Note:  This material was scanned into text files for the sole purpose of convenient electronic research. This material is NOT intended as a reproduction of the original volumes. However close the material is to becoming a reproduced work, it should ONLY be regarded as a textual reference.  Scanned at Phoenixmasonry by Ralph W. Omholt, PM in June 2007.














Librarian and Historian













Foreword by Luther A. Smith, 33░, Sovereign Grand Commander ......................          1


Preface‑James D. Carter, 33░ .................................................      3

CHAPTER I War, Destruction and Revival‑1861‑1869 ...................................   5

CHAPTER II Five Years of Creeping Stabilization‑1869‑1874 ..............................      35

CHAPTER III Six Years of Economic Depression‑1874‑1879 ................................ 83

CHAPTER IV Opportunity, Problems and Action‑1880‑1886 ................................ 183

CHAPTER V The Last Years of an Era‑1887‑1891 ....................................... 329

CHAPTER VI Some Observations ....................................................... 379

Bibliography ................. ............................................. 389

Appendices ................................................................. 405

Index ..................................................................... 465

ILLUSTRATIONS Page General Albert Pike, C. S. A.............................................. Frontispiece Home of Albert Pike in Little Rock, Arkansas ................................ Facing            1 Luther A. Smith, 33░, Sovereign Grand Commander ................................     1 President Andrew Johnson .....................................................    16 Latin Thirty‑Second Degree Patent, 1866 .........................................     19 Civil War Emergency Certificate ................................................            34 Masonic Temple, Lyons, Iowa .................................................. 63 Pike's Jewels ................................................................       82 Badges‑Knight Commander of the Court of Honour; Grand Cross of the Court of Honour ...       86 Albert Pike in Scottish Rite Regalia .............................................            88 David Kalakaua, King of Hawaii, Wise Master, Nemanu Chapter of Rose Croix ............  104 Blank Stock Certificate ........................................................ 122 First House of the Temple ..................................................... 182 Announcement of Session of 1880 ............................................... 190 James A. Garfield, President, U.S.A. ............................................. 218 Title Page‑The Book of Infamy ................................................ 238 Furniture Designed by Pike at El Paso, Texas ...................................... 244 Albert Pike, 1889, wearing the Decoration of the King of Hawaii on his left breast ......... 284 Albert Pike about 1888 ....................................................... 328 The Vinnie Ream Bust of Albert Pike ............................................ 378 APPENDICES Page APPENDIX I ‑Tableaus of the Supreme Council 33░ U.S.A. 1861‑1890 ............ 407 APPENDIX II ‑The Gouley Controversy ....................................... 421 APPENDIX III ‑Letters of Denunciation and Appeal .............................. 429 APPENDIX IV ‑Articles of Confederation ...................................... 435 APPENDIX V ‑Articles of Federation ......................................... 441 APPENDIX VI ‑Titles of Degrees, Bodies and Officers ............................ 449 APPENDIX VII‑Letter to the Supreme Councils of the World ....................... 459 LUTHER A. SMITH, 33░ Sovereign Grand Commander






INTRODUCTION to a worthy book should be more than a formality. It should create in the reader a real desire to get thoroughly acquainted with the contents of the book. It is with that feeling that I approach the task of intro ducing our Scottish Rite and Masonic membership to the second volume of the History of the Supreme Council, 33░, S.J., U.S.A., written by Dr. James D. Carter, 33░, Librarian of the Supreme Council. It is a real history, produced out of the materials found in the Archives of the Supreme Council and from the discoveries found in many places by the Author as the result of his meticulous research for historical facts that would throw light upon the subject under study,‑the growth and development of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry in the Southern Jurisdiction.


            The content of the volume is well organized into six chapters with descriptive names as follows: CHAPTER I ‑War, Destruction and Revival‑1861‑1869 CHAPTER II ‑Five Years of Creeping Stabilization‑1869‑1874 CHAPTER III‑Six Years of Economic Depression‑1874‑1879 CHAPTER IV‑Opportunity, Problems and Action‑1880‑1886 CHAPTER V ‑The Last Years of an Era‑1887‑1891 CHAPTER VI‑Some Observations HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33░


            The Author in these Chapters sets himself to the very difficult task of describing the desperate political, economic and social conditions existing in the Southern States which seceded from the Union at the beginning of the War and remained out until the Reconstruction Period worked its miserable way back to normal in the seventies. It was difficult to find any bright spots to write about. There was one fact that offered hope to the small number of Scottish Rite Masons who refused to give up in the face of apparent insurmountable obstacles,‑Albert Pike was there with his faith and courage to inspire the remnants who stood by, ready to follow his leadership. His presence meant everything to the forlorn hope for the future of the Rite.


            Watching the Author's skill in marshalling the fragments of facts and circumstances favorable to future growth of the Rite is a fascinating experience. Pike's practical judgment and unconquerable determination in the ultimate success of his faith and efforts easily established him as the hero of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry; its Seer, Philosopher and Savior.


            People love success stories and take great pleasure in keeping them vibrant in the folklore of the race. This volume in the history of the Supreme Council should be a treasure house of pride and glory for Scottish Rite Masons of all generations. I am sure all Masons will read it with pleasure and profit.


            Your attention is called to the 14 illustrations which are to be seen in this second volume of the History of the Supreme Council. They are well chosen and render a fine service in adorning the history. The Albert Pike portrait in Confederate Army Uniform is a real find. It is the only one that has been discovered. The picture of King Kalakaua of Hawaii is an item of special importance, and so is the picture of President Garfield and of considerable interest is the furniture designed by Albert Pike when he established the Lodge of Perfection in El Paso, Texas. The Author is to be congratulated upon his good judgment and good luck in finding and selecting these illustrations.


            Sovereign Grand Commander PREFACE THE HISTORY of the Supreme Council, 33░, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, United States of America, like ancient Gaul, is divided into three parts. The first is that period extending from its creation in 1801 until its almost annihilation by the outbreak of civil war in 1861. The second is the three decades of revival, restoration and maturation under the guidance of Albert Pike until his death in 1891. The third is the period since 1891 in which its organizational structure has been perfected, its numerical and financial strength multiplied and its service programs formulated and brought into reality.


            Organized Freemasonry in the United States of America antedates the birth of the Republic and both have experienced comparable growth in strength and health. The great events that transpired on the North America continent have influenced and been influenced by Masonic institutions. This is particularly true of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry in the Southern Jurisdiction for there is an amazing parallelism between the major divisions of general United States history and those of the history of the Mother Council of the World.


            The above comments state the fundamental concepts that have governed the writing of this history of the Supreme Council in the Southern Jurisdiction. The first volume, principally the work of R. Baker Harris, 33', in this historical study was published in 1964, and was devoted to the period from 1801 to 1861. This volume is a continuation of the project instituted by Sovereign Grand Commander Luther A. Smith, 33░, in 1956.


            This History of the Supreme COUNCIL, 33░


(Mother Council of the World), Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Southern Jurisdiction, United States of America, 1861 to 1891, is devoted entirely to the administration of Sovereign Grand Commander Albert Pike. The presentation is chronological, the better to correlate the actions of the Pike administration with the events and conditions occurring and prevailing in the period. This type of presentation is employed to depict the day to day problems of building an adequate administrative unit for the Rite, however, it demands closer attention from the reader in order to keep all threads of development in continuity. The general background is civil war and the slow and painful recovery from civil, economic and social chaos which followed. The principal sources of information include not only the printed Transactions and other published documents issued by the Supreme Council and the Grand Commander but confidential records and a large number of official and personal letters exchanged between the Grand HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33░


Commander and his correspondents. Many of these letters have never before been made available, even to Scottish Rite officials, because of the time and effort required for their careful study. In fact, the collection of such materials in the possession of the Supreme Council has been materially increased during the time this study was in progress.


            The author is indebted to many people for assistance in the preparation of this work, so much so that it could not have been done without their efforts. These contributions extend over a period of time in excess of one hundred years and the volume is such that it would be impractical to undertake even a listing. However, special thanks are extended to Sovereign Grand Commander Luther A. Smith, 33', every Sovereign Grand Inspector General and Deputy of the Supreme Council, my associates in the House of the Temple and my family for making it possible for this work to be done under as near ideal circumstances as was in their power to provide.


            JAMES D. CARTER, 33' CHAPTER I WAR, DESTRUCTION AND REVIVAL 1861‑1869 THE opening of the Civil War in 1861 brought the first phase of the history of the Supreme Council, 33, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Southern Jurisdiction, United States of America, to an end and marked the beginning of the second period. This latter span of Supreme Council history has two major characteristics. First, the almost total destruction of the Rite and its revival and subsequent development. Second, the period is dominated by Albert Pike, directly or indirectly, until the rise of another dominant personality after 1909, John Henry Cowles.


            During the war, there is little evidence of Scottish Rite activity except that of Albert Pike which was quite limited. However, Pike's activity did serve to preserve the spark of life in the Rite. After the adjournment of the Session of the Supreme Council on April 5, 1861, probably early in May, Grand Commander Pike accepted a commission from the Confederate Government to treat with the Indians along the Arkansas border and gain their support. He was engaged in this and other Confederate service until relieved of his duties in 1862. Early in 1863, Pike returned to Arkansas and established himself at Greasy Cove with a part of his library. Here he continued his revision of the rituals of the Scottish Rite and probably made plans for the resumption of other Scottish Rite work following the restoration of peace. Then Pike seems to have lived at Washington, Arkansas, until late in that year or early in 1865. He was living on Big Creek, six miles from Rondo, when the Confederate forces in the Trans‑Mississippi Department surrendered on May 26, 1865, ending the Civil War. He is believed to have compiled Morals and Dogma at this location.


            Pike's success in securing the allegiance of the Indians to the Confederacy, the belief in the North that he was responsible for greatly exaggerated accounts of atrocities in the West during the war, and possibly the hatred of all Masons and all things Masonic by some leaders of the Anti‑masonic movement still in the United States Congress caused his exclusion from the general amnesty granted to Confederate soldiers and officials on May 29, 1865. It was not until August 30, 1865, that HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33░


a Presidential order was signed by Andrew Johnson which permitted Pike, then in Canada, to return home, without fear of arrest by either civil or military authorities, after taking an oath of allegiance and giving a parole of honor to conduct himself as a loyal citizen.


            Pike then went to New York where he apparently remained for about two months supervising the printing of the ritual of the Lodge of Perfection that he had completely revised. On November 16, 1865, the Grand Commander had arrived in Charleston for the Session of the Supreme Council! The Scottish Rite had been preserved in the Southern Jurisdiction but it had been reduced for all practical purposes to one man. Revival and reconstruction were now in order.


            If the problems of advancing the Scottish Rite in the Southern Jurisdiction during the sixty‑year period from the creation of the Supreme Council at Charleston to the opening of the Civil War are viewed as formidable, a review of the conditions that existed in the Jurisdiction following the war indicate that the situation had not improved.


            South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, Florida and Tennessee had formed the Confederate States of America. The remaining states in the Southern Jurisdiction had retained their membership in the Union. Differences of opinion of no insignificant character had caused this separation and a military victory would not change opinions on these issues. Harmony could not be immediately achieved.


            The major theaters of military operations during the war were located within the Confederate States and the greater portion of war destruction lay within the Southern Jurisdiction.


            The collapse of the Confederacy made its currency and securities worthless. This and other losses produced a desperate economic bankruptcy in those states, both public and private. There was no surplus capital in these areas in any significant quantity.


            1 A detailed account of this period in Albert Pike's life is contained in Walter Lee Brown, "Albert Pike, 18091891," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, U.T., 1955, pp. 719‑759; Charles S. ‑Lobingier, The Supreme Council, 33', S.J., 215‑227.




            The emancipated slaves were wandering aimlessly about depending upon the Union army of occupation for sustenance. The idleness of this labor force retarded economic recovery in huge areas of the Jurisdiction.


            Transport and communication were almost completely destroyed in much of the Jurisdiction. Railroads and bridges were destroyed by military action and by four years of neglect and heavy service without adequate manpower, repair and replacement. Until postal service was restored, letter communication was nonexistent.


            (See illustration of emergency certificate on page 34.) Other than the United States army of occupation, there were no legal and effective agencies of law and order until civil government could be restored in the vacuum created by the defeat of the Confederacy. The President of the United States moved quickly into this area of reconstruction; however, there was a powerful element in the United States Congress bent on further vengeance upon the defeated Confederacy, and its efforts contributed to a prolongation of the prostrate condition of the territory.


            The casualties of the Civil War had cost the Southern Jurisdiction a high percentage of the men in the region. The surviving Confederate soldiers, many maimed or broken in health, were disfranchised, bankrupt and bearing the psychological as well as the physical burden of defeat. Their immediate problems were to rebuild their shattered lives and to provide a degree of security for their impoverished families. Their difficulties were compounded by the not overly sympathetic army of occupation, the host of scavengers that had gathered to prey on the land, and the well‑intentioned but impractical visionaries, the incompetent and the sometimes dishonest officials in the local governments that were established by their conquerors. The effects of the war and "Reconstruction" were to remain with the veterans of the Confederate army until the end of their lives and were to color the viewpoints of several generations that knew them.


            The states in the Southern Jurisdiction that had remained in the Union were more fortunate than those which had composed the Confederacy. Their economic condition was stable and relatively prosperous. Their political system was intact. Their social structure had not been overturned. However, they had not escaped some effects of the war. They also lost a high percentage of the flower of their young manhood and there were emotional and psychological attitudes that would make lasting alterations in the existing order.


            During the Civil War, Masonic bodies had practically ceased their labors while attention was given to the' conduct of the war; men had turned from the contempla‑







tion of morality and beauty to the study of war with its manifestations of savagery. Darkness had almost snuffed out the Light.


            In 1865, throughout the Southern Jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite, chaos was the rule rather than the exception in the physical life and in the political, economic and social institutions of the people. This disorder had extended itself until confusion was present in emotional, psychological and philosophical outlooks. This was the general situation when on July 15, 1865, Grand Commander Albert Pike summoned the Supreme Council to assemble at Charleston on November 15, 1865, for the resumption of Scottish Rite activity.) It may be observed that there had never been a period in American history when there had been a greater need for the active presence of an institution dedicated to bringing "Order out of Chaos" than at that very time.


            To fully understand the events and activity in the years between the formal Sessions of the Suprme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction during Albert Pike's administration, it is necessary to be familiar with the general history of the period, with the structure and jurisprudence of the Rite and to comprehend Albert Pike the Grand Commander. Pike was a man of many abilities, some of them highly developed. He was also a militant crusader for Scottish Rite Masonry as zealous in its cause as any missionary the world has seen; he could not conceive of a lesser degree of zeal in any member of the Rite. His profession as a lawyer was only a means to sustain life and secure means to further the interests of Scottish Rite Masonry. Discovering that "the law, to a rebel, having rebel and ruined clients, is a slow, slow way of realizing cash how much ever one may charge,"' Pike devoted more and more of his time to the affairs of Scottish Rite Masonry. His official documents and large volume of letters reflect the burning urgency that he felt for the propagation of the Rite; his impatience with restricted finances which curbed his activity on behalf of the Fraternity; an outraged anger at those who impeded the progress of Scottish Rite Masonry; and are filled with cajolery, eloquent appeals to obligation and to sense of duty and stinging denunciations of those members of the official family who faltered or seemed content with the status quo. It seems that the survival of the Mother Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite in that age demanded such a determined and unrelenting leadership. Pike's words and deeds should be evaluated in that climate.


            2 Summons, July 15, 1865.


            3 Albert Pike to J. C. Batchelor, July 15, 1866.




            A quorum of the Supreme Council had not appeared for the Session on November 16, 1865, and no work was undertaken. On November 17, 1865, six members, Albert Pike, Sovereign Grand Commander; Azariah T. C. Pierson, as Lieutenant Grand Commander; Albert G. Mackey, Secretary General; Henry Buist, Treasurer General; William S. Rockwell, as Grand Marshal and Benjamin R. Campbell, as Captain of the Guards, opened the Supreme Council for business.


            In his address to the Supreme Council during the afternoon, Pike summarized the effect of the war on the Rite in these words: During four terrible years our Temples have been for the most part deserted, the ashes of the fires upon our altars have been cold, and the Brethren have met each other as enemies, or ceased to commune with each other. Isolated, in most of our States, from the outer world, we have had no correspondence with Foreign Bodies. No attempt has been made to enlarge the borders of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Our Subordinate Bodies ceased to meet.


            We had, at the commencement of the war, Grand Consistories in Louisiana, Mississippi, Kentucky, Arkansas and Virginia. I have no information to communicate as to any of them.' Later in the address, he remarked: ... Except in New Orleans, there are, perhaps, no Bodies working subordinate to these (Grand Consistories). Those established in Arkansas have done nothing since the war began; and except a Chapter of Rose Croix and Lodge of Perfection in South Carolina, and Bodies of the same degrees and the 16th in Baltimore, I have no information of any Subordinate Bodies in the Jurisdiction. In the northern portion of it we have not one body of any degree.' The Grand Commander announced the completion of a revision of the rituals in the following words: Being relieved of all other labour during the last two years and a half of the war, I devoted nearly the whole of that time to the Ancient and Accepted Rite. I have completed the Rituals of all of the degrees, so that from the first to the thirty‑second inclusive, they are either printed or ready for the printer.


            . . . There are, then, fourteen degrees, besides the three Blue Degrees, to print, and ceremonies of Inauguration and Installation, Patents, Letters of Constitution 4 Transactions, Supreme Council, S.J., 1857‑1866, (Reprint), 257. 5Ibid., 261.



and other blanks, for all of which the money has to be earned. The labour is done; the money alone is wanting.' Regarding the extension of the Rite, Pike said: With peace, the opportunity for useful labour returns to the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. We shall soon be prepared to extend it throughout our Jurisdiction....


            It will be absolutely necessary that some of us should take in hand the dissemination of the Rite, as soon as the Rituals are ready. If we would effect anything, we must be willing to give our time and labour to the Order. I hope to induce our Ill.'. Bro.'. Pierson to undertake the propagation of the Rite in Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas and Nevada; and that others may be willing to engage in the extension of the Rite in the Southern States, with at least the zeal which many Masons display in Symbolic Masonry. The field is wide enough for many husbandmen; and if there be in any State an Inspector General who neither attends our Sessions nor labours to extend our Rite in his State, the sooner we remove him and find a more faithful workman, the better.' In Pike's mind, the propagation of the Rite and the composition and organization of the Supreme Council were so closely related as to be inseparable; hence, the following statements on Supreme Council membership: We have not yet any Inspector‑General for Maryland, North Carolina, Florida, Texas, Oregon, California or Kansas; and there are vacancies in South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee. We ought, I think, to take steps to fill existing vacancies; and if the person elected for any State does not appear, in order to be qualified, we should at once put him aside and select another. We have no use for, and can expect little benefit from, anyone, however "distinguished" as a Mason, who does not think it worth his while to attend one meeting of our Body, at least, and receive the degree.


            I shall propose the election of an Inspector‑General for California, and one for Oregon. The Ill\ Bro\ whom I shall propose for California, already possessing the 32d Degree, will be present to receive the 33d, and on his return to the Pacific Coast will engage zealously in the work of propagating the Rite, and can convey the Rituals to the Inspector‑General for Oregon.


            By the deaths of Ill\ Brethren Mellon and Scott, we are enabled to give Oregon and Kansas each a member, under Article III. of the Constitutions of 1859. We have a 33d already in Oregon, who may, if you think fit, be selected to fill the place vacant for that State; and I recommend that the necessary steps be taken to qualify some proper person and make him the member from Kansas.


            6Ibid., 258‑261. 7 Ibid., 257, 261.




It is not at present practicable to assign a member to Nevada, without depriving either Alabama or Florida of one. And as the Rite has an exceedingly limited membership in those two States, and it is desirable, on many accounts, to increase the representatives in the Council from the northern portion of our Jurisdiction, and to provide for new States yet to enter the Union, I think it will be advisable to re‑apportion the representation, but without diminishing the number of members allowed to South Carolina and Louisiana.


            In this respect and in many others, our Statutes need amendments and additions; and, having had ample time to reflect upon them, I have thought it not improper to prepare a revision of the whole, which I lay before you, proposing that it be referred to a Committee, and that such action may be had upon it as may be deemed advisable.' [This revision was mislaid, never acted on, and found in 1877.] The remaining portion of the Grand Commander's address was devoted to summaries of what was known regarding other Supreme Councils. The schism which had developed in the Supreme Council of the Northern Jurisdiction was explored in great detail in the hope of finding some ground upon which the Mother Council might effect a reconciliation; it was recommended that the problem be given further study by a Committee.


            In other areas of business, the Supreme Council acted as follows: Henry W. Schroder for South Carolina, George B. Waterhouse for North Carolina and Ebenezer Hamilton Shaw for California were elected Sovereign Grand Inspectors General and Active Members of the Supreme Council.


            Nine brethren were elected to Honorary Membership in the Supreme Council.


            Henry Buist was elected Treasurer General.


            Taliferro P. Shaffner was commissioned a Special Deputy of the Supreme Council "to establish Supreme Councils, Consistories and other Bodies, in any places or countries in Northern Europe, where no Supreme Councils already exist".


            The Supreme Council withdrew its recognition of the Supreme Council established in Cuba by De Castro and reaffirmed its recognition of the Supreme Council established in Cuba by Andres Cassard.


            8 Ibid., 262‑263.






"The Supreme Council was then adjourned to meet in Washington, D.C., on April 16, 1866."9 News of the meeting of the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction in November, 1865, spread over the United States. Some not altogether to be unexpected reactions occurred which illustrate the extent of bitterness that the Civil War had engendered. Original letters of Grand Commander Pike to the Sovereign Grand Inspectors General are reproduced in order to present the atmosphere preceding the meeting that occurred on April 16, 1866.


            (See Reproductions on pages 13 and 14) Pursuant to adjournment, the Supreme Council reassembled at Washington, D. C., on April 16, 1866. General conditions had improved to the extent that thirteen Sovereign Grand Inspectors General appeared for the Session. Five Active Members sent excuses for their absence that were accepted by the Supreme Council. James Penn sent his resignation as an Active Member and as the Lieutenant Grand Commander.


            Items of business acted upon included the following: John J. Worsham was elected Active :Member for Tennessee.


            Honorary Memberships in the Supreme Council were increased to four per state. The fee for Honorary Membership was fixed at $150.


            Twelve brethren were elected to Honorary Membership.


            The report of the Committee studying the schism in the Northern Jurisdiction was adopted which recognized Robinson, Moore, Case, Young and Starkweather as the legitimate members of the Northern Supreme Council.


            The Lodge of Sorrow was postponed until the next Session.


            Several appropriations for charity were approved.


            The Grand Commander was authorized to appoint Deputies for the purpose of propagating the Rite. Where Inspectors General were resident in a State, these Deputies were "to act in aid" to such officials.


            Twenty‑five percent of fees were appropriated to defray the expense of propagating the Rite. This seemed to be in addition to the actual expense incurred.


            9 Ibid., 256, 353‑359.


            12 Vimy DF‑uc AND 1Li‑.% Blt~rrnEit:.


            The Supreme Council˛ the Southern Jurisdiction of th     nite(j States has adjourned, to lueet again at the City of Washington, on the third Monday ot     ~, 1866, when a Lodge of Sorrow will be held in memory of the III. % Brethren Lip: PRINCE, Scarrr, MELLEN, RAMSAY and STtxuATT, Sovereign Grand Inspectors‑General and active members of the Sup. % Council, who have departed this life.            Then, also, matters of the gravest importance will come ap,to be disposed of The questions concerning the two bodies claiming to be Supreme Councils for the Northern Jurisdiction, were refcrn;d to # CoiWittee consisting of III. % Bros.'. MACKEY, ROCKWELL, BUIST, Pumsox and N'xxNcu, wK will report at the adjourned Session; and the Sup.‑. Council must then decide.


            Setwit nding the Summons issued in due time, the members in attendance were so few, that those who did attend came near being unable to transact. any business.        Nor were exev sent by more than two or three of those who failed to attend.


            Of the members present, one came from, Minnesota and one from Arkansas, at much expenac and more inconvenience. No member was less able to lose the money and the time required, nor could have attended at a greater sacrifice, than the Grand Commander.


            It is my duty to remind you that no mere stress of busaam can excuse one of ns from attending a Session of the Supreme Council'; since there is no business to which we are more solemnly pledged.faithfully and punctually to attend, and there are no duties more obligatory on us, than the business and duties of our high office.


            It is earnestly hoped by your Brethren that you will be present at the Session of the third Monday of February next; and I do hereby pereiaptorily summon and require you to be there, apon your oath to obey all due signs and aummomes,and b3' your obligation w is liiadve+kmadiftOW Inspector‑General; and lest you should be put to shame as neglectful of sworn duty; and yen WN, make‑due return of this Summons to our Ill.‑. Secretary‑General, that we may know you I%" received the same.


            There may never again be so important a Session of the Supreme Council, and it. ought net to be expected that any ordinary excuse should be accepted as sufficient, in case of non‑attendance. You will also, at the same time, make due return of your action in conferring the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Rite, and of all funds received by you, and pay over the same, Your actual expenses alone being deducted, and you will be pleased personally to see to it that the Grand Consistory of your State, if there be one, and any other bodies therein which should do so, do make due report and returns and transmit all moneys due the Sup.. Council, lest they shou:M be suspended as in default, and you will please be prepared to report a complete list of all Bodies of the Rite in your district, showing the name and locality of each.


            MAY Tim GREAT SOURCE AND AUTHOR OF ALL THAT Id, HAVE‑ YOI‑ IN IIIS IIOLY KEEPING! Gives under our hand and the Seal of our Arms, at the Grand Orient aforesaid and countersigned by our III. % Secretary‑General of the Holy Buipire, and the Great Seal of the Supreme Council affixed, this       Z/ 4= day of the Hebrew.month A.% m.'. 562''‑irauswering noto the e.,        rz         ‑           day ot /a....,    a.‑‑7    1166, V... .: E'.




            (pen. . X.‑ X...


            %ov.% firaud (~onunander.


            13 Rsus fAmmps Ans.


            ORIENT 01‑ _l1A'AIPHI8, 12TH MARCH. lfttiti DFAR Slit AND 1LLUSTRIOUK BROTHXR: The meeting of the Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdiction, which was to have been held in Washington on the Third Monday of February last, was postponed to the Third Monday of April,. at the earnest solicitation of mur illustrious Secretary General.


            Equally as your Grand Commander; as your Brother in the bond, and as friend to friend, I earnestly entreat you to let nothing prevent your attendance, whether you receive a formal summons from the Secretary General or do not.


            Our Supreme Council is sedulously represented in the Northern Jurisdiction as dissolved, or destroyed by death and expatriation of its members. A plot exists there to prevent our meeting.      The object is two‑fold: 1st. To hinder us from deciding whether there is any Supreme Council in the Northern Jurisdiction; and if there be one, which is the legal Council;      2d. To plunder as (it all the States west of the Mississippi River, except Arkansas and Texas.


            It is to elect these purposes that4ve are loudly denounced by Masons, forgetful of their oaths, as a Rebel Council, and that your Grand Commander is singled out for vituperatigtt.


            .The conspirators in the North have tat least one accessory among ourselves a member of the Supreme Council ‑ who has already been so indiscreet, moved by I do not know what passion, as to assail in violent language, not only me, but the Supreme Council, of which he is a member, in the "Masonic" columns, edited by an expelled Mason, of an obscure Sunday paper in New York: to send to the same paper for publication the summons to attend our meeting, and to empower those who hate us there to boast. that he will assail the action of the Supreme Council and its Grand Commander in open Council in April.


            I do not think that he will find any helpers.   If he does, all will come to shame together.           But what I do know is, that there exists a settled and eager determination to destroy our Supreme Council, and that all the urgent motives for this determination are political, or ignobly personal.


            t Appealing to God to witness the unselfishness of all my Masonic labors, the hingle‑heartedness of all my official acts, courting the most scrupulous investigation, and‑knowing that I can abundantly justify all I have written or acted as to the Northern Jurisdiction, caring nothing for myself, but all for the Supreme Council, (for what am I compared with the Rite of which I have 'n for fifteen years the slave Y) I beg you, if you care for the Supreme Council, if you care for Truth and Justice, if you are not willing to' see you brethren laid, ready for the knife, on the political altar of burnt‑offering, Do nor FAIL. TO HE PaESNNT IN APRIL, All ANY COST.


            I lately received a letter t tom an Illustrious Brother, 33d.'. and Grand Master, which, enigmatically written. advised me, ie e .feet, that it was represented to the politicalpower in Washington, that there were disloyal purposes concealed in our intenfion to hold a lodge of Sorrow in honor of our dead brethren.            There is no depth of infamy to which humanity cannot descend. A"ever was a more infitmous libel conceived      The object was to induce the Government to prohibit our meeting; and I know from what quarter the attempt came. It wears the known ear‑marks. It is for you now to determine whether we shall permit. ourselves to Ire crushed like unresisting worms, or whether we shall assert the majesty of Truth, of Right, and of Reason. You are hereby formally and peremptorily summoned to meet the Grand Commander in session of the Supreme Council, at the City of Washington, ors Monday, the 16th day of April next, for the transaction of such business as may lawfully come before it and to defeat all attempts to destroy it.


            GOD SAVE THE SUYREUR COUNCIL.! ‑.............____........_...................._.........................._,            . ..,..::..   ..., : fu Sov.‑. GR.‑. COMMANDXR.


            I LLCBTRIous BROTHIRIt ~e+~~?J ._....................................................    .......     :......l~....( .+.'.l.....1...(flr.1...:...^..fLt ..~....~..t.c~2_r..




William S. Rockwell was elected Lieutenant Grand Commander.


            Albert G. Mackey was made the third ranking officer of the Supreme Council for life.


            The Statute on officers was amended so that officers' The Grand Commander The Lieutenant Grand Commander The Secretary General of the Holy Empire The Grand Prior The Grand Chancellor The Grand Minister of State The Treasurer General of the Holy Empire titles read as follows: A.T.C. Pierson was elected Grand Prior.


            B. B. French was elected Grand Chancellor.


            G. M. Hillyer was elected Grand Minister of State.


            The purchase of necessary office furniture and stationery for the Grand Commander and Secretary General was authorized.


            The Secretary General was directed to have the documents and books bound.


            An assistant was authorized for the Secretary General.


            A Statute was enacted directing the establishment of an accounting system.


            Contingent funds were set aside for the use of the Grand Commander and Secretary General.


            The "Chamber of Deputies" which had developed without authorization in Louisiana was abolished.


            The bills were ordered to be paid.


            A number of Deputies were appointed.


            Grand Commander Pike was awarded a jewel and was requested to prepare and print a Manual for the degrees. He was also requested to proceed with the printing of "Morals and Dogma".


            15 WAR, DESTRUCTION AND REVIVAL The Committee on Subordinate Bodies reported as follows: 12 resident members of the Grand Consistory of Arkansas which had not conferred any degrees during the past five years.


            13 members of the Grand Consistory of Kentucky, five of whom were new members.


            102 members of the Grand Consistory of Louisiana, twenty‑two of whom were new members.


            11 members of the Grand Consistory of Mississippi, one of whom was a new member.


            35 candidates received the degrees from Albert G. Mackey. 7 candidates received the degrees from William S. Rockwell. 3 candidates received the degrees from Frederick Webber. 17 candidates received the degrees from Giles M. Hillyer.


            4 candidates received the degrees from John J. Worsham. 7 candidates received the degrees from A. T. C. Pierson.


            A resolution was adopted to apply to the Legislature of South Carolina for a charter for the Supreme Council that it might hold real estate.


            A series of resolutions relating to Foreign Supreme Councils, presently of little or no significance, were adopted.


            A precedent setting feature of the Session was a visit to the White House to pay respects to the President of the United States." At this time, President Andrew Johnson granted a pardon to Grand Commander Pike for his services to the Confederacy. (See picture of President Johnson on page 16.) It appears that the meetings of the Supreme Council in 1865 and 1866 may be the most momentous and dramatic in its history up to those dates. Certainly, its members could not have had greater physical difficulties and dangers in traveling to overcome. It is also certain that the temper of the times had never been less conducive to peaceful and harmonious activity in any convention or body national in its member to Ibid., 337‑471.




ship and representation. The record of work accomplished, decisions made and plans formulated were of major importance for the future of the Rite. But the psychological effect of calm and deliberate action of a constructive nature, under intense and vicious intimidation, was in sharp contrast to the example presented to the nation by the Congress of the United States. Great achievements had occurred in the past and others were to be attained by the Supreme Council in the future, but the prompt and efficient resumption of its humanitarian labors by the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction, almost before the echoes of civil war had subsided, is one of the signal victories of Freemasonry in all ages. To the discerning mind, it was the first ray of hope that the United States could and would again become reunited in the bonds of mutual trust and confidence; that the nation would resume the path of destiny to world leadership in the development of a culture and civilization dedicated to Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.


            (See Illustration on page 19.)


Following the conclusion of the 1866 meeting of the Supreme Council in Washington, D. C., Grand Commander Albert Pike returned to Memphis, Tennessee, to resume his law practice and to engage in extensive work for the Scottish Rite. The "Council of Deputies" in Louisiana had been abolished, and the members thereof were unhappy as a result. A large part of Pike's correspondence in this period was in relation to that action of the Supreme Council.


            The Grand Commander immediately undertook to exercise the authorization of the Supreme Council to appoint Deputies in portions of the Jurisdiction where no Active Members were resident for the propagation of the Rite. On July 22, 1866, Pike wrote to Philip C. Tucker, Jr., in Galveston, Texas, as follows: Our Supreme Council is very anxious to commence the extension of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite into Texas. Could you so engage in it? We have as yet no Active Member there, and cannot have one until our Sup. Council meets in 1868. If you receive the degrees to the 32d you can be appointed Deputy Inspector for the State, a place which I should be delighted to see you fill.


            Can you go to New Orleans and receive the degrees? Hoping that you can, I enclose an authorization and request, upon which you will be invested with them by our B. '. B.'. in New Orleans, without charge.


            I will then send you a Commission, and the ritual and secret work. You can make other 32ds to act as Deputies, and we can propagate the Rite in all the parts of your State. . . .11 ii C. A. Hotchkiss, History of Scottish Rite Masonry in Texas, 2.







On or about August 1, 1866, Tucker accepted the proposal of Pike, and the Grand Commander then wrote to J. C. Batchelor on August 18, 1866, at New Orleans, advising him of the arrangements and requesting the Louisiana Bodies to confer the degrees "for me, without charge". Tucker was delayed by illness in his family but on February 5, 1867, he received a certificate from Inspectors General James C. Batchelor and Sam'l M. Todd attesting to the fact that he had received the Scottish Rite Degrees. Tucker returned to Texas immediately because of the illness in his family. About three months later he wrote to Pike that he was ready to start work. 12 During May, 1867, Tucker communicated the Scottish Rite degrees to ten Galveston Masons and with two other Scottish Rite Masons living in the city, formed San Felipe de Austin Lodge of Perfection No. 1, and outlined plans for the same actions in Houston, Texas." Thus, Scottish Rite Masonry was introduced into another State of the Southern Jurisdiction.


            Grand Commander Pike expressed concern about the departure for France of Claude Samory, Sovereign Grand Inspector General for Louisiana, and the selection of his successor in May, 1866. In the meantime, Samuel M. Todd and Wm. M. Perkins were made Special Deputies for Louisiana, and Emmet D. Craig, Special Deputy for Western Louisiana to carry on the extension of the Rite in the state. In the same letter containing the information on Louisiana, Pike wrote I hope you [J. C. Batchelor] will be able to work in South Alabama this fall. Hillyer proposes to help; and Fizell of Tennessee (an Honorary Member) will take North Alabama. 14 On July 17, 1866, Pike moved to extend the Rite into Kansas and Nebraska with this request: Please select two worthy Master Masons of Kansas and two of Nebraska. Invite them to Saint Louis and give them the degrees as honoriam, without charge, if they will agree to act as our Deputies and extend the Rite. I will shortly send you blank Commissions for them." 12Ibid., 8‑9; Philip C. Tucker to Albert Pike, August 29, 1866; 7th Veador A.'.M.'. 5627; 22d Veador A.*.M.*. 5627; Albert Pike to J. C. Batchelor, August 18, 1866.


            13 Philip C. Tucker to Albert Pike, June 4, 1867. 14 Albert Pike to J. C. Batchelor, May 20, 1866. 15 Albert Pike to A. O'Sullivan, July 17, 1866.


            20 WAR, DESTRUCTION AND REVIVAL Pike had lost confidence in the loyalty of‑Theodore S. Parvin of Iowa and in his letter to Anthony O'Sullivan on July 17, 1866, so stated. At the same time, he requested O'Sullivan to "find two true and good Iowa Brethren" and give them the degrees without charge on condition that they serve as Deputies in extending the Rite, "first asking Ill. Bro. Parvin's consent . . . . If Bro. Parvin does not give his consent, please inform me, and I will exercise my prerogative and specially commission you to confer the degrees on the selected Iowa Brethren"." O'Sullivan did not live to consummate this labor for the Rite.


            On May 17, 1867, a union of the contending Supreme Councils in the Northern Jurisdiction was effected." The new Grand Commander Josiah H. Drummond wrote a letter to Grand Commander Pike advising him of the fact and expressing a desire to establish fraternal relations." On the same day that he dispatched the official letter to Pike, he also wrote a personal letter which contained the following statement There have been many things said by members of our Council concerning you and your Council that were not exactly fraternal in their tone or spirit. When I closed the session of our Council, standing in my place as Grand Commander, I declared that from that time forward "any and all unnecessary allusions to the differences of the past would be High Treason to the Rite, and be visited with condign punishment".


            Shall not the same Rule be applied as between our respective Supreme Councils?" Pike's reply to these letters has not been found, but a later letter from Drummond reveals that Pike had nominated a Representative near the Northern Supreme Council. In this same letter Drummond raised the question of the boundary between the two jurisdictions indicating that an extension of the territory of the Northern Jurisdiction was his desire. Drummond closed his letter as follows: A new era has dawned for the Scottish Rite and a brilliant future awaits it; and this, instead of a lingering death, it will owe, My dear Brother, to your labors .21 16 Ibid.


            17 Samuel H. Baynard, Jr., History of the Supreme Council, 33', Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction of the United States of America and its Antecedents, 11, 17.


            18 Josiah H. Drummond to Albert Pike, July 4, 1867. is Ibid.


            10 Ibid., September 25, 1867.




Pike's reply to this letter is also miffing but in earlier views expressed by the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction that the boundary was finally and unalterably fixed in 1827, it is a foregone conclusion that Pike declined to discuss that subject. In this connection it might be noted that the original division of the United States into two jurisdictions was probably deemed necessary because of the difficulty and expense of travel and communication. It is easy to understand that the ensuing developments in transportation and communication, railroads, steamships, telegraph and an efficient postal system, had made the actual need for two jurisdictions obsolete.


            Violations of the jurisdiction of the Southern Supreme Council appeared in the states bordering the territory of the Supreme Council of the Northern Jurisdiction. It is unknown what other measures were adopted to combat this violation but a circular letter, a copy of which follows, was printed and distributed in the affected areas.


            (See Letter on page 23) Trouble arose in Missouri during these years. George Frank Gouley, Grand Commander of the Knights Templar in Missouri, received the Scottish Rite degrees and finding features in them that were objectionable to him, addressed a letter to Grand Commander Pike on August 6, 1867, to which Pike replied in detail. The two letters were printed and circulated late in 1867, copies of which are reproduced in Appendix II.


            Gouley was unconvinced that his position was untenable; he launched a bitter attack against the Scottish Rite in his Grand Commandery which forbid Missouri Knights Templar to be present at Scottish Rite degree conferrals, except when the candidate had already received the Orders of Knighthood in a regularly constituted Commandery of Knights Templar. Furthermore, the attacks on the Scottish Rite were continued in the periodical, Freemason to which Pike replied in The Morning Herald. Unable to effect a settlement, Pike placed the controversy on the agenda of the Supreme Council Session for 1868.


            Grand Commander Pike was also involved, especially in 1867, with the printing of diplomas, rituals, "Morals and Dogma", Liturgy and Ceremonies of Inauguration and Installation for Lodge of Perfection. The correspondence with Robert Macoy regarding this work continued from the middle of January to the middle of December, 1867. Closely allied with the labor of preparing copy and proofreading, Pike found it necessary to search for funds with which to defray the cost.


            22 ToUio, ftth dily at 4~.*. P.'. 5627.


            ‑1l teeing 2efiwenled to ces that eedain (ladies of tke lncient and ;kcef,led ~9`cottcA Aate Ln Mates a,1 the godhew lcnadZeaan of the 2lnited Mates. have eanle2ied and con&nue to camel, the dopees of that AZte, alle2 thei, ~mheVeet mannet and 4.y~ heab deleetizse 2dual ~ afton Xa4ons 2estdcnt in, ;dates z,yLtlain the 4aalhein yiLtt~dL'atcan of ttte 2lnL'ted Mates, and yaa),tcocdadyon Chase 2e4cdent in J'owa and dlujsou2i, in violation al masanic laws,' hetelaie we, celled uTihe, the ~a~u.‑. ~5% ~owmande ko fth eyufetem        e'ounei la/ 0av:. ~.‑. ~nOectaa ~enetal lot the said ~9acclhetn    faua dictaon, and .AZnthan y ~'~~ull wan, aetriue mem(6et of said .!7itlneme cG"ounelL Aarn the vr'late of Xasowi, do make hnowsn unto all Xason5. of the caunAv extending ltom the Xebsc45ilhlzi duet to the _llzlacelte ocean=== i . JhaaL the, yictasdielean of the YufL.'. goancLl laL the godl,ew jwisdiotian of the 26ntZed _'Alalcs (al such, a 66ad~o exists) Ls conlined (~y its chattel, and tie pant to at al ja2cadicLean, to the gem &rayland Males, Stews %oth, gew fiei4ey, _"Aenn,~Vtuania, .Telawate, Ohio, ,Orndcana, ~llL~,aas, XLeluyan and 61.(~ascanxn,' and that the whole count2y west of the ..flisi‑cbscl'12‑i tizset a 'within, tl,e exclu~ve ~CttL.sdtcl,o" a/ Ike _qul4e‑me Wouncil lab the _99bcdhe2n ,&t6dietLSn, whose ‑wee aL al rqhatle6too2, in the date al mouth, Two&wa, a.2L~Lyea((ey the tf,2eme VauneiL lo‑;. the 'whole of god1 arr,e2ica, and the olde.d ~9'ufaeme Wouned an the ‑?,wadd ,2. Jhaat it as anla'ulcdlab any 4ody al the 4.'. P sl.'. ai'le in the Sfoilhew ici 6de'alta" to canlet any of the duties of 6aid mile an, a Iftasoz, tes.c'dezat Ln Iowa, ~lcdsouti, at eliewhetc west of the ,/llasscosifilzi 2izset,; and anzy l2etso" who h,a6 60 2eceiued, at 6hall so 2eceiue, the depees, a2 any of them, has teccZued o2 will weive then, illegally, and hob /een, and wdl (Se, deliaudd of hit zneazz6, il he haveAzaid o2 shalllz.ay foe them..


            . .hat and y a : azf.'.    rand ~n6fiectoi:=genet‑al, cLCtiue m.em(ye2 0~ 6‑acd ccclL2eme Tounccl, of an kano2wy mezn66e2, delucty al the Game, duly eornmasianed can comet the deytee6 within Mzis y'utisdietian,' and that the undetsicyned, _4nlhany 6"gulliuan, 6 the c7ov.'. j_% Jn*ec$ct4enetallot ~lklsotna, and <Theodo2e 4.    ,tfLn the 9'az,.'.           i.'. ~nsf,eclot‑ metal l~ fo'aa.


            ,Vnd a&gl lemans Ln J%cssouu ‑ioho have lhce6 Xeyally ieceived the dey2ees ate adrnaneshe.d to take measates to (se healed, since then duties and l,alenGs ate wodhlaw,* and tl they 6hauld delay, they will not under any citeumstanee6 6e wcyulw~ed.


            and at as also h,ete6y made known, that Ll any .&asons, Aa/l sa al&,qally 2eeeiue the deemed to ‑have done sa an any account of at any tame de,q9ee6 allet the lnomalcyahan al this notice, they will le contemn of "anie laws and acethouty, and will not, on alte2watd, (Se healed.


            ALBERT PIKE, 33d, Sov.‑. Gr:˛. Commander..


            ANTHONY O'SULLIVAN, Sov.˛. Gr.˛. In.‑. Gen.‑. 33.‑. MARTIN COLLINS, D.‑. G.‑. In.‑. Gen. ‑. 33.‑. WILLIAM N. LOKER, D.˛. G.˛. In.‑. Gen.‑. 33.‑.




The years 1866 and 1867 had been a busy and trying period for Grand Commander Pike. He issued his summons on April 3, 1868, for the opening of the Biennial Session of the Supreme Council on May 4, 1868, at‑~Charleston and announced that "gravest interests of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite require the attendance of all the Sovereign Grand Inspectors General" and that nonattendance, if attendance was possible, would be "inexcusable". He also notified them that "members are to be elected for eleven States".21 A letter from Philip C. Tucker, the Deputy in Texas, acknowledging receipt of his summons and explaining why he could not attend, contained a hint, the only one that has been found, that the Grand Commander had attempted a personal contact between the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction and those in England and France during 1867. Tucker reported in his letter as follows: My journey to Europe was near being the last of earth for me, twice down with dangerous illness, I was brought back to die but by the blessing of God I slowly recovered. (At my Mother's in Vermont.) In England by appointment (by letter) I had an interview with Col Clerk [Secretary‑General of the Supreme Council] at Wollwich and not an agreeable one.... As to information he seemed possessed of very little outside of his profession: ‑ . . . Indeed I was much disappointed in him, for I expected to have met a gentleman. . . . In France I was very ill, and being there during the long vacation could not find the members of the order I desired to see. At the office of the Grand Orient, I found a porter in charge‑all absent. Not finding the address of Bro. Chas Laffon de Ladebat or Bro. Le blanc de Marcennay in any Paris directory I called at the office of the Secretary‑General of the Holy Empire where I had a pleasant interview with that officer who is a gentleman of the old school and two other members of the Supreme Council of France: The Secretary‑General gave me two copies of the register or Official Tableau of the Supreme Council of France one for you and one for myself‑and instructed me to assure you of his fraternal esteem ect. . . . as I came thro' Memphis in Dec. I left it for you. . . .22 Whatever Tucker's mission may have been, it does not seem to have been productive of anything other than a contact.


            Josiah H. Drummond, Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of the Northern Jurisdiction, was invited to attend the Session of the Supreme Council of the Southern 21 Albert Pike to Samuel M. Todd, April 7, 1868. 22 Philip C. Tucker to Albert Pike, April 20, 1868.


            24 WAR, DESTRUCTION AND REVIVAL Jurisdiction beginning on May 4, 1868. He acknowledged the invitation and expressed his regret that he could not attend the Session in a personal letter to Grand Commander Pike. He also took occasion to mention some ritualistic matter to Pike as follows There will be presented at the session of our Supreme Council a memorial requesting that all allusions to the York Rite in our Ritual be stricken out ...


            I think we are bound to treat with respect, or if that cannot be, with silence every other Rite which does not make war upon us....


            There has not, as yet, in this jurisdiction been any collision between our Rite and the York Rite; and we are determined there shall be none; and I have no doubt you have the same desire; and knowing that there are expressions in your ritual which are regarded by our members as offensive to the York Rite Masons, I have taken the liberty to address you freely upon the subject and to invoke your consideration of the matter, not doubting you will receive my suggestions in the same spirit in which they are made.


            If Pike replied to this letter, his communication has not survived. However, the Pike rituals had already been printed; the Grand Commander had on several previous occasions stated that his work on rituals was finished; and furthermore, Pike had already publicly replied to similar criticisms of his ritual by George Frank Gouley, Grand Commander of the Grand Commandery of Missouri. It also appears that Drummond's "suggestions" were timed to arrive when Pike was greatly irritated by Gouley's conduct and not inclined to receive "suggestions" on the ritual with favorable consideration.


            As scheduled, the regular Biennial Session of the Supreme Council opened in Charleston on May 4, 1868, and continued through May 9, 1868. Thirteen officers and Sovereign Grand Inspectors General were present for the Session.


            Business transactions began on May 5 with the Grand Commander's address as the first item on the agenda. In the introduction of his address, Grand Commander Pike made remarks about the generally improverished condition of much of the Southern Jurisdiction, expressed his observation that the "bitter feelings among Masons caused by the Civil War" had disappeared, and stated that "peace and harmony" prevailed within the jurisdiction of the Supreme Council. He then moved from the general to the specific on various items as follows: 23 Josiah H. Drummond to Albert Pike, April 30, 1868.




Active Member Claude Samory of Louisiana had moved to France creating a vacancy in the membership of the Supreme Council that should be filled.


            A review of the activities of the Sovereign Grand Inspectors General and of the Deputy Inspectors General revealed that Parvin had established bodies in Kansas, Nebraska and Missouri; Shaw had created bodies in California and Nevada; "several" Consistories had been opened in Georgia; Batchelor and Todd had established bodies at Mobile, Alabama; Tucker had reported the first bodies in Texas; and Cunningham was reviving the bodies in Maryland.


            The Grand Commander then announced that his ten years of ritualistic labors had closed; that the ritual of the degrees from 14 to 32 were in the hands of the printer; that copies of Funeral, Lodge of Sorrow, Masonic Baptism, Louveteau, and Adoption ceremonies were completed; and that Morals and Dogma was ready for the printer. He then submitted a revision of the ritual of the 33 to the Supreme Council for adoption.


            It was then reported that Patents for 32 and 33 had been lithographed and that they had been sent to Giles M. Hillyer for his signature some five months previously but that no returns had been received from him.


            The protest of the Louisiana "Chamber of Deputies" against its abolishment was then presented to the Supreme Council, together with a refutation of each of the points contained therein.


            A detailed report of the activities of George Frank Gouley was laid before the Supreme Council with the recommendation that a Trial Tribunal be created to conduct a trial of Gouley on charges of misconduct as a Scottish Rite Mason.


            The propagation of the Rite of Memphis was noted. The Grand Commander observed that the Rite of Memphis was not a threat to the Scottish Rite and that no "war against the Rite of Memphis" was contemplated.


            The union of the rival Supreme Councils in the Northern Jurisdiction was officially announced; also, that the renewal of "relations of amity and correspondence" with the Nothern Jurisdiction had taken place. However, invasions of the jurisdiction of the Southern Supreme Council by overenthusiastic members of the Northern Jurisdiction in Kentucky and Missouri raised the question of the status of Masons receiving the 26 WAR, DESTRUCTION AND REVIVAL Scottish Rite degrees as a result. The Grand Commander then reviewed his correspondence with Grand Commander Drummond of the Northern Jurisdiction on a new delineation of the boundary line, denying Drummond's claims for more territory.


            The lack of adequate communication with Supreme Councils in foreign lands was pointed out, and it was recommended that it be the duty of the Grand Chancellor to establish such correspondence.


            A review of known information about foreign jurisdictions was presented. It was admitted that the circular letter against the Supreme Council of Belgium for its recognition of the James Foulhouze Supreme Council in Louisiana was an error since it was the Grand Orient of Belgium that had recognized that illegal body in New Orleans.


            The Grand Commander then reviewed policy matters in the establishment of Consistories. He expressed regret that particular Consistories had been established. He then stated that the 31' and 32 should be conferred sparingly and only after candidates had received the approval of the resident Sovereign Grand Inspector General and that of the Supreme Council in writing; and that these degrees should be conferred only in Grand Consistories which should not exceed one in each state. He also recommended that the Supreme Council should act on the rituals of the 31' and 32 which had not been approved up to that time.


            A review of the decisions of the Grand Commander since the last meeting of the Supreme Council was then presented.


            It was pointed out that no Lodge of Sorrow had been opened since 1861, and it was recommended that the dead, which were listed, should be honored with this ceremony.


            The Grand Commander closed his address with an appeal to keep political and religious considerations and convictions out of decisions on Masonic matters.


            After the Grand Commander's addresss was received, the Supreme Council proceeded with its business and an outline of its accomplishments is as follows An illegal cipher book, reported to have been the work of Inspector General A. T. C. Pierson, was considered and laid over until the next session.




Several elections to Sovereign Grand Inspector General and Active Member took place: Philip C. Tucker for Texas Samuel M. Todd for Louisiana Martin Collins for Missouri Erasmus Theodore Carr for Kansas Robert C. Jordan for Nebraska Edward R. Ives for Flordia Clinton A. Cilley was elected an Honorary Inspector General and Special Deputy for North Carolina to represent the Supreme Council in that State, Inspector General George B. Waterhouse having resigned his membership.


            Richard J. Nunn was continued as Special Deputy for Georgia.


            Eight Inspectors General were excused for their absence from the Session.


            Seventeen brethren were elected to receive the Honorary 33'.


            Charges were preferred against George Frank Gouley. A Committee on Charges having reported "guilty" on all counts, the Tribunal pronounced a sentence of "Deprivation of all rights and privileges of the Masonry of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite".


            The Grand Chancellor was made responsible for all correspondence with foreign Supreme Councils.


            The rituals of the 31 and 32 were adopted.


            The Lavradio Supreme Council of Brazil was recognized.


            Recognition of the Supreme Council of Mexico was withdrawn.


            All Inspectors General and Special Deputies were required to file complete reports before the next Session of the Supreme Council.


            The Committee on Subordinate Bodies made an extended report on bodies in sixteen states and the District of Columbia, but there were no membership statistics developed. It did reflect that growth was taking place in the Jurisdiction.


            28 WAR, DESTRUCTION AND REVIVAL A resolution was passed prohibiting the conferral of the 31' and 32 until after the approval of candidates in writing had been obtained from the resident Inspector General, Special Deputy, or Grand Consistory in a state.


            A resolution was adopted requiring the filing of complete rosters of all bodies by all Inspectors General for a register to be published with the Transactions of 1868.


            A resolution was adopted that all Inspectors General should keep an accurate record of all copies of the Secret Work issued by them.


            A loan of $150 was extended to G. A. Schwarzman.


            The date for a Lodge of Sorrow at St. Louis was set, "3rd Tuesday in September".


            A committee reported that no further action was necessary regarding the "Chamber of Deputies" in Louisiana.


            Delta Lodge of Perfection was ordered to pay its dues and fees to the Supreme Council before its next Session.


            Several new statutes were adopted and other items were held over for further study.


            The next Biennial Session was set for the first Monday in May, 1870, at Baltimore, Maryland.


            All appointments of Deputies for Louisiana, except those then living who received their appointments under the Concordat of 1854, were revoked.


            A committee was formed to prepare a statute on jurisdictional violations in degree work for introduction at the next Session.


            The statute on time intervals between degrees was amended, only to be dispensed with by Inspectors General or Deputies when establishing new bodies or adding new members to bodies to enable them to have a quorum for work.


            A statute was adopted whereby changes of jurisdiction over candidates within the Southern Jurisdiction must have the approval of the resident Inspector General or Deputy.




The changes in the statutes recommended by the Grand Commander were adopted.


            The Grand Commander was authorized to settle the jurisdictional problems at St. Joseph, Missouri.


            The Session was then closed. 2' No records or correspondence in the period between May 9, 1868, and September 17, 1868, survive to indicate activity by the members of the Supreme Council, except that which received consideration at St. Louis in September.


            In accordance with the resolution of that effect, the Supreme Council reassembled at St. Louis on September 17, 1868, eight Sovereign Grand Inspectors General being present. The principal purpose of the meeting was to open a Lodge of Sorrow, but there were several items of business to which attention was given.


            Correspondence was presented which absolved the Supreme Council of Belgium for the reported recognition of the spurious Foulhouze bodies in New Orleans. An apology was tendered to the Supreme Council of Belgium and a request for the restoration of correspondence was made together with 'one to "appoint a Grand Representative near this Supreme Council".


            A committee of five members of the Supreme Council of the Northern Jurisdiction was present at the meeting and a like committee was formed of members of the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction to discuss the jurisdictional boundary.


            Thomas Hubbard Caswell was elected Sovereign Grand Inspector General,for California.


            All appointments and commissions as Deputy Inspectors General, except the three in Louisiana resulting from the Concordat of 1854, were recalled.


            Eleven brethren were elected to receive the 33' Honorary and eighteen candidates appeared for the conferral of the degree.


            The charter of the Grand Consistory of the District of Columbia was recalled because of inactivity.


            24 Transactions, Supreme Council, S.1., 1868, pp. 3‑100.


            30 WAR, DESTRUCTION AND REVIVAL Committees were formed to study changes in the organization of the Grand Consistories and the fiscal system of the Supreme Council.


            Following the closing of the Lodge of Sorrow, the Session closed on September 19, 1868.


            With the Transactions of 1868, the Statutes and Institutes of the Supreme Council, brought up to date, were published. The evolution of the jurisprudence of the Scottish Rite in the Southern Jurisdiction is a complete study within itself, so detailed and technical as to be unsuited for inclusion in this history. However, some comments on the trends of its evolution are not only desirable but necessary to an understanding of the general history of the Rite in the Southern Jurisdiction.


            The primary source of Scottish Rite law is found in the Grand Constitutions of 1786. This document sets forth a framework of general principles of government and organization rather than details of administration.


            The Supreme Council is established as the administrative head of the jurisdiction. It possesses, generally speaking, all executive, legislative and judicial powers. It holds all of the attributes of sovereignty over the Rite.


            To understand the employment of this system of government, it must be remembered that the Scottish Rite Degrees had their origin in Europe, and that they could exist in Prussia only if the King was the sole and absolute head. In 1786, it was obvious to Frederick the Great that his life was drawing to a close. Evidently, if he died without making. provision for a succession and continuation of his Masonic powers, the Ancient and Accepted Rite would also die. Hence, on May 1, 1786, Frederick, in consultation with other Masonic leaders, promulgated the Grand Constitutions of that date. Regardless of his precautions, the death of Frederick and the wars that followed brought an end to the Degrees in Europe. However, an Inspector General brought the Rite to America, and John Mitchell formed a Supreme Council by authority of the Grand Constitutions at Charleston in 1801.


            In the early years of the Rite in Charleston, it had few members and their problems of government were comparatively few and simple. With the expansion of the membership and the establishment of bodies remote from the Supreme Council, it became necessary to develop a body of law in greater detail. The first published code by the Supreme Council was the Revised Statutes of 1855. Albert Pike recognized the need 31 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33░


for another revision of the law when he became Grand Commander, and the Supreme Council, by appropriate action, adopted and authorized the publication of such a code in 1859. This work appears to have been prepared by Pike and served until 1866 when a new compilation, bearing the title Grand Constitutions, was adopted. The legislation of 1868 and the creation of a trial tribunal served to highlight the incompleteness of the jurispurdence for the government of the expanding Scottish Rite. This period in Scottish Rite law is characterized by rapid evolution and much experimentation. The allocutions of Grand Commander Pike indicate, and his nature and his profession of lawyer further confirm, that most of the additions and refinements sprang from his fertile brain.


            There does not appear to be a period of greater crisis in the history of the Scottish Rite in the Southern Jurisdiction than the first decade of Albert Pike's administration as Grand Commander. The Rite was severely handicapped by the outbreak of the Civil War and the manifold problems, already reviewed, that appeared in its wake. Reconstruction of the Rite began immediately after the close of the war in 1865, in very adverse circumstances, under the aggressive leadership of Albert Pike. Reconstruction was accompanied by a renewal of construction on the unfinished edifice of the Rite. Specific accomplishments from 1865 to 1869 may be listed as follows: The Supreme Council was reorganized, and working unity was restored.


            The rituals of the Rite were virtually completed, printed and prepared for distribution to Subordinate Bodies.


            Ceremonial transcripts for Funeral, Lodge of Sorrow, Masonic Baptism, Louveteau and Adoption were completed.


            Morals and Dogma was ready for the printer.


            Propagation of the Rite was reinstituted.


            Attacks from within and from without the Rite were repelled.


            The pressure against spurious and clandestine bodies was renewed.


            The jurisprudence of the Supreme Council was refined, strengthened and expanded.


            32 WAR, DESTRUCTION AND REVIVAL The organizational structure received minor alterations to accommodate the expansion of the Rite.


            The fiscal and accounting systems were reorganized. Work needed in the future appears to have been as follows: Continued propagation of the Rite.


            Continued evolution of the organizational structure. Continued opposition to spurious and clandestine bodies. Further protection of the territorial jurisdiction. Development of an efficient fiscal system.


            Development of membership accounting system. Further evolution of the system of jurisprudence. Development of an educational program. Recruitment of additional competent leadership. Erection of an administrative headquarters building. Creation of an adequate charity fund.


            CHAPTER 11 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION 1869‑1874 THE end of the first major period in the administration of Albert Pike as Sovereign Grand Commander and the opening of the second is marked only by a date. The general situation had improved only to the extent that there was no war. Radical reconstruction governments supported by the bayonets of an army of occupation ruled the states that had composed the Confederacy. Turmoil, corruption and viciousness characterized the government of the United States. Revolution and reconstruction was also taking place in the North as well as in the South and there was much bitterness and violence throughout the nation. The southern states, almost totally agricultural in economy, had not been permitted to reorganize that industry and restore production much above a subsistence level. The northern and eastern states were undergoing an industrial revolution in which there were areas of depression almost equal to that of the South, although on the surface the appearance of prosperity prevailed. In the West, the final phases of the conquest of the frontier were beginning. A new flood of immigration had begun, the principal sources of which were from lower economic and social classes and were non‑protestant in religious background. In Scottish Rite Masonry, major unsolved problems present in the first years of Pike's administration continued to absorb the Grand Commander's time. The process of bringing "Order out of Chaos" was certainly under the head of unfinished business in every phase of life in the territory composing the jurisdiction of the Supreme Council.


            The reorganization of the spurious Foulhouze Supreme Council in New Orleans by Chassaignac and its recognition by the Grand Orient of France had caused Pike to discuss this problem at considerable length in his "Allocution" to the Supreme Council in 1868. In January, 1869, Pike wrote to James C. Batchelor regarding the controversy and suggested that the Grand Lodge of Louisiana "stir‑up all the Grand Lodges".' At the same time the Grand Commander wrote a letter to Samuel M. Todd and stated that the Grand Orient of France "is always committing some folly since a few years ago it recognized the spurious Hays body in New York". He also told Todd 1 Albert Pike to James C. Batchelor, January 26, 1869.




that he had prepared a letter, which he expected Grand Commander Drummond of the Northern Supreme Council to endorse, to all Masonic powers asking them to denounce the action of the Grand Orient of France.' On February 15, 1869, the Grand Lodge of Louisiana published an announcement of its withdrawal of fraternal relations with the Grand Orient of France' which met the approval of Pike.' Later, he informed Batchelor that if the reply of the Grand Orient of France was not satisfactory "we shall denounce the Grand Orient of France‑to all other Supreme Councils in the world".' Subsequently information in its bulletin, dated July, 1869, indicates that the Grand Orient rejected the objection of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana to the invasion of its jurisdiction by the Chassaignac organization. Drummond of the Northern Jurisdiction wrote to Pike as follows: I have recently written to Brother G to keep their and his attention to the sole question of jurisdiction, where you left it in our Balustre [no copy available]. The action of the Grand Orient was upon Goodall's report rather than in answer to us, and I look for action specifically upon that Balustre. It seems to me the date you name will give them time enough.


            I shall write at once to Goodall to learn if any answer is to be returned: for if they are to make one, though late, we should prefer, it seems to me, to wait till we receive it even though it may be longer than we think we ought to give them.


            If the proceedings given in the Bulletin are to be our answer also, we do indeed have them on the hip.


            They must do one of three things 1. Take the back track fully and completely; 2. Repudiate in all cases the law of exclusive jurisdiction; 3. Admit that law as a general rule, but adopt an exception to it when lodges practically refuse admittance to candidates on account of race or color and determine that in this country such is the fact.


            From the tenor of their Proceedings, I now incline to think the third will be their conclusion. In that event they will array all Bodies in this country and South America against them.' 2 Albert Pike to Samuel M. Todd, January 26, 1869.


            3 James C. Batchelor to All Whom these Presents may come, Frebruary 15, 1869. 4 Albert Pike to Samuel M. Todd, "21 Sebat, A.'.M.'. 5629." 5 Albert Pike to James C. Batchelor, June 5, 1869.


            s Josiah H. Drummond to Albert Pike, October 5, 1869.


            36 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION Before the close of the year Drummond wrote: ... I will endeavor to meet you or Brother French ... and agree upon a conclusion.... The united decision of the two Councils would be decisive and I reciprocate fully your sentiment that the closer relations between our Councils and the more they act in unison, the better I shall be pleased.' The expulsion of George Frank Gouley from the Scottish Rite during the Session of the Supreme Council in 1868 did not bring the disagreeable episode which brought it about to an end. At the urging of Gouley, the Grand Commandery of Missouri had enacted laws and resolutions that made what had been personal disagreement a controversy between rites. A copy of a proposed mandate, endorsed on its reverse side "10 March 1869", prepared by Grand Commander Pike, was distributed to all Active Members of the Supreme Council and afterwards this mandate was revised and addressed to all Scottish Rite Masons in the Southern Jurisdiction on June 30, 1869. This long document is reprinted in Appendix II for reference. It was a definitive statement of the points in controversy and a refutation of Gouley's position. As such, it stripped Gouley of support in the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar, in the Grand Commandery of Missouri, and among the ranks of Knights Templar in other States. Minor revision of the ritual followed which pacified others. Within five years, Gouley was petitioning_ for reinstatement in the Scottish Rite. The Supreme Council acted with magnanimity and he was restored. In 1876, he was elected to and invested with the Rank and Decoration of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour, and he did not create any further controversy before his death in a hotel fire in the following April.


            The abolition of the "Chamber of Deputies" in Louisiana and the adoption of the Pike revision of the Scottish Rite rituals continued, in 1869, to create some problems between Grand Commander Pike and some Louisiana Scottish Rite Masons. John Quincy Adams Fellows of New Orleans contended that the 33' conferred upon him was not an honorary degree but was that of a Sovereign Grand Inspector General. This was reported to Pike who wrote several letters on the subject. His first was to James C. Batchelor, received by Batchelor on August 16, 1869, in which Pike stated that the 33 received by Fellows was that of the Foulhouze ritual, not approved by the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction, and that it was "not used outside of New Orleans". He then pointed out that the Pike ritual of the 33 was approved by the Supreme Council in 1868. Pike then emphasized again that the copy of the 33 ritual held by Fellows was not approved by the Supreme Council. Fellows' other 7 Ibid., December 25, 1869.




objections were with regard to the obligation to country and against the recognition of any degree higher than the 33 which Pike refuted.' This letter did not terminate the misunderstanding, and Pike wrote directly to Fellows. The pertinent portions of the letter are as follows: ... I do no think that, when we properly understand each other, there is any disagreement between us, on the points suggested by you.


            The word "State" is the most comprehensive one that could be used.... in the Ritual the only purpose was to frame the obligation as not to seem to decide anything in regard to the doctrine of allegiance in the United States. . . the conscience of every one [is] free in regard to his political principles.


            You are mistaken in regard to the Rites of Misraim and Memphis. Each claims to have in its scale and administer all the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Rite. . . the clause in the obligation in relation to any higher degrees etc. refers to these Rites and to any others, that may pretend to have degrees above the 33d....


            Of course we do not pretend to have any control over the Capitular, Cryptic or Templar degrees or orders. We do claim that the Symbolic degrees are lawfully a part of our scale. Here [the United States] we claim no control over them, and only say we might have to do it, in a certain contingency not at all likely to happen There are no new points in the 33 obligation.


            You are not wholly correct in regard . . . [to] your title. We had termed you and other Louisiana brethren Deputy Inspectors General. You claimed to have paid for the title of Sovereign, and I advised the Supreme Council that you were right, and it was resolved to entitle you Honorary Sovereign Grand Inspectors General. Not being active ones, not Active Members of the Supreme Council, how else could we designate you? I too received the degree and paid $100 for it, and I am sure I never imagined that I was becoming invested with any powers, or that the title would be any more than an honorary one....


            I am sorry you speak of personal attacks on yourself.... I feel very sure that no personal attack ever was made on you in connection with any suggestion you made to the Supreme Council itself.


            ... nothing, I know, would give all of us [the Supreme Council] greater pleasure than to see many of our Louisiana Brethren with us, and to receive from them counsel and advice. We might not consent to change the fundamental laws as to the organization of our Council; but we should surely not ignore our Brethren, nor treat them otherwise than with the highest respect.


            8 Albert Pike to James C. Batchelor, undated.


            38 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION For myself, I assure you that if the work which I undertook twelve years ago ... were printed, I should at once resign my office. There is nothing in it to make me care to retain it; but all my interest is in the success of the Rite and of its great principles.' It appears that this letter brought the matter to an end as no further documents have been found in relation to it.


            Scottish Rite Masonry had been introduced into Maryland prior to the Civil War and during that conflict had become dormant. Strong opposition to the Rite had developed in Baltimore during and following the War, possibly because Pike and others of the Supreme Council had been prominent in the Confederate military forces, and with the added possibility that the Gouley episode had repercussions in Baltimore. The Northern Jurisdiction had been seeking to expand into Maryland also. There is no doubt that the meeting of the Supreme Council of 1870 was scheduled for Baltimore with the hope that the Session in that city would contribute to a lessening of opposition to the Rite and a restoration of harmony among the members there. Thomas A. Cunningham was reported by Pike in May, 1868, as attempting to revive the Rite in Maryland, and it appears that William S. Rockwell had worked in the state to that end. A letter written by Pike in September indicates that he had received an appeal from John M. Miller for assistance. Pike answered him in these words: On Friday or Saturday next I will be in Baltimore, will see you, and will then arrange to re‑open the Grand Consistory of Maryland this fall. Your charter is in force, because it has never been revoked. You may rely upon it that I shall take the matter in hand. I have not heard from Ill.'. Bro.'. Cunningham since April, on Masonic subjects.


            I know no reason why the surviving Members of the Consistory may not meet at any time, and go to work." A record of Pike's visit, to Baltimore has not survived but the following document indicates what he found the situation to be and outlines the proceedings that should be undertaken to reactivate the Maryland Grand Consistory.


            In response to inquires made in your behalf by Ill.'. Bro.'. John M. Miller, you are by these presents advised that the Grand Consistory of the State of Maryland has never ceased to exist, the number of members always having been sufficient to fill vacancies in the number, and the Letters Patent of Constitution never 9 Albert Pike to John Q. A. Fellows, September 23, 1869. 1 Albert Pike to John M. Miller, September 20, 1869.




having been recalled. If, as has been represented to me, the B B.'. John M. Miller, W. J. Wroth and Emanuel Corbit were selected by consent of the surviving members, to become members of the Grand Consistory, and increase its members of nine to twelve, they will not need to be reelected.           . . . .


            The Ill.'. Bro.'. Thomas A. Cunningham, 33, having become an Active Member of the Supreme Council, can only be ex‑officio a member of the Grand Consistory, over whose doings he has supervision as an Inspector General, but with power to interfere, only when they are irregular, and then subject to an appeal of the Grand Consistory to the Supreme Council, or, in its vacation, to the Sovereign Grand Commander.


            The Sovereign Grand Commander by these presents advises the members, original and added, of the Grand Consistory, that they have the authority to convene, upon the call of any member, and upon notice, and to resume the labors of the body. They may convene by general consent, and when they have done so, may receive additional members, taking them in the order in which they received the 32 Degree, unless there be objection to them. There not being Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret in the State of Maryland, more than sufficient for Active Members, it will not be necessary to report in the mode prescribed by the Statutes of 1866.       . . . .


            Each new member must be unanimously elected, the election being viva voce: and it may be without other form except that of ascertaining that there is no objection to the party proposed.


            It is not necessary that the Lieut.*. Gr.'. Commander, Ill.'. Bro.'. Rockwell, or Ill.'. Bro.'. Cunningham should be present nor is it indespensable that they should be notified, but as each has a right to be present, it will be more regular and more proper, to give them information that the meeting will be held, and invite them to be present.


            If one of the Lieut. Commanders of the Grand Consistory is present, he should preside. If neither, one of the Princes may be selected to do so.


            When the new members have been elected, they should be notified to attend, and thereupon all the officers be elected. They can be installed by me in December, acting in the meantime after taking a simple oath of allegiance to the Supreme Council, of obedience to and observance of the Grand Constitutions of 1786, and the Statutes and Edicts of the Supreme Council, and faithfully to demean themselves in office.


            These proceedings must all be made of record and the Grand Consistory, thus resuming labor will proceed to exercise all its powers.


            The Sovereign Grand Commander is satisfied that the time has come when it should do so, and assume the government and direction of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in Maryland‑and therefore, as it needs no authorization 40 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION from him, nor would it be in his power to prevent the resumption of labor in the manner indicated if he desired to do so, this letter will be regarded as one only of advise. If it had been necessary, it would have assumed the form of a mandate ‑and if the members of the Grand Consistory prefere to consider it as an authorization, they will be entitled to do so, if any objection should be made to their action.


            It appears that Inspector General Thomas A. Cunningham did not favor the reactivation of the Grand Consistory of Maryland and that he may have written to the Grand Commander in protest, for early in December, Pike wrote a letter to Cunningham which reads as follows: After I had been several times applied to for advice, by some of the Sub.'. Princes of the Royal Secret of Maryland, and informed by them that Ill.'. Bro.'. Rockwell had created the requisite number of Princes long since, to increase the number of members of the Grand Consistory of Maryland to nine, I could not longer delay informing them that the charter of the Grand Consistory had never been revoked, and that the members had a full right to meet whenever they saw fit, and resume their labors.


            You had long ago informed me that you thought it best not to put the Grand Consistory again at labor, until an additional number of members should have been obtained; and so long as the Ill.'. Brethren of the Grand Consistory made no complaint to me, but acquiesed silently in your delay, I considered it by no means within my power to interfere. But all that was changed when they demanded to know of me what were their lawful rights. For then I had no option but to inform them, as I did that the Grand Consistory was not dead, and that if by the action of Ill.'. Bro.'. Rockwell, with the consent of the survivors, the number of members had been increased to nine, they could convene, elect officers if necessary, and proceed to work. Of course, under Sec. 4 of Art. XXII of the Constitutions that number is indispensable.


            If there are more than twenty‑one Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret in Maryland, you, with Ill.'. Bros.% Rockwell and Schwarzman, who is by law a member of the Grand Consistory, can, tomorrow or at any other day, select twenty‑one out of the number to be the active members. If as I understand, there are not twenty‑one in all, I do not see how you can have any selection to make.


            When the statute in question was enacted there were in Louisiana some twenty Honorary 33ds and fifty or sixty 32ds. It was necessary, there, and in Virginia and Kentucky, to select the 21 active members out of the whole number of Sublime Princes, and that some body should make the selection. The Honorary 33 d" being all without exception, members of each Grand Consistory, and the active 33ds having always the right to be present and even to preside, and therefore exofficio members, the duty of making the selection was entrusted to them jointly.




They being members without selection, were to select the others, and in preforming that duty an Active 33d had no greater power or authority than an Honorary one. You have just the same power as Ill.'. Bro.'. Schwarzman, and no more, nor any power of supervision or control as the Superior of the Grand Consistory. In making the selection you would act as a member of the Grand Consistory, and not as a member of the Supreme Council....


            The Honorary Inspector General, Ill.'. Bro.'. Schwarzman, and the survivors still resident in the State, with the three added by Ill.'. Bro.'. Rockwell with their consent (as they have certified to me) constitute the Grand Consistory of Maryland. When nine of them assemble there will be a quorum, and they can do any act, work or business within the power of a Grand Consistory to do....


            I learn that at the recent meeting of members of the Grand Consistory, only eight were present. This was not a quorum; and if such was the case, what they did was null and void.


            But the Grand Consistory exists nevertheless, as fully as it ever did. You are no longer the Ill.'. Grand Commander in Chief, because you hold a higher Office, and the acceptance of the higher vacated the lower. The Brethren must therefore elect your successor, and whenever nine of them meet (of whom III.'. Bro.'. Schwarzman may be one) they can do this, fill all other vacancies and proceed to work. All this is their lawful right, of which neither you nor I, nor the Supreme Council itself can deprive them.


            The Grand Consistory of Mississippi has not yet even been reorganized; but no one doubts that it is still in lawful existence and can work. It was nearly a year after the Statute of reorganization was enacted before the Grand Consistory of Louisiana was reorganized, during all which time it was at work, and its works were regular.


            . . . My letter to 111.'. Bro.'. Miller contained no mandate, but my opinion and decision in regard to the legal standing of the Grand Consistory, and its rights to work....


            I earnestly hope, my dear Brother, that you and the Princes of the Royal Secret of the Grand Consistory will act harmoniously together in the matter. . . . Dissension between you and them must be fatal to the Ancient and Accepted Rite in Maryland and it would be the first instance of such dissension in all our jurisdiction. If we must lose the revenue which we should derive from the State if there were no Grand Consistory so be it. That mischief, if it be one was done when we created the Grand Consistory.


            If the Princes of the Grand Consistory assemble, I propose to be present, and hope that you will unite with them, and let us work together in harmony. We can lead them I am sure, but we cannot drive them. If I had attempted that in Louisiana the Rite would have gone to pieces in that State. Even when the superior is entirely in the right, it is often wise to yield.


            42 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION Above all, I hope no unkindness will grow up between you and me. I am sure you have no other desire than to do what you believe to be your duty, and for the interest of the Rite in Maryland. Do me the justice to think the same of me." The Scottish Rite in Maryland in 1869 was experiencing enough difficulty without any friction among the members. At no time nor place had Grand Commander Pike spoken more plainly, yet diplomatically, than he had to Inspector Cunningham on December 8, 1869.


            It seems that Inspector Cunningham read Pike's letter carefully and then proceeded to call the members of the Grand Consistory of Maryland together and complete the number of members without notifying the three 32 Masons created by Rockwell. This was not an oversight, and Cunningham was legally correct for Rockwell had neglected to file the necessary official records of his acts. When John M. Miller and his two companions protested Cunningham's action, Pike sustained the legality of the reorganization of the Grand Consistory of Maryland in a letter to Miller which he closed with an appeal for harmony among members of the Rite in Baltimore." The reorganization of the Grand Consistory of Maryland had been accomplished but an undercurrent of dissatisfaction remained.


            Pike's efforts to restore harmony in the Grand Consistory of Maryland at Baltimore had not been entirely successful and in mid‑January those difficulties again demanded his attention. It was necessary for him to repeat much of the information sent out on January 1, 1871, to remind the Grand Consistory that the powers of the Sovereign Grand Inspector General were advisory and supervisory and that he could on any occasion preside over the deliberations of the Grand Consistory or refuse to sanction action of the Body which he considered invalid, require it to be undone or recalled, and, if his order was refused, might refer the matter to the Supreme Council, suspending the labors of the Grand Consistory until a final decision could be reached. Pike then stated that it would be improper for him to answer the questions propounded without a hearing of both sides of the controversy. The letter was closed with an appeal "to bear and forbear with each other" and a reminder that it was not the action of a good Mason to withdraw from the order since the Supreme Council would "never sanction injustice or the exercise of arbitrary and illegal power"." 12 Albert Pike to Thomas A. Cunningham, December 8, 1869.


            13 Albert Pike to the Ill.'. Grand Commander ... of the Grand Consistory ... of Maryland, February 1, 1870; Albert Pike to John M. Miller, 26 A.'.M.'. 5620.


            14 Official Bulletin, I, 158‑161.




the Once again, firm and unbiased words from Pike calmed the ruffled feelings of members of that Grand Consistory but he had no assurance that calm would be a permanent characteristic. The letter was published in the Official Bulletin no doubt for the effect that it would have in other Grand Consistories as well as in that of Maryland.


            Previous to this point in this study there have been repeated references to inadequate fiscal and membership accounting and to laxness and carelessness in the preservation of Supreme Council documents of administration. On more than one occasion during the first decade of his administration, Pike had made recommendations to the Supreme Council, which were adopted, seeking to remedy these weaknesses. However, the Secretary General, Dr. Albert G. Mackey, either could not or would not cooperate sufficiently to enable the Supreme Council to have an adequate record of the administration of the Rite in the Jurisdiction. The accelerating growth of the Rite convinced Pike, by 1869, that this situation could no longer be tolerated. He put his thoughts on this matter into a letter to James C. Batchelor in which he stated that it was his intention to demand a "full account of all receipts and expenditures, from the beginning" from all Sovereign Grand Inspectors General; that he intended to move the Secretary General's office to Washington; to employ a full time secretary for the Secretary General's office; to leave "Mackey the Secy.Gen., however"; and to reduce the number of Sovereign Grand Inspectors General in South Carolina." Possibly in answer to a letter of complaint, Pike wrote later in the year that he was "more provoked at Mackey's omissions" in the recently printed transactions of the Supreme Council with regard to Louisiana than Todd; that he would "demand a report from Mackey including omitted materials which will be published as a supplement"; that he must "move the Sec. to Washington" and get a secretary that will "attend to something"; and closed his letter with a threat to "resign in disgust"." In the following February, Pike wrote: I urged Mackey, early in December, to send me the Report. Have not heard a word from him. He has let all holds go, and quit: and we shall be compelled to have some one to do the work of the secretariet, or abandon the whole thing ‑I don't mean to do so, out of regard to one who does not regard anybody but himself. There is a limit to the human endurance." 15 Albert Pike to James C. Batchelor, August 2, 1869. is Albert Pike to Samuel M. Todd, December 17, 1869. 17Ibid., February 15, 1870.


            44 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION Then, some two months later he wrote: I am sorry to learn from Ill.'. Bro.'. Worsham that you think you will not be at Baltimore. The Sessions will be the most important one we have ever had, for some things that will be unpleasant must be done, or it will be very unfortunate for the Rite; and our pure and determined members ought not to be away. Pierson is in arrears six or seven thousand dollars, Collins had done nothing in Missouri, and Mackey is useless as Secretary‑General, owing to his unconquerable indolence and Spirit of delay. If it is possible for you to be present you must. Do not desert us now, of all times in the world." The preceding pages, covering the period since the 1868 meeting of the Supreme Council, have indicated the critical climate in which the Session of May 2 through 7, 1876, in Baltimore must operate. The Session, as scheduled, opened with twelve of the twenty‑seven Sovereign Grand Inspectors General present, and one more arrived on. the second day. The excuses of four Active Members were acceptable to the Supreme Council and one was rejected; one had moved from the Jurisdiction to France; and three had died since 1868‑twenty‑two accounted for and five being unaccounted for.


            The business accomplished during the Session included the following actions: Election of Active Members John C. Ainsworth for Oregon Achille Regulus Morel for Louisiana William Tracy Gould for Georgia who was immediately placed on the list of Emeriti Members William Letcher Mitchell for Georgia John Quincy Adams Fellows for Louisiana Seats vacated John C. Breckenridge for Kentucky Henry W. Schroder for South Carolina Resignation A. T. C. Pierson for Minnesota 11 Albert Pike to James C. Batchelor, April 13, 1870.


            45 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33 Election of Officers B. B. French, Lieutenant Grand Commander Henry Buist, Grand Chancellor John Jennings Worsham, Treasurer General Ebenezer H. Shaw, Grand Prior Thomas Cripps, Grand Organist Appointment of Officers Samuel M. Todd, Grand Mareschel of Ceremonies John C. Ainsworth, First Grand Equerry Elections of Honorary 33' Nine Brethren so honored The Grand Commander's Address Reported death of Active Members of the Supreme Council: Edward Rutledge Ives for Florida William S. Rockwell for Georgia Reported on State of the Rite in the Southern Jurisdiction No organized bodies in the District of Columbia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Minnesota or any of the Territories Bodies were established in Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, California, Nevada and Oregon. Ranked the Rite as prosperous in only two states: Louisiana and California.


            Recommended the publication of an official bulletin Reviewed conditions in Foreign Jurisdictions Commented on official decisions Reviewed the action of the Grand Orient of France regarding the Chassaignac organization in New Orleans.


            Defended his Grand Constitutions of 1786 against the attacks of Enoch T. Carson. Commented on "Liturgy and Dogma, Monitor, Dogma and Morals".


            46 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION Contrasted conferral and communication of degrees and observed that "delays should not be disturbed", that the higher degrees should be conferred "sparingly", and that degree work should not be the "chief work" of a lodge.


            Announced that a Lodge of Sorrow would be convened.


            Proposed the creation of a Court of Honour Resolutions One Honorary 33' dropped from roll of Honorary Members.


            Five elections to Honorary 33 cancelled.


            Two Deputy commissions revoked.


            Next Biennial Session to be in San Francisco.


            Date of Lodge of Sorrow set for May 5, 1870, 7 p.m.


            Secretary General directed to prepare a roll of all Active and Honorary Members of the Supreme Council from its organization with pertinent data included.


            All decisions of the Grand Commander were approved.


            Treasurer General's accounts were approved.


            All previous elections to 33, not conferred, were cancelled.


            A limitation of one year until conferral was placed on all future elections to 33 except in cases where satisfactory reasons were given for a delay.


            The 33 should not be conferred until the fee had been paid.


            $300 was appropriated for the transcription of records in a "Book of Gold".


            The thanks of the Supreme Council were extended to the Commanderies and Masons in Baltimore for their assistance and courtesies.


            The bills of the Supreme Council were approved and payment ordered.


            $100 was appropriated for "contingent expense" of the Secretary General.


            On condition that the office of the Secretary General be moved to Washington, D.C., a salary was fixed at $1,000 per annum plus 10% of money collected from the sale of publications in addition to the fees already established by law.




The Secretary General, Treasurer General, Grand Chancellor and Grand Minister of State were directed to secure seals of office.


            All Sovereign Grand Inspectors General not filing "full and complete" reports within 90 days to be suspended from office until the next meeting of the Supreme Council.


            All organized bodies in Alabama and the Lodges of Perfection in Memphis were required to report in full within 90 days.


            The Secretary General was requested to revise the Statutes and Institutes to include the actions of the present Session.


            The Supreme Council relinquished all control over the Degrees of Royal and Select Masters, remitted all dues of such bodies owed to the Supreme Council, and all Statutes relating to said degrees were repealed.


            The "Letter of Denunciation and Appeal", relating to the action of the Grand Orient of France, prepared by Grand Commander Pike, with a request to the Northern Jurisdiction to concur in sending the joint communication to all Supreme Councils of the world was approved.


            A substitute for Article VII was adopted to provide for the election of Sovereign Grand Commander, Lieutenant Grand Commander, Grand Prior, Grand Chancellor, Grand Minister of State, Secretary General and Treasurer General by majority vote of the Supreme Council, in case of vacancy, and the appointment of all other officers by the Sovereign Grand Commander.


            Committee Reports Adopted By the Committee on Jurispurdence that the 33 can be conferred upon anyone Masonically qualfied by the Supreme Council but only those who have attained the age of 35 or over may be elected to Active Membership.


            By the Committee on Finance, as amended, reorganizing the fiscal structure and prescribing a form for reports.


            The Session was closed to meet in San Francisco on "1st Monday in May, 1872".19 is Transactions, Supreme Council, S. J., 1870, pp. 3‑296.


            48 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION The adjournment of the Supreme Council left Grand Commander Pike with a mass of routine work to do in making its actions and resolutions effective in the Southern Jurisdiction. Two items seem to have engaged his attention immediately: the publication of the first number of the Official Bulletin and the formation of the Court of Honour. By June 8, 1870, these items were well out of his way. The "Prefatory To No. 1" of the Official Bulletin reads as follows: The Bulletin of the Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, is intended to be published at intervals of not more than four months, and as much oftener as may be found necessary, to furnish official information of the acts of that Body, of the Council of Administration, and of the Grand Commander.


            It will be strictly official and historical, containing information of the actions of the Supreme Council at its sessions, the important reports made to it, the statutes adopted, the resolution, edicts, and decisions of the body, the acts and decisions of the Council of Administration, and the mandates and rulings of the Grand Commander.


            Each number will contain also the latest information in regard to the doings of Foreign Supreme Councils and Grand Orients.


            It will not be a vehicle for essays, discussions or disputations; but in regard to domestic matters, will furnish under the head of "Unofficial", the current information in regard to Consistories and Subordinate Bodies of the Obedience, and such extracts from Foreign Bulletins, and other documents, Official and Historical, as may be interesting and valuable.


            The Bulletin will be published at the expense of the Supreme Council." Immediately following the close of the Session of 1870, the following communication was sent to each Active Member of the Supreme Council: A STATUTE TO ESTABLISH A COURT OF HONOUR.


            Section 1. There is hereby established a Court of Honour, of those who have deserved well of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, to be composed of Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret.


            Sec. 2. The Knights of the Court of Honour shall be of two ranks,‑Knight Commanders and Grand Crosses of Honour.


            2 Official Bulletin, 1, 3.




Sec. 3. All Knights Commanders and Grand Crosses shall be elected by the Supreme Council, by affirmative vote of three‑fourths of the members present.


            Sec. 4. Each member present at the next regular Session of the Supreme Council may nominate two Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret of his State, to receive the rank and decoration of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour; each taking care to nominate no one who has not by zeal; devotion and active service, deserved well of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.


            Sec. 5. At every session of the Supreme Council, thereafter, each member present may nominate one Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret of his State, and no more, to receive the rank and decoration of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour.


            Sec. 6. The rank and decoration of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour shall never be asked or applied for by any person; and if asked or applied for, shall be refused. And no fee or charge shall ever be made for the said rank and decoration, or those of the Grand Cross of the Court of Honour.


            Sec. 7. The Supreme Council at the next and every subsequent session, select from among the Knights Commanders, three Grand Crosses of the Court of Hohour, and no more.


            Sec. 8.            Each Grand Consistory may, at each meeting of the Supreme Council, nominate one Prince of the Royal Secret, to receive the rank and decoration of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour.


            Sec. 9. No Prince of the Royal Secret shall be hereafter elevated to the rank of Honorary Sovereign Grand Inspector General, unless he be a Knight Commander of the Court of Honour.


            Sec. 10. Each active member of the Supreme Council will be, virtute officii sui, an Honorary Grand Cross of the Court of Honour, entitled to wear the decoration of that rank; and such Honorary Sovereign Grand Inspectors General also as may, for distinguished services, be elected thereto by vote of three‑fourths of the members present in Supreme Council.


            Sec. 11. The Sovereign Grand Commander will be Praefect of the Court of Honour, and the Lieutenant Grand Commander will be Pro‑praefect. The first Grand Cross selected from each State will be the Praetor for such State; and the Grand Commander in Chief of each Grand Consistory, if a Grand Cross, will be, during his term of office, Praetor Honorary for the State.


            Sec. 12. The Court of Honour may assemble at the same time and place with the Supreme Council, shall be presided over by a Legate Grand Cross designated by the Sovereign Grand Commander, adopt Rules of Order and Statutes for its 50 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION government, and propose to the Supreme Council measures of Legislation for the benefit of the Order of Scottish Freemasonry, and be heard in the Supreme Council by its Grand Crosses, to urge, explain and discuss the same.


            Sec. 13. Each Knight Commander and Grand Cross of the Court of Honour, shall receive from the Supreme Council, without charge, a Diploma or Letters Commendatory, in the Latin language, and on vellum, as evidence of his rank.


            Sec. 14. Every Grand Cross shall have the privilege of membership in all bodies of the Rite in his State, and be free of all dues, taxes and assessments, everywhere.


            Sec. 15. The Supreme Council will give without charge to every Grand Cross of the Court of Honour, the jewel of his rank.


            Sec. 16. The Jewel of a Knight Commander, and that of a Grand Cross, shall be such as may be defined and established by the M.'. P.'. Sov.'. Gr.'. Commander, and the Lieut.% Gr.'. Commander, to whom this subject is referred.


            At the late Session of the Supreme Council, the consideration of the foregoing Statute was postponed until the next regular Session. A reconsideration of that vote was intended to have been had‑on the last day of the Session; but the pressure of business on that day caused it to be forgotten.


            At the request of several of the Brethren of the Supreme Council, who earnestly wish it speedy adoption, as an incitement to labour and faithful service during the two years now begun, I submit for your consideration this question: "Shall the Statute to establish a Court of Honour, as its text is given above, be passed and become a law?" Please forward your vote, Aye or No, hereunder written to the Secretary General, at 1418 F Street, Washington City.


            On June 8, 1870, Grand Commander Pike published a notice that the Statute had been adopted." The last sentence in the communication on the Statute to create a Court of Honour provides the information that the office of the Secretary General had been moved to Washington, D. C., and was located at 1418 F Street. This was a move long desired by Pike as has been previously recorded.


            21 Ibid., 56.




In May also, the Grand Commander sent a circular letter to all Inspectors General and Deputies containing the resolutions of the Supreme Council providing for the suspension of said officers if they failed to send in their reports within the limits provided." Shortly thereafter, Pike wrote to Frederick Webber regarding Webber's report to him and in regard to other routine administrative details." This letter was followed within a few days by one that announced that he (Pike) was leaving for Minneapolis on June 18, 1870, and that he expected to visit Topeka and Santa Fe before returning to Washington in July." No previously dated letters or documents have survived to indicate the intention to make this trip, nor the reason for it, and there are none to establish that the trip was made. However, the following circular letter issued late in 1870 indicates a situation that may have come to Pike's attention in mid‑June.


            Very Dear Brethren: Having heard that Ill.'. Bro.'.‑ A. T. C. Pierson, 33d, late Grand Prior of the Supreme Council, still confers the degrees of the said Rite, and those of Royal and Select Master, in the State of Minnesota, and receives the fees therefor, we do deem it necessary to make it known unto you that the said Ill.'. Bra.'. resigned his membership in our Supreme Council, at the session held in Baltimore on the 2d day of May last, and has since then been only an Honorary Member thereof; and that he has since then had and now has, no power or authority whatever to confer degrees or create bodies, of said Rite, or to confer the degrees of Royal and Select Master, or to receive moneys for degrees, in the State of Minnesota or elsewhere; and that all his acts so done since said session of our Supreme Council are null and void, and without the knowledge or authority of our Supreme Council.


            And we do further give you to know that at the same session our Supreme Council formally relinquished all control over the degrees of Royal and Select Master, and that since that time none of our Inspectors General could lawfully invest any one with those degrees.


            And as the said Ill.'. Bro.'. has never reported to us any of his doings as Inspector General, in Minnesota or elsewhere, we do advise those who have received from him any of the degrees of the said Rite, to furnish us with the evidence thereof, that they may, if invested with them before our last session, receive the proper credentials whereby to prove lawful possession of the said degrees.


            zz Albert Pike to Erasmus T. Carr, May 25, 1870. 2a Albert Pike to Frederick Webber, June 1, 1870. 24 Albert Pike to Erasmus T. Carr, June 17, 1870.


            52 of A~~t4i'n , i, ~lzesvan, 63 FORP,ESPONDING TO ~OV. 1ST, 18 0, y.‑.f ,˛, A,    Mile name f Mile, cefupreme pauncil of ~lze 33c1 ‑geyree f elne      %zcz'en~ and accelzWed JcoUiSA RiZZe, for Mile Joualzerrz, Wurzsa?ic~ion f Mze '&ni~ecl AVazes .' To all Freemasons of the 3Qd Degree of the said Rite, hi good staizding, in the State of Georgia HEALTH, STABILITY, AND POWER! and Very ‑Tear VroM er   .


            ‑''v~ clirec~ion and antler aullzorily f Me, Sov.'.Sranp? 0om?na)zcler and Mme Oouneil f            clmz~'nis~ra~zorr, .   all AmOme princes o' 14e molal Jecrd 3zcl ‑Teyree        .'.         .'.oS .  iZe, in yoocl 8 ano?irnq, wi~lzin oznr Jizso71 eion /‑wlzicln coM~Prises MJe CS~lale of Seoryia l, are cliredeW M assemble in ~Tze My f          uyusla, upon ~Tze 7sZTz clad el ~lne ;oresern~ mon~lz, for ~7~e ~urIvose of oryanizirny and ins~i&u~iny a v~ran~ p~onsis~ory for the           (7, ~e f '1~4eoryia.


            c7Je ~ov.'.era‑ncl p~omman~er, ill .fro.'.~ l~er~ ~~Vie, 33c1, 2.oeZl~res2'cle. you are re,~ues~ecT, ~o yes~ec~ ~lzis, our ~rnaiZC~?afe, a)u/ yover>n yourse accorclinyly.


            qArater1l ally yours, TKIf, ‑L. JI_,ZTUTTKLL~ 3,13d. Sov.‑.G)and Inspector General.


            Ta Ma NELSON, 3d.


            Honorary Inspector General and Special Deputy.


            53 AMT xl esvan~ 6"63 FORPESPONDING TO NOV. 1ST, 18 0, Y‑‑.~,‑, Jn Me name of ilze ‑&Ivreme Oomncil l zlze 33667 ‑eyree f elze eneie~‑a and accelv~eo? UGDZZid'1, Mi~e, for ~Aze AoldlllerYb e~f?,( ris667ic~ion f Mle Vni~e667 To all Freemasons of the 32d Degree of the said Rite, At good stariding, ia the State of Georgia HEALTH, STABILITY, AND POWER! and 'Perk ‑Tear Rrozlzer        _          ..          __ ...


            cZirec~ion an(? un6ler au~hori~y f ~Te SJov.'.~ran6Z ~omman6ler and Mm oouneiz f a(lmI')nislrazion .. a1Z AmMime princes of Mze NoyaI Jecree 32667 ‑Tel ree .'. . . J. ‑. Mile, in good 8ZaYn667inq, wiM in oaGr Lion, / wAicA coml)rises Ml e JWe of Seoryia/, are o?zrede(l ~o assemMe zn elze &y f           uyus~a~ upon    ze 7sZlz claJ' cl Mze 1oresen~ mor~Zlz, ,for ~lzc purIvose f oryaniziny ano? zndiladirny a Sran667 Oonsistory for llze Afa~e of Seoryia.


            ,7lze &v.'.'5~‑and 0ommander, , o Zl'.         ro.'.~; l67er~ ~zke~ ~361, wa'Zl~res2'cle.


            you a~e re meVecl ~o        Miss our inaizWafe, and yover)z yours6, ~I, accor667inylzy.


            ~ralcrll ally yours JTT~`' v11‑1‑E1L'L, 33d.


            Sov.‑. Grand Inspector General.


            ld s ff. NUSOX, 3.


            Honorary Inspector General and Special Deputy.


            53 ORDO AB CHAO.




            t* an ~156alwp~ of t4f, 1kfr'&T+nad ~oggee of air "e1finae in ol, Italy of           ,eaej e G R EET I N G Ill.‑.       and      Very    Dear   Bro............... .............. _         ..          _.............................


            This is to inform you that the most Puissant Grand Consistory of the Stxtc of Georgia, was duly organized, instituted and consecrated, and its Officers installed. in the City of Augusta, the Seat and ace of the, same, on the l8dl and 19th clays of November, 1870. You are, by virtue of your dignity, as x S.'.S.'., an Active Member of the Grand Consistory, and entitled to attend its Sede˛unts,       and Vote upon all questions submitted to it for decision.        Whun not able to attend its Annual Meetings, which are required t,y its Constitution to he held on the Thursday after the last Wednesday in April of each year. you Will please address your excuse in writin,; t~) the Grind Registrar of the Grand Consistory at Augusta, the suflicioncy Of which will be determined by the body.


            You are requested to notify the ILL.‑. GRAND REGISTRAR ;is soon as convenient, whether Or not you desire your name to bu enrolled with the Active Members of the Grand Consistory.


            A list of the Ollicers of the Grand Consistory is hereunto annexed for your information and guidance. Yours, Fraternally, WM. L. MITCHELL, 33, T. H. NELSON, 33, bptciral Deputy.


            Sor. . Grhwl Iaspeclor Generftl of the State of Georgia.


            OFFICT‑‑ R 0f, "Toll', ‑97wo C01Vsisl,"'o~RY .


            CHARLi.s G. GOODRICH, Grand Commander in Chief. CALVIN FAY, First Lieutenant Grand Cononander. .J. E.%I~IE,rT BLACKSHEAR, Second Lieutenant Grand Commander. WILLIAM CRAIG, Grand Constable.


            ARCHIBALD MCLELLAN, Grand Adwiral. JOHN KING, Grand Minister of Sttde. THOMAS II. NELSON, Grand‑Chancellor. DANIEL J. RYAN, Grand Hospitaller and Ahnontr. EDWARD 11. PUGHE, Grand Registrar.


            RoRERT L. MOILWAINE, Grand Keeper of the Seals. WILLIAM J. GOODRICH, Grand Treasurer.


            REV. DAVID WILLS, Gwtnd Primate.


            CHARLES S. BRADFORD, Grand Provost or Muster of Ceremonies WILLIAM J. POLLAIID, Graced Expert. JOSIAH MOSHER, Assistant Grand Expert. JOHN D. BUTT, Grand Beamenijer. ALEXANDER PHILIP, Grand Bearer of the Vexillwn Belli. JOHN OSLEY, Grand Master of the Guards.


            RICHARD S. AGNEW, Grarad Chaniberlain. WILLIAM H. HANCOCK, Grand Aid‑de‑ Camip of the Commander‑in‑Chief JOHN E. NAVY, Grand Steward.


            FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION And the bodies of the Rite organized in Minnesota never having reported to our Supreme Council, nor being on our Register, are hereby warned to make due return by the first day of March next, or their works will be suspended.


            Given under our hands and seals of office at the Orient aforesaid, the day and year aforesaid, under the Great Seal of the Supreme Council.


            Notice of the death of Lieutenant Grand Commander Benjamin B. French was published on August 12, 1870,2 5 and immediately thereafter Pike caused a ballot to be circulated by mail for an election to fill the vacancy. John Robin McDaniel was elected to the office of Lieutenant Grand Commander and the announcement was published on September 30, 1870.2 In reply to an invitation to attend the Lodge of Sorrow conducted by the Grand Consistory of Louisiana, Pike expressed doubt that he could be present. In the same letter the Grand Commander took occasion to advise Sovereign Grand Inspector Todd of several other matters. He stated that he had received the Bulletins of the Grand Orient of France and that he would reply by Balustre in December; he acknowledged receipt of special music prepared by Thomas Cripps and took the opportunity to ask Todd to "render" Cripps "out of his discontent" at not having received the 33'. He promised to write a "general eulogy and specially remembering the Latin Brethren" for the Lodge of Sorrow21. Pike later found it possible to be in New Orleans for the Lodge of Sorrow and delivered his "general eulogy" in person.


            In November, Wm. L. Mitchell officially advised the Grand Commander that a Grand Consistory for Georgia had been organized." Subsequent correspondence with the presiding officer of that body requested much detailed advice about the duties and responsibilities of a Grand Consistory and its officers. It is unfortunate that the replies of Pike have not survived.


            On some now unknown date in 1870, Pike sent out a circular letter relating to the communication of degrees. Since the same problem is, to some extent, still prevalent, Pike's letter is reproduced in full for what it may be worth on this subject.


            25 Star, August 12, 1870. 2s Official Bulletin, I, 163. 27 Albert Pike to Samuel M. Todd, October 2, 1870. 28 Official Bulletin, I, 51.


            29 Wm. L. Mitchell to Albert Pike, November 29, 1870.


            55 rient o~      ~~I~iit~toiY,    i~irict o First day of the ,Month Ir.r..˛. Bxo.˛.


            .~1.~. ‑M.'. 5630.


            I leave lately been informed by a. Brother who received from the Deputy of a Sov.'. Gr.˛. Inspector Ueneral the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, from 4 to 32, by commnnir~a~.ron, that the whole was done in the sloace of two hours or a little ruore.


            It is quite evidelrt that one so receiving the degrees can be neither a 1{ose Croix, a 1Zadosh nor ar Prince of the I~ogal Secret in anything more than name. IIe can know nothing, or comparatively nothing, of their teachings, nor understand the ceremonies, nor have received any value at all or vn,y berleiit at. all, in return for that which he paid Hurt lro rui~rllt become a 32 indeed.


            When the degrees arc communicated the candidate must take the vows of every orre degrees in regalar succession. )FIe must cornpl,y‑ with the rwelirniuaries of tire 5th and 18th degrees. Ffe must. alrswer the preliminary questions, make the preliminary promises and give the preliminary pledges, in evel;S‑ degree, wherever these are found.


            The Icast time in whi<~h the decrees can be prolaerly communicated is sixteen hour a clay on four al1eC0FSlce clays. On the first clay ere m.ry advance to the 14th degree and on the second, to the 18th <rr:cl no farther: on the third, to the 30th <rncl rlo farther; and on he will conclude.


            That he pray obtain some ideas of the nature, puryose slue meaning of the degrees, a acrd separat.cl3‑, parts of the olvening anc~ closing ceremonies of each must be read to him, tl of initiation be briefly gone over, curd the mast. striking portiolrs of the instruction be read.


            That all this nlay be yroperly dor,o,.:nd the ca;ndiclatc be enabled to a>>preeiate the degrees and not to despise them as v'orthless or con:~ider himself' deluded, deceived and defrauded by large promises followed by scant performance, eac+h Ill.˛. l~ro.˛. orr whom it may devolve to communicate degrees, must. be thorozylal~ familiar with tire whole, and witL every hart of each.


            For, to pretevc] to communicate the degrees irr two hours is to but them upon the level those of a Iiite whose ninety degrees have bean ~ communicated" while crossing a river in a fe boat, and even by ~ potent sent by mail to a candidate not seed.         1=Iowever pure and good the int tion, the effect cannot but be most mischievous and most deplorable. tire do not zccrzrt Initiates who c be satisfied with such com.mzcnicat orr of degrees drat are worthy to lie the study of a lifetime, and i which there is nothing that is not of value for' the heart or for the head.


            All our Sovereign Grand Inspectors General are therefore urgently entreated to conform their action and course of initiation to these saggestioua ; which are, for all Grand Consistoriea and of the s, font boors no farther the fourth s a ~~hole e course with rryen ~.n n 56 other bodies‑, and all Special and other Deputies, peremptory instructions, to be at all points observed and obeyed, until order of our Supreme Council to the contrary: nor is any dispensation or any pretence of exigency or emergency to be permitted to excuse any non‑observance thereof, in any case or under any circumstances whatever.


            And you are further admonished that in no case hereafter can the delays required by Statute be dispensed with, unless it be in cases where the degrees are to be conferred on BB.‑. for the purpose of enabling there to oe constituted a new body of the Rite, or for the purpose of filling up the numbers of an existing body, until it becomes perfect and efficient, and no further.       It is to violate the spirit of the law to add members in that manner, to any body of the Rite, after its numbers are complete, and a quorum for work at all times is secured.


            It is not the purpose of the Ancient and Accepted Rite to run a race of competition for numbers with any other Rite or Order whatsoever. Loyalty to it cannot consist with the cheapenig of its degrees, nor is its strength to be found in mere numbers; in which, indeed, all other Orders in compete with it and may profit thereby, while it must fail to make true progress and advancement. Receive, very dear Brethren, these admonitions in the spirit in which they are given.  Recall to your minds the teachings of our beloved Rite, and aid us in enforcing its laws.


            Sov.‑. Gr. ‑. Commander.




During 1870, Pike and Grand Commander Drummond, of the Northern Jurisdiction, carried on a correspondence that produced the long discussed "Letter of Denunciation and Appeal" approved by both the Southern and Northern Supreme Councils and issued by them jointly late in the year, possibly in December, as indicated in Pike's letters previously reported. This "Letter of Denunciation and Appeal" is historical and judicial in nature and is quoted in full in Appendix III. At this point it is sufficient to say that it withdrew recognition of and fraternal relations with the Grand Orient of France and any and all bodies that might support the position of the Grand Orient with regard to the situation in Louisiana until the objectional action had been recalled.


            The year of 1871 opened with the publication of two circular letters: the first was a statement of the powers of a Sovereign Grand Inspector General relating to a Grand Consistory and is the first known analysis of this relationship: the second was another effort to collect the money due the Supreme Council for degree work done by Sovereign Grand Inspectors General and Deputies of the Supreme Council. Both letters are dated January 1, 1871, and read in part as follows The Supreme Council not having as yet acted ... in regard to the powers of Inspectors General ... in States where there are Grand Consistories, I have been constrained ... to consider the question and decide it, subject to the future determination of the Supreme Council.


            The following provisions of the Constitutions and Statutes are all that bear upon the question: "In no case", says the Declaration prefixed to the Grand Constitutions of 1786, "can any other person enjoy those rights, prerogatives, privileges and powers wherewith we do invest those Inspectors".


            By Art. xvi, 1 1, of the Statutes, the Supreme Council reserved to itself the power of conferring any of the Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, upon any such persons as it might deem worth to receive them. And it was provided that it might delegate that power to Deputy Grand Inspectors General, in States wherin there was no resident active Member of the Supreme Council or Grand Consistory.


            Art. xxv gives each active Member of the Supreme Council the power to confer all the degrees, to and including the 32d, by way of honorarium, and without fee; no exception being made in regard to States in which there are Grand Consistories.


            Art. xxxii, 1 4‑"Every Sovereign Grand Inspector General, active Member of the Supreme Council, possesses, and may exercise in the State in wihch he resides, during the recess of the Supreme Council; all the prerogatives of Grand Master of Symbolic Lodges, so far as relates to the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite." 58 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION Art. xxii, 1 4‑Declares each Grand Consistory, "a deputy of this Supreme Council, and the governing Power of the Ancient and Accepted Rite in the State wherein it is organized", and that all charters for bodies of the degrees below the 31st, must emanate from it, and all Potents, Briefs and Diplomas be issued by it".


            Art. xxii, 1 5‑"The privilege of conferring the 31st and 32d degrees has been delegated by the Supreme Council to the Grand Consistories." Art. xxvi, 1 2‑"The degrees may be communicated in order to establish new bodies." Art. xxvii, 1 2‑"For the puropse of propagating the Rite, this provisions as to delays may be dispensed with by any Sovereign Grand Inspector General, active Member of the Supreme Council, . . . for the purpose of establishing bodies, or adding members to bodies already existing, so as to enable them to work." Upon reflection and careful consideration, I have arrived at the following conclusions That the Grand Commander‑in‑Chief of a Grand Consistory is but the presiding officer of that body, except so far as it may invest him with power to act for it during its recesses, and that he does not possess, nor can it confer upon him, the power to confer any of the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, that power being confined to Inspectors General, active Members of the Supreme Council, Deputies of these or of the Supreme Council, and organized bodies of the Rite.


            That the Grand Consistory may empower the Grand Commander‑in‑Chief to congregate the requisite number of brethren already in possession of the necessary degrees, into any body of the Rite, of the 14th, 16th, 18th, or 30th degrees, and to grant to such body a warrant, to be afterwards submitted to the Grand Consistory for confirmation and continuance.


            That an Inspector General, active member of the Supreme Council, or a Deputy of the Supreme Council, in a State where there is a Grand Consistory, retains undiminished his power to confer any and all of the degrees of the Rite, from the 4th to the 32d on such persons as he may select, and to establish any of the said subordinate bodies, granting Letters Patent, which must be submitted to the Grand Consistory for confirmation,‑the fees for the degrees belonging to the Supreme Council, and those for Letters Patent to the Grand Consistory; from which, also, those receiving degrees from an Inspector General or Deputy, must, upon his certificate, obtain their Diplomas, Briefs or Patents, and to it pay the fees therefor. And that a Grand Consistory can confer no degrees except the 31st and 32d; all below these being conferable only by the proper Body, or by an Inspector General, or Deputy Inspector General as aforesaid; so that councils of Knights of Kadosh are indispensable bodies in this jurisdiction.




If there be in any place but one person who desires the degrees, and no body established there, they may certainly be given him, for the purpose of establishing the bodies . . . thereafter....


            Wherever a body . . . is established, the degree may be given . . . until finally the requisite number for a new body is obtained....


            I am clearly of opinion that the only efficient mode of extending the Rite is ... to extend it among individuals, one by one....


            The Grand Commander then took the opportunity to point out that the Supreme Council needed money to pay its printing bills and to finance the publication of "Morals and Dogma" then in the printer's hands. He also reminded the Inspectors General We have paid since the war about seven thousand dollars for printing, in addition to all other expenses, and of this sum about five thousand came from California; and we owed it to the zeal and energy of our Ill. Brother Shaw. Even from the great jurisdiction of Louisiana we have received but three or four hundred dollars, and from most of the States much less; from many nothing at all.


            He closed the letter with an appeal to propagate the Rite, to make the quarterly returns by the Statutes and to require Subordinate Bodies to make due and prompt returns "without delay" that the Supreme Council would be enabled "to do its work"." The second letter reads as follows I am directed by the M.'. P.'. Grand Commander to inform you that there are demands against the Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, for moneys due for printing Rituals and Transactions, and other work, which cannot be met unless the money due to itself are paid.


            The Sovereign Grand Commander desires me fraternally but earnestly to urge you to remit to the Treasurer General, Ill.'. Bro.'. John J. Worsham, 33d, at Memphis, in the State of Tennessee, the sum of $‑, due by you to the Supreme Council, since day of  , 18‑, for It is hoped that as the sum thus due belongs in fact to those whom the Supreme Councils owes, you will, if not actually impossible, make due answer to this sign and summons, that the Order may not suffer reproach." " Albert Pike to John Robin McDaniel, January 1, 1871. 31 Blank form letter, January 1, 1871.


            60 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION Within three months of Pike's appeal to the Inspectors General and the Deputies of the Supreme Council to increase the tempo of the propagation of the Rite, he received a letter from Inspector John C. Ainsworth that he had established Albert Pike Lodge, No. 2, at Salem, Oregon, and reported "Under direction of your Circular of January 1st, '71, I have taken individuals from different localities to form a nucleus of a `new body . . .' ". Probably of as good news to the Grand Commander was his statement that he was sending $1,800 to the Treasurer General." The good news from Oregon was followed by sad tidings on April 2, 1871, when Inspector General Giles M. Hillyer, Grand Minister of State, of Mississippi died. However, the living must carry on and after writing a tribute to the "Illustrious Dead", Pike turned back to administrative duties of the Supreme Council.


            Treasurer General John J. Worsham reported receipt of $1,836.04 remitted by Ainsworth on April 12, 1871, and in the same letter raised objection to the Session set for San Francisco because of the cost of travel. Two days later he wrote that he had received Pike's instructions to pay William T. Anderson $1500 and explained that a protested draft had never reached him. A few days later, Worsham advised Pike against a proposed appointment in Memphis until he had made an investigation in that city." This was the last known letter Pike received from Worsham, for Worsham died on July 31, 1871. The office of Treasurer General was a very active office and the Grand Commander immediately appointed Inspector General Frederick Webber of Kentucky to fill the office" until the next meeting of the Supreme Council, not quite one year away.


            One of the major problems in the propagation of the Rite has always been the finding of the right man in a given territory to do the work. Pike was constantly looking for such men. On April 24, 1871, John S. Driggs accepted an appointment as Deputy Inspector General for Florida, and about the same time William M. Ireland was appointed to the same position in the District of Columbia. However, E. H. Caldwell and "Brother" Willoughby both declined such an appointment in Alabama." Charles G. Goodrich, Grand Commander of the Grand Consistory of Georgia, was most active in his state in 1871. He reported to Pike that he was corresponding with Masons in Albany, Fort Valley, Atlanta and Macon with regard to Lodges of Per 32 J. C. Ainsworth to Albert Pike, March 25, 1871.


            33 John J. Worsham to Albert Pike, April 12, 14, May 25, 1871. 34 Official Bulletin, 1, 366.


            35 John S. Briggs to Albert Pike, April 24, 1871; Official Bulletin, 1, 229; E. H. Caldwell to Albert Pike, May 1, 1871.




fection and had established such a Lodge at Milledgeville." Inspector General Mitchell of Georgia informed Pike later that he had issued Letters of Constitution for a Lodge of Perfection at Atlanta and that a Lodge could be formed at Rome before the year ended." R. M. Smith, a Deputy of Mitchell, expressed the opinion that two more Lodges of Perfection would be established before the spring of 1872.38 The Grand Commander contributed materially to the efforts in Georgia, Minnesota, Iowa and South Carolina during mid‑1871. In May, he was in Charleston to form a Chapter of Rose Croix" and also in Georgia to lend inspiration to the workers there. In July, Pike was in Minnesota and Iowa to assist in forming bodies at St. Paul and Lyons. At Lyons, Pike spent five days, and when he left, the Knights of Kadosh totaled ninety. The Bodies at Lyons had expanded $15,000 for regalia and had started the construction of a temple which was finished in 1872.' In so far as (See Illustration on page 63) is presently known, this building was the first in the Southern Jurisdiction to be erected and owned exclusively by Subordinate Bodies of the Scottish Rite. Early in September, Pike planned a trip into the West to visit Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana and Alabama" but there is no record that he actually made the trip.


            As had been a part of his labors for the entire period of his administration, Grand Commander Pike carried on an extensive correspondence with Robert Macoy regarding the printing authorized by the Supreme Council. Revision of the Rituals and Ceremonies were the principal projects in 1870. A continuation of the correspondence with Macoy began early in 1871. Macoy's letter of February 4, 1871, acknowledged receipt of $1,258.75 in money sent in by Shaw for work at Salt Lake City." The letter also contained information on the progress of typesetting on the "Ceremonies of Baptism and Adoption", "Morals and Dogma", "Bulletin" and "Charters". This letter indicates the extent of printing committments for 1871‑1872. In August the printer wrote Pike that he needed a payment on the printing bill of the Supreme Council and two days later that he was sending some proof sheets of "Morals and Dogma". In the first week of October, Macoy requested a payment of $1,000 as Chas. G. Goodrich to Albert Pike, Swan 26, 5331; May 22, 1871. 3 " Wm. L. Mitchell to Albert Pike, November 4, 1871.


            38 R. M. Smith to Albert Pike, January 2, 1872. 39 Henry Rush to The Supreme Council, undated. 40 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. 1., 1874, p. 15. 41 Albert Pike to Marshall W. Wood, September 4, 1871. 42 Albert Pike to T. S. Parvin, February 5, 1871.




on the printing bill and before the end of the month the Grand Commander sent out another circular letter regarding the payment of accounts owed to the Supreme Council. Pike was unable to meet the request for $1,000 but did send $600. A request for more copy and the delivery of more proof sheets took place in November and December. All of the type for "Morals and Dogma" was set by mid‑December, 1871.43 It appears that Pike had been unsuccessful in collecting sufficient funds to defray the printing bill and had sought a loan, for Wm. L. Mitchell wrote that such a loan might be secured from Robert Toombs.44 This letter was followed in a few days by one from Toombs who stated that he could let the Grand Commander have $3,000. Of this amount, $2,000 was paid to Pike in two installments of $1,000 each." The first twenty‑four copies of Morals and Dogma were sent to Pike on March 2, 1872.46 On August 24, 1871, Grand Commander Pike saw fit to issue a circular letter regarding the situation of Scottish Rite Masonry in Colombia which he closed by stating that it was his intention to submit a document entitled "Articles of Agreement and Contract" for adoption to the Supreme Councils of the world. The four articles read as follows ARTICLE I The Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States will not recognize more than one Supreme Council of the 33d Degree in any North or South American Republic; and agrees that the creation of more than one is forbidden except in the United States of America, by the Fundamental law of the Rite.


            ARTICLE II The said Supreme Council will maintain as an inviolable law and landmark of Free Masonry, that an illegal, irregular, and spurious body, claiming Supremacy, cannot be legitimized by a Treaty made between it and a regular body of the same rank and degree, but continues, after such a treaty, as spurious and irregular as before.


            43 Robert Macoy to Albert Pike, August 15; 16; October 6; 27; 28; November 4; 14; December 13, 1871; Circular Letter, October 25, 1871.


            44 arm. L. Mitchell to Albert Pike, December 27, 1871.


            45 R. Toombs to Albert Pike, January 3; April 14, 1871; C. H. Phinizy to Albert Pike, January 4, 1871; Robert Macoy to Albert Pike, January 10; 30; February 1, 1871.


            46 Robert Macoy to Albert Pike, March 2, 1872.


            64 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION ARTICLE III The Supreme Council will maintain as the law of Free Masonry, that a regular body of any degree, so treating with and recognizing as its peer an irregular and illegitimate body, becomes itself infected with irregularity, and is no longer entitled to recognition; and it will maintain no relations of amity or correspondence with a body that so commits felo de se.


            ARTICLE IV The said Supreme Council agrees that it will not hereafter create or authorize the creation of, a Supreme Council in any Empire, Kingdom, Republic or State, anywhere in the world, without first obtaining the unanimous consent of all the Supreme Council that shall accede to this agreement; and that it will not recognize any one created by any other power or authority, without such unanimous consent. Nor will it revive any dormant Supreme Councils, without obtaining such consent thereto, nor recognize any dormant Council that may hereafter be revived without such consent." Pike submitted the proposed "Articles of Agreement and Compact" to the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction in his Allocution delivered on May 6, 1872, but there is no record that the same was adopted as an official statement of minimum principles upon which recognition could be based. This would not indicate a disagreement with the considerations that were expressed, rather it does indicate that the document did not adequately cover all of the points of regularity by which a Supreme Council should be measured before fraternal relations should be established with it. It might be pointed out in this connection that the creation of an adequate formula for recognition between Masonic Grand Bodies resolving all of the questions of jurisprudence, custom, practice, wisdom and propriety is probably the most difficult undertaking in the whole category of Masonic policy making. It has successfully defied all efforts at final solution from the establishment of the first Grand Lodge at London in 1717 until the present writing.


            United States Grand Lodges were concerned about the regularity of Lodges established in Mexico under the Supreme Council of Mexico which became dormant in 1871. On August 23, 1871, Pike issued a circular letter in which the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction vouched for the regularity of the Mexican Supreme Council and the Lodges that it had established and also assumed responsibility for the Mexican Lodges so created until the Supreme Council of Mexico could 47 Albert Pike to M.'.P.'. Sovereign and P.'. Lieutenant Grand Commanders etc., August 24, 1871.




be reactivated. A second circular letter was mailed out on March 6, 1872, in which Pike announced the recognition of the reactivated Mexican Supreme Council." Other surviving correspondence before the Session of the Supreme Council in May, 1872, informed Pike that his rituals were being used in Canada;" that the Supreme Council of the Northern Jurisdiction would not tolerate invasions of the Southern Jurisdiction by its representatives;" that Pike's Book of the Words was ready for distribution;" and notified the Inspectors General that the meeting place for the Session of the Supreme Council in 1872 had been changed from San Francisco to Louisville." The Grand Commander also indicated that the persecution of ex‑Confederates had not yet died out in the nation's capital when he wrote: "It is a hard world for a rebel to live in."" The final letter of preparation for the 1872 Session of the Supreme Council was a circular sent out on April 2, 1872, regarding nominations for Knight Commander of the Court of Honour. Since this was the first of its kind, it is quoted in full.


            Dear and Ill.'. Bro.'.


            By the terms of the statute creating the Court of Honour, each InpsectorGeneral, active member of the Supreme Council, will have the right, at the coming session of the first Monday of May next, to nominate two Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret, and each Grand Consistory to nominate one, to receive the rank and honour of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour.


            Each Bro.'. so nominating Princes to be decorated with the said rank and honour is required by the statute "to take care to nominate no one who has not by zeal, devotion and active service, deserved well of the Ancient and Accepted Rite." It will, therefore, in each case, be necessary to make known to the Supreme Council what services have been rendered, and' what zeal and devotion have been displayed. For, without the said rank and dignity, no one can become a 33d; and unless that degree is hereafter given for real, actual and distinguished zeal, energy and devotion, and for actual and valuable services, as well as in consideration of high personal character, of intelligence, and of cultivation of the intellect by study, it will soon become as common and as cheap as the commonest and cheapest of Masonic degrees.


            4s Circular Letter, August 23, 1871; March 6, 1872. 4s J. W. Murton to Albert Pike, December 14, 1871. 50 Josiah Drummond to Albert Pike, March 10, 1872. 51 Circular Letter, March 10, 1872.


            52 Ibid., March 11, 1872; April 2, 1872.


            53 Albert Pike to John H. Howe, February 28, 1872.


            66 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION Any honorary Sov.'. Gr.'. Insp.'. General, possessing like claims, may be invested with the same rank and dignity. I have to request you to be prepared to give your brethren of the Supreme Council information as to the services and claims of these and the Princes of your State.


            We have too many of both, who, having early attained their high rank, have since been utterly useless, through indolence, apathy or indifference, steadily deserving ill and not well of the Order. So far as my single vote will go, no such Prince or Hon.'. Insp.'. General shall ever receive the rank and dignity of Knight Commander; for when it comes to be given to those who have not deserved it, it will cease to be any value to those who have deserved it well.


            If you should not be able to attend the session, I beg you to furnish me with information in regard to the services and zeal of such Princes of the R.'. S.'. and Hon.'. 33ds in your State, as may, in your opinion, deserve‑having by faithful devotion earned it,‑the rank and honour of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour.


            At Louisville, Kentucky, on May 6, 1872, the Supreme Council opened its regular Biennial Session with fifteen Sovereign Grand Inspectors General present. Three Active Members of the Supreme Council had died since the meeting in 1870: B. B. French, Giles M. Hillyer and John J. Worsham; three sent excuses for non‑attendance that were accepted; one sent in a resignation from Active Membership; and two were unaccounted for: John C. Ainsworth for Oregon and Achille R. Morel for Louisiana.


            Grand Commander Pike opened his Allocution with a review of world condtions and the status of Freemasonry therein; his general conclusion was that the situation appeared to be encouraging. He next gave his attention to the ravages by death in the past two years expressing his deep regret at these losses. The official thanks of the Grand Commander were then expressed to the Knights Templar of Louisville for their assistance, and he paid a tribute to York Rite Masonry. Pike then launched into a report of activities and his recommendations as follows: The enactment of a statute to govern the mode of filling vacancies in offices during the recess of the Supreme Council.


            A report of his trips to Iowa, Maryland, Georgia and South Carolina.


            A report on dispensations granted which he closed by stating that he wished he had no such power.




He observed that it was his opinion that the creation of particular Consistories was a mistake and that those in existence should be converted into Councils of Kadosh.


            Reported that neither Deputy Schwarzman or the Secretary General had been able to establish the Rite in North Carolina, and recommended that the Deputy Commission to Schwarzman should be recalled.


            Reported the appointment of John S. Driggs as Deputy for Florida, that he had accomplished nothing and that the commission should be recalled.


            Recommended that the charter of the dormant Consistory at Natchez, Mississippi, should be recalled, and also those of the Bodies in Memphis except that of the recently formed Lodge of Perfection.


            Announced the appointment of Deputies as follows: Abraham E. Frankland for West Tennessee George S. Blackie for East and Middle Tennessee Sterling Y. MacMasters for Minnesota Odell Squier Long for Western Virginia Edwin A. Sherman for Territories Outlined the decisions he had made during the past two years.


            Expressed a desire to have the Rituals translated into French, Spanish and German.


            Offered some comments on the newly authorized Court of Honour.


            Recommended that the fey for the 33' be abolished.


            Stated that all printing bills would soon be paid and recommended that the Supreme Council undertake: to build a "Sanctuary" in Washington, D. C. to establish an interest bearing "Charity Fund" Reviewed relations with Foreign Supreme Councils with the general observation that such relations were satisfactory.


            68 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION For the remainder of the Session the Supreme Council proceeded with the usual and routine business. Accomplishments included the following items: Assumption of payment of the $2,000 advanced to Pike for printing expenses by Robert Toombs.


            Letters of Constitution granted to Buist Council, Princes of Jerusalem, Charleston, South Carolina.


            Election of forty‑two nominees to receive the Rank and Decoration of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour.


            Robert Toombs elected 33' and Active Member for Georgia.


            Wm. Edward Leffingwell elected to receive the Grand Cross of the Court of Honour.


            T. S. Parvin elected Grand Minister of State.


            Frederick Webber elected Treasurer General.


            Office of Grand Auditor created and Samuel M. Todd elected to that office.


            Salary of the Secretary General was raised to $1,500 annually.


            A. T. C. Pierson dropped from the roll of Honorary Inspectors General.


            Five brethren were nominated to receive the 33 Honorary, election to be held in 1874.


            Two Brethren were nominated for Active Membership to be acted upon in 1874.


            Deputies appointed: Isaac Bateman for Nevada; Robert W. Furnas for Nebraska.


            Resignation of Inspector General Robert C. Jordan accepted.


            Grand Commander Pike authorized to visit Europe as Legate of Supreme Council.


            Approved the acts of the Sovereign Grand Commander while Supreme Council was in recess.




Authorized construction of "Sanctuary" when all debts were paid and $20,000 had been accumulated and appointed a committee to plan same.


            Authorized the creation of a "Charity Fund" when "Sanctuary" was completed.


            Statutes adopted On powers of Sovereign Grand Commander during recess of Supreme Council Vacancies in offices to be filled by appointment of Grand Commander ad interim until next Session of Supreme Council Requiring visiting Scottish Rite Masons to show Patent before admission etc.


            Grand Commander's decisions made a part of the General Regulations Hereafter, no statute to be adopted at the meeting it was proposed and making a two‑thirds majority vote necessary for passage.


            Grand Commander given authority to nominate for Rank and Decoration of Knight Commander of Court of Honour, regulating other nominations, and specifying that vote on the nominations should take place on the second day of the Biennial Session.


            Reports of officers, Sovereign Grand Inspectors General, and Deputies of the Supreme Council were received.


            $150 appropriated for steel engraving of Grand Commander Pike to be inserted in next issue of Transactions.


            No investiture of Knight Commander of Court of Honour until all fees due the Supreme Council were paid.


            Lodge of Sorrow was convened.


            Action of Grand Consistory of Louisiana in dropping three Honorary 33 members from roll approved and the same were dropped from the Supreme Council roll.


            $500 additional salary for Secretary General for years 1871 and 1872 appropriated.


            Secretary General authorized to buy office furniture not to exceed $350.


            Dues remitted Minnesota Council, Princes of Jerusalem and Chapter, Rose Croix; Mobile Bodies 70 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION Rulings approved that of Grand Commander that Honorary 33 members have all rights and prerogatives of Active Members in Sessions of the Supreme Council except those expressly denied to them by Statutes that of Committee on Jurisprudence that the Grand Consistory can confer only the 31 and 32; issue Patents of Constitution to Bodies 4 to 30 inclusive; that Grand Commander‑in‑Chief has these same powers during recess of the Grand Consistory; and that neither has power to communicate or confer 4 to 30 inclusive that of Special Committee that Honorary Inspectors General retain all prerogative and privileges when moving from one state to another in the Jurisdiction Charters withdrawn of Bodies at Memphis except that of recently created Lodge of Perfection; of all Bodies that do not pay delinquent dues within 60 days Special report on situation in Missouri adopted Resolutions adopted Council of Administration to designate meeting place in 1874 giving O. S. Long more time to receive 33 withdrawing Deputy Commission of Edwin A. Sherman referring some proposed Statutes to Council of Administration accepting resignation of Andres Cassard as Honorary 33 refusing to recognize Andres Cassard as representative of the Supreme Council of Uruguay withdrawing exequatur to Andres Cassard electing five distinguished members of other Supreme Councils as Honorary Members of the Supreme Council thanking Matthew Cook of London for music thanking Thomas Cripps of New Orleans for music thanking Professor Winkler for providing music at Memphis Lodge of Sorrow 71 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33░


authorizing Grand Commander Pike to publish music selected by him thanking Grand Consistory of Kentucky, Union Lodge of Perfection No. 3, Knights Templar of Louisville for assistance, Falls City Lodge, Directors of Masonic Home for Widows and Orphans, Masonic Temple Association, Louisville, Broadway Methodist Church for music during Lodge of Sorrow, and railroad companies for granting half‑fare rates to members of Supreme Council The Supreme Council was closed on May 11, 1872, with the usual ceremonies." In striking contrast to the two years between the meeting of the Supreme Council in 1870 and 1872, the period between the Sessions of 1872 and 1874 was relatively inactive.


            The first letter to emanate from the Supreme Council after the Session of 1872 was that of Secretary General Mackey on June 1, 1872, quoting the new statute that required a Scottish Rite Mason, after May 1, 1873, to present his Patent before gaining admission as a visitor into a body of the Rite in the Southern Jurisdiction. The letter also outlined the procedure for acquiring a Patent, gave the rate of charges for the various patents, and listed the data that must be provided for its preparation." Although today such procedure has become routine, in 1872, this legislation represented a policy matter of major importance in the organizational structure of the Rite and its membership accounting system.


            On June 15, 1872, Grand Commander Pike and his committee on the building of a "Sanctuary" released a letter from which the following is selected: The Supreme Council ... deemed that the time had come when it could engage in . . . the acumulation of a fund for the erection of a Home and Sanctuary ... and for the relief of the widows and the support and education of the orphans of deceased Brethren.... and therefore has adopted the following Statute....


            1. Resolved, That the Supreme Council ought to build . . . a Sanctuary in the city of Washington, District of Columbia, . . . upon the cash principle, and after all its debts are fully ... discharged.


            2. Resolved, That the proceeds of the sales of the Books . . . be devoted, after the debts are paid, to the purchase of a suitable site and erection of a suitable building for the purposes aforesaid.....


            54 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. I., 1872, pp. 3‑163. 55 Official Bulletin, 11, 16‑17.


            72 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION 3. Resolved, That in order to raise funds ... the Committee hereinafter named be authorized, . . . to issue stock, . . . receivable for all dues to the Supreme Council, and also to invite donations ... from the Brethren and others....


            4. Resolved, That as soon as the sum of $20,000 shall have accumulated ... or so much thereof as may be necessary, shall be devoted to the purchase of a suitable site in the city of Washington for said Sanctuary.


            5. Resolved, That while the Supreme Council would not encourage extravagance . . . a proper regard to the best architectural taste should be paid by said Committee, and a building erected worthy of the Mother‑Council of the World....


            6. Resolved, That . . . the Committee shall . . . before committing the Supreme Council to a contract, the plan of the building and its cost shall be reported to the Supreme Council for its approval.


            7. Resolved, That said Committee, after accumulating a sufficient fund for the Sanctuary . . . shall, from the same sources, . . . husband a Charity fund till the same shall amount to $100,000, when the annual interest may be appropriated to aid the widows and orphans of members of our Rite; and . . . an overplus of interest.... shall be added to the principal....


            8. Resolved, That ... the Committee hereinafter appointed should look carefully into our right under the Charter of Incorporation from the State of South Carolina, to hold real estate in the District, and if there be any doubt upon the subject, said Committee is hereby instructed to apply to Congress for an Act incorporating Trustees to hold the same for the Supreme Council, and also to manage the Charity fund aforesaid.


            9. Resolved, That Ill.'. Bro.'. Albert Pike, Ill.'. Bro.'. Thomas A. Cummingham, and Ill.'. Bro.'. John R. McDaniel, be a permanent Committee to carry into effect the two schemes of a Sanctuary and a Charity fund as herein provided.


            The Supreme Council is the proprietor of the following books.... Rituals of the Degrees, from the 1st to 32d. 6 vols.


            Ceremonies of Constitution of Bodies and Installation of Officers, from the Lodge of Perfection to the Consistory. 5 vols.


            Ceremonies of Baptism, Reception of Louveteau and Adoption. 1 vol. Funeral Ceremony and Offices of Lodge of Sorrow. 1 vol.


            Grand Constitutions, old edition, and new edition, greatly enlarged. 1 vol. Morals and Dogma of the Rite. 1 vol.


            And Parts I., III., IV. and V of the Liturgy, which will be published during the present summer and coming fall. 4 vols.


            In addition to 200 copies Transactions of 1868, 500 copies Transactions of 1870, and 200 copies of the Bulletin of the Supreme Council, Vol. 1 It has paid for all the printing hitherto done, and ... the fund to arise from the sales of books will soon begin to accumulate.




An admirable site for the Sanctuary, having 75 feet front, with ample depth, is offered to the Committee, in the City of Washington, within half a square of the building of the Department of the Interior, and of that of the Post Office Department, upon a quite and pleasant street, of residences only.


            It is not the purpose of the Supreme Council to erect a building ... to be wholly devoted to the uses of the ... Supreme Council, and, at moderate rent, the bodies of our Rite at the City of Washington.     . . . .


            The cost of the site and the building will probably be not far from $70,000.....


            The shares of stock are fixed at $10 each ....        ... and these will be receivable in payment for books purchased, for charters, and patents, and for any dues to the Supreme Council.


            No debt will be created, . . . . No stock will be issued except to those who subscribe moneys ... or to be received in part payment of the cost of the ground, or of work done, or materials furnished for the building; ....


            The value of the ground and building will, unquestionably, increase with the growth and increase of the city, and the shares of stock will, of course, increase in the same proportion; ... profit being an increase in the value of the stock.


            All the surplus funds of the Supreme Council, . . . will be received by the Committee, and put at interest, to accumulate. Donations in aid of this fund are also earnestly solicited. The Committee hope to live long enough to see it so accumulate, as that the interest will be available . . . and with it the widows of the Brotherhood be saved from distress and humiliation and its orphans rescued from want, ignorance and vice.


            With this please receive a subscription paper for stock, and exert yourself to have as many shares subscribed for as possible. ....


            Please find also a subscription paper for the Charity fund, to which it is hoped that the Bodies of the Rite as well as individual Brethren will contribute, . . . it will be impartially dispensed throughout the whole Jurisdiction. All contributions and donations will be suitably acknowledged and registered, . . . those who are benefited ... may know ... their benefactors." Nothing survives to indicate that any response was made to this appeal. Grand Commander Pike reported to the Supreme Council on May 4, 1874, as follows: "I regret to have to say that so little has been effected towards the objects of building a Sanctuary and creating a permanent fund for Charity, that it is little amiss to call it nothing."" 56Ibid., 17‑20.


            57 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. I., 1874, Appendix A, 24.


            74 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION During the Session of the Supreme Council in May, 1872, some Statutes and resolutions were referred to the Council of Administration for "determination". The Council of Administration, on July 30, 1872, completed the work left to it and published its action shortly thereafter. The new Statutes, Article XXIX, sections 7, 8 and 9, had the effect of abolishing Councils of Princes of Jerusalem as independent bodies and making the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Degrees a part of the Chapter of Rose Croix. Article XVIII, section 15, made it possible for Grand Consistories to "excuse its subordinates from the payment of dues to itself, from Brethren who have attained the Thirty‑second Degree".


            The five resolutions adopted by the Council of Administration provided: 1. James Bennett Gibbs to receive the Degrees of the Rite as an Honorarium; 2. the Grand Commander authorized to present recognized Supreme Councils with copies of Morals and Dogma and Grand Constitutions of the Rite and to loan a copy of the Rituals "to Ill. ' . Bro. ' . Robert Marshall, 33d, Deputy of the Supreme Council of England and Wales for new Brunswick; 3. the Grand‑Commander authorized to procure and present Grand Representative Jewels to those officers near the Grand and Supreme Bodies of Hungary, Sweden and Norway, and Denmark; 4. that $5.00 he added to the fee for the degrees and that a copy of Morals and Dogma be "handed" to each candidate thereafter (it was advised that the next edition of Morals and Dogma be divided into four parts, one for each body of the Rite, and that candidates be advanced only after becoming familiar with the part bearing upon the prerequisite body) ; and 5. a recommendation that no body of the Rite afterwards created be permitted to begin labor until it had acquired three copies of the Ritual of its Degrees, with the Secret Work and three copies of the published Liturgy of the same, one copy of Morals and Dogma, and three copies of the Funeral Ceremony and Offices of the Lodge of Sorrow, that Grand Consistories provide themselves with the same number of copies of complete Rituals, Secret Work and Liturgy." One of Grand Commander Pike's letters dated March 24, 1872, reveals his thinking about progression in the Scottish Rite Degrees. The pertinent portions read as follows: The manufacturing of great numbers of 32ds in haste is an unmitigated evil, without any corresponding benefit at all. There is not one among twenty who have gone at a bound, as it were, from Secret Master to Prince of the Royal Secret, in all the jurisdiction, who takes the least interest in the work of the various bodies. I find this universal every where.....


            ss Official Bulletin, II, 21‑22.




We have too many 32ds now. We make that degree too cheap, and the others worthless, when we rush through them.... It is not as great an evil to multiply 32ds as to multiply 33ds but it is pretty near it. We have stopped one; and I am for stopping another.


            ... The fact that you have twice too many 32ds in Iowa is the very reason for barring more....


            Next, I am opposed to local Consistories, and can no more help to fill one up, than I could consent to the making of a new one. It will not do to have them every where, making 32ds. If one is likely to die out, I am glad of it. I wish they all would: and I thought the Grand Consistory of Iowa had killed them all.


            I have solemnly and firmly resolved that I will never consent again, in any case, to giving the 32d degree until the expiration of one year from the receipt of the 30th and then only upon B B.'. who have worked, faithfully in the Subordinate bodies. The only exception I will make, which is establishing the Rite in a new jurisdiction, when I will limit the number of those to receive the 32 to two or three. I am sure that it is the only wise course to pursue.


            The Councils of Kadosh are the Commanderies of the Knights of the Holy House of the Temple. The 31 & 32 are the judicial and governing degrees and ought to be given in Grand Consistories alone. 'I The effect of this letter in Iowa is not left entirely to conjecture. Late in 1872, Pike wrote as follows: What is the matter with all of you in Iowa?          ....


            If you or they are in any way miffed at anything I have done or said, tell me the cause, and I will make prompt amends." It may be that the criticism in the Grand Commander's letter was responsible for the "resignation of nearly all the officers" of the Lyons Bodies early in 1873. There was also a sharp decline in the number of candidates that received the degree of Master of the Royal Secret. From 1869 to 1873, 111 candidates had received the 32 in DeMolay Consistory at Lyons; during the next four years, 1873‑1877, only twenty‑six candidates received the 32 in that Consistory." Parvin's letters to Pike have not survived but a Pike letter reveals Parvin's thoughts in these words: I note what you write as to the prospects in Iowa, and the impossibility of maintaining the Rite there on any other System than that of dispensing with delays 59 Albert Pike to T. S. Parvin, March 24, 1872. 60 Ibid., November 20, 1872.


            si DeMolay Consistory, 7‑8.


            76 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION and making 32ds in a week out of Master Masons. I am convinced that it is this very System that has ruined our Rite in Iowa, as it has wherever else it has been tried. And if the bodies in Iowa can only sustain themselves by manufacturing 32ds "in short on the record", I think it might as well die out. You have now more 32ds than any State in the jurisdiction, and can hardly get a quorum of the Grand Consistory. There is virtually only one body at Lyons, working the degrees from 4 to 32, and having given the 32d until they owe the Grand Consistory $1,500, and put all they have received in their Temple, they want to make more, and more, and more, to enable them to thrive: and all the time they virtually charge, I believe, less than half the regular and legal fee.


            If we cannot begin at the bottom, build up Lodges of Perfection and have work done in them, and by slow degrees build on them the new bodies, we cannot make the Rite of any value. Make the degrees hard to get, and men will go any reasonable distance to get them. Let it be understood that all can be had together, and none are valued. You have already more 32ds in Iowa than there are in England, Scotland, Ireland, Belgium and (I believe) France, together.


            Look at Ohio, under the Iowa System. All the work is done at Cincinnati, and there are no bodies, or hardly any, elsewhere in the great State. I would plant a Lodge of Perfection in every town where nine good Master Masons would organize and work, and so have a Masonic people in the Rite, and not all Princes." The conclusion seems inescapable that a conflict of opposing views had developed regarding eligibility for the Scottish Rite degrees and progression from one group of degrees to the next. The outcome of this philosophic conflict might determine whether the Scottish Rite would survive or perish; certainly, whether it would be small in number, weak financially, aristocratic in character and consequently of little influence in the social structure or become numerous, affluent, democratic and a major force in Americcn national life. It is doubtful that these alternatives were recognized at this period in the history of the Rite.


            On April 13, 1872, Anto. De S. Ferreira, Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of Peru, addressed a letter to Grand Commander Albert Pike urging him, as the head of "the oldest [Supreme Council] in the Masonic world", to issue an invitation to all recognized Supreme Councils to convene in a Congress for the interchange of ideas on problems of general interest. Pike had long felt the need for such a Congress and on December 16, 1872, proposed that the Congress meet in sa Albert Pike to T. S. Parvin, February 8, 1874.




Washington, D. C'., on the second Monday in May, 1874. His letter indicated that the following topics should be discussed Recognition of bodies claiming to be supreme Measures to counteract indiscreet publications Multiplication of Supreme Councils in limited jurisdictions Lavish conferral of the 33' Low figures set for degree fees Differences of Work Relations of Supreme Councils to other Bodies Relations of Supreme Councils with Grand Bodies of other Degrees Improvement of exchange, of proceedings Unity of action in resisting aggressions Examination of "existing controversies and questions as to supremacy of jurisdiction"." 3 It may be assumed that the response to the call for the Congress was unfavorable, because it did not take place. It can be said, however, that the letter served a useful purpose in that it identified the major problems of concern to Supreme Councils and probably caused more caution to be generally exercised in the fields of possible conflict between them.


            By the year 1873, the development of the Rite had reached the point where suspension for non‑payment of dues and restoration must be given serious consideration. Grand Commander Pike was requested to rule upon the legality of the provision in the By‑Laws of Yerba Buena Lodge of Perfection governing restoration after suspension for non‑payment of dues, and in doing so, wrote a brief essay reflecting a a phase of the transition in thought as follows: Suspension is temporary deprivation of rights and privileges.


            It is of two kinds, because Masons have rights, in two characters, of two kinds.


            lst. Rights as Masdns, possessed by Masons at large, who have either never been members of a Lodge or other body, or who have ceased to belong to any.


            2d. Rights dependent on membership in a body, and growing out of that membership.


            Also there are correlative duties of two kinds: those arising out of the simple character of Mason, and the obligations assumed as such; and those arising out of membership in a particular body.


            sa Official Bulletin, II. 10‑14.


            78 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION And also there are offences of two kinds: one of violations of obligations assumed in receiving the degrees, and of neglect or omission of performance of simply Masonic duties; and one of like faults or omissions or neglect of duty as member of a body.


            It might be difficult to enumerate the duties that devolve upon a Mason before any constituted Lodges existed. And it is not doubted that other and higher duties are assumed by Masons, as Masons, now, than were assumed a century and a half ago. Nor is it to be doubted that there are other duties created by the relations of the members of Lodges, as such, than those which are enumerated in the obligations.


            Neither is it to be doubted that Masonic duties, other than those assumed by a Mason before he becomes a member of a body, may be and are created by becoming such a member; because the non‑performance of them may constitute Masonic unworthiness. At least in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, where men are obligated to performance of all the duties of life, neglect to perform any of those duties makes the offender masonically unworthy.


            It is not to be doubted, therefore, that neglect, when one is unable, to pay the dues required by the Statutes of a Lodge of Perfection, in the absence of any sufficient excuse, and when one is put in default by proper steps taken, is Masonic unworthiness, and may, upon charges preferred, be punished as such, even by deprivation of all the rights and privileges of Masonry.


            If so tried, and upon conviction suspended, i. e., temporarily deprived of such rights and benefits, he can only be restored by reversal or annulment of the judgement, by such vote, taken at such time, and after such preliminaries, as the Statutes of the Lodge shall have prescribed.


            Therefore, in case of such a suspension, the latter clause question is valid.


            of the Statute in Suspension from the rights growing out of membership (Whatever they may be), if a punishment for an offence or neglect of duty, must be effected in the same way, and the judgement and conviction woud be avoidable only in the same manner: for the offence, if one at all, constitutes Masonic unworthiness.


            But the Statutes of a Lodge are the unanimous agreement of the members: lst, because in law every Statute is as much the act and resolution of those who voted against it as of those who voted for it; for they have agreed beforehand that it shall be so, if adopted by the requisite majority, at the proper time, after the proper preliminaries and in the proper manner; 2d, because every one who unites himself to a Lodge binds himself to obey and abide by its Statutes.


            And there is nothing in the nature of the Association, or in the principles of Masonry, or in the Constitution, Regulations, Statutes, or Edicts of the Supreme Council, or of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, that forbids an agreement 79 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33░


among the Brethren forming a Lodge, embodied in a Statute, that any member, in default of regular and prompt payment of dues, shall stand suspended, ipso facto, from the privileges of membership.


            There is no more reason why a member cannot be deprived temporarily of these, without trial, and ipso facto upon default, than there is in the case of any other association or body of men, because the rights are in their nature secular and not Masonic. . . . .


            I am not called on to decide of what other rights a person so suspended is temporarily deprived; and need only say that such a suspension, without charges, trial, and conviction of unworthiness, can deprive the party of no right possessed by a Mason who has never been a member of a Lodge. His individual claims on individual Masons remain unaffected, and his suspension, not proving unworthiness, does not effect his standing elsewhere.


            In the absence of a disposition to the contrary effect, such a suspension would ipso facto cease, when the default ceased, by payment of all arrearages. But it was perfectly competent for the Brethren to agree that it should, in any case, be submitted to the Lodge to say whether the rights of membership should be restored. For the neglect of Brethren to pay dues with regularity is calculated to embarrass the Lodge, to discredit it, to interfere with its usefulness, to diminish its charities, and to create dissension; and mere payment of arrearages, without excuse or apology offered and accepted for the default, and without assurance of future punctuality, does not atone for the incivility shown the Lodge, and the lack of interest in its well being.


            The dues up to the date of suspension are a debt due the Lodge. Even if he should not be restored, the Brother owes these, and if he continues contumaciously to refuse to pay them, he may be dealt with for unworthiness. But from the day of suspension no dues accrue against him unless he is restored. If not restored, there is no claim against him, on that score. If he pays them, and is not restored, they should be returned to him. If he tenders them, and is not restored, they should not be received; and if the Lodge does receive them and retain them, this will of itself operate a restoration, as otherwise the Lodge would have taken them from him wrongfully, and it cannot be heard to deny that he has been restored, in that case. It would be to plead its own wrong, and it is estopped.'I In this decision, Grand Commander Pike is in the position of looking backward over his shoulder at the old concept that "once a Mason, always a Mason", in or out of a Lodge, while at the same time embracing the principle that there can be no Masonic identity except within the bounds of an organized Masonic body.


            64 Ibid., 7‑9.


            80 FIVE YEARS OF CREEPING STABILIZATION Other documents of this period reveal that Pike visited in St. Louis for ten days and while there, established "a splendid Lodge of Perfection" and in a three hour conference with Frank Gouley, resolved all the questions of controversy about the Scottish Rite ritual with him. They show also that Pike disclaimed that Scottish Rite Masonry detracted from the York Rite; that the first edition of Morals and Dogma was nearly exhausted; that the remaining Liturgies could not be printed for lack of funds; that Pike had refused to permit the sale of books in quantities at reduced prices; and that the question of removing Inspector General E. H. Shaw, who had moved out of the Jurisdiction, had been raised." This period in the history of the Supreme Council has been characterized as one of "Creeping Stabilization" because little growth or new developments took place and because fixed policy on old and sometimes chronic problems emerged but slowly. This latter statement applies to fraternal relations with Grand Masonic Bodies, ritualistic controversy, inefficiency in the office of Secretary General, the collection of fees and dues owed to the Supreme Council, the defining of the powers of an Inspector General and the propagation of the Rite. The term also implies the difficulty of reaching a stabilized administrative level, either because of the nature of the problems or because of the external conditions surrounding the Supreme Council and its activities. It also indicates that progress was being made toward the formulation of a satisfactory administrative system for the Rite from the abstract principles contained in its philosophy.


            65 Albert Pike to T. S. Parvin, November 20, 1872; Official Bulletin, 11, 14; Albert Pike to Frederick Webber, March 1, 1873; June 27, 1873; Albert Pike to T. S. Parvin, February 8, 1874.


            CHAPTER III SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION 1874‑1879 A general review of the years 1872, 1873 and the early part of 1874 does not reveal any great internal problems in Scottish Rite Masonry. However, there was an undercurrent of discontent, and there were social, economic and political problems, national in scope, that were somber in hue and certainly were adversely affecting the Rite in this period. At no previous time in American history were the problems of proverty, disease, crime, immorality and class struggle more universal and more acute than in these years. Ruthless exploitation of labor, the farmer, the consumer and the public generally characterized the economic system. Industrial magnates operated above and outside the law, corrupted government officials, high and low, and practiced cannibalism on a scale probably never equaled before in human experience. In government and politics, republican forms survived but effective democracy did not exist‑the corruption of the Radical governments in the South was equaled only by that which existed in the remaining states of the Union. A combination of these factors produced the Panic of 1873 that began with the failure of Jay Cooke and Company on September 18, 1873, and inaugurated a major economic depression of six years duration.


            The general atmosphere was one of profound discouragement when the Supreme Council opened its Session in Washington, D. C., on May 4, 1874. Attendance on the Session was very poor, only seven of the twenty Active Members and only four Honorary Members were present. The first item of business was the presentation of Grand Commander Pike's Allocution which opened with the declaration that the titles and offices in the Scottish Rite were accepted with "solemn pledges ... for faithful service," and asserting that, "We have in our Rituals and Lectures the means by which ... to make men wiser and better, and to bless society and the land in which we live." Pike expressed the belief that the Rite "could only grow slowly"; that it would never be "popular"; that to confer the degrees cheaply and the "high degrees" commonly would make them "worthless". A tribute was then paid to the distinguished dead of the Scottish Rite.


            Obviously conscious of the rising tide of criticism of established policies, from within and without the membership of the Rite, much time was devoted to a discussion 83 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33░


of the "Condition of the Rite". The Grand Commander endeavored to sustain the position he had assumed on the establishment of new bodies, on acceptable candidates and on progression in the degrees after the acceptance of petitions and offered his rebuttal, in advance, of some criticism of these positions which he knew would appear in the reports of the Sovereign Grand Inspectors General upon the following day. He began his discussion as follows: Looking only upon the surface, and judging only by the increase or decrease of initiates and bodies, one would without hesitation pronounce the condition of the Rite unprosperous in this jurisdiction, and if profoundly interested in it, be disheartened. The number of initiates has only here and there increased, and nowhere largely; few new bodies have been formed, and many have become dormant or died, and our revenues have been far less than in some former years.


            In some parts of the jurisdiction the Rite has made progress during the last two years. In some, it has retrograded. In more, it is stationary. But if its former prosperity was only apparent, in great measure, and its increase mere inflation and intumescence, diseased and not natural and healthy, its shrinkage is the evidence of returning health and real and hearty vigor.


            Its condition has not been sound or healthy, but I think it is becoming so. It grew too rapidly, where it is now contracting its dimensions, and the dead limbs are dropping off: and this is but the natural consequence of the old and vicious system of propagating it by hurried communication of all the degrees in a few days, and the creation‑of the several bodies at once, in the same place. Wherever this has been done, the result has been loss of interest in the work, and the bodies have for the most part become dormant. Such was the result in Savannah and Columbus, Georgia, and Richmond, Virginia, . . . all over Iowa, ... to a great extent, throughout California.... in Baltimore and Mobile, and in Arkansas and Tennessee and Nebraska.


            What excuse can there be for us, if we commit the folly and wrong of teaching aspirants to believe that these inestimable degrees are not worth the trouble of reading or hearing even once? I suppose that of the 32ds in our jurisdiction there is not one in every ten . . . who really knows anything about the Rite.... I am sorry to say it, but it is certainly true that in parts of our jurisdiction the Princes of the Royal Secret are the most utterly useless of all the Brethren of the Rite . . .


            It was time to give a different system fair trial, and we have done so. The Rite can have no stability or solidity or true prosperity, unless the higher bodies are created upon the firm' and broad foundation of flourishing Lodges of Perfection ... [Here followed explanations of experiments along these lines conducted in Washington, D. C., Minneapolis and Montgomery.] 84 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION I am thoroughly convinced that there is no real and true prosperity for the Rite in any other system than that of the multiplication of Lodges of Perfection, and the creation by that means of a Masonic people of the Rite....


            .... The degrees of the Lodge of Perfection are a series of moral lessons, all inculcating duty in all the relations of life. In this jurisdiction they do not rely for their impressiveness upon machinery and scenic pomp and costly disguises, which make it impossible to maintain Lodges elsewhere than in here and there a city, but upon quite another means which involve the necessity for little expense; on simple and yet impressive ceremonies, wise lessons and serious vows; and may be conferred in any ordinary Lodgeroom.


            It is my counsel to you, therefore, and to those who after us shall control the Rite, to build it up everywhere upon Lodges of Perfection.


            Continuing his analysis of the situation in the jurisdiction, Pike pointed to the sound strength in Oregon where Ainsworth had followed the pattern which he was advocating and contrasted it with the "impoverished and sickly" condition in Washington Territory. Then bluntly, almost brutally, the Grand Commander reviewed the situation and the leadership of the Rite in the remaining states and territories advising freely the recall of Deputy Commissions and the pruning away of Honorary Inspectors General and Princes of the Royal Secret who were inactive. The lashing of Active Members of the Supreme Council for sluggishness and lack of wisdom was tempered only mildly.


            It was then announced that jewels of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour, Grand Cross, Prince of the Royal Secret and Grand Representative had been designed and manufactured and that those authorized to be presented by the Supreme Council had been delivered to the recipients. Authorization was requested to send Grand Representative jewels to those officers near the Supreme Councils of Belgium, Scotland, Italy, Greece and "to some" South American Councils.


            (See Illustrations on page 86) Further reports included the settlement of the controversy with Frank Gouley and the revision of the Rituals to conform to the Supreme Council resolution passed in 1872; the completion of the Secret Work started by Hillyer before his death; the payment of funds appropriated for bringing the "Book of Gold" up to date; the necessity of an aecounting with the Secretary General for books delivered to Inspectors and Deputies; the failure to adequately enforce the regulation requiring visitors to show their Patents before permitting visitations to Bodies; the lack of funds for completion of the printing of the Liturgies of the "Blue degrees and those from 15th 85 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION to the 32nd;" the printing of over 6,500 pages of materials since 1865; and that printing bills should be paid. The Supreme Council was informed that all of their Rituals except that of the 18' had been adopted for use by the Rite in Canada, and that the Ritual and Secret Work of the Lodge of Perfection had been translated into German which should be published as soon as funds were available. Pike expressed his desire to continue the publication of the Bulletin and commented that it might be necessary to discontinue the historical portions unless subscriptions could be increased. He also mentioned that he had prepared a monograph on Masonic symbolism and compiled a history of Freemasonry in Europe that he would like to publish if money were available. This section of the Allocution was brought to a close with the regretful announcement that practically nothing had been accomplished toward raising money for a Sanctuary and Charity fund.


            The Grand Commander then began a discussion of "Foreign Relations". It opened with a report on the proposed Congress of representatives of Supreme Councils. He stated that no agreement could be reached as to location of the site for the Congress nor could a firm commitment of attendance be secured from more than half the total number of Supreme Councils. The proposal had been, for the time, withdrawn.


            Pike summarized the topic of "Foreign Relations" in these words Our relations with Foreign Powers, excepting only the Grand Orient of France, are entirely satisfactory. The ties existing two years ago have been strengthened and new ones have been formed, and with many of the Powers we are upon terms of cordial and intimate friendship.


            Although relations with Foreign Powers were termed "satisfactory", the Grand Commander, in the reports on various Supreme Councils, took occasion to be indirectly critical of some of their actions. His summary of the growth of the Rite in the Northern Jurisdiction of the United States coupled with comments on this same subject in Scotland and England and Wales leave no doubt existing that the rapid expansion of the membership of the Rite in the Northern Jurisdiction was displeasing to the Grand Commander. Other practices in the Northern Jurisdiction did not meet with Pike's approval and he offered some suggestions which he stated "are worthy of dispassionate consideration by our Northern Brethren". It was "unwise" for the Supreme Council of England and Wales to retain jurisdiction over any Chapters of Rose Croix in the Dominion of Canada after the formation of a Supreme Council for Canada, Pike commented. The Grand Orient of France was declared never to have been "a legitimate Power of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite". The Supreme Councils 87 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION of England and Wales and Switzerland, the Grand Orient of Nueva Granada, and the Grand Lodge of Sweden and Norway were indirectly upbraided for having replied, even in the negative, to an invitation to attend the centennial anniversary celebration of the Grand Orient of France. An outline of the Masonic situation in Brazil was brought to a close with criticism of the Northern Supreme Council and its Grand Commander for not extending recognition to the legitimate body in Brazil.


            A brief review of decisions rendered during the two preceding years and a restatement of the evil resulting from the omission of the lessons and moral teachings of the degree work as unimportant closed the Allocution! The second day of the Session of the Supreme Council in 1874 opened with the announcement of the membership of the Standing Committees. Reports from the Grand Chancellor, Secretary General, Treasurer General and Inspectors General were then received.


            The report of the Grand Chancellor outlined efforts made to bring about the meeting of the Congress that Grand Commander Pike has proposed, and the correspondence with the Supreme Council of England, Wales, and the Dependencies of Great Britain regarding the formation of a Supreme Council in the Dominion of Canada. This latter correspondence raised the question of recognition of the Canadian Supreme Council, if it should be formed, by the Mother Council of the World. The Grand Chancellor did not recommend any action but left the impression that he favored the formation and recognition of the Canadian Supreme Council.


            The Secretary General's report itemized receipts totaling $3,218.25 from all sources during the two years, disbursements of $2,910.10, and showed an amount due the Supreme Council of $307.45.


            The Treasurer General's report showed a balance in the treasury on May 1, 1872, of $1,591.28, monies received to January 13, 1873, totaling $5,880.83 and disbursements to December 23, 1872, totaling $6,761.86. A balance of $710.25 remained in the treasury as 1873 opened. Money paid into the treasury in 1873 amounted to $2,461.73; money paid out totaled $2,034.48. The balance of funds in the treasury on April 30, 1874, was reported to be $,137.50.


            The Inspectors General for South Carolina, Henry Buist and Benjamin R. Campbell, reported that they had established no new Bodies of the Rite; that they did not 1 Transaction, Supreme Council, S. .I., 1874, Appendix A, 1‑69. 89 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33░


regard the extension of the Rite as the sole object to be kept in view; that they would not assent to the enlargement of the membership in South Carolina except to those "who possess character, intelligence and zeal"; and that the Lodge of Perfection and Chapter of Rose Croix in Charleston were "in a most flourishing condition".


            Inspector General Frederick Webber of Kentucky reported that regular meetings of the existing Bodies in Kentucky had been held but that "little work" had been done. He also reported that no new Bodies had been formed, although efforts in this direction had been made. The remainder of his report was devoted to his analysis of the general situation of the Rite in the Southern Jurisdiction. In part, he wrote: ". . . I have been forcibly impressed with the conviction that there is 'something wanting' to make our Rite what it ought to be and what it is in the Northern Jurisdiction." This conclusion was followed by a number of observations that may be listed as follows "Money is scarce and men won't indulge in the Masonic luxury of our Rite." Opposition to the Rite is strong among prominent Masons.


            There is apathy in the Scottish Rite not present in the York Rite.


            Delays between the degrees of the Scottish Rite "often keep out good men" while in the York Rite they "are put through as they desire without any apparent detriment to the Order." Some Scottish Rite leaders are inactive.


            Operation expenses of Scottish Rite Bodies are higher than York Rite Bodies.


            "The great expense of furnishing rooms deters the small towns from undertaking the formation of Bodies." The 33' should be conferred more liberally to stimulate interest in the Rite in the Southern Jurisdiction, because the York Rite has the advantage in rewarding "labors faithfully performed." "It is claimed as an impossibility to commit the work to memory, there is so much of it." Webber closed his report by stating that he must devote more of his time in the future to private affairs and expressing the hope that he could resign in favor of someone with more time and means than he could bestow on what had been a "hobby" with him since he started the Rite in Kentucky in 1851.


            The report of Inspector General J. C. Ainsworth of Oregon revealed that no new Bodies had been formed in the State but pointed out that the Bodies already formed 90 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION were "reasonably healthy and prosperous". A tabulation of funds remitted to the Treasurer General totaled $1,668.75 and a similar tabulation showed that $510.00 had been remitted to the Secretary General since the Session of 1872. Ainsworth submitted his resignation as Sovereign Grand Inspector General because of "the responsibilities and care of a large business, that prevents the possibility of devoting the time and attention necessary to give due weight and influence to an Active Member". He nominated John McCraken to be his successor. The report was closed with two recommendations: 1. The consoldiation of the Northern and Southern Jurisdictions; 2. The abolition of commisssions to Active Members for communication of degrees.


            Ainsworth transmitted the reports of James S. Lawson, Special Deputy for Washington Territory, to the Supreme Council. It consisted chiefly of an account of degrees communicated in Washington Territory under a dispensation from Ainsworth estimated to total twenty‑five. Lawson also reported that he had insisted upon "the utmost circumspection in the selection of material" for the degrees. Lawson's report does not indicate the causes of the castigation of Scottish Rite Masonry in Washington Territory contained in Grand Commander Pike's address to the Supreme Council.


            The Inspectors General of Louisiana, James C. Batchelor, Samuel M. Todd and J. Q. A. Fellows, were not present at the ‑meeting of the Supreme Council. They did file a report supporting the accuracy of the report of James B. Scot, Grand Commander in Chief of the Grand Consistory of Louisiana, which was attached, and suggested that the meeting date of the Supreme Council be changed from May to the latter part of June, a time more convenient for Louisiana's representatives.


            Scot's report pointed out that "little or no work" had been done in Louisiana; the organization of the Bodies had been maintained but that many of the subordinates were several years in arrears for dues; eight charters of Subordinate Bodies had been forfeited, one of which had been restored; and remarked "Peace reigns in the jurisdiction, but it is the peace of the desert". He then attributed the situation in Louisiana to the following causes Prostration of business The unsettled political condition The new degree rituals (Pike's) were not popular Degree fees were too high The interval between degrees was too long The "eighteenth and thirtieth" degrees alone ought to be conferred and the others communicated as "under the Laffon Rituals." 91 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33░


The report of Inspector General Wm. L. Mitchell of Georgia was brief. It contained a statement of funds collected and paid to the Supreme Council, $202.50, and the announcement of the formation of a Lodge of Perfection at Albany, Georgia, with fourteen members.


            The Rite in Missouri was reported to be "moving, slowly it may be, yet still moving" by Inspector General Martin Collins who attributed this improvement to Grand Commander Pike's activity while visiting in Missouri. He then pointed out that one of the strongest desires of Masons who join the Scottish Rite "is to reach its summit". However, he asserted that members should attain "a fair degree of proficiency" before advancement should be permitted, otherwise it would be impossible "to maintain any working Bodies below the highest".


            John Robin McDaniel, Inspector General in Virginia, rendered an account of funds collected and paid to the Supreme Council. He also stated: "It is a matter of much regret that the Rite makes such slow progress in our State." The "want of means with those who wish to Unite," the lack of means to fit up halls and obtain proper paraphenalia, and the "unfortunate" manner in which the Rite was introduced in Richmond were suggested as the reasons for the lagging of the Rite in Virginia.


            The Inspector General for Iowa, T. S. Parvin, was absent from the Session but his report was submitted to the Supreme Council. The revival of the Bodies at Davenport was announced, and it was stated that activity had continued at Des Moines and Lyons but at a reduced pace in the latter city since the resignation of Wm. E. Leffingwell. Parvin then analyzed the lack of progress in Iowa by the Scottish Rite attributing the same to sparseness of population, to the great expense incurred in securing the degrees and to the inability of Bodies to reach sufficient size to be able to "secure the necessary outfit". At the conclusion of this part of his report, Parvin wrote I have no suggestive remedies to make, knowing full well that the obstacles are constitutional and permanent. Hence, I have lost, somewhat, the fervent hope I once entertained of seeing the Rite spread and cover the Masonic field of Iowa.


            The financial difficulties of the Grand Consistory of Iowa, resulting from the inability of the Lyons Bodies to pay their dues after overextending themselves in building a Temple, were reported to the Supreme Council. Parvin then pointed out that the "dispensatory power as to time being withheld" the Lyons Bodies had been unable to secure "material at a distance ... upon which to work" whereby funds could be secured to discharge their obligations.


            92 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION Erasmus T. Carr, the Inspector General for Kansas, reported that his hopes for the formation of new Bodies in Kansas had not materialized and that he had not communicated any degrees since his last report. In discussing the situation in his Jurisdiction, he remarked that the once "strong feeling of opposition to the Rite" had "nearly disappeared". He also stated that he could have done a small amount of work had he been supplied with "the proper work". Carr pointed out that some prospects had "expressed great surprise" that the degree fees were so high and then quoted these prospects as saying "we can get them in Illinois or Ohio [states in the Northern Jurisdiction] for one half". Some Masons in Kansas had applied to Carr for permission to secure the Scottish Rite degrees in states of the Northern Jurisdiction, and he reported that he had refused all such requests. Efforts to found Bodies in "the Capitol of the State" had come to nought because of "hard times".


            California's Inspector General, Thomas H. Caswell, made an optimistic report of the condition of the Rite in that state, especially in San Francisco. He also included a statement of degree fees collected by him, which totaled $1390, and the disposition that he had made of these funds.


            In connection with California, it seems appropriate to observe that the state had been the chief financial support of the Supreme Council since the termination of the Civil War. California had been far from the major scenes of destruction that accompanied the War. Further, the exploitation of rich gold deposits had poured a steady stream of wealth into the economy of the state, some of which could be expended for the Scottish Rite degrees. However, gold attracts a daring breed of men ready to venture into a twilight zone of morality, culture and civilization which Freemasony seeks to destroy. Pike's ritual of the Fifteenth Degree proves beyond any question of doubt that he was aware of the possible degrading power of gold. Hence, his criticism of the rapid expansion of the Rite, for that period of time, in California which he had expressed in his Allocution at the Session 1874.


            Inspector General T. A. Cunningham of Maryland expressed the opinion in his report that "there has been a marked improvement in the condition of the Rite in this State since the last session of our Council at Louisville". However, he reported that the only Lodge of Perfection in the State had been suspended but that a new Lodge of Perfection had been established for some months. He concluded his report by stating that he had received no money since his last report.


            The report for Nevada was made by Deputy Isaac C. Bateman. He observed that his labors may not have been "as extensive as they should have been," and then sub 93 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33░


mitted a financial statement showing the conferral of degrees upon twenty candidates for a total of $1280 all of which had been remitted to the proper persons.


            Special Deputy Wm. Cothran made a report of his activities in Mississippi. No new Bodies had been established and no old Bodies had been revived. He reported fees of $100 collected for degrees communicated to four candidates through the Lodge of Perfection and that he had remitted the same to the Treasurer General, less $25 commission. "Pecuniary embarrassments" in the state were said to have prevented further advancement of the Rite in Mississippi.


            The reports of the Inspectors General and Deputies were referred to the Committee on Doings of Inspectors General and Special Deputies and the remainder of the second day was devoted to other matters as follows: Excuses for non‑attendance were received and accepted from eight Inspectors General.


            The resignation of Inspector General Luke E. Barber of Arkansas was not accepted.


            Six nominees were elected ‑to receive the 33' and Honorary Membership in the Supreme Council.


            William Morton Ireland and Abraham Ephraim Frankland were elected to receive the Grand Cross.


            Eight nominees were elected to the Rank and Decoration of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour.


            The resignation of Inspector General John C. Ainsworth of Oregon was accepted.


            Six nominees were elected to Active Membership in the Supreme Council as follows John McCraken of Oregon William R. Bowen of Nebraska Alfred Elisha Ames of Minnesota John E. Reardon of Arkansas Abraham Ephraim Frankland of Tennessee Isaac C. Bateman of Nevada 94 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION The Grand Commander withdrew the nomination, made in 1872, of Wm. E. Leffingwell of Iowa to receive the 3 3 Honorary.


            The Honorary 33' was then conferred upon the nominees just elected and afterwards Ames, McCraken and Frankland were crowned as Sovereign Grand Inspectors General. No further business being on the agenda, the Supreme Council was called off until the next day.


            On the third day of the Session, May 6, 1874, eleven Inspectors General, three of whom had been crowned the day before, were in attendance. The first order of business was the report of the committee appointed to assign the several divisions of the Grand Commander's Allocution to the various committees for study. Immediately thereafter the Committee on the State of the Order consisting of Inspectors General John R. McDaniel and Alfred E. Ames and Honorary Member Nathaniel Levin made their report which was adopted. This report and its adoption was a complete victory for the policies of the Grand Commander over the criticisms that had been offered on the preceding day. This report was as follows Your Committee to whom was referred so much of the Sov.'. Gr.'. Com's.'. Allocution as relates to the "State of the Order," have carefully considered the same, and most heartily commend it, and cannot too earnestly recommend a rigid enforcement of the "Statutes," so that the suggestion of the Sov.'. Gr.'. Com.'. may be carried out, . . . and to that end they recommend the adoption of the following resolutions: 1. That it is expected of each Sov.'. Gr.'. Inspector‑General, Active Member of the Supreme Council, and he is advised to communicate the degrees of the Scottish Rite, (except under extraordinary condition,) only on applicants for subordinate Bodies, deemed by him necessary and proper for the propagation of the Rite, confining himself to such a number of applicants and to them communicating such degrees only as may be necessary for the establishment of said Body or Bodies.


            2. That it is required of all subordinate Bodies, including Consistories (Grand and Particular,) to confer the several degrees of their respective Bodies only on such as may have given satisfactory evidence of their proficiency in all preceeding degrees, except by special authority from the Supreme Council or one of its deputies.


            3. That all Scottish Rite Masons (not legally exempted) shall be required to retain their membership and pay dues to the several Bodies up to, and including that one, in which he may have received his highest degree.


            4. That the Sov.'. Gr.'. Com.'. be, and he is hereby authorized to attach any one or more of the Territories within this Jurisdiction; and all or any of the States 95 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33░


thereof, in which there is not a Resident Active Member of the Supreme Council to the jurisdiction of any one or more of the Sov.'. Gr.'. Insp's.'. Gen.*. which in his opinion may be most expedient.


            5. That it is desireable that the publication of the Bulletin be continued; and in order to increase its usefulness the History of Masonry, prepared by the Sov.'. Gr.". Com.'. be published therein in continued series, with a view of the publication of that valuable History in book form, at such time as the Supreme Council may deem expedient.


            6. That the Sov.'. Gr.'. Com.'. is authorized to present to the Supreme Council of Canada, and any other foreign Supreme Council, such of the Rituals and ceremonies of this jurisdiction as he may deem expedient.


            7. That the Sec.'. Gen.*. procure a suitable "Book of Record," in which he shall record all the transactions or proceedings of all previous meetings, practicable to be obtained; as also, the transactions of this at all future sessions of the Supreme Council that are prudent for publication, shall be therein recorded; and such confidential Allocutions of the Sov.'. Gr.'. Com.'. and acts growing out of the same, shall be recorded as heretofore in the "Book of Gold." In conclusion your committee would most fraternally urge upon one and all, a greater devotion and life in the teaching and the practice of our Rite, in communicating or conferring its degrees, so that manly minds may be clothed with its hallowed truths and graces, and a purer morality, a greater love and veneration for its sacred teachings.


            After the adoption of the report just quoted, a Senatorial Chamber of the Thirtythird Degree was opened at which the following items of business were transacted: Five distinguished members of other Supreme Councils were elected to Honorary Membership in the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction.


            Twenty‑one Princes of the Royal Secret were elected to receive the decoration of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour.


            Three brethren were elected to receive the Thirty‑third Degree and Honorary Membership in the Supreme Council and one was nominated for action at the next Session of the Supreme Council.


            Grand Commander Pike announced that he had annexed Washington Territory to the jurisdiction of Oregon and "Dacotah" Territory to the jurisdiction of Minnesota.


            A committee was appointed to investigate the condition of the several Grand Consistories.


            96 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION An Assistant Auditor was provided for in Washington.


            By resolution, it was provided that the next Session of the Supreme Council would meet in Washington, D. C.


            An amendment to Article XI was proposed and referred to the Committee on Jurisprudence.


            The Supreme Council then resumed labor in its Consistorial Chamber, the Grand Commander announced the appointment of subordinate officers, and the meeting was called off until the following day.


            Labor of the Supreme Council on May 7, 1874, began in the Senatorial Chamber. The transactions included the following items: One additional brother was elected to receive the decoration of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour.


            One additional member was elected to receive the Thirty‑third Degree and Honorary Membership in the Supreme Council.


            Charges were preferred against a brother whose name was not published and were referred to a committee of three.


            The Honorary Members were then admitted and the Thirty‑third Degree was conferred upon four designates. The Honorary Members retired and Robert Toombs and William R. Bowen were crowned as Sovereign Grand Inspectors General of the Supreme Council for the states of Georgia and Nebraska respectively.


            John M. C. Graham, Representative of the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction to that of the Northern Jurisdiction was invested with the Grand Cross of the Court of Honour by Grand Commander Pike.


            Some changes in committee assignments, at the request of the members affected, were then made.


            Consideration of recognition of the proposed Supreme Council of Canada was referred to a special committee with instructions to report at the next Session of the Supreme Council.




Grand Commander Pike then presented a draft of "Articles of Confederation between the several Supreme Councils . . ." for consideration. "The articles were referred to the Committee on the State of the Order." At this point the Supreme Council was "called off" until the next day.


            The final day of the Session, May 8, 1874, of the Supreme Council opened with a report from the Committee on Finance. The Committee expressed the belief that all accounts were correct but pointed out that it could not verify all items because of the absence of some papers in the hands of the Auditor General and the large volume of papers which it did not have time to examine. They then proposed some accounting changes which were adopted. They took note that money to pay the salary of the Secretary General had not always been available, and that he had been compelled to borrow money at an interest rate of twenty per cent per annum to support himself and family. It was recommended that the Secretary General be reimbursed for this expense.


            The Committee on Jurisprudence and Legislation then made a series of reports which were adopted.


            An amendment of Article X regarding meeting places was proposed with a recommendation that final action be taken at the next Session of the Supreme Council.


            It was suggested that a special committee be named to consider the situation in Brazil.


            It was recommended that the provisions of Statute No. 23 be positively enforced.


            The Committee on Subordinate Bodies made its report which was adopted. The report was made up of brief comments regarding the returns or lack of returns from the Bodies in each state in the Southern Jurisdiction for the years 1873 and 1874. No attempt was made to consolidate the returns and thereby show the total membership of the Rite, the number of candidates received, the total amount of fees or the total amount of dues collected per annum. The need for this information was recognized and at the conclusion of the report a resolution was adopted that the Secretary General "shall present a tabular abstract of the returns received by him." The Committee on the Doings of Inspectors General and Special Deputies reported that they had examined reports from fifteen states and territories, which they named, and drew these conclusions 98 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION The Rite "is steadily progressing in the jurisdiction".


            The "utmost care had been exercised" in the selection of material to receive the degrees.


            Care has been exercised to establish Bodies only in locations "to warrant a future, both healthful and prosperous".


            Complaints regarding the number of degrees "required to be worked" and that time intervals between degrees should be abolished in some reports "have been fully met in the admirable Allocution of the M. ' . P. ' . Sov. ' . Grand Commander, and may properly be disregarded here".


            A supplemental report of the Committee on Finance regarding Inspector General Bateman's report from Nevada was approved.


            Two resolutions regarding Grand Consistories were referred to the Committee on Jurisprudence and Legislation.


            Five Inspectors General Honorary were dropped from the list of Honorary Members of the Supreme Council for inactivity.


            It was ordered that the Secretary General prepare a "Register of the Active and Honorary Members of the Supreme Council, and of all subordinate Bodies in the Jurisdiction to be published. . ." It was ordered that the claim of Special Deputy Edwin A. Sherman be corrected and "liquidated".


            It was resolved that Joseph Daniels be notified to pay $110 due the Supreme Council by July, 1874, or be tried for the offense of "violation of promise".


            The Committee on Jurisprudence and Legislation was required to revise the "Statutes and Institutes" and report at the next Session of the Supreme Council.


            A report of the Committee on Jurisprudence and Legislation that an Inspector General could not appoint a deputy to act for him in his absence from his state if another Inspector General was resident in that state was adopted.


            The Assistant Auditor was authorized to settle the account of Masonic Publishing Company.


            99 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33 A proposal to make the Grand Almoner a member of the Council of Deliberation was referred to the Committee on Jurisprudence.


            The Special Committee on the charge preferred against the unnamed brother reported and further investigation was ordered.


            The Grand Commander was authorized to furnish a copy of the Grand Constitutions to each Active Member of the Supreme Council.


            A Senatorial Chamber was opened and three additional nominees were elected to receive the decoration of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour.


            John W. Cook, 33, was elected to receive the Grand Cross of the Court of Honour.


            Achille R. Morel was dropped from the list of Active Members of the Supreme Council.


            It was ordered that the expenses of the Session be paid and that the thanks of the Supreme Council be extended to the Washington Bodies of the Rite for courtesies tendered.


            The Committee on the State of the Order recommended that the Articles of Confederation be referred to the Council of Deliberation which was adopted.


            The Supreme Council was then closed to meet again in Biennial Session on May 1, 1876, at Washington, D. C: During the following evening a Lodge of Sorrow was opened and appropriate commemorative ceremonies were observed.' Each year of the early years in the history of the Supreme Council, 33, Southern Jurisdiction, United States of America, seems to have claim to being a year of crisis. However, the intensity of crisis is more pronounced in some years than in others; the year 1874, in some respects, was one of these. The problems of the Supreme Council 2 Ibid., 3‑89.


            100 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION in 1874 stemmed from sources outside of the Rite as well as from within it. The principle external factors were: Economic depression.


            Political chaos and corruption.


            The breakdown of character in American society.


            Internal factors contributing to the situation were: Lack of adequate leadership in portions of the Jurisdiction.


            Absence of an efficient membership accounting system.


            An inadequate fiscal administration.


            Lack of a fully developed system and code of jurisprudence.


            Real differences of opinion among Supreme Council members on basic policy and procedure matters.


            Obviously, the Supreme Council could not successfully avoid or remedy economic depression. As a result, the "Sanctuary" and Charity Fund programs came to a complete halt, no new projects requiring funds were adopted and initiations almost ceased. The other external factors seem only to have been discouraging and distracting influences on the Rite, for there is no noticeable increase in disciplinary action by the Supreme Council, nor were there distrubing reports of such actions from subordinate Bodies. If 1874 is considered a year for decision in internal matters, the Supreme Council seems to have been equal to the demands made of it. Leadership in the Jurisdiction was strengthened with replacements and with new additions. Measures were proposed and adopted for better fiscal "housekeeping". Changes, refinements and additions in the field of jurisprudence were made. Differences of opinion were introduced, considered and decisions were reached which resulted in a new unity. It is significant that this new unity was a major victory for the thinking of Grand Commander Pike. The Supreme Council took actions that confirmed his positions in all matters except in the field of Fraternal Relationsnothing was done to encourage a Congress of Supreme Councils or to further a Confederation of Supreme Councils, both of which had been proposed by the Grand   HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33░


Commander. The only area of need which did not receive the attention of the Supreme Council was that of membership accounting, and it may be said that this area was the least critical of those listed. It seems fitting to conclude remarks on the Session of 1874 by observing that it could have terminated with the Rite in serious disorder, under an inexperienced leadership at a critical time, or oriented along a drastic new course opposed by the Grand Commander.


            The known surviving correspondence relating to the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction from the closing of the Session, on May 8, to the opening of the next Session in May, 1876, begins with a letter to Grand Commander Pike from Inspector General L. E. Barber. In this letter Barber wrote as follows: When I wrote [my resignation], the means of living another year, in any comfort, were not apparent. Now, I hope to be restored to my old position, and though I cannot realize from it a large income, as I suppose has been done, I hope I shall be able to live comfortably, and that I may have time and means to do something for the order.' This letter to Pike from an old friend and Masonic associate in his home state was good news to the Grand Commander, but it was followed by others that reflected the desperate situation in Arkansas under the Radical Reconstruction regime set up by the Congress of the United States in the former Confederate States. The first was from the recently elected 33 and Active Member, John E. Reardon, who stated that "at present, I would be entirely unable to pay" the expense of the degree and the travel to receive it. He continued by stating that business was "prostrate", that he saw no hope except in "repudiation" of debts "even if we obtain entire political control of the state".' Some weeks later another letter characterized the regime as "political harpies" and "a crew of bandits" and observed "I do not see any final ending of their lust and rapacity".' With conditions as described, there was little hope for Scottish Rite progress in Arkansas for some time to come.


            However, Grand Commander Pike had little time to mourn over the plight of Arkansas during the summer of 1874, for on May 29, 1874, the Supreme Council of France issued a call for a meeting of representatives of all recognized Supreme 3 L. E. Barber to Albert Pike, May 24, 1874.


            4 John E. Reardon to Albert Pike, July 25, 1874.


            5 Geo. A. Gallagher to Albert Pike, August 9, 1874.


            102 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION Councils in a Congress at Lausanne, Switzerland, on the "first Monday of September, 1875" and indicated that the formation of a Confederation was contemplated.' The Confederation idea had originated with Pike. Pike presented a draft of "Articles of Confederation between the several Supreme Councils" which at the end of the Session in 1874 was referred to the Council of Deliberation. Since action on the "Articles" could not be had in a Session before May, 1876, Pike ordered the Secretary General, Albert G. Mackey, to send copies by mail to the Active Members and request their vote on each article and upon the question of sending Delegates to the Congress. The date on the printed circular was December 15, 1874, and replies were requested by March 1, 1875.' Appendix III contains the text of the proposed "Articles of Confederation." The file of ballots on the proposition has not survived nor has any contemporary report of the ballot or the actions which followed. However, the Allocution of Grand Commander Pike to the Supreme Council at its Session in May, 1876, reveals that the ballot was favorable, that Delegates were appointed to attend the Congress, and that the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction was not represented in the Congress because of the illness of Inspector General Ebenezer S. Shaw.


            In June, 1874, Pike announced the forthcoming publication of his lectures on Masonic symbolism in a very limited edition of seventy‑five copies, distribution in America limited to sixty‑five Masons of the 33 or 32 with the remaining ten copies to "be sent to eminent Masons abroad". Pike announced that "the work makes known the real origin and meanings, heretofore wholly unknown, of the principal Symbols of Freemasonry". The book was priced at ten dollars per copy.' Shipment of the books began late in the year." During June and July, 1874, Pike received several letters from Alabama regarding Scottish Rite matters. The first requested instructions about the books of the Supreme Council held by Richard F. Knott, deceased." On June 29, Henry E. Day reported that he was "chagrined" at not being able to make rapid progress in establishing Bodies in Alabama and that a general lack of money was the cause. The remainder s Official Bulletin, 11, 53‑55.


            ' Albert G. Mackey to Samuel M. Todd, December 15, 1874. $ Transactions, Supreme Council, S. 1., 1876, p. 13.


            9 Albert Pike to Samuel M. Todd, June, 1874. to Circular Letter, December 12, 1874.


            " F. R. Jarvis to Albert Pike, June 9, 1874.


            103 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION of the letter was a report of the progress of the Lodge of Perfection recently established in Montgomery. It had just conferred "the 4th degree upon three candidates, without having a Ritual opened"." A few days later a similar letter reported lack of Scottish Rite progress because of a scarcity of money," and about the same time Montgomery Lodge of Perfection was said to be "doing pretty good"." On June 19, 1874, Special Deputy Pitkin C. Wright arrived in Hawaii and on July 16, 1874, constituted Kamehameha Lodge of Perfection No. 1 in Honolulu. This act was followed by the constitution of Nemanu Chapter of Rose Croix No. 1 on September 12, 1874. It is of special interest that David Kalakaua, Wise Master of the newly formed chapter, was Kalakaua I, King of Hawaii.'' Within six months the news of these events in Hawaii (Sandwich Islands) spread over the Masonic world and brought forth a letter to Pike from G. Guiffrey, "Gr.'. Sec. ' . Chancellor of the Rite," of the Supreme Council of France expressing surprise and asking for further information." This letter initiated a long correspondence, for Freemasonry, bitter in tone. Briefly, the Supreme Council of France claimed jurisdiction over Hawaii because it had created a Symbolic Lodge in the Kingdom during 1843, and charged the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction with an invasion of its territory with the creation of the Lodge of Perfection and Chapter of Rose Croix. Both contentions were categorically denied by Grand Commander Pike, and because of the "arrogant" tone of the letters to him, he withdrew fraternal relations with the Supreme Council of France. A Council of Kadosh was chartered on July 12, 1875. Meanwhile, the Congress of Lausanne had assembled, without representatives from the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction, under the influence of the Supreme Council of France. The question of jurisdiction in Hawaii was brought before the Congress and a decision favorable to France was rendered. Pike refused to recognize the decision, and for this and other reasons determined "not to accede to the Confederation". It was at this point that correspondence ceased on May 13, 1876.1' Death struck the membership of the Supreme Council twice in the latter part of 1874 and once more early in 1876. Alfred E. Ames, Inspector General in Minnesota, died on September 22, 1874; Benjamin Rush Campbell, Inspector General in 1= Henry E. Day to Albert Pike, June 29, 1874.


            is Stephen H. Beasley to Albert Pike, July 24, 1874. la Henry E. Day to Albert Pike, July 27, 1874.


            i s Official Bulletin, 111, 83‑86. is Ibid., 24‑25.


            17 Ibid., 26‑55.




South Carolina, died on October 27, 1874; and Ebenezer H. Shaw, Inspector General in California, died on February 2, 1876. As usual in such instances, official notices were published." Present day Masons who are concerned with Masonic education and editors of Masonic journals who decry their small circulation will find the following circular letter of particular interest: The Supreme Council has published, since May, 1870, its "Official Bulletin," at a subscription price of three dollars for 600 pages. During the first two years five Nos. were issued, making a volume of 660 pp., 60 more than it agreed to furnish. It then had, in the whole jurisdiction, about one hundred subscribers, and the cost of printing 500 copies was nearly $1,500. It has since published Nos. 1 and 2 of Vol. 11, at like cost, and has about sixty subscribers, in twentytwo States and all the Territories. Such seems the measure of the thirst for information of the BB.'. of the rite.


            The Bulletin contains five sections in each number: 1st. Official. 2d. Domestic Unofficial. 3d. Foreign. 4th. Historical. 5th. Miscellaneous. Everything official contained in it is promulgated by publication therein, and thereby every Bro.'. has legal notice of all so published. The foreign section gives information as to the Rite all over the world, not elsewhere to be found: and the last two Sections contain matter of universal and permanent interest to BB.'. of all the degrees and rites of Free Masonry. It may safely be said that the Bulletin is of greater intrinsic value than any other Masonic publication in the world, to Masons of the A.'. and A.*. S.'. Rite.


            The Sov.'. Gr.'. Commander edits it, writes for it, translates for it, without compensation, so that its whole cost is that of printing. Is it creditable to the order that it should be read by less than one hundred Masons? Is its limited usefulness any fit reward for the labour bestowed on it by the Gr.'. Commander, and the expense incurred by the. Supreme Council? My Bro.'., it is simply a shame to the Order, discouraging and disheartening in the extreme. The Bulletin is beyond comparison more valued abroad than at home. It contains matter of historical interest to all Masons; but to those of the Ancient and Accepted Rite, it is simply indispensable. The work which it requires in its compilation, is done for their benefit, on their account, and they ought to be willing jointly to bear the mere actual expense of printing, if they have the gift of that labor.


            Upon receipt by me of three dollars, Nos. 1 and 2 of Vol. II will be forwarded to the Bro.'. remitting, and the other Nos. of the volume, as they are published.


            "Ibid., II, No. 3, p. 23‑24; 43‑45; III, 9‑10.


            106 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION We hope that you will feel it to be both a duty and a pleasure to take an active interest in impressing the BB.'. of the Rite with the value of the work, and the duty of every one who is not content with utter ignorance of the most essential things in regard to the Rite at home and abroad, to subscribe for and read the Nos. regularly.


            Lately, also, the Gr.'. Commander has prepared, and the Sup.'. Council has published a new and enlarged edition of the Law of the Rite, including the Constitution of 1762 and 1786, and all subsequent Institutes and Regulations, and its own Statutes, with the old so‑called secret Constitutions, and a Historical inquiry into the authenticity of those of 1786. The work contains 467 pages, is the only collection of the Law of the Rite ever made in the world, is sold at $5 a copy, less than cost of publication, and some forty Brethren have purchased it. Ought not every Bro.'. of the Rite to know the laws that govern him? and how can he, without having them in possession? These also may be ordered of the SecretaryGeneral, by remitting a post‑office order for the price. Do the Brethren really want light? At the Session of 1874, there was official notice of a proposal to create a Supreme Council in Canada; however, no official action took place. The archives of the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction contain no further data on this subject until the following general letter, omitting the usual heading, dated October 30, 1874, was published in the Official Bulletin: We do hereby make known unto you that on the 16th day of October, instant, the SUPREME COUNCIL FOR THE DOMINION OF CANADA was duly established and organized, at the city of Ottawa, in the Province of Ontario, in the Dominion of Canada, by virtue of a Warrant from the Supreme Council of England and Wales and the Dependencies of the British Crown, duly granted by it after consultation with the Supreme Councils of its correspondence.


            That the Sov.'. Grand Commander of our Supreme Council, Honorary Member of the Supreme Councils of England and Wales and of Scotland and Ireland, being present, did administer the oath of office to the Ill.'. Bro. % THOMAS DOUGLAS HARINGTON, 33d, Sov.'. Grand Inspector‑General of the Supreme Council of England and Wales, named and appointed to be Sov.'. Grand Commander ad perpetuitatem vitae of the Supreme Council of the Dominion of Canada; who did thereupon select the Ill.'. Bro.'. Robert Marshall, 33d, of St. John, New Brunswick, to be Lieut.'. Grand Commander, and the other Dignitaries and Members of the Supreme Council were thereupon selected, in due order and succession, in strict accordance with the dispositions of the Grand Constitutions of 1786, and the oath of office was administered to each.




Whereupon our Sov.'. Grand Commander, sitting in the East, opened the said Supreme Council in due form, and declared the same to have been lawfully established and its labors in full vigor.


            And the said Supreme Council for the Dominion of Canada being a lawful, regular, and duly constituted Supreme Council of the 33d Degree, and governed by the Grand Constitutions, in Latin, of the year 1786, the Sov.'. Grand Commander thereof, with its consent, did appoint our Ill.'. Bro.'. Albert G. Mackey to be its Grand Representative near our Supreme Council, and elect our Sov.'. Grand Commander and the Ill.'. Bro.'. JOSIAH H. DRUMMOND, Sov.'. Grand Commander of the Supreme Council for the Northern Jurisdiction, to be Honorary Members of itself.


            And we have appointed the Ill.'. Bro.'. John W. Murton, 33d, of Hamilton, Ontario, in the Dominion of Canada, Member of said Supreme Council for the said Dominion, and Secretary‑General, H.'. E.'., to be our Grand Representative near it.


            Wherefore we unite in the request that will be made by the said new Supreme Council and by that for England and Wales and the Dependencies of the British Crown, that you will recognize it as a regular and lawful Supreme Council, and offer to enter into relations of amity and correspondence with it, as we have done in other cases, when satisfied of the legitimacy of a new Council.


            And may our Father who is in Heaven protect you and cause you in all things to prosper.


            The problem of the survival of the Scottish Rite in Iowa again received the attention of the Grand Commander Pike in the latter half of 1874. He, apparently, had received resolutions from the Grand Consistory surrendering its charter and he wrote to Inspector General Theodore S. Parvin that "I think it [a] matter of congratulation" because "the system of conferring all the degrees in a week, on all comers, at one place in a State is a fatal one...... Pike then repeated the arguments he had stated at the Session in the previous May against the practices in Iowa and called upon Parvin to "begin now to build from the bottom, by creating Lodges of Perfection only, and having the work of these Lodges well done". He also wrote, "You can do it, I know, for I know your zeal, energy and influence," and closed his letter by stating "I do not believe that it will come to nought, if we who are its chiefs do half our duty."" The archives of the Supreme Council do not contain an acknowledgement of, or reply to, this letter.


            19 Albert Pike to Theodore S. Parvin, November 18, 1874.


            108 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION Early in 1875, Pike undertook to bring "Order out of Choas" in the finances of the Supreme Council. His study and decisions produced the following general letter to those officers of the Rite that were affected: The almost entire want of regularity in regard to the finances of the Supreme Council, and consequent continual embarrassment and confusion, make it necessary that for the information of the Inspectors‑General, Deputies and Officers of Bodies, some rules deduced from or giving effect to the Statutes should be prescribed and observed.


            The following rules have therefore been carefully considered and prepared, and, subject to approval or revision by the Supreme Council, will be hereafter observed: THE STATUTES Provide, among other things, as follows: 1st. That all Bodies under the immediate jurisdiction of the Supreme Council shall annually, on the first day of March, remit the taxes due by them. Art. xviii, 1 13.


            2d. That ALL moneys due to the Supreme Council shall be remitted to the Treasurer‑General, who SHALL give duplicate receipts therefor. Art. xix, 1 1. 3d. That no money shall be paid,‑ except by the Treasurer‑General, upon warrants properly drawn. Art. xix, 1 2.


            4th. That the Secretary‑General and Treasurer‑General shall each keep regular books of accounts; and, on the first day of March in each year, report to the Chairman of the Committee on Finance.


            5th. That all Rituals, Ceremonies, Books of Statutes and Institutes, Patents of Diplomas and Charters, shall only be issued on an order of a Sov.'. Gr.'. Inspector‑General, accompanied with the price, except such books as are issued to Inspectors‑General or Deputies for use. Art. xix, 1 5.


            6th. That every Inspector‑General shall report as to all moneys received by him, semi‑annually in duplicate, on the first day of September and March, forwarding one copy to the Secretary‑General and one to the Chairman of the Committee on Finance. Art xix, 1 6: to enforce which penalties are prescribed.


            7th. Deputies report to the Sov.'. Gr.'. Ins.'. Gen.'. of their State, and Gr.'. Consistories and Subordinate Bodies to the Supreme Council, through the Sov.'. Gr.'. Insp.'. Gen.'. of their State. Art. xix, 1 7.


            8th. The Auditor‑General is Ex‑officio Chairman of the Committee on Finance.


            The Assistant Auditor‑General, Ill.'. Bro.'. William Morton Ireland, 33d, of the Post Office Department at Washington, performs the active duties of the office.






            1st. All the moneys received for the Supreme Council, by Sov.'. Gr.'. InspectorsGeneral or their Deputies, and by Deputies of the Supreme Council, and which belong to the Supreme Council, are hereafter, in all cases, to be transmitted to the Treasurer‑General, Ill.'.Bro.'. Frederick Webber, at Louisville, Kentucky. They must, under the statutes, be at the risk of the party, if transmitted to any other person or elsewhere.


            2d. Only such moneys belong to the Supreme Council, as remain after commissions and expenses are deducted, as allowed by Statutes; and when such commissions and expenses have been retained, an account thereof, showing amounts received, amount of expenses and commissions, and balance transmitted, certified on honor, will, at the time of remitting, be forwarded by mail to the Assistant Auditor‑General.


            3d. All moneys due the Supreme Council from Grand Consistories and Subordinate Bodies on the first of March in each year will be in like manner transmitted to the Treasurer‑General only; and at the same time each such body will, in addition to its regular returns transmitted to the Secretary‑General, transmit a financial report, showing in detail the moneys due by it to the Supreme Council, made out in duplicate, one copy to the Secretary‑General and one to the Assistant Auditor‑General.


            4th. No Books, Diplomas, Briefs, Patents or Charters will hereafter, under any circumstances, be issued and delivered, or sent, in the way of sale, to any body or officer, by the Secretary‑General, without an order from a Sov.'. Gr.'. Inspector‑General, or a Deputy of a Supreme Council, accompanied with the money.


            5th. The Secretary‑General will receive no other moneys than those specified in the preceeding Section, and for subscriptions to the Bulletin; and he will deposit all moneys received by him, weekly, in the Bank selected by the TreasurerGeneral, and to his credit, and receive his fees and commissions out of such moneys, by warrants from time to time on the Treasurer‑General, issued upon his account for such fees and commissions, filed with the Assistant AuditorGeneral, and on that officer's certificate of the amount due.


            6th. All accounts of and for moneys received and paid out, of all InspectorsGeneral, Deputies of the Supreme Council, Officers and Dignitaries of Supreme Council, Grand Consistories and Subordinate Bodies, will be audited by the Assistant Auditor‑General, and the result certified by him to the SecretaryGeneral; and no warrant for moneys payable to any such officers, members of Bodies, will be paid after the first day of March next, except on the certificate of audit of the Assistant Auditor‑General.


            7th. The Assistant Auditor‑General will forthwith open in a regular and proper book a ledger account with each Sovereign Grand Inspector‑General, the Sovereign Grand Commander, the Secretary‑General and Treasurer‑General, SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION and with each Deputy of the Supreme Council, and each Grand Consistory, and each Subordinate Body under the immediate jurisdiction of the Supreme Council, of all moneys received by each for the Supreme Council, or otherwise due by each to it and of all paid out for it and paid over to the Treasurer‑General or Secretary‑General; transcribing first into such Ledger the accounts for Books, Secret Work, &c., heretofore charged against each, as shown by the book made out by the Sovereign Grand Commander; and will make out and furnish to each such member, officer and body a copy of such Ledger account against him or it, and require immediate settlement and payment; or, if it is claimed that there are errors or improper charges in any such account, that they be at once shown, to the end that they may be corrected.


            8th. Hereafter such regular Ledger account will be kept by the Assistant Auditor‑General with each such member, officer and body, and the balances be reported to the Supreme Council at each session, as existing on the first of March of the year of the session.


            9th. The Treasurer‑General will transmit duplicate receipts for all moneys paid him, to the party paying or remitting, who must, as soon as possible after receipt of the same, transmit one of such duplicates to the Assistant AuditorGeneral.


            10th. All accounts of expenses and contingencies, in any office, or incurred by any Member or Deputy, must be kept in minute detail, and so furnished to the Auditor‑General, certified on honour; which will be sufficient evidence of the expenditures.


            11th. The Secretary‑General is entitled to receive, upon warrants therefor, such sums in advance, from time to time, for contingent expenses of his office, as he may, by proper requisition, estimate for and certify to the Sov.'. Gr.'. Commander to be necessary; and the Treasurer‑General is entitled to retain, of money, coming to his hands, such sums, from time to time, for like expenses, as he may estimate for and certify to the Sov.'. Gr.'. Commander to be necessary, having the same covered, when estimated for, by warrants in his favor. Each estimate should be for a given time, and at the end of such time account of expenditures of the same should be furnished to the Assistant Auditor‑General, for audit; to whom the estimate will go from the Grand Commander, with the number and amount of the warrant endorsed thereon." 0 A bright spot in the generally dismal economic situation in 1875 seems to have been the far western portion of the Jurisdiction. Deputy Henry S. Hopkins of Nevada made remittances totaling $855 (gold)." There seems to be no doubt that the mines of Nevada were responsible for this inflow of "hard monyv".


            2 Official Bulletin, III, No. 1, pp. 14‑17.


            2i Albert Pike to Frederick Webber, March 22, 1874; October 29, 1874.




A letter written by Pike reveals that he had been ill about mid‑1875 and that he expected to be in the "Indian Country" about two or three weeks in September and October on legal business in connection with the Choctaw claims. He was living in Alexandria, Virginia, and considered himself old, "going nowhere except to my office".‑ It seems very likely that Pike's illness and the trip with its labors and resulting fatigue is responsible for the dearth of surviving Scottish Rite correspondence for the remainder of 1875. On November 10, 1875, Pike wrote a circular letter announcing to the Fraternity the death of Reverend Sterling Y. McMasters, 33', Deputy of the Supreme Council in Minnesota, and on December 25, 1875, he authorized Frederick Webber to confer the Thirty‑third Degree upon "Ill. '. Bros. ' . Jordan and Furnas,. . . Ill.'. Bros.'. Jordan to be the Active Member, Ill.*. Bros. * . Furnas the Honorary".` No record has been found to indicate that the commission was executed.


            During 1875, Pike had received a number of letters from Ebenezer H. Shaw written from London and the Isle of Wright reporting declining health due to cancer of the stomach. These reports were continued early in 1876 by Shaw's daughter, Arlie. After Shaw's death on February 2, 1876, the widow, daughter and son were left destitute and were supported by the Supreme Council in England and their "friends". They also informed Pike that the family expected to arrive in New York "about March l," 1876, and implored him to assist them to return to California from New York. Pike sent $170 to the family in New York, contacted New York Masons on their behalf, and money was provided from all sources to buy tickets to San Francisco. They had arrived at their destination on April 28, 1876. The last letter in the file reveals that Arlie had the promise of a position in "the mint" about July 1, 1876.2' Heretofore in this history, little has been included regarding Grand Commander Albert Pike's private affairs. It has been indicated that Pike was a man of considerable means before the Civil War; that his losses during the War were large; and that he had encountered much difficulty in reestablishing his law practice after the War. By the opening of 1875, Pike's financial situation was desperate. He wrote "For a 22 Albert Pike to "Dear Friend", September 13, 1875.


            23 Albert Pike to "Very Dear Brethren", November 10, 1875; Albert Pike to 25, 1875.


            24 Arlie Shaw to Albert Pike, Junuary 28, 1876; February 8, 1876; April 14, 1876; April 30, 1876; May 14, 1876; R. March 22, 1876; A. G. Goodall to Albert Pike, March March 16, 1876.


            1876; March 4, 1876; March 7, 1876; March 19, M. C. Graham to Albert Pike, March 7, 1876; 9, 1876; Mrs. Josiah Carpenter to Albert Pike, Frederick Webber, December SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION year I have had all kinds. of worriment in regard to means of living, and pretty hard work to get through at all".25 A few days later, he wrote as follows: ". . . if I had not been so cursedly poor since the war, I could and should have done more for it [the Scottish Rite]".‑'' Pike had been an attorney for the Choctaw Nation for about twenty years seeking to collect their claims against the United States. The fee, if he should be successful, would be large, and Pike was filled with hope early in 1876 that the case would be won within two or three weeks.‑? Pike did not collect anything in 1876, or later, from his labor in this case." Temporarily relieved from labor in the Choctaw Claims case and stimulated by the hope of an early settlement, Pike turned again with vigor to work for the Scottish Rite. He planned a trip to Florida and Georgia in March, 1876, and wrote as follows I do not think that to do away with the delay would cause our Rite to prosper. The trouble is deeper seated than that. It is that there is, for Masons in general, too much of the Ancient and Accepted Rite; to many Degrees, to much to study; too little parade; that it is not fitted to be popular, or to be gone through with in an evening or two ‑ and, perhaps, that we who govern are not elected by the body of the Craft.


            It is quite certain that the Rite does not command itself to the popular taste. Nothing of a very high order would do so. It might be wisest, perhaps, to reduce the number of working degrees and to devote ourselves to making Masons of the Rite until they should become numerous enough to naturally desire to form themselves into bodies. In May, we must hear all opinions and do what may seem wisest.


            I am quite content to see the Rite advance slowly, if I can see advance surely. It was nothing, in 1859. It is something, now, at anyrate. Nothing can excell our bodies in Washington. They work, regularly, like other Masonic bodies, and prove that the Rite can be made a success. By and by it will revive in Georgia." On the same day that Pike wrote the letter from which above extract was quoted, he composed the following letter to Robert F. Bower which indicates his concern about the Rite in Iowa.


            25 Albert Pike to Samuel M. Todd, January 22, 1876. 2", Albert Pike to Frederick Webber, February 6, 1876.


            27 Ibid.; Albert Pike to William L. Mitchell, February 15, 1876.


            28 Walter Lee Brown, "Life of Albert Pike", unpublished Ph.D. 2'' Albert Pike to William L. Mitchell, February 15, 1876.


            dissertation, U. T., 1955, pp. 845; 862.




If you were to be made an Active Member of the Supreme Council, would you be willing to engage zealously in the work of re‑building the Rite in Iowa? or would your other offices and engagements, Templar and the rest, claim your time and services in preference? Ill.'. Bro.'. Parvin is too completely engrossed with other duties; and we shall have to find a colleague for him: one who will consider the status the highest honor he has, and will work accordingly.


            You are the proper person to have the place: and 1 should vote for you in preference to any one, knowing how fully, in all respects, social, moral, intellectual, you are worthy of it.


            But it is so common a thing to find those who are high in office elsewhere, utterly neglect our Rite, that I speak frankly to you, knowing that you will as frankly reply.


            If you would feel it an honour to be an Active Member, and, not neglecting your duty elsewhere, consider that the propagation of the Rite is as fully worthy of your devoted attention, as the well‑being of any other branch of the Order, I will put you in nomination." The Congress of Supreme Councils was held at Lausanne, Switzerland, as announced, from September 6 through 22, 1875. It has already been stated that the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction, U. S. A., was not represented in the Congress and that Pike was not in agreement with some proceedings of the Congress. By March, 1876, Pike had determined upon his course of action and dispatched the following letter on March 20, 1876, to the Grand Commanders of every recognized Supreme Council in the world together with a copy of the proposed "Articles of Federation" which are reproduced in Appendix V.


            The propositions herewith enclosed have been transmitted to the Supreme Councils not members of the Confederation created at Lausanne, at the instance of the Sov.'. Gr.'. Commander of the Sup.'. Council of Scotland. It is proper that we should send them to the Councils of the Confederation also, not in the way of invitation to another Union, but that our action may be known to all. Where there are no sinister purposes, there need be no concealment; and we should be ashamed to resort to any, in any matter whatever effecting our relations with other Supreme Councils.


            Even now we are reluctant to do more than advise our Sup.'. Council to simply decline acceding to the Confederation created at Lausanne, and to enter upon no discussion and engage in no correspondence concerning it. We have no right to 30 Albert Pike to Robert F. Bower, February 15, 1876.


            SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION ask or expect that any thing done there shall be undone, as the price of our accession. That would place us in a position that we cannot consent to occupy; for if, on our demand, concessions were made, resentments would undoubtedly be born with the concessions, and evil rather than good result. Too much was done at Lausanne that cannot be undone; and so much of what was done is objectionable to us (more in the Revision of the Grand Constitutions than in the Articles of Confederation), that it would be useless even to recite our objections, with a view to having them removed. We must accept the inevitable, and do what seems wisest and best under the circumstances.


            There is no reason why those Supreme Councils which find insuperable objections to exist to their accession to the Confederation established at Lausanne, should not form another Union, to exist by its side, upon bases not liable to the same objections. The powers conceded to the Congresses by Article III of the Articles of Alliance of that Confederation are entirely too broad and in fact unlimited. Article XII creates a new law, which must apply to the largest Empire as well as to the pettiest State, and when so applied is immeasurably absurd. The changes attempted to be made in the Grand Constitutions revolutionize the Rite; and the substitution of a "Principe‑Createur" for the God in whom Freemasons put their trust, alarms the whole body of the Craft everywhere in the world, and, if sanctioned by the Supreme Councils, will destory the Ancient and Accepted Rite, as it ought to do. The Masons of the United States hold that no man can be a Mason who does not cherish a firm belief in the existence of a God; and they cannot but see a sinister purpose in the substitution for "God our Father, Who is in Heaven," a Somewhat, vague and indefinite, a shapeless Impersonality, accepted to conciliate men for whose opinions they have no respect. For us to accept the "Principe‑Createur," though with permission to call It "The Grand Architect of the Universe," would be to annihilate our Ritual. No Englishspeaking Masons have desired to proclaim their disbelief in the God of their forefathers, and their belief in a Creator‑Principle, a phrase without meaning, which annuls the God of Justice, Wisdom and Beneficence, the Protecting Providence of our daily lives, and with the same blow destroys Religion and prostrates all the altars of all Faiths and of Masonry.


            Nor do we believe, that the Supreme Councils and Masons that speak other tongues will sanction this unfortunate depravation, demanded only by an insignificant number of Masons in a single country, who mistake the vertigo and delirium of the intellect for the inspiration of Truth, and the perplexed vagaries of speculation and superficial Pyrrhonism for the scholia of a profound philosophy. To conciliate only these, it is demanded that Masonry shall dethrone God and set in His place a "Principle," of which no affection known to us, nor even intelligence, can be predicated; a Force, an Impersonal Potency, between which and men there can be no sympathies; which cannot be for us a Providence; to which we and all our sorrows and sufferings and hopes and aspirations are no more than the dead sands of the sea‑shores are.




It will not do for us to permit the Masonic world to suppose that we are not energetically opposed to the acceptance, in lieu of "One Living God, the Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and Earth," of a "Principle," perhaps inherent in matter, to which no idea of personality attaches. "To know God, as God," it has been truly said, "the Living God, we must assume His personality; otherwise, what were it but an ether, a gravitation?" This "Principe‑Createur" is no new phrase. It is but an old term revived. Our adversaries, numerous and formidable, will say, and will have the right to say, that our Principe‑Createur is identical with the Principe‑Generateur of the Indians and Egyptians, and may fitly be symbolized, as it was symbolized anciently, by the Linga, the Phallus and Priapus. "Phtha‑Thore," says Matter, in his Histoire du Gnosticisme, "n'est qu'une autro modification de Phtha. Sous cette forme il est PRINCIPE‑CRtATEUR, ou plutot PRINCIPE‑GENERATEUR." This Phtha, the Phallic God, holding the priapus in one hand and brandishing the flagellum in the other, was in effect, "the Father of the Beginnings," "the God who creates with truth," the Principe‑Createur of the ancient Egyptians.


            To accept this, in lieu of a personal God, is to abandon Christianity and the worship of Jehovah, and to return to wallow in the styes of Paganism. So it seems to us; and we can account for the assent of our English Brethren to the change, only upon the ground of inadvertence, Adopt it, and the Phallus will be a legitimate symbol of it in our Lodges and on our altars. The Linga is the symbol of it now in the Temples of Hindustan. Nor does it help us, that it is "known as the Grand Architect of the Universe." For Chaeremon tells us that the "ancient Egyptians ascribed to the Sun that potent force which organizes all beings, and which force they regard as the Grand Architect of the World:" and Phtha, the Generator‑Creator, was the Demiourgos or Architect of the Universe.


            Where, if we substitute this Creative‑Principle for God, are we going to find a definition of it? The Sankhya philosophy, Ritter says, "usually paints the CreativePrinciple as a blind force, and even appears at times to equate its notion to that of the corporeal.


            . . . The Creative‑Principle, as being the basis of the corporeal, is also conceived to be a body." Even the Pagan Emperor Julian admitted an Esprit‑Createur; a SPIRIT‑Creator, of which Atys, he held (self‑multilated), was a symbol. We are asked to accept a "Principle," which each may define for himself; to call which Father, and pray to it would be absurd; to accept which would be to abandon the idea of a personal Deity, that idea, root of all religions, upon which Free‑Masonry is builded, to which all its ancient symbols relate, and deprived of which it falls into utter ruin.


            Those Supreme Councils which with us hold these opinions, and are opposed to sweeping innovations, Constitutional and Ritualistic, preferring to stand upon the old ways and maintain the old law, can, singly, only elect whether to unite SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION with the Confederation already formed, or to remain isolated. Uniting, their fraternal protest will be entitled to higher consideration; and they may, with brotherly affection for those who constitute the Confederation, and doing nothing in a spirit of antagonism, propose or accept such bases, as will in the end lead to a union of all." No known records of any kind survive to reveal when it became necessary to postpone the Session of the Supreme Council nor is there an indication of the cause of ffie~ change in date. The announcement of the new meeting date on April 18, 1876, was a summons from Grand Commander Pike to the members of the Supreme Council to the Session on May 29, 1876, in Washington, D. C., "in the Sanctuary of the Bodies of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Corner of D and 7th Streets, over the Bank of the Republic, at mid‑day". The remainder of the document is filled with gloom. Pike speaks of death, discouragement, dissatisfaction and that he "wearies of the work". The final line of the summons reveals that the "Headquarters of the Sup. ' . Council" was located in the Metropolitan Hotel." The remaining items of correspondence in the archives of the Supreme Council for the biennium before May 29, 1876, are chiefly concerned with matters of minor routine. However, there is evidence that a petition for a Consistory in Hawaii might be prepared "soon"," that the Bodies in Montgomery, Alabama, had died," and that Pike had discouraged the Grand Master of Georgia from recommending the adoption in Georgia of the Pike Ritual for the first three degrees." It may be observed that on the eve of the opening of the Session of the Supreme Council on May 29, 1876, general social, economic and political conditions in the United States had improved little, if any, from those of the preceding two years. The evils that had become a national disgrace had been many years in the making; they were not to be overcome easily or quickly. There were only very obscure indications, in 1876, that pointed to an era of a more equitable and democratic political structure, a higher level of morality, integrity and social justice, and a degree of economic prosperity never before known by Americans. Scottish Rite Masonry was to share in this upbuilding and to profit by it just as other moral institutions contributed and received. At this point it is appropriate to point out that Masons were not the creators of or participants in the scandals that rocked the Nation. On the contrary, they were leaders in the effort to heal the wounds of Civil War and to reestablish 31 Official Bulletin, III, No. 1, pp. 52‑55.


            31 Albert Pike to Wm. L. Mitchell, April 18, 1876.


            33 John Owen Dominis to Albert Pike, April 7, 1876. 34 Albert Pike to Frederick Webber, May 1, 1876. 35Ibid., May 7, 1876.




high ideals in all human undertakings. In this work, it is observed that Scottish Rite Masons in the Southern Jurisdiction were active.


            Twelve of the twenty‑three Active Members of the Supreme Council in May, 1874, were present for the opening of the Session on May 29, 1876; three were dead, seven submitted excuses for their absence which were accepted and there was no account of one.


            The first item of business to come before the Session was a letter from A. R. Morel explaining his repeated absence from the Sessions of the Supreme Council, "on account of which he had been dropped from the roll," and requesting reinstatement. His request was granted and he "was unanimously reinstated as an Active Member of the Supreme Council for the State of Texas". Morel had formerly been an Active Member from Louisiana.


            The Grand Commander then read his Allocution. After a brief and somewhat gloomy allusion to the shortness of life, Pike announced the death of Inspectors General Ames, Campbell and Shaw and a number of Honorary Members of the Supreme Council. He then stated that a Lodge of Sorrow would be held "on the evening of the Friday next" (June 2, 1876).


            The next portion of the Allocution was devoted to the "Progress of the Rite." Pike expressed his disapproval of the practices at Baltimore, Maryland, of admitting "Templars" only to membership but stated that the Bodies there were "prosperous". In Virginia the only active Bodies were said to be at Norfolk. A Lodge of Perfection and a Chapter of Rose Croix were active in West Virginia. "In North Carolina and Florida the Rite does not exist." In Georgia no progress was evident and in Alabama there was no sign of vitality in the Bodies at Montgomery and Mobile. He noted that in Mississippi there was little sign of life and that at Vicksburg only. Louisiana was said to be in "general depression" but there was "promise of revival". The Bodies at Charleston, South Carolina, were "reported to be doing well" and the Inspector General for Texas assured "future prosperity" of the Rite in that state. No report of progress had been received from Arkansas, Tennessee, Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska during the preceding two years. Prosperous Bodies were working in Louisville, Kentucky, and in Iowa the Bodies at Lyons and Davenport were active and the formation of a Lodge of Perfection expected at De Witt. There was difficulty in Nevada but activity nevertheless. Portions of the jurisdiction needed a resident Inspector General and a visit from the Grand Commander which had been often promised. Many of the Bodies in California had become dormant and Pike stated SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION that the state should have "two additional [Active] members". It was stated that Washington needed an Active Member to revive the dormant Bodies in the Territory. Oregon was reported to be in "a most healthy and prosperous condtion," but that no communication of any kind had been received from Utah. The establishment of Bodies in the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) was reported as was the "preposterous claim to exclusive jurisdiction by the Supreme Council of France" supported by the action of the Congress at Lausanne. Pike then reported at length upon the Bodies in the District of Columbia where he had directed development in accordance with his views of "building from below". His praise was glowing and the conviction wad expressed that "the same success can be achieved in any town where there are many Masons, if the Inspector General ... will devote himself with sufficent energy. . . ." In concluding this portion of his Allocution Pike stated: While there is not much to boast of in the increase of bodies and initiates during the last two years, there is nothing to discourage us, or to be ashamed of. We have done a good work in establishing the only system that can insure us permanent prosperity, and in demonstrating by actual results that by steadily adhering to it, we can create and maintain bodies doing genuine Masonic work, and make the Rite become a real living organization, and not a mere collection of side degrees, dispensed by imperfect communication, and for all practical purposes worthless.


            He then restated his thesis that it was "neither practical nor desirable for us rapidly to multiply our bodies or our initiates"; that the Scottish Rite degrees have nothing to offer "to those who cannot appreciate or value philosophical truth and the sublimest morality"; and that "they [the Scottish Rite degrees] must always be confined to a few" because they are not "fit to be lavished on all the world". In contrast to these observations Pike then stated that "it would be a mistake to suppose that scholars only, and men of genius, are capable of appreciating the teachings of our Rite"; that "in our best Lodges of Perfection" the "majority ... is composed of plain men, sensible and practically wise" who "appreciate the truths we teach, eager to learn and capable of understanding them".


            Another portion of Pike's concluding statements on the "Progress of the Rite" is significant. He wrote as follows Masonry, in a country where it has no great purpose to enable it, is always in danger of degenerating into vain ceremonies and idle pomp and show. In the countries where it is the champion and apostle of freedom, of conscience, speech, and action, where it must be ever on the alert, is ever in the presence of danger, by the sword of the mercenary and the dagger of the fanatic, it is real and earnest, heroic and grandly enthusiastic.


            HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33 The next section of the Allocution was devoted to "Foreign Relations". The first portion of this discussion was a review of the events leading up to the Congress of Lausanne, the acts that took place in that body, Pike's criticisms of the results of the Congress, and the proposal to form a "Confederation" of those Supreme Councils not adhering to the Lausanne Confederation. Pike then took up a "Resolve" adopted by the Supreme Council of the Northern Jurisdiction renewing a claim to jurisdiction over States and Territories of the United States reserved to the Southern Jurisdiction in an agreement in 1828. He recommended that no change in jurisdictional territory be made. Also in relation to the Northern Jurisdiction, Pike indulged in comments on the "Christianization" of the 18th degree in that Jurisdiction and th~e legal rights of non‑Christians to seek the degree elsewhere. The formation of the Supreme Council in Canada and Pike's participation in that event was then discussed. Pike announced that he had recognized the Canadian Supreme Council but that, since his authority to appoint and recall Representatives had been challenged by the Supreme Council of France, these powers should be determined and defined by the Supreme Council. The final portion of this section began with a report of relations between the Supreme Council and Grand Orient in Belgium then moved into the general realm of such relations, the powers of sovereignty and the question of determining when a Supreme Council had committed "suicide". Opinions were expressed but no recommendations for action by the Supreme Council were made.


            In the realm of jurisprudence, Pike discussed at length the problem of non‑payment of dues in Symbolic Lodges. He expressed his belief that it was a Lodge matter in which Grand Lodges should not "intermeddle". Scottish Rite interest in the problem was aroused because expulsion from Lodge membership for non‑payment of dues also terminated membership in Scottish Rite Bodies of such members so disciplined. He closed his comments as follows And it is certainly not a very dignified position for us to occupy, to be compelled to close our doors against or open them to Masons of our high degrees, as they may alternately be suspended for failure to pay their dues in a Lodge, and restored upon paying up; especially when a Lodge would not suspend a Bro.'. for unworthiness if he refused to pay dues to one of our Bodies for half a century. Yet is not the unworthiness the same? and why should we help a Lodge collect its dues, by punishing the delinquent, if it would not help us collect ours? The Grand Commander then announced to the Supreme Council that the Grand Master of Masons in Georgia favored the adoption of the Pike ritual, for the first three Masonic degrees, in Georgia, and that he had advised against it, suggesting 120 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION rather that Lodges be chartered to work the ritual, if they requested it, as was done in Louisiana. In further comments, Pike made some interesting observations as follows Our American Masons generally have heretofore seemed to imagine that there is no Masonry entitled to the name, in the world, outside of the United States; and that there is but one legitimate Rite of Masonry, the "York" Rite. There neither is nor ever was a York Rite. The very name asserts a falsehood. There never was any Grand Lodge at York. Our American Blue Masonry is not like any other in the world, not because it is purer, but because it was adulterated early in the present century, by men of little capacity or knowledge on this side the Atlantic. In solemnity and impressiveness the work does not approach that of the Scottish and French Rites; nor does it give the means of recognition and of obtaining aid in danger, as these are known even in England.


            When we were almost isolated from the rest of the Masonic world, our provincial notions and absurd self‑conceit were natural enough. But now, when thousands annually visit Europe, as formerly a man went from Boston to Baltimore, they are merely ridiculous. Other Rites or systems are at least as good as ours, and the Scottish and French Rites are vastly more cosmopolitan. If the requisite number of Master Masons of either of these Rites desire to form a Lodge, and work it, it is simply absurd for a Grand Lodge superciliously to say to them, "You shall not work at all unless you work our work. We will not charter you as a Scottish or French Rite Lodge; and we will not permit any other Masonic Power to give you Letters of Constitution." To my mind there is nothing that is of much less importance than uniformity of work, and yet there is nothing about which American Masonry has its soul so continually vexed. Nothing so much adds to the interest of Masons in Masonry as the existence in the same city of Lodges working in different Rites, and yet all of one obedience. One visit by an American Lodge in New Orleans, to a French, Spanish, or Italian Lodge working in the French or Scottish Rite, is worth a whole year of ordinary dull Masonic routine.


            It will by‑and‑by begin to be comprehended in the United States that our American Masonry became provincialized by that isolation which made the innovations of Webb and Cross possible in all its branches; and that as the rest of the Masonic world will never come to us, abandoning the better for the worse, we must remain isolated or abjure our errors and go to them. Meanwhile if the Grand Lodge of Georgia should see fit to adopt the Scottish Rite, no other power can object, and it will gain largely by the exchange ritualistically.


            It is gratifying to know that the influence of the teachings of our Rituals is gradually extending over the world. Now, as it was of old, it is again become necessary to teach the truths, on which religion and philosophy must be builded, in the chambers of initiation. The world thinks it has outgrown its ancient faiths; and science, with which religion should be in perfect harmony, investigates SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION nature and explores the mysteries of the universe, and asserts that all religions are born of ignorance, of the scant knowledge and limited and petty notions which men anciently had of nature.


            Our Scottish Free Masonry stands between the two disputants, teaching as they were taught of old, the cardinal truths which reason teaches, and of which the settled convictions of mankind in all ages are sufficient proof. In the midst of a world of sceptics, in a day when all the foundations of faith are being broken up, because it is demanded that men shall believe too much, and the alternative is to believe nothing, we adhere to and teach the doctrines of the existence of a personal God, and a Divine Providence, and of the indestructibility of the human intellect; which our Rituals develope and illustrate.


            Undoubtedly our Rituals are very far from perfect. The task of revision was too great for the powers of a single man. I am not content with part of the degrees of the Lodge of Perfection; and the 32d is far from being what it should be. It remains yet to discover and disclose in it the Royal Secret. That I propose to attempt doing, during the next two years; and if I can succeed I shall be content.


            Pike commented that Southern Jurisdiction rituals were being used in the Northern Jurisdiction, Belgium and Canada and that German translations of the Ineffable Degrees had been completed so that German‑speaking Lodges of Perfection might be formed. With brief mention of recent publications and manuscripts that were available for publication, Pike passed on to consideration of a "Sanctuary and Charity Fund".


            He mentioned that stock certificates had been printed (see reproduction on facing page) and distributed in an attempt to raise sufficient money to buy a site for the Sanctuary. However, "the depressed condition of many States of our jurisdiction made the effort futile. The amount subscribed is insignificant". He then suggested that "an account should be opened by the Auditor" for the Sanctuary fund to which the sales of books should be credited.


            The Grand Commander closed his Allocution by announcing that the Seventy‑fifth Anniversary of the Supreme Council would occur on Wednesday, May 31, 1876. He outlined the formation of the Supreme Council, listed its first members, deplored the lack of information and suggested that the Active Members from South Carolina should compile a history that might be "worthy of publication"." 36 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. J., 1876, pp. 4‑42.




The next items of business were transacted in the Senatorial Chamber and were as follows: The nomination and election of Wilmot Gibbes DeSaussure to Active Membership for South Carolina.


            The nomination of nineteen Princes of the Royal Secret to the rank of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour.


            The nomination and election of twelve distinguished members of other Supreme Councils to Honorary Membership in the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction.


            The nomination for Active Membership of the following: Giles W. Merrill of Minnesota Horace Halsey Hubbard of California Odell Squire Long of West Virginia Dewitt Clinton Dawkins of Florida Robert Farmer Bower of Iowa James Smyth Lawson of Washington Territory Michel Eloi Girard of Louisiana The nomination of fifteen Brethren to receive the "Thirty‑third degree and Honorary Membership in the Supreme Council".


            A report of a Committee of Investigation for Inspector General Ebenezer H. Shaw was received and adopted.


            A letter of appreciation from Inspector General A. E. Frankland was read and ordered to be printed.


            A resolution was adopted granting Secretary General Albert G. Mackey a leave of absence for one year "to recover his health" was adopted on condition that he appoint a "Washington Brother" to discharge the duties of his office during his absence.


            On the following day, May 30, 1876, the Supreme Council resumed its labors in the Senatorial Chamber and attended to items of business as follows Received Representatives of six Foreign Bodies.


            Received the report of the Committee on the Allocution of the Grand Commander for distribution for detailed reports.


            124 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION Received communication from four Foreign Supreme Councils.


            Received the financial reports of the Grand Commander, Secretary General, Treasurer General and Inspector General Caswell and referred them to the Committee on Finance.


            The Committee on Foreign Correspondence made its report on the correspondence relating to the Congress of Lausanne and to relations with the Supreme Council of France and recommended that the actions of Grand Commander Pike be "fully approved and confirmed, and that his recommendations relative thereto be adopted" which was adopted.


            Received and adopted a report calling for a "social meeting ... at 8 o'clock on Wednesday evening, May 31," for the purpose of celebrating the Seventy‑fifth Anniversary of the establishment of the Supreme Council.


            Some confidential letters were received and referred to special committees.


            One thousand dollars was appropriated to pay the traveling expenses of the Grand Commander to such points in the Jurisdiction "for the interests of the Rite" as he might deem advisable.


            The Grand Commander read a confidential Allocution.


            Twenty members were elected to the rank of Knight Commander of the Court of Honour.


            Twenty‑one members were elected to receive the Decoration of Grand Cross the Court of Honour as follows: of Ben. Perley Poore Clement Wells Bennett Robert M. Smith William Cothran Robert W. Furnas Thos. Elwood Garrett William Leffingwell William Napoleon Loker Angel Martin Isaac Sutvene Titus Nathaniel Levine Stephen Fowler Chadwick Richard J. Nunn Ezekiel Salomon William Lewis Page Harvey Allen Olney Robert Farmer Bower Thomas Cripps John Lawson Lewis John Somers Buist George C. Betts 125 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33 Fifteen nominees were elected to receive the Thirty‑third Degree and Honorary Membership in the Supreme Council.


            The Supreme Council authorized the "healing" of John H. B. Latrobe who had received the Thirty‑third Degree illegally through no fault of his own.


            The seven nominees for Active Membership were elected.


            Three nominations for the Thirty‑third Degree and Honorary Membership were submitted, "to lie over until the next session." The Supreme Council was then called off until 7 o'clock at which time six designates received the Thirty‑third Degree and Honorary Membership in the Supreme Council. This ceremony was followed by the crowning, as Active Members of the Supreme Council, of the following: Wilmot G. DeSaussure of South Carolina Robert F. Bower of Iowa Horace H. Hubbard of California James S. Lawson of Washington Territory Odell S. Long of West Virginia At twelve o'clock, noon, on May 31, 1876, labor was resumed in the Senatorial Chamber. Business transacted included the following items A report form the Committee on the State of the Order on a portion of the Grand Commander's Allocution was received and adopted. The report took note that the Rite was "healthy and prosperous"; stated that the Bodies established in the Hawaiian Kingdom "should be sustained and encouraged", repudiated the claims of the Supreme Council of France to jurisdiction in Hawaii as "without foundation in law or right" and "is unwarranted, in contravention of established usage, and in violation of the landmarks and Constitution of the Rite"; and recommended that Pike's suggestion to elect "one or more" Honorary Members from Hawaii "at the present session" be "acquiesced in".


            A report of a Special Committee condemned the conferral of degrees "upon credit" but in the particular case before it recommended that the request for the remission of the fee "for degrees 19‑30" be granted. The report was adopted.


            A Special Committee reported on the "confidential Allocution" of the Grand Commander stating that many of the matters had been referred to committees which 126 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION would report during the Session; that it approved the recommendations on finance and the re‑organization of the Secretary General's office; and that more time was needed for the consideration of legislation to make the recommendations effective and to that end a committee should take these matters under consideration during recess of the Supreme Council and report at the next Session. The report was tabled until a "Secret Session" was convened.


            The report of the Committee on Doings of Subordinate Bodies was received and "ordered to be filed".


            Several letters of "excuse" were read and accepted.


            Inspector Collin's report was referred to the Committee on Doings of Inspectors General.


            The Supreme Council then "resolved into Secret Session" and the following actions took place: Three additional nominations of Knights Commander of the Court of Honour were made and elected.


            William L. Mitchell was elected and installed as Grand Prior.


            Two nominations from Hawaii of Knights Commander of the Court of Honour were made and elected and the same two were nominated and elected to receive the Thirty‑third Degree and Honorary Membership in the Supreme Council.


            The Committee on Finance made a report, which was adopted, stating that the condition of the records was such that they could not determine "past balances" and recommended that the "Asst. Auditor‑General make a full and correct investigation" and report to the Grand Commander in time for the report to be printed as a part of "the transactions of this session".


            The Committee on Doings of Inspectors General reported that reports had been received from eighteen Active Members and Deputies of the Supreme Council; that the Rite "continues steadily to progress ... (considering the financial condition of the country) ... as great as should be expected ... ;" that printed forms for semiannual reports in duplicate should be sent out by the Secretary General at the proper time in order that the Supreme Council may "be advised as to the state of the Rite officially;" and that these reports "be published in the Appendix of the Transactions". The report was adopted.




The Secretary General was ordered to correct the charter of Alexander Liholiho Council at Honolulu.


            Two Inspectors General were excused for their absence.


            A report of the Committee on Correspondence, offering resolutions of "emphatic rejection of the heresy ... made a part of the proceedings of the Lausanne Congress by the Supreme Council of France" and authorizing Grand Commander Pike "to officially sign and seal the articles of alliance" with the Supreme Councils of Ireland and Scotland was received and adopted.


            A further report of the Committee on Correspondence was adopted authorizing "the formal reception" of the Representative of the Supreme Council of Canada.


            The advances made to Inspector General Shaw and his family were made known to the Supreme Council and the matter was referred to a Special Committee.


            The Grand Commander ruled that the appointment of an Assistant Auditor General was authorized "without restriction, as to rank or degree".


            On Wednesday evening, May 31, 1876, the Supreme Council celebrated the Seventy‑fifth Anniversary of the founding of the "Supreme Council by a social gathering and banquet".


            Labor was resumed in its Senatorial Chamber by the Supreme Council on June 1, 1876, actions were as follows: A letter from the Grand Master of Georgia was read.


            New charters were authorized for the Bodies at Virginia City, Nevada, in lieu of those destroyed.


            The Grand Commander was authorized to deputize Inspectors General to confer the Thirty‑third Degree "upon such elected Honorary Inspectors as ... have not been present at this session".


            The payment of a number of bills was authorized.


            "The Supreme Council then resolved itself into Secret Session" and business was acted upon as follows: 128 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION A Confidential Allocution of Grand Commander Pike regarding the Grand Consistory of Maryland was referred to the Committee on the State of the Order.


            A petition of the Grand Consistory of Kentucky for remission of dues was referred to the Committee on the State of the Order.


            The Committee on Jurisprudence and Legislation made a report, which was unanimously adopted, refusing to consider an extension of the territorial jurisdiction of the Northern Supreme Council at the expense of jurisdiction of the Southern Supreme Council.


            A Special Committee recommended that a letter from the Grand Tiler be referred to the Council of Deliberation for action. The recommendation was adopted.


            John L. Roper of Virginia was nominated and elected to receive the Grand Cross of the Court of Honour.


            The Treasurer General was authorized to pay the expenses ($130) of Inspector Morel incurred "in coming to this Session".


            The decision, whether or not, to revoke the charter of the Grand Consistory of Georgia was referred to Inspector General Mitchell.


            Three Inspectors General were excused for absence from the Session.


            A resolution to drop inactive "Honorary Thirty‑thirds" was referred to the Committee on the State of the Order.


            A report from Inspector General Mitchell recommending that the charter of the Grand Consistory of Georgia be recalled and that Inspector General Toombs be appointed to settle the affairs of the Body "at his discretion" was adopted.


            The "Secret Session" was closed and the Senatorial Chamber was then reopened.


            Three Inspectors General were excused for the remainder of the Session, and the Supreme Council "called off" until the following day.


            The work of June 2, 1876, began in the morning with the conferral of the Thirtythird Degree and Honorary Membership in the Supreme Council upon three designates. In the afternoon, labor was again resumed in the Senatorial Chamber on the following business: 129 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33 A committee report on a portion of the Allocution referring to the dead was received and adopted which set aside a page in the Book of Gold for each deceased Active Member.


            A report of the Committee on Jurisprudence was received, tabled, and its publication forbidden.


            A report from the Committee on the State of the Order recommending that each Inspector General be required to report all inactive Honorary Members at the next Session, "to the end that there may be appropriate legislation. . . ," was adopted.


            The Committee on the State of the Order proposed that a commission be created, composed of the Assistant Auditor General and two Active Members, one nominated by the Grand Consistory of Maryland and one by the Active Member in Maryland, to examine the accounts of the Grand Consistory and Active Member in Maryland "and determine as to the same, their said determination to be absolute, final, and conclusive". The report was adopted.


            The Special Committee appointed on the advances made to Inspector General Shaw and his family made an unpublished report which was adopted.


            The Committee on Jurisprudence made a report on the Congress of Lausanne and recommended that the Supreme Council "refuse to accede to the Articles of Confederation of the recent Congress of Lausanne". This report was adopted.


            The Committee on Jurisprudence presented a copy of the "Revised Statutes" and recommended that no action be presently taken except to order the printing of two hundred copies for distribution six months before the next session. This procedure was adopted.


            The Committee on Jurisprudence requested a discharge from consideration of the Congress of Lausanne which was granted.


            The Finance Committee reported that the financial statement of Inspector General Caswell was correct.


            The conferral of the Thirty‑third Degree before payment of the fee was forbidden, except in cases where it is given as an Honorarium.


            130 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION The degree fees of three designates to receive the Thirty‑third Degree were remitted.


            Thanks of the Supreme Council were extended for several gifts and services extended during the Session.


            The Grand Commander was authorized to present copies of books published by the Supreme Council to the King of Sweden.


            The Grand Commander was authorized and requested to attend the proposed Congress at Edinburgh in 1877.


            The Grand Commander was reimbursed for expenses of the publication of lectures prepared by him.


            The Treasurer General was awarded $200 for services rendered during the past two years.


            The preparation of the early history of the Rite was referred to the Active and Honorary Members from South Carolina.


            A committee to publish Pike's "History of Free Masonry in France and on the Continent of Europe" was authorized, but given no authority "to involve the Supreme Council in any expense".


            Inspector General Toombs and Grand Commander Pike were requested to furnish copies of certain addresses "to be published with the transactions. . . ." The Session of the Supreme Council was then closed with the usual ceremonies.


            During the evening of June 2, 1876, following the Session of the Supreme Council, a Lodge of Sorrow was opened to pay tribute to those members of the Rite who had died during the preceding two years. The feature of the meeting was the address by Grand Commander Pike.'" The Session of 1876, as is the case in every Session of the Supreme Council, was concerned with many matters of well‑settled routine. It faced some unresolved prob 37 Ibid., 56‑94.




lems of long standing and there were new problems that had arisen since the Session of 1874.


            The significant actions of the Supreme Council in 1876 may be listed as follows: Refusal to become a member of the confederation formed at Lausanne.


            Rejection of the contentions of the Supreme Council of France with regard to jurisdiction in Hawaii.


            Continued support of Bodies formed in Hawaii.


            Approval of the creation of and membership in a new confederation of Supreme Councils.


            Institution of reforms in the fiscal system and in the work of the Secretary General's office.


            Establishment of fraternal relations with the Supreme Council of Canada.


            Refusal to grant the demand of the Northern Supreme Council for more territorial jurisdiction in the United States.


            Broadened the geographical representation in the Supreme Council.


            Problems of major importance unsolved at the close of the Session included the following: Fiscal accounting Membership accounting Building of a "Sanctuary" Creation of a charity fund Adequate propagation of the Rite Administrative cooperation and coordination In generalization, it may be said that the Session of 1876 was completely harmonious; not a dissenting voice was raised on any issue. The policies and actions of Grand Commander Pike were accepted without any apparent reservations. In fact, 132 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION it appears that no other member of the Supreme Council had any ideas or thoughts to present at the Session. It also appears that the Supreme Council acted with vigor on all problems where action was possible. It is significant that these actions did not require expenditures of any considerable amount of funds, obviously, because little money was available.


            For a better understanding of the situation of the Rite and its prospects of growth in the immediate years to come, it must be remembered that serious problems were absorbing the attention and energy of the American people. Among the more important of these problems in 1876 were the following: Economic depression A vast body of unassimilated immigrants Agrarian unrest Dislocations incident to the Industrial Revolution Problems resulting from urbanization Labor unrest Exploitation of the public by "big business" Politicians of the period were "second‑rate men" Widespread lack of morality South Carolina, Louisiana and Florida still under "Radical Reconstruction" by "Carpetbaggers" The frontier still unconquered Transportation and communication not fully developed Virulent sectionalism still present An increasing demand for social reform Prevalence of rampant materialism The Negro problem still unsolved Inadequate educational opportunity and facilities The "Land of Opportunity" had certainly become also a land of problems, each imperiously demanding attention, consequently, the development of Scottish Rite Bodies was handicapped in proportion to the intensity of a combination of these and other problems in any given locality.


            Actions of the Supreme Council in May, 1876, permitted the immediate beginning of two important events between the Supreme Council Sessions of 1876 and 1878.




These were trips into the far western portion of the Southern Jurisdiction by Grand Commander Pike and as far west as Colorado by Secretary General Mackey.


            The Session of 1876 had not ended when Pike was issued a warrant on June 1, 1876, for $500, posted as "visitation" expense, and on June 11, for the same purpose, another warrant for $200. Both of these warrants were charged in the Grand Com mander's account as "expense of Visitation to Pacific Coast"." When Pike left Washington, D. C., and when he arrived in Nevada is unknown; however, he was to be in Virginia City, Nevada, on July 10 and on July 17, 1876." Silver Lodge of Perfection had been established in Virginia City prior to the Session of the Supreme Council in 1876 at which time Pike reported its destruction by a disastrous fire that had burned almost all of the city. He also stated that the members of the Lodge had "contributed the means necessary" to resume labor, under duplicate Letters of Constitution, at great expense." No doubt the visit of the Grand Commander was a great stimulation to their efforts, but no detailed record of his work there is known except the entry in his accounts that he had received for the Supreme Council in July, "cash, gold, from Henry St. George Hopkins, Dep. $500.00,"41 and this line from a surviving letter,) "it will be impossible to forward any of these documents to the Brethren in Virginia City until I can receive further orders from you".42 A Lodge of Perfection and Chapter of Rose Croix were in nearby Carson City, and it is very probable that Pike visited these Bodies; however, no surviving Supreme Council records verify this supposition.


            Several sources establish that Grand Commander Pike was in San Francisco, California, before the end of July, 1876. A notice, published in San Francisco, states that Pike would be present at a meeting of Yerba Buena Lodge of Perfection in the Masonic Temple on Friday evening, July 21, 1876.'3 In a letter, dated July 31, 1876, written by Edwin B. MacGrotty to Albert Pike, MacGrotty mentions receipt of a newspaper from San Francisco addressed in the handwriting of Pike. Pike's accounts, already referred to, list the names of five men from whom he received fees for the Thirty‑third Degree. The membership card file of the Supreme Council and a news report establishes that four were residents of San Francisco and that they 38 Ibid., 1878, p. 134.


            38 Edwin B. MacGrotty to Albert Pike, July 31, 1876; Virginia Evening Chronicle, July 8, 1876. 4 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. J., 1876, p. 7.


            41 Ibid., 1878, p. 134.


            42 Edwin B. MacGrotty to Albert Pike, August 17, 1876. 43 Daily Alta, July 21, 1876.


            134 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION had received the Thirty‑third Degree on July 26, 1876.4' It seems certain that the Grand Commander, on his first trip to the Pacific Coast, spent at least one week in San Francisco.


            The whereabouts of the Grand Commander next established is on August 9, 1876, when he passed through Eugene City, Oregon, on his way to Portland." He arrived in Portland "overland from San Francisco" on the evening of August 9," and was fraternally welcomed to the city by the Scottish Rite Masons "in their Lodge room" on the evening of Friday, August 11, 1876.4' On the following day, it was announced that "Gen. Albert Pike will deliver a lecture Monday evening at Masonic Hall on the subject of Freemasonry" to which "all Master Masons in good standing" were invited." In addition to the visit on August 11, the minutes of Oregon Lodge of Perfection reveal that Pike again visited that Body on August 15, and the minutes of Ainsworth Chapter of Rose Croix record that he visited the Chapter on August 22, 1876. It is also found that Pike's daughter, unnamed, was with him on the trip. The minutes of Salem Lodge of Perfection show that a committee was appointed in August, 1876, to receive Grand Commander Pike, but there is no record of his visit to the Lodge." Grand Commander Pike arrived back ‑in Washington, D. C., about October 23, 1876,5 completing the first visit of a Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council, 33, of the Southern Jurisdiction, on official business, to the Pacific Coast area of the United States. His accounts reveal that the trip cost $875 in gold and $325 in currency, a total of $1,200, and that he had received for work done for the Supreme Council during the trip $1,250 in gold. These entries also indicate that the journey had extended from June 30 to October 23, 1876.51 Secretary General Albert G. Mackey began a much longer sojourn in the West than that of the Grand Commander about the middle of July, 1876. He had, it will be recalled, been granted a leave of absence from his office for one year "to recover his health"; however, the health problem seems to have been that of a daughter." 44 Membership Card File, Supreme Council, 33; George J. Hobe; Charles Mills Browne; Daily Alta, July 28, 1876.


            45 The Oregon State Journal, August 12, 1876. 4e Daily Morning Oregonian, August 10, 1876. 47 Ibid., August 11, 1876.


            48Ibid., August 12, 1876.


            49 Leslie M. Scott to James D. Carter, April 20, 1964; December 19, 1966. 10 Albert Pike to Frederick Webber, November 1, 1876.


            51 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. J., 1878, p. 134‑135. 52 Henry C. F. Jensen to Albert Pike, October 26, 1876.


            F. Brown; Wm. T. Reynolds; John 135 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33░


Mackey's report to the Supreme Council covered the period from July 13, 1876, to April 11, 1878, and the entries in it place him in Kansas and Colorado from July 15, 1876, to February 18, 1878. He communicated the degrees of the Lodge of Perfection to eight candidates in Leavenworth, Kansas, on July 15, 1876, and on six at Salina, Kansas, on September l, 1876. Sometime between September 1 and 9 when Mackey was back in Salina to communicate the degrees from 4 through 32 on three candidates, he visited Denver, Colorado, and communicated work on eight candidates." About October 20, 1876, Mackey was in Central City, Colorado, trying to organize a Lodge of Perfection but it was a "generally dull time" there and nothing seems to have immediately developed from his efforts. In the week before October 26, 1876, he was in Denver attempting to form a Lodge of Perfection among those to whom he had communicated the required degrees." The next known date of his activity was on April 10, 1877, at Denver, and one month later he communicated the work at Golden City, Colorado. He did some work at Central City on July 27 and 31 and returned to Denver where he worked on November 21, 1877. His last recorded labor was at Denver on February 18, 1878.55 His leave of absence from the Secretary General's office had expired about June 1, 1877, and Mackey's prolonged absence from his duties provoked the following comments from the Grand Commander Bro.'. Mackey has written to me but once in six mos., and then to complain that I had said in a printed letter that the income of the Sup.'. Council had heretofore been no more than sufficient to pay his salary and current expenses. I had said nothing of the kind, but spoke of the present only. I told him so in my reply with surprise that he could have so misrepresented what was too plain to be misunderstood: and I have no answer. I urged him to make his returns, telling him that I had nothing to do with the money he had received, but that I was bound by the Statutes to see that returns were made regularly by all members, of work done. He has made no report nor returns of any sort since he went away, nor said anything about the business of the Secretary's office.


            Therefore I do not feel like writing to him any further. He knows that I am doing his work, as I always have been, and as he expects me always to do; and he seems to take it for granted that I will not let it go undone. The Register was his work to do, and not mine; and it was not my work to sort and arrange the chaos of papers in his office. All he has ever said since he left, about the office, was to express his belief that Ham would be good enough to do the work 63 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. J., 1878, p. 122. 54 Henry C. F. Jensen to Albert Pike, October 26, 1876. 55 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. J., 1878, p. 122.


            136 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION for him: but he cannot afford to work without pay. He does not care for Dr. Mackey, as you and I do.


            So I return your letter, that you may send it yourself. I should think he would reply to your letter, if he would to any one's. I am getting tired of the selfishness that expects all the world to work for it without even the pay of thanks.


            If he will employ you as assistant, the $500 paid you would benefit the Sup.'. Co.'. largely because its revenues are continually falling off in consequence of neglect in the office of the Secretary General. Bodies fail to pay, Brothers getting no answers to letters, cease to write, and everything falls into confusion and decay. It is simply impossible to let matters go on in this way long: and he ought to know it. The idea of his taking $3,000 for two years salary, without doing anything as Secretary is simply monstrous. Look at our Transactions. Your report is omitted: so is his: so is mine. 1 cannot find yours and mine, for 1874 or 1876, in the office.


            Nobody is more his friend than I am, but I owe duties to the Order and Sup.'. Co. '. too. Did you ever hear of a case of a Gr.'. Secretary going off and leaving his office for two years, and receiving his full salary, while others did his work? He could and should have left his wife and daughter, and come home, when his year's leave was out. There was no need of his staying there.


            He never will attend as he should to the duties of the office. With you as as assistant, all would go well.'" The Doctor writes that he will come home in February. Your arrangement will be for service as asst. after his return, even if you begin a little before: and after his return Ham would not wish to act. In fact he cannot attend to it. To avoid any feeling of unkindness, the best way will be for you to let Ham act until February, and then take charge.


            There is no money in the general fund: not a dollar. Nothing has been done to make the bodies pay up.


            After you take charge, we will turn over a new leaf.'? Here the matter rested.


            Grand Commander Pike's law firm had never prospered in Washington, D. C., because of the prejudice against him as a "rebel,"" and the general economic distress.


            58 Albert Pike to Frederick Webber, November 25, 1877. 57 Ibid., December 21, 1877.


            58 Albert Pike to Richard Thurston, February 23, 1874.




By his return from the Pacific Coast in 1876, this financial distress caused him to move his living quarters into the building occupied by the Supreme Council at 602 D Street, N. E., Washington, D. C., in the fall of 1876. From this time until his death, the Grand Commander lived in the quarters of the Supreme Council, wherever they might be.


            Disaster was striking elsewhere also. In Arkansas, Masonry had "come to a dead halt;" " the situation was not improved early in 1877; " and to add to the distress, the hall, regalia, furniture and records of the Scottish Rite Bodies were destroyed by fire." It was reported to Pike that the Bodies at Atlanta and Albany in Georgia were "dead". `'2 A letter from Corpus Christi, Texas, reports "the times are very hard," that there is "prejudice" against the Scottish Rite, that the Rite is hampered by some "turbulent material" and that civil government is corrupts? In a long letter the Inspector General in Texas repeats these observations and adds "ignorance," "intrigue," and "too lazy" to the indictment of a large portion of the possible candidates for the Rite. He also pointed out that distances were so great in the state that the commissions received from the communication of degrees to start a Lodge of Perfection would not pay the travel expenses." Other letters report death, removals from the state, sickness and continued financial distress which draw a most discouraging picture of the immediate prospects of the Rite in Texas.' The few communications from Officers and Bodies of the Rite during 1876 and 1877 in the files of the Supreme Council seem to indicate that an advanced stage of paralysis was present in portions of the Jurisdiction. Reflecting upon the condition of the Rite and its causes, Grand Commander Pike wrote as follows: The whole trouble is that Templarism takes all of every Templar's time and money; and that where our own members are not so engrossed by that and Blue Masonry, they are so engrossed by heavens as not to have any time to attend to the Rite. Take even Mackey. He went to Florida and took charge of North Carolina, created a body in each, and let it die out‑We never heard once from either of them. . . . What has he written for the Rite? Nothing. He has not even been in the bodies here, once in two years; but he is always on hand at Chapter 5s J. A. Henry to Albert Pike, November 30, 1876. '1 Luke E. Barber to Albert Pike, March 15, 1877. 61 Ibid., April 13, 1877.


            62 R. M. Smith to Albert Pike, December 11, 1876. 63 Aaron Ancell to Albert Pike, February 6, 1877. 64 Philip C. Tucker to Albert Pike, March 9, 1877.


            fi 5 Aaron Ancell to Albert Pike, July 20; September August 12, 1877.


            l; September 27, 1877; Philip C. Tucker to Albert Pike, 138 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION meetings and Templar meetings. Did he ever write a Lecture or anything connected with the Rite? Not one.


            The truth is that he known that. He is too That's the trouble‑and interest for him.


            does not care for the Rite, as a Rite. I have always much wedded to Blue Masonry and Chapter Masonry. the work and teachings of the Rite have never had much And that is, at bottom, the trouble with most of our members. They don't value the Rite enough to feel compelled to labor to extend it and disseminate its principles. They like it, they think it a good thing, pretty nearly as good as Templarism, quite as good as the Fellow Craft's degree: but not something that a man should devote himself to, as better than all the rest. The Rite is not a Religion for them.


            Well it cannot be expected that all should look upon it in that light, or set as high a value upon it as we do, and so we must be patient and work on: and be content with what they can and will do. Thank God! We have got a few whose whole heart is in the Rite." Just a few days later Pike expressed himself on the same general theme as follows: There are reasons for the slow progress of our Rite. It costs money, it requires thought and study, it is above the comprehension of the mass of Masons. It does not display itself in fuss and feathers, receptions and pilgrimages and other fooleries, which captivate the mass of men. It has not many offices to which ignorance can elect the ambitious: and every one who comes into it is already engaged in other bodies that take up enough of his time.


            As to our own members, what can we expect? Most of them are busily engaged earning a living. Some think that Heaven is a place specially made for Templars to drill and parade in. Nearly all are merchants or lawyers; and many of them only like, without living, the Rite.


            I do not see how we can cut off any members from existing Grand Consistories. And as to the future, I shall never vote to make another Grand Consistory. It would be better if we had none. If we should ever make another, I shall desire to make it a representative body. Grand Consistories with no bodies under them, or only two or three, or whose members for the most part belong to no bodies, are useless bodies, existing in controvention of the very nature of things.


            But I think the wiser course will be to let what is alone: and to make no addition to the mischief.


            ss Albert Pike to Frederick Webber, January 17, 1878.




How would it do to have one or two adjunct members of the Supreme Council (with all rights but that of voting) in each state, with power to confer degrees and establish bodies. We might in that way make use of some of our Honoraries, who are now expected to do something, when they have no power to do anything.


            And how would it do to establish in each state where there is no Grand Consistory, an Executive Council, of, say, nine 33ds and 32ds, including the Active Member or Members, who should propagate and administer the Rite there? What we want is to interest more BB. '. in the extension of the Rite.         These two features would do that. In Iowa, for example, we have nobody who sets any value in his dignity of 33': and it is the same way in Missouri. It has no real value for them, like a Templar dignity. That it gives them the power to extend the Rite and to build up bodies, is of no moment to them. Most of our folks prefere a useless Masonry, that gives cheap honors, and requires little or nothing in return.


            To tell you the truth, Bro.'. Webber, I do not think that any except a very few Masons want or can value any better Masonry than they get in the Blue Lodge, Chapter and Commandery. And we are not reasonable when we complain that having made our Masonry fit for only a few, the many do not flock into it.


            It will get itself built up by and by. It has had a great deal to struggle against, and not very many to work hard for it, preferring it to all other Masonry. There will be such men by and by, men who will devote themselves to it, and not look upon it as a mere ornamental appendage to other more important Masonry. I hope that, someday, somebody will work for it besides me, and not be afraid to do it for fear of losing caste among Blue Masons and Templars." These Pike letters are also important in the history of the Supreme Council for what they do not say, significant because of the emphasis placed upon certain points by Pike. A reasonable conclusion seems to be that the Grand Commander had a great ambition for Scottish Rite Masonry in the Southern Jurisdiction but was uncertain as to how to attain it.


            There were some sparks of life in the Jurisdiction, however. The year of 1877 was not far advanced when a new Scottish Rite Temple of the Grand Consistory of Kentucky was dedicated on February 25, 1877, at Louisville in impressive ceremonies during which it was remarked that the Rite in that city was in more "prosperous condition"." Two days later, February 27, 1877, Albert G. Mackey Lodge of Per '17 Ibid., January 15, 1878.


            ss Official Bulletin, 111, 401‑411.


            140 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION fection was formed at Deep Creek, Norfolk County, Virginia." A letter from Hawaii reports growth of the Rite there and that "extensive additions" were planned for the building in use; this information is confirmed by another surviving letter." Beginning in October and extending through November, 1877, Grand Commander Pike received a number of letters from Alabama pertaining to the revival of the Rite in that state which seems to have been inspired by a visit to Montgomery by Inspector General Frederick Webber. Six Scottish Rite Masons recommended to Pike that Stephen H. Beasley be appointed Deputy of the Supreme Council in Alabama,' 1 and he complied with their wish. Beasley agreed to accept the appointment and immediately outlined plans for work in several Alabama towns which matured somewhat in 1878.72 Before 1877 closed, the Grand Commander apparently received a request for a dispensation from Lyons, Iowa, to permit the conferral of the degrees from four to thirty‑two on twenty candidates. His letter to Inspector General Parvin on the subject reveals considerable information and is as follows: The request of 111.'. Bro.'. Sherman for a dispensation to confer the degrees from 4 to 32 on twenty candidates does not come to me in such shape that it can be granted, under the Statutes, as Ill.'. Bro.'. Sherman must be well aware....


            But if it complied with all these requirements, I should not think that I could grant a dispensation, because the Bodies at Lyons have never made one return to the Supreme Council, though expressly required to do by the law and by letter, though blanks have been furnished them to make such returns for three years.


            They have paid no dues to the Supreme Council; the only money remitted having been what was sent as the amount due the Sup.'. Council on the score of fees received for degrees and a previous dispensation: and we do not know, for want of returns or even an informal statement (also asked for) whether this sum was correct or not.


            All the Bodies there are liable to suspension and loss of their charters. In fact we do not know what bodies there are in existence there, except the Consistory (which can confer only the 31st and 32 degrees), having no returns of officers and members of other bodies. Officially, I cannot say that we have any evidence of the actual being of any of them.


            And, much as I wish to help them I cannot and will not do it, while they utterly disregard the laws and pay no sort of attention to official orders.


            ss Ibid., 413.


            7 Ibid., 411‑413; John Owen Dominis to Albert Pike, July 16, 1877. 71 John N. Browder and others to Albert Pike, October 16, 1877.


            7'= Stephen H. Beasley to Albert Pike, October 17; 18; 26, 1877; November 7, 1877; February 15, 1878; April 5, 1878; April 17, 1878; April 22, 1878; April 29, 1878.


            4, 1878; March HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33 I have sent them blanks for returns for three years, 1874‑5, 1875‑6 and 1876‑, to March 1877. Each Body owes the Supreme Council one dollar per annum for each of its members: and there should have been paid, for every 14th made, $2; for every 16th $2; for every 18th, $5; for every 30th, $5; for every 32 $10.


            . . . . It would no doubt deal leniently with the bodies, as to arrearages but I shall not vote to release them from full payment of at least all dues for the year ending March 1877 and the year ending March 1878.


            I hope that you and Ill.'. Bro.'. Bower will, as you should do, at once give this business your prompt and energetic attention, and see to it that the returns are forthwith made, and in due form.


            . . . . And, moreover, if the returns are not made, the charters of all the Bodies will be likely to be withdrawn in May. To refuse to make them will be to set the law at defiance, and a violation of their oaths or allegiance and office.


            You will please communicate to Ill.'. Bro.'. Sherman, . . . the contents of this letter: and will, I hope add your own imperative mandate, requiring the Bodies at Lyons to obey the law.' 3 In the latter part of May, 1877, Grand Commander Pike and W. M. Ireland made a trip to New York to settle the account of the Supreme Council for printing with the Masonic Publishing Company." It seems certain, after the payment of this account, that no money was left in the Treasury for additional printing.


            The following letter outlines the procedure of the Grand Commander to remedy this situation and the results accomplished by January 1, 1878: On the 25th of June, 1877, 1 addressed to the Active Members and Deputies of the Supreme Council a letter, in which I said: To complete the work which I undertook nearly twenty years ago, it is of necessity to reprint the `Liturgy of the Degrees' 4 to 14; and to print that of the `Symbolic Degrees,' and those of 15 to 18, 19 to 30, and 31‑32: all of which have been for many years ready for the printer.


            Also, it is necessary at once to print 250 copies of the `Morals and Dogma,' the Supreme Council having no copies at all, not even or_‑‑ in its library.


            Also, to reprint the `Transactions,' 1860 to 1868, which are entirely exhausted.


            73 Albert Pike to T. S. Parvin, January 1, 1878.


            74 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. l., 1878, p. 112.


            142 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION Also, to print the `Book of the Words,' being the explanations of the Words of all the Degrees, the fruits of long and patient investigation, and which I have twice written, and now believe to be correct.


            Also, the `Excerpts for a History of Free‑Masonry in France and on the Continent,' from its origin to 1860, prepared by me before 1861.


            Also, the `Rituals' of the principal Degrees in German, French, and Spanish; some already translated, others in process of translation.


            If these works were in the hands of the Brethren of this and foreign lands, my only ambition would be satisfied, for I should think I had done enough. The remaining years of my life cannot be very many, and if my work is to be finished while I live, it will not do to wait much longer.


            The cost of what remains to be done cannot be less than six or seven thousand dollars; and our current revenues will do little more than pay the Secretary General his salary and expenses and allowances, and our current printing.


            I propose for your consideration the immediate creation of a `Printing Fund,' to be devoted exclusively to printing the above‑mentioned works.


            It will be advantageous, where a class cannot be formed for the establishment of bodies, to invest a few energetic and intelligent Masons with our degrees, with short delays, but ample communication‑, and to interest them to establish bodies in due time. In some States, and in many towns in every State, we shall never plant the Rite in any other way.


            I propose to raise a fund of $10,000. The amount received for investing a Master Mason with the degrees from 4 to 32, less commissions, may be stated at $100. We have in our jurisdiction 23 States; the District of Columbia and Washington Territory, which may be counted with them, making 25, besides 7 other Territories.


            If $400 were furnished by each of the twenty‑five, the aggregate amount would be $10,000. Can you not find in your State four worthy and intelligent Master Masons, to invest whom with the degrees would be of benefit to the Rite? As in several of the States the number of four in each will probably not be found, you had better increase the number to five, six, or seven.


            If you can do this, the work will be speedily done. I think I have a right to ask you thus to help enable me to complete it; for I have labored long and diligently to prepare the works, and only ask you to take a little trouble to enable the Supreme Council to print them. I rely upon you with the utmost confidence, and hope not long to continue disquieted with the thought that my life must end before my work for the Rite can be completed.


            143 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33 The responses to this letter have been as follows: From 111.'.    Bro.'.   John Robin McDaniel, for Virginia ........... $ 935   00        From Ill.'.         Bro.'.   Thos. H. Caswell, for California, (in gold,) ..... 1,365            75 From Ill.'.   Bro.'.   Frederick Webber, for Alabama .............. 86     00        From Ill.'.         Bro.'.   O. S. Long, for West Virginia ............... 125           00        From Ill.'.            Bro.'.   Giles W. Merrill, for Minnesota .............. 50            00        From Ill.'.         Bro.'.   James S. Lawson, for Washington Territory .... 600   00 No response has come from elsewhere, in money; but Oregon promises $1,000 and will keep the promise.


            The "Register of Membership" and 250 copies of the "Morals and Dogma," and the "Liturgy of the Chapter" have been printed. Commissions of Foreign Representative, Patents of Foreign Honorary Membership, and Patents of the 33d Degree have been handsomely engraved and electro‑printed. The "Liturgy," 4 to 14, is being reprinted; that of 19 to 30 is about to be; and that of 1, 2, and 3 is in the printer's hands. Draughts of Patents of the 32d and 30th, of Briefs of 18th, and Diplomas of 14th are being prepared for electro‑printing. The "Book of the Words" is being copied, and No. 2 of Vol. 3 of the "Bulletin" will go to the printer as soon as I can prepare the matter for it. The magnificent "Book of Music of the Rite," presented to it by Bro.'. Matthew Cooke, of London, will go to press as soon as the Printing Fund is so increased as to warrant it.


            If even half our States will each do half as well as the Territory of Washington, and half our members half as well as our venerable Lieut.*. Gr.'. Commander has done in the impoverished State of Virginia, where a powerful influence had planted deep prejudice against the Rite, our work can be completed.


            Will you let the Pacific Coast again have all the honor? But for California and Oregon our Rituals would never have been printed. Shall even the Territory of Washington shame our Atlantic States, save only Virginia; and Bro.'. McDaniel, over seventy years of age, put to blush all the young, active, energetic members of our Body? If you wish to serve the Rite well, to win renown for the Supreme Council, and power and influence in all lands, if you wish to deserve well of the Order, you have the opportunity now.


            We can now furnish the "Morals and Dogma" in parts, distinct and separate for each Body; for Lodge of Perfection, at $1.50; for Chapter, 50 cents; for Council of k ‑h, $3.00; and for Consistory at 25 cents. Every body should have them on hand.


            I hope for your zealous and active co‑operation. Shall I not have it?" According to Article XIX of the Constitutions and Regulations of the Supreme Council, each Inspector General was directed to file reports of work done and prop 75 Official Bulletin, III, 382‑384.


            144 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION erty on hand and remit funds due the Supreme Council on March 1 and September 1 of each year. On June 25, 1877, Grand Commander Pike wrote as follows: Nearly all of the reports that should have been made in March remain not made: although Bodies have been established and many persons invested with the degrees. And no one has furnished list or inventory of property and effects (which includes books), as required.


            No one is above the law; and I do most fraternally entreat each Bro.'. who is in default, to delay no longer to obey the law by which he expects others to be governed." At the same time that he made this appeal, Pike also took occasion to remind the Inspectors General of the Statute enacted on May 31, 1876, which required them to furnish a special report of their activities and their recommendations to the Grand Commander on March 1 before each Biennial Session of the Supreme Council.


            Late in July, 1877, a disturbing letter written by J. M. P. Montagu, 33', Grand Chancellor of the Supreme Council of England, Wales and the Dependencies of Great Britain reached Grand Commander Pike through the Representative of the Southern Jurisdiction in England. The body of this letter reads as follows: I am directed by the Supreme Council for England, Wales, and the Dependencies of the British Crown, to bring to your notice the action of the Supreme Council for Scotland, that you may consider whether her name should not be erased from among the number of friendly Sister councils, and the exequator withdrawn from her Representative near your Grand East, as also your powers from your Representative near her Grand East.


            2. The Supreme Council for Scotland, shortly after the meeting of the Congress of Lausanne, declared its intention not to form a part of that Union of Supreme Councils, for reasons which the Supreme Council for Switzerland, acting in its official capacity, has long since disposed of; she has now issued invitations for the assembling a "First Congress of the United Supreme Councils of the A.'. and A.'. Scottish Rite of Freemasonry," to be held at Edinburgh on the 10th September, 1877.


            3. This proposed Congress is diametrically opposed to our Congress at Lausanne, and it need hardly be added that if it be carried out, the result of the meeting of the Supreme Councils for Greece, Central America, the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, and Ireland will be in direct opposition to the best interests of the whole of the Supreme Councils forming the Lausanne Confederation.


            76Ibid., 381.


            145 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33 4. 1 am further directed to urge upon you the necessity of taking immediate action in this important matter, as this so‑called "First" Congress may inform the Masonic world that the presence of your Representative at the meeting has bound your Supreme Council to an adherence to the Resolutions therein passed.


            5. In justification to the step you are asked to take, I am directed to refere you to pages 191 and suite, and page 208 of the Annual Reporter of the Supreme Council of Scotland, May, 1877, Edinburgh; and to add that this Supreme Council has done everything in its power to bring the Supreme Council for Scotland to a sense of the great error she is committing in endeavoring to create this Masonic schism, which had its origin alone in the ambitions and encroaching views of its members.' 7 Grand Commander Pike, on August 2, 1877, addressed a letter to Nathaniel George Phillips, 33', Lieutenant Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of England, Wales, and the Dependencies of Great Britain, which explains the involvement of the Southern Jurisdiction and the position of its Grand Commander in regard to the subject matter of the letter. The pertinent portion of this letter reads as follows: I have the honor to be in receipt, this morning, of your private note of date July 21, with the printed letter of the Ill.'. Bro.'. the Gr.'. Chancellor of your Sup.'. Council, in regard to the proposed assembling of Delegates of our Council and others, at Edinburgh, in September.


            This proposed Congress, to be held in pursuance of the articles of alliance between the Supreme Councils of Scotland, Ireland, Greece, Central America and ours, is stigmatized by the printed letter of your Supreme Council, as "diametrically opposed" to the Congress at Lausanne, and as a "Masonic schism," whose results "will be in direct opposition to the best interests of the whole of the Supreme Councils forming the Lausanne Confederation".


            It is quite true that our League and Alliance was first proposed by the Supreme Council for Scotland, and upon the sole ground of the substitution by the Congress at Lausanne of the phrases "Force Superieure" and "Principe Createur" for the word "God," in the Manifesto of Principles adopted by that Body.


            The Supreme Council for Scotland has sent the invitation to attend the Congress, at our instance, to such Councils as have not united with the Confederation formed at Lausanne. If sent to others, it has been only by way of information, and not as an invitation to be represented in the Congress. No effort has been made to detach any Council from your Confederation; but there were reasons of 77 Ibid., 443‑444.


            146 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION propriety and courtesy which justified a notice that any of the BB. '. of Councils of your Confederation would be welcome as spectators. The phrase "First Congress of the United Supreme Councils" means (as the word "United" shows) the Councils of our League. Yours style themselves the "Confederated" Councils. There is certainly no cause of offense in that. It will be the purpose of the Congress to discuss only such matters as may interest the Councils represented, it having no legislative or judicial power: and it will not, I am quite sure, make any issue with the Lausanne Confederation, or discuss anew questions already sufficiently discussed.


            Whatever may have been the motives of the Supreme Council of Scotland in proposing an alliance between those Councils that could not accede to the Lausanne Confederation, it is no more responsible for the formation of our League or for the Congress that is to be held, than we are, and we are constrained to accept the letter as an arraignment of ourselves, as directly as it is an arraignment of the Supreme Council of Scotland.


            It was our firm resolution not to be drawn into any rediscussion or controversy in regard to any action taken at Lausanne, and to prevent, if possible, the giving occasion for any hostility between the two Confederations. We were excluded from the Lausanne Confederation, by the decision made in the case of the Sandwich Islands, but we have not made that decision cause of complaint, by a word against any Sup.'. Council except that of France.


            We could not agree to the change in the manner of recognition of a Deity. We never said, because we never thought, that the Delegates of your Council intended, by agreeing to the change unfortunately made, "to convey a belief in any Creative Principle except in the Personal God," etc.: but the fact remains that it is so understood, by other Councils of the Lausanne Confederation and by the enemies of Freemasonry.....


            That open and avowed atheism is no objection, in France, to a candidate for initiation into Freemasonry, is a melancholy fact, whose absolute verity is established by the debates not long ago had in the Grand Orient....


            No one has suspected your distinguished Delegates of intentional treason to Freemasonry. God forbid! But the change which they were persuaded to assent to, was proposed as a concession to French Atheism; was accepted as a concession to French Atheism; and Jesuitism and Ultramontanism have a right to consider it, as we do, as a direct and explicit concession to French Atheism. The Supreme Council of Switzerland pleaded ingeniously; but the maxim "Qui s'excuse, s'accuse," is not yet obsolete.


            I am sorry to have had to say thus much upon that point: but the vigorous assault upon us, by the letter of your Council‑smiting us over the shoulders of Scotland‑made silence impossible.


            147 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 330 If that question were entriely out of the way, we could not accede to your Confederation. We will never invest a Congress with such powers, in our view so unwisely bestowed, and so dangerous, so destructive of the sovereignty and independence of the individual Councils, as your Delegates have helped invest your Congress withal. We would not, if every other Council in the world should.


            Nor will we ever consent to replace the Ancient Constitutions by a new revision; nor accept a ritual from a Congress, nor change the tenure of office of our Dignitaries.


            I have said that your Supreme Council has made a grave and unfortunate mistake. It assumes a prerogative to deny our right to form another League and to meet the other Councils of our League in Congress: and it demands to know whether, for proposing this League and giving notice of the assembling of the Congress, all relations of amity and correspondence between the Confederated Councils and the Supreme Council of Scotland shall not be sundered. . . .


            And should you take such course as to the Sup.'. Council of Scotland, could we in honor accept immunity and merciful indulgence? We very reluctantly take the letter of the Supreme Council of England and Wales, etc., as a menace; but it is so unmistakably a denial of our right to send Delegates to Edinburgh‑so unmistakably the assertion of a right on the part of your Supreme Council to forbid it, and to demand a dissolution of our League‑so unmistakably a threat that if we do not obey, you will sever amicable relations with Scotland, and thus make the severance of such relations between your Council and ours inevitable, that we cannot wink so hard as not to see in it that meaning.


            Especially for this reason, it is a very grave and unfortunate mistake. For if the prerogatives of your Sup.'. Council, as set forth in that letter, were well founded, it could, by an equally well‑founded supplement, demand, under the same pain and penalty, that we shall accede to~ the Confederation formed at Lausanne.


            Our League, in no sense hostile to your Confederation, is formed; and for us the act is irrevocable....


            We shall not withdraw from the League, unless for cause given by the other Councils of the League; and if it were to be dissolved, the undoing of all that was done at Lausanne would not induce us even to entertain a proposition to accede to your Confederation. We have very grave doubts, and so our Grand Lodges have, whether those are "Sanctuaries" and "Temples" of Freemasonry, dedicated to the Most High God, whose doors open wide to receive for initiation avowed atheists, and from whose Easts the letter G. must, not to offend these, disappear, to give place to some symbol, however "explained" and appologized for, of a 148 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION FORCE SUPERIEURE and a PRINCIPE CREATEUR, mistranslated "Supreme Being." We American Masons have all sworn, and so, I take it, have you, and all English, Scottish, and Irish Masons, never to be present at, or countenance, the initiation of an atheist: and for us, at least, it is hideous that Freemasonry and Atheism should go hand‑in‑hand and have a common Altar and common Sanctuary.' 8 Grand Commander Pike, in his capacity as a Past Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter of Arkansas, attended the Twenty‑third Triennial Convocation of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the United States in Buffalo, New York, from August 21 through 25, 1877.7 While in Buffalo, Pike convened the Supreme Council ad hoc and crowned DeWitt Clinton Dawkins, 33, Sovereign Grand Inspector General for Florida, on August 24, 1877. On his return to Washington, D. C., from Buffalo, Pike received a letter addressed to him on August 4, 1877, from J. T. Loth, 33, of the Grand Orient of France in which Loth charged that the Supreme Council of Scotland was a spurious body on six charges and that the Supreme Council of Greece, formed under the sponsorship of the Supreme Council of Scotland, was also spurious." In a long reply, Pike not only refused to consider the charges but warned that "such an inquiry, might open the way to other unpleasant inquiries" and indicated some of the possibilities. The letter was closed with the assertion that "The peace and wellbeing of Masonry requires that long and undisturbed possession shall be universally accepted as equivalent to original title, in due form, and as conclusive proof of such title"." The controversies over jurisdictions, over the organization of the two leagues of Supreme Councils and over other questions produced a large volume of correspondence in the realm of "Foreign Relations" which has little or no direct bearing on the history of the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction, other than that already reviewed. However, it should be noted in connection with this correspondence that the writing of Grand Commander Pike was, on the whole, conciliatory and directed 78Ibid., 445‑449.


            79 Proceedings, Twenty‑third Triennial Convocation the United States of America, 1877, p. 7.


            8 Official Bulletin, III, 372‑373. 81 Ibid., 375‑376.


            82 Ibid., 377‑379.


            of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of 149 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 330 toward the abatement of ill‑feeling. Pike's participation in the exchange of communications seems to have contributed materially to the evolution of the body of principles, practices and methods of diplomatic relations between Supreme Councils. Actually, this was a period of "growing pains"; a period of adjustment as the interests of Supreme Councils broadened to the extent that frictions were generated. Viewed dispassionately and objectively, the experiences of the years from 1876 through 1878 appear to have contributed importantly to the maturity of the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction as well as to that of other Supreme Councils.


            The foregoing discussion of the conditions, events, and activities summarizes the situation of Scottish Rite Masonry in the Southern Jurisdiction as the Supreme Council assembled for the Biennial Session on May 6, 1878. Ten officers and Active Members and six Honorary Members answered "present" for the Session, and there were eight officers and Active Members of the Northern Supreme Council attending as visitors. With the conclusion of the opening ceremonies, the Supreme Council was recessed until one o'clock to be opened as a Sublime Grand Lodge of Perfection for the purpose of receiving the Grand Commander's Allocution.


            The Allocution began with a tribute to those who had died since the preceding Session, none of whom had been Active Members, and it was announced that no Lodge of Sorrow would be opened for further commemoration. The next section was devoted to "Domestic Affairs" which opened with the statement that "Little has occurred in our jurisdiction since the session of 1876 to require action on your part". This was followed by a review of events since May, 1876; those of importance having been discussed as they occurred on preceding pages. The general conclusion expressed by the Grand Commander was that "The Rite grows, not largely, nor everywhere, but with a healthy growth and in many places, in despite of many hindrances and adverse circumstances". "The creation of a Printing Fund has been successful" Pike said and then listed the receipts by states as of May 3, 1878, as follows: Virginia, $1,410; California, $2,225.75; Alabama, $534.35; West Virginia, $112.50; Minnesota, $425; Mississippi, $82.50; Washington Territory, $1,000; Hawaiian Kingdom, $100; Oregon, $650; Tennessee, $300‑a total of $6,840.10. In concluding his remarks on this subject, Pike expressed the belief that economic distress in the other states had prevented any receipts from them. The Grand Commander deplored the small circulation of the Official Bulletin, made a strong appeal to encourage subscriptions from the membership and closed his comments on this activity by stating that it was a "necessity" and would be continued. Pike then pointed to the large stock of books still on hand and announced that Wm. M. Ireland, Assistant Auditor General, had been 150 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION placed in charge of book sales. Attention was then directed to the primary records of the Supreme Council. The comments were as follows: I have also placed in the hands of a printer here, to be reprinted, our Transactions of 1857 to 1866, of two parts of which we have no copy to furnish to any one, and of the other only some half‑dozen. These will be preceded by copies of such papers as I have found among what we call our "Archieves," connected with the previous history of the Rite in this jurisdiction ... (I am often asked why we do not publish our old Transactions, to which I am compelled to reply that we have none to publish. We have no record of the transactions at Charleston from 1801 to 1860. What minutes we had were destroyed, with many papers, pamphlets, and books of the Secretary‑General during the war. I never saw any of them, and do not know full or how meagre they were. There is not in the Secretariat, so far as I can find, any minute of any session from May, 1801, to the session of 1860, except that called a session, at New Orleans, in 1857, not even of that of 1859 at Charleston, when our membership was enlarged, and several new members were added. . . . ) I do not know when I was elected a member, or when Grand Commander. The memory of the Secretary‑General is the only means if proof of the election of any dignitary or member, from 1802 to 1859.


            It is certain that no regular record book of transactions was ever kept. In fact, none ever has been, up to this day. Under a resolution adopted in 1874, the Secretary‑General has had Ill.'. Bro.'‑. Webber to copy into a record book all our printed transactions. But this is, of course, no better or higher evidence of what it contains, than the printed transactions are. It is a mere waste of labor, money, and time.


            By the same resolution the Secretary‑General was directed to record all confidential communications of the Grand Commander, and the action taken thereon, as had theretofore been done, in the Book of Gold. But nothing of the sort had theretofore been recorded; and nothing of the sort has been recorded therein since.


            The Book of Gold contains only copies of old documents, many of them older than the Supreme Council, and a large part of them in print and published long before they were copied into the Book. The contents are, historically, of very little value.


            The Supreme Council existed all the time, but it was not always awake. It dozed and was dormant at least once, for quite a number of years. When I first heard of it, in 1854, I think, its members were, Bros.'.Honour, Furman, Mackey, and Le Prince, at Charleston, Bro.'. McDaniel, at Lynchburg, Bro.'. Rockwell, at Savannah, and Bro.'. Quitman, in Mississippi. The three last, I think, never went to Charleston. Consequently there were never more than three or four at a meeting; as in the Northern Jurisdiction Bros.'. Gourgas and Yates used to meet and transact business as a Supreme Council. But they did preserve a record or minutes of what they did.




The truth is that the Rite was nothing, and the Rituals almost nought, for the most part a lot of worthless trash, until 1855. Some Consistories were created, and there were a very few other bodies, and a consistory without subordinates in Louisiana. In 1859 the Rite had little life any where, except in that State. Things have changed somewhat, since then.


            I hope that you will sustain me in ruling that, as in other deliberative and legislative bodies, the record of our proceedings must be daily made up, read, and signed by the Sovereign Grand Commander: we may some time need to have authentic evidence of what we do, and this the record must show every day; that what is secret and confidential must be daily recorded in the Book of Gold; that all papers must be properly endorsed, filed, and preserved in properly labelled packages; that all reports not confidential must be printed with the Transactions; and that no original report or other paper shall ever be taken from the files and sent to the printer, to be returned in a condition of uncleanness. All this is not found difficult to be done in other bodies, with twenty times our business; and if it can be done for them, it can be done for us.


            The Grand Commander then remarked that he had recently begun the formation of a library for the Supreme Council "without purchasing books," earnestly invited additional book donations and suggested that a small annual appropriation should be made for purchases of additional materials. Brief comments on the revision of the Statutes were followed by a recommendation that the revision be acted upon on "Wednesday" (May 8, 1878). Pike then stated that he had prepared and published a "Register" but that it was imperfect. The discussion of "Domestic Affairs" was closed with the recommendation that one or two adjunct members of the Supreme Council be created, where needed, from among the Honorary Inspectors General, to assist the Inspectors General.


            Under the general heading, "Foreign Relations," Pike reviewed relations with the alliance formed at Lausanne, the attitudes of the Supreme Council of France, the controversy between the Supreme Council of Scotland and that of England, Wales and the Dependencies of Great Britain, and the activities of other Supreme Councils that had come to his attention. He recommended that the Supreme Council of Egypt be acknowledged as legitimate but that fraternal relations be withheld until the Egyptian Supreme Council ceased to invade the jurisdiction "of one or all of the British Councils". This portion of the Allocution closed with some remarks regarding differences in Masonic organization, practices in recognition among Masonic Powers and approaches to ritual development, much of it critical of general American viewpoints. Some comments upon his own writings and other work were followed by an observation that he had grown old and that his labors of authorship had come to a close.


            152 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION During the remainder of the Session, the following acts took place: An excuse for absence from Michel E. Girard, elected to Active Membership in 1876, was received, and the Active Members from Louisiana were empowered to crown him.


            Excuses from nine Active Members for absence were received as satisfactory by the Supreme Council.


            Excuses from two Inspectors General were not accepted.


            No excuses for absence were received from four Inspectors General.


            Fifty‑four nominees for Knight Commander of the Court of Honour were elected.


            Three nominees for the 33 , as an honorarium, were elected.


            Six nominees for Honorary Membership in the Supreme Council were elected and one was rejected.


            The Committee on the distribution of the Allocution made its report.


            Grand Commander Pike announced the composition of the standing committees.


            The Grand Chancellor made his report in which he listed twenty Supreme Councils with which the Southern Jurisdiction had corresponded.


            The Secretary General made his report and called attention to the fact that his assistant would make further report of secretarial activities.


            The Treasurer General made his report and it, with the financial matters in the Secretary General's report, was referred to the Finance Committee.


            A motion to provide, free of charge, copies of all books, except the Rituals, to the Active Members was adopted.


            By resolution, May 8, 1878, 11 a.m., was adopted as the time for the consideration of a revision of the Statutes.


            Eleven nominees for the Honorary Thirty‑third Degree were elected.


            153 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33 "John L. Lewis, 33, . . , was approved of to be ex‑officio Grand Cross of the Court of Honour." John McCraken was elected to Emeritus Membership.


            The Honorary Thirty‑third Degree was conferred upon eight of those previously elected.


            The Grand Chancellor appointed the membership of three special committees: On the Dead, On Revision of the 31st and 32nd Rituals, On the Office Books of the Supreme Council.


            A special committee on charity made its report which was adopted.


            A representative of those receiving the Honorary Thirty‑third Degree on the evening of May 7 returned the thanks of the class to the Supreme Council.


            A brief committee report was received that the Rite was "making solid progress in the jurisdiction" and then consideration of the revision of the Statutes began. At the conclusion of the work of revision, publication and distribution was ordered.


            A report of the Committee on Correspondence was adopted together with its resolution to acknowledge the Grand Orient of Egypt as a legitimate Masonic Power but not to enter into fraternal relations with the same "until its position relative to the establishment of a Supreme Council within the British Possessions be more satisfactorily explained".


            The Committee on the Dead made its report and appropriate resolutions of sympathy were adopted.


            Inspector General T. A. Cunningham of Maryland submitted his resignation which was accepted.


            Gilmor Meredith of Maryland was nominated, elected and crowned as the Active Member for Maryland.


            Minor bills were referred to the Auditor.


            Charity donations made by the Grand Commander were approved. 154 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION The Assistant Secretary General made his report which was referred to the finance committee.


            The Committee on Finance returned a report approving that portion of the Allocution relating to finance and introduced resolutions, which were adopted, relating to books and Rituals as outlined by the Grand Commander.


            The Committee on Doings of Subordinate Bodies submitted a report on returns received. Initiates reported for 1876, 1877, and 1878 totaled 204; members reported for 1876, 192; 1877, 218; and 1878, 724; dues collected totaled $3,020; and degree fees collected totaled $1,093.


            The Committee on Doings of Inspectors General recommended that the reports of Inspectors General be published with the transactions. The recommendation was adopted.


            The Committee on the Office Books of the Supreme Council made its report which was adopted. The report reads as follows: Your Special Committee ... respectfully report: That ... the several books of record and finance should be promptly and regularly written up. The financial transactions should be carefully and promptly entered to their proper accounts, each transaction entered plainly, and with the correct date, and stated balances made. If this be done . . . confidence and satisfaction will result as to our financial affairs. All accounts, receipts, letters and business papers of all kinds should be promptly briefed and filed.


            Your Committee are of opinion that the following books should be used in the office of the Secretary‑General, viz: a rough‑minute book, a book of records, the Book of Gold, a register of Inspectors‑General and Deputies, a register of membership of the Rite, a register of 32d Patents, a cash‑book, blotter or daybook, journal, ledger, receipt‑book, warrant‑or order‑book, property‑book and letter‑books. The Rough‑Minute Book should be exclusively used for the immediate entry of the transactions of the S. '. C. '. during its sessions. No loose paper should be used for this purpose.


            The Record‑Book or Minutes should contain the official record made up from the Rough‑Minute Book, and contain a clear and concise statement of all transactions, except, perhaps, some of those to be entered in the Book of Gold.


            The Book of Gold should contain those transactions not intended for publication, and such other matters and data as may be ordered by the Supreme Council, all of which should be entered as soon as practicable after the close of the session; and those previously ordered but not entered should be completed at once, and the book brought up to date.


            155 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33 The Register of the Inspectors‑General should contain a complete list of all that may be created by the Supreme Council, and also of the Deputies. It should be alphabetically arranged, showing the full name, place of birth, residence, age, date of Crowning, death, &c.


            The Register of Membership should contain a full list of all members returned to the Supreme Council, from 14 to 32, and be arranged in a similar manner, from data, as that above mentioned, or, perhaps better, vowel‑indexed. The Register of 32 Patents issued should show the date of each and to whom issued, and the body to which he belonged; those in each language should be consecutively numbered as issued.


            The Cash‑Book, Blotter, Journal, Ledger, Receipt‑Book, &c., should be kept according to the ordinary rules of book‑keeping; the posting should be done monthly, and balances be made at least semi‑annually.


            The Warrant‑ or Order‑Book should exhibit all moneys paid for account of the Supreme Council.


            All moneys should be paid by warrant on the Treasurer‑General signed by the Gr.'. Commander.


            In the Property‑ or Stock‑Book should be entered (properly arranged) all property hitherto purchased or acquired and in charge of the Sec.'. Gen.'., and the same should be balanced and verified at least semi‑annually.


            The Letter‑Book should contain copies of all official letters of the Sec.'. Gen.'. and Grand Auditor.


            Your Committee are of opinion that all original papers designed for publication should be copied for the printer, and the originals briefed and filed in the office; and those of a confidential character, not intended for publication, should be immediately entered in the Book of Gold and also briefed and filed.


            The Committee recommend that of all transactions connected with the office of the Sec.'. Gen.'., whether during a session or in the daily current business thereof, the entries should be immediately made and carried forward to the appropriate books.


            The account books should be posted regularly at the end of each month and balanced semi‑annually.


            All the publications and Rituals of the Supreme Council having been placed in the hands of the Assistant Grand Auditor for sale, he should make a semiannual return to the Sec.'. Gen.'. of amount of sales and the balances on hand, and no moneys received by the Secretary or Assistant Secretary‑General or the Assistant Grand Auditor should be used or expended to even the smallest amount, but sums of twenty dollars or over should be deposited immediately to the credit of the Treasurer‑General, and smaller sums on before the last day of each month; and moneys necessary for expenses or outlay should be estimated for and drawn upon warrant.


            156 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION That no Inspector‑General, Officer or Deputy should retain in his hands any moneys received for a longer time than thirty days before remitting the same to the Treasurer‑General or depositing them to his credit.


            All of which, with the appended resolutions, is respectively submitted, and the resolutions recommended for adoption.




            Resolved, That the above recommendations relative to the books, accounts, or properties of the Supreme Council be, and the hereby, referred to a Committee composed of the Sov.'. Gr.'. Commander, the Sec.'. Gen.% and the Assistant Grand Auditor, with power to act.


            Resolved, That the Secretary‑General is hereby directed, within thirty days after the close of this session, to notify all Brethren who have received the 33d degree and failed to pay for the same, either in whole or in part, to pay the same on or before the first day of October, 1878.


            Those failing to do so shall be deemed to have forfeited all their rights and honours as 33ds, and shall be so reported to all bodies of this Rite in the United States, and shall not be received or acknowledged by their Brethren as more than Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret.


            The Committee on the 31st and 32nd Degrees reported that the Ritual of the 32nd was completed and that of the 31 st "can be very soon completed". The report was adopted.


            The Committee on Jurisprudence was instructed to define the duties of the Assistant Secretary General and the Grand Auditor.


            Vacancies on committees were filled.


            The commission of Pitkin C. Wright, Special Deputy, was revoked.


            The report of the Assistant Auditor on printed books was referred to the Finance Committee.


            The charter of the Grand Consistory of Arkansas was recalled.


            Compensation for the Assistant Grand Auditor was referred to Grand Commander Pike and Wm. M. Ireland.


            One‑half the dues of the Grand Consistory of Iowa were remitted, and the Grand Commander was authorized to make any further concession deemed advisable.




The Revised Statutes were ordered to become effective on August 1, 1878.


            The Grand Commander was authorized to issue Letters Patent of Constitution for Consistories in "the Sandwich Islands and at St. Paul, Minnesota," at his discretion.


            Stephen F. Chadwick was nominated and elected Active Member of the Supreme Council for Oregon.


            The report of the Committee on Jurisprudence approving the decisions of the Grand Commander was adopted.


            A report of the settlement of the accounts of the Inspector General and Grand Consistory of Maryland was received and adopted.


            The balance due from the Grand Consistory of Maryland was remitted.


            The Secretary General was instructed to secure blanks for the returns of Subordinate Bodies to the Supreme Council.


            The Assistant Grand Auditor was requested to prepare a list of delinquent bodies for publication with the transactions.


            The Grand Commander was authorized to pay the expenses of the Session of 1878 when audited.


            The following resolution, establishing the Library of the Supreme Council was adopted: Resolved, That for the increase of the library of the Supreme Council an annual appropriation of one hundred dollars is hereby made for the purchase of books, papers, pamphlets, documents, &c., and bindings. This is to be under the control of the Sov.'. Grand Commander, and the disbursement is to be made on his recommendation only.


            The books of the library shall be placed in the Rooms of the Supreme Council and kept insured and be well taken care of.


            The library is to be used for reference mainly. Some books are not to be taken from the room and are to be designated.


            Any book can be read in the room, but no book can be taken from the room without the written order of the Sov.'. Grand Commander.


            A suitable book‑plate containing the rules of the library shall be placed in each book, and the Seal of the Supreme Council shall be stamped on a leaf of the same.


            158 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION A resolution of thanks, with an appropriate Communication thereof, to Matthew Cook, Honorary Organist, for a compilation of music for the degrees was adopted.


            A resolution of thanks was extended to the local Scottish Rite Bodies for their assistance during the Session.


            All Sovereign Grand Inspectors General were authorized to confer the Honorary Thirty‑third Degree "on any person duly elected to receive the same".


            Provision was made for the crowning of Stephen F. Chadwick as Sovereign Grand Inspector General for Oregon.


            All elections at former Sessions, for Active and Honorary Membership, not followed by the conferral of the 33, were declared to have lapsed by failure to receive the degree.


            Six reports of Inspectors General were printed as an appendix to the Transactions, 1878. Little "work" is reported, except that by Albert G. Mackey in Kansas and Colorado and Frederick Webber in Kentucky and Alabama. Without exception the reports speak of "hard times," "financial embarrassment" and the "improverished condition" of the states. Only one suggestion of something that might aid the Rite in this period of difficulty was made. Frederick Speed, Deputy for Mississippi, proposed that "annual reunions," being used successfully elsewhere, should be introduced." It will be recalled that Pike stated in his Allocution to the Session of the Supreme Council in 1878 that he had prepared and published an imperfect "Register". This "Register" appears to have been the first real effort by anyone in the Southern Jurisdiction to compile a complete record of the Bodies and their membership for any given year. It may be "imperfect," but it will give a fairly accurate summary of the extension of Scottish Rite Masonry in the Southern Jurisdiction. In nineteen states, the District of Columbia and Hawaii, there were listed the following Scottish Rite Bodies 40 Lodges of Perfection with a membership of ..................... 1,104 2 Councils of Princes of Jerusalem with a membership of ...........         15 22 Chapters of Rose Croix with a membership of ..................           530 15 Councils of Kadosh with a membership of .....................           372 3 Consistories with a membership of ............................            173 6 Grand Consistories with a membership of ......................  319 1 Supreme Council with an Active Membership of .................    27 34 83 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. J., 1878, pp. 3‑109.


            84 Tableau of the Supreme Council ... and the Bodies of its Obedience, 1877, pp. 5‑96.




It is believed that there were enough unaffiliated Scottish Rite Masons and unreported Lodges of Perfection to make a total of some 1,500 members of the Rite in the Southern Jurisdiction in 1877.


            The "Register" also contained a list of sixty‑nine living Honorary Thirty‑thirds, seven Grand Crosses, and seventy‑five Knights Commander of the Court of Honour." There is no indication of Scottish Rite Bodies in fifteen states that lay within the Southern Jurisdiction.


            The Supreme Council had been in existence since 1801 and was, therefore, over seventy‑five year of age.


            The most significant results of the Session of the Supreme Council in 1878 appear to have been as follows: A revision of the Statutes was completed.


            The system of record keeping was improved.


            The Library of the Supreme Council was established.


            The way was cleared for the solution of some problems in the jurisdictions of Maryland and Iowa.


            The system of book sales was improved.


            The Session of 1878 was hardly closed when death again struck the membership of the Supreme Council. On May 14, 1878, John Robin McDaniel, Sovereign Grand Inspector General for Virginia and Lieutenant Grand Commander of the Supreme Council, died. The usual announcement, with a biographical sketch and brief tribute, was prepared and distributed by Grand Commander Pike on May 15, 1878.8 Shortly after the death of McDaniel, Grand Commander Pike received notice that the health of Inspector General Toombs had deteriorated to the extent that he wished to be released from Active Membership in the Supreme Council." 85Ibid., 13‑19.


            F6 Circular Letter, May 15, 1878.


            s' Wm. L. Mitchell to Albert Pike, May 18, 1878.


            160 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION Before the end of May, 1878, Grand Commander Pike published some changes as follows: The Deputy Commission of Henry St. George Hopkins for the Territories was recalled because of his removal to California.


            North Carolina was annexed to the Jurisdiction of Virginia and John L. Roper was appointed Deputy for the two states.


            Wyoming Territory was annexed to the Jurisdiction of Nebraska. Utah Territory was annexed to the Jurisdiction of Nevada. Arizona Territory was annexed to the Jurisdiction of California. Idaho Territory was annexed to the Jurisdiction of Oregon. "Dakotah" Territory was annexed to the Jurisdiction of Minnesota. New Mexico and Montana Territories were annexed to the Jurisdiction of Colo rado.


            Indian Territory (Oklahoma) was annexed to the Jurisdiction of Arkansas." The completion of the printing planned by the Grand Commander required more money than had been raised for the Printing Fund. Therefore, on June 20, 1878, Pike sent out the following appeal: Ill.'. and Dear Bro.'.: I hope you will not think me unduly importunate in again appealing to you for aid, by somewhat of labour and exertion and expenditure of time, only, in completing the printing of the books belonging to the Supreme Council, which it is worth while to do, if it is worth while for us to be 33ds, and to have a Supreme Council and a Rite of Masonry, at all.


            I have been lately, in the most emphatic and impressive manner possible admonished, that there may not remain for me much time in which to complete my work for the Order. I would fain not die, and leave it unfinished. I have a right to ask you to help me complete what was undertaken more than twenty years ago, and to which I have given a large part of those twenty years of my life.


            In this work I have expended thousands of dollars, and withdrawn at greater loss my attention from professional business. From a man's 48th to his 69th year is a hugh time to devote to one work and to the duties of one office. I have given as Official Bulletin, IV, 49.




full 30,000 hours to it and them, and to preparatory and collateral work: and you will not, I am sure, think it unreasonable that I should ask of you a few hours' labour and exertion, for a few days, to help give the Order the works prepared for it and which belong to it.


            By the generous exertions of a few Brethren, we have been enabled to print our Liturgies, Bulletin and Register, to reprint the Morals and Dogma, to procure for the BB. '. Patents, Commissions and Diplomas; and to commence the printing of the Book of Words, the reprint of the old Transactions, with part of the Secret Work and certain old Rituals of interest and historical value.


            The States, Territory and Brethren to which and whom it is owing that so much has been done, with the amounts received from each to this date are:       Virginia: Bros. % John Robin McDaniel and John L. Roper ........    $1,410            00        California: Bro.'. Thomas H. Caswell .........................        2,225  75             Washington (Territory) : Bro.'. Lawson .......................       1,000  00        Oregon: Bros.'. McCracken, Pratt and Morrice .................            650     00        Alabama: Bro.'. Webber and Beasley ........................       534            35        West Virginia: Bro.'. Long .................................      112     50 Minnesota: Bros. % Merrill and Ireland ........................            425     00        Tennessee: Bro.'. George S. Blackie .........................       300     00             Mississippi: Bro.'. Speed ....................................    82        50        The Hawaiian Kingdom: Bro. % Dominis .......................          100     00 The States of Maryland, South Carolina, Georgia, Flordia, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, and Nevada and the District of Columbia have contributed nothing.


            Maryland, for special reasons now no longer existing, was not called upon. In North Carolina the Ancient and Accepted Rite does not exist. To Colorado and the District no appeal was made.


            In these States there are nineteen Active Members of the Supreme Council and two Deputies. From the States of Florida, Arkansas, Missouri and Nebraska, and from ten of the Inspectors no reply to the letters addressed them has ever been received.


            The fund is nearly exhausted. Unless it is added to, the works now in process of printing cannot be paid for. It will remain, after that is done, to provide means for printing the music presented to us by Bro.'. Matthew Cooke, and some of our Rituals in French and German; after which I shall not need to vex you further with these solicitations, and shall be less unwilling to follow the dear friends who wait for me beyond the river.


            I beg you, dear Brother, to gird up your loins and work. Do it, for the honour of your State, and for your own credit's sake; that it may not be said, wherever 162 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION our works are read hereafter, that neither it nor you put forth a hand to help give them to the Order and the world.


            I have proposed to the Brethren of the Pacific Coast that they raise the fund necessary for printing the music, promising that if they do, their names and those of the Brethren to whom it may be owing shall be inscribed upon a page of the work, in perpetual memory of the debt that the Order will owe them. They will not be unwilling that other names should appear there in company with theirs." Also on June 20, 1878, the ballots for the election of a Lieutenant Grand Commander by mail were sent out to the Inspectors General by Secretary General Mackey. In due time, the ballots were returned and the Grand Commander announced on July 22, 1878, that James C. Batchelor had been elected to the office and that Thomas H. Caswell had been appointed "Grand Constable or Mareschal of the Ceremonies of the Supreme Council"." With the foregoing items of business attended to, Pike drew $70 from the funds of the Supreme Council, on June 22, 1878, for a visitation in Virginia." On this trip, the Grand Commander visited Norfolk, Petersburg and Richmond," but no report of business transacted has survived.


            About mid‑July, 1878, the printing of the Pike Rituals for the first three degrees was completed. The edition contained 201 copies." This work completed the publication of the Rituals of the Scottish Rite Degrees from the First through the Thirtysecond as prepared by Albert Pike during the preceding years.


            Some indication of a part of the plans of Grand Commander Pike for his activities following the Session in 1878 is revealed by his statement as follows: "I will go to Missouri in September."" Beginning on June 26, 1878, Pike was addressed a number of letters by R. C. Jordan, formerly an Active Member of the Supreme Council but at this time an Emeritus Member, regarding the revival of Scottish Rite Masonry in Nebraska. In the last of this series of letters Jordan wrote: ". . . the only way any thing can be done is by your presence here. I received your letter last night [August 4, 1878] and will go to work and see what can be secured in the way of work."" Before the end of the month of August the Grand Commander had made arrangements to meet Inspector General John B. Maude in St. Louis," and on September 89 Ibid., 58‑60. so Ibid., 87‑88. 91 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. J., 1880, Appendix, 62. 92Ibid., Appendix, 23.


            93 Certification of L. G. Stephens, July 16, 1878. 94 Albert Pike to Samuel M. Todd, May 14, 1878. 95 R. C. Jordan to Albert Pike, June 26; 27; July 9; 20; 20; 24; 29; August 5, 1878. 96 John B. Maude to Albert Pike, August 26, 1878.


            163 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33 9, 1878, Inspector General William R. Bowen acknowledged a letter from Pike informing him of the visit of the Grand Commander to Nebraska." Grand Commander Pike drew $150 from the funds of the Supreme Council on September 3, 1878, for the trip to "Nebraska"," and on September 11, 1878, William M. Ireland wrote: "I expect to leave the City on Saturday next [September 14, 1878] to join Ill. Bro. Pike on a Western tour.... We do not expect to return before November."" The "Western tour" was later outlined by Pike as follows: DISTANCES TRAVELLED BY THE GRAND COMMANDER IN 1878    MILES.


                        Washington to Baltimore .......................................  41        Baltimore to Pittsburgh ........................................        334     Pittsburgh to Chicago ..........................................    468     Chicago to Milwaukee .........................................            85        Milwaukee to Davenport .......................................  199             Davenport to Omaha ..........................................     316     Omaha to Grand Island ........................................        154     Grand Island to Omaha ........................................   154     Omaha to Cheyenne ...........................................           516     Cheyenne to Denver ...........................................     138             Denver to Central and Georgetown ...............................    82        Georgetown to Denver .........................................       70        Denver to Pueblo .............................................        120     Pueblo to Kansas City .........................................           634     Kansas City to Leavenworth ....................................           27             Leavenworth to Atchison ......................................   19        Atchison to Leavenworth ......................................          19        Leavenworth to Kansas City ....................................           27        Kansas City to Muscogee ......................................   263     Muscogee to Fort Smith .......................................   75        Fort Smith to Little Rock ......................................            165     Little Rock to St. Louis .......................................     345             St. Louis to Chicago ..........................................      283     Chicago to Pittsburgh .........................................       468     Pittsburgh to Baltimore ........................................    334     Baltimore to Washington .......................................            41 5,3771 ' 97 William R. Bowen to Albert Pike, September 9, 1878.


            `'8 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. J., 1880, Appendix 67. 99 Letter Press Book of Wm. M. Ireland, 11.


            100 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. J., 1880, Appendix 23.


            164 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION On Tuesday, September 17, 1878, Grand Commander Pike, Inspectors General Martin Collins and Erasmus T. Carr and Wm. M. Ireland were visiting the session of the Supreme Council of the Northern Jurisdiction being held in the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. During this session, the Committee on Jurisprudence submitted a report to the effect that the Supreme Council of the Northern Jurisdiction held concurrent jurisdiction with the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction in all territory acquired by the United States since 1827. Three resolutions were submitted with the report, first, claiming the concurrent jurisdiction already indicated; second, resolving to "protect Masons of its allegiance" living in the territory; and third, repudiating the term "Mother Council" that was being used in relation to the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction. The report and the resolutions were adopted on September 19, 1878.101 The threat implied in this action by the Supreme Council of the Northern Jurisdiction seems to have added stimulus to Pike's actions thereafter.


            No detailed report of activities on Pike's long journey has survived. However, other sources reveal that he established or invigorated three Lodges of Perfection. At Grand Island, Nebraska, the degrees were communicated to six candidates and these plus six Scottish Rite Masons in the city on September 28, 1878, were constituted and inaugurated Kilwinning Lodge of Perfection No. 1.12 On October 7, 1878, twelve Scottish Rite Masons in Denver were formed into Delta Lodge of Perfection No. 1 by Grand Commander Pike."' Eleusis Lodge of Perfection No. 1 at Leavenworth, Kansas, was reorganized by Pike on October 13, 1878.1' The accounts of this work also report the presence of Wm. M. Ireland. All of these Bodies were issued charters in the latter part of November, 1878.15 Regarding the Lodge of Perfection (Eleusis) re‑formed at Leavenworth, Kansas, Pike wrote as follows: The charter for your Lodge goes to you tomorrow. I hope to hear a good account of its works, and that it is growing and flourishing. Much will depend upon yourself, as is always the case that at the beginning, if one or two men do not do all, nothing is effected. The Lodge of Leavenworth must be carefully and constantly nursed for awhile, and by and by it will be able to go alone. You can do 101 Transactions, Supreme Council, N. J., 1878, pp. 6; 83‑92. 102 Official Bulletin, IV, 96.


            103 Ibid., 97. 104 Ibid.


            105 Returns of Bodies File, Secretary General's Office.


            165 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33 much toward furnishing it "material," and the more the BB. '. work the degrees, the more they will like them. If the Lodge goes to sleep again, I shall feel like denying I ever was in Leavenworth."' It appears that Grand Commander Pike made two Deputy appointments while on this visit to the western portion of the Jurisdiction. Emeritus Member R. C. Jordan was reactivated as Deputy for Wyoming Territory,"' and L. N. Greenleaf was commissioned for Colorado. These commissions are dated October 7, 1878,18 and were probably issued at Denver.


            A series of letters from Denver, Colorado, during August and early September, 1878, indicate that Grand Commander Pike had not received requisite information about the Chapter of Rose Croix formed by Mackey in that city during April, 1878, for his approval of a charter for the Body. Pike's visit to Denver must have satisfied him that Mackey Chapter of Rose Croix was entitled to a charter, for a letter of acknowledgment of the receipt of the charter on December 10, 1878, survives in the archives of the Supreme Council."' No further facts are known at present regarding the "western tour" of more than two months' duration, except that Pike arrived back in Washington on Wednesday, November 13, 1878.11 However, it may be assumed that he did sufficient degree work along the route to pay expenses over and above the $150 drawn from the treasury of the Supreme Council on September 3, 1878, for there is no record that he received any additional funds from that source for the trip, and it is a wellestablished fact that Pike did not have personal funds for the purpose.


            The year 1878 closed with the formation of two other Lodges of Perfection. The first was on December 7, 1878, at Key West, Florida, with sixteen members,"' and the second was at Richmond, Virginia, on December 20, 1878, with twenty members.' 12 The twentieth year of the administration of Albert Pike as Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite in the Southern Jurisdiction began with a letter addressed to the Inspectors General requesting their vote on some proposed changes and simplifications in titles and names. Portions of this letter of transmittal and the tabulation of 100 Albert Pike to E. T. Carr, December 1, 1878. 107 R. C. Jordan to Albert Pike, December 5, 1878. 10' Official Bulletin, IV, 89.


            100 L. N. Greenleaf to Albert Pike, December 10, 1878.


            110 Albert Pike to E. T. Carr, December 1, 1878; Albert Pike to Gilmor Meredith, November 22, 1878. 111 DeWitt C. Dawkins to Albert Pike, December 20, 1878; Official Bulletin, IV, 99.


            112 Official Bulletin, IV, 98.


            166 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION the vote on the various items may reflect to some extent the effect of rational thought on customs and practices inherited from the "Ancient Regime".


            I invite your attention to, and action upon, the following Letter, published with our last Transactions: "Thoughtful and wise Masons in other countries ... lament the retention in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of extravagant, bombastic, inflated titles, which are laughed at by the men of sense, who are not Masons, and serve only to bring the wearers of them into contempt.


            "It is time that a reform should be somewhere proposed and begun, and that our Order should leave the field of bombastic absurdity ... in the magnificence of titles. We have . . . genuine claims to the respect of men, and can . . . leave to others ... titles that are no longer even respectable.


            "Simplicity and freedom from ostentation should characterize an Order, conscious of its own dignity. Pompous titles, equally with gaudy decorations, are not in good taste and command no respect." The propostion thus offered, with some slight modifications which reflection has suggested, is enclosed herewith. Since its publication, many Brethren ... have expressed to me their approval of the general idea of simplifying our titles, and no word of dissent ... has come from any quarter.


            I now propose to take the votes of all‑ the members of the Supreme Council upon the changes proposed in each Degree separately; praying each Brother to say whether he approves or disapproves, and if the latter as to any change proposed, that he state what title or expression he prefers in lieu of that proposed, for which purpose sufficient space is left between the several clauses. In this manner it will be made easy for me to ascertain and declare what is the sense of the majority of the members as to each title.


            I hope that each Brother will weigh well every change proposed, and suggest amendments and improvements. I offer the proposed titles in the way of suggestion only, having no special preference for any one proposed, and hoping that there may be found better ones; as, no doubt, there will be found many, when the suggestions of all the Brethren are compared together.


            The chief purpose of this Letter is to solicit the prompt action of yourself and our other Brethren. Life is too short, for some of us, to make unnecessary delays desirable.) l' The summary of the results of this letter are contained in Appendix V.


            Considerable correspondence for the first half of 1879 to and from Grand Commander Pike has survived, either in the original or in published form. Much of this 113 Grand Commander to 111. Bro.         , January 1, 1879. 167 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33 correspondence is, individually, of no great historical significance in the history of the Supreme Council, but as a whole it reflects the continued efforts of Pike and others to bring "Order out of Chaos" in the Scottish Rite by devoting time and attention to minute details as well as to the larger aspects of development and evolution. The correspondence can be divided into such categories as rulings and decisions of the Grand Commander, reports of conditions and progress of bodies, publications activities of the Grand Commander, other officers and the Inspectors General and Deputies, foreign or fraternal relations, etc.


            The rulings and decisions of the Grand Commander began early in the year. On January 4, 1879, Pike advised Parvin that Lodges of Sorrow had their origin in France, were not exclusively Scottish Rite, and required no permission from him to be called by any Masonic Body. He also pointed out that certain local conditions might require consultation with the Grand Master of the state."' The changes in titles already reviewed were actually decisions of the Grand Commander confirmed by mail vote of the Supreme Council. These changes encountered opposition from Inspectors General Todd and Fellows, and on February 4, 1879, Pike wrote a letter pointing out that Councils of Kadosh were Commanderies and that the changes in the titles of officers were correct."' By decree, a Scottish Rite Mason in Oregon, having been restored to "good standing" by action of the Grand Lodge of Oregon, was also restored to "good standing" in the Scottish Rite Bodies of which he had been a member."' It was ruled that "Hon.'. 33ds" were not exempt from the payment of dues; "32ds, not belonging to an organized Body of the Rite, are not members of the Grand Consistory;" Scottish Rite authorities must accept the definition of "good standing" of the Grand Lodge under whose jurisdiction they resided; and Inspectors General were not authorized to charge less fees for degrees than those charged by the nearest organized Bodies."' All new Bodies were ordered to buy a prescribed list of Rituals and other printed materials before Temporary or Perpetual Letters of Constitution would be signed by the Grand Commander."' Scottish Rite Masons tried in Symbolic Lodges should not be tried in Scottish Rite Bodies on the same charges; adjudications of Symbolic Lodge trials were made binding in Scottish Rite Bodies; all Scottish Rite Masons tried and convicted of "crime or fraud" in Criminal Court were to be dropped from Scottish Rite membership without further 114 Albert Pike to T. S. Parvin, January 4, 1879.


            115 Albert Pike to Samuel M. Todd, February 4, 1879. 118 Official Bulletin, IV, 81‑84.


            117Ibid., 84‑87. 118 Ibid., 94‑95.


            168 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION trial; Scottish Rite Masons accused of "crime or fraud" must be tried in "Criminal or Civil Courts" before action is instituted by Scottish Rite Bodies."' Early in January, 1879, a report of controversy in the Denver Lodge of Perfection was received, but in February, a settlement was achieved."' A report from Florida stated that "we are all so poor" that little help for the printing fund could be expected."' It was written in Louisiana that "There is no doubt about the fact that the Rite is sleeping very soundly the question is whether it can be awakened.""' A report was received that the Northern Jurisdiction was preparing "to work in the Western States"."' Long letters from Alabama spoke of competition from other secret societies having insurance benefits, of difficult economic conditions, the high price of Scottish Rite membership and the lack of active interest in Scottish Rite work, because of other business, professional and fraternal commitments, of influential Alabama Masons."" However, all of the reports received were not discouraging. A Lodge of Perfection was formed at Topeka, Kansas, on January 21, 1879, and another at Jackson, Tennessee, on January 25, 1879.125 Inspector General Bower wrote that he was sending some materials for the library and that conditions were improving in Iowa."' This letter was followed shortly by a notice that the Bodies at Davenport, Iowa, had been reactivated on March 25, 1879, and in June, a Chapter of Rose Croix was formed at Norfolk, Virginia."' Grand Commander Pike had the sad duty of officially announcing the death of Inspector General John B. Maude on May 8, 1879. This was accomplished by the usual special letter circulated to the official mailing list."' Other duties of the Grand Commander included the appointment of R. P. Earhart as Deputy in Oregon, on March 10, 1879; C. W. Bennett, on May 27, 1879, as Special Deputy ad hoc to confer the Eighteenth Degree on specific candidates in Washington, D. C.; and H. A. Olney as Deputy "for the Mountain region of Virginia"."' A new Active Member was added to the Supreme Council on June 12, 1879, when Michel Eloi Girard was crowned at New Orleans, under authority and direction of the Supreme Council, by the Active Members living in Louisiana."' 119 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. J., 1880, Appendix 34‑35.


            120 L. N. Greenleaf to Albert Pike, January 5, 1879; February 14, 1879. 121 D. C. Dawkins to Albert Pike, January 16, 1879.


            122 Samuel M. Todd to Albert Pike, January 22, 1879. 123 R. C. Jordan to Albert Pike, February 7, 1879.


            124 Stephen H. Beasley to Albert Pike, July 5, 1879; 125 Official Bulletin, IV, 99‑100.


            126 R. F. Bower to Albert Pike, March 21, 1879. 121 Official Bulletin, IV, 100.


            128Ibid., 50. 129 Ibid., 89. 130 Ibid.


            James C. Batchelor to Albert Pike, July 6, 1879.


            169 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33 A large volume of correspondence took place between the Supreme Councils of the world and Grand Commander Pike during 1879. Some of these letters were sent out as information only, many were concerned with fraternal recognition, but none of them in this period have any important bearing on the history of the Supreme Council nor indicate any policy changes on the part of the Southern Jurisdiction.


            A new book by Grand Commander Pike was published in the first half of 1879 and was announced by the following letter: During the year 1872 our Ven.'. Grand Commander, Bro.'. Albert Pike, completed the Manuscript of a work explaining the true meaning of the Words of the various Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Rite, from the Ist to the 32d inclusive‑the Ineffable Word, and the many Names of the Deity known and used in Masonry, occupying a great portion of his time for several years previous. This Manuscript, of profound interest to all intelligent and true lovers of the Rite, was presented by its author to the Supreme Council, and has recently been published.


            But one hundred and fifty copies of this great and valuable work have been printed for issue, and are in my hands for sale at a trifling advance above the actual cost, to members of the 32d and 33d degrees in this Jurisdiction only.


            If you desire a copy please remit to my address $7.50. The books are sent only by express.


            In mid‑1879, Pike wrote as follows: I am so near three‑score and ten now as to have no good reason to hope for more than five or six more working years of life; and in these, so far as I can, I wish to labor in propagating the Rite whose servant I have been for a quarter of a century. There are no more books to be prepared: and as we now have the means for teaching the great truths that we proclaim, I must "take the field" and be the apostle of our Masonic faith while there is strength in me to do it."' Pike revealed a part of his plans for "taking the field" in the following letter: I shall set out for Minnesota so as to reach St. Paul by the 20th of this month, be at Keokuk by the 30th, at Grand Island afterward, and "in your midst" about the middle of October, any how by the 20th. Will see you at Leavenw. [orth] and go to Atchison and Topeka. We owe our printer $2,000, and I am "going forth" to earn it, and hope that you will be able to find half a dozen or more candidates for the 32, in the region round about you.


            131 Albert Pike to J. W. Pratt, May 27, 1879.


            170 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION Can you not get up a desire for the degrees at Fort Scott? If you can, I will go there. I do not know that I will ever be able to make another long visitation, and cannot afford, for my bare expenses, to do it often.


            From Kansas I shall go into Texas as far down as Galveston and Corpus Christi.


            Please, Bro.'. Carr, stir round in advance, and get up all the work you can for Bro.'. Ireland and myself to do."' Grand Commander Pike, accompanied by Wm. M. Ireland, left Washington, D. C., on the first portion of his "going forth" about September 12, 1879,133 in time to arrive in Philadelphia to open the Provincial Grand Lodge for the United States of America of the Royal Order of Scotland on September 15, 1879.13' They remained in Philadelphia for the meeting of the Supreme Council of the Northern Jurisdiction, September 16‑18, 1879,135 and before leaving the city, Pike wrote the following letter: No accident preventing, I will be at the meeting of your Gr. Lodge and then go to Topeka.


            I hope you may find that something can be done at Fort Scott. I leave this morning for Minnesota.


            Bro.'. Ireland will be with me: and will do any work that is to be done. Secure us rooms at the Planter's."' Pike arrived in Minneapolis on Sunday, September 21, 1879, and on the following day went to St. Paul to speak, afterwards returning to Minneapolis for a speaking engagement on Tuesday evening, September 23, 1879.13' Bodies had been formed in the "Twin Cities" as early as 1869 but had become dormant, if not completely dead. The presence of the Grand Commander‑ materially strengthened the efforts, which correspondence indicates were being made, to revive interest in Scottish Rite Masonry in those cities. A letter from St. Paul in December, 1879, reports degree work and elections of candidates in the Lodge of Perfection, Chapter of Rose Croix and Council of Kadosh. The letter also contained an appeal for authority to form a Consistory."6 A similar letter in the following January from Minneapolis expressed the hope that a Council of Kadosh and a Consistory could be formed there within a short time."' 132 Albert Pike to E. T. Carr, September 7, 1879.


            133 Wm. M. Ireland to Alfredo Chavero, September 10, 1879; Wm. M. Ireland to H. St. Geo. Hopkins, December 19, 1879; Albert Pike to John F. Damon, December 5, 1879.


            134 Records and Minutes, Provincial Grand Lodge for U.S.A., Royal Order of Scotland, 1879, p. 24.


            135 Transactions, Supreme Council, N. 1., 1879, p. 5; Wm. M. Ireland to R. F. Bower, August 15, 1879. 136 Albert Pike to E. T. Carr, September 19, 1879.


            137 G. W. Merrill to Albert Pike, September 11, 1879. 136 Orville G. Miller to Albert Pike, December 21, 1879. 139 J. W. Henion to Albert Pike, January 15, 1880.




Pike's tabulation of towns visited and distances traveled on this trip includes Owatonna, Mankato, Ramsey and Austin in Minnesota also."' Letters indicate that he and Ireland also visited Red Wing."' They were unable to organize a Lodge of Perfection at either of these places while there, but Lodges were formed at Mankato and Red Wing upon the foundation laid by the visits within months afterwards."' Unfortunately, no record of degrees conferred, if any, by Pike and Ireland at any of the stops in Minnesota in 1879 has survived.


            From Minnesota, Pike and Ireland went to Iowa, Mason City being the first stop. Apparently, nothing was accomplished there and they went on to Keokuk, arriving there possibly as early as September 30, 1879, and certainly being in the city on October 5, 1879.1'3 The next city on the route was Des Moines and then they traveled to Omaha and Grand Island, Nebraska. At this latter place there was some work done by Pike and Ireland"" on October 12, 1879.1'5 The file of Nebraska correspondence in the Archives of the Supreme Council for the years 1879 and 1880 indicate that there were six or more candidates who received the degrees from Fifteen through Thirty‑two at this time. By way of Troy Junction and Atchison, Pike traveled to Leavenworth, Kansas, for the meeting of the Grand Lodge of Kansas and delivered an address, entitled "Symbolism of Freemasonry," to that Body on October 15, 1879.1'6 Pike was in Kansas about one month and, in addition to the towns already mentioned, visited Kansas City, Topeka, Emporia and Parsons. No report of his accomplishments during this time is available.


            After leaving Parsons, Pike went to "Muscoge" (Muskogee), Indian Territory (Oklahoma), and from there entered Texas at Dennison. Other towns in Texas which he visited included Dallas, Bremond, Waco, Hearne, Palestine, Houston and Galveston, according to his tabulation of miles traveled submitted to the Supreme Council in 1880 already referred to several times. A letter written by Pike from Galveston to Wm. M. Ireland indicates that Ireland did not accompany Pike into Texas. The letter reads as follows: I have stopped at Dallas, Waco and Palestine.


            Masonry is dead in Dallas. In Waco did a little work, and hope the Lodge of Perf. will wake up. At Palestine there are live B B and a live Lodge of Perf.


            146 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. J., 1880, Appendix 24.


            141 Wm. M. Ireland to E. A. Hotchkiss, December 15, 1879; G. W. Merrill to Albert Pike, October 25, 1879. 142 Ibid.


            143 A. T. C. Pierson to Albert Pike, October 5, 1879. 144 R. C. Jordan to Albert Pike, January 8, 1880.


            145 Membership Card File, Supreme Council (Frank E. Bullard). 146 Proceedings, Grand Lodge of Kansas, 1879, p. 39‑40.


            172 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION I have added $450 to the receipts; and Tucker and Richardson have sent Webber about $1200. If he can keep or has kept from giving it all to Mackey, and has paid the rent, and most of the debt due Pearson, we are in luck.


            Will go to N. Orleans on Wednesday [November 19, 1879]. Shall not go to Corpus Christi, and, I think, shall not go to San Antonio.


            Will be home by 1st Dec.


            On the back of the page, Pike added the following information: Sent Little & Co., yesterday [November 15, 1879], $900. Shall have $200 more, perhaps $300, for them. I hope that Fred has made a good payment to Jo Pearson; for in that case I can print the Bulletin or can prepare to print 19 to 30. If he has used any considerable part of the money ($1,100 to $1,200) sent by Tucker to him, in paying Mackey's salary, that salary will not last beyond the next Session and I somehow feel sure that he has done it, and that he neither has received nor will receive, any thing from Kentucky.


            Sherman sent $400 from Iowa, this with the notes taken in Neb. will make the printing all right."' Other sources place Pike in Waco on November 5, 1879, where he created at least one Thirty‑second."' On November 14, 1879, Pike was in Palestine where he conferred degrees through Thirty‑two on at least five candidates."" Grand Commander Pike left Galveston on November 19, 1879, and arrived in New Orleans by November 22, 1879, where he remained, according to a bill from John's Restaurant, until November 29, 1879.


            (See Illustration on page 174) A summons meeting of the Grand Consistory of Louisiana was convened on the evening of November 26, 1879, and Pike delivered an address on "duties etc. to the rite" to twenty‑two members and visitors."' There is no record that Pike conferred or communicated any Scottish Rite degrees in New Orleans during his visit.


            On December 1, 1879, the Grand Commander arrived back in Washington, D. 0,151 His journey had spanned "nearly 3 months","' eighty days, and he had 147 Albert Pike to Wm. M. Ireland, November 16, 1879.


            118 Membership Card File, Supreme Council (Richard Ellis Burnham). 149 Philip C. Tucker "Register", 28‑31.


            150 Minutes, Grand Consistory of Louisiana, November 26, 1879. 151 Albert Pike to John F. Damon, December 5, 1879.


            152 Wm. M. Ireland to E. A. Hotchkiss, December 15, 1879.


            173 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION traveled, according to his figures, a total of 5,377 miles. The records of the Supreme Council for 1879 do not reveal that any money was drawn from the treasury for this trip; the expenses of Pike and Ireland were paid from receipts for degree work along the route."' On the basis of data supplied by the Association of American Railroads, it is estimated that the cost of actual travel by Pike and Ireland was about $250. If the bill at John's Restaurant in New Orleans is a fair representation of Pike's living expenses per day on the trip, it is estimated that these expenses totaled about $1,586. The grand total of expense was about $1,836. Pike's letter of December 5, 1879, states that $1,000 had been paid on the printing account and that "we ... have the certainty of moneys being soon in hand to complete payment". He also wrote in this letter as follows Beginning in 1865 with but half a dozen dormant bodies, outside of Louisiana, (where the Grand Consistory consumed all the revenue), we have printed 23 or 24 volumes, at an expense of over $30,000, a work done chiefly on my own credit."' The following facsimile reprints of pages from a folder published for general distribution in 1879 summarizes the publications to which Pike referred in the preceding quotation.


            (See Reproductions on pages 176‑177) While Grand Commander Pike and Wm. M. Ireland were making their circuit through the mid‑west, Secretary General Mackey was on a "trip" which was scheduled to end with his return to Washington, D. C., on "Saturday" [December 20, 1879].155 Mackey made his report of the trip on January 10, 1880. He began with the statement that he had proceeded under authority of an ad hoc commission to Missouri from the Grand Commander and with the knowledge, consent and cooperation of Inspector General Martin Collins at St. Louis in September, 1879, where he "communicated the Thirty‑second Degree" to five candidates; at Hannibal he did likewise with nine candidates. At Sedalia, St. Joseph and Jefferson‑ City he created four Thirty‑seconds. He also "affiliated" three members from the Northern Jurisdiction and then on November 26, 1879, organized Alpha Lodge of Perfection at Hannibal. He was unable to organize any other Lodge in Missouri during his stay in the state."' Mackey's remittances to the Supreme Council for this work totaled $1,038.50.15* 153 Albert Pike to John F. Damon, December 5, 1879. 154 Ibid.


            155 Wm. M. Ireland to E. T. Carr, December 17, 1879. 156 Albert G. Mackey to Albert Pike, January 10, 1880. 157 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. 1., 1880, Appendix, 60.


            175 A.


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            THE BOOK OF THE WORDS: containing the explanations of the meanings of all the words of the Degrees, 1. to 32.     Only 150 copies have been printed, and will be sold only to 33ds and 32ds of the Southern .Jurisdiction.          This is the last work of the Grand Commander to be given to the Brethren of the Order; the crowning and completion of his labors.            Sent by Express only.................... ......... ......... 7.50 REPRINTS OF RITUALS OF OLD DEGREES.


            Degree of MASTER MARK MASON, being the work of the GRAND COUNCIL of Princes of Jerusalem of South Carolina, and the oldest work extant anywhere.......................... ........................... .................. 2.50: postage 2 cents.


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            All these books, except the Rituals of Old Degrees, have been prepared by the Ven. . Gr.'. Commander for the Supreme Council, being in part compiled, in p&rt written by him. In compiling, free use has been made of the best passages in the works of many ,uthors, ancient and modern:'but not a line is borrowed from any book written by a Masonic writer, or from the Rituals or other 3oks of any other Jurisdiction.   Wherever in any Ritual or Monitor or "Book of the Rite" of any other Jurisdiction, a sentence occurs ‑t is in these books, it is borrowed from them.


            No expense has been spared in producing these books; and this and their limited sale cause the Liturgies and Offices to be nigh‑priced.     Books that are sent as presents to Kings and Foreign Masonic Powers, and which excite admiration in other countries, ^‑unot be cheap.        The printing‑bills of the Supreme Council since the war exceed in amount $27,000: authorship, nothing.


            176 B.


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            2‑1873 and 1874‑ u  ............................................................................................................ 3.50:  "           21            " ::        3‑‑1875 to 1878‑       ..          ............................................ ........................ ........................ ............... 3.50:   "           21        :: The three volumes together...................................... ......................................................10.00 and postage. Subscription to Vol. 4, in advance...................................................................................................... 3.00 No book will in any case be sent to any one, unless price and postage accompany the order. This law is absolute.


            All these books, except the Transactions, have been prepared by the Ven.,. Gr.‑. Commander of the Supreme Council, being in part compiled, in part written by him. In compiling, free use has been made of the best passages in the works of many authors, ancient and modern: but not a line is borrowed from any book written by a Masonic writer, or from the Rituals or other books of any other Jurisdiction.        Wherever in any Ritual or Monitor or "Book of the Rite" of any other Jurisdiction, a sentence occurs that is in these books, it is borrowed from them.


            No expense has been spared in producing these books; and this and their limited sale cause the Liturgies and Offices to be high‑priced.     Books that are sent as presents to Kings and Foreign Masonic Powers, and which excite admiration in other countries, cannot be cheap.       The printing‑bills of the Supreme Council since the war exceed in amount $27,000: authorship, nothing.




Secretary General Mackey was the most logical member of the Supreme Council to work for the Rite in Missouri for several reasons. First, the conflict between Pike and Gouley had materially weakened the influence of Pike in the state. Second, because of the Gouley affair, York Rite Masons in Missouri were very prejudiced against the Scottish Rite. Third, Mackey was highly respected in the York Rite, more so, possibly, than any other member of the Supreme Council in 1879, because of his long and distinguished service to York Rite Masonry. Mackey's work in Missouri was a major contribution to Scottish Rite Masonry and at the same time, did much to dispel unwarranted conflict between the rites in Missouri.


            The modest success of Pike and Mackey in 1879 reveals that economic conditions were improved in the Southern Jurisdiction, even though the middle‑west from Iowa to Texas was suffering from a general drought. Their labor also proves that working Scottish Rite Masons could propagate the Rite under conditions not considered ideal ‑the value of energetic leadership was again demonstrated. It also is obvious that the Rite could not be propagated without effort.


            The year 1879 closed with a new development in the Grand Commander's mind. In his letter to John F. Damon on December 5, 1879, Pike again stated that he expected to spend the remainder of his life helping to "propagate the Rite by visits to the various parts of the jurisdiction," pointed out that he would be seventy years of age "in December next," and then wrote as follows: I am more especially anxious to find some one, fit to succeed me, and able to devote his time to the duties of the office. He must have means and leisure. I have had to get along without either, since our Civil War.


            Thus closed this period of Albert Pike's administration as Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry in the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States of America. It was a period of extreme difficulty. It was, possibly, second in this respect only to Pike's first decade which embraced the four years of civil war and the consequent suspension of activity by the Supreme Council for the duration of that struggle. The difficulties in this period can generally be traced to one or more of three major sources: 1. the personal problems of the Grand Commander; 2. the social, economic and political problems of the nation in a period of reconstruction, continued development and adjustment to the revolution in Western Civilization then in progress; and 3. the immaturity of the Rite.


            The personal problems of the Grand Commander are important because they bear upon his movements and his policy and decision making considerations and because 178 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION the Grand Commander is, in the nature of Scottish Rite organization, the Supreme Council during the recess of the Body between its Biennial Sessions. Grand Commander Albert Pike appears to have had more than a fair share of serious personal problems. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he was a man of considerable wealth, estimated to have been about $300,000. Confiscations and other losses during the war reduced his possessions to about $20,000 valuation. Pike's eldest son was killed during the war, not in battle but murdered. This loss and the later death of a daughter affected Pike and his wife deeply. As a result of his service as a General in the Confederate army, commanding forces including Indians, Pike became the principal target of vicious and venomous propaganda in Union newspapers. Pike had opposed secession; as a result, he was never completely trusted by some of his superiors in the Confederacy, and he complicated his situation by strenuous opposition to Confederate Indian policy. He also had a bitter personal feud with a superior, General Thomas C. Hindman. He was ultimately removed from command and narrowly escaped court martial. When the war ended, Pike was exempted from the general amnesty and pardon proclamation issued by the President of the United States and probably escaped trial on a charge of treason only through executive clemency of President Andrew Johnson. Although emancipated from the threat of criminal prosecution, Pike was not freed from the harassment of his enemies, socially, professionally or, to a degree, fraternally. His writings indicate, both positively and negatively, that he had, as a result, acquired a recognizable persecution complex. The losses, griefs and trials of the war and its aftermath seem to have brought about the derangement of the mind of Pike's wife to such an extent that Pike and his remaining children could not live with her. Pike provided for her with his last possessions and reentered the practice of law from which he was never again to earn more than a bare subsistence. Physically, Pike was a lusty and robust man and cultivated his natural appetite for rich and exotic food and drink. A serious health problem developed in the form of "rheumatic gout", during 1868, which was to incapacitate and torture him periodically for the remainder of his life.


            Born somewhat of a mystic and plagued with frustration in other areas of his life, Pike turned more and more, as the years progressed, to Scottish Rite Masonry as an outlet and a fulfillment for his energy and ability. By the end of 1878, it is evident that he had ended all pretense of major activity in any other endeavor‑he had become the apostle of Scottish Rite Masonry without equal, a wholly and completely dedicated zealot, and unable to comprehend a lesser degree of consecration than his own in his associates in the Supreme Council.




The personal problems of Grand Commander Albert Pike, at first appraisal, would seem to be major handicaps of success as the chief executive of the Supreme Council. However, reflection leads to the conclusion that these problems motivated the development of the type of leadership essential to the survival and success of the Supreme Council during this era.


            Periodic cataclysms characterize human experience, sometimes one within another. A slow moving but nonetheless inexorable revolution began with the Age of Enlightenment in Western Civilization. In the United States, civil war, between 1861 and 1865, intensified aspects of the larger revolution, created new problems without providing solutions, and in general, further complicated the already complicated process of building institutions. The American Civil War was a tornado within the cyclonic storm generated by forces unleashed in the Age of Enlightenment. From time to time, specific social, economic and political problems have been mentioned that define to some extent the confusion and chaos affecting the history of the Supreme Council, either directly or indirectly. These will not be repeated, but the reader should hold them in mind as the history of the Supreme Council in this period is summarized.


            Pike is the author of the first known commentary on the immaturity of the Scottish Rite in its first hundred years. His findings in this respect have been confirmed by every Scottish Rite historian of note since Pike's day. The account of events in this present chapter is largely one of trial and error without precedent for guidance. The principal areas of immaturity of the Supreme Council may be listed as follows: ritual, law, organization, fiscal accounting, membership accounting, education, recruitment of membership, and leadership development.


            The accomplishments of the Supreme Council are as follows: Rituals completed, printed and distributed Basic educational materials completed, printed and available A library established Publication of Official Bulletin undertaken Territorial jurisdiction successfully defended Fiscal accounting improved Membership accounting undertaken Jurisprudence improved Participated in formation of international confederation Maturation of fraternal relations policies and procedures Successful creation of a "Printing Fund" Modest membership growth 180 SIX YEARS OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION Under the heading of "Unfinished Business," the following list of area or subject categories indicate the major activities previously projected, other than well settled routine, to be continued.


            The acquisition of a "Sanctuary" The creation of a Charity Fund Development of a library Perfection of fiscal accounting Perfection of membership accounting Perfection of a Scottish Rite educational system Membership and recruitment ("propagation of the Rite") Recruitment and training of effective leadership An effective subscription campaign for the Official Bulletin Further development of the system of jurisprudence Clarification in some areas of fraternal relations Perfection of administrative co‑ordination and co‑operation










THE third decade of the administration of Albert Pike as Grand Commander of the Supreme Council, 33', Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, U.S.A., opened in 1880 under far more favorable circumstances, within and without the Rite, than had been true of any previous period in the history of the Southern Jurisdiction. However, it is not intended to imply that conditions were ideal for the growth of the Rite. There had been marked improvement in the economic situation of most of the states and territories of the Jurisdiction; railroad and telegraph mileage had expanded tremendously; "Reconstruction" of the former Confederate States was ended; corruption and inefficiency in civil government had passed its peak; sectional fanaticism was on the decline; and progress was being made in social and economic reforms necessary to general tranquility. Numerically, the Rite was at least three times as strong as it had been about 1861; organizational, procedural and other forms and policies were more highly developed; and probably more important was the fact that Grand‑ Commander Pike was in a position to devote more time and effort to the propagation of the Rite and to supervision of administration.


            Another way of observing the situation in 1880 is by assembling the available pertinent statistics. These data, tabulated by states, are as follows:






            GRAND          YORK RITE    SCOTTISH RITE       STATE           POPULATION           LODGE            R.A.M.            K. T.    14     18     30     32     Alabama        1,262,505      8,677  821     212     20                                               Arizona           40,440                        102                                                                 Arkansas        802,525          8,293  1,254  143                                                    California       864,694            12,214            2,904  965                                         58        Colorado        194,327          1,641  462     127            29        10                               Dakota (N. & S.)        135,177          404     171                                                                D. of Columbia          177,624 T      2,712  1,085  823     06 1    67 l      45        50 183 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33░


MASONIC MEMBERSHIP STATISTICS‑Continued FOR AREA COMPRISING THE SOUTHERN JURISDICTION, A.&A.S.R., 1880               GRAND          YORK RITE                SCOTTISH     RITE                STATE           POPULATION           LODGE          R.A.M.            K. T.    14     18     30     32             Florida            269,498          2,151  233     30                                                       Georgia          1,542,180            12,174            1,176  314                                                    Idaho   32,610            225                                                                            Indian Ter.                  337                                                                            Iowa            1,624,615      18,491            4,533  1,715  1"53    148     148     148     Kansas           996,096            7,443  1,287  508     42                                           Kentucky        1,648,690      16,613            2,676            1,231                                      159     Louisiana       939,946          6,187  996     346                                         57        Maryland        934,943          5,082  1,176  768                                         53        Minnesota            780,773          8,647  1,744  764     116     42        34                   Mississippi    1,131,597      9,240            1,425  411                                                    Missouri         2,168,380      23,697            3,750  1,285                                                 Montana         39,159            705                 90                                                        Nebraska       452, 402         3,257  841     385     31                                           Nevada           62,266            1,475  411     1                                                         New Mexico   119,565          174     76        33                                                       North Carolina           1,399,750      11,482            527     58                                                       Oregon           174,768          2,580  520     70        80        49        49                   South Carolina            995,577          6,165  654     72        28                                           Tennessee     1,542,359      16,531            2,975  750     12                                           Texas  1,591,749      17,177            3,176  620     29                                           Utah    143,963          377     58                                                                   Virginia            1,512,565      9,777              808     15                                           Washington    75,116            953     52                        100     69        43                   West Virginia 618,457          3,386              235     20        9                                 Wyoming        20,7891          3392   3          564                                         1 Historical Statistics of the United States to 1957, p. 12. 2 Proceedings, Grand Lodge of Texas, 1880, Appendix, 5.


            3 Proceedings, General Grand Chapter, R.A.M., U.S., 1883, p. 45; 143. 4 Proceedings, Grand Encampment, K.T., 1880, p. 127; 128.


            5 Transactions, Supreme Council, S.J., 1880, pp. 72‑73.


            184 OPPORTUNITY, PROBLEMS AND ACTION This tabulation reveals the status of Masonry in the United States within the jurisdiction of the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction in 1880. It shows what had been accomplished, membershipwise, where and by what Bodies. Conversely, it shows what had not been accomplished and where work should be undertaken. The reasons for the various situations reflected by the figures must be found elsewhere.


            Grand Commander Pike opened 1880 with some intensive study and writing; for five weeks, he had not left his rooms.` Later events in the year indicate that portions of this work were devoted to the preparation of materials for No. 1 Volume IV of the Official Bulletin, to an analysis of what he had learned during his western tours of 1878 and 1879, and to preparations for a third tour in the Jurisdiction prior to the Session of the Supreme Council scheduled to open on the "third Monday in October," 1880. In addition, there was the usual correspondence and routine work of the Grand Commander's office that must be conducted.


            The accompanying letter, dated January 3, 1880, demonstrates in another way the new spirit of progress and efficiency in Supreme Council activity. It is written in the handwriting of Wm. M. Ireland and signed by Pike, which is not unusual; but it is unique in that it is the earliest surviving example of the use of an office duplicating device (gelatin) in the preparation of form letters. In a way, this is a small and insignificant matter; but it is indicative of an evolution that is as significant for the future of the Rite as was the broadening of the membership of the Supreme Council from strictly South Carolina to representation of the entire Jurisdiction.


            (See letter on page 186) Early in 1880, correspondence took place which brought about the introduction of the Scottish Rite into western Canada through Inspector General J. S. Lawson and Grand Commander Pike. The efforts began with a letter from Lawson to Pike requesting that authority for the move be secured from the Supreme Council of Canada,' and shortly thereafter Pike received a request from Grand Commander T. D. Harington of the Supreme Council of Canada that Lawson proceed with the project.' On March 13, 1880, Lawson acknowledged receipt of his authority to work in British Columbia' and on April 12, 1880, reported that he had formed a Lodge of s Albert Pike to M. W. Wood, January 28, 1880. ' J. S. Lawson to Albert Pike, January 4, 1880.


            8 T. D. Harington to Albert Pike, February 7, 1880. e J. S. Lawson to Albert Pike, March 13, 1880.


            185 OPPORTUNITY, PROBLEMS AND ACTION Perfection and Chapter of Rose Croix at Victoria." He was assisted in the work by James R. Hayden and Rev. John F. Damon." In a letter, dated January 5, 1880, H. L. Ticknor made inquiry about the status of the Chapter of Rose Croix in Carson City, Nevada, the disposition of funds received by a Deputy for the communication of degrees and the membership status of those receiving degrees by communication." Shortly thereafter, other letters reported the Bodies at Carson City as foundering and indicated that there was conflict between them and the Deputy over fees collected." Pike's replies to these letters have not been found.


            A series of January letters from R. C. Jordan reports some degree work done at Rawlins, Wyoming, that William Tonn wished to introduce the Rite into Montana, and that he believed factional strife was preventing the revival of the Rite in Omaha." Pike reacted to the second letter by commissioning Tonn as Deputy for Montana, Utah and East Idaho; Tonn acknowledged receipt of the Commission on February 12, 1880. 15 Apparently in response to an inquiry, Grand Commander Pike advised that a Consistory could be formed only by "express order of the Supreme Council," that a Council of Kadosh must be formed first under certain listed requirements, and pledged to do everything in his power to bring about the creation of such Bodies in Minneapolis." This was the first of several letters on organizational problems of Bodies in Minnesota: E. E. McDermott made inquiry about the formation of Consistories at St. Paul and Minneapolis;" G. W. Merrill endorsed a petition for a Council of Kadosh at Minneapolis on January 30, 1880;18 McDermott forwarded the petition for the Council of Kadosh to Pike;" G. W. Merrill reported the formation of a Lodge of Perfection at Red Wing and requested information about the formation of a Consistory at St. Paul;" and twelve other letters were written to Pike regarding Consistories at St. Paul and Minneapolis before he received a report that Consistories to Official Bulletin, IV, 467; J. S. Lawson to Albert Pike, April 27, 1880. 11 Proceedings, Supreme Council of Canada, 1880, p. 8.


            12 H. L. Ticknor to Albert Pike, January 5, 1880.


            13 R. W. Bollen to Albert Pike, January 16, 1880; March 8, 1880. 14 R. C. Jordan to Albert Pike, January 8, 12, 26, 1880.


            15 William Tonn to Albert Pike, February 12, 1880. 1s Albert Pike to John W. Henion, January 28, 1880. 17 E. E. McDermott to Albert Pike, January 29, 1880. 18 Official Bulletin, IV, 467.


            is E. E. McDermott to Albert Pike, February 4, 1880. 2 G. W. Merrill to Albert Pike, February 5, 1880.




had been "regularly constituted" at St. Paul and Minneapolis, only eleven miles apart, dated May 4, 1880.21 Meanwhile, the Grand Commander had received letters which conveyed the following information: the Rite had lost ground in Washington Territory because of economic depression ;21 trouble had developed in the Washington, D. C., Bodies over the rejection of an application for affiliation ;23 the Grand Consistory of Virginia was condemned for its failure to give leadership to the Rite in that state ;24 it was reported that "times are hard in Nevada" as an excuse for lack of activity in the Bodies;" and the Inspector General reported that is was "very dull in Masonry" in Arkansas." Other letters indicate that Pike had, during March and April, sent out letters of inquiry in preparation for another western tour. Unfortunately, only two replies have survived and these provide no information of historical value .27 A letter from North Platte, Nebraska, indicated interest in the formation of a Lodge of Perfection at that place," one from Alabama reported the revival of the Lodge of Perfection at Montgomery," and one from Jordan reported the erection of a Lodge at Rawlings, Wyoming, on April 10, 1880.3 Pike also received letters from Roper of Virginia and Lawson of Washington Territory recommending that the quorum for the transaction of business in Bodies be reduced and that officers be elected annually." On March 27, 1880, a communication regarding renewed activity by the illegitimate Cerneau Council in New York was written to Pike by R. M. C. Graham, Deputy of the Northern Supreme Council for New York. Pike reacted to this letter by publishing a circular addressed to all Scottish Rite Masons in the Southern Jurisdiction stating that the Cerneau Council was not recognized by any legitimate Scottish Rite Power and that Masons receiving the degrees of the Cerneau Council should not be received as visitors in the Bodies subordinate to the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction. He also stated that such persons could not be "healed" except by receiving the Scottish Rite degrees "lawfully"." 21 Ibid., May 4, 1880.


            22 J. S. Lawson to Albert Pike, February 10, 1880.


            23 B. D. Hyam to Albert Pike, February 12; 26, 1880. 24 John L. Roper to Albert Pike, February 18, 1880. 25 R. W. Bollen to Albert Pike, March 27, 1880.


            28 Luke E. Barber to Albert Pike, May 5, 1880.


            2 E. F. Dodge to Albert Pike, March 24, 1880; Thomas Bennett to Albert Pike, April 19, 1880. 28 F. E. Bullard to Albert Pike, March 5, 1880.


            29 S. H. Beasley to Albert Pike, April 2, 1880. 30 R. C. Jordan to Albert Pike, April 20, 1880. 31 John L. Roper to Albert Pike, Febraury 18, 1880; J. S. Lawson to Albert Pike, April 27, 1880. 32 Official Bulletin, IV, 391‑392.


            188 OPPORTUNITY, PROBLEMS AND ACTION The next important activity of the Grand Commander in 1880, of which any record survives, is that of his tour through some of the middle western states of the Jurisdiction from mid‑June until the end of September. There are so few sources on the trip, dated during its duration, that they will be included with Pike's report to the Supreme Council at its Session in October, 1880.


            It seems very probable that Pike used the days between his return to Washington and the opening of the Session of the Supreme Council on October 18 in preparations for the meeting. There are no Pike letters in the archives of the Supreme Council dated in this period and the files contain only two letters of historical significance received by him: one inquiring about the possibility of forming a Consistory at Leadville, Colorado," and one from J. S. Lawson tendering his resignation as Sovereign Grand Inspector General." On the appointed day, October 18, 1880, eleven Sovereign Grand Inspectors General assembled in Washington, D. C., for the opening of a Session of the Supreme Council. There were eight Honorary Members of the Council and four visitors from the Supreme Council of the Northern Jurisdiction present for the opening but others were admitted for the Grand Commander's Allocution.


            The brief introduction to the Allocution was followed by an announcement that "our Rituals are being adopted by other Supreme Councils" and that translations were in progress in Belgium, Greece, Mexico and Brazil. Canada was using them as written in the English language.


            The roll of distinguished dead was then called, beginning with Inspectors General John R. McDaniel and John B. Maude, and it was announced that a Lodge of Sorrow would be opened. This was followed by a brief general tribute and the Grand Commander passed on to a review of "Domestic Affairs". His remarks on this subject were brief, more extensive comments being reserved for a Confidential Allocution later in the Session, and are as follows: Since our Session 1878, 1 have visited the State of Kansas three times, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Colorado and the Territory of Wyoming twice, and Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas and the Territory of New Mexico once, being absent from home nine months and a half in all, and travelling in all 20,000 miles, as will 33 fir. Y. Cirode to Albert Pike, October 6, 1880. 3' J. S. Lawson to Albert Pike, October 7, 1880.


            189 Dei Optimi Maximi Universitatis Rerum Fonfs ac Originis ad Gloriam.




            2anw a2cenG o~       ~a2~a~an, ~ e 'a~ ~a2~ o J ofem, 4, '880, q). '. 9 ..


            Very Dear Brother: Our Supreme Council is to hold its next Session at the Hall of the./incient and .Rccepted Scottish Rite in the City of Washington,, on the eighteenth day, being the third Monday, of October next, at 11 o'clock .fl. .112 The welfare of the Rite in our great, Jurisdiction in largest measure depends upon the wisdom of the legislation and other action of the Supreme Council, to secure which the counsel and advice of all the members is highly desirable.


            Much that is of interest, and importance is to be transacted at, our coming Session. It is pleasant for us to meet together and look into each other's faces, and it becomes more so as, one after another, those whom we have honoured and loved go out of this world into that life which is to be lived after death here.


            There will not be many more assemblings for some of us, one of. whom is the Grand Commander; and he hopes and earnestly entreats each of the Brethren,, .fictive Members of the Supreme Council, who can possibly do so, to gladden the hearts of his Brethren by being with them in October.


            The Rooms of the Supreme Council are at No. 60.2 D Street, JV`orthwest, where our Honorary as well as our Active Members will be welcome.


            May our Father who is in Heaven, have you always in His holy keeping ! Gr.‑. Commander.


            ANNOUNCEMENT OF SESSION OF 1880 190 OPPORTUNITY, PROBLEMS AND ACTION appear by a table herewith presented. We now have at St. Paul and Minneapolis, all the bodies of the Rite, Lodges of Perfection at Red Wing, Mankato and St. Peter in the same State, and promise of Lodges at Lake City and Rochester.


            In Kansas, we have Lodges of Perfection at Topeka, Leavenworth and Clay Centre, and one at Salina which needs additional members to enable it to work, and certainty of a Lodge soon at Great Bend, with fair promise of two or three others. The bodies at Davenport, in Iowa, are at work, as well as those of Lyons, and there is hope of the revival of the Lodge of Perfection at Des Moines.


            Lodges of Perfection are now working at Hannibal in Missouri, Grand Island in Nebraska, Rawlins in Wyoming, Denver in Colorado, and Palestine and Galveston in Texas; and the early establishment of Lodges at Santa Fe in New Mexico, Fort Smith in Arkansas, and St. Louis in Missouri, is, I believe, reasonably certain. In the other States of the Jurisdiction the Rite is in much the same condition as it was when we assembled in 1878, new Lodges being at work at Deep Creek in Virginia, Jackson in Tennessee, and Key West in Florida, and that at Montgomery in Alabama having been revived. But there is nothing upon which to congratulate ourselves in North Carolina, Arkansas and Mississippi, in which States no bodies are at work. The bodies in the Sandwich Islands are in healthy condition; those in Louisiana and Georgia depressed.


            On the Pacific Coast progress has been made at Eureka in Nevada; the bodies at Carson are at work, and the Lodge at Virginia City is inactive. In California everything remains, I think, as it was in 1876. In Oregon the bodies at Portland are prosperous, but the Lodge at Salem is, I believe, inactive; and in Washington Territory six Lodges of Perfection are at work, but will need care and encouragement, now that our devoted Brother Lawson has been transferred to San Francisco by the government, becoming thereby an Inspector for California, and leaving a vacancy in Washington Territory.


            In a few years the time will have come when I shall no longer be able to travel and labour as the servant of the Supreme Council; and I must, until that time comes, do what I can to diffuse and propagate our Rite. This is the best service that I can now render to humanity. My labours of authorship for the Rite are completed, and all our books are printed. The music of our Rituals and Offices, presented to us by Bro.'. Matthew Cooke, is in the printer's hands, and I take it upon myself to raise such funds for that work as will be needed in addition to those in hand.


            It was then announced that the library had grown to "over a thousand volumes" and a comment indicated that a catalogue had been published and distributed. An HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33░


indirect appeal was made for more donations to the library and then the Grand Commander said: "I hope that we shall soon need more room for our books, and be able to purchase a building that shall be our Holy House of the Temple." He also remarked that the collection of photographs of "our predecessors" for the library had succeeded but "it is not possible to have the likeness of many. . . ." Under the heading of "Rituals", the revision and publication of "the 31st and 32d Degrees" was announced as was the revision of portions "of the Degrees 19 to 30" all of which could be acquired through the Assistant Grand Auditor by those qualified to receive them. Pike then asked for consent to prescribe more rigid rules and regulations of communications of "the 31st and 32d Degrees".


            The Grand Commander's review of his decisions included the ruling that Honorary Grand Crosses were not entitled to a free jewel nor exempt from the payment of dues; that decisions of civil courts were "conclusive in all Masonic Bodies"; that unfavorable committee reports on applicants should not "be spread upon the record"; that an Inspector General may create a Lodge of Perfection with nine members only and if "more than nine, the fees for the degrees ... may be paid ... to the Lodge"; and that a Lodge of Perfection does not retain perpetual jurisdiction over rejected candidates.


            The review of "Foreign Relations" contained nothing new that had a determinate influence on the development of the Supreme Council. However, two items deserve notation here: relations had been severed with the Supreme Council of Switzerland, and that Inspector General Lawson and the Grand Commander had, by commission from the Supreme Council of Canada, assisted in the propagation of the Rite in that Jurisdiction.


            The Allocution closed with an impassioned appeal for rededication to the Rite; that "we must not outlive our Rite;" and with an entreaty to "you all.... of all the degrees, to help me, to encourage me, to strengthen me, while any days remain in which I shall be able to work".


            The necessary committees were then appointed, and the Allocution and other documents submitted by the Grand Commander were referred to them. Other business transacted included The election of James Cunningham Batchelor to be Lieutenant Grand Commander 192 OPPORTUNITY, PROBLEMS AND ACTION Appointment of a Committee on Nominations and the submission of various nominations to the Committee The excuses of seven Inspectors General for nonattendance were accepted A petition for relief was submitted to a special committee which recommended that the petition be submitted to the appropriate Subordinate Body.


            A committee rejected an offer to sell several Frederick Dalcho certificates, dated in 1801, to the Supreme Council Five Honorary Inspectors General were stricken from the roll because of nonpayment of fees Accounts of the Secretary General and Treasurer General were received The Grand Commander submitted a Confidential Allocution" This Confidential Allocution has never before been published. A portion of it is a statement in 1880 of the situation of the Rite in the Southern Jurisdiction that is of historical value and is, therefore, included in this account.


            Prior to 1878, the Supreme Council for the Northern Jurisdiction had seen fit, using phrases at which we might justly have taken umbrage as indecorous, to prefere anew its claim to exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction over the Country acquired by the United States since 1827. The matter had been referred to a Committee which was to report in September, 1878; and its Report, to be written by its Chairman, a lawyer of large ability and learning, but ready, in such a case, to avail himself of all the unfair resources and audacious devices of the intellectural dishonesty of his Craft, would, I knew, maintain the claim of that Council to its fullest extent.


            I had learned, early in 1878, that in all that part of our jurisdiction between the Mississippi and the Pacific States, our Rite was in a paralytic and perishing condition. In Minnesota it had many years before been established at St. Paul, and at a later period in Minneapolis; but the Lodge of Perfection and Chapter of Rose Croix were dead at the latter place; and at St. Paul there was discontent 35 Transactions, Supreme Council, S. 1., 1880, pp. 3‑8; Appendix, 4‑5.




fomented by Bro.'. Pierson, unkindness towards our Deputy and vague notions that a new Supreme Council of the North‑West would by and by be established, or Minnesota become a part of the Northern Jurisdiction. There was a Pierson party of malcontents, who represented him as a persecuted and wronged person, and had thereby to a great extent alienated the St. Paul Brethren, and made them indifferent, if not disaffected. At Minneapolis, the larger part of the Brethren were discontented with our Deputy there, on account of the conferring of the Degrees by him on one or two Brethren not approved of by the others.


            In Iowa, no Bodies were working, except those at Lyons, where the system of conferring all the degrees in four or five days was followed; they were given for less than the sums fixed by our Statutes, and three times too many 32ds were made with the accomplished result that the Grand Consistory of the State had surrendered its charter on account of inability to obtain a quorum of members to work withal, out of the large number of 32ds at large in the State. The Bodies established by Bro.'. Parvin at Duburque, Keokuk, Des Moines and Davenport were all dead.


            In Nebraska, the Bodies long before established at Omaha were dead beyond possibility of resurrection; and the only other Body in the State, the Lodge of Perfection established at Grand Island by Bro.'. Jordan when he was an Active Member, reduced to six members had been long dormant. The Inspector for the State deemed it impossible to revive or establish even a Lodge of Perfection at Omaha, and declared that it _was a folly for Bro.'. Jordan to think of reviving and maintaining the Lodge of Perfection.


            In Kansas, there had been a Lodge of Perfection at Leavenworth; but in 1876 it had long been defunct. The Secretary General in that year revived it under a new name, without new Letters of Constitution, and also established a new Lodge of Perfection at Salina, on the Kansas Pacific RailRoad. Immediately after his departure for Colorado, both these Lodges died, without doing any work.


            In Colorado, the Lodge of Perfection established by him at Denver in 1876 had become entirely inactive in 1878; and the Chapter established by him in 1877 had done nothing. I found both virtually dead in 1878, and the members disinterested and inclined to disaffection.


            In Missouri, the Lodge of Perfection some years ago established at St. Louis and which I once endeavored in vain to reanimate was as dead as Lazarus in 1878. The Bodies once existing at St. Joseph had, as you know, some ten years before surrendered their Letters of Constitution, in consequence of the hasty suspension of their labors by the Inspector for the State. There was, in 1878, no working Body of the Rite in the State. Our creation of a second Inspector General there had been productive of no good. There was no harmony among the Brethren in St. Louis; and no effort whatever had been made for years to extend the Rite; that being indeed, difficult to effect, in consequence of prejudice 194 OPPORTUNITY, PROBLEMS AND ACTION engendered in 1876, and the narrowminded bigotry and ignorance of the Master Masons, desciples of men of the Past, who were equally ignorant and conceited. Our surviving Deputy in the State, moreover, is overwhelmed with his private business, and has no time to travel over the State and propagate the Rite. He was to have gone with me, by special agreement, in September last to several places in the State; but when I reached St. Louis, his business prevented him from going anywhere. Unless he can find efficient Deputies, he will never be able, I can say with certain knowledge, to establish the Rite in the State.


            In 1879 the Secretary General established a Lodge of Perfection at Hannibal, composed of twelve members, eleven of them 32nds, and one an 18th. After he installed its officers, a quorum of its members never met, some of the Brethren only coming together two or three times at the private office of one of the members. The Master, who was then made such, Master of the Blue Lodge, High Priest of the Chapter and Commander of the Commandery of Templars, as well as a Lawyer and Politition, had concluded that the Lodge of Perfection could not succeed and abandoned the idea of doing anything in it; and while I was instructing the Brethren during three days and nights, he, although in the city and promising to attend, never was present for a moment. The Lodge was still‑born.


            In Utah, the Lodge of Perfection established at Salt Lake City by our Bro.'. Shaw, soon after its creation died, and has so remained unto this day.


            In Arkansas, the Bodies established by me at Little Rock before the war, died when the war began, and have been dead ever since, and none ever established elsewhere in the State.


            In Texas, I found the Lodge of Perfection at Waco dead in 1879, and the Lodge and Chapter at Galveston inert. The Lodge at Corpus Christi, its first and second Masters having left the State, had given up the ghost. A new Lodge had been established at Palestine; and beyond this and the bodies at Galveston the Rite had no existence in the State.


            No body had, in 1878, been established in any Territory except Washington.


            Knowing in part this condition of things, I, unwillingly leaving home and suspending my studies, undertook to change it. Accompanied by Bro.'. William M. Ireland, whose assistance was indispensable, I went, in September, 1878, to the Country west of Mississippi, taking Milwaukee in my way. The Supreme Council for the Northern Jurisdiction met there; the Committee on boundaries of jurisdiction made such a report as I expected, proceeding upon false premises and audacious propositions, by glaring fallacies of argumentation to a preposterous conclusion; and the Supreme Council unanimously adopted the Report, and by resolution asserted that it had right of concurrent jurisdiction in the Country acquired by the United States since 1827; setting up also a vague claim of like jurisdiction in all that was once the Province of Louisiana.




I did not believe that any steps would be at once taken to enforce these claims by active operations, by authority from the Grand Commander of that Body, though some of the Members desired it. I believed that the claims were set up and urged, in order to induce us to enter into a new arrangement, ceding to that body the most Northern of our States.


            But I did think it very possible that one John Sheville, of Chicago, who had some years ago undertaken the same thing in Nebraska, might again honor that State and others with a visit, and endeavour to hawk about and peddle the Degrees for any price that anybody would pay. And, as I had gone to the Pacific Coast in 1876, to prevent threatened invasion there, I determined not to rest until I had closed the Trans‑Mississippi Country against all interlopers.


            In 1878, I visited and remained some time in Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado and Arkansas, and addressed the Grand Lodge of Kansas, in session at Atchison, (by invitation), and the Master Masons at Davenport, Omaha, Grand Island, Leavenworth, Fort Smith and Little Rock, speaking to them chiefly in regard to the Symbolism of the Blue Degrees, in aid of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. We added new members to the , Lodges at Grand Island and Leavenworth, induced the establishment of a Lodge at Topeka, and encouraged and set on its feet the Lodge at Denver. The formation of a Lodge at Fort Smith was only prevented by the absence of some of the Brethren who were to form it, but the seed sown there has taken root, and the establishment of a Lodge is only a question of time. The revival _of the bodies at Davenport was secured, and has since been effected; but at Omaha and Little Rock the inertia was too great to be overcome.


            In 1879 I addressed the Brethren at St. Paul, Minneapolis, Red Wing and Mankoto, and also at Keokuk, Dallas, Waco, Palestine and Galveston in Texas, and by invitation the Grand Lodge at Topeka. We revived the bodies at Minneapolis, secured the establishment of a Council of Kadosh at that place, and made certain the establishment of a Consistory there and at St. Paul. The establishment of a Lodge at Red Wing followed, with promise of one at Mankoto, which was effected in July of the present year. At Palestine in Texas, the Lodge then lately established there was encouragd and strengthened, and additional life infused, I think, into that at Galveston. At New Orleans I met a quorum of the Grand Consistory, which had not conferred a degree in seven years. But I could effect nothing at Keokuk in Iowa, or at Dallas or Waco in Texas, the Lodge at the latter place being lifeless.


            Leaving home on the 18th of June, and returning on the 30th of September, 1880, I addressed the Brethren at Santa Fe, Rawlins, in Wyoming Territory, Clay Center in Kansas, Sedalia, Lexington and St. Louis in Missouri; instructed the new Lodge at Clay Center, addressed the Master Masons and ensured the establishment of a Lodge at Great Bend in Kansas; established Lodges at Mankoto 196 OPPORTUNITY, PROBLEMS AND ACTION and St. Peter in Minnesota, conferred the 31st and 32 Degrees on two Knights Kadosh for the Consistory at St. Paul and one for the Consistory at Minneapolis; made probable the creation of a Lodge at Santa Fe, instructed and encouraged the new Lodge at Rawlins, and added members to the Lodge at Hannibal, to enable it to work. At St. Louis I spoke of the explanations which we gave of the symbols of the Blue Degrees, to three hundred Master Masons, and have made it easy for the Inspector for that State to establish a strong and prosperous Lodge of Perfection in that City; to effect which I will, if necessary, go there again.


            I have not desired to elevate many Brethren to the 32 Degree. This year, especially, I have refrained from it, having heard of its being said, here and there, and in one State by a person to whom Bro.'. Mackey gave the degrees without charge, that the whole object of the Supreme Council was to make money; and also because I believe that to make many 32ds in a day or two in one place will always go far to annihilate all hope of prosperity there for the Rite.


            I was able, in the fall of 1879, to send to our printer in New York a thousand dollars, and in 1878 a smaller sum earned that year; but for the reasons given above, nothing was earned over and above expenses. No compensation beyond our expenses has been asked or expected by Bro.'. Ireland and myself. The commissions allowed by the Statutes having gone towards payment of his expenses. His assistance has been invaluable; for not my age alone, but the effects of rheumatic gout, have made it impossible for me, going from place to place alone, to endure the labour of the necessary work; and so most of it has been cheerfully done by him.


            On my return from Texas, in 1879, I visited New Orleans, and remained there over a week. I had the Grand Consistory convened, little more than a quorum of the members being present, heard it said that it was a larger meeting than had been held for years, and learned that the Body had not conferred a Degree for seven years, although some Brethren had been elected to receive the degrees there, nearly as many years before.


            In 1878 I went to Norfolk, and thence, with our Deputy for the State, to Richmond, where Bro.'. Ireland met us, and we established a Lodge of Perfection of forty members, apparently zealous and enthusiastic. I have teamed that it [has] since fallen asleep, for which I cannot account. As it is not our subordinate, but of the obedience of a paralytic and inert Grand Consistory, it has no direct accountability to us or correspondence with us. I hope that our Deputy for the State will be able to inform us as to its real condition, and what causes have deprived it of its vitality.




In April, 1879, I visited Lynchburg, accompanied by Brother Ireland, to see for myself the condition of the Bodies there, and to endeavor to incite them to activity, and then to increase in numbers. I addressed the Master Masons, and as much satisfaction was expressed, I hoped that I had effected somewhat; but since then I have heard nothing in regard to the Governing Body or its Subordinates. Our Deputy may be able, of his personal inspection and knowledge, to inform us in regard to the condition of their health, and whether they really live or are dead.


            I have not been able, for some years, to visit the Southern States of our jurisdiction, or this side of the Mississippi, except Maryland and Louisiana. I wish to make an effort to plant the Rite in North Carolina, where the Secretary General established a Lodge of Perfection at Raleigh, (in 1866 or 1867), of which I never heard until its establishment was mentioned in a letter to me from a Brother at Lenoir, who wanted to be repaid the price of the Rituals purchased by him for the Lodge. The Body, I suppose, drew a breath or two and died. Since then, North Carolina has lain fallow: but I do not believe it to be impossible to establish the Rite there.


            In South Carolina, the Bodies established at Columbia are dead, and long ago forgotten. The Lodge at Winnsboro must be dead, as I have not heard from it for three years. The Chapter at Charleston is inert, I think; and Delta Lodge of Perfection there, the only living Body in the State.


            In Georgia, the Bodies established without stability by our Bro.'. Rockwell, at Atlanta, Columbus and Savannah, all died too soon to be remembered. The Lodge of Perfection established by our Bro.'. Hillyer at Fort Valley was nipped by an untimely frost in its first season. The Consistory at Augusta was decapitated by us four years ago, and I have heard nothing of the other bodies there for so long that I have ceased to think of them.


            In Florida, a Lodge of Perfection has been three times established at Jacksonville,‑first by our Bro.'. Ives; second, by our Bro.'. Mackey; and third by our Bro.'. Dawkins. Whether it is a living body now, I do not know. A Lodge of Perfection was established by Bra.'. Dawkins, a year or two ago, at Key West, which I hope survives.


            In Alabama, the Bodies established about 1867 at Mobile have been dead for years. The Lodge of Perfection at Montgomery lately elected its dignitaries and officers, and is about, I hope, to enter upon a career of usefulness.


            In Mississippi, the Bodies at Natchez and Oxford are dead long ago, and those at Vicksburg do not work, and live only by the generosity of our Deputy, Bro.'. Speed.


            In West Virginia, there is no Body, except at Wheeling; and there is, I fear, little life there. In Maryland and Kentucky, there are no bodies outside of Balti 198 OPPORTUNITY, PROBLEMS AND ACTION more and Louisville, where the Grand Consistories incubate. Only in California has a Grand Consistory ever had bodies beyond the city in which it sat; and there those not in San Francisco owed their being to Bro.'. Shaw. In Kentucky, Bro.'. Webber made a Lodge at Covington, for the Grand Consistory of Kentucky; but it exhaled forthwith, and left no trace behind.


            In Tennessee, the Bodies at Memphis are dead and forgotten I established them in 1866, on the old plan of making all at once, and in a little while, as was inevitable, they all died at once. Bro.'. Henry H. Neal, 33, of Kentucky, for Bra.'. Frankland, established a Lodge of Perfection in 1879 at Jackson, the condition of which I hope that Bro.'. Blackie, now in charge of Tennessee, will report. No body has ever been established at Nashville.


            In the Hawaiian Kingdom our Bodies prosper and are content: In Baltimore and Washington and Louisville the Bodies have grown strong, and have more to apprehend from the dangers of prosperity than from those of adversity.


            It will not be necessary, I think, for me to visit Minnesota or Kansas again. Any attempt of the Supreme Council to establish Bodies in either State will meet with no success: the bodies existing there will not be suffered to fall into decay; and others will be by degrees established.


            Whether any progress is to be made in Nebraska, depends upon our Brother the Inspector there. When one thinks that a thing cannot be done, it becomes impossible,‑for him. There are Brethren who cannot make an effort, because they have made up their minds that it will fail, where another, hopeful and confident, would succeed. And I cannot be made to believe that in a city as large as Omaha, an Active and an Honorary Member of this Body (we have Bro.'. Deuel there, and Bro.'. Fumas not far off) cannot establish a prosperous Lodge of Perfection.


            It will be necessary to adopt some effected measures for extending the Rite in Missouri: and I know of no more that is in our power, without the cooperation of the Inspector for the State. I am very willing to make another effort, but I will not traverse the State again, unless I have his company. I do not think that the Supreme Council ought patiently wait more than ten years, for some effort to be made in a great State like Missouri, to establish the Rite; and it is very certain that Lodges of Perfection will not establish themselves. If the Committee on the State of the Order will take the matter into consideration, some plan can be devised by which the Inspector in Missouri will be able, working through others, to propagate the Rite.


            The Supreme Council is responsible for conditions throughout the jurisdiction, and can certainly intervene and direct, whereever nothing is being done.


            The Grand Consistory of Virginia has made no return for two years, and paid nothing into the Treasury for five. Our dear Bro.'. McDaniel was desirous 199 HISTORY OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL, 33░


to have it removed to Richmond. It is useless where it is; and any Body so long in default deserves to be dealt with as having forfeited its Letters of Constitution. It ought either to be abolished, or reduced to the status of a particular Consistory, or removed to Richmond.


            Its removal would not remedy the evil. The Brethren at Lynchburg would probably never attend its sessions, and moreover the real evil is, that there is a Grand Consistory at all. I think that we are all convinced that none of these bodies ought ever to have existed. They have every where proven worse than useless, doing nothing to build up Subordinates, unnecessary as Governing Powers, in some States of two or three Subordinates only, and rendering the Inspector of the State powerless to effect anything.


            Shall it be utterly abolished? It is the oldest Body we have; and I should not like to vote for ending its existence. It was originally only a particular Consistory, and it would [be] perhaps wiser, and would certainly seem less harsh, to reduce it to that original condition, and so emancipate the Bodies misgoverned by it, and enable the Inspector or Deputy for the State to be of some service.


            Some decisive action needs to be taken in regard to Louisiana, The Grand Consistory there is a useless body, and if it were active, the various bodies composed of Brethren of the Latin race would never feel as they should do, that affection and sentiment of loyalty towards it, which alone can maintain harmony and inspire zeal. It is an English‑Speaking body, the large majority of the members of our race. And, as is natural, the members of the French, Spanish and Italian Bodies, desirous of attaining the 32d degree are disgusted with a Body to which for seven years they have in vain applied for it. We have four Inspectors General in Louisiana, and they are powerless. Two of them are here; and will, I hope, be able to suggest some measure by which life and energy can be infused into the Bodies in New Orleans.


            I have expressed to our Bro.'. Batchelor the opinion that it would be a wise measure to recall the Letters of Constitution of the Grand Consistory, and create two Particular Consistories, one above and the other below Canal Street, so that the Brethren of the Latin race might have a Consistory of their own, and I believe that nothing short of this will be of any benefit. The evil consists in there being a Grand Consistory at all.


            It is much to be regretted that that of Maryland was ever revived. It will never establish a Body in Maryland, outside of Baltimore; and it is not needed, to govern three bodies there.


            There are many Bodies in the jurisdiction that still nominally exist, though long since dead. I append a tableau of them to this Communication, and advise the recall of the Letters of Constitution of each; and that the proper Inspector or Deputy be ordered forthwith to reclaim and forward to the Secretary General, all Rituals and Secret Work issued to each respectively, and all their records and 200 OPPORTUNITY, PROBLEMS AND ACTION papers. There are others which may possibly be revived, and these I have not thought it unwise to retain for a time on the roll. I append a list of these, and some which, very recently established, have done no work, and advise the remittance of their past dues, and all that may accrue before they revive or are at work.


            I append to this Communication a comprehensive abstract of all our actually existing and working Subordinates; a list of irretrievably defunct bodies; and another of dormant ones that may possibly be revived, and of those which owing dues have done no work, and may, I think be, with advantage to the Rite, relieved from the payment of dues.


            These abstracts are the work of Bro.'. William M. Ireland, who thus again, as in a hundred other instances, make us his debtors." Some additional facts regarding Pike's 1880 tour in the West include his excursion into Canada. On June 11, 1880, the Masons of Winnipeg had received a communication from Pike that he would pay them a visit. A committee of seven was immediately formed which met on June 15, 1880; plans were formulated, for his reception, entertainment and to make preparations for his address, of which Pike was notified by letter dated June 16, 1880. The minutes of that committee meeting contain the following paragraph regarding the arrangements that were proposed: The Reception Committee to receive Illustrious Brother Pike and party, conduct them to the Rooms engaged for them, and, if agreeable to the party, hire the necessary conveyance and drive them around showing them whatever places they may consider interesting, in the forenoon of St. John's Day. In the afternoon, Illustrious Brother Pike to be invited to hold a reception in the Rooms of the A. & A. S. Rite, from 3 to 5 o'clock. At 8 p.m. o'clock, address to Master Masons under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba. Future arrangements to be made by the Reception Committee, on ascertaining what may be agreeable and convenient to Illustrious Brother Pike." The Grand Commander and William M. Ireland left Minneapolis on June 22, 1880, after visiting with the Masons at the town of Lake Calhoun on June 21,38 and arrived in Winnipeg where he carried out the program previously outlined. The Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba reported Pike's visit as follows: On the 24th June I called the Craft in Winnipeg together to listen to an address on Masonry by the well known and most able Masonic writer and speaker, 38 Confidential Allocution, 1880.


            37 William Douglas to John B. Tomhave, February 4, 1958. 38 The Daily Pioneer Press, June 23, 1880.




Illustrious Brother General Albert Pike, of Washington, D.C. A large number of brethren were present. The address was a most eloquent exposition of Masonic symbolism, and displayed deep thought and most extensive research." They remained in Winnipeg until Tuesday, June 29, 1880, when they departed for the United States. During this period of time, they communicated the Scottish Rite Degrees "from 19' to 32' on six Winnipeg Masons" (June 25 and 26) and were "entertained at supper in the Manitoba Club" on the evening of June 28, 1880.' Pike and Ireland planned to remain in Minneapolis and its vicinity about two weeks after their return from Winnipeg" and it seems probable that it was during this time that they communicated the degrees above the Lodge of Perfection in Minneapolis and St. Paul.


            The Grand Commander formed a Lodge of Perfection at Mankato, Minnesota, with twelve members on July 16, 1880, and a Lodge of Perfection at St. Peter, Minnesota, with ten members on July 24, 1880." Pike departed from St. Peter on July 26, 1880.'3 He was in Cheyenne, Wyoming, on August 24, 1880," and had arrived in Clay Center, Kansas, by September 4, 1880.'5 The miles traveled in the Southern Jurisdiction were 7,221 and the trip into Canada and back added 1,344 miles to make the total 8,565.'5 The Grand Commander's Confidential Allocution was little less than a stark recital of practical failure, during a period of almost eighty years, in the propagation of the Rite in the Southern Jurisdiction. However, he did not delineate the causes of the collapse of the innumerable Bodies that had been hopefully formed nor did he offer any suggestions designed to prevent a reoccurrence of these failures in the future. Recalling Pike's numerous expressions to the effect that Scottish Rite Masonry was beyond the grasp of all but a few Masons of superior capability and scholarly inclination, the several times at previous Sessions that he had stated his satisfaction with the growth and progress of the Rite, and the castigations which he had poured out upon those who moved to speed up the growth of the Rite, it appears that the Grand Commander considered the record a regrettable but normal and expected characteristic of Scottish Rite Masonry which may have been deemed desirable.


            39 Proceedings, Grand Lodge of Manitoba, 1881, p. 26.


            40 William Douglas to John B. Tomhave, February 4, 1958. 41 The Daily Pioneer Press, June 23, 1880.


            42 Returns of Lodges of Perfection, Mankato and St. Peter, Secretary General's Office. 43 Tribune, July 28, 1880.


            44 G. W. Merrill to Albert Pike, September 23, 1880.


            45 Albert Pike to William M. Ireland, September 4, 1880.


            4s Transactions, Supreme Council, S. 1. 1880, Appendix, 24‑25.


            202 OPPORTUNITY, PROBLEMS AND ACTION One additional Inspector General, making a total of twelve, was present on the second day of the Session which opened with the reception of committee reports on distribution of the Allocution, on Jurisprudence and on Doings of Inspectors General all of which were adopted.


            The distribution of the Allocution was a routine matter of form for action on the address.


            The Committee on Jurisprudence approved the decisions reported in the Allocution of the Grand Commander and the adoption of the report made them a permanent part of the law of the Jurisdiction.


            The Committee on Doings of Inspectors General reported receipt of reports from only ten Inspectors General which were to be published with the Transactions. Some portions of the reports were referred to other committees for their recommendations to the Supreme Council. The Committee pointed out that Inspector General E. T. Carr made the only report which complied with the Statutes and urged "a more faithful compliance with ... the Revised Statutes".


            The resignation of A. E. Frankland as ‑Inspector General was read and accepted.


            A resolution to pay "ten dollars per month" to G. A. Schwarzman, late Grand Tiler, was adopted.


            Two confidential communications from the Grand Commander were referred to the Committee on Finance.