odd fellowship is as old as Masonry ? The Egyptians attributed to the moon great power over the 4ements, and, neat to the sun, as being the cau‑e of the overflow of the Nile, and hence they called her Isis, the Queen of Heaven, the excellent one. And, finally, from a habit of attributing divine powers to the sun and moon, they came to look upon them first as man and woman, and then god and goddess.


The sun was called Osiris, the conqueror of Typhon, the ruler of the winds; and, anon, he was called Jupiter, Ichor, etc., etc.


Isis, in like manner, was called the wife of Osiris, and, anon, she was worshiped as the mother of Jupiter, and, finally, the mother of all the gods.


Yea, the contradictions did not stop here, for she was called the sister of Jupiter, and, finally, the daughter of Jupiter.


Diana of the Gauls and Romans, the Artemis of the Greeks, was sometimes a terrestrial deity, then the moon, and then the queen of hell. The crescent and the full moon, which she was supposed to wear over her head, caused her to be taken for the moon.


And then the time between the last phases and the appearance of the new, was supposed to be occupied in visiting the lower regions, the country of the dead.


Now all these errors are owing to the fact that very many attributes and powers were imputed to the moon, and as no symbol could be constructed to represent all of them, the true symbols were metamorphosed to represent either, and, by turns, all the attributes.


We see that we cannot identify the use now made of a symbol in our Lodges, with the use made of it by the ancient Egyptians.


It is quite evident that the Egyptians, not being able to calculate the movement of the heavenly bodies, entertained fears, at each change, or disappearance of the moon from the earth, that she would not again return, hence, so overjoyed were they on the appearance of the new moon, that after they 172




,bad deified Osiris, or the man in the sun, and Isis, tIA6 woman, or queen in the moon, they instituted a festival called the feast of the new moon, and men of known probity were selected to repair to the tops of the mountains to discover the first appearance of the Hecate, and then, with all speed, convey the glad tidings to the people, on the arrival of which, the festivities commenced. The Hebrews, it is known, pursued a similar course. Dr. Adam Clark, in his history of the ancient Israelites, makes the following statement "The moment in which the conjunction between the sun and moon is made, can only be known by astronomical calculations, because she does not then appear ; and as the Hebrews were little skilled in this science, they began their months at the first phasis, or first appearance of the moon, which required no learning to discover. This was an affair in which the great Sanhedrim were concerned, and the different phases were planted upon the hall in which they assembled.


It belonged to them to choose men of the strictest probity, whom they sent to the tops of the neighboring mountains, and who no sooner perceived the new moon, than they came, with all speed, even on the Sabbath day itself, to acquaint the Sanhedrim with it.


It was the business of that council to ascertain whether the moon had appeared, " and to declare it ; which was done by pronouncing these words ,The feast of the new moon! the feast of the new moon! and all ,the people were informed of it by the sound of the trumpets. To which ceremony David alludes when he says:' Blow up the trumpets in the new moon, in the time appointed on our solemn feast day.


We marvel at the credulity and superstition of the Egyptians and Hebrews, and yet are we. at the present day, doing more than looking through a glass darkly? Are we not almost as credulous and as superstitious as the ancients were? How many still believe in the divine power of the moon ?


Why, more than half the agriculturists of Europe and America believe that certain vegetables must, in order to a good yield, be put into the earth at the right time of the moon.


At least one‑third, including ˛ Psalms lei. a, a EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES UNLIKE MASONRY.


173 a fair proportion of the intelligent people, make prayers and supplications to the new moon‑we mean mentallv, of courseand not a few pour out their supplications in song or verse, for wives, husbands, sweethearts, and friends ; while still another clas3 go so far as to ask the " dear, kind new moon " to send them good crops, riches, and fame. Is it, then, remarkable that men are to be found catching at the most ridiculous theories upon which to build up a temporary notoriety, or by which to `4 put money in their purse."


Nor is a love of the marvelous, confined to the skeptic, or the pedantic collegiate, but rather is the hot bed in which it germinates to be found bighly~cultivated in the gardens of ministers of the Gospel, or those educated for the Church ministry.


Why, only a few years since. this far˛ seeing class of men had the sagacity to discover that the then probable downfall of the Ottoman Empire was the fulfilling of the prophecy that the river Euphrates should be dried up. And is it not true that a large proportion of the ministers are among the first to encourage the visonary theories of the day ?


Go to your minister, if you want a lecture upon Phrenology, Mesmerism, or Clairvoyance, as newly discovered sciences.


Go to your minister, if you wish to hear a song of praise to Number Six, and the miraculous powers of the medicines of steam doctors, or if you wish to hear the mystification of cause and effect, and the delectable theory of the divine power of indivisible particles upon the human system, through the agency of the great science of Homeopathy.


And we will not vouch that advocates can not be found, in the same quarter, for spiritual knockings.


We know it is generally considered indelicate to speak thus of this class of reverend gentlemen, but we beg to say that they are not over delicate in portraying the faults of lay members, and the sins of outsiders.


We admire and venerate the ministry, but we think they figure much more efficiently in the pulpit, than they do in adopting every wind of doctrine in relation to the occult sciences, or in giving encouragement to jugglers and impostors, or, last, though not least, in writing romances, dignified by the name of history. Who but this class of men have thrown Masonry into ridicule, by claiming for it an age coeval with the, world, and the attributes, powers, and excellencies of the true v 174 MODERN FREEMASONRY.


religion ?


We feel that we have a right to say that the opinions of such men, in relation to subjects outside of their callifig, should be adopted with caution, notwithstanding the high sounding title of D.D. may be attached to their names.


The ancient Egyptians, during the early part of their feasts, publicly bewailed their losses, and then, in order to show gratitude to the gods, they brought forth symbols representing the divine favors, or gifts they had received ; hence, for an abundant harvest, they loaded a figure with fruits, vegetables, bread, or corn, pitchers of wine, etc., etc.


Many of these articles were thrown upon horns with which the figure was furnished.


This is, doubtless, the origin of the cornucopia, or horn of plenty, and as the horns represented the wild goat, it is probable this is the origin of the vulgar impression, prevalent, to some extent, at this day, that candidates for initiation into the several secret societies are required to " ride the goat."


But, admitting the same symbol is now used to represent plenty, that was so used by the Egyptians, or, what is more correct, the same that was afterward used by the Greeks, viz.,‑‑one horn of the goat in the hand of a human figure‑is it to be inferred from these that Freemasonry was identical with the Ancient Mysteries? It must be borne in mind that the use of this symbol has not been preserved by Masons only, but by nations also.


The pitcher of wine was used by the ancients to represent an abundant vintage, but where is the corn and oil ?


In the dedicatory ceremonies, Masons use corn, wine, and oil, and, in some cases, in England, salt also, only one o˙ which articles seems to have been used in the festivals of the Egyptians.


But suppose they were all used, it is quite as reasonable to suppose the Masons have borrowed them from the ancients, as that they were Masonic emblems at that day. But we had supposed that the Masons did not even borrow them from the Ancient Mysteries. Sing Solomon sent to Kiug Hiram a present of many measures of corn, wine and oil, etc., in testimony of his gratitude for the important assistance rendered him in building the Temple. This gave birth to that long and uninterrupted friendship which marked the lives of those two great men.


We believe these articles were used at ‑the dedication of the Temple to commemorate EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES UNLIKE MASONRY.


175 that‑eveut, and Freemasons have ever since taken pride in perpetuating it.


The Egyptians carried in their processions a small chest, which at first contained a great variety of symbols, representing abundance. Afterward it seems their mysteries were founded upon the great secrets which were pretended to have been found in that chest. And here again some modern writers have made the wonderful discovery that the representation of the Ark of the Covenant, used by the Freemasons, is nothing more nor less than the mysterious chest of the ancients. Verily, one would be led to suppose that these brethren would attach much higher consequence to the Heathen Mythology than to the Holy Bible; for every Royal Arch Mason knows, and the world has a right to know it (for it is no secret), that the small chest carried in our processions, is a representation of the Ark of the Covenant; and used in our Chapter ceremonies to represent, and perpetuate the memory of an important event which transpired at the building of the first, and also of the second Temple, and there is not the slightest testimony, that the mysterious chest of the Egyptians ever had any connection with any of the Masonic ceremonies.


Although we are compelled to be brief in our remarks upon the Ancient Mysteries, we feel it to be our duty to introduce some facts, going to show that no sort of reliance can be placed upon the Heathen Mythology; and, in connection therewith, attempt to show that the symbols of the ancients, whether Egyptian, Phoenician, Grecian, or Roman, were so numerous and so often changed, that they can not be properly classified, or fitly applied to the explanations of our symbols of the present day. We take, for example, the fourth key of ancient symbolical writings, viz., the figure of a man with a dog's head, sometimes carrying a pole with a serpent wound round it. The representation of this symbol, about the time of the rising of the dog‑star, was to admonish the people to leave the low lands to escape the overflow. To this figure they gave the same name as that before given to the star, viz., the barker, or Anubis.


They also called it Tayant, the dog ; and still another name, viz., Serapis, the man‑dog.


Here are three meanings for the same symbol, 176




and, in this case, as in nearly all others, the T,%ptians soon h. t g3 siglit of the original meaning and design of the symbol, and imagined the name given to each was the name of a deity, and assigned to him a place of power. Serapis, at first, was only the figure or symbol of the dog‑star, or rather, one of the divine attributes of the star ; but, in a little while, they imagined that the serpent twined around his rod, and gave him great and miraeulous powers over diseases, and he was not only supposed to be a real being, but a doctor of medicine, and, finally, a god of medicine. The invention of letters was likewise attributed to him., And here we see that the same figure is made to represent three gods‑Serapis, the man‑dog; Tayant. the dog‑star; and Anubis, the barker; while, originally, it was intended simply to inform the inhabitants that the dog‑star waa about to appear, when the overflow would commence.


With the Romans the representations of the figure of Bacchus were, at first, to keep before the people important events ; second, to admonish the people of what was best to be done in future ; then he was the symbol of mourning, or crying to the gods ; then Bacchus was the god having power over wild beasts, etc., etc., and the people prayed to him for protection ; and, again, among many other divine powers, he was the god of wine. Under all the various divine attributes of Bacchus, religious festivals were instituted, resembling, from what we can gather, the Roman Catholic processions of the host, and the general impression seems to be, that this ceremony, like most of the mummeries of the Roman Church, was derived from the heathens ; but that they have been greatly improved upon is very' clear, for there are certainly more pomp and pretended mystery in the ceremonies of that Church, than were attempted by the heathens ; and we may add, that wherever they have the power, a disregard of those ceremonies is much more severely punished, than was ever done by the heathens. What man, in a Catholic country, be he Papist or Protestant, Greek or Mohammedan, dare refuse to kneel while the host is passing on the street ? Hercules, the sun, or a god in the sun. was believed by the ancients to have had a battle with the enemies of Atlas, and, finally, succeeded in relieving him of the heavy burden somehcw EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES UNLIKE MASONRY.


177 huproperly placed upon his shoulders, which, originally, only meant that the sun, or god of the sun, had thrown hot rays upon. the tops of the mountains, and melted the snow, so that agriculture could be carried on by the assistance of Atlas, or the principles of the earth. And the symbols of three golden balls, now used by pawnbrokers, are derived from the repratentation of a tree, having golden fruit, which was used by the ancients to represent their succcessful commerce with other nations; but no one, at this day, would be led to believe, on seeing the three golden balls at a pawnbroker's office, that the ~imate was largely engaged in commerce.


The Egyptians held the feast of Osiris, or Isis. or Horux, at the beginning of the year, which, as we have stated, was governed by the dog‑star ; but as there were six hours in each year which they failed to provide for, they found that, is four years, the feast would come one day too soon for the rising of the dog‑.star, and as; in this feast, they were desirous to appease and honor all the gods having power over the productions of the soil, etc., they determined to continue their feasts as they began, and once in every fourteen hundred and silty years, they would have held their feast on every day of the year, and all the gods were thus equally honored, and hence it was that, every four years, their symbols of the feast were changed to suet the ,seasons, or the presiding deity of that paa.ticular day. And thus, in process of time, each day was supposed to be the birthday of some one or move of the gods.


But the figure of Bacchus was multiplied into various gods besides the three we have named, there was Camillus of the Ileturians, the Mercury of the Phoenicians, the Hermes of the Greeks, and the Jamus of the Satins ; all these were represented at various times, and in the different countries, by different figures. A:uubis was sometimes represented as holding in his hand .u large purse, which gave great joy to the people, as they then felt sure of prosperity, and hence was Anubis called Mercury the cunning detder.


On some occasions, Anubis was represented with large hawk's wings, to signify that the Nile would rise .sufficiently high to overflow :and enrich the earth ; and here the name of Anubis was changed to Dvedalu~, and soon D.cedalvs 12 178




was known, or believed to be a great architect, the inventor of the square and compasses. So that, for the sake of consistency, we think those modern writers, who trace Masonry back to the Ancient Mysteries, should instruct their readers that the true symbol to represent the origin of Masonry, and the tools of the Craft, is a large pair of hawk's wings.


Now, the Cabiri, whom Dr. Oliver represents as having been so celebrated as Masons, are nothing more than the three principal figures of the Egyptian ceremonies. ˛They were carried into Phoenicia, and there received the name of Cabiri ; the first was called Axicros, the all‑powerful; the second, Axiokersos, the fecundatm‑; and the third, Axeokersa, the fecundatrix. To the latter figure they also gave the name of Casmilus, or she who beholds deity ; and, we think, other names were given to the other two, and hence, they finally made not only six figures out of the original three, but deified them all ; indeed, historians do not agree as to the number of the Cabiri‑some say there were but three, while others contend, with much plausibility, that there were six, and all from the same parentage.


The Nile generally covered Lower Egypt, or the Delta, three months in the year, cutting off all land communication with the neighboring cities, and, occasionally, there was distress in some or them. In order to communicate with each other, they introduced barks, or small sailing vessels, the symbol of which was the flying horse.


Finally, three of these figures were used to represent the three months o˙ alms‑giving, or assistance to the distressed, and were called the Pegasus, and nine other figures were made to represent the nine months of prosperity, when the land was free of water.


These were called the muses, or gods of the months or prosperity, who were headed by Apollo, who foretold future events through his inferior gods, each one of `which represented a particular month, and what the earth would bring forth for the people in that month.


Now, for aught we know, there may be some new side degrees, or even some among the French degrees, called Masonic, whirl. have emblems resembling those above referred to, but there is no sort of resemblance between those symbol's and any belong tm to Ancient Craft Masorry.




179 We have stated, and here repeat, that we can place no sort of reliance upon the records of the ancients, as handed down to us, and we are sorry to say, the aid which we have received from writers who have lived since the middle, or dark ages, is but little more satisfactory. Take, for example, the history of the reign of Semiramis, as detailed in the early part of our history, emanating from the pen of Herodotus, and compare it with Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, and others, who have written since, and it will be found that they make this celebrated Queen live at various periods, from two thousand two hundred, down to seven hundred years'before Christ, thus showing a difference of fifteen hundred years ; and, although each author gives us'a detailed account of the Queen's reign, her character and habits, it is, at least, most probable that no such Queen ever lived at all. We know that it was the custom, in the days of Noses, to call a tribe or family by its original head or founder.


Ninevah was called Ninees ;, the people of Judea were called Judah ; it was said that Israel dwelt in tents, etc., etc.


Now, we know that the ancient Babylonians assumed the name of Semarien, which, we are told, signified a dove, and W. Powel informs us that the title Semiramis was as often used to mean the same thing.


If, then, it be admitted that the ancients, in speaking of the battles and victories of Semiramis, mean to give an account of the achievements of that nation of people, it at once enables us to reconcile the different arid, otherwise, contradictory accounts given by different writers; for the Babylonians occupied a position among nations quite as long a period as that referred ' to, viz., from two thousand two hundred down to seven hundred years before Christ.


But, if we admit that such errors, as above referred to, originated in a misconstruction of terms, we are bound to admit that the whole history of the ancients, as handed down to us, is fabulous and unsatisfactory.


How, then, shall we arrive at anything like a correct knowledge of the original meaning of the symbols of the ancients ?


If we rely upon the poets of Greece and Rome, they differ widely from each other, and throw the whole into impenetrable mystery. We learn that an instrument resembling the letter T was used for measuring the Nile, and, again, we find it in the hands of the 180




same people, transformed into a cross the,posses"sion of which was supposed to be a sure guaranty against evil. The cross, ''therefore; was worn as a charm around the neck, which supertctition, it is said, descended to the Catholics, and is still held in seat veneration by them, although its reference is now made to the Cross of Christ. They have, however, found a spell more potent than the cross; via., a few verses called the ‑gospel. Home tells us that the Egyptians, of the present day, use as a a‑emedy against a disease, a charm from a priest, trade up of wme passage in the Koran. We ask, now; .if there is, or ‑ever was, anything in Masonry which addresses itself to the super stition of its members ?


What Mason, of common sense, could bbelieve that a verse; or quotation from the Bible, coming through the hands of a priest; would work miracles upon the body or oul of any man ?


And yet, this is quite as reasonable as to ˛believe that the Ancient Mysteries and Masonry were identical, and, especially, if we rely upon the statement of Herodotus, that the Ancient Mysteries constituted a secret theology, which never could be known to any but the initiated.


And, indeed; there are many reasons going to show that the original Egyptian Uysteries have never been handed down to as, or, if they have, 'they have been so adulterated and mixed up with the thousand . changes and additions which were perpetually going on, that ‑'it is now impossible to designate the original.


We are led to believe, from a careful examination of several of the most prominent writers, that, at an early period, ‑after ,the original signs and symbols had been misconstrued and misapplied, and false theories and histories were introduced, that the wisest and 2best ‑men instituted a secret Society, for the ,praiseworthy purpose of bringing back the people 'from their ,idolatry. We think it will not be difficult to show that this could only be done secretly, and, finder the most solemn vows ,to withhold the facts from the world. We know the belief that the names of the original figures and emblems were the names of distinguished and powerful individuals, and celestial gods became so universally popular, that no man would have been emitted, publicly, to teach the fallacy of that doctrine, nor was it safe to do 'so, even through a secret society, until the EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES UNLIKE MASONRY.


MI mind of the candidate was fully prepared for the change, by a long probation, trial, and preparation. That the initiated wage entrusted with but little at a time, and that this was necessary, under the circumstances, we have good reason to believe; but that all who gave satisfactory evidence that they could be trusted and would prove faithful, were fully instructed that the gods they worshiped were but imaginary beings, originating ii. the names of mere symbols, introduced and originally used to signify the heavenly bodies, which were supposed to exercise an influence upon the earth, the water, the air, and the productinns of the earth, we have good reason to believe ; and, hence, the opinion became prevalent, first with the initiated, and the4k with the people generally, that the true religion was only to be mown through the medium of initiation into the Mysteries: The Egyptians were prone to run to extremes, and those who were made wise by the priests, by an introduction into the secret Society, very soon arrived at the conclusion that, not only was a knowledge of the true religion taught in the Mysteries, but that God required every one to be initiated, an4 that those who entered would be blessed, both temporally and spiritually, and that all who failed to withstand the probation, or who were deemed unfit for initiation, were under the curse of God, and should be despised by all men.


From this extravagance it was but a step, and a very popular one, too, to intros troduce, even into the Mysteries, a plurality of gods, and attach to each the powers of omnipotence, in a limited sphere.


Man has, in all ages, been prone to fall in love with mysteries, and magnify their importance.


The more mysterious and difficult to be understood the religion taught, the more followers it will have, with the ignorant and uneducated.


Our superstition is much more easily excited into action than our reasoning facul ties, and, hence, it is more easy to believe what we can not understand, than to arrive at the truth, by simple testimony, within the reach of all.


The priests first taught, it is believed, many of the primitive truths, but soon after permitted the introduction of other things, which comported with the superstitions and passions of the people, and, hence, the origin of the greater and lesser Mysteries of which we read.


Tle greater 182




and lesser religions of the Eleusinians were nothing more than the degrees of knowledge, acquired by initiation and progress in the secret Society. As soon as the popular corruptions were introduced, the same care in selecting subjects was no longer necessary ; for all could enter, and have their passions indulged with the worship of as many gods as they chose, while, to a select few, was reserved the right of advancement to the greater Mysteries, and, hence, was it supposed, finally, that the priests alone were entitled to know the greater Mysteries, or religious truths. And thus, is it thought, originated the superstitious and ridiculous idea, that Roman Catholic priests were alone qualified to expound the Scriptures, and comprehend the will of God.


We may be asked, if wise and good men instituted the Egyptian Mysteries for the purpose of disabusing the minds of the people, and calling them back to the worship of the true God, what motive could have induced their successors to suffer popular errors to enter, when it was completely within their power to prevent it Y To this we answer, that these very Mysteries were soon made a source of revenue to the priesthood, and, finally, on many occasions, to the government; and To be able to draw largely from the pockets of the people, the Mysteries had to become popular, and it could not be so to the great mass, except by pandering to their passions, and feeding their credulity.


Having said thus much, with a view that our readers who Dave not given their attention to Heathen Mythology, may have some idea of the origin of the Ancient Mysteries, we can only express our regret that we could not, consistently, say more, as a bare outline or sketch seldom gives satisfaction to the inquir. ing mind. But, as it can not be expected that we would enter largely upon the history of the ancients, in a history devoted to the Masonic Society, we indulge the hope that all who desire pore light upon this subject, will adopt a course of reading to that end.


We shall now attempt to show, as far as we can, in what the ancient Egyptian. Mysteries were made to consist, after they were corrupted, and proceed to trace their introduction into EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES UNLIKE MASONRY.


183 other countries, and the alterations made in each.


And, as our opinions, in many respects, differ from all others who have written upon the subject, and as our object is, that the Fraternity shall no longer adopt the wild and visionary theories of any man, however high his standing, we indulge the hope that a spirit of inquiry will be aroused, and that before our brethren undertake to endorse errors which must bring our Institution into ridicule, they will read, and think, and reason for them selves.


That our views will be pronounced incorrect, in many particulars, we do not at all question.


But, if the simple and unadorned truth shall be the result of the exposure of our errors, we shall rejoice that we have written to so good a purpose.


The great abundance of the harvest in Egypt, and, especially, in the Delta, very naturally led to a direct intercourse with the surrounding nations. It seldom happened that either the Arabians, Syrians, Greeks, or Canaanites, were not compelled to draw their supply, or make up a deficit in their crops, by, drawing on Lower Egypt.


The traffic in corn, therefore, became a regular business, especially with the Phoenician mderchants, who occupied the coast, near Libanus, and who were a much more commercial people than the Egyptians. In their intercourse, it is but reasonable to suppose, they examined into the Egyptian polity, and learned the powerful influence which the Mysteries everywhere exercised over the temper and morals of the people, a knowledge of which was thus carried into their own country, and, ere long, the Mysteries were there introduced.


The abundance of the crops was very properly attributed to the overflow of the Nile, and as it never rained in Phoenicia, they naturally fell into the views of the Egyptians, that the overflow was sent directly by God, as a peculiar gift to the inhabitants.


In token of their gratitude for this D:vine interposition in their favor, the Egyptians represented it in all their public festivals, by the figure of their god, that is, tree sun, or Osiris, with a river pouring out of his mouth.


The Phoenicians traveled all over the then known world, and it is most probable that the Mysteries were by them introduced into other nations, where they were readily receives and MODFRN FREEMASONRY.


encouraged ; first, because the public ceremonies were fascinating and imposing in their nature ; and, secondly, because of the known prosperity of the Egyptians, who attributed that prosperity to their religious observances of the Mysteries.


Some writer has very appropriately remarked that Egypt was the cup containing the original poison of idolatry, and the the Phoenicians are the people who, by traveling all over the world, have presented this fatal cup to the greater part of the western nations.


It is, we believe, generally admitted, that although the Mys. teries of the different countries assumed different names, as best suited the condition or tastes of the people, Ceres, of Sicily and Eleusis, is the same as the Egyptian Isis, and yet the same public ceremonies were not observed. In Egypt, the Mother of Harvests bewailed her husband, while, in the other case, she lamented her daughter; and so it will be seen that the Athenian, and all other Mysteries, differed outwardly from the Egyptian; and, it is equally fair to suppose, quite as many differences existed in the secret ceremonies.


Historians tell its that in the mysteries of Ceres, at Eleusis. the ceremony of initiation commenced with a most horrid darkness, lightning,,and imitation of thunder‑claps, and other frightful representations ; after which, quiet was restored, and four persons magnificently and mysteriously dressed, were to be seen. The most brilliant of the four was dressed so as to represent the Ruler of the Universe, and was called the Hierophant, the expounder of holy things. ‑rhe second was the f ambeau bearer, and somehow referred to the sun. The third, the adorer, represented the moon ; and the fourth, messenger of the gods, or Mercury.


Both Plato and Cicero preface their laws by calling on all men to exercise an unwavering belief in the gods, and their power over man.


" Let those," says Cicero, " who approach the gods be pure and undefiled ; let their offerings be seasoned with piety, and all ostentation of pomp omitted; the god himself will be his own avenger on transgressors. Let the gods, and those who were ever reckoned in the number of the celestials, be worshiped and those, likewise, whom their merits have raised to heaven, EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES UNLIKE MASONRY.


1S$ web as Hercules, Bacchus, 1Psculapius, Castor, Pollux, and Romulus. And let chapels be erected in honor to those qualities, by whose aid mortals arrive thither, such as reason, virtue, piety, and good faith." It should be borne in mind, that, in the Pagan worship, each god was entitled to both public and secret honors‑the latter were performed only in the Mysteries, and to which honor but fear were admitted, compared with the multitude who were merely initiated_ Warburton tells us, that " the first and original Mysteries, of which we have any sure account, were those of Isis and Osiris, oă Egypt; from thence they were derived by the Greeks, under the presidency of various gods, as the instructor thought most for his purpose ; Zoroaster brought them into Persia; Cadmus and InachuB into Greece, at large ; Orpheus into Thrace ; Melampus into Argos ; Trophonius into Bceotia ; Minos into Crete; Cyneas into Cyprus; and Erechtheus into Athens. And as, in Egypt, they were to Isis and Osiris, so, in Asia, they were to Mithras ;


in Samothrace to the mother of the gods; in Bmtia to Bachus ; in Cyprus to Venus; in Crete to Jupiter, in Athens to Ceres and Proserpine ; in Amphisa to Castor an l Pollux ; in Lemnos to Vulcan ; and so to others in other places, the number of which was incredible." As introductory to these Mysteries, we find the origin of the Roman Catholic confessional; every applicant was required to confess, to the Hieropliant, every wicked act that he had committed during his whole life.


Hence, as we are told, the consciousness of his parricide deterred Nero, who murdered his mother, from attending the celebration of the Eleusinian Mysteries, while in Greece.


All applicants were taught that initiation into the Mvsteries drew the soul from earth, and earthly things, and united it t<r the gods. The initiated took a solemn oath to commence and lead a life of strict piety, and they entered upon the discharge of this duty, by a course of the severest penance, very similar to that practiced, at the present day, by the Roman Catholic Church.


This, the ancients thought, would purge the mina Aă ˛ Sea Warburton's Divine Lgaatdm V Now.




its natural defilements ; and the doctrine was openly proclaimed, that none entered the Mysteries who were not thereby placed under the immediate protection and blessings of the gods, while all who failed, or omitted to enter, were, and ever would remain, under the curse of the gods. This differs from the Roman Church, only so far as that the latter brings heretics under the curse of but one God. It is not more wonderful, therefore, that a superstitious and imbecile people should madly rush forward, and seek admission, than that an intelligent and cultivated people, of the present day, should openly proclaim damnation to all who fail to enter the Roman Catholic Church. The Pagans thought initiation quite as necessary as the Christians do baptism, and they initiated women and children as willingly as they did men, and in this they, were consistent, notwithstanding it clearly shows that these religious services bear no relation to Freemasonry.


But the Masonic historians have imagined that, inasmuch as the initiates into the Ancient Mysteries were dressed in white garments, they must have been Masons, or Masonry must be derived from them, for our Initiates wear white aprons. The reason here, for the conclusion drawn, is so manifestly inadequate that we do not think it necessary to do more than to notice it.


Doubtless, our readers have been expecting us to tell them, not only in what the ceremonies of those great Mysteries consisted, but to explain the doctrine taught in them. This much, we confess, some modern writers have undertaken to do, and we are not inclined to charge them with doing so, without seeming authority, but we wish to say that there is no evidence that the ceremonies or doctrines were ever divulged, only so far as the poets have done by metaphors, inuendoes, and that sort of reference to the secrets, which could be understood only by the initiated, which description of expose is becoming quite too fasb ionable with Masonic writers, at the present day.


We are left to, hints, dropped in the various writings of the Greeks and Romans, for an explanation of the internal arrangements of the Mysteries, but there is much testimony going to show that the greater Mysteries exposed and condemned the Pagan EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES UNLIKE MASONRY.


18T doctrine, or polity of the plurality of gods, and the worship of (lead men as ascended deities. But what was the peculiar doctrine taught, as being true, in reference to the great first cause, and the final destiny of the souls of men, is not so clearly inferrable, though the weight of testimony goes to prove that one God, supreme and all‑powerful, was the faith taught by those Mysteries ; but, we are not left at liberty to suppose their doctrine stopped here, but that they supposed the Great Ruler employed subordinate deities, in the government of the world. Clemens says : " The doctrines delivered in the greater Mys teries are concerning the Universe.


Here all instruction ends. Things are seen as they are ; and nature, and things of nature, are given to be comprehended."


And Strabo says: " The secret celebration of the Mysteries preserves the majesty due to the divinity, and, at the same time, initiates its nature, which hides itself from our senses."


And, in another place, he clearly makes philosophy to be the object of the Mysteries.


An anecdote, generally credited, is handed down to us, which, if true, throws much light upon the object of the Mysteries ; but even this does no more than prove'their opposition to the worship of dead men, and the numerous imaginary gods. The story runs thus: After Alexander of Macedon acquired unlimited away, and his power was everywhere respected or feared, he demanded of one Leo, chief Hierophant of Egypt, the object of the Mysteries, and fear induced the priest to comply with his demand, and‑he stated.that the Mysteries taught that Faunus, and 1Eneas and Romulus, Hercules, ~Esculapius, Castor, Pollux, etc., who were worshiped as gods, were nothing more than mortal men, who had distinguished themselves on earth, but who had lived and died like other men, having no claims to be worshiped as deities.


The Mysteries were communicated in groves or caves.


The cave is represented as presenting to the candidate a most hideous appearance. A yawning mouth, partially filled with huge stones, and surrounded by a black and gloomy lake. The ground beneath the candidate trembled, or a rumbling noise issued from beneath his feet, the mountain tops began to quake, and dogs were seen to howl through the woods, all which wag is$




thought to be produced by the approach of the goddess of divine power, or Eleusis.


Procul, 0, procud, este profani‑' Hence, O, hence, ye profane," exclaimed the prophetess, and plunged into the cave. The candidate and his conductor then advanced through thick darkness, in the desolate halls and realms of Pluto. The candidates were in exercise for three or four days, passing from one horrid representation to another; but this was not all, they were thrown into the river Styx, and left to their own efforts to get out, which was a difficult and dangerous task, having to cross a wide extent of water. They were then tortured with the sword and fire. , They were made to pass through flames ; in short, the most inhuman tortures and fatigues were imposed, and in many instances, the candidates sunk in despair under them. It is stated that Pythagoras narrowly escaped with his life, in submitting to the ceremonies.


All Masonic writers, who date Masonry back to the Mysteries, contend that the Pythagorean school was a Lodge of Freemasons; and this is necessary to their theory, for, if the Egyptian Mysteries constituted Freemasonry, then was Pytha goras a Mason, for, no one doubts that the Pythagorean Mysteries were the Egyptian Mysteries, altered and added to as suited his purposes.


The applicants for the Pythagorean Mysteries were subject, first, to three years abstinence from all food and drink, save what was necessary barely to sustain lifo, and to clothing of the coarsest kind, added to which, were such exercises as were most difficult to perform.


Next, he sentenced them to three years' silence, and to teach humility, he subjected them to a course of contradiction, ridicule, and contempt, among the initiated ; to restrain avarice, he required his disciples to submit to voluntary poverty : he deprived them of all control over their own property, by cast ing it all into a common stock, to be distributed to all, according to the judgment of proper officers. During the whole of this probation, his disciples were not permitted to see their great master. but heard his lectures from behind a screen.


To the lower grads of his disciples, he explained his doctrines or Fee verg.‑Aa lib. vi., v. 258 et seq.




189 philosophy mainly by symbols, but to those who became true or confirmed followers, he fully, explained all the Mysteries. His doctrines, as we have elsewhere stated, consisted of a mixture of 6,11 religions then known.


Ile taught that there existed one great God, which is the universal mind, diffused throughout all things, the source of animal life, the cause of all motion, that, in eubstanoe, it was like unto light, incapable of pain, invisible, and to be only known by mind.


The air was supposed to be filled with demons‑heroes, who produce ,sickness or health at their pleasure, and who had the power to forewarn man of future events, by visiting his mind, through the medium of dreams.


He believed there was one great Soul. controlling :innumerable lesser souls, that these soule passed through all the gradations of animals, from man to the beast, from the beast down to the animals below, and then back again; iz ghott, his was the doctrine of metempsychosis, or transmigration of souls.


One of the greatest mysteries of Pythagoras, was the symbol of the letter Y, the use of which, it is said, was never divulged but writers, since his time, have thought he derived the symbol from the Pagan fable of the triple path, or forks of the road to the infernal regions, one leading to the Elysium, and the other, to Tartarus ; and, it will be seen, that the letter fitly makes the representation designed, the one passing up to the left, " the broad way that leads to death," and the other, narrow and straight,; but it does not fully meet the description of the two roads spoken of in the Bible, for neither of them is provided with a straight gate.


We have said thus much of the Eleusinian Mysteries, barely for the purpose of giving the reader some general idea of all the Mysteries, as practiced in ancient times ; for, notwithstanding they assumed different names in different countries, and were altered and changed, in order to render them popular, yet it appears the great features of all were the same. Imperfect as is the knowledge of the Ancient Mysteries, as transmitted to us, still i t there enough sczttered through the writings of the Greek and Roman philosoph" aid poets, to render the subject an interesting one.


Indeed, the lustnry of the Jews can not be properl,v 190




understood without some acquaintance with the Mysteries, for Josephus tells us: " The high and sublime knowledge which the Gentiles, with difficulty, attained, in the rare and tempo.arp celebration of their Mysteries, was habitually taught to the Jews, at all times, so that the body politic seems, as it were, one great assembly, constantly kept together, for the celebration of some sacred Mysteries." Another author says: "The whole Mosaic religion was an initiation into Mysteries, the principal forms and regulations of which were borrowed, by Moses, from the secrets of the old Egyptians." It must be admitted that the doctrines or teachings, as well as the habits of the Essenes and the Druids, were so different from the Elusinian, and other Pagan Mysteries, that in them we find some reason to believe they did not spring from the Egyptian Mysteries, notwithstanding there are some strong points of resemblance.


When Julius Caesar invaded England, the Druids were found 'to be a Society of priests. The Britons and the Gauls were a superstitious people, and priests are numerous everywhere, in proportion to the amount of superstition of the people.


Strabo tells us that the Britons and Gauls entertained the belief that the more Druids they had on the Island, the more plentiful would be their crops, hence it follows that this Society was generally popular and influential.


The Druids of England, the Pamphylia of Egypt, the Liberalia of Rome, the Gymnosophists of India, the Chaldeans of Assyria, the Magi of Persia, the Ceres of Greece, and all others, tauglit two sets of doctrines. The one catered to the tastes and predilections of the people, and imposed but few restraints upon initiates, and, hence, all persons, men, women, and children, could be admitted, but the greater Mysteries were confined mainly to the priests.


The secret doctrines of the Druids are not well known, even to this day. Nearly all our information is derived from the Greek and Roman writers, who, it is probable, were not themselves well informed in relation to them. The weight of testimony however, is, that from the Roman invasion, A.D. 55, to EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES IINLTRE MASONRY.




the arrival of the Saxons, A.D. 449, the Druids taught, in their greater Mysteries, the doctrine of one God, as did the


Brah mins of


India, and who took a solemn oath to keep this doctrine a profound secret from the world.


It is stated that the Druids also taught a knowledge of the creation, and the primitive innocence of man, his fall, etc., and some say they pretended to know the history of the creation, and fall of angels, the universal deluge, and foretold the destruction of the world by fire ; in short, that the doctrines of the Druids were very much the same taught by Moses, in the holy writings.


It is quite evident that they taught the immortality of the soul, as this doctrine they were allowed to publish to the world, as a means of stimulating the people to brave deeds, in defence of their rights, and the rights of their nation.


But the most learned writers of Greece, as well as Cxsar and Diodorus, assert that the Druids taught the Pythagorean doctrine of the transmigration of souls.


Other writers say that the ductiine of transmigration of souls was publicly taught by the Druids, in order to suit the popular views of the people, but that, in the greater Mysteries, they taught that the souls of men were placed in a circle‑tlae circle of courses‑that if the possessor prefers good in this world, death will transmit his soul into the circle of felicity ; but, if the man prefers a wicked course in this life, his soul, after death, will be returned to the circle of courses, and take its turn in getting a new habitation.


No secret society, of which we have an account, after all, did so much harm by their teachings, as did the Druids, by means of their teaching that ignorance was the mother of devotion. This doctrine tended to minister to the mercenary desires of those priests ; for in proportion to the ignorance of the people, would be the demand for the assistance and guidance of the learned ,and holy priesthood. It is even asserted that such was the secret doctrine of the Mysteries everywhere, but that the Druids were the first to make it public.


This is said to bo the reason why so many fabulous tales of terror were invented by the ancients, for if it be admitted that all men were in danger of coming under the curse of the gods, and that the priests had power to intercede and restore them to favor, and procure for 192




them temporal and eternal blessings, it will readily be sm that the priests could exact any tax, within the power of the people to pay, for instructions, etc.


The doctrines of the Druids were, doubtless, sang by their poets, who were in great favor with the people. These poets had public stands erected, from which they read their effusions, :teaching that the gods enjoined them all to be united in defense of their country, that all who died in battle would be blessed and carried to Elysium by the gods; but that all who pursued the opposite course, should have their souls transmitted to the meanest beasts, there to be punished.


The sun was one of the most prominent deities of the Druids. To do honor to this god, they formed a circle of stones on an eminence, and, within this consecrated circle, ‑kept the holy fire. Near to the temple dedicated to the sun, they erected a similar one of smaller dimensions, in honor to the moon, another of their gods. They worshiped a greater number of deities than did any of the ancients; indeed, every river, lake, rivulet. mountain, and valley, had its divinity, or genii.


One of the public ceremonies of the ancient Britons, was a source of great ,profit to the priests. They offered sacrif ces of the best animals that were used by them as food, to appease the gods.


He who sinned was compelled to make a sacrifice, and this he could not do without purchasing the privilege of the priests. The most perfect animal was slain, one‑third of it consumed on the altar, one‑third was given to him who had :purchased the .privilege, and the other third was reserved ~to the priest.


But, ere long, this species of sacrifice did not answer all the craving propensities of the priests, but a doctrine was engrafted into the laws of the Druids, that nothing but the life of ,man could atone for the life of man, and, under this creed, the blood of human beings was freely poured out as offerings to their gods; and when they had no criminals, they did not hesitate to slaughter the innocent, especially upon the approach of war, 'nr at the request of any wealthy individual, backed by a priest. The ancient Britons believed that their laws were the gift of the gods, and as the Druids were the only persons capable of EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES UNLIKE MASONRY.


understanding and explaining those laws, all controversies were determined by them ; in short, all power was in their hands, the ruling sovereign being ruler only nominally. A violation of the laws was not an offense against the ruler or the government, but against heaven, or the gods, consequently, the Druids could alone determine the punishment due to crimes. And any against whom the Druids fulminated their anathemas, were deprived of all religious privileges, and held in detestation by the people. Never did the Popes of Rome possess more unlimited sway, in this particular, than the Druids of England.


The Druids forbade the dedication of houses as places of worship, and, therefore, held their meetings in groves, planted in the deepest recesses, for that purpose. The oak was venerated by them, and their groves consisted mainly of that tree, and a few others, esteemed for some miraculous powers. The place of meeting was protected by a pile of stones, laid one upon another, or thrown together, leaving but one entrance, which was guarded, to prevent the admission of strangers.


The most remarkable of these temples, and most resembling a house, is Stone‑henge, spoken of in the early part of this history, and which is, probably, still standing.


The power and influence of the Druids continued unimpaired until the Roman influence grew in strength, when that strength was exerted against them. in every form, until, finally, the Druids were deprived of all offices, and many of them fled to Caledonia and Hibernia, where they sustained themselves for many years.


We make the following extracts from the Edinburgh Encydopcedia: "The garments of the Druids were remarkably long, and, when employed in religious ceremonies, they always wore a white surplice.


"They generally carried a wand in their hand, and wore a kind of ornament, encased in gold, about their necks, called the Druid's egg. Their necks were likewise decorated with gold chains, and their hands and arms with bracelets they wore their hair very short, and their beards remarkably long.


11 The Druids had one Chief, or Arch‑Druid, in every nation, who acted as Higb Priest, or pontlfex maximus.


They had absolute authority over the rest, and com manded, decreed, punished, etc., at pleasure.


He was elected from among the most eminent Druids, by a plurality of votes.


"They worshiped the Supreme Being, under the name of Esus, or Hesus, and We symbol of the oak i and had no other temple than a wood or grove, where sU 1194




their religious rites were performed. Nor was any person permitted to enter tbA sacred recess, unless he carried with him a chain, in token of his absolute dependence on the deity.


1' The consecrated groves, in which they performed their religious rites. were looted round with stones, to prevent any persons entering, except through the passages left open for that purpose, and which were guarded by some inferior Druids. to prevent any stranger from intruding into their mysteries. These groves were of different forms, some quite circular, others oblong, and more or lesstapacious, as the votaries in the districts to which they belonged were mor. or less numerous." 'The Society of Druids, of the present day, decorate their rooms with chairs, tables, pedestals, etc., made of oak, in its rude state, as taken from the forest, and many use festoons of oak leaves upon the walls, and they carry in their processions oak leaves, from which it might be inferred they held to the doctrines of the ancients ; but, we imagine the only veneration now given to the oak, is for the purpose of holding in remembrance the places where the ancient Druids held their meetings. Certainly, it can not be supposed, that there is an organized society in the United States, holding the doctrines of the Pagan Theology. We have good reason for believing that the Society o˙ Druids, of the present day, make no pretensions to religion whatever, but, like most other secret societies, have their peculiar manner of teaching and enforcing morality, truth, virtue, and benevolence.


These remarks are made, not from any knowledge of the internal regulations o˙ that Society, but from an acquaintance with some of its members, who would not, we are sure, remain connected‑ with them, if the doctrines of the Ancient Druids were taught. Indeed, we doubt whether there are any secret societies in the United States, to which men of contrary politics or religion are admitted, who do not teach, and undertake to practice morality. It is possible for any number of men of precisely the same views in politics, to band themselves together, and, in secret conclave, concoct plans for extending their influence, and increasing their numbers ; and the same may be done by religious sectarians ; but, in either case, their members must be confined to men who are known firmly to entertain the same views, before their application would be considered.


But how ridiculous, how idle, yea, how silly, to charge Freemasons, EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES UNLIKE Y ISONRY.


195 Oddiellows,,ions of Temperance, Druids, or any other society, known to receive members of all religions, and regardless of their politics, with being combined together for irreligious, immoral purposes, or for the accomplishment of political ends. Every man of common sense should know that such an attempt would speedily lead to the downfall of such society ; for men,, entertaining views radically at variance, would feel it to be their duty to denounce the Institution, as dangerous in its tendency.


We are told, by nearly all writers upon Masonry, that the world is being more enlightened, and more enlarged and liberal views are being entertained; that the enemies of Masonry have gone to the tomb of the Capulets ; and so they have, but how long before another swarm of fanatics will rise up, and, with equal boldness, assail an Institution they can not control ? Intolerance is incident to man's nature, and fanaticism is like an epidemic‑periodical.


It is true, that the able journals, which have recently made their appearance, are doing wonders in digpelling darkness from the minds of those who are, or have been, ignorant, but honest.


But we dare not hope our future is all sunshine; no, we shall have enemies whenever bigotry can use, or abuse our Institution advantageously.


We have stated that the original ceremonies, and the secret teachings of the early Egyptian Mysteries, have not been handed down to us, and, though we may rationally infer what were the great objects designed to be accomplished by them, much of the proof depends upon mere conjecture ; and hence, each writer may exercise great latitude in drawing his deductions. It is, however, conceded, on all hands, that the Persian, Grecian, and Roman Mysteries were transplanted from the original, modified or enlarged to suit the peculiar notions and tastes of the people among whom they were introduced.


We think we have shown that there is no well‑defined likeness between the early Egyptian Mysteries and those of Freemasonry, as far as a knowledge of the former has come down to us; but, as much more is known of the Persian and Grecian Mysteries than of the original of Egypt, and, as these were in their full tide of prosperity at the very period to which we data 196




the origin of Freemasonry, viz., at the building of the Temple of Solomon, it becomes our duty to lay before our readers as many of the leading traits in those Mysteries, as will enable the well‑informed Mason to draw his own deductions. And, we are free to admit, that if it shall be found that the secret Institutions of Zoroaster, Pythagoras, or any others of that period, present a true type of Freemasonry, as taught by our traditions, we shall be compelled to admit that our opinions have been ill founded, and our theory fallacious; it will readily be seen, however, that we can not, in a work like this, enter into an examination of the peculiarities assumed by each nation, in the practice of the Mysteries. That they were all but a continuation of the Polythean doctrines of the ancient Egyptians, is clearly shown by the great number of gods worshiped, and the religions taught, as also in the forms and ceremonies of initia tion.


Therefore, for the sake of brevity, we shall select the Persian Mysteries, to exemplify our position, and to expose some of the absurdities of modern teachers in Masonry.


We are induced to select the Persian Mysteries, because we think more of their secrets have been exposed and published than of any other.


As the Mysteries taught by Zoroaster will constitute thesubject of this sketch, we wish it understood that we allude to the Zoroaster who lived about the time of the destruction of the Temple, without pausing to inquire whether he had a predecessor of the same name, who also gave tone to the Persian religion. Nor shall we stop to answer whether the soul of Zoroaster was eaten by a cow, in a bunch of mistletoe, and passed through her milk to the mother of the great philosopher; suffice it to say, that


Zerdusht, as he was called by the Persians, or Zoroaster, as he is called by the Greek writers, did actually live, and that he was the greatest philosopher, as well as the most consummate impostor of his day.


Some authors tell us that Zoroaster was a Jew by birth ; that he was thoroughly educated in the Jewish religion ; that he was a student of the Prophet Daniel, and, perceiving the great fame of his master, arising as well from his learning as from the gift of prophecy, Zoroaster left no effort untried to equal EGYPTIAN MTSTERIE8 UNLIKE MASONRY.


197 him ; but as he had not the gift of prophecy, lie attempted to rise to distinction by turning his attention to the study of magic, as ta.nght by the Chaldean philosophers. This reckless abandonment of the true faith, for sinister motives, induced Daniel to banish him, and forbid his return to Judea ; and, .hence his flight to Ecbatana. Whether this account of his early life is true or false, is not important to our present purpose, it being sufficiently established that he did, at Ecbatana, set himself up as a great magician, and exhorted the people to abandon some of the peculiarities of the Sabian worship, for the more ancient and sublime Magian religion.


Zoroaster had been initiated into the Mysteries of the surrounding nations, and, being deeply learned and well skilled in all the peculiar superstitions and tastes of the Persians, he was eminently fitted to establish a new sect, out of the more fascinating portions of the various forms of worship.


Nor was it long until he was surrounded by hundreds, who were ready to become followers, even before knowing his doctrines ; being sufficiently captivated by a representation of something new and mysterious.


The Persians, like the Druids, worshiped in the open air, being persuaded that the great and little deities filled all space, and could not be honored by a worship confined within the walls of a building, at least, if the building was covered. The Persians worshiped the sun, or fire, as the supreme being, and hence the sacred fire was kept burning on the tops of high hills. As Zoroaster's new system required secret apartments, in which the ceremony of initiation should be performed, it became necessary to remove this prejudice against covered buildings, and very soon he satisfied all that the sacred fire might be better preserved in round towers, erected for that purpose, having an aperture at the, top for the smoke to escape.


The buildings, thus erected, represented the universe, and as fire was kept constantly burning in them, God's residence was supposed to be in them, in an especial manner.


Zoroaster, having first prepared the minds of the people, retired to the mountains of Bokhara, where he found a cave, and proceeded to enlarge and ornament it with astronomical devices, and solemnly dedicated it to Mitbras, the third, or mediatorial deity, whom tho 198




Persians supposed was an inhabitant of the cave.


In the roof, or top of this grotto, Zoroaster represented the sun, by means of the most dazzling brilliants. Around the sun were represented the planets, in burnished gold.


Four globes,. composed of gold, brass, silver, and iron, were also represented, together with many of the heavenly bodies; and all richly decked with gold and brillant gems, so that the room, or cave, when lighted, presented a most dazzling and brilliant appearance, and especially to the initiate, for the lamps, we are told, were so constructed as to emit a thousand different shades of color.


In the centre of the cave was a large fountain of water, to supply the different chambers, for the purpose of ablution and purification.


The sum necessary to fix and ornament this splendid grotto would seem incredible to us of the present‑ day, but it must be remembered that, at the period of which we write, there was immense wealth fn the hands of many Persians; and for no purpose was it so lavishly expended, as for ornamenting and enriching buildings;. and great ostentation and show was nee, essary, in order to the speedy accomplishment of the ends had in view by Zoroaster. But, long before this wonderful grotto was finished, Zoroaster had it reported abroad that he had been received up into the third heaven, and had conversed, face to face, with the supreme being, who revealed to him the true worship, and instructed him to return and teach it to his fellowmen, in order that they might escape the wrath and vengeance of the gods.


He stated that the supreme ruler was surrounded by a flame of fire, which, being in accordance with the religion of the Persians, was, readily believed ; and, as soon as he was prepared, candidates were in waiting, ready and willing to consecrate their lives to the study of philosophy, under his guidance and instruction. The Persian philosophy rapidly acquired fame, and all who desired to acquire a knowledge of it, sought initiation at the Mitbaric Cave, or Zoroaster's Grotto. Great numbers came from the most distant countries, and some authors tell us that Pythagoras visited this great philosopher, and was initiated into his Mysteries ; others, again, go so far as to say, that Pythagoras was long a student under Zoroaster, and to him was mainly indebted for the extensive fame whieb EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES UNLIKE MASONRY.


I" he afterward acquired.


The public lectures of Zoroaster went very popular and numerously attended, and in these was the superior wisdom or craft of the philosopher perecptible ; at least it so appears to sensible men of this day.


He so lectured as to show an intimate knowledge of all the religions of the day, and to prove to the minds of his audience that the true worship had been lost, and remained concealed from the knowledge of men, until God revealed it to him; but he only threw out hints, such as were calculated to leave his audience anxioaa to acquire a thorough acquaintance with the true worship,, which could only be obtained by initiation into hits Mysteries, The candidate was prepared for initiation by a gr.,at numW of lustrations with. water, fire, honey, etc.


Some writers tell us there were as many as eighty degrees, or parcels of probationary trials, ending with about two months of fasting aid silence, in the gloomy caverns of Mithras.


Now, reader, you who are acquainted with the mysteries and ceremonies of Masonry, pause and inquire‑ whether there is aught in all this bearing any well‑marked affinity to Freemasonry. But we have not told the one‑half. The candidate was not only required to fast without a murmur; but he was required to submit to extremes of cold and heat, and have his body lacerated with stripes, and other more refined ties of torture ; and, if we may believe some of the mog learned writers, rendered probable by modern diseoveriee at human bones in these grottos, hundreds who; entered as ew‑didyates for initiation, were unable to withstand the inhuman rrtunes; and were never heard of more; others, who succeedee in, passing through the ordeal, came forth with their intellects e throned.


It is not remarkable, therefore, that those who passi A` through courageously, and came forth unscathed, should looked upon as superior beings, and under the direct protection of the gods, and as being entitled to a knowledge of the greater Mysteries.


The candidate, having performed his probation, was conducted; to the cavern of initiation. He. was crowned with olive, anoint.' ed with oil, and clothed with enchanted armor. Thus;aceoutir4 he was‑ placed in charge of his guide, who was dressed so as to 200




represent a monstrous griffin‑a great bird, whose history, according to the Persian Mythology, resembled that of Phoenix. This monster man‑bird was armed with talismans, that he might successfully make battle with the evil spirits, ever on the road of mortals to a state of perfection and holiness.


The candidate was introduced into an inner chamber, and purified by fire and water. He was next conducted to an immense precipice, from which lie was permitted to behold an immense and, apparently, bottomless vault, into which he seemed destined to be thrown, and which he was told was but a faint representation of the infernal regions, through which he was called upon to pass, or, failing in this, must be doomed to the everlasting curse of the gods. In strict silence, his guide now conducts him through the difficult and dangerous windings of the cavern.


The gloom, and profound silence which reigned, gave him ample opportunity for meditation, if, indeed, his mind was in a frame for thought.' Anon, he perceives flashes of light, emanating from the holy fire, which served, momentarily, to illumine his pathway, and then leave him in darkness tenfold more dark than before.


Sometimes this light would burst upon his head, and dazzle by its brightness ; and now he is terrified by the barking of dogs, the roaring of lions, and the angry yelling of the most ravenous wild beasts.


Enveloped in the olaukness of darkness, knowing not what evil should next befall him, unable to see, and incapable of directing his way of escape, he is hurried along in the direction from which the: howling of wolves and the roaring of wild beasts had proceeded and, upon a sudden opening of a door, he finds himself in a den of wild and angry beasts of prey.


Here there was light enough to enable him to discover the forms of his antagonists; his snide here. breaks silence to urge him to sum up all his courage, tend boldly defend himself, and now he is fiercely attacked, amidst the most deafening uproar, by lions, tigers, dogs, etc., and it mattered not how much bravery and presence of mind he was able to command, he was not permitted to escape without wounds, both painful and dangerous.


Of course, all these wild beasts, as represented, were members of the Society, and so clothed and practiced in their arts, as to counterfeit tht  EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES UNLIKE MASONRY.


201  appeal ante and roarings of the different animals.


From this apartment, the candidate was dragged into another, where, once more, intense darkness and profound silence reigned. Presently, a distant, rumbling noise is heard, proceeding from the caverns of the grotto ; as he proceeded, the noise became louder and more distinct, until, peal on peal, the thunder‑claps shook the foundation of the cavern, and seemed to threaten the very walls of the mountain. The lightning's vivid glare, in sheets of burning tire, again excited his terror, and enabled him to behold in the distance, groups of avenging genii, threatening to destroy any who might trespass upon their dominions.


Thus were these, and similar scenes and dangers, passed through, until the candidate was literally exhausted by fright, wounds, or fatigue, and being no longer capable of encountering toil and danger, he was conducted into another apartment, splendidly illuminated, perfumed, and, like an enchanted grotto, filled with the most bewitching strains of music.


At this point, the guide explained the ceremony through which he had passed, and so encouraged him, that he was soon willing to renew his journey. At a signal given by the guide, three priests, or men dressed so as to represent them, made their appearance, and one of them, fixing his long and steady gaze upon the candidate, put a serpent into his bosom, and a private door was thrown open, from which issued lamentations, and howlings of agony and despair. The candidate, upon ‑looking :u, beheld innumerable beings undergoing the torments of the damned in hell.


From this spectacle, the candidate was conducted through winding passages, down and up flights of stairs, and, finally, he was admitted into the sacred grotto, or Elysium. This sacred hall was beautifully illuminated, and, on entering, the ear of the candidate was saluted by strains of heavenly music, and his eyes beheld Archimedes, seated on a throne of burnished gold, who, according to Herodotus, was crowned with a diadem, ornamented with mistletoe boughs. Around were seated the dispensers of the Mysteries.


Here the candi. date was received with the congratulations of all; obligated to keep secret from the world the ceremonies through wb:eh he had passed, and was presented with a great number of amulets and   201   2112




talismans, to guard and protect himself from the assaults of big enemies, and to serve as a shield from danger to his person or property. He was taught that the divine light passed into the initiated, in a peculiar manner, unknown to all others, giving knowledge which could be acquired in no other way.


He was taught that the sacred fire was a portion of the divine essence, and should be worshiped accordingly. He was taught that Ormuzd created the world at six different periods.


First, the heavens ; second, the waters ; third, the earth ; fourth, vegetables ; fifth, inferior animals ; and sixth, man‑the latter being both man and bull.


That man lived in a state of purity for many ages, but was at laat poisoned by Ahriman, who lived in darkness. and was the author of all evil ; that man so multiplied upon the earth, that he eventually rebelled against his Creator. Ormuzd presumed to give him battle, but was eventually overthrown and subjugated. To counteract the evil of man, another pure being was created, and, like the former, was both bull and man; this was Mithras, by whom, with three others, a flood of waters was produced to purify and cleanse the earth.


A mighty wind finally stayed and dried up the waters, when an entirely new germ sprang from the earth, which produced the present race of mankind.


It further seems that this‑ doctrine did not inculcate the idea that man was cleansed from the original sin by the re‑creation, hut, on the contrary, that Ormuzd created six benevolent gods, and Ahriman the same number of evil spirits, who waged war against each other, and valiantly strove for the mastery of the world. This doctrine is not entirely unlike the religion of the Jews, who believed that God‑ delighted in vengeance, by punishing his enemies, and hence, believing themselves to be under His peculiar protection and favor, they believed they were doing God's service, to pray to Him to send a curse upon their enemies, even to destroy them.


But. then, again, the Mysteries of Mithras differed very widely from the religion of the Jews, for, according to the lectures of Zoroaster, the evil spirits finally succeeded in gaining control of one‑half the year, or than contending gods compromised by an equal division of the time of sovereignty, and hence arose the seasons.




gods took control of spring and summer, or rather, in conw quence of their love for the human race, they produced spring and summer, and sent forth all the blessings consequent upon the heat and moisture thrown by them upon the earth. Man, by their influence, was enabled to cultivate the soil, and lay up a rich harvest, and provide raiment to guard against the venge. ful influence of the evil spirits, who, as soon as their reign commenced, destroyed vegetation, sent evil winds, and endeavored to destroy the whole human race by cold, or, failing in this, to punish them to the full extent of their power.


Again, Zoroaster taught that day was sent‑ by the benevolent spirits, and night by the evil spirits.


Maurice tells us that one of the emblems held in the highest veneration by the followers of Zoroaster, was a representation of this perpetual warfare between the benevolent and malignant gods.


The emblem was two serpents, each striving to get pos session of an egg.


Zoroaster taught that the world had been seven times created and destroyed.; that the good spirits would create, and the evil spirits destroy, and that, so violent were their efforts against each other, at times, that their anger shook the whole world, and if the Dives, or evil ones; gained the aseen˛ dency for a moment, they caused the earth to open and swallow up the human race.


We might fill a volume in detailing the thousand wild and incoherent, teachings of this wonderful impostor ; but we think enough has been said to give the reader a very correct idea of the Persian :Mysteries; yea, we think we have said enough about the Heathen Mythology and its teachings, to enable every well‑informed, unprejudiced, and candid reader to answer the question‑Is there any welfdefined testimony going to slow the Mentity of Freemasonry and the. Ancient Mysteries ? We do not think there, is evon such a resemblance between Masonry and the Persian Mysteries, as will justify us in turning back to dissect and draw comparisons. We think they are at direct variance, in every important feature, and believing our readers are quite as capable as we are to perceive this truth, we will not insult their understanding, by asking them to read use less comments.


If it be said that Masonry is :_ot now what it 204




once was‑that it has been changed and improved upon since the dark ages, then, we answer, all our traditions are false, and our teachings in the Lodge room a base imposition upon the initiated. We claim, with confident boldness, that the principles of Masonry have never chanced. We hold that all the essential teachings of Freemasonry are the same now as when Masonry was instituted, and such are the avowed opinions of all who undertake to work and lecture in our Lodges, and we must regard it as remarkable that we have one set of opinions growing out of our only reliable history, the traditions of Masonry, and another set of opinions founded upon the romance of those who attempt to place its history end its ends greatly beyond and outside of our traditions.


There is not a page, nay, there is not a line upon record, either in the sacred or profane writings, going to show either the antiquity, or the principles upon which our Institution was founded.


Our tra ditions tell a " round, unvarnished tale of truth."


There is nothing in them that is marvelous or difficult of belief.


They are simple, plain, and easily understood.


There is no appearance of resemblance to the Heathen Mythology to be found. Freemasonry is, and ever has been totally unlike any one of the secret societies of the ancients.


We are reminded that it may be said we have, in this conneotion, omitted to review the claims set up in behalf of the Essenes, as being originally the Masonic Society, by another name, but those who have been readers of our history will remember that, in our first pages, we somewhat freely alluded to this subject, and we do not feel called upon to recapitulate what we there said. We willingly repeat what we have admitted more than once, that the Essenes bore a much nearer resemblance to Masonry than either of the ancient societies ; but a further truth should not be lost sight of, viz., that the Essenes were strictly a religious sect.


It is true that morality and virtue constituted a part of the teachings of the Essenes ; and it is equally true that morality and virtue are taught . by all the orthodox religions societies of the present day, but the cardinal teaching of all is the true worship of God and redemption from sin.


Morality and virtue are taught, as a means of reaching EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES UNLIKE MASONRY.


205 a higher and more glorious aim, and, with all the retirement and peculiarities of the Essenes, morality was taught by them as a preparatory step to the true worship, as they understood it. A,nd can it be said that Freemasonry ever was a religious Sotiety ? Do our traditions permit us to believe it ? In Craft Aiasonry there is not a charge or lecture that claims for it moro than a system of ethics.


Its cardinal principles are morality and virtue.


If the doctrines of the Essenes were no moro than the doctrines of Masonry, then should we deny our traditions and make religion the cardinal principle of the Order.


We have wondered and inquired why it is that intelligent men, who having qualified themselves to preside over Lodges, and deliver such instructions as our traditions have handed down to us, and who expect initiates to believe them honest men, can step out of the Lodge room, and claim that Masonry is something entirely different. In the Lodge room they give us a ritual which refers to Solomon's Temple. There, too, the traditions all go back to the Temple only, and yet, out of doors, they will teach that Masonry is as old as the world ; that it is the Heathen Mythology ‑. and then, again, that it is the true reli(rion.


Brethren, " let well enough alone."


God has appointed a place for the worship of His creatures ; nor has He left it in doubt as to where that place is.


He has given a written law, to which we are at liberty to go and learn, not only the place, but the means set apart for the accomplishment of that great end.


If He had intended the Lodge should be the ):lace, He would have said so.


If the Masonic, or any other society had been appointed by Him for the true worship, He would have declared it in His holy law.


It is not enough to tell. us that Solomon only remodeled Masonry, unless it can be shown that Masonry previously existed, and in what it was made to consist. It is but a paltry begging of ancient robes, with which to clothe our Order, to infer the existence of Masonry in ancient times, only because the ancients had secret societies, and professed to teach the _true religion in them; and we have furnished proof that no higher order of evidence can be found.






BEFORE the investigation of the subject, directly indicated by the heading, it may be proper to call attention to some facts, only hinted at, heretofore, in speaking of the persecutions of Masonry. There may be some persons, even members of our Order, who know so little of its history, as to believe that, until the days of William Morgan, no attempt was ever made to gull the ignorant, and prejudice the public mind against Masonry, by pretended revelations of its marvellous and uricked mysteries. This supposition is far from being true.


We have, attached to the lecture of theFellow Craftdegree, a traditional account of an attempt having been made, in the early part of the tenth century, to bring Masonry into disrepute, by a pretended expose of all the rituals of the two first degrees.


If this tradition is to be relied on, pretended Lodges were formed at most of the beer shops and brothels in London, when and where Masons, so called, were made as a matter of amusement, at the trifling cost of a treat for the club.


This practice, however, was improved upon by some of the more shrewd keepers of taverns.


Some of these dispensed with the farcical portions of the ceremony, made up a solemn ceremony, pretended to be dealing in pure Freemasonry, and charged, for the degrees, a very respectable fee ; and, in some of these pretended Lodges, a few respectable men were received, and were induced to believe they became members of the Fraternity, in due and ancient form.


This latter class, on finding themselves deceived and imposed upon, represented the facts to the Grand Master of Masons, who was induced to call a Convention at York, in 926, when and where eiuch notice was taken, and such action had, as served to expose the impostors, and effectually put down all clandestine Lodges, headed by man of any respectability or character for ANTI‑MASONRY IN THE UNITED STATES.


207 honesty. This manuscript revelation was styled Jachin and Boaz, which was occasionally revived, and used for purposes as above mentioned, until the close of the seventeenth century, when we lose sight of it until 1812, when it makes its appearance, as the wonderful discovery of an unknown author, who discovered all the secrets, signs, grips, and words of the two first degrees, by examining the papers of a deceased friend who was a Freemason. To this edition of Jachin and Boaz, was added the tirade of abuse and misrepresentations of the Abb6 Barruel, in relation to Masonry, Illuminism, and other secret clubs, already noticed, at length, in this history.


We suppose this book of 1812 (quite a large volume, now in our possession), was published either by Barruel himself, or some other equally unprincipled Jesuit priest, for the same cunning, the same procaution that was displayed by Barruel, is clearly perceptible in this, viz., both admit that Masonry in England was never amenable to the charge of crimes charged against it. elsewhere; that elsewhere it was opposed to a monarchy, and, therefore, dangerous to the divine right of kings, while, in England, it was under the patronage of the crown, and nearly all the nobility. But this publication, like the papers of Barruel, which the reader must remember, were written in England, while he was a refugee from justice in France, appealed to the religious fanaticism and mushroom patriotism of the royalists of England, to assist in crushing an Institution which everywhere, but in England, was opposed to a monarchy, and which, even in England, received members from among the opponents of the holy Church, and, therefore, enemies of the Christian religion ; yea, and more than this, the learned Abbd takes the ground that while, as Englishmen, it is possible for them to believe that the Church of Rome has not the right to proscribe all others, all English Protestants were bound, as friends of the British Government, to denounce the Masons, because they dared to receive those also who were not members of, or friends to the established Church of England.


Had the Parliament of England condescended to stoop to the low and contemptible political trickeries resorted to, in many instances, in the United States, it is quite likely that a LOS




similar excitement would have been produced by the reading of this publication of Barruel. But the Parliament of England sent for no papers or persons. There were many members of tlia: `,jody who were Masons, and while they declared their willingness to vote for a law denouncing Jacobin Clubs, the Illuminati, etc., they willingly and proudly bore testimony to the purity of Masonry, and its exemption from interference with religion or politics.


These declarations of honorable men were believed by those who were not Masons, and upon whose statements the Society of Masons was exempted from the operation of the prohibitory la‑v, and thus was a quietus stamped upon the writings of Barruel and Robinson ; and the same influences were afterward brought to bear upon the Jachin and Boaz, of 1812.


W e do not say but that the book was sold, anal yielded a fortune to its unprincipled maker.


" Some books are lies f'rae end to end." And still meet with more ready sale than those that chronicle the truth ; but we do undertake to say that this book influenced the opinions of none in England whose opinions the Masonic Society cared for ; and we further say that, after its publication, Masonry flourished more in that quarter, than eyeń before.


But the immediate cause of all opposition to Masonry is traceable, originally, to the Catholic Church. It is a fact, never until recently denied, and susceptible of the clearest proof, that Masonry was ever under the patronage of the Church ; that Bishops and Priests were at its head ; that Popes were lavish of their favors in its behalf, so long as architecture was exclusively in the keeping of the Society of Masons ; but when their trade as builders passed into other hands, the wonderful discovery was made that Masonry was opposed to Christianity, because it admitted members who were not Romanists ; because it did not teach the divine right of the Pope; and because it tolerated its members in withholding its secrets from the secret confessional ; and last, though not least, this secret conclave cc ndemned it because it was a secret Society.


It is a fact that the Church of Rome never treated an enemy with mercy or forbearance, and once enlisted in hostile array against our ANTI‑SABORRY IN THR ITNIM 6TATAS.


204 tmtitution, it soon sent forth its ansethemas, and, down to tha pt *nt day, no opportunity has been neglected to bring it into disrepute, or, where the power existed, to crush it to the earthń Atrd how is it at the present time ? Do we find, at this enlightened day, wisdom, and piety, and honesty enough in the Church to sbstain from all interference with an Institution which they either kn6,#v nothing about, or, knowing; its principles, basely misrep rrsft them ?


No, their opposition is not abated ; their hatred of a Soeiety which they can not suborn, and whose membero # ey can not bend to their own will, its net quenched ; they tike openly where they dare, and everywhere it the loweal h reling encouraged, by the hearts of the Church, in tire eiraul* Con of the lowest and most scurrilous abase.


Anti‑Masonry, therefore, will continue to exist; and we wood* not at this, for, doubtless, the members of that Church are to hmiest in their opinions as are the members of other Churehes, and as Masonry never will, never can be brought under subjeo. tion to that, or any other Church; and as its toleration of freedom of thought is directly at war with the teachings of that Church, it is utterly impossible that a reconciliation can take. Place.


We have said that the Jachix


Rots, of 1813, exercised m influence against Masonry, that its' tnetabers cared for ; buts fanny of our readers will be eurprised to learn that the woAdor‑ Al revelations of William Morgan, in 1826, which so horrifidd! s large moiety of the American eiitisme, was nothing more norless than a reprint of JaUn and Boas, of 181‑2. Of thk; however, we shall say more anon. We have not yet spoken d' the ttib*st rational, or, apparently, reasonable objections to Froo ry; and, that it may be clearly understood, we must turn and examine its origin ; and especially is it our duty o 4o this, because the influences refistred to very naturally arrayed tuany very respectable men against M excellent Institution.


About the middle of the seVeniemtth century, a Sooietfw. myling itself " The Rodierueitus," & Brothers of the H ffrota, was instituted in Germmy, miade up of visionary chm. Ms, *ho soon became very 'riume


, and were quite as.


'eurst~agant ilk their oltiima to e k


aledge 6f miracles, as. s& 14 210




the "Liveforevers" of the nineteenth century.


We hope we shall not trample the toes of any brother, in writing truthfully about the Rosicrucians ; for, admitting the Rose Cross degree of the so called Modern Masonry to have originated as above, five suppose it has been modified somewhat, to suit the times.


We know not whether, in the great batch of degrees given to us, we received the Rose Cross, but, certain it is, we know something of its teachings, and we claim the right to give to our readers the authenticated facts touching the history of the Rosicrucians. The members of this Society claimed to'be ;earned philosophers, in search of the alchemy o˙ life, and the ‑"Philosopher's Stone." These enthusiasts, or impostors, pretended to be in possession of many great and valuable secrets, by the use of which they could transmute certain base metals into pure gold ; prolong life through an infinitude of years; make the old grow younger, until, in the bloom of youth, they were prepared for eternal life, and perfect felicity on earth.


The Rosicrucians were strictly a secret Society ; they lived so completely in retirement, that they acquired the name of The Invisible Brothers.


Some are of opinion that Illum,inism origin ated with the Rosicrucians.


Of the Illuminati we have already spoken at length, in noticing the writings of Barruel and Robinson, but we may add here, that if we follow them from their ‑first appearance in Spain, in 1575, to their introduction into France, in 1634, to their revival in Germany by Weishaupt, in 1774, and, finally, to their exposure, growing out of a quarrel . among themselves, in 1787, and their supposed connection with the Jacobin Clubs, in the early part of the French Revolution; and along with this train of observation, if we inquire after the enemies of Masonry, we shall find them employed in pointing out the anti‑religious views of Illuminism, and attributing these infidel principles to the Masonic Society. It was openly avowed by Dr. Weishaupt, that Illuminism was opposed to civil governments, contending that an enlightenment, by educa˛ tion, of the masses; would do. away with the necessity of pens, laws, and make reason the God to be worshiped; and, as the Illuminati were understood to be a secret Society, it was not ,.very unnatural for very many weak‑minded or mischief‑making ANTI‑MASONRY IN THE UNITED STATES.


211 persons to identify Masonry with Illuminism ‑, and thus it was that, by many, they were esteemed as being one and the same thing; although it was then, as now, susceptible of proof, that, while Illuminism made war upon the Bible, Masons worshiped only through its inspired pages; that, while Illuminism desigped the pulling down all civil governments, Masonry taught and required its members to live peaceable citizens, obedient to the government under which they lived, eschewing religion and politics as subjects for discussion in their Lodges. But, after all, with shamefacedness, we are called upon to admit, that there is some respectable testimony going to show that, during the French Revolution of 1798, the Illuminati, and Jacobin Clubs, each exercised a pernicious influence over some of the Masonic Lodges of Paris. Indeed, it seems probable that these political and anti‑religious Societies, not only sent their mewoers into the Society of Freemasons, but, in a few instances, they obtained control of the Lodges, and thus arose the seemingly well founded charge, that Masonry and Illuminism walked 1land in hand, not only in overthrowing the government, but to the end that anarchy and misrule should crown their efforts. As heretofore stated, true Freemasonry never; was connected with Illuminism ; but that system called Scotch Rite, or Ineffable Masonry, was.


Barruel, who had been shorn of his ecclesiastical powers, And driven from France, seized upon these truths for his starting point, and unblushingly added thereto such false charges as served his purpose, all tending to show that the Masons acted in concert with the political clubs. To his work followed a pamphlet, by Robinson, who held office, and was willing, if 1}m could, to move heaven and earth, in order to curry favor with the royalist party, by whose smiles he received his bread. Both Barruel and Robinson were men ot learning and talents, and, consequently, well calculated to wield an influence in society, ; while Prichard, who wrote about the same time, attracted but little attention, although he did not propagate one falsehood ‑for every ten of the other two above named.


We do not think, it necessary to name some twenty publications, which appeared at different periods, claiming to expose the secrets of Freemasonry.




114 'fH9 nAirgb &Aflk.


^&‑ .. ‑_'‑ii‑_..,‑_~ W116 6d, __. _the _d.n *ddr 6,i6 A portion of flib citiibiis of this fre6 dfid Tidppy Mild.


W~ visions of the other, will continue to brood over tba hind, itfifti t AN‑Tj‑*AfkO‑XRY IN TPF VNITPP STATES.


318 01 tlie fiendish bittqrnw with which it was conceived, We !!*vp the w, qrld to , judge from the present condition of 4q, _pry Ibropgbout the lp.Lnq. And 4s we would not p~up ~ 4 pjngfo I#yrpl from the brow of the great American fanatic, iye p


‑ ,fully give to his memory t4e benefit of lids ponpluqing Tp .


lie says : ~'FQr rqy feeble contributions tq effect this haply matipp, your approving voice is *. R.


~recipus record." We .shall now proceed to give g liist,Fy o


of the AnieFic*o qu.4dp against Vf c were 4 N4sqxi long before the l4ppg#p Witeipep oft 1 we endeavored to learn the kcY7 PpL this w bible.


What there were men, then living, qpabke Q pj?F ‑V lel tj4p mystery in ;which the whole affair so" bpeg" jpy,91yR qq got ba doubted, but such was Vie excited qj


p, efyerW ,ate of the public mind, that no man dared m


11 p t limed truth,


Wedistiqcdy remember, that sp profitable ,did its k,zcqmp p be suspected of having been pqwFned in t4e 041he,Oqu of Morgan, provided they would abjure gAsqury., that ppi dame Armlyd and cqpfcsse4 their ptqtiqjpatiom in t14‑ 4iabg4e9q, who failed tq‑ be 4elieved, from the simple fact fat p4r y *qrq known to ~ at another point when the a4due‑f,w p tioq~ place, 4rk4 did not .even hear of it for several days afar. Tlioep were days when villainy was popular, and when villa* were jargely rewar4eq, provided, only, tha; t4q could ,8at4f.90rily prove that they were, or hadbeen, in* tand intr ut4, Ag"fivillains.


And this state of things in New York, and f4 ,


. p W. 7 p9pnding country, .deterred all who were qpaliAe4, frpp, giviT% tp,the public q, true version of the 490r, and, indee v‑9 49u4 ybeth,e;r very many of the best qxpp did not bmo4 sq 4ewijOgreq by 0 .e thpusano contradictory statements, 04t they! *ibed opinions much rpr from ~b


those 9 trgtb,


. than did h Thq lived . remote from the scene, and free . &qW the ;effects .of t4p excitement.


NVithin the last twenty years, we have, pr~fbably, conversed with fifty New York mesops,Wb professing t9 know all about ~hp 4qrgap affair, ;Lnd we solemnly


that #,9 two of tbem agreed q to the fActg,


F!‑om all which, V# qqAplude that the opinion of each had been firmed frop tho different and ,contradictory ,tumors of t4 day. Within the 4,0 V4




seven years, we met a brother of apparently good standing as a Mason, and every way a gentleman, who assured us, that he met and conversed with Morgan, in some town in Asia. Within' the last five years, we have been in correspondence with quite a number of intelligent men in the North, with a view to elicit all the information possible, preparatory to this history,. and now, that we have received assistance from various quarters, Ve‑ are, perhaps, as well prepared as we ever shall be, to offer our readers that which we regard as the most reliable, though' wee much regret not having a promised sketch from the able pe`n of Bro. King, of the Masonic Union. We think the follow= iris, furnished us by Bro. L. V. Bierce, of Akron, Ohio, is as correct a history of anti‑Masonry in the United States, as any that will ever appear; indeed, with our knowledge of the facts elicited; and the stories told at the time, we are free to say, we think it may be safely relied upon as authentic, so far as it goes.


It is proper to say, that this sketch was forwarded for the purpose of furnishing us the groundwork only for this branch of our history, but it is no affectation to say, that we find the article from Bro. Bierce as perfect, if not more so, in every particular, than we could make it, and, therefore, with a tender of our hearty thanks for his contribution, we give it without alteration " The origin of this mighty affair is clearly ascribable to a certain Col. Miller, an editor of a paper, possessed of respectable talents, a great deal of cunning, familiar with all the artP of designing men, free from all religious scruples, and, of course, ready to hoist sail to a breeze from any point of the compass. Embalrassed in his circumstances, inattentive to business, intemperate in his habits, he saw, by intuition, the use that might be made of Morgan, and an anti‑Masonic excitement. Like many other ambitious demagogues, of waning popularity, who have since joined in the excitement, he had everything to hope, and nothing to fear from an excited state of the public mind.


' ~ The proposition, was made to Morgan, to write a book on Freemasonry, which Miller, for want of other employment for his press, was to publish. Both of them being as destitute of cash as of moral principles, could not raise the funds necessary ANTI‑MASONRY IN THE UNITED STATES.'


215 fur the publication of the work, and were obliged to take others into the copartnership. These others were John Davids and Russel Dyer.


"That the public might not know the objects, or credit to' which the intended work was entitled, on the 13th of March, 1826, they subscribed and swore to the following affidavit 'We, and each of us, do hereby most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear, upon the Holy Evangelists of Almighty God, that we will never divulge, during our natural lives, communicate, or make known, to any person or persons, in the, known world, our knowledge, or any part thereof, respecting, William Morgan's intentions (communicated to us) to publish ‑ a book on the subject of Freemasonry, neither by writing,' marking, insinuations, nor any way devisable by man. Sworn and subscribed this 13th day of March, 1826.' "This secret oath was the germ, the root out of which grew the party to `put down secret combinations, and prohibit unlaw ful oaths.' " On the 5th day of August following, Miller, Davids, and' Dyer, executed to Morgan a bond for five hundred thousand dollars, conditioned for the payment of one‑fourth part of the' sum, which should be received on the sale of said book. On, the 7th day of August, two days after the said bond was executed, and the contract completed, Morgan, from the conduct of his partners, became dissatisfied, and suspicious of their designs, and addressed them the following note " AUGUST 7,1526.


11GEN,Tr.EMFN:‑My note of this morning has not been answered‑further evasion or equivocation I will not submit to‑acknowledge you are not gentlemen, or I will crpose you in twelve hours, unless you do as you agreed to do.


I am not a child‑if you suppose I am, you are mistaken.


I am a man, and will not suffer myself to be imposed upon‑you have not acted as gentlemen‑ I am Sorry to. be be compelled to say it‑every part of your conduct has been mysterious, and why so Y


My first impressions were, you are not honest men‑therefore, I wish to settle, and have no more to do with you.


If either of you feel hurt, call on me, as gentlemen, and I will give you any satisfaction you wish.




" On the 14th of August, a copyright was taken out for the purpose of preventing others from publishing the said work; but the publishers were well aware that an excitement, lib




was necessary to attract public attention to the intended publi cation, or it would fall, still‑born, from the press. Accordingly on the 8th of September, a pretended attempt was made by forty or fifty persons, in disguise, to burn the office of Miller, when the work was in a state of forwardness. What adds to the singularity of this affair, is that Miller, on the day previous to this pretended attempt to burn his office, had collected several b@rrels of water, and placed them, probably by presentiment of tho approaching danger, near the place where the fire was cyommunieated, so that it was extinguisbed without any m4terial damage.


About this time, Miller says, a stranger arrived from Canada, whom Miller took into his employ in publishing the hook, and, whom he soon after discovered to be a Mason iu disguise, whose object it was to parloin the work.


" These stories were sent ahroaB, garnished with the appearante of truth, and effected the object for which they were intended‑,‑that of prodwing an exeitelnent.


"But we would ask any candid person, if they can believe t4 Jiaaons would have gone, is a body of forty or fifty, to burn, or pull down a building, in a tl ly settled village? If they can believe that Miller would have teak" an entare stranger into company, in publishing a book that required the secrecy of oath? Those, who believe it snaat possess a gullibility th*t would not strain at the narration of Munchause , or choke with the roe's egg of Sinbad the Sailor. It requires a ,etrete4 of credulity beyond the ordinary gift, to believe otherwise t that the whole was a concerted scheme of Miller, Davids, Dyer, 4ud their confederates, to attract public attention to their intended book, or prevent this second edition of Jachin. #nd Reaz from experiencing the fate "t befell the first, which? ,dropped, stillborn, from the press, for want of an excitement to hwing it into laytice. * '',Soou after the pretended attep~pt to pull down and barn Miller's printing office, Morgan was arrested for steaHaag a shirt and cravat, but, as the evidence was that he borrowed *em, and never returned them, ,he .was acquitted.




'be wrier, do~ibt


e, g~lgaler 4 ;Priah~rd's pvblioq$ion of Tityhus odd Bgrs, in 1˛12.‑7he AiAor.




217 Iutmediately after his discharge from this arrest, lie was committed to prison for debt, where he remained till the next day, when the debt was paid by one Lawson, and he was dis eharged.


On his discharge, lie was seized, put into a carriage, and carried to Fort Niagara, where he was left in the care of one Giddings, keeper of the Fort, and, notwithstanding the testimony of Giddings‑notwithstanding the various printed and oral declarations, that Morgan has been seen living, and found dead, all authentic grounds, on which to trace his fate farther, entirely fails.


"'That there were some Masons, dupes of Miller, Davids, gard Dyer, concerned in this transaction, there is no doubt‑but that any considerable portion of the Masonic body knew of it, approved of it, or sanctioned it, can not be believed by any one who is not a willful bigot to' his own opinions.


"As soon as the outrage was known, all the Masons concern' ed in it, who did not renounce, were zx‑pelled. `The Grand Royal Arch Chapter, in which one hundred and ten subordinate Chapters were represented, disclaimed all knowledge, or appro cation of the affair.'


De Witt Clinton, then the highest Mason in the Union,* and Governor of New York, offered a reward of two thousand dollars for the apprehension of the perpetrators, and calling on all officers, civil and military, to assist in detect, ing, and bringing them to justice.


'`Wliether it was the consurnmttion of a scheme concerted by Morgan, Miller, Giddings and their vonfederates, to cause an excitement, and,Morgan is still living to enjoy his share of ;the profits of the work‑or whether the fears of Morgan, expressed in his letter of August 7, were well founded, and has life fell a, sacrifice to the avarice of his partners, is not, and probably never will be known.


The plot was now consummated. Giddings, into whose custody Morgan was traced, immediately renounced Masoary, and expiated the crime of participation in the abduction, by disclosing tt& he knew of the part acted by others, and as much as he pleased of that acted by himself; but has never disclosed ˛ De Witt Clinton was as high, Init not higher than eeveral others.‑‑T& Authpp 218




what was the fate of Morgan, after lie was left in :iis custody in the Fort. He who had never known a conscientious feeling, was all at once, as conscientiously 'desirous to become what, in common parlance, is known by the name of State's evidence,, and to attach to his confederates, whom he and Miller had duped into the transaction, the most atrocious guilt, for an act, in which, by his own confession, lie had the chief share'‑but so notoriously bad was the character of Giddings, that, notwithstanding the excited state of the public mind, the court had firmness enough to reject him as unworthy of credit.


His pattieipation in the profits of Morgan's hook, and the flood of Giddings' anti‑Masonic Almanacs, which deluged the country, affording a speculation to the retailers of Giddings' morality, show his occupation since, and afford, at least, a strong presumption of his being concerned, originally, with Miller, Davids, and Dyer, in the speculation.


" Meetings were now called, and generally attended, not for political purposes, or to proscribe Masons who were not concerned in the transaction, but to detect the guilty, and bring the perpetrators to punishment. Those concerned were ferreted out, and as they were but actors previous to the grand drama performed by Giddings, they were convicted of a conspiracy only. He, the‑ grand mover, and spring of the whole performance, in consideration of his expiatory renunciation and subsequent labors in the cause of prosecution, was absolved, and stands a monument of atheism, villainy, and political antiMasonry.


"By this time, the excitement had arrived at the pitch desired by Miller, Giddings, and their confederates. Their books 'fell like, rain drops' from the press, costing, probably, ten cents, and which the excited public appetite swallowed, to a surfeit, for some time, at the price of one dollar.


The Bible, tract, and Webster's Spelling Book, hardly afforded equal occupation for the press.


'The most malignant and improbable falsehoods and slanders, which, at any other time, would have returned with vengeance to plague the inventors, in the present state of the public feeling were received with implicit faith.' "' Demagogues, and broken down politicians, now saw the ANTI‑MASONRY IN THE UNITED STATES.


219 affair was ripe for their use, and they, accordingly, took it in keeping.' The whole Masonic Fraternity were denounced as murderers, and traitors to their country ; and every anti‑Mason, from ',Niyron Holle'y down to Thurlow Weed, became regenerated from moral and political transgression, and were stamped ure patriots.


"Solomon Southwick, who, in 1822, defrauded the Albany Post Office of $6,000‑who was ever a bankrupt in principle, as well as in property, in 1826, by the pure spirit of anti‑Masonry, was transformed, renewed, and qualified for Governor of New York. Bankrupts in politics became patriots‑atheists became moralists‑anti‑Masons of every school became genuine republicans t "Never was the public frenzy so high, or infatuation so general. All that was necessary to ensure public approbation was to come out, acknowledge a participation in Morgan's abduction, renounce Masonry, and publish some `new light' on a subject which had already been enlightened by the anti‑Ma. sonic worthies, until it was enveloped in total darkness.


So prevalent, and so contagious was this confessing mania, and so high the premium offered for false acknowledgments, that 'there were not wanting persons who, carried away by the insanity of the times,' sought a martyr's fame, by confessing' themselves guilty of the murder of Morgan.


`A certain R. H. Hill, came forward in the papers, and 1. with a most imposing' Solemnity, confessed himself guilty of having murdered Morgan. The poor man supplicated the mercy of God and man, as one' sure of the gallows.'


He attracted notoriety, which like the object of other Morgan confessions, was his wretched motive, and was imprisoned, but could not gain a martyr's fame by being hung.


There had been so many true confessions, each contradicting the other, that a jury, on oath, would not believe him.


" Bigots in the Church now laid hold of it, to advance their cause, and strengthen their power. Masonic members, who had ever `walked worthy of their high vocation,' were excommunicated, unless they would renounce. Ministers, against whom the breath of slander had never been heard, were dismissed,' 420


ANTI‑MAS0;7RY TN THE PN[TEU aT4TF* Churches divided, and the members scattered.


All vliq felt JA their duty to `live in peace with all men,' to seek the spiriokgl, welfare of mankind, and not to engage in party 1torfes, w;grp excozgmunicated; and none but those who could roll forth t thunders of anti‑Masonry, and pour oft the vials of wrath Q.a their flocks, were allowed to minister at the Altar of Peace.


" Although the pretended attempit to destrow filler's o ice, purloin the unpublished work, and carry off A4organ, had prodqˇ,ed the effects desired, yet politiˇians, whose 9hly hope was is that law of Nature, that 'in an excited state of the vygter xlre fifth ,rises,' saw that something was necessary to prevent ilk suWlding. `Warrants were accordingly issped, and tFi rs'. instituted without numbers 1‑and each succeeding day brougl44 to light a new brood of stories of violence, blp9d, ,and murder.' All these, however, had relation to persons who stood unmoyed ~y the storm that raged around them, Whilq Giddings, and X11 who would acknowledge themselves guilty, and join in the persecution of Masons, remained unmolested, and were embraced as worthy members of the anti‑Masonic crusade. While exarninations were going on before a Grand Jury, handbills were pasted on the courthouse door, ,calculated to inflame their minds against the ;accused, and prevent a fair and impar exami4,ation. And,`while a famous trial, at which one hundred witnesses were present, was in progress, a rumor Nvas set n,,#,9.9f that Morg4n'g body land been found, and would be present qLt the trial.' All megns were resorted to, to keep ,up the feveri4 excitement, and prevent a candid and impartial expression of toe public mind.


"A. Committee was appointed to examine, and make report of e h patters, relatdng to the affair, ;p they thought proper; laps Whose real object was to prevent a return of. dispassion urination.


TAey `hired a vessel,' chartered boats, and c9,nstructed instruments for raking the bed of the Niagara river, and xL part of JAke Ontario, which was efectually done, but nothing was .di~agvered of Morb .u. The eearch w‑ as wh aud,~,‑,~,"~ sut useless, a,Ad the public mind again liegAa? to return to i,tp a quiet, when,,qn Pie 7th of October, a bˇdy wgs found ,ou toe shores of Lake Ontario, which appeared to have been left A*"‑RA16ITkT 11V fUt DN1ftb ftA3tg.


291 tfidre by the eurf.


Being highly putrid, it was, art3r the usala itiquft, hdfied.


But it afforded too good a 8uhjeet for tie titer feA1ess spirits, that no* had charge oă the feitfnwilt, eftdiu lbng undisturbed.


"It sotid eptead through the dountry that it ivss 1ldotga*'g C bdy. Some of the master‑spiting; from Batavia and R,dehesitet, s it+aired to the spot; disinterred the body, and Mrs. Mofgan *&1 Wught to identify it with that of her husbaud. Frdtn itA pntridit~, at ttie time, all identity of bblot bf ebunteriaricd *M &ite.


In no rdspdet, eitcept ift the night, hair, *ethi and dtM, cold it be identitled with a.rtt other pefsbn. In no ote of theft regpet‑M did it beat the 1e9A fbsfbldht;e to' Mdfgaf. The digs#, by Mrs. Morgan's own coffdssiiti; Wilt (tilt AA 0iA Motgan wore when lie disappeared, the'r`e were Mligioug tfddis ifi the poclkeis; and Morgan was not a pbtson whti carried tradtt Bet a Jury must again be called, to pronottfde, if possible; this eddy Mofgan~s.


The flrst witaess galled, swore that Morgan h


double teeth all round, and that the1 }red also ; and he also a4bre to tnhny other circumstances of identity between this eddy and Morgah's.


Thir"teen other Witnesses sivotd to the kiiffid general bffedt.


Mrs. korgau also swore that Mr. Morgaii had double teeth fill round ‑ that titvo of hig teeth vbefe *ahtiltg, and one "split =‑ to which eir6uthstWide the witnesses svaotb this body arisiafied: ‑"The Jury, composed of twenty‑three persons; kbsctibbd tb a verdict that this was Motgaii's body, and that he bathe to 'his death by drowning.


`` All doubt was now removed froth the public rhino, and the Multitude flodked to the funefal pfboession. The body this f"dved, with great parade, tb Bathviit, who're a funeral disdbui"se was pronounced, for the seine purpose; lord with mush the 9Wb effect, as that of Mark Aiitdiiy over the body of CWs0. The body Was agent intetred as that of Morgan, and the cry of vengeance a'g'ainst Masons *as nd* oil the breeze; and the glibst of Mofgan yeas said to be Abroad: " Fame, with tier ten thdutahd totrgubs, vvfts now btisy, afd fttry tongue `'vas pttt in rdquisltion, tut, unfortuflately fat this Wftb ivi$hed to creltte ail finnat&R1 egdit#tfiidtit, tlhd iep6t 222




the story to the real widow of the drowned man.


A Mr. Munroe, of Upper Canada, left his home for Newark, and was drowned in the Niagara.


A description of the clothes found on the supposed Morgan, induced Mrs. Munroe to believe it was the body of her drowned husband, and, in company with other relatives, she repaired to Batavia, where this ill‑fated body, which could not rest in the earth, was again disinterred.


An~other inquest was called, and the real truth of the case, that this was the identical Timothy Monroe's body, and not Morgan's, was established by that kind of evidence that can not fail to establish undoubting conviction in every rational mind.


These inquisitions are astonishing proofs of how much testimony is affected by strong prejudices, public excitement, and popular ieelin, .


A great number of particulars, specified on oath by the second Jury, proved to be not as specified by this third examination.


Particularly, it was proved that Morgan was wholly bald on the forehead, and never wore whiskers.


That Morgan lead double teeth all round‑this body had not.


That Morgan had lost two teeth; and a part of a third. only‑this body had lost five.


What put the matter out of all question, was, that Mrs. Munroe specified, before seeing them, certain articles of dress, which she had made with her own hands, and which were found to. be as she, described them.


All doubt was now dispelled from all minds, except such as were determined not to be convinced.


" The excitement caused by this pretended discovery of Morgan was now destroyed, by its being discovered to be founded ‑on a hoax ; or, what was worse, on testimony swayed by preju;,dice, or, warped by interest and popular frenzy. But it had .answered the purposes for which it was intended, that of. inflaming the publio mind at the election of that fall, and the t)ody of Munroe, was sent back to Canada, with the heartless farewell of Thurlow Weed, the Apostle of anti‑Masonry, that ' ae was a good enough .Morgan until after the election.' `‑ The failure of all the projects hitherto devised by the lead. ers of political anti‑Masonry, did not dishearten them‑bank;rupt in principles, and stale in politics, they saw that, without s6a unusual excitement, they could never rise in political power, ANTI‑MASONRY IN THE UNITED STATES.


223 ,and if they failed in producing one, they could sink no lower . in popular esteem.


They had, therefore, everything to hope and nothing to fear.


Undismayed by defeat, unblushing in exposure of their late projects, untiring in exertions, and unlimited in expedients, nothing was too low for their grasp, or too high for their ambition.


Scarcely was one project defeated, before another was in operation, or one false clamor exposed, beforo the public attention was excited by another.


" The attempt to pull down Miller's office, had been satisfactorily shown to be the work of Miller and his confederates, to ,raise an excitement‑‑the story about the Canadian Mason, no reasonable person ever believed‑the discovery of Morgan had turned out to be a hoax‑the funeral procession, requiem, and ,interment at Batavia, were known to have been solemnized over Timothy Munroe‑and all the previous projects had now besome stale, and incapable of producing the desired excitement. New expedients were, therefore, resorted to, and new materials furnished, to keep up the fire around this political cauldron. Every Mason of standing, no matter what his cliaracter, must ,have the seal of ignominy put upon him, by being accused of participating in Morgan's abduction, while Giddings and Miller, the real projectors, actors, and finishers of the whole plot, were hugged with a fraternal embrace, by those pretending to be searching for the conspirators. Ordinary prosecutions had, by this time, lost the novelty that at first made them the objects of political excitement, and a stronger potion must, accordingly, be prepared for the public appetite.


Col. King, formerly a member of the New York Legislature, a man of unblemished reputation, highly respected where known, resided near LewisJon, at the time of the abduction, but soon after received the appointment of Sutler at Cantonment Towson, situated on the Kiamesia. a high branch of Red river, on the borders of Texas, and removed to that remote station.


He was a fine victim for the sacrifice, and the pursuit, capture, and return, through almost all the Western States, with him as a prisoner, would afford employment to some of the worthy leaders of the cru,sade, as well as be calculated to sow the fruitful seed of anti;Masonry in those States, through which they might pass.




ANTI‑MA961VAAY IN f IIJ tiMTki) STAB " Among the rumors; it wad; abcotditigly, reported that he if6 concerned in the abduction, and had fled to this remote egti+& lishment, a fugitive from justice.


Those ofcets, appointed by the authorities of New York; t'epaired to that distant stati6fi ih pursuit of the pretended cri)niaal. Public excitement wits again on tiptoe. The rank and respectability of Col. Kifig, the romantic pursuit instituted, and the reported guilt of the accused, served again to enliven the expiring ashes of diseoM, and give political gamesters, who had ventured their all on too hasatd of the excitement, another hope of suedess.


" The pursuers arrived at the Cantonment, but the report W arrived before them; and Cal. King, for the defence of his chfilu neter, was on his way to New York. The pursuers, adcordifgly, made their way in the same direction, and the parties aceotisplished this wild goose chase of about four thousand miles, in dearly the same time. It is easy to conjftfi`e the feelings 6f Col. King's slanderers, on finding him, not a prisoner, but standing fearless and erect among them for the purpose of Andicating his Character, and returning the Vengeance, prepaf'd for himself, on the heads of his abcusers,


But he did not live to Measure the reward of their guilt upon them.


He died 96611 after his return, whether a vidtim of dlseaee, of of anti‑Masodic vengeance, is not, and probably nevet Will be, satisfackify known.


` Thus ended this situgular part of this singular a$air. Mill: from a poor, degraded, abandoned profligate, by means of tire excitement, had become Clerk of the County Court. Tracy ha+d ;got e seat in the Legislature=Spongier; Special Council‑Tbnflow Weed, a standing witnds9‑and Solomon Southwick, the privilege of running for Glovernor: Northon, another of the leaders, had got a snug goat in Congress, tot; which, to use his oven words, lie owed Hilly Morgan many thanks, as hell would have frozen oter before he would have been elected, if it lfhd hot been for the dkeiteinent.' " Such success did blue‑light fcddrals, acid warn=out pblitWhih have in New York, in riding on the bitaitembiit into offcb, thM . they how began to use it as an article of eitpoft; and it more or less extensively bpread in gevekal of thb Stateb.




226 denounced first the system and then the men, as unfit for others, and unworthy of any countenance.


It not only denounced tlu men, but also denounced all that would not denounce them.


New York set the example, ~and some disappointed office‑seekers, in Pennsylvania, closely followed.


At what was termed a ` State Convention,' at Harrisburg, in an address to the public, they said: ` It will not be sufficient to withhold public. favor from Freema sons alone‑a!l their partisans should receive the same measure o f justice.


They have even less claims upon public ,favor than the sworn Fraternity themselves.


Timid and time‑serving neutrality is more degrading to its votaries, and more dangerous to the public, than open and magnanimous error !' "'Those who had, heretofore, pretended that it was the Institution of Masonry that they were coudenmninn‑‑and the members of it, to be punished for an outrage, pretended to have been committed by them, having, by their professions, drawn many into the political arona, here come out and avow their plans, and declare themselves a political party, and denounce those who are not Masons, but who will not promote the schemes of this new Jacobin club, with still greater vengeance than they do the Masons. Neutrality is a crime still greater than Masonry, and all who will not support anti‑Masonry, in its aspirings for office, must be disfranchised.


The question was no longer `are you a Mason?'‑but, ` will you join the crusade of antiMasonry, and denounce all who will not?'


If you will not, you, yourself. must be denounced as having `even less claims upon the public, favor than the sworn Fraternity themselves.' Such was ever real anti‑Masonry which an intelligent community was called on to support‑and such was it avowed to be. Not to put down Masons or Masonry, but to re6roanir.e an old and defeated party under a new name, and again bring into power those men who were consigned to contempt, for their endeavors to distract the republican party, and ruin their country in the second War of Independence." Thus our brother brings the history of anti‑Masonry down to that period when it ceased to be sufficiently attractive to answer the purposes of designing politicians.


For. soon after the period to which he last referred, the more sober and thinking is 2G




men, even of the party whose interests were now somewhait dependent upon the continuance of the excitement, began to withdraw themselves from an active particiliation in the tirade of abuse and misrepresentation, which had so long been hurled against our Institution, and its unflinching, high‑minded, and honorable members. The anti‑Masonic party suffered signal defeats in various quarters, and, hence, the noisy stump orators who lead suddenly sprung up like so many brainless lnush rooms, received their quietus, and it is said to be susceptible of proof, that a very large proportion of them found the reward of their labors in drunkard's graves. But now that political anti Masonry was dead and buried in its own original corruption, our younger readers will be surprised to learn that anti‑Masonry passed into other hands, to be used for other purposes.


We shall briefly speak of its new keepers, and follow it until its shadow can no longer be seen.


It is sometimes fearful to contemplate the effect of popular excitement, when whole communities are brought under its sway.


Were we permitted to see only the wild an(] visionary fanatic, carried headlong into the whirlpool, we might safely hope, that the sanative influence of the more sober and thinking portion of society, would soon correct the evil ; but. when we are compelled to behold some of our ablest statesmen, and also the most pious Christians, bowing in humble adoration to the soulless and senseless juggernaut, the spectacle becomes heart. sickening to those who can stand aloof, and endeavor to regard man as the "noblest work of God." If the Morgan excitement lead been the first popular frenzy ever known, we might feel inclined to believe that some great and momentous cause was necessary, to produce such :n commotion, but we have seen that the delusions of New England witclicraft, were even more wonderful than those of Morganism ; for, in the former case, the most revolting murders were perpetrated, under the legal cognomen of trial by judge and jury. .‑ And the causes which superinduced all this, were even more destitute of a foundation, in truth, than was American anti‑Alasonry.


That Dlorgan was abducted, we think is very certain, but ive are not at all certain that many of those who shouted long and loud for vengeance ANTI‑3IASONRY IN THE UNITED STATES.


227 upon an innocent and unoffending Society, would not themselves have engaged in the abduction of a certain class of human wings, if, by so doing. they could have made it as profitable as lid Miller and his associates, in the Morgan affair.


Soon after the political anti‑Masonic party was defeated, politicians. even of the lowest grade abandoned this hobby, and, by many, it was supposed, that no set of men had any further use for it; but, such was not the fact, for there immediately sprung up a set of traveling mendicants, and ministers of the Gospel, who, jointly and severally, undertook to wield it for the accomplishment of their nefarious ends. We have ever held in great veneration the ministers of the Gospel, whenever and wherever we have found them acting within their legitimate sphere, but, as a class, we are, forced to believe that they are more liable to be swayed to and fro, by every species of quackery, than any other set of intelligent men. We know there was a time, even in this country, when ministers were among the first to pick out and denounce certain members of their own Church, as bona fide witches, and so very blinded were they, by popular opinion and new theories, that they proceeded to testify against them before a court of justice, and then calmly witness their execution, by drownir_g, without the least remorse of conscience, because they honestly believed they were doing God's service. We know it is said that this thing took place in a superstitious age, and we are not inclined to doubt it, but we do doubt whether the present age is not equally so.


What but superstition could induce an educated man to believe that the ten thousandth of a thing was more powerful than the thing itself?


That while it is admitted that a drop of laudanum, mixed with a tablespoonful of water, administered to an athletic man, would produce no perceptible effect, the same quantity dropped into a hogshead of water, and a tablespoonful of the mixture, given to the same man, would most powerfully operate on the whole system? What but superstition is it, for an educated man to believe that, by some hocus pocus, certain persons have the power to see, with the "mind's eye," through the scull bone, and, in this manner, read newspapers and letters?


What but superstition is it, to, 228




believe that one human being can think for, or control tie thoughts of another? In short, what but the merest dream of superstition is it, to believe that the spirit of the dead may be brought to rap on, or under a table, for the amusement qf living beings ?


And, if we except the avowed skeptics, we think, in no class of men will there be found so large a number of advoeates for the truth of all these things, as among the teachers of the Gospel.


Nor is it less remarkable, that this credulity, or superstition, when it once takes hold of a man's mind, is much more difficult to eradicate, even by the most positive proof of trickery, than it is to fasten upon the mind another and still greater deception. The author learned how to read, as did Miss Lumis, with a pair of kid gloves tied over his eyes, but, because he was not fortunate enough to learn all the other tricks, lie could never shake the faith of any one who believed in clairvoyance.


IIe has recently learned flow to make the raps, on or under the table, and can make any spirit called for, say just what lie (the author) pleases, and yet, he has never been able Ao convince any believer in " spirit‑rapping ". that it was all a trick, simply because we could not tell flow certain other things were done.


But we have charged that ministers have largely aided in the promulgation of these delusions; and, we may very properly be asked why this is so, as no one will be inclined to attribute improper motives to this estimable class of men.


We do not know that we can account for the fact in any other wV, than by supposing that the studies, the thoughts of ministers are generally narrowed down to the subjects directly embraced in their avocation ; and whenever, by any exciting cause, their thoughts are called off, and directed to other subjects, clothed in mystery, they are liable to forget the platform on which they have stood, and fly in search of the merest phantoms of the brain.


Certain it is, that this class of men were the cause of disturbing the peace of society to a more alarming extent, in the Morgan affair, than did the political anti‑Masonic party. When Bernard, Stone, and their satellites, took possession of anti‑Masonry as a religious hobby, Churches were made to resemble the Spanish Inquisition !


Christians r were denounced, not so much, because they were Masons, but ANTI‑MASONRY IN THE UNITED STATES.


2ft because they would not denounce, abuse, and anathematize all other Masons, who did not renounce Masonry 1 The rreligioup fanatics published books and tracts, denouncing the Society of Masonry, not because it was believed, at the time of said publi. cations, that the Society, or any respectable member of it, was concerned in the abduction of Morgan, but, carried away by popular tumult, these ministers, honestly, perhaps, persuaded .themselves that the developments growing out of the Morgan expose, proved the Institution to l* corrupt and dangerous to the cause of Christianity, and like the Jews, who made unto themselves laws, subversive of the laws of God, forgetting the attribute of mercy, desecrated the pulpit and the altar, by preaching anathemas, and praying for curses upon an Instita‑tion about which they either knew nothing, or knowing, falsely represented.


And, as a class, where are the ministers now? Masonry has outlived their opposition, and triumphed over their curses. The Institution is better known, and more highly esteemed than at any former period ; and although there have been no new developments in its favor, and the religious tracts are still in being, the ministry, as a class, have wheeled right about, and very generally sought initiation, and are now loudest in their praise of Freemasonry.


It is a law of our nature, that an excess of feeling, whether of joy or grief, can not be long kept up; the mind, like the pendulum, may be made to vibrate from one extreme to the other, but finally, it must find its equilibrium. Even those Churches in the North, the most noisy against Masonry, though supported and sustained by their ministers, were compelled to yield to the public demand for peace and quiet, from the turmoils of the anti‑Masonic tirade. We have still another evidence that the ministers of the Gospel, as a class, are liable to be carried away by popular excitement, It is a fact, susceptible of the clearest proof, that now when Masonry is in the ascendant and universally popular, ministers of the Gospel are writing books to prove that Freemasonry is either the true religion, or so intimately connected with it, that it would seem an effort is made to introduce Masonry as a now creed in Christian faith. When public sentiment would no longer tolerate the Chureb 2110




tirade against Masonry, there sprung up a set of little, dirty lazy, sap headed, unprincipled, renegade Masons, who, n(A hay. in‑ succeeded in working themselves into public employment, determined to make merchandise of their treachery, and thus put money in their purses. This little band of contemptible parasites, unwittingly did more to put to shame the cause of anti‑Masonry, than any other overt act of individuals. Had these vagabonds understood human nature a little better, and taken time by the fore‑lock, they might, indeed, have made fortunes by conferring degrees, and lecturing on Masonry ; but they did not commence their farcical exhibitions, until the people had become tired of the subject, tired of excitement, and hence, these traveling impostors first excited the ridicule, and nest the contempt and scorn of all decent men.


Thus anti‑Masonry died.


And now that we can calmly look back upon the past, behold the present, and contemplate the future, we are constrained to acknowledge that " whom God loveth He chasteneth." The number of unprincipled men found to be members of the Fra .


ternity during the excitement, proves how far the Lodges ‑ad departed from the well known rules of the Society.


Desirious only of numbers, it would seem, Lodges became careless of con sequences, and admitted men whose presence was a disgrace to that, and would have been to any other moral Institution.


For this neglect of our sacred duty, our Order has received a chastening,. which caused the good and true to return to their post of duty, and guard well the outer door to the Lodge room. This having been done, it is manifest to all, that never, since the days of Solomon, has Masonry been so prosperous a.4 now.


From the foregoing facts, every reader will be able to draw his own deductions as to the guilty party. Every reader, we trust, is desirous of arriving at the truth, and as it is the business of a historian to assist in the accomplishment of this end, it becomes our duty to give to the world the conclusions to which we have arrived, and some of the reasons which have intiuena ed our opinions.


In the first place,.we take occasion to say that it is extremely ridiculous to suppose any Freemason, of the least intelligence, ANTI‑MASONRY IN THE UNITED STATES.


231 and the smallest particle of moral honesty, ever did, or ever will, attempt to take the life of a man, because of any attempt he ever‑ did, or ever can make, to divulge the secrets of Masonry. And, most certainly, the republication of the book called Jachin and Boaz, could excite only the laughter or contempt of every' good Mason. We may, and should feel contempt for the man who would thus endeavor to speculate on the credulity of the public, but more than this would be uncalled for, and would not be sanctioned by either the principles or rules of our Order. Let as suppose that the world believes that Jachin and Boaz, as republished by Morgan, and the additions made thereto by Ber= nard, Stone, Allyn, and others, contain a revelation of the secrets of Masonry, what then? They have done but little Tuore than did Prichard, and divers others.


Nearly every word that these celebrated American authors published, had been pul}' lished before.


And, after all, do they give us a single sentence, line, or word, that tends to show it is a Mason's duty to mur=der a man for revealing the secrets?


Certainly not.


And tlius far, we admit, they have done the Institution justice, for, we assert, upon the veracity of an author and a man, that there is not a word of the kind, either in the written or oral rituals; from the Entered Apprentice, to the Royal Arch, from the Royal Arch to the Knights Templar, from the Knights Templar to the 33rd degree of Modern Masonry.


On the contrary, so far from tolerating murder, or any other crime, the whole teach= ings of‑Masonry denounce everyspecies of vice and immorality: And we speak only the simple truth, in saying that if it could be possible to make the very existence of Masonry depend upon_ the commission of a murder, the Society would be compelled to denounce and expel the brother who perpetrated the deed though it were known the murder saved the Order from ruin.; But that we know the power of public excitement, we should' feel surprised that any sensible man, not a Mason, should ever' have relied upon the professed developments of the renouncing Masons ; because, according to their own showing, they could not, and did not make the expose, without, themselves, committing wilful and base perjury. Who dare believe a man on oath, who violates, voluntarily, an oath, voluntarily made, in order 232




to give testimony? And how much less credence should attach to their statements, when it is self‑evident that their object was to make money by the perjury ? We need not say that the memory of such men will go down to posterity with the detestation and scorn of all good men.


But if it be possible to conceive of a wretch, whose name should be transmitted to future ages as the assassin of the nineteenth century, it is lie who could make such a publication, and, in order to increase its sale and profits, assassinate, in a brutal and unprovoked manner, his accomplice and partner in crime.


That we can point to such a monster, we sincerely believe; and though, if living, the mark of Cain may not be upon his head, we think the day is coming, when all will be able to see through his cunningly devised schemes, fix his guilt upon him, and consign his name and memory to the merited scorn of mankind.


That William Morga.n was murdered, we sincerely believe, and that one or more Masons were concerned, and participated in the hellish deed, we have no reason to doubt. But for what purpose? Was it to defend, or protect Masonry from the influences of a book, a copy of which could be had for a few pennies, in nearly all the book stores in England and America? No; but for the sole purpose of putting money in their purse t What if rumor did say that Morgan