Note:  This material was scanned into text files for the sole purpose of convenient electronic research. This material is NOT intended as a reproduction of the original volumes. However close the material is to becoming a reproduced work, it should ONLY be regarded as a textual reference.  Scanned at Phoenixmasonry by Ralph W. Omholt, PM in May 2007.






Volume 2























Northwood Press

J.S.Cushing & Co. - Berwick & Smith

Norwood Mass. U.S.A.





The oldest existing lodge in the country is that of the |` Australian Social Mother," Sydney, New South Wales, which was chartered under English auspices in 1828, and whose members were granted the unusual privilege of wearing a special jubilee jewel, by that Grand Lodge, in 1878, on completion of fifty years of continuous existence. There is only one other lodge similarly distinguished, viz.: the "Harmonic, No. 356," St. Thomas' Island, W.I.


The first lodge warranted for South Australia, which is still as active and vigorous as ever, is the "Friendship," Adelaide, warranted in 1834. At the completion of its jubilee in 1884, Brother Philip Samson read an excellent sketch of its history, since amplified and printed in a neat volume. Its early doings, agreed to by the authorities, were particularly noteworthy, for the lodge met for regular business first of all in London, and initiated several gentlemen about to proceed to the Colony ; so that it was consecrated in the English Capital. Among the first initiates was Mr. (afterward Sir) R. D. Hanson, who, later on, was Attorney General, and Chief Justice, and Chancellor of the University of Adelaide.


New Zealand.‑Quite recently, by the premature action of certain brethren, the previous happy condition of the Craft has been sadly interfered with. It is to be hoped, however, that, as with New South Wales and Victoria, some means will be discovered whereby unity may be attained, and a governing body erected that will obtain the support of all the Fraternity.


A Grand Lodge was formed at Chrisl‑Church, with Brother Henry Thompson as Grand Master, on April 29, 189o ; but the promoters of this organization did not receive sufficient support to warrant them in such a course, and had they been content to delay such proceedings, it is quite probable that His Excellency the Earl of Onslow, would have consented to become Grand Master, and thus unite the whole body. In fact, his Lordship offered to accept that position, provided 120 out of 142 lodges would support the movement.


According to the official lists of lodges under the three Grand Lodges, there are 155 in the Colony, viz. : England, 87 ; Ireland, 15 ; and Scotland, 53 Another difficulty has also arisen, and this the most serious of all, by the constitution of the " Lodge L'Amour de la Viriti," in Wellington, N.Z., by the Grand Orient of France ! The first Worshipful Master, mirabile dictu, is Sir Robert Stout, K. C. M. G., a Past Grand Officer of England, and D..D.‑. Provincial Grand Master of Otago and Southland ! Naturally his career will be ended as respects England, or regular Freemasonry anywhere, but it is a sad finish, and utterly inexplicable to the writer.






The United Grand Lodge of New South Wales.‑On December 23, 1877, the "Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of New South Wales," Australia, was formed at the city of Sydney, by the representatives of thirteen lodges, having a membership of 968. The Hon. James Squire Farnell was elected Grand Master, 1877‑84; and Nicholas Weekes, Grand Secretary, 1877‑87. The Hon. Dr. H. J. Tarrant was Grand Master, in 1884‑88.


It appears that a larger number of lodges would have been represented at the organization of the Grand Lodge but for certain mandatory official action adverse thereto.


In 1888 the number of lodges on its Registry had increased to fifty‑one, with a membership of 3792.


During these eleven years the Grand Lodge of New South Wales had been fraternally recognized by forty‑four sister Grand Dodges, and had interchanged Grand Representatives therewith ; and, in addition to its large outlays for benevolence, working expenses, the beginning of a Grand Lodge library, etc., it had erected a superb building containing a public hall, a Grand Lodge room, and private lodge rooms, library, supper, and secretarial rooms, at a cost of 22,000 ($11o,ooo) ; and, in 1888, an addition thereto was built, at a cost of 28000 ($40,000), making a total cost of $150,000.


The Masonic Temple at Sydney, the Mother City of Australia and the Capital of New South Wales, "vies in beauty and completeness with almost any Masonic temple in the world"; and it has been truly said that "the founders and upbuilders " of the Grand Lodge of New South Wales might well feel proud of the result of their unselfish and beneficent labors ! During the years 1887‑88,‑chiefly through the laudable efforts of Grand Master Tarrant ; Past Grand Master Farnell ; Lord Carrington, Governor of New South Wales, and District Grand Master, R. E.; the late Earl of Carnarvon, Pro G. M. of England (then visiting Australia) ; Grand Master Chief Justice Way, of Adelaide, So. Australia; the Hon. W. H. Piggott, R. E. ; John Slade, W. H. Coffey, A. W. Manning, James Hunt, F. T. Humphreys, Thomas E. Spencer, T. F. de Courcey Browne, and others of like fraternal spirit and ability, ‑ the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales was happily formed in the Great Hall of the Sydney University, on August 16, 1888, by the union of the 51 lodges on the Registry of the Grand Lodge of New South Wales, the 55 lodges, R. S., and the 80 lodges, R. E., making a total of 186 lodges on the Registry of the United Grand Lodge, with a membership of about 1o,0oo.


Governor Lord Carrington was elected Grand Master. He appointed Past Grand Master Dr. H. J. Tarrant, Pro G. M. The other Grand Officers 503 504 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


were elected; and the Constitution of the United Grand Lodge of England, mutads mutandis, was adopted pro tempore.


On September x8, 1888, in the Exhibition building, Sydney, Lord Carrington, Grand Master‑elect, was installed in the presence of four thousand brethren, by Most Worshipful Chief Justice Way, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Victoria. The Grand Master having been seated in the `| Oriental Chair," the Installing Officer addressed him in most fitting and eloquent terms. The Pro Grand Master and Deputy Grand Master having been duly installed, the Grand Master invested the remaining Grand Lodge Officers with the jewels of their respective offices.


Among the distinguished brethren present, from other jurisdictions, were the Honorable John Douglass, District Grand Master, R. S., Queensland; Edmund MacDonnell, representative of the Provincial Grand Lodge, R. I., Queensland ; and James H. Cunningham, Grand Secretary, South Australia.


The following Grand Representatives near the Grand Lodge of New South Wales, having been duly presented to the Grand Master, tendered their hearty congratulations to him and to the United Grand Lodge: Most Worshipful H. J. Tarrant, South Australia and New Mexico; Right Worshipful Brothers Neitenstein, Washington; J. Hunt, Iowa; F. T. Humphreys, Spain; De Courcey Browne, Italy; I. Lee, Montana; J. Slade, Indian Territory; G. Larsen, Idaho; R. V. Gale, Colon and Cuba; M. Stephenson, Wyoming; J. F. Home, Roumania; J. Nobbs, Peru; W. Mason, Oregon; J. P. Howe, Alabama; A. Smith, Arkansas; J. Hurley, Maryland; R. C. Willis, Kansas; W. Cary, Ohio; D. J. Monk, Nevada; U. W. Carpenter, Michigan; and A. Henry, Victoria.


In 1888‑89 the Grand Lodges of England and Scotland, and other foreign Grand Lodges, extended fraternal recognition to the United Grand Lodge, making a total of fifty‑three Grand Lodges with whom Grand Representatives have been interchanged.


Finances. ‑In 1888‑89 the income of the United Grand Lodge, from all sources, including ,C.r5oo from the District Grand Lodge, R. E., and .6997 9s. 9d. from the District Grand Lodge, R. S., was ;6354o 19s. 6d. Outlays, ,'2683 r 7s. 9d. Balance in Treasury, X85 7 Is‑ 9d Of the Benevolent Fund the income was Z3224 ras. rid. Outlays for relief, X688 14s. 6d. Balance on deposit, Z2535 18s‑ 5d Steps are being taken to found a " Masonic Orphanage for Boys." The late District Grand Lodge, R. E., is establishing a " Masonic Cottage Hospital," open to all Freemasons; and the United Grand Lodge has a "Masonic Scholarship " in the Sydney University, transferred thereto by the District Grand Lodge, R. E.


The United Grand Lodge of New South Wales began its auspicious existence in the first year of the second century since the settlement of this, the parent Colony of the 11 Continent of Australia." May it flourish evermore 1 OTHER COUNTRIES.


505 1816‑1890. Reminiscences. ‑It appears that, in the year 1803, a person applied to the governor of New South Wales for permission to open a lodge of Freemasons. This was not granted. A lodge was, however, held; and on May 16th of that year the leading party thereto was, for the "irregularity," adjudged to a lengthened involuntary residence, with due physical exercise, in Van Diemen's Land ! In 1816‑17 ( ?) the 46th Regiment of Light Infantry, to which was attached the "Lodge of Social and Military Virtues, No. 227," R. L, arrived at Sydney. This famous old lodge, which was warranted May 4, 175 2, is now the " | Lodge of Antiquity," in the city of Montreal, Province of Quebec, Canada, and is No. i on the Registry of the Grand Lodge of Quebec.


As was its wont, wherever " the 46th " was stationed in the " four‑quarters " of the globe, " No. z 2 7," R. L, held meetings ; and did " good work " at the Capital of New South Wales.


On August 12, 1820(?), tie "Australian Social Mother Lodge, No. 260," R. I., was established at Sydney. On this memorable occasion the "famous Bible " [see Grand Lodge of Quebec], the working tools, and the regalia of " 22 7 " were used; and it is probable that most of " the work " was done by its officers and members, who had spread the light of Freemasonry in so many places throughout the world.


"No. 260, R. I.," the premier lodge of Australia, afterward became "Social Mother Lodge, No. 1," Registry of the Grand Lodge of New South Wales, and it is now No. 1 on the Registry of the United Grand Lodge.


On January 26, 1824, "Leinster‑Marine Lodge of Australia," R. L, was established at Sydney, and is now No. 2, Registry of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales. Many eminent men have been " | made " in this lodge, among whom were the Hon. William Charles Wentworth, LL.D., the founder of "responsible government" in New South Wales, and Charles Farnell, the father of the Hon. James Squire Farnell, the first Grand Master, Grand Lodge of New South Wales. In 1825 an address was presented by this lodge to Sir Thomas Brisbane, on his arrival in the colony, and in 1838 Brother Rogers established the first " Lodge of Instruction " in Australia. In 1841 "LeinsterMarine " accepted an invitation to " dine " with " Lodge 548," R. E.


There is much of unusual historic interest connected with the foregoing and other early and later lodges, formerly on the Registries of England, Ireland, and Scotland, which it is hoped local lodge historians will soon give to the Masonic world.


In 1839 the Provincial, afterward District Grand Lodge, R. E., was formed; in 1855 the Provincial, afterward District Grand Lodge, R. S.; and in 1858 the Provincial Grand Lodge, Registry of Ireland.


In 1847 it was proposed to establish a "Grand Lodge of Australia." A meeting was held there anent, but no action was taken.


In 1855 a difficulty sprang up between the Irish and English "Constitu‑ 5o6 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


tions," in consequence of the former having extended fraternal recognition to " Lodge St. Andrew," R. S. This was shortly afterward amicably settled.


In 18 78 a " jubilee medal " was granted by the Grand Lodge of England to "Australia Lodge," chartered in 1828. This was the second of the only two such medals granted.


The three Provincial Grand Lodges of England, Scotland, and Ireland continued their work and governance, till the formation of the Grand Lodge of New South Wales, in 1877, upon whose Registry the lodges of Irish institution became enrolled. The English and Scottish District Grand Lodges continued till their union with the Grand Lodge of New South Wales, in the formation of the United Grand Lodge, in 1888.


Right Worshipful Brother Nicholas Weekes, G. S., 1877‑87, died June 9, 1887, somewhat over one year before the "blessed union." The labors of Brother Weekes, in the establishment and upbuilding of the Grand Lodge of New South Wales, can hardly be overestimated. A monument has been erected at his grave by the Grand Lodge ; and tablets in remembrance of him and of Right Worshipful Brother William Booth, P. D. D. G. M., R. E., have been placed in the walls of the Grand Lodge room in the Masonic Temple. The Masonic epitaph of Brother Weekes might appropriately be: " Si quceris monumentum, circumspice." Most Worshipful the Honorable James Squire Farnell, the first Grand Master, died August 21, 1888, just five days after "the union," whose consummation he had so devoutly desired. He was buried August 23d, when a "Lodge of Sorrow" was held, at which Most Worshipful Brother Tarrant, Pro G. M., presided.


Right Worshipful Brother John Starkey, G. T., the safe Keeper of the' Key of the " /" s. D." Box, and who so often made personal cash advances to meet the emergent requirements of Grand Lodge, has held that important office all but continuously since 1877‑89.


Early in 1889, the remaining "outstanding" lodge in the jurisdiction became of allegiance to the United Grand Lodge.


There is evidently a great future for the Craft, not Wales, but throughout the "Continent of Australasia." only in New South May the beams of the sun by day, and of the "Southern Cross" by night, ever auspiciously shine upon the Antipodean 11 Sons of Light." DIVISION XI.


tin Exhaustive Account of that Historic !fair in the United States, written from a Masonic Stand point.


Past Grand Master, M.‑. W.‑. Grand Lodge, State of New York.






Introductory. ‑In presenting an account of the period known as the Anti‑Masonic tithes,‑embracing the years 1826 to 1845,‑we do not expect to offer anything new; but, as forming an important period in Masonic history, we shall endeavor to outline the facts. In this labor we have availed ourselves of the excellent account of Josiah H. Drummond, the exhaustive papers of Rob Morris, and other writers, who have investigated the matter thoroughly.


Up to the year 1826, the growth of the Fraternity had been very rapid; lodges were instituted without that regard for perpetuity and solidity which is a vital element in the welfare of an Institution of the character of ours. Not this alone, but there was, in our judgment, a laxity in regard to the material accepted, and while we had gained in numerical strength, its component parts were not properly assimilated, and at the first opposition the ranks were largely depleted in certain sections. This reverse was of such a character that it bid fair to destroy our Institution in this country.


Its effects were felt in the New England States, Pennsylvania, and more particularly in the State of New York, where the trouble arose.


In reviewing the history of those times, and weighing the cause, we cannot but conclude that, in a large degree, its effects were attributable to the lack of judgment and unnecessary alarm on the part of a few over‑zealous members of the Craft, which, combined with other causes, ‑notably of a political character, ‑fanned the flame into a raging fire. 507 508 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


The various accounts published at the time are necessarily colored by the interest of the writers, and even the light of the present day does not enable us to present much that is new.


The Account in Detail. ‑The originators of this scheme lived in Batavia, Genesee County, N.Y., and consisted of William Morgan and David C. Miller. Morgan was a man of no repute, of idle and dissipated habits, harassed by debt; his time was mostly spent in bar‑rooms, and without corroborative evidence no credence would be given to any statement made by him. In 1821 he was a brewer near York, Upper Canada; failing there he moved to Rochester and wrought at his trade, that of a stone‑mason; from thence he went to Batavia in 1823.


William L. Stone, author of the Anti‑Masonic letters to John Quincy Adams, says: ‑ " He had received a common school education; he was a hard drinker, and his nights and sometimes his days also were spent in tippling houses, while occasionally, to the still greater neglect of his family, he joined in the drunken carousals of the vilest and most worthless men, and his disposition was envious, malicious, and vindictive." Was Morgan a Mason?‑Where he received his degrees is not known; he claimed to have been made a Mason in Canada or some foreign country, and, having obtained the confidence of some of the Fraternity, he succeeded in entering the lodge at Batavia (Wells Lodge, No. 282, established in 1817), as a visitor. We doubt whether he ever lawfully received the "Blue" lodge degrees. Declaring upon oath that he had received the preceding six degrees in a regular manner, he was made a Royal Arch Mason in Western Star Chapter, No. 33, at LeRoy, N.Y., May 31, 18 Upon his removal to Batavia, it being in contemplation to establish a Royal Arch chapter at that place, in 1826, his name was attached to the first petition prepared for that purpose.


Afterward, some parties seeing his name attached to the petition, and being opposed to having so dissolute a person as a member, a new petition was substituted, leaving him out entirely. He subsequently applied to the chapter for affiliation and was rejected. This naturally had a tendency to irritate him considerably, and being unprincipled enough to do almost anything, he with his associates originated this scheme for the purpose of revenge, and also of realizing untold wealth.


Associated with him was David C. Miller, editor of the Republican Advocate, a weekly paper published in Batavia. He is said to have received the first degree in a lodge at Albany, N.Y., many years before, but owing to developments of his character, had never been advanced further.


His habits were in harmony with those of Morgan ; he was embarrassed financially, and in general disrepute. Undoubtedly the thought of the pecuniary gain which could be realized by a venture of this character was the inspiring motive of these two worthies.


THE MORGAN EXCITEMENT. 509 There had been intimations of this intended publication at different times, mostly by Morgan himself when under the influence of liquor, and also articles having reference thereto in Miller's weekly sheet ; but they attracted little attention, until, on the morning of a day in the summer of 1826, a group of men might have been seen in the bar‑room of a certain tavern in Batavia, who appeared greatly excited. One of them held in his hand a copy of the weekly paper edited by Miller, in which it was stated, "There will be issued from the press in this place, in a short time, a work of rare interest to the uninitiated, being an exposition of Ancient Craft Masonry, by one who has been a member of the Institution for years." Morgan's Book. ‑ Had Morgan been permitted to print the book without notice, the work would have fallen quietly from the press and died a natural death.


Masonry, like Christianity, must have her indiscreet champions.


Efforts were made to induce Morgan to suppress the publication, and while he professed to be willing to do so, and did in fact deliver up a part of the manuscript, it was found that the publication was being pushed by Miller as rapidly as possible.


Early in September, 1826, it became known that the work was already partially in print in Miller's office, and from the 8th to the 14th of September was a time ever to be remembered, not only in Central New York and in the immediate vicinity of where these events transpired, but also rendered memorable by the disastrous consequences of the proceedings then carried out, which were felt all over the Union, not only then but for some twenty years afterward.


A plan was set on foot by a few misled Masons to obtain possession of the manuscript at all hazards. On the night of the 8th of September a party of forty persons assembled with the object of sacking Miller's office ; but the better class of citizens, as well as Miller's friends, rallied to his support, and no such rash measures were undertaken.


Miller's office was discovered to be on fire on the loth of September; but the flames were speedily extinguished by means which were conveniently at hand, and the incendiaries escaped.


The freemen of that place offered a reward of one hundred dollars for the arrest and conviction of the incendiary.


Morgan's Arrest and Subsidiary Events. ‑ Some time previously, Morgan, while at Canandaigua, had borrowed, of a hotel‑keeper, wearing apparel which he promised to return. Having failed to do so, and probably for the purpose of intimidating him, a warrant was issued against him for larceny. He was arrested September 11th, and carried to Canandaigua by a posse, among whom were Nicholas G. Chesebro, Edward Sawyer, Loton Lawson and John Sheldon, and on the case being heard he was acquitted of felony, or the ground that he had borrowed the articles he was charged with stealink 510 COSMOPOLITAN FPEEMASONRY.


After his discharge he was arrested for a small debt due another hotel‑keeper, judgment confessed, and under the execution he was committed to jail.


Miller was also arrested and under a strong guard carried to LeRoy. The constable left Miller with the magistrate and went to find the plaintiff Daniel Johns; but, not returning at once, the magistrate discharged Miller, just as the constable was coming in ; the latter attempted to re‑arrest Miller, but he eluded the officer and returned home during the night. This Johns was said to have been a financial partner in the scheme, and desiring to get back the money (forty dollars), he had advanced, he sued out the warrant against Miller and had him arrested. To effect Morgan's release his wife went to Canandaigua and proposed to deliver up the manuscript, but was informed ‑ as she subsequently stated‑that the debt had been paid and Morgan released, but again re‑arrested and taken out of the State.


Upon her return she was accompanied by a leading Mason, and it was claimed that the assurance had been given that her husband was alive; that, while she might not see him for some time, she and her family would be provided for. Some days intervened, and no intelligence being received from Morgan, the friends of the family sent a special messenger to Canandaigua to make inquiries regarding him.


He reported that Morgan had been released from jail, on the evening of September 12 th, by the payment of the debt; that on leaving jail he was seized by Lawson and another, and in spite of cries of "murder" was dragged down the street; that standing by, but not interfering, were Chesebro and Sawyer one of whom picked up Morgan's hat which had fallen off‑Who followed the party down the street ; that a carriage at once followed them, and soon returned and was driven off toward Rochester, being empty when it went down and having several persons in it when it drove back; that it arrived at Rochester about daylight of the 13th and was driven three miles beyond, when the party alighted and the carriage returned ; that the driver stated the parties were all strangers to him, and that he did not notice any violence. While there was no positive proof that Morgan had been carried away, this report aroused the most intense excitement.


Reviewing the matter at this time, Morgan's seizure cannot be justified by legal, moral, or Masonic principles. The publicity of the transaction, however, precludes the idea that any personal harm was intended. Our own conviction is that, for a suitable compensation, he consented to go away, being fearful of subsequent outrage. He had lost the esteem of the community and the respect and confidence of Masons, and was without motive to return home. Documentary Evidence. ‑To substantiate this view, we learn that one of the party accompanying the constable had borne a letter to Morgan containing these propositions : ‑ (i) To separate him from David C. Miller. (z) To provide for his family.




(3) To remove him to Canada.


(4) To place in his hand the sum of five hundred dollars in good money upon his arrival in Canada, on his pledge never to return.


This letter was conveyed to Morgan, and his acceptance thereof was privately made known to Nicholas G. Chesebro.


The beginning of public interest in the affair may be attributed in a great degree to the inflammatory hand‑bills which were issued and scattered broadcast. The following is a copy of one issued October 4, 1826, about three weeks after Morgan's disappearance, of which some 50,000 copies were circulated in Western New York: ‑ "To the Public: ‑On the 11th of September, William Morgan, a native of Virginia, who had for about three years past resided in this village, was, under pretext of a justice's warrant, hurried from his home and family and carried to Canandaigua. The same night he was examined on a charge of petit larceny and discharged by the justice. One of the persons who took him away immediately obtained a warrant against him in a civil suit for an alleged debt of two dollars, on which he was committed to the jail of Ontario County. On the night of September 12th he was released by a person pretending to be his friend, but directly in front of the jail, notwithstanding his cries of murder, he was gagged and secured and put into a carriage, and driving all night he was left, as the driver of the carriage says, at Hanford's Landing, about sunrise on the 13th, since which he has not been heard of.


"His distressed wife and two infant children are left dependent on charity for their sustenance. The circumstances of the transaction gives rise to the most violent fears that he has been murdered It is, however, hoped by his wife and friends that he may be now kept concealed and imprisoned in Canada. All persons who are NN‑illing to serve the cause of humanity, and assist to remove the distressed apprehensions of his unfortunate wife, are earnestly requested to communicate to one of the committee named below, directed to this place, any facts or circumstances which may have come to their knowledge and are calculated to lead to the discovery of his present residence or the particulars of his fate, if he has been murdered.


"Dated Batavia, October 4, 1826.


"N. B. ‑ It is hoped that printers throughout the State, in Canada, and elsewhere will give the above a few insertions and thus serve the cause of justice and humanity." Conventions and Public Meetings.‑This naturally added to the excitement. Conventions were held in adjacent counties, investigating committees appointed, and the indiscreet conduct of some Masons, together with remarks made, which were repeated with additions and embellishments, worked up the public mind to a high pitch of excitement and served to increase the feeling against the Fraternity.


Public meetings were held in Batavia, October 4th, to denounce the outrage and secure the punishment of those concerned in it. Prominent Masons took part in them and were the foremost in demanding an investigation.


The cry was raised that Morgan had been abducted and killed; that he had been traced to Fort Niagara, and taken out in a boat upon Lake Ontario and drowned.


All sorts of improbable stories were circulated, and one man said he knew Morgan had been killed because the carcass of a sturgeon, with Holyan's boots in it, had been washed ashore on the banks of the Niagara River, just below COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


the falls. (If so, no wonder the sturgeon died.) The effect of this excitement, although bad, would have been of short duration and its destructiveness limited, if it had not been taken advantage of by reckless and unscrupulous politicians to advance their interests for political and party purposes.


The consequence was that, while the great body of the Fraternity denounced the abduction, they were all equally assailed, and the Institution had to suffer for the foolishness and indiscretion of a few of its members.


Governmental Action. ‑ DeWitt Clinton, a distinguished and eminent Mason, was Governor of the State of New York at that time.


He issued a proclamation, October 7, 1826, enjoining upon all officers and ministers of justice in the State, and particularly in the county of Genesee, to pursue all proper and efficient measures for the apprehension of the offenders and the prevention of further outrages, etc. A second proclamation was issued on the 26th of October, offering a reward for the discovery and conviction of the offenders.


March iq, 1827, another proclamation with a reward of one thousand dollars and a free pardon to any one, who, " as accomplice or cooperator shall make a full discovery of the offender or offenders." These are among the public evidences of the desire of Governor Clinton to maintain the ascendency of the law.


Subsequent to the Disappearance, Trials, etc.‑The investigations of the committee, appointed at the Batavia meeting, showed that when the parties left the carriage beyond Rochester, on Wednesday morning, September 13th, they entered another and proceeded west by the way of Clarkson, Gaines, Lewiston, and so on to Fort Niagara, arriving there on the morning of the 14th, changes of horses being provided as if by arrangement.


A part of the journey Eli Bruce,‑ the sheriff of the county,‑was with them. Upon their arrival at Fort Niagara, the four occupants of the carriage ‑one of whom was Bruce‑left it, dismissed the driver, and proceeded toward the fort, which was about eighty rods distant.


This was the last that was seen of Morgan, as shown by the record before us; and what transpired afterward will be developed in our review of some of the trials arising therefrom.


Two Theories. ‑ From this affair can be deduced two theories: ‑ (i) That the arrest of Morgan was a blind to get him away from his friends in Batavia; that he was released from jail at Canandaigua under false pretences, conveyed by violence and against his will out of the country, and finally put to death by drowning or other violent means.


(2) That the whole transaction, commencing at Batavia and terminating upon Canadian soil, was undertaken and finished with the consent and cooperation of Morgan, and that no violence was at any time exercised or attempted upon him.


Upon the first theory, the Anti‑Masonic party was established, enlisting THE MORGAN EXCITEMENT.


513 among its leaders such men as Francis Granger, W. H. Seward, Thurlow Weed, M. Fillmore, Solomon Southwick, John C. Spencer, William Wirt, John Quincy Adams, William Slade, and others.


The second theory to our mind is much more in accord with the facts, and more likely to be the truth. It may not be amiss to mention here the following account, given at a subsequent period by Jeremiah Brown, who acted as driver of the coach a part of the way: ‑ " That Morgan went of his own free will and accord; he was going among old friends in Canada, where he could turn over a new leaf and begin life anew.


"On Saturday, September 16th, he was again taken across the river and committed to the care of two Canadian Masons. Morgan was paid the full sum of five hundred dollars, in good money, and he signed an 'undertaking' not to return to the States without written permission from John Whitney or N. G. Chesebro,‑or to leave Upper Canada." Rise of Anti‑Masonry.‑This occurrence naturally aroused the most bitter feeling against the Fraternity. Members were arrested on different charges growing out of these transactions, and suits were pending for years. Some were imprisoned, among the number Eli Bruce, of whom we shall speak hereafter. The last Canandaigua trial came off in May, 1831, and during the preceding four years there was at all times confined in the jail some one connected with this affair.


Bruce was immediately arrested on the charge of the abduction of Morgan, but was acquitted by the magistrate, because it could not be proven that any one was abducted, or that any force or violence had been exercised toward any person in the carriage.


Governor Clinton propounded a series of written interrogatories relative to his agency in the transaction, and on his refusal to answer issued a proclamation removing him from office.


In an interview which the sheriff sought, the Governor said: ‑ " Strong as is my attachment to you, I will, if you are guilty, exert myself to have you punished to the full extent of the law." And to show his opinion of the transaction, in a private letter, he says : ‑ " I have always condemned the abduction of Morgan, and have never spoken of the measure but as a most unwarrantable outrage and as deserving the most severe punishment:' Among those upon whom the utmost vials of the Anti‑Masonic wrath were poured was Eli Bruce, and inasmuch as the developments on the trial present to us occurrences after Morgan left the fort, we give full mention of the same. At the time of the events recorded here he held the position of High Sheriff of Niagara County, having been elected in 1825.


He was serving as Principal Sojourner in the Royal Arch chapter at Lewiston, and was also a member of the council of Royal and Select Masters at Lockport.




Early in 1827 he was arraigned before A. J. Henman, justice of the peace at Lockport, for assisting in the abduction of Morgan, but was acquitted. Complaint being made to Governor Clinton, he was summoned to Albany, to show cause why he should not be removed from office. His reply, by counsel, did not satisfy Governor Clinton, who required that he should prove his inno cence. He was tried before the Circuit Court of Ontario County, sitting at Canandaigua, August, 1828, upon two counts.


(1) For conspiracy to abduct Morgan. (2) For the abduction itself.


He was sentenced to twenty‑eight months' imprisonment. On appeal, the execution of the sentence was postponed until May 13, 1829, and he was imprisoned in Canandaigua jail May 20, 1829, and remained there until September 23, 1831.


From the evidence given at the trial, we gather that Bruce was informed that Morgan was coming voluntarily, and that he had been requested to prepare a cell for him in the jail at Lockport, to be occupied temporarily until he could be conveyed to Canada, said Morgan being desirous of severing his connection with Miller.


He declined at first to take any part in the proceedings, but finally consented. With his companions he crossed the river to Canada, having Morgan in the boat; but the expected arrangement for the reception of Morgan there had not been made, and it was thought best to wait a few days. Morgan was accordingly brought back to this side of the river and put in the magazine in Fort Niagara, to await the completion of the arrangements, which were to place him upon a farm in the interior of Canada. This occurred on the morning of the 14th of September.


Bruce testified that he had never seen Morgan since and did not know what became of him; further, that he always supposed Morgan went voluntarily. He was unaware of any force having been used, if indeed any had been.


Mr. Bruce, as a peace officer, burdened with public responsibility, should have declined to listen to any proposition to remove a man privately from the State, even if agreeable to the will of the man himself. It is impossible in an article of this nature to present a resume of the trials, and for our purpose it seems unnecessary.


In many instances they were largely influenced and biased by the spirit which prevailed at that time.


Ontario County was the theatre of the first judicial investigation, and November, 1826, two indictments were found against Loton Lawson, Nicholas G. Chesebro, Edward Sawyer, and a man by the name of John Sheldon : ‑, "(1) With conspiracy to seize and carry William Morgan from the jail to foreign parts, and there continually to secrete and imprison him. " (2) That on the evening of September 12th they did so seize him, etc., in pursuance of the conspiracy." THE MORGAN EXCITEMENT.


515 The trial was had at the Court of Oyer and Terminer held at Canandaigua, January 1, 1827. The three former plead guilty to both indictments, but it was adjudged that they could be sentenced only on one. ' Sheldon admitted the abduction, but denied that he was concerned in it; an alibi was proved by overwhelming evidence, but it did not avail, and he was found guilty. They were all sentenced to imprisonment in jail ; Lawson for two years, Chesebro for one year, Sheldon for three months, and Sawyer for one month.


Pro‑ress of Anti‑Masonry. ‑ Conventions followed the judicial investigations before referred to, self‑constituted parties travelled from place to place, and through their committees decided upon the guilt or innocence of suspected persons, and got up systematic prosecutions to force Masons to secede.


Freemasonry was more fiercely denounced than ever; the community was in a whirlpool of passion, and politicians came to the front and procured the passage at public meetings of resolutions against voting for Freemasons for any office whatever. It was voted to hear no Mason preach unless he boldly denounced Freemasonry as a bad institution. Masonic clergymen were dismissed from their charges, and Masonic meetings were to be prevented by force of arms. At a convention of delegates from several Baptist churches, held at LeRoy, N.Y., January, 1827, it was " Resolved, That all such members as belong to the Baptist Church, and who also belong to the Society of Freemasons, be requested to renounce publicly all communications with that Order, and if the request is not complied with in a reasonable time to excommunicate all those who neglect or refuse to do so." There was no perceptible abatement of the excitement; all kinds of stories were invented and circulated. A committee reported the "finding of blood in the magazine at Fort Niagara." Subsequently a member of the said committee authorized the statement "that no signs of blood, or any other probable evidences of the murder of Morgan, had been discovered at Fort Niagara." The excitement was greatly increased by the flight of Burrage Smith, John Whitney, and Colonel William King, who had been charged with participation in the abduction of Morgan. Colonel King ultimately returned of his own accord and surrendered himself for trial, but died before the trial came on. In May, 1829, John Whitney, who voluntarily returned from the South for that purpose, was tried. It was proved that Whitney was in Canandaigua, Tuesday, September 12, 1826, and at the chapter installation at Lewiston the ][4th, but that he did not accompany the steamboat party that night to Rochester. This seemed to connect him with the whole Morgan movement. He was declared guilty and sentenced to one year's imprisonment in the county jail. He entered the prison June 8, 1829, and was freed August 30, 1830.


Many persons were arrested and tried for participation in the affair, but they were acquitted on the ground that they only had been concerned in 516 COSMOPOLITAN FREEM.4SONRY.


carrying Morgan to jail, and that in his arrest they were protected by the warrant.


Governor Clinton's Letter. ‑Governor Clinton addressed letters to the governors of the two Canadas, requesting them to cause inquiry to be made respecting Morgan, as it was suspected he had been carried to one of their provinces. In his letter he says : ‑ " During the last year he [Morgan] put a manuscript into the hands of a printer at Batavia, purporting to be a promulgation of the secrets of Freemasonry. This was passed over by the great body of that Fraternity without notice and with silent contempt; but a few desperate fanatics engaged in a plan of carrying him off, and on the 12th of September last [x826] they took him from Canandaigua by force, as it is understood, and conveyed him to the Niagara River, from whence it is supposed that he was taken to His Britannic Majesty's dominions. Some of the offenders have been apprehended and punished, but no intelligence has been obtained respecting Morgan since his abduction." Government Action in ,Upper Canada." ‑In response to this communication, Sir Frederick Maitland, Lieutenant‑Governor of Upper Canada, issued the following proclamation: ‑ "ZSo REWARD.‑His Excellency the Lieutenant‑Governor, having received a communication from His Excellency the Governor of the State of New York, by which it appears that William Morgan, who some years ago exercised the calling of a brewer in this place, and who has recently resided at Canandaigua, in the State of New York, was some time in the last year conveyed by force from that place, and is supposed to be forcibly detained in some part of this Province; any person who may be able to offer any information respecting the said William Morgan, shall, upon communicating the same to the Private Secretary of His Excellency the Lieutenant‑Governor, receive the reward above offered.


"Government House, January 31, 1827." The Lewiston Convention. ‑ Conventions were held in different parts of the State of New York; and, at the one known as the Lewiston Convention (182 7), the following catalogue of the pretended discoveries was published : ‑ " (1) That the unhappy Morgan was taken to Newark, Upper Canada, gagged, bound, and blindfolded.


"(2) That he was there offered to the British Masons of that place, with a request that they should get him on board of a British Man‑of‑War or turn him over to Brandt the Indian Chief ‑and a Mason, to be executed zbith savage cruelly.


"(g)"that the Newark Lodge assembled on this proposition, and sent for Brandt who came accordingly.


"(4) Brandt proved himself too noble of nature to have anything to do with so cowardly, inhuman, and wicked a transaction. The savage hero disdained to do that which cowardly white monsters urged him to do.


"(5) The Newark Masons, thus rebuked by savage justicie and magnanimity, likewise finally declined to take charge of the miserable victim.


"(6) The diabolical wretches, who had him in custody, brought him back as far as Fort Niagara, and there murdered him in cold blood, cutting his throat from ear to ear, cutting out his tongue, and burying him in the sand, and concluding the hellish rites by sinking the body in the lake." These allegations do not harmonize well with the body discovered and identified as that of Morgan, alluded to in another part of this paper. Further, upon the above becoming known to Colonel Brandt‑who was a THE MORG.4N EXCITEMENT.


517 he, in a personal letter, denied the gentleman of standing in Upper Canadacharge as far as it referred to himself.


Newspaper Investigations.‑The Rutland (Vt.) Herald, after publishing the horrid stories related by members of the above convention, says: ‑ tragic tales.


"After all this, we confess we are among the number of unbelievers to these That Morgan was abused and carried off, we have no doubt; " But that he is now somewhere in the British Provinces, profiting and speculating by the repeated bloody recitals, by issuing edition after edition of his " Mysteries of Freemasonry Unveiled," accompanied with all these seeming barbarous and unrelenting cruelties, we have scarcely a doubt remaining.


"The probability after all is, that Morgan has voluntarily absented himself, and is continuing in seclusion with a view to promote the sale of his book, and that the excitement which has been raised about it has been created for political purposes." se Last Declaration of Governor Clinton.‑To show the malignity of the opposition, let me recite the fact that, at the death of Governor Clinton, which occurred in 1828, they went so far as to say that " stung with remorse for sanctioning Morgan's death, he had taken his own life." Against this accusation, we direct attention to his official action, and would also quote from his private letter to the Batavia Convention, under date of January 8, 1827, in which he says: ‑ " I am persuaded, however, that the body of Freemasons, so far from having any participation in this affair or giving any countenance to it, reprobate it as a most unjustifiable act, repugnant to the principles and abhorrent to the doctrines of the Fraternity. I know that Freemasonry, properly understood and faithfully attended to, is friendly to religion, morality, and good government. . . . It is no more responsible for the acts of unworthy members than any other institution or association." Masonic Aspect; Action Thereon. ‑ A careful examination shows that, at the time of Morgan's arrest, the Masons who had interested themselves in the matter supposed that they had secured enough of the manuscript to prevent Miller going on with the work, unless Morgan should replace what was missing. To make sure that Morgan would not do that, a plan was undoubtedly laid to get Morgan away from Miller; either to get him into Canada, and arrange for him to stay there, or else to send him out of the country on a sea voyage.


Quite a number were cognizant of the plan, and the leading spirits were John Whitney and Nicholas G. Chesebro, together with Colonel William King, Burrage Smith, Loton Lawson, and Eli Bruce; financial means were supplied for the purpose. We do not, however, find that an officer of any Grand body was connected therewith.


Of the fact that the scheme was a local arrangement, the action taken by the various Grand bodies, of which we have knowledge, is conclusive; and, to substantiate the position, it is only necessary to recite a few instances.


The Grand Chapter of New York.‑The committee appointed by the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the State of New York, on the 518 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


William Morgan affair, reported February q, 1827, being its first convocation after the occurrence, as follows: ‑ " That they had attended to the duties assigned them, and that from the highly agitated and inflamed state of public feeling on this subject, and from the false and undeserved imputations which have been thrown upon Freemasons and the Masonic Order generally, the committee deem it proper that this Grand Chapter should make a public expression of its sentiment in relation to the affair alluded to.


"' Your committee, as expressive of their views on the subject embraced in this report, would offer for the consideration of the Grand Chapter the following preamble and resolutions: ‑ "' ffhereas, The right of personal liberty and security are guaranteed by the free constitution under which we, the members of this Grand Chapter, in common with the rest of our fellowcitizens, have the happiness to live, and "' Whereas, We esteem the preservation of these rights of vital importance to the perpetuity and full enjoyment of the blessings of our republican institutions, and "' Whereas, The community has lately witnessed a violation of the same under the pretext of the Masonic name and sanction (in the case of William Morgan), and "` Whereas, The principles of our Ancient and Honorable Fraternity contain nothing which, in the slightest degree, justify or authorize such proceedings; but, on the contrary, do in all their tenets and ceremonies, encourage and inculcate a just submission to the laws, the enjoyment of equal rights by every individual, and a high and elevated spirit of personal as well as national ;independence; therefore be it "'"Resolved, By this Grand Chapter, that we, as members individually and as a body, do ,disclaim all knowledge and approbation of t'~c said proceedings, in relation to the abduction of the ,said William Morgan, and that we disapprove of the same, as a violation of the majesty of the law, and an infringement of the rights of personal liberty, secured to every citizen of our free and happy Republic.


"'Resolved, That the foregoing Preamble and Resolutions be adopted."' The Grand Lodge of New York. ‑Some Grand Lodges issued an appeal, and upon the question of the expediency of making an address to the public, etc., the Grand Lodge of the State of New York in 1831 adopted the following, which is the only action had in the premises: ‑ "Whereas, 1t is alleged that an outrage has been committed on the body of William Morgan, and "Whereas, Proceedings in consequence of such allegations have been made in courts of justice in relation to the subject, and "Whereas, By reason cffoul misrepresentation, an effort has been made to impress the public mind with an opinion, that the Grand Lodge and the Fraternity in general, have attempted to screen, if not protect the perpetrators of this alleged outrage; therefore be it "Resolved, That the Grand Secretary be instructed to ascertain from the public record a statement of the facts in relation to the persons said to have been Masons, charged and convicted of the abduction of Morgan, and report to this Grand Lodge at its next annual communication." In 1832 a supplemental report was adopted : ‑ " That participating with the members of this Grand Lodge, and the great body of the Masonic Fraternity, in a feeling of deep abhorrence of the outrage, which was a violation alike of Masonic obligation and the law of the land, they [the committee] have examined the papers submitted thereto with that attention which the importance of the subject demands.


"The voluminous nature of the papers presented and the shortness of the time have, however, prevented them from investigating the subject as fully as they would desire, and further time was asked in which to formulate a report." FREEMASONRY IN PRACTICE.




521 Grand Lodge of Vermont. ‑Among the appeals issued against the AntiMasonic persecutions, we present the conclusion of that issued by the Grand Lodge of Vermont, October 7, 1829: " As Masons we hold ourselves guiltless, in any manner, of the shedding of human blood ‑ guiltless, in any manner, of conspiring against the liberties and privileges of the people, or endeavoring to monopolize an unequal portion of those privileges to ourselves, or to abridge the rights of others ‑guiltless, in any manner, of impeding, retarding or diverting the cause of justice ‑guiltless, in any manner, of an intrusion into the three great departments of our governmentguiltless, in any manner, of attempting to identify the subject with politics, or of making the latter a matter of discussion or remark‑guiltless, in any manner, of performing any rite, or doing any act, immoral or irreligious‑ and guiltless, in any manner, of entertaining the remotest suspicion that the life of a fellow‑being was subject to our control," Other Grand Lodges. ‑ From another we excerpt the following: ‑ " We claim of our fellow‑citizens the same rights enjoyed by other men, and no more. The constitution proscribes no man who well performs the duties of his citizenship. Disregarding this truly republican principle, the avowed design of Anti‑Masonry is a universal proscription of men, simply because they are Masons. Let a principle of this description once gain the ascendancy among us, let the passions become enlisted in it, and no man can foretell the desolation of the end.


"We deprecate all persecution, no matter what name it bears, or what garb it assumes. It is dangerous to society, dangerous to individuals, and is the tyrant's usual engine to destroy the great cause of liberty itself." Declaration by the Fraternity of Boston. ‑We have before us a Deelaration of the Freemasons of Boston and Vicinity, dated December 31, 1831, which so concisely and plainly presents the subject that the affecting nature of the appeal must have given it an immense power for good: ‑ " While the public mind remained in the high state of excitement, to which it had been carried by the partial and inflammatory representations of certain offences, committed by a few misguided members of the MASONIC INSTITUTION, in a sister State, it seemed to the undersigned (residents of Boston and vicinity), to be expedient to refrain from a public DECLARATION of their principles and engagements as MASONS. But believing the time now to be fully come, when their fellow‑citizens will receive with candor, if not with satisfaction, A SOLEMN AND UNEQUIVOCAL DENIAL OF THE ALLEGATIONS, which, during the last five years, in consequence of their connection with the MASONIC FRATERNITY, have been reiterated against them, they respectfully ask permission to invite attention to the subjoined "Whereas, it has been frequently asserted and published to the world, that in the several degrees of FREEMASONRY, as they are enforced in the United States, the candidate, in his initiation and subsequent advancement, binds himself by oath to sustain. his Masonic brethren in acts, which are at variance with the fundamental principles of morality, and incompatible with his duty as a good and faithful citizen, in justice therefore to themselves, and with a view to establish TRUTH and expose IMPOSITION, the undersigned, many of us the recipients of every degree of Freemasonry, known and acknowledged in this country, do most SOLEMNLY DENY the existence of any such obligations in the MASONIC INSTITUTION, as far as our knowledge respectively extends. And we as SOLEMNLY AVER that, no person is admitted to the Institution, without first being made acquainted with the nature of the obligations which he will be required to incur and assume.


"FREEMASONRY secures its the freedom of thought and of speech, and permits each and every one to act according to the dictates of his own conscience in matters of religion, 522 COSMOPOLITAN TREEMASONRY.


and of his personal preferences in matters of politics; it neither knows, nor does it assume to inflict upon its erring members, however wide may be their aberration from duty, any penalties or punishments, other than those of ADMONITION, SUSPENSION and EXPULSION.


"The obligations of the Institution require of its members a strict obedience to the laws of God and Man. So far from being bound by any engagements inconsistent with the happiness and prosperity of the nation, every citizen who becomes a Mason, is doubly bound to be true to his GOD, to his COUNTRY and to his FELLOW MAN‑" In the language of the Ancient Constitutions of the Order, which are printed and open for public inspection, and which are used as text books in all the lodges, he is required to keep and obey the MORAL LAW; to be a quiet and peaceful citizen, true to his government and just to his country.


"MASONRY disdains the making of proselytes; she opens the portals of her asylum to those only who seek admission, with the recommendation of a character unspotted by immorality and vice. She simply requires of the candidate his assent to one great, fundamental, religious truth, ‑THE EtISTENCE AND PROVIDENCE Or GOD; and a practical acknowledgment of those infallible doctrines for the government of life, which are written by the finger of God on the heart of man.


"ENTERTAINING Such sentiments, as MASONS, as CITIZENS, as CHRISTIANS, and as MORAL MEN, and deeply impressed with the conviction that the MASONIC INSTITUTION has been, and may continue to be, productive of great good to their fellow‑men; and having 'received the laws of the society, and its accumulated funds, in sacred trust for charitable uses,' the undersigned can neither renounce nor abandon it.


"We most cordially unite with our brethen of Salem and vicinity, in the declaration and hope that, 'should the people of this country become so infatuated as to deprive Masons of their civil rights, in violation of their written constitutions, and the wholesome spirit of just laws and free governments, a vast majority of the Fraternity will still remain firm, confiding in God, and the rectitude of their intentions, for consolation, under the trials to which they may be exposed.' " To this were appended the signatures of 1469 Masons from fifty‑four towns and districts,‑Boston of course furnishing the largest number, 437;‑but all parts of the State were worthily represented.


Lodges and Chapters in New York. ‑ Action was taken by lodges and chapters in the various parts of the State of New York. All repudiated the act as an outrage upon public liberty, and a flagrant violation of the laws of the land. Without multiplying instances we append the action and resolutions adopted in Lyons Royal Arch Chapter, March 15, 182 7 : "Whereas, The abduction of William Morgan has given rise to much excitement in the public mind against the Fraternity of Freemasons, and as efforts have been made both in public newspapers and private circles to charge this outrage upon his person against the whole body of Masons as such, and " Whereas, Many pretend to believe and endeavor to inculcate that belief in others, that the Masonic Fraternity claims a right to inflict corporal punishment, and even to put to death such of its members as reveal its secrets or violate its laws; therefore "Resolved, That we declare unto the world, that Masons acknowledge no laws which contravene the Constitution and laws of their country, and that the Masonic Institution claims no right to inflict corporal or other punishment upon its members except suspension and expulsion, and that the exercise of any further or any greater power than this would be in violation of the most sacred principles of our Order.


"Resolved, That we view with deep regret the gross violation of the laws of our country and the rules and principles of Masonry, by members of our Institution in the late affair of William Morgan, and that we utterly disclaim all knowledge or participation whatever in the abduction of said Morgan, and that we will as Masons have no communication with those persons who were engaged in the perpetration of this outrage." THE MORGAN EXCITEMENT.


523 Many lodges surrendered their charters, the reason being given in one case (Ballston Spa, N.Y., 1828) : ‑ " It is, briefly, that the present state of public excitement on the subject of Masonry is such, that it produces discords in neighborhoods, and among members of the same family, and even in the Church of Christ, to allay or prevent which is one of the fundamental principles of our Order." The General Grand Royal Arch Chapter.‑The General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States was in session in New York City during the week of Morgan's abduction, the session commencing on the 14th of September, 1826, and the following, which we find in Josiah H. Drummond's account of that period, is of interest : ‑ " Samuel L. Knapp, a member of the General Grand Chapter from Massachusetts, says that on the second day of the session, the presiding officer stated that a special communication had been received from the western part of New York, and suggested that it be referred to a committee without reading; this was done, Knapp being chairman of the committee. The committee found in their room a young man in a high state of excitement, who put into their hands some printed pages and a manuscript, stating that some of the Fraternity in his part of the country apprehended that mischief might arise from its publication. The committee heard his story, deliberated upon it, and returned the papers to the messenger without examination, telling him distinctly that it was a subject in which the General Grand Chapter could take no part; they made a verbal report, and it was accepted with few or no remarks, and without a dissenting voice. The General Grand High Priest (Clinton) was not present, and when he came in and was told what had been done, approved the course taken, saying that the body had nothing to do with the subject, and it was not worthy the notice of Masons. The messenger seemed disappointed, and hinted that the writer of the manuscript might at that tilhe be in prison for debt, but was told if that was so to go and raise the money among the Fraternity, pay the debt, and restore the manuscript." CHAPTER II.




Political Aspect. ‑ One great factor which tendea to keep this excitement alive was the influence of politicians, who sought to use this as a lever to lift themselves into power. The election was approaching, and all manner of stories were put in circulation and printed by the Anti‑Masonic papers, a a large number of which had sprung into existence. Prominent among them may be noted Miller's Republican Advocate, Southwick's Observer, Stone's 524 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


Spectator, Ward's Anti‑Masonic Quarterly Review, and the Albany Evening .journal, which last was established in the winter of 1830, under the editorial management of Thurlow Weed, then a member of the legislature from the county of Monroe.


It is said that in 1830 there were more than one hundred and thirty AntiMasonic papers in existence ‑ principally in New York and Pennsylvania ‑ and their violence and bitterness surpass description.


As an illustration, we present the following from Southwick's Observer: ‑ "Freemasonry is the step that leads down to the dark gates of hell‑the paths of perditionconclaves of corruption and licentiousness‑protection of fraud and villainy‑the genuine academies of tippling‑manufactories for noodles," etc.


Among the choice epithets given to the Craft were the following: ‑ " Banditti brethren ‑ vile impostors ‑ hypocrites ‑ time‑fuddlers ‑ sharpers ‑ knaves ‑ noodles ‑ fools ‑ blackguards ‑ drunkards ‑ gullies ‑ impostors ‑ dumpling‑heads ‑ nincum= poops‑blockheads," etc.


The above are fair samples from the newspapers of those days, and we wonder at the effrontery and knavishness of the writers, as well as the credulity of the believers.


The Anti‑Masonic party had grown rapidly in New York and adjacent States ; it soon became thoroughly political, and no opportunity was lost for furthering its ends. They murmured against Governor Clinton. He had, to be sure, removed Eli Bruce from his office as sheriff, but not as promptly as they desired. To show to what ends they descended, and with what avidity everything was accepted. which harmonized with their desires, we direct attention to the following incident : ‑ The (Alleged) Body of Morgan.‑The body of a drowned man was found October 7, 1827, on the beach at Oak Orchard Harbor, about forty miles from Niagara. An inquest was held on the body of the stranger, and "accidental death" was the verdict of the coroner's jury.


From the description of the body, as elucidated at the inquest, note the following: ‑ "Length of corpse, 5 feet io inches. No scars noticeable in the condition of the flesh. A man about forty‑six years of age. Remains of heavy whiskers and thick hair over the head. Teeth sound, and nothing remarkable about them.


"The two Potters, who first discovered the body, and were well acquainted with William Morgan, testified that the corpse had no resemblance by which they should recognize Morgan.


"Clothing, etc., fully described. In one of the pockets a package of religious tracts," etc.


The body ‑ badly decayed ‑ was buried with all convenient speed, but it was not destined to remain undisturbed ; for, on the facts of the inquest being published, a party consisting of Thurlow Weed, Russel Dyer, David C. Miller, and a number of Batavia people met at Oak Orchard, Saturday, October 13, 1827, repaired to the grave, had the body disinterred, taken to Carlton, and examined.




525 Another inquest was held on the Monday following, and the description is, in some particulars, different from the first : ‑ " The head was now so nearly bald that only a few stray tufts of hair could be seen. The bunch of whiskers had disappeared. The cavities of the ears and nostrils were ingeniously adorned with long white hairs." At the second examination, three parties who saw the body at its first discovery, and testified at the first inquest, were not sworn.


The assertion was made that it was Morgan's body, and that it had been hastily buried to prevent identification. To be sure, if we were to believe the stories then in circulation, " Morgan had been dead some thirteen months," and the physical impossibility of an identification after that length of time was treated as of no account. It was announced all over the country that " Morgan's body had been found"; and, at the second inquest, Mrs. Morgan and other witnesses were examined, and they itientiXerl the body.


It is said that Mrs. Morgan was so wrought upon that she thought it might be Morgan, yet she admitted that she could see no resemblance.


A dentist who had extracted two of Morgan's teeth, produced them and declared that they fitted into a place on the same side of the mouth where the deceased had lost two teeth. Certainly it was a very accommodating body.


It is true that not a single article of clothing upon the body had ever belonged to Morgan or had been worn by him; nor was there anything upon or about the body which could be traced back to Morgan. This was, however, ignored, it being said that the change of clothing was a trick of the Masons.


The body was officially declared by the inquest to be that of William Morgan. It is evident, however, that the more intelligent were not prepared to wholly accept the statement; and a distinguished politician ‑ Thurlow Weed ‑ (who probably knew) is said to have remarked, "It's a goon' enough Morgan till after election." The funeral followed, the body being removed, October 1q, 1827, with much parade, to Batavia, creating a great sensation. The air actually rang with imprecations, not only upon the murderers of Morgan, but upon the whole Fraternity, all of whom were charged with being accessory to his murder.


The cry of vengeance was wafted on every breeze. After the funeral came hand‑bills, addresses, and appeals to the worst passions of the people.


But this body was not destined to rest, and when the account of the above proceedings was published, it directed attention to the disappearance of one Timothy Monro, of the township of Clark, Upper Canada, who left that place in a boat September 24th for Newark (or Fort George), on the American shore, and who while returning was upset and drowned.


Accordingly the widow and other friends came on, and another inquest was held at Batavia, October 26, 18 ; and the result of legal and formal investigation demonstrated conclusively that it was the body of Timothy 526 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


Monro, "who was drowned in the Niagara River on the 26th of September, 18272' The body was taken to Canada and buried. The evidence adduced at the last inquest presented facts which proved conclusively that it could not have been the body of Morgan. From the material differences, the conclusion is inevitable that the second inquest was largely biased in one direction,‑the interest of certain parties being to establish, at all hazards, the identification of Morgan. A body was needed for political purposes, the comedy was arranged, and Timothy Monro made a " good enough Morgan until after election." Thurlow Weed, who took an active and efficient part in smothering the truth, was accused of having shaved and stripped off the hair and whiskers of the body found in Carlton, in order that it might resemble Morgan.


Thurlow Weed's Last Fulmination.‑We should not feel justified in making this personal allusion, but that, within a few years, we find an article from his pen, published in the daily press, alluding to those times and reiterating the old story.


In a letter dated and published September q, 1882, he gives the following, claiming that it was detailed to him by John Whitney, while at his house in 1831, and promulgates it as the history of Morgan's abduction and fate: ‑ " The idea of suppressing Morgan's intended exposure of the secrets of Masonry was first suggested by a man by the name of Johns. It was discussed in lodges at Batavia, LeRoy, and Rochester. Johns suggested that Morgan should be separated from Miller and placed on a farm in Canada West. For this purpose he was taken to Niagara and placed in the magazine of the fort until arrangements for settling him in Canada were completed; but the Canadian Masons disappointed them.


"After several meetings of the lodge in Canada, opposite Fort Niagara, a refusal to have anything to do with Morgan left his 'kidnappers' greatly perplexed.


"Opportunely a Royal Arch Chapter was installed at Lewiston. The occasion brought a large number of enthusiastic Masons together. 'After labor,' in Masonic language, they 'retired to refreshment' Under the exhilaration of champagne and other viands, the chaplain (;ev. 1. H. Cummings of Rochester) was called on for a toast.


"He responded with peculiar emphasis and in the language of their ritual, ' The enemies of our Order, may they find a grave six feet deep, six feet long, and six feet due east and west.' " Immediately after that toast, which was received with great enthusiasm, Col. William King, an officer in our war of 1812, and then a member of the assembly from Niagara County, called Whitney of Rochester, Howard of Buffalo, Chubbuck of Lewiston, and Garside of Canada, out of the room, and into a carriage furnished by Major Barton. They were driven to Fort Niagara, repaired to the magazine, and informed Morgan that the arrangements for sending him to Canada were completed, and that his family would soon follow him.


"Morgan received the information cheerfully, and walked with supposed friends to the boat, which was rowed to the mouth of the river, where a rope was wound around his body, to each end of which a sinker was attached. Morgan was then thrown overboard." In continuing the narrative, Weed says : ‑ "Of course a secret thus confided to me (7) was inviolably kept; and twenty‑nine years afterward, while attending a National Republican Convention at Chicago, John Whitney, who then resided there, called to say that he wanted me to write out what he had once told me was Mor THE MORGAN EXCITEMENT.


527 gan's fate, to be signed by him in the presence of witnesses, to be sealed up, and published after his death.


"I promised to do so before leaving Chicago, but there was no time for it, and in the excitement of the canvass I neglected the important duty of securing the confession Whitney was anxious to make.


"In 1861 1 went to Europe, and while in London, wrote a letter to Whitney, asking him to get Alex. B. Williams, then a resident of Chicago, to do what I had so unpardonably neglected. That letter reached Chicago one week after Whitney's death, closing the last and only chance for the revelation of that important event." ' We are at a loss to understand why these charges should be made at this late date. The story is improbable on its face, and we have no hesitancy in saying that if the opportunity had ever been afforded Mr. Weed to obtain any such confession, the " excitement of no campaign " would have allowed him to miss the opportunity.


We have only to say that if the facts ( ?) as stated above are no more correct than those given as an excuse for not securing the said revelation, we hardly think much credence can be given them.


John Whitney's Version.‑The facts are that John Whitney did not die until May,3, z86q; and, furthermore, the testimony of one who was present at the interview mentioned by Weed as occurring in Chicago, is to the effect that the affair was in every sense different from the account given by Weed: ‑ "Whitney accosted Weed with the query: 'What are you lying about me so for? What are all these stories you are telling about me and Morgan ?' Weed endeavored to quiet him, begging him not to be angry, and assured him he was only using the stories for political effect. But Whitney insisted that they should be stopped, nor would he desist until Weed bad promised to say no more about the matter." Mr. Weed also reiterates the old story, which was a part of the declaration of the Lewiston Convention of 1827, of a toast said to have been offered by Rev. Francis H. Cummings. That charge has been denied repeatedly. Rev. Bro. Cummings was a settled clergyman, of the Protestant Episcopal Church, at Rochester, and regarded as one of the most respectable of his profession. It was without doubt one of the Anti‑Masonic slanders of that time. In the present instance it seems the old feeling was not yet dead.


The Anti‑Masonic Political Party.‑At the spring elections of 1827, Freemasons were proscribed simply because they were Freemasons, the movement in this respect being nearly simultaneous in Genesee and Monroe counties. In the fall, the Anti‑Masonic party took the field, having as its aim the destruction of Freemasonry through the instrumentality of the ballot box. The first nomination was George A. S. Crooker as Senator for the 8th Senatorial District; but he was defeated. The party carried Genesee, Monroe, Livingston, and Niagara counties, in the face of both the other parties.


In 1828 the first General convention was held at LeRoy, composed of delegates from twelve of the Western counties, and at the State convention, held at Utica, in August, Solomon Southwick of Albany received the nomination for Governor of New York State. The total vote was 33,345, and, 528 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


although defeated, yet in the more radical counties he received a large vote‑in that of Genesee, 4794 In 1829 they elected Albert H. Tracy Senator for the 8th District, by a majority of about 8ooo votes; and at the State election the same year they carried the counties of Erie, Niagara, Orleans, Genesee, Livingston,. Monroe, Alleghany, Cattaraugus, Chautauque, Steuben, Ontario, Wayne, Yates, Seneca, and Washington, and polled about 67,000 votes.


At the Anti‑Masonic convention, held at Utica, August, 7830, forty‑eight counties were represented by 104 delegates. Francis Granger, a prominent member of the Anti‑ 3‑rasonic party, received the nomination for Governor, polled 120,361 votes, but was defeated. He also received the nomination in 1832, and was again defeated,‑his vote was 156,672.


The Votes Polled. ‑As illustrative of the growth of the Anti‑Masonic party we give the vote in New York State: ‑ In 1828, 33,345 ; 1829, 68,613 ; 1830, Io6,o8I ; 1831, 98,847 ; 1832, 156,672. In 1833 its estimated strength in the United States was 340,800. It had its most rapid growth in the State of New York, and attained such prominence that, in 1832, it actually carried the State of Vermont in favor of its candidate for President. In Maine, the Anti‑Masonic count in 1831 was 869 votes, in 1832, 2384 votes, and in 1833, 1670 votes, and that was the end of the party.


The Philadelphia Convention of 1830.‑At the proceedings of the AntiMasonic convention, held at Philadelphia, September II, 1830, an address was adopted upon the report of a committee, of whom Myron Holley of New York was chairman, reciting the fact "that Morgan was foully murdered, pretends to rehearse the several obligations of Freemasonry, and demands the suppression of the Institution." A few excerpts will suffice to show its spirit : ‑ "To this government Freemasonry is wholly opposed. It requires unresisting submission to its own authority in contempt of public opinion, the claims of conscience, and the rights of private judgment. It would dam up the majestic currents of improving thought, among all its subjects throughout the earth, by restricting beneficial communication. In attempting to do this it has stained our country with a brother's blood, tempted many of our influential citizens into the most degraded forms of falsehood, and burst away with its powers undiminished, its vengeance provoked, and its pollution manifest, from the strong arm of retributive justice. The means of overthrowing Freemasonry cannot be found in any, or in all, of our executive authorities. They cannot be found in our judicial establishments.


"The only adequate corrective of Freemasonry‑that prolific source of the worst abuses‑is to be found in the right of election, and to this we must resort.


"There is therefore no impropriety in resorting to the elective franchise to correct the evils of Freemasonry.


"It, Freemasonry, ought to be abolished; it should certainly be so abolished as to prevent its restoration. No means of doing this can be conceived so competent as those furnished by the ballot‑boxes.


The Last National Convention. ‑In 1836 the Anti‑Masons held their last National convention, at Philadelphia, and nominated Gen. William H.




529 Harrison for President, and Francis Granger for Vice‑President. Practically, its influence as a factor in politics ended about this time.


This country has seen fierce and bitter political contests, but no other has approached in intensity those of the Anti‑Masonic times. None but those who witnessed it can justly appreciate the condition of things at that time, and to what extent feeling was carried.


One writer describes it : ‑ "That fearful excitement which swept over our land like a moral pestilence; which confounded the innocent with the guilty; which entered even the temple of God; which distracted and divided churches; which sundered the nearest ties of social life; which set father against son and son against the father; arrayed the wife against her own husband; and, in short, wherever its baleful influences were most felt, deprived men of all those comforts and enjoyments which render life to us a blessing." Desperate attempts were made to take away chartered rights from Masonic corporations, and to pass laws that should prevent Masons from meeting and practising their ceremonies.


Effect on Masonic Bodies, Localities, etc. ‑Although the events described happened in the State of New York, the excitement was not confined to it, and while raging with more violence in some sections than others, its effects were felt all over the country.


The Grand bodies generally (as has been stated), passed temperate resolutions, disclaiming all connection or sympathy with the outrage.


There is no question but that the very general practice of giving credit for degrees, which prevailed from 1820 to 1826, led very many to repudiate their debts and vows together, as soon as the public mind against Masonry was sufficiently excited to enable them to do so with impunity. At that time it became a question of consideration among adhering Masons, what course, under existing circumstances, it was expedient for them to pursue.


A great many of those who were warmly attached to the Institution were of the opinion that it was advisable to yield, for a time at least, to the storm, and close their work and surrender their charters. This opinion was extensively acted upon.


No conciliatory course was of any avail to stay the storm, and naturally the growth and progress of the Institution suffered to a great extent. ' In some States the Grand bodies suspended their meetings for years; but in every jurisdiction were to be found some faithful brethren who maintained faith in the ultimate result, and kept alive the Masonic fire upon the altar.


In Vermont' not a single lodge continued its work.


i [This is the statement of Records G. L. Vermont, 1794‑x846, compiled by Bro. George F. Koon (printed in 1879) ; also, Proc. G. L. Canada, 1857, p. 125; et n1., but in Drummond's Am. App. Yorston & Co.'s edition of Gould's Hist., Vol. IV. PP, 455, 456, it is said: That at the meeting of the Grand Lodge of Vermont in 1834, only seven lodges were represented; that in 1836, Grand Master Haswell, the Grand Secretary, and the Grand Treasurer were empowered to meet every two years, and adjourn the Grand Lodge (three being a quorum), biennially or oftener; that this was done during the years 1837, 1838, 1840, 1842, and 1844; that in 1845 these grand officers took counsel to"resume labor"; that various constituent lodges also "resumed labor," as if commuai 530 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


In Maine the Grand Lodge failed to meet for several years, and had merely nominal meetings in others. The Grand Lodge from 1834 t0 1843 met annually, but once without a representative from a single lodge, and had representatives but twice during that time from more than four lodges. Indeed, almost all the lodges suspended their meetings and became dormant, even if they did not surrender their charters.


In New Jersey, where gatherings at the Grand Lodge in 1824 and 1825 embraced the representatives of from 22 to 33 subordinate lodges, after passing through the dark valley of persecution these were reduced to about six lodges.


In the State of New York in 1826, there were about 480 lodges, with a membership of 2o,ooo. From 1827 to 1839, the Grand Lodge maintained its existence, meeting annually, with a representation of from 50 to 9o lodges. The stronghold was in the city of New York, for almost every lodge on the northern and western borders succumbed to the Anti‑Masonic storm.


The New York Roll of Honor. ‑In 1835 there were but 75 lodges, of which 25 were located in the city of New York, with a membership of 3000. In 1839 the lodges in New York State were located as follows: ‑ In New York City and Brooklyn, 22, and the remainder (53) ing counties: ‑ in the follow‑ Albany.............;..... 4 Schenectady.............. r Montgomery.............. i  Columbia ................. 2 Ulster.................... 5 Rensselaer................ 4  Queens................... i Madison ................. 2 Saratoga ................. 3  Oneida.... .............. 4 Ontario .................. 2 Cayuga................... 2  Genesee.................. r Tompkins ................ r Seneca................... r  Monroe.................. r Jefferson ................. 3 Dutchess................. 2  Broome.................. i Chenango ................ 2 Herkimer ................ i  Steuben .................. 2 Greene................... r Livingston................ r  Richmond................ i Alleghany ................ r Total ................... 75 Freemasonry touched its lowest ebb about 1840, when it began to exhibit signs of resuscitation, and brethren awakened from the blight and persecution of the thirteen preceding years as from a troubled dream.


The Local Lodges.‑While it is impossible to particularize, yet it may not be inappropriate to allude to some of the lodges located in the immediate vicinity of the place where the excitement was inaugurated.


Olive Branch Lodge No. 39, LeRoy, Genesee County, never suspended its communications, and is regarded as the parent and preserver of Masonry in Western New York. It also stood firm among the numerous lodges west of the Genesee.


Seven of the most zealous and devoted members entered into a solemn agreement, "to meet once in four weeks, for the purpose of opening and closing the lodge and keeping up the work," and right nobly did they keep their cations had never ceased, their charters not having been surrendered. Indeed, these all followed the civil law as to associations, and have, therefore, maintained a consecutive legal existence from a date prior to Anti‑Masonry. ‑ ED.] THE MORGAN EXCITEMENT.


531 engagement ‑ never once violating the same during all that time ‑ some of them having to travel a distance of more than thirty miles to the place of meeting.


Fidelity Lodge (originally at Trumansburg, Tompkins County), is one of the few that never surrendered. Although proscribed as citizens, as mechanics, and as merchants, subjected to the attacks of the mob while assembled around their mystic altar, they remained faithful, until their members became reduced to twelve (commonly known as the twelve apostles), who continued to meet and pay dues until 1849, when the location of the lodge was changed to Ithaca, N.Y.


Union Lodge No. 45, Lima, Monroe County,‑although the members were frequently assailed by the foul tongue of slander, ‑ continued to meet regu‑' larly, elect officers, and transact such portions of the business as the interests of the lodge required.


Ark Lodge No. 33, Geneva, Ontario County, located in the midst of the exciting scenes of those times, never surrendered ; but, through the zeal and integrity of the "immortal seven," kept up the meetings and paid its dues regularly. They were obliged to meet in a clandestine manner, by taking the by‑lanes in going to their place of meeting, and then, one by one, at long intervals, gaining admittance through a back door; until the darkness of passion and prejudice had given away.


Batavia Lodge was revived in 1842, after laying dormant for sixteen years. This was the lodge located at the place where the Morgan trouble began.


Conclusion. ‑ It is said that the excitement at that time was unparalleled, and it was the great topic of the day. It was undoubtedly true that, among the more excitable Masons, there was a determination to prevent the publication of what was claimed to be the full secret ceremonies.


It was at this point that the great mistake was made. The Fraternity showed needless excitement and took the most inexcusable measures to suppress the publication. They should have reflected that this was not the first attempt to expose Freemasonry; that, in England, a number of different books had been published from time to time, all professedly on the same subject, and that others will continue to be published just as long as any one can be found who will buy them.


It hardly seems possible that credence would be given to the statement of a man, who, by such a publication, if true, would thereby be perjuring himself.


Morgan's Fate.‑The question which arises is, What became of Morgan? To this no definite answer has ever been or, as far as we can judge, ever can be given.


In the narrative furnished by judge Henry Brown, the following suggestions are worthy of respectful consideration: ‑ 532 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


"(r) That fear prevented Morgan's return from whatever place of exile he had sought. Ha‑, ing been exposed to one expatriation, he might not care to wish another.


"(2) That there was no particular object to be gained by his return, especially after his wife had married again.


"(3) Intemperate habits, inattention to his family, held in low esteem by the community. and possessing no property, why should he come back 2 " (4) He may have gone to foreign countries, and have died a natural death." The last, to our mind, seems the most reasonable supposition and more in accord with common‑sense. He was supplied with a sum of money, which seemed a fortune to this thriftless, impecunious man, and it is not unreasonable to conclude that he shipped on some vessel (possibly as a sailor), at Quebec or Montreal, and thus vanishes from history.


How different would have been the effect if the Masons of that place had let the conspirators go on in their work, paying no attention to the proceedings ! It would have died a natural death; but the very opposition was the means of bringing it into prominence, and the reacting effect was felt on the Fraternity for years.


That the perpetrators of the abduction of Morgan had no excuse for their act, is not more true than that they found not the slightest warrant for it in the laws and principles of Freemasonry.


A few misguided men did it all, and it is believed that many who participated did so in ignorance of the real nature of the transaction.


There is no evidence that any Masonic body encouraged or participated in the outrage, but there is abundant proof of the most honest and hearty condemnation of violence, upon the part of all governing Masonic bodies, and the chief rewards offered for the apprehension of those concerned in the plot were offered by leading Masonic officials.


From all the facts before us, we do not believe that William Morgan was murdered. But, even if he was murdered by individual Masons, the Masonic Fraternity could no more be held responsible therefor, than religious organizations can be held responsible for the misdeeds and criminal acts of professing Christians.


What the actual fate of Morgan was has never been ascertained, and we do not think it ever will be.


We do not suppose that those originally engaged in this scheme had any idea o the result of their act. They thought it necessary to obtain his silence and prevent his cooperation with Miller in the furtherance of the work; and, with this object in view, it is fair to presume that the intention was to have him depart from that section of the country; and with his consent ‑being furnished with money‑that arrangement was carried out.


The most searching investigation has failed to disclose any facts in regard to his final disappearance. All those connected therewith have since died. The last survivor, Orson Parkhurst, who drove Platt's carriage from Rochester thirty miles to Gaines, died very recently at Ludlow, Vt.




533 There were reports made in 1829 that Morgan had been seen in Smyrna, Turkey. A. G. Goodale (in 1867) said that while in Constantinople he had several interviews with persons living in that city, who informed him that they were personally acquainted with Morgan ; and Joseph Alexander Bloom is authority for saying that, in 1831, he became acquainted with an American gentleman whom he believed to be William Morgan.


Whether this is true or not we have no means of knowing, but we think it more reasonable to believe that he fled from the country than that the members of the Craft put him to death.


Posthumous Narrative of Morgan's Deportation. ‑ In the foregoing we have given our conclusions, based upon what we have read in the preparation of this paper.


Since then our attention has been directed to a statement made by John Whitney to Rob Morris, and which was not to be published until after Whitney's death, and then only should a new attack be made upon the Masonic Institution. It harmonizes with much which has been developed, and, we deem fair to conclude, is a true statement of the occurrence : ‑ " The plan, from inception to completion, contemplated nothing more than a deportation of Morgan, by friendly argreement between the parties, either to Canada or some other country. Ample means were provided for the expenses and the after‑support of Morgan and his family. This plan had been perfected from the fact that for several months the minds of Masonic brethren through the counties of Monroe, Ontario, and Genesee (New York) had been agitated by rumors that William Morgan was preparing an exposition, and would be prepared to spring it upon the public early in the winter following." A sum of money was secured with which to purchase of Morgan his manuscripts and his agreement to move to some foreign country, to separate him not only from Miller and his other partners, but also, in our judgment, to rid themselves of one who had imposed himself upon the Fraternity; and, owing to the laxity of those times, it is a grave question whether he (Morgan) ever legitimately had any Masonic degrees, with the single exception of the Royal Arch, at LeRoy, N.Y.


"Whitney met Morgan September 5, 1826, and in the course of the conversation said, ' I am here for the purpose of suppressing that publication of yours, and if you will put confidence in me I will make it worth your while to follow my advice."' It was then mutually agreed : ‑ "That Morgan should destroy all the MSS. and printed sheets connected with the ' Illustrations'; that he should taper off drinking, and with the money which Whitney would give him at that time ($So), he would clothe himself decently, provide for the more pressing wants of his family; that he would refuse all interview with his partners, and finally hold himself in readiness, at an hour's notice, to go to Canada, settle down there, and reform in the way of industry and temperance.


"It was agreed that Morgan should be well‑treated, and that on the day he reached the appointed place in Canada, he should receive $soo‑in good money‑to be absolutely his own upon his written pledge to stay there and never return to the States.


"Whitney also agreed that Morgan s family should be cared for and sent to Canada as soon as a suitable home had been provided for them." 534 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


This was agreed to, the only embarrassment being as to how Morgan could get away from Batavia. He was on jail limits; and even if these debts were paid, others would be brought forward. This embarrassment had been foreseen, and finally the fifty dollars was paid at that time, and Morgan then handed over various memorandums, and also the last printed proofs of the " Illustrations." "The object and aim was to remove Morgan from under the influence of Miller, and the other parties associated with Whitney in the plan always said that 'Morgan had freely consented to go away.'" The plan was carried out as has been developed in other parts of this paper.


"He was arrested on a criminal charge, and brought to Canandaigua. The posse consisted of Nicholas G. Chesebro, Henry Howard, Harris Seymour, Moses Roberts, and Joseph Scofield. " The party reached Canandaigua a little before night, and the constable, Halloway Hayward, delivered the prisoner [Morgan] to Squire Chipman.


"It was a part of the agreement that the criminal suit should be dropped and the prisoner held on a civil claim, which could be released at a moment's notice. No witnesses appearing against Morgan, he was discharged. He was immediately arrested on an execution for debt. This occurred on Monday, September uth.


"During the night and day following, various conferences were held with Masonic brethren at Canandaigua. A messeng8r, Loton Lawson, was sent to John Whitney at Rochester. Arrangements were made for relays of horses and drivers on the way to Fort Niagara.


"On Monday, September r2th, Lawson and another man went to the jail, and, the debt being paid, Morgan was released. Unfortunately, however, by some means, Morgan had obtained some liquor and was suffering from its effects, which always rendered him ferocious, and when he reached the pavement, the cold air striking his face and invigorating his spirits, a sudden craving for liberty possessed him, and as the carriage drove up, he stopped, struggled for a moment to collect himself, and cried once and not very loudly, 'Murder! ' His hat fell off. In a moment, however, he was calm and impressed with the error he had committed; he got into the coach, by taking hold of the sides of the door, and the carriage drove off northward.


"This was about nine o'clock on the night of September 12th. John Whitney, who had come over from Rochester, met the party a short distance from the jail, just as Morgan struggled and cried out. Whitney said,' What do you mean, Morgan, by making this noise?' Morgan looked at me [Whitney] for a moment through his inflamed eyes, inquired in a hoarse, drunken manner, 'Why, d‑n it, Whitney, is it you?' I said, 'Yes.' Then he said,' I have no more to say.' " Morgan was not bound in the carriage, nor blindfolded, nor threatened, and the only object was to keep the transaction secret, so as to prevent Miller and his associates from finding where he had gone." Whitney accompanied the coach from Canandaigua. The narrative gives the various places stopped at, and the names of the persons who drove and accompanied the party. Eli Bruce joined them at Wright's Corners and accompanied them the rest of the way.


"We drove to Youngstown Thursday morning about‑one o'clock and called on Col. William King.


"King and Bruce got into the carriage together and had a long conversation with Morgan, and the whole transaction was gone over, and Morgan gave his assent and concurrence therewith. "On arriving near the Fort, the driver (not a Mason) was dismissed and the coach sent back. The ferry boat was ready, and the party went immediately on board.


"It was rowed by Elisha Adams and Edward Giddons, and landed at a deserted place on the bank, nearly opposite the Fort and about a mile from the Canadian village of Niagara. Leaving THE MORGAN EXCITEMENT.


535 Morgan in the boat, three of the party went to the village and met a committee of two Canadian Masons, as agreed.


"No official inquiry has ever brought out the names of these, and I shall ever be silent concern. ingthem. We came back to the boat, the Canadian brethren bringing a lantern. Bruce called Morgan up the bank, out of the boat, and the party sat down together on the grass. Now Colonel King required of Morgan the most explicit consent to the movements that had brought him there. By the aid of questions from the whole party, Morgan admitted as follows: ‑ "' (1) That he had contracted with Miller and others to write an Exposition of Masonry, for which he was to receive a compensation.


"' (2) That he had never been made a Mason in any lodge, but had received the Royal Arch degree in a regular manner.


"' (3) That Miller and the other partners had utterly failed to fulfil the terms of the contract with him.


"' (4) That Whitney had paid him fifty dollars, as agreed, and he had agreed to destroy the written and printed work as far as possible and furnish no more, and that before leaving Batavia he had done what he promised in that way.


"' (5) That it was impossible now for Miller to continue the " Illustrations" as he [Morgan] had written them. If he published any book, it would have to be made from some other person's materials.


"' (o) That he had been treated by Chesebro, Whitney, Bruce, and all of them with perfect kindness on the journey.


"' (7) That he was willing and anxious to be separated from Miller and from all idea of a Masonic expose; wished to go into the interior of Canada and settle down as a British citizen; wished to have his family sent him as soon as possible; expected five hundred dollars when he reached the place, as agreed upon; expected more money from year to year, to help him, if necessary.


"' (8) Finally expressed his sorrow for the uproar his proceedings had made, sorrow for the shame and mortification of his friends, and had "no idea that David C. Miller was such a d‑d scoundrel as he had turned out to be."' " We had ascertained at the village that the Canadian brethren would be ready to perform their part and remove Morgan westward by the latter part of that or the first of the succeeding week, but objected so strenuously to having him remain among them in the meantime, that it was agreed he [Morgan] should be taken to the American side until the Canadians should notify us they were ready.


"This was explained to Morgan, and he agreed to it. It was then understood that lie was to remain in the magazine without attempting to get out until matters were arranged for his removal. The party then rowed back, and Morgan was left in the bomb‑proof of the magazine.


"The party then left, breakfasted at Youngstown, and went up to Lewiston on the Rochester boat that passed up, with passengers for the Royal Arch installation that occurred there that day (Thursday, September 14th). There was quite a company of us there, and the intelligence was freely communicated that Morgan was in Fort Niagara, and the greatest satisfaction expressed at the news that the manuscripts and printed sheets had been destroyed, and that in a few days Morgan would be effectually separated from the company that had led him to his ruin. During the day it was reported to us at Lewiston that ' Morgan had gone into the theatricals,' and was shouting and alarming the people in the vicinity. Nothing would quiet him except rum, which was given him.


"Lawson, Whitney, and a few others remained in the vicinity until Sunday night (Uth), when the two Canadian brethren came over, received Morgan, received to Whitney for the money ($Soo), and crossed to the west side of the river.


"They travelled on horseback,‑three horses in the party; Monday night, the 18th, they rode some thirty miles further to a point near the present city of Hamilton, where the journey ended. Morgan signed a receipt for the $5oo. He also signed a declaration of the facts of the case.


"We supposed we could at any time trace him up. We felt that the Craft would be the gainef by our labors. We were prepared to send his wife and children to him, as agreed.


"We supposed that was the end of it. , 536 " What a tremendous blunder we all made ! It was scarcely a week until we saw what trouble was before us. It was not a fortnight until Col. King sent a confidential messenger into Canada to see Morgan and prepare to bring him back.


"But, alas, he who had sold his friends at Batavia had also sold us. He had gone. He had left the village within forty‑eight hours after the departure of those who had taken him there.


"He was traced east to a point down the river not far from Port Hope, where he sold his horse and disappeared. He had doubtless got on board a vessel there and sailed out of the country. At any rate, that was the last we ever heard of him." Such is the true account of the deportation of William Morgan as given by John Whitney.




0"lA./V4 .






A Comprehensive History of the Origin and Development of Masonic Law The Relation of Governing Bodies to one another; the Relation of Grand Lodges to their Constituent Lodges, and to Individual Members of the Craft; the Relation of Lodges to one another, to their Members, and of Masons to one another; the Origin and Use of Public Masonic Forms and Ceremonies; and the Customs and Peculiarities of the Craft in general.


BY JOSIAH H. DRUMMOND, P.G.M., Past General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter, United States, America ; Past Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter of Maine; Past General Grand Master of the General Grand Council, Royal and Select Masters, of the United States; Past Grand Master of the Grand Council of Maine; Past Grand Commander of the Grand Coanmandery of Knights Templar of Maine; Past M.‑. P.‑. Sov.'. Gr.‑. Coma. of the Supreme Council for the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, United States, America, S.‑. Rite.






Foundation of Masonio Law.‑The wonderful growth of the Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons, and the consequent multiplication of governing bodies, ‑ all peers and sovereigns over Masonic affairs within their respective territorial jurisdictions, ‑ have given rise to a jurisprudence peculiar to the Institution, and yet largely based upon general principles recognized by all civilized communities and associations as inherent rights, and necessarily growing out of the very existence of human beings destined to have relations with one another.


The recognition of immutable laws relating to the Institution, which the Fraternity itself cannot change and remain Masonic in character, imposes upon 537 538 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


the governing bodies the duty of seeing that "the Ancient Landmarks be preserved " : this duty introduces into the Masonic system of jurisprudence a feature peculiar to itself.


The form of Masonic government, by which the sovereign body governs the individual chiefly through subordinate bodies created by itself, adds to its jurisprudence another feature little known to civil law.


The Masonic jurisprudence of the present day embraces the relations of governing bodies to one another, the relations between them and their subordinates, and between them and individual members of the Craft, the relations between subordinates and between them and their members and other Masons, and the relations of Masons to one another.


Like the common law, Masonic jurisprudence is now the product of the growth of many years ; and like municipal law it springs from fundamental principles, from usage, and from the enactments of governing bodies.


While the law relating to all the departments of Masonry is similar in character, the history of Masonic jurisprudence more properly appertains to the Symbolic degrees, and unless otherwise expressly stated this discussion will be limited accordingly.


The Relations of Governing Bodies with one another. ‑The laws governing the relations of Grand Lodges to one another have comparatively more recently come before the Craft for consideration ; but they seem naturally to come first in a sketch of the origin and growth of the whole system.


Without regard to their origin, Grand Lodges are conceded to be sovereigns and consequently equals in all their powers and rights. They are, to all intents and purposes, Masonic Nations. As they are equal, no one can enact law for another; and no one can decide for another what Masonic law is, neither as affecting their mutual relations nor in any other respect. Yet the moment there are two or more Grand Lodges fraternizing with each other, there must needs be some rules of conduct affecting their intercourse with one another, to be first ascertained and declared as cases arise.


Naturally the laws affecting civil nations in their mutual relations were looked to in order to ascertain those appropriate to Masonic nations.


Some Masonic writers have erroneously assumed that all"laws of nations" are the result of concurrent enactment, and, therefore, that no Masonic laws affecting the relations of Grand Lodges can be said to exist, except such as have received the express sanction of all Grand Lodges, or, at any rate, can bind only those which have expressly given their sanction to such laws. But this is not true of civil nations ; and the reasons, therefore, apply with greater force to Masonic nations.


It has long been held by writers upon International Law, or the Law of Nations, that there are four classes of that law: ‑ (t) The volrcntary law of nations, arising from their presumed consent. (2) Th:, customary law, arising from their acquiescence or tacit consent.




(3) The conventional law, arising from express consent or actual agreement. And (4) The necessary law, arising from "the application of the law of nature" to states.


The history of the Institution shows the recognition of all these and their application to inter‑Grand Lodge relations. But, as already stated, the foregoing distinctions have not always been recognized ; but it has been assumed that all laws, applicable to the intercourse of Grand Lodges with one another, are binding upon any given Grand Lodge only by its express assent thereto. But this is not in accordance with sound principle, nor with the law observed by civil nations.


"We call that the necessary Law of Nations which consists in the application of the law of nature to nations. It is necessary because all nations are absolutely bound to observe it." Nations are naturally free, equal, and independent of one another; each Nation must be left in the peaceable enjoyment of its natural rights; the government of a Nation is necessarily exclusive over all its territory ; all rights on the part of foreigners are excluded, and no State has the smallest right to exercise any act of sovereignty in another State. These are zmong the "necessary laws of nations." The first two of these have been always applied to Grand Lodges as a matter of course ; the third has been sometimes disputed by Grand Lodges, which claimed no territorial jurisdiction, but undertook to exercise government over individuals alone; but such bodies would not now be recognized as regular Grand Lodges. The fourth has been more frequently contested by a few Grand Lodges, which have rightfully governed lodges in a territory in which, later, an independent Masonic government has been established and recognized, and which have claimed to govern such of those lodges as should choose to adhere to their former allegiance. If Great Britain had undertaken to exercise sovereignty over communities in the United States, which should have chosen to adhere to her after the recognition of independence, her claim would have been held to be preposterous, and her attempt to maintain it an outrageous violation of the Law of Nations: the same principle applies to Grand Lodges, and the very general consensus of opinion is now to that effect.


The application of these laws to several important questions has been the occasion for considerable discussion by Masonic writers. Some Grand Lodges hold the law to be that when a candidate presents his petition to a lodge having jurisdiction, and it is received, he becomes, in Masonic language, "the work " of that lodge, and no other lodge can afterward interfere with this work. If the candidate is rejected, he remains perpetually under the exclusive jurisdiction of that lodge, even though he removes into another Grand Lodge jurisdiction. Other Grand Lodges hold that when a person, rejected in one jurisdiction, moves into another, he becomes subject to the laws of the latter, and freed from those of the former : so that it has often happened that a candidate has been rejected in one State, and subsequently moved into another and there been made a Mason, in spite of his previous rejection, 539 540 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


This has given rise to complaint against the lodge that such action is a breach of Masonic law, injurious to the complainant. The matter has been much discussed, and the conclusion has been reached that when a resident within a Grand Lodge jurisdiction has been made a Mason in strict conformity with the law of that jurisdiction, no other Grand Lodge has any just ground of complaint; but several Grand Lodges still hold that making a Mason of a candidate rejected in another Grand jurisdiction, without the proper consent, is a serious breach of a Masonic comity, and that he is not a regular Mason.


A similar question has grown out of the law requiring candidates to apply to a lodge within the Grand Lodge jurisdiction in which they reside. It has frequently happened that a candidate has been made a Mason in one State, when his residence at the time was in another, without the consent of the lodge having jurisdiction. The question of his status has been much discussed while there has not been a full agreement, the preponderance of opinion and decision now is that a person, made a Mason in a regular lodge, lawfully convened and Masonically formed, is a regular Mason; the lodge may be punished for irregular proceedings, and the candidate, if a party to any fraud, may be expelled, but until disciplined is a regular Mason. Still, some Grand Lodges hold that a person so made is a clandestine Mason; while some" others, not actually denying his regularity, prohibit his receiving Masonic privileges within their respective jurisdictions.


The question of determining the residence of a candidate is generally one of fact, in relation to which the two Grand Lodges interested may well come to different conclusions : there being no superior tribunal, and the decision of one not being binding on the other, the contest would be interminable ; but of late the practice has arisen of submitting the questions to arbitration. This method is so reasonable, and so much in accord with the principles of Freemasonry, that there is little doubt that it will remain a permanent feature of inter‑Grand Lodge Masonic law, made so by the general assent of the Grand Lodges of the world.


When controversies arise between Nations, which cannot be adjusted by negotiation, the final result is an appeal to arms; in similar cases, Grand Lodges withdrew Masonic relations, and forbade the members of their respective obediences to have Masonic communication with one another.


This course has been taken in many instances, but within a few years past there has been a growing sentiment that such a state of affairs between two Grand Lodges is not in accord with the principles of Freemasonry, and, in consequence, there is a corresponding disposition to exhaust every other resource to effect a settlement, before resorting to this Masonic "uMma ratio "; but as long as Masons are subject to human imperfection, cases will undoubtedly arise in which this action will be deemed a necessity.


The Relation of Grand Bodies to their Constituents, and to Individuals. ‑The relations of Grand Lodges to lodges and to individual members of the MASONIC JURISPRUDENCE.


541 Craft may be considered together. When men undertake to establish a frame of government for an association as well as for a nation, they are inevitably controlled by the views of governments which they have acquired by the circumstances in which they are placed; and, except in cases of revolution, their ideas are generally in accord with the civil government under which they live. This has been often illustrated in the organization of governing bodies in the Masonic Fraternity.


Previously to 17 17 there were no Grand Lodges : theoretically at least, the Grand Master was the head of the Craft, exercising various powers by immemorial usage ; the making of new laws was held to be vested in general assemblies of the Craft supposed to be held annually. No records were kept, and, with few exceptions, the laws and ceremonies of the Craft were transmitted orally from generation to generation. Freemasonry as an Operative Institution had then fallen into decay, and could no longer be maintained. But good and really great men were connected with it who appreciated in some degree, at least, the sublimity and truth of its principles and their importance to humanity. They may have "builded better than they knew," but it is certain that they deemed the organization worthy of preservation as a Speculative Institution, when it could no longer be supported in its Operative character.


As a consequence, a change in its form of government became a necessity. Therefore, the assemblies of the Craft were held upon their own motion, and, while called || lodges," met anywhere and at any time as occasion called: this system was the natural result of the itinerant character of Operative Masons. But obviously when Masons became Speculative only, naturally and quite necessarily their meetings would be held with some kind of regularity, and their organizations be of a permanent character; lodges would be no longer composed of those who chanced to be present, but of members duly enrolled, with regularly appointed officers. The word |` lodge " came to mean an organized association of a permanent character instead of a temporary assembly of Masons presided over by any Master who happened to be present. Permanency of organization naturally suggested that those making it should have warrant therefor from the governing authority.


When the idea of continuing the Society as Speculative was first entertained, and how long a time it existed before the changes involved in that idea culminated in a system, cannot be ascertained. The growth, as in other cases in Masonry, was probably slow. But before 1717 such progress had been made that some lodges had fixed places for holding their meetings, and had acquired quite a permanent character. In that year the present system was formally organized.


The history of that organization 1| must be read in the light of surrounding circumstances " in order to ascertain its true character. George I. had lately ascended the throne of England after a contest of more than thirty years between his predecessors, and Parliament representing the people. These predecessors 542 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


had undertaken to deprive Parliament of the powers it had habitually exercised. Among the prerogatives of the crown had formerly been the power of dispensation; the limits of this power had not been defined, and James II. had undertaken to exercise it to the extent of annulling all law. In the contest which followed James lost his throne, and in the " Bill of Rights," assented to by his successor, this prerogative was wholly abandoned. Whether or not the word and the idea embodied in it had been adopted from the Roman Catholic polity, it had been, and continued to be, a well‑known feature of that polity. It was an attribute of sovereignty‑the power to dispense with a law for the benefit of a particular person in a particular case. This meaning of the word was well and universally known, although the power had been abandoned and had ceased to exist in the civil government. In that, the power of Parliament was supreme, subject to the prerogatives of the crown; but while thus supreme it was practically limited by certain principles established by " the usages of the realm." It is not possible, in a work of this character, to go further into detail, but a clear and correct conception of the original Grand Lodge system of Masonic government cannot be obtained without a close study of the contemporaneous system of civil law in England, which was taken as a pattern by the Masons of that day.


In 1717 general assemblies of the Craft were abolished and the supreme power vested in the Grand Lodge ‑ the Masonic Parliament. The privileges of holding lodges at pleasure was also abolished, and no new lodge could be created except by warrant from the Grand Lodge or the Grand Master; the Masters and Wardens of the lodges were, ex oftcio, members of the Grand Lodge. The powers of the Grand Master, whatever they were, were left untouched; his power to grant dispensations was expressly recognized, but it was declared that " the inherent right " of a lodge to choose their own members was not "subject to a dispensation." Moreover, the binding force of the Ancient Landmarks was taken for granted. With these limitations, the Grand Lodge was made the supreme power of the Fraternity‑not merely the official organ of the Craft, but the supreme governor of the Craft according to its own good will and pleasure.


When Freemasonry was established in this country, the same plan of government was adopted. The Constitution of the oldest American Grand Lodge declares that " By virtue of the Ancient Constitutions and usages of Freemasonry, the Grand Lodge, as the supreme Masonic authority in this Commonwealth, is invested with certain original, essential, and unalterable powers and privileges. . . . Every warranted lodge is a constituent part of the Grand Lodge, in which assembly all the powers of the Fraternity reside." There was no exception to this until 1787, when the Grand Lodge of North Carolina was organized. Here, again, the effect of surrounding circumstances is strikingly illustrated. American, independence had been achieved; the American lodges were asserting the right to Masonic independence; a consti‑ MASONIC JURISPRUDENCE.


543 tution for the government of the United States had been framed and submitted to the people. That instrument reversed the British constitutional system of government : while in the latter, Parliament was supreme and the source of all power, by the former the Congress possessed only such powers as were granted to it, and could acquire other powers only by a new delegation thereof from the people.


This instrument was before the people for adoption or rejection, when the Masons of North Carolina met to form a Grand Lodge; and they followed the plan contained in it. Instead of organizing a Masonic Parliament, they organized a Masonic Congress. Their constitution could be changed only by submitting the proposition to the lodges, which could adopt or reject it at pleasure. The Grand Lodge formed under it was a sovereign body only in the sense in which the government of the United States is sovereign; that is, only to the extent specified in the constitutions of each.


While the large majority of the Grand Lodges formed subsequently followed the old plan, the Grand Lodges springing directly or more remotely from the Grand Lodge of North Carolina very naturally adopted the new plan. In consequence, two distinct systems of Masonic jurisprudence have existed, and still exist theoretically, in this country, but nowhere else in the world. The Masonic jurists of the United States are divided in the same manner, and frequently the difference in their conclusions may be traced to this difference in the fundamental principles of Grand Lodge government.


It should be said, however, that quite a proportion of the Grand Lodges which originally adopted the new system have, with the consent of their lodges, abandoned it, and adopted the other; but, on the other hand, Grand Lodges which originally adopted the old system have been induced to adopt the new one in revising their constitutions.


But it must be said, also, that practically the Grand Lodges which have adopted the new system, frequently, and probably generally, disregard it when occasion requires, and act as sovereign bodies: as there can be no appeal from their decisions, the result is the same as if they held to the opposite theory.


Grand Lodges have always created and terminated the existence of lodges, whenever they have seen cause to do so ; and in general have prescribed their rights, powers, and duties, although under the Ancient Landmarks a lodge has inherent powers of which the Grand Lodge cannot deprive it save by revoking its charter.


Grand Lodges, acting according to the original plan, have exercised the power as inherent in themselves, `| of investigating, regulating, and deciding all matters relative to the Craft, or to particular lodges, or to individual brothers," either by themselves directly, or by such delegated authority as they in their wisdom and discretion have seen fit to appoint. The Grand Lodges adhering to the new plan generally hold that they cannot exercise many of these power, 544 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


except upon appeal from the subordinate lodges. The former, as a rule, hold that in themselves alone resides the power of expelling and suspending brethren from the rights and privileges of Masonry; while the latter quite generally hold that this power resides in the lodge exclusively. More recently, however, some of them, in cases coming before them on appeal, have exercised the power of reversing the proceedings of the lodge, and of suspending or expelling the accused.


In most cases, however, the matter of discipline (except as to members of the Grand Lodge), has been left to the lodges, subject to revision on appeal, and to confirmation or reversal in cases of suspension or expulsion. The original method was to have a trial by the lodge, the Master acting as judge, and the other members as the jury. As the lodges increased in membership, this method became cumbersome and unsatisfactory for other reasons, and the plan of trial by Commission and the Lodge was adopted. Ordinarily, the Commission hears the case and reports,‑in some jurisdictions the evidence, and in others their findings,‑to the Lodge which proceeds to decide the case and render judgment. Other Grand Lodges have a Board of Trial Commissioners, who try all cases (unless the Lodge votes to try the case itself), and report to the Grand Lodge their decision and sentence, if any, which, when approved by the Grand Lodge, stands as its own judgment.


A Grand Lodge is the supreme legislative, judicial, and executive Masonic power in its jurisdiction; its enactments, decisions, and acts are binding upon all lodges and Masons within its jurisdiction. It is subject only to the Ancient Landmarks ; but from its decisions in relation to them there is no appeal.


There has been much discussion as to the power of a Grand Lodge to discipline a Mason of another jurisdiction, who comes into its territory and there commits an offence against its laws ; but it is now the settled doctrine that a Mason from another jurisdiction has no immunity from discipline not possessed by resident Masons, and the statement that the laws of a Grand Lodge "are binding upon all Masons within its jurisdiction" is made advisedly.


The Relation of Lodges to one another, and to Individual Craftsmen. ‑ The history of jurisprudence concerning the relations of lodges to one another and to individual members, and of Masons to one another, is substantially a history of the development of the fundamental principles of the Institution.


The earliest laws of Freemasons must have been few and of the most general character. They were evidently founded upon a belief in the Fatherhood of God and the consequent recognition of the Brotherhood of Man this is not known historically, but is a necessary inference from the fundamental principles of the Institution as they existed when we have the first knowledge of them.


Human experience has shown, however, that a general law that all men must be " good men and true " is not sufficient, and that as the world grows older, the number of laws relating to specific details also increases. Such has MASONIC JURISPRUDENCE.


545 been the case with Masonry since its historic period commenced. There is ample evidence that it was so before : the " Charges " used were largely statements of Masonic duty as to specific matters, as to acts which might be done, and acts which were prohibited.


With no written law for a guide, it was inevitable that the usages of the Craft should take its place; this would be the more certain in England, where the " usages of the realm " had already become a great part of '| the common law," governing the people in their relations to one another and subject only to the enactments of Parliament.


At the time of the reorganization, in 1717, there was no " Book of Constitutions " ; as yet the law of the Craft was found in its usages, but according to the statements of Anderson made at or near the time, and supported by other conclusive evidence, there existed manuscripts in which were contained Charges and accounts of ancient usages of the Craft.


In 1718, according to Anderson, Grand Master Payne " Desired any brethren to bring to the Grand Lodge any old writings and records concerning Masons and Masonry, in order to show the. usages of ancient times; and this year several old copies of the Gothic Constitutions were produced and collated." Apparently this request produced an effect precisely the reverse of what was intended, for in 172o Anderson says: ‑ " This year, at some private lodges, several very valuable manuscripts (for they had nothing yet in print), concerning the Fraternity, their Lodges, Regulations, Charges, Secrets, and Usages (particularly one writ by Mr. Nicholas Stone, the Warden of Inigo Jones), were too hastily burnt by some scrupulous Brothers; that those papers might not fall into strange hands." The same fear entertained by these " scrupulous brothers " has induced others many times since to do the same thing.


At the meeting of the Grand Lodge in September, 17 21, " His Grand Worship and the Lodge finding fault with the old Gothic Constitution, ordered Brother James Anderson, A. M., to digest the same in a new and better method.


"The Constitutions referred to," says Robert Freke Gould, the eminent English Masonic historian, "were certain old documents, usually in roll or script form, 'containing the Legend of the Craft, and a Code of Ancient Regulations, both of which it was the custom in old days to read over to the operative Masons on their first admission into the lodge." Anderson prepared his manuscript, and the Grand Master, at the desire of the Lodge, appointed fourteen '| learned brothers" to examine it and make report; in March, 1722, he committee reported, "That they had perused Broth|r Anderson's manuscript, viz.: the ' History, Charges, Regulations, and Masters Song,' and after some amendments had approved of it; upon which the Lodge desired the Grand Master to order it printed." In January, 172'3, "Grand Warden Anderson produced the new Book of Constitutions, now in print, which was again approved with the addition of the antient manner of constituting a lodge." It will be observed that this Book of Constitutions was not a code of law then enacted, but a compilation of old laws and usages, and that the compilation 546 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


was " approved " and not the laws; in other words, the laws in that book were recognized as laws already existing, and were not then created.


One of the regulations was that " Every annual Grand Lodge has an inherent power and authority to make new regulations, or to alter these for the real benefit of this antient Fraternity, provided always that the Old Landmarks be carefully preserved," etc.


And the Grand Lodge, in 1723, declared that a " Grand Lodge duly met has power to amend or explain any of the printed regulations in the Book of Constitutions, while they break not in upon the Antient Rules of the Fraternity." This is an express recognition that there are 1| Antient Rules " which the Grand Lodge has no power to " break in upon " by amendment or explanation. These " Rules " are the " Antient Landmarks," deemed by almost all the Craft as unchangeable ; it is true that some, viewing Masonic government from a modern stand‑point, deny their existence, some because these "Antient Rules " have never been codified, and others, because Masons disagree as to what rules are Landmarks. But it seems to be obvious that " Antient Rules " springing from ancient usages cannot be codified as a complete code any more than that all the usages of the Craft can be enumerated.


It is generally conceded that the " Old Charges " as collated by Anderson in his first edition are Landmarks, or among the Landmarks, and the foundation upon which the jurisprudence of Masonry has been erected.


The Old Regulations, on the other hand, are generally capable of being changed by the Grand Lodge, but as already stated, provided that the Landmarks be faithfully preserved.


All the Old Regulations containing prohibitions and restrictions upon the action of lodges are subject to the modification "except by dispensation," except that it is expressly stated that one power of a lodge is c| not subject to a dispensation." Thus in this Book of Constitutions we find the express recognition, under the ancient laws of the Craft, of (i) The existence and inviolability of the Landmarks; (a) Subject to them, the sovereign power of the Grand Lodge; and (3) The power of the Grand Master to grant dispensations suspending the operation of a law in a particular case.


The rapid growth of the Fraternity naturally calVd for the enactment of new laws, and " explanations " of the old ones, now termed " decisions." Accordingly we find that at almost every session the Grand Lodge took action, but always in a line with the three principles above stated. In more than one instance it was discovered that the usages as stated in the Book of Constitutions was not in accord with the usage in the old lodges, and the law was corrected accordingly.


Unauthorized books were published, which were denounced by the Grand Lodge. But in 1738 Anderson published a second edition of his work, giving MASONIC JURISPRUDENCE.


547 an abstract of the proceedings of the Grand Lodge up to that date, but especially the decisions of the Grand Lodge and the additions to, and amendments of, the Old Regulations; he, however, changed the phraseology of the Ancient Charges, with a view of condensation and correction: while his work was at first approved by the Grand Officers, it is said that the Grand Lodge refused its sanction, and the Ancient Charges, as originally published, have ever since been accepted as the true. version. His book seems to have had a small circulation, for in 1746 a new title‑page was printed and substituted for the first one and the book put upon the market as printed that year.


The growth of Masonic jurisprudence continued to be in the enactment of new laws, and the action of the Grand Lodge in the nature of decisions and precedents. The original idea was fully recognized and adhered to closely.


The more important matters were published in the Book of Constitutions. Editions of Anderson's Constitutions, edited by John Entick, were published in 1756 and 1767 under the sanction of the Grand Lodge; in 1769 the latter edition was reprinted in a different form, and issued (with a mere change of the title‑page), in Dublin also; in 1776 an Appendix was published by order of the Grand Lodge, and bound in the copies of the 1767 edition then remaining on hand. In 1784, by order of the Grand Lodge, another edition of Anderson's Constitutions, edited by John Noorthouck, was published. These editions were all upon the same general plan, so far as the enactments and decisions are concerned, and naturally each edition was more voluminous than its predecessors. In 1815, after the union of the two Grand Lodges, a Book of Constitutions was published, but it no longer bore Anderson's name, was much smaller than the previous ones, and was substantially confined to the laws of the Grand Lodge. Several editions on the same plan have since been published.


But a disturbing element was introduced into English Freemasonry, which has left its traces in Masonic jurisprudence, especially in the United States. The schism resulting in the formation of the so‑called "Ancient Grand Lodge " naturally gave rise to differences in minor particulars; and the claim was made that these differences were of vital importance, and even formed a barrier of denial of recognition of one faction by the other. The union of the two English Grand Lodges in 1813, however, produced thereafter unity of law in that jurisdiction; ‑but in America, Grand Lodges had been formed under each of the two English systems, and being independent naturally continued the polity originally adopted. In Massachusetts there was a union of two Grand Lodges in 1792, but both had taken Anderson's Constitutions as their guide, and their polity was the same. In South Carolina, also, there were originally two Grand Lodges, one under each of the English bodies. They united in 18o8, but a schism immediately followed, and two Grand Lodges existed until 1814, when a union was effected. The result of the blending of the two systems is plainly discernible in the present jurisprudence of that jurisdiction. The same is true 548 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


of Virginia, whose Grand Lodge was formed by Masons holding directly or indirectly under both the rival English authorities.


In Pennsylvania, however, the 1| Ancients " completely crushed out their rivals, and conducted their Masonic affairs according to the system established by Dermott. In 1783 Rev. Dr. Smith, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge, published an "Ahiman Rezon," based upon the similar work of Dermott. His version of the Charges followed closely those in Anderson's second edi tion, with much amplification. He devotes considerable space to the necessity of secrecy, making it of paramount importance. The power of the Grand Lodge to confer degrees and the prerogative of the Grand Master to " make Masons at sight " are expressly stated as a part of the ancient law.


Under the. other organization there were various public Masonic ceremonies, in which the Grand Lodge and subordinate lodges participated in their distinctive character. On such occasions the brethren were Masonically clothed, the officers invested with their jewels and other insignia of office, and the furniture necessary for holding a lodge was present; and the work was done by the Grand Lodge or the lodge, as the case might be. These included laying corner‑stones of public edifices, opening bridges, dedicating halls, installations, etc. Accounts of these ceremonies are found in the publications authorized by the Grand Lodge, from almost the date of the earliest printed book relating to Masonry; and they are then assumed to be well‑known usages of the Craft. In the Books of Constitutions there are given detailed accounts of the ceremonies performed by the Grand Lodge on various occasions.


In Pennsylvania it has been claimed that there are no public Masonic ceremonies ; and it is undoubtedly true that the " Ancients " insisted more strenuously upon secrecy than did the adherents of the old Grand Lodge, and that, in consequence, public ceremonies were of rarer occurrence. But there is ground for the belief that the claims of Pennsylvania jurists are based upon a departure from the ancient usage in that jurisdiction.


In 1778 there was a celebration in Philadelphia in honor of General Washington. Dr. Smith gives some account of it in his Ahiman Rezon. He delivered a sermon upon the occasion. He says that the brethren assembled at the college to the number of three hundred; they were "properly cloathed, the officers in the jewels of their lodges and other badges of their dignity." The deacons carried their wands; the wardens bore their'pillars; the Holy Bible and Book of Constitutions were borne before the Grand Master. In fine, the procession was of the precise character as those of the other organization ; that is to say, a regularly formed lodge marched in a procession to the church where the exercises took place.


As the wearing of Masonic clothing upon any other than Masonic occasions, and the investment of officers with their jewels and badges of office, except when doing Masonic work, are utterly repugnant to Masonic law and usage, the conclusion is irresistible that, upon this occasion, the Grand Lodge of MASONIC JURISPRUDENCE.


549 Pennsylvania appeared in public as such, for the performance of Masonic work. The Grand Master's emblem of authority has no use, force, or meaning as such emblem outside of a lodge. The presence of the Grand Master, clad in his official insignia and bearing the emblem of authority, conclusively shows a duly formed lodge of Masons.


But Dr. Smith, in a note, relates another very significant circumstance which happened at the same time : he closed his sermon with an ascription of " Glory to the Triune‑God," and the doctor says: ‑ "At the word 'Glory' the brethren rose together, and in reverential posture, in pronouncing the names of the Triune‑God, accompanied the same by a corresponding repetition of the Ancient Sign or Symbol of Divine Homage and Obeisance, concluding with the following Response "'Amen! So let it ever be.' " This ceremony was evidently arranged in advance, and was not, therefore, a mere unauthorized act of the brethren.


The account of this celebration was published five years after it took place, and if there had been anything done inconsistent with Masonic law and usage, there had been ample time to ascertain it. The publication, therefore, so long afterward, adds to the weight to be given to what was done.


When published this Ahiman Rezon was, and for some forty years continued to be, the " Book of Constitutions " of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. The conclusion, therefore, seems just that the present usage in that jurisdiction is somewhat of a departure from the original law and usage.


It must be stated, however, that in all the jurisdictions in which "Ancient" Masonry flourished, the emphasis with which secrecy was enjoined produced effects still plainly discernible.


What was understood to be the law as to public Masonic ceremonies in Anderson's time is shown by his accounts of the "levelling of foot‑stones" by the Grand Master and Grand Wardens, " attended by many brothers in due form," on dates previous to 1717 ; whether the accounts are historically correct or not, they show what the usage was understood to be at the time when they were written.


Anderson's account of the meeting of the Grand Lodge, June 24, 1721, shows that the Grand Master and other Grand Officers with the Masters and Wardens of twelve lodges, formed a Grand Lodge, " made some new brothers " and "marched on foot to the hall in proper clothing and due form," where they were " received by one hundred and fifty, true and faithful, all clothed "; after dinner the Grand Master was proclaimed and he and his officers invested; and after the business was finished, he ordered a brother " as Warden to close the lodge in good time." It will be seen that at this early date, the Grand Lodge was opened in one hall, did business, marched (formed as such), through the streets, to another hall, and after performing Masonic work there, was duly closed. The same course was followed year after year. In his account of the assembly and feast, January 29, 1730 [N.S.], Anderson gives "as 550 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


a specimen to avoid repetitions " a full account of the procession. To this and other accounts of public Masonic ceremonies in the Books of Constitutions approved by the Grand Lodge, and in contemporaneous publications by Masons, reference only can be made; but they show conclusively that public Masonic ceremonies are usages of the Craft from the earliest days of its written history to the present time.


But, as Anderson said of the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland, the Grand Lodges in this country, whether "Ancient" or "Modern," had "the same constitutions, charges, regulations, etc., for substance"; and their difference in details affects their jurisprudence to no such extent as affects full recognition of each other or entire harmony in their mutual relations.


Grand Masters' Decisions.‑The immense and rapid growth of Masonry in this country soon developed the study of " Masonic Jurisprudence." Questions arose upon which the decision of the Grand Master was invoked; other questions came directly before the Grand Lodge. To prevent an endless repetition of the same questions, the practice arose, some thirty years ago, of reporting to the Grand Lodge the decisions of the Grand Master, and the publication of these decisions and those of the Grand Lodge for the informa tion of the Craft. Then came the practice of having the Grand Lodge pass upon the decisions of the Grand Master, not with the purpose of affecting the decision of the particular case (for in that the action of the Grand Master was final), but with the view of establishing the rule for the future.


The occasions for these decisions were more numerous from the fact that nearly all of the Masonic Monitors, after the advent of Webb in 1797, had special reference to the ritual and ceremonials, and gave little attention to the law; so that, except so far as they incidentally show the usages of the Craft, they are of little aid in the study of jurisprudence. There were some exceptions ; and the science cannot be understood without a study, not only of the English Books of Constitutions, Monitors, and Ahiman Rezons, but also of the earlier publications in this country, such as the Pennsylvania Ahiman Rezon of 1783; the Virginia Ahiman Rezons of 1791, 1818, and 1847; the Massachusetts Constitutions of 1792 and 1798; the Maryland Ahiman Rezons of 1797, 1817, and 1826 ; and the Ahiman Rezons of New York, 1805, of North Carolina and Tennessee, 1805, of South Carolina, 1807, and of Kentucky, i8o8 and 18x8.


Treatises on Jurisprudence. ‑The practice of making decisions soon suggested treatises on Masonic law and digests of decisions. The first to enter this field was Albert G. Mackey, who published a work in 1855, entitled, " Principles of Masonic Law." This ran through several editions in a very short time, and, in 1859, he published his || Masonic Jurisprudence." In 1856 Robert Morris published a " Code of Masonic Law " in a volume of nearly five hundred pages. John W. Simons followed with a similar work in 1864. George W. Chase published a "Masonic Digest" in 1859, in which he collected the decisions MASONIC JURISPRUDENCE.


551 of Grand Masters and Grand Lodges, with the utterances of Masonic Committees. In addition to these, there should be mentioned The Freemasons' Monthly Magazine, by Charles W. Moore. Its publication was commenced in IS4r, and was continued for thirty‑two years. Questions of Masonic law were continually discussed in it with an ability and knowledge that make the work one of the most valuable in the whole range of Masonic literature.


The publication of these works created a vivid interest in the subject, and attracted the attention of the ablest men of the Craft. The ritual, symbolism, and history of Freemasonry had offered a wide field for study and research, and to these were now added its jurisprudence. A system had grown up in this country which gave an opportunity for the full discussion of these subjects ‑a necessary condition for the evolution of truth. In nearly all the Grand Lodges a standing committee was appointed (styled " Committee on Foreign Correspondence "), charged with the duty of examining the annual proceedings of the other Grand Lodges and of reporting upon such matters found therein as may be deemed of interest to the Craft. This naturally led to a comparison of the enactments, decisions, usages, and action of the Grand Lodges, and to a discussion of differences. While this system may have been diverted from its purpose, and even abused in some cases, it is certainly true that it has done more for the unification of the Craft, and especially to secure a degree of uniformity of Masonic law and polity, than all other causes combined. In numerous instances the discussions of these committees have convinced a Grand Lodge that it was maintaining an erroneous position, and has led to a modification of its action. Decisions of Grand Masters and Grand Lodges are made more carefully, and, in fact, with all the consideration marking the judgments of the highest civil courts.


But, as in case of the civil law, and especially in consequence of the differences in views. of polity already noticed, uniformity of law has not been attained, and is not likely to prevail. Yet in essentials, and in all matters affecting the relations of Masons of different jurisdictions, friction and the liability to dissensions are year by year decreasing ; and although there must be differences as long as Masons are human, yet such progress has been made in the right direction that we may certainly look forward to the day when the Society will be one great Brotherhood united in a common purpose, in spite of its division into numerous governing organizations, each independent and the peer of all the rest.


Masonic Principles Unchangeable. ‑ The study of the history of Masonic jurisprudence suggests one danger to which allusion has already been made, a danger not very apparent, and, therefore, all the more difficult of avoidance. Freemasonry is an old Institution, with fixed, unchangeable principles, whose laws are intended to give effect to those principles; beyond this laws cannot properly go. But, especially in the domain of jurisprudence, there is a tendency, almost inevitable, to introduce modern ideas, and espe‑ 552 COSHOPOLITAN FREEH,4SONRY.


cially to construe the laws and shape the proceedings under them, according to the prevailing views of the time. This tendency is inherent in our natures, or rather in our education, and is not perceptible by those affected by it. As an illustration : there is reason to believe that the old usages of the Craft have been materially changed in the matter of discipline. It is now universally held that it is a necessary result of the fundamental principles of Freemasonry that a Mason shall not be deprived of any of his Masonic rights without an opportunity of being heard in his defence ; but a careful study of the early records shows that the usage of the Craft was that the lodge had plenary power over the individual Mason, and imposed any of the Masonic penalties whenever it deemed that the good of the Craft required it. If candidates know in advance that they hold their Masonic character only at the will of their brethren, they cannot complain of any breach of faith, if their brethren deprive them of it. Many are beginning to think that the old usage was the best, and that our laws, in their anxiety to protect the rights of the individual, have sacrificed the good of the Craft. The argument is, that if Masons had to depend on the good opinion of their brethren, they would be more circumspect ; that Masonic trials are too frequently the cause of dissension and discord ; and, more than all, that on account of the difficulty of obtaining and producing sufficient testimony as to specific acts, it is impossible to get rid of Masons really known by their brethren and the community to be unworthy of the Masonic character.


In this respect, however, our system has become too firmly established to be overthrown. It is undoubtedly the result of the abuses in former times of the procedure under the criminal laws. The change is a forcible illustration of the tendency to endeavor to "improve" Freemasonry and make it conform to the vacillating idea of men in different times.


The study of Masonic jurisprudence from the early times teaches most emphatically not only rigid adherence to the fundamental principles and Landmarks of the Society, unyielding resistance to all innovations however slight, and faithful obedience to the laws and usages of the Craft; but also that while in other relations one may lawfully do what is not prohibited, to the Mason whatever does not find a warrant in those Landmarks, laws, or usages is absolutely forbidden.






The Royal Arch as a Separate Degree in England and other parts of the British Empire. The Mark Master Mason's Degree as evolved in the United Kingdom. The several Grand Chapters, and the Royal Arch Systents of England, Ireland, and Scotland, including Mark Masonry, Mason's Marks, and Past Master's Degree. The Grand Chapters of Canada,Nova Scotia, Quebec, and New Brunswick. The General Grand Royal Arch Chapter, its origin, powers, and jurisdiction. State Grand Chapters, including the Independent Grated Chapters of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia; separately considered, and. in alphabetical order, together with all Chapters holding charters from the General Grand Chapter. The Order of High Priesthood.




General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, U.S.A., etc., etc.






The Holy Royal Arch.‑Whatever may be said concerning the Royal Arch Degree, there is no question as to its importance in the Masonic world, nor as to the high place it holds in perfecting the Craft Degrees in England, and of being the fourth of the Capitular Degrees in America, as well as the seventh in the series of degrees peculiar to the American system.


Its origin has awakened inquiry, but, profound as has been the investigation, authorities have not ventured to give it an earlier date than about 1740. Soon after this it came into notice in England, stimulated by dissensions in London, between the " Ancients " and the " Moderns," arising in 1751; and this breach in the amicable relations between the brethren was not healed 553






until articles of union were adopted by the two Grand Lodges in 18113, wherein it was declared that "Pure Ancient Masonry consists of three degrees and no more, viz.: those of the Entered Apprentice, the Fellow Craft, and the Master Mason, including the Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch." The "Ancients" and "Moderns."‑It will be as well here as later to speak of the disaffection which arose, in 1751, among certain of the brethren in London, who separated themselves from the regular lodges, began to hold meetings and to initiate candidates, without authority o Grand Lodge, Dr. Mackey quotes Thory, who "Attributes it to the fact that the Grand Lodge had introduced some innovations, altering the rituals and suppressing many of the ceremonies which had long been in use." Dermott and Preston agree that changes took place, although they (lifer somewhat as to time. This schismatic body of 1751 assumed the name of Ancient Masons, and styled the regular Grand Lodge of England, " Moderns." At about this period (1740), Laurence Dermott was made a Mason, and six years later a Royal Arch Mason ; and he, more than any other, seemed to have been the moving spirit in sustaining this great schism, during the latter part of the eighteenth century, to his decease in 1791. As might be expected, Dermott has been severely criticised by his opponents, and Laurie charges him with unfairness in his proceedings against the Moderns, with treating them bitterly, with quackery, with being vainglorious of his own pretensions to superior knowledge, and claims that he should be reprobated by Masons of every class, who are anxious to preserve the purity of the Order. In commenting upon this, Dr. Mackey says: ‑ " I am afraid there is much truth in this estimate of Dermott's character. As a polemic, he was sarcastic, bitter, uncompromising, and not altogether sincere or veracious.. But in intellectual attainments he was inferior to none of his adversaries, and in a philosophical appreciation of the character of the Masonic Institution he was in advance of the spirit of his age. Doubtless he dismembered the Third degree, and to him we owe the establishment of English Royal Arch Masonry. He had the assistance of Ramsay, but he did not adopt Ramsay's Scottish degree. Royal Arch Masonry, as we now have it, came from the fertile brain and intrepid heart of Dermott. It was finally adopted by his opponents in 1813, and it is hardly now a question that the change effected by him in the organization of the York Rite in 174o, has been of evident advantage to the service of Masonic symbolism." This latter estimate of Dermott commends itself as being nearer to the truth, especially in view of what has since been enacted; and here again the clear light in which Mackey has placed this will help to an understanding of what is of chief importance in comprehending the relations which the " Ancients " and the " Moderns " sustained toward each other, not only in Great Britain, but also in America: ‑ "The Grand Lodge of Ancient Masons was, shortly after its organization, recognized by the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland, and, through tha ability and energy of its officers, but especially Laurence Dermott, at one time its Grand Secretary (1752) and afterwards its Deputy THE CAPITULAR DEGREES. 555 Grand Master, and the author of its Ahiman Rezon, or Book of Constitutions, it extended its influence and authority into foreign countries and into the British Colonies of America, where it became exceedingly popular, and where it organized several Provincial Grand Lodges, as, for instance, in Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina, where the lodges working under this authority were generally known as ' Ancient York Lodges.' " In consequence of this, dissensions existed not only in the Mother Country, but also in America, for many years, between the lodges which derived their warrants from the Grand Lodge of Ancients and those which derived theirs from the regular or so‑called Grand Lodge of Moderns. But the Duke of Kent having been elected, in 1813, the Grand Master of the Ancients, while his brother, Duke of Sussex, was Grand Master of the Moderns, a permanent reconciliation was effected between the rival bodies, and by mutual compromises the present' United Grand Lodge of Ancient Freemasons of England' was established.


"Similar unions were consummated in America, the last being that of the two Grand Lodges in South Carolina, in 1817, and the distinction between the Ancients and the Moderns was forever abolished, or remains only as a melancholy page in the history of Masonic controversies." If it were desirable to extend inquiry as to these dissensions, the result would be of small profit, and of but little permanent advantage in Craft history. Dr. Dalcho, of South Carolina, spoke of these differences, and the cause of them, as though they were insignificant ; others have thought differently ; but, looking at them from this distance, it will be seen that more good than harm, to the general welfare of Freemasonry, has resulted from the schism.


In speaking of the " Ancients " and " Moderns," Dr. Mackey credits Dr. Dalcho, who was made in an "Ancient" lodge, with being acquainted with both systems, and claims that a comparison of his writings with those of Dermott shows that the Moderns made innovations in the ritual of little consequence possibly, but enough to awaken opposition, and to lead to the establishing of the Grand Lodge of Ancient Masons, out of which was evolved the Royal Arch Degree.


Other evidence, too reputable for successful denial, shows that the Ancients had marks claimed by them to have been known and given in the lodges which they left, but not given by the Moderns. In regard to this, Dermott says : ‑ "A Modern Mason may with safety communicate all his secrets to an Ancient Mason, but that an Ancient Mason cannot, with like safety, communicate all his secrets to a Modern Mason without further ceremony." History does not instruct us concerning the differences, and is specially silent as to esoteric matters. It is clear, however, that the construction of the Third degree and the introduction of the Royal Arch element were fruitful sources of difference. The Moderns asserted that they were " neither Royal Arch nor Ancient," while the latter contended that the former had made innovations, involving changes in the modes of recognition, and in the transposition of words. In regard to this Dr. Oliver says: ‑ "The division of the Third degree and the fabrication of the English Royal Arch appear, on their own showing, to have been the work of the Ancients." 556 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


. The Anderson Constitutions and the Ahiman Rezon. ‑ Up to the time of the schism, Anderson's "Constitutions of the Freemasons," originally published in 1723, was the foundation of the written law under which the Grand Lodge of England and lodges warranted by it, whether at home or in America, were governed. But when the Ancient York Masons established their Grand Lodge, they held it to be necessary to have their own Book of Constitutions. This was prepared and first published in 1756, by Laurence Dermott, under the title of "Ahiman Rezon," and these Constitutions continued to be the law of the Ancients until the union in 1813. The Book had great influence also in America, where many of the lodges and Grand Lodges derived their existence from the Ancients.


The Royal Arch Degree.‑The Moderns, or, as more justly styled, the Constitutional Grand Lodge, did not recognize the Royal Arch Degree, nor introduce it into their system, ofcially, until sixty‑two years later than did the Ancients. In 1765 the degree was worked by several "Modern" Masons in England ; and, in 1767, the Grand Chapter was formed by authority of Lord Blaney, the Immediate Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge. Dunckerley has been credited with its adoption, unofficially, by the " Moderns," but there is no evidence on that point, and Dr. Oliver, in naming the year 1776, doubtless referred to 1767, as before noted.


From what has been heretofore said, it appears that during 1751‑52, the Royal Arch Degree was adopted into the system of the "Grand Lodge of England according to the Old Constitutions," otherwise called the "Ancients," and later, the "Athol Grand Lodge." In 17671 the degree was virtually adopted by the " Constitutional Grand Lodge," or the " Moderns " ; " and in 1813 it was formally recognized as a part of the English Rite, or, series of degrees, by the United Grand Lodge." Consensus of Masonic Opinion. ‑ It is not within our purpose to push inquiry into the field of speculation merely, concerning the more remote origin of the Royal Arch Degree, for the reason, chiefly, that others have given their attention to this in so highly an intellectual manner, that it is quite unnecessary to risk what, after all, might prove to be a repetition. Brother Hughan, in his " Origin of the English Rite," alludes to and quotes the opinions of recognized Masonic authorities, to the effect that mutilation of the Third degree did not take place, consequently the Royal Arch Degree could not have been fabricated or evolved from that. But these are debatable points, to follow which would necessarily carry us back beyond that which we know, and lead us again into the maze.


Dermott inquired,‑in an address to the "Gentlemen of the Fraternity," " Whether it is possible to initiate or introduce a Modern Mason into a Royal Arch Lodge (the very essence of Masonry), without making him go through Ancient ceremonies? " 1 Since this work was brought out, we have traced the Royal Arch Degree at Fredericksburg, Virginia, in 1753.






This was in allusion to the differences between the "Ancients " and "Moderns," and goes to show his own belief in the existence of "`Ancient' ceremonies," without instructing us as to their origin.


Notwithstanding what we have said negatively as to speculation merely, it is desirable that some notice be taken of the opinions of various authors, touching the origin of the Royal Arch. In doing this, much must of necessity be left unsaid, to limit repetition; but enough may be said to indicate the drift of the story.


Dr. Oliver declared, that the degree "Is very properly denominated the English Royal Arch, for it was doubtless a fabrication of this country, and from hence was transmitted to every part of the world, where it now prevails." The doctor further says : ‑ The 'true word'was never lost, but transferred by the seceding brethren, at the great schism in 1740, to the Royal Arch, and in corroboration of this hypothesis, I have before me an old French engraving of the ichnography of a Master's lodge, dated in that very year, containing the usual emblems, and on the coffin the veritable word in Roman capitals. . . . The legend progressed throughout the greater part of the century, increasing in dimensions, and slightly varying in particulars, until it attained the form in which it now appears, and requires a portion of the Ineffable degrees to render the fable interesting, although by no means complete." Brother Hughan confesses his " Inability to decide which was the senior, the Continental, or the English Royal Arch, and as they had so much in common, the facts which are authenticated are not antagonistic to their having a somewhat similar beginning; but all we can say is, that their exact origin, and the names of the originators, have not yet been elucidated, though a fair approximate date may be fixed upon, vi r. : a year or two prior to x740‑for the period of their advent." He quotes Brother Joseph Robbins, of Illinois, to the effect that the mutila tion of the Third degree was a fiction, and says that "The real differences (between the Ancients and Moderns), consisted in additions, leaving the three degrees substantially as they were prior to the introduction of Royal Arch Masonry. We did not see this so clearly some years ago as we do now, having at that time relied upon well‑known authorities, but subsequent investigation led us to support the theory that we have virtually the Third degree as it was prior to x750." Concerning the introduction of the degree, our Brother says : ‑ " Inasmuch as it will be seen that the degree was worked in London and Dublin about ry4o, being some six years prior to Dermott's 'exaltation,' and ten or more before the ' Athol' Grand Lodge was started, it must be incorrect to credit the 'seceders' with the introduction of Royal Arch Masonry into this country." As to the degree, he " Favors the theory that a word was placed in the Royal Arch prominently, which was previously given in the sections of the Third degree, and known as 'the ancient word of a Master Mason.' We understand it is still so communicated in some Master Mason's lodges on the Continent, and we know that it is to be found on old tracing‑boards of early last century." Early Reliable History. ‑ Leaving the province of debate for that of history, it is clear that the earliest reliable record in English Royal Arch 56o COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


Masonry was brought to the knowledge of the public by Brother T. B Whytehead, in the columns of The Freemason, London, in November, 1879. This painstaking and scholarly brother quotes Brother Hughan as having presented the treasurer's book of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons at York, to the York Lodge, which says: " A most sublime Royal Arch Chapter was opened on the 8th February, 1778." This, ‑says Brother Whytehead, ‑ " In connection with the earlier minute‑book just come to light, completes the chain of Royal Arch history at York from the 7th February, 1762, to the roth September, r781." It appears that this York Lodge was granted a warrant January 12, 1761, held its first meeting, February 2d, "at Mrs. Chuddock's, at the Punch Bowl, in Stonegate," and in the following year, "on Sunday, February 7, 1762, a most Sublime, or Royal Arch Lodge, opened at the sign of the Punch Bowl." The historian here relied on copied the first minute exactly, and we reproduce it: ‑ "A Most Sublime or Royal Arch Lodge open'd at the Sign of the Punch Bowl in Stonegate, York, on Sunday the 7th of February 1762. Present: " Frodsham, P. H.


"Oram, Z. L. in the Chairs.


"Granger, J. A. " Owen.


"At this Lodge, Brothers Burton, Palmes, Tucker, and Dodgson petition'd to be raised to the 4th Degree of Masonry, commonly call'd the Most Sublime or Royal Arch, were accepted and accordingly made." This record is significant of the fact that the Royal Arch Degree was already well known, otherwise the words " commonly called the Most Sublime or Royal Arch " were used without regard to the truth, an admission which the most thoughtless would not care to make.


The title‑page, carefully copied by Brother Whytehead, fully sustains the claim of prior knowledge of the degree, as the reading will show: ‑ " Minute‑book belonging to the Most Sublime Degree or Order of Royal Arch appertaining to the Grand Lodge of All England, held at the City of York, x762." It is noticeable that the meetings of this Royal Arch Lodge were held at somewhat irregular intervals, but always on Sunday, until August 17, 1768, when the day of meeting was changed to Wednesday.


As an historic fact, it should be memorable that the word CHAPTER, as applied to the Lodge, was used for the first time in the record of April 29, 17 ; and, in alluding to this, Brother Whytehead says : ‑ "It is noteworthy That this is the first minute in which the body is entitled ' Chapter, pre viously it having been always denominated a ' Lodge."' First Titles of Presiding Officers. ‑The titles given to the presiding officers, up to June 3, 1772, were then changed from P. H., Z. L., and J. A., to S., H. T., and H. A. We do not know of any reason for questioning the THE CAPITULf1R DEGREES.


561 interpretation given to the first three, by Brother Whytehead, who imagines them to stand for Propheta, Haggai; Zerubbabel, Legislator; and Jeshua, Armiger. As to the other three, the initials are of such familiar application, that further explanation need not be attempted.


The entries in this record book were not made with complete regularity, as many blank pages were left, indicating that rough minutes were taken but never entered in the book, as was no doubt intended. This custom had its parallel in St. Andrew's Chapter, in Boston, Massachusetts. The rough minutes on slips of paper were kept with similar lack of entry in the record book, where the blank pages are still as mute as those of its English fellow; and, what seems remarkable, the blanks in each case occur during a great portion of the same period, the last entry in the York record book being made January 6, 17 76.


First Known Rules and Orders.‑The first entry in the second record book was of February 8, 11778, when Sunday was again adopted as the day of meeting. The titles of the chair officers remained as S., H. T., and H. A. throughout ; and here too is recorded the fact that " Rules and Orders of the Grand Chapter of All England " were established. These rules are of much historical importance, inasmuch as they determine that fees shall be paid for warrants; that "annual returns of members" shall be made to Grand Chapter; that all `.1 by‑laws" be subject to the approval of Grand Chapter; that "No innovation in the business of the Chapter" shall be made, "and if any doubts should arise, they must always be referred to the Grand Chapter for decision"; "That they shall contribute annually to the Grand Chapter at York, so much as they reasonably can, towards the fund to be employed to benevolent and advantageous purposes "; " That no man of bad or immoral character be admitted a companion, nor any one until he hath passed the several probationary degrees of Craft Masonry, and thereby obtained the necessary passport as a reward for services." These rules further provide, that "no man shall be admitted for an unworthy consideration," but for the promotion of " peace and harmony," and for the encouragement of whatever may be for the "common welfare." An analysis of the " Principia to be observed by all Regularly Constituted Chapters of the Degree of Royal Arch," shows that the constitutions and rules which now obtain in the Grand Chapters of America are but parts and counterparts of this York original, and lead to the conclusion that the rules then recorded were not new, but were well known in practice, among brethren of the Royal Arch degree.


The Term " Companion." ‑As an item of peculiar significance, let it be remembered that the words "admitted a Companion" establish beyond any question the fact that " Companion " is not of recent, nor of American parentage; but that it, like much else that is obscure in Freemasonry, had its origin at a time when the penman's skill and the printer's craft were not trusted with a complete knowledge of the inner life of the Ancient Fraternity.


The Mark Degree in England.‑The Mark Degree had been worked in England, in lodges held under immemorial usage, derived, we are told, from 562 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


the old Athol York Grand Lodge. The United Grand Lodge declined to adopt the degree into its system, as it was pledged under the articles of union to acknowledge the three Craft Degrees only, including the Royal Arch.


Effort, however, was not wanting on the part of brethren who wished to cultivate the Mark Degree, and this secured the adoption of an opinion by Grand Lodge, in March, 1856, that the degree is "not positively essential, but a graceful appendage to the degree of Fellow Craft." It is not of sufficient importance to trace in detail the introduction of the degree, nor to name the several immemorial lodges in which it was known to have been worked. In 1856 measures were concerted for uniting all Mark Master Masons in an organization, and this resulted in establishing the " Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons of England and Wales, and the Colonies and Dependencies of the British Crown." The first meeting was held in June, 1856, and, to carry out the general desire, a meeting was held on May 30, 1857, "of representatives from all existing Mark lodges in England, wherever they could be found." At this meeting report was made |' in favor of a general union of all Mark lodges upon equal terms in a Grand Mark Lodge." Some of these lodges held under authority from Scotland, against the opinion of those under England; but the final and complete union was secured on terms satisfactory to all concerned. Thus far Right Hon. Lord Leigh had been Grand Master, and the ten || old [time immemorial] lodges " in England, together with seven lodges holding from Scotland, acknowledged the supremacy of the Grand Lodge. At this meeting, June, 186o, Right Hon. the Earl of Carnarvon was elected Grand Master.


The care, almost amounting to judicial delay, with which this Supreme body was brought into existence, gives authority to its historical papers ; and the work done by itself as to the beginning of the Mark Degree, is so complete that, whatever else we shall say, will, in the main, be from a report on the " Origin of the Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons of England, etc., as set forth by Order of the Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons." This report opens by saying: ‑ "There is probably no degree in Freemasonry that can lay claim to greater antiquity than those of Mark Man or Mark Mason, and Mark Master Mason.


"In A.D. 1598, William Schaw, Master of Works to King James VI., orders the Marks of all Masons to be inserted in their work.


"In the seventeenth century, Mother Kilwinning Lodge made members choose their Marks. and charged them four shillings each." In 1865 a report was made in Grand Chapter of Scotland, that " In this country from time immemorial, and long before the institution of the Grand Lodge of Scotland (in 1736), what is now known as the Mark Masters' degree, was wrought by the Operative lodges of St. John's Masonry." In a conference of delegates in 1871, ‑ representing the Grand Lodge and THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


563 Grand Chapter of Scotland, the Grand Chapter of Ireland, and the Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons of England,‑on the subject of the "Position of the Mark Degree in England," Brother Frederick Binckes said: ‑ " I believe there are some Mark lodges in the North that have documents to show that they worked upwards of a hundred years ago. The Minerva Lodge, at Hull, has worked the Mark Degree, if I am rightly informed, almost, if not quite, from its formation in 1782." Brother Andrew Kerr, Grand Lodge of Scotland, spoke of very old lodges in Scotland, developing from Operative into Speculative lodges, and showed that in the " Lodge of Edinburgh, Mary's Chapel, the members signed the books with their Marks"; also, that it was ordained in 1598, that on. receiving a Fellow Craft or Master, his name and "'.Mark " should be |' inserted in the same book." Enough has been said to show that the custom of choosing a 1| Mark," and placing it on the work of the Operative Mason, is a very old one, and that the "Mark Degree was regularly worked in many lodges, meeting under one or the other of the two Constitutions, as well as under the authority of the Grand Lodge, meeting from time immemorial at York." One other extract from the report to the Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons, previously referred to, to show the antiquity of the degree, as well as the position it then occupied, and this subject can be left in the keeping of the brethren : ‑ "On January 7th, A.D. 1778, the Banff Operative Lodge resolved: 'That in time coming, all members that shall hereafter raise to the degree of Mark Mason, shall pay one merk Scots, but not to obtain the degree of Mark Mason before they are passed Fellow Craft: and those that shall take the degree of Mark Master Mason shall pay one shilling and sixpence sterling unto the Treasurer for behoofe of the Lodge. None to attain the degree of Mark Master Mason until they are raised Master.' This shows clearly the relative positions of the degrees of Mark Mason or Mark Man, and Mark Master Mason, to each other, and to the Operative Craft. Every Operative Mason, or Fellow Craft, being obliged to be made a Mark Man or Mark Mason, before he could' Mark' his work. While the degree of Mark Master Mason was confined to those, who, as Masters of lodges or Master Masons, had been chosen to rule over the Fellow Crafts." Mark Masonry has further attention in connection with the Royal Arch in Scotland. ' The Royal Arch System in Ireland. ‑ In correspondence in connection with the "Conference of Delegates, relating to the Mark Degree, in 1871," Right Worthy Brother Robert W. Shekleton, Deputy Grand Master of Ireland, wrote to Brother F. Binckes, Grand Secretary of Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons, as follows: ‑ " In Ireland the Mark Degree is worked exclusively under the control of the Grand Chapter. No separate warrants are issued to hold Mark lodges; but Royal Arch chapters are, by virtue of their Royal Arch warrants, alone empowered to work the Mark Degree. There are separate certificates, if desired, for the Mark Degree, as it can be conferred on a Master Mason at any time after he has obtained that degree, whereas he must have been registered in Grand Lodge books as a Master Mason for six months before he can get the Royal Arch Degree." This statement by Brother Shekleton places the position of the Mark 564, COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


Degree, in Ireland, clearly enough, though it does not fix the period of its introduction. This, however, is obscure; but the indications are that it was introduced into the Irish system at a period corresponding pretty closely to the time of its earliest known appearance in England.


As to the Royal Arch Degree, we can safely accept the opinion of Brother Hughan, quite recently given in his || History of Apollo Lodge," p. 92, wherein he says: ‑ "Whatever the Royal Arch may have been at this period [17441, it maybe taken as established that the ceremony was worked at York, London, and Dublin, about 1740, in a systematic manner." The degree was met with in 1752, says Hughan, under the Ancients, and again in 1759, when a Brother Carroll, from Ireland, an "Ancient," was refused relief by Grand Secretary Spencer, who replied: ‑ " Our Society is neither Arch, Royal Arch, nor Ancient, so that you have no right to partake of our charity." We cannot do better than to rely on the following statement by Brother Hughan, that "The degree or ceremony was known years prior to the inauguration of the schismatic Grand Lodge of 171; hence neither that body, nor its energetic Grand Secretary, Laurence Dermott, can be credited with its origin, although it is probable that their recognition of the degree gradually led to its adoption in England, officially and generally." In recognition of recent investigation, made and being made in Ireland, it will be well to note that the introduction of the Royal Arch Degree into Ireland has been credited to Laurence Dermott; but there does not appear to be sufficient evidence to prove this claim. As to the exact date of its introduction, opinion is less certain. The evidence, however, is ample to show that the |' higher degrees " were conferred, until a comparatively recent date, under a Lodge warrant.


Francis C. Crossle, Provincial Grand Secretary of Down, who has given much attention to antiquarian Masonic research in Ireland, says: ‑ "The system of conferring the Royal Arch and Knight Templar degrees under the Craft warrant seems to have been of Scottish origin; but that it received pretty universal acceptance in this country is manifest from the fact that, so early as 1779, the ' High Knight Templar of Ireland, Kilwinning Lodge, Dublin, was in the habit of conferring 'The Chair, 'The Excellent, 'The Super‑Excellent,' ' The Royal Arch, ' The Knight Templar, and 'The Prince Rose Croix.' So far, however, from being invested with any authority for such a practice, the charter of this lodge simply authorized the formation of a lodge for conferring the three degrees of Craft Masonry." The same authority says, the " Custom of conferring the higher degrees, under the sole authority of a Craft warrant, was the rule, and not the exception; . . . nor was it until the year 1836 that the Grand Priory, and 1834 that the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Ireland, assumed the reins of government, and reduced to order the system which at present obtains." American readers will notice that |1 the Excellent," |1 the Super‑Excellent," "the Royal Arch," and " Knight Templar " correspond with those conferred THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


565 in St. Andrew's Royal Arch Chapter, in Boston, Massachusetts, as shown by its records of August z8, 17 69. "The Chair," as standing alone, does not appear to have been used in the latter body, as applied to a degree, though the terms, `| Passed the Chair," |' Secrets belonging to the Chair," and " Duties of the Chair," no doubt allude to the same ceremony, now known in America as the Past Master's degree.


It is not cleat as to how early the degree of Installed Master was worked in Ireland; but that it was evolved out of the Royal Arch Degree seems to be the opinion of Gould and other Masonic authorities.


Brother Crossle submitted various seals, warrants, collars, certificates, and other matters of evidence, all going to show the close connection between the three Craft degrees and the || higher degrees," and that the latter were conferred under the Lodge, or Craft warrant. In this line he said: ‑ "The books of St. Patrick's Lodge, No. 77, Newry, also record the fact that The Mark, The Royal Arch, and Knight "Templar degrees were systematically conferred under the sanction of their Craft warrant." This Lodge is the eighth oldest in Ireland, and celebrated its one hundred and fiftieth anniversary on December 27, 1887. Included in his exhibit were the "Royal Arch and Knight Templar seals belonging to Lodge No. 205, which was originally, in the year 1749, connected with the 35th Regiment." Several aprons were shown, in which the blue, red, and black colors were used on the borders of each, |` denoting that the wearer was, in virtue of his exaltation to the higher degrees of Royal Arch and Knight Templar Masonry, entitled to add the colors of the red and black to the blue trimming to his Craft apron." The cldest of these aprons could not have been worn by its owner at an earlier date than the latter part of the year i81o.


As already shown, the Grand Royal Arch Chapter did not assume control of Royal Arch Masonry in Ireland until 1834. An effort, however, had been made, in 1813, to have the Grand Lodge recognize the Royal Arch Degree, but this was met by a vote of censure on the brother who proposed it. Brother Crossle says : ‑ "This makes it abundantly clear, that no other degrees were recognized by the Grand Lodge of Ireland than the simple three authorized by the earliest Grand Lodges." The higher degrees, including the Royal Arch, the Knight Templar, and the Knight of Malta, as well as others heretofore named, were worked under a Lodge warrant, without interference by Grand Lodge, which must have had knowledge of the fact, although it did not recognize the degrees. Evidently the brethren interested came together, formed under a Lodge warrant, and conferred the higher degrees. Indeed, Brother Crossle shows that, as late as August 5, 1830, "A Grand Chapter was opened, when the degrees of Arch Mason, Knight Templar, and Knight of Malta " were conferred on three brethren whose names are given in the record.




The Royal Arch System in Scotland. ‑ If one were looking for reasons why so little is known of the origin of Royal Arch Masonry, a strong one comes uppermost; and this is so well expressed in the " Introduction " to the " Laws of the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Scotland " that we present it here : ‑ " But with regard to Royal Arch Masonry, no certain evidence has been brought forward to point out the epoch when, or the individuals by whom, it was brought to Britain. One principal cause of the obscurity which hangs over this branch of the science is, that while St. John's Masonry has been always connected with public buildings, the greater part of the Royal Arch Masonry, including the Royal Arch degree itself, was practised only in private.


"In Scotland, as well as in England and Ireland, there has always been a close connection between Royal Arch Masonry and Masonic Templarism; and scarcely half a century has elapsed since these were placed under two distinct governing bodies. In the Stirling Ancient Lodge are still preserved two old, rudely engraved brass plates : one of these relates to the first two degrees of Masonry; the other contains on the one side certain emblems belonging to a Master's lodge, and on the reverse, five figures; the one at the top is called the' Redd Cross, or Ark,' at the bottom is a series of concentric arches, which might be mistaken for a rainbow, were there not a key‑stone at the summit, indicative of an arch." This authority also says that the Royal Arch Chapter of Stirling was originally formed for the higher degrees formerly practised, if not by, at least under the connivance of, the Stirling Ancient Lodge.' " No minute‑book, however, seems to have been kept prior to 1743, or if kept, it has been lost, or perhaps carried away during the time of the Rebellion. This minute‑book of 1743 is the oldest written record now extant; and no other chapter in Scotland has been able to show documentary evidence in its Ltvor of an earlier date than 1765, although in these years the chapters were already accounted old and in full operation." Whatever may be thought of the two old brass plates held by the Stirling Ancient Lodge, with their "series of concentric arches," they were thought to be of sufficient importance for mention in the introduction to the " Laws and Regulations" of the Grand Chapter of Scotland, edition of 1869, and of consequence in tracing the origin of the Royal Arch degree. Old and rude they are said to be, but the latter, as applied to the engraving, is evidence not only of antiquity, but also of a desire to teach by symbols. This is in harmony with the genius of Freemasonry of every age, and conveys a lesson quite as strong as words, expressive of a wish to conceal from the uninitiated a knowledge of Craft mysteries, common to members of the Fraternity. We are told that "the age of these plates is unknown, but they can scarcely be more modern than the beginning or middle of the seventeenth century," a period in the history of Masonic degrees when the five senses were more completely relied upon for receiving and communicating Masonic information than is common now, even with the ritual.


[1 The Stirling plates, and the records of the Royal Arch,of 1743, have never been exhibited within the memory of any Companion; and, although Brother Hughan has repeatedly challenged their production, neither the one nor the other have been produced. Brother Hughan believes they never existed. The earliest actual minute of conferring that degree known, is the year 1753. and is preserved at Fredericksburg, Virginia. ‑ ED.] THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


567 The suggestion that these concentric arches might be mistaken for a rain' bow gives force to a question in the "Mason's Examination," of 1723: "Whence comes the pattern of an Arch?" "Answer. From the Rainbow." Whether this ancient symbol was the germ from which the Royal Arch degree sprung, we. do not venture a suggestion ; nor need we inquire concerning it with any hope that history will reveal the secret. We do know, however, that Royal Arch Masonry is securely established in Scotland, where, as we are assured, ‑ "The Royal Arch degree has now a separate head, and can never again be disjoined from Masonry; and however unimportant those who have never had the patience, or zeal to break the shell and penetrate to the kernel may deem it, it will long continue to flourish, and prove one of the strongest supports of Truth, Peace, and Concord." The Degrees Conferred. ‑ Before further inquiry is made concerning Royal Arch Masonry in Scotland, it will be well to learn the names of the several degrees recognized there. These are stated in the Constitution in the following language : ‑ " The Supreme Chapter practises and recognizes no degrees of Masonry but those of Mark Master, Past Master,t Excellent, Royal Arch, Royal Ark Mariner, the Babylonish Pass (which last is commonly called the Red Cross degree, and is composed of three points, viz.: Knights of the Sword, Knights of the East, and Knights of the East and West), and the three Installation degrees." This section should be read in connection with Article XVI., Sec. 26 : ‑ "All chapters holding of the Supreme Chapter of Scotland are entitled to grant the following degrees, viz.: Mark, Past, Excellent, and Royal Arch." We must be careful here not to confound a Grand Chapter with a chapter holding under it. The former takes control of degrees not permitted to the latter, as shown in Art. XVI., Sec. 26.


Mark Masonry.‑ In a chapter on || Mark Masonry," Laurie gives a good deal of space to the "Marks" of the workmen, including the use of the "Mark," and a large number of illustrations, ranging in date from r 128 to that of '1 Robert Burns, inscribed upon the Bible presented by him to ` Highland Mary.' " He also speaks of the manner of giving instruction in reading the Marks, and gives the following interesting. dialogue: ‑ "' How many points has your Mark got?' "' Three points.' "' To what do they allude ?' "'To the three points of an equilateral triangle.' "' Please demonstrate it as an Operative Mason.


"'A point has position, without length, breadth, or thickness; a line has length, without breadth or thickness, and terminates in two points; and three lines of equal length, placed at equal angles to each other, form an equilateral triangle,‑which is the primary figure in geometry.' "`Please to explain this figure as a Speculative Mason.


"'The equilateral triangle represents the Trinity in Unity, ‑The Great Architect of the Universe, having no material form, exists, pervading all space; the Creator of itll things, Governor of all animate and inanimate nature, Fountain of Wisdom: Whose greatness, perfection, and glory is incomprehensible, and Whose loving‑kindness and tender mercies are over all His other works."' 1 The Grand Chapter of Scotland has dropped the Past Master's degree.




In classing the workmen, due regard is had for the manner in which they were ranked at the building of King Solomon's Temple, and made familiar in America in the Master's degree.


The Mark Master is regarded as an Overseer, and is thus referred to : ‑ The duty of the Foreman, or, as he is occasionally designated, the Mark Overseer, was to direct and instruct the Fellow Crafts or Markmen in the details of the work upon which they were engaged, and see that it was completed, according to the plan furnished." In regard to the Ritual used in Scotland, " Instructions " for each degree are provided, and those for the Mark may be inferred from the following explanation by Laurie : ‑ " The Form of Initiation and legend of the Mark Overseer is of an Eastern character, referring to the preparation of the materials for building Solomon's Temple at Jerusalem, and navigating the rafts on which they were conveyed along the coast of the Great (i.e., Mediterranean) Sea, guided by a light‑house situated on one of the peaks of Mount Lebanon. The Speculative lecture inculcates a constant practice of the principles of morality, in every position in life, beautifully illustrated by the operations of the Mason, under the guidance of scientific rules fashioning with persevering industry the rude block into the perfect form, having it approved and marked for its place in the intended building; and applying the illustration both to the upbuilding of the individual mind as well as to the moral fabric of society, and pointing to the hope that all may become living stones of God's own temple. Such a system of scientific and moral discipline was evidently well adapted to the circumstances of the Craftsman, whose associations required him frequently to wander to great distances, in search of employment, and while residing among strangers, enabled him to teach by his example, and to live in concord and good fellowship among the members of the Craft with whom his labors were associated." Masons' Marks. ‑One of the first to point out the existence of Masons' Marks on Ecclesiastical and other buildings of any considerable importance, was George Godwin, an eminent architect, but not a Freemason. Brother E. W. Shaw is credited with having devoted years of study to this subject, and with having made a most remarkable collection of Marks, amounting to several thousands in number. He regarded these as being the Marks of the various Masons, their object being "the recognition of individual work and payment of individual work." So close was his study that he pointed out the Marks of French Masons in Fountains' Abbey as being somewhat different from the Marks of English Masons. It appears also that these Marks were handed down from father to son, and that the Marks of various members of one family could be distinguished by some peculiar variation or additional symbol.


There is an interesting story of the " Antiquity of a Mark," in the Liberal Freemason for December, 1883, illustrating this practice. Shames Barness, modernized into James Barnes, born in Scotland in February, 1728, received, by inheritance, a Mark that was known to have been in' the family a long time. This Mark is the ducal crown of the clan, and was transmitted to his son Robert, and so down to William Wylie Barnes, who was made a Mason in Caledonian Lodge, No. 254, in 1869, and a Royal Arch Mason in Union THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


571 Chapter, No. 6, in 187o, both in Dundee, Scotland. It is now registered in the books of Mystic Chapter, in Medford, Massachusetts, U.S.A.


William received this Mark from his grandfather, David Barnes, in 1869, his father, Robert John Barnes, not being a Mason. In this family was another Mark, a cross and motto, ‑ thus, " Vitum ‑j‑ Dirigat," ‑ which David stated had been in the family for ages, and that it had been brought back "from the wars by Sir Hugh." David Barnes died in 1876, aged ninety‑six years.


The traditions associated with the Marks in this family of Shames Barness help to give color to the claim of relationship between Royal Arch Masonry and Masonic Templarism, and invests the Mark of the " Cross and Motto " with peculiar significance. The statement by the sturdy Scotch grandfather, at the age of eighty‑nine years, to his grandson William in 1869, that this Mark " had been in the family for ages," and that it was brought back " from the wars by Sir Hugh," runs in similar lines, and suggests the possibility of points of contact detected in the East by the early Templars [viVe Bishop Perry's opinion in this work], and that these points have been utilized in building the degrees as recognized by the Grand Chapter of Scotland, and named in its Constitution.


For those who may be specially interested in the Marks of the workmen, the reproduction of " Masons' Marks," in this work, ‑ which comprise Marks from various historic edifices in Europe, and the East, many of them now published for the first time,‑will be found particularly valuable. This was compiled by Brother Hughan, and includes selections from his private collection. Laurie, D. Murray Lyon, and R. F. Gould, have, also, given numerous illustrations in their respective histories of Freemasonry.


In speaking of Marks, Brother Lyon says: ‑ "The registration of Craftsmen's Marks, provided for in those laws that are known to have been promulgated in the sixteenth century for the regulation of the then existing Scotch lodges, was the perpetuation of a custom that had prevailed in the building fraternity for ages." The Schaw Statutes, of 1598, require that the name of each newly admitted "fellow of craft or maister" be inserted in the Lodge‑book; but this does not establish the existence of the Mark Degree, as such. As a matter of fact, the degree does not appear to have been worked by the lodge journeyman until about 1789 The earliest record known, relating to the existence of the Mark Degree in Scotland, is given by the distinguished Masonic historian, Brother William J. Hughan, in an extract from the records of " Lodge Operative, Banff," under date of January 7, 1778: ‑ " That in time coming, all members that shall hereafter raise to the degree of Mark Meson, shall pay one merk Scots, but not to obtain the degree of Mark Mason before they are passed Fellow Craft: and those that shall take the degree of Mark Master Masons shall pay one shilling and sixpence sterling unto the Treasurer for behoofe of the lodge, None to attain to the degree of Mark Master Mason until they are raised Master." This record shows, by implication, that the Mark Degree was known prior 572 to January 7, 1778, but that its place in Masonic degrees had not been fixed. It must have been considered of consequence also, because of the formality and precision of the record. Whatever else may be desirable in the way of information concerning this degree, and of the period when it was introduced into Scotland, much must be left to conjecture. This, however, is settled the degree was given its rank in the series permitted by the Constitution of the " Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Scotland," to be conferred by chapters of its obedience, on January 7, 1778, and this will conclude further remarks concerning it, under this Constitution.


Past Degree. ‑ Laurie describes the " Chair or Past Master " as being worked in a separate apartment, with none but Past Masters present. The Master‑elect is examined as to his qualifications, and if he is found to be competent to discharge the duties of Master of a lodge, he is obligated by the Past Masters, and " receives a word, sign, and token." Report is made to the Lodge accordingly. He further says: ‑ "Few Speculative references are attached to the ceremonial, it being properly only an obliga.


tion guaranteeing to the Lodge that the Master will act faithfully and properly towards them." It' is not clear when this degree came to be adopted into the Royal Arch system. That it is there is shown by what has already been quoted from the Constitution, while the presumption is that the degree is one of growth or evolution. Certain it is that the earlier Masons employed terms now familiar in the degree, and as properly descriptive of it as though of recent date.


As late as 1859 Laurie gave it a sort of dual place, as if the Grand Chapter and the Grand Lodge each could work it. He says of it : ‑ "Although this is now frequently communicated by Royal Arch chapters as a separate degree, with a formal initiatory‑ceremonial, embracing words, signs, and tokens, it belongs to the Order of Craft Masonry, and is still practised by many of the lodges in the Third degree, but is only communicated to the newly elected Master when about to be installed." This paragraph shows the transition of the degree from the Lodge to the Chapter, together with the fact that the Chapter had adopted it as a separate degree; and further, that the Lodge communicates it to the newly elected Master only, at a time prior to his installation, a ceremony too familiar to Masters and Past Masters of lodges to need repetition.


As to the antiquity of the degree, it will be safer to regard it as one of be able to say, beyond question, when or can show a similarity of terms, or idiomatic growth or evolution have crystallized into this sometimes abused degree.


It needs no argument to show that a time was when apprentices had all the secrets that could be conveyed to || fellows of craft or maisters," and Laurie repeats : ‑ "That, about the middle of the seventeenth century, apprentices were not only eligible for, but evolution; for, while we may not where it first found recognition, we expressions, which by a process of actually filled, the offices of Deacon and Warden in the Lodge of Kilwinning; and that about the THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


573 close of the same century [1693] the Lodge recognized' passing'‑ i.e., a promotion to fellowshipsimply as an 'honor and dignity.'" This description of "passing," as an "honor and dignity," applies to the Past degree of the Chapter, and suggests the possibility that here was the germ from which it grew; although the term "passing " was used in speaking of the qualifications of " prentices," as early as September 1, 17 16. On December 2 7, 17 20, the same word was employed in a more extended sense. Under this date the records of Lodge Dunblane Saint John contain this minute: ‑ "Compeared John Gillespie, writer in Dunblane, who was entered on the 24th instant, and after examination was duly passt from the Square to the Compass, and from. an Entered Prentice to a Fellow of Craft of this Lodge." Similar entries follow, but none to show that the Past degree was known to have any existence as a degree.


In his " Origin of the English Rite," Brother Hughan tells us that at a " Lodge of Emergency " on November 30, 1769, at Bolton, four brethren were installed Masters," and that the historians say : ‑ "This is the first record of brethren being made installed Masters, or' passing the Chair, in order to qualify them for the Royal Arch." The same istinguished author says : ‑ " There were nine brethren exalted on 29th December, 1768, and of these nine, three had not served in the chair before their exaltation." . . . " This is noteworthy, because even at this period Virtual or Honorary, instead of Actual Past Masters were eligible for Royal Arch Masonry." Only this in addition need be said concerning this degree of Past Master. The date given by Brother Hughan is explicit and carries the known practice of the degree back to that period in England. As to the time when it was first introduced into Royal Arch Masonry in Scotland, historians are compara tively silent. The inference is sustained that its adoption would be at about the period of the || Bolton " date given by Brother Hughan.


As to its recognition by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, Brother D. Murray Lyon tells us that it was "During the Grand Mastership [of Lord Rosslyn] and at the February Communication of 1872, Grand Lodge for the first time recognized the Past Master's ceremonial of Installation. This was sanctioned, not with the view of inaugurating a higher or other degree of Masonry, but of authorizing the use of the ritual of Installed Masters as used in England, so as to remove the disqualification which hitherto prevented Scotch Past Masters being present at the installation of Masters in English lodges." Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Canada.‑As a political agency, the "Dominion of Canada'' was unknown when "The Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Canada " was organized; the great " North‑west " was an outlying territory, better known in connection with Hudson Bay than as containing Provinces; while the people of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were accustomed to speak of Upper and Lower Canada as if they were far‑off countries, 574 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


very remotely concerned in the civil and religious affairs of the "Maritime Provinces." Under such circumstances, the Freemasons of the two Canadas had but little fraternal intercourse with those of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick; and the latter had closer intimacy, because of more easy water carriage, with their brethren in the United States.


The Masonic authorities under which the Freemasons in these several Provinces held were the same; each was a British Province, and, in harmony with their system, the Grand Lodges of England, Ireland, and Scotland had established lodges in the two Canadian Provinces (now Quebec and Ontario), and Royal Arch chapters followed the lead of the Craft degrees.


The printed proceedings of the Grand Chapter of Canada show that the oldest chapter is "Ancient Frontenac," in Kingston, established in 1797. This Chapter, now No. 1 on the Canada Registry, did not take part in the Convention held in Hamilton, January 19, 1857, which organized "The Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Canada." Three chapters were represented in Convention, to wit: The Hiram Chapter, in Hamilton, established in 1820 ; St. John's, in London, 1844 ; and St. John's, in Hamilton, established in 1855. These are now NOS. 2, 3, and 6, respectively, Canadian Registry. As a matter of fact, the records show that seven chapters had been established at the time when the Convention was held. These were the four already mentioned, together with St. Andrew's, in Toronto, in 1847 ; St. George's, 1854, in London; Moira, 1856, in Belleville ; and these chapters are now numbered, of Canadian Registry, from 1 to 7, in the order indicated.


At the outset the Convention adopted the Constitution of the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of England, mutatis mutandis, but to " assimilate with the usages of Royal Arch Masonry in the United States," the three degrees, not recognized by the Grand Chapter of England, were adopted, viz. : "The Mark Master, Past Master, and Most Excellent Master Masons' degrees, shall be taken by all persons, to entitle them to be admitted to membership in any Chapter under this jurisdiction, but that Royal Arch Masons who may have taken their degrees in any regularly warranted Chapter under any other jurisdiction, may be admitted as visitors to any Chapter in this Province, when working in the Royal Arch degree, or in any degree which such visitor may have taken under a regularly warranted Lodge or Chapter." The adoption of the foregoing delayed recognition by the Grand Chapter of England, which said it could not " Consistently with its duty, entertain official relations with a body which holds, as essential to admission within its pale, the possession of degrees which are not recognized by the Grand Lodge, or the Grand Chapter of England." Correspondence followed this declination, and official relations were soon established between the Supreme Grand Chapter of England and the Grand Chapter of Canada, on the basis that English Royal Arch Masons can enter THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


575 Canada chapters, and remain during the entire " ceremony of exaltation," even though they " are not in possession of those intermediate degrees of Mark, Past Master, and Most Excellent." Necessarily, this was a limited recognition, emphasized further in the closing part of the same communication from William Gray Clarke, G. S. E., under date of February 1o, i86o, as follows: " I am instructed to state that in the name and on behalf of the Supreme Grand Chapter of England, they‑the Grand Principals‑fully recognize the Grand Chapter of Canada, reserving, however, to all Chapters now in Canada, who are still holding charters under the Grand Chapter of England, as also to all English Royal Arch Masons, all their rights, titles, and privileges, as fully and freely as though the Grand Chapter of Canada had not been formed." Naturally enough, it was only a matter of time when opinions would differ as to the construction of the words of reservation. This arose early in 1861, when the Grand Chapter of England, by charter, attached a chapter to |' Dalhousie Lodge, No. 835 (E. R.), at Ottawa, Canada West." Against this Canada protested, but admitted the right of chapters of prior date, of English Registry, to make Royal Arch Masons of Master Masons, whether of English or Canadian Registry; denying, however, that any new charter or authority to work the Royal Arch degree, to be attached to or granted to any existing lodge of English Registry, in Canada, could be granted, under the terms of recognition.


The Grand Chapter of England cited the terms of Union, in 1813, " including the Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch," and said: ‑ "That under the arrangement entered into between the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter of England, and the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter of Canada, they have not only the right, but are bound to afford to all Lodges and Masons in Canada, holding under the Grand Lodge of England, the means of completing, under the English Constitution, their degrees, if they do not already possess them, by attaching a Chapter to each Lodge." It is difficult to deny the logical correctness of this reasoning, though it may not be to the liking of the Grand Chapter of Canada. England includes the Royal Arch degrees in her Craft system; Canada does not. The former feels bound to give to a lodge once established all that her system represents, and to protect such lodge in the maintenance of its rights and privileges, so long as the lodge maintains allegiance to Mother Grand Lodge. The latter holds that recognition is a bar to all this in the jurisdiction of the Grand Chapter of Canada, except as applied to charters ante‑dating its organization.


Without discussing this question further, it will be sufficient to say that, when the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter of Canada were organized, each recognized the existence of lodges and chapters of English Registry, within their respective territorial jurisdiction, and accepted recognition subject to such a condition of facts. The possibilities may not have been considered, , but these include also the existence of amity between all the bodies thus concerned.




1| Fraternal recognition " of the Grand Chapter of Canada was granted by the Grand Chapter of Ireland on February 17, 1858, coupled, however, with the following: ‑ "But that it demands for the chapters in Canada and individual companions who prefer to retain their Masonic connexion with the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Ireland, the free exercise of their existing Masonic rights, and requires that the Royal Arch warrant of any chapter whose 'Blue' warrant has been, or is about to be, returned to the Grand Lodge of Ireland shall be surrendered to the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Ireland." "And the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Ireland further demands the continuance of its present privileges of issuing, on proper memorial, Royal Arch warrants to be attached to any Symbolic lodge, under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Ireland (in Canada)." On June 15, 1859, the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Scotland, by Chairman of Committee, and Grand Scribe E., gave recognition, in fraternal and congratulatory terms, to the Grand Chapter of Canada, and "virtually surrendered all her former power in Canada, except over such of her chapters as were in existence at the time of recognition." It is highly creditable to the Royal Arch Masons representing the several Grand Chapters claiming rights and privileges within the jurisdiction of the Grand Chapter of Canada, and especially so to the latter, that neither has receded from the high character which dignifies and ennobles the Craft. The rights of all have been carefully guarded, and the privileges of each have been cherished with such decorum that the Grand Chapter of Canada now has eighty‑two chapters on its Registry, with a total membership of three thousand six hundred and thirty‑six.


Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Nova Scotia. ‑ In September, 1869, a committee appointed by Royal Union Chapter, No. 118, Registry of England, and a committee appointed by St. Andrew's Chapter, No. 55, Registry of Scotland, each working in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and the First Principal of Hiram Chapter, warranted by the Grand Chapter of Canada, met in joint committee; and, on their unanimous agreement, a Convention of Royal Arch Masons was called, to be held in Halifax October 14, 1869, and delegates from all the chapters in the Province were invited to meet for the purpose of establishing a Grand Chapter.


The Convention assembled in Masonic Hall, Halifax. Representatives and members of the three chapters named were present, together with a representative of St. John's Chapter, No. 13o, Registry of Scotland, working in Pictou, Nova Scotia; but the latter expressed the unwillingness of his chapter to enter into the movement. The Convention, however, proceeded in regular form ; the Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia was established, Grand Officers were elected and installed, and the chapters in the jurisdiction, which joined in the movement, were duly placed on the Registry of Nova Scotia and numbered according to rank and precedence: " Royal Union," Halifax, Nova Scotia, No. 1 ; " St. Andrew's," Halifax, Nova Scotia, No. a ; " Hiram," Goldenville, Nova Scotia, No. 3.




577 When the Grand Chapter, Nova Scotia, was organized, there were five chapters in the Province, to wit: the three just named and numbered 1, z, 3, and having a membership respectively of 5o, 6o, and 33,‑a total of 143; and the two other chapters, known as "Union," No. 1o8, and "St. John's," No. 13o, each of Scotch Registry, having a membership of 18 and 14, respectively, ‑ a total of 3z.


The good‑will of the Grand Chapter of England was given to the new Grand Chapter at its beginning, it being taken as a foregone conclusion that the organization of a Grand Chapter would follow the organization of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia, the due recognition of which had been secured.


In Scotland, a less friendly feeling existed, and this was prolonged for some years ; but the Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia secured local affection, strengthened by the complete recognition of Grand Chapters in the United States; and, under judicious management, came into full and undisputed occupancy of the territory of the Province. On November


, 1875, Union Chapter, No. 1o8, chartered by the Grand Chapter of Scotland, September zo, 1865, united with the Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia, and on April 29, 1876, St. John's Chapter, No. 130, chartered March 6, 1869, by,the same authority, united in a like manner; and these two are now on the Nova Scotia Registry as No. 7 and No. 8, respectively.


At the present time the Grand Chapter has twelve chapters on its Registry. Eight of these are in Nova Scotia proper: Shannon, No. 9, being in St. John's, Newfoundland; Prince of Wales, No. 1o, in Sydney, Cape Breton; Alexander, No. 11, in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island; and Prince Edward, No. 12, in Summerside, Prince Edward Island. The total number of affiliated Royal Arch Masons, under Grand Chapter, based on the returns of 1889, is now five hundred and thirty.


The Constitution of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the United States provides that, ‑ "Whenever there shall be three subordinate chapters regularly chartered and constituted in any State, District, Republic, or Territory, by virtue of authority derived from this, its Constitution, a Grand Chapter may be established as soon as convenience and propriety may dictate; provided that the approbation of the General Grand High Priest shall have been first obtained. And any Grand Chapter thus established shall have and possess all the rights, privileges, and prerogatives conferred upon Grand Chapters by this Constitution." In applying this article of the Constitution of the General Grand Chapter, it will be seen that the Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia was organized according to what is known in the United States as the American system, constructively so at least, for the Grand Chapters of England and Canada had virtual knowledge of intention, and gave prompt recognition to the new Grand Chapter. It is noticeable also that the titles of officers, Grand and subordinate, correspond with those adopted in the United States. The first Grand High Priest, Hon. Alexander Keith, so long and favorably known in Freemasonry in Nova 578 These quotations taken from the original minute‑book of VirginArtillery‑COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


 "  " 2 Artillery............... . " ‑Level.


 Hugh McBean,       "Jno. Wigton,   11 " ‑Compass.


   ................    " And. Gray, ~. .~ .~ " ‑ Keys.


   ................    "Edwd. Byrn,   ................ " ‑5 Points.


 "   . , . . . . . . . ....... " ‑Plumb Rule.


 Jas. Johnston,      Scotia, took part in the Convention which organized the Grand Chapter. He was ably assisted by M. W. Stephen R. Sircom, his successor and Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge, Nova Scotia, now living in Boston, Massachusetts, and by J. Conway Brown, deceased, July 23, 1871, at the early age of thirtythree years.


Notwithstanding his premature death, Brother Brown had succeeded in bringing to light many old documents of much historic value in Freemasonry. In this he was aided intelligently by others, and these were happily printed in the early proceedings of the Grand Chapter.


These old documents were described by Brother Brown, as ranging from November 16, 1784, to April 25, 1825, and refer to the Mark degree in St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 155 (now No. i, R. N. S.), Artillery Lodge, No. 2 (now Virgin, No. 3, R. N. S.), and a Lodge, No. 210, whose record has passed from memory.


The charter of St. Andrew's Lodge was issued March 26, 1768, and bears the signature of Laurence Dermott as Grand Secretary, and in two other places. Virgin Lodge, R. E., was originally established at Halifax, February 18, 1782, by dispensation from John George Pyke, Esq., Grand Master of Nova Scotia. The name "Virgin " was borne until October, 1784, when a warrant was issued under the name of Artillery Lodge ; but on September 22, 18oo, the original name of "Virgin " was resumed by permission. Up to 1784 the records show that two Worshipful Masters were elected during the year, Brother Adam Fife being the second; and this brings us to where the first record is made relating to the Mark Degree. ‑ " Halifax, 16th Novr, 1784 " Upon application to the Worshipful Brother Fife, he was pleased to open a Master Mark Masons' Lodge, " Worship, Bro. Fife, Master, formerly of erg, a Square, " Bro. Hall .................................. S. W.


~~ Allen .................................. J. W. of L. No. 155.


.. ~~ Lewis ................................. Tyler 11 210.


"The following brethren received the degree of Master Mark Masons, and made chaise of the following marks, viz.


"Wm. Matthews, of Lodge No. 155 ......................... Mark ‑A Bible.


"These brethren having justly paid the demands for such Marks, hath received the same with proper instructions.


"On December 9th, 1785, six brethren received the Mark degree, under the same warrant, one of them being Alex. McIntosh. On February lo, 1786, a Master Mark Masons' Lodge being opened, this Brother McIntosh stated that he was formerly a Mark Mason, but had forgot the Landmarks, and that upon recollection found the Sword to be his former Mark, and that the Lodge would indulge him to keep the same, which was unanimously agreed to."




579 Virgin Lodge give the earliest known date of working the Mark degree in America, and show the importance attached to choosing and recording a " Mark." Other entries of record show the way and the manner by which the degree could be and was worked in another lodge. Up to and including December 9, 1785, four members of Lodge, No. 155, had received the Mark degree ; and this fact led to its being worked in that Lodge.


Under date of January 14, 1786, Jno. Allen [see copy of record, November 16, 1784] addressed a letter to Worshipful Brother Fife, " In behalf of the brethren of Lodge, No. 155," stating their intention to have the Mark degree "established under the sanction of our own warrant." The reply will indicate the nature of the correspondence, and goes to illustrate the order and regu larity which prevailed in the business of the Craft at that early period. It is of interest also, in the fact, that the conferring of the degree carried with it the obligation of choosing and recording a " Mark " : ‑ " Halifax, roth Febry., 5786.


"Worship'1 Brethren: " I have laid your letter to me, dated the 14th Janry., 5786, before the Mark Lodge, held under sanction of Warrant No. z, Registry of Nova Scotia, and we have considered your request respect ing those Brethren that belong to your Body that are members of our Mark Lodge. I have the pleasure to inform you, that it was unanimously resolved, that your request be granted.


"I accordingly tranxnit you a list of your members together with their Marks, hereby transferred from our Warrant to yours.


"Bro. William Hogg ...............................Mark‑Triangle. " " William Matthews............................ " ‑A Bible. " " Robert Geddes............................... " ‑Urica.


"" Robt. Bucan...........................,..... " ‑Oblong Square l" At a meeting held February 21, 1786, at the request of Worshipful Brother Duncan Clarke, who, with five others, received the M. M. M. degree at that date, the brethren of Lodge No. 210, who received their Marks under Artillery Warrant, No. 2, were permitted to transfer their Marks to and under the Warrant of No. 210.


As to the "demands" to be paid for Marks and proper instructions; Companion Brown was unable to say, as no cash account appears.


By‑Laws, Rules, and Regulations. ‑ Following the lead of Companion Brown, and being convinced that the Royal Arch degree in Nova Scotia antedated 1797, as given in the by‑laws of Royal Union Chapter, some of the zealous companions continued investigation, and discovered additional documents, showing ample evidence of the correctness of their belief. These documents are highly interesting, but too bulky for insertion here. Nevertheless we present the beginning of a code of "By‑Laws, Rules, and Regulations to be observed and kept by the Brethren of the Sublime Order or Chapter of a Royal Arch Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted York Masons, held under the sanction of Warrant No. 211 of the Ancient Grand Registry of London, dated the Both Day of June A.D. 1780, and in the Year of Masonry 5780, Vol. 8, Letter H. Granted to a Lodge of Free and Accepted Ancient York Masons at Halifax in Nova Scotia, by the Right Worshipful and Most Noble Prince John (the third), Duke Marquis and Earl of Atholl, etc., etc., etc., Grand Master of Masons." 58o COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


These by‑laws are in divisions or sections, numbered from i to 12. We quote a part of the first only : ‑ "That this Chapter or Royal Arch Lodge shall be held Quarterly, that is to say on the Second Wednesday in the Months of March, June, September, and December, in every year during its continuance, at the Golden Ball or Elsewhere in the town of Halifax." The by‑laws are clear and comprehensive, showing also a thoroughness characteristic of experienced and intelligent men. They provide for emergency meetings, the issuing of "summonses," to prevent "non‑attendance," at least twenty‑four hours before the meeting. The officers were to be elected annually ; the dues to be paid toward raising a charity fund, for the benefit of " Royal Arch Masons " only, '| on each Quarterly Lodge night," were "Two shillings and sixpence." The fees for being made a Royal Arch Mason were ‑/‑3, ios., and 5s. to the Tyler; and no more than two could be made on one night.


This code was "Signed and Agreed to at Halifax in Nova Scotia, this 15th Day of September, A.D. 1782, and in the year of Masonry, 5782," by fifteen members.


It is noticeable that the first three officers were styled High Priest, First King, and Second King. At the meeting of September 20, 1782, five names are given, thus: ‑ The Rt. Worshipful Brother Hugh Kirkham............. I.... H.P. " " " " Jno. Woodin.................... rst K.


"Ephtn. Whiston................... zd K.


.. .. .. .. John Cody...................... S.


.. .. .. .. John Willis.....................


It was made the duty of the Scribe to issue the " summonses." At this meeting Grand Master, |1 John George Pyke, John Clark, and Joseph Peters, Past Masters of Regular Lodges of Free and Accepted Ancient York Masons " . . `| were by us Installed and Instituted into the Sublime Secrets of Royal Arch Masonry." After which, "An Assembly or Encampment of Sir Knights Templars being formed, the said Brothers, J. G. Pyke, John Clark, and Joseph Peters, were Instituted and Dubbed Knights of the Most Noble and Right Worshipful Order of Sir Knights Templars." Three similar entries of record are made during the year 1782 : and others follow in 1783‑1784, in language quite as explicit. We mention this as a tribute to the brethren then concerned, and as a notice also of the early introduction of Templar Masonry into Nova Scotia.


The degrees now worked under the Constitution of the Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia are Mark Master, Past Master, Most Excellent Master, and Royal Arch Mason.


Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Quebec. ‑ At the seventeenth annual convocation of the Grand Chapter of Canada, held in the city of Ottawa, October 14, 1874, formal permission was granted to the chapters in Quebec to meet THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


581 and take such action as might be deemed advisable for organizing a Grand Chapter for that Province. Following this friendly action, a Convention was held in Montreal on December 12, 1876, at which it was resolved to form a Grand Chapter, with the title of " M. E. Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Quebec." The constitution, rules, and regulations of the Grand Chapter of Canada were adopted, mutatis mutandis, Grand Officers were elected and installed, and proclamation thereof was made.


The Convention, as stated in its proceedings, represented a majority of chapters in the Province, and these were " Golden Rule," No. 9, Sherbrooke ; " Provost," No. 1.4, Dunham ; " Carnarvon," No. z 1 ; " Mount Horeb," No. 25 ; " Montreal," No. 42 ; " Royal Albert," No. 43 ; || St. Charles," No. 51 ; all in Montreal. These chapters were of Canadian Registry, and unanimous in their action.


In the preliminary proceedings, as well as in convention, regularity was observed, and the entire business was conducted in harmony with the American Masonic system. This secured recognition by the Grand Chapters in America, and the sovereignty of the Grand Chapter of Quebec was conceded.


Referring to the reserved rights on the part of the English, Irish, and Scotch Grand Chapters, there is an element of doubt as to whether the Grand Chapter of Quebec must not inherit, from the Grand Chapter of Canada, the reservation made by the Grand Chapters of England, Ireland, and Scotland when recognition was given to that body. We have to regard it as unfortunate that circumstances so operated as to secure assent, first by the Grand Lodge of Canada, and afterward by the Grand Chapter of Canada, to the continued and almost parallel existence of lodges and chapters of English, Irish, and Scotch Registry, within the territory which, according to the American system, should have belonged wholly and without reservation to the Canadian Grand bodies. But the English system did not concur with this, as has been seen in our remarks on the Grand Chapter of Canada.


Possibly no serious difference of opinion would have arisen to disturb the concurrent harmony of the several Grand bodies herein mentioned, had no other agency appeared; but the Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons, of England and Wales, etc., had been gathering strength, and it was quite as firm in maintaining the English system as either of ‑its British contemporaries. This Grand Lodge recognized the existence of Mark Lodges in Quebec, to which it had granted warrants of confirmation. Naturally enough, the Grand Chapter of Quebec protested, even to declaring non‑intercourse with Grand Mark Lodge. In the discussion it was developed, in a circular‑letter issued September 15, 1884, by authority of Grand Mark Lodge, that the latter entrenched itself as follows : ‑ "There have always been, since 176o, and long previous to the constitution of the Grand Chapter of Quebec, 'Time Immemorial' Mark Lodges connected with English Craft Lodges in Montreal. Of this we have ample documentary evidence, and the main fact is admitted by the 582 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


Grand Z.. of the Grand Chapter of Canada, at page 16 of Proceedings, July 11th, 1884. Three of these'Time Immemorial' Mark Lodges desired to place themselves under Supreme English Jurisdiction in the Mark degree, as their members were already under Supreme English jurisdic tion in the Craft and Royal Arch degrees. This Grand Lodge has acknowledged them as regu lar, by granting them what is practically a warrant of confirmation. It has created for them no new status. They were legal bodies before. Some of the principal members of the Grand Chapter of Canada received the Mark degree in one of these Time Immemorial Lodges." This will show the line of argument adopted by Grand Mark Lodge in support of its position. But to this Quebec demurs, and points to the terms of mutual recognition. Organized late in 1876, it opened correspondence with Grand Mark Lodge, and in 18 said: ‑ " It recognized the Grand Mark Lodge as the rightful and supreme authority over the Mark degree in England and Wales and the Colonies and Dependencies of the British Crown, wherein no Grand body exists, or of right may be formed, claiming jurisdiction over that degree. 'This recognition was accepted by Grand Mark Lodge, which promptly and unconditionally recognized the Grand Chapter of Quebec, and representatives were exchanged." The warrants of confirmation were obnoxious to the Grand Chapter of Quebec, but were defended by England. Extended and prolonged correspondence spondence followed, without change of views by either, and we have to continue in the hope that a settlement satisfactory to each will be trade as the Grand Chapter of Quebec claims Past, Most Excellent, and Royal Arch territorial 'limits, in full fellowship with soon as possible. In the meantime, exclusive jurisdiction over the Mark, its degrees, and confers them within the Grand Chapters of America. Grand Royal Arch Chapter of March 1, 1887, a circular notice was issued Province of New Brunswick, over the names of five " First Principals of the same number of chapters in that Province," calling a Convention to be held in Masonic Temple in the city of St. John, on March 22, 087. This was done, as stated in the notice : " In accordance with Resolutions adopted by a majority of the regular Royal Arch chapters working in this Province." The chapters taking part in the Convention were Carleton, No. 47, represented by nine P. Z.'s and H.; Fredericton, No. 77, represented by three P. Z.'s ; Union, No. 84, represented by five P. Z.'s and P. J. ; St. Stephen, No. 125, represented by two P. Z.'s; and these four were of the registry of Scotland; New Brunswick, No. io, represented by P. Z., Z., and H.; Botsford, No. 39, represented by P. Z. and Z. ; Woodstock, No. 89, represented by Z.


these three were of Registry of Canada.


In due course of business transacted, it was New Brunswick. ‑ Under date of to the several chapters in the " Unanimously Resolved, That the Chapters of Royal Arch Masons now represented in this Convention hereby declare themselves to be, and do hereby erect and establish, the Supreme and Governing body for Royal Arch Masonry in New Brunswick by the title of ' The Grand Royal Arch Chapter of New Brunswick.'" The titles adopted for officers are substantially the same as used in the Grand Chapter of Scotland. 11 H." and 11 J.," or 11 P. J.," mentioned among TIIE CAPITULAR DEGREES.




those taking part in the Convention, correspond to King and Scribe, used 111 the United States, and in Nova Scotia.


It was " resolved," to procure " The Working Ritual for conferring degrees as practised under the authority of the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts." In the matter of degrees, it was declared by resolution : ‑ "That this Grand Chapter has authority over the Masonic degrees of 'Mark Master,' ' Past Master,' ' Excellent Master,' ' The Royal Arch Degree, and the Chair Degrees of three Principals, or Installation Degrees." The first chapter in the Province was Carleton, No. 47, in St. John, holding under warrant from Scotland, dated December 1q, 1821. The degrees worked by it were necessarily those authorized by its Mother Grand Chapter. ' Section 24, of its "General Rules" [By‑Laws, Ed. 1867], reads : "A Mark Master shall not be entitled to the R. A. Degree until he shall have selected his Mark, and had the same recorded in the Book of Marks of the Chapter." New Brunswick Chapter, No. 301, also in St. John, was originally established under warrant from the Grand Chapter of Ireland, dated February 24, 1858. It affiliated with the Grand Chapter of Canada, in 1868, and was borne upon the Canadian rolls as No. 1o. It now ranks No. z on roll of the Grand Chapter it helped to establish. As a matter of fact, the other five chapters were ranked after the two named, in the following order: Fredericton, Union, St. Stephen, Botsford, Woodstock.


That this Grand Chapter was happily established will be patent to all, when it is remembered that, that eminently conservative and loyal Freemason, B. Lester Peters, Past Grand Master, etc., etc., took part in the entire proceedings, and was elected Grand Principal Z. It is also matter for congratulation that it was organized according to the American system, and, like its sister Grand Chapter of Nova Scotia, is in sole and undisputed possession of the territory of the Province whose name it bears.






Organization of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter. ‑Before opening inquiry as to the introduction of Royal Arch Masonry into the United States, attention will be given to the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the United States of America, inasmuch as this is the largest organization of Royal Arch Masons in existence, if not numerically the largest Masonic. body in the world.




It is the genius of Freemasonry in the United States that every name borne upon the rolls represents a member; and this sustains the statement that, at the present writing, there are one hundred and fifty thousand individual Royal Arch Masons, holding membership in the several chapters, Grand and subordinate, owing allegiance to the General Grand Chapter, exclusive of the Grand Chapters of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. No one of these persons can be legally counted as a member of more than one chapter at the same time; therefore it is, that the custom of being a '6 contributing member " of two or more lodges during the same period, or of counting one a member on the rolls of as many different lodges or chapters as he may be elected in and pay quarterages to, is practically unknown in the United States.


Initial proceedings for bringing this body into existence were taken by a Convention of Committees from " Saint Andrew's " Chapter of Boston, Massachusetts; "Temple" Chapter, of Albany, New York, and " Newburyport" Chapter, of Newburyport, Massachusetts. This Convention assembled in Masons' Hall, Boston, October 24, 1797, and was attended by Benjamin Hurd, Jr., H. P.; John Soley, Jr., K., and William Woart, Secretary of St. Andrew's; Thomas Smith Webb, H. P., and John Hanmer, S. of Temple; Jonathan Gage, P. K., and Joshua Greenleaf, Jr., K. of Newburyport Chapter. These companions were already distinguished in their respective localities, and all of them became conspicuous for Masonic zeal and fidelity.


The Convention's Circular‑Letter. ‑Thomas Smith Webb was chosen Chairman, and William Woart, Scribe of the " Convention." A method of procedure was agreed upon, and a circular‑letter was issued. This letter is familiar to the Fraternity, but its importance in Royal Arch history calls for its introduction here : ‑ " COMPANIONS: From time immemorial, we find that Grand Lodges of Free and Accepted Masons have been established wherever Masonry has flourished, for the purpose of granting warrants for the erecting of private Lodges, as well as for the establishment of certain general rules and regulations for the government of the same.


"It is an opinion generally received, and we think well authenticated, that no Grand Lodge of Master Masons can claim or exercise authority over any, Convention or Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, nor can any Chapter, although of standing immemorial, exercise the authority of a Grand Chapter. We therefore think it highly expedient for the regular government of all Chapters within the said States, who exercise the rights and privileges of Royal Arch Masons, and to prevent irregularities in the propagation and use of those rights and privileges, that there should be a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons established within those States. And whereas this Convention has received official information from our companions at Philadelphia, that the several Chapters within their vicinity have recently assembled and established a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons for their government. In conformity to their example, we think it our duty to recommend to the several Chapters within the said States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont and New York, to unite and form a Grand Chapter for the said States.


"The local situation of the States before mentioned, the easy and frequent intercourse between their several principal towns and cities, as well as the similarity of habits, manners and customs, as citizens and as Masons, which prevail throughout the said States, induce us to believe that a THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


585 union of all the Chapters therein in one Grand Chapter, will have the most useful, lasting and happy effects in the uniform distribution, and propagation of the sublime degrees of Masonry. They therefore take liberty of recommending to the consideration of your Most Excellent Chapter, the propriety of appointing one or more delegate or delegates to represent your Chapter at a meeting of the several Chapters before mentioned, to be holden at the City of Hartford, in the State of Connecticut, on the fourth Wednesday of January next ensuing, investing them with full power and authority, in conjunction with the other Delegates, to form and open a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, and to establish a Constitution for the government and regulation of all the Chapters that now are or may be hereafter erected within the said States." This circular‑letter was signed by the seven companions present, in the order named, and as a " Committee " from each of the three chapters represented. It was duly attested, also, by William Woart, Scribe, under date of October 24, 1797, as "A true Record of the doings of this Convention of Committees." The First Convocation, Constitution, and Rules. ‑ Following the plan proposed in the circular, the Convention assembled in Hartford, on January 24, 1798, and nine chapters were represented, to wit: St. Andrews, as before, except Henry Fowle, Scribe, appeared, and John Soley, Jr., did not. This chapter held under the warrant of St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 82, Registry of Scotland, and has its records from August 12, 1769.


King Cyrus, instituted in 1790, same representatives. This chapter was called " N ewburyport " in the first Convention records.


Providence Chapter, No. 2, Providence, Rhode Island. Instituted, Septem ber 3, 1793. Represented by Rev. Abraham L. Clarke, H. P., and William Wilkinson, Scribe.


Solomon Chapter, Derby, Connecticut. The record of proceedings says this chapter was "Instituted, 1794." As a matter of fact, its first record bears date of December 29, 1795, and its charter the date of March 15, 1796. Represented by Daniel Holbrook.


Franklin Chapter, No. 4, Norwich, Connecticut. Chartered, March 15, 1796. Represented by Gurdon Lathrop.


Franklin Chapter, No. 6, New Haven, Connecticut. Chartered, May 2o, 1795 Represented by Peter Johnson.


Hudson Chapter, Hudson, New York. Instituted, 1796. Represented by Samuel Edmonds, Jr., H. P., and John C. Ten‑Broeck.


Temple Chapter, Albany. Established, February 14, 1797. Represented by Thomas Smith Webb.


Horeb Chapter, Whitestown, New York. Represented by Jedediah Sanger. Of these three chapters last named, Temple is No. 5, Hudson is No. 6 on the roll of the Grand Chapter of New York, and Horeb is extinct.


The Convention established a Grand Chapter, to have jurisdiction over the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, and New York, and denominated it the "Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the Northern States of America." COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


A form of Constitution, contained in a preamble, and nineteen sections, was adopted, and the business was concluded on the third day of the session. This Constitution provided for a Deputy Grand Chapter in each of the States: ‑ "To have the government and superintendence of the several chapters, and of the lodges of Most Excellent Masters, Past Masters, and Mark Master Masons, within their respective jurisdictions; and shall have power, by patent, under their seal and the sign manual of the Deputy Grand High Priest for the time being, attested by their Secretary, to constitute new Royal Arch chapters and lodges of Most Excellent :tilasters, Past Masters, and Mark Master Masons' degrees; to establish a uniform mode of working, to assign the limits of the Royal Arch chapters respectively, and to superintend and regulate the general police of Royal Arch Masonry within their respective jurisdictions, according to the ancient usages and customs of Royal Arch Masonry." The Grand Chapter reserved to itself " Exclusive power of hearing and determining all controversies, between the chapters within their jurisdiction, and of making such rules and regulations as they shall deem necessary to carry the Constitution into effect." It also reserved the general superintendence of the Deputy Grand Royal Arch Chapters respectively, " with the right of appellate jurisdiction over all their proceedings and determinations, with power to affirm or disannul them." It further provided : for raising the requisite funds; for the admission of all chapters within the States named; and, finally, for amending the Constitution by concurrence of two‑thirds of the members.


An adjourned meeting was held in Providence, Rhode Island, January 9, and lo, 1799, in accordance with a resolution adopted in September, 1798, The Grand Chapters of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York were represented, the latter having at the head of its delegation the Hon. DeWitt Clinton, then D. G. H. P. The subsequent Masonic and civil places of importance filled by this historic character invite this special reference to his high attainments and superior ability.


At this meeting, Thomas Smith Webb, chairman of a committee, reported certain rules of order and a revised Constitution. The latter was in four articles, the last being the form for constituting new chapters, and installing the High Priest.


This changed the title to || General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons for the six Northern States of America," and ordered that "The General Grand Officers shall be elected by ballot on the second Thursday in January, A.D. 1799, and in every seventh year thereafter, for which and other purposes " the meetings should be held "septennially, in Middletown, Connecticut, on the second Thursday in January." All questions in lodge or chapter, except the admission of candidates, were to be determined by a majority vote ; but the Constitution could be amended only by a two‑thirds vote. Section 6, of Article II., reads: ‑ "No warrant for holding a new chapter of Royal Arch, Most Excellent, Past and Mark Master Masons, shall be granted for a less sum than forty dollars; nor shall any warrant for holding a Mark Master Masons' lodge separately be granted for a less sum than ten dollars." THE C,4PITLLAr DECREES.


Section 7, showing the custom obtaining even at that day, provides: ‑ " No warrant shall be granted for instituting Lodges of Most Excellent, or Past Masters, independent of a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons." It was required that nine Royal Arch Masons might petition for a new chapter, and not less than five Mark Master Masons for a lodge of that degree, the petition, in either case, to be "Accompanied by a certificate from the Chapter or Lodge [as the case might be], nearest to the place where the new Chapter or Lodge is intended to be opened, vouching for the moral characters and Masonic abilities of the petitioners, and recommending, to the Grand Chapters under whose authority they act, to grant their prayer." Article III. ordained that assemblies of Royal Arch Masons should be called Chapters ; and those of Mark, Past, and Most Excellent Masters, Lodges. The titles of officers were established, substantially, as now used, the High Priest, King, and Scribe in each chapter to be the Master and Wardens in the lodges; and "No Mason shall be a member of two separate and distinct bodies, of the same denomination, at one and the same time." Other matters of internal economy were provided for in greater detail than in the first Constitution, in better form, and for the advantage of the growing Rite; among them this: ‑ " The several Deputy Grand Chapters of the States before mentioned shall in future be styled, State Grand Chapters; they shall severally consist of a Grand High Priest, Deputy Grand High Priest, Grand King, Grand Scribe, Grand Secretary, Grand Treasurer, Grand Chaplain, and Grand Marshal." The High Priests, Kings, and Scribes of the several chapters for the time being, the Past Grand, and Deputy High Priests, Kings, and Scribes of said Grand Chapters were to be members also.


Various Changes adopted.‑At the meeting of January q, r8o6, the General Grand Chapter resolved itself into committee of the whole to amend the Constitution.


The title was changed to the " General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons for the United States of America." Sections 8 and q were added to Article I.


The former provided, that the several Grand Officers should hold their respective offices until their successors were duly qualified, in case anything should prevent septennial elections ; the latter, that each of the first four officers should have power to institute new Royal Arch chapters, in any State where no Grand Chapter existed, subject to the required recommendation.


The fee for a new chapter, with the subordinate degrees, to be ninety dollars, and for a Mark Masters' lodge, twenty dollars, exclusive of such compensation to the Grand Secretary as the Grand Officers might deem reasonable.


Article II. was amended, and somewhat enlarged: State Grand Chapters were authorized to establish and collect fees for new chapters; Grand Secre‑ 587 588 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


taries were required to send a list of Grand Officers to one another annually, and to the General Grand Secretary, and to the latter a copy of their by‑laws and regulations. It was ordained that "Three or more Royal Arch chapters, instituted in any State, by virtue of authority derived from this Constitution, a Grand Chapter may be formed for such State, with the approbation of one or more of the General Grand Officers"; but this could not be done until "one year from the establishment of the junior chapter in the said State." Article IV. was enlarged to require that, before officers could enter upon their duties, they should take the following obligation: ‑ " I, A‑ B‑, do promise and swear that I will support and maintain the General Grand Royal Arch Constitution." The next septennial meeting was to be held in New York in September, 1812 ; but this was not done for reasons shown in a report, adopted at the meeting held in New York, June 6, 1816. This report says: " The situation of the country was such at that time as to render it highly inconvenient for the General Grand Chapter to convene, and the meeting having been prevented by a casualty such as is contemplated by the 8th section of the first article of the General Grand Royal Arch Constitution, your committee are unanimously of opinion that the present meeting is holden in pursuance of the said Constitution, and is legally competent to do and transact any business which may come before it" At this meeting the Grand Chapters of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, Connecticut, Vermont, South Carolina, and Maryland were represented. The Grand Chapter of Maryland was admitted under the following terms: ‑ "The Grand Chapter of Maryland and District of Columbia is willing to support the Constitution of this General Grand Chapter. It will not grant any warrants out of its district, and will discountenance all chapters formed contrary to the General Grand Constitution, but requests that it shall not be forced to alter its mode of working, if any difference should exist, at present, and to be received on an equality with the other Grand Chapters." In pursuance of business, it was shown that the General Grand King had granted warrants or charters for new chapters, as follows : ‑ St. Andrew's .......... Hanover, New Hampshire .............. January 27, 1807. Trinity ............... Hopkinton, New Hampshire............ February io, 1807. Phoenix............... Fayetteville, North Carolina ............. September 1, 1815. Washington ........... Portsmouth, New Hampshire............ November, 1815. Union ................ Louisville, Georgia ..................... December 16, 1815Cheshire ..............Keene, New Hampshire ................ May4, 1816. Concord.............. Wilmington, North Carolina............ 18x5.


The General Grand Scribe had granted warrants or charters, as follows: ‑ Washington Chapter .............. Newark, New Jersey .......May 26, 1813. Washington ..............Chillicothe, Ohio ........... September 20, 1815. Cincinnati Mark Lodge, No. i..... Hanover, New Jersey ...... April, 1811.


Union No. 2..... Orange, New Jersey ........ July, 1812.


These several charters were confirmed accordingly.


Mark Lodges of the Rite. ‑ As a matter of record, the charters to the two Mark Lodges in New Jersey were the first granted by General Grand Chapter: THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


589 The last organization of a Mark Lodge, as such, was reported in the convocation of September, 1826, dispensations having been granted to open one in St. Augustine, Florida, and one in St. Francisville, Alabama. The right to organize a Mark Lodge, however, though not exercised, appears to have been retained in the Constitution until the convocation held in Lexington, Ken tucky, in September, 1853. At this session a series of amendments to the Constitution was adopted, several of which were to strike out the word or words, 1| Lodge or Lodges," wherever they appeared in connection with a lodge, as separate from a chapter, and since that date no reference is made in the Constitution to a Mark Lodge, as such.


Article III., Section 2, of the Constitution then revised, gave a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons power by its charter to hold '| Lodges of Most Excellent, Past, and Mark Master Masons." The Constitution, revised and adopted in 188o, in Article III., is more explicit, and says : ‑ " No dispensation or charter shall be granted for instituting Lodges of Most Excellent Masters, Past or Mark Masters independent of a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons.


"Charters for instituting Chapters of Royal Arch Masons shall contain also the power to open and hold Lodges of Most Excellent, Past, and Mark Master Masons‑the High Priest, King, and Scribe, for the time being, to be the Master and Wardens in said Lodges." Titles of Officers, etc.‑Beginning with the Constitution of 1798, the members of the Grand Chapter were described to "Consist of a Grand High Priest, a Grand King, a Grand Scribe, a Grand Secretary, a Grand Chaplain, a Grand Treasurer, a Grand Marshal, and likewise of the Deputy Grand High Priests, Kings and Scribes of the several Deputy Grand Chapters, for the time being, and of the Past Grand High Priests, Kings and Scribes of the said Grand Royal Arch Chapter, and the said enumerated officers shall be the only members and voters of the said Grand Royal Arch Chapter." The Constitution of 1799 permitted each of these to appoint a proxy, and gave State Grand Chapters similar authority. In 1816 the office of Deputy General Grand High Priest was established, and this officer was given equal and similar powers to those of the Grand King, and Scribe. Subsequent changes were made at later sessions, until, in 188o, the present Constitution was adopted, and‑the title, established in 18o6, by substituting "of" after "Masons," was made: "General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the United States of America." The body is now composed of i. "General Grand High Priest, Deputy General Grand High Priest, General Grand King, General Grand Scribe, General Grand Treasurer, General Grand Secretary. General Grand Chaplain, General Grand Captain of the Host, General Grand Principal Sojourner, General Grand, Royal Arch Captain, Three General Grand Masters of the Vails, and General Grand Sentinel." 2. " Of the Past General Grand High Priests, Past Deputy General Grand High Priests, Past General Grand Kings, and Past General Grand Scribes." 3. "Of the Past Grand High Priests of Grand Chapters in this jurisdiction." 4. "Of the Grand High Priests, Deputy Grand High Priests, Grand Kings, and Grand Scribes, or their proxies duly appointed, of the Grand Chapters in this jurisdiction." 5, " Of the High Priests, Kings and Scribes, or their proxies duly appointed, of the constituted Chapters chartered by the General Grand Chapter." 590 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


Rights and Prerogatives. ‑The rights and prerogatives of the General Grand Chapter, as expressed in the Constitution up to 1829, were in part inferential; but this does not imply that the body failed 'to regard itself as being clothed with supreme power. A committee was appointed, in 1826, to revise the Constitution, and this was done, on report, in 1829.


The Constitution then adopted determined that: ‑ " The General Grand Chapter shall have and maintain jurisdiction over all State Grand Chapters, and over chapters in those States, Districts, Republics, or Territories, which recognize this jurisdiction, and where there is no Grand Chapter regularly established, agreeably to the provisions of this Constitution; and shall have the authority to suspend the proceedings of such State Grand Chapters, and such chapters in States where there is no Grand Chapter, as may knowingly violate any of the provisions of this Constitution; to settle all difficulties which may arise, and to give such advice and instruction as may seem most conducive to their peace, and to the advancement of the great cause of benevolence and virtue." This remained unquestioned until 1856, when a radical change was proposed,‑and, in 1859, adopted.


The first clause of this revised section assumed that all powers of the General Grand Chapter were derived from the State Grand Chapters, and that it could have no others except such as might be granted by them.


In 1865 this was revised so as to read: ‑ " The General Grand Chapter has and possesses no other powers than such as are indispensably necessary to the exercise of its general powers, and consistent with the nature of the confederation between the State Grand Chapters. It can exercise, no doubtful powers, nor any powers by implication merely; and all Masonic powers not hereby granted to it are reserved to the Grand and Subordinate Chapters of the several States, or to the Royal Arch Masons individually." This clause was reenacted in 188o ; the jurisdiction over States, Districts, Republics, and Territories is practically the same as in 1829 ; the power to discipline State Grand Chapters is annulled; it may decide questions of Masonic law, usage, and custom which may arise between Grand Chapters; it may decide any question referred to it by a Grand Chapter, such decision to be' final, as of the " Supreme judicial tribunal of Royal Arch Masonry in the last resort." Triennial Convocations.‑At the convocation of 1826, it was voted to strike out the word " septennial," and to insert the word " triennial." Since which time the sessions have been triennial.


The time and place for these meetings have been fixed, as a rule, at each preceding convocation, except that, at the session of January, 1799, provision was made whereby special convocations could be called, and this is still retained in the Constitution.


The meetings of the Convention, and the first two of the General Grand Chapter, have been sufficiently noticed. The third convocation was held in Middletown, Connecticut, January 9, 18o6. It was there decided that the THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


591 fourth should be held in the city of New York, in September, x812. This was interrupted, by circumstances already noticed, incidental to the war usually spoken of as the War of 1812.


In 1816 a special notice was issued, in consequence of which the General Grand Chapter met in New York, New York, on June 6, 1816. Thomas Smith Webb, General Grand King, presided, and it was found that the Grand Chapters of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, Connecticut, Vermont, and South Carolina were represented, and delegates from the Grand Chapter of Maryland were in attendance. At this meeting Webb was elected General Grand High Priest, but preferred to decline; whereupon the Hon. DeWitt Clinton, of New York City, was unanimously elected. He was reelected in 1819 for seven years, and again in 1826 for three years, but died before the term expired. Webb was elected Deputy General Grand High Priest in 1816, and died while holding that office.


The fifth, sixth, and seventh sessions were held in the city of New York, the latter on September io, 1829, when Edward Livingston was elected to succeed Clinton.


It was ordered that the eighth meeting should be held in Baltimore, Maryland, in September, 1832, but that city, with others in the United States, "being afflicted with cholera," the meeting was not called at that time, but was held by order of the General Grand Officers, on November 28, 1832.


Since that time the meetings have been held as follows: ‑ Ninth Convocation in Washington, Dist. Columbia, December 7,1835.


Tenth " Boston, Massachusetts, September 11, 1838.


Eleventh " New York, New York, September 14,1841 Twelfth " New Haven, Connecticut, September 1o, 1844.


Thirteenth " Columbus, Ohio, September 14, 1847.


Fourteenth " Boston, Massachusetts, September io, 1850.


Fifteenth " Lexington, Kentucky, September 13, 1853 Sixteenth " Hartford, Connecticut, September 9, 1856. Seventeenth " Chicago, Illinois, September 13, 1859 Eighteenth Convocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


It had been fixed by vote that this should be held in Memphis, Tennessee, on September xo, 1862 ; but, in consequence of the war then prevailing, the convocation could not be held at the time and place selected.


Under date of June 8, 1865, Albert G. Mackey, General Grand High Priest, issued a summons, duly attested by the General Grand Secretary, for a meeting to be held in Columbus, Ohio, September 7, 1865. In this document it was stated that "The representatives of the General Grand Chapter, in consequence of the unhappy and discordant condition of the country, could not be convened," in Memphis, in 1862 ; they were accordingly summoned to meet in Columbus, as above stated.


At this convocation, the Grand Chapters of Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Missouri, Tennessee, Louisiana, 592 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


California, New Jersey, Maryland and the District of Columbia, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Arkansas, and Washington Chapter, No. i, of Kansas were represented.


Some of the Grand Chapters, not represented, had followed the action of their respective States, and claimed to have seceded; but this will be noticed more particularly in speaking of Grand Chapters.


On motion of Companion J. Q. A. Fellows, of Louisiana, unfinished business of 1859 was called up, and the Constitution was amended by striking out the words " Second Tuesday in September," and inserting the words " at such time and place," so as to read : "Triennially at such time and place as shall from time to time be designated for that purpose." This continues to govern, and the convocations are held accordingly.


On motion of Companion Fellows, it was voted, that the time and place of the next triennial meeting should be at "Nine o'clock A.M., September 8, 1865, City of Columbus, Ohio." It was also on motion of this Companion that the amendment to the Constitution, defining the powers of the General Grand Chapter, Section 7, Article I., of the present Constitution, was adopted.


Treating the convocation of September 7, 1865, as the eighteenth, subsequent convocations have been held as follows: ‑  Nineteenth Convocation, in Columbus, Ohio, September 8, 1865.


 Twentieth 11 " St. Louis, Missouri, September 15, 1868.


 Twenty‑first " September i9, 1871.


 Baltimore, Maryland,   Twenty‑second, " " November 2, 1874.


 Nashville, Tennessee,   Twenty‑third " August 21, 1877  Buffalo, New York,   Twenty‑fourth " August 24, 188o.


 Detroit, Michigan,   Twenty‑fifth " August 13, 1883  Denver, Colorado,   Twenty‑sixth " September 28, 1886.


 Washington, Dist. Columbia,   Twenty‑seventh " " November 19, 1889.


 Atlanta, Georgia,  The convocation held in Columbus, Ohio, September 7, 1865, was called there because the Grand Encampment, Knights Templar, of the United States had fixed to hold its triennial conclave in that city, and the General Grand High Priest thought it would be for the greater interest and convenience of all concerned. The convocations for 1868 and 18 7 1 were held concurrently with the conclaves of that body. At the latter, it was decided by General Grand Chapter that its interests would be better served by holding its convocations at a convenient distance from the place chosen by Grand Encampment, and during another week of the month. This was further emphasized by vote at Atlanta, whereby it was determined to meet in a different year, in consequence of which the twenty‑eighth triennial convocation will be held in Minneapolis, July 22, 1891, and the succeeding ones every three years thereafter. The triennial conclave will follow, in 1892.


Reminiscences.‑The forms of conducting business at the earlier convocations were strictly in accord with the generally dignified Masonic customs of THE C.4PITULfIR DEGREES.


593 the period. In January, 1799, Thomas Smith Webb was chairman of a committee that reported certain rules of order, unanimously adopted. The second of these was: " No member shall be permitted to depart the Grand Chapter without leave, nor without giving the customary salutes "; the third : "Every member who speaks on any subject shall rise and respectfully salute the chair in Masonic form." The word " salutes," in the second rule, indicates that each of the three principal officers was to be saluted, a custom not unfamiliar to many of the present generation of Masons.


It does not appear that a seal was procured until 1806. At the session held that year, it will be recalled, the title was changed to, "The General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons for the United States of America." Thomas Smith Webb was elected General Grand King, and was "appointed to devise and procure a suitable seal for the use of the General Grand Chapter," not to cost more than fourteen dollars. This seal was circular in form, one inch and five‑eighths in diameter, was bordered by a line, within which were the words, " General Grand R. A. Chapter, United States." Within this circle of words was an open book, having on the left‑hand page the words, "Book of the Law." To prevent printing and circulating incorrect copies of the Constitution, the copyright was vested in Companion Webb. This goes in evidence as to the care manifested, by the comparatively young body, in conducting the business of Royal Arch Masons.


Ritual. ‑The first direct reference to the work or ritual was in 1819, when a committee was appointed, to consider measures ‑ "For the more extensive diffusion of Masonic light, a more thorough and extensive organization of Grand and Subordinate Chapters, and a more regular system of labor and thorough discipline throughout the jurisdiction." If any report was made, there is no record of it.


In 1826 a similar effort was made, when it was reported that, as the first Article of the Constitution required the first four officers of the General Grand Chapter to perfect themselves in the work, it would be sufficient if one of them should " prescribe the mode of work before closing." In 1847 it was resolved: ‑ "That you will never suffer either more or less than three brethren to be exalted in your Chapter at one and the same time, shall be construed literally." In 1850 the matter of work and lectures was considered and exemplified. This latter was by St. Paul's Chapter of Boston, Stephen Lovell, H. P. The result was agreed to, but a committee of ten distinguished companions recommended, ‑ "That in all things not decided upon at this meeting, as a system of work,‑the work and lectures remain as they were or may be modified under the several Chapters and Grand Chapters under this jurisdiction, until otherwise further directed by the General Grand Chapter." 594 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


In 1853 Stephen Lovell directed the exhibition of the work, which was severely criticised in a minority report; but the motion to strike out the majority report was lost,‑4o noes, 38 ayes. The whole subject was then laid on the table.


An attempt to have a convention raised to meet in Baltimore, in 1855, to "obtain a uniform mode of work" did not succeed.


In 186o effort was made by the General Grand High Priest, Grand King, and Grand Scribe, in session in Washington, District of Columbia, to establish " the true and ancient work " ; but this was only partially successful.


Other and later efforts have been made. A change in a " word," made in Baltimore in 1871, was reversed at Nashville in 1874, since which time little or no friction because of ritualistic matters has prevailed.


In 188o the Rituals of the Mark, Past, Most Excellent, and Royal Arch degrees were rehearsed by committee of " Esoteric Work " ; and the " Grand Council " was authorized by vote " to promulgate it to the several Grand Chapters, in this jurisdiction, in such manner as to them may seem proper." A note, correctly introduced by the General Grand Secretary, says: ‑ " It is proper to state that only the essential instruction pertaining to each degree, with the technical forms of communicating the same, were adopted." These essentials have been widely promulgated since that year in Grand Chapters, and in chapters holding immediately under the General Grand Chapter.


The Constitution of the General Grand Chapter calls for a "Committee on Ritual," as one of the " Standing Committees." These committees have generally been conservative in their reports, and cautious not to offend what may be called localisms. In this respect we can but approve their conservatism, and applaud the wisdom of the General Grand Chapter in not attempting to formulate a ritual in extenso.


Statistics. ‑ It would be interesting to trace the growth and support of the General Grand Chapter throughout its entire history; but this might be of more interest to the few than to the many, and we forbear. A brief consideration of this shows that no statistical records were carried into the printed proceedings, if such were made, prior to 1859. Ending with August of that year, there were 25 Grand Chapters within the jurisdiction. These represented 777 chapters, with a total membership of 28,982. To these add 9 chapters, holding charters from the General Grand Chapter, with a membership of 226.


No statistics were given in the printed proceedings of 1865 ; but in 1868 there were 34 Grand Chapters, with 1632 chapters, and 73,942 members; and 6 chapters, holding from the General Grand Chapter, with 1io members.


The statistics of 1889 show that there are 38 ('sand Chapters on the roll, which, with 33 chapters holding from the General Grand Chapter, with 1482.




of 1829. It was found that some discrepancy in the order of conferring the degrees of Royal and Select Masters existed, and it was "Resolved, That it is the sense of this Generzl Grand Chapter that the conferring the degrees of Royal Arch and Select Masters, should be subsequent to that of the Royal Arch." The case of a Royal Arch Mason from Europe was considered in this report. He had taken the degrees of '1 Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, Master Mason, and Royal Arch Degree." Recommei:dation was made that every cnapter, within the jurisdiction, have authority to confer the " Degrees of Mark Master, Past Master, and Most Excellent Master, on such companions to the end that they may be healed, and thereby made regular Royal Arch Masons, free of charge." This authority has been continued, and is embodied in the present Constitution. In 185o inquiry into the expediency of forming a General Grand Council was declined. A resolution: "That, in the opinion of this General Grand Chapter, those are constitutional Masonic degrees only which are conferred in regular I Blue ' Lodges, Royal Arch Chapters, Encampments of Knights Templars and the appendant Orders, Councils of Royal and Select Masters, and Supreme ‑Councils of the `Ancient and Accepted Rite,' and their inferior jurisdictions," was indefinitely postponed. In 1853 the subject of Council Degrees was again reported on. The committee regretted that past action, by General Grand Chapter, had given rise to " Misapprehensions, and induced the belief that the. Royal and Select deg‑ees were within the pale of the Royal Arch Masonry." . . . " But when we come to trace the common source of title, we are unable to discover how this body has ever had any rightful jurisdiction over them; and it must be borne in mind, that it is incumbent on this body to prove title affirmatively and conclusively, and not to rely upon the weakness of the title of any other claimant." An examination of the Constitution led to the conclusion embodied in two resolutions: ‑ " That G. G. Chapter, and the governing bodies of Royal Arch Masonry, affiliated with, and holding jurisdiction under it, have no rightful jurisdiction or control over the degrees of Royal and Select Masters.


"That this G. G. Chapter will hereafter entertain no question or matter growing out of the government or working of those degrees while in their present position." These resolutions were adopted, and the practice of the General Grand Chapter conforms with them. The later action of some Grand Councils and Grand Chapters, whereby the former surrendered, and the latter permitted them to be conferred in chapters of Royal Arch Masons, worked no good to either. Most if not all of such Grand Councils have revived and retaken possession of the Council Degrees by mutual agreement, and Royal Arch Masonry is the more healthy because of less friction consequent on closing an agency contributing thereto.


Mark Degree. ‑This is the first in the series of degrees in Capitular Masonry, as established under the American system. Referring to what is said concerning this degree, under the sub‑titles of "The Mark Degree in THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


597 England," and " Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Nova Scotia," we know that the Mark degree was conferred in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on November 18, 1784, and frequently thereafter, prior to 179o. The Grand Chapter of Connecticut shows that it was conferred on May 18, 1791, in Hiram Chapter, No. 1, in Newtown. This Chapter, the first in the State, was chartered by Washington Chapter, of New York City, and dated April 29, 1791. Washington Chapter came to be known as the " Mother Chapter," as a number of chapters derived parentage from it. Its history is obscured, in consequence of the destruction of its early records and papers by fire. We made it a personal matter, in 1872, to visit New York in search of information concerning it; but were soon met with the statement that the records and papers we aimed to examine had been in the safe of the then High Priest of a chapter, "Ancient No. i," as remembered, but all were consumed by a disastrous fire in 1856, whereby his and other business houses, down town, had been destroyed.


The Mark was familiar in St. Andrew's Chapter, in Boston, in March, 1793, and the degree was conferred, July 25, 1793.


The charter of Providence Royal Arch Chapter, in Providence, Rhode Island, dated September 3, 1793, and granted by Washington Chapter, authorizes it to confer the degrees of Mark Master, Past Master, Most Excellent Master, and Royal Arch Mason, and all these were conferred in the Chapter, October 5, 1793 On May 18, 1795, the Mark degree was conferred in Jerusalem Chapter, in Philadelphia; and on November 5, 1796, the Mark, and Most Excellent Masters' degrees were conferred.


These instances are ample to show an early familiarity with the degree, but not to sanction surprise that it has become the first in the series of the Capitular Rite.


Past Degree. ‑ Under the sub‑title of `| The Royal Arch System in Scotland," '1 Past Degree," will be found a consideration of it. It is the second in the series authorized by the General Grand Chapter. Further reference to it is made in noticing || The Royal Arch System of Ireland." In England " Past Master " is understood to mean one who has actually served twelve months as Master of a lodge. It is under Grand Lodge, but is not termed a separate degree. In 1744, the words " having passed the Chair " were used to describe a ceremony. It has been said also, that the " Installed Master," was originated at about this period. The Constitution, 1723, concerning the installation of the Master, speaks of "certain significant ceremonies and ancient usages." Dr. John Dove, of whom mention is made under " Virginia," said to Grand Lodge, in 1872: ‑ " I had intended to have said something in condemnation of the action of the M. E. Grand Chapter of England, in abolishing the degree of Past Master and substituting a so, alled Chair 598 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


Degree. A degree which had thus been practised for roo years, and by us in Virginia since 1790, ought not thus summarily, at the dictum of any one Grand body, to be abolished." In a code of by‑laws, adopted by Jerusalem Chapter, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, September 5, 1789, it is said: ‑ " No brother can be exalted until he has been at least three years a Master Mason, and has presided six months as Master of some regularly warranted Lodge, or has passed the Chair by Dispensation." The charter of Providence Chapter, already referred to, shows that the position now occupied by the degree was already well defined prior to September, 1793. The companions in Boston moved more slowly, as the degree has no Chapter record there prior to March 16, 1796, when three brethren were " Past," and thirteen others were " Past " during that year.


At about this time the chapter working under the charter of Harmony Lodge, No. 52, in Philadelphia, conferred the degree. The by‑laws required, " That every brother who has not passed the Chair shall pay fourteen dollars, out of which the dispensation shall be paid for; if past the Chair, for being exalted, eight dollars." This by‑law was adopted June 19, 1799. In January, i8o1, a committee of Grand Chapter found that two brothers had been " Passed the Chair without having been duly elected Worshipful Masters of said Lodge, and without having previously obtained dispensations from the R. W. Grand Master." The degree was held as prerequisite to receiving the Royal Arch degree; therefore the necessity of a dispensation. This rule is still observed in Pennsylvania, where a candidate for the Mark, Most Excellent, or Royal Arch degree must be " a Past Master, either by election or dispensation." It appears that Washington Chapter, of New York City, chartered five chapters in Connecticut. In giving the date of the charter of Hiram Chapter, No. 1, as May 18, 1791, Grand Secretary Joseph K. Wheeler says : "At the meetings of Hiram Mark Lodge, so called, the several degrees of Mark Master, Master in the Chair, and Most Excellent Master were conferred, and the records were kept separate from the Chapter records for several years." Then follows the statement that the by‑laws,‑and these are quoted,were adopted March 3, 1792.


On January 15, 1796, "the first notice of the degree of Past Master, or Master in the Chair," appears in Solomon Chapter,‑NO. 5.


It does not require any argument to show that a more complete system of Masonic government was being developed, and this finally and completely embraced the degree of Past Master.


Most Excellent Master. ‑Necessarily, something more than an outline sketch of this degree must be given, and largely from the fact that so much has been said, in allusion to it, that is incorrect and misleading. In his oration at the centennial celebration of St. Andrew's Chapter, in Boston, in THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


599 1869, the late Hon. William S. Gardner treated it, as indeed he did the system, lightly, and evidently without such prior investigation as the occasion was entitled to. In his history of "Royal Arch Masonry in the United States," appended to Gould's American edition, M. E. Josiah H. Drummond quotes Companion Gardner in such a way as to leave the impression that his treatment of the subject is to be relied upon. M. E. Theodore S. Parvin, in his addition on "Templar Masonry in the United States," does worse, and repeats the glaring error, saying : ‑ " The first mention of the Most Excellent Master's degree, and without doubt the first time it was ever conferred in any chapter outside of Temple Chapter, Albany, where it originated, was in the old St. Andrew's Chapter, Boston, during the visit made to it by Thomas Smith Webb, in February, 1795." In his address to the General Grand Chapter in 1883, the acting General Grand High Priest said enough about Webb to have prevented the repetition of errors concerning him; but error reasserts itself, and necessitates the reiteration of facts here.


Thomas Smith Webb.‑The Grand Commandery of Massachusetts and Rhode Island shows that Thomas Smith Webb was born in Boston, October 30, 1771. The records.of Rising Sun Lodge, formerly in Keene, New Hampshire, show that he was initiated December 24, 1790, passed and raised, December 27, 1790. He withdrew from membership, was again admitted, December 27, 1791, and finally withdrew, March 7, 1792. The evidence in Keene is that he was a bookbinder.


Rising Sun Lodge came into disrepute in 1805, on the finding of a " special deputation." The charter was arrested, and the Grand Lodge ordered its seal to be broken. The offences of the Lodge were "Glaring, flagrant, and insufferable, against their own by‑laws, in direct violation of the laws of Grand Lodge and the Constitutions of Masonry." It may be presumed that making Masons of |1 young men under age " was among its offences; for Webb, it appears, was but little over nineteen years old when initiated. On May 18, 1796, he received the Royal Arch degree in Harmony Chapter, No. 52, in Philadelphia, and was classed, in the records, as a sojourner. We have never seen authority for saying when or where he received the other Chapter Degrees. He came into notice at the organization of Temple Lodge, in Albany, New York, by authority of Grand Lodge, November 11, 1796. Of this Lodge John Hanmer was Master, and Webb was Senior Warden. A special convention of Royal Arch Masons in Albany, including Hanmer and Webb, was held. The former " Proposed that the subject of opening a Royal Arch chapter should be taken into considera tion by all the companions present, . . , as there is no chapter in this part of the country." Webb was elected High Priest on February 14, 1797, when, with 11 Benjamin Beecher and James Pamelly," the 11 Lodge was opened in the degree of 6oo COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONR Y.


Most Excellent Master." This was the first time his name appeared in connection with that degree; nor does it appear in the records of Temple Chapter later than June, 1799.


This of itself is sufficient to show that Webb could not have worked the Most Excellent degree in Temple Chapter two years before the body existed, and fifteen months before he was made a Royal Arch Mason. Neither could he have worked it in St. Andrew's Chapter at the time specified; and, when he and Hanmer did work the Most Excellent degree, '| after their manner," in this Chapter, on October 24, 1797, the degree had been known for years, outside of Temple Chapter, and familiarly so in Connecticut and Rhode Island. In the latter case, witness the charter of Providence Chapter.


John Hanmer. ‑John Hanmer was an English Mason, and, as deduced from his own writing, came to the United States in 1793 or 1794. He exhibited a document from the Grand Master of Masons in England, to the effect that he was || skilled in the Ancient Lectures and mode of Work, as approved and practised in England." Writing from Charleston, South Carolina, under date August 23, i8o9, Hammer said that he had been engaged in " Masonic proceedings in America for more than fifteen years." This shows that he did not originate the degree, although it is probable that Webb and he added a large portion of Scripture to the Ritual. Clearly, Hammer was the ritualist at the outset, as see proceedings of the Grand Chapter of New York. At the convention of March 14, 1798, to organize a Grand Chapter, Hammer was High Priest of Temple Chapter, and was chosen Deputy Grand Secretary; he was chairman of a committee of five "to draft a Code of By‑Laws "; chairman of a committee to draw up a " | Form of Warrant," to print the same, and procure a seal ; also of a committee to receive applications of Chapters and Mark Lodges for warrants and to grant them; and, on January 30, 1799, he was "Appointed to superintend the different Chapters and Mark Lodges in this State, to establish a uniform mode of working and lecturing, according to the directions of the Grand Officers." At the Convention Webb represented Hibernian Chapter, New York, and on January 29, 1799, was elected Deputy Grand High Priest. Whatever else this may indicate, it strongly suggests that Webb was then better known for executive than ritualistic ability. The publication of the " Freemason's Monitor," in 1797, in Albany, in view of all the facts, in no way weakens this suggestion.


Origin, etc. ‑As to the origin of the Most Excellent degree, that is obscure. The Irish system embraces: The Chair, The Excellent, The SuperExcellent, The Royal Arch, The Knight Templar, and The Prince Rose Croix ; and the Scotch system, The Mark Master, Past Master, Excellent, and Royal Arch. Excepting The Chair, St. Andrew's Chapter, in Boston, worked the degrees named in the Irish system, in 1769, and as late as 1797. The first to give way to a change of name was the Super‑Excellent. On December 14, THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


6oi 1797, Oliver Prescott received the Excellent, and Most Excellent degrees, and the Royal Arch in August, 1799. The Mark, and Past degrees had been received by him November 13, 1797.


This indicates transition, and suggests that the Super‑Excellent degree of one hundred and twenty years ago contained the marrow, and something of the bone, of the Most Excellent degree.


Be this as it may, we do not have space to discuss probabilities, and so return to dates.


The charters granted in Connecticut by Washington Chapter, of New York, heretofore spoken of, show that Hiram Chapter, chartered April 29, 1791, had the degree, as noticed in speaking of the Past degree.


The charter of Providence Chapter, date of September 3, 1793, gives the names of the degrees as Mark, Past, Most Excellent, and Royal Arch, and its records show that all of them were conferred October 5, 1793. Four other chapters, chartered in Connecticut by Washington Chapter, subsequent to 1791, and the charter of Providence Chapter, bear unimpeachable testimony to the fact that the degree of Most Excellent Master was familiar to Washing ton Chapter in the earliest months of 1791. Where this chapter found it is not known; the accident by fire obliterated a history that otherwise would have been instructive. In Pennsylvania, where the supremacy of the General Grand Chapter was never acknowledged, and where the work of Webb never was encouraged, the Most Excellent degree was conferred in Jerusalem Chapter, No. 3, on November 5, 1796, more than three months before Temple Chapter existed.


The Royal Arch Degree. ‑The fourth and crowning degree of the American Capitular Rite has been so fully discussed in Chapter I., in connection with the English, Irish, and Scotch systems, that more need not be said concerning it.


The records show that Royal Arch Lodge, No. 3, in Philadelphia, had the degree in 1767 ; and those of St. Andrew's Chapter, in Boston, first called Royal Arch Lodge, that the degree was conferred by it, first, on August 28, 1769. Since that time it has remained secure in its superior place in Royal Arch Masonry. The term Royal Arch Lodge was succeeded by Chapter and Royal Arch Chapter. Chapter was used in Connecticut as early as September 5, 1783 ; in Pennsylvania, September 5,' 1789 ; in New York, April 29, 1791 ; in Massachusetts, December 19, 1794, and, it is not without reason to say, at considerably earlier periods.


The word Chapter took the place of Lodge in England, for the first time, April 29, 1768. The word Companion, used in the chapter in place of Brother, was first used in England February 8, 1778. Each of these state ments is drawn from the 176 a " Lodge‑Chapter " records at York. These terms, Chapter and Companion, were soon carried to America; where they have since flourished as elements in the Capitular system in America and in the American Masonic Rite.




Grand Chapters of the United States. ‑ In our treatment of the General Grand Chapter it has been indicated that all the State Grand Chapters owe obedience to it, those that took part in its organization no less than the Grand Chapters that have been organized since 1798, and, under the provisions ol the Constitution of the General Grand Chapter, have become constituent mem, bers of it.


To the exceptions already noticed, to wit: the Grand Chapters of Pennsyl. vania, Virginia, and West Virginia, may be added Florida, during its earlier history. These, however, will be named in alphabetical order in the roll of Grand Chapters now to be considered.


Before entering upon this, it is proper to notice the fact that eight Chapters assumed to withdraw from the jurisdiction of the General Chapter, because the convocation to be held in Memphis in 1862 was held [see ante]. In 1871 the General Grand High Priest reported his reply, and reasons for it [see Printed Proceedings, 1871, pp. 17, 18], to the question : " Is the General Grand Chapter, to which we owe allegiance, in existence, and has it had a legal existence since 1859?" Correctly, as we think, he replied affirmatively. His opinion and ruling were examined by a committee of pronounced legal and judicial ability, and both were sustained in the report, which included the declaration, " that this General Grand Chapter has never ceased to exist, since its organization, is correct." This was adopted by General Grand Chapter, there being twenty‑eight Grand Chapters represented, in the possible number of thirty‑four.


To go back a little, it appears that, in the triennial convocation of 1865, it was noticed that several Grand Chapters had failed to hold their Grand Grand not so " Regular convocations, as provided by their respective Constitutions, and the Constitution of the General Grand Chapter, thereby incurring legal disabilities; therefore, "Resolved, That all Grand Chapters which have failed to meet in consequence of the recent war, are declared to be in good standing in this body, and entitled to continue their relations with it." This, together with a cordial invitation to all Grand Chapters to unite, "without reference to past differences of any character," was unanimously adopted by the seventeen Grand Chapters represented.


In 1868 it was "Resolved, That no Grand Chapter, organized by the authority of this M. E. General Grand body, or which at any time has become a constituent member of this body, can lawfully sever its connection with the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States of America without its consent, but the allegiance of said Grand Chapters is inalienable and now due." represented, and the resolution was Twenty‑two Grand Chapters were unanimously adopted.


In 187 1, the Grand Chapters of Florida, Iowa, North Carolina, and Vermont came into " the National fold," and twenty‑eight Grand Chapters were represented. Other Grand Chapters have resumed their proper relations, and THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


603 support the Resolution of 1868, above quoted, with becoming loyalty. The General Grand Chapter, however, has not resorted to coercive measures, in any instance, but has wisely left it to the returning flow of loyalty, and the remedial processes of time, to solve the problem of National jurisdiction by the General Grand Chapter of the United States of America.


Alabama. ‑An attempt was made on the third Monday in May, 1823, to form a Grand Chapter for the State of Alabama. At that time there were four chapters in the State, holding charters from the General Grand Chapter; the junior of these charters was dated in February, 1823. A convention was held in Mobile, on the date first given, when it was resolved to establish a Grand Chapter. Monroe Chapter, the junior, took exceptions, and carried the case to the General Grand Chapter, where it was carefully considered at the session of 1826, and it was " Resolved, That the formation of a Grand Chapter for the State of Alabama, in May, 1823, prior to 'the expiration of one year from the establishment of the junior chapter in such State, was prohibited by the 11th Section of the 2d Article of the General Grand Constitution, and that therefore this General Grand Chapter cannot ratify or approve the proceedings of the convention held at Mobile." It was recommended to the four chapters to proceed without delay to form a Grand Chapter. This was done, and the body now ranks from June 2, 1827The charters and dispensations granted by the organization of 1823, and the work done under them, were confirmed, for the reason that the companions concerned organized the body from " oversight or misapprehension of the Constitution." This Grand Chapter adopted a resolution, in 1861, declaring its connection with the General Grand Chapter dissolved. In December, 1875, this resolu tion was repealed, and relations resumed with the General Grand body. As a matter of history, this Grand Chapter became dormant in 1831, but representatives of the several chapters met in 1837 and reorganized it, under the provisions of the General Grand Constitution.


Arizona. ‑ In this Territory, chapters were established by dispensations, confirmed by charters from the General Grand Chapter, as follows: Arizona, No. 1, Phoenix, March 1o, 1880; Charter, August 27, 1880: Prescott, No. 2, Prescott, June 21, 1882 ; Tucson, No. 3, Tucson, July 25, 1882 ; Cochise, No. 4, Tombstone, January 10, 1883 ; charters to the three, August 15, 1883. The General Grand High Priest, in person, constituted Tucson Chapter, early in September, 1883; Flagstaff, No. 5, Flagstaff; dispensation, May 28, 1889. Arkansas. ‑The General Grand Constitution of 1850 provided, that "Three chapters regularly instituted and consecrated in any State, District, Republic, or Territory, by virtue of authority derived from this Constitution, a Grand Chapter shall be established so soon as convenience and propriety may dictate."


Charters having been granted to three chapters in Arkansas, the oldest under date of September 17, 1841, the Grand Chapter was organized April 28,










1851. At the session of 1874, held in Nashville, Tennessee, that distinguished lawyer, jurist, and Freemason, Elbert H. English, of Little Rock, was elected General Grand High Priest. He had helped to organize the Grand Chapter of Arkansas, and was its first Grand High Priest. Few men were known so well among Freemasons as he, and his death, on September 1, 1884, caused a general sorrow in the Fraternity.


California. ‑ The first meeting of Freemasons in California, preliminary, to organizing a lodge, was held in August, 1849; and soon San Francisco Lodge was established. A dispensation was granted May 9, 185o, to organize San Francisco Chapter; and a charter was granted on September 13th following. On May 6, 1854, a convention was held in Sacramento, to organize a Grand Chapter, in which three chapters were represented, to wit San Francisco, No. 1 ; Sonora, No. 2, and Sacramento, No. 3. The charters of the two latter were granted September 17, 1853. This convention adopted a constitution for Grand Chapter, and, after a three days' session, adjourned to meet in San Francisco, on July 28, 1854, when the Grand Chapter was duly organized and the Grand Officers were installed.


Canada.‑Possibly it may excite surprise that the General Grand Chapter has been concerned at any time in establishing a chapter in Canada. Such, however, is the fact, as reported in the session of 1829. It was there shown that 1| Most Excellent General Grand High Priest DeWitt Clinton presented a dispensation on the 9th day of February, 1828, to James Robinson Wright and others, to form, open, and hold a chapter of Royal Arch Masons in the Town of Kingston, in the Province of Upper Canada," and the General Grand Secretary was directed to " engross a warrant for Union Chapter at Kingston, Upper Canada." The General Grand Chapter long since ceased to interfere in foreign jurisdictions, and the companions of Canada regulate their own affairs.


Colorado. ‑During the series of years 1861‑1864, correspondence was so interrupted, in consequence of the war, that little or none could be had with the then General Grand High Priest, whose home was in Charleston, South Carolina. The General Grand King, under provisions of the Constitution, granted a dispensation for Central City Chapter, No. 1, in Central City, Colorado, under date of March 23, 1863 ; and, by the same authority, the Deputy General Grand High Priest granted one for Denver, No. 2, in April following. Charters were granted to these two chapters September 8, 1865. Dispensation to Pueblo Chapter, No. 2, at Pueblo, was granted May 24, 1871 ; and a charter, on September 20, 1871. Charters were granted November 25, 1874, to Georgetown, No. 4, and to Golden, No. 5 ; and the Grand Chapter was organized May 1 r, 18 75. The subsequent history of this body has been highly commendable, a marked epoch therein being the session of 1883, held in Denver, by the General Grand Chapter.




Connecticut. ‑ In the opening pages of the early history of the chapters in Connecticut, Grand Secretary Wheeler says : ‑ "The early history of Washington Chapter, No. 3, is somewhat peculiar, as its records date back to A.D. 1783, although the first charter was not granted until March 15, 1796, It is undoubtedly the first record of anything pertaining to an organization of Royal Arch Masons in this jurisdiction, and we give it as we took it from their old records, now carefully preserved and in the possession of the chapter at Middletown." On September 5, 1783, six members of St. John's Lodge, No. 2, in Middletown, stated, over their signatures, that they had been "duly initiated into the Most Sublime degree of an Excellent, Super‑Excellent and Royal Arch Mason, in regular constituted Royal Arch chapters," and after examining each other at St. John's Lodge room, at Mrs. Abigail Shaler's, they "duly opened and held the first regular Grand Royal Arch chapter." Officers were elected as stated in the record, where the names and titles of office appear.


The first meeting after organization was held in the same place, September 12, 1783, and of |1 Royal Arch Masonry 3 783 " : ‑ PRESENT:‑R. W. Oliver Lewis ............. High Priest.


R. W. John Lewis DeKovan.... Captain General. William Joyce .................. Senior G. M. William Redfield ..............Second G. M. David Starr ...................Third G. M. Edward Miller................. Scribe.


Further record of business is made, by which it appears that John Heart, a "well known Royal Arch Mason," was elected a member, and the Master of each of two lodges was elected to be made a Royal Arch Mason.


The first five charters to chapters in Connecticut were granted by Washington Chapter, the "Mother Chapter," so‑called, and these commenced ‑ "At a Washington Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, held in the City of New York, North America, on "‑ [adding day and date].


The first charter was to Hiram, No. 1, in Newtown, and was dated April 9, 1791. The others were to Franklin, No. 2, New Haven '................. May 2o, 1795. Franklin, No. 4, Norwich .................... March 15, 1796. Solomon, No. 5, Derby ...................... March 15, 1796.


These several charters, from "Washington Chapter," were signed by John Abrams, H. P., W. C., R.A.M. ; Jno. Ludlow, K., W. C., R.A.M. ; Wm. Richardson, S., W. C., R. A.M.; attested by Elias Hicks, Secretary.


The initials show the nomenclature, at the beginning of 1791, to have been High Priest, King, Scribe [respectively], of Washington Chapter, of Royal Arch Masons. On May 4, 1796, the titles were given in Washington, No. 3, as " H. P., K., S., Treasurer, R. A. C., Z‑1, First G. M., Second G. M., Third G. M., Stewards, Sentinels." In the last two offices there were two in each.


The first record of Solomon Chapter is dated December 29, 1795. In this the title of the first three officers is the same as in Washington Chapter. The 605 6o6 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


others are |' Zerubbabel, Captain, First, Second, Third Grand Master, Secretary, Architect, Clothier, and Tyler." The by‑laws of Hiram Chapter were adopted March 3, A.D. 1792. The officers were : " High Priest, King, Scribe, Zerubbabel, a Royal Arch Captain, three Grand Masters, a Treasurer, a Secretary, an Architect, a Clothier, and a Tyler." Article VIII. required the High Priest to preside, direct the business, and " occasionally to give a lecture." The duties of the King, Scribe, Treasurer, and Secretary were the same as now; but the Scribe was to " cause the Secretary to enter, in a fair and regular manner, the proceedings of the Chapter," and " to summons the members for attendance at every regular and special meeting, . . . and also to administer the obligation." It was the duty of Zerubbabel to "superintend the arrangements of the Chapter"; of the Royal Arch Captain, to " keep watch at the Sanctuary " ; of the three Grand Masters, " to watch the Veils" ; of the Clothier, "to provide and take care of the Clothing"; of the Architect, " to provide and take care of the Furniture." In this article we get a very good suggestion as to the ritual; and this is strengthened by Article VIL, which reads: "After the Chapter is opened, neither member nor visitor shall be admitted but on giving the signs and pass‑words to the Grand Masters and to the Royal Arch Captain." These two articles outline the ritual then in use in the Royal Arch degree, and emphasize the opinion that very little change has been made in it since 1791. The Royal Arch ritual was familiar when Webb was initiated; but no doubt, in publishing his " Monitor " in 1797, the exoteric portions of the ritual were made more uniform because of his executive skill and the printer's art.


A sixth chapter, " Vanden Broeck," also No. 5, received a charter from the Grand Chapter of New York, dated April 6, 1796, though its first record is dated December 24, 1795 These six chapters met in convention, in Hartford, May 17, 1798, and organized the Grand Chapter of Connecticut. It met in half‑yearly convocations up to May, 1819. The constitution was then revised; and "annual convocations " became the rule, with provision for calling special convocations.


The companions in Connecticut were highly influential in organizing the General Grand Chapter, and Ephraim Kirby, of Litchfield, was elected to be the first General Grand High Priest.


Dakota. ‑In 1883 there were eight regularly chartered chapters in the Territory of Dakota, and eight others under dispensation, all holding by authority of the General Grand Chapter. The oldest of these chapters was Yankton, No. 1, in Yankton. The dispensation for this was dated April 15, 1876 ; and the charter August 24, 188o.


A convention was held June io, 1i, and 12, 1884, in Aberdeen, preliminary to organizing a Grand Chapter; and this was done February 25, 1885.




607 This Grand Chapter continued until the Territory was divided, and the States of North and South Dakota were erected.


The Grand Chapter of Dakota had exercised its sovereign powers to the advantage of Royal Arch Masonry in the Territory. Harmony had prevailed, and the Rite flourished ; but the act of division and the dignity of statehood led to corresponding action in the Grand Chapter.


Under the provisions of the General Grand Constitution, the Grand Chapter of South Dakota was established January 6, r89o ; and the Grand Chapter of North Dakota on January 9, 189o.


Delaware. ‑We are unable to give any clear account of the early introduction of Royal Arch Masonry into this State. A Grand Chapter was organized there June 119, 1818; but this finally fell into decay, until it was held in General Grand Chapter that, |' since the year 1856, no regular Grand Chapter had existed in Delaware." Under date of October zo, 1868, the General Grand High Priest, having inquired into the facts, issued an official circular, in which he stated the fact of non‑existence of a Grand Chapter, recognized the existence of "Washington and Lafayette Chapter, No. 1, in Wilmington; Temple Chapter, No. z, in Milford; and Hope Chapter, No. 4, in Georgetown," and declared them to be lawful Royal Arch chapters, with power to continue work under the warrants held by them.


In December, 1867, the General Grand High Priest gave a dispensation to organize St. John's Chapter in Wilmington ; and on September 18, 1868, this act was confirmed, and a charter was granted. A convention was regularly called at Dover, on January 20, 1869. Representatives of four chapters [all then in the State] assembled. A Grand Chapter was organized, and its officers were installed by the General Grand High Priest.


District of Columbia. ‑ Royal Arch Masonry in the District has had a varied experience, inasmuch as the chapters have, at different periods, had different supreme heads. On January 21, 1807, three chapters in Baltimore, and three in the District met in convention in Washington, District of Columbia, and organized a " Grand Royal Arch Chapter for the State of Maryland and the District of Columbia." There is internal evidence that the six chapters, represented in convention, were each attached to a lodge charter, and that the parent of one or more of them was from Pennsylvania. Further notice of this will appear under " MARYLAND." The progress of the Grand Chapter of 1807 was not flattering ; it ceased to. be active ; a reorganization was effected November 9, 11814, by three chapters, one only, Federal, No. 1, of Washington, District of Columbia, participating. This 1814 organization issued " Charters of Recognition," under which Federal, No. 1, became Federal, No. 3, and, a few years later, Washington‑Naval, and Potomac, of the District, received similar charters and were numbered 4 and 8, respectively. This Grand Chapter was received and admitted under the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter, June 7, 1816.




Early in 1822 an effort was made, on the part of Federal, No. 3, Washing ton‑Naval, No. 4, Potomac, No. 8, all of the District, and Brooke Chapter, No. 6, of Alexandria, Virginia, to organize a Grand Chapter for the District of Columbia. The convention met in the hall of Brooke Chapter, in Alexandria, adjourned to August 11th, then to September loth, when a letter of assent from DeWitt Clinton, General Grand High Priest, under date of August 30, 1822, was read, authorizing the organization of a Grand Chapter, as proposed by the convention. An adjournment to November 25, 1822, was taken; but for various reasons, chiefly because of incomplete representation, the new Grand Chapter was not organized until February 1o, 1824.


Potomac Chapter now concluded it to be inexpedient to separate from the Grand Chapter of Maryland and District of Columbia, and this title was retained until the session of 1826, when it was agreed and settled that this Grand Chapter, Of 1807‑1814, should relinquish all jurisdiction over the District of Columbia, " except so far as relates to the Potomac Chapter." The Grand Chapter of the District of Columbia existed until 1833, in apparently good condition, although it issued a charter to Temple Chapter, No. 4, only. Its records from May 11, 1822, to January 8, 1833, were well kept, since which time no sign or record of it can be found. The cause of this is nowhere mentioned, but we venture the suggestion that the doors of the several chapters were closed in fear of Anti‑Masonry, and the Grand Chapter died suddenly.


In his history of the Grand Chapter of Maryland and the District of Columbia, Companion. E. T. Schultz quotes its favorable action toward the Grand Chapter, taken in November, 1822, together with its opinion, that "They ought, as a preliminary and proper step, to have obtained the consent of this Grand Chapter; but that ‑as it is the wish of the three chapters of the District of Columbia to form a Grand Chapter for themselves "‑consent was given.


At the session of September, 1841, Joseph K. Stapleton, of Maryland, Deputy General Grand High Priest, was authorized " To take the necessary steps to place all chapters of Royal Arch Masons, in that part of the District of Columbia, which formerly belonged to the State of Maryland, under the jurisdiction of the Grand Chapter of Maryland," And at his discretion, to do such acts as he might think proper in completing the business.


At the session of September, 1844, he reported the order duly enforced, and that two chapters in the District were then under the jurisdiction of the Grand Chapter of Maryland. No change was made in the title of this Grand body until 1853, when, as Companion Schultz says, " and District of Colum bia " was added. In the session of 1856, the title of "Grand Chapter of Maryland and District of Columbia "was used in General Grand Chapter, and this was continued until after the present Grand Chapter of the District of Columbia was established.




6og This Grand Chapter was organized by a convention of delegates from Columbia Chapter, No. 15 ; Washington, No. 16; and Mt. Vernon, No. zo. The convention assembled April 3, 1867; adjourned to April 6th; then to April zoth; and again to May


, 1867. Potomac Chapter, No. 8, sent delegates, with credentials, and these were duly received and admitted to seats in convention, April 6th; but under date of April 16, 1867, the Secretary of No. 8 sent a note declining further attendance. In the course of time, however, Potomac Chapter, subordinate to the American Masonic system, took its proper place in the jurisdiction of the Grand Chapter of the District of Columbia.


The closing session of the convention was on May za, 1867; and on May z3d, ‑ the day following, ‑ the Grand Chapter was erected and its officers installed.


Discussion with the General Grand High Priest followed, Potomac Chapter being the principal subject. This Chapter refused to take a charter from the new Grand Chapter, preferring to work under its Maryland charter. Being declared clandestine, the General Grand High Priest was appealed to. He concluded that the " | Companions who formed the so‑called Grand Chapter had been hasty and irregular," and gave Potomac Chapter the right to work under its warrant.


The new Grand Chapter quoted its action, as being regular, and showed the resolution adopted, by the Grand Chapter of Maryland and the District of Columbia, on November 13, 1866, dissolving connection Between the State of Maryland and the District of Columbia, and that the chapters in the District of Columbia be requested to form a Grand Chapter for said District of Columbia." The case went to the General Grand Chapter, at the session of 1868, when majority and minority reports were made. The latter contained three resolutions: First, recognizing the Grand Chapter of the District of Columbia, and giving its officers seats in General Grand Chapter; second, placing Potomac Chapter under the urisdiction of the General Grand Chapter, but "without territorial jurisdiction over candidates for the Capitular Degrees"; third, declaring all acts of censure, suspension, or expulsion, growing out of the formation of the Grand Chapter, null and void.


Maryland did not feel satisfied with this action, and resolutions to this effect were adopted in 1868 ; but in November, 1869, resolutions were adopted, " relinquishing its jurisdictional rights over the District of Columbia so long as it remains the seat of the National Government," and fully recognizing the Grand Chapter of the District of Columbia as a regular Grand Chapter.


It is needless to say that all signs of this friction have long since disappeared; and when Noble D. Larner of the Grand Chapter of the District of Columbia was elected General Grand High Priest in 1886, none were more zealous in his behalf than the representatives of the Grand Chapter of Maryland.




Florida.‑The first connection between the General Grand Chapter and Masonry in Florida appears to have been made when DeWitt Clinton granted dispensations for a Mark lodge in St. Augustine, and another in St. Francisville in Florida, as reported at the session of 1826.


Prior to 1847 there were three chapters in Florida, to wit: Magnolia, No. 16, at Apalachicola,.and Florida, No. 32, at Tallahassee, both chartered by the Grand Chapter of Virginia; and a chapter at St. Augustine, chartered, in error, by the Grand Chapter of South Carolina, itself a constituent of the General Grand Chapter.


Delegates from these three chapters assembled in Tallahassee on January 11, 1847, and organized a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons for the State of Florida.


It forthwith decreed, that the " Degrees of Royal Master and Select Master shall be deemed to be Chapter degrees, to be given in Chapters, unless otherwise directed by Grand Chapter." On February 8, 1847, it "Resolved, That the Grand Chapter of Florida, duly appreciating the advantages of a Masonic head and paramount authority, is disposed to come under the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter of the United States." The General Grand Chapter felt that the chapter at St. Augustine was not legally instituted, and had adopted a resolution of remedy in 1844. This, however, was misinterpreted in Florida.. The companions took offence, and held aloof from the General Grand Chapter.


In 1856 signs of settlement began to appear; and the General Grand High Priest was authorized to recognize the Grand Chapter of Florida, and place it on an equal footing with the other Grand Chapters, at its desire.


Before this was carried into effect, the war period stayed proceedings, until, on January 13, 1869, the Grand Chapter of Florida accepted an invitation, and " Resolved, That this Grand Chapter accepts such invitation in a true Masonic spirit, and will hereafter bear allegiance and support to the said General Grand Chapter." Georgia. ‑ At what time was Royal Arch Masonry introduced into Georgia? is a question that cannot be answered from the Grand Secretary's office, nor do the records in possession of that Grand Chapter show. Evidently there were Royal Arch Masons there before r8o6. Possibly the degree was worked under lodge charters long before, but of this there is little evidence. In an oration by the R. W. Junior Grand Warden, Brother J. H. Estill, before Grand Lodge in 1887, we are told that Royal Arch Masonry made its first appearance in Georgia, in Union Lodge, No. 3, and that within it Georgia Chapter was born.


The records of General Grand Chapter show that Georgia Chapter received its dispensation from that body; and Dr. John Dove of Virginia gives it the date of December 1, 1804. The General Grand Chapter also chartered THE C,4PITULAR DEGREES.


Union Chapter, Louisville, Georgia, on December 16, 1815 ; Augusta Chapter, Augusta, December 6, 1818; Mechanics Chapter, Lexington, June 10, 1820; Webb Chapter, November 16, 1821 ; Franklin Chapter, by DeWitt Clinton (place and date not given), before September 16, 1826, as it was then reported that the Grand Chapter of Georgia had been regularly organized, and it was received and recognized " as entitled to all the rights and privileges of a Grand Chapter within the State." At the session of 1847, a committee reported, in General Grand Chapter, that sufficient documentary evidence had been found, to show that the Grand Chapter of Georgia "is a constituent member of this Grand body"; but it had not been represented, or made returns, since 1822, although it was organized February 4th of that year. The Deputy General Grand High Priest gave a dispensation for a chapter in Macon, June 21, 1838 ; and the Grand Chapter reorganized May 3, 1841. This reorganized body was represented in 1847, and, as a rule, up to and including 1859, after which, and following the political action of the State, it assumed to withdraw from the General Grand Chapter, tnd did not fully resume its proper relations until April, 1875, when in regular .convocation it resolved to renew its connection with, and fealty to, the General C*rand Chapter. The twenty‑seventh Triennial Convocation of the General grand Chapter was held in Atlanta in November, 1889.


Idaho.‑On June 18, 1867, the Grand Chapter of Oregon granted a charter for Idaho Chapter in Idaho City; and this was constituted August 18, 1867. The Grand Chapter is said to " have acted under the impression that the General Grand Chapter had virtually ceased to exist." On petition the General Grand Chapter adopted a report, on the case, which included || good faith " on the part of the petitioners, healing of all companions exalted in the chapter, and the granting of a charter to Idaho Chapter, No. 1, Idaho City, on September 18, 1868. Under authority of the General Grand Chapter, other chapters were established as follows : Cyrus, No. 2, Silver City, Dakota, February 14, 1870; Boise City, No. 3, Boise City, March 30, 1870; charter to each, September 20, 1871 : Lewiston, No. 4, Lewiston ; no dispensation; charter, August 27, 183o: Alturas, No. 5, Hailey, Dakota, May 22, 1884; charter, October 1, 1886. To the foregoing, Pocatello, No. 6, was added by dispensation, May 28, 1889.


Illinois.‑Under date of July 19, 1841, the Deputy General Grand High Priest granted a dispensation for Springfield Chapter, in Springfield, and a charter was granted by General Grand Chapter, September 17, 1841. At the session of 1844, the same officer reported that he had granted a dispensation to organize Lafayette Chapter, in Chicago, dated July 2, 1844. In 1847 he reported that he had, since 1844, granted dispensations for Jacksonville Chapter, No. 3, in Jacksonville; and for Shawneetown Chapter, No. 6, at Shawneetown. The General Grand Scribe had granted dispensations for Horeb Chapter, No. 4, in Henderson, March lo, 1846; for Quincy Chapter, 612 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


No. 5, in Quincy, April 1, 1846 ; and these several acts were confirmed by warrants granted during the respective sessions. In September, 1850, the same officer had granted dispensations for Howard Chapter, July 28, 1848 ; and Stapleton Chapter, June 28, 1849. The General Grand King had given dispensation for Reynolds Chapter, in Cambridge, dated March 2, 185o; and the Grand Scribe, for Barrett Chapter, at Rock Island, dated August 1, 1849.


Before some of these later dispensations had been passed upon by General Grand Chapter, the General Grand King had given authority to seven chapters to organize a Grand Chapter for the State of Illinois; and this was done April 1o, 185o.


The Triennial Convocation of 1859 was held in Chicago.


Indiana. ‑ It appears in evidence that Thomas Smith Webb, elected Deputy General Grand High Priest in 1816, granted dispensations for Madison Chapter, in Madison, and Brookville Chapter, in Brookville.; but in consequence of his death prior to the session in 1819, no report of these was made of a character to gain for them official recognition. No further evidence of the existence of these bodies was presented, but it was shown, in 1844, that Madison Chapter had continued its labors for years. A charter was granted by General Grand Chapter to Vincennes Chapter, in Vincennes, dated May 13, 182o. At the session of 1844, it was reported that these three bodies had organized a Grand Chapter in 1823, but no documentary evidence of this had been presented to General Grand Chapter. Brookville Chapter soon after dropped out of sight. Investigation made at this session found that, on May 13, 1823, a Grand 'Chapter had been formed, as above, but no meeting was held by it afterward. Madison Chapter had worked until 1829, when it suspended. On July 1o, 1842, fourteen Royal Arch Masons assumed to reopen it, all in good faith; this, together with their otherwise good Masonic conduct, and the petition of the companions concerned, secured confirmation of a charter to Madison Chapter, No. r, on September 12, 1844. Its past work, however, was declared to be illegal, but authority was given to heal all who had received degrees in it, on their appearing personally. Dispensation had been granted for King Solomon's Chapter, in Richmond; and a charter was ordered September 14, 1838. Dispensation was granted for Logan Chapter, Logansport, March 12, 1839; and charter ordered September 17, 1841. Dispensation for Lafayette Chapter, No. 3, was given by the Deputy General Grand High Priest, August 17, 1843, to be located in Lafayette ; charter granted September 11, 1844. The chapters assembled by permission, dated November 18, 1845, and the Grand Chapter for the State of Indiana was regularly organized December 25, 1845 Indian Territory.‑Dispensations to organize chapters in Indian Territory were granted : to Indian, No. 1, February 23, 18 78 ; chartered August 2q, 1880 *Oklahoma, No. 2, Atoka, February 14, 188o; chartered August 27, 1880 Burneyville, No. 3, Burneyville, March 2, 1885 ; renewed December 6, 1886, THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


613 but for lack of support, surrendered in April, 188 7 : Savanna, No. 4, Savanna, March 12, 1886; chartered October 1, 1886: Tahlequah, No. 5, Tahlequah, dispensation January 16, 1888 ; chartered November 22, 1889.


At the session of 1889, the General Grand Chapter voted permission, and the Grand Chapter of Indian Territory was regularly organized February 15, 18go.


Iowa.‑Dispensations were issued for Iowa Chapter, No. 1, Burlington, August 24, 1843 ; chartered September 11, 1844: Iowa City Chapter, No. 2, Iowa City, March 1g, 1844; chartered September 17, 1847:. Dubuque Chapter, No. 3, Dubuque; chartered September 17, 1847: Washington Chapter, No. 4; chartered September 17, 1853. McCord Chapter, NO‑ 5, at Fairfield, received a dispensation, presumably, under date of March 18, 1853 ; but the death of the Deputy General Grand High Priest, thirteen days later, prevented his making a report, and the chapter was chartered by the Grand Chapter of Iowa, June 14, 1854 The aforenamed chapters met in convention at Mount Pleasant, by sanction of the General Grand Scribe, and organized the Grand Chapter of the State of Iowa, June 8, 1854.


We now have to notice an incident in the life of this body that manifests all the freshness of youth, and but little of the matured Freemason. Within about two years after being organized, the usefulness of the General Grand Chapter came under discussion. The Grand High Priests early gave emphasis to this negative feeling. In 857 the delegates to the next session of the General Grand Chapter were instructed to vote for its dissolution. This was reenforced in 1858. The Grand Chapter asserted its sovereign and independent right to organize chapters in Nebraska or elsewhere, where no Grand Chapter existed, and finally, on August 16, 186o, the resolution, declaring the "Grand Chapter sovereign and independent, and in no manner whatever subject to the General Grand Chapter of the United States, and this Grand Chapter is forever absolved from all connection therewith," Was passed by a vote of twenty‑eight ayes to fifteen nays.


This condition of things continued for nine years, when, at the Triennial Convocation in September, 1871, the General Grand High Priest reported that, under date of October 26, 1869, he had " Received official notice that the Grand Chapter of Iowa had rescinded the act of secession passed in r86o, and had directed that the O:. B.*. of allegiance should be administered to all the members of Chapters in that jurisdiction, and that hereafter it would be administered to candidates receiving the Royal Arch degree." Representatives of the Grand Chapter were present in 1871, and have been at succeeding sessions of General Grand Chapter.


Robert F. Bower of Keokuk was elected General Grand High Priest in 188o, and died while in office.


Kansas. ‑At the Triennial Convocation of 1859 the address of the 614 General Grand High Priest showed that he had given dispensations: to Leavenworth Chapter, No. i, Leavenworth, dated January 24, 185 7 ; and for Atchison Chapter, No. 2, Atchison, dated May 18, 1859. A charter was ordered for the latter, by vote, September 14, 1859. It was then called Washington Chapter, and in the proceedings of 1862‑5 and 1865, Washington, No. 1. The dispensation to the former was renewed in April, 1863 ; and on September 8, 1865, a charter was granted. On the same date a charter was voted to Fort Scott Chapter, Fort Scott, the dispensation having been granted and so reported by the Grand Secretary; but no date was given. Permission was granted by the Deputy General Grand High Priest; and, in January, 1866, a convention was held, and the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Kansas was regularly organized, February 23, 1866.


Kentucky.‑It is shown in the preamble to the proceedings of the convention which organized the Grand Chapter, that Thomas Smith Webb, Deputy General Grand High Priest, had granted dispensations for three chapters in Kentucky, to wit: in Lexington, Frankfort, and Shelbyville, one in each, under date of October 16, 1816. This is confirmed by proceedings of General Grand Chapter, September 9, 1819 ; but, in consequence of Webb's death, details were not given. The preamble quoted the Constitution of the General Grand Chapter, whereby it was made competent for three chapters to form a Grand Chapter; also, to show that the clause requiring the junior chapter to be one year old was by them complied with. The three chapters were fully represented by the High Priest, King, and Scribe of each, and the Grand Chapter of Kentucky was regularly organized December 4, 1817.


Correspondence incident to the organizing of a Grand Chapter is printed at length in the proceedings of the Grand Chapter of Kentucky, including recognition by Webb, dated at "Worthington, Ohio," December 12, 1817, and by DeWitt Clinton, December 30, 1817 ; and formal recognition, with approval, was given September 9, 1819.


At the annual convocation of 1825 resolutions were adopted, to petition the General Grand Chapter, and to correspond with Grand Chapters on the " propriety of dissolving " the former. A long memorial was issued, setting forth reasons affirmatively; the conclusion being that the General Grand Chapter was "An institution calculated to waste the funds of our Order, engender ambition, administer food to vanity, and every way incompatible with the pure and sublime principles of Masonry. We also apprehend that it will be used by political men as a convenient instrument to further their intrigues and spread their influence." This memorial was referred to a committee in General Grand Chapter,, which committee concluded: ‑ " That, as a majority of the Grand Chapters of the several States comprising the General Grand Chapter dissented from the resolution of the Grand Chapter of Kentucky, it was not expedient to take any further measures on the subject." COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.




6I5 Kentucky seemed to be content with this action, and her proceedings show to this effect. In 1856 the General Grand Secretary reported that "Twentysix Grand Chapters acknowledged the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter in the United States," and Kentucky was included in the list. The Grand Chapters of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Florida did not so appear. A similar report, from the same officer, in September, 1859, showed that Kentucky and North Carolina Grand Chapters had passed resolutions of withdrawal from the General Grand Chapter.


In 1874 the General Grand High Priest said, in his address to the General Grand Chapter: ‑ " I am happy to announce that the Grand Chapter of Kentucky has rescinded her resolutions of withdrawal, and has renewed her allegiance. Her representatives are here with us, and I believe the warm welcome they have received has removed any lingering doubts they may have entertained as to the wisdom of their course." Louisiana. ‑Royal Arch Masonry in this State was at times disturbed in its condition. Coming before the General Grand Chapter, because of this, in September, 1844, it was there shown that the Royal Lodges, Concordia and Perseverance, together with " such officers and members of the Grand Lodge as were Royal Arch Masons," had organized a Grand Chapter in 1813. This body was attached to and made dependent upon the Grand Lodge, and the Grand Master " was declared to be, ex ofeio, and, by ` inherent right,' Grand High Priest of the new Grand Chapter." It was stated that these lodges were originally organized in St. Domingo, under charters emanating from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, with powers to confer all the degrees up to the Royal Arch. At the outbreak of the revolution in St. Domingo some of the members escaped to Cuba, and thence to New Orleans, where the lodges were reopened under the original charters, which they had preserved.


In September, 1829, this Grand Chapter petitioned to be admitted within the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter. In view of all the facts, and considering it for the best interests of Royal Arch Masonry, this was done September 11, 1829, and Lafayette Chapter, in St. Francisville, chartered by the General Grand Chapter in 1826, was placed under the immediate jurisdiction of the Grand Chapter.


This Grand body worked in good faith and allegiance, until 1831, after which it held no meeting for any purpose until April, 1839, and chapters under it ceased to exist, except Holland, No. 9.


In 1841 the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge, directed by the Grand Master, notified "certain Royal Arch Masons, in New Orleans," to assemble, elect Grand Officers, and reorganize the Grand Chapter. A second meeting followed, of which Holland Chapter was notified, and " a body, styling itself the Grand Chapter of Louisiana, was organized." The General Grand Chapter held: that the body of 1813 voluntarily sur‑ 616 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


rendered its independent jurisdiction, and enrolled itself under the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter; that it ceased to hold meetings after 1831, as required by the second article of the General Grand Constitution; that all chapters in the State came under direct jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter, " which alone could legally exercise authority over the territory thus vacated." In conformity with this, the charter of Holland Chapter, having been "lost or stolen," and revoked by this 1841 organization, was replaced by a new one, and on September 16, 1847, charters were confirmed: to New Era Chapter, in New Orleans; to Clinton Chapter, in East Feliciana; and to Red River Chapter, in Shreveport.


It was also found at this session of 1847: "That there was not at this time any constitutional and legally authorized Grand Chapter in the State of Louisiana." The Association assuming the functions of a Grand Chapter was declared to be "spurious, clandestine, and illegal," and regular Royal Arch Masons were forbidden to hold any Masonic intercourse with it or its offspring.


The General Grand King authorized Holland Chapter, No. x ; New Era Chapter, No. 2 ; Red River Chapter, No. 3 ; and Clinton Chapter, No. 4, to " organize and establish a Grand Chapter for Louisiana " ; and this was done May x, 1848.


Maine. ‑On February 13, 1805, a "Warrant of Constitution" was granted to "John Coe and others, empowering them to open a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons in the town of Portland," by the Grand Chapter of Massachusetts. It should be remembered that Maine was not set off from Massachusetts until it was erected into a separate State, in 182o. Dispensations were voted for two new chapters, by the same Grand body, on December 7, x817, and charters were subsequently granted, to wit: Montgomery, Bath; and New Jerusalem, Wiscasset; and, on December 29, x817, for Jerusalem Chapter, in Hallowell. These three chapters were regularly constituted, on July 18, xq, and 21, 182o, respectively, by Henry Fowle, Deputy Grand High Priest, who made report accordingly to Hon. James Prescott, Grand High Priest.


On February 7, 1821, Mt. Vernon Chapter, of Portland, and the three constituted in 1820, met by their representatives, in Portland, adopted " provisionally the constitution of the Grand Chapter of Massachusetts," and the Grand Chapter of Maine was regularly organized. The subsequent history of this body has been characterized by loyalty and usefulness. It felt the baneful effect of Anti‑Masonry, and failed to meet in 1834, 1841, 1842, 1843 Having been incorporated, January 19, 1822, and duly organized under the Act, January 28, 1824, it was summoned, under an order from one of the justices of the Peace, after each failure, elected officers, and qualified them. The marked ability displayed in this jurisdiction has been recognized else‑ THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


6rq where, and the General Grand Chapter has elected from it two General Grand High Priests, to wit: Robert P. Dunlap, in 1847, 185o, and 1853 ; and Josiah H. Drummond, in 1871.


Maryland. ‑On October 24, 18o6, Concordia Chapter, of Baltimore, issued a circular‑letter to the several chapters of Baltimore and the District of Columbia, requesting them to send delegates to a convention to be held in the city of Washington, on the third Wednesday in the next January [January 21, 1807], for the purpose of forming a Grand Chapter for the State of Maryland and District of Columbia.


[See " Capitular Masonry in Maryland," by E. T. Schultz.] The chapters in Baltimore, and taking part in this convention, were Washington, Concordia, and St. John's. Brother Schultz says that Washington Chapter "Undoubtedly was the Royal Arch Chapter of Jerusalem, instituted in 1787 by virtue of the dispensation or warrant of Lodge No. 7, Royal Arch Chapter of Jerusalem, at Chestertown, and was attached to Lodge No. 15, now Washington Lodge, No. g." It merged with Concordia in 1822.


There are no records of Concordia Chapter of earlier date than January io, 181o; but the same authority says: "The records of Concordia Lodge establish the fact that it was existing as early as 1804." He tells us The only degree mentioned is that of the Holy Royal Arch." The second record book commences March 8, 1816, and this "recites that the chapter was held in Concordia lodge‑room [old Watch House], and that it was attached to that Lodge," and " after being dormant some years, it resolved to revive and continue the labors of Concordia Royal Arch Chapter." A committee was appointed and secured for it a "`Charter of Recognition,' dated November 12, 1816, as Concordia Chapter, No. 5." This charter is "identical in language to the charter of recognition of Chapter No. 2," `1 and proves that Concordia Chapter was also instituted in 1797." "St. John's Chapter," our brother says, "was undoubtedly attached to St. John's Lodge, No. 34, and which was chartered by the Grand Lodge of Maryland." The Grand Chapter of Maryland and the District of Columbia, of 1807, reorganized November 9, 1814, is discussed under the head "District of Columbia," and nothing further need be said of it here than that the joint title, except from 1824 to 1853, was retained until 1869, when Maryland acquiesced and recognized the District of Columbia as a separate jurisdiction, and the Grand Chapter of Maryland became sole and supreme in the State.


Apart from anything we have said heretofore, of Grand Chapter jurisdiction in Maryland, we will now notice, very briefly, the claim somewhat recently made that an independent Grand Chapter existed in Maryland as early as 1797. We copy in part, a fac‑simile of a document, or dispensation, to Philip P. Eckel, and " sundry Royal Arch Masons," in Baltimore and vicinity, 618 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


empowering Eckel to "act as High Priest," "to assemble a sufficient number of companions, within the said city of Baltimore and there open and hold a chapter of Royal Arch Masons," etc., etc. ; said " instrument to be in force until the twenty‑second of June, next, and no longer " : ‑ " Witness the Seal of the Grand Chapter, of Royal Arch Masons for the State of Maryland. countersigned by the Grand Scribe, at Baltimore, this eighth day of May, in the year of Masonry Five Thousand Seven Hundred and Ninety‑Seven.


"Anno Domini, 1797. GEo. L, GRAY, Grand Scribe." This was issued by David Kerr, G. H. P. ; and Brother Schultz says that he was at the time " Grand Master, and by virtue of the power and control over the Royal Arch degree, believed to be inherent in Grand Masters, issued his dispensations for the formation of these several chapters which then, in connection with the chapter attached to Washington Lodge, formed June 24, 31797, the first independent Grand Chapter in the United States." This body, he says, became dormant about 1803.


Our brother quotes another paper, from " Lodge, No 7, Royal Chapter of Jerusalem or Lodge of Super‑Excellent Masons," certifying to certain brethren, and giving them " Power and authority to erect a Royal Chapter of Jerusalem or Lodge of Arch Masons, attached to No. 15, according to the established rules of the Royal Craft. Signed by the undermentioned Grand Officers, and countersigned by the Grand Secretary p.t., this 9th day of April, in the year 5897, Sealed with the Grand Seal. The. Duplessis, G. M. Z.; Pere Lethebury, G. M. H.; Edw'd Worrell, Sec'y, R. A. p.t." This Lodge No. 7 was warranted by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. We cannot reach the conclusion arrived at by Brother Schultz, that an " Independent Grand Chapter " existed in Maryland in 1 797.




If the documents quoted are relied upon to establish this, then we must, on equally good authority, accept the record of St. John's Lodge, No. z, made in Middletown, Connecticut, September r, "1783, and of Royal Arch Masonry 3783," that the six Royal Arch Masons who signed the preamble or introduction to the record of that date, "duly opened and held the first regular Grand Royal Arch Chapter," on the date above quoted.


Brother Schultz says, elsewhere: ‑ " But it is probable, that Royal Arch chapters were attached to most of the active lodges in the State. Hiram Lodge, No. 27, at Port Tobacco, as we have seen, resolved to open a Royal Arch chapter." This is confirmed by Philip P. Eckel, High Priest, of Concordia Chapter, October 24, r8o6, who said: "The necessity of a Grand Chapter must appear obvious, when we reflect that our chapters are held under the sanction of lodges." Without giving to this space which we cannot spare, we have to conclude, on the evidence presented, that the document to " Philip P. Eckel was the beginning of Concordia Chapter; that David Kerr, Grand Master, ex officio, THE C.4PITULAR DEGREES.


61g signed himself G. H. P., ‑ Grand High Priest, ‑ in harmony with the rule whereby chapters were attached to lodges ; that the word Grand, in these . several documents, was used as a form rather than a substance ; and that the authority intended to be conveyed was in the nature of certificates to Royal Arch Masons, that they might admit others to the degree, after the manner practised in Lodges No. 155, and No. 210, in working the Mark degree, in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1786 ; in Washington, "Mother," Chapter, of New York, in 1791 to 1796 [see its warrant] ; and, finally, that the action taken .in Concordia Chapter, in Baltimore, October 24, 1806, and the document quoted, as of that date by Brother Schultz, and signed by Philip P. Eckel, High Priest, were acts preliminary to the " first independent Grand Chapter " in Maryland, to wit: The Grand Chapter of Maryland and District of Columbia, organized January 21, 1807.


Massachusetts. ‑The opening record of this body bears date of March 13, 1798, under the title : " Deputy Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Massachusetts." The last meeting under this title was a " special " on April 2, 1799 ; and on September 17, 1799, the title, which has been retained ever since, appears, to wit: " Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Massachusetts." The records of this body, from 1798 to 1860, having been printed, we refer to that volume, and limit our notice here. The Royal Arch degree was conferred for the first time in Massachusetts, so far as known, August 28, 1769, in St. Andrew's Chapter, called " Royal Arch Lodge " for a few years; under sanction of the charter of St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 82, Registry of Scotland.


From its first record, of August 12, 1769, until 1788, the title, "Royal Arch Master," was used. In 1789 William McKean became High Priest. This brother was present as a Royal Arch Mason and Knight Templar August 28, 1769, and continued with the chapter until his death, in 1820. King Cyrus Chapter, of Newburyport, having a charter dated July 9, 1790, and St. Andrew's Chapter, by their duly appointed representatives, organized this Grand Chapter, as stated, March 13, 1798. Its annual meetings have been held without a single omission; special ones have been frequent; and, since 1847, quarterly meetings have been held regularly.


Its history is one of singular fidelity and loyalty to Freemasonry, and especially so to the high purposes of Royal Arch Masonry. Influential at home and respected abroad, it has been honored by the General Grand Chapter in electing three of her Past Grand High Priests to the high office of General Grand High Priest, to wit : Benjamin Hurd, Jr., in 1806 ; Paul Dean, in 1847, 1850, and 1853 ; and Alfred F. Chapman, in 1883.


Since the original Convention to organize the General Grand Chapter was held in Boston, the Triennial Convocations of 1838 and of 185o~were held in that city.


Michigan. ‑ Dispensations were granted by the General Grand High Priest 620 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


for Monroe Chapter, in Detroit, December 3, 1818 ; for St. Joseph's Valley Chapter, in Niles, May 16, 1844; for Jackson, No. 3, in Jackson, both by the Deputy General Grand High Priest; date in the latter case not given: but charters were granted September 1 i, 1819, for the first; September 14, 1847, for the second; and September 16, 1847, for the third, by vote of the General Grand Chapter. Permission was given by the General Grand Scribe, in January, 1848 ; and the Grand Chapter of Michigan was regularly organized March 18, 1848.


The Masonic ability displayed in this Grand Chapter has been of the highest character, and this has been conspicuously recognized by the longcontinued approval of the Craft in the American system. The Triennial Convocation of 188o was held in Detroit, the Mother City of Royal Arch Masonry in Michigan.


Minnesota. ‑ The General Grand Chapter granted a dispensation, by vote to Minnesota Chapter, No. 1, September 17, 185 3 ; chartered, by same authority, September 11, 185 6. The General Grand High Priest gave dispensations for Vermillion Chapter, No. 2, in Hastings, June 20, 185 7 ; and for St. Anthony Falls Chapter, No. 3, in St. Anthony, January 5, 1858. Charters were voted to the second and third of these, September 14, 1859. Under authority from Albert G. Mackey, G. G. H. P., dated December 1, 1859, a convention of these three chapters was held in St. Paul, December 17, 1859. A constitution was adopted, and the Grand Chapter of Minnesota was regularly organized.


The first Grand High Priest was A. T. C. Pierson, a Freemason of conspicuous ability, who achieved a national reputation in every grade of Freemasonry in the American Rite.


It was voted to hold the Triennial Convocation of the General Grand Chapter in Minneapolis in 1891.


Mississippi. ‑The organization of the first lodge in Mississippi was by charter from the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, followed by two other lodges, under the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, and the organization of the Grand Lodge in July and August, 1818. This gives authority for saying that Royal Arch Masonry began in the State under authority from the General Grand Chapter, by DeWitt Clinton, G. G.H.P., who, in 1826, had granted a dis pensation for Port Gibson Chapter. This was confirmed by a charter granted September 15, 1826. Dispensations for chapters were subsequently granted by the Deputy General Grand High Priest: for Vicksburg, in Vicksburg, June 17, 1840 ; chartered September 17, 1841 : by General Grand High Priest, for Wilson, in Holly Springs, October 30, 1841 ; by Deputy General Grand High Priest, for Columbus, in Columbus, February 7, 1842 ; and Jackson, in Jackson, August 28, 1843 ; charters for these three were granted September 12, 1844.


The Deputy reported, in 1847, that he had given dispensations for Carrollton Chapter, in Carrollton; and Yazoo Chapter, in Yazoo County. Charter to THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


621 Carrollton was granted September 17, 1847. It appears that a charter had been granted for Natchez Chapter, No. i, Natchez, at a period antedating all others in Mississippi ; but, at the session of 1847, this was reported `| lost." On September 16, 1847, " a certified copy of the original charter of Natchez Chapter, No. 1," was granted by vote to said chapter with the explanation, that "the present General Grand Officers" were not the same as those in office at the time the lost charter was originally granted.


By permission of the Deputy General Grand High Priest, dated March 12, 1846, the chapters met in convention, and organized the Grand Chapter of Mississippi, May 18, 1846. A comparison of the above dates with other facts shows that the General Grand Chapter legislated concerning chapters in Mississippi after the Grand Chapter was formed; but this action was in con firmation of former work. At the session of 1847, moneys were returned to Natchez, and to Vicksburg Chapters, to the amount of one hundred dollars to each, evidently for dues that should have been paid to the Grand Chapter.


The relations of the Grand Chapter with the General Grand Chapter were interrupted by the war period ; but these were resumed as of old. Representatives attended the session of 1868, and these have continued to manifest the ability characteristic of the Fraternity in Mississippi.


Missouri. ‑ Under the Constitution of the General Grand Chapter, dispensations and charters for chapters were granted and confirmed, as follows Missouri, No. r, Missouri Territory, but in St. Louis, April 3, 1819 ; charter, September 16, 1826: Palmyra, No. 2, Palmyra, prior to September, 1838; charter by Grand Chapter of Missouri, October 16, 1847: Liberty, No. 3, Liberty, April 18, 1842 ; Weston, No. 4, Weston, January 17, 1843; Lafayette, No. 5, Fayette, May 13, 1843 ; Booneville, No. 6, Booneville, March 3, 1843 ; charters to NOS. 3, 4, 5, and 6, September 11, 1844: Hannibal, No. 7, Hannibal; and St. Louis, No. 8, St. Louis, prior to September, 1847, as charters were voted to these two September 17, 184 Delegates from the chapters numbered 1, 2, 5, and 6 assembled in St. Louis, and organized the Grand Chapter of Missouri, October 16, 1846.


It does not appear that prior consent had been granted by any General Grand Officer of authority to do so, although the General Grand Secretary reported that he had been notified to the contrary by the Grand Secretary of the new Grand Chapter. It being apparent that the Missouri companions acted in good faith, the Grand Chapter was relieved of all irregularities, and fully recognized, by General Grand Chapter, September 16, 184 It was also settled that the Chapters U. D., in Missouri, should pay dues only to October 16, 1846. This Grand Chapter has been represented in every session of the General Grand Chapter held since it was organized, except in 1874 and 1886. The Triennial Session of 1868 was held in St. Louis.


Montana. ‑While this was yet a Territory, dispensations, confirmed by charters for chapters, had been granted by the General Grand Chapter as 622 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


follows: Virginia City, No. 1, July 14, 1866; Helena, No. 2, Helena, Decem. ber, 1867 ; charter to each, September 18, 1868: Deer Lodge, No. 3, Butte City, October 1o, 1874; charter, November 25, 1874: Valley, No. 4, Deer Lodge City, July 22, 188o; charter, August 27, 188o: Yellowstone, No. 5, Miles City, January 2, 1866 ; Billings, No. 6, Billings, May 6, 1886 ; Livingston, No. 7, Livingston, July 15, 1886 ; charters to each of these three, October 1, 1886: Dillon, No. 8, Dillon; dispensation, January 15, 1887: and Great Falls, No. 9, Great Falls, March 13, 1889 ; charter to each, November 22, 1889.


Nebraska. ‑ Dispensations were granted, and subsequently confirmed by charters : for Omaha Chapter, No. 1, Omaha, Nebraska Territory, November 21, 1859 ; Key‑stone Chapter, No. 2, Nebraska City, January 25, 186o; Nebraska Chapter, No. 3, Plattsmouth ; all chartered September 8, 1865. On February 14, 1867, the Deputy General Grand High Priest gave permission, a convention of chapters was held, and the Grand Chapter of Nebraska was regularly organized, March i9, 1867. The Grand Chapter has been among the most zealous in diffusing Masonic information, and in promoting the general welfare of Royal Arch Masonry.


Nevada. ‑ Chapters were established in Nevada by dispensations, confirmed by charters, as follows: Lewis, Carson City, May, 1863 ; charter, September 8, 1865 : Virginia City, Virginia City, September 8, 1865 ; charter, September 18, 1868 : Austin, Austin, October, 1866 ; charter, September 18, 1868: White Pine, No. 4, Hamilton, January 1o, 1871 ; charter, September 20, 1871. The General Grand High Priest gave the letter of authority, dated November 1, 1871. A convention of the four chapters was held, and the Grand Chapter was regularly organized November 18, 1873.


New Hampshire. ‑The printed proceedings [Session of 1816] of the General Grand Chapter show, that the " General Grand King " had granted "warrants or charters ": for St. Andrew's Chapter, Hanover, January 27, 1807; Trinity Chapter, Hopkinton, February 16, 1807 ; Washington Chapter, Portsmouth, November, 1815 ; Cheshire Chapter, Keene, May 4, 1816; all of which was ratified June 7, 1816.


The‑General Grand Chapter being duly notified by "John Harris," that the Grand Chapter of New Hampshire had been " formed and organized," on June 1o, 1819, action was taken to recognize said Grand Chapter, "under the jurisdiction of this General Grand Chapter." Additional notice was taken of this in 1826, that it had been " legally and constitutionally formed." The General Grand High Priest granted a "warrant" : for Union Mark Lodge, No. i, in Claremont, April 3, 1819 ; but this passed under the jurisdiction of the Grand Chapter.


New Jersey. ‑Warrants were granted: for Cincinnati Mark Lodge, No. 1, Hanover, in April, 18 ; and for Union Mark Lodge, No. 2, in Orange, in July, 1812 ; and these were confirmed in 1816. The General Grand Scribe gave dispensation, for Washington Chapter, No. 1, in Newark, May z6, 1813.




623 This dispensation was renewed by Thomas Smith Webb, D. G. G. H. P., June q, 18 ; and General Grand Chapter ordered a charter September 11, 1819. DeWitt Clinton issued a dispensation for Franklin Chapter, No. 3, reported September 16, 1826, without date, but charter was granted. Clinton also gave permission to form a Grand Chapter, and this was recognized in 1826. It was shown in report to General Grand Chapter, September 1o, 1819, in forming a Grand Chapter in New Jersey, that there were "Two Royal Arch chapters in the State, under the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter, and one under Pennsylvania, which does not acknowledge the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter." Consequently a Grand Chapter could not be formed until there were three chapters acknowledging this jurisdiction.


Little, if anything, is said of this body subsequently. The cultivation of Royal Arch Masonry in the State was not flattering; but we quote a resolution, adopted in General Grand Chapter, September 17, 184 1 : ‑ " Resolved, That Hiram Chapter, at Trenton, be advised to place itself under the jurisdiction of the Grard Chapter of the State of New York, and that said Grand Chapter be advised to legalize the proceedings of Hiram Chapter subsequent to the dissolution of the Grand Chapter of New Jersey." On March 13, 1848, the Deputy General Grand High Priest granted dispensations for Union Chapter, No. 1, and on March 20, 1848, for Newark Chapter, No. 2, both in Newark; and charters were voted to them Septemher 17, 185o. This was executed in part only; for on September 17, 1853, it appeared that Newark, No. 2, had been merged into Union Chapter, and no further action was required.


In 1856, Union Chapter, No. 1, in Newark, was "the only regularly chartered chapter, immediately subordinate t4 the General Grand Chapter," in the State.


On September 3, 1854, the General Grand King had dispensated Enterprise Chapter, No. 2, in Jersey City. The General Grand High Priest had done the same for Boudinot Chapter, No. 5, in Burlington; and charters for these two were voted September 11, 185 6.


As early as July, 1853, Hiram Chapter, No. 4, had asked of New York to be transferred to the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter. This request came to the latter body, was recognized by the General Grand High Priest, and confirmed by General Grand Chapter. Hiram Chapter, No. 4, first in Trenton, was released from the Grand Chapter of New York, November 14, 1854, and received a new charter from the General Grand Chapter, September 11, 1856, as Hiram Chapter, No. 4, in Eatontown.


On application by Chapters NOS. 2, 4, and 5, the General Grand High Priest gave approval on January 24, 1857; and the Grand Chapter of New Jersey was regularly organized February 13, 185 7. It has been honorably represented at all succeeding Triennial Sessions of the General Grand Chapter.




New Mexico.‑Chapters in this Territory were established by the General Grand Chapter, as follows: Santa Fd, No. i, Santa F6, December i i, 1865 ; charter, September 18, 1868 : Silver City, No. 2, Silver.City, February 22, 1876; charter, August 24, 1877: Las Vegas, No. 3, Las Vegas, March 1o, 1881 ; Rio Grande, No. 4, Albuquerque, January 12, 1882 ; charters to each, August 15, 1883: Deming, No. 5, Deming, February 28, 1885 ; charter. October 1, 1886.


New York. ‑We have nothing before us to show when the Royal Arch degree first appeared in New York. We shall assume, however, that the degree was conferred under lodge charters, as practised in England. On September 5, 1781, a warrant was issued by the Duke of Athol, appointing Rev. William Walter, Provincial Grand Master, with power to open a Provin cial Grand Lodge in the city of New York. Robert Macoy says that the first meeting of this Grand Lodge was held December 5, 1782. There were nine lodges then in the city, and six military lodges connected with the British Army. In view of the known custom, the Royal Arch degree could not have been unknown to all of these, and we must infer that Washington Chapter, styled the || Mother Chapter," had its origin in this Grand Lodge, if not in one or more of the fifteen lodges.


We have noticed this chapter, in speaking of Connecticut, but repeat, so far as to say that its early records were destroyed by fire in New York, so its origin is unknown. We have seen, however, that it granted warrants for chapters through' a series of years ; the earliest known being that of Hiram in Newtown, Connecticut, dated April 29, 1791.


The records of the Grand Chapter of New York show that it was organized by the following chapters: Hudson, of Hudson; Temple, of Albany; Horeb, of Whitestown ; Hibernian, of New York; and Montgomery, of Stillwater. Of these chapters, Hudson was instituted in 1796 ; Temple Chapter, February 14, 1797, in which Thomas Smith Webb was a prominent figure. We have no dates as to the others. Nevertheless, representatives from these five assembled in Albany, and established the Grand Chapter o New York, March 14, 1798. At the outset Mark lodges were recognized, warrants to erect them and chapters were granted, and the body prospered. In 1820 thirty‑six chapters and three Mark lodges were represented in Grand Chapter; in 1829, fiftyfive chapters reported ; in 1839 and 1840 the attendance of thirteen only was reported; after which improvement is observable ; in 1853 sixty‑one chapters are reported on the roll, and prosperity has elevated this as the largest State Grand Chapter in America.


Aside from the Anti‑Masonic depression, the Grand Chapter has had its share of internal troubles ; these have been treated with discretion, and in the interests of the Rite.


The Grand body was organized with DeWitt Clinton, Deputy Grand High Priest; Thomas Frothingham, Deputy Grand King; Jedediah Sanger, Deputy THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


625 Grand Scribe; John Hammer, Deputy Grand Secretary, and Thomas Smith Webb, Deputy Grand Treasurer, in the order given. In 1799 Clinton was Grand High Priest, .and Webb, Deputy Grand High Priest, the highest office to which the latter attained in Grand Chapter. It may be added here that Webb became Deputy General Grand High Priest, but never was General Grand ,High Priest, as stated by Brother Schultz, in his Maryland Chapter History.


The General Grand Chapter held its sessions of 1816, 1819, 1826, 1829, and 1841 in the city of New York. DeWitt Clinton was elected General Grand High Priest, 1816‑1826; Edward Livingston, 1829‑1835 ; John L. Lewis, 1865 ; James M. Austin, 1868; and David F. Day, in 1889: all being Past Grand High Priests of New York. This of itself speaks in praise of the men and of the companions of the jurisdiction.


North Carolina. ‑ It is generally agreed that a Grand Chapter was established in North Carolina on June 22, 1822, that it existed for a number of years, and finally became dormant. It existed in 1826, and was one of the Grand Chapters that concurred in the resolution, of the Grand Chapter of Kentucky, in favor of dissolving the General Grand Chapter.


This latter body had authorized the erection of chapters, by dispensations, confirmed by charters as follows : Phoenix, in Fayetteville, September 1, 1815 ; Concord, in Wilmington, 1815 ; charters to each, June 7, 18 16 : Wadesborough, Wadesborough, 1822 ; charter, September 15, 1826.


We hazard the suggestion that these three chapters, one being U. D., formed a Grand Chapter, and that its defective title was consequent upon a corresponding administration of affairs in the then General Grand Secretary's office, not made apparent until soon after 1826.


During the session of 1847, Charles Gilman, General Grand Secretary, showed in his report that such a body had been a constituent of the General Grand Chapter, but had ceased to exist about twenty years prior. He reported chapters in Halifax, Tarborough, Fayetteville, and Wilmington, not in correspondence with the General Grand Chapter, though he thought most, if not all of them, were instituted under its immediate jurisdiction. Of these facts he had obtained knowledge too recently for investigation. It was shown also that three of these chapters had assembled on June 28, 1847, and organized a Grand Chapter. Means were taken to cure defects, so that the body might come under the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter.


This Grand Chapter was represented in the Triennial Convocations of 1850 and 1856. In 1857 it withdrew its allegiance, and this was continued until the session of 1871, when it reappeared by its representatives, in allegiance to the General Grand Chapter.


Ohio. ‑ The movement to organize a Grand Chapter in Ohio was started in Cincinnati Chapter, which body asked the chapters then in the State to meet at Worthington, on October 21, 1816. This resulted in organizing and formally opening the Grand Chapter of Ohio, on October 24, 1816.




Of the chapters concerned, Washington, at Chilicothe, held by dispensation from the General Grand Scribe, granted September 20, 1815 ; charter confirmed in 1816, by General Grand Chapter. On the second day of the meeting a committee to examine credentials reported as follows : ‑ " On examination it appears that American Union Chapter, of Marietta; originated in the year 1792; that Cincinnati Chapter existed prior to the 27th of January, 1798; that Horeb Chapter had authority from the Deputy Grand High Priest of the State of Maryland and District of Columbia, dated 8th March, 1815, which Grand Chapter is in connection with the General Grand Chapter of the United States." And this was followed by the names of the representatives.


Thomas Smith Webb, Deputy General Grand High Priest, under date of September 28, 1816, and writing from Cincinnati, gave a letter of approval, referring in it to the General Grand Constitution, which did not apply to chapters existing prior to January 27, 1798. Thus encouraged, the Grand Chapter was organized as above written, and the chapters were given rank as follows: American Union, No. i ; Cincinnati, No. 2 ; Horeb, No. 3 ; Washington, No. 4. The first regulation adopted was: ‑ "This Grand Chapter acknowledges the authority of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States, and of the General Grand Royal Arch Constitution." On September 9, 1819, the General Grand Chapter voted to receive the Grand Chapter of Ohio into the union under its jurisdiction.


It is worthy of note that American Union Lodge was organized in Roxbury, in Massachusetts. On going West, some of its members carried the charter with them, and reopened the lodge, and thus arose American Union Chapter. Cincinnati Lodge originally held by charter from New Jersey, September 8, 1791, and thus arose Cincinnati Chapter.


The General Grand Chapter held its Triennial Convocations of 1847 and 1865 in Columbus, Ohio.


Oregon. ‑ Dispensations, subsequently confirmed by charters, granted by the General Grand Chapter, were issued to organize chapters as follows Multomah, No. 1, in Salem, May 3, 1856; charter, September 11, 1856: Clackamas, No. z, Oregon City, December 17, 185 7 ; charter, September 14, 1859: Portland, No. 3, Portland, January 1, 1859 ; charter, September 14, 1859.


The Grand Chapter of Oregon was organized September i8, i86o. Very little was heard of this body in General Grand Chapter during and for some time after the war period. It established, by dispensation, a chapter in Idaho City, Idaho, June 18, 1867, "under the impression that the General Grand Chapter had virtually ceased to exist." This being made to appear at the Triennial Session of 1865, also, that all parties had acted without sufficient information, but in good faith, the General Grand Chapter legalized the proceedings, and granted a charter to Idaho Chapter, No. i, Idaho Territory, September 18, 1868.




627 The Grand Chapter of Oregon has been borne upon the roll of the General Grand Chapter since its organization. It first appeared in the printed proceedings in 1865. Its great distance from the places of meeting, and the cost of travel, interfered with its being represented in General Grand Chapter, until 188o.


Pennsylvania.‑In 1758 the Grand Lodge of England, "Ancients," issued warrants for Lodges Nos. z, and 3, the latter being styled "Royal Arch Lodge No. 3 "‑both to meet in Philadelphia.


The records do not show when the latter commenced to work, but it initiated, "with the first step of Masonry," October aa, 1767. It is not so clear when it first worked the Royal Arch degree, but the historian of the chapter, in February, 1883, quoted to the effect, that a brother, "connected with the army, and made in 1759 by our Brothers Maine, Woodward, and Ledly, all Royal Arch Masons," was proposed for membership, on December 3, 1767 He also said: ‑ " Royal Arch Lodge, No. 3, had the following furniture for conferring the Royal Arch degree: an Arch, the Veils, two Triangles, a Pedestal with lid, two floor Cloths, three Crowns, three Sceptres, two Coronets, and one Mitre." The chapter adopted its first by‑laws, September 5, 1789, and these provided, that " No brother can be exalted until he has been at least three years a Master Mason, and has presided six months as Master of some regular warranted lodge, or has passed the Chair by dispensation," And for the first time the body is spoken of in these as a chapter. The new by‑laws created the following officers: High Priest, King, Scribe, Royal Arch Captain, First Grand Master, Second Grand Master, Third Grand Master, Treasurer, and Secretary.


The same historian, Charles E. Meyer, Past Grand High Priest, says: ‑ " About 1795 one James Molan appears, and claimed to be the only person in the city who knew the Royal Arch degree. He presented no credentials, but induced the Masters of Lodges Nos. 19, 52, and 67 to allow the use of their warrants for the purpose of opening chapters and a Grand Chapter. He elected a Grand High Priest, when the Grand Lodge interfered, suspended the warrants of the three lodges, and disbanded the pretended body." All this is shown in reprint of Grand Chapter proceedings. These charters were subsequently restored : ‑ "The Grand Lodge then proceeded to open the Grand Holy Royal Arch Chapter of Pennsylvania, under the immediate sanction of the Grand Lodge, on November 23, 1795‑" The Grand Lodge found that Molan was without credentials in any degree of Masonry, that he had misled worthy brethren, that he had no authority from any source, that his body necessarily was a pretended one, that all authority over Ancient York Lodges in Pennsylvania was vested in Grand Lodge, and that: ‑ 628 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


"Whereas, Since many years there has been established in this city [Philadelphia], according to ancient forms, a Royal Arch chapter, under the sanction of the warrant of Lodge No. 3, whose work has met with approbation of all visiting Royal Arch Masons from the different parts of the world; " And, whereas, The number of Royal Arch Masons is greatly increased, insomuch that other chapters are established in this city and other parts of Pennsylvania; " IL was jLnally resolved, " That a Grand Royal Arch Chapter be opened, under the immediate sanction of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania." In r8io Grand Chapter held that "Ancient Masonry consists of four degrees," and that a Master of a lodge, ‑ "On due trial and examination by the Chiefs of the chapter to which he shall have applied, and by them found worthy of being admitted to the Fourth degree,‑the Holy Royal Arch," etc.


On May 2o, x822, resolutions for reorganizing Grand Chapter were presented. A committee was appointed, the Grand Lodge received their application kindly, and appointed a committee of conference.


On January 5, 1824, a constitution previously agreed upon was amended and adopted; and this constitution was reported, in x864, to be the only "compact agreement or understanding, of any kind whatsoever," "entered into between the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter." The degrees of Mark Master and Most Excellent Master were styled Honorary degrees in this constitution. That of Past Master has been referred to. All of these were made preliminary to the Royal Arch, but warrants were to be granted for Mark Master's, and Most Excellent Master's lodges, and a certificate for each of these degrees was provided.


Up to 1824 the titles were: First Grand Chief, Second Grand Chief, Third Grand Chief, First Grand Master, Second Grand Master, Third Grand Master, Grand Holy Royal Arch Captain, Grand Secretary, and Grand Treasurer.


On May 24, 1824, " First Grand Chief presiding," the officers were elected, with the new titles of Grand High Priest, Grand King, Grand Scribe, Grand Captain of the Host, Grand Principal Sojourner, Grand Royal Arch Captain, Three Grand Masters, Grand Secretary, Grand Treasurer, Grand Chaplain, Grand Marshal, and two Grand Stewards.


Differing from all others it has no Deputy Grand High Priest; the Treasurer precedes the Secretary and follows after the Grand Scribe ; three Grand Masters of the Veils rank as above; then the "Grand Marshal, two Grand Masters of Ceremonies, a Grand Pursuivant, and a Grand Tyler." A charter granted under the present constitution includes the right to open Most Excellent, and Mark lodges, and these degrees are prerequisite to the Royal Arch.


The Grand Chapter of Pennsylvania has never been included in the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter. It still declines to come into the union of Grand Chapters, while the State Grand Commandery pursues a different policy, and is a constituent of the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of the United States.




629 In respect to territorial jurisdiction, it does not go beyond the boundaries of the State, but pursues the consistent course of non‑interference with General Grand Chapter, and this is respected accordingly.


The chapters in the State were given rank and precedence according to the date of their organization, if recognized as being in existence, real or inchoate, on January 5, 1824.


Rhode Island. ‑ We have no means of showing when or where the companions who organized Providence Royal Arch Chapter received the Royal Arch degree, even if this were essential. The charter of this chapter was originally given by Washington Chapter, " Mother," of New York, September 3, 1793, as previously stated. It took part in establishing the General Grand Chapter, and afterward in organizing the Grand Chapter of Rhode Island, on March 12, 1798.


This Grand body came into the union at once, and was an active constituent of the General Grand Chapter, until it was suggested by some of its leading members that the interruption consequent upon the war period had dissolved the latter body. This has had sufficient effect to prevent representation of the body in General Grand Chapter since.


Legislation by the latter denies the right to secede, but calmly leaves it for this venerable Grand Chapter to choose its position. It takes control of the Mark, Past, Most Excellent, and Royal Arch degrees, in the order as originally given in the charter of Providence Chapter.


It was in Providence, Rhode Island, session of January 9, and 10, 1799, that the title " General Grand " was established.


South Carolina.‑The proceedings of the Grand Chapter of New York show that it granted a warrant for Carolina Chapter, in Charleston,, South Carolina, on February 1, 1803. Apart from this we shall not attempt to go back of Unity Chapter to seek for the organization of Royal Arch Masonry in this State. At the session of i8o6 it was reported that the General Grand King, and General Grand Scribe had, "conjointly, issued a warrant for instituting Unity Chapter of Royal Arch Masons in the town of Beaufort, South Carolina"; and on January 9, 18o6, the General Grand Chapter voted that it be" confirmed and made permanent." The dispensation for Unity Chapter, Beaufort, was granted March 1, 1805.


The War of 1812 interfered to prevent the meeting ordered for that year, and it is evident that the business of the Rite was not always made a matter of record. The records of the General Grand Chapter give very little information concerning Royal Arch Masonry in the State prior to the organization of the Grand Chapter of South Carolina, which was done May 29, 1812.


This body was represented and recognized in the sessions of 1816, x826, and 1829. The Anti‑Masonic period stayed its progress; but it was again represented in 1844, and until 1859. Necessarily the War interrupted communication; but the fact that the Grand Chapter refused to withdraw its allegiance, 630 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


|| And during the whole of the rebellion, by a resolution adopted in 1861, the oath of office and of initiation have included allegiance to the General Grand Chapter," was stated with pride, in the sessions of 1862‑65, by Albert G. Mackey, General Grand High Priest, and Past Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter of South Carolina.


Tennessee. ‑A dispensation was granted by the General Grand High Priest, for Cumberland Chapter, in Nashville, Tennessee, dated March 2, 1818, and confirmed by charter, September 1 r, 18 19. Dispensations for chapters, subsequently confirmed by charters, were granted as follows : Franklin, Franklin; March 25, 1824; Clarksville, Clarksville, December 11, 1824; La Fayette, Columbia, January 5, 1825. These were each approved on September 15, 1826. The records of the General Grand Chapter say that " Charters were granted on the dates we have here placed after dispensations." It is evident that these several chapters were recognized as holding charter powers, as the Grand Chapter of Tennessee was reported in General Grand Chapter to have been legally and constitutionally formed, and it, with four other Grand Chapters, was recognized as regular, under the authority and sanction of this General Grand Chapter, on September 16, 1826, at which session it was represented.


The Grand Chapter was organized on, and takes precedence from, April 3, 1826. This confirmation will be better understood when it is borne in mind that the General Grand Constitution gave powers to the first four officers of the General Grand Chapter, to " institute new chapters," and the Constitu tion of 1829 changed this reading to " grant dispensations or charters." In the Constitution of 1853 the word "charters," in this connection, was omitted. This Grand Chapter has been highly influential in the interests of the Rite, and has been respected in General Grand Chapter accordingly.


The Triennial Session of 1874 was held in Nashville, and John Fri


ell, Past Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter, was elected General Grand High Priest in 1877.


Texas. ‑ The first notice of Royal Arch Masons in Texas, by the General Grand Chapter, was on September 8, 1835, when application was made, and on the next day a "warrant or charter" was granted for San Filipe de Austin Royal Arch Chapter, No. 1, in San Filipe de Austin. The removal of this chapter to Galveston, on June 2, 1840, was approved by General Grand Chapter in 1844.


At the session of 1847, Charles Gilman, General Grand Secretary, made a statement concerning unrecognized chapters in Texas, and this calls for examination.


It appears, by printed proceedings of the Grand Chapter of Texas, that ~~ Dugald McFarlane, a Scotch Mason, and ten or twelve other companions," organized a chapter, without warrant, about 1837, in Matagorda, and styled it Cyrus Chapter. Doubts arising as to their legality, they petitioned the Grand Lodge of Texas, in 1841, and the Grand Master, "John A. Greer, THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


631 Esquire, Grand Master of Free and Accepted Ancient York Masons, in the Republic of Texas, and the Masonic jurisdiction thereunto belonging," granted their petition, and a dispensation for Rising Star Chapter, in San Augustine, and another for Lone Star Chapter, in Austin, this last being dated December io, 1841.


These chapters appear in the proceedings as Cyrus, No. 1 ; Lone Star, No. a ; and Rising Star, No. 3. They at once held a convention, organized a Grand Chapter, adopted a constitution, and applied to Grand Lodge for sanction and full authority over Royal Arch Masonry. On December 23, 1841, the Grand Lodge, having received official information, ‑ "Resolved, That we surrender all jurisdiction over the said chapters and Royal Arch Masons, to the said Grand Royal Arch Chapter,‑they now being the appropriate head, and shou:d, of right, control and govern the same." This Grand Chapter asserted itself; but the General Grand Chapter of the United States refused to recognize it, holding it to be irregular, adopting resolutions to this effect in September, 1847 ; and forbidding all Royal Arch Masons, udder the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter, ‑ "To hold Masonic intercourse with the said so‑called Grand Chapter of Texas, its sui.ordinates, and those acknowledging the authority of said Grand Chapter." These resolutions were sent to the Grand Chapter of Texas, together with an expression of the " most fraternal feelings towards their companions in Texas." They were told that the General Grand Chapter " would hail with sincere pleasure an acknowledgment of their errors, and the retracing of their steps," as any other course would do harm to the common cause.


The result will be best told in language adopted by the Grand Chapter at its last convocation, held in January, 1849 : ‑ "The effect of the foregoing resolutions has been to cut off Royal Arch Masons in Texas from Masonic communication with companions in other portions of the Union. New chapters have been formed within the limits of this State, under charters emanating from the General Grand Chapter of the United States; and the members of these respective Chapters are mutually debarred from entering each other. Repeated and persevering efforts have been made, and an extensive correspondence carried on with the General Grand Secretary, for the purpose of settling this unhappy controversy, but without effect. It is not the purpose of your committee, nor would it be advisable to discuss at this time, the merits of the controversy. Your committee are decidedly of opinion, that for the sake of peace and harmony among the Craft, it is advisable for this Grand Chapter to concede to the demands of the General Grand Chapter, abandon the position it has assumed, and dissolve." Four resolutions followed : First, to donate to Grand Lodge of Texas, in trust, all property, the interest to be used for charitable purposes ; the principal to any "legally constituted Grand Royal Arch Chapter organized in the State of Texas," on demand. Second, subordinate chapters were advised to pursue a similar course to subordinate lodges. Third, ‑ "Resolved, That on the 1st day of March, A.D. r849, A.L. 5849, this Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons,of Texas dissolve," COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


The fourth made it the duty of the Grand Secretary, A. S. Ruthven, transmit copies of the report and resolutions to the subordinate chapters Grand Officers.


We will now speak of other chapters established in Texas by the Gene Grand Chapter: Washington, No. 2, in Houston, May 5, 1848; Jerusale No. 3, in Anderson, March 10, 1849; Trinity, No. 4, in Crockett, March i 1849; Brenham, No. 5, in Brenham, April r4, 1849 ; Austin, No. 6, Austi April 14, 1849; San Jacinto, No. 7, Huntsville, January 22, 1850; Washing ton, No. 8, , 1850 (name of this changed to Brazos) ; Rising Star, No. 9 San Augustine, February 2, 1850. Joseph K. Stapleton, Deputy G. G. H: P, granted dispensation for No. z ; the others were by Willis Stewart, Gener Grand King.


Charters were granted September 14, 185o, for NOS. 2, 5, 6, 8, and 9 o these chapters, and the dispensations of Nos. 3, 4, and 7 were continued, with advice to obtain charters from the Grand Chapter of Texas, if one shout be organized before the session of 1853.


The name, Austin, No. 6, was changed to Lone Star, No. 6, September 17, 1850.


Immediately after the close of this session, the General Grand King granted permission, and the Grand Chapter of Texas was regularly organized December 30, 1850. It was represented in the sessions of General Grand Chapter in 1853, 1856, 1859, and has not been so represented since.


At the annual convocation, in June, 1861, the Grand Chapter of Texas, " Resolved, That all connection between this Grand Chapter and the General Grand Chapter of the United States is dissolved and forever annihilated by the separation of our State from that government." We shall only repeat, the right to secede from, or to dissolve connection with, the Gelaeral Grand Chapter, is not permitted to any State Grand Chapter that has at any time been admitted into the Union of Grand Chapters; or, as judge English expressed it, |` admitted into the American Royal Arch Union." Utah.‑The General Grand Chapter established chapters in Utah Territory, as follows: Utah, No. 1, Salt Lake City, December 13, 1872; charter, November 25, 18 74: Ogden, No. 2, Ogden, March i i, 188 1 ; Ontario, No. 3, Park City, October 26, 1882 ; charter, to each, August 15, 1883 Vermont. ‑When the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the Northern States of America adopted the Constitution, on January 26, 1798, it reserved, in Section 18, the sole power of granting charters for opening chapters in Vermont, and New Hampshire, until a Deputy Grand Chapter should be established within those States.


The records of the Grand Chapter of New York say that it granted a warrant for a Mark Master Masons' lodge at Bennington, on January 30, 1799. Further reference to these records show that the Deputy Grand High Priest granted a dispensation for Jerusalem Chapter, in Vergennes, Vermont, on March 25, 1805, and Grand Chapter a charter on February 5, 18o6.




633 We here repeat, what seems to be concurred in, that a Grand Chapter was formed in Vermont, on December 20, 1804; but we are not told where Royal Arch Masonry entered the State, nor of its first introduction there.


Referring again to the proceedings of the Grand Chapter of New York, it will be seen that, in February, `1805, the subject of a Grand Chapter in Vermont was considered, when the opinion was expressed that there " ought to be at least three regular Royal Arch chapters to form a Grand Chapter," and it was further said: ‑ "Your committee have had authentic evidence from respectable sources that there were but three members at the formation of the aforesaid [Vermont] Grand Chapter." This was followed by disapproval, and a recommendation " to persons engaged therein to desist" from trying to form a Grand Chapter in Vermont. Notwithstanding this, the General Grand Chapter, on January 9, 18o6, ‑ "Resolved, That this General Grand Chapter deems it advisable, under a consideration of all the circumstances attending the formation of a Grand Royai Arch Chapter in the State of Vermont, to admit, and they do hereby admit, the said Grand Chapter of Vermont into an union with us under the General Grand Royal Arch Constitution." Under the pressure of Anti‑Masonry, this body held its last annual convocation in 1832, Nathan B. Haswell being then Grand High Priest. He also attended the Triennial Convocation of 1832. At the session of 1844, this zealous companion said that the Anti‑Masonic spirit had nowhere gained so strong a foothold as in Vermont, and concluded with the assurance that the fidelity of the brethren and companions of Vermont had never been shaken. This companion summoned three chapters, which had resumed labor, to assemble at Burlington, to reorganize the Grand Chapter. Jerusalem Chapter, No. z, was revived by dispensation from the General Grand Scribe, in February, 1848, without charge. The Grand Lodge of Vermont began to revive in 1847, and the Grand Chapter of Vermont shows that the revived chapters had done so by dispensations, soon following this revival, from the General Grand Chapter. Under sanction of Joseph K. Stapleton, Deputy General Grand High Priest, given to Companion Haswell, the Grand Chapter was reorganized on July 18, 1849.


The three chapters taking part in reorganizing were Jerusalem, No. 2, at Vergennes ; Burlington, No. 12, at Burlington; and La Fayette, No. 15, at East Berkshire.


Champlain Chapter, in St. Albans, petitioned Grand High Priest Haswell for renewal, in October, 1849, and this was granted.


On June 19, 1850, an attested copy of the original charter of Champlain Chapter was produced in Grand Chapter, with proof that the original charter had been lost by fire. Under a rule relating to dormant chapters, Champlain paid $25, was revived, and represented at this Grand convocation.


The Grand High Priest named ten other chapters in the State, not then revived. Since then the Grand Chapter has had in its ranks some of the 634 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


ablest of American Masons, worthy successors of Nathan B. Haswell, a Grand High Priest of the highest character.


The Grand Chapter was represented in the subsequent Triennial Sessions of the General Grand Chapter, until, in 186o, it passed what the General Grand High Priest, in 1871, termed a " resolution of secession." On the i 6th day of June, this same officer was informed, by telegraphic dispatch, that the resolution was rescinded. The Grand Chapter was represented in the Triennial Session of 1871, and has continued to be harmonious and prosperous, in the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter, and represented in the Triennial Convocations.


Virginia. ‑ It is said that Royal Arch Masonry was introduced into Virginia "under the auspices of Joseph Myers." If this were so, the date may be surmised with tolerable exactness. Our own thought runs in another channel. The convention of six lodges which met at Williamsburg, Virginia, on May 6, 1777, to choose a Grand Master, included Cabin Point Royal Arch Lodge. This lodge was chartered by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, April 5, 1775, for Cabin Point, and named as stated. Inasmuch as the words " Royal Arch" in connection with " Lodge " have, in known cases, included the conferring of the Royal Arch degree, we conclude that the introduction of Royal Arch Masonry into Virginia, under a Masonic organization, was clearly with this lodge.


In course of completing the business of this convention, it was shown', that lodges in Virginia were working under five distinct authorities, to wit: England, Scotland, Ireland, Pennsylvania, and America; the last said to be at second‑hand.


In this enumeration there is ample authority for thinking that the Royal Arch degree was conferred under the warrant of more than one lodge ; and this is made certain by Dr. Dove, in his history of the Grand Chapter of Virginia, in the following language : ‑ " Royal Arch Masonry was taught and practised in this State during the latter part of the last century, under the authority of a Master's warrant, until the want of some specific legislation seemed evidently indicated for the internal government of the Royal Arch chapters which were then growing in number and increasing in members." The period of which Dr. Dove here spoke was the early part of 18o6, and to show that he was better qualified than any other person to speak with authority, we present the fact of his known intellectual ability, in connection with the record that he was present at every meeting of the Grand Chapter of Virginia from December 17, 1818, to December 17, 1868.


At another time, he shows us something of the ritual of the degree; when, in 187 a, discussing the matter of "substitutes," he said, " We have been in the constant use of them since 1792, and have as yet seen no evil result therefrom." In association with this, we quote Dr. Dove, on a much discussed degree, in State and General Grand Chapters, namely, the degree of Past Master, in THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


635 the Chapter series, whereof he said : " It has been practised by us in Virginia since. 1790." Whatever may have been the complete ritual under lodge warrants, it was practised until 1820.


On January 7, 1820, in Grand Chapter, it was " Resolved, That our enlightened Companion James Cushman, H. P. of Franklin Chapter, No. , Connecticut, be requested to exemplify the mode of work at present adopted by the General Grand Chapter of the United States, it appearing from his credentials that he is fully competent." The degrees of Mark Master, Past Master, Most Excellent Master, and Royal Arch Mason were exemplified, as requested, on January 18, 1820, and, after "the most solemn deliberation," were adopted; and this, "that harmony and uniformity should prevail throughout the Masonic world, and more especially the United States." The old ritual covered the degrees of Excellent and Super‑Excellent.


A Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters was formed in Richmond, in 1820, but this ceased to exist on December 17, 189.1. The degrees controlled by it were by mutual agreement taken in control of the Grand Chapter under a series of resolutions, one of which will show all that need be said here : ‑ "Resolved, That hereafter the degrees in subordinate chapters be given in the following order, to wit: Mark Master, Past Master, Most Excellent Master, Royal Master, Select Master, and Royal Arch." In one of the early chapters of Virginia we meet again the word " Grand," but will not discuss it further.


On May 3, 1806, a convention was held in "Norfolk Borough," when it was shown that it had been proposed by the "Grand United Chapter of Excellent and Super‑Excellent Masons of Norfolk to the Royal Arch chapters of Richmond, Staunton, and Dumfries to establish a Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter for the State of Virginia," and this was done on May 1, 1808. This was without reference to, or in association with, the General Grand Chapter of the United States, from which body it has always held aloof, and maintained an individual existence. The Supreme Grand Chapter claimed the right to organize chapters in territory not occupied by a State Grand Chapter, and did establish two in Florida: Magnolia Chapter, No. 16, at Apalachicola, and Florida Chapter, No. 32, at Tallahassee; and these two took part in organizing the Grand Chapter of Florida, in 1847.


When it was sought to organize the Grand Chapter of West Virginia, the Grand Chapter of Virginia adhered to the rule set up by the Grand Lodge of the State : ‑ "That the political boundaries of a State being definitely given and decided upon, fixes the Masonic jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of that State, except in so far as rights may have vested under charters theretofore lawfully issued." It then had nine chapters in West Virginia, but either or all of these char ters could be formally surrendered. It agreed, also, to the rule of Grand 636 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


Lodge, not to organize any new chapters in West Virginia after the Grand Chapter of that State should be established, it being understood that the latter should observe the same restrictions toward Virginia.


A further clause in Grand Lodge rules carried a recommendation to surrender the old or original charters, and take new ones under the new Grand body.


The relations of this Grand Chapter with other State Grand Chapters are of the most fraternal character. As to uniting with the General Grand Chapter, majority and minority reports have been presented and discussed in the Grand Chapter of Virginia, with the result, "that it is not expedient to unite." The General Grand Chapter, however, respects the territorial jurisdiction of the Grand Chapter, as bounded by State lines ; and that body, aside from its detached existence, maintains correspondingly good relations with the General Grand Chapter.


Washington. ‑Dispensation was granted November 1, 1869, for Seattle Chapter, No. i, in Seattle, and on February 13, 1871, for Walla Walla Chapter, No. z, in Walla Walla; charters granted these two, September 20, 1871. From internal causes the former did not succeed; its charter was suspended in 1874, and declared forfeited at the Triennial Session of 1880. At the request of Walla Walla Chapter, its number was then changed to No. 1.


Dispensation was granted for Spokane Chapter, No. 2, Spokane Falls, November 1, 1881 ; for Seattle, No. 3, Seattle, January 2, 1883 ; and charters for these two, on August 15, 1883 A preliminary convention was held in Spokane Falls, on June 6, and 7, 1884. The General Grand High Priest held that the letter of approval should have preceded the holding of a convention, and gave the authority to hold a convention in Walla Walla, on October 2, 1884. Three chapters being represented, they then and there organized the Grand Chapter of Washington. A dispensation had been granted for Tacoma Chapter, No. 4, May io, 1884, by the General Grand High Priest; but this chapter passed to the jurisdiction of the Grand Chapter.


West Virginia. ‑ Following the erection of the State of West Virginia, and the delay because of the war, the Grand Lodge of West Virginia was finally established, on May 11, 1865, although a series of convention assemblies had been held, looking to the event, commencing December 28, 1863.


All the Masonic bodies in the State held charters from Grand bodies in Virginia, the Mother State, and were organized under certain restrictions imposed by the Grand Lodge of Virginia, as mentioned in the item, " Virginia." In 1870 there were in West Virginia nine chapters, of obedience to the Grand Chapter of Virginia, and the movement to form a separate Grand Chapter began in Wheeling Union Chapter, No. i9, in Wheeling. This chapter issued a Memorial, loyal in tone to 11 Mother " Grand Lodge, and Grand THE CAPITULAR DEGREES.


637 Chapter, but seeking permission to organize a Grand Chapter for the State. This memorial was approved by Jerusalem Chapter, No. 55, in Parkersburg, on November 17, 1870; by Star of the West Chapter, No. 18, at Point Pleasant, on November z1, 1870 ; and by Nelson Chapter, No. 26, at Morgantown, November 30, 1870. It was passed upon in Grand Chapter of Virginia, in December, 1870, and consent was given "upon the same terms and conditions, and with the same limitations, as the consent of the Grand Lodge of Virginia was given to the formation of a Grand Lodge for the State of West Virginia." A convention was held in Wheeling, November 16, 1871, in which appeared delegates from the four chapters above named and from Lebanon Chapter, No. g, at Martinsburg. The sense of the convention was expressed in a resolution, "to now organize a Grand Royal Arch Chapter for the State of West Virginia." This was done, and the Grand Officers were installed by Most Excellent John P. Little, Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter of Virginia, who also warned the companions against a union with the General Grand Chapter, and this warning has been closely observed. He further told the Grand Chapter that it had " full authority to confer the degrees of Mark Master, Past Master, Select and Royal Masters, Most Excellent Master, and Royal Arch." Wisconsin. ‑ Dispensation was granted by the Deputy General Grand High Priest: for Milwaukee Chapter, No. 1, in Wisconsin Territory, February 16, 1844; for Washington, No. z, in Platteville, July a, 1844 ; and to Southport, No. 3, in Southport, date not given; but charters were granted to No. 1, September 1 r, 1844, and to Nos. z, and 3, on September 17, 1847.


Under date of January 1o, 1850, the Deputy General Grand High Priest gave authority, and a convention of delegates from the three chapters was held in Madison; and the Grand Chapter of Wisconsin was regularly organized on February 14, 1850.


The convention adopted a constitution for the Grand Chapter, and ordered it, together with the constitution of the General Grand Chapter, to be printed. It also authorized the Grand Secretary to procure a seal " for the use of this Grand Chapter." Joseph K. Stapleton, Deputy General Grand High Priest, acknowledged the receipt of the printed proceedings and Grand constitutions, and under date of July 5, 1859, at Baltimore, he authorized Argulus W. Stark to install the Grand Officers, and this was done on August 7, 1850.


We have to notice that this latter date is set clown as that when this Grand Chapter was organized. An examination of the proceedings of this body, date of February 14, 1850, shows that Grand Officers were elected, constitution and seal were adopted and ordered, and, lastly, that the Grand Sentinel of the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Wisconsin was chosen. The Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Wisconsin convened on August 7, 1850, "for the purpose of installing the officers of said Grand Chapter." COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


The death of Companion Stapleton occurred before the session of 1853, and this will account for the fact that mention of this Grand Chapter was not made in the printed proceedings of the General Grand Chapter until a later period.


Wyoming. ‑ Chapters were established by the General Grand Chapter in Wyoming, as follows: Wyoming No. 1, Cheyenne, December 27, 1869; chartered September zo, 1871: Evanston, No. z, Evanston, April 25, 1876; Lebanon, No. 3, Laramie City, March .15, 1877 ; charter to each, August 24, 1877: Garfield, No. 4, Rawlins, March 25, 1884; chartered October 1, 1886.


Chapters in Foreign Countries. ‑ On June 1o, 185 7, the General Grand High Priest granted a dispensation for Honolulu Chapter, No. 1, Honolulu, Sandwich Islands; and the General Grand Chapter voted a charter, September 14, 1859. The exhibit from this chapter shows that it should now have fifty‑seven members, with a possible loss or gain of one or two.


Key‑stone Chapter, No. 1, under the same authority, was granted a dispensation, July 27, 187o, and charter, September zo, 1871. The growth of this body is somewhat retarded by local causes. It depends considerably upon the merchant marine for candidates, but the tides serve to call the ships oceanward at hours when it is inconvenient to meet. The chapter, however, has twenty‑nine zealous members, as appears in the returns of 1889, to the General Grand Chapter.


King Cyrus Chapter, established in Valparaiso, Chili, by charter, September 8, 1865, maintained a poor existence for some years, as also did St. John's Chapter, established by dispensation in May, 1863, and a charter, September 8, 1868, at Smyrna, Turkey. The General Grand Chapter took final action towards these two on August 27, 188o, and "Resolved, That the charters of Cyrus Chapter, at Valparaiso, Chili, and St. John's Chapter, at Smyrna, Turkey, both subordinate to this General Grand Chapter, be declared forfeited, and that their titles be dropped from the Registry of subordinate chapters." THE ORDER OF HIGH PRIESTHOOD.


Txis is an Honorary degree, and includes a system of initiation, limited to Royal Arch Masons who have been regularly elected as High Priests, to preside over Royal Arch chapters.


The General Grand Chapter discussed it in 1853, to the effect that the legitimate powers of a Council of High Priests must be left to the decision of those who are in possession of the Order, but failed to agree that it had no authority to enter upon the investigation of the question, an opinion held by Dr. Mackey.


A resolution was read: "That it is not within the province or the control of this General Grand Chapter, or of any State Grand Chapter, to define the ORDER OF HIGH PRIESTHOOD.


639 duties or powers of a Council of High Priests." This evidently caused debate, but the members seemed to be content to table the question. Indeed, the treatment of the subject indicated a preference for having the High Priests receive the " Order," but that it was not essential.


The action taken by General Grand Chapter, on qualifications of Past Masters, indicates that a requisite member of Past High Priests can confer the Order on a High Priest‑elect.


The Massachusetts Convention of High Priests was established on November 6, 1826, in its present form; and the Order was conferred on eight High Priests before the year closed. The membership roll of this body commences with William McKean, May, 1789, and shows, with few exceptions, annual additions to the list. No one was admitted between 1795 and 1799, and but one other interval exceeds two years, and that was in 1830‑31. Its present membership exceeds four hundred.


The earliest mention that we have seen of the degree in Pennsylvania is " December 12, 1825," under Michael Nisbet, Grand High Priest, when the degree was conferred on six Past High Priests, by Past Grand High Priest Newcomb. This was done in Grand Chapter.


In Virginia the Grand High Priest is President, ex officio, of the Convention. On the first night of each annual convocation he is to appoint a " Convention of Past High Priests, to meet on the second day at ro o'clock, A.M., and confer the Order of High Priesthood on all the High Priests‑elect who present themselves." As to a more general inquiry, as to the Order in the several States, we fail to see that it is of sufficient importance to require it. A sufficient number of Past High Priests, not less than three, ought to be sufficient to confer the Order, assuming that they are personally qualified, on High Priests‑elect, provided there be no recognized body in control of the Order in the State.


In view of the precedents, a sufficient number of Past High Priests, having received the Order of High Priesthood, can organize a Convention of High Priests on a permanent basis, elect its officers, to wit: President, Vice‑President, Treasurer, and Secretary, Chaplain, Captain of the Guard, Conductor, Herald, and Sentinel. The five last named may be appointed by the President. As a matter of prudence, the State Grand Chapter should have knowledge of the Convention.


Conclusion. ‑ It only remains to say that, in preparing these two chapters on the Capitular Rite, we have left nothing to the hazard of opinion only. In fixing dates, whether in Europe or America, none but the best acknowledged authorities have been relied upon. These we have not failed to mention during the progress of the work.


In the United States, the dates are those given in the original proceedings of the General Grand, and State Grand Chapters, and this applies to all the Grand Chapters in America.


640 Failing in these, and this has been limited to not more than three or four cases, we have found good warrant for whatever the pages of these two chapters on the Capitular Degrees may contain, and especially so in all that relates to the Grand Royal Arch Chapters in America.






BY EDWARD T. SCHULTZ, 32', P.‑.D.‑.G.‑.H.‑.P..


History and Object of the' Order.‑In the United States, no one is legally entitled to receive the Order of High Priesthood unless he has been elected to preside over a chapter of Royal Arch Masons.


In many jurisdictions it is made a prerequisite for High Priests‑elect to receive the Order prior to installation ; while in others its reception prior to installation is not held to be essential, but it is conferred upon High Priests and Past High Priests at such times as may be convenient.


But little is known of the origin and early history of the Order, the earliest allusion to it being in the Constitution adopted by the General Grand Chapter, at its convocation held at Providence, Rhode Island, January I o, 1799‑ In the forms adopted for the Installation of Officers of a subordinate chapter, occurs the following: ‑ "All the companions, except High Priests and Past High Priests, are requested to withdraw while the new High Priest is solemnly bound to the performance of his duties; and after the performance of other necessary ceremonies, not proper to be written, they are permitted to return." This clause, in connection with the declaration of the installing officer, to wit: " I now declare you duly installed and anointed High Priest," etc., leaves no room to doubt that this Order was known and worked January ro, I799 Action of the General Grand Chapter. ‑ This provision was in the Con‑ ORDER OF HIGH PRIESTHOOD.


641 stitution of the General Grand Chapter until 1853, when it was repealed, and a resolution adopted, recommending, ‑ "That every newly elected High Priest should, as soon as convenient, receive the Order of High Priesthood, but his anointment as such is not necessary to his installation, or the full and entire discharge of all his powers and duties as the presiding officer of his chapter." Many old and conservative companions viewed this action of the General Grand Chapter with great regret, holding that, from the earliest period in the history of Capitular Masonry in this country no one could properly be installed High Priest of a chapter unless he had previously received the Order of High Priesthood.


Origin of the Degree.‑There appears but little doubt that the degree was fabricated by Thomas Smith Webb and his associates, at about the same time that they formulated and arranged the Capitular system.


Companion William Hacker,' Past Grand High Priest of Indiana, in an interesting paper upon the subject, written for Mackey's Encyclopxdia, in 1878, concludes that Webb and his co‑advisers, Benjamin Hurd, Jr., and James Harrison, were the true authors of the Order; but says : ‑ "Where these Most Excellent Companions got the original thought or germ out of which the Order was formed will have, perhaps, to be left to conjecture; yet even here I think we may find some data upon which to found a conclusion.


"In setting about the formation of an Order suitable for the office of High Priest, what could be more natural or appropriate than to take the Scriptural history of the meeting of Abraham with Melchizedek, Priest of the Most High God; the circumstances which brought this meeting about; the bringing forth the bread and wine; the blessings, etc. ; and the anointing of Aaron and his sons to the Priesthood under the Mosaic dispensation 2 It does seem to me that these would be the most natural sources for any one to go to for facts and circumstances to work into an Order of this kind.


"We can illustrate this point farther by reference to a note, found in an old ritual of the 'Mediterranean Pass' as then‑and perhaps it may be so now‑conferred under the Grand Priory of England and Wales, preparatory to the Order of Malta. That note read as follows: "' In some priories the candidate partakes of bread from the point of a sword; and wine from a chalice placed upon the blade; handed to him by the Prelate.


"Again, in an old manuscript of the ritual of the Royal Grand Conclave of Scotland, now also lying before me, I find similar language used in the ritual of the Templars' Order. How well the thoughts contained in these extracts have been worked into the Order of High Priest, every well‑informed High Priest must very well understand.


"But the question now comes up: Were Webb and his associates in possession of these rituals at the time they originated the Order of High Priesthood? I think they were, and for these reasons: In these rituals, to which I have referred, I find these expressions used, 'That I will not shed the blood of a K.. T.% unlawfully'; 'The skull to be laid open, and all the brains to be exposed to the scorching rays of the sun'; with several other familiar expressions, which every Royal Arch Mason will readily recognize as appropriately wrought into Webb's Royal Arch degree." How Conferred. ‑ The Order was originally conferred in occasional councils convened, when necessary, as Past Master lodges are now convened, to confer the Past Master's degree upon Masters‑elect, and then to dissolve.


1 Enc. Mackey, pp. 339 and 340.


642 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY But, in process of time, Councils of High Priests were organized, and the Order conferred only upon such as the members might approve.


Companion Hacker says that the earliest authentic record that he could find of the organization of such a council was that of Ohio, in 1828. But there was at least one council organized four years previous to this date. The Council of High Priests of Maryland was organized May 7, 1824, and has had a continued existence to the present time. Its records, with the autographic signatures of all companions anointed since that date, are preserved and are highly valued by the companions of Maryland. Among those who received the Order in this Council are the following companions of other jurisdictions, upon whom the Order was conferred by courtesy,' viz.: Alex M. Anderson, of Kentucky; Rev. Fred Clark, of Maine; Asa Childs, of Connecticut; William B. Thrall, of Ohio; Albert Pike, of Arkansas; and John Goshom, and V. P. Chapin, of Virginia. The distinguished Companion Edward Livingston, General Grand High Priest‑elect, received the Order in Washington, District of Columbia, under the auspices of this Council in 1830, prior to his installation into office, by the Grand Chapters of Maryland and District of Columbia assembled in joint convention.2 The General Grand Chapter having, by resolution, authorized those bodies to install Companion Livingston during his sojourn in that city, as a member of Congress, the companions deemed it was not proper to install one into that exalted station who had not received the Order of High Priesthood.


1 Schultz's History, Vol. IV. PP. 575‑5802 Schultz's History, Vol. IV. p. 5o6.






The Council of Royal, and Select, and Super‑Excellent Masters; together with a comprehensive sketch of its rise and organization; government by a General Grand Council, Grand Councils, and Councils; including the Independent Grand Councils, and those of Canada and England.


BY EUGENE GRISSOM, M.D., LL.D., 33|, Past Deputy Grand Master, Grand Lodge of North Carolina; Past Grand High Priest, R.A.M.; Past Grand Commander, KT.; Inspector General, 4.‑.,4.‑. S.‑. Rite; Sir Knight of the Royal Order of Scotland, etc., etc.


Preface.‑In the preparation of this sketch of Cryptic Masonry, I desire to express my indebtedness to the labors of the distinguished Companions of the Rite, ‑ J. Ross Robertson, Past Grand Master and Grand Recorder of the Grand Council of the Dominion of Canada, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Canada (Ontario), etc. ; and Josiah H. Drummond, Past Grand Master of the General Grand Council of the United States. The works of other venerable and learned brethren,‑Pike, Mickey, Oliver, and others,‑and the latest reports of the Councils, have been freely consulted in this effort to present a concise statement of the past and present of the Cryptic Degrees.


Mickey says: " I learned from the experience of my early Masonic life, that the character of the Institution was elevated in every one's opinion just in proportion to the amount of knowledge that he had acquired of its symbolism, philosophy, and history." That this paper may not be without its value as far as history, at least, is regarded, is the earnest hope of THE AUTHOR.


RALEIGH, N.C., June z5, 1890.




The Legend of the " Secret Vault." ‑To the true Mason, the Mysteries of the Secret Vault present lessons of unexampled force and beauty.


The Lodge is the arena of practical Masonry; it is especially the field of operation of the duties that devolve upon brethren, one to another, in the 643 CHAPTER I.




walks of life. The Chapter, while not losing sight of the former, concerns itself more with the search after the perfections and the culture of Truth. It is in the Secret Vault that the reflective Mason, who looks upon the " Mystictie " that binds mankind across the seas and around the earth, as one of the greatest gifts of the Divine Master, will find the highest satisfaction in the explanation of his difficulties, and the reward of his faithful labors.


The legend of the Secret Vault is rendered by Oliver thus, in giving an account of the construction of the Second Temple :' "The foundations of the Temple were opened, and cleared from the accumulation of rubbish, that a level might be procured for the commencement of the building. While engaged in excavations for this purpose, three fortunate sojourners are said to have discovered our ancient stone of foundation, which had been deposited in the secret crypt by Wisdom, Strength, and Beauty, to prevent the communication of ineffable secrets to profane or unworthy persons.


"'Lhe discovery having been communicated to the prince, prophet, and priest of the Jews, the stone was adopted as the chief corner‑stone of the re6dified building, and thus became, in a new and more expressive sense, the type of a more excellent dispensation. An avenue was also accidentally discovered, supported by seven pairs of pillars, perfect and entire, which, from their situation, had escaped the fury of the flames that had consumed the Temple, and the desolation of war that had destroyed the city.


"The Secret Vault, which had been built by Solomon as a secure depository for certain secrets that would inevitably have been lost without some such expedient for their preservation, communicated by a subterranean avenue with the king's palace; but at the destruction of Jerusalem, the entrance having been closed by the rubbish of falling buildings, it had been discovered by the appearance of a key‑stone among the foundations of the Sanctum Sanctorum. A careful inspection was then made, and the invaluable secrets were placed in safe custody." Dr. Mackey, to whose erudition Masonic writers of the present day are so greatly indebted ,2 says, in reference to the above : ‑ "To support this legend, there is no historic evidence and no authority except that of the Talmudic writers. It is clearly a mythical symbol, and as such we must accept it. We cannot altogether reject it, because it is so intimately and so extensively connected with the symbolism of the Lost and the Recovered Word, that if we reject the theory of the Secret Vault, we must abandon all of that symbolism, and with it the whole of the science of Masonic symbolism. Fortunately, there is ample evidence in the present appearance of Jerusalem and its subterranean topography to remove from any tacit, and as it were, conventional assent to the theory, features of absurdity or impossibility.


"Considered simply as a historic question, there can be no doubt of the existence of immense vaults beneath the superstructure of the original Temple of Solomon. Prime, Robinson, and other writers, who in recent times have described the topography of Jerusalem, speak of the existence of these structures, which they visited and, in some instances, carefully examined. . . .


"Dr. Barclay ('City of the Great King'), describes in many places of his interesting topography of Jerusalem the vaults and subterranean chambers which are to be found beneath the site of the old Temple.


"In the earliest ages, the cave or vault was deemed sacred. The first worship was in cavetemples, which were either natural or formed by art to resemble the excavations of nature. . . .


"The vault was, in the ancient mysteries, symbolic of the grave; for initiation was symbolic of death, where alone Divine Truth is to be found. The Masons have adopted the same idea. They teach that death is but the beginning of life; that if the first or evanescent temples of our transitory life be on the surface, we must descend into the secret vault of death before we can find that sacred deposit of truth which is to adorn our second temple of eternal life. It is in this sense 1 Historical Landmarks, Vol. II. p. 434 Encyclopeedia of Freemasonry, p. 852.




645 of an entrance through the grave into eternal life that we are to view the symbolism of the secret vault. Like every other myth and allegory of Masonry, the historical relation may be true, or it may be false; it may be founded on fact, or be the invention of imagination; the lesson is still there, and the symbolism teaches it, exclusive of the history." The Rise of the Cryptic Rite.‑The beautiful Rite of the Secret Vault received its present title of Cryptic Masonry from the Latin, meaning concealed, and the Greek term crape, signifying a vault, or subterranean passage.' The secret vaults of the early Christians were known as cryptce.


Cryptic Masonry properly embraces the degrees of Royal and Select Master, to which has been added, as an appendant or honorary degree, that of Super‑Excellent Master, which, however, has no direct connection with the former, its attributed history and legend referring to circumstances separated by a long period from the transactions commemorated by the Cryptic Degrees. Certain analogies of symbolism have probably associated them.


The origin of these degrees has been the subject of a dispute, more than ordinarily zealous, because it was complicated with the question of jurisdiction. As a matter of fact, they have been communicated by Inspectors‑General of the A.‑.A.‑.S.‑.Rite, or other agents of that body, or of the Princes of Jerusalem, or conferred by the Rite of Perfection, or in bodies of Royal and Select Masters entitled Councils, either in organic connection with the body known as the General Grand Council of the United States, or with the Grand Council of some State thereof. They have also been conferred in councils held within the bosom of chapters of the Holy Royal Arch, as in Iowa at the present time, or in " Councils appurtenant to Chapters," as in Texas (since 1864), or treated directly as constituent degrees of Royal Arch Masonry, as in Virginia and West Virginia.


The persistent life and power of these degrees, under such varying circumstances, and the fact that, by a steady if slow development, they are obtaining a recognition and appreciation hitherto unknown, is evidence that Cryptic Masonry must and does represent no small share of legendary truth, preserved to succeeding generations from those elder days of Masonic wisdom which no man can number. ' Introduction upon this Continent. ‑III.‑. Comp. Charles K. Francis has well said :2 " It may not be improper at this time to remind the companions that more than a century has passed since the introduction of the degrees of Royal Master and Select Master into this country. "They came from Europe; but, like the Royal Arch and other degrees of Freemasonry, their origin is unknown. Even Freemasonry herself can give no record of her parentage or birthplace. It is true that such distinguished brethren as William J. Hughan and Robert F. Gould, of England (whose work in the field of Masonic research merits the highest tribute of love and admiration from the Craft), have proved the right of modern Freemasons to their traditional claim that they 1 First used by III.. Comp. Rob. Morris, P. T. I. M. (Ky.) ; died July 31, 1888. This distin guished Masonic writer and lecturer was known all over the Masonic world. Perhaps no man ever knew personally more Masonic bodies. He was crowned Poet Laureate of Masonry in New York. Died of paralysis, aged seventy years.


2 M. P. G. M., Address, Pennsylvania, 1888.




are the lineal descendants of the Operative Masons of the Middle Ages, who have been styled 'The Master Architects in the Golden Age of Architecture,' and 'Great Mathematicians, perfectly experienced in mechanics, and who, on assumed principles of science, executed some of the boldest and most astonishing works which were ever executed by man.


"But still unanswered are the inquiries: From whom did those mighty builders obtain the great secrets of their art ? Who taught them the mysteries of Freemasonry 1 In what land, and when, were the foundations of our Mystic Temple laid so strong and deep that they have withstood the shock of ages ? Who can tread with steady and certain steps the dark, winding, and almost obliterated pathways of the past, and open a clear road stretching back to the birthplace of Freemasonry ? "Apart from the records of the Sacred Scriptures, the Great Light of Freemasonry, how little is known of the origin of anything! How limited is the range of authentic profane history! How little has been saved from the wrecks of nations! The history of our ancient Fraternity, beyond the period of the Middle Ages, yet remains to be written. Still, we can hope that its undiscovered annals may yet be brought to light, and prove the assertion of the distinguished archxologist,t Sir William Bedlam, that ancient Phoenicia was the cradle of Freemasonry, and that our Fraternity enjoyed a vigorous manhood long before the time of King Solomon.


"It has been truly said that 'before a nation can have a history, it must have a national life to record.' Individuals form families which develop into tribes, and they make the nation. In a similar way Freemasonry has attained its present development. There were Freemasons before the Lodge had an existence. Individual Freemasons united to form lodges, and lodges combined to form Grand Lodges. In process of time, Royal Arch Masons organized Chapters, and Royal and Select Masters established Councils, with their own distinctive forms of ritual, and government, and yet connected to the Lodge by as strong a tie as that binding the branches of an oak to the noble trunk itself, and reaching down to the great roots which stretch far below the soil and bring up from the earthy depths those mysterious forces that give the tree its life. And yet, though the trunk gives life to the branches, they in their turn give life to the trunk, nourishing it with the food gathered by their leafy fingers from the air and the sunlight.


"Thus have been formed Grand and Subordinate bodies in the three departments of so‑called' Ancient Craft Masonry,' embracing the Lodge, the Chapter, and the Council.


"Referring to the lodges that took part in the inauguration of the Grand Lodge of England in 1717, Brother John Lane, of England, says: 2 'When and by whom these and other old lodges were constituted cannot now be decided; but that they, or similar combinations of Freemasons, existed centuries before the Grand Lodge Era, cannot be reasonably doubted.' "The late Dr. Albert G. Mackey said: 3 ' It is now the opinion of the best scholars that the division of the Masonic system into degrees was the work of the revivalists of the eighteenth century; that before that period there was but one degree, or rather one common platform of ritualism ; and that the division into Masters, Fellows, and Apprentices, was simply one of rank, there being but one initiation for all.' " Brother Hughan? quoted by Brother G'ould in 'The Four Old Lodges,' as well as by Brother Lyon in 'History of the Lodge of Edinburgh; says: ' I have carefully perused all the known Masonic MSS., from the fourteenth century down to A.D. 1717 (of which I have either seen the originals or have certified copies), and have not been able to find any reference to three degrees.' . . .


"Referring to Freemasonry in Scotland, where are found the most ancient lodge minutes (those of the Lodge of Edinburgh dating back to the year x599), Brother Gould says: ' In the early Masonry of Scotland, the only degree (of a speculative and symbolic character), was that in which the legend of the Craft was read, and the benefit of the Mason‑word conferred.' And he adds that there is no tvidence to indicate the existence of the 'Second degree, as now practised, until after the year 1717, nor of the Third degree until the year 1735.. . . .


"Referring to the Royal Arch degree, Brother Hugltan says: 'Dr. Rob. Morris of 1 Etruria Celtica, Vol. II. pp. 85‑97. Dublin, 1842.


2 Lane's Masonic Records, p. v., Introd. London, 1886. 3 Art. Degrees, Mackey's Encyclopxdia.


4 Gould's Four Old Lodges, p. 4o. London, 1879. And Lyon's Hist. Lodge of Edinburgh, p. 211. Edinburgh, 1873.




647 Kentucky, an age ago, declared that the origin of the Royal Arch degree must be ascribed to about 174o, and it is impossible to improve on such an estimate even now.' . . .


"In the year x744 is found the earliest mention of An Assembly of Master Masons, under the title of Royal Arch Masons.' 1 Brother Sadler states that ' the earliest reference to the Royal Arch in the [English] Grand Lodge recdrds appears in the minutes of a Grand Committee of the "Ancients," September z, 1752.' Dr. Oliver says: 'The introduction of the Royal Arch degree into the modern system could not be earlier than the dedication of Freemasons' Hall in 1776,; and 'Many years elapsed before the system was arranged, and the Order of the Royal Arch organized so as to constitute an independent rite.' 2 " Brother J. W. S. Mitchell, in his ' History of Freemasonry,' expresses the opinion that the degrees of Royal Master and Select Master were introduced into this country as early as 1766, and he quotes the statement of Brother Philip C. Tucker ,3 that 'we have good authority for saying that, as early as 1766, they were conferred in the city of Albany.' . , , " Brother E. 'I . Schultz, in his 'History of Freemasonry in Maryland, 4 says: 'It is stated that the Royal and Select degrees were conferred by Andrew Francken in Albany, in 1769.' "The fact, however, is beyond dispute, that in the year 1783 the degrees of Royal Master and Select Master were conferred in the city of Charleston, South Carolina; for, in February, 1827 (as stated by Dr. Mackey in his 'Manual of Cryptic Masonry'), a committee, appointed by the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of South Carolina to inquire into the history of the degrees of Royal and Select Masters, reported that these degrees were introduced into Charleston, South Carolina, in the year 1783, and, that' brethren who then received the degrees are still living, venerable for their years and warm attachment to the glorious cause of Freemasonry, and highly respected and esteemed in the community where they have so long and so honorably sojourned.' . . .


"' The True Masonic Chart,' 5 published by Brother J. L. Cross nearly three‑quarters of a century ago, and which bears the approval of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter at the time of its issue, says: 'This degree [referring to Select Master], is the summit and perfection of Ancient Masonry, and without which the history of the Royal Arch degree cannot be complete.' "Brother Samuel Cole, Grand Secretary, Grand Lodge of Maryland, in the 'Ahiman Rezon, edited by him in the year 1817, and approved by the Grand Lodge of Maryland, says, in regard to the degree of Select Master: ' We know of no degree in Masonry that has a more needful or more important connection with another than the Select with the Royal Arch. It fills up a chasm which every intelligent Royal Arch Mason has observed, and without it, it seems difficult, if not impossible, to comprehend clearly some of the mysteries that belong to the august degree of the Royal Arch. It is strange, and it is also unfortunate, that very few have received the useful knowledge made known in the Select, and, indeed, such is the nature of the degree, that we cannot feel freedom to allude remotely to the nature of its secrets; we may, however, pronounce it the key to the Arch.' And he adds, 'There is reason to believe that this degree was in use long before those of Most Excellent, or Mark Master.'6 "Brother Mitchell says: 7 'Without the legend given in a council, it is utterly impossible for the Master, or Royal Arch Mason to understand and properly appreciate the teaching of Freemasonry.' (Brother Mitchell was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, 1844‑5, and the Grand High Priest of the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of same, 1846‑7.) "A committee of the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Vermont (185o) said : 8 . . . 'They place a high value on them [the degrees of Royal Master and Select Master], and are ready to state their own conviction that, without them, Royal Arch Masonry is imperfect.' Also, ' If well‑attested Masonic history does not deceive us, they had found a resting‑place in this part of the North American continent before even regularly recognized Royal Arch Masonry itself was legitimately established here.' " 1 Masonic Facts and Fictions, p. 165. London, 1887.


2 Dr. Oliver's Letter to Dr. Crucefix, on Origin of the Royal Arch.


8 Grand Master, Grand Lodge, Vermont, 1847‑186x, and Grand High Priest of Grand Chapter of same State, 1852‑1857, 4 Schultz s History of Freemasonry in Maryland, Vol. I. p. 344 6 Cross's The True Masonic Chart, pp. 13, 124. New Haven, 182o.


6 Cole's General Ahiman Rezon, p. 221. Baltimore, 1817 2, Mitchell's History of Freemasonry, Vol. I. PP‑ 7o8, 709, 720 8 Proceedings Grand Royal Arch Chapter, Vermont, 185o, pp. 12, 14.




Early Government.‑There can be no reasonable doubt of the transmission of the Cryptic Degrees to this continent in the latter half of the eighteenth century, through the possessors of the degrees, conferred in Lodges of Perfection, and Councils of Princes of Jerusalem, and which, are now included in what is recognized as the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. It is generally agreed that the Royal and Select Master were " side " degrees. Of the numerous distinctions that grew up in Europe, about the middle of the last century, many degrees are attributed to the invention of the French, or the Scottish Chiefs of Masonry.


It is altogether likely that the formulation of the legend and disposition of the ritual was the work of Masonic students at that period, but there is nothing antecedently improbable in the view, that the essential legendary facts and instruction had been preserved in the. great mass of Masonic learning, which was the common possession of the Craft when working in but one degree, in the preceding century. Their intimate connection with the other branches of Ancient Craft Masonry, their great beauty and utility, and even logical necessity, as referred to in the above extracts from Brother Francis's admirable address, all point to this conclusion.


That no man can definitely trace the legend in its primeval form, except as confirmed by the Talmudic writers, and as parallel with the course of the ancient mind, in searching for natural and philosophical truth, in the various rites of different nations, known to‑day by the indefinite term of " Mysteries," is no stronger as an argument for its non‑existence in some shape, than can be urged against the gradually developing degrees of the Royal Arch, or of the Lodge itself.


The middle of the last century was an era of awakening research. The philosophical spirit was a reaction in the presence of the corruption of courts ; and, beginning in the souls of advanced thinkers, it developed, in the latter portion of the century, into such struggles for human liberty and universal fraternity, as the revolutions in America and France. This enormous development of Masonic influence at this period, and, in the lapse of time, its effect upon the establishment of asylums for the afflicted of every ill ; for the extension of educational blessings to the great masses ; and doubtless, even its reflex effect felt in the great religious revivals that began at that period, have never been fairly estimated by the political economist and social philosopher of this day. It lies out of the beaten track of. the "profane." But to the Masonic student, the gathering of the scattered legends and the gradual development of its truths, associated with the symmetry and beauty of the degrees, built so deftly that they are the work of all, and yet of none, was the morning light of the modern day of progress for humanity.


Jurisdiction of Grand Chapters. ‑ In reference to the transmission of the degrees to North America, upon the question of the modern claim by some that Grand Chapters held jurisdiction, the subject was exhaustively THE CRYPTIC DEGREES.


649 discussed by M.‑. E.‑. Companion Albert Pike, 1 Chairman of the Committee on Masonic Law and Usage, recognized throughout the world to‑day as unexcelled in profound research and Masonic knowledge.


Brother Pike says in this report (and its importance justifies quotation at length) : ‑ The A.% A. ‑. S.‑. Rite Jurisdiction.‑" In the year 1828 the Grand Chapter of South Carolina received a communication from the Grand Chapter of Maryland, suggesting the propriety of the several Grand Chapters in the United States assuming jurisdiction over the degrees of Royal and Select Masters. The matter was referred to a committee who reported February 26, 1829, and their report was unanimously adopted by the Grand Chapter.


"That committee, after extensive and careful investigation reported that in February, 1783, Dr. Dalcho and many others received those degrees in Charleston in the Sublime Grand Lodge of Perfection, then established in that city. That when the Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem was established in Charleston, February 20, 1788, Joseph Myers, one of the Deputy‑Inspectors who established it, deposited in the archives certified copies of the degrees of Royal and Select Masters, from Berlin, in Prussia, to serve for the future guidance and government of that new body. That from 1788 the Grand Officers and Supreme Council of Inspectors‑General at Charleston had been steadily in the habit of conferring these degrees; and in 1828 numbers of councils of Select Masters were acting under their authority in the Southern and Western States.


"The committee had seen and perused the first copy of those degrees that ever came to America, and old copies of charters that had been returned by councils in States where Grand Councils had been formed and charters obtained from such Grand Councils. And the committee reported that these degrees had then been under regular and independent Masonic protection and authority for more than forty‑six years, and were so circumstanced in the United States, at a period long prior to the establishment of Grand or General Grand Royal Arch Chapters, or even of chapters of Royal Arch Masons in any part of the world; and that the Grand Chapter of South Carolina ought to avoid all collision with contemporary Masonic jurisdictions regularly established and much longer in existence than their own; and so reported a formal resolution (which the Grand Chapter unanimously adopted), that it was 'improper and inexpedient to assume a jurisdiction over the said degrees, and thus to interfere with the rights and privileges of our brethren in another and higher order of Freemasonry.' . . .


"Of the Illustrious brothers, Myers, Spitzer, and Forst, the Committee, of the Grand Chapter of South Carolina, said: 'The above‑named three respectable Brethren and Companions are, and have steadily been, members and officers of the said Council of Princes of Jerusalem. . Their evidence, therefore, must be conclusive upon these points.' " The same committee (Royal Arch Masons, be it observed, and a Committee of a Royal Arch chapter, inquiring into its own jurisdiction), said of the Brothers and Companions Dr. F. Dalcho, Dr. Isaac Auld, Dr. James Moultrie, Sen., and Moses C. Levy, Esq., who received these degrees in Charleston, in 1783, from the Sublime Grand Lodge of Perfection: 'Three of the abovenamed brothers are still living, venerable for their years and warm attachment to the glorious cause of Freemasonry, and highly respected and esteemed for their standing in the community where they have so long honorably sojourned, and they are still members of the same Sublime Body.' . , .


"There is still further testimony to be adduced. The report to the Grand Chapter which we have quoted was made by Companion Moses Holbrook, its Chairman, and unanimously adopted, the Grand Chapter thus affirming the veracity of the Masonic witnesses whose testimony was adduced. In 1830 the same Companion Holbrook was M . . P.*. Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of Sovereign Grand Inspectors‑General of the 330 for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, at Charleston.


"In February, A.1. 2383, the M.‑. E.. G.*. High Priest of the Grand Chapter of South Carolina, 1 Now M..P.‑.Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of Sovereign Grand InspectorsGeneral of the 33|, Southern Jurisdiction of the United States (resident in Washington, D.C.), the Mother Council of the World‑ A..A.. S.. Rite.




John H. Honour, who was then and still is [18531 M.. P:. Grand Commander of the Supreme Council S. G. I, G. Of 33o for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, at Charleston, stated, in his address to the Grand Chapter, that he had in his possession a manuscript copy of the degrees of the Royal and Select Masters, in which there was a note in the handwriting of Brother Holbrook, dated March 15, 1830, in these words: "' In Brother Snell's book is written the following: "' Supreme Council Chamber, Charleston, S.C., loth Feb., 1827.


"' I hereby certify that the detached degrees, called Royal and Select Master, or Select Masters of 27, were regularly given by the Sublime Grand Lodge of Perfection (No. 2 in the U.S.A.), established by Brother Isaac Da Costa, in Charleston, in February, 1783, one of the original members of which, Most Illustrious Brother Moses C. Levy, is still alive and a member of it to this day, without ceasing to be so for a day. 1 And further, that at the first establishment of a Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem, in Charleston, February, 1788, by the Ill.,. Dep. InspectorsGeneral Joseph Myers, B. M. Spitzer, and A. Forst, Brother Myers (who succeeded Brother Da Costa after his decease), deposited a certified copy of the degrees, from Berlin, in Prussia, to be under the guidance and fostering protection of the government of the above Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem.


"' Brother Myers shortly after this (February 20, 1788), resided some time in Norfolk, Richmond, and Baltimore previous to his removal to Europe, and he communicated a knowledge of these degrees to a number of brethren in those cities. The original copy is still in my keeping; and agreeably to the obligations of the same, and the Grand Constitutions governing those degrees, viz.: Royal and Select Masons of 27, it is correct and lawful to give them either to Sublime Masons who have arrived to the Knights of the 9th Arch (13th), or to Companions of the 3d Arch (Royal Arch Masons).' " Now, as to these facts, we think we are entitled to say that, whatever opinion the profane may entertain as to this testimony, any Mason who denies its truth or insinuates a doubt as to the facts thus testified to by men who, to attain the 330, had to be Royal Arch Masons and Knights Templar, takes particular pains to inform all the rest of the world that no reliance can be placed upon any Masonic testimony, but that a Mason, like some of the old Fathers, holds it to be justifiable 'to lie for the good of the church,' and so advises them to look upon all Masonry as a mere fable, and collection of old wives' tales; and that in Masonry the stronger the testimony, and the less the probability of mistake, the greater the lie. . . .


Vermont's Claim of Priority.‑"The Committee of Foreign Correspondence of Vermont says that it can be proved that these degrees were conferred in this country prior to 1783; that .it has good authority for saying that as early as 1766 they were conferred in the city of Albany, and that it is ' an opinion sustained by strong authority,' that at that time they came from France, and not from Prussia. If they came from France, they did not come from the York Rite. But we have no doubt they were so conferred there. Sublime Lodge of Perfection No. 1 (that in Charleston being No. 2), was the first Lodge of Perfection established in the United States, and it was established at Albany prior to 1783. No doubt the degrees were conferred by or under the authority of that Lodge," Ecossais. ‑We interrupt the quotation from this important paper, to note that the Lodge of Perfection is the lowest body in the Scottish Rite, and it includes among its degrees the Ecossais, of which Mackey says:' || The American Mason will understand the character of the system of Ecossaism, as it may be called, when he is told that the Select Master of his own rite is really an Ecossais degree"; and again,"" Of this degree of Ecossais, that of Select Master is little more than a modification." 1 The Jewish burial‑place of Charleston contains his tomb, upon which is inscribed in Hebrew: "Sacred to the memory of Moses Clava Levy, who died on the 5th of Nisan, 5599, nearly go years old, a native of Poland, and for 54 years an inhabitant of this city. He was a kind husband, a fond parent, a firm friend, an indulgent master; incorruptible in integrity, sincere in piety, unostentatious in charity. This stone is placed by his only son and child." 2 Mackey's Encyclopoedia of Freemasonry, p. 239. 8 Mackey's Lexicon, 444, 157.


THE CRYPTIC DEGREES. 651[ French Origin, and Organization of Councils and Grand Councils. ‑ To return to Most Illustrious Brother Pike's report: ‑ " We can soon learn how it was that the Council degrees came about 1766 from France, and not from Prussia. In 1761, the lodges and councils of the superior degrees being extended throughout Europe, Frederic II. (or the Great), King of Prussia, as Grand Commander of the Order of Princes of the Royal Secret, or 32d degree, was by general consent acknowledged and recognized as Sovereign and Supreme Head of the Scotch Rite.


"On the 25th Oct., 1762, the Grand Masonic Constitutions were finally ratified in Berlin, and proclaimed for the government of all Masonic bodies working in the Scotch Rite over the two hemispheres; and in the same year they were transmitted to Stephen Morin, who had been appointed, in August, 1761, Inspector‑General for the New World by the Grand Consistory of Princes of the Royal Secret, convened at Paris, under the presidency of Chaillon de Joinville, representative of Frederic, and Substitute‑General of the Order. It will be remembered that the 33| was not then created; and, under Frederic the Great, there was no rank higher than the 320, nor anybody superior to a Consistory. When Morin arrived in the West Indies, he, agreeably to his patent, appointed M. Hayes a Deputy Inspector‑General, with the power of appointing others when necessary. It was under this authority, coming, it is true, from the Consistory at Paris, held by that Consistory as the delegate and representative of Frederic the Great, that the Lodges of Perfection in Albany and Charleston were established, with authority to confer these detached degrees. . . .


"Many rites flourished awhile and died. The French and Scotch Rites reduced the degrees practised by their votaries, the former to seven, the latter to thirty‑three, and some auxiliary degrees. By common consent it became Masonic law that the three first degrees were the joint property of all, but the others the peculiar property of the inventors. Royal Arch Masonry separated itself from 'Blue' Masonry, organized itself, invented three new degrees, and commenced an independent existence. The Royal and Select Masters formed themselves into councils, and after a time they too organized themselves into Grand Councils and claimed an independent existence. The Supreme Council did not deny the right, but simply retained their original right to confer the degrees, and charter councils in States where no Grand Councils have been organized." The limits of this work forbid the elaboration in detail of events, and the republication in full of Masonic data in reference to Cryptic Masonry, from the period of its introduction in this country to the present time. The writer would refer the reader to the valuable History of the Cryptic Rite, by Illustrious Brother J. Ross Robertson,' Past Grand Master and Grand Recorder of the Grand Council of the Dominion of Canada, with the accompanying history of the Grand Councils of the United States, by Illustrious Brother Josiah H. Drummond (Portland, Maine), Past Grand Master of the General Grand Council of the United States.


But we may briefly condense from Robertson as follows. He quotes from Pike's "Historical Inquiry into the Constitutions Of 1786 " : "We learn from it [i.e., the record at Charleston], that Stephen Morin, Inspector‑General of all the Lodges, Chapters, Councils, and Grand Councils, etc., in all parts of the New World, gave the degree of Grand Deputy Inspector‑General, etc., to Brother Francken at Jamaica"; at what date we do not find.


Francken imparted these degrees to Moses Michael Hayes, of Boston, Massachusetts, with power to appoint others. Hayes appointed Isaac Da Costa 1 The Cryptic Rite. Robertson. Toronto, 2888.


652 (previously referred to), as Deputy Inspector‑General for South Carolina. On the death of Da Costa, Joseph Myers succeeded. Francken, possessing the authority of Morin, opened, December 2 7, 1767, aLodge of Perfection at Albany, New York. Robertson adds: ‑ "The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite had no actual existence by that name until 18o1; before that it was the Rite of Perfection, etc. The Supreme Council, founded at Charleston in 18or, was the first body of the Rite, by that name, that ever existed. This divergence from the history of the Cryptic Rite proper, and the reference to the Ancient and Accepted Rite, are necessary as showing the genuineness of the Royal and Select Degrees, and the claims they have of being bona fade 'side' degrees of the Rite of Perfection." Francken had also endowed one Moses Cohen with powers similar to those of Hayes. ' Cohen went to Jamaica, and established a Consistory, one of whose members was Abram Jacobs, who already had a portion of the degrees, having obtained them in a Lodge of Perfection at Charleston. One of his degrees was known as the " Select Masons of Twenty Seven," and Cohen gave a diploma of this, November 9, 1790, to Jacobs. The diary of Jacobs relates his subsequent visit to Savannah in 1792, and the conferring of the degree of "Select Masons of Twenty Seven," at various points in Georgia.


Columbian Grand Council of Royal Master Masons. ‑In 1804 Jacobs went to New York, and conferred the degrees upon Thomas Lownds, among many others. Robertson says : ‑ " In r8o8 the dispute between Gourgas and Joseph Cerneau commenced. Lownds sided with the latter, and went over to him, capturing, so Gourgas says, the Royal and Select Degrees. The credit of organizing the first body of the Cryptic Rite must be given to Lownds. He formed, with others, of course, Sept. 2, i8ro, the ' Columbian Grand Council of Royal Master Masons.' This body, on Dec. 8, 1821, received within its fold a council of Select Masters. On Jan. 25, 1823, ' Columbian Grand Council' constituted itself a Grand Council for the State, and issued warrants as late as 1827. In 1854 another Grand Council was formed in New York State, its members being principally adherents of what was known as the 'St. John's Grand Lodge.' This Grand Council issued warrants to subordinate councils, and in 186o united with the Columbian." The First Council's Records. ‑The discovery of the original records of Columbian Council induced Brother Josiah H. Drummond to prepare a history of these degrees, in 1875, to be used as an appendix in the publication of the records. Brother Drummond says: ‑ "It is now certain that Columbian Council (originally styled 'Grand Council, as all the temporary assemblies in which the Royal Degree was conferred were then called), is the first permanent body formed for conferring any of these degrees.


"It has been heretofore taken as true that it, or the Grand Council, was founded and chartered by Joseph Cerneau. But the record shows that Thomas Lownds was the founder, that it was a voluntary body without a charter, and that Cerneau was never even present at one of its meetings, so far as tke record discloses. The record of the first meeting states that the officers were elected and installed. The names of those present are given, and Cerneau's name is not among them; hence the officers could not have been installed by him. Like the early councils in Massachusetts, it was formed by no other authority than the will of those who composed it. . . .


"It has been claimed that Thomas Smith Webb and Jeremy L. Cross received the degrees in it, but the name of neither appears in the records." COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONR Y.


653 Drummond further states that the received opinion is that Lownds did not go over to Cerneau until 18og. He says: ‑ " But this division did not enter into the formation of Columbian Council, for Thomas Lownds, then 1 a leading man in the Cerneau party, and Sampson Simpson, an equally leading man in the Gourgas party, united in founding it. But whatever the source from which he received it, he was legally in possession of it as a ' side degree, and I see no reason why he and his associates had not full power and authority to unite and form a body of a permanent character for conferring and governing this degree. . . .


"On Jan. 18, 1823, Columbian Council adopted a resolution, looking to the formation of a Grand Council for the State, and one was formed on the 25th of the same month. But Connect icut had founded one in 1819, Virginia in 182o, and North Carolina in 1822. So that, while Columbian Council was 'pursuing the even tenor of her way,' the degrees were disseminated, councils were formed, and Grand Councils organized under other authority." But another branch of the subject demands our attention. Mackey, in his || History of Freemasonry in South Carolina," says : ‑ "The Masons of Maryland and Virginia contend that the Royal and Select Degrees were introduced by Philip P. Eckel, of Baltimore, one of the most distinguished and enlightened Masons of his day, who, in 1817, communicated them to Jeremy L. Cross, and gave him authority to confer them in every Royal Arch chapter which he might visit in his official character."


Brother Schultz, in his " History of Freemasonry in Maryland," says, that The Royal Masters Degree was first known and worked in the Eastern States, while the Select Degree was first known, and at a much earlier period, in the Southern and Middle States."


He boldly asserts : ‑


"Nearly all the early Masonic writers of the country concede that Philip P. Eckel and Hezekiah Niles, of Baltimore, had, at an early period, the control of at least the Select Degree, and that from them emanated the authority under which it was introduced into many of the other jurisdictions of the country." Brother Niles, writing upon the Select degree in the "Ahiman Rezon," in 181'7, states that he had been told that a regular chapter of the Select degree was held at Charleston many years before, but had become dormant, and that he was not aware that it was worked anywhere but in Baltimore.


' Brother Dove, of Virginia, supposed it to be a modern honorary degree, appendant to Royal Arch Masonry, and in possession of a distinguished Chief of the State of Maryland, who delegated his powers to others, until in 1824, with his consent, the Grand Chapter of Maryland took charge of the degrees, and ordered them to be given before the Most Excellent Master.


This error, as to the exclusive authority in Baltimore, led to the action of Virginia, when she dissolved her Grand Council and remanded the charge of the degrees to the Grand Chapter, where they are given, to the present day, without regard to their retrospective character.


Grand Council of Maryland. ‑But, in 18'72, the Grand Chapter of Maryland passed the following resolution: "That all the subordinate chapters in 1 Columbian Council was formed September 2, 18io.




this jurisdiction are prohibited from conferring any other degrees than those of Mark Master, Past Master, Most Excellent Master, and Royal Arch." Councils were formed, and, in 1874, five councils organized, in Baltimore, the Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters for that State.


In reference to the authority of Eckel, Companion Drummond states that lie did not receive the Royal Master's degree until 18x9, and then from Ebenezer Wadsworth, of New York, and so could not have transferred it to Cross at an earlier date. So far as the Select degree is concerned, Brother Schultz publishes an old document which recites powers conferred upon Eckel and Niles to hold a chapter of Select Masons, which was to be " in extension of the knowledge of the Royal Secret, as introductory to, and necessary for the better understanding of the superior degrees," in the year of the Temple 2792, by Thrice Illustrious Brother Henry Wilmans, "Grand InspectorGeneral." From what source Wilmans derived his powers is unknown.


native of Bremen, resident in this country for only eight years at the most, and died in 1795, as the register of old Zion Lutheran Church in Baltimore shows. Investigation does not obtain any light from the Grand Lodges of Berlin or Bremen, nor is his name in any document of the archives of the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction. It is, of course, possible that he received his authority from Joseph Myers, Deputy Inspector‑General, when in Baltimore, before his departure for Europe.


Eckel and Niles, deriving their powers from Wilmans, conferred the Select degree in August, 1816, with authority to confer it upon Jeremy L. Cross. Brother Cross and the Cryptic Degrees. ‑Brother Cross, to whom the rapid and general dissemination of the degrees is due in a large section of the United States, was made a Royal Arch Mason in Champlain Chapter, No. 2, St. Albans, Vermont, July r1, 18 r5, while engaged in "lecturing the lodges." Brother Drumn~ond has traced the course of this great Masonic pioneer by his letters (yet preserved), from Baltimore, through Western Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Louisiana, and thence to Baltimore, May, 18r7, everywhere conferring the degrees. He afterward went North, through Delaware and Pennsylvania to New York, and then East. In a letter from Haverhill, New Hampshire, July 17, 1817, he says : ‑ He was a . . . I made no further tarry until I arrived at Windsor, Vermont, where I established a council of Select Masons. They, finding that the degree was full of information, and that it could not be given antecedent to that of the Royal Arch, wished for a warrant to empower them, to confer it, upon which I granted them one in the words following, viz.: "' To all etc. Bythe High Power in me vested bytheThrice Illustrious and Grand Puissant in the Grand Council of Select, at Baltimore, etc., till revoked by the Grand Puissant, etc., I wish you to write me at this place by the next mail respecting my granting warrants, and if approving, grant me that power, etc. . . . ' The reply is not known, but Brother Drummond points out, in the document lately discovered by Brother Schultz, that the latter (Eckel and THE CRYPTIC DEGREES.


655 Niles), expressly allows the degree to be conferred on Mark Masters who have passed the Chair; but Cross limits it to Royal Arch Masons. He says: ‑ " It is well known that Eckel and Niles held that it should be conferred before the Royal Arch; and, following their instructions, the Grand Chapter of Maryland so conferred it until it was surrendered to the Council, and the Grand Chapter of Virginia so confers it to this day. With such views, Eckel and Niles could never have granted authority to confer it 'only on Royal Arch Masons who have taken all the preceding degrees, as is required by the General Grand Chapter.' But without such limitation, Cross could not form independent bodies; and the charge of Stapleton, the contemporary and co‑worker with Eckel, that 'Cross did this for sordid motives,' is well established." It has been stated that Cross was expelled by the Grand Chapter of Maryland for usurpation of power and misuse of the same, but there is no record of such action, nor was he a member of a chapter under its jurisdiction, nor did he ever exercise his powers in that State.


Brother Drummond maintains that Cross had the same power to grant warrants as either Eckel or Niles, on the ground that " One possessor of a 'side' degree has as much right of control over it as any other possessor, and it is only when it is organized and the right of control vested in a governing body or bodies, that the possessors of such a degree lose the right of disseminating it. Cross's method was preferable to the voluntary method, as it insured uniformity of organization." The Cross Councils and Charters. ‑ Whatever motives may have inspired Cross, it is certain that the result of his work was of the greatest value to Cryptic Masonry.


Drummond holds that the first permanent body of Select Masters was the council formed by Cross at Windsor, Vermont, July 5, 18 17. After founding others at Bradford, Vermont, and Hopkinton, New Hampshire (where there had been a council of Royal Masters since August 5, 1815), he started in September, 1817, to visit New Jersey, Delaware, and Virginia, calling upon Eckel and Niles when he passed through Baltimore. While in Washington, District of Columbia, he was appointed Grand Visitor by the Grand Chapter of Connecticut, and went to that State early in 1818. He spent part of the winter in Virginia, forming two councils. May z 7, 1818, he gave a warrant for a council in Springfield, Massachusetts.


Drummond says that he has seen copies of many of these charters, and they purport in terms to be councils of Select Masters. He states : ‑ " But some time in the year 1818, probably in January, Cross obtained the Royal degree, and soon conceived the idea of uniting the two in one. On March 21, 1818, Cross says in his diary, that he and Companion Hosmer called on Companion Stow at Middletown, Conn., and 'conferred on him two degrees, Royal and Select Master.' . . .


"I have caused the early records of a number of the councils warranted by Cross to be examined with a view of ascertaining the earliest date of the conferring of the Royal degree by Cross. I find that New Haven Council, No. 1o, was organized Oct. 16, 1818, by Cross in person, when four Companions 'were admitted Select Masters in due form with the preparatory degree of Royal Master.' ' ... Action was taken in Oct., 1818, looking to the formation of a Grand Council, and on May r9, 1819, the Grand Council of Select Masters of the State of Connecticut was formed, the 656 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


first Grand body of the Rite that ever existed. The constitution authorized the councils to confer 'the degrees of Royal and Select Master.' . . . Between May, 1318, and Aug., 18x9, Cross perfected his system for organizing councils of Royal and Select Masters, and in the latter part of the summer of 18ig commenced issuing warrants for such councils." Barker's Cryptic Mission. ‑ John Barker, like Cross in the more northern section, was an active pioneer of Cryptic Masonry throughout the South and the West, as known at that period. Drummond regards him as having adapted his system from Cross, and conjectures that he may have been the same man who, in Connecticut, was greeted as a Master by Cross, in a list named. But there is no proof of this, and it is certain that Barker, whose operations were extensive, claimed his authority from the Supreme Council of the Southern jurisdiction, and it is not probable that his well‑known career for so many years, which resulted in the formation not only of councils, but indirectly at least of Grand Councils, could have been successful, except with the countenance of that body.


Barker affixed his signature to the warrants issued by him thus: "John Barker, K. H. S. P. R. S., Sovereign Grand Inspector‑General, 33|, and Agent for the Supreme Council of the United States of America." He formed several councils in Alabama, from which a Grand Council was organized at Tuscaloosa, in 1827. He was the agent of the Supreme Council in the formation of a Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem, at Natchez, Mississippi, in 1829, which took the councils of Royal and Select Masters of that State under its care; and, under the auspices of the Princes of Jerusalem, seven councils, many years afterward (January 19, 1856), organized a Grand Council. The closeness of the relation maintained with the higher degrees of the A.‑.A.‑.S.‑. Rite, is shown by the instrument of the Grand Council, Princes of Jerusalem, conveying jurisdiction in Mississippi of the Royal and Select degrees to the Grand Council thus formed.. Mackey distinctly states that Scottish Masonry was introduced in that State, in 1815, by the establishment of a Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem, under the obedience of the Supreme Council.


The Formative Period of Fifty Years.‑The formative period in Cryptic Masonry may be considered to have lasted about fifty years, and when, in 1824, the mistake was made, in Maryland, of assuming jurisdiction by the Grand Chapter, six Grand Councils were in existence, viz. : Connecticut, New York, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Virginia, and Vermont. Subse‑, quently Virginia dissolved her Grand Council (1841), under the belief that jurisdiction vested in the Grand Chapter, and primarily in that of Maryland; whereas, the Grand Council is now known to have been in existence several years before even the Grand Chapter of Maryland received the surrender of whatever rights were claimed by Eckel and Niles. It is needless to say that an exceedingly small proportion of Masons would accord to these brethren, to‑day, any exclusive right to the degrees, whether on the ground of their existence as " side degrees," or upon the belief that there was, and ever had been, a legitimate and authoritative channel of transmission.




657 Governmental Evolution,‑Grand Councils and a General Grand Council. ‑The farther development of Cryptic Masonry will be exhibited in a 'brief review of the several Grand Councils which have been gradually organized, including eleven independent Grand Councils in States, and nineteen which have united in a General Grand Council, the Constitution of which became operative March 1, 1881.


It should be noted that Texas, which organized a Grand Council in 1856, and which met annually until 1864, abandoned the Council system proper at that period of comparative isolation, and has since conferred the degrees in a " Council appurtenant to a Chapter," and only upon Royal Arch Masons, and as if the degrees belonged strictly to the Royal Arch system.


All human organizations are subject to myriad and subtle influences, affecting their progress or decay, in common with the economic and social condition of the peoples in which they have their existence. There have been two marked depressions in the onward progress of Cryptic Masonry in this country : the first, at the period of the remarkable agitation which gave rise to what was known as the Anti‑Masonic party, which it is not the province of this paper to discuss ; but it is sufficient to say, that during the eventful decade from 1830 to 1840, many of the nearly seventy subordinate councils ceased to exist, and, likewise, some of the Grand Councils. In some instances, only the result of Masonic research, with the recovery of long‑forgotten printed records, revived their remembrance.


The second period of depression applies, especially, to the South and South‑west, and was due to the exhaustion incident to a destructive war. It may be that the great multiplication of attractive benevolent societies, and insurance organizations, appealing to the needs of men through an army of industrious agents, absorbed much of the means and energy ordinarily available for Masonic work.


Under the belief that necessity required it, after a number of councils in Mississippi had surrendered their charters, and others become dormant, the Grand Council, which had still annually assembled, in 1877 adopted what has been widely known as the " Mississippi plan," under these provisions: ‑ " Each Royal Arch chapter shall hereafter open within its bosom, under its charter, as a chapter of Royal Arch Masons, a council of Royal and Select Masters; the officers of the chapter corresponding in rank to those of the council, to be those of the council.


"All the Royal Arch Masons who have not received the degrees of Royal Master and Select Master, shall be entitled to have the same conferred or communicated, on their request, and without charge; but candidates who shall hereafter receive the Royal Arch degree shall, immediately thereafter, and in connection with the Royal Arch degree, receive the degrees of Royal and Select Master without additional charge." The Grand Council no longer met as such, and this || merger," as it was termed, was received with favor, and adopted in a number of States, where the brethren were anxiously endeavoring to preserve both chapter and council in the stress of the times, and judged themselves forced to that method to 658 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


advance the interests of Masonry. This course was also adopted in several of the more prosperous jurisdictions, under the belief that all would follow; which in effect, however, would have been the success of a revolution in Masonry.


Experience demonstrated that the combination secured no advantages to either body. The General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States had already placed on record, at Lexington, Kentucky, September 16, 1853, this resolution : ‑ "Resolved, That this General Grand Chapter, and the governing bodies of Royal Arch Masonry, affiliated with, and holding jurisdiction under it, have no rightful jurisdiction or control over the degrees of Royal and Select Master." With one exception (Iowa) all the independent jurisdictions adopting the " Mississippi plan " have rescinded the same, and returned to the Council organization. This is also now true of Mississippi itself, the Grand Royal Arch Chapter having adopted the following in 1888 : ‑ "Resolved, That the Grand Royal Arch Chapter hereby releases control of the Cryptic Degrees, and recommends that the Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters reassume its former jurisdiction of the degrees.


"That chapters are hereby prohibited from communicating and conferring the Cryptic Degrees, recognizing the authority of the Grand Council in all matters pertaining to said degrees." In February, 1888, the Grand Council of Mississippi assembled, six of the officers being of those elected in 1877, including the Grand Master, and Deputy Grand Master, and six councils are said to have been represented.


The Grand Councils of the several States have been formed by the voluntary association of councils within their borders, receiving their charters from Grand Councils in one or more States; and from the Supreme Council, as when, in 186o, it had chartered four councils in Arkansas, and invited a convention by which the Grand Council was formed. But in 1870, in Baltimore, the Supreme Council of the Southern jurisdiction, in a spirit of enlightened comity toward Masonic brethren, resolved to relinquish its control over the Cryptic Degrees to the Grand Councils, to promote unity in the Rite.


General Grand Council Formed. ‑In the year 18 71 the Grand Council of Massachusetts took the initiative, in an effort to unify the polity of the Rite, by formally requesting that distinguished and influential companion, Josiah H. Drummond, of Maine,' to call a convention of delegates of the various Grand Councils for that purpose.


The call was issued, and fourteen Grand Councils were represented at a meeting held in New York City, June 12, 18 It was agreed by unanimous resolution, as follows : ‑ "WHEREAS, In some jurisdictions the question has been mooted of surrendering the Cryptic Degrees to the Chapters; and 1 See Drummond's History of Grand Councils in the United States, p. 89, in The Cryptic Rite. Robertson. Toronto, 1888.




659 " Whereas, there are many companions who have received the degrees in chapters, or from Sovereign Inspectors of the A.% A.. S. . Rite, therefore "Resolved, That it is the sense of this convention that the Cryptic Degrees should be under the exclusive jurisdiction of Grand Councils, and that no one should be recognized as a regular Companion of the Rite who has not received the degrees in a lawfully constituted council, or by authority of the Supreme Council of the A.% A.% S.. Rite, previous to this date, or has been lawfully healed." A uniform system of nomenclature was adopted, which has since been generally accepted by Grand Councils.


Another meeting of the convention was held, in New York, in June, 1873, at which the committee, to whom the subject was intrusted the previous year, made reports, and the following resolution was adopted, nineteen Grand Councils being represented: ‑ "That the order of the succession of the degrees be: first, Royal Master's; second, Select Master's; and that it be left optional with each Grand Council to confer the Super‑Excellent Master's degree as an honorary degree." It was announced, as the sense of the convention,. that a General Grand Council of the United States should be formed. Meetings were subsequently held in New Orleans, December, 1874, and in Buffalo, New York, in August, 1877, in furtherance of this object. At the latter, twenty‑two Grand Councils (with Ontario), were represented. By request of the Grand Council of Minnesota, the convention reassembled at Detroit, August 23, 188o. A Constitution was adopted, which, when ratified by nine Grand Councils, was to become operative. On February 23, 1881, General Grand Recorder George W. Cooley announced that the Grand Councils of New York, Minnesota, Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, Tennessee, Massachusetts, Alabama, and Louisiana had ratified it, and on March 1, 1881, the General Grand Master, Josiah H. Drummond, of Maine, issued a circular to the officers‑elect, and, also, announced that South Carolina had adopted the Constitution.


In Denver, Colorado, August 14, 1883, the first session of the General Grand Council was held. Of the various Grand Councils, eighteen had given in their adhesion. Connecticut and Michigan, whose delegates favored the body, did not ratify the Constitution. Pennsylvania and Rhode Island declined on account of opposition to National bodies, and New Jersey for other reasons. North Carolina adopted the Chapter system (since given up, and the Council government restored). Arkansas, Illinois, and Kentucky reorganized, but did not unite (although Arkansas has since ratified the compact). Iowa, Mississippi, and Nebraska retained the Chapter system, but Nebraska has since joined the General Grand Council, and Mississippi has given up the Chapter system. Wisconsin has an anomalous system; Virginia and West Virginia confer the degrees in a Chapter series, and Texas, as heretofore said, in a "Council appurtenant to a Chapter." In 1886, at Washington, fifteen Grand Councils were represented, and the organization of the Grand Council of Oregon, under jurisdiction of the General COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


Grand Council, was announced, and dispensations provided for councils in the Territories. Companion G. Raymond Portal was appointed Representative near the Grand Council of England, and Companion J. Ross Robertson near the Grand Council of Canada.


The Late Triennial Assembly. ‑ In 1889, at Atlanta, Georgia (November 19th), seventeen Grand Councils were represented, and two subordinates holding charters from the General Grand Council. Companion Love, Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Council of Georgia, in his address of welcome, said: ‑ " While we regret much that this reception must be such as pilgrim travellers are wont to meet in their weary pilgrimage, no royal court, nor knightly power can exceed the cordial grasp or heart‑warm greeting we would gladly grant you, in this our Southern sunny home. Though within our jurisdictional realm, the Royal and Select, into whose care and keeping has been intrusted the secret symbols and sacred treasures of our silent Crypt, be few in number, the few have kept the faith. Our altars are pure and undefiled, our Sanctum is sacred still, and our secret vaults are duly guarded and secure." The General Grand Master's address touchingly alluded to the death of Rev. Canon Portal, M. A., Grand Representative near England and Wales, who departed this life April 5, 1889, aged sixty‑one, and, for eighteen years, Grand Master of Cryptic Masons in England.


Information having reached this body of the intention of the Grand Council of Mississippi to ratify the Constitution, a resolution was adopted, extending a cordial welcome to such representatives as it may send to the next triennial assembly.


The most important act of legislation was the adoption of Section 15, to amend the 1st Article of the Constitution, which now adds the following: ‑ "SEC. rs. State Grand Councils shall determine the legal status of the Royal and Select Masters of their several jurisdictions." The adoption of this section by a unanimous vote has already produced a very favorable effect upon the Rite, many of whom felt aggrieved at the action of the first convention, especially in the jurisdictions of Illinois and Kentucky, and some others, from which earnest protests and severe criticism had been received. George W. Cooley, of Minnesota, was chosen M.‑. P.‑. General Grand Master, and Henry W. Mordhurst, of Indiana, General Grand Recorder.






The limits of this work forbid more than brief references to the Cryptic Rite in each jurisdiction.


Alabama. ‑The Cryptic Degrees, and it is believed councils also, are due to the work of John Barker, of the Southern Supreme Council, Ancient and Accepted Rite. The Grand Council was formed in 1838 (December 13th), by twenty‑seven Royal and Select Masters. In 1843 the action of Virginia was repudiated. In 1849 it objected to the granting of the degrees in its jurisdic tion, by the Grand Consistory of Charleston. Many of its subordinates were in widely distant States. After meeting regularly for forty‑five years, in 1886 its constituents dissolved it, all branches of Masonry in that State being much depressed. But with the revival of the industrial interests, in a very marked degree, hope exists for a return of better things.


Arkansas.‑Grand Council was formed November 6, i86o, by four councils chartered by the Southern Supreme Council. Has a provision of the constitution making active members of the Southern Supreme Council, resident in the State, and members of the Convention, members also of Grand Council as long as they are members of councils in the State. Adopted Chapter method in 1878, but reorganized in 1881. Joined General Grand Council in 1886. The Grand Council has conferred degrees upon candidates for the general good of the Rite there, but now confines its practice to conferring the degrees upon those previously elected in a subordinate council. , California. ‑Organized June 26, i86o, by two councils chartered by Grand Council of Alabama, one by Grand Council of Tennessee, and one by Grand Council of Texas.


Connecticut. ‑This jurisdiction has been freely referred to in the sketch of general history. Cross founded ten councils in 1818. In May (loth) 1819, the `first Grand Council of Select Masters was organized by that name, it is claimed. Records to 1830, lost. In 1825, by revised constitution, both degrees are mentioned, and power over them given to councils. Great decay and depression ensued between 1826 and 1846, but since that date rapid and steady progress has been made.


Delaware.‑Cross conferred degrees in Newcastle and Wilmington, but Cryptic Masonry has been neglected in Delaware.


Florida. ‑Grand Council organized January 13, 1858, by three councils chartered by the Southern Supreme Council. After a long struggle over the subject of Chapter jurisdiction, the Grand Chapter of Florida declined to act, and it became a member of the General Grand Council. No proceedings have been printed since 1882, or meetings held since 1884 to 1889, but a meeting was announced for 189o.




Georgia. ‑Abram Jacobs conferred the Select degree before i8oo, as heretofore mentioned. Grand Council formed May 2, 1826, under authority of the Southern Supreme Council, and is mentioned in publications of that era. Its records have been lost, and it became dormant. A convention was held, and Grand Council was formed June 22, 1841, by three councils. The by‑laws of No. 1, state: "Established under the authority of the Supreme Grand Council of the 33|, in Charleston, South Carolina." Adopted, in 1841, the constitution of 1826 ; but, in the revised constitution of 1842, it claimed to be 1| The highest source of legitimate Masonic authority in the State of Georgia, and of right ought to have the government and superintendence of all councils of Royal and Select Masters within its jurisdiction." Its Grand Council meets annually.


Illinois.‑Grand Council organized March 1o, 1854, by councils chartered by*Grand Council of Kentucky. This is one of the most important jurisdictions in the United States. Its membership is large, and Chicago is the seat of much activity in Masonic work.


In 1854 it refused even to "heal " Royal and Select Masters made in chapters. In 1877 it surrendered the degrees to the Grand Chapter, but the Grand Council continued to meet annually, its constituent councils, if they can be so regarded, being composed of chapter‑made Royal and Select Masters, in addition to former membership. The arrangement, however, was not satisfactory, and in 1882 the Grand Chapter and Grand Council mutually agreed to return to the original status. Much warm discussion, pro and con, has been indulged in throughout the country, and Illinois has held a very conspicuous position, in opposition to the views of many who represented the General Grand Council; but a more harmonious future is probable since the action of that body, in relegating the Masonic status of its membership to each individual Grand Council. It has been claimed in Illinois, by some of her wisest and best Masons, that these uncertainties have cost the loss of several thousand members heretofore. The Grand Council is independent. Indiana.‑In this jurisdiction the degrees were conferred in chapters until the action of the General Grand Chapter. After this, chapter‑made Masters were " healed," and councils chartered by Kentucky and Ohio organized the Grand Council December 20, 1855. Cryptic Masonry is prosperous. in this jurisdiction.


Iowa. ‑ Here the Council Degrees were conferred in chapters when Royal Arch Masonry was introduced. But after the General Grand Chapter resolutions, heretofore mentioned, companions were "healed" on the authority of the Grand Master of the Grand Council of Illinois, and councils chartered by Illinois organized the Grand Council of Iowa January 2, 1857. Nineteen councils had been organized, when, in 1878, it merged itself into the Grand Chapter, and to the present day confers the degrees in chapters. But it has been recently stated, on apparently good authority, that there is a strong disposition to reassume the Council organization.




663 Kansas. ‑ Organized, in Grand Council of R.‑. S.‑. and S.‑ . E.‑. Masons, December 12, 1867, by three councils, chartered by the Grand Council of Missouri.


Kentucky. ‑ Cross conferred the Select degree in 1816‑1817, and sent charters, but if organization took place then, it is not known. Delegates from six councils organized the Grand Council, December 1o, 1827,‑a result of the labors of John Barker, representing the Southern Supreme Council. During the Anti‑Masonic period, it met once only between 1833 and 1845 Kentucky merged the degrees, under chapter control, from 1878 to 1881, when the Grand Council reorganized.


In the recent Masonic annals of this Grand Council, Most Illustrious H. B. Grant, Grand Master, reports the case of a Thrice Illustrious Master of a council who had communicated the degrees, out of a council, and who construed his obligation to mean that be must not confer the degrees, except in a council, but might communicate the same, and direct the Recorder to insert the names as if made in a council. The Grand Master declared the work irregular, violating present usage, and required recognition to be refused until they were "healed " in open council. The Grand Council unanimously approved. Kentucky is an independent jurisdiction.


Louisiana.‑When the degrees were first introduced is unknown, but Holland Council, No. 1, was organized by John Barker in 1827, and it is referred to in the "tableau" of the Grand Chapter in 1828. There was a reorganization of Capitular Masonry about 185o, and Cryptic Masonry also assumed new life, four councils having formed a Grand Council, February 10, 1856. One of these was Holland, No. 1, and the others were chartered by Kentucky and Alabama.


Maine. ‑Organized May 3, 1855, by three councils, chartered by the Grand Council of Massachusetts in 1854. At an earlier period, a council had been working under the General Grand Chapter, before it relinquished charge. Peaceful and prosperous, Maine is without a history, except that of success.


Maryland.‑The original leaders, in disseminating the degrees in Maryland, have been spoken of. It was a " side degree " there before i 8oo. Those in charge, under the belief that the Select degree was under their absolute control, placed it in charge of chapters, and it was authorized by the Grand Chapter to be conferred in 1817. In 1824, it was formally made part of the chapter system, to be conferred before the M.‑.E.‑.Master's degree. In 1845 it was placed after that degree. The Cryptic Degrees continued to be conferred in chapter‑councils until 1872, when the Grand Chapter forbade it. This resulted in the formation of the Grand Council, by six councils, May 12, 1874.


Massachusetts.‑Benjamin Gleason and others formed a voluntary council of Royal Masters in 1817, obtaining afterwards the sanction of Columbian Council (New York). Cross organized a Select council at Springfield, May 664 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


28, 1818. Representatives from six councils met February 8, 1826, and completed the organization of a Grand Council, June 15, 1826. Records during the Anti‑Masonic agitation are lost until the reorganization in 1847. Since 1853 it has met regularly, and has been so prosperous that it is the largest jurisdiction in membership. Hiram Council (Worcester), with 517 members, is the largest council of Royal and Select Masters in the world.


The address of Most Illustrious Grand Master Daniel W. Jones (Mass.) (December, 1889), in alluding to the recent amendment of the Constitution of the General Grand Council declares: ‑ " This was unanimously adopted, and all felt that it would make clear the aim of the General Grand body, and bring into harmonious union all the Grand Councils. Immediately, delegates from several outside Grand Councils expressed the opinion that these Grand bodies would join the General Grand Council as soon as the necessary arrangements could be made.


"These triennial assemblies conduce not only to the performance of such duties as will tend to the proper consolidation and organization of the Order, but also to the cultivation of those social feelings which can but draw us nearer into the bonds of common brotherhood, and thus strengthen Cryptic Masonry throughout the world." Michigan. ‑ Grand Council organized January 13, 1858, by three councils, chartered by Grand Council of Connecticut. The first dispensation was granted, in 1856, for Monroe Council, at Detroit. The Order has made remarkable progress. Michigan is one of the most important jurisdictions. The Grand Council is independent, but does not favor chapter‑made Royal and Select Masters. Companion G. 13. Noble, Chairman of the Convention, says (r89o) : "We are pleased to find the Cryptic Rite in a prosperous condition. From the statistics we have been able to obtain, in all save a few jurisdictions there has been a steady growth. . . ." The questions heretofore in controversy, i.e., the healing process and status of chapter‑made Royal and Select Masters, we believe are very satisfactorily settled.


Minnesota.‑ Organized Grand Council December 12, 187o, by three councils, chartered by Grand Council of Iowa. A council had been chartered by New York in 1855, but it became dormant. Minnesota has taken a very prominent part in the formation and management of the General Grand Council.


Mississippi. ‑ The early history has been detailed in the general history of the Rite. Organized July 19, 1856,‑adopted, in 1877, what is known as the "Mississippi plan," but reorganized Grand Council in February, 1888.


Missouri.‑The Royal degree was introduced in 1828. In 1842 a Grand Council was formed by councils organized by a companion deriving authority from Cross. These became extinct, and also subsequent councils chartered by Kentucky. The Grand Council was organized, May 21, 1864, by three councils, chartered by Illinois.


Nebraska. ‑Grand Council organized November 20, 1872, by Omaha Council (organized July 8, 1867), under charter from the Southern Supreme THE CRYPTIC DEGREES.


Council 33|, and two councils, chartered by Kansas. Adopted, in 1878, a form of "Mississippi plan," but revived as a Grand Council, in 1886, and joined the General Grand Council.


New Hampshire.‑On August 5, 1815, four companions formed a voluntary council of Royal Masters at Hopkinton. A council of Select Masters, under direction of Cross, was formed in 1819, and the two united in 1822. A Grand Council was organized July 9, 1823. From 1835 to 1855, Cryptic Masonry was dormant, when Orphan and Columbian Councils revived, and with Adoniram Council, chartered by Connecticut, formed a Grand Council June 11, 1862. It is now flourishing.


New Jersey. ‑Organized Grand Council November 26, x86o, two councils having been chartered by, Pennsylvania, and one by New York. It is an independent jurisdiction.


New York. ‑ This jurisdiction has been discussed in the general account of the Rite. On September 2, 181o, a number of Royal Masters, who received the degree as a || side degree," voluntarily organized || Columbian Grand Council of Royal Master Masons." In 1818 they conferred the SuperExcellent degree. In 1821 it merged with a voluntary council of Select Masters. In 186o, well‑known troubles in symbolic Masonry being adjusted, the old Grand Council, which had been formed originally of officers and past officers of Columbian, united with a Grand Council which had been formed, in New York, in 1854, by three councils, chartered by Connecticut, that did not at that time recognize the existing Masonic authority of the old council, New York has taken an active part in the General Grand Council.


North Carolina. ‑Masonry was introduced into North Carolina at an early date. On August 21, 1767, a warrant was granted by the Grand Lodge of England for " Royal White Hart Lodge," at Halifax, North Carolina. The first Grand Council was organized at Fayetteville, June 21, 1822, five councils that were at work uniting, and the result of the work of the Southern Supreme Council. The question of jurisdiction by the Grand Chapter was mooted, but in 1825 it declined. In 1859 the Grand Chapter, which had assumed some sort of control over these degrees, in the dormant condition of the Grand Council for many years, adopted the following: "Resolved, That this Grand Chapter, after due consideration, hereby disclaims for itself and subordinates any and all control over the Royal and Select Masters' degrees." In 186o three councils were chartered by the Supreme Council (Southern Jurisdiction), Dr. A. G. Mackey being the active agent, and the Grand Council was formed June 6, 186o. But, in consequence of the war, no farther meeting was held until 1868. In 1883 it dissolved, and again remitted the degrees to the Grand Chapter, but in 1887 it reorganized. Its Grand Council is an independent jurisdiction.


Ohio. ‑Grand Council organized January 6, 183o, by five councils, all formed by John Barker, Agent for the Southern Supreme Council. The Select 666 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


degree had been conferred by Cross in 1816, and a council at Cleveland was chartered by New York in 18 z7, but no record of it exists. Ohio has become a very large jurisdiction, and its work was revised in i88o.


Oregon. ‑The General Grand Master of the General Grand Council authorized A. H. Hodson to assemble not less than five Royal and Select Masters, and confer the degrees upon not exceeding nine Royal Arch Masons, and a dispensation was issued for Pioneer Council, U. D., at McMinnville. Grand Council organized, by three councils, February 3, 1885.


Pennsylvania. ‑A Grand Council was formed, in 1847, by two councils of Pennsylvania, and one of Texas. Its records were not kept, but papers of its meetings, from 1847 to 1851, have been found. In 1854 a proposal was made to'give the control of the degrees to the Council of Princes of Jerusalem, but this was not accepted, and the Grand Council was reorganized December 30, 185 4. It is an independent jurisdiction, but declines to recognize Royal and Select Masters made in chapters. The admirable system of visitation, by Grand Officers, in Pennsylvania, has been followed by a substantial growth. Rhode Island. ‑ On March z 8, 1818, a meeting of Royal Masters was held in Providence, which voted, May 19th, that " The degree of Select Master be attached to this council." In 1819 Cross presented them a charter. After being dormant many years, a meeting was held in 1841. Other councils were chartered by Massachusetts and Connecticut, and, in 1849, the Northern Supreme Council endorsed authority, ‑ to confer the degrees of Royal and Select Master, ‑ upon a charter for a Lodge of Perfection at Newport. This was revoked in 187o, and a charter obtained from the Grand Council which had been formed October 30, 186o. This is an independent jurisdiction.


South Carolina.‑The early history has been mentioned. The Supreme Council was held as the lawful governing power, and chartered nine councils in 1858‑9. But in 186o it waived its rights, and a Grand Council was organized February 15, 186o. It followed the course of Mississippi in 188o, but in 1881 reorganized and became a member of the General Grand Council. Tennessee. ‑ Organized its Grand Council October 13, 1847, by two councils, chartered by the Southern Supreme Council, two by Kentucky, and one U. D. from the Grand Council of Alabama.


Texas. ‑Organized Grand Council June 24, 1856, which, in 1864, was disbanded, as heretofore related, and the degrees given to the chapter. Vermont. ‑ Cross went to this jurisdiction after his return from the South, and in person, or by his deputy, John H. Cotton, organized nine councils, beginning at Windsor, July 7, 1817. The warrant of the council at Bennington has been preserved, and reads : ‑ " To all whom these presents may come, GREETING: " Know ye, that by the high powers in me vested by the Thrice Illustrious and Grand Puissant in the Grand Council of Select Masters, held at the City of Baltimore, in the State of Maryland, North America, I do hereby constitute and empower the within‑named Companions to form THE CRYPTIC DEGREES.


667 themselves into a regular Council of Select Masters, and I do appoint my Worthy Companion, Samuel S. Young, to be first Thrice Illustrious Grand Master, Zacheus Hovey be the first Illustrious Deputy Grand Master, and Oliver Abgll to be the Principal Conductor, and I do grant them full power, with their constitutional number, to assemble, open, and confer the Degree of Select Master, and do all other business appertaining to said degree, for which this shall be their warrant, until revoked by the Grand Puissant. And I do further direct said Council to hold its meetings at Bennington, Bennington County, and State of Vermont. Given under my hand at Bennington, this twenty‑third day of May, A.D. 1818, and of the Discovery, 2818.


"JOHN H. COTTON, "Acting Deputy Puissant in Grand Council." These councils existed until 1826‑1828. In 1849 they reorganized and worked under original warrants until 1854. Four councils organized Grand Council August 1o, 1854.


Virginia. ‑The early history of the Rite shows that Myers remained awhile in Virginia, where he probably conferred degrees. In December, 1817, a council of Select Masters was established by Cross in Richmond, and sub sequently one at Portsmouth and other points. December 20, 182o, a Grand Council was formed, which apparently failed to meet from 1829 to 1839, and in 1847 dissolved itself and left the degrees to the chapter. The mistake in connection with this action has been elsewhere described. The degrees are conferred before the Royal Arch.


Wisconsin. ‑ Three councils, chartered by Ohio, organized the Grand Council October 28, 1857. In 1878, by arrangement, the Grand Chapter took charge of the degrees. But in 1881 a Grand Council was organized by representatives from forty‑nine councils. The record does not state how they were organized.


Subordinate Councils. ‑The following subordinate councils are under charge of the General Grand Council: Washington, No. 1, Washington, District' of Columbia; Oklahoma, No. i, at Atoka, Indian Territory; Deming, No. 1, Demin;, New Mexico; and Casselton, No. 1, Casselton, North Dakota.


Cryptic Masonry in Canada. ‑The authority for the facts stated in this brief sketch is derived chiefly from the comprehensive work of the Rite in Canada, by Past Grand Master J. Ross Robertson, of Toronto, Grand Recorder of the Grand Council of the Dominion of Canada.


Samuel Kidder, from the United States, travelled through New Brunswick as a lecturer in 1826, and it is supposed the degrees were conferred by him at that time, as a St. John newspaper of 1828 contains a notice of a quarterly meeting of Royal and Select Masters. But there is no record that is authentic. In 1866 Companion Robert Marshall, of St. John, New Brunswick, took the degrees of Royal, Select, and Super‑Excellent Master, in a Royal and Select council at Baltimore, United States, for the purpose of introducing the Rite. He instituted three councils,‑St. John, No. 1, New Brunswick, No. 2, and Carleton, No. 3,‑under charters from the Grand Council of Maine, May 18, 1867.


A convocation of Royal and Select Masters of New Brunswick was called, 668 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


August 15, 1867, to form a Grand Council. Gordon R. Garden, 33|, of the Grand Council of Maine, was present, with the representatives, and acted as President. A constitution was adopted, and Most Illustrious Companion Robert Marshall was elected M.‑. P.‑. Grand Master for New Brunswick. In 1868 delegates were appointed to the convention of Cryptic Masons held in St. Louis, Missouri. In 1870 " Chebucto " Council was constituted in Halifax, Nova Scotia, under warrant from the Grand Council of New Brunswick.


In 1870 councils were authorized to confer the degree of the "Red Cross," or "Babylonish Pass," that being a prerequisite to the Order of Knights Templar in the United States, but not acknowledged by the Supreme Grand Conclave, of the Order in England and Wales, under which Canadian Templar Encampments held. The council took jurisdiction with the approval of W. J. B. McLeod Moore, S. G. I. G., 33|, and Grand Prior, Order of the Temple, etc., Dominion of Canada, and also of Most Eminent Sir Knight William Blackstone Hubbard, Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of the United States, and this was recognized by Right Eminent Sir William S. Gardner, afterward Grand Master of Templars.


It was in the village of Orillia, Ontario, that a council, under warrant from New Brunswick, was established as " Shekinah " Council in November, 1870. Other councils were establishedl, and, in July, 1871, Adoniram Council, Toronto, called a Convention of councils in Ontario, which met August 8, 1871, and the Grand Council of Ontario was formed ; R.‑. P.‑. Companion R. D. Harington, Inspector General of Cryptic Masonry for Ontario and Quebec, being present as Chairman, and, transferring his authority, the Grand Council proceeded to work with success, meeting annually, and granting charters to councils. In August, 1873, the Grand Master in his address took notice of the formation of the Grand Council of England and Wales.


In 1875, the fifth Annual Assembly of Ontario resolved as follows: ‑ "That this Grand Council approves of the formation of a Grand Council of Rites for the Dominion of Canada, composed of the Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters, the Grand Conclave of Rome and Constantine, and the Grand Lodge of Royal Ark Mariners, and hereby authorizes and instructs the Most Illustrious, the Grand Master, to take all necessary steps in connection with the other bodies interested to perfect the same." This resolution went into effect, by consent of all the bodies named, in July, 1880, under name of the Grand Council of Canada.


In 1884, the Red Cross degree being then given in Preceptories of Knights Templar, the Grand Council of Canada surrendered all control over the Red Cross, and councils were directed to cease conferring it. Similar action was taken in 1885, in reference to the other Rites, leaving the Grand Council in control only of the Cryptic Rite.


A period of comparative depression set in, but it is believed that energetic action in visitation, on the part of superior officers, will bear fruit in future prosperity. Past Grand Master Robertson beautifully says: ‑ THE CRYPTIC DEGREES. 669 "The day‑dream of our lives may be realized, and a fresh interest, a new‑born enthusiasm, an inspiration for another existence, may be awaiting those who hold fast to the faith, and feel that in the degrees of Royal and Select Master, there is an enduring strength that can withstand the giant wave of success which seems to attend those modern organizations, planted as they are, like pines in Southern forests, all over this great continent." THE ROYAL DEGREE. ‑ Mackey describes this degree as the eighth in the American Rite, and the first conferred in a council of Royal and Select Masters. It has the following officers: A Thrice Illustrious Master, representing King Solomon; a Right Illustrious Deputy Master, representing Hiram of Tyre; an Illustrious Principal Conductor of the Work, representing Hiram Abif; a Treasurer; Recorder; Captain of the Guard; Conductor of the Council, and Steward. The Council Chamber represents the private retreat of King Solomon, for consultation with his colleagues. A candidate is said to be "honored" with the degree. The apron is black, in token of grief at the loss of the Chief Builder, edged with red, typifying his blood, shed to maintain his integrity.


Mackey says: 1 " The events recorded in this degree must have occurred at the building of the First Temple, and during that brief period of time, after the death of the Builder, which is embraced between the discovery of his body and its 'Masonic interment' . . . If from the legendary history we proceed to the symbolism of the degree, as we shall find that brief and simple as are the ceremonies, they present the great Masonic idea of the laborer seeking for his reward." SELECT MASTER. ‑The officers of this degree are a Thrice Illustrious Master, Right Illustrious Deputy Master, Illustrious Principal Conductor of the Work, Treasurer, Recorder, Captain of the Guard, Conductor of the Council, Steward, and Sentinel. The first three represent the Grand Masters at the building of the Temple. The symbolic colors are: black, signifying secrecy and darkness, and red, for ardent zeal. Every officer and member of a council wears a silver trowel within a triangle of the same, suspended from a black collar, edged and lined with red. A council is supposed strictly to have neither more nor less than twenty‑seven members. The term was for merly used ‑" Select Masons of Twenty‑Seven." The candidate is said to be " cho1en." The historic object is 2 to commemorate the deposit of an important treasure by Hiram Abif. The place of meeting is a "Secret Vault" beneath the Temple.


While the labors of the Select Masters were performed before those related in the Royal degree, yet they were not made known to the Craft until long afterward; the very existence of Select Masters, and their secret, having been unknown to the great mass of workers, the degree explaining much that had taken place anterior to it.


The great beauty of both degrees has long excited Masonic admiration. SUPER‑EXCELLENT MASTER.‑This degree in some American councils is conferred in course, but the greater number treat it as simply an honorary 1 Mackey's Encyclopeedia, p. 674. 2 Mackey's Encyclopoedia, p. 704, COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


or " side degree," as it was considered by the A. ‑. A. ‑. S. ‑. Rite. It does not properly pertain to the Cryptic Degrees, but is rather an extension of a part of the Royal Arch degree. A council of Super‑Excellent Masters has fifteen officers: Most Excellent King, representing Zedediah, the twentieth and last king of Judah; Companion Gedeliah, representing one of Zedediah's princes; the First Keeper. of the Temple; the Second Keeper of the Temple; Third Keeper of the Temple ; First Herald ; Second Herald ; Third Herald ; Captain of the Guard; (3) Royal Guards; Recorder; Master of Exchequer, and Sentinel. It refers to circumstances occurring on the last day of the siege of Jerusalem. "Its legend and ceremonies are intended to inculcate that important Masonic virtue‑fidelity to vows." Conclusion. ‑ Cryptic Masonry in America, taken as a whole, is steadily gaining strength. While it is stationary, or even losing to some extent, in a few jurisdictions, it is nevertheless in general advancing with satisfactory prog ress. The Rite has no adventitious aid as a prerequisite to any other body. There is no reason to believe that this jewel and crown of Ancient Craft Masonry will ever want votaries to seek it in the " Secret Vault." England.‑Cryptic Freemasonry has been worked in England, more or less regularly, for over a century, in fact from about r q6o, in one form or another, as the degrees are, in part, nearly allied to some of the Ancient and Accepted Rite. My " Origin of the English Rite " is the latest work on the subject from a British stand‑point, and might be consulted with advantage, in relation to the additions to the Royal Arch.


Of late years these degrees seem almost to have been lost sight of, and the knowledge of their working nearly, if not wholly, died out, save in Scotland, under the wing of the " Early Grand Encampment." The authority, now active, was derived from the State of New York, and was the outcome of a movement, originated in the Mark Grand Lodge of England, to enable Mark Masons and Royal Arch Companions, in England, to take the Most Excellent Master, and the Royal, Select, and Super‑Excellent Masters' degrees, as in America.


THE CR YPTIC DEGREES. 671 The first of these was authorized by Most Eminent Companion Rees George Williams, G. H. P., in 1871 ; and the others were chartered, in connection with four councils, to meet in London, in the same year, by the Most Puissant James McCreedie G.‑. M.‑. of the R.‑. S.‑. and S.‑. E.‑. Masters, these uniting to form the Grand Council for England.


The first Grand Master was the Most Worshipful Brother the Rev. Canon Portal, M. A., who continued to be reelected until his lamented decease in 1889, when the Right Hon. the Earl of Euston was chosen in his stead, Brother Frank Richardson, 33|, being the D. G. M. and Lord Dungarvan the P. C. of W. Several of the chief members of the Ancient and Accepted Rite have taken an especial interest in the work and prosperity of these degrees, which were so happily introduced into England, in 1871, by the Ill.. Brother Jackson H. Chase, and Ill.. Brothers Martin and Thompson. The present Grand Recorder is the R.‑. W .‑. Brother C. F. Matier, P. D. G. M., who is the efficient Grand Mark Secretary, and one of the best Ritualists known.


Fifteen councils in all have been warranted, of which number twelve continue on the roll; but not much support has been granted to them by the "rank and file" of the Craft, for even some of these are languishing.


Representatives are exchanged with several Grand Councils in the United States, Canada, and Scotland. There are but two active councils for the latter country, R.‑.W.‑. Brother J. D. Duncan being the G.‑.M.‑. These degrees are not worked in Ireland, as only those agreed to by that Grand Lodge, and those not of recent date, or arrangement, are permitted. This regulation bars not a few old Ceremonies as well, such as the Royal Order of Scotland; but the Craft, Arch, Knight Templar, and Ancient and Accepted Rite mutually recognize each other, and thus effectually prevent the introduction of any rivals whatever.






The Relation of the Symbolic, Capitular, and Cryptic Degrees to one another and to Ancient Craft Masonry; comprising the Foundation, the Superstructure, and the Ornaments of the Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons.


BY CHARLES T. MCCLENACHAN, 33|, Historian, Grand Lodge, State of New Fork.






The Physical, the Spiritual, the Celestial, these three Intertwining, ever‑blending in perfect harmony." Introductory. ‑How vain would be our hope of attaining perfection at once ! The Creator, exercising his wisdom, proceeded by degrees when bringing into being the harmoniously moving universe and placing within it this beautiful world. Elohim first created those things which had being without life ; then those things which had life and being; finally, that which had life and being, with reason and a soul.


The higher our attainment of intellect and purity, the nearer is our approach to perfection. We are children of the light and of the day, and not of the darkness of unbelief; but our continued progress must be by degrees. " Men erect comfortable cottages ; kings, sumptuous palaces ; but the King of Glory, a heavenly abode." We are reminded that there are three stages of heaven the lower atmosphere for created things that breathe ; that in which the stars float in their grandeur; and that in which the angels and saints magnify their Creator. The first is symbolized by the Outer Court of the Holy Temple at Jerusalem, which was open to all; the second, by the Court of the Ministering Priests, who are symbolized by the Candles of Heaven; and the third is the Holy of Holies, with the Cherubim shadowing the Mercy Seat and all that the Sacred Ark contains.


673 674 There are things physical, things spiritual, and things celestial; and so, likewise, there are grades of education, of the head, of the heart, and of the soul. There are also degrees that are essential to a full understanding of the symbolism of our Masonic Brotherhood, in the Symbolic, the Capitular, and the Cryptic Departments.


To pronounce a panegyric on the system of Masonry embracing these three, compels a review of the Institution in its entirety. The relationship is so intimate that the life of the one is the existence of the others. The foundation is inferior in value without its superstructure, and both are cold and ineffective without furniture and ornamentation.


The respective ages of the divisions of Masonry are immaterial; their intercommunication is essential.


Doubtless the reader will find exhaustive information pertaining to all matters of detail in the preceding pages, emanating from the pens of the most reliable Masonic scholars, and under the latest examinations; nevertheless, we assume herein the liberty of review of the relationship of the principles involved in the divisions referred to, from the earliest period to the present day.


As the triune act of Elohim at the creation is so emblematically alluded to in the formulation of these divisions, we may be pardoned for calling attention thereto, and commencing this chapter with such allusions.


We trust not to encroach upon the domain of others, but a full performance of our assumed duty would appear to make the following course essential; to wit, to trace society in its organized forms from remote period to the present day: The Dream of Dawn; the Awakening; the Blessing; the Inspection of the Temple ; its Destruction; the Unity of Divisions; and the Revival.


The Dream of Dawn.


"'Twas Time's first dawn, When naught yet was. Nor sand, nor sea, Nor cooling wave; Earth was not there. Nor heaven above. Naught save a void And yawning gulf; But verdure none." COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


All things with each other blending, All on each in turn depending; Heavenly Ministers descending, And again to Heaven uptending; Floating, mingling, interweaving, Rising, sinking, and receiving Each from each, while each is giving Unto each, and each relieving Each, the parts of gold, the living Current through the air is heaving Breathless blessings; see them bending, Balanced worlds from change defending, While everywhere diffused is harmony unending." ‑RHus VEDA.




675 From the period when the first day of rest revealed the works of the creation to the present, there has ever been an innate craving, on the part of man, to congregate for mutual aid, protection, and progression; a God‑given impulsion for improvement among his noblest of creation, the soul‑bearers of the image of Elohim, of Him who was the Source of all creative power. This persistent desire of association for mutual advantage, physical and intellectual, is visible through all the congregations of men, wherever spread, from the beginning of the world.


Elohim not only created the substantial universe, but he gave it regulation, harmonious movement, and ornamentation, and finally blessed and consecrated it. All this was symbolized by the construction of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem, its service, regulations, and ornamentation, and its being blessed and dedicated by the king. And in all this the system of Masonry was foreshadowed.


As the creation of light was the first and as well the last act in the drama, it was made manifest that it was intended for use; for, when the Lord said, `| Let there be light, and it was light ! " he 1| took care of the light that it was useful, and he divided the light from the darkness." When the last mandate of Elohim was complete in the creation of intellectual light, his evident intent was, not that it should be a selfish light, but one that should be useful and beneficial to his fellow‑man, those yet to follow as inhabitants of the earth.


From out the ocean of Chaos, man stood upon the shores of Creation for a brief period of survey, ere work began and fellowship was formed.


Even in the days of Adam and Eve, and Cain, and Abel, and Seth, and their progeny, union for a common protection and mutual assistance appears to have taken form.


The sensuous race of Cain, wise in its conceit, fair in form, attractive to the eye, in leafy bowers would meet for useful consult, and then hail the sweet, soft music of Jubal's harp. Thus, also, did the primal pair, with their more chosen seed, in concert sit under the mgis of the Omnific Name, and, after chant and prayer, would link their thoughts and commune for the general good. These were but Elohim's footprints, directing man toward his fellow's help.


"And now cities and temples rise, And castles, too, whose turrets pierce the skies." Man continued in this course of mutual aid until the Shadow of the Waters brought all things outward to an end, and Noah's congregation held refuge in the Ark of Safety.


Ages pass, and in far India the gathering swarms assemble, not alone for physical culture, but on Ganges' banks for mental aid and help, for intellectual control, and for the elevation of the soul. From time to time, to the present age, reformers came and went. Among the first was Brahma, and then famed 676 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


Buddha, who taught religious toleration. Then followed Krishna, the teacher, claimed to have been divine. Shortly upon the mythic vision looms Osiris, whose time on earth was measured by the age of lotus plants, some twentyeight in number, and who, when buried at great Philae, left in devotees more souls than else could count the world. To him in Egypt great temples were erected at Abydos, and Seti's "Hall of Columns" at Karnak.


Then down the Tree of Life, during the ancient era, came other mystic rites, some o'erlapping, others following, until a thousand sects and faiths have filled the earth with reformation,‑the wondrous Gymnosophists, and Tao with his priests, Confucius, Zoroaster, Moses, and the Druids.


And so, through times thereafter, in the new era, congregations of peoples, schools, and assemblies, having a specific purpose, continued to gather and admit to fellowship willing applicants, with more or less selectness, under forms and ceremonies peculiar to their day or inclination. These forms of reception, followed by trial and instruction, were generally elaborate and appalling, tending to test the physical and mental courage of those whom they bound to implicit secrecy. These ceremonies, opening with invocations, were magnificent and startling; incident to sudden transitions and thrilling contrasts, abounding in deep portrayal of affliction, sorrow, and distress, widening into gloomy terror, thus foreshadowing the early life and travails of our fellowman passing through barbarism, ignorance, and uncertainty.


The trembling neophyte was forced to make dangerous advances, essential to his progress, until in due course he entered upon scenes of joy and light, emblematic of life, glorious and eternal. This end was not attained at once, and at a general ceremony; the processes and grades were many, elaborate, and intertwined, at times covering years of anxious probation. , Man's approach to perfection is generally the outgrowth of experiences of sorrow, suffering, and affliction, which form the rugged paths of life, and which are necessary for the human heart to attain the Golden Orient, ‑ the Light of Eternal Truth. A true union with our fellows, of whatever school or class, who sincerely strive to attain unto virtue, must embrace the secret language written only on the heart, and which is recognized as its purest, sweetest joy. It is thus, and thus only, we are allied unto the most spiritual part of our own nature.


Thus it was with the Cabiric Mysteries, at Samothrace, which prevailed extensively among the people, and were ruled by deified heroes, self‑claimed interpreters of faiths, and founders of civilization, into whose temples none e'er entered, save the priests. Solemn and most terrible were the receptions, celebrated in profoundest secrecy, and only at the dead of night, on him who had been purified by crystal water and human blood. Were these the precursors of the Masonic mysteries? for the Cabiric was the type of the Hiramic death.


Prominent among the faiths and mysteries were those of Ceres, Mithras, THE E ULOGIUM.


677 Bacchus, Trophonius, Rhea, Adonis, Eleusis, Odin, and Pythagoras, of the Essenes, and of the Scandinavians. And so at Jerusalem, the Nazarene, who was of the School of Sopherism, held forth the doctrine of reformation, and that there is no end to the universal love of God ; in truth, to it there was no beginning.


Then turn we to the Brotherhood of Masonry, next in kin to the service of the Anointed. Whatever was its origin, it, like the secret societies of antiquity, developed into a vast college, where the most useful,' encouraging, and sublime sciences, morals, and truths should be forever taught. Its great, central symbol ‑ the Temple ‑is a vast labyrinth of mysteries, whereby we learn our Grand Master's many attributes and virtues, which are interpreted and their true import beautifully portrayed by the adepts of these departments of Masonry, who uphold its banners and are entitled to wear its crown.


In our loved legend it matters not how much is fact nor how much fiction. A great philosopher of the day hath said : ‑ " For it is here that Fantasy, with her mystic wonder‑land, plays into the small prose domain of sense, and becomes incorporated therewith. In the symbol proper, what we can call a symbol, there is ever, more or less distinctly and directly, some embodiment and revelation of the infinite the infinite is made to blend itself with the finite, to stand visible, and, as it were, attainable there. By symbols, accordingly, is man guided and commanded, made happy, made wretched. He everywhere finds himself encompassed with symbols, recognized as such or not recognized: the Universe is but one vast symbol of God; nay, if thou wilt have it, what is man himself but a symbol of God: is not all that he does symbolic; a revelation to sense of the Mystic, God‑given force that is in him; a 'gospel of freedom,' which he the ' Messias of Nature' preaches, as best he can, by act and word ? " Forms, ceremonies, images, and action address themselves to the profoundest sentiments of the heart ana elevate the soul. It is the dream of dawn, it is the conscience working within the soul, which makes us dare deeds the most hazardous, to strive to attain the apparently impossible. It is this power of the conscience, working through the soul, that causes us to strain our efforts for virtue and purity, and for which we are loved. The soul is an abject subject to legends and symbols that call forth deeds and works of manliness and Godliness, for which we are to be adjudged, and in due course rewarded.


The Awakening. ‑ From gentle slumber the Israelitish king awakes refreshed. The early morn comes not more sweetly to his opening lids than does his day‑dream to the awakening brain, ‑ foreshadowing a loved and . loving Brotherhood, whose universal symbol, under his direction, daily grew in glory and in grandeur, gradually forming the gold‑crowned, snowy pile assuming shape and majesty.


And now the lessening shadows of the early dawn betoken the coming hour of prayer. All else in nature seems wrapped in restful repose, save him who rules the destinies of Israel. As was his wont, while others slept, his early 678 thought of prayer, overleaping every other duty, urges him on until he shall have offered praise and thanksgiving in the edifice of Him for whom the Holy House was being built.


The silver rays were giving place to the golden light of day, when out from the palace, which was rich in kingly equipment, temporarily arranged for the dwelling of the great, stepped with conscious tread, and unattended, the chosen one of God to cross the valley. With countenance beaming with gratitude and reflecting the blessed rays of heaven, in thoughtful adoration, he follows the winding pathway to the House of Prayer. However unfinished was the work on that Holy House, and the apparently tedious labor still remaining to crown it with final glory, yet the king had sanctified the ground and the work on which the people were engaged. Ample and reasonable provision had been made for solemn Matin and holy Benediction on each day's progress.


And now the king in self‑communion takes his way adown the path. The chirping birds and warbling songsters greet him with their usual lay, as if they knew his mission; the very trees and flowers with life and transport seem to glow; and yet the king keeps on his winding way through groves most sacred, and on by Craftsmen's huts and their protecting canvas. And then he walks by fresh and gurgling streams, where palm‑trees wave, warding the storm or cooling the tropic heat, forming at times heaven's archway. Again he passes down the glen near where the waters of the Kedron glide, and off beyond where is the pool of Birket‑Israel, now alive with early gatherers at the crystal fountain, who, both young and old, wonderingly stand and gaze at him who travels onward towards the object of his holy thoughts. No one disturbs the current of his mind, nor offers to intrude with query or petition. The perfumed blossom and the golden orange blend their stems. The side‑ways are bedecked with tunias red and blue, with figs and purple grapes; the citron and pomegranate side by side in luscious beauty tempt the eye. The king sees none of these, although the atmosphere about him floats with Heaven's gifts, and delicious odors breathe through every path, and breezes fresh salute him.


The morning walk draws near its end. With giant strides the sun looms up from o'er the eastern hills, and breaks its rays in myriad numbers o'er the plain. The gray mists lighten, and " the katydids now hush their trills." The breaking day dispels the haze of night; the working‑bee awakes to gather sweets; and COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


"Trees and shrubs and flowers of every hue Open their lips to drink the gathered dew." The Morning Blessing. ‑The wise king and son of a wise king, whose characteristics and life were paralleled in those of the father, save in the matter of warring with his neighbors, now beholds, directly in view, facing the East, the object of his glorious triumph. With soul swelling with emotion for the honor Jehovah had awarded him in so grand a work erected to his gory, the king stopped, and for a moment stood enraptured. Then passing to the outer Court of the Gentiles, and up the steps through the Beautiful Gate in the enclosing wall of that court, he still advances, silently praising the Mighty One.


Onward he moves to the Holy Place, between the porch and the altar, where he was accustomed daily to offer his supplication and prayer of praise. Upon the king's approach, the forked flames and crackling fire give evidence of priestly presence, and of fresh offerings upon the holy burnished altar, standing in the centre of that sacred spot, not far removed from the curtained Sanctum. The sensuous fumes burden the air with thick, curling clouds of spikenard, frankincense, and myrrh, exhaled from the ornate altar of sweet perfumes on the South, preparatory to the morning prayer of praise and thanksgiving.


The king now stands in the East, apart from all the rest, with head and body bent, and soul all mindful of the Creator's loving‑kindness to him, and to his people, and to the work in which he was engaged. And as he stood, his raiment became shining with the glory that was in him, and a dim yet luminous cloud appeared in the East about the great curtain which concealed the Cherubim. And turning to the few who had now gathered there,‑amazed and bowed in awe,‑intones most trustful and sincere, the king stretched forth his hands, and spoke the mandate of Moses when he blessed the people, saying : ‑ "The Lord bless thee and keep thee: the Lord make his face shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee : the Lord lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace I " And when the king had ceased speaking, the priests were filled with reverence, and withdrew.


Preparing for Inspection.‑The king, having concluded his devotions, retired to an inner chamber, there to meet the king of Tyre, that they might prepare for duties that on given periods devolved upon them, in the examination of the progress of the Holy House. The interest of the king of Tyre in the construction cf the edifice seemed the more remarkable when we reflect that Solomon, known to the prophet Nathan as Yedidiah, the beloved one, when about to build the Temple of his God, first applied to the king of Egypt for men to aid him in the work. Pharaoh, after consulting his astrologers, selected those men who were to die within the year. When they arrived at Jerusalem, the wise king sent them back without delay. With each man he sent a shroud, and directed them to say to their king: " If Egypt is too poor to supply shrouds for her dead, and for that purpose sends them to me, behold here they are, the men and the shrouds together: take them and bury thy dead." Masonry requires energetic, living men to build the Temple to its God, and not the senile refuse of the " profane." How grandly in contrast to the Egyptian king was the action of Hiram the Tyrian, who willingly loaned his Chief Skilled Architect, and rendered favors so essential to the king of Israel l 680 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


The Royal Inspection. ‑ The busy workmen ply their tools in conformity with the plans laid out, by which they are to finish and adorn the edifice to be sanctified of God. The elder Masters teach and guide the Apprentices. The Fellows study and apply the more intricate arts and sciences, and also construct the winding‑stairs ; applying, each class, the tools allotted to its care and skill. And every timber and every stone must needs be marked as it is finished. With wondrous system each plan and section has been defined, explained. The Master‑builder, with unerring skill, has laid before his engineers and draughtsmen every line and measurement, that they in turn may spread the same, with due instruction and essential detail, before each Overseer and Master, and thus, in harmony, the House may be complete.


The kings emerge from out their council‑chamber, and then their work begins. First the trestle‑board they inspect, which quickly is explained. With interest intense, the king of Tyre, robed and turbaned in purple, and in vestments curious and rare, notes each line and figure to which his kingly brother points. The king of Israel, turbaned and wearing robes and tunic of purest white, and an ephod bound like unto a girdle about the waist, examines all with critical inspection.


Close was the communion of these kings, bound by the Mysteries in solemn compact, rendering him of Tyre and the ruler of the Jews most earnest in the work, wherein the one found glory to his God, and the other but a symbol of a faith in which he worshipped the Great Unknown.


In the forests, timbers of fir and timbers of cedar were being cut by servants of the king of Tyre, who convey them by sea in floats to the most convenient shore. Also for this work did Solomon raise among the Jews a body of three thousand men. In the quarries and in the mountains were eighty thousand men. Hear the swift blows of the untiring gavel smoothing the rough sides and corners of the marbles, the better to fit them for the builders' use. Watch the Apprentices apply the gauge and wield the hammer, symbolically preserving true harmony and equal division for work, for rest, for prayer, and succor for the needy. See that other class most requisite, squarers of wood, and mortise and tenon workers, experts with the chisel and the mallet, who, while they hew, and cut, and carve in their laborious work, find it less irksome as they ponder upon the lessons of morality and virtue taught by discipline and enlightened reason, granting that contentment " Which nothing earthly gives or can destroy, The soul's calm sunshine and the heartfelt joy," And which in time will fit them not only as timber worthy of the Temple, but even as corner‑stones cut from the quarry, upon which a glorious superstructure may be raised.


And now the Grand Masters, as they have oft before, stop, and, looking over the wall, note the deep foundation; how great and firm each massive stone. Behold the wisdom of Solomon; the workmen are not all Israelites THE EULOGIUM. (gl: that build the foundation: it is necessary that it should be deep and broad and firm, ‑ and lo, there are builders from Israel, and builders from Tyre, and Giblites as well.


In the laying out and the construction of that foundation two secret pas sages must be built, hewn from the solid rock, the one connecting beneath the Altar of Sacrifices to carry to the valley the overflow of blood and surplus of refuse from the numerous sacrifices ; and the other, known only to the "Select," connecting the abode of Solomon with a rock‑hewn cavern beneath the Sanc tum, furnishing an arched passage‑way, whereby secretly might be protected the Ark and its contents, should dangers assail or necessity require its use.


The Ark was the symbol of the Covenant, and furthermore Moses said "Take this Book of the Law, and put it in the side of the Ark of the Cove nant of the Lord your God, that it may be there for a witness against thee" ; and did it not contain the pot of Manna and Aaron's rod; and was there not also to be preserved the Omnific Name which had been revealed in a flame of fire from the midst of a burning bush? How glorious was to be this rock hewn cave, its entrance most wonderfully bedecked with curious crystals glittering in the flambeau's blaze like myriad gems, and thus light up the ,path 'neath beauteous arches leading to the sacred and most Holy Word : ‑ " And by great skill this subterranean way Was rendered smooth and brilliant as in day." The kings inspected and pronounced the work |1 well done 1 " And now again they turn to the Apprentices, and note how free and clear from soil the open apron shields the working‑dress; how cautiously from all untempered mortar, or other blemish, each his presence keeps; how studiously and with blunt grace each salutes his Master.


Now, moving on, the kings observe the Craftsmen with apron curled, who under canvas cover, with level, plumb, and square, their maps more closely scan, and as each stone is finished and received, is marked and deftly placed in line, then quickly measured and again inspected, as to whether square or due proportioned; and further, when it is laid, whether it is horizontal, square, or perpendicular, emblematic of their walk in life, which should be upright in their several stations before God and man, squaring their actions by the square of virtue as they travel on the path that leads to their eternal home.


To the Middle Chamber the kings now turn, and earnestly observe other Craftsmen assembled at the entrance of the Holy Place, examining the two colossal columns that support the architrave of the porch, the one upon the right and the one upon the left, with bowl‑shaped capitals, covered with net‑work filled with lilies, and interplaced with four hundred pomegranates. How exquisite is the proportion of that winding staircase to the right, with three, and five, and seven steps leading to an inner chamber, abounding in beauteous columns of differing architecture, and with many pleasing and useful ornaments 1 682 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


But who are these thirty‑three hundred, with aprons squared, now marching by, passing from the Chief Architect's chamber to the direction of the many bands of workmen, and with the appearance of directors of the work? Note them now separate, and ply one tool and then another; testing the cement by the free use of the trowel ; rejecting unsquared timber, or stone of doubtful measurement. How evenly they spread the cement that unites the building into one common mass, and by their urbanity and brotherly course of action harmonize all the Apprentices and Fellow Crafts as well as one another into one sacred band or society of brothers, among whom no contention is ever permitted to exist, save that of who the best can work and who the best agree ! These are they who, having served so well, have now been honored as Overseers, the trusted ones, in whose bosoms have been confided the substitute for the most holy of all Names. These are they in whom the kings confide the doctrine of resurrection and immortality, and point out the duty of man to his fellow, and as well his duty to his God. To these, then, belong great honor, as, like honest workmen, they must walk in all truth and purity, that in time they may become God's anointed, and teachers of his children. Their prayerful, silent work is done without confusion; nor do they permit the sound of hammer, axe, or any tool of iron to be heard in the construction of the Holy House.


And now turn the royal pair to the further progress of the work. Full well they know that the usefulness of God's Temple was to be measured by the extent to which it might be made available in the improvement and advance ment of the chosen human race. As progress is motion and motion is life, so the Eternal Master demands progress of all. So the kings returned, and passed again to the Outer Court, where the wall separated the Court of the Gentiles from the Court of the Priests, and they entered at the threshold where is the Beautiful Gate of the Temple. On each door‑post were palmshaped capitals; and within the wall were thirty chambers, all paved round about ; and there were gates on the north and on the south, on the east and on the west; and there were many cells, and many doors and windows in the cells and in the chambers. And that the light of heaven should ever shine more glorious, the many windows were wide without and narrow within: so should we open the windows of the soul, and let enter there the heavenly light. For these many chambers were for preparatory service to the offering of sacrifice, and worship in the Holy Place.


And as the kings advanced, they saw that the inner walls of all the House were inlaid with cedar‑wood, but the floor thereof was overlaid with fir. And the roof of the Holy House was being overlaid with sheets of burnished gold, and spikes of precious metal.


And there was much wainscoting within, which was ornamented with carvings of figures of Cherubim, and palm‑trees, and opening flowers; and each Cherub had two faces, ‑ one that was human, and one that was the face of a young THE EULOCIUM 683 lion. And the pillars that stood in the corners were round. And the table that was before the Lord in the centre was three cubits high and two cubits long, and was made of cedar‑wood covered with gold, and it was called the Altar. And the kings examined the rows of many Treasure Chambers on the north and on the south; and as they passed by, they beheld the glory of the Lord fill the House as with a thin cloud; for worshippers were entering by the gates of the Inner Court between the pillars, clothed with white linen coverings, and with linen on their loins, until they again went forth to the Court of the Priests, when they resumed their usual garments ; for they were a band of the Workmen of the Temple, who had entered for their hour of prayer.


The kings inspected the castings and the works of metal, made under orders that had been long since given by the Architect Hiram ; the lavers, the shovels, and the basins, and the brazen sea supported by twelve oxen. All the vessels were made of polished copper, cast in the clay‑ground of Succoth and Zarethan. And the table whereupon was the shew‑bread was of gold, and the lamps and the tongs, and the bowls and the knives, and the basins and the spoons, and the ten graven‑candlesticks, and the censers were of pure gold ; and all the sacred vessels wrought of gold were marvellous in design, and transfixed the gaze of all. The precious things that had been sanctified by David his father, which were of silver and gold, King Solomon placed in the treasuries of the House of the Lord.


How grand, how exquisite, is that most holy spot which now confronts the kings ! The smaller Tabernacle of fine twined linen, of white and of crimson, of blue and of purple, shields the entrance, through which the holy priest, wearing the mitre with " Holiness to the Lord " upon the forehead‑band, passes, as he also does the great Babylonian curtain, in order to enter the Holy of Holies, that sacred cubic Sanctuary, within which is to be preserved the symbol of the covenant between God and his chosen people. This symbol was most fitly inlaid with aromatic and imperishable cedar in every part, emblematic of the perpetuity and incorruptible state of the blessed. The entrance to the Sanctuary was barred within with chains of gold. And the doors of entrance to this holy Sanctuary were made of oleaster wood, carved and overlaid with gold; as were the Cherubim, whose inner wings touched one another, while the outer ones touched the opposing walls.


As the House of the Lord was approaching completion, by order of the king of Israel there was brought up the Ark of the Covenant from the City of David in Zion, and also the Tabernacle and the remainder of the holy vessels that were in the Tabernacle, in which the congregation had temporarily worshipped. And they placed the Ark under the wings of the Cherubim, in the centre of the Holy of Holies, resting upon an altar of cedar‑wood covered with gold.


And when all were in place, the king approached with a great retinue, and 684 in silence turned about and blessed all the congregation, and the work of the Temple, and all that it therein contained, saying, |' Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, who spake with his mouth unto David, my father, that his son should build the House, even so have I done." And when Solomon had made an end of praying, fire came down from heaven, and consumed the burnt‑offering which had been prepared, and the sacrifices. And the priests and the people bowed themselves with their faces to the ground, and worshipped and praised the Lord, saying, " For he is good, for his mercy endureth forever! " During all this, the king had stood calmly awaiting the manifestation of the Presence, ‑ The Destruction. ‑ It is evident that the magnificent Temple of Solomon, in all its parts, and as a whole, was and is a fitting symbol for Workmen among the Craft, the Capitular, and the Cryptic Degrees. From the commencement of the foundation to the time of the deposit of the Holy Name within the Sanctum Sanctorum, all was essential for the great purpose of instruction in the Brotherhood of Man and the Fatherhood of God. That not only Apprentices, Craftsmen, and Masters were necessary to build up the House of God, but also Overseers, Mark Masters, Royal and Select Masters, the Masters of the Veils, Scribes and Priests; Captains of the Host, Treasure‑Counters, Stewards, Guards, and Sentinels, to build, protect, or carry on the service within the holy precincts.


And Solomon became greater than all the other kings of the earth, for riches, power, and wisdom. And presents were brought yearly unto him, of silver and gold, and precious stones, and garments, armor, spices, horses, and mules. And he had a thousand and four hundred chariots and twelve thousand horsemen. The king rendered silver in Jerusalem like unto stones, and cedars like unto sycamore trees, for abundance.


The king,.by example and by precept, most aptly taught mankind in the ways of happiness and peace, and the love of God and man, by every process that could move the heart and direct the feet to the Great Jehovah. But finally, this proud king, with brow serene, began to love many strange women, whom he had brought from those nations concerning which the Lord had said: "Ye shall not go in among them, for they shall surely turn away your heart after their gods." Unto these Solomon did cleave to love them. And when Solomon was old, his wives turned his heart after other gods; after Ashtoreth and Milcom : and he built an altar to Kemosh, on the mount that is before Jerusalem, and another for Molech. And thus he did for all his strange wives, who burnt incense and sacrificed unto their gods.' COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


"Brightly the splendor of the God‑head shone, In awful glory, from his living throne; Then bowed was every brow; no human sight Could brave the splendor of that flood of light That veiled His presence, and His awful form, Whose path the whirlwind is, whose breath the storm." THE EULOGIUM. 685 And the Lord was angry, and stirred up an adversary unto Solomon for this, and for much sin done by his successors on the throne, until the days of Hezekiah and Manassah his son, which latter defiled the holy place with a graven image, seduced God's people with these abominations, and offered his own son in the fire of idol sacrifice. Then came the destruction. Thus said the Lord to Jeremiah : ‑ " Go down to the house of the king of Judah, and speak there this word, ' Execute ye justice and righteousness, and deliver him that is robbed: and the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow shall ye not oppress; for I will inflict punishment on you according to the fruit of your doings. For I have set my face against this city for evil, and not for good. For the reason that they have forsaken me, and have defiled this place, and have burnt incense in it unto other gods; and have burnt their sons with fire as burnt‑offerings unto Baal, and this shall be the valley of slaughter. They shall fall by the sword before their enemies, and I will give their carcasses as food unto the fowls of the heaven and unto the beasts of the field, and I will render this city desolate."' But the king and his people hearkened not unto the Lord, and disobeyed. How terrific was the destruction that followed 1 The king of Babylon became the instrument of desolation. Before this king ordered the expedition he endeavored by astrological and other signs‑in accordance with the superstition of the day‑to ascertain the result. Finally he placed three arrows on his bow in quick succession; the first he pointed to the West, the second he pointed to the East, and the third directly into the Heavens. In each case the arrow with unerring truthfulness sped toward the guilty city of Jerusalem. And the king marched his host upon that city, and it yielded. The king then marched with his nobles into the Temple, and into the Holy of Holies, and mockingly called aloud to the God of Israel: "Art thou the great God before whom the world trembles, and yet we are here in this city and in this Temple! " The deputed king, Zedekiah, was caused to witness the slaying of his sons, and then were his eyes put out, so that the eyes of his mind should ever see what he last saw.


Nebuzaradan, the great marshal of Nebuchadne


ar of Babylon, laid waste the land of Israel, and broke down the walls of Jerusalem round about, plundered the Holy Temple, robbed it of its ornaments, and burnt the House of the Lord, and, as he did so, from the heavenly gates shot forth at dim of night a weird flame, and above all, 'twos said, upon the smoky cloud there rested the Holy Master's name.


O, Jerusalem, Jerusalem ! the wonder of all times and peoples, the paragon of nations, the glory of the world, the chosen one of Heaven ,'see now how thou hast become heaps of ashes and rubbish, an abhorrent spectacle of desolation, a monumental ruin. To what depth hast thou pledged the bitter cup of God's vengeance ! How grave the pity to see those goodly cedars of the Temple flaming higher than they stood in Lebanon I The High Priest donned his robe and ephod, and, saying, || Now that the Temple is destroyed, no priest is needed to officiate," threw himself into the 686 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


flames and perished. And the remaining priests, witnessing his action, took their harps and instruments of music, and did as had been done by the High Priest. How sorrowful it was to see those costly marbles, chiselled and wrought to such perfection,. and which in place had never felt the dint of pick or hammer, now wounded with mattocks, and by their weight crushing the sacred foundations in their fall ! To see the Holy of Holies, whereinto none might enter but the High Priest once a year, now thronged with Pagans and "profane," the veils rudely rent, the sacred Ark of God violated and defaced, the tables overturned, the altars broken down, the twin‑pillars demolished, the mosaics and tessellated borders destroyed, the very ground upheaved whereon the Temple and the exquisite palace of the king once stood ! And the inhabitants of that great city, who escaped the ruin and the sword, were bound in iron chains, burdened with the spoils of the victor, and driven to Babylon and captivity. And as they reached the rivers of Babylon, the great king said to them, '| Sing, ye people, play for me, sing the songs ye were wont to sing before your great Lord in Jerusalem." Then they hung their harps upon the willow‑trees, near the banks of the river, and said, 11 If we had but performed the will of God, and sung his praises devoutly, we should not have been delivered into thy hands." And the king's officers shouted |1 These are men of death; they refuse to obey the order of the king; let them die." But at the intercession of Pelatya their lives were spared and their chains removed. And when the smoke of doom rolled by, "'Midst darkening clouds, the light drooped to its rest, The Sun, the Moon, nor Stars now tinged the West. At times from hill and plain the lurid lightnings gleam. And all that's good like demons' forms do seem.


Sin yields to flame; and see, the holier light That shone all radiant o'er the Mercy‑Seat, Has given place to lurid gleams, ‑a just retreat For vice, decay, and Satan's rights, the home Where truth, and hope, and joy can never come." The Essential Unity of Three. ‑The Brotherhood of Masonry hath its several divisions, its symbolism abounding in them all. No one division is complete without the others. A roofless structure is of little use. The temporary covering, which is but a substitute for what is promised under a wiser generation, will not be satisfactory to the true architect or thorough builder who would protect himself, his family, and his belongings from the storm; nor would he willingly, in such a house, contented be to offer service to his God. The plea of ancient forms or older customs, or the use of an unfinished legend for a deep, instructive lesson, would not suffice. The foundation‑stones may be most massive and sustaining, the walls and flooring of great solidity and duly set by the Plumb, the Level, and the Square, but the loose thatched roof will only serve until the proprietor can command the material and obtain THE EULOCIUM. 689 an architect who can furnish the remaining necessary stone and timber, and place the architraves and girders, and rest the impenetrable roof that will brave all storms and prove a bulwark to the ravages of time.


The ornate finish and the ornaments, that will make more glorious the House of God, must not be set aside nor overlooked; for the True, the Holy, and the Omnific Name will not be deposited nor allowed to rest in that house which is not finished and prepared for consecration. All‑glorious is symbolism, but its interpretations to be read aright must have their physical, their speculative or spiritual, and, above all, their celestial sense thoroughly made manifest.


The Symbolic degrees are the unfinished Temple, upon which the great Builder was at work, in its most sacred, intricate, and important part, when he was overtaken and slain. Temporarily, a substitute for all other work was supplied : the Capitular and Cryptic workmen step forth, and, with the material essential, finish the Heavenly Structure.


To present a picture which shall be thorough and effective, it is necessary to do more than to draw an outline, leaving to the imagination the perspective, showing what is the background, and giving it color and animation. Light and shadow are essentials. 'Tis true, to leave something to the imagination enhances the interest and gives play for the action of the brain, but no representation has yet been made so perfect that the mind of man will not have something to supply. The grandest portrayal on the stage has never yet been so perfect and complete that the mind has naught else in the setting and production to feed upon. No fact in descriptive history, or legend wrought by the wonder‑mind of the most expert, but has failed to fill the measure of completeness.


The mind of man is far‑reaching, especially in our willing labors for the benefit of humanity and a true understanding of the Brotherhood of Man and the Fatherhood of God, ‑ the scope is almost limitless.


The object, then, of all human institutions that are intended to improve mankind should be as conclusive in their symbolism and their legends, as is within the scope of the legends and the symbols so employed. It is not wise to select a portion of a symbol or a half‑told tale whereon to build and call the institution finished, when brilliant minds have rendered most thorough and complete the institution, and have exquisitely brought into symbolic play the remainder of the legend, and thus have beautifully finished the work, the foundation of which was so substantially constructed.


It is not wise with broad neglect to abandon the higher branches of the university, and claim for education that naught is needed beyond the common school. For the masses this may be well, but for' those whose intellectual leanings and desires call for greater and more extended knowledge, we would not say them nay.


Nor should the precious treasures contained within the House of the Lord 69o COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


be secreted from the helpful knowledge of the world,‑the lamps, the harps, the cornets, the trumpets, the flutes, and other instruments of harmony.


If a man possesses beautiful and exquisite works of art and precious stones, and keeps his treasures concealed, no one is benefited or aware of their value; but if he allows them to be seen, their worth becomes known, humanity is benefited, and the pleasure of ownership is enhanced. And so the ornaments of the Temple were intended to be seen and known by the people, and the beautiful lessons taught by their symbolism in the Chapter and the Council make their worth magnified, and the Temple is the greater glorified.


The Revival. ‑ How beautifully blended are the essentials of the Temple with the conveniences,‑the holy furniture, the priestly vesture and the ornaments ! How necessary the numerous compartments, the allegoric veils, the priestly implements, the emblematic banners, the instruments of music, and the Holy Ark ‑ |' the Glory of Israel "‑ with its sacred contents ! How grandly and how harmoniously are these all blended in the Symbolic, the Capitular, and the Cryptic Departments of Freemasonry ! How poorly and how meagrely would the Temple‑structure be understood without the appliances necessary for its uses, ‑ a house without significant furniture, without speaking ornamentation! Of the myriads of the human race, all may not be priests in the Temple of our God. There are many vocations and ministrations in the service of the Holy One. Some are adapted for a higher course of action, others for more congenial employment.


Hearken, now, to the silver tinkling of a distant bell; note that slowly moving procession in priestly habiliments, passing by the veils of blue, of purple, of scarlet, and of white, with spreading banners of the various tribes, some swinging incense from golden censers, others playing sweet and solemn music on their several instruments, and again singing songs of praise and supplication, as onward they march to the place of solemn service ; the atonement for the sins of the congregation, to be followed by the final blessing of the holy priest, which, like whispers from the dead, will inspire their hearts with joy celestial. Is there no godly lesson in the uses of the interior of the Temple, or has all instruction been exhausted in the symbolism of the construction of a portion of that Holy House? The Temple was built for the ; service of God, and its usefulness for instruction did not cease with the symbolism and legend of the construction of a part.


Glorious was the Temple in its unity, sacred in its completeness, holy in its service to the Ever‑Living God.


And now adown the path of time the impressive symbols and legends, the thrilling lessons and loving pictures of that Holy House of the past and its sacred contents, intended to be an exemplification to mankind for all periods, have assumed first one goodly shape and then another, ‑a guild, a brotherhood, a society. And as century upon century has rolled onward, there has been THE EULOGIUM.


691 left a broadening trail of good, through nations and peoples, until the world is filled with its benefices, its eupathies, and its godly blessings. From it, all things with beauty glow; the earth'breathes sweetness, and the brightening sky tells of crowning happiness,‑the pulse of brotherhood bounds to pulse,‑and heart to heart its hidden treasure yields : ‑ " Through every soul a love celestial flows.


And in God's likeness every spirit glows." Thus to the present day have come to us the glories and renown of the ancient institutions, having the burden of the same sweet song of faith, and hope, and love, founded on the Temple, its adornments, and its furniture, in their harmonious and beautiful proportions, its exquisite and shapely columns, its rare tracery and devices, its elegant and choicest ornaments, proclaiming throughout the resounding aisles, and through the crypts, the naves, the arches, that, while faith is the evidence of the Heavenly Temple, the love‑born confidence in one another is the crowning virtue of the Brotherhood. How manifest is this charity, or love, in all the incomings and the outgoings of the blessed Institution of Masonry, which is not confined to the giving or receiving of gifts of this world's goods, but is so munificently evidenced in the innumerable acts of the Society, and its membership individually and collectively! "If silver and gold be wanting, such as I have give I unto thee," were the words uttered at the Gate called the Beautiful, and then, to him who had been lame from birth, was added; " Rise up and walk ! " And when the minister of, God and the subject of His power had arrived at Solomon's Porch within the Temple, selfabnegation was avowed, by the declaration to the people: "Why look ye so earnestly on us, as though by our power or holiness we had made this man to walk?" And so the power of God was evinced through charity,‑the ever‑echoing and universal song of Masonry, which is Love.




BY M .'. W .'. JOHN HAMILTON GRAHAM, LL.D., The First, and for nine yews, M.'. W.'. Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Quebec; and the First, and for four years, M.‑.E.'. First Grand Principal Z.'. (G.'.H.'.P.'.), of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Quebec, etc., etc.








"Ytt dyd begynne with the ffyrste menne in the este, whych were before the ffyrste manne of the weste, and comynge westlye, ytt bathe broughte herwith alle comforts to the wylde and comfortlesse.‑Locke's Manuscript, 1696." I speak of Light, and Truth, and Right.


The Syllogism of "The Revival.,,‑The long‑converging lines of an in the formation of the Grand year 1717; thence to radiate evident providential purpose were focussed Lodge of Freemasons of England, in the throughout the world.


This grand body of the revival of the Ancient Craft was a more than marvellous aggregation and embodiment of the most precious inner wisdom and outer experiences of man, evolved during the by‑gone ages, in almost every land from farthest India to Ultima Thule.


The divine command: 1, Light, be thou ! " fraught with grander than primal meaning, was heard anew.


Mystic messengers of light and truth, of every age and race and tongue, sped to the regenerating sons of light, from India and all the Orient; ‑ from Chaldea and the land of the Nile; from Judea and Tyria; from Grecia and Italia ; from Germania, Celtica, and all the Occident; ‑with one accord, sped thither, laden with their choicest offerings; and, with unmingled joy and gladness, placed them upon the altar of Freemasonry.


The day of revival had dawned in the birth‑land of modern empire, among a people leading in the van, and speaking a language destined to spread to earth's remotest bounds. The benign spirit of freedom and fra ternity prevailed. The era of consociation for the common weal began; and universal brotherhood, the aeonic vision of sage and seer, gave promise of speedy realization.




693 The scattered Craftsmen rejoiced at the great event which marked the beginning of the new age. They saw therein, clearly drawn upon the trestleboard, the grand design and model of future work and promise ; and they viewed with delight the more glorious outcome of their perfected art,‑of the spirit, principles, and laws of their Guild, ‑of the wisdom and skill of the Architect, and of the labors of the Craftsman,‑in their transference from the construction and adornment of temples of stone to the erection and beautifying of the grand symbolic temple of humanity.


The " Free and Accepted " emblazoned upon their banner || THE FATHERHOOD OF GOD, AND THE BROTHERHOOD OF MAN." The world stood amazed. Tyrants alone feared and trembled. They had long kept the masses of their fellow‑men in the darkness and servility of ignorance ; and, screening in sinister secrecy their false assumptions of authority,‑their selfish motives, means, and ends,‑they had long lorded it over man and his divine heritage.


Freemasons, having nothing to conceal, except a few archaic ceremonial forms, and their tokens of recognition and fellowship, ‑their universal language,‑they cheerfully and without reserve, openly declared their objects, aims, and ends ; and spread all their charges, constitutions, and laws before the world, so that they might be read and known of all men.


And what saith the Craft of Itself ? ‑ What answer doth it give to the oftrepeated query: What mote it be? Freemasonry proclaims itself to be, and is, a Universal Fellowship. It knows no distinctions among men but those of worth and merit. It is founded upon the equality of man in his inherent and inalienable rights. Its great aim is the amelioration, in all things, of the indi vidual, the family, the neighborhood, the State, the Nation, and the race. All are included in its grand design. Reverencing and utilizing the past, it acts in the living present, and ever strives after a more glorious future. Envious of none, it gladly welcomes the cooperation of all who love their fellow‑men. Freemasons are free men. Each seeks admission into the Fraternity of his own free‑will. If admitted, he receives instruction common to all. He exercises and enjoys, in equality, the perfect freedom of the Order; and he may withdraw therefrom at will.


Freemasonry is a system of symbolic architecture. The grand superstructure to be erected is the cosmic temple of humanity. Therein, labor is nobility and all is dedicate to work and worth‑ship. Man, the rough ashlar, is symbolically taken from the quarry of life, ‑is hewn, squared, polished, and made well‑fit for his place in the great living temple whose chief foundation stones are truth and right; whose main pillars are wisdom, strength, and beauty; whose adornments are all the virtues; the key‑stone of whose worldo'erspanning arch is brotherhood; and whose Master Builder is The Great Architect of the Universe.


Freemasonry is a system of human culture. It inspires a desire for, inculcates a knowledge and teaches the use of, all the liberal arts and sciences.




Chief among these is the science of mathematics. Geometry, its most important branch, is the basis of the Craftsman's art, and in ancient times was its synonym. It is taught to be of a divine or moral nature, enriched with the most useful knowledge, so that while it proves the wonderful properties of nature, it demonstrates the more important truths of morality. It teaches a knowledge of the earth, and sun, and moon, and stars, and of the laws which govern them. It is the basis of astronomy, the noblest of the sciences. Above all, it teaches the Craftsman to know and love, to adore and serve, the Grand Geometrician of the Universe.


Freemasonry is a peculiar system of morality veiled in allegory, and illustrated by symbols. It is beautiful, unique, singular, and sui generis. It instils and enforces the sacred duties of brotherly love, relief, and truth; of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice ; of benevolence, beneficence, and charity; of forbearance and love ; of gratitude and mercy; of patriotism, loyalty, peaceableness, and tolerance ; of honor, honesty, and fidelity; of diligence, courtesy, and regard for others' weal; of self‑care and self‑culture; to seek peace, and to assuage the rigors of conflict; and, in all things, to do not to others what one would they should not do to him.


It inculcates all the mutual‑ duties and obligations of man to man in all the relations of life ; of the ruler and the ruled ; of the master and the servant; the employer and the employed; the high and the lowly; the rich and the poor; the learned and the unlearned; the teacher and the taught; the strong and the weak ; the parent and the child; the old and the young; the hale and the infirm ; of the living to the dying and the dead ; and, in short, it inculcates and enforces the practice of every moral virtue, and every duty which man owes to himself, to his neighbor, and to the Most High.


Freemasonry is a social Order. The Craft are called from labor to refreshment. Temperance presides. Polite courtesy, pleasing address, and social intercourse are cultivated ; the bonds of friendship are strengthened ; and to refreshment of the body, are joined the feast of reason and the flow of soul.


Freemasonry is a system of symbolism, allegory, and hieroglyphics. Every Masonic mark, character, sign, token, word, emblem, fact, or figure is symbolic. The most important truths conveyed, the lessons taught, or duties inculcated are veiled in allegory, imparted by means of signs, or expressed by hieroglyphics.


The facts and types of nature, of sacred lore, of history, tradition, science, art, and literature ; the instincts of man, the evidences of his senses, the perceptions and reasonings of his intellect, the discernments and aspirations of his moral and spiritual nature, his simplest and his loftiest ideals are translated, and given a practical form, embodiment, and application, by the symbolism and allegory of Freemasonry, with a beauty of diction, a wealth of imagery, a fidelity of expression, and force of meaning, which conveys ideas, makes impressions, and imparts instruction, not only best suited to the capacity of THE EULOGIUM.


695 the humblest novitiate, but sheds light and lustre upon the most perfect adept. Hence its perpetual charm ; its inestimable value ; its supreme excel lence. The wisest teachers in all ages have employed its symbolic methods of instruction. The wondrous story of earth and man is laden with allegory. The symbolism of the Craft is the poetry and perfection of knowledge, culture, and enlightenment. In this, as in all things, Freemasonry is its own secret, revealed alone by " that bright hieroglyphic which none but Craftsmen ever saw." Freemasonry is a system of willing obedience and rightful rule. Order is its first law. The Master commands according to the constitution; the brother obeys with alacrity and zeal. He who best works and best obeys, becomes best fitted to preside over and instruct his fellows. Preferment is founded upon real worth and personal merit. Cheerful, lawful obedience and rightful, beneficent rule have in Freemasonry their noblest union and fruition. Freemasonry is a system of jurisprudence more noble than that of Roman Law, or Grecian Ethics. Its leges scri.ptee et non seriptee are based upon essential and inherent rights. Its administration seeks the individual and the general welfare. Law, in Freemasonry, is a moral science. Evil is deemed to be incident, and good eternal. In the jurisprudence of the Craft, law, equity, and human weal are indissolubly united. Its supreme end is the well being of man. The Craftsman is taught not to palliate or aggravate offences; but in the decision of every trespass, to judge with candor, admonish with friendship, and reprehend with mercy. Happy is the "commonwealth" whose laws, and the administration thereof, are founded upon the jurisprudence of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons.


Freemasonry is a comprehensive system of government founded upon the rights of man, and exercised and enjoyed in the perfection‑of loyalty, union, efficiency, and harmony. Its mission is peace, progress, and prosperity. It contains the antecedent ideals, the germs and model of the best forms of human government, in corporate local and national existence and rule. It demonstrates the unnumbered mutual benefits and blessings flowing from the alliance of sovereignties coequal in status, rights, privileges, and prerogatives ; and it points out, and leads the way among free, enlightened, and progressive peoples, to the friendly federation of the world.


Freemasonry is not a. religion or a system of religion. It is the hand maid of all seeking truth, and light, and right. It is a centre of union of good and true men of every race and tongue, who believe in God and practise the sacred duties of morality. It has no politics ; it knows no sect ; no hierarch ; no Caesar. Therein freedom reigns ; therein the tyrant and the oppressor have no place ; the intolerant are not; and the pessimist and the misanthrope are unknown. Without the expectation of total exemption from the errors and frailties incident to all things human ; or the entire absence of unfilial Noachidae, Iscariot betrayers, or of emissaries seeking to destroy; 696 COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONR Y.


and without pretensions to unattainable perfection, it ever strives, by spreading the light of science and moral truth, by increasing the power of knowledge, and by the divine processes of culture and enlightenment, to make the whole realm of nature subservient to the headship and highest interests of man. Freemasonry iq a system of human philosophy. It is a school of learning; a college of builders; a home among brethren. To the artist and the artisan; to the poet and the philosopher; to the theorist and the utilitarian; to the speculative and the operative; to the man of business and the savant; to, the prince and the peasant ; to the ruler and the ruled ; to the resident and the traveller; to the old, the middle‑aged, and the youth, Freemasonry is alike congenial, instructive, and beneficent. Therein all meet upon the Level, work by the Plumb, and part upon the Square. The grand mission of Freemasonry is peace, prosperity, uprightness, enlightenment, and unlimited good‑will.


Freemasonry is based upon immutable truth and right. It knows not the changes and shifts of expediency and opportunism. It is as unmoved as the rock upon which the tempest‑tossed waves of ocean may dash in vain. It stands firm as the pyramids. It is benign and placid as the Sphinx. It survives the commotions and downfall of empires; and of it, in substance and essence, the truth proclaims, semper eadem.


The Conservator of Liberty. ‑ Freemasonry is the conservator and mainstay of human freedom, and of all the rights of man. It inculcates individual and collective liberty, circumscribed and bounded by the common weal. The light of liberty shines forth from the inner sanctuaries of Freemasonry, and illumines the outer world. The principles and duties taught and exemplified. within are carried without, and perform their leavening, enlightening, and ameliorating work; and hence it is that the material, mental, moral, and national progress of our race has been and is pari passu with the progress and prosperity of Freemasonry.


The Evidence of History. ‑Witness the history of Britain and its now world‑encircling empire from the advent therein of the Ancient Craft with the freedom and laws of their guild; from the days of Magna Charta ; and from the establishment of the Grand Lodges of Freemasons of England, Ireland, and Scotland.


Witness the history of the founding and the upbuilding of the great Republic of the United States of America prior to and from the Declaration of Independence ; and the least observant may know that the history and future promise of these free and enlightened nations, and the history of the establishment, progress, and beneficent work of Freemasonry therein, are one and inseparable.


Witness, also, like causation, correspondence, and outcomes in every land wherein Freemasonry has had and has a welcome home, a cherished abiding place. Witness, too, the thick darkness pervading all lands wherein Freemasonry THE E UL OGIUM.


697 does not exist, wherein its light does not shine; but, though long therein has been the night, the dawn will soon appear, and the meridian sun of Freemasonry will shine forth in all its splendor.


A True, Universal Brotherhood.‑The writer must now stay his pen, and yet "the half has not been told." However, to this brief delineation of a few segments of the great sphere of Masonic truth, it is thought not amiss to add the following words, it may be of profit and admonition, to the honest opponents of Freemasonry, to the bearers of false witness against the Craft, and to those who would persecute and seek its overthrow.


The fact that throughout the United States of America, the British Empire, and among other free and enlightened peoples, so many of those in every grade of society, who are most vitally interested in conserving, ameliorating, and perpetuating what is most valuable and beneficial in the present civil, social, and political order of things are active and prominent members of the Craft, proves that Freemasonry is a thoroughly patriotic and loyal institution. The fact that so many of the adherents, and leaders even, of so many religious creeds and denominations belong to the Order shows beyond question that Freemasonry is a most tolerant institution. The fact that so many men of more than ordinary ability and culture are zealous Freemasons is proof that there is much in and pertaining to the Fraternity which is worthy the attention of the best intellects.


The fact that so many good and pious men are devoted Craftsmen demonstrates that, in their opinion, and from their experience, Freemasonry is an institution honoring to God and beneficial to man. The fact of its timeimmemorial age, and its world‑wide prevalence shows, that as to its moral principles; ‑its social order; its system of jurisprudence and government; its stability and permanence; its educating influence; its adaptability to the condition, needs, and aspirations of a free and progressive people; its humanizing efficacy; its non‑proselyting and non‑partisan character; its practical and all‑comprehensive voluntary charity; and, in short, its raison d'etre and its modus vivendi et operandi;‑it contains within itself the essential and necessary elements of a true, universal brotherhood, destined to exist and prosper, world without end.


In view of such, and much more that might truthfully be stated, it is one of the perverse problems of misdirected humanity, which almost passes charitable comprehension, that, in this age of the world, the persecuting spirit of Anti‑Masonry should exist in the mind or heart of any tolerably enlightened individual, or be inculcated or practised by any sensible, prudent man, or body of men. It is clearly the offspring of a short‑sighted and unendurable intolerance, whose inevitable reaction, even, will certainly be to the detriment and discomfiture of those cherishing, propagating, and practising it. Freemasons, however, have no fears, and stand in no awe, of the immediate or final outcome of persecution in any form, or from any source.


In vain are the assaults of the intolerant. In vain the hierarch fulminates his bull, or the tyrant his command to stay its progress or compass its over throw. Freemasonry is destined to reign. The victory of right is sure. Truth will prevail. The true light will shine. The consummation of Freemasonry will be the reign of UNIVERSAL BROTHERHOOD.


The Laureate's Prophecy.‑The prophetic words of Freemasonry's immortal Laureate Bard are ever reechoed, in faith and hope and triumph, by all true brothers of the Mystic‑tie : ‑ C COSMOPOLITAN FREEMASONRY.


"Then let us pray, that come it mayAs come it will, for a' that That man to man, the world o'er, Shall brothers be, for a' that." ‑SO MOTE IT BE.










The Knights Templar' of the United States of America, and Government by a Grand Encampment, Grand Commande‑ries, and Cammanderies. l he Ritual, and Ethics of American Templary.


BY FREDERIC SPEED, s3, Past R.‑. E.‑. Grand Commander, Mississippi.






The American Masonic System.‑The American Masonic system is a growth, the germ of which is to be found in the older Masonry of the Motherland. The American scion differs in so many particulars from the parent stock, from which it was propagated, that it cannot be said to be a reproduction of the original plant; at most, it is but a species of the same genus. The several degrees came to this country in a greatly modified form from that in which they are now to be found. The work of elaboration and embellishment began at a very early date, and it is difficult to trace its development, which may be said to have culminated when Thomas Smith Webb's career as a Masonic luminary was at its meridian height. To this illustrious brother we owe the recasting of some of the degrees, and the entire reconstruction of others. The rituals of the "Blue" Lodge, Chapter, and Commandery were each [t In this work the orthography is uniformly intended to be " Knights Templars," except where the reference is made to the bodies known as " Grand Encampment, U.S.A.," and " Great Priory of Canada," the present legal titles of which are " Knights Templar." Vide Divisions II., XVI., XVIL, etc. ‑Ev.] 699 700 THE CONCORDANT ORDERS.


the subject of his labors, and what is even now known as the "Webb work," although it has doubtless undergone many alterations, both of addition and subtraction, is the standard authority among American Masonic Ritualists ; and, alas for human credulity, this work of Webb's is sealed with the signet of truth, and no ranker heresy could be uttered, in the estimation of far too many " Masonic Lecturers," than to doubt that it is the only true, ancient work of Masonry. The task of discovering and bringing to light the true history of the Fraternity, which has so long lain buried in darkness among the rubbish of the Temple, which has accumulated with the years of its growth, is rendered exceedingly difficult, owing to the extreme reluctance with which Masons formerly committed to writing even the most trivial matters relating to the Craft. Even in this age, when new discoveries are being constantly brought to light, it is far too frequently held to be treason to the cause, to expose to the eyes of the "profane" the truth of history, so far as it relates to the Masonic Institution; but, regardless of the ignorant pretensions of those who still teach that the Master Masons' degree originated, and was formerly conferred in the Sanctum Sanctorum of King Solomon's Temple, and that the Templars of this Year of grace are the lineal descendants of those who fought for the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre, one myth after another has vanished into thin air, until we no longer hesitate to commit to writing the averment, that, with scarcely an exception, the ritual of every Masonic degree now produced in these United States originated, or.was elaborated, since the American Revolution, and by Americans. The admission of this fact does not in the least degree detract from the dignity, high character, or claim to an ancient origin of the Institution itself. In the preface to the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England, as it exists in the United States, this statement is to be found: " It is a most invaluable part of that blessed liberty wherewith Christ bath made us free, that in his worship, different forms and usages may without offence be allowed, provided the substance of the Faith be kept entire; and that, in every Church, what cannot be clearly determined to belong to Doctrine must be referred to Discipline; and therefore, by common consent and authority, may be altered, abridged, enlarged, amended, or otherwise disposed of, as may seem most convenient for the edification of the people,' according to the various exigencies of times and occasions. " The Church of England . . . laid it down as a rule, that "The particular forms of Divine Worship, and the Rites and Ceremonies appointed to be used therein, being things in their own nature indifferent and alterable, and so acknowledged, it is but reasonable that upon weighty and important considerations, according to the various exigencies of times and occasions, such changes and alterations should be made therein, as to those who are in places of authority should, from time to time, seem either necessary or expedient." As no one doubts but that the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States is identical with the same Church as it exists in England to this day, notwithstanding alterations have been made in the canons and ritualistic observances of the American daughter, so there can be no question but that American Freemasonry and English Freemasonry are indentical. That there ORIGIN OF AMERICAN TEMPLARY.


701 should have sprung up here new forms and ceremonies, "most convenient for the edification of the people," and, to some extent, a new scale of degrees, some of which are not in use in the Mother Country, is not altogether to be regretted ; for it must be confessed that the American system, with all its defects, has advantages not possessed by the English and Continental systems. It is of course unfortunate that all Masonic instruction should not be given in chronological progression. The transposition of some of the degrees might have been made, at an early day, with advantage, but it must be apparent to all who observed the great struggle which took place quite recently over the proposed transfer of the Cryptic degrees to the Capitular system, that the order in which the degrees are given has become, notwithstanding the grossest anachronisms, so firmly fixed that no change in the scale of degrees is practicable, in this period of Masonic development. There are other glaring defects in the rituals, both as to substance and the symbolism by which they are illustrated, which have subjected them to the criticism of scholars and detracted from their usefulness; but, when contrasted with the barrenness of the English rituals, despite the gaudy clothing in which they are dressed, and absurdly preposterous statements of fact and of explanation, with which they are embellished, they do not suffer by the comparison. Fortunately, ritualistic observances are the least part of Masonry, important and indispensable as they are, as a means of conveying information, and the induction of candidates for admission. The great underlying principles could be, as they have been, conveyed by another form of words, and the practice of other ceremonies. It would still be the same Craft, and worthy of the same degree of exalted estimation with which it has ever been held, among intelligent men of every age, if it made use of no forms of initiation save those which unite men of all creeds and conditions into a society of friends and brothers, whose cardinal ‑principle is to be found in the universal creed, expressed by the Masonic idea, of the `| Fatherhood of God and Brotherhood of Man." The great fundamental principles and unwritten laws have always been the same, and will remain, while the Institution continues to exist, notwithstanding that the degrees, with their rites and ceremonies, may not be identical in different countries. In the ever‑changing vicissitudes to which the Fathers of American Masonry were exposed, in common with all the inhabitants of a new country, covering an immense territory, between whom communication was made with difficulties and even dangers, the immensity of which we can scarcely realize in this day of steam and electricity, receiving their Masonic instruction from many different sources, and laboring under the disadvantage of having access to few or no printed standards of authority, it is amazing that they managed to retain and perpetuate so much of the `1 true principles of Ancient Craft Masonry." Whatever discrepancies arose were mainly regarding questions of ritual, which is extraordinary when it is recollected that the work of the "Ancients " and 11 Moderns " in England, and of the Continental Rites, came 702 THE CONCORDANT ORDERS.


to the country about the same time; that they were interblended to such an extent, that, from a ritualistic point of view, a new Masonry may be said to have been created, is not at all surprising; indeed, it was to have been expected as the natural and inevitable result. Webb and his associates made, out of the conglomeration of work, a new work, which was afterward embellished by Cross and others, and very generally received, and is now the foundation upon which our rituals are built. These suggestions, made with some diffidence, lest they should trespass upon topics of this work assigned to other writers, seem to be necessary to a proper understanding of what is hereafter to follow, relating to the history of American Templarism, whose rituals, as we have before said, were subjected to the same process of revivification as those of " Blue " and Royal Arch Masonry.


The Ante‑Revolutionary Period. ‑ Previous to the independence of the American States there were existing no separate Templar bodies. The Templar ceremony was practised, to some extent, "under the sanction of the warrant " of " Blue " lodges, by which statement this writer understands, as the result of his investigations and reflections upon the subject, that it was formerly the practice of those persons who were in possession of the degree, to assemble in some lodge room, whether the one of which they were members or not does not appear, and then and there proceed with the ceremony of Knighting a Templar, and sometimes granting a diploma. The organization in every instance seems to have been self‑created and temporary in its character.' St. Andrew's Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, of Boston, Massachusetts, then St. Andrew's Royal Arch Lodge, holding under the Grand Lodge of Scotland, held its first recorded meeting August 28, 1769, in Masons' Hall, Boston, and the record of that meeting contains the first account of the conferring of the degree of Knight Templar, that has been discovered, either in this country or Great Britain.' Whence the ceremony was obtained, or of what it consisted, is a mere matter of conjecture. It will be observed that the Red Cross Order is not named in the list of degrees conferred. The records of Kilwinning Lodge, Ireland, warranted October 8, 1779, show that its charter was used as the authority for conferring the Royal Arch, Knight Templar, and Rose Croix degrees, as early as 1782 ; but the Red Cross and the Rose Croix are.two different degrees, and should not be confounded. It is thought possible that the Irish lodges, having the High Knight Templar degree, communicated it to their American brothers prior to the Revolution, though there is no evidence of it; on the contrary, the record shows that it was conferred first (1769) in 1 These higher degrees in those times were governed by no statute of Masonry, but by a custom by which Master's lodges conferred any higher degrees of which they had knowledge, on worthy Master Masons.‑ Parvin.


2 Brother William Davis came before the lodge begging to have and receive the parts belonging to the Royal Arch Masons, which, being read, was received, and he unanimously voted in, and was accordingly made by receiving the four steps, that of Excellent, Super‑Excellent, Royal Arch, and Knight Templar.‑Extract from the Records of St. Andrew's Chapter, Boston.




703 America, and afterward in Ireland (1779). It is somewhat singular that, although the Scottish Kilwinning brethren never at any time worked other than "St. John's Masonry," both St. Andrew's Lodge, of Boston, and Kilwinning Lodge, of Dublin, in records of which the first recorded mention of the Templar Order is to be found, derived their charters from Scotland. The learned Brother Parvin inclines to the belief that the military lodges, attached to Irish regiments, brought the degree with them from the Mother‑land, and our American brethren obtained it through that source' It is possible that the degree of Knight Templar was conferred, in numerous instances, in military, and possibly other lodges, prior to the end of the Revolutionary period; but, if so, there is, so far as this writer is aware; no existing credible evidence of that fact, and even if it were true that such was the case, the mode and manner in which it was done was so irregular, in the light of modern Masonic teachings, that the bare record would be of but little value to the Masonic student.


The Post‑Revolutionary Period until the Organization of the Grand Encampment. ‑ From the close of the Revolutionary War until about the year 1816, when the Grand Encampment was formed, Masonry, like the country, was in a transitionary state. The so‑called " higher degrees," which had previously been conferred under the sanction of lodge warrants, now began to be worked by regularly constituted bodies. Chapters and encampments began to be organized upon a permanent basis, and, as they attracted more attention, a ritualistic development was inaugurated. As in the ante‑Revolutionary period, for most of the time, there was no governing power over the Templar degree, and each body, as it came into existence, was self‑created and independent of all others. Few of these organizations have continued until the present time, and still fewer have left any records of the earlier years of their existence.. An occasional discovery of an ancient diploma, or other fragment, has revised previously formed opinions as to which is the elder organization ; but, for the reason that bodies were self‑constituted, and consisted of individuals who, being in possession of a degree, called to their assistance the requisite number of other qualified brethren, and gave the degrees to certain chosen spirits, and then dissolved never to meet again, it is manifest that there can be no gathering together of the facts; and that, beyond an occasional hint,


 1 Numerous military lodges were warranted bv both the "Ancient" and "Modern" Grand Lodges of England, and by the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland. One distinguished regiment had a lodge connected with it, chartered in turn by both of the English Grand Lodges, and subsequently by those of Scotland and Ireland. It also had connected with it, under the same warrant, two chapters holding under the authority of the Grand Lodges of England and Ireland. In 1766 there were two military lodges stationed at Boston: No. 58 on the register of England, connected with the Fourteenth Regiment, and No. 322 register of Ireland, attached to the Twenty


ninth Regiment. As early as 1762, St. Andrew's Lodge, of Boston, applied to the Grand Lodge of Scotland, from which it had received its warrant, for leave to confer the Royal Arch degree; and subsequently, under this warrant, it conferred both the degrees of Royal Arch and Knight Templar. Even prior to this, as early as 1758, Lodge Nc. 3, at Philadelphia, working under warrant as Lodge No. 369, granted by the Grand Lodge of All England, also worked as a chapter, and conferred the Royal Arch degree; but, as previously stated, we do not find that this chapter ever conferred the degree of Knight Templar‑ Parvin, [No. 69, not 369, granted by "Ancients."]




received from the meagre record of some old lodge book, as it may be unearthed from its hiding‑place, nothing further is to be looked for. As time passed on, and these occasional gatherings became more frequent, when the number of Templars had increased sufficiently, and more permanent organizations began to be made, out of these emergency bodies grew permanent ones.


The Question of the Oldest Commandery.‑The question as to which is the oldest commandery of Knights Templars in the United States has attained considerable importance, and various claims have been advanced. Grand Master Dean, in his address to the Grand Encampment in 1883, submitted what he regarded as " Indisputable evidence that the degrees of Knight of the Red Cross, and Knight Templar were conferred in Charleston, South Carolina, in a regularly organized body as far back as the year 1783." And this is the earliest period at which it is claimed that a regularly organized body existed. The evidence, upon which this claim is based, is an old seal formerly in the records of South Carolina Encampment, No. i, Charleston, and now in the archives of the Grand Encampment, and an ancient diploma, " Written in a very neat chirography on parchment, with two seals in wax attached, one in red, of the Royal Arch, and the other in black, of the Knights Templars. The upper part of the diploma contains four devices within four circles, all skilfully executed with the pen. The first device, beginning on the left hand, is a star of seven points, with the Ineffable Name in the centre, and the motto, 'Memento mori', the second is an arch on two pillars, the All‑seeing Eye on the key‑stone and a sun beneath the arch, and 'Holiness to the Lord' for the motto; the third is the cross and brazen serpent, erected on a bridge, and ' Yesu Salvator Hominum' for the motto; and the fourth is the skull and cross‑bones, surmounted by a cross, with the motto,' In hoc signo vinces.' The reference of the last three devices is, evidently, to the Royal Arch, the Red Cross, and the Templar degrees. The first is certainly a symbol of the Lodge of Perfection; and hence, connectedly, they show the dependence of the Order of Templarism in the State, at that time, upon the Ancient and Accepted Rite." The diploma is in these words: ‑ " We, the High Priest, Captain Commandant of the Red Cross, and Captain General of the most Holy and Invincible Order of Knights Templars of St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 1, Ancient Masons, held in Charleston, South Carolina, under charter from the Grand Lodge of the Southern District of North America, do hereby certify that our trusty and well‑beloved brother, Sir Henry Beaumont, hath passed the Chair, been raised to the sublime degrees of an Excellent, SuperExcellent, Royal Arch Mason, Knight of the Red Cross, and a Knight of that most Holy, Invincible, and Magnanimous Order of Knights Templars, Knights Hospitallers, Knights of Rhodes, and of Malta, which several Orders are above delineated; and he, having conducted himself like a true and faithful brother, we affectionately recommend him to all the Fraternity of Ancient Masons around the globe wherever assembled.


"Given under our hands, and seal of our Lodge, this first day of August, 5783, and of Malta, 3517 "GEo. CARTER, Capt. Gen'l. "THOS. PASHLEY, 1st King. " Wm. NISBETT, zd King.


"' Rd. Mason Recorder."' A careful examination of the diploma discovered on the seal the words " Lodge No. 40." ' This lodge was formerly St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 1, of ORIGIN OF AMERICAN TEMPLAR Y.


705 Pensacola, Florida, established by James Grant, Provincial Grand Master of the Southern District of North America, which embraced East and West Florida; and its Registry number in Scotland was 143. It appears to have worked at Pensacola until about the close of the Revolution, when, as Florida became again a Spanish Province, Pensacola was deserted by many of its inhabitants, who had been British subjects, they removing to Charleston, South Carolina. This removal was mostly in 1783, and the year before, and with them it seems St. Andrew's Lodge was also removed; and it applied for, and, in July, 1783, received a charter from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, as No. 40 on its Registry.' South Carolina Encampment. ‑ It is probable that the diploma was granted prior to the reception of the charter from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, and while the lodge was yet working under the Scottish charter, or possibly the diploma was prepared afterward and antedated. The seal being that of Lodge No. 4o, and not that of St. Andrew's Lodge, No. r, seems to sustain this hypothesis. Theodore S. Gourdin, then Commander of South Carolina Commandery, No. 1, on March 23, 1855, delivered a lecture in which is found the following: ‑ "The South Carolina Encampment, No. r, of Knights Templars and the Appendant Orders, was established in 178o, as is evident from the old seal in our archives. But it does not appear from what source our ancestors derived their first charter, all of our records, previous to November 7, 1823, having been lost or consumed by fire. It is clear, however, that this encampment was in active operation in 1803, and continued so until long after the date of our oldest record; for, on December 29, 1824, it was "' Resolved, That, in consideration of the long and faithful services of our Most Eminent Past Grand Commander Francis Sylvester Curtis, who regularly paid his arrears to this encampment for more than twenty years, he be considered a life member of this encampment, and that his life membership take date from November, 1823.' 112 From which it seems incontrovertible that the encampment was in existence at least as early as the year 1804.


Albert Mackey, in his history of Knight Templarism in South Carolina, says: ‑ " The exact date of the introduction of the Templar Order of Knighthood into South Carolina is involved in much obscurity. Gourdin, deducing his opinion from 'an old seal in the archives,' says that' South Carolina Encampment, No. 1, of Knights Templars and the Appendant Orders, was established in 1780. 1 have been unable to find any reference in the contemporary journals of the day to the existence of South Carolina Encampment, No. 1, at that early period. I have, however, been more successful in obtaining indisputable evidence that the degrees of Knight of the Red Cross, and Knight Templar were conferred in Charleston, in a regularly organized body, as far back as the year 1783, and I have no doubt that the seal with the date " 1780," to which Gourdin refers, belonged to that body, and afterward came into possession of South Carolina Encampment.'" Summing up the evidence, this writer is compelled to reject the conclusions of Fralres Dean and Mackey, that there is 1 S. Hayden, in letter to Grand Master Dean, p. 67, Grand Encampment Proceedings, 18832 Grand Encampment Proceedings, 1883, p. 58.




"Indisputable evidence that the degrees of Knight of the Red Cross, and Knight Templar were conferred in Charleston in a regularly organized body as far back as the year x783:' St. Andrew's Lodge, No. i, was not a Templar body at any time in its history. Like St. Andrew's Lodge of Boston, it was a Master's lodge, and the degrees were conferred, as evidenced from the diploma, under the sanction of its warrant as a " Blue" lodge; but it seems to be established beyond a reasonable doubt, by the resolution relating to the membership of Francis Sylvester Curtis, that South Carolina Encampment, No. 1, was a regularly organized Templar body as far back as the year 1804, and probably earlier. It was, like all the older encampments, self‑created, and worked without a charter until the year 1823, when it was "reopened in conformity with the Constitution " of the General Grand Encampment of the United States, at which time it appears from the petition,‑and resolution of the encampment embraced therein, ‑ That on diligent search being made in the archives, it clearly appears that this encampment was in full operation under the sanction of the warrant of 'Blue' Lodge, No. 4o, upwards of thirty years ago, and continued in operation many years subsequent; and has, time out of mind, caused to be made and used a common seal. It also further appears that the said encampment has lain dormant for several years past. . . .


"Resolved, That the M..E.*.Sir James C. Winter, together with the Recorder, be authorized to forward the necessary documents to prove the existence of this encampment prior to the year 1816, and obtain the desired recognition.


"Extract from the minutes.


"[Signed] JOSEPH MCCOSH, " Recorder pro tom." 1 Maryland Encampment. ‑In the archives of the Grand Encampment of Pennsylvania, which was organized in 1814, the following letter was found: ‑ " GEORGE A. BAKER, Esq., Dear Sir,‑Agreeably to a resolution entered into, at a meeting of our encampment held this evening, April 20, 1814, at St. John's lodge‑room, I have the honor to enclose to you ten dollars, five of which is to satisfy the claim of the Grand Encampment for a charter of recognition, and the balance to go into a fund to provide for the needful expenses of said Grand Encampment hereafter.


"I am induced to state that this encampment insists in receiving its number and rank according to the date of its institution, the complete organization of which took place in the year 1790. [Italics mine.] "You will please fill out the warrant as follows: Philip P. Eckel, Grand Master; Peter Gault, Generalissimo; Adam'Denmead, Captain General.


"I also enclose you a copy of our certificate, with list of members. " I have the honor to be, with respect, " Your obedient servant, [L.S.] "ARCHIBALD DOBBIN, Recorder." The earlier records of the Maryland Encampment are not existing, but Frater Edward T. Schultz, of Baltimore, has in his possession three diplomas, issued by Baltimore Encampment, No. 1, in the years 1802, 1812, and 1814, respectively, each of which bears the impress of the 'same seal as that on the letter written above. A copper plate for diplomas, now in the archives, was engraved prior to the year 18og, when the engraver died. In the Balti‑ 1 Grand Encampment Proceedings, 1883, p. 172.




707 more City Directory, for the year 1807, notice of the nights of meeting of Maryland Encampment, No. i, Knights Templars, appears, and records and documents, now in the archives of the Grand Commandery of Pennsylvania, prove its existence from 1814 to 1824, during which time it was a constituent of the Grand Encampment of that jurisdiction. This Grand body became extinct about 1824, and the Encampment No. 1 remained in a semi‑dormant condition until February 28, 1828, when it was reorganized as an independent organization, and so continued until 1832, when it became a constituent of the Grand Encampment of the United States.


Boston Commandery was duly organized May 15, 1805, having previously existed as a council of Knights of the Red Cross, from the year 1802., From the fact that it was organized by Sir Knights who received the degree of Knight Templar from those who received it in St. Andrew's Lodge, in 1769, its organization is claimed to date from that year, a wholly untenable position, to offset which Maryland Commandery sets up the claim that there is evidence showing that Brother Edward Day,‑who resided in the vicinity of Baltimore, " Was in possession of the Templar Order to that of Malta as early as the year 1780, the presumption being that he received them in some body, in the city of Baltimore, whose members subsequently organized Encampment No. r." Both of these claims may be dismissed with the remark that the presumption is too violent to be entertained.


Frater Alfred Creigh, in his history of the Knights Templars in Pennsylvania, asserts that Commanderies Nos. i and 2 of Philadelphia, and No. 3 of Harrisburg, and No. 4 of Carlisle were organized in the years 1793 to 1797, respectively. They derived their authority from "Blue" lodge warrants, which, according to Frater Creigh, "Had the authority and exercised the power to confer any Masonic degree; in fact, the preambles to the by‑laws of those early encampments speak very significantly when they use this language: 'The undersigned Knights of the Temple, being desirous of participating in those glorious rights and privileges enjoyed by our valiant ancestors, from time immemorial, have resolved to form an encampment for that purpose, being duly authorized and commanded to do so by the sublime warrant under which we work.' What warrant ? The warrant of the lodge." 1 Nos. 1 and 2 continued to exist until 1812, when No. 2 was then merged into No. i, and finally dissolved June 13, 1823. No. 3 existed from 1795 to May 8, 1821. No. 4, St. John's, of Philadelphia, adjourned in 1835 to meet on the call of the Grand Master [Commander], in consequence of the wide‑spread and desolating curse of Anti‑Masonry,' and assembled again in 1848, at the call of the Eminent Grand Master, every living Sir Knight who was present at the time of the adjournment, in 1835, being present.


St. John's Commandery, No. 1, of Providence, Rhode Island, organized in the year 1802, claims precedence, from the fact that it is the oldest chartered commandery, and has continuous records from the date of its organization.


I Creigh, Vol. IT. p. 517. 2 Creigh, Vol. II. p. 5z3 708 THE CONCORDANT ORDERS.


An historic sketch, published by the commandery, is the source from which the following information is obtained. It says : ‑ The original records of this venerable and flourishing organization, which have been remarkably well kept and preserved, commence as follows: . "' PROVIDENCE, August 23, 1802. "'The Knights of the most noble and magnanimous Orders of the Red Cross, and of Malta, Knights Templars, and of the Order o St. John of Jerusalem, residing in the town of Providence, having at a previous assembly determined, " that it is proper and expedient, for the preservation and promotion of the honor and dignity of the Orders of Knighthood, that an encampment should be formed and established in said town," assembled at Masons' Hall for that purpose, at y o'clock, P.M. Present: Sir Thomas S. Webb, Sir Jeremiah F. Jenkins, Sir Samuel Snow, Sir Daniel Stillwell, Sir John S. Warner, Sir Nicholas Hoppin. The Sir Knights, having unanimously placed Sir Thomas S. Webb in the chair, then proceeded to form and open a regular encampment of the several Orders before mentioned, in solemn and ancient form, by the name of St. John's Encampment. The encampment then proceeded to the choice of officers by ballot, when the following Knights were duly elected and qualified to the offices affixed to their respective names, viz.: Sir Thomas S. Webb, Grand Master; Sir Jeremiah F. Jenkins, Generalissimo; Sir Samuel Snow, Captain General; Sir Daniel Stillwell, Standard Bearer; Sir John S. Warner, Sword Bearer; Sir Nicholas Hoppin, Guard.' "A committee was appointed at this meeting, consisting of Sir Thomas S. Webb, Sir Jeremiah F. Jenkins, and Sir Samuel Snow, to prepare and report a code of by‑laws for the new encamp. ment. This committee reported through their chairman, at the next meeting, held on the 13th of September, when a code was adopted." The first assembly of the encampment, for work, was held September 27, 1802 ; the record, which doubtless contains the earliest recorded account of the election and creation of Knights of the Red Cross, in a regularly organized encampment, not held under the sanction of a lodge warrant, possesses unusual interest, and is as follows : ‑ "Companions Nathan Fisher and William Wilkinson, having been in due form proposed as candidates for the Order of the Red Cross, were balloted for and accepted, having paid their fees into the hands of the Recorder.


"A council of the Knights of the Red Cross being then summoned, and duly assembled, the said companions were in the ancient form introduced and dubbed Knights of that Order, with the usual ceremonies.


"Sir John Carlile, Sir Ephraim Bowen, Jr., Sir Nathan Fisher, and Sir William Wilkinson, were then severally proposed as candidates for the Orders of Knights Templars and of Malta." At the next assembly, ‑ held September 29, 1802, ‑ " Sir William Wilkinson and Sir Nathan Fisher, who had previously been propounded, were balloted for and accepted as candidates for the Order of Knights Templars, and Knights of Malta. They were accordingly prepared and introduced by the Master of Ceremonies (W.‑. Sir Henry Fowle), and after the usual solemnities, were Knighted and admitted members of those ancient Orders." A "First Grand Encampment." ‑ On the 2d of September, 1805, it was "Resolved, That this encampment cordially acquiesce in the establishment of the Grand Encampment of Rhode Island, and make application 'for a charter, confirming this encampment in their accustomed rights and privileges, agreeably to the constitution.'" Thus it appears that the Grand Encampment of Massachusetts and Rhode Island was founded without a single constituent body. St. John's Encamp‑ EARL Y GRAND ENCAMPMENTS.


709 ment, itself the handiwork of Thomas Smith Webb, was in existence at the time, but it was not consulted as to the organization, and did not come under the jurisdiction of the Grand Encampment until five months afterward. During the twelve years that he presided over St. John's Encampment, Webb was never absent from a regular assembly, and in five instances only was he absent from a special assembly.


"Here he delighted to meet his officers and brethren, instructing them out of his vast store of Masonic knowledge, inspiring them by his genius, and charming them by his native ease and grace. The work which he in part originated, and the whole of which he exemplified and arranged with a Master's skill, he imparted to his subordinates, through whom it has come down unimpaired, and, in its main essentials, unchanged, to the present day." "September 28, 18xg, Companion Jeremy L. Cross was proposed, and seconded, to receive the Orders of Knighthood on the principle of 'healing,' free from expense, he having received the Order in an unconstituted encampment, and on ballot being taken it was unanimous in his favor. Companion Cross was created a Knight of the Red Cross in ample form. Encampment of Knights Templars opened, when Sir Jeremy L. Cross was created and dubbed a Knight Templar with the usual solemnities." "This celebrated teacher of the Masonic ritual, was born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, June 27, 1783. He was admitted into the Masonic Institution in 18o8, and soon afterward he became a pupil of Webb, whose system of work he thoroughly acquired. In x819 he published 'The True Masonic Chart or Hieroglyphic Monitor, and the year following 'The Templars' Chart, both of which works passed through several editions. He received the appointment of Grand Lecturer from many Grand Lodges, and travelled very extensively through the United States, teaching his system of lectures to lodges, chapters, councils, and encampments. He died at the place of his nativity, at the advanced age of seventy‑eight." From 1829 to 1839, a period of ten years, there were no candidates for Orders in St. John's Commandery, in consequence of the Anti‑Masonic and political excitement. The records show, however, that during this trying ordeal the members met at intervals for " improvement and discipline," and the annual meeting in December for the election of officers was regularly held. The first candidate, upon the resumption of work, was knighted January 14, 1839, since which period its labors have been uninterrupted. Regardless of the question of priority of organization, the history of St. John's Encampment is peculiarly interesting. It was undoubtedly the cradle of the American Templar ritual, and the work, which was originated by Webb and his associates within its asylum, is the basis upon which the accepted modern rituals are con structed. It was here that the combination of the rituals of older degrees was first worked under the name of "Red Cross," and its walls were the first to witness the redressed Templar degree, with the new incidents and ceremonials introduced, which distinguish it from the English work of the same degree. It ~is interesting to note that it is asserted to have in its archives the original Webb MS., and that either from it, or from those who received their lectures from its author, have all American Templar rituals been taken. R. E. Sir George H. Burnham is of the opinion that the organization,‑of St. John's, "Was doubtless largely brought about by a procession, which moved through the streets of Providence January 9, 18oo, the occasion being the obsequies of General George Washington. This procession was composed of military, citizens, trades, Masonic, and other societies, and in 710 THE CONCORDANT ORDERS.


it Knights Templars took part, and a Knight Templar banner was displayed, as appears by the newspaper accounts of the day. That was probably the first Knight Templar banner displayed in this country, and it is now in possession of St. John's Commandery (Encampment), which was soon afterward founded." Washington Commandery, No. 1, of Hartford, Connecticut, claims to date its organization from the year 1796. The evidence, relied upon to establish this, is said to be contained in a small pamphlet, published at New London in 1823, but one copy of which is known to be in existence, in which the following is to be found : ‑ " In July, 1796, three regular Knights Templars, hailing from three different commanderies 1 formed an encampment at Colchester, in the State of Connecticut, at which time the following R. A. M. had regularly conferred on them the Order of Knighthood, viz.: John R. Watrous, Asa Bigelow, Roger Bulkley, John Breed, Joel Worthington." Sir Lucius E. Hunt, in a sketch of the history of the Order of Knights Templars, in Connecticut, asserts that, "in June, 18o1, a charter was obtained from London, and an encampment was held at New London," when it elected officers and adopted a code of by‑laws, and " four R. A. Masons had conferred on them the degrees of Knights of the Red Cross,' High Priest, and Sir Knights Templars. At the next meeting, November 12, i8o1, three R. A. Masons " Were severally advanced to the high degrees of Knights of the Red Cross, High Priest, and Sir Knights Templars, and afterward received the degrees of Knights of Malta, and Mediterranean Pass." They held two other meetings without a warrant, once in 1798, and again in 1799, and, if the history recited in the charter received from the General Grand Encampment in 1819, is correct, two more in 18o1. There is a conflict between the pamphlet before mentioned and this charter; the former stating that a charter was received from London in June, 18o1, and the latter making the date September 5, 1803. No written records of the first three meetings are in existence, to our knowledge, and the only evidence we have of them is this pamphlet, which contains this item of history, and the names of the members to that date. The organization of the Institution is further alluded to in a small pamphlet, entitled: "A Hint to Free Masons," published in Newfield, in 1799, in which occurs the following passage : ‑ " In the year 1796, at Colchester, were introduced other degrees, viz.: Knights Templars, and Knights of Malta, etc., of which the author knows nothing; only that he has been informed by one of the Order that they exercise the power without constitution or warrant." Also, in the Connecticut Gazette for July 2, 18oo, is an order of processi6n . for the dedication of Freemasons' Hall at New London, which took place June 24, 18oo, in which Knights Templars were assigned a place in the line. The officers elected April 6, 181o, held their offices until April 28, 1819, 1 This is the first use of the word" commandery "we have met with; everywhere else the older Templar bodies are spoken of as encampments.


2 It would be exceedingly interesting to know where they obtained this ceremony. Webb has been generally credited with having manufactured the degree several years later.




when the encampment came under the jurisdiction of the General Grand Encampment of the United States.


From the records it would seem that their authority to confer the degrees was called in question; for, at their assembly held April 6, 1810, the following was passed: ‑ "Voted, That this encampment do establish the charter by them received from London, to be the authority by which they hold and exercise their right of making Knights Templars." There is no record of any meeting after this, until April 28, 1819, when Webb and Fowle were present, and it was voted, ‑ "To relinquish the charter which this encampment has heretofore acted under, and make application to the General Grand Encampment of the United States for a new charter; said encampment to be styled the Washington Encampment of Knights Templars, to be holden at New London and Colchester, and at Hartford if deemed expedient." Webb, as Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of the United States, granted them the charter as prayed for, reciting that they "Did in the year of our Lord i8ot, form and organize an encampment in the State of Connecticut, and proceed to a choice of officers and the transaction of other business in strict conformity with the rules of the Order, so far as they were acquainted therewith: That, in the year 1803, they applied to the Knights Templars of London, who, on the 5th day of September, i8o3, granted a warrant recognizing your petitioners as a regular encampment, since which period, to the present time, they have continued to convene occasionally." " In the city of New London and town of Colchester, in the State of Connecticut, with the privilege of holding special meetings, at the pleasure and discretion of the three first officers, at the city of Hartford, in said State; until there shall be another encampment lawfully instituted in the same State, or until it shall be otherwise ordered by the authority of the General Grand Encampment." The encampment continued its meetings, regularly, until 1829, when the Anti‑Masonic excitement caused it to become dormant. In 1844 the Grand Encampment of Connecticut, on petition of a number of the members, ordered the encampment to be removed to Hartford. The Grand Encampment of Massachusetts and Rhode Island granted a dispensation, in May, 1844, to revive and remove this encampment to Hartford. The charter, furniture, etc., having been obtained, it was reorganized August 28, 1844.


Early Templary in New York.‑According to Sir Knight Macoy, Templarism existed in the city of New York as early as the year 1785. Quoting from newspapers of the day, and the early records of the Grand Lodge of that State, it appears that, on December 21, 1785, the Grand Lodge prescribed the order of exercises in a resolution declaring that the order of procession, on St. John's day next, be as follows: Two Tylers with drawn swords, music, Knights Templars with swords, etc., and then goes on to include officers and members of lodges, of Grand Lodges, clergyman invited, and closed with Knights Templars properly clothed, with drawn swords. Sir Knight Macoy found in the Independent journal, published on the 28th of the same month, 712 THE CONCORDANT ORDERS.


an interesting account of the observances of the day, including the order of procession prescribed by the Grand Lodge, remarking that the " Sir Knights as a body seldom appeared in public." On St. John the Baptist's day, 1789, the Grand Lodge had another procession, in which Knights Templars led the column. The Daily Gazette, in reporting the procession and the proceedings, thus refers to the Knights Templars : ‑ ' "This Order, consecrated to benevolence, has on its rolls the most distinguished characters of society, and on this occasion many members of Congress and others of highest distinction were seen in this philanthropic band." Sir Knight Macoy is authority for the statement that the general belief is that the body of Knights Templars that participated in these processions was what was known as Old Encampment, Grand Encampment, and sometimes as Morton's Encampment. The date and circumstances under which the encampment was established are not known. The first published list appeared in 1796, when General Jacob Morton was Grand Master, as he had been for many years. It disappeared in 18io. Referring to the transactions of the Grand Lodge, Sir Knight Parvin found that it held an extra meeting December 30, 1799, " for the purpose of observing the solemn funeral rites in commemoration of our illustrious brother George Washington, with a procession," etc. The order of procession is given in full, filling two pages. We find again : first, Knights Templars in the form as directed by their presiding officer, then the lodges of the city, etc. Although there were existing within the State, prior to the organization of the Grand Encampment of New York, several encampments, it was not created by them, the Grand Encampment having usurped that function. It is natural that all mention of them should have been omitted from their published proceedings, and what little information we have regarding their existence comes from outside sources.


Sir Knight Parvin says: ‑ " Previous to 1799 a body of Knights Templars, known as St. Peter's Encampment, flourished in the city of New York; the source of its authority Sir Knight Macoy was unable to ascertain, except that it was an offshoot from several of the self‑constituted bodies that then existed in the city. The officers of St. Peter's Encampment, in 1799, are named in the directory of that year, when John West was Grand Master, and in the succeeding years the same Sir Knights were continued in office. When this Commandery ceased to exist cannot now be ascertained. Webb, in his 'Monitor,' of 18o2, speaks of Jerusalem Encampment in New York City. This encampment is not mentioned in any of the directories of that year, which leads Sir Knight Macoy to infer that Jerusalem and St. Peter's Encampment Ivere one and the same body. The history of Rising Sun Encampment is much more full and complete. It will be noted that this was one of the encampments which united with those in Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore, in organizing the second Grand Encampment of Pennsylvania, February 16, 1814, four months prior to the organization of the Grand Encampment of New York. In Creigh's history of the Knights Templars of Pennsylvania, we find a very full report of this encampment, to and including the year 1817, when, according to this writer, it became merged or transformed into Columbia Commandery [Encampment].


"' Very much of a contradictory character has been written of the origin, progress, and death of this Commandery, which seems, however, to be living under the name of Columbian Encampment of to‑day.' The correctness, however, of this statement is denied by Sir Knight Macoy, who EARL Y GRAND ENCAMPMENTS.


states that Columbian Encampment, No. 1, on the New York roster, was organized in 1810, and which, probably, a number of the Knights of Rising Sun Encampment constituted, and that for several years the two encampments had a coexistence, when, in 1817, Rising Sun Encampment passed away, never having been recognized by the Grand Encampment of New York. It was, however, as we have stated, represented in the convention which formed the Grand Encampment of Pennsylvania, and received from it a charter of recognition May 18, 1814. Its first officers under this charter were: James McDonald, M. E. H. P.; Wm. B. Hatfield, E. G. M.; Wm. Cowen, Captain General. At the session of May, 1817, of the Grand Encampment of Pennsylvania, this encampment was for the last time represented by Samuel Maberick, its Eminent Grand Master. "Columbian Encampment, No. i, also lost its early records by fire; its origin, therefore, cannot be satisfactorily traced. The first record we have of it is dated in 1810, as appears from its old seal. February 4, 1816, it received a warrant from the Grand Encampment, in which Thomas Lowndes was named as the first Grand Master. In 1824 this encampment united with Morton Encampment, No. 4, and created the Marquis de Lafayette, who was the Nation's guest, a Knight Templar in full form. This encampment continues still in existence.


"Temple Encampment, No. 2, was stationed at Albany. Like most other encampments, its early records are lost. It is known, however, that it existed as early as 1796, the year Thomas Smith Webb visited that city, but whether he had any part in its organization is not known; indeed, it is not presumed that he did, as it is a question whether he was even then a Knight Templar." Massachusetts and Rhode Island.‑A Grand Convention of Knights Templars was held in Providence, Rhode Island, on the sixth day of May, A.D. 1805, when the following measures were proposed and adopted unanimously, viz. : ‑ "Resolved, As the sense of this Convention, that the formation and establishment of a Grand Encampment of Knights Templars in this State would tend to promote the honor and interests of the order of Knighthood and of Masonry.


"Resolved, That a committee be appointed to devise and report a form of Constitution, explanatory of the principles upon which a Grand Encampment shall be opened.


"Resolved, That the Convention be adjourned until Monday, the 13th instant, then to meet again in Masons' Hall, in Providence, Rhode Island." The Convention met, agreeably to adjournment, to take into consideration the report of the committee appointed on the sixth instant, which, being read and amended, was unanimously approved and adopted.


By the first article of the Constitution thus adopted, the body was " Known and distinguished by the style and title of the 'Grand Encampment of Rhode Island, and jurisdiction thereunto belonging.' " The record does not disclose who were present, or what, if any, bodies they represented ; but the following officers were elected : ‑ M. W. Sir Thomas S. Webb, of Providence .................. Grand Master. W. Sir Henry Fowle, of Boston .......................... Generalissimo. W. Sir Jonathan Gage, of Newburyport ..................Captain General.


W. Sir John Carlile, of Providence ....................... Senior Grand Warden. W. Sir Nathan Fisher, of Providence ..................... junior Grand Warden. W. Sir John Davis, of Providence .......................Grand Sword Bearer. W. Sir William Wilkinson, of Providence ................Grand Standard Bearer W. Sir William F. Magee, of Providence ................. Grand Recorder.


W: Sir Jeremiah F. Jenkins, of Providence ...............Grand Treasurer.


Its subordinates were: Boston Encampment, Boston; St. John's Encamp.


ment, Providence; St. Paul's Encampment, Newport; and Darius Council, 714 THE CONCORDANT ORDERS.


Portland. Sir Hopkins says, in a report to the Grand Encampment of the, United States, the formation was irregularly made by a convention of Knights, Templars representing no subordinate commanderies, who resolved to form s Grand Encampment, and proceeded to grant charters of recognition to bodies already formed, and warrants for the organization of new encampments. The several bodies within the jurisdiction recognized its supremacy over them, and accepted authority from it. These bodies were themselves irregularly formed. In 18oz, Boston Encampment was formed by ten Knights of the Red Cross, without any warrant. In the same year St. John's Encampment, of Providence, was formed, without any authority, by six Sir Knights. Darius Council, of Portland, was organized by three Knights of the Red Cross, in, 1805, when, after admitting two more members, they applied to Massachusetts for recognition. The encampment at Newburyport was organized, without authority, in 1795. Certain Royal Arch Masons, residing in Newport, deputed Companion Shaw to visit New York, where he received the Orders of Knighthood and many other degrees, and returned with a warrant from the! Consistory presided over by Joseph Cerneau, authorizing him to confer the' Orders. And thus an encampment was formed at Newport. ' Another meeting was held in October, 1805, and officers elected. In 1806' by resolution, the '| style or title " was altered to that of |1 The United State Grand Encampment"; and that it should consist of its Grand Officers, and " The Grand Master, Generalissimo, and Captain General for the time being, of all subordi nate chartered encampments of Knights Templars, and the Past Grand Masters of subordinab encampments, while members of any encampment under this jurisdiction;' The three Principal Officers were authorized during the recess, of the Grand Encampment || to grant charters of recognition to such encampments as shall apply for the same." A petition was presented from " the Boston Encampment of Knights Templars, etc., holden in the town of Boston, Massachusetts,: praying for a charter of recognition from this Grand Encampment, confirming them in their accustomed rights and.privileges, agreeably to the constitution," which was granted.


At the next meeting (1806) it was resolved, that "whenever the Knights at Newburyport shall petition for a charter of recognition," it should be issued, and the same action was had regarding |' The Encampment of Knights at Portland." The Constitution was revised; the only feature of interest therein was the provision relative to jurisdiction, which was defined to "Extend to any State, or Territory, wherein there is not a Grand Encampment regularly established, and it shall take cognizance of, and preside over, all such encampments of Knights of Malta, Knights Templars, and councils of Knights; of the Red Cross as have hitherto instituted, and that shall acknowledge its,, jurisdiction," and to grant charters for new bodies in any State, or Territory,; as aforesaid.


At the meeting in 1807, we find the first record of the presence of a con‑1 EARL Y GRAND ENCAMPMENTS.


stituency : Boston Encampment, Boston; St. John's Encampment, Providence ; and King Darius Council, Portland, being represented by their officers, or their proxies.


In 18o8 the encampment at Newburyport was also represented. At the meeting held at Providence, May z 7, 18 r r, at which only the Providence and Boston Encampments were represented by delegates, it was "Voted, That M. W. Sir Thomas S. Webb, Sirs John Carlile and Ephraim Bowen, Jr., be a committee to open a correspondence with the several encampments in the United States not under the jurisdiction of this Grand Encampment, and to inform them of the principles on which the same is established, and to solicit their co6peration with us." At the meeting in 1812, the committee appointed at the last annual assembly to correspond with the several encampments not under the jurisdiction of this Grand Encampment, reported progress, and were given leave to prosecute the duties of their appointment. In the year 1814, "A petition was received from a number of Knights Templars of Newport, Rhode Island, praying for a charter, free of expense, excepting the customary recognition fees," Which was granted; and in the following year, Washington Encampment, Newport, Rhode Island, was represented, in addition to the four bodies previously named. In May, 1816, Thomas Smith Webb, Henry Fowle, and John Snow were appointed to revise the Constitution; the title was amended by expunging the words "United States," and the title of the Grand Master of subordinate encampments was changed to that of Grand Commander. Upon motion made and seconded, it was "Resolved, That three delegates be appointed from this Grand Encampment to meet and con. fer with any or all other Grand Encampments that are now established within the United States, or with such delegates as may be appointed by any or all of the said Grand Encampments, upon the subject of a general union of all the encampments in the United States under one head, and general form of government, and that the said delegates be, and they are hereby, invested with full power and authority to enter into such engagements and stipulations, and make such arrangements upon the said subject, as they may deem expedient, and proper to promote the honor and interests of the Orders of Knighthood.


"Resolved, That M. W. Sir Thomas Smith Webb, and W. Sir Henry Fowle of Boston, and W. Sir John Snow of Providence, be, and they are hereby, appointed delegates for the before‑mentioned purposes." Past Grand Master Fowle, in his autobiography, gives an account of the visit of Webb, Snow, and himself to Philadelphia, on June r 1, 1816, where they met the Knights Templars of Philadelphia, in convention, to effect a coalition of all Grand Encampments of the United States under one General Grand Encampment; but they found the Knights of Philadelphia averse to a coalition because they were under the control of the Grand Lodge. 1| Finding them incorrigible the committee gave them up, and prepared for their return." Webb, in his report, on June 25, 1817, says : ‑ "They met in convention with delegates from the cities of Philadelphia, Baltimore, Wilmington, and New York, at the Masonic Hall; that, after several days spent in deliberation, they found 715' 716 THE CONCORDANT ORDERS.


the mode of array and system of work differed in many points so essentially from what is customary in the encampments hitherto in connection with this Grand Encampment, that they could not feel justified in making concessions, such as were required by the delegates from Penn. sylvania, particularly.


"The delegates think it unnecessary to state more than two obstacles which they deem of sufficient weight to defeat the object in view, (a) the first of which is, that the Encampments in Pennsylvania avow themselves as being in subordination to and under the Grand Lodge of Master Masons. (h) The second is their unwillingness to the arrangement or order of succession in conferring the degrees as practised by us, and especially they object to the degrees of Mark Master and Most Excellent Master as unnecessary and not belonging to the system of Masonry. Finding it impossible to come to an agreement upon these points, a part of the delegates agreed to adjourn to the city of New York, and the convention was dissolved." Webb, Fowle, and Snow accordingly returned to New York, where, joined by Lowndes, on June 20, 1816, they four "Resolved unanimously to form and open a General Grand Encampment." Their further proceedings will be found under that title.


The report of the delegates having been taken into consideration, it was "Resolved, That this Grand Encampment approve the doings of their delegates and of the proceedings of the convention holden in the city of New York, and adopt the General Constitution for their future government; and the Grand Master, Deputy Grand Master, and Grand Recorder are authorized and empowered to revise the local constitution of this Grand Encampment and render it comformable to said General Grand Constitution." The proceedings for June 8, 1819, purport for the first time to be those of "The Grand Encampment of Knights Templars of Massachusetts and Rhode Island." Pennsylvania claims the honor of having organized the first Grand Encampment. Frater Alfred Creigh, in the history of the Knights Templars, claims that the fire was lighted upon the altar of Templarism ill that State as early as February 14, 1794, which is the oldest record in their possession, and, ‑ " That it has never been extinguished, even in the persecuting days of Anti‑Masonry, although it is true, the light shone dimly, and its rays were occasionally obscured." The first Grand Encampment was instituted May 12, 1797, "in Phila, delphia, although a constitution was not adopted until the 19th of the same month." This Grand body at its organization had four subordinates Nos. 1 and z in Philadelphia, No. 3 in Harrisburg, and No. 4 in Carlisle.


Frater Creigh quotes Colonel John Johnson, then residing in Cincinnati, but lately deceased, as saying : ‑ "That in 1797 he was admitted to the Knight Templar degree in Carlisle, in No. 4, and that the commander's name was Robert Leyburn, and tha'. in 1799 he removed to Philadelphia, and visited the encampments in that city." Creigh thinks this testimony || establishes the existence of these four subordinates prior to 1797." He finds "From the published by‑laws of Nos. r and 2 of Philadelphia, that on the 27th December, 1812, these two subordinates united as No. 1; and from this encampment, and also No. 2 of Pitts, burgh, was formed a second Grand Encampment on the 16th of February, 1814, with the addition EARL Y GRAND ENCAMPMENTS.


of delegates from Rising Sun Encampment, No. Z, of New York; Washington Encampment, No. r, of Wilmington, Delaware; and Baltimore Encampment, No. x, of Baltimore, Maryland. The style of the second Grand Encampment was the 'Pennsylvania Grand Encampment with Masonic jurisdiction thereunto belonging.' " This second Grand Encampment existed until June 10, 1824, or at least its Grand Master, Sir Anthony Fannen, exercised his authority as such, for on that day he issued a dispensation to the officers of St. John's Encampment, No. 4, ‑ which was instituted June 8, 1819, ‑ "To dub and make John E. Schwarz a Sir Knight of our most illustrious Order' of Knights Templars. This No, 4 is still in existence.... The original No. 1, of 1794, kept up a complete and unbroken organization until June 13, 1824, although No. 2 was merged into it on December 27, x812." After the parent body had ceased, in 1824, St. John's, No. 4, Frater Creigh says: " Continued to exist, recognizing as her superior the source of all Masonic authority within our State, the R.‑. W.‑. Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania." June 11, 1816, the Pennsylvania Grand Encampment appointed a committee, who gave it as their unanimous opinion that the establishment of a General Grand Encampment, for the United States, would greatly tend to promote union, and order, and strength among Knights Templars; and they appointed Sir Knights McCorkle, Hamilton, Edes, and Ireland delegates, clothed with full powers to carry the same into effect. The Pennsylvania delegates met in convention with the delegates from the Grand Encampments of New England and New York, and in their report they state: ‑ "That it was impossible to carry their designs into execution without making a sacrifice upon the part of this Grand Encampment, and its subordinate encampments, which was considered unwarranted by every principle of Masonry, which was made a sine qua non by the delegates from New England, who having seceded from the convention, it was of consequence dissolved." Pennsylvania would not consent that the |1 old work " which she claimed to have received || from the hands of her fathers, should become interpolated or amended," and regarded the " Webb work " as a New England heresy.' The Pennsylvania Grand Encampment preserved her existence until 1824, after which those encampments in other States, which acknowledged her authority, owing to the Anti‑Masonic persecution, ceased to exist, or became members of their State Grand bodies, among them Rising Sun Encampment, of New York, afterward Columbia Encampment, No. 1.


After the second Pennsylvania Grand Encampment had ceased, in 1824, St. John's Encampment, No. 4, the only one in existence in Pennsylvania, continued to work under the Grand Lodge until February 12, 1857‑ In May, 1852, St. John's, No. 4 ; Philadelphia, No. 5 ; Union, No. 6, and DeMolay of Reading, established a Grand Encampment under the authority of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania; but the Grand Lodge on the 16th of February, 1857, resolved that they had no authority over the degrees of Knighthood, and its legitimate sphere was the primitive degrees of Ancient Craft 1 Creigh.




Masonry. A union therefore was effected, and both Grand Encampments of Pennsylvania, since 1857, acknowledge, as their legal head, the "Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of the United States." New York. ‑This Grand Encampment was organized January 22, 1814. Its subordinates were: Ancient Encampment, New York; Temple Encampment, Albany; and Montgomery Encampment, Stillwater. The first official proceedings show that, on the day mentioned, the Sovereign Grand Consistory " Decreed the establishment of a Grand Encampment of Sir Knights Templar and Appendant Orders for the State of New York, and immediately proceeded to its formation by choosing the Grand Officers thereof" from among the members of the Consistory. Not a single commandery had requested such action; nor had a single Knight Templar as such. It was the volunteer action of an alien body, which, in itself, had no such authority as it assumed to exercise. A warrant of recognition was issued, in 1816, to Columbian Commandery of New York, and a warrant for a new commandery at New Orleans was issued the same day. These two subordinates were the only ones that recognized the Grand Encampment of New York, and that recognition was of the mildest kind. Neither of them sent any representatives to the Grand Conclave for six years. All the other commanderies of the States refused to acknowledge the Grand body, and maintained their independent organization for many years.


Whether or not the members of the Consistory who formed the Grand Commandery of New York had received the Orders of Knighthood, does not appear. They were not required to have done so to be eligible to admission to the Scottish Rite. The precise relationship between the two organizations is difficult of determination. The first constitution of the Grand commandery of New York made its membership consist of officers and members of the Grand Commandery, and delegates from such subordinates under its jurisdiction as might recognize its authority. It also provided that the Grand Master should be admitted, as a member of the Supreme Council, without fee ; and that the commanders of subordinates should be entitled to the degree of Prince of the Royal Secret, and also the members of the Consistory, free of charge. Thus the reciprocity of these two branches of Masonry was made complete, which was quite natural since they were composed of the same individuals.


What authority Joseph Cerneau had for conferring the Orders of Knighthood and constituting commanderies, and whence he derived this authority, has not been ascertained. No authority to confer the Orders of Knighthood is contained in his patent, at least there is no such authority in the patent of July 15, r8o6, granted to Mathieu Dupotte. If he had any other patent, of if he himself had ever received the Orders of Knighthood, no evidence of the fact‑has been found.' 1 Hopkins, G. E. Pro., 1889, p. 192.




Reduced Fac‑simile.




From the foregoing summary of the principal events in the history of the three original Grand Encampments, existing prior to the organization of the present Grand Encampment of the United States, it will be seen that neither of them can trace their genealogy with that precision that would entitle them to be received as "true descendants of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel," ‑ there is a link wanting in the history of each of them. Pennsylvania, which claims priority of date, was at best an adjunct of the Grand Lodge, and never had an independent existence. Massachusetts and Rhode Island had at the beginning no constituency, as it was organized by a " Grand Convention of Knights Templars," who, so far as the record or tradition shows, were not delegated by any organized body. St. John's Encampment of Providence, which made application, at the second meeting, October, 1805, for a charter of recognition, was its sole constituent until March, 1806, when Boston Encampment was recognized and chartered. In May, 1806, the Grand Officers were authorized and directed, whenever the encampments at Newburyport and Portland should petition for it, to grant them charters, which the latter appears to have done prior to May, 1807, when King Darius Council, Portland, was represented by proxy, and the encampment at Newburyport prior to May, 1808, when it was also represented by proxy; but the record does not disclose the date when the charters were issued in either case.


The Grand Encampment of New York sprang into being like Minerva from the head of Jove, Joseph Cerneau's Grand Consistory of the Scottish Rite playing the part of Jove. It had no constituents, and it is not even known where its organizers received the Templar degrees.


It would be interesting to pursue our inquiries into the organization of the other Grand Encampments: Virginia, organized in 1823 ; Vermont, organized in 1824; New Hampshire, organized in 1826 ; Connecticut, organized in 1827 ; Ohio, organized in 1843 ; Maine, organized in 185 2 ; Indiana, organized in 1854; and Texas, organized in 1855,‑all prior to 1856, when the name of the State Grand bodies was changed from " Grand Encampment " to " Grand Commandery," ‑ but the limited space allotted to this writer forbids. It is worthy of remark, however, that there does not seem to be any reason why the peculiar nomenclature " encampment " was employed, the term certainly was not in use in ancient times, and has no special appropriateness ; but the word " encampment " reaches far back in our history, and was doubtless used from the very beginning of the revival of Templary in the lodges, for we read that encampments were held "under the sanction of lodge warrants," in our first recorded trace of the degrees as a part of the Masonic system. The change in the designation of the State bodies by the Grand Encampment, to say the least, was ill advised, and is confusing, especially in writing history. It would seem to have been better and easier for the National body to have given itself an appropriate name, such as Great Priory, or Grand Conclave.




However, the mischief has been done, and is irreparable. Those who re will have to bear in mind these changes, as they pursue their investigations American Masonic history.






The Grand Encampment. ‑When Thomas Smith Webb, Henry Fowll and John Snow failed in their mission to Philadelphia, where they went I June, 1816, to confer, with the Grand Encampment of Pennsylvania, " ups the subject of a general union of all the encampments in the United Stag under one head and general form of government," pursuant to the resolutia of the " Grand Encampment of the United States," by which name Massachy setts and Rhode Island was then known, they repaired to New York, wherj joined by Thomas Lowndes, who was also a delegate, appointed by the Gram Consistory of New York to represent " that body at a convention of Knigh Templars from different States of the Union, to be held in the city of Philad phia on Tuesday, the 11th inst. [June]," and at Masons' Hall, on the 2ot1, and 21st days of June, held "a convention" at which one of them might haw, appropriately said the old colored man's grace: " God bless me and my wif! my son John and his wife, us four and no more. Amen." The record c this immortal quartette's proceedings describes themselves as "delegates fron eight councils and encampments," by enumerating all the encampments unde the jurisdiction of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and New York, and is a follows : ‑ " At a convention holden at Masons' Hall, in the city of New York, on the loth and 21st Jun 1816, consisting of Delegates or Knights Companions from eight councils and encampments I Knights Templars and Appendant Orders, viz:‑ Boston Encampment ......................,....,....,.Boston.


St. John's Encampment .......................................... Providence. Ancient Encampment............................................ New York Temple Encampment ............................................ AlbanyMontgomery Encampment ............... ....................... Stillwater.


St. Paul's Encampment .......................................... Newburyport. Newport Encampment ........................................... Newport. Darius Council .................................................Portland." This remarkable record was first printed in 1859, and was the occasion o much controversy, which only came to an end when it was discovered to bt wholly imaginative. In addition to the encampments named there were, a that time, five others existing under the Grand Encampment of Pennsylvania viz. : No. 1 of Philadelphia; No. 2 of Pittsburgh; Rising Sun of New York Washington, No. 1, of Wilmington; Baltimore, No. 1, of Baltimore, and Souti Carolina Encampment of Charleston, which ones did not participate.


THE GRAND ENCAMPBIE VT 723 These four ancient worthies ordained a Constitution, which being ratified by the United States Grand Encampment (Massachusetts and Rhode Island), and New York, became the supreme law of American Templarism. Its importance is such as to demand the full abstract, which we present as follows : ‑ The First Constitution.‑There shall be a General Grand Encampment of Knights Templars and the Appendaut Orders for the United States of America, consisting of the officers thereof, and the four principal officers of all such State Grand Encampments as may be instituted or holden by virtue of this Constitution; and the said enumerated officers, or their proxies, shall be the only members and voters in the said General Grand Encampment. Meetings to be held on the third Thursday in September, and septennially thereafter at such place as may be from time to time appointed. Special meetings to be held on the call of any two of the first four officers, or whenever they may be required by a majority of the Grand Encampments of the States. First four officers empowered to visit and preside in any assembly of Knights of the Red Cross, etc., and to give such instructions and directions as the good of the Institution may require, always adhering to the "Ancient Landmarks." In the absence of any officer from any assembly "holden by virtue of this Constitution," the officer next in rank shall succeed his superior, unless such officer shall decline in favor of a Past Superior Officer, and in case of the absence of all officers, the members present, according to seniority and abilities shall fill the several offices. The first four officers, severally, have power to establish new Councils of Knights of the Red Cross, and Encampments of Knights Templars and Malta in any State or Territory where there is no Grand Encampment. The Grand, and Deputy Grand Masters are authorized to appoint a Grand Visitor, or more than one if necessary, to superintend and perform such distant business and to communicate such instructions as may come within the cognizance of such Grand Officers respectively, conformable to the duties and prerogatives of their respective offices. A Grand Encampment may be formed in any State when there are three encampments instituted under this Constitution, with the consent of the Grand Master, Deputy Grand Master, or Grand Encampment. Grand Encampments consist of their officers, the Past Grand, and Deputy Grand Masters, Grand General issimos, and Grand Captains General, wheresoever they may reside, and the Grand Commander, Generalissimo, Captain General, and Past Commanders of Encampments. Grand Encampments to be held once each year and subject to the provisions of this Constitution to have the whole government of subordinates, to assign their limits and settle controversies between them, to constitute new Councils and Encampments. The Grand and Deputy Grand Masters had power to grant dispensations, to "form a new Council and Encampment," to expire at the next meeting of the Grand Encampment. Fees for dispensations and annual contributions from encampments to be fixed by Grand Encampments. No charter to be given to less than seven Knights for a Council of Knights of the Red Cross, or nine Knights Templars for an encampment, petitions to be recommended by body in the same State, with the new body. Grand Encampments to communicate with each other, and exchange lists of officers. Jurisdiction not to extend beyond the limits of the State in which they are holden, except in case of existing Grand Encampments. Assemblies of Knights of the Red Cross called Councils, and those of Knights Templars and Knights of Malta, Encampments. Orders not to be conferred upon any one who had not regularly received the several degrees from E. A. to R. A. M., inclusive, as at present. Orders not to be conferred upon any sojourner whose fixed place of abode is in any State where there is an encampment established. All officers to take an oath of fealty.


In 1826 encampments holding from the General Grand Encampment were admitted to representation therein by their officers appearing in person, but not by proxy. Itinerant lecturers were prohibited. The first four officers were given power to establish encampments beyond the limits of the United States. No person to appear in General Grand Encampment unless he is a present or past officer of a grade that would entitle him to a vote, and no officer to have in his own right but one vote. Meetings were changed from septennially to triennially, Grand Visitors abolished. Encampments not to be formed in States where there is an existing body, without its consent, and that Orders may be conferred on clergymen without a fee.


In 1841 Past Commanders of encampments were restricted in their membership in Grand Encampments to the period during which their encampments continue in existence.


724 In 1844 the Constitution was revised, but the only addition was a provision requiring all officers of the General and State Grand Encampments to be members of some subordinate encampment. In 1856 the Constitution was again revised, the word " General " was omitted from the name of the Grand Encampment and the titles of officers. The State Grand Encampments were called Grand Commanderies, and the title of the Grand and Deputy Grand Masters changed to Grand and Deputy Grand Commander respectively. Encampments were called Commanderies, and the principal officer called Eminent Commander. Its powers were defined to be as follows: At the stated meetings of the Grand Encampment of the United States there shall be reviewed and considered by all the official reports of its officers, and the State Grand and Subordinate Commanderies, for the preceding three years. They may adopt such rules and edicts as may be necessary for the Good of the Order; grant or withhold Warrants, Dispensations, and Charters for all new State or Subordinate Commanderies ; for good cause to revoke preexisting Warrants, Charters, or Dispensations; assign the limits of the State Grand Commanderies, and settle all controversies that may arise between them ; and finally, to consider and do all matters appertaining to the good, well‑being, and perpetuation of the principles of Templar Masonry. It is the prerogative and duty of the Grand Master generally to exercise, as occasion may require, all the rights appertaining to his high office, in accordance with the usages of Templar Masonry; and as part thereof he shall have a watchful supervision over all the Commanderies, State and Subordina4e, in the United States, and see that all the Constitutional enactments, rules, and edicts of the Grand Encampment are duly and properly observed, and that the dress, work, and discipline of Templar Masonry everywhere are uniform. To visit and preside at any Commandery, Grand or Subordinate, in the United States, and give such instructions and directions as the good of the institution may require, always adhering to the Ancient Landmarks. To approve and grant Warrants during the recess of the Grand Encampment, for the institution of State Grand Commanderies in States, Districts, or Territories where the same have not been heretofore established. The duties of the remaining officers of the Grand Encampment are such as are traditionally appropriate to their respective stations, or such as may be assigned them by the Grand Encampment. The Grand Master, the Deputy Grand Master, the Grand Generalissimo, and the Grand Captain General, are severally authorized to visit and preside in any Commandery of Knights Templar throughout the jurisdiction of the Grand Encampment, and to give such instructions and directions as the good of the institution may require, always adhering to the Ancient Landmarks. The Grand Encampment of the United States shall have exclusive power to constitute new Commanderies within any State, District, or Territory, wherein there is no State Commandery regularly formed, under the authority of the Grand Encampment of the United States. During the recess of the Grand Encampment the Grand Master shall have the power to grant letters of Dispensation to a competent number of petitioners, nine or more, possessing the Constitutional qualifications and residing within said unappropriated State, District, or Territory, empowering them to form and open a Commandery for a term of time not extending beyond the next stated meeting of the Grand Encampment. Whenever there shall be three or more Subordinate Chartered Commanderies instituted or holden under this Constitution in any one State, District, or Territory, in which a Grand Encampment has not been heretofore formed, a Grand Commandery may be formed after obtaining the approval of the Grand Master or Grand Encampment. Its jurisdiction shall be the territorial limits in which it is holden. State Grand Commanderies consist of the following members: Grand Commander, Deputy Grand Commander, Grand Generalissimo, Grand Captain General, Grand Prelate, Grand Senior Warden, Grand junior Warden, Grand Treasurer, Grand Recorder, Grand Standard Bearer, Grand Sword Bearer, Grand Warder, and Grand Captain of the Guard, likewise all Past Grand Commanders (and Grand Masters), all Past Deputy Grand Commanders (and Deputy Grand Masters), all Past Grand Generalissimos, and all Past Grand Captains General, of the same Grand Commandery, so long as they remain members of the Subordinate Commanderies under the same territorial jurisdiction. Also the Commander, the Generalissimo, and the Captain General of each Subordinate Commandery working under the same Grand Commandery. Also all Past Commanders of the Subordinate Commanderies, working under the same Grand Commanderies, so long as they remain members of Subordinate Commanderies under the same territorial jurisdiction. Each of the individuals enumerated shall be entitled, when present, to one vote in all the proceedings of the State Grand Commandery. No person shall be eligible to any office in a State Grand Commandery, unless he shall be at the THE CONCORDANT ORDERS.




725 time a member of some Subordinate Commandery working under the same Grand Commandery. Any officer, save and except Past Commanders, may appear and vote by proxy, said proxy being at the time of service a member of the same Subordinate Commandery as his principal, and , producing a properly authenticated certificate of his appointment. Grand Commanderies wtre required to meet annually, and their powers were defined to be as follows: There shall be reviewed and considered all the official reports of its Officers, and of the Subordinate Commanderies within its jurisdiction for the preceding year. They shall proceed to elect by ballot the several officers of the Grand Commandery. To adopt such rules and edicts, subordinate to the Grand Encampment of the United States, as may be necessary for the Good of the Order. To examine the accounts of the Grand Treasurer and Grand Recorder. To supervise and state the condition of the finances, and adopt such measures in relation thereto as may be necessary to increase, secure, and preserve the same, and also to insure the utmost punctuality, on the part of every accounting officer, in the safe‑keeping and paying‑over the funds, and property of the Grand Commandery. To grant and withhold Dispensations and Charters for all new Comm anderies. For good cause to revoke any preexisting Charter or Dispensation; to assign the limits of Subordinate Commanderies within its own jurisdiction, and settle all controversies that may arise between them; and finally, to consider and do all matters and things appertaining to the good, well‑being, and perpetuation of Templar Masonry, but always subordinate to the Grand Encampment of the United States. No business shall be transacted at the " called " meetings, save that which was speci fied in the original summons. At every meeting all questions shall be determined by a majority of votes, the presiding officer, for the time, being entitled to one vote. In case the votes are equally divided, he shall also give the casting vote. No appeal shall lie to the Grand Commandery from the decision of the Grand Commander. The Grand Commander was required to have a watchful supervision over all the Subordinate Commanderies under his jurisdiction, and see that all the Constitutional enactments, rules, and edicts of the Grand Encampment, and of his own Grand Commandery, are duly and promptly observed. He shall have the power and authority, during the recess of the Grand Commandery, to grant letters of Dispensation to a competent number of petitioners, nine or more, residing within his jurisdiction, and possessing the Constitutional qualifications, empowering them to form and open a Commandery; such Dispensations to be in force no longer than the next annual meeting of his Grand Commandery. But no letters of Dispensation for constituting a new Commandery shall be issued, save upon the recommendation of the Commandery, in the same territorial jurisdiction, nearest the place of the new Commandery prayed for. He may call special meetings of his Grand Commandery at his discretion. He may visit and preside at any Commandery, within the jurisdiction of his Grand Commandery, and give such instructions and directions as the good of the Institution may require, but always adhering to the Ancient Landmarks. It is his duty, either in person or by proxy, to attend all meetings of the Grand Encampment.


Under the title "General Regulations," it was prescribed: that no Commandery, Grand or Subordinate, shall confer the Orders of Knighthood upon any one who was not a regular Royal Arch Mason, according to the requirements of the General Grand Chapter of the United States. The rule of succession, in conferring the Orders of Knighthood, shall be as follows: r. Knight of the Red Cross. 2. Knight Templar.


Every Commandery working in a State, District, or Territory, where there is a Grand Commandery, shall have a Dispensation or Charter from said Grand Commandery. And no Commandery hereafter to be formed or opened in such State, District, or Territory,, shall be deemed legal without such Charter or Dispensation. All Masonic communication, as a Templar, is interdicted between any Commandery working under the general or special jurisdiction of the Grand Encampment, or any member thereof, and any Commandery or member of such, that may be formed, opened, or holden in such State, District, or Territory, without such Charter or Dis pensation. The officers of every Commandery, Grand and Subordinate, before entering upon the exercise of their respective offices, shall take the following obligation, viz.: "I, (A. B.), do promise and vow that I will support and maintain the Constitution of the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of the United States of America." Amendments have been made from time to time, but none of which change or affect the principles upon which the relations between the Grand Encamp‑ THE CONCORDANT ORDERS.


ment and the Grand Commanderies are based. Two diverse theories regarding these relations have been advanced and contended for: ‑ (r) The Grand Encampment is a supreme, uncontrollable, 1| legislative body, acknowledging no superior," and, (a) That it exists by virtue of a written Constitution, and possesses no powers not therein enumerated, and all powers not expressly delegated are reserved to the several Grand Commanderies. Its officers are the creatures of that Constitution, and have no traditional functions, prerogatives, or privileges.


In support of the former theory, Grand Master Hubbard, who in his time was regarded as one of our most distinguished Masonic scholars and jurists, is cited to the effect that : ‑ "All authority necessary for the government and well‑being of Templar Masonry in the United States, was vested in it [the Grand Encampment], and flowed from it, and the supervising power over all was full and complete." Also the late Past Grand Master William S. Gardner, who, in an address to the Grand Commandery of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, said: ‑ "You were possessed of absolute sovereign powers, but you yielded up to the Grand Encampment many. You accepted a subordinate position; the Grand Encampment officers might preside over your subordinates, instruct and supervise them." To which is to be added the declaration of the late Past Grand Master Beni. B. French, who asserted: ‑ " In form ours is a military organization, a form of government which recognizes no rule of action but the disciplined obedience to the will of the superior." Past Grand Master James H. Hopkins contends: ‑ " Inasmuch as all of the Grand Commanderies, except three, derived their warrants, all the powers they exercise, from the Grand Encampment; and the three which existed before the formation of the Grand Encampment, voluntarily came under its banner and vowed loyalty to it, why is it not the supreme and sovereign organization? With what reason or justice can its creatures deny its complete authority, and undertake to hedge in and circumscribe the limits of its powers ? " On the other hand, it is contended that the analogy between the Grand Encampment, in its relations to the Grand Commanderies, and those of the Federal Government, in its relations to the several States, is complete. A view in which this writer most heartily concurs, notwithstanding the fact that no other four Masons could be named, whose opinions are entitled to the same weight as those of Hubbard, Gardner, French, and Hopkins. Ordinarily they would be accepted without a doubt as to their correctness, but having been uttered before it was known that the record of the Grand Encampment was wrong in respect to its organization, and that instead of having been constituted by encampments, it was the work of the four men, Webb, Fowle, and Snow, representing the Grand Encampment of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and Lowndes, representing the Grand Encampment of New York, I THE GRAND ENCAMPMENT.


727 question whether they would not now revise their opinions, in the light of this discovery, if they were all living, and an opportunity were given to do so.


It is difficult to see in what respect the analogy between the National and Templar government, in these United States, fails. Both are the creatures of a written compact, denominated a Constitution, which was made by delegates from the then existing highest authority, the States and the State Grand Encampments. The work of both was subject to ratification by their principals, and was so ratified, as is shown by the records of the respective Grand Encampments. Massachusetts and Rhode Island, then known as "The United States Grand Encampment," at a meeting held June 25, 1817, at which the delegates reported in full their acts and the action of the convention, = "Voted, Its approval of the doings of the delegates and of the proceedings of the Convention and the adoption of the Constitution." Sir Thomas Lowndes, the delegate from the Grand Encampment of New York, does not appear, from the records, to have made a report, but the records show that, at the succeeding conclave, 1817, a committee was appointed, who in due time reported, to revise the constitution so as to conform to that of the General Grand Encampment, and but for this ratification the instrument would have been utterly void. Nor does it militate against this proposition that it was given, as suggested by Frater Hubbard : " All authority necessary for the government and well‑being" of Templar Masonry. The National Government has this authority, and yet no one has ever contended that it was unlimited. It was given just so much authority as was needed to carry out the purpose for which it was created, and here its authority ceases. Whatever else remains to be done was reserved to the several Grand Commanderies. It is not true that this authority flowed from the Grand Encampment; for, on the contrary, we have seen that it flowed from the two Grand Encampments which created it, and in which it had previously existed. As Grand Master Gardner said, they were the " original sovereigns, and while they yielded up many of their powers," it is manifest that if there were existing any other rights and powers, not therein enumerated, they were retained. Quoting the words of Chancellor Kent: 1 "The Constitution is the act of the people, speaking in their original character, and defining the conditions of the social alliance." The " people " in Masonry are not the Grand bodies, nor yet the Grand Officials with their pompous titles, but the individual Masons, and they are the only true source from which all Masonic powers flow. That which they individually yielded up for the general welfare of the whole is, or ought to be, expressed, and that which is not so expressed is retained. This writer denies that Templarism is a military organization. It merely makes use of a military drill: that is to say, when it moves as a body, it employs tactical movements, as the most convenient and orderly method of proceed 1 ist Kent's Corn. 495.




ing, but there is no `1 disciplined obedience to the will of a superior," as it is practised in an army. So far as that superior confines his " will " to such matters and things as are the result of common consent, he is obeyed, but in no sense of the word has he a "military" command. To the suggestion that bodies created by the Grand Encampment cannot, with reason or justice, " deny its complete authority, and undertake to hedge in, and circumscribe the limits of its power," it is only necessary to reply that those bodies came into existence by virtue of its Constitution, and the limits of its power therein contained ; and it follows, as a necessary consequence, that any attempt to add to those powers must be with the consent of those in whom power was originally vested ; i.e., the true sovereigns, ‑ the people, speaking through their lawful representatives.


The Constitution contains a provision wherein it is said: ‑ " It is the prerogative and duty of the Grand Master generally to exercise, as occasion may require, all the rights appertaining to his high office, in accordance with the usages of Templar Masonry." This has occasioned much controversy. Past Grand Master Hopkins, in a report to the Triennial Conclave of 1889, said: ‑ " It is fair to infer that the usages of Templar Masonry are to be understood as limited to the existence of the Order in the United States." A statement to be heartily endorsed ; and it is to be regretted that this able exponent of Templar jurisprudence did not stop right there, but unfortunately he added: ‑ " Originally, the Grand Master was vested with absolute and autocratic power. And under the present Constitution of the Order in England, the Grand Master, with the approval of a majority of the Committee,‑more than two‑thirds of whom were selected by him,‑may dismiss a member from any office or impose such other sentence as he may see fit. And while it is true that in this country the Order retains much of its military character, it is also greatly imbued with the spirit of our freer institutions. And yet there has always been felt a glow of pride in the antiquity and history of the Order, and a strong desire to retain the original usages as far as possible." In 1853 the Grand Encampment appointed a committee to revise the con stitution, and authorized them "To report such changes in the organization as will make the Order in this country conform more completely to the system of ancient Knights Templars." In many respects this was found impracticable by reason of the changed conditions and advanced civilization. But, while we have a deliberative and legislative governing body, and an elective Grand Master, the head of the Order has a larger inherent and prescriptive power than ordinarily belongs to the executive of a pure democracy. The Master of a lodge may be far more dictatorial than the chairman of a popular assemblage. And so, through all the degrees of Masonry, the presiding officer has much unquestioned and absolute authority. This Grand Encampment has conceded the right of appeal to the governing body, from any decision of the Grand Master upon THE GRAND ENCAMPMENT.


729 questions under discussion; and this, very manifestly, because of the deliberative and legislative character of the Grand Encampment. But the mandate of the Grand Master must always be obeyed. His powers are delegated by and subject only to the restraint imposed by law. The Constitution and statutes, ‑ and where they are silent, " the usages of Templar Masonry," which is our common law,‑prescribe the only boundaries to the Grand Master's power.


Without now considering the extent of the Grand Master's powers by virtue of the unwritten law of usage, it cannot be doubted that he is clothed with the full authority requisite to the discharge of all the duties imposed upon him. When the Constitution demands that "he shall have a watchful supervision over all Commanderies, Grand and Subordinate," and see that all the statutes and regulations "are duly and promptly obeyed, and that the | work' [Rituals], etc., everywhere are uniform," it was properly assumed that he possessed "adequate power to effect these objects." It is a mere waste of time and effort to attempt to connect American Templarism with the "system of ancient Knights Templars." Whatever "absolute and autocratic powers" may have been wielded by the Grand Masters of the Crusading Templars,‑in the rude and semi‑barbarous times in which they existed, ‑ they are wholly inapplicable to the changed conditions under which the modern society, which bears their name, exists. The Grand Master of American Templars is Grand Master only in name; like the President of the United States, he is the head of the Republic; and subject to its laws, the same as every other citizen. The Master of a lodge has some traditions behind his back, and there is some ground upon which to base the claim of || prerogative "residing in the Grand Master of Masons, but there is absolutely nothing behind the principal officer of the modern imitators of the valiant Knights of old, upon which to reflect even a shadow of absolute and autocratic power. The year 1797, which gave birth to the first governing body of American Templars, witnessed the creation of the first Grand Master, that of Pennsylvania,' and there and then Templar usage began. It requires that degree of charity which suffereth long and is kind, to enable one to contemplate with patience the extravagant appeals to "usage," "prerogative," and "Ancient Landmarks," with which Templar literature in these United States is cumbered,‑just as if it were possible for a society not yet a century old to have created a "usage," "prerogative," or "Ancient Landmark." Sir Hopkins did well when he limited the || usage of Templar Masonry" to the period in which the Order has existed in this country. Who will have the temerity to knock out of our Constitution the |' Ancient Landmark " absurdity? Let it be known that we exist alone to‑day as emulators of the chivalric virtues, the charitable deeds, the unexampled bravery, Christian heroism, and ennobling self‑sacrifice of the ancient Templars ; and that, so far as we follow ICreigh, Vol. II. p. gxb.