The Temple at London--The vast possessions of
the Templars in England--The territorial divisions of the order--The different
preceptories in this country--The privileges conferred on the Templars by the
kings of England--The Masters of the Temple at London--Their power and
Li fiere, li Mestre du Temple
Questoient rempli et ample
Dor et dargent et de richesse,
Et qui menoient tel noblesse,
Ou sont-il? que sont devenu?
Que tant ont de plait maintenu,
Que nul a elz ne sozoit prendre
Tozjors achetoient sans vendre
Nul riche a elz nestoit de prise;
Tant va pot a eue quil brise.
Chron. à la suite du Roman de Favel.
THE Knights Templars first established
the chief house of their order in England, without Holborn Bars, on the south
side of the street, where Southampton House formerly stood, adjoining to which
Southampton Buildings were afterwards erected; *
and it is stated, that about a century and a half ago, part of the
ancient chapel annexed to this
establishment, of a circular form, and built of Caen stone, was discovered on
pulling down some old houses near Southampton Buildings in Chancery Lane. *
This first house of the Temple, established by Hugh de Payens himself, before
his departure from England, on his return to Palestine, was adapted to the
wants and necessities of the order in its infant state, when the knights,
instead of lingering in the preceptories of Europe, proceeded at once to
Palestine, and when all the resources of the society were strictly and
faithfully forwarded to Jerusalem, to be expended in defence of the faith; but
when the order had greatly increased in numbers, power, and wealth, and had
somewhat departed from its original purity and simplicity, we find that the
superior and the knights resident in London began to look abroad for a more
extensive and commodious place of habitation. They purchased a large space of
ground, extending from the White Friars westward to Essex House without Temple
Bar, and commenced the erection of a convent on a scale of grandeur
commensurate with the dignity and importance of the chief house of the great
religio-military society of the Temple in Britain. It was called the New
Temple, to distinguish it from the original establishment at Holborn, which
came thenceforth to be known by the name of the Old Temple.
This New Temple was adapted for the residence
of numerous military monks and novices, serving brothers, retainers, and
domestics. It contained the residence of the superior and of the
knights, the cells and apartments of the
chaplains and serving brethren, the council chamber where the chapters were
held, and the refectory or dining-hall, which was connected, by a range of
handsome cloisters, with the magnificent church, consecrated by the patriarch.
Alongside the river extended a spacious pleasure ground for the recreation of
the brethren, who were not permitted to go into the town without the leave of
the Master. It was used also for military exercises and the training of the
The year of the consecration of the
Temple Church, Geoffrey, the superior of the order in England, caused an
inquisition to be made of the lands of the Templars in this country, and the
names of the donors thereof, *
from which it appears, that the larger territorial divisions of the order were
then called bailiwicks, the principal of which were London, Warwic, Couele,
Meritune, Gutinge, Westune, Lincolnscire, Lindeseie, Widine, and Eboracisire,
(Yorkshire.) The number of manors, farms, churches, advowsons, demesne lands,
villages, hamlets, windmills, and watermills, rents of assize, rights of
common and free warren, and the amount of all kinds of property, possessed by
the Templars in England at the period of the taking of this inquisition, are
astonishing. Upon the great estates belonging to the order, prioral houses had
been erected, wherein dwelt the procurators or stewards charged with the
management of the manors and farms in their neighbourhood, and with the
collection of the rents. These prioral houses became regular monastic
establishments, inhabited chiefly by sick and aged Templars, who retired to
them to spend
the remainder of their days, after a long
period of honourable service against the infidels in Palestine. They were
cells to the principal house at London. There were also under them certain
smaller administrations established for the management of the farms,
consisting of a Knight Templar, to whom were associated some serving brothers
of the order, and a priest who acted as almoner. The commissions or mandates
directed by the Masters of the Temple to the officers at the head of these
establishments, were called precepts, from the commencement of them, "Prĉcipimus
tibi," we enjoin or direct you, &c. &c. The knights to whom they were
addressed were styled Prĉceptores Templi, or Preceptors of the Temple,
and the districts administered by them Prĉceptoria, or preceptories.
It will now be as well to take a general
survey of the possessions and organization of the order both in Europe and
Asia, "whose circumstances," saith William archbishop of Tyre, writing from
Jerusalem about the period of the consecration at London of the Temple Church,
"are in so flourishing a state, that at this day they have in their convent
(the Temple on Mount Moriah) more than three hundred knights robed in the
white habit, besides serving brothers innumerable. Their possessions indeed
beyond sea, as well as in these parts, are said to be so vast, that there
cannot now be a province in Christendom which does not contribute to the
support of the aforesaid brethren, whose wealth is said to equal that of
sovereign princes." *
The eastern provinces of the order were, 1.
Palestine, the ruling province. 2. The principality of Antioch. 3. The
principality of Tripoli.
1. PALESTINE.--Some account has already been
given of the Temple at Jerusalem, the chief house of the order, and the
residence of the Master. In addition to the strong garrison there maintained,
the Templars possessed numerous forces, distributed in various fortresses and
strongholds, for the preservation and protection of the holy territory.
The following castles and cities of Palestine
are enumerated by the historians of the Latin kingdom, as having belonged to
the order of the Temple.
The fortified city of Gaza, the key of the
kingdom of Jerusalem on the side next Egypt, anciently one of the five
satrapies of the Lords of the Philistines, and the stronghold of Cambyses when
he invaded Egypt.
"Placed where Judea's utmost bounds extend,
Towards fair Pelusium, Gaza's towers ascend.
Fast by the breezy shore the city stands
Amid unbounded plains of barren sands,
Which high in air the furious whirlwinds sweep,
Like mountain billows on the stormy deep,
That scarce the affrighted traveller, spent with toil,
Escapes the tempest of the unstable soil."
It was granted to the Templars, in
perpetual sovereignty, by Baldwin king of Jerusalem.
The Castle of Saphet, in the territory of the
ancient tribe of Naphtali; the great bulwark of the northern frontier of the
Latin kingdom on the side next Damascus. The Castle of the Pilgrims, in the
neighbourhood of Mount Carmel. The Castle of Assur near Jaffa, and the House
of the Temple at Jaffa. The fortress of Faba, or La Feue, the ancient Aphek,
not far from
[paragraph continues] Tyre, in the territory of
the ancient tribe of Asher. The hill-fort Dok, between Bethel and Jericho. The
castles of La Cave, Marie, Citern Rouge, Castel Blanc, Trapesach, Sommelleria
of the Temple, in the neighbourhood of Acca, now St. John dAcre. Castrum
Planorum, and a place called Gerinum Parvum. *
The Templars purchased the castle of Beaufort and the city of Sidon;
they also got into their hands a great part of the town of St. Jean dAcre,
where they erected their famous temple, and almost all Palestine was in the
end divided between them and the Hospitallers of Saint John.
2. THE PRINCIPALITY OF ANTIOCH.--The principal
houses of the Temple in this province were at Antioch itself, at Aleppo, Haram,
3. THE PRINCIPALITY OF TRIPOLI.--The chief
establishments herein were at Tripoli, at Tortosa, the ancient Antaradus;
Castel-blanc in the same neighbourhood; Laodicea and Beyrout,--all under the
immediate superintendence of the Preceptor of Tripoli. Besides these castles,
houses, and fortresses, the Templars possessed farms and large tracts of land,
both in Syria and Palestine.
The western nations or provinces, on the other
hand, from whence the order derived its chief power and wealth, were,
1. APULIA AND SICILY, the principal houses
whereof were at Palermo, Syracuse, Lentini, Butera, and Trapani. The house of
the Temple at this last place has been appropriated to the use of some monks
of the order of St. Augustin. In a church of the city is still to be seen the
celebrated statue of the Virgin, which Brother Guerrege and three other
Knights Templars brought
from the East, with a view of placing it
in the Temple Church on the Aventine hill in Rome, but which they were obliged
to deposit in the island of Sicily. This celebrated statue is of the most
beautiful white marble, and represents the Virgin with the infant Jesus
reclining on her left arm; it is of about the natural height, and, from an
inscription on the foot of the figure, it appears to have been executed by a
native of the island of Cyprus, A.D. 733. *
The Templars possessed valuable estates
in Sicily, around the base of Mount Etna, and large tracts of land between
Piazza and Calatagirone, in the suburbs of which last place there was a Temple
house, the church whereof, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, still remains. They
possessed also many churches in the island, windmills, rights of fishery, of
pasturage, of cutting wood in the forests, and many important privileges and
immunities. The chief house was at Messina, where the Grand Prior resided.
2. UPPER AND CENTRAL ITALY.--The houses or
preceptories of the order of the Temple in this province were very numerous,
and were all under the immediate superintendence of the Grand Prior or
Preceptor of Rome. There were large establishments at Lucca, Milan, and
Perugia, at which last place the arms of the Temple are still to be seen on
the tower of the holy cross. At Placentia there was a magnificent and
extensive convent, called Santa Maria del Tempio, ornamented with a very lofty
tower. At Bologna there was also a large Temple house, and on a clock in the
city is the following inscription, "Magister Tosseolus de Miolâ me fecit .
. . Fr. Petrus de Bon, Procur. Militiĉ Templi in curiâ Romanâ, MCCCIII."
In the church of St. Mary in the same place, which formerly belonged to the
is the interesting marble monument of Peter de
Rotis, a priest of the order. He is represented on his tomb, holding a chalice
in his hands with the host elevated above it, and beneath the monumental
effigy is the following epitaph
Stirpe Rotis, Petrus, virtutis munere clarus,
Strennus ecce pugil Christi, jacet ordine charus;
Veste ferens, menteque crucem, nunc sidera scandit,
Exemplum nobis spectandi cĉlica pandit:
Annis ter trinis viginti mille trecentis
Sexta quarte maii fregit lux organ mentis."
PORTUGAL.--In the province or nation of
Portugal, the military power and resources of the order of the Temple were
exercised in almost constant warfare against the Moors, and Europe derived
essential advantage from the enthusiastic exertions of the warlike monks in
that quarter against the infidels. In every battle, indeed, fought in the
south of Europe, after the year 1130, against the enemies of the cross, the
Knights Templars are to be found taking an active and distinguished part, and
in all the conflicts against the infidels, both in the west and in the east,
they were ever in the foremost rank, battling nobly in defence of the
christian faith. With all the princes and sovereigns of the great Spanish
peninsula they were extremely popular, and they were endowed with cities,
villages, lordships, and splendid domains. Many of the most important
fortresses and castles in the land were entrusted to their safe keeping, and
some were yielded to them in perpetual sovereignty. They possessed, in
Portugal, the castles of Monsento, Idanha, and Tomar; the citadel of Langrovia
in the province of Beira, on the banks of the Riopisco; and the fortress of
Miravel in Estremadura, taken from the Moors, a strong place perched on the
summit of a lofty eminence.
[paragraph continues] They had large
estates at Castromarin, Almural, and Tavira in Algarve, and houses, rents,
revenues, and possessions, in all parts of the country. The Grand Prior or
Preceptor of Portugal resided at the castle of Tomar. It is seated on the
river Narboan in Estremadura, and is still to be seen towering in gloomy
magnificence on the hill above the town. The castle at present belongs to the
order of Christ, and was lately one of the grandest and richest establishments
in Portugal. It possessed a splendid library, and a handsome cloister, the
architecture of which was much admired. *
CASTILE AND LEON. The houses or
preceptories of the Temple most known in this province or nation of the order
were those of Cuenca and Guadalfagiara, Tine and Aviles in the diocese of
Oviedo, and Pontevreda in Galicia. In Castile alone the order is said to have
possessed twenty-four bailiwicks.
ARAGON.--The sovereigns of Aragon, who
had suffered grievously from the incursions of the Moors, were the first of
the European princes to recognize the utility of the order of the Temple. They
endowed the fraternity with vast revenues, and ceded to them some of the
strongest fortresses in the kingdom. The Knights Templars possessed in Aragon
the castles of Dumbel, Cabanos, Azuda, Granena, Chalonere, Remolins, Corbins,
Lo Mas de Barbaran, Moncon, and Montgausi, with their territories and
dependencies. They were lords of the cities of Borgia and Tortosa; they had a
tenth part of the revenues of the kingdom, the taxes of the towns of Huesca
and Saragossa, and houses, possessions, privileges, and immunities in all
The Templars likewise possessed lands and
estates in the Balearic Isles, which were under the management of the Prior or
Preceptor of the island of Majorca, who was subject to the Grand Preceptor of
GERMANY AND HUNGARY.--The houses most
known in this territorial division of the order are those in the electorate of
Mayence, at Homburg, Assenheim, Rotgen in the Rhingau, Mongberg in the Marché
of Brandenbourg, Nuitz on the Rhine, Tissia Altmunmunster near Ratisbon in
Bavaria, Bamberg, Middlebourg, Hall, Brunswick, &c. &c. The Templars possessed
the fiefs of Rorich, Pausin and Wildenheuh in Pomerania, an
establishment at Bach in Hungary, several lordships in Bohemia
and Moravia, and lands, tithes, and large revenues, the gifts of pious
German crusaders. *
GREECE.--The Templars were possessed of
lands and had establishments in the Morea, and in several parts of the Greek
empire. Their chief house was at Constantinople, in the quarter called Ὀμόνοια,
where they had an oratory dedicated to the holy martyrs Marin and Pentaleon.
FRANCE.--The principal preceptories and
houses of the Temple, in the present kingdom of France, were at Besancon,
Dole, Salins, à la Romagne, à la ville Dieu, Arbois in Franche Comté.
Bomgarten, Temple Savigné near Corbeil,
Dorlesheim near Molsheim, where there still remains a chapel called Templehoff,
Ribauvillier, and a Temple house in the plain near Bercheim in Alsace.
Bures, Voulaine les Templiers, Ville-sous-Gevrey,
otherwise St. Philibert, Dijon, Fauverney, where a chapel dedicated to the
Virgin still preserves the name of the Temple, Des Feuilles, situate in the
parish of Villett, near the chateau de Vernay, St. Martin, Le Chastel,
Espesses, Tessones near Bourges, and La Musse, situate between Baujé and Macon
in Burgundy. *
Montpelier, Sertelage, Nogarade near
Pamiers, Falgairas, Narbonne St. Eulalie de Bezieres, Prugnanas, and the
parish church of St. Martin dUbertas in Languedoc.
Temple Cahor, Temple Marigny, Arras, Le
Parc, St. Vaubourg, and Rouen, in Normandy. There were two houses of
the Temple at Rouen; one of them occupied the site of the present maison
consulaire, and the other stood in the street now called La Rue des
Hermites. The preceptories and houses of the Temple
in France, indeed, were so numerous, that it would be a wearisome and endless
task to repeat the names of them. Hundreds of places in the different
provinces are mentioned by French writers as having belonged to the Templars.
Between Joinville and St. Dizier may still be seen the remains of Temple Ruet,
an old chateau surrounded by a moat; and in the diocese of Meaux are the ruins
of the great manorial house of Choisy le Temple. Many interesting tombs are
there visible, together with the refectory of the knights, which has been
converted into a sheepfold.
The chief house of the order for France, and
also for Holland and the Netherlands, was the Temple at Paris, an extensive
magnificent structure, surrounded by a
wall and a ditch. It extended over all that large space of ground, now covered
with streets and buildings, which lies between the rue du Temple, the rue St.
Croix, and the environs de la Verrerie, as far as the walls and the fossés of
the port du Temple. It was ornamented with a great tower, flanked by four
smaller towers, erected by the Knight Templar Brother Herbert, almoner to the
king of France, and was one of the strongest edifices in the kingdom. *
Many of the modern streets of Paris which now traverse the site of this
interesting structure, preserve in the names given to them some memorial of
the ancient Temple. For instance, La rue du Temple, La rue des fossés du
Temple, Boulevard du Temple, Faubourg du Temple, rue de Faubourg du Temple,
Vieille rue du Temple, &c. &c.
All the houses of the Temple in Holland and the
Netherlands were under the immediate jurisdiction of the Master of the Temple
at Paris. The preceptories in these kingdoms were very numerous, and the
property dependent upon them was of great value. Those most known are the
preceptories of Treves and Dietrich on the Soure, the ruins of which last
still remain; Coberne, on the left bank of the Moselle, a few miles from
Coblentz; Belisch, Temple Spelé, Temple Rodt near Vianden, and the Temple at
Luxembourg, where in the time of Broverus there existed considerable remains
of the refectory, of the church, and of some stone walls covered with
paintings; Templehuis near Ghent, the preceptory of Alphen, Braëckel, la
maison de Slipes near Ostend, founded by the counts of Flanders; Temple
Caestre near Mount Cassel; Villiers le Temple en Condros, between Liege and
Huy; Vaillenpont, Walsberge, Haut Avenes near Arras; Temploux near Fleuru in
the department of Namur; Vernoi in
[paragraph continues] Hainault; Temple Dieu at
Douai; Maries near Valenciennes; St. Symphonier near Mons, &c. &c.
In these countries, as well as in all parts of
Europe wherever they were settled, the Templars possessed vast privileges and
immunities, which were conceded to them by popes, kings, and princes.
ENGLAND: There were in bygone times the
following preceptories of Knight Templars in the present kingdom of England.
Aslakeby, Temple Bruere, Egle, Malteby, Mere,
Wilketon, and Witham, in Lincolnshire.
North Feriby, Temple Hurst, Temple Newsom,
Pafflete, Flaxflete, and Ribstane, in Yorkshire.
Temple Cumbe in Somersetshire.
Ewell, Strode and Swingfield, near Dover, in
Hadescoe, in Norfolk.
Balsall and Warwick, in Warwickshire.
Temple Rothley, in Leicestershire.
Wilburgham Magna, Daney, and Dokesworth, in
Halston, in Shropshire.
Temple Dynnesley, in Hertfordshire.
Temple Cressing and Sutton, in Essex.
Saddlescomb and Chapelay, in Sussex.
Schepeley, in Surrey.
Temple Cowley, Sandford, Bistelesham, and
Chalesey, in Oxfordshire.
Temple Rockley, in Wiltshire.
Upleden and Garwy, in Herefordshire.
South Badeisley, in Hampshire.
Getinges, in Worcestershire.
Giselingham and Dunwich, in Suffolk. *
There were also several smaller
administrations established, as before mentioned, for the management of the
farms and lands, and the collection of rent and tithes. Among these were
Liddele and Quiely in the diocese of Chichester; Eken in the diocese of
Lincoln; Adingdon, Wesdall, Aupledina, Cotona, &c. The different preceptors of
the Temple in England had under their management lands and property in every
county of the realm.
In Leicestershire the Templars
possessed the town and the soke of Rotheley; the manors of Rolle, Babbegrave,
Gaddesby, Stonesby, and Melton; Rothely wood, near Leicester; the villages of
Beaumont, Baresby, Dalby, North and South Mardefeld, Saxby, Stonesby, and
Waldon, with land in above eighty others! They had also the churches of
Rotheley, Babbegrave, and Rolle; and the chapels of Gaddesby, Grimston,
Wartnaby, Cawdwell, and Wykeham.
In Hertfordshire they possessed the town
and forest of Broxbourne, the manor of Chelsin Templars, (Chelsin
Templariorum,) and the manors of Laugenok, Broxbourne, Letchworth, and
Temple Dynnesley; demesne lands at Stanho, Preston, Charlton, Walden, Hiche,
Chelles, Levecamp, and Benigho; the church of Broxbourne, two watermills, and
a lock on the river Lea: also property at Hichen, Pyrton, Ickilford, Offeley
Magna, Offeley Parva, Walden Regis, Furnivale, Ipolitz, Wandsmyll,
[paragraph continues] Watton, Therleton, Weston,
Gravele, Wilien, Leccheworth, Baldock, Datheworth, Russenden, Codpeth,
Sumershale, Buntynford, &c. &c., and the church of Weston. *
In the county of Essex they had
the manors of Temple Cressynge, Temple Roydon, Temple Sutton, Odewell,
Chingelford, Lideleye, Quarsing, Berwick, and Witham; the church of Roydon,
and houses, lands, and farms, both at Roydon, at Rivenhall, and in the
parishes of Prittlewall and Great and Little Sutton; an old mansion-house and
chapel at Sutton, and an estate called Finchinfelde in the hundred of
In Lincolnshire the Templars
possessed the manors of La Bruere, Roston, Kirkeby, Brauncewell, Carleton,
Akele, with the soke of Lynderby Aslakeby, and the churches of Bruere, Asheby,
Akele, Aslakeby, Donington, Ele, Swinderby, Skarle, &c. There were upwards of
thirty churches in the county which made annual payments to the order of the
Temple, and about forty windmills. The order likewise received rents in
respect of lands at Bracebrig, Brancetone, Scapwic, Timberland, Weleburne,
Diringhton, and a hundred other places; and some of the land in the county was
charged with the annual payment of sums of money towards the keeping of the
lights eternally burning on the altars of the Temple church. William Lord of
Asheby gave to the Templars the perpetual advowson of the church of Asheby in
Lincolnshire, and they in return agreed to find him a priest to sing for ever
twice a week in his chapel of St. Margaret.
In Yorkshire the Templars possessed the
manors of Temple
[paragraph continues] Werreby, Flaxflete, Etton,
South Cave, &c.; the churches of Whitcherche, Kelintune, &c.; numerous
windmills and lands and rents at Nehus, Skelture, Pennel, and more than sixty
other places besides. *
In Warwickshire they possessed the
manors of Barston, Shirburne, Balshale, Wolfhey, Cherlecote, Herbebure,
Stodleye, Fechehampstead, Cobington, Tysho and Warwick; lands at Chelverscoton,
Herdwicke, Morton, Warwick, Hetherburn, Chesterton, Aven, Derset, Stodley,
Napton, and more than thirty other places, the several donors whereof are
specified in Dug-dale's history of Warwickshire (p. 694;) also the churches of
Sireburne, Cardinton, &c., and more than thirteen windmills. In 12 Hen. II.,
William Earl of Warwick built a new church for them at Warwick.
In Kent they had the manors of
Lilleston, Hechewayton, Saunford, Sutton, Dartford, Halgel, Ewell, Cocklescomb,
Strode, Swinkfield Mennes, West Greenwich, and the manor of Lydden, which now
belongs to the archbishop of Canterbury; the advowsons of the churches of West
Greenwich and Kingeswode juxta Waltham; extensive tracts of land in Romney
marsh, and farms and assize rents in all parts of the county.
In Sussex they had the manors of
Saddlescomb and Shipley; lands and tenements at Compton and other places; and
the advowsons of the churches of Shipley, Wodmancote, and Luschwyke.
In Surrey they had the manor farm of
Temple Elfand or
[paragraph continues] Elfante, and an estate at
Merrow in the hundred of Woking. In Gloucestershire, the manors of
Lower Dowdeswell, Pegsworth, Amford, Nishange, and five others which belonged
to them wholly or in part, the church of Down Ammey, and lands in Framton,
Temple Guting, and Little Rissington. In Worcestershire, the manor of
Templars Lawern, and lands in Flavel, Temple Broughton, and Hanbury. *
In Northamptonshire, the manors of Asheby, Thorp, Watervill, &c. &c.;
they had the advowson of the church of the manor of Hardwicke in Orlington
hundred, and we find that "Robert Saunford, Master of the soldiery of the
Temple in England," presented to it in the year 1238. In Nottinghamshire,
the Templars possessed the church of Marnham, lands and rents at Gretton and
North Carleton; in Westmoreland, the manor of Temple Sowerby; in the
Isle of Wight, the manor of Uggeton, and lands in Kerne.
But it would be tedious further to continue with a dry detail of ancient names
and places; sufficient has been said to give an idea of the enormous wealth of
the order in this country, where it is known to have possessed some hundreds
of manors, the advowson or right of presentation to churches innumerable, and
thousands of acres of arable land, pasture, and woodland, besides villages,
farm-houses, mills, and tithes, rights of common, of fishing, of cutting wood
in forests, &c. &c.
There were also several preceptories in
Scotland and Ireland, which were dependent on the Temple at London.
The annual income of the order in Europe has
been roughly estimated at six millions sterling! According to Matthew Paris,
the Templars possessed nine thousand
manors or lordships in Christendom, besides a large revenue and immense riches
arising from the constant charitable bequests and donations of sums of money
from pious persons. *
"They were also endowed," says James of Vitry, bishop of Acre, "with farms,
towns, and villages, to an immense extent both in the East and in the West,
out of the revenues of which they send yearly a certain sum of money for the
defence of the Holy Land to their head Master at the chief house of their
order in Jerusalem." The Templars, in imitation of the
other monastic establishments, obtained from pious and charitable people all
the advowsons within their reach, and frequently retained the tithe and the
glebe in their own hands, deputing a priest of the order to perform divine
service and administer the sacraments.
The manors of the Templars produced them rent
either in money, corn, or cattle, and the usual produce of the soil. By the
custom in some of these manors, the tenants were annually to mow three days in
harvest, one at the charge of the house; and to plough three days, whereof one
at the like charge; to reap one day, at which time they should have a ram from
the house, eight-pence, twenty-four loaves, and a cheese of the best in the
house, together with a pailful of drink. The tenants were not to sell, their
horse-colts, if they were foaled upon the land belonging to the Templars,
without the consent of the fraternity, nor marry their daughters without their
license. There were also various
regulations concerning the cocks and hens
and young chickens.
We have previously given an account of
the royal donations of King Henry the First, of King Stephen and his queen, to
the order of the Temple. These were far surpassed by the pious benefactions of
King Henry the Second. That monarch, for the good of his soul and the welfare
of his kingdom, granted the Templars a place situate on the river Fleet, near
Bainard's Castle, with the whole current of that river at London, for erecting
a mill; also a messuage near Fleet-street; the church
of St. Clement, "quĉ dicitur Dacorum extra civitatem Londoniĉ;" and the
churches of Elle, Swinderby and Skarle in Lincolnshire, Kingeswode juxta
Waltham in Kent, the manor of Stroder in the hundred of Skamele, the vill of
Kele in Staffordshire, the hermitage of Flikeamstede, and all his lands at
Lange Cureway, a house in Brosal, and the market of Witham; lands at Berghotte,
a mill at the bridge of Pembroke Castle, the vill of Finchingfelde, the manor
of Rotheley with its appurtenances, and the advowson of the church and its
several chapels, the manor of Blalcolvesley, the park of Haleshall, and three
fat bucks annually, either from Essex or Windsor Forest. He likewise
granted them an annual
fair at Temple Bruere, and superadded
many rich benefactions in Ireland.
The principal benefactors to the Templars
amongst the nobility were William Marshall, earl of Pembroke, and his sons
William and Gilbert; Robert, lord de Ros; the earl of Hereford; William, earl
of Devon; the king of Scotland; William, archbishop of York; Philip Harcourt,
dean of Lincoln; the earl of Cornwall; Philip, bishop of Bayeux; Simon de
Senlis, earl of Northampton; Leticia and William, count and countess of
Ferrara; Margaret, countess of Warwick; Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester;
Robert de Harecourt, lord of Rosewarden; William de Vernon, earl of Devon, &c.
The Templars, in addition to their amazing
wealth, enjoyed vast privileges and immunities within this realm. In the reign
of King John they were freed from all amerciaments in the Exchequer, and
obtained the privilege of not being compelled to plead except before the king
or his chief justice. King Henry the Third granted them free warren in all
their demesne lands; and by his famous charter, dated the 9th of February, in
the eleventh year of his reign, he confirmed to them all the donations of his
predecessors and of their other benefactors; with soc and sac, tol and theam, infangenethef, and
unfangenethef, and hamsoca, and grithbrich, and blodwite, and flictwite, and
hengewite, and learwite, and flemenefrith, murder, robbery, forestal, ordel,
and oreste; and he acquitted them from the royal and
sheriff's aids, and from hidage, carucage,
danegeld and hornegeld, and from military and wapentake services, scutages,
tallages, lastages, stallages, from shires and hundreds, pleas and quarrels,
from ward and wardpeny, and averpeni, and hundredespeni, and borethalpeni, and
thethingepeni, and from the works of parks, castles, bridges, the building of
royal houses and all other works; and also from waste regard and view of
foresters, and from toll in all markets and fairs, and at all bridges, and
upon all highways throughout the kingdom. And he also gave them the chattels
of felons and fugitives, and all waifs within their fee.
In addition to these particular
privileges, the Templars enjoyed, under the authority of the Papal bulls,
various immunities and advantages, which gave great umbrage to the clergy.
They were freed, as before mentioned, from the obligation of paying tithes,
and might, with the consent of the bishop, receive them. No brother of the
Temple could be excommunicated by any bishop or priest, nor could any of the
churches of the order be laid under interdict except by virtue of a special
mandate from the holy see. When any brother of the Temple, appointed to make
charitable collections for the succour of the Holy Land, should arrive at a
city, castle, or village, which had been laid under interdict, the churches,
on their welcome coming, were to be thrown open, (once within the year,) and
divine service was to be performed in honour of the Temple, and in reverence
for the holy soldiers thereof. The privilege of sanctuary was thrown around
their dwellings; and by various papal bulls it is solemnly enjoined that no
person shall lay violent hands either upon the persons or the property of
those flying for refuge to the Temple houses.
Sir Edward Coke, in the second part of the
Institute of the Laws of England, observes, that "the Templars did so
throughout Christendome, and so
exceedingly increased in possessions, revenues, and wealth, and specially in
England, as you will wonder to reade in approved histories, and withall
obtained so great and large priviledges, liberties, and immunities for
themselves, their tenants, and farmers, &c., as no other order had the like." *
He further observes, that the Knights Templars were cruce signati, and
as the cross was the ensign of their profession, and their tenants enjoyed
great privileges, they did erect crosses upon their houses, to the end that
those inhabiting them might be known to be the tenants of the order, and
thereby be freed from many duties and services which other tenants were
subject unto; "and many tenants of other lords, perceiving the state and
greatnesse of the knights of the said order, and withall seeing the great
priviledges their tenants enjoyed, did set up crosses upon their houses, as
their very tenants used to doe, to the prejudice of their lords."
This abuse led to the passing of the
statute of Westminster, the second, chap. 33,
which recites, that many tenants did set up crosses or cause them to be set up
on their lands in prejudice of their lords, that the tenants might defend
themselves against the chief lord of the fee by the privileges of Templars and
Hospitallers, and enacts that such lands should be forfeited to the chief
lords or tò the king.
Sir Edward Coke observes, that the
Templars were freed from tenths and fifteenths to be paid to the king; that
they were discharged of purveyance; that they could not be sued for any
ecclesiastical cause before the ordinary, sed coram conservatoribus suorum
privilegiorum; and that of ancient time they claimed that a felon might
take to their houses, having their crosses for his safety, as well as to any
church. And concerning these conservers or keepers of
their privileges, he remarks, that the Templars and Hospitaliers "held an
ecclesiasticall court before a
canonist, whom they termed conservator
privilegiorum suorum, which judge had indeed more authority than was
convenient, and did dayly, in respect of the height of these two orders, and
at their instance and direction, incroach upon and hold plea of matters
determinable by the common law, for cui plus licet quam par est, plus vult
quam licet; and this was one great mischiefe. Another mischiefe was, that
this judge, likewise at their instance, in cases wherein he had jurisdiction,
would make general citations as pro salute anima, and the like, without
expressing the matter whereupon the citation was made, which also was against
law, and tended to the grievous vexation of the subject."
To remedy these evils, another act of parliament was passed, prohibiting
Hospitaliers and Templars from bringing any man in plea before the keepers of
their privileges, for any matter the knowledge whereof belonged to the king's
court, and commanding such keepers of their privileges thenceforth to grant no
citations at the instance of Hospitaliers and Templars, before it be expressed
upon what matter the citation ought to be made.
Having given an outline of the great
territorial possessions of the order of the Temple in Europe, it now remains
for us to present a sketch of its organisation and government. The Master of
the Temple, the chief of the entire fraternity, ranked as a sovereign prince,
and had precedence of all ambassadors and peers in the general councils of the
church. He was elected to his high office by the chapter of the kingdom of
Jerusalem, which was composed of all the knights of the East and of the West
who could manage to attend. The Master had his general and particular
chapters. The first were composed of the Grand Priors of the eastern and
western provinces, and of all the knights present in the holy territory. The
assembling of these general chapters,
however, in the distant land of Palestine, was
a useless and almost impracticable undertaking, and it is only on the journeys
of the Master to Europe, that we hear of the convocation of the Grand Priors
of the West to attend upon their chief. The general chapters called together
by the Master in Europe were held at Paris, and the Grand Prior of England
always received a summons to attend. The ordinary business and the government
of the fraternity in secular matters were conducted by the Master with the
assistance of his particular chapter of the Latin kingdom, which was composed
of such of the Grand Priors and chief dignitaries of the Temple as happened to
be present in the East, and such of the knights as were deemed the wisest and
most fit to give counsel. In these last chapters visitors-general were
appointed to examine into the administration of the western provinces.
The western nations or provinces of the order
were presided over by the provincial Masters, otherwise Grand Priors or Grand
Preceptors, who were originally appointed by the chief Master at Jerusalem,
and were in theory mere trustees or bare administrators of the revenues of the
fraternity, accountable to the treasurer general at Jerusalem, and removeable
at the pleasure of the Chief Master. As the numbers, possessions, and wealth
of the Templars, however, increased, various abuses sprang up. The members of
the order, after their admittance to the vows, very frequently, instead of
proceeding direct to Palestine to war against the infidels, settled down upon
their property in Europe, and consumed at home a large proportion of those
revenues which ought to have been faithfully and strictly forwarded to the
general treasury at the Holy City. They erected numerous
convents or preceptories, with churches and
chapels, and raised up in each western province a framework of government
similar to that of the ruling province of Palestine.
The chief house of the Temple in England,
for example, after its removal from Holborn Bars to the banks of the Thames,
was regulated and organised after the model of the house of the Temple at
Jerusalem. The superior is always styled "Master of the Temple," and holds his
chapters and has his officers corresponding to those of the chief Master in
Palestine. The latter, consequently, came to be denominated Magnus Magister,
or Grand Master, *
by our English writers, to distinguish him from the Master at London, and
henceforth he will be described by that title to prevent confusion. The titles
given indeed to the superiors of the different nations or provinces into which
the order of the Temple was divided, are numerous and somewhat perplexing. In
the East, these officers were known only, in the first instance, by the title
of Prior, as Prior of England, Prior of France, Prior of Portugal, &c., and
afterwards Preceptor of England, preceptor of France, &c.; but in Europe they
were called Grand Priors and Grand Preceptors, to distinguish them from the
Sub-priors and Sub-preceptors, and also Masters of the Temple. The Prior and
Preceptor of England, therefore, and the Grand Prior, Grand Preceptor,
and Master of the Temple in England, were one and the same person.
There were also at the New Temple at London, in imitation of the establishment
at the chief house in Palestine, in addition to the Master, the Preceptor of
the Temple, the Prior of London, the Treasurer, and the Guardian of the
church, who had three chaplains under him, called readers.
The Master at London had his general and
particular, or his
ordinary and extraordinary chapters. The first
were composed of the grand preceptors of Scotland and Ireland, and all the
provincial priors and preceptors of the three kingdoms, who were summoned once
a year to deliberate on the state of the Holy Land, to forward succour, to
give an account of their stewardship, and to frame new rules and regulations
for the management of the temporalities. The ordinary chapters were held at
the different preceptories, which the Master of the Temple visited in
succession. In these chapters new members were admitted into the order; lands
were bought, sold, and exchanged; and presentations were made by the Master to
vacant benefices. Many of the grants and other deeds of these chapters, with
the seal of the order of the Temple annexed to them, are to be met with in the
public and private collections of manuscripts in this country. One of the most
interesting and best preserved, is the Harleian charter (83, c. 39,) in the
British Museum, which is a grant of land made by Brother William de la More,
the martyr, the last Master of the Temple in England, to the Lord Milo de
Stapleton. It is expressed to be made by him, with the common consent and
advice of his chapter, held at the Preceptory of Dynneslee, on the feast of
Saint Barnabas the Apostle, and concludes, "In witness whereof, we have to
this present indenture placed the seal of our chapter." A fac-simile of this
seal is given above. On the reverse of it is a man's head, decorated with a
long beard, and surmounted by a small cap, and around it are the letters
TESTISVMAGI. The same seal is to be met with on various other indentures made
by the Master and Chapter of the Temple. The more early seals are surrounded
words, Sigillum Militis Templi,
"Seal of the Knight of the Temple;" as in the case of the deed of exchange of
lands at Normanton in the parish of Botisford, in Leicestershire, entered into
between Brother Amadeus de Morestello, Master of the chivalry of the Temple in
England, and his chapter, of the one part, and the Lord Henry de Colevile,
Knight, of the other part. The seal annexed to this deed has the addition of
the word Militis, but in other respects it is similar to the one above
The Master of the Temple was controlled
by the visitors-general of the order, who were knights
specially deputed by the Grand Master and convent of Jerusalem to visit the
different provinces, to reform abuses, make new regulations, and terminate
such disputes as were usually reserved for the decision of the Grand Master.
These visitors-general sometimes removed knights from their preceptories, and
even suspended the masters themselves, and it was their duty to expedite to
the East all such knights as were young and vigorous, and capable of fighting.
Two regular voyages were undertaken from Europe to Palestine in the course of
the year, under the conduct of the Templars and Hospitaliers, called the
passagium Martis, and the passagium Sancti Johannis, which took
place respectively in the spring and summer, when the newly-admitted knights
left the preceptories of the West, taking with them hired foot soldiers, armed
pilgrims, and large sums of money, the produce of the European possessions of
the fraternity, by which means a continual succour was afforded to the
christian kingdom of Jerusalem. One of the grand priors or grand preceptors
generally took the command of these expeditions, and was frequently
accompanied by many valiant secular
knights, who craved permission to join his
standard, and paid large sums of money for a passage to the far East. In the
interval between these different voyages, the young knights were diligently
employed at the different preceptories in the religious and military exercises
necessary to fit them for their high vocation.
On any sudden emergency, or when the ranks of
the order had been greatly thinned by the casualties of war, the Grand Master
sent circular letters to the grand preceptors or masters of the western
provinces, requiring instant aid and assistance, on the receipt of which
collections were made in the churches, and all the knights that could be
spared forthwith embarked for the Holy Land.
The Master of the Temple in England sat
in parliament as first baron of the realm, (primus baro Angliĉ) but
that is to be understood among priors only. To the parliament holden in the
twenty-ninth year of King Henry the Third, there were summoned sixty-five
abbots, thirty-five priors, and the Master of the Temple. *
The oath taken by the grand priors, grand preceptors, or provincial Masters in
Europe, on their assumption of the duties of their high administrative office,
was drawn up in the following terms:--
"I, A. B., Knight of the Order of the
Temple, just now appointed Master of the knights who are in ------, promise to
Jesus Christ my Saviour, and to his vicar the sovereign pontiff and his
successors, perpetual obedience and fidelity. I swear that I will defend, not
only with my lips, but by force of arms and with all my strength, the
mysteries of the faith; the seven sacraments, the fourteen articles of the
faith, the creed of the Apostles, and that of Saint Athanasius; the books of
the Old and the New Testament, with the commentaries of the holy fathers, as
received by the church; the unity of God, the plurality
of the persons of the holy Trinity; that
Mary, the daughter of Joachim and Anna, of the tribe of Judah, and of the race
of David, remained always a virgin before her delivery, during and after her
delivery. I promise likewise to be submissive and obedient to the
Master-general of the order, in conformity with the statutes prescribed by our
father Saint Bernard; that I will at all times in case of need pass the seas
to go and fight; that I will always afford succour against the infidel kings
and princes; that in the presence of three enemies I will fly not, but cope
with them, if they are infidels; that I will not sell the property of the
order, nor consent that it be sold or alienated; that I will always preserve
chastity; that I will be faithful to the king of ------; that I will never
surrender to the enemy the towns and places belonging to the order; and that I
will never refuse to the religious any succour that I am able to afford them;
that I will aid and defend them by words, by arms, and by all sorts of good
offices; and in sincerity and of my own free will I swear that I will observe
all these things." *
Among the earliest of the Masters, or Grand
Priors, or Grand Preceptors of England, whose names figure in history, is
Richard de Hastings, who was at the head of the order in this country on the
accession of King Henry the Second to the throne, (A.D. 11540 and was employed
by that monarch in various important negotiations. In the year 1160 he greatly
offended the king of France. The Princess Margaret, the
daughter of that monarch, had been
betrothed to Prince Henry, son of Henry the Second, king of England; and in
the treaty of peace entered into between the two sovereigns, it was stipulated
that Gizors and two other places, part of the dowry of the princess, should be
consigned to the custody of the Templars, to be delivered into King Henry's
hands after the celebration of the nuptials. The king of England (A.D. 1160)
caused the prince and princess, both of whom were infants, to be married in
the presence of Richard de Hastings, the Grand Prior or Master of the Temple
in England, and two other Knights Templars, who, immediately after the
conclusion of the ceremony, placed the fortresses in King Henry's hands. *
The king of France was highly indignant at this proceeding, and some writers
accuse the Templars of treachery, but from the copy of the treaty published by
Lord Littleton it does not appear that they acted with
The above Richard de Hastings was the
friend and confidant of Thomas â Becket. During the disputes between that
haughty prelate and the king, the archbishop, we are told, withdrew from the
council chamber, where all his brethren were assembled, and went to consult
with Richard de Hastings, the Prior of the Temple at London, who threw himself
on his knees before him, and with many tears besought him to give in his
adherence to the famous councils of Clarendon.
Richard de Hastings was succeeded by
Richard Mallebeench, who confirmed a treaty of peace and concord which had
been entered into between his predecessor and the abbot of Kirkested; *
and the next Master of the Temple appears to have been Geoffrey son of
Stephen, who received the Patriarch Heraclius as his guest at the new Temple
on the occasion of the consecration of the Temple church, He styles himself "Minister
of the soldiery of the Temple in England."
In consequence of the high estimation in
which the Templars were held, and the privilege of sanctuary enjoyed by them,
the Temple at London came to be made "a storehouse of treasure." The wealth of
the king, the nobles, the bishops, and of the rich burghers of London, was
generally deposited therein, under the safeguard and protection of the
military friars. The money collected in the churches and chapels for the
succour of the Holy Land was also paid into the treasury of the Temple, to be
forwarded to its destination: and the treasurer was at different times
authorised to receive the taxes imposed upon the moveables of the
ecclesiastics, also the large sums of money extorted by the rapacious popes
from the English clergy, and the annuities granted by the king to the nobles
of the kingdom. The money and jewels of Hubert de
Burgh, earl of Kent, the chief justiciary, and at one time governor of the
king and kingdom of
[paragraph continues] England, were deposited in
the Temple, and when that nobleman was disgraced and committed to the Tower,
the king attempted to lay hold of the treasure.
Matthew Paris gives the following curious
account of the affair:
"It was suggested," says he, "to the king, that
Hubert had no small amount of treasure deposited in the New Temple, under the
custody of the Templars. The king, accordingly, summoning to his presence the
Master of the Temple, briefly demanded of him if it was so. He indeed, not
daring to deny the truth to the king, confessed that he had money of the said
Hubert, which had been confidentially committed to the keeping of himself and
his brethren, but of the quantity and amount thereof he was altogether
ignorant. Then the king endeavoured with threats to obtain from the brethren
the surrender to him of the aforesaid money, asserting that it had been
fraudulently subtracted from his treasury. But they answered to the king, that
money confided to them in trust they would deliver to no man without the
permission of him who had intrusted it to be kept in the Temple. And the king,
since the above-mentioned money had been placed under their protection,
ventured not to take it by force. He sent, therefore, the treasurer of his
court, with his justices of the Exchequer, to Hubert, who had already been
placed in fetters in the Tower of London, that they might exact from him an
assignment of the entire sum to the king. But when these messengers had
explained to Hubert the object of their coining, he immediately answered that
he would submit himself and all belonging to him to the good pleasure of his
sovereign. He therefore petitioned the brethren of the chivalry of the Temple
that they would, in his behalf, present all his keys to his lord the king,
that he might do what he pleased with the things deposited in the Temple. This
being done, the king ordered all that money,
faithfully counted, to be placed in his
treasury, and the amount of all the things found to be reduced into writing
and exhibited before him. The king's clerks, indeed, and the treasurer acting
with them, found deposited in the Temple gold and silver vases of inestimable
price, and money and many precious gems, an enumeration whereof would in truth
astonish the hearers."
The kings of England frequently resided
in the Temple, and so also did the haughty legates of the Roman pontiffs, who
there made contributions in the name of the pope upon the English bishoprics.
Matthew Paris gives a lively account of the exactions of the nuncio Martin,
who resided for many years at the Temple, and came there armed by the pope
with powers such as no legate had ever before possessed. "He made," says he,
"whilst residing at London in the New Temple, unheard of extortions of money
and valuables. He imperiously intimated to the abbots and priors that they
must send him rich presents, desirable palfreys, sumptuous services for the
table, and rich clothing; which being done, that same Martin sent back word
that the things sent were insufficient, and he commanded the givers thereof to
forward him better things, on pain of suspension and excommunication."
The convocations of the clergy and the
great ecclesiastical councils were frequently held at the Temple, and laws
were there made by the bishops and abbots for the government of the church and
monasteries in England.
81 Stowe's Survey; Tanner, Notit.
Monast.; Dugd. Orig. Jurid.
82 Herbert, Antiq. Inns of Court.
82 "Yea, and a part of that too," says Sir
William Dugdale, in his origins juridiciales, as appears from the first
grant thereof to Sir William Paget, Knight, Pat. ii. Edward VI. p. 2.
82 We read on many old charters and deeds,
"Datum apud vetus Templum Londoniĉ." See an example, Nichols'
Leicestershire, vol. iii. p. 959; see also the account, in Matt. Par.
and Hoveden, of the king's visit to Hugh bishop of Lincoln, who lay sick of a
fever at the Old Temple, and died there, the 16th November, A.D. 1200.
83 Anno ab incarnatione Domini MCLXXXV. facta
est ista inquisitio de terrarum donatoribus, et earum possessoribus,
ecclesiarum scil. et molendinorum, et terrarum assisarum, et in dominico
habitarum, et de redditibus assisis per Angliam, per fratrem Galfridum filium
Stephani, quando ipse suscepit balliam de Anglia, qui summo studio prĉdicta
inquirendo curam sollicitam exhibuit, ut majoris notitiĉ posteris expressionem
generaret, et pervicacibus omnimodam nocendi rescinderet facultatem. Ex. cod.
MS. in Scacc. penes Remor. Regis. fol. i. a.; Dugd. Monast. Angl. vol. vi.
part ii. p. 820.
84 Quorum res adeo crevit in immensum, ut hodie,
trecentos in conventu habeant equites, albïs chlamydibus indutos: exceptis
fratribus, quorum pene infinitus est numerus. Possessions autem, tam ultra
quam citra mare, adeo dicuntur immensas habere, ut jam non sit in orbe
christiano provincia quĉ prĉdictis fratribus suorum portionem non contulerit,
et regiis opulentiis pares hodie dicuntur habere copias.--Will. Tyr.
lib. xii. cap. 7.
85 Dominus Baldwinus illustris memoriĉ,
Hierosolymorum rex quartos, Gazam munitissimam fratribus militiĉ Templi
donavit, Will. Tyr. lib. xx. cap. 21. Milites Templi Gazam antiquam
Palĉstinĉ civitatem reĉdificant, et turribus eam muniunt, Rob. de Monte,
appen. ad chron. Sig. p. 631.
86 Marin. Sanut, p. 221. Bernard
Thesaur. p. 768. Radulph Coggleshale, p. 249. Hoveden, p. 636.
Radulph de Diceto, ut sup. p. 623. Matt. Par. p. 142. Italia sacra,
tom. iii. p. 407.
86 Tunc Julianus Dominus Sydonis vendidit
Sydonem et Belfort Templariis, Marin. Sanut, cap. vi. p. 221.
87 Atlas Marianus, p. 156; Siciliĉ Antiq.,
tom. iii. col. 1000.
87 Gallia christiana nova, tom. iii. col. 118;
Probat. tom. ix. col. 1067, tom. x. col. 1292, tom. xi. col. 46; Roccus
Pyrrhus, Sicil. Antiq. tom. iii. col. 1093, 4, 5, 6, 7, &c.
88 Petrus Maria Campus Hist. Placent.
part ii. n. 28; Pauli M. Paciandi de cultu S. Johannis Bapt. Antiq. p.
89 Description et delices dEspagne, tom. iii.
p. 259; Hist. Portugal, La Clede, tom. i. p. 200, 202, &c.; Hispania
illustrata, tom. iii. p. 49.
89 Annales Minorum, tom. v. p. 247; tom. vi. p.
211, 218; tom. viii. p. 26, 27; tom. ix. p.130, 141.--Campomanes.
89 Marcĉ Hispanicĉ, col. 1291, 1292, 1304.
Gall. christ. nov. tom. i. col. 195. Mariana, de. reb. Hisp. lib. ii.
90 Script. rer. Germ. tom. ii. col. 584.
Annales Minorum, tom. vi. p. 5, 95, 177. Suevia and Vertenbergia sacra, p. 74.
Annal. Bamb. p. 186. Notitiĉ episcopatûs Middelb. p. 11. Scrip. de rebus
Marchiĉ Brandeburg, p.13. Aventinus annal. lib. vii. cap. 1. n. 7.
Gall. christ. nov. tom. viii. col. 1382; tom. i. col. 1129.
90 Constantinopolis christiana, lib. iv. p.
90 Hist. de lEglise de Besancon, tom. ii. p.
397, 421, 450, 474, 445, 470, 509, &c.
91 Hist. de lEglise de St. Etienne à Dijon, p.
133, 137, 205. Hist. de Bresse, tom. 1. p. 52, 55, 84.
91 Hist. gen. de Languedoc, liv. ii. p. 523;
liv. xvi., p. 362; liv. xvii. p. 427; liv. xxii. p. 25, 226. Gall. christ.
tom. vi. col. 727. Martene Thesaur. anecd. tom. i. col. 57.5.
91 Gall. christ. nov. tom. i. p. 32; tom. iii.
col. 333; tom. ii. col. 46, 47, and 72. La Martiniere dict. geogr.
Martene, ampl. collect. tom. vi. col. 226. Gloss. nov. tom iii. col. 223.
92 Histoire de la ville de Paris, tom. i. p.
174. Gall. christ. nov. tom. vii, col. 853.
93 Annales Trevir. tom. ii. p. 91; 197, 479.
Prodromes hist. Trevir. p. 1077. Bertholet hist. de Luxembourg,
tom. v. p. 145. Joh. Bapt. Antiq. Flandriĉ Gandavum, p. 24, 207. Antiq.
Bredanĉ, p. 12, 23. Austroburgus, p. 115. Aub. Mirĉi Diplomat.
tom. ii. p. 1165, &c.
94 Dugd. Monast. Angl. vol. vi. part 2,
p. 800 to 817. Concilia Magnĉ Britanniĉ, tom. iii. p. 333 to 382. Acta
Rymeri, tom. iii. p. 279, 288, 291, 295, &c.
94 Acta Rymeri, tom. iii. p. 279, 288,
291, 297, &c.
94 Nichols hist. of Leicestershire.
95 Clutterbuck's hist. Hertfordshire.
Chauncey, antiq. Hert. Acta Rymeri, tom. iii. p. 133134.
Dodsworth, M. S. vol. xxxv.
95 Morant's hist. Essex, Rymeri
tom. iii. p. 290 to 294.
95 Redditus omnium ecclesiarum et molendinorum
et terrarum de bailliâ de Lincolnscire. Inquis. terrar. ut sup. fol. 41 b to
48 b and 49 a. Peck's MS. in Museo Britannico, vol. iv. fol. 95 et seq.
95 Peck's MS. ut sup. fol. 95.
96 Inquis. terrar. ut sup. fol. 12 a to
23 a. Dodsworth MS. vol. xx. p. 65, 67, ex quodam rotulo tangente terras
Templariorum. Rot. 42, 46, p. 964. Dugd. Baron. tom. i. p. 70.
96 Monast. Angl. ut sup. p. 840. Hasted.
96 Ex cod. MS. in officio armorum, L. xvii.
fol. 141 a. Calendarium Inquis. post mortem, p. 13. 18.
97 Manning's Surrey. Atkyn's
Gloucestershire; and see the references in Tanner Nash's
97 Bridge's Northamptonshire, vol. ii.
97 Thoroton's Nottinghamshire. Burn
and Nicholson's Westmoreland. Worsley's Isle of Wight.
98 Habuerunt insuper Templarii in
Christianitate novem millia maneriorum . . . . prĉter emolumenta et
varios proventus ex fraternitatibus et prĉdicationibus provenientes, et per
privilegia sua accrescentes. Mat. Par. p. 615, ed. Lond. 1640.
98 Amplis autem possessionibus tam citra mare
quam ultra ditati sunt in immensum, villas, civitates et oppida, ex quibus
certain pecuniĉ summam, pro defensione Terrĉ Sanctĉ, summo eorum magistro
cujus sedes principalis erat in Jerusalem, mittunt annuatim.--Jac. de Vitr.
Hist. Hierosol. p. 1084.
99 Masculum pullum, si natus sit super terram
domus, vendere non possunt sine licentiâ fratrum. Si filiam habent, dare non
possunt sine licentiâ fratrum. Inquisitio terrarum, ut supr. fol. 18 a.
99 The Templars, by diverting the water,
created a great nuisance. In A.D. 1290, the Prior et fratres de Carmelo
(the white friars) complained to the king in parliament of the putrid
exhalations arising from the Fleet river, which were so powerful as to
overcome all the frankincense burnt at their altar during divine service, and
had occasioned the deaths of many of their brethren. They beg that the stench
may be removed, lest they also should perish. The Friars preachers (black
friars) and the bishop of Salisbury (whose house stood in Salisbury-court)
made a similar complaint; as did also Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, who alleges
that the Templars (ipsi de novo Templo) had turned off the water of the
river to their mills at Castle Baignard.--Rot. Parl. vol. i. p. 60,
100 Ex cod. MS. in officio armorum, L. xvii.
fol. 141 a. Dugd. Monast. Angl. ut sup. p. 838. Tanner, Notit. Monast.
100 Dugd. Baronage. Monast. Angl. p. 800 to
100 Power to hold courts;
100 to impose and levy fines and amerciaments
upon their tenants;
100 to buy and sell, or to hold a kind of
100 to judge and punish their villains and
100 to try thieves and malefactors belonging to
their manors, and taken within the precincts thereof;
100 to judge foreign thieves taken within the
said manors. &c.
101 Cart. 11. Hen. 3. M. 33. Dugd. Monast.
101 Acta Rymeri, tom i. p. 54, 298, 574,
102 Page 431.
102 13 Edward I.
102 2 Inst. p. 432.
103 2 Inst. p. 465.
103 Stat. Westr. 2, cap. 43, 13 Ed. I.
104 The title Master of the Temple was so
generally applied to the superiors of the western provinces, that we find in
the Greek of the lower empire, the words Τέμπλου Μαιστὼρ. Ducange.
105 Also summus magister, magister generals.
105 Concil. Mag. Brit. tom. ii. p. 335,
339, 340. Monast. Angl. p. 818.
106 Concil. Mag. Brit. tom. ii. p. 355,
106 In cujus rei testimonium huic prĉsenti
scripto indentato sigillum capituli nostri apposuimus.
106 MS. apud Belvoir. Peck's MS. in
Museo Britannico, vol. iv. p. 65.
107 Nicholl's Hist. Leicestershire, vol.
iii. pl. cxxvii. dg. 947, p. 943.; vol. ii. pl. v. fig. 13.
107 Two of these visitors-general have been
buried in the Temple Church.
108 Rot. claus. 49. H. III. m. xi. d. Acta
Rymeri, tom. iii. p. 802.
109 Lhistoire des Cisteaux, Chrisost.
Henriques, p. 479.
109 Ricardus de Hastinges, Magister omnium
militum et fratrum Templi qui sunt in Angliâ, salutem. Notum vobis facimus
quod omnis controversia quĉ fuit inter nos et monachos de Kirkested . . . .
terminata et finita est assensu et consilio nostro et militum et fratrum, &c.,
anno ab incarnatione Domini 1155, 11 die kal. Feb. The archbishop of
Canterbury, the papal legate, the bishop of Lincoln, and several abbots, are
witnesses to this instrument.--Lansdown MS. 207 E, fol. 467, p. 162,
163; see also p. 319, where he is mentioned as Master, A.D. 1161.
110 Et paulo post rex Angliĉ fecit Henricum
filium suum desponsare Margaritam filiam regis Franciĉ, cum adhuc essent
pueruli in cunis vagientes; videntibus et consentientibus Roberto de Pirou et
Toster de Sancto Homero et Ricardo de Hastinges, Templariis, qui custodiebant
prĉfata castella, et statim tradiderunt ilia castella regi Angliĉ, unde rex
Franciĉ plurimum iratus fugavit illos tres Templarios de regno Franciĉ, quos
rex Angliĉ benigne suscipiens, multis ditavit honoribus.--Rog. Hoveden,
script. post Bedam, p. 492. Guilielmei Neubrigiensis hist. lib. ii.
cap. 4, apud Hearne.
110 Life of Henry II. tom. iv. p. 203.
110 Ib. tom. ii. p. 356. Hist. quad. p. 38.
Hoveden, 453. Chron. Gervasii, p. 1386, apud X script.
111 Ricardus Mallebeench, magister
omnium pauperum militum et fratrum Templi Salomonis in Angliâ, &c. . . .
Confirmavimus pacem et concordiam quam Ricardus de Hastings fecit cum Waltero
abbate de Kirkested.--Lansdown MS. 207 E., fol. 467.
1111 Gaufridus, filius Stephan, militiĉ Templi
in Angliâ Minister, assensu totius capituli nostri dedi, &c., totum
illud tenementum in villâ de Scamtrun quod Emma uxor Walteri Camerarii tenet
de domo nostrâ, &c. Ib. fol. 201.
111 The money is ordered to be paid "dilecto
filio nostro Thesaurario domus militiĉ Templi Londonien." Acta Rymeri,
tom. i. p. 442, 4, 5. Wilkins Concilia, tom. ii. p. 230.
113 Matt. Par. p. 381.
113 Matt. Par. p. 253, 645.
113 Wilkins, Concilia Magnĉ Britanniĉ,
tom. ii. p. 19, 26, 93, 239, 253, 272, 292.