Note:  This material was scanned into text files for the sole purpose of convenient electronic research. This material is NOT intended as a reproduction of the original volumes. However close the material is to becoming a reproduced work, it should ONLY be regarded as a textual reference.  Scanned at Phoenixmasonry by Ralph W. Omholt, PM in May 2007.





A Liberal Masonic Education





Compiled from the Writings of


And Many Other Eminent Authorities







Originator of the Questionnaire System

of Masonic Education










JANUARY 11, 1930
















LODGE                                                          No.




INITIATED                  PASSED                   RAISED


Worshipful Master

Senior Warden

Junior Warden


Royal Arch

Knights Templar

Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite          

Ancient Arabic Order Nobles Mystic Shrine

Other Masonic Bodies


We are in position to supply any book on Freemasonry to be had.

Write for prices and list of books handled.


National Masonic Press,

Shreveport, Louisiana.





The average Mason, after taking his degrees in Masonry, immediately asks himself what it all means.


Few Masons have, or will take, the time to make an exhaustive study of Masonry. It is to this class of busy Masons this work will make an especial appeal. We have culled from the writings of many eminent Masonic scholars the "meat" of the subject, and present it in such form that the busy Mason can get what he wants without the necessity of extensive reading or study.


If you have gone into Masonry in the belief that there is really something to it, and you have a desire to be well informed, you will find in these pages a mine of useful information, and will be well repaid for the time spent in looking up any particular subject.


No Mason can acquire in a few days or months, or even years, all there is in Masonry. Two of the most famous Masons America has ever produced - General Albert Pike,

33°, and Dr. Albert Gallatin Mackey, 33° - spent their entire lives in Masonic study. Their writings have been preserved, and the busy Mason of today can find the real facts of Masonry within easy reach.


There are thousands of Masons who can repeat the ritual, but who have no conception of what it all means. There is nothing said in the ritual that should seem mysterious. Everything in Masonry has a beautiful meaning if rightly understood, and everything done in the ritual work is meant to teach a distinct moral lesson.


Masonry would die out in five years if it had to depend upon about 85 per cent of the membership. It is the small minority - the really interested Masons - who have kept and are keeping the order alive today. These few men give unselfishly their time and intelligence as officers of their lodges. How long would any lodge last if all the members merely paid their dues, rarely if ever attended lodge, and considered their duty done? Does Masonry mean anything to you, or are you just a "member"? Some Masons seem to take a pride in saying, "Oh, yes, I belong to the order, but have not been in a lodge room in years." Of what benefit is Masonry to this man, and what earthly benefit is he to Masonry? Then again, you will hear a Mason say, "I have lost my interest in Masonry." He never had any real interest to lose. All he has lost is his curiosity. If he had been interested he would have learned something about it, and his interest would have




4          INTRODUCTION 


been increased instead of dying out. The Mason who pays his dues because he is ashamed not to, is simply throwing his money away. He gets no benefit whatever, and his attitude of indifference sets a bad example to the younger Masons, who look to him for inspiration and guidance.


Taking the secret work and learning the ritual does not make a Mason any more than learning its A B C's makes a child a scholar. It is merely the cornerstone; the building is yet to be erected.


How many Masons understand the beautiful lesson of the third degree? If this lesson were learned and understood and practiced, Masonry would be on a higher plane than it is today. There would be more real Masons and fewer "members." Too many Masons say, "I have not the time to read," but they had or took the time to take their degrees and learn the lectures. The same amount of time spent in intelligent study would give them the groundwork for a real knowledge of Masonry; for, if Masonry is worth going into, it is worth knowing something about.


                                                                                                E. R. JOHNSTON, 32°





The literature of Freemasonry is very extensive. Many thousands of books crowd the shelves of the great Masonic libraries of the world. These are of great and absorbing interest to Masonic scholars but, to the ordinary Mason, this mass of reading matter is bewildering in its immensity. The newly‑made Mason who merely desires to satisfy his natural curiosity concerning the Craft, the Mason on the side lines who wishes to take a worthy part in the labors of his Lodge, or the busy men of affairs who give so generously of their time and talent as Lodge and Grand Lodge officers, who have neither the time nor inclination to make a profound study of the history, philosophy, religion or jurisprudence of the Craft, will find in "Masonry Defined" a practical hand book, giving them the information they desire in the simplest, quickest and easiest way that has been devised. It is designed to enable the ordinary Mason to locate just the information he needs and wants at the time he requires and desires it. Nothing has been included that is not of interest and value to every Mason. Much has been omitted which, however valuable to the Masonic scholar, is of little or no interest to the average member of the Craft.


Every known device has been adopted to assist the busy student in finding the correct answer to any question in the quickest and easiest manner. The information contained is not new; on the contrary its contents have been selected from the best and most reliable Masonic authorities, a list of which is given in the Appendix. The editors have not ventured to make any innovations in the body of well settled and authoritative Masonic doctrine. All that is herein contained can be found by any diligent student in the hundreds of standard works on Free‑masonry, but nowhere else can it be found in such concise and accessible form.


This work is especially commended to all members of the Craft who are now, who expect to, or who hope to become, active in the various Bodies of the Craft. This work is not designed to be taken as a criterion on matters of jurisprudence or law - the broad principles have been laid down - but in all such matters the student should consult the Edicts of the Grand Lodge under which he resides.


The study of the following lectures, by number and subject, will give the student a comprehensive understanding of Freemasonry:



56, 57, 58, 59, 67, 177, 178, 265, 267, 955.





922, 924, 925, 387, 518, 626, 457.



1st Kings 5, 6, 7, and 2nd Chronicles 1 to 5, inclusive.



50, 118, 119, 371, 436, 557, 694, 846, 886.


                        WORSHIPFUL MASTER

184, 591, 593, 595, 304, 903.


                        KEY LECTURES

4, 26, 27, 40, 78, 99, 104, 185, 186, 190, 212, 223, 227, 237, 386, 396, 399, 473, 514,

545, 568, 605, 629, 713, 738, 787, 896, 961, 965, 966, 967, 1011, 1012. Also lecture page 569.



191, 520, 707.


"The study of Freemasonry teaches a man to think - if he can think - and to learn - if he can learn." Albert Pike.


Information of an especial interest relative to the higher degrees in Masonry, and in the Eastern Star will be found in the APPENDIX. Hundreds of Bible references with Masonic import will be found scattered through the entire volume.


                                                                                                THE PUBLISHERS


Questions Every Mason Should Be Able

to Answer





1. Why was Hiram, our ancient Grand Master, called "ABIF?"



2. How is moral purification symbolized?



3. What is the ancient rule regarding attendance at Lodge?



4. What is the symbolism of the sprig of Acacia?



5. Why are Masons said to be "Free and Accepted?"



6. What is the meaning of "Free Will and Accord?"



7. What is the preliminary step in every Masonic trial?



8. Who is the prosecuting officer of a Lodge?



9. Does acquittal of a Mason by a jury prevent his being tried again by a Lodge on the same charge?



10. What action should a Lodge take on receipt of a favorable report on a petition?



11. When is a Lodge or Brother said to be "active?"



12. What are the prerogatives of the active members of a Lodge?


ADAMS, John Quincy,

13. What President of the United States was a bitter opponent of Freemasonry?






14. What are the qualifications of Lodge officers?



15. What rules govern a Brother while speaking in a Lodge?



16. To whom does the term "adhering Mason" apply?



17. How many candidates can be made Masons on the same day?



18. Has the Master the right to deny a member admission to his own Lodge?



19. What right has a new Lodge with respect to the admission of members?



20. Has the Master of a Lodge the right to decline to admit, as a visitor, a Master Mason in good standing?



21. What is the duty of the Tiler with reference to the admission of persons to a Lodge room?



22. How should a Brother be admonished?



23. Who was Adoniram?



24. What is the relation of women to Masonry in France and in America?



25. How is the word "advanced" technically used in Masonry?


ADVANCEMENT, denial of

26. What is the status of an Entered Apprentice if the Lodge denies him advancement?



27. Does an Entered Apprentice have the right of advancement?



28. What are the supports of the Adytum or Lodge?





29. Of what were the ancient Lodges schools?



30. What is the distinction between an affiliated and a non‑affiliated Mason?



31. What is the Masonic meaning of the term "affiliation?"



32. Are there any geographical restrictions on the right of affiliation?


AFFILIATION, petition for

33. To what Lodge or Lodges may a Mason apply for affiliation?


AGAPE, Love Feast

34. What is the relation of the ancient Love Feast to Masonry?



35. Of what was the stone of foundation formed?



36. Is the age of twenty‑one the lawful age of admission in all Masonic jurisdictions?



37. Certain numbers are assigned as the symbolic ages of Masons of various degrees. What are they, and why?



38. How is the word "agenda" used in Masonry?



39. What was the book of the Constitutions of the Ancient Masons called?



40. To what extent should a Mason extend aid to a worthy distressed brother?



41. By what three elements is a Mason proved?



42. In what sense is the word "alarm" used in Masonry?



43. What is the sacred book of the Mohammedans called?




ALDWORTH, the Hon. Mrs.

44. Has a woman ever been made a Mason?



45. What is the name of God in the Mohammedan religion?



46. What effect does non‑affiliation have upon the allegiance of a Mason to the fraternity?



47. What is the symbolism of the All‑Seeing Eye?



48. What allurements does Masonry hold out?



49. What is the symbolism of the Almond tree?



50. What is the symbolism of the Masonic altar?



51. What is the Steward's Jewel, and why?



52. Why do Masons say "amen" at the close of prayer?



53. What is an Amulet?



54. What is the symbolism of the Anchor?



55. Of what are the Anchor and Ark the emblems?



56. What is included in Ancient Craft Masonry?



57. How many degrees were there in Ancient Craft Masonry?



58. Who and what were the Ancient Masons?



59. Who was the author of the "Constitutions of the Freemasons?"



60. Who is the patron saint of Scottish Masons?





61. What are the two principal anniversaries of symbolic Masonry?



62. What is the precedent for annual meetings of Grand Lodges?



63. Why is Masonry mysterious?



64. What is the most useful form of Masonic charity?



65. Did the anti‑Masonic party ever nominate a candidate for President?



66. Who was alleged to have been murdered by Masons?



67. In what year did Masonry become entirely speculative?



68. What is permitted to be printed about Masonry and what is not?



69. Has a Grand Lodge the right to entertain an appeal to reverse a ballot?



70. Does an appeal lie from a decision of the Grand Master to the Grand Lodge?



71. Does an Entered Apprentice or Fellowcraft enjoy the right of Masonic relief?


APPEAL, right of

72. What rights does a Mason have to appeal from a decision against him?



73. How should an appeal to Grand Lodge be made?


APPELLANT, status of

74. What is the Masonic status of an Appellant during the pendency of an appeal?




APPOINTMENTS, Grand Master's prerogative of

75. What is the Grand Master's prerogative with respect to appointments?



76. Who has the prerogative of appointing the junior officers of a Lodge?



77. Who has the right to appoint substitute officers in the absence of appointive officers of a Lodge?



78. What is the symbolism of the Masonic Apron?



79. What is the relation of Architecture to Masonry?



80. For what were the pillars "BOAZ" and "JACHIN" used?



81. What was the Ark of the Covenant and for what was it used?



82. What armorial bearings have been borne by Freemasons?



83. How were the 18th Century Lodges arranged?



84. What is the status of a Lodge whose warrant has been arrested?


ARTS, liberal

85. In what degree are the seven liberal arts and sciences explained?



86. How does a Fellowcraft ascend to receive his wages?



87. Of what is the Ashlar emblematic?



88. What name is applied to a seeker of Masonic light?



89. Of what is the Ass an emblem?



90. Why cannot an atheist become a Freemason?





91. What is the duty of a Mason in respect to attendance at his Lodge?



92. Under what circumstances is it necessary for a Lodge to submit an attested copy of charges against a member?



93. In what city are some of the best examples of Operative Masonry to be found?



94. What regulations govern Masonic avouchments?


AVOUCHMENT AT second hand

95. May a Master Mason lawfully vouch for a visitor on the authority of another?



96. Why was King Solomon's temple built without the use of iron tools?



97. What is the color appropriate to symbolic Masonry?



98. What punishment was meted out to the Jews who failed to keep the ordinances of Jehovah?



99. What is the symbolism of the fourth point of fellowship?



100. What is the badge of a Master Mason and Why?



101. What is the symbolism of the canopy over the Master's chair?


BALLOT, method of

102. What is the proper method of conducting the ballot?


BALLOT, reconsideration of

103. Has a Grand Master power to order reconsideration of a ballot?


BALLOT, secrecy of the

104. Has a Mason the right to announce how he has cast his ballot for a candidate?





105. Do the members of a Lodge under dispensation have the right of ballot on candidates?



106. How should lodge officers wear their jewels?



107. Should the Worshipful Master be present at Masonic banquets?



108. What is the symbolism of pulling off the shoes?



109. What is a Basilica?



110. What is the badge of the Marshal of a Lodge?



111. Why do Masons cultivate order, harmony and beauty?



112. Of what is the beehive emblematic?



113. What is the ethical code of Freemasonry?



114. Upon what scriptural basis are the lectures of Freemasonry largely founded?



115. How were the Fellowcrafts employed in the building of King Solomon's temple?



116. Of what do the charities of the Masonic order (in part) consist?



117. Do we betray Masonic secrets?



118. What is the relation of the Bible to Freemasonry?


BIBLE, requirement of

119. Is a candidate for Masonry required to believe in the divine authenticity of the Scriptures?



120. What do the colors, black and white, symbolize?


MASONRY DEFINED          15 



121. Is the rule that one black ball rejects of universal application?



122. What is the symbolism of the blazing star?



123. What is the symbolism of the color blue?



124. What was the name of the left‑hand pillar on the porch of King Solomon's temple?



125. What is the Book of Constitutions?



126. What is the symbolism of the Book of the Law?



127. What are the ornaments of a Lodge?



128. What do the two pillars on the tracing board represent?



129. What is the duty of a Mason with respect to a Brother's secrets?



130. What is a Mason called who has mastered the ritual?



131. What was the Broached Thurnal?



132. Of what is the broken column emblematic?



133. In what sense is Freemasonry called a brotherhood? 



134. How does the Master of a European Lodge greet a newly made Mason?



135. What Masonic duties are implied by the tenets of brotherly love?





136. What were the bulls issued by the Popes against the Masonic order?



137. What right of burial has a Master Mason?


BURIAL, Masonic

138. May an Entered Apprentice or Fellowcraft take part in a Masonic funeral procession?



139. Does an Entered Apprentice have the right of Masonic Burial?



140. Where is the burial place of a Master Mason?



141. Where were treasures commonly concealed in ancient times?



142. On what degree should the business of a Lodge be transacted, and why?



143. What are the rules called that govern a Lodge?


BY‑LAWS, powers of Grand Lodge over

144. What are the powers of a Grand Lodge with respect to the by‑laws of a subordinate Lodge?


BY‑LAWS, right of making

145. Has a Lodge the right to prescribe its own by‑laws?


BY‑LAWS, uniform code of

146. Has a Grand Lodge the right to prescribe the by‑laws of constituent Lodges?



147. What is the length of a Mason's cable tow?



148. What country did King Solomon cede to Hiram, King of Tyre?



149. What calendars have been adopted by the various branches of Freemasonry?



150. What term is applied to the temporary postponement of the labors of a Lodge?


MASONRY DEFINED          17 



151. What are the qualifications for admission to Freemasonry?



152. What is the Masonic significance of the cardinal points?



153. What are the four cardinal virtues?



154. What is the Masonic carpet?



155. What part of the Masonic ritual is in the form of a catechism?



156. What great woman ruler prohibited Masonry in her country, and afterwards fostered, encouraged and protected it?



157. What new name is given to the Entered Apprentice, and why?



158. Why was secrecy observed by our ancient operative brethren?



159. Where did King Solomon have a cave dug and for what purpose?



160. What are the characteristics of the cedars of Lebanon?



161. What is the cement of the Lodge?


CENSURE, nature and effect of

162. What is the nature and effect of Masonic censure?



163. What is the Masonic center of unity?


CENTER, opening on

164. What symbolic degree is said to be opened on the center?



165. How far must the labors of a Freemason penetrate?



166. What should be the mental attitude of one taking the degrees of Masonry?



167. What is the force and value of a Masonic certificate?





168. What do all Masons upon earth form?



169. Of what are charcoal and clay emblematic?



170. What was the effect of the change from operative to speculative Freemasonry on the status of an Entered Apprentice?



171. What is the status of the Chaplain in ancient craft Masonry?



172. What are the duties of a Grand Chaplain of a Grand Lodge?



173. Has a virtual or chapter Past Master the status of a Past Master of a Lodge?



174. What moral qualifications are demanded of an applicant for the degrees of Masonry?



175. What solemn admonitions are given at the close of each degree of Masonry?



176. What is the proper form and effect of Masonic charges?


CHARGES, Ancient

177. What are the so‑called Ancient charges?



178. What charges were adopted in 1722, and by whom were they presented?



179. What is the brightest ornament of our Masonic profession?



180. What document is required to make the meetings of a Lodge regular?



181. What is the ancient admonition of the craft with respect to chastity?



182. What is the chief point in Masonry?


MASONRY DEFINED          19 



183. As true Masons, from what do we stand redeemed?



184. What qualifications should be required of officers of a Lodge?



185. Of what is the circle emblematic?



186. Of what is the point within a circle emblematic?



187. What is a Mason's duty as to his words and carriage?



188. How did King Solomon classify the workmen on the temple?



189. Where were the pillars of the Temple cast?



190. What is the symbolism of clean hands?



191. Who was the Pope who issued a bull against Freemasonry?



192. Can a Masonic Lodge be adjourned?



193. When is a Mason properly clothed?


CLOTHING, partial

194. Of what, in Masonry, is partial clothing a symbol?



195. Should anyone be urged to become a Mason against his will?



196. Of what is the Coffin emblematic?



197. What are the duties of the Secretary with reference to the collection of Lodge dues?



198. What are the Masonic colors and what do they represent?



199. What is the prerogative of the Master with reference to lodge committees?





200. Is it lawful for a Masonic Lodge to sit as a committee of the whole?


COMMITTEES, regulations governing

201. What are the regulations which govern committees of the Lodge?



202. What term signifies a regular meeting of a Lodge?



203. How may charges of un-masonic conduct be communicated to a non‑resident brother?



204. What city was headquarters of the operative Masons during the dark ages?



205. Of what is a line drawn by the compasses emblematic?



206. How should complaints against a brother be handled?



207. What is the definition of a Grand Lodge and of whom is it composed?



208. Upon what should the Master of a Lodge found his government?



209. Who performs the duty of conducting a candidate during Masonic work?



210. Has the Grand Lodge the power to confer the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry?



211. What is the real meaning of the so‑called "Oath"?



212. What efforts have been made to establish a General Grand Lodge for the United States?


CONSECRATION, elements of

213. What materials are used by Masons for consecration purposes?


MASONRY DEFINED          21 



214. What custom should be observed on the day of consecration?


CONSENT, unanimous

215. What is the origin of the rule requiring unanimous consent to the admission of a candidate?



216. When is a Lodge legally constituted?


CONSTITUTION, just and legal

217. When is a Lodge said to be justly and legally constituted?



218. What is the effect of the ceremony of constitution?



219. What subjects of discussion are barred from the Lodge room?



220. Can a Lodge be congregated without the consent of the Master?



221. What was the origin of the Corinthian columns?



222. What is the symbolism of Corn?


CORNER STONE, symbolism of the

223. What is the symbolism of the Corner stone?


CORNUCOPIA, or the horn of plenty

224. Of what is the Cornucopia emblematic?



225. What is the duty of the Secretary with reference to the correspondence of the Lodge?



226. Has a Master Mason on trial the right to employ counsel?



227. What are the obligations of the Masonic covenant?



228. Why are Cowans excluded from a Lodge?



229. Define the word "Craft."



230. As a Craftsman, what are you to encourage?




CREED, a Mason's

231. What is the creed of a Freemason?


CRIMES, Masonic

232. What constitutes a crime in Freemasonry?


CRIMES, Masonic punishment of

233. What is the definition of a Masonic crime?



234. Who were called "cross‑legged" Masons?



235. Of what was the "crown of thorns" on the Savior's brow composed?



236. What is the legend of the cubical stone?



237. What is the length of a cubit?



238. What is one of the prevailing passions of the human heart?



239. To whom is entrusted the custody of the ballot box?



240. Who has the custody of the warrant of constitution?



241. Of what is darkness a symbol?



242. What are the privileges of a Mason's daughter?



243. Why is the Senior Warden's station in the west?



244. What part have the Deacons in the work of the Craft?



245. What is the symbolic meaning of Death?



246. What are the Masonic rules of debate?


DEBATES, prohibited

247. What subjects of debate are prohibited in a Lodge?


MASONRY DEFINED          23 



248. Has a Master of a Lodge the right to permit an appeal by courtesy from a decision?



249. What rules govern appeals from a decision of a master of a Lodge?



250. What declaration is required from candidates for initiation into Masonry?



251. What is meant by "declaring off?"



252. To whom were Lodges formerly dedicated?


DEDICATION, ceremony of

253. What is the origin of the ceremony of dedication?



254. What is a Mason's duty as to the good name of his brethren?



255. What is the meaning and effect of the Masonic penalty of definite suspension?



256. What is the definition of Freemasonry?



257. What does the word "degree" signify?



258. Why are there degrees in Masonry?


DEGREES, ancient

259. What was the custom of ancient craft Masonry in conferring the three degrees?



260. Under what circumstances can a Mason exercise the right of demission?



261. What is a Masonic demit, and how does it affect his standing in the Craft?



262. Can a Mason be lawfully deprived of the right of participation in a ballot?





263. What are the office and function of a Deputy Grand Master?


DEPUTY GRAND MASTER, prerogatives of

264. Has the Deputy Grand Master the prerogative of establishing Lodges and granting dispensations?



265. Who is called the father of modern speculative Freemasonry?



266. What is the design of Freemasonry?



267. What Masonic degree is based on the destruction of the Temple?



268. How may a brother make progress in Masonry?



269. What is the fourth section of the first lecture called?



270. How did King Solomon diffuse Masonry throughout the world?



271. Why should a Mason carry a traveling certificate or diploma?



272. What system of discipline should be enforced in Masonic Lodges?



273. What discovery was made at the building of the second Temple?



274. Has a Mason the right to declare how he voted on a ballot?



275. What is a dispensation and by whom can it be granted?


DISPENSATION, by‑laws of Lodges under

276. Has a Lodge under dispensation power to enact its own by‑laws?


DISPENSATION, candidates of a Lodge under

277. By what procedure are candidates of a Lodge under dispensation elected?





278. How long does a Lodge usually run under dispensation?



279. What is the status of a Mason made in a Lodge under dispensation?



280. Has a Grand Lodge the right to issue a dispensation to admit a Mason without unanimous consent?



281. Has the Grand Master the right to grant a dispensation for the election of a Master in the event of the Master's death or disability?



282. What is the status of a Lodge under dispensation?



283. How should disputes between Masons be disposed of?



284. On what grounds may a Masonic Lodge be lawfully dissolved?



285. Is Freemasonry a charitable institution?



286. What official in British Freemasonry corresponds to the District Deputy Grand Master?



287. Into what three classes are Masonic offenses divided?



288. What do the three degrees blend?



289. What is the second order of architecture?



290. What is the meaning of the word "dotage" as used in Free‑masonry?



291. May charges be lawfully brought by a Masonic Lodge for an offense for which the brother has already been punished by the civil authorities?





292. What is a good rule in all doubtful matters?



293. Of what is the dove emblematic?



294. What distinguishes "due form" from "ample form"?



295. What does the due guard teach?


DUE GUARD, meaning of

296. What is the due guard?



297. What are the rights of a Lodge with respect to establishing dues and assessments?


DUES, payment of

298. What is the origin of the custom requiring the payment of dues?



299. Ts a Mason required to pay dues while under suspension?



300. Can a dumb person become a Mason?



301. What are the duties of a Lodge with reference to the reputation of ancient craft Masonry?



302. What duties do Masons owe to God, their neighbors and them‑selves?



303. What are the duties of a Mason?



304. Why does the Worshipful Master sit in the east?



305. What was the Masonic punishment for eavesdropping?



306. Can Masonic charges be based upon ecclesiastical or political offenses?


MASONRY DEFINED          27 



307. What degrees of Masonry are based on the rebuilding of the Temple?



308. What were the Egyptian mysteries?



309. What qualifications should be sought in the choice of the officers of a Lodge?



310. What was formerly the custom of the Craft with regard to the choice of Grand Wardens?



311. How often and at what time should the officers of a Lodge be elected?



312. Has a Lodge under dispensation the right to elect its own officers?


ELECTIONS, regulations governing

313. What rules govern the election of a Masonic official?



314. What steps must be taken to fill a vacancy in an office in a Masonic Lodge?



315. What is required for eligibility to the office of Grand Warden?



316. What other office must a Master Mason have held to become eligible to be Master of a Lodge?



317. Who are eligible for election as Tiler in a Masonic Lodge?



318. What are the prerogatives of a Past Master with respect to office in the Grand Lodge?



319. What prerogatives do Wardens enjoy with reference to eligibility for election to office?



320. What regulations govern eligibility to office in a Lodge?





321. What is the difference between an Emblem and a Symbol?



322. What constitutes a case of emergency in Masonry and who is the Judge?



323. As an Entered Apprentice, what was the Mason taught?



324. Are Entered Apprentices entitled to Masonic relief?


ENTERED APPRENTICE, right of visitation

325. Does an Entered Apprentice have the right of visitation?



326. What rights does a candidate obtain after receiving the Entered Apprentice degree?



327. What was the original status of the Entered Apprentice degree?



328. What penitential hymn of King Solomon is read on the entrance of the candidate in the third degree?



329. What should be the attitude of a Mason toward a brother?



330. What is a Masonic equality?



331. Why must the Masonic oath be taken without equivocation?



332. What is the status of a Mason whose name has been stricken from the roll for non‑payment of dues?



333. What distinguishes exoteric from esoteric Freemasonry?



334. What are the essential secrets of Masonry?



335. What should be the attitude of Masons toward the Church?



336. Why cannot a Eunuch become a Mason?


MASONRY DEFINED          29  


EUNUCHS, status of

337. Were Eunuchs ever eligible for initiation into Masonry?



338. Why do Masons wear evergreens at funerals?



339. Is it lawful to admit on appeal new evidence not presented at the original trial?



340. How should we treat a stranger who claims to be a Mason?



341. By whom should the officers of a newly organized Lodge be examined?



342. Under what circumstances may a visitor be admitted to a Lodge without examination?



343. Has a Lodge a right to exclude a member on cause shown temporarily or permanently, from a Lodge?


EXCLUSION, meaning of

344. What is the Masonic definition of the word "exclusion"?



345. How are the executive powers of a Grand Lodge exercised?



346. What privileges were given the Masons selected to build the Temple?



347. Has a Masonic Lodge the right to try its Master on charges?



348. Has the Grand Lodge the right to pass Ex Post Facto laws?



349. What is the effect of the expulsion of a Mason from his Lodge?



350. Is it lawful for a Grand Lodge to expel a member of a subordinate Lodge?


EXPULSION, prerogative of

351. In what body is the prerogative of expulsion from Freemasonry vested?





352. What is the extent of a Masonic Lodge?



353. Where does the external preparation of a candidate take place?



354. Of what is the Eye of God symbolic?



355. Why does the candidate wear a hoodwink?



356. Upon what is the Masonic system founded?



357. Why should Masons avoid fanaticism?



358. By which of the five senses does a Mason distinguish a friendly or brotherly grip?



359. What are the present rights of Fellowcra f ts?



360. Why cannot a woman be present in an open lodge of Free‑masons?



361. Under what name did our ancient brethren worship Deity?



362. Who is responsible for the finances of a Masonic Lodge?



363. What are the moral teachings of the first degree?



364. What are the teachings of the five points of fellowship?



365. In what degree are the lessons of the five senses explained?



366. What are the fixed lights of a Lodge?



367. Of what is the Mosaic pavement emblematic?



368. What is the symbolism of the foot in Masonry?


MASONRY DEFINED          31 



369. What is the function of the Grand Lodge committee on foreign correspondence?



370. What do Masons mean by "traveling in foreign countries"?



371. What is the form of a Masonic Lodge?



372. What is the Masonic virtue of fortitude?



373. When is the ballot box said to be "foul"?



374. On what day should corner stones be laid?



375. How many degrees had Ancient Freemasonry?



376. In what sense is the word "free" applied to Masons?



377. How did the title "Free and Accepted Masons" originate?



378. What must be the status of a candidate for Masonry?



379. What is the difference between Masonry and Freemasonry?


FREEMASONRY, definitions of

380. What are the best known definitions of Freemasonry?



381. Why are Masons forbidden to solicit members?



382. On what is the universality of Masonry based?



383. Has a Lodge the right to conduct a funeral procession with‑out a dispensation from the Grand Lodge?



384. Under what conditions can Masonic burial be granted?



385. What is the furniture of the Lodge?





386. What is the symbolism of the letter "G"?



387. Is the Temple merely a symbol in Masonry, or an historical building?



388. What is the symbolism of the gavel?



389. What is the origin of the General Regulations of Ancient Craft Masonry?



390. How was the term "Gentleman Mason" employed?



391. Of what is the act of kneeling a token?



392. What is the geographical jurisdiction of a Lodge?



393. What is the relation of Geometry to Freemasonry?



394. Who were the Ghiblimites?


GOAT, riding the

395. How did the expression "riding the goat" originate?



396. Why cannot an atheist become a Mason?



397. What is the member who introduces a candidate in France called?


G. O. D.


398. What three pillars of Masonry are named by the letters "G", “O”, “D”?



399. Why is the Masonic apron compared with the Golden Fleece?



400. Why do Masons observe the golden rule?



401. Who was called the Good Shepherd?


MASONRY DEFINED          33 



402. Where did the Grand Lodge of England hold its first meeting?



403. How are the grades of Masonic rank defined?



404. What is the usual Masonic name for the Deity?



405. What is the office and function of Grand Chaplain?



406. What is the history and function of the office of Grand Deacon?



407. Why is the seat of a Grand Lodge known as the Grand East?



408. What is the office and function of Grand Lecturer?


GRAND LECTURER, qualifications of

409. What qualifications are necessary for a candidate for the office of Grand Lecturer?



410. What are the powers of a Grand Lodge?



411. May an Entered Apprentice attend Grand Lodge?



412. Is the possession of a Grand Lodge certificate conclusive evidence of the good standing of its possessor?


GRAND LODGES, jurisdictions of

413. What is the jurisdiction of a Grand Lodge?


GRAND LODGES, organization of

414. How is a Grand Lodge organized?



415. What is the usual procedure of a Grand Lodge in conducting a Masonic trial?



416. What is the office and function of Grand Marshal?



417. What are the powers and privileges of a Grand Master?




GRAND MASTER, office of

418. What is the origin and history of the office of Grand Master?



419. What is the prerogative of the Grand Master with respect to assembling Masons into Lodges?



420. What is the prerogative of the Grand Master with respect to his power of convening Grand Lodge?



421. What is the Grand Master's prerogative with regard to the arrest of the charter of a Lodge?



422. What is the prerogative of the Grand Master with respect to dispensations?



423. What is the prerogative of the Grand Master with respect to presiding over the Craft?



424. What is the Grand Master's prerogative with respect to voting in Grand Lodge?



425. What three important events in Scripture are designated as the Three Grand Offerings of Masonry?



426. How may Grand officers be removed from office?



427. What are the office and function of Grand Pursuivant?



428. What is the nature and function of the office of Grand Secretary?



429. What are the history and functions of the office of Grand Steward?



430. What is the history and function of the office of Grand Sword Bearer?



431. What are the office and functions of the Grand Tiler?


MASONRY DEFINED          35 



432. What are the functions of a Grand Treasurer?



433. What are the office and functions of Grand Wardens?



434. Of what is the grave emblematic?



435. Should members be permitted to leave the Lodge during initiating ceremonies?



436. What is the symbolism of the great lights?



437. Why were grips and signs used by operative Masons?



438. Why is the ground floor of a Lodge known as Mount Moriah?



439. On what grounds may a Mason lawfully vouch for a visitor?



440. What are regarded as sufficient grounds for expulsion of a Mason?



441. Under what promise do we begin our Masonic career?



442. What is the symbol of the power of the Master?



443. What is the symbolism of the Hand in Masonry?



444. Why is a candidate required to make out his petition in his own handwriting?



445. At the building of King Solomon's temple, what were the overseers called?



446. Why does the presiding officer of a Lodge wear a hat?



447. How can a clandestine Mason be made a lawful Mason?





448. Why cannot a deaf mute be made a Mason?



449. By which of the five senses do we receive the Master's word?



450. Why must an applicant for Masonry be first prepared in his heart?



451. What is a hecatomb?



452. What does the candidate's condition when first submitted signify?



453. What ancient Spanish society was based on Masonic principles?



454. Why did the ancient lodges meet on high hills and in low valleys?



455. What is the hour of noon called among Masons?



456. In English Lodges what is the gavel called?



457. What is known of the life of our Ancient Grand Master?


HIRAM, King of Tyre

458. What co‑operation did Hiram, King of Tyre, give King Solomon?



459. How was the first Lodge consecrated?



460. What was the most sacred part of the Temple?



461. Why do Masons revere the Holy name?



462. To whom should a Masonic Lodge be dedicated?



463. What are the regulations governing honorary membership in a Lodge?


MASONRY DEFINED          37 



464. What are Grand Honors? Why and how are they given?



465. Of what is the hoodwink a symbol?



466. Of what is Hope emblematic?



467. Of what is the hourglass emblematic?



468. What were the hours of labor of our operative brethren?



469. Why should officers of Lodges be punctual in their attendance?




470. What do the initials I. A. M. signify?



471. What method of teaching morality was in vogue in the early period of the world?



472. In what sense is the word "idiot" used among Masons?



473. What is the fate of the ignorant Mason?



474. How can a suspended Lodge be re‑instated?



475. Are illiterate persons eligible for Masonry?



476. What is the teaching of the sublime degree?



477. What are the immovable jewels?



478. Can a Lodge remove its Master?



479. Are there any imperfections in the Masonic system?



480. What are the symbolic teachings of the implements of Craft Masonry?





481. How may a Lodge guard itself against imposters?



482. What race performed the more humble labors in the erection of the Temple?



483. Can Masonry be held accountable for the conduct of all its members?



484. What steps must a Lodge take after it has received its war‑rant, to become lawfully constituted?



485. Under what circumstances is membership in the Masonic fraternity said to be inchoate?



486. Can Masonic Lodges be incorporated?



487. What is the Masonic definition of the phrase, "indefinite sus‑pension"?



488. To whom is a Mason answerable for his motives when casting a ballot?


INDUCTION, rite of

489. What does the rite of induction signify?



490. Of what is the beehive emblematic?



491. How can the influence of Masonry be supported?



492. Under what circumstances can one Mason vouch for another?



493. Are the Masonic ceremonies the true secrets of the order?



494. Is the Masonic system subject to change?



495. Is a person formerly insane, but restored to health, admissible as a candidate?





496. Of what are the Masonic insignias emblematic?



497. Has a visitor the right to inspect the warrant of a Lodge?



498. What is the origin of the ceremony of installation?


INSTALLATION, ancient charges

499. What were the ancient installation charges?



500. Is it lawful to install the officers of a Lodge by proxy?



501. Has a Lodge under dispensation the right to install its officers?



502. What regulations govern the installation of officers of a Lodge?



503. Who is eligible to install the officers of a warranted Lodge?



504. Who is responsible for the proper instruction of a candidate?



505. What is instrumental Masonry?



506. What affirmation of intention accompanies the Mason's oath?



507. How is the external preparation of a candidate made known?



508. Why should Masons take care not to interrupt a brother who is speaking in a Lodge?



509. What is the arch enemy of Freemasonry?



510. To whom should the investigation of a petition for Masonry be entrusted?



511. What form of invocation is customary in American Lodges?



512. What does the absence of iron tools at the building of King Solomon's temple symbolize?





513. What is the name of the right hand pillar facing east on the porch of King Solomon's temple?



514. What is the Masonic symbolism of Jacob's ladder?



515. In the earliest lectures where was the Lodge supposed to stand?



516. Why is Jehovah said to be the ineffable name in Masonry?



517. What is the Masonic tradition with regard to Jeptha?



518. Why was Jerusalem chosen as the site of King Solomon's temple?


JERUSALEM, heavenly

519. What is the place of the heavenly Jerusalem in Masonry?



520. What branch of the Roman Catholic Church has sought to pervert Masonry to political intrigue and religious bigotry?



521. What are the ornaments of a Freemason?



522. Did the Jewish law prohibit the use of symbols?



523. To whom were Lodges formerly dedicated?



524. By what name was the Masonic society formerly known?



525. Is a member excluded from one Lodge eligible to join another?



526. Why was the timber for the Temple delivered at the port of Joppa?



527. What aid does a Mason receive on the journey of life?





528. What is the difference between a journeyman and a fellow‑craft?



529. What Masonic symbol is derived from the banner of the tribe of Judah?



530. By what process does a Grand Lodge exercise its judicial functions?



531. What are the duties of the Junior Deacon?


JUNIOR WARDEN, duties of

532. What is the duty of the Junior Warden in the absence of the Master and Senior Warden?



533. What is the jurisdiction of a Masonic Lodge?



534. What is the extent of the jurisdiction of a Grand Lodge?



535. What is required to make a Lodge just and perfect?



536. Why should justice be the study of every Mason?



537. On what grounds do Masons justify their moral system?



538. Of what is the Key emblematic?



539. What two distinct kinds of Lodges are recognized in Free‑masonry?



540. What is the symbolism of bending the knee?



541. What posture do Masons assume in many of the degrees?



542. What is the symbolism of the alarm at the inner door?



543. What is regarded as the most important word in Freemasonry?





544. What does the lamb symbolize?



545. What are the ancient landmarks of Masonry?



546. Why should a Masonic Lodge be closed at a reasonable hour?


LAVER, brazen

547. Of what is the brazen laver emblematic?



548. Why should a Mason respect the law?



549. Why should Masons avoid law‑suits with one another?


LAW, unwritten

550. What is the unwritten law of Freemasonry?



551. Why did King Solomon seek the aid of Hiram, King of Tyre?



552. What is a Masonic lecture?



553. What are the duties of a Masonic lecturer?



554. Of what is the left hand a symbol?



555. What is the symbol of the left side?



556. What part do legends play in the Masonic system?



557. What do the lesser lights symbolize?



558. What is the symbolism of the Level?


LEWIS, or Louveteau

559. What are the privileges of a Lewis or Louveteau?



560. What does the word "libertine" signify in Masonry?



561. Why cannot a libertine become a Mason?


MASONRY DEFINED          43 



562. What is the symbolism of light?



563. Of what is the lily emblematic?



564. What limit is placed on the obligation of a Mason to extend relief to a distressed worthy brother?



565. What is the definition of a Lodge?



566. Why are Masons said to come from the Lodge of the Holy Saints John of Jerusalem?



567. How many Lodges were in the quarries of Tyre?



568. What is the symbolism of the lost word?



569. What is the measure of Masonic charity?



570. What is midnight called among Masons?



571. What must the attitude of a Mason be toward his country?



572. What famous document is the basis of English liberty?



573. What term used by Masons is equivalent to initiated?



574. What does it mean to be "made a Mason"?


MAKING, ancient charges at

575. What were the ancient charges at the making of a Freemason?



576. What is the significance of the expression "Making Masons at Sight"?



577. Of what is the mallet emblematic?



578. Who are said to be manuel Masons?





579. Is a manumitted slave admissible as a candidate for Free‑masonry?



580. Under what circumstances were certain old Masonic manuscripts burned by some scrupulous brother?



581. What are Masonic marks and why are they employed?



582. What are the characteristics of a true Mason?


MASON, derivation of

583. What is the derivation of the word Mason?



584. What are the Masonic colors and what do they symbolize?



585. How should a Masonic hall be built and located?



586. Under what circumstances do the orphans of a Mason forfeit their claim to Masonic relief?



587. On what date does the Masonic year begin?



588. When is it useless to profess a knowledge of Freemasonry?



589. What is the degree of a Mason's daughter?



590. In what direction does a Mason's wind blow?


MASTER, intellectual qualifications of

591. What should be the intellectual qualifications of the Master of a Lodge?



592. What does the Master Mason represent?



593. Why is the choice of Master so important to a Lodge?



594. What are the duties of a master of ceremonies?




MASTER, qualifications of

595. What are the qualifications of a Master?



596. At what age can one become a Mason?



597. What is a mausoleum?


MEDALS, Masonic

598. Of what importance are Masonic medals?



599. What is the symbolism of meeting on the level?



600. By what attitude should Masonic meetings be characterized?



601. How may an unworthy brother of a foreign jurisdiction be dealt with?



602. What is the status of a Mason who has withdrawn from his Lodge?


MEMBERSHIP, postponement of

603. How may an elected Master Mason postpone signing the by‑laws?



604. Is a candidate for Masonry required to possess a liberal education?



605. What motives in appealing for membership do Masons regard as mercenary?



606. Why is the Junior Warden's station in the south?



607. What alone entitled one to preferment at the building of King Solomon's Temple?



608. Why does a candidate find himself divested of all metals?



609. What part have military Lodges had in Freemasonry?





610. How is wisdom commonly personified?



611. What records must be kept by a Masonic Lodge?



612. What is the penalty for misconduct in a Lodge?



613. How may an Entered Apprentice forfeit his rights?



614. Why should moderation prevail in the government of a Lodge?



615. What is contained in a Masonic Monitor?



616. As moral Architects, what are Masons taught?



617. What are the moral duties of a Mason?



618. What are the moral privileges of Masonry?



619. What are the characteristics of the moral law?



620. What is the moral philosophy of Masonry?



621. What moral qualifications are required in a candidate for membership in Masonry?



622. What should be the moral qualifications of the Master of a Lodge?



623. Why was the Temple built on Mount Moriah?



624. Of what is the mosaic pavement emblematic?



625. Whence did Moses derive his wisdom?


MOSQUE OF OMAR, or the noble sanctuary

626. What building now occupies the site of King Solomon's temple?


MASONRY DEFINED          47 



627. What is the proper title of a Grand Master of a Grand Lodge?



628. What is the effect of frequent divisions in a Lodge?



629. What should be one's motive for seeking admission to a Lodge?



630. What is the symbolism of mouth to ear?



631. What are the movable jewels of a Lodge?



632. Is there any secret religion in Freemasonry?



633. What is the mystic tie?



634. What right has a Masonic Lodge with respect to its official title?



635. What is the nature of a Grand Lodge?



636. What penalties safeguard the secrecy of the ballot?



637. Where did the Negroes get their work?



638. What is the Mason's duty toward his neighbor?



639. Are all Lodge members true Masons?



640. Why are Masons required to affix their signatures to traveling certificates?



641. What limitations are fixed upon new Masonic legislation?



642. Why do Lodges commonly meet at night?



643. Are nominations of Masonic officers lawful?





644. What is the effect of non‑affiliation upon the status of a Mason?



645. What is the effect of non‑affiliation on the relation of a Mason to his Lodge?



646. Does a Lodge have power to make Masons of residents of other jurisdictions?



647. Why are candidates placed in the north‑east corner?



648. How much time must elapse between the return of a petition and final action thereon?



649. What is the Masonic duty of obedience and how is it safe‑guarded?



650. What is an obelisk?



651. Has a member of a Lodge the right to object to the admission of a visitor?



652. What are some of the principal objects of Freemasonry?



653. What objections have been made to Masonry?



654. What oblations were made toward the building of the Tabernacle?



655. Can a Masonic obligation be enforced by the courts of law?



656. Of what was the Tabernacle a type?


OFFERINGS, the three Grand

657. Where were the three grand offerings of Freemasonry offered up?



658. Why should the officers of a Lodge be chosen for merit?





659. What is the origin of the office of Deacon?



660. Can the office of Grand Master of Masons be abolished by a Grand Lodge?



661. What are the powers of a Lodge with reference to election of its officers?



662. What are the usual officials of a Grand Lodge?



663. What are the usual officials of a Lodge?



664. Of what is oil emblematic?



665. Who has the prerogative of opening and closing a Masonic Lodge?



666. Why should a Lodge always be opened in due form?



667. What is the difference between operative and speculative Masonry?



668. Are opinions adverse to Masonry justifiable?



669. What are the duties of a Masonic Orator?



670. In what sense is Freemasonry called an Order?



671. What is the customary order of business in the Lodge?



672. How many Lodges are required to open a new Grand Lodge?



673. What Latin word is sometimes used in place of the word "East"?



674. What is the Oriental chair?





675. In what classes of cases does a Grand Lodge exercise original jurisdiction?



676. What are the original points of Masonry?



677. What are the ornaments of a Lodge?



678. From whom did King David purchase the site of the Temple?



679. How should a Mason distinguish himself when out of the Lodge?



680. What relation has Masonry to Palestine?



681. Who are called "parrot Masons"?



682. What was the old name for degrees?



683. What word is applied to the advancement of an Entered Apprentice to the Fellowcra f t degree?



684. In what language are the passwords of Masonry?



685. What is the status of a Past Master?


PAST MASTERS, actual and virtual

686. What is the distinction between an actual and a virtual Past Master?



687. What investure is necessary to the installation of a Master of a Lodge?



688. Has a Warden the right to receive the secrets of the Chair?



689. Under what circumstances does a Past Master have the right of presiding over a Lodge?


PAST MASTER'S, rights of

690. What are the privileges and prerogatives of a Past Master?


MASONRY DEFINED          51 



691. What will enable us to accomplish all things?



692. Of what is the Mosaic pavement emblematic?



693. Why are Freemasons devoted to the cause of peace?



694. What is the form of the Altar?



695. What does the penal sign symbolize?



696. What is the penal jurisdiction of a symbolic Lodge over its members?



697. What Lodge has penal jurisdiction over affiliated Masons?



698. What Lodge may lawfully exercise penal jurisdiction over an unaffiliated Mason?



699. How does suspension or expulsion from a Royal Arch Chapter, or other so‑called higher bodies, affect the status of a Master Mason in a symbolic Lodge?



700. How can the penalties of the Masonic obligation be justified?



701. What is the penitential sign?



702. What was the value of the penny in former times?



703. Of what is the perfect ashlar emblematic?



704. What is the nature and effect of permanent exclusion from a Lodge?



705. How should a Mason carry himself before the world?



706. What accusations have been made against Masons.





707. What great religious body has persecuted Masonry?



708. What is the Masonic meaning of the phrase, "Personal jurisdiction"?



709. On what grounds should Masters and Wardens be chosen?



710. In what form must a petition be presented?



711. To what Lodges may a Master Mason present a petition for affiliation?



712. What seven steps must be taken to form a lawful petition for a dispensation for a new Lodge?



713. What does the philosophy of Masonry involve?



714. What are the several phrases of admission into Masonic degrees?



715. What are the physical qualifications of a candidate for Masonry?



716. What do the pillars, Boaz and Jachin, represent?



717. What authority has a Lodge with respect to its place of meeting?



718. Of what is the Tracing board emblematic?



719. What are the Masonic emblems of plenty?



720. What should be the Master Mason's attitude toward the State?



721. Of what is the plumb rule emblematic?





722. May a Mason lawfully belong to more than one Lodge at the same time?



723. Why is a candidate for Masonry required to be freeborn?



724. Why is a political discussion prohibited in a Masonic Lodge?


POMEGRANATE, grained apple

725. Of what is the pomegranate emblematic?



726. If installation of officers is postponed, what steps must be taken, and who presides in the interval?



727. Of what is the pot of incense emblematic?



728. What are the powers and prerogatives of a Masonic Lodge, and whence are they derived?



729. Into what three categories may the powers of a Grand Lodge be divided?



730. Who has the power to open the Lodge in the absence of the Master?



731. As Masons, what is the first lesson we are taught?



732. From what do most of the objections to Masonry arise?



733. Why is a candidate specially prepared for admission to the Lodge room?



734. Upon whom devolves the duty of questioning the candidate as to his motives in petitioning for membership?



735. From what source does a Grand Master derive his prerogatives?



736. What are the powers of the presiding officer of a Lodge?





737. Who are the principal officers of a Lodge?



738. Is it forbidden to publish books about Masonry?



739. Is it permissible to conduct a Masonic Lodge within precincts of a prison?



740. What private duties should Masons practice?



741. What are the privileges of a Masonic Lodge?



742. What is the probationary period for a candidate?



743. What proceedings are taken by Grand Lodge on Masonic appeals?



744. How do Masons employ the word "profane"?


PROFANE, charges preferred by

745. Has a non‑Mason the right of preferring charges against a Mason?



746. How soon after receiving the first degree can an Entered Apprentice apply for advancement to the second?



747. Of what force and validity is the Masonic covenant?



748. What precaution should be taken before proposing a candidate?



749. Why were emblems and symbols originally employed?



750. What are the office and functions of a Provincial Grand Master?



751. What rules should govern the choice of Masonic proxies?



752. Why should a Mason cultivate prudence?


MASONRY DEFINED          55 



753. Is there anything in Masonry contrary to public policy?



754. What is the nature and theory of Masonic punishments?



755. What color has always been considered an emblem of purity?



756. What color do Grand Lodge officers wear?



757. What has Freemasonry derived from the teachings of Pythagoras?


PYTHAGORAS, symbols of

758. What symbols has Masonry borrowed from Pythagoras?



759. What are the qualifications of a candidate for Masonry?



760. What are the physical qualifications of a candidate for Masonry?



761. Why should Masons avoid quarreling?



762. What action did Queen Elizabeth take with regard to Masonry?



763. What is the duty of the Secretary in the preparation room?



764. In the event of a verdict of guilty on charges, how are the nature and extent of punishment determined?



765. What does the Masonic term "raised" signify?



766. Is it lawful to read charges against a Master at a special communication of Lodge?



767. May a petition for membership be read at a special communication?


RECOGNITION, sign or signs, word or grip

768. How may Masons recognize each other?





769. How many Master Masons are required to sign a petition for membership?



770. Who may order a reconsideration of ballot?



771. What is the duty of the Secretary with reference to the Lodge records?



772. Is a Past Master eligible for re‑election as Master of the Lodge?



773. What is the Masonic meaning of "refreshment"?


REFRESHMENT, charge of

774. Who has charge of the Lodge during the period of refreshment?



775. Has the Master the right to refuse an affiliated Mason admission to his Lodge?



776. Can a member duly elected to an office in a Lodge lawfully refuse to serve?



777. How can a Mason prove his regularity?



778. Should a Master who succeeds himself be re‑installed?



779. How can an expelled Mason be reinstated?



780. Has a rejected candidate the right to repeat his application? If so, after what length of time?



781. Can a rejected candidate renew his petition?



782. What is the effect of the rejection of a petition for affiliation on the Masonic status of the applicant?



783. What Master Mason's profession is the most important tenet?




 RELIEF, limitations of

784. What limitations are placed on Masonic relief?



785. Are Entered Apprentices entitled to Masonic relief?


RELIEF, right of

786. Upon what ground is based the Masonic right of relief?



787. In what sense, if any, is Masonry a religion?



788. Has the Master the right to remove a Deacon from his office?



789. Has a rejected candidate the right to petition another Lodge for membership?



790. Under what conditions may an applicant for advancement renew his petition?



791. To whom was the term "renouncing Masons" applied?



792. What ceremony did the Jews observe when renouncing a bargain?



793. Can a resolution adopted by a Lodge be repealed?



794. In what manner may the by‑laws of a Grand Lodge be repealed or suspended?



795. What is the effect of an unfavorable report by a committee on a petition for membership?



796. What right has a Lodge with reference to representation at Grand Lodge?



797. May a Lodge under dispensation be represented in Grand Lodge?





798. Does the Master possess the exclusive right to represent his Lodge at the Grand Lodge?



799. Are the Wardens members of the Grand Lodge?



800. What is the system of representation of Grand Lodges?



801. What is the nature and effect of Masonic reprimand?



802. To what particular Lodge is a candidate required to present his petition?


RESIDENCE, temporary

803. May a candidate residing temporarily in another than his home state appeal to a local Lodge for membership?



804. Why should Masons take care to observe the dictates of respectability?



805. What is the proper response to all Masonic prayers?



806. To whom is the Grand Master responsible?



807. What is the Masonic definition of the term "restoration"?



808. How may a brother, indefinitely suspended, be restored to membership in his Lodge?



809. Does the restoration of a brother by a Grand Lodge on appeal restore him to membership in his Lodge?



810. When does restoration from definite suspension take place?



811. How is restoration of a brother from definite suspension brought about?



812. Does the restoration by Grand Lodge of an expelled Mason reinstate him as a member of his former Lodge?





813. What procedure should be observed in seeking restoration from definite or indefinite suspension by appeal?



814. Of what is the tracing board emblematic?



815. How often must a Lodge make returns to the Grand Lodge?



816. What is the character of Masonic communication?



817. Why should Masons be reverent?



818. In whom is the power of revoking warrants of constitution vested?



819. Of what is the right angle emblematic?



820. What is the symbolism of the right hand?



821. What is the basis of the right of appeal?



822. To whom is the right of Masonic burial confined?



823. What regulations govern the right of visitation in a Masonic Lodge?



824. What are the rights and powers of a Masonic Lodge?



825. What is the symbolism of the right and left sides?



826. What are the principal rights of a Master Mason in good standing in a Masonic Lodge?



827. What does the Worshipful Master represent?



828. Whence do we derive our ritual?



829. What is the final degree of Ancient Craft Masonry?





830. What is the function of the past Master's degree of the Royal Arch?



831. Why is Masonry called the Royal Art?



832. Whence were the names of the three ruffians derived?



833. Of what is the rule emblematic?



834. What is the status of parliamentary law in Masonic Lodges?



835. How does the word "sacred" apply to Masonry?



836. What is the legendary sacred Lodge?



837. When did the first three degrees receive the name of St. John's Masonry?



838. Who was St. John the Baptist?



839. Who was St. John the Evangelist?


SAINTS JOHN, festivals of

840. On what days occur the feasts of the two Saints John?



841. What was the Lodge of Saints John?



842. Of what is salt the emblem?



843. What part of the Temple was called the sanctuary?



844. Of what is the color scarlet emblematic?



845. As a science, what does Freemasonry embrace?


SCRIPTURES, reading of the

846. What passages of scripture are most appropriate for reading in Lodge?





847. Of what is the scythe emblematic?



848. What was the legendary virtue of the Seal of Solomon?



849. To what seat of honor is a past Master entitled?



850. What are the teachings of the second degree?



851. Why do Freemasons enjoin and practice secrecy?



852. What did the Ancients teach regarding secrecy and silence?



853. Why are candidates for Masonry not elected viva voce?



854. What are the qualifications of a Secretary of a Lodge?


SECRETARY, compensation of

855. Is it lawful to reimburse the Secretary for the performance of his duties?


SECRETARY, duties of

856. What are the duties of the Secretary?



857. Can a Master lawfully preside over a Lodge without having received the secrets of the chair?



858. Is Masonry a secret society?



859. Why should a Mason seek religion?



860. Why should a Mason practice brotherly love?



861. Why should a Mason strive for self knowledge?



862. Whose duty is it to carry messages and orders for the Master of a Lodge?



863. What are the duties of the Senior Warden?





864. In what degree are the five senses explained?



865. What was the usual period of apprenticeship among operative Masons?



866. Of what is the Setting Maul an emblem?



867. What was the duty of the Senior Warden at the close of day?



868. Why does Masonry deny admission to women?



869. How did our ancient brethren make use of the sword?



870. Of what are sheep emblematic?



871. What does the word "shibboleth" signify?



872. What is the symbolism of the shoe in Masonry?



873. Of what is the shovel an emblem?



874. Is the Grand Hailing Sign the same in all jurisdictions?



875. Why should a Mason cultivate silence?



876. Of what is the silver cord an emblem?



877. Why should Masons be sincere?



878. How is a Masonic Lodge situated?



879. What is the Masonic definition of slander?



880. How can a Lodge protect itself against imposters?


MASONRY DEFINED          63 



881. What are the social duties of the Master of a Lodge?



882. What are the advantages of being a Mason?



883. What is a lodge of sorrow?



884. Why is the Junior Warden stationed in the South?



885. On what is the Masonic system founded?



886. What is the symbolism of the square and compasses?



887. What is the duty of a Mason with respect to the laws of Masonry?



888. What should the by‑laws of a Lodge contain?



889. In each step in Masonry, with what is the candidate presented?


STEWARDS, duties of

890. What are the duties of the Stewards?



891. Who were the Masters and Wardens of the Lodges of Masons during the building of King Solomon's Temple?



892. What is one of the three principal supports of a Lodge?



893. What is the Masonic meaning of the expression "strict trial"?



894. Why is the third called the sublime degree of Masonry?



895. What are the tests of Masonic obedience?



896. Of what is the substitute word a symbol?



897. What is the order of succession in event of the death or disability of the Grand Master?





898. Who takes the place of the Grand Master or Grand Warden in the event of his absence from a session of the Grand Lodge?



899. Who succeeds to the chair in the absence or disability of the Master?


SUCCESSOR, installation of

900. What is the prerogative of a Past Master with reference to his successor?



901. What are the prerogatives of a Deputy Grand Master or a Grand Warden, when acting pro tempore as Grand Master?



902. What should a summons contain?



903. Why does the Worshipful Master sit in the East?



904. Has the Lodge power to surrender its warrant without the consent of the Master?



905. By what process does a newly organized Grand Lodge issue authority over its constituent Lodges?



906. What is the Masonic meaning of the word "suspension"?



907. May a Lodge lawfully suspend its by‑laws?



908. In whom does the power of suspending a Master of a Lodge reside?



909. Who was Emanuel Swedenborg? What was the rite of Swedenborg?



910. Of what are the sword and naked heart emblematic?



911. Of what is the sword emblematic?


MASONRY DEFINED          65 


SWORD, Tiler's

912. What should be the shape of the Tiler's sword?



913. What is the nature of symbolism?



914. What is the symbolism of the Jewish tabernacle?



915. Why should Masons set a guard upon their lips?



916. What is the Talmud and what is its relation to Freemasonry?



917. Of what do the four tassels pendant to the corners of the Lodge remind us?



918. Is an unaffiliated Mason liable to Masonic taxation?



919. What is the prerogative of the Grand Lodge with respect to levying taxes upon the Fraternity?


TEACHINGS, symbolic of the degrees

920. What are the symbolic teachings of Freemasonry?



921. Why should Masons be temperate?



922. What is the origin and history of the custom of building temples?



923. What relation had the temple of Herod to Freemasonry?



924. What was the design of Solomon's temple?


TEMPLE, symbolism of the

925. To the Master Mason, of what is King Solomon's temple a symbol?



926. What is the Masonic meaning of temporary exclusion from a Lodge?



927. What should be the tenure of office of a Grand Lecturer?





928. Of what is the tesselated pavement emblematic?



929. Is it lawful for a Profane to testify in a Masonic trial?



930. What powers do the Jews attribute to the lost word?



931. Why should Masons practice the virtues of Faith, Hope and Charity?



932. What does the theory and practice of Masonry include?



933. Who are called Theosophists?



934. What are the teachings of the third degree of Masonry?


THIRD DEGREE, rights conferred by

935. What right does a Master Mason acquire on the reception of the third degree?



936. Why is the figure three (3) considered a sacred word in Masonry?



937. What were the three grand o f, f erings of Masonry?



938. What three senses are essential to becoming a Mason?



939. Of what are the three steps emblematic?



940. What is the symbolism of the threshing floor?



941. What is the meaning of the word "tile"?



942. What are the qualifications of the Tiler?


TILER, duties of

943. What are the duties of the Tiler?


TILER, privileges of

944. What rights of membership may a Tiler exercise?





945. What is the Tiler's oath or obligation?



946. What power has a Lodge with respect to fixing and changing its time of meeting?



947. Who has the prerogative of determining the time of opening and closing a communication of a Lodge?



948. What part do words, signs and tokens play in Masonry?



949. What does it mean to be under the "tongue of good report"?



950. Can a word or grip betray the secrets of Freemasonry?



951. Who are called tramping Masons?



952. If a Lodge be dissolved, what becomes of its charter?



953. Who are called transient brethren?



954. In what sense is the word "travel" used in the symbolic language of Masonry?



955. Who were the traveling Freemasons of the middle ages?



956. Can Masonic charges be founded on acts of treason and rebellion?


TREASURER, duties of

957. What are the duties of the Treasurer?



958. What is the Masonic trestle‑board?



959. Of what is the Triad emblematic?


TRIALS, Masonic

960. How are Masonic trials conducted?




TRIBE OF JUDAH, lion of the

961. What is the symbolism of the lion of Judah?



962. Of what is the trowel emblematic?



963. What is the symbolism of the trowel and sword?



964. Why should a Mason be truthful?



965. In whom do Masons put their trust?



966. What is the real end and aim of all Masonic labors and ceremonies?



967. What four children founded the beginning of all the sciences in the world?



968. What is the first and simplest form of architecture?



969. Of what is the twenty‑four inch rule emblematic?



970. What are the status and rights of unaffiliated Masons?



971. What are the status and rights of unaffiliated Masons?



972. Does an unaffiliated Mason enjoy the privilege of Masonic visitation?



973. Why is the ballot required to be unanimous?



974. When is the ballot unanimous?



975. What is called the bulwark of Masonry?



976. Should a ballot be taken on an unfavorable report?



977. Why should Masons observe the same usages and customs?





978. How may the Masonic system be extended to unoccupied territory?



979. What should be the attitude of the craft toward unworthy brethren?



980. Why are Lodges held in upper chambers?



981. What is the symbolism of the upright posture?



982. To what do the usages and customs of Masons correspond?



983. Can the office of Master be filled by an election in the event of his death or disability?



984. May an officer of a Lodge, duly elected and installed, law‑fully resign his office?



985. How may a Tiler be removed from office?


VERDICT, announcement of

986. When and where must the verdict in a Lodge trial be rendered?


VERDICT, how arrived at

987. How is the verdict at a Masonic trial arrived at?



988. What forms may the verdict of a Grand Lodge on appeal take in the settlement of an appeal?



989. What violations of Masonic landmarks and regulations may subject a Mason to Masonic discipline?



990. What virtues does Masonry inculcate?



991. What rights has a Grand Master or his representative in a subordinate Lodge?


VISITATION, Grand Master's prerogative of

992. What is the prerogative of a Grand Master with respect to a Masonic visitation?




VISIT, right of

993. Has a Mason the right to visit any Lodge where he may happen to be?



994. Does the Master of a Lodge have the right to cast more than one vote?



995. Why is every member present required to vote when the ballot is taken?



996. Under what circumstances is a voucher demanded?



997. Has an Entered Apprentice or Fellowcra f t the right of vouching for a visitor?



998. What are the wages of a Mason?



999. What is the origin of the office of Wardens?



1000. What was the origin of Masonic warrants?



1001. What is the difference between a dispensation and a warrant?



1002. What right has a Lodge with respect to its warrant of constitution?



1003. What is the prerogative of Grand Lodges with respect to issuing warrants of constitution?



1004. Of what is the Weeping Virgin emblematic?



1005. What formula is used by the Grand Master at the laying of a corner stone?



1006. What is the symbolism of the west?



1007. Of what is the color white emblematic?





1008. What rules apply to the relief of Masonic widows and orphans?



1009. Under what circumstances does the widow of a Mason forfeit her claim to Masonic relief?



1010. Who was called the "Widow's son" and why?



1011. Of what is the winding staircase emblematic?


WINDING STAIRS, legend of the

1012. What is the legend of the winding stairs?



1013. How can a Mason acquire wisdom?



1014. Is it lawful for a member to demit without making application for membership in another Lodge?



1015. Under what circumstances is it lawful for a number of members to withdraw at the same time from a Lodge?



1016. Is it permissible to withdraw a petition after it has been read?



1017. What regulations govern the right of a Lodge to do the work of Ancient Craft Masonry?



1018. Who may knock at the doors of Masonry?



1019. What is the supreme duty of a Mason?



1020. What is the proper title of a Master of a Lodge, and why?



1021. What is the Masonic meaning of the word "worthy"?



1022. Is it lawful to accept a letter of introduction as an avouchment?





1023. What is the basis of Masonic chronology?



1024. Upon what legend is based the old York Constitution of




1025. Who was the builder of the second temple?




1 - Why was Hiram, our ancient Grand Master, called "ABIF?"


            Abif. A Hebrew word, signifying "his father." It is often used in the Scriptures as a title of honor. It was given to Hiram, the Tyrian builder, probably on account of his distinguished skill.


2 - How is moral purification symbolized?


            Ablution. Washing, or literally, a washing off, i. e., making one clean from all pollution. In the ancient mysteries it constituted a part of the preparation for initiation, and was a symbolical representation of moral purification. The ceremony is practiced in some of the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted rite.


3 - What is the ancient rule regarding attendance at Lodge?


            Absence. This term is usually applied to being absent by permission, for a specified time, during the regular meetings of the Lodge, and in such a manner as not to interfere with the harmony or working of the body. Long or continued absence from the Lodge meetings is contrary to the duties inculcated by the ancient charges of the Order, which prescribe, as a rule, "that no Master or Fellow could be absent from the Lodge, especially when warned to appear at it, without incurring a severe censure, unless it appeared to the Master and Wardens that pure necessity hindered him."


4 - What is the symbolism of the sprig of Acacia?


            Acacia. An interesting and important symbol in Freemasonry. Botanically, it is the acacia vera of Tournefort, and the mimosa nilotlea of Linnaeus. It grew abundantly in the vicinity of Jerusalem, where it is still to be found, and is familiar in its modern use as the tree from which the gum arabic of commerce is derived.


The acacia, which in Scripture, is always called Shittah, and in the plural Shittim, was esteemed a sacred wood among the Hebrews. Of it Moses was ordered to make the tabernacle, the ark of the covenant, the table for the shewbread, and the rest of the sacred furniture. Isaiah, in recounting the promises of God's mercy to the Israelites on their return from the captivity, tells them that, among other things, he will plant in the wilderness, for their relief and refreshment, the cedar, the acacia, the fir and other trees.





The first thing, then, that we notice in this symbol of the acacia, is that it had been always consecrated from among the other trees of the forest by the sacred purposes to which it was devoted. By the Jew, the tree from whose wood the sanctuary of the tabernacle and the holy ark had been constructed would ever be viewed as more sacred than ordinary trees. The early Masons, therefore, very naturally appropriated this hallowed plant to the equally sacred purpose of a symbol, which was to teach an important divine truth in all ages to come.


Having thus briefly disposed of the natural history of this plant, we may now proceed to examine it in its symbolic relations.


First. The acacia, in the mythic system of Freemasonry, is pre‑eminently the symbol of the immortality of the soul - that important doctrine which it is the great design of the institution to teach. As the evanescent nature of the flower, which "cometh forth and is cut down," reminds us of the transitory nature of human life, so the perpetual renovation of the evergreen plant, which uninterruptedly presents the appearance of youth and vigor, is aptly compared to that spiritual life in which the soul, freed from the corruptible body, shall enjoy an eternal spring and an immortal youth. Hence, in the impressive funeral service of our Order, it is said that "this ever‑green is an emblem of our faith in the immortality of the soul. By this we are reminded that we have an immortal part within us, which shall survive the grave, and which shall never, never, never die." And again, in the closing sentences of the monitorial lecture of the third degree, the same sentiment is repeated, and we are told that by "the evergreen and the ever‑living sprig" the Mason is strengthened "with confidence and composure to look forward to a blessed immortality." Such an interpretation of the symbol is an easy and a natural one; it suggests itself at once to the least reflective mind; and consequently, in some one form or another, is to be found existing in all ages and nations. It was an ancient custom, - which is not, even now, altogether disused, - for mourners to carry in their hands at funerals a sprig of some evergreen, generally the cedar or the cypress, and to deposit it in the grave of the deceased.


But, lastly, the acacia may also be considered as the symbol of initiation. This is by far the most interesting of its interpretations, and was, we have every reason to believe, the primary and original; the others being but incidental. It leads us at once to the investigation of the significant fact that in all the ancient initiations and religious mysteries there was some plant peculiar to each, which was consecrated by its own esoteric meaning, and which occupied an important position in the celebration of the rites, so that the plant, whatever it might be, from its constant and prominent use in the


MASONRY DEFINED          75 


ceremonies of initiation, came at length to be adopted as the symbol of that initiation.


Thus, the lettuce was the sacred plant which assumed the place of the acacia in the mysteries of Adonis. The lotus was that of the Brahmanical rites of India, and from them adopted by the Egyptians. The Egyptians also revered the erica or heath; and the mistletoe was a mystical plant among the Druids. And lastly, the myrtle performed the same office of symbolism in the mysteries of Greece that the lotus did in Egypt or the mistletoe among the Druids.


In all of these ancient mysteries, while the sacred plant was a symbol of initiation, the initiation itself was symbolic of the resurrection to a future life, and of the immortality of the soul. In this view, Freemasonry is to us now in the place of the ancient initiations, and the acacia is substituted for the lotus, the erica, the ivy, the mistletoe, and the myrtle. The lesson is the same - the medium of imparting it is all that has been changed.


Returning, then, to the acacia, we find that it is capable of two explanations. It is a symbol of immortality, and of initiation; but these two significations are closely connected, and that connection must be observed, if we desire to obtain a just interpretation of the symbol. Thus, in this one symbol, we are taught that in the initiation of life, of which the initiation in the third degree is simply emblematic, innocence must for a time lie in the grave, at length, how‑ever, to be called, by the word of the Grand Master of the Universe, to a blissful immortality. Combine with this the recollection of the place where the sprig of acacia was planted, - Mount Calvary, - the place of sepulture of him who "brought life and immortality to light," and who, in Christian Masonry, is designated, as he is in Scripture, as "the lion of the tribe of Judah;" and remember, too, that in the mystery of his death, the wood of the cross takes the place of the acacia, and in this little and apparently insignificant symbol, which is really the most important and significant one in Masonic science, we have a beautiful suggestion of all the mysteries of life and death, of time and eternity, of the present and of the future.


5 - Why are Masons said to be "Free and Accepted?"


            Accepted. A term in Freemasonry which is synonymous with "initiated" or "received into the society." Thus, we find in the Regulations of 1663, such expressions as these: "No person who shall hereafter be accepted a Freemason shall be admitted into a lodge or assembly until he has brought a certificate of the time and place of his acceptation from the Lodge that accepted him, unto the Master of that limit or division where such Lodge is kept." The word seems to have been first used in 1663 and, in the Regulations of that Year: is constantly employed in the place of the olden term "made,"




as equivalent to "initiated." This is especially evident in the 6th Regulation, which says, "that no person shall be accepted unless he be twenty‑one years old or more;" where accepted clearly means initiated. As the word was introduced in 1663, its use seems also to have soon ceased, for it is not found in any subsequent documents until 1738; neither in the Regulations of 1721; nor in the Charges approved in 1722; except once in the latter, where "laborers and unaccepted Masons" are spoken of as distinguished from and inferior to "Freemasons." In the Regulations of 1721, the words "made," "entered," or "admitted," are constantly employed in its stead. But in 1738, Anderson, who, in publishing the 2d edition of the Book of Constitutions, made many verbal alterations which seem subsequently to have been disapproved of by the Grand Lodge, again introduced the word accepted. Thus, in the 5th of the Regulations of 1721, which in the edition of 1723 read as follows, "But no man can be made or admitted a member of a particular Lodge," etc., he changed the phraseology so as to make the article read: "No man can be accepted a member of a particular Lodge," etc. And so attached does he appear to have become to this word that he changed the very name of the Order, by altering the title of the work, which, in the edition of 1723, was "The Constitutions of Freemasons," to that of "The Constitutions of the Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons." Although many of the innovations of the edition of

1738 of the Book of Constitutions were subsequently repudiated by the Grand Lodge, and omitted in succeeding editions, the title of "Free and Accepted Masons" was retained, and is now more generally used than the older and simpler one of "Freemasons," to distinguish the society. The word accepted, however, as a synonym of initiated, has now become obsolete. The modern idea of an accepted Mason is that he is one distinguished from a purely operative or stone‑mason, who has not been admitted to the freedom of the company; an idea evidently intended to be conveyed by the use of the word in the Charges of 1722, already quoted.


6 - What is the meaning of "Free Will and Accord?"


            Accord. We get this word from two Latin ones ad cor, to the heart, and hence it means hearty consent. Thus in Wiclif's translation we find the phrase in Philippians, which in the Authorized Version is "with one accord," rendered "with one will, with one heart." Such is its significance in the Masonic formula, "free will and accord," that is "free will and hearty consent."


7 - What is the preliminary step in every Masonic trial?


            Accusation. The preliminary step in every trial is the accusation. This, in Masonic language, is called the charge. The charge


MASONRY DEFINED          77 


should always be made in writing, signed by the accuser, delivered to the Secretary and read by that officer at the next regular communication of the Lodge. The accused should then be furnished with an attested copy of the charge, and be at the same time informed of the time and place appointed by the Lodge for the trial.


8 - Who is the prosecuting officer of a Lodge?


            Accuser. In every trial in a Lodge for an offense against the 'laws and regulations or the principles of Masonry any Master Mason may be the accuser of another, but a profane cannot be permitted to prefer charges against a Mason. Yet, if circumstances are known to a profane upon which charges ought to be predicated, a Master Mason may avail himself of that information, and out of it frame an accusation to be presented to the Lodge. And such accusation will be received and investigated, although remotely derived from one who is not a member of the Order.


It is not necessary that the accuser should be a member of the same Lodge. It is sufficient if he is an affiliated Mason; but it is generally held that an unaffiliated Mason is no more competent to prefer charges than a profane.


In consequence of the Junior Warden being placed over the Craft during the hours of refreshment, and of his being charged at the time of his installation to see "that none of the Craft be suffered to convert the purposes of refreshment into those of intemperance and excess," it has been very generally supposed that it is his duty, as the prosecuting officer of the Lodge, to prefer charges against any member who, by his conduct, has made himself amenable to the penal jurisdiction of the Lodge. I know of no ancient regulation which imposes this unpleasant duty upon the Junior Warden; but it does seem to be a very natural deduction, from his peculiar prerogative as the guardian of the conduct of the Craft, that in all cases of violation of the law he should, after due efforts towards producing a reform, be the proper officer to bring the conduct of the offending brother to the notice of the Lodge.


9 - Does acquittal of a Mason by a fury prevent his being tried again by a Lodge on the same charge?


            Acquittal. Under this head it may be proper to discuss two questions of Masonic law. 1. Can a Mason, having been acquitted by the courts of the country of an offense with which he has been charged, be tried by his Lodge for the same offense. And,

2. Can a Mason, having been acquitted by his Lodge on insufficient evidence, be subjected, on the discovery and production of new and more complete evidence, to a second trial for the same offense? To both of these questions the correct answer would seem to be in the affirmative.




1. An acquittal of a crime by a temporal court does not relieve a Mason from an inquisition into the same offense by his Lodge; for acquittals may be the result of some technicality of law, or other cause, where, although the party is relieved from legal punishment, his guilt is still manifest in the eyes of the community; and if the Order were to be controlled by the action of the courts, the character of the Institution might be injuriously affected by its permitting a man, who had escaped without honor from the punishment of the law, to remain a member of the Fraternity. In the language of the Grand Lodge of Texas, "an acquittal by a jury, while it may, and should, in some circumstances, have its influence in deciding on the course to be pursued, yet has no binding force in Masonry. We decide on our own rules, and our own view of the facts."


2. To come to a correct apprehension of the second question, we must remember that it is a long‑settled principle of Masonic law, that every offense which a Mason commits is an injury to the whole Fraternity, for the bad conduct of a single member reflects discredit on the whole Institution. This is a very old and well‑established principle of the Institution; and hence we find the old Gothic Constitutions declaring that "a Mason shall harbor no thief or thief's retainer," and assigning as a reason, "lest the Craft should come to shame." The safety of the Institution requires that no evil‑disposed member should be permitted with impunity to bring disgrace on the Craft. And, therefore, although it is a well‑known maxim of the common law that no one should be twice placed in peril of punishment for the same crime; yet we must also remember that ,ither and fundamental maxim - salus populi suprema lax - which may, in its application to Masonry, be well translated: "the well‑being of the Order is the first great law." To this everything else must yield; and therefore if a member, having been accused of a heinous offense and tried, shall on his trial for want of sufficient evidence be acquitted, or being convicted shall for the same reason be punished by an inadequate penalty - and if he shall thus be permitted to remain in the Institution with the stigma of the crime upon him, "whereby the Craft comes to shame;" then, if new and more sufficient evidence shall be subsequently discovered, it is just and right that 'a new trial shall be had, so that he may on this newer evidence receive that punishment which will vindicate the reputation of the Order. No technicalities of law, no plea of autre f ois acquit, nor mere verbal exception, should be allowed for the escape of a guilty member; for so long as he lives in the Order, every man is subject to its discipline. A hundred wrongful acquittals of a bad member, who still bears with him the reproach of his evil life, can never discharge the Order from its paramount duty of protecting its own good fame and removing the delinquent member from its fold. To


MASONRY DEFINED          79 


this great duty all private and individual rights and privileges must succumb.


10 - What action should a Lodge take on receipt of a favorable report on a petition?


            Action on Petition. The petition of the candidate having been referred to a committee, and that committee having reported favor. ably, the next step in the process is to submit the petition to the members of the Lodge for their acceptance or rejection. The law upon which this usage is founded is contained in the sixth article of the General Regulations of 1721, which declares that "no man can be entered a Brother in any particular Lodge, or admitted a member thereof, without the unanimous consent of all the members of the Lodge then present when the candidate is proposed, and their consent is formally asked by the Master." No peculiar mode of expressing this opinion is laid down in any of the ancient Constitutions; on the contrary, the same sixth article goes on to say that the members "are to signify their consent or dissent in their own prudent way, either virtually or in form, but with unanimity." Universal and uninterrupted usage, however, in this country, has required the votes on the application of candidates to be taken by ballot, which has been very wisely done, because thereby the secrecy and consequent independence of election is secured.


11 - When is a Lodge or brother said to be "active?" Active.. A Lodge is called active when it assembles regularly; and a brother when he is a working member of such a lodge. Many brethren visit a lodge who never or very seldom take part in lodge work, either because they live too far distant from the lodge, or because they are not sufficiently interested. Every lodge and every officer ought to strive diligently to make the work interesting to avoid the last imputation, but if they find their endeavors in vain, or that there is any brother who will not pay due attention to the work, they ought to endeavor to reclaim him, first by fraternal remonstrances; or if those do not avail, by punishment. By the death or removal of the members, a lodge may become inactive for a time, and it is better that it should be so than that the continuing of the work should be. entrusted to inexperienced officers.


12 - What are the prerogatives of the active members of a Lodge?


            Active Membership, Prerogatives of. Every Master Mason, who is a member of a Lodge, has a right to speak and, vote on all questions that come before the Lodge for discussion, except on trials in which he is himself interested. Rules of order may be established




restricting the length and number of speeches, but these are of a local nature, and will vary with the by‑laws of each Lodge.


A Mason may also be restricted from voting on ordinary questions where his dues for a certain period - generally twelve months - have not been paid; and such a Regulation exists in almost every Lodge. But no local by‑law can deprive a member who has not been suspended, from voting on the ballot for the admission of candidates, because the Sixth Regulation of 1721 distinctly requires that each member present on such occasion shall give his consent before the candidate can be admitted. And if a member were deprived, by any by‑law of the Lodge, in consequence of non‑payment of his dues, of the right of expressing his consent or dissent, the ancient Regulation would be violated, and a candidate might be admitted without the unanimous consent of all the members present.



13 - What President of the United States was a bitter opponent of Free‑masonry?


            Adams, John Quincy, the sixth President of the United States, who served from 1825 to 1829. Mr. Adams, who has been very properly described as "a man of strong points and weak ones, of vast reading and wonderful memory, of great credulity and strong prejudices," became notorious in the latter years of his life for his virulent opposition to Freemasonry. The writer already quoted, and who had an excellent opportunity of seeing intimately the workings of the spirit of anti‑Masonry, says of Mr. Adams: "He hated Free‑masonry, as he did many other things, not from any harm that he had received from it or personally knew respecting it, but because his credulity had been wrought upon and his prejudices excited against it by dishonest and selfish politicians, who were anxious, at any sacrifice to him, to avail themselves of the influence of his commanding talents and position in public life to sustain them in the disreputable work in which they were enlisted. In his weakness, he lent himself to them. He united his energies to theirs in an impracticable and unworthy cause." The result was a series of letters abusive of Freemasonry, directed to leading politicians, and published in the public journals from 1831 to 1833. A year before his death they were collected and published under the title of "Letters on the Masonic Institution, by John Quincy Adams." Some ex‑planation of the cause of the virulence with which Mr. Adams attacked the Masonic Institution in these letters may be found in the following paragraph contained in an anti‑Masonic work written by one Henry Gassett, and affixed to his Catalogue of Books on the Masonic Institution. "It had been asserted in a newspaper in Boston, edited by a Masonic dignitary, that John Q. Adams was a Mason. In answer to an inquiry from a person in New York State, whether he was so,


MASONRY DEFINED          81 


Mr. Adams replied that `he was not, and never should be.' " These few words, undoubtedly, prevented his election a second term as president of the United States. His competitor, Andrew Jackson, a Freemason, was elected. Whether the statement contained in the italicized words be true or not, is not the question. It is sufficient that Mr. Adams was led to believe it, and hence his ill‑will to an association which had, as he supposed, inflicted this political evil on him, and baffled his ambitious views.


14 - What are the qualifications of Lodge officers?


            Address. Those who accept office and exercise authority in the lodge, ought to be men of prudence and address, enjoying the ad‑vantages of a well‑cultivated mind and retentive memory. All men are not blessed with the same powers and talents; all men, therefore, are not equally qualified to govern. He who wishes to teach must submit to learn; and no one can be qualified to occupy the higher offices of the lodge who has not previously discharged the duties of those which are subordinate. Experience is the best preceptor. Every man may rise by graduation, but merit and industry are the first steps to preferment.


15 - What rules govern a brother while speaking in Lodge?


            Addressing a Lodge. No brother shall speak twice to the same question, unless in explanation, or the mover in reply. Every one who speaks shall rise, and remain standing, addressing himself to the Master, nor shall any brother presume to interrupt him, unless he shall be wandering from the point, or the Master shall think fit to call him to order; but, after he has been set right, he may proceed, if he observe due order and decorum.


16 - To whom does the term "Adhering Mason" apply?


            Adhering Mason. Those Masons who, during the anti‑Masonic excitement in this country, on account of the supposed abduction of Morgan, refused to leave their Lodges and renounce Masonry were so called. Among their number were some of the wisest, best and Most influential men of the country.


17‑How many candidates can be made Masons on the same day?


            Admission. Not more than five new brothers shall be made in tiny one lodge on the same day, nor any man under the age of twenty‑one years, unless by dispensation from the Grand Master. Every candidate for admission must be a freeman, and his own master and, at the time of initiation, be known to be in reputable circumstances. He should be a lover of the liberal arts and sciences, and have made some progress in one or another of them.




18 - Has a Master the right to deny a member admission to his own Lodge?


            Admission of Members. Coincident with the power of admitting or excluding a visitor from another Lodge, is that of refusing or consenting to the admission of a member. The ritual of opening expressly says that none shall "pass or repass but such as are duly qualified and have the Worshipful Master's permission;" and if the prerogative of refusing admission to a brother hailing from another Lodge is vested solely in the Master, that he may be enabled, by this discretionary power, to maintain the by‑laws and regulations of the Order, and preserve the harmony of the Lodge, it seems evident that he should be possessed of equal power in respect to his own members, because it may happen that the admission even of a member might sometimes create discord, and if the Master is aware that such would be the result, it must be acknowledged that he would be but exercising his duty in refusing the admission of such a member. But as this prerogative affects, in no slight degree, the rights of membership, which inure to every Mason who has signed the by‑laws, it should be exercised with great caution; and where a member has been unjustly, or without sufficient cause, deprived of the right of visiting his own Lodge, there can be no question that he has the right of preferring charges against the Master in the Grand Lodge, whose duty it is to punish every arbitrary or oppressive exercise of prerogative.


19 - What right has a new Lodge with respect to the admission of members?


            Admission of New Members. The warrant of constitution having been granted permanently and for the general objects of Masonry, and not for a specific purpose and a prescribed period, as is the case with Lodges under dispensation, the quality of perpetuity is granted with it as one of the necessary conditions. But this perpetuity can only be secured by the admission of new members to supply the places of those who die or demit. This admission may take place either by the initiation of profanes, who acquire by that initiation the right of membership, or by the election of unaffiliated Masons.


20 - Has a Master of a Lodge the right to decline to admit, as a visitor, a Master Mason in good standing?


            Admission of Visitors. A prerogative of the Master of a Lodge is that of controlling the admission of visitors. He is required by his installation charge to see that no visitors be received without passing a due examination and producing proper vouchers; and this duty he cannot perform unless the right of judging of the nature of that examination and of those vouchers be solely vested in him‑self, and the discretionary power of admission or rejection be placed in his hands. The Lodge cannot, therefore, interfere with this


MASONRY DEFINED          83 


prerogative, nor can the question be put to it whether a particular visitor shall be admitted. The Master is, in all such cases, the sole judge, without appeal from his decision.


21 - What is the duty of the Tiler with reference to the admission of per‑ sons to a Lodge room?


            Admittance to the Lodge. The first and most important duty of the Tiler is to guard the door of the Lodge, and to permit no one to pass in who is not duly qualified, and who has not the permission of the Master. Of these qualifications, in doubtful cases, he is not himself to judge; but on the approach of any one who is unknown to him, he should apprize the Lodge by the usual formal method. As the door is peculiarly under his charge, he should never, for an instant, be absent from his post. He should neither open the door himself from without, nor permit it to be opened by the Junior Deacon from within, without the preliminary alarm.


22 - How should a brother be admonished?


            Admonition. If a brother grossly misconduct himself, let him be admonished privately by the Worshipful Master; try every gentle means to convince him of his errors; probe the wound with a delicate hand; and use very mild expedient to work his reform. Perhaps he may save his brother, and give to society a renewed and valuable member.


23 - Who was Adoniram?


            Adoniram. This prince was appointed by King Solomon to super‑intend the contribution towards building the temple, as well as the levy of 30,000 Israelites to work by monthly courses in the forest of Lebanon. For this purpose, and to insure the utmost regularity, an old masonic tradition informs us that he divided them into lodges, placing three hundred in each, under a Master and Wardens, himself being Grand Master over all. He was also constituted by the king one of the seven Grand Superintendents, and Chief of the Provosts and Judges.


24 - What is the relation of women to Masonry in France and in America:,


            Adoptive Masonry. A name given to certain degrees resembling Masonry, and Masonic in spirit, which have been invented for ladies who have claims upon. the Order of Freemasonry, through relatives who are members of it. Adoptive Masonry first made its appearance in France, in the early part of the 18th century, and is still a legal and regular branch of the Institution in that country. The French rite has four degrees:


1. Apprentice;

2. Companion;

3. Mistress;

4. Perfect Mistress. The officers of a Lodge of Adoption are a Grand Master and a Grand Mistress; an Orator; an Inspector, and




Inspectress; a Depositor and Depositrex; a Conductor and Conductress. They wear blue collars, with a gold trowel pendant therefrom, white aprons, and gloves. The members also wear the jewel of the Order, which is a golden ladder with five rounds, on the left breast. Many of the most distinguished ladies of Europe have been, and are now, members of this Order. Among them were the Duchess of Bourbon, the Empress Josephine, Lady Montague, Duchess Elizabeth Chesterfield, and the Empress Eugenie. The Adoptive Lodges were at first rapidly diffused throughout all the countries of Europe except the British empire. But the American Adoptive rite is better adapted to the United States, and has excited considerable interest, and found many powerful advocates in this country. It consists of five degrees, as follows:


1. Jephthah's daughter, or the Daughter's degree, illustrating respect to the binding force of a vow;

2. Ruth, or the Widow's degree, illustrating devotion to religious principles;

3. Esther, or the Wife's degree, illustrating fidelity to kindred and friends;

4. Martha, or the Sister's degree, illustrating undeviating faith in the hour of trial;

5. Electa, or the Benevolent degree, illustrating charity and courage, with patience and submission under wrongs.


All the degrees together are called the "Rite of the Eastern Star," and are very beautiful and impressive. Ladies who have received these degrees have a ready and efficient means of commanding the services of Freemasons whenever and wherever they may need them. The moral teachings of the Eastern Star degrees are excellent, and cannot fail to make a good impression. Notwithstanding that there is among some Masons a strong feeling against any form of Adoptive Masonry, it cannot be questioned that the spirit of the age demands something of the kind. Masons cannot find a surer safeguard and protection for their wives, sisters, and daughters than is furnished by the American Adoptive rite or Order of the Eastern Star. To the objection that the degrees are not Masonic, it may be replied that they are as much so as any degree outside of the Symbolical Lodge. No degrees above the first three are Masonic, except by adoption.


25 - How is the word "advanced" technically used in Masonry?


            Advanced. This word has two technical meanings in Masonry.


1. We speak of a candidate as being advanced when he has passed from a lower to a higher degree; as we say that a candidate is qualified for advancement from the Entered Apprentice's degree to that of a Fellow Craft when he has made that "suitable proficiency in the former which, by the regulations of the Order, entitle him to receive the initiation into and the instructions of the latter." And when the Apprentice has thus been promoted to the second degree he is said to have advanced in Masonry.




2. The word is peculiarly applied to the initiation of a candidate in the Mark degree, which is the fourth in the American modification of the York Rite. The Master Mason is thus said to be "advanced to the honorary degree of a Mark Master," to indicate either that he has now been promoted one step beyond the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry on his way to the Royal Arch, or to express the fact that he has been elevated from the common class of Fellow Crafts to that higher and more select one which, according to the traditions of Masonry, constituted, at the first Temple, the class of Mark Masters.


26 - What is the status of an Entered Apprentice if the Lodge denies him advancement?


            Advancement, Denial of. An Apprentice has the right to apply for advancement; but the Lodge in which he was initiated has the correlative right to reject his application. And thereby no positive right of any person is affected; for, by this rejection of the candidate for advancement, no other injury is done to him than the disappointment of his expectations. His character as an Entered Apprentice is not impaired. He still possesses all the rights and prerogatives that he did before, and continues, notwithstanding the rejection of his application, to be an Apprentice "in good standing," and entitled, as before, to all the rights and privileges of a possessor of that degree.


27 - Does an Entered Apprentice have the right of advancement?


            Advancement, Right of. Apprentices have the right to apply for advancement to a higher degree. Out of the class of Apprentices the Fellow Crafts are made; and as this eligibility to promotion really constitutes the most important right of this inferior class of our Brethren, it is well worthy of careful consideration. I say, then, that the Entered Apprentice possesses the right of application to be passed to the degree of a Fellow Craft. He is eligible as a candidate; but here this right ceases. It goes no farther than the mere prerogative of applying. It is only the right of petition. The Apprentice has, in fact, no more claim to the second degree than the profane has to the first. It is a most mistaken opinion to suppose that when a profane is elected as a candidate, he is elected to receive all the degrees that can be conferred in a Symbolic Lodge. Freemasonry is a rigid system of probation. A second step never can be attained hntil sufficient proof has been given in the preceding that the candidate is "worthy and well qualified." A candidate who has received the first degree is no more assured by this reception that he will reach the third, than that he will attain the Royal Arch. In the very ceremony of his reception he may have furnished convincing evidence of his unfitness to proceed further; and it would become the duty of





the Lodge, in that case, to debar his future progress. A bad Apprentice will make a worse Master Mason; for he who cannot comply with the comparatively simple requisitions of the first degree, will certainly be incapable of responding to the more important duties and obligations of the third. Hence, on the petition of an Apprentice to be passed as a Fellow Craft, a ballot should always be taken. This is but in accordance with the meaning of the word; for a petition is a prayer for something which may or may not be refused, and hence, if the petition is granted, it is ex gratin, or by the voluntary favor of the Lodge, which, if it chooses, may withhold its assent. Any other view of the case would exclude that inherent right which is declared by the Regulations of 1721 to exist in every Lodge, of being the best judges of the qualifications of its own members.


28 - What are the supports of the adytum or Lodge?


            Adytum. In the British and other Mysteries the three pillars of Wisdom, Strength, and Beauty represented the great emblematical Triad of Deity, whereas with us they refer to the three principal officers of the lodge. We shall find, however, that the symbolical meaning is the same. In Britain the Adytum or lodge was actually supported by three stones or pillars, which were supposed to convey a regenerating purity to the aspirant, after having endured the ceremony of initiation in all its accustomed formalities. The delivery from between them was termed a new birth. The corresponding pillars of the Hindu Mythology were also known by the names of Wisdom, Strength, and Beauty, and were placed in the east, west, and south, crowned with three human heads. They jointly referred to the Creator, who was said to have planned the Great Work by his infinite Wisdom; executed it by his Strength; and adorned it with all its Beauty and use‑fulness for the benefit of man.


29 - Of what were the ancient Lodges schools?


            Affability. The ancient lodges were so many schools or academies for teaching and improving the arts of designing, especially architecture; and the present lodges are often employed in that way in lodge hours, or else in agreeable conversation, though without politics or party feeling. None of them are ill employed; they have no transaction unworthy of an honest man or a gentleman; no personal piques, no quarrels, no cursing and swearing, no cruel mockings, no obscene talk, or ill manners, for the noble and eminent brethren are affable to the meanest; and these are duly respectful to their betters in harmony and proportion; and though on the level, yet always within compass, and according to the square and plumb.




30 - What is the distinction between an affiliated and a non‑affiliated Mason?


            Affiliated. A word that designates a Mason as a member of some Lodge. A Mason who does not belong to any Lodge is styled "Non‑Affiliated."


31 - What is the Masonic meaning of the term "affiliation?"


            Affiliation. Initiation indicates the first reception of a person into a Masonic Lodge; affiliation denotes the reception of one already a Mason into some other Lodge than the one in which he received the Light.


All the rights and duties that accrue to a Master Mason, by virtue of membership in the Lodge in which he was initiated, likewise accrue to him who has been admitted to membership by affiliation. There is no difference in the relative standing of either class of members: their prerogatives, the privileges, and their obligations are the same.


There is, however, a difference in the methods of admission. Those who acquire membership in a Lodge, by virtue of having received therein the third degree, obtain that membership as a matter of right, without petition and without ballot. But a Master Mason, who is desirous of affiliating with a Lodge in which he was not initiated, or in which, after initiation, he had at the legal time declined or neglected to assert his right of membership, must apply by petition. This petition must be read at a regular communication of the Lodge, and be referred to a committee of investigation, which committee, at the next regular communication (a month having intervened), will report on the character and qualifications of the candidate; and if the report be favorable, the Lodge will proceed to ballot. As in the case of initiation, the ballot is required to be unanimously in favor of the applicant to secure his election. One black ball is sufficient to reject him.


All of these Regulations, which are of ancient date and of general usage, are founded on the fifth and sixth of the Regulations of 1721, and are, it will be seen, the same as those which govern the petition and ballot for initiation. The Regulations of 1721 make no difference in the cases of profanes who seek to be made Masons, and Masons who desire affiliation or membership in a Lodge. In both cases "previous notice, one month before," must be given to the Lodge, "due inquiry into the reputation and capacity of the candidate" must be made, and the "unanimous consent of all the members then present" must be obtained. Nor can this unanimity be dispensed with in one ease any more than it can in the other. It is the inherent privilege of every Lodge to judge of the qualifications of its o`vn members, "nor is this inherent privilege subject to a dispensation."




32 - Are there any geographical restrictions on the right of affiliation?


            Affiliation of Non‑Residents. Some Grand Lodges have adopted a Regulation requiring a Mason, living in their respective jurisdictions, to unite himself in membership with some Lodge in the said jurisdiction, and refusing to accord the rights of affiliation to one who belongs to a Lodge outside of the jurisdiction. But I have no doubt that this is a violation of the spirit of the ancient law. A Mason living in California may retain his membership in a Lodge in the State of New York, and by so doing, is as much an affiliated Mason, in every sense of the word, as though he had acquired membership in a California Lodge. I do not advocate the practice of holding membership in distant Lodges; for I believe that it is highly expedient, and that a Mason will much more efficiently discharge his duties to the Order by acquiring membership in the Lodge which is nearest to his residence, than in one which is at a great distance; but I simply contend for the principle, as one of Masonic jurisprudence, that a Master Mason has a right to apply for membership in any Lodge on the face of the globe, and that membership in a Lodge carries with it the rights of affiliation wherever the member may go.


33 - To what Lodge or Lodges may a Mason apply for affiliation?


            Affiliation, Petition for. There is one difference between the condition of a profane petitioning for admission, and that of a Master Mason applying for membership, which claims our notice.


A profane can apply for initiation only to the Lodge nearest his place of residence; but no such Regulation exists in reference to a Master Mason applying for membership. He is not confined in the exercise of this privilege within any geographical limits. No matter how distant the Lodge of his choice may be from his residence, to that Lodge he has as much right to apply as to the Lodge which is situated at the very threshold of his home. A Mason is expected to affiliate with some Lodge. The ancient Constitutions specify nothing further on the subject. They simply prescribe that every Mason should belong to a Lodge, without any reference to its peculiar locality, and a Brother therefore complies with the obligation of affiliation when he unites himself with any Lodge, no matter how distant; and by thus contributing to the support of the institution, he discharges his duty as a Mason, and becomes entitled to all the privileges of the Order.


This usage - for, in the absence of a positive law on the subject, it has become a Regulation, from the force of custom only - is undoubtedly derived from the doctrine of the universality of Masonry. The whole body of the craft, wheresoever dispersed, being considered. by the fraternal character of the institution, as simply component


MASONRY DEFINED          89 


parts of one great family, no peculiar rights of what might be called Masonic citizenship are supposed to be acquired by a domiciliation in one particular place. The Mason who is at home and the Mason who comes from abroad are considered on an equal footing as to all Masonic rights; and hence the Brother made in Europe is as much a Mason when he comes to America, and is as fully qualified to discharge in America all Masonic functions, without any form of naturalization, as though he had been made in this country. The converse is equally true. Hence no distinctions are made, and no peculiar rights acquired by membership in a local Lodge. Affiliation with the Order, of which every Lodge is equally a part, confers the privileges of active Masonry. Therefore no law has ever prescribed that a Mason must belong to the Lodge nearest to his residence, but generally that he must belong to a Lodge; and consequently the doctrine is, as it has been enunciated above, that a Master Mason may apply for affiliation, and unite himself with any Lodge which is legal and regular, no matter how near to, or how far from his place of residence.


34 - What is the relation of the ancient love‑feast to Masonry?


            Agape. Love‑feast. A banquet of charity, among the early Christians. St. Chrysostom thus describes its origin and purposes: "At first Christians had all things in common; but when that equality of possession ceased, as it did even in the Apostle's time, the Agape, or love‑feast, was instituted instead of it. Upon certain days, after the religious services were closed, they met at a common feast, the rich bringing provisions, and the poor, who had nothing, being invited. These meetings were held in secret." The Agape cannot but call to mind the Table‑lodges of Freemasonry, and, in truth, these owe their origin to the love‑feasts of the primitive Christians. A distinguished German scholar, A. Kestner, professor of Theology at Jena, published a work in 1819, entitled, "The Agape, or the Secret World‑Society - Weltbund, of the primitive Christians" - i.e., a society apart from their spiritual organization - "founded by Clemens, at Rome, in the reign of Domitian, having a hierarchical constitution, and a ground system of Masonic symbolism, and mysteries." In this Work he argues that there was a direct connection between the Agape and the Table‑lodge of Freemasons.


35 - Of what was the stone of foundation formed?


            Agate. Among the Masonic traditions is one which asserts that the stone of foundation was formed of agate. This, like everything connected with the legend of the stone, is to be mystically interpreted. In this view, agate is a symbol of strength and beauty, a symbolism derived from the peculiar character of the agate which




is distinguished for its compact formation, and the ornamental character of its surface.


36 - Is the age of twenty‑one the lawful age of admission in all Masonic jurisdictions?


            Age, Lawful. The ancient Regulations do not express any determinate number of years at the expiration of which a candidate becomes legally entitled to apply for admission. The language used is, that he must be of "mature and discreet age." But the usage of the Craft has differed in various countries as to the construction of the time when this period of maturity and discretion is supposed to have arrived. The sixth of the Regulations, adopted in 1663, prescribes that "no person shall be accepted unless he be twenty‑one years old, or more;" but the subsequent Regulations are less explicit. At Frankfort‑on‑the‑Main, the age required is twenty; in the Lodges of Switzerland, it has been fixed at twenty‑one. The Grand Lodge of Hanover prescribes the age of twenty‑five, but permits the son of a Mason to be admitted at eighteen. The Grand Lodge of Hamburg decrees that the lawful age for initiation shall be that which in any country has been determined by the laws of the land to be the age of majority. The Grand Orient of France requires the candidate to be twenty‑one unless he be the son of a Mason, who hasp performed some important service to the Order, or unless he be a young man who has served six months in the army, when the initiation may take place at the age of eighteen. In Prussia the required age is twenty‑five. In England it is twenty‑one, except in cases where a dispensation has been granted for an earlier age by the Grand or Provincial Grand Master. In Ireland the age must be twenty‑one, except in cases of dispensation granted by the Grand Master or Grand Lodge. In the United States, the usage is general that the candidate shall not be less than twenty‑one years of age at the time of his initiation, and no dispensation can issue for conferring the degrees at an earlier period.


This variety in the laws relating to this subject conclusively proves that the precise age has never been determined by any Landmark of the Order. The design and nature of the institution must in this case be our only guide. The speculative character of the society requires that none shall be admitted to its mysteries except those who have reached maturity and discretion; but it is competent for any Grand Lodge to determine for itself what shall be considered to be that age of maturity. Perhaps the best regulation is that adopted by the Grand Lodge of Hamburg. Hence the Masons of this country have very wisely conformed to the provisions of the law on this subject, which prevail in all the States, and have made the age of twenty‑one the legal one for candidates applying for admission.






Born at Charleston, South Carolina, March 12th, 1807. Passed on at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, June 20th, 1881, at the age of 74 years. Buried at Washington, D.C., June 26th, 1881, with all the solemnity of the Masonic Rites wherein he had long been an active leader. Graduated with honors at the Charleston Medical College, iii 18:31 gave his attention to the practice of medicine until 1851, but from that time on devoted his time to literary and Masonic efforts. He was Initiated, Passed and Raised in Saint Andrews Lodge No. 10, Charleston, South Carolina, in 1841. Shortly thereafter he affiliated with Soloman's Lodge No. 1, Charleston, and was elected Worshipful Master in 1842. From 1842 to 1867 he held the office of Grand Secretary of South Carolina. In 1812 he was advanced and exalted in Capitular Masonry, and served 1855 to 1867 as Grand High Priest of South Carolina. From 1850 to 1868 served as General Grand High Priest. Created a Knight Templar in 1842, elected Eminent Commander 1844. Crowned a Sovereign Grand Inspector General of the Thirty Third and last Degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in 1844, and for many years Secretary‑General of the Supreme Council. Ilis most popular and outstanding Masonic literature were "A Lexicon of Freemasoliry," "Mackey's History of Freemasonry," "Jurisprudence," "Symbolism," and "Mackey's Encyclopedia of Freemasonry." These works are recognized and published then ‑ out the English speaking world, as works of authority on Freemasonry.





37 ‑ Certain numbers are assigned as the symbolic ages of Masons of various degrees. What are they, and why?


            Age, Masonic. In all of the Masonic Rites except the York, or American system, a mystical age is appropriated to each degree, and the initiate who has received the degree is said to be of such or such an age. Thus, the age of an Entered Apprentice is said to be three years; that of a Fellow Craft, five; and that of a Master Mason, seven. These ages are not arbitrarily selected, but have reference to the mystical value of members and their relation to the different degrees. Thus, three is the symbol of peace and concord, and has been called in the Pythagorean system the number of perfect harmony, and is appropriated to that degree, which is the initiation into an Order whose fundamental principles are harmony and brotherly love. Five is the symbol of active life, the union of the female principle two and the male principle three, and refers in this way to the active duties of man as a denizen of the world, which constitutes the symbolism of the Fellow Craft's degree; and seven, as a venerable and perfect number, is symbolic of that perfection which is supposed to be attained in the Master's degree. In a way similar to this, all the ages of the other degrees are symbolically and mystically explained. It has already been said that this system does not prevail in the York Rite. It is uncertain whether it ever did and has been lost, or whether it is a modern innovation on the symbolism of Masonry invented for the later Rites. Something like it, however, is to be found in the battery, which still exists in the York Rite, and which, like the Masonic age, is varied in the different degrees.


The Masonic ages are - and it will thus be seen that they are all mystic numbers ‑ 3, 5, 7, 9, 15, 27, 63, 81.


38 How is the word "agenda" used in Masonry?


            Agenda. A Latin participle, signifying "things to be done." In Masonry it means small books in which certain virtues or precepts are written, and which it is the duty of all Masons to inculcate and practice. It also applied to the items constituting a program or order of business.


39 - What was the book of the Constitutions of the Ancient Masons called?


            Ahiman Rezon. Dr. Mackey says these words are derived from the Hebrew ahim, brothers, manah, to prepare, and ratzon, the will or law; and signifies, therefore literally, "the law of prepared brothers." Others contend that the derivation is from achi man razor., "the opinions of a true and faithful brother." It was the title adopted for their Book of Constitutions by the section which split off from our Grand Lodge about the year

1740, and denominated themselves, by way of distinction, "Ancient Masons."




40 - To what extent should a Mason extend aid to a worthy distressed brother?


            Aid and Assistance. The duty of aiding and assisting, not only all worthy distressed Master Masons, but their widows and orphans also, "wheresoever dispersed over the face of the globe," is one of the most important obligations that is imposed upon every brother of the "mystic tie" by the whole scope and tenor of the Masonic Institution. The regulations for the exercise of this duty are few, but rational. In the first place, a Master Mason who is in distress has a greater claim, under equal circumstances, to the aid and assistance of his brother, than one who, being in the Order, has not attained that degree, or who is altogether a profane. This is strictly in accordance with the natural instincts of the human heart, which will always prefer a friend to a stranger, or, as it is rather energetically expressed in the language of Long Tom Coffin, "a messmate before a shipmate, a shipmate before a stranger, and a stranger before a dog;" and it is also strictly in accordance with the teaching of the Apostle of the Gentiles, who has said: "As we have opportunity, therefore, let us do good to all men, especially unto them who are of the household." But this exclusiveness is only to be practiced under circumstances which make a selection imperatively necessary. Where the grant of relief to the profane would incapacitate us from granting similar relief to our brother, then must the preference be given to him who is "of the household." But the earliest symbolic lessons of the ritual teach the Mason not to restrict his benevolence within the narrow limits of the Fraternity, but to acknowledge the claims of all men, who need it, to assistance. Inwood has beautifully said, "The humble condition both of property and dress, of penury and want, in which you were received into the Lodge, should make you at all times sensible of the distress of poverty and all you can spare from the call of nature and the due care of your families, should only remain in your possession as a ready sacrifice to the necessities of an unfortunate, distressed brother. Let the distressed cottage feel the warmth of your Masonic zeal and, if possible, exceed even the unabating ardor of Christian charity. At your approach let the orphan cease to weep, and in the sound of your voice let the widow forget her sorrow." Another restriction laid upon this duty of aid and assistance by the obligations of Masonry is that the giver shall not be lavish beyond his means in the disposition of his benevolence. What he bestows must be such as he can give "without material injury to himself or family." No man should wrong his wife or children that he may do a benefit to a stranger or ever a brother. The obligations laid on a Mason to grant aid and assistance to the needy and distressed


MASONRY DEFINED          93 


seem to be in the following graduations: first, to his family; next, to his brethren; and, lastly, to the world at large.


So far this subject has been viewed in a general reference to that spirit of kindness which should actuate all men, and which it is the object of Masonic teaching to impress on the mind of every Mason as a common duty of humanity, and whose disposition Masonry only seeks to direct and guide. But there is another aspect in which this subject may be considered, namely, in that peculiar and technical one of Masonic aid and assistance due from one Mason to another. Here there is a duty declared, and a correlative right inferred; for if it is the duty of one Mason to assist another, it follows that every Mason has the right to claim that assistance from his brother. It is this duty that the obligations of Masonry are especially intended to enforce; it is this right that they are intended to sustain. The symbolic ritual of Masonry which refers, as, for instance, in the first degree, to the virtue of benevolence refers to it in the general sense of a virtue which all men should practice. But when the Mason reaches the third degree, he discovers new obligations which restrict and define the exercise of this duty of aid and assistance. So far as his obligations control him, the Mason as a Mason, is not legally bound to extend his aid beyond the just claimants in his own Fraternity. To do good to all men is of course inculcated and recommended; to dv good to the household is enforced and made compulsory by legal enactment and sanction.


Now, as there is here, on one side, a duty, and on the other side a right, it is proper to inquire what are the regulations or laws by which this duty is controlled and this right maintained.


The duty to grant and the right to claim relief Masonically is recognized in the following passage of the Old Charges of 1722: "But if you discover him to be a true and genuine brother, you are to respect him accordingly; and if he is in want, you must relieve him if you can, or else direct him how he may be relieved. You must employ him some days, or else recommend him to be employed. But you are not charged to do beyond your ability; only to prefer a poor brother, who is a good man and true, before any other people in the same circumstances." This written law agrees in its conditions and directions, so far as it goes, with the unwritten law of the Order, and from the two we may deduce the following principles:


1. The applicant must be a Master Mason. In 1722, the charitable benefits of Masonry were extended, it is true, to Entered Apprentices, and an Apprentice was recognized, in the language of the law, as "a true and genuine brother." But this was because at that time only the first degree was conferred in subordinate Lodges. Fellow




Crafts and Master Masons being made in the Grand Lodge. Hence the great mass of the Fraternity consisted of Apprentices, and many Masons never proceeded any further. But the second and third degrees are now always conferred in the subordinate Lodges, and very few initiates voluntarily stop short of the Master's degree. Hence, the mass of the Fraternity now consists of Master Masons, and the law which formerly applied to Apprentices is, under our present organization, made applicable only to those who have become Master Masons.


2. The applicant must be worthy. We are to presume that every Mason is "a good man and true" until the Lodge which has jurisdiction over him has pronounced to the contrary. Every Mason who is "in good standing," that is, who is a regularly contributing member of a Lodge, is to be considered as "worthy," in the technical sense of the term. An expelled, a suspended, or a non‑affiliated Mason, does not meet the required condition of "a regularly contributing member." Such a Mason is therefore not "worthy," and is not entitled to Masonic assistance.


3. The giver is not expected to exceed his ability in the amount of relief. The written law says, "you are not charged to do beyond your ability," the ritual says, that your relief must be "without material injury to yourself or family." The principle is the same in both.


4. The widow and orphans of a Master Mason have the claims of the husband and father extended to them. The written law says nothing explicitly on this point, but the unwritten or ritualistic law expressly declares that it is our duty "to contribute to the relief of a worthy, distressed brother, his widow and orphans."


5. And lastly, in granting relief or assistance, the Mason is to be preferred to the profane. He must be placed "before any other people in the same circumstances." These are the laws which regulate the doctrine of Masonic aid and assistance. They are often charged by the enemies of Masonry with a spirit of exclusiveness. But it has been shown that they are in accordance with the exhortation of the Apostle, who would do good "especially to those who are of the household," and they have the warrant of the law of nature; for every one will be ready to say. with that kindest‑hearted of men, Charles Lamb, "I can feel for all indifferently, but I cannot feel for all alike. I can be a friend to a worthy man, who, upon another account, cannot be my mate or fellow. I cannot like all people alike." And so as Masons, while we should be charitable to all persons in need or distress, there are only certain ones who can claim the aid and assistance of the Order, or of its disciples, under the positive sanction of the Masonic law.




41 - By what three elements is a Mason proved?


            Air. Every human being at his birth becomes subject to the action of three elements. He comes out of water, passes through the air, and when he arrives at maturity, he is under the influence of fire. It is only at his death that he can participate of the fourth element (the earth). When he is initiated into the mysteries of Masonry, he is proved by the three elements of water, air, and fire.


42 - In what sense is the word "alarm" used in Masonry?


            Alarm. The verb, "to alarm," signifies, in Freemasonry, "to give notice of the approach of some one desiring admission." Thus, "to alarm the Lodge," is to inform the Lodge that there is some one without who is seeking entrance. As a noun, the word "alarm" has two significations. 1. An alarm is a warning given by the Tiler, or other appropriate officer, by which he seeks to communicate with the interior of the Lodge or Chapter. In this sense the expression so often used, "an alarm at the door," simply signifies that the officer outside has given notice of his desire to communicate with the Lodge.

2. An alarm is also the peculiar mode in which this notice is to be given. As to the derivation of the word, a writer in Notes and Queries ingeniously conjectures that it comes from the old French a l'arme, which in modern times is aux armes, "to arms." The legal meaning of to alarm is not to frighten, but to make one aware of the necessity of defense or protection. And this is precisely the Masonic signification of the word.


43 - What is the sacred book of the Mohammedans called?


            Alcoran. The sacred book of the Mohammedans, or rather a sacred book, for they recognize the old Hebrew Scriptures as of greater authority. The Alcoran, commonly called the Koran, contains the revelations made to Mohammed, his doctrines and precepts. In a Masonic Lodge of Mohammedans it should lay on the altar as the Bible does in a Lodge of Christians.


44 - Has a woman ever been made a Mason?


            Aldworth, the Hon. Mrs. This lady received, about the year 1735. the first and second degrees of Freemasonry in Lodge No. 44, at Doneraile, in Ireland. The circumstances connected with this singular initiation were first published in 1807, at Cork, and subsequently republished by Spencer, the celebrated Masonic bibliophile, in London. It may be observed, before proceeding to glean from this work the narrative of her initiation, that the authenticity of all the circumstances was confirmed on their first publication by an eye‑witness to the transaction.


The Hon. Elizabeth St. Leger was born about the year 1713, and was the youngest child and only daughter of the Right Hon. Arthur




St. Leger, first Viscount Doneraile, of Ireland, who died in 1727, and was succeeded by his eldest son, the brother of our heroine. Subsequently to her initiation into the mysteries of Freemasonry she married Richard Aldsworth, Esq., of Newmarket, in the county of Cork




Lodge No. 44, in which she was initiated, was, in some sort, an aristocratic Lodge, consisting principally of the gentry and most respectable and wealthy inhabitants of the country around Doneraile. The communications were usually held in the town, but during the Mastership of Lord Doneraile, under whom his sister was initiated, the meetings were often held at his Lordship's residence.




It was during one of these meetings at Doneraile House that this female initiation took place, the story of which Spencer, in the memoir to which we have referred, relates in the following words:




"It happened on this particular occasion that the Lodge was held in a room separated from another, as is often the case, by stud and brickwork. The young lady, being giddy and thoughtless and determined to gratify her curiosity, made her arrangements accordingly, and, with a pair of scissors (as she herself related to the mother of our informant), removed a portion of a brick from the wall, and placed herself so as to command a full view of everything which occurred in the next room; so placed, she witnessed the two first degrees in Masonry, which was the extent of the proceedings of the Lodge on that night. Becoming aware, from what she heard, that the brethren were about to separate, for the first time she felt tremblingly alive to the awkwardness and danger of her situation, and began to consider how she could retire without observation. She became nervous and agitated, and nearly fainted, but so far recovered herself as to be fully aware of the necessity of withdrawing as quickly as possible; in the act of doing so, being in the dark, she stumbled against and overthrew something, said to be a chair or some ornamental piece of furniture. The crash was loud; and the Tiler, who was on the lobby or landing on which opened the doors both of the Lodge room and that where the honorable Miss St. Leger was, gave the alarm, burst open the door, and with a light in one hand and a drawn sword in the other, appeared to the now terrified and fainting lady. He was soon joined by the members of the Lodge present, and luckily; for it is asserted that but for the prompt appearance of her brother, Lord Doneraile, and other steady members, her life would have fallen a sacrifice to what was then esteemed her crime. The first care of his Lordship was to resuscitate the unfortunate lady without alarming the house, and endeavor to learn from her an explanation of what had occurred; having done so, many of the members being furious at the transaction, she was placed under guard of the Tiler and a member, in the room where she was found. The members reassembled and






deliberated as to what, under the circumstances, was to be done, and over two long hours she could hear the angry discussion and her death deliberately proposed and seconded. At length the good sense of the majority succeeded in calming, in some measure, the angry and irritated feelings of the rest of the members, when, after much had been said and many things proposed, it was resolved to give her the option of submitting to the Masonic ordeal to the extent she had witnessed (Fellow Craft), and if she refused, the brethren were again to consult. Being waited on to decide, Miss St. Leger, exhausted and terrified by the storminess of the debate, which she could not avoid partially hearing, and yet, notwithstanding all, with a secret pleasure, gladly and unhesitatingly accepted the offer. She was accordingly initiated." Mrs., or, as she was appropriately called, Sister Aldsworth, lived many years after, but does not seem ever to have forgotten the lessons of charity and fraternal love which she received on her unexpected initiation into the esoteric doctrines of the Order. "Placed as she was," says the memoir we have quoted, "by her marriage with Mr. Aldsworth, at the head of a very large fortune, the poor, in general, had good reason to record her numerous and bountiful acts of kindness; nor were these accompanied with ostentation - far from it. It has been remarked of her, that her custom was to seek out bashful misery and retiring poverty, and with a well‑directed liberality, soothe many a bleeding heart."


45 - What is the name of God in the Mohammedan religion?


            Allah. The Arabic name of God. The Alcoran describes his character and attributes thus: "He alone is self‑existent; has no rival; is from everlasting to everlasting; fills the universe with his presence; is the center in which all things unite, as well the visible as the invisible; is infinite; Almighty, all‑wise, all‑merciful, tender‑hearted; and his decrees are unchangeable."


46 - What effect does non‑affiliation have upon the allegiance of a Mason to the fraternity?


            Allegiance. The relation which a Mason bears to his Lodge is of a different nature from that which connects him with the Order. It is in some degree similar to that political relation which jurists have called "local allegiance," or the allegiance which a man gives to the country or the sovereign in whose territories and under whose protection he resides. This allegiance is founded on the doctrine that where there is protection there should be subjection, and that subjection should in turn receive protection. It may be permanent or temporary. A removal from the territory cancels the allegiance, Which will again be contracted towards the sovereign of the new domicile to which the individual may have removed. Now this is




precisely the relation which exists between a Mason and his Lodge. The Lodge grants him its protection; that is, from his membership in it he derives his rights of visit, of relief, of burial, and all the other prerogatives which inure, by custom or law, to the active members of Lodges, and which are actually the results of member‑ship. In return for this, he gives it his allegiance; he acknowledges obedience to its By‑Laws, and he contributes to its revenues by his annual or quarterly dues. But he may at any time dissolve this allegiance to any particular Lodge, and contract it with another. As the denizen of a country cancels his allegiance by abandoning its protection and removing to another territory, the Mason may with‑draw his relations to one Lodge and unite with another. But he still continues an affiliated Mason, only his affiliation is with another body.


But the denizen who removes from one country may not, by subsequent residence, give his allegiance to another. He may become a cosmopolite, bearing local allegiance to no particular sovereign. All that follows from this is, that he acquires no right of protection; for, if he gives no subjection, he can ask for no protection.


Now this is precisely the case with an unaffiliated Mason. Having taken his demit from one Lodge, he has of course lost its protection; and, having united with no other, he can claim protection from none. He has forfeited all those rights which are derived from membership. He has dissevered all connections between himself and the Lodge organization of the Order, and by this act has divested himself of all the prerogatives which belonged to him as a member of that organization. Among these are the right of visit, of pecuniary aid, and of Masonic burial. When he seeks to enter the door of a Lodge it must be closed upon him, for the right to visit belongs only to affiliated Masons. Whenever he seeks for Lodge assistance, he is to be refused, because the funds of the Lodge are not to be distributed among those who refuse to aid, by their individual contributions, in the formation of similar funds in other Lodges. Nor can he expect to be accompanied to his last resting‑place by his brethren; for it is a settled law, that no Mason can be buried with the ceremonies of the Order, except upon his express request, previously made to the Master of the Lodge of which he is a member.


47 - What is the symbolism of the All‑Seeing Eye?


            All‑Seeing Eye. An important symbol of the Supreme Being, borrowed by the Freemasons from the nations of antiquity. Both the Hebrews and the Egyptians appear to have derived its use from that natural inclination of figurative minds to select an organ as the symbol of the function which it is intended peculiarly to discharge. Thus, the foot was often adopted as the symbol of swiftness, the arm of strength, and the hand of fidelity. On the game principle, the


MASONRY DEFINED          99 


open eye was selected as the symbol of watchfulness, and the eye of God as the symbol of divine watchfulness and care of the universe. The use of the symbol in this sense is repeatedly to be found in the Hebrew writers. Thus, the Psalmist says (Ps. xxxiv. 15): "The eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, and his ears are open to their cry," which explains a subsequent passage (Ps. cxxi. 4) in which it is said: "Behold, he that keepeth Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep." On the same principle, the Egyptians represented Osiris, their chief deity, by the symbol of an open eye, and placed this hieroglyphic of him in all their temples. His symbolic name, on the monuments, was represented by the eye accompanying a throne, to which was sometimes added an abbreviated figure of the god, and sometimes what has been called a hatchet, but which, I consider, may as correctly be supposed to be a representation of a square.


The All‑Seeing Eye may then be considered as a symbol of God manifested in his omnipresence - his guardian and preserving character - to which Solomon alludes in the Book of Proverbs (xv. 3), when he says: "The eyes of Jehovah are in every place, beholding (or, as it might be more faithfully translated, watching) the evil and the good." It is a symbol of the Omnipresent Deity.


48 - What allurements does Masonry hold out?


            Allurements. Masonry is one of the most sublime and perfect institutions that ever was formed for the advancement of the happiness and general good of mankind, creating, in all its varieties, universal benevolence and brotherly love. It holds out allurements so captivating as to inspire the brotherhood with emulation to deeds of glory, such as must command, throughout the world, veneration and applause, and such as must entitle those who perform them to dignity and respect. It teaches us those useful, wise, and instructive doctrines upon which alone true happiness is founded; and at the same time affords those easy paths by which we attain the rewards of virtue; it teaches us the duties which we owe to our neighbor, never to injure him in any one situation, but to conduct ourselves With justice and impartiality; it bids us not to divulge the mystery to the public; and it orders us to be true to our trust, and above all meanness and dissimulation, and in all our vocations to perform religiously that which we ought to do.


49 ‑ What is the symbolism of the almond tree?


            Almond Tree. The tree of which Aaron's rod, that budded, was a branch. Its flowers were pure white. When it is said in the passage of Scripture from the twelfth chapter of Eccles. read during the ceremonies of the third degree, "the almond tree shall flourish," ref‑




erence is made to the white flowers of that tree, and the allegoric signification is to old age, when the hairs of the head shall become gray.


50 - What is the symbolism of the Masonic altar?


            Altar. The most important article of furniture in a Lodge room is undoubtedly the altar. It is worth while, then, to investigate its character and its relation to the altars of other religious institutions. The definition of an altar is very simple. It is a structure elevated above the ground, and appropriated to some service connected with worship, such as the offering of oblations, sacrifices, or prayers.


Altars, among the ancients, were generally made of turf or stone. When permanently erected and not on any sudden emergency, they were generally built in regular courses of masonry, aid usually in a cubical form. Altars were erected long before temples. Thus, Noah is said to have erected one as soon as he came forth from the ark. Ileroditus gives the Egyptians the credit of being the first among the heathen nations who invented altars.


Among the ancients, both Jews and Gentiles, altars were of two kinds - for incense and for sacrifice. The latter were always erected in the open air, outside and in front of the Temple. Only altars of incense were permitted within the Temple walls. Animals were slain, and offered on the altars of burnt offerings. On the altars of incense, bloodless sacrifices were presented and incense was burnt to the Deity.


The Masonic altar, which, like everything else in Masonry, is symbolic, appears to combine the character and uses of both of these altars. It is an altar of sacrifice, for on it the candidate is directed to lay his passions and vices as an oblation to the Deity, while he offers up the thoughts of a pure heart as a fitting incense to the Grand Architect of the Universe. The altar is, therefore, the most holy place in a Lodge.


Among the ancients the altar was always invested with peculiar sanctity. Altars were places of refuge and the supplicants who fled to them were considered as having placed themselves under the protection of the deity to whom the altar was consecrated, and to do violence even to slaves and criminals at the altar, or to drag them from it, was regarded as an act of violence to the deity himself, and was hence a sacrilegious crime.


The marriage covenant among the ancients was always solemnized at the altar, and men were accustomed to make all their solemn con‑tracts and treaties by taking oaths at altars. An oath taken or a vow made at the altar was considered as more solemn and binding than one assumed under other circumstances. Hence, Hannibal's father brought him to the Carthaginian altar when he was about to make him swear eternal enmity to the Roman power.


MASONRY DEFINED          101


In all the religions of antiquity, it was the usage of the priests and the people to pass around the altar in the course of the sun, that is to say, from the east, by the way of the south, to the west, singing hymns of praise as a part of their worship.


From all this we see that the altar in Masonry is not merely a convenient article of furniture, intended, like a table, to hold a Bible. It is a sacred utensil of religion, intended, like the altars of the ancient temples, for religious uses, and thus identifying Masonry, by its necessary existence in our Lodges, as a religious institution. Its presence should also lead the contemplative Mason to view the ceremonies in which it is employed with solemn reverence, as being part of a really religious worship.


The situation of the altar in the French and Scottish Rites is in front of the Worshipful Master, and, therefore, in the East. In the York Rite, the altar is placed in the centre of the room, or more prop. erly a little to the East of the centre.


The form of a Masonic altar should be a cube, about three feel high, and of corresponding proportions as to length and width, having: in imitation of the Jewish altar, four horns, one at each corner. The Holy Bible with the Square and Compass should be spread open upon it, while around it are to be placed three lights. These lights are to be in the East, West and South. North of the altar there is no light, because in Masonry the North is the place of darkness.


51 - What is the steward's jewel, and why?


            Amalthea. The name of the horn of the Cretan goat. This is the mythological horn of plenty - "Cornu Copia" - which signifies an abundance of things necessary to life. It is the jewel of the stewards of a Lodge of Master Masons.


52 ‑ Why do Masons say amen at the close of prayer?


Amen. The response to every Masonic prayer is, "So mote it be: Amen." The word Amen signifies in Hebrew verily, truly, certainly. "Its proper place," says Gensenius, "is where one person confirms the Words of another, and adds his wish for success to the other's vows." It is evident, then, that it is the brethren of the Lodge, and not the Master or Chaplain, who should pronounce the word. It is a response to the prayer. The Talmudists have many superstitious notions in respect to this word. Thus, in one treatise, it is said that whosoever pronounces it with fixed attention and devotion, to him the gates of Paradise will be opened; and, again, whoever enunciates the word rapidly, his days shall pass rapidly away, and whosoever dwells upon it, pronouncing it distinctly and slowly, his life shall be prolonged 




53 - What is an amulet?


            Amulet. A piece of stone or metal, or other substance, marked with certain figures, to be worn about the person as a protection against danger. The name, as well as the thing, comes from the East. It is from the Arabic, hamail, a locket - anything hung around the neck. Among the Turks and some other nations every person thinks an amulet necessary to safety. Amulets were in vogue among the Greeks, the Egyptians, and Romans. They were introduced into Christendom by the Basilideans. The amulets of this sect were stones with the mystic word Abraxas engraved upon them. They were highly valued by the Jews; and in past times Christians have worn them, having the mark of a fish or a symbol of the Savior. In many quasi‑Masonic societies they have been largely used, and they are not wholly ,unknown in Masonry itself - e. g., the Tyrian Signet, H. T. W. S. S. T. K. S.


54 - What is the symbolism of the Anchor?


            Anchor. The hope of glory, or of the fulfilment of all God's promises to our souls, is the golden or precious anchor, by which we must be kept steadfast in the faith, and encouraged to abide in our proper station, amidst the storms of temptation, affliction, and persecution.


55 - Of what are the anchor and ark the emblems?


            Anchor and Ark. The ark and anchor are emblems of a well‑grounded hope and a well‑spent life. They are emblematical of that divine ark which triumphantly bears us over this tempestuous sea of troubles; and that anchor which shall safely moor us in a peaceful harbor, where the wicked cease from troubling and the weary are at rest.


56 - What is included in Ancient Craft Masonry?


            Ancient Craft Masonry. This is the name given to the three symbolic degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason. The degree of Royal Arch is not generally included under this appellation; although, when considered (as it really is) a complement of the third degree, it must of course constitute a part of Ancient Craft Masonry. In the articles of union between the two Grand Lodges of England, adopted in 1813, it is declared that "pure Ancient Masonry consists of three degrees and no more; viz.: those of the Entered Apprentice, the Fellow Craft, and the Master Mason, including the Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch."


57 - How many degrees were there in Ancient Craft Masonry?


            Ancient Craft Masonry, Degrees of. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and at still more remote periods, the operative element constituted an important ingredient in the organization of the


MASONRY DEFINED          103 


institution. The divisions of the members into grades at that time were necessarily assimilated to the wants of such an operative institution. There were Masters to superintend the work, Fellow Crafts, or as they were almost always called, Fellows, to perform the labor, and Apprentices, to be instructed in the principles of the art. Hence, in all the oldest records, we find constant allusions to the Fellows, as constituting the main body of the fraternity; and the word "Fellow," at that time, appears to have been strictly synonymous with "Freemason." Thus, Elias Ashmole, the celebrated antiquary, says in his "Diary," that on the sixteenth day of October, 1646, he "was made a Freemason at Warrington, Lancashire, with Colonel Henry Mainwaring, of Kerthingham, in Cheshire, by Mr. Richard Penket, the Warden, and the Fellow Crafts." And again, under the date of March 10, 1682, when speaking of another reception which took place on that day at Masons' Hall, in London, he says: "I was the Senior Fellow among them - it being thirty‑five years since I was admitted. There were present, besides myself, the Fellows after named," and he proceeds to give the names of these Fellows, which it is unnecessary to quote.


Throughout the whole of the Ancient Charges and Regulations, until we get to those emendations of them which were adopted in 1721 and 1722, we find no reference to the Apprentices, except as a subordinate and probationary class, while the Fellow Crafts assume the position of the main body of the fraternity, that position which, in the present day, is occupied by the Master Masons.


During all this time, the Apprentices are seldom alluded to, and then only as if in a subordinate position, and without the possession of any important prerogatives. Thus, they are thrice spoken of only in the York Constitutions of 926, where the Master is directed to take no Apprentice "for less than seven years;" to take care, in the ad‑mission of an Apprentice, "that he do his lord no prejudice;" and to "instruct his Apprentice faithfully, and make him a perfect workman." And in the "Ancient Charges at Makings," it is implied that either a Master or Fellow may take an Apprentice.


These citations from the Ancient Regulations need not be'extended. From them we may collect the facts, or at least the very probable sup‑positions, that in the very earliest history of the Order, the operative character predominating, the Fellow Crafts, under the designation of "Fellows," constituted the main body of the fraternity, while the Masters were the superintendents of the work; that at a later period, about the beginning of the eighteenth century, the speculative character predominating, the Apprentices arose in dignity and became the body of the fraternity, while the Fellow Crafts and Master Masons were intrusted with the offices; and that still later, at some time in the course of the eighteenth century, which certainly was not very long after the year 1725, the Apprentices and Fellow Crafts descended into a




subordinate position, just such a one of the former class had originally occupied, and the Master Masons alone composed the body of the craft.


58 - Who and what were the Ancient Masons?


            Ancient Masons. Ancients was the name assumed by a body of Masons which, in

1738, arose independently beside the regular Grand Lodge of England, and who at the same time insultingly bestowed upon the adherents of that body the title of Moderns. Thus Dermott, in his Ahiman Rezon, divides the Masons of England into two classes, as follows: "The Ancients, under the name of Free and Accepted Masons. The Moderns, under the name of Freemasons of England. And though a similarity of names, yet they differ exceedingly in makings, ceremonies, knowledge, Masonical language, and installations; so much so, that they always have been, and still continue to be, two distinct societies, directly independent of each other." To understand, therefore, anything of the meaning of these two terms, we must be acquainted with the history of what was formerly regarded as the schism of the self‑styled Ancients from the legal Grand Lodge of England. No Masonic student should be ignorant of this history, and I propose, therefore, to give a brief sketch of it in the present article.


In the year 1738, a number of brethren in London, having become dissatisfied with certain transactions in the Grand Lodge of England, separated themselves from the regular Lodges, and began to hold meetings and initiate candidates without the sanction and authority of the Grand Lodge. Preston, who has given a good account of the Ancients, does not, however, state the causes which led to the dissatisfaction of the recusant brethren. But Thorp attributes it to the fact that the Grand Lodge had introduced some innovation, altering the rituals and suppressing many of the ceremonies which had long been in use. This is also the charge made by Dermott. It is certain that changes were made, especially in some of the modes of recognition, and these changes, it is believed, were induced by the publication of a spurious revelation by the notorious Samuel Prichard. Preston himself acknowledges that innovations took place, although he attributes them to a time subsequent to the first secession.


Just about this time some dissensions had occurred between the Grand Lodge at London and that at York, and the irregular brethren, taking advantage of this condition of affairs, assumed, but without authority from the Grand Lodge of York, the name of Ancient York Masons. Matters were, however, subsequently accommodated; but in the next year the difficulties were renewed, and the Grand Lodge persisting in its innovations and ritualistic changes, the irregular brethren declared themselves independent, and assumed the appellation of An‑


MASONRY DEFINED          105


cient Masons, to indicate their adhesion to the ancient forms, while, for a similar purpose, they denominated the members of the regular Lodges, Modern Masons, because, as was contended, they had adopted new forms and usages. The irregulars established a new Grand Lodge in London, and, under the claim that they were governed by the Ancient York Constitutions, which had been adopted at that city in the year 926, they gained over many influential persons in England, and were even recognized by the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland. The Ancient York Lodges, as they were called, greatly increased in England, and became so popular in America that a majority of the Lodges and provincial Grand Lodges established in this country during the eighteenth century derived their warrants from the Grand Lodge of Ancient York Masons. In the year 1756, Laurence Dermott, then Grand Secretary, and subsequently the Deputy Grand Master of the new Grand Lodge, published a Book of Constitutions, for the use of the Ancient Masons, under the title of Ahiman Rezon, which work went through several editions, and became the code of Masonic law for all who adhered, either in England or America, to the Ancient York Grand Lodge, while the Grand Lodge of Moderns, or the regular Grand Lodge of England, and its adherents, were governed by the regulations contained in Anderson's Constitutions, the first edition of which had been published in 1723.


Henry Sadler maintains that the first ancient lodges in London were formed by Irish Masons in humble circumstances who had been denied admission into the English lodges and that these brethren, not having been parties to the "revival" of 1717, were not seceders, but that their lodges were regularly organized by right of immemorial usage, and this view now generally prevails.


The dissensions between the two Grand Lodges of England lasted until the year 1813, when, as will be hereafter seen, the two bodies be‑came consolidated under the name and title of the United Grand Lodge of Ancient Freemasons of England. Four years afterwards a similar and final reconciliation took place in America, by the union of the two Brand Lodges in South Carolina. At this day all distinctidn between the Ancients and Moderns has ceased, and it lives only in the memory of the Masonic student.


What were the precise differences in the rituals of the Ancients and the Moderns, it is now perhaps impossible to discover, as from their esoteric nature they were only orally communicated; but some shrewd and near approximations to their real nature may be drawn by inference from the casual expressions which have fallen from the advocates of each in the course of their long and generally bitter controversies.


I have already said that the regular Grand Lodge is stated to have made certain changes in the modes of recognition, in consequence of the Publication of Samuel Prichard's spurious revelation. These changes




were, as we traditionally learn, a simple transposition of certain words, by which that which had originally been the first became the second, and that which had been the second became the first. Hence Dr. Dalcho, the compiler of the original Ahiman Rezon of South Carolina, who was himself made in an Ancient Lodge, but was acquainted with both systems, says "The real difference in point of importance was no greater than it would be to dispute whether the glove should be placed first upon the right or on the left." A similar testimony as to the character of these changes is furnished by an address to the Duke of Athol, the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Ancients, in which it is said: "I would beg leave to ask, whether two persons standing in the Guild‑hall of London, the one facing the statues of Gog and Magog, and the other with his back turned on them, could with any degree of propriety, quarrel about their stations; as Gog must be on the right of one, and Magog on the right of the other. Such then, and far more Insignificant, is the disputatious temper of the seceding brethren, that on no better grounds than the above they choose to usurp a power and to aid in open and direct violation of the regulations they had solemnly engaged to maintain, and by every artifice possible to be devised endeavored to in‑crease their numbers." It was undoubtedly to the relative situation of the pillars of the porch, and the appropriation of their names in the ritual, that these allusions referred. As we have them now, they were made by the change effected by the Grand Lodge of Moderns, which transposed the original order in which they existed before the change, and in which order they are still preserved by the continental Lodges of Europe.


It is then admitted that the Moderns did make innovations in the ritual; and although Preston asserts that the changes were made by the regular Grand Lodge to distinguish its members from those made by the Ancient Lodges, it is evident, from the language of the address just quoted, that the innovations were the cause and not the effect of the break, and the inferential evidence is that the changes were made in consequence of, and as a safeguard against, spurious publications, and were intended, as I have already stated, to distinguish imposters from true Masons, and not irregular brethren from those who were orthodox.


But outside of and beyond this transposition of words, there was another difference existing between the Ancients and the Moderns. Dalcho, who was acquainted with both systems, says that the Ancient Masons were in possession of marks of recognition known only to themselves. His language on this subject is positive. "The Ancient York Masons," he says, "were certainly in possession of the original, universal marks, as they were known and given in the Lodges they had left, and which had descended through the Lodge of York, and that of England, down to their day. Besides these, we find they had peculiar marks of their own, which were unknown to the body from


MASONRY DEFINED          107 


which they had separated, and were unknown to the rest of the Masonic world. We have, then, the evidence that they had two sets of marks; viz.: those which they had brought with them from the original body, and those which they had, we suppose, themselves devised." Dermott, in his Ahiman Rezon, confirms this statement of Dalcho, if indeed, it needs confirmation. He says that "a Modern Mason may with safety communicate all his secrets to an Ancient Mason, but that an Ancient Mason cannot, with like safety, communicate all his secrets to a Modern Mason without further ceremony." And he assigns as a reason for this, that "as a science comprehends an art (though an art cannot comprehend a science), even so Ancient Masonry contains everything valuable among the Moderns, as well as many other things that cannot be revealed without additional ceremonies." Now, what were these "other things" known by the Ancients, and not known by the Moderns? What were these distinctive marks, which precluded the latter from visiting the Lodges of the former? Written history is of course silent as to these esoteric matters. But tradition, confirmed by, and at the same time explaining, the hints and casual intimations of contemporary writers, leads us to the almost irresistible inference that they were to be found in the different constructions of the third, or Master's degree, and the introduction into it of the Royal Arch element; for, as Dr. Oliver says, "the division of the third degree and the fabrication of the English Royal Arch appear, on their own showing, to have been the work of the Ancients." And hence the (trand Secretary of the regular Grand Lodge, or that of the Moderns, replying to the application of an Ancient Mason from Ireland for relief, says: "Our society (i. e. the Moderns) is neither Arch, Royal Arch, nor Ancient, so that you have no right to partake of our charity." This, then is the solution of the difficulty. The Ancients, besides preserving the regular order of the words in the first and second degrees, which the Moderns had transposed (a transposition which has been retained in the Lodges of Britain and America, but which has never been observed by the continental Lodges of Europe, who continue the Wage of the Ancients), also finished the otherwise imperfect third degree with its natural complement, the Royal Arch, a complement with which the Moderns were unacquainted, or which they, if they knew it ogee, had lost.


For some years the Ancient Lodges appear to have worked on an Independent system, claiming the original right which every body of MMus had to assemble and work without a warrant. Here, however, y were evidently in error, for it was well known that on the revival of Masonry, in the year 1717, this right had been relinquished by the tour London Lodges that were then in operation, and which constituted




the Grand Lodge. This objection the Ancients pretended to meet by declaring that the Grand Lodge organized in 1717 was not legally constituted, only four Lodges having been engaged in the organization, while, as they said, five were required. Here again they were in error, as there is no evidence of any such regulation having ever existed. And, therefore, to place themselves in a less irregular position, they organized, in 1757, a Grand Lodge of their own, which was subsequently known by the title of "The Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of England, according to the old Constitutions," while the regular body was known as "The Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons under the Constitution of England." The following is a list of the Grand Masters of the Grand Lodge of Ancients from its organization to its dissolution:


1753, Robert Turner;

1755, Edward Vaughan;

1757, Earl of Blessington;

1761, Earl of Kelly;

1767, Thomas Matthew;

1771, 3d Duke of Athol;

1775, 4th Duke of Athol;

1782, Earl of Antrim;

1791, 4th Duke of Athol;

1813, Duke of Kent, under whom the reconciliation of the two Grand Lodges was accomplished.


The Grand Lodge of Ancient Masons was, shortly after its organization, recognized by the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland, and, through the ability and energy of its officers, but especially Laurence Dermott, at one time its Grand Secretary, and afterwards its Deputy Grand Master, and the author of its Ahiman Rezon, or Book of Constitutions, it extended its influence and authority into foreign countries and into the British Colonies of America. Here it became exceedingly popular, and organized several Provincial Grand Lodges, as, for in‑stance, in Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina, where the Lodges working under this authority were generally known as "Ancient York Lodges." In consequence of this, dissensions existed, not only in the mother country but also in America, for many years, between the Lodges which derived their warrants from the Grand Lodge of Ancients and those which derived theirs from the regular or so‑called Grand Lodge of Mod‑ems. But the Duke of Kent having been elected, in 1813, the Grand Master of the Ancients, while his brother, the Duke of Sussex, was Grand Master of the Moderns, a permanent reconciliation was effected between the rival bodies, and by mutual compromises the present "United Grand Lodge of Ancient Freemasons of England" was established.


Similar unions were consummated in America, the last being that of the two Grand Lodges of South Carolina, in 1817, and the distinction between the Ancients and the Moderns was forever abolished, or remains only as a melancholy page in the history of Masonic controversies.


MASONRY DEFINED          109


59 - Who was the author of the "Constitutions of the Freemasons?"


            Anderson, James, D. D., was born at Edinburg, Scotland, August 5, 1662. The time of his death is uncertain; but, from the most reliable sources at our command, it is believed that he died in 1738. He was a man of a high order of literary talent. Ilis first work was an "Essay showing that the Crown of Scotland is Imperial and Independent," for which the Parliament of Scotland gave him a vote of thanks. At what time, or in what Lodge, Bro. Anderson became a Mason is not known. At the meeting of the Grand Lodge at London, September 29, 1721, he was ordered to arrange and more fully digest the old Gothic Constitutions into a new and better method than had before existed. This duty he performed and the work was issued in 1723, under the title, "The Constitutions of the Freemasons; containing the History, Charges, Regulations, etc., of that most Ancient and Right Worshipful Fraternity. For the use of the Lodges." In 1738, a second edition, enlarged and revised, was published under his supervision. These are regarded as the basis of Masonic Constitutions for the government of the Fraternity to the present time. He was, for many years, Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge. His most elaborate work was a folio volume entitled, "Royal Genealogies; or, the Genealogical Tables of Emperors, Kings, and Princes, from Adam to these times. London, 1732."


60 - Who is the patron saint of Scottish Masons?


            Andrew, St. Brother of St. Peter, one of the Twelve Apostles. The Russians hold him in the highest reverence, as also do the people of Scotland, and the Freemasons of the latter country honor him as one of their patrons. Tradition says that he was crucified. In both countries there is an order of knighthood named in his honor.


61 - What are the two principal anniversaries of symbolic Masonry?


            Anniversaries, Masonic. For Ancient Craft or Symbolic Masonry the festivals of St. John the Baptist, 24th of June, and St. John the Evangelist, 27th of December.


62 - What is the precedent for annual sessions of Grand Lodge`s?


            Annual Meetings of Grand Lodge. Originally the meetings of the fraternity in their General Assembly or Grand Lodge, were always annual. The old York Constitutions, it is true, say that the assembly might be held triennially; but wherever spoken of, in subsequent records, it is always as an Annual Meeting. It is not until 1717 that we find anything said of quarterly communications; and the first allusion to these subordinate meetings in any printed work, to which we now have access, is in 1738, in the edition of the Constitutions published in that year. The expression there used is that the quarterly communica‑ tions were "forthwith revived." This of course implies that they had Previously existed but as no mention is made of them in the Regula‑




tions of 1663, which, on the contrary, speak expressly only of an "Annual General Assembly," I feel authorized to infer that quarterly communications must have been first introduced into the Masonic system after the middle of the seventeenth century. They have not the authority of antiquity, and have been very wisely discarded by nearly all the Grand Lodges in this country.


63 - Why is Masonry mysterious?


            Anomaly. Freemasonry is mysterious because it is an admitted anomaly in the history of the earth. Without territorial possessions - without any other coercing power than that of morality and virtue - it has survived the wreck of mighty empires, and resisted the destroying hand of Time. Contrast the history of Freemasonry with the history of the nations of the world, and what is the result? The Jews, God's favored people, where are they now? A race of wanderers, scattered over the face of the globe. And the stupendous and magnificent structure - the Temple - at once their glory and the wonder of the world, where is it now? Not one stone is left upon another ! Babylon, in her day the queen of nations, has fallen, never to rise again. Egypt, with her kings and philosophers, classic Greece, and Imperial Rome, we now find but occupying their page in the history of the world. But Masonry shines throughout the 'world with as bright and .undiminished a lustre as when first revealed by God to man.


64 - What is the most useful form of Masonic charity?


            Annuities. Annuities are granted by many lodges to aged and distressed Freemasons, and also to the poor widows of deceased brethren, and this form of charity is certainly the most useful which any lodge can exercise. The silent gratitude of the recipient is a sufficient reward to the Order, but it also reaps this benefit, that the widow will encourage her sons, if she has any, to assist in giving similar assistance to other suffering brethren and widows.


65 - Did the anti‑Masonic party ever nominate a candidate for President?


            Anti‑Masonic Party. The Roman Catholic religion has always been anti‑Masonic, and hence edicts have constantly been promulgated by popes and sovereigns in Roman Catholic countries against the Order. The most important of these edicts is the bull of Pope Clement XII, which was issued on the 28th of April, 1738, the authority of which bull is still in existence, and forbids any pious Catholic from uniting with a Masonic Lodge under the severest penalties of ecclesiastical excommunication.


In the United States, where there are neither popes to issue bulls nor kings to promulgate edicts, the opposition to Freemasonry had to take the form of a political party. Such a party was organized in this country in the year 1826.


MASONRY DEFINED          111 


The object of this party was professedly to put down the Masonic Institution as subversive of good government, but really for the political aggrandizement of its leaders, who used the opposition to Freemasonry merely as a stepping‑stone to their own advancement to office. But the public virtue of the masses of the American people repudiated a party which was based on such corrupt and mercenary views. The party held several conventions; endeavored, sometimes successfully, but oftener unsuccessfully, to enlist prominent statesmen in its ranks, and finally, in 1831, nominated William Wirt and Amos Ellmaker as its candidates for the Presidency and the Vice‑Presidency of the United States. Each of these gentlemen received but seven votes, being the whole electoral vote of Vermont, which was the only State that voted for them. So signal a defeat was the death‑blow of the party, and from the year 1833 it quietly withdrew from public notice, and now is happily no longer in existence. William L. Stone, the historian of anti‑Masonry, has with commendable impartiality expressed his opinion of the character of this party, when he says that "the fact is not to be disguised - contradicted it cannot be - that anti‑Masonry had become thoroughly political, and its spirit was vindictive towards the Freemasons without distinction as to guilt or innocence." Notwithstanding the opposition that from time to time has been exhibited to Freemasonry in every country, America is the only one where it assumed the form of a political party. This, however, may very justly be attributed to the peculiar nature of our popular institutions. With us, the ballot‑box is considered the most potent engine for the government of rulers as well as people, and is, therefore, resorted to in cases in which, in more despotic governments, the powers of the Church and State would be exercised. Hence, the anti‑Masonic convention held at Philadelphia in 1830 did not hesitate to make the following declarations as the cardinal principle of the party. "The object of anti‑Masonry, in nominating and electing candidates for the Presidency and Vice‑Presidency, is to deprive Masonry of the support which it derives from the power and patronage of the executive branch of the United States Government. To effect this object, will require that candidates, besides possessing the talents and virtues, requisite for such exalted stations, be known as men decidedly opposed to secret societies." This issue having been thus boldly made was accepted by the people; and as principles like these were fundamentally opposed to all the ideas of liberty, personal and political, into which the citizens of the country had been indoctrinated, the battle was made, and the anti‑Masonic party was not only defeated for the time, but forever annihilated.


66 - Who was alleged to have been murdered by Masons?


            Anti‑Masonry. Anti‑masonry was converted into a watch‑word about the year 1830, for political purposes and, to render the cry more




imposing and more successful, it was alleged that the Fraternity had murdered a man of the name of Morgan for disclosing its secrets. The excitement was kept up with unceasing pertinacity until it influenced nearly 100,000 electors of the State of New York; almost divided the vote of Pennsylvania; planted itself deeply in the soil of Massachusetts; spread itself in others of the New England states, in Ohio and else‑where; and in Vermont, like the rod of Aaron, so far swallowed up both of the former parties, as to obtain the control of the state government. Nor was it of factitious partisans or disappointed men that this party was composed. It comprised among its members as great a portion of wealth and character - of talents and respectability - as any party that was ever formed of equal numbers in this or any other country. And where is this great anti‑masonic party now? The excitement continued but a few years, until the hollowness of its principles became apparent; then it suddenly disappeared like a passing cloud, leaving behind it nothing but public shame and contempt for those who promoted and led it.


67 - In what year did Masonry become entirely speculative?


            Antiquity of Freemasonry. Much that is claimed as true in Ma‑sonic history, by enthusiastic brothers is legendary and must fall before the stern tests of sound philosophical criticism, yet the high antiquity of the institution is incontestably established. According to legend a part of the ritual of Freemasonry originated in Egypt, and was en‑grafted on the system of the Sidonian builders known as the Dionysian Artificers. This society also adopted a portion of the rituals of Eleusis and Adonis, and through this Order of Freemasonry was introduced into Judea, and constructed Solomon's Temple. In the time of Numa Pornpilius, King of Rome, a branch of the Order of Hiram is said to have appeared in Italy, and formed the Collegia Fabrorum and Artificum. This society of builders continued in uninterrupted succession till the downfall of the Roman empire, when its members spread over all Europe, a portion of whom settled in Britain. Here the society flourished till 1717, when the Brotherhood laid aside its operative character, and became entirely speculative.


68 - What is permitted to be printed about Masonry, and what is not?


            Aporrheta. The holy things in the Ancient Mysteries which were known only to the initiates, and were not to be disclosed to the profane, were called the aporrheta. What are the aporrheta of Freemasonry? what are the arcana of which there can be no disclosure? are questions that for some years past have given rise to much discussion among the disciples of the Institution. If the sphere and number of these aporrheta be very considerably extended, it is evident that much valuable investigation by public discussion of the science of Masonry will be


MASONRY DEFINED          313 


prohibited. On the other hand, if the aporrheta are restricted to only a few points, much of the beauty, the permanency, and the efficacy of Freemasonry which are dependent on its organization as a secret and mystical association will be lost. We move between Scylla and Charybdis, and it is difficult for a Masonic writer to know how to steer so as, in avoiding too frank an exposition of the principles of the Order, not to fall by too much reticence into obscurity. The European Masons are far more liberal in their views of the obligation of secrecy than the English or the American. There are few things, indeed, which a French or German Masonic writer will refuse to discuss with the utmost frankness. It is now beginning to be very generally admitted, and English and American writers are acting on the admission, that the only real aporrheta of Freemasonry are the modes of recognition, and the peculiar and distinctive ceremonies of the Order; and to these last it is claimed that reference may be publicly made for the purpose of scientific investigation, provided that the reference be so made as to be obscure to the profane, and intelligible only to the initiated.


69 - Has a Grand Lodge the right to entertain an appeal to reverse a ballot?


            Appeal from Ballot. So anxious is the law to preserve the independence of the ballot, as the great safeguard of its purity, that the Grand Lodge, supreme on almost all other subjects, has no power to interfere in reference to the ballot for a candidate, and notwithstanding that injustice may have been done to an upright and excellent man by his rejection (and such cases of clear injustice must sometimes occur), neither the Grand Lodge nor the Grand Master can afford any redress, nor can any dispensation be granted for either reversing the decision of the Lodge, or for allowing less than a unanimous ballot to be required. Hence we perceive that the dispensation mentioned in the edition of the Book of Constitutions for 1738, permitting a candidate to be admitted with three black balls, was entirely unconstitutional.


70 - Does an appeal lie from the decision of a Grand Master is the Grand Lodge?


            Appeal from Grand Master's Decision. An appeal cannot be taken from the decision of the Grand blaster to the Grand Lodge. The Committee of Foreign Correspondence of the Grand Lodge of New York, in 1852, expressed views on this subject with which I so heartily con‑cur, that I readily borrow their language: "We think," they say, "that no appeal lies from his decision, because he is, in his official position, required, like the Master in his Lodge, to see that the Constitutions and laws of Masonry are faithfully observed. He cannot do this if his opinion or decision may be instantly set aside by an appeal to that majority, which is about to violate them. In such case also he may close the Lodge to prevent the violation; so that calm reason teaches us that




there is no other just rule in the matter than that of the supremacy and inviolability of presiding officers." I know that a few Grand Lodges, or rather their Committees of Correspondence, have censured views like these, and declare them to be investing a Grand Master with what they call "the one man power." It may be so; and in like manner the undisputed power of the Worshipful Master over his Lodge may receive a similar designation. And yet it is, in a great measure, to this power beyond appeal, to the responsibility which it entails, and to the great caution which it necessarily be‑gets, that we must attribute much of the harmony and stability which have always characterized the Order.


Should the Grand Master ever abuse this great power, and by unjust or incorrect decisions endanger the prosperity of the institution, the conservative principle of an annual election will afford a competent check, and the evil of an oppressive or an ignorant presiding officer can readily be cured by his displacement at the constitutional period, and in the constitutional way.


71 - Does an Entered Apprentice or Fellowcraft enjoy the right of Masonic relief?


            Appeal of Entered Apprentices or Fellowcrafts. The right of appeal differs from other rights in this, that it is` not confined to Master Masons, but is equally enjoyed by Fellowcrafts, and even Entered Apprentices. The humblest member of the fraternity, when he supposes himself to be injured or unjustly treated by his superiors, is entitled to his redress, in an appeal to the Grand Lodge; for, as has been already observed, it is the wisdom of the law that where there is a wrong, there must be a remedy.


72 - What rights does a Mason have to appeal from a decision against him?


            Appeal, Right of. The right of appeal is an inherent right belonging to every Mason, and the Grand Lodge is the appellate body to whom the appeal is to be made.


Appeals are of two kinds:

1st, from the decision of the Master;

2nd, from the decision of the Lodge.


Each of these will require a distinct consideration.


1. Appeals from the Decision of the Master. It is now a settled doctrine in Masonic law that there can be no appeal from the decision of a Master of a Lodge to the Lodge itself. But an appeal always lies from such decision to the Grand Lodge, which is bound to entertain the appeal and to inquire into the correctness of the decision. Some writers have endeavored to restrain the despotic authority of the Master to decisions in matters strictly relating to the work of the Lodge, while they contend that on all questions of business an appeal may be taken from his decision in the Lodge. But it would be unsafe, and often




impracticable, to draw this distinction, and accordingly the highest Masonic authorities have rejected the theory, and denied the power in a Lodge to entertain an appeal from any decision of the presiding officer.


The wisdom of this law must be apparent to any one who examines the nature of the organization of the Masonic institution. The Master is responsible to the Grand Lodge for the good conduct of his Lodge, To him and to him alone the supreme Masonic authority looks for the preservation of order, and the observance of the Constitutions and the Landmarks of the Order in the body over which he presides. It is manifest, then, that it would be highly unjust to throw around a pre‑siding officer so heavy a responsibility, if it were in the power of the Lodge to overrule his decisions or to control his authority.



2. Appeals from the Decisions of the Lodge. Appeals may be made to the Grand Lodge from the decisions of a Lodge, on any subject except the admission of members, or the election of candidates; but these appeals are more frequently made in reference to conviction and punishment after trial.


When a Mason, in consequence of charges preferred against him, has been tried, convicted, and sentenced by his Lodge, he has an in‑alienable right to appeal to the Grand Lodge from such conviction and sentence.


His appeal may be either general or specified. That is, he may appeal on the ground, generally, that the whole of the proceedings have been irregular or illegal; or he may appeal specifically against some particular portion of the trial; or lastly, admitting the correctness of the verdict, and acknowledging the truth of the charges, he may appeal from the sentence, as being too severe or disproportionate to the offense.


73 - How should an appeal to Grand Lodge be made?


            Appeal to Grand Lodge. An appeal must be made in writing, specifying the particular grievance complained of, and be transmitted to the Grand Secretary. A notice and copy of the appeal must also be sent by the appellant to the party against whose decision the appeal is made. All appeals must be made in proper and decent language; no others will be received.


74 - What is the Masonic status of an appellant during the pendency of an appeal?


            Appellant, Status of. The determination of the position of the appellant, during the pendency of the appeal, is a question of law that is involved in much difficulty. Formerly, I entertained the opinion that the appellant in this case remains in the position of a Mason "under charges. " But a more mature reflection on this subject, induced by a very general opposition of the fraternity, has led me to review my decision.




It is admitted as Masonic law, that until the opinion of the higher body is known, that of the lower must continue in force. Thus, if the Master decides a point of order erroneously, the Lodge must obey it until it is reversed, on appeal, by the Grand Lodge. This doctrine is founded on the principle of obedience to authority, which lies at the very foundation of the Masonic organization. Hence, judging by analogy in the cases under consideration, I am compelled honestly to abandon my former views, and believe that the sentence of the Lodge goes into operation at once, and is to be enforced until the Grand Lodge shall think proper to reverse it. Still, the position of an expelled Mason who has appealed is not precisely the same as that of one who has submitted to the sentence of expulsion.


The Grand Lodge of New York has very properly defined expulsion as implying "a termination not only of Masonic intercourse and connection with the body inflicting it, but from the Masonic fraternity, unless an appeal be made." Now the last words qualify the definition, and show that expulsion, when an appeal has been made, does not precisely imply the same thing as expulsion when no appeal has been entered. Again: expulsion has been metaphorically described as Masonic death. Continuing the metaphor, we may say that expulsion under appeal is rather a state of Masonic trance than of death. The expelled person is, it is true, deprived of all exercise of his Masonic functions, and is incapable of any communion with his brethren, but the termination of the case is rendered uncertain by the existence of the appeal. It may end in a confirmation of the expulsion, or in his recovery and restoration to Masonic rights. So that if a specific term is required to designate the condition of one who has been suspended or expelled, during the pendency of his appeal from the sentence, it may be called a quasi suspension, or quasi expulsion. The individual is not really a suspended or expelled Mason until his appeal is dismissed and the sentence confirmed; but in the meantime he is divested of all his Masonic rights, except that of appeal.


75 - What is the Grand Master's prerogative with respect to appointments?


            Appointments, Grand Master's Prerogative of. The right of appointment is a prerogative of the Grand Master. By the old usages - for I find no written law upon the subject - the Grand Master appointed the Deputy Grand Master, who is hence always styled "his Deputy." The Regulations of 1721 also gave him the nomination of the Grand Wardens, who were then to be installed, if the nomination was unanimously approved by the Grand Lodge, but if not, an election was to be held. The Grand Secretary, at the first establishment of the office in 1723, was elected by the Grand Lodge, but all subsequent appointments were made by the Grand Master. The Grand Treasurer was, however, always an elective office.


MASONRY DEFINED          117 


In England, under its present Constitution, the Grand Master appoints all the officers of the Grand Lodge, except the Grand Treasurer. In America, the prerogative of appointment, which was vested by ancient usage in the Grand Master, has been greatly abridged, and is now restricted to the nomination of some of the subordinate officers of the Grand Lodge. The Deputy, the Wardens, the Treasurer and Secretary are now elected by the Grand Lodge. In view of the fact that none of the officers of the Grand Lodge, except the Grand Master, owe their existence to a Landmark, but are all the creatures of regulations, adopted from time to time, and in view, too, of the other important fact that regulations on the subject were continually changing, so that we find an officer at one time appointed, and at another time elected, I am constrained to believe that the right of appointment is one of the few prerogatives of the Grand Master, which is not inherent in his office, but which is subject to the regulation of the Grand Lodge.


76 - Who has the prerogative of appointing the junior officers of a Lodge?


            Appointment of Junior Officers. The appointing power constitutes an important prerogative of the Master of a Lodge. In England, he appoints all the officers, except the Treasurer and Tiler; but in this country the power of appointment is restricted to that of the Senior Deacon, and in some Lodges, of the Tiler. As the Senior Deacon is the proxy of the Master in the discharge of his duties, there seems to be a peculiar propriety in placing the selection of that officer in his hands, and for a similar reason, it is advisable that he should also have the appointment of the Tiler.


77 - Who has the right to appoint substitute officers in the absence of appointive officers of a Lodge?


            Appointment of Substitute Officers. The Master of the Lodge has the right, during the temporary absence of any officer, to appoint a substitute for the meeting. It has been supposed by some that this power of appointment is restricted to the elective officers, and that during the absence of the Junior Deacon, the Junior pro tern pore must be appointed by the Senior Warden; and in like manner, during the absence of any one of the Stewards, the substitute must be appointed by the Junior Warden. And this opinion is founded on the doctrine that as the permanent Junior Deacon and Stewards are respectively appointed by the Senior and Junior Wardens, their temporary substitutes must be appointed by the same officers; but if this argument were good, then, as the Wardens themselves are elected by the Lodge, it would follow, by a parity of reasoning, that in the absence of either of these officers, the substitute could not be appointed by the Master, but must be elected by the Lodge. In case of the death of a Junior Deacon where a dis‑Pensation for the appointment of a new one has been granted, it is VVVIim~.,,,~,1.




evident that that appointment would vest in the Senior Warden; but all temporary appointments are exclusively made by the Worshipful Master, for the appointing power is one of his prerogatives.


78 - What is the symbolism of the Masonic Apron?


            Apron. There is no one of the symbols of Speculative Masonry more important in its teachings, or more interesting in its history, than the lambskin, or white leather apron. Its lessons commence at an early period in the Mason's progress, and it is impressed upon his memory as the first gift which he receives, the first symbol which is explained to him, and the first tangible evidence which he possesses of his ad‑mission into the Fraternity. Whatever may be his future advancement in the "royal art," into whatsoever deeper arcana his devotion to the mystic Institution or his thirst for knowledge may subsequently lead him, with the lambskin apron - his first investiture - he never parts. Changing, perhaps, its form and its decorations, and conveying, at each step, some new but still beautiful allusion, its substance is still there, and it continues to claim the honored title by which it was first made known to him, on the night of his initiation, as "the badge of a Mason." In the Masonic apron two things are essential to the due preservation of its symbolic character - its color and its material.


1. As to its color. The color of a Mason's apron should be pure unspotted white. This color has, in all ages and countries, been esteemed an emblem of innocence and purity. It was with this reference that a portion of the vestments of the Jewish priesthood was directed to be white. In the Ancient Mysteries the candidate was always clothed in white. "The priests of the Romans," says Festus, "were accustomed to wear white garments when they sacrificed." In the Scandinavian rites it has been seen that the shield presented to the candidate was white. The Druids changed the color of the garment presented to their initiates with each degree; white, however, was the color appropriated to the last, or degree of perfection. And it was, according to their ritual, intended to teach the aspirant that none were admitted to that honor but such as were cleansed from all impurities both of body and mind. In the early ages of the Christian church a white garment was always placed upon the catechumen who had been newly baptized, to denote that he had been cleansed from his former sins, and was thenceforth to lead a life of purity. Hence it was presented to him with this solemn charge: "Receive the white and undefiled garment and produce it unspotted before the tribunal of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you may obtain eternal life." From all these instances we learn that white apparel was anciently used as an emblem of purity, and for this reason the color has been preserved in the apron of the Freemason.


2. As to its material. A Mason's apron must be made of lambskin. No other substance, such as linen, silk, or satin, could be substituted


MASONRY DEFINED          119 


without entirely destroying the emblematic character of the apron, for the material of the Mason's apron constitutes one of the most important symbols of his profession. The lamb has always been considered as an appropriate emblem of innocence. And hence we are taught, in the ritual of the first degree, that, "by the lambskin, the Mason is reminded of that purity of life and rectitude of conduct which is so essentially necessary to his gaining admission into the Celestial Lodge above, where the Supreme Architect of the Universe forever presides."


79 - What is the relation of architecture to Masonry?


            Architecture. Architecture is one of the first occupations in which man employed himself. How astonishingly has the science of architecture improved and how honored now and respected is an experienced architect! The science commenced with miserable huts; the next step was to erect altars on which to offer sacrifices to the gods; regular dwellings followed next in rotation, after which, in rapid succession, came palaces for princes, bridges over the most rapid streams to facilitate communication; pyramids and towers, proudly pointing to the heavens; catacombs of nearly immeasurable dimensions for the interment of their dead; and the most gorgeous temples in honor of the Great Architect of heaven and earth. Thus we have adopted the title of Masons from one of the most ancient and most honorable occupations of mankind, in allusion to the antiquity of our Order. The working tools of an operative Mason have become our symbols, because we can find no better or more expressive ones. No occupation is so widely extended; and so closely connected with others, as that of a Mason; and the various paths by which mankind strive to gain an entrance into the imperishable temple are innumerable.


80 - For what were the pillars "BOAZ" and "JACHIN" used?


            Archives. Our traditions state that the hollow of the cylinder of these pillars, Jachin and Boaz, was used as archives of Masonry, and contained the sacred rolls which comprised the history of the Hebrew nation, their civil and religious polity, the works of the prophetical and inspired writers, and the complete system of universal science.


81 - What was the Ark of the Covenant and for what was it used?


            Ark of the Covenant. The Ark of Covenant or of the Testimony was a chest originally constructed by Moses at God's command (Exod. aay. 16), in which were kept the two tables of stone, on which were engraved the ten commandments. It contained, likewise, a golden pot filled with manna, Aaron's rod, and the tables of the covenant. It Was at first deposited in the most sacred place in the tabernacle, and afterwards placed by Solomon in the Sanctum Sanctorum of the Temple, but was lost upon the destruction of that building by the Chaldeans.




The later history of this ark is buried in obscurity. It is supposed that, upon the destruction of the first Temple by the Chaldeans, it was carried to Babylon among the other sacred utensils which became the spoil of the conquerors. But of its subsequent fate all traces have been lost. It is, however, certain that it was not brought back to Jerusalem by Zerubbabel. The Talmudists say that there were five things which were the glory of the first Temple that were wanting in the second; namely, the Ark of the Covenant, the Shekinah, or Divine Presence, the Urim and Thummim, the holy fire upon the altar, and the spirit of prophecy.


The ark was made of shittim wood, overlaid, within and without, with pure gold. It was about three feet nine inches long, two feet three inches wide, and of the same extent in depth. It had on the side two rings of gold, through which were placed staves of shittim wood, by which, when necessary, it was borne by the Levites. Its covering was of pure gold, over which were placed two figures called cherubim, with expanded wings. The covering of the ark was called kaphiret, from kaphar, "to forgive sin," and hence its English name of "mercy‑seat," as being the place where the intercession for sin was made.


The researches of archeologists in the last few years have thrown much light on the Egyptian mysteries. Among the ceremonies of that ancient people was one called the Procession of Shrines, which is mentioned in the Rosetta stone, and depicted on the Temple walls. One of these shrines was an ark, which was carried in procession by the priests, who supported it on their shoulders by staves passing through metal rings. It was thus brought into the Temple and deposited on a stand or altar, that the ceremonies prescribed in the ritual might be performed before it. The contents of these arks were various, but always of a mystical character. Sometimes the ark would contain symbols of Life and Stability; sometimes the sacred beetle, the symbol of the Sun; and there was always a representation of two figures of the goddess Theme, or Truth and Justice, which overshadowed the ark with their wings. These coincidences of the Egyptian and Hebrew arks must have been more than accidental.


82 - What armorial bearings have been borne by Freemasons?


            Arms of Freemasonry. The armorial bearings of the order have undergone some changes in the lapse of ages. They are described in several works on heraldry as follows. The Company of Masons, being otherwise termed Freemasons of ancient standing, and good reckoning by means of affable and kind meetings, at divers times did frequent this mutual assembly in the time of King Henry IV., viz.: the 12th of his reign. Their arms, azure on a chevron, between three castles, argent, a pair of compasses somewhat extended of the first, were granted by William Hawkslow, Clarencieux King of Arms. - Guilliam. The Arms


MASONRY DEFINED          121 


of the Operative or Stone Masons. Azure on a chevron between three castles argent, a pair of compasses somewhat extended of the first. Crest, an arm extended, grasping a trowel, proper. Supporters, two beavers, proper: - Dermott. The arms of the Grand Lodge of England are used by several of the Grand Lodges of this country, and are similar to those adopted by Royal Arch Masons, which are described as follows: Party per cross vert, voided or; in the first quarter azure, a lion ram‑pant or, for the tribe of Judah, in the second or, an ox passant sable, for Ephraim; in the third or, a man erect proper, for Reuben; in the fourth azure, a spread eagle or, for Dan. Crest, an ark of the covenant; supporters, two cherubim, all proper; motto, Holiness to the Lord. The banners which adorn the Royal Arch Chapters of England, representing the twelve tribes of Israel, are as follows: Scarlet, a lion couchant, for Judah; blue, an ass crouching beneath its burden, for Issachar; purple, a ship, for Zebulon; yellow, a sword, for Simeon; white, a troop of horsemen, for Gad; green, an ox, for Ephraim; flesh‑color, a vine, by the side of a wall, for Manasseh; green, a wolf, for Benjamin; purple, a cup, for Asher; blue, a hind, for Naphtali; green, an eagle, for Dan.


83 - How were the 18th Century Lodges arranged?


            Arrangement. The appointment and arrangement of a Masonic Lodge‑room in the eighteenth century were very different to our present practice. A long table was extended from one end of the room to the other, covered with a green cloth, on which were placed duplicates of the ornaments, furniture and jewels, intermixed with Masonic glasses for refreshment. At one end of this table was placed the Master's pedestal, and at the other that of the Senior Warden, while about the middle of the table, in the south, the Junior Warden was placed. The brethren sat round as at a common ordinary. When there was a candidate to be initiated, he was paraded outside the whole; and, on such occasions, after he had been safely deposited at the north‑east angle of the Lodge, he was given a very short explanation of the design of Free‑masonry, or a brief portion of the lecture, before the Lodge wasòcalled from labor to refreshment. The song, the toast, the sentiment, went merrily round, and it was not until the brethren were tolerably satiated that the Lodge was resumed, and the routine business transacted before closing.



84 ‑ What is the status of a Lodge whose warrant has been arrested?


            Arrest of Warrant. When a Grand Master suspends the labors of a Lodge, he is usually said "to arrest the warrant." There is no objection to the phrase, if its signification is properly understood. "To arrest the warrant of a Lodge" is simply to forbid its communications, and to prevent its members from congregating for the purposes of Masonic labor or business, under the authority of the warrant. But




otherwise the condition of the Lodge remains unchanged. It does not forfeit its funds or property, and its members continue in good standing in the Order; and should the decree of arrest by the Grand Master be reversed by the Grand Lodge, it resumes its functions just as if no such suspension or arrest had occurred. I have no doubt that the Grand Master cannot demand the delivery of the warrant into his custody; for having been intrusted to the Master, Wardens, and their successors, by the Grand Lodge, the Master, who is the proper custodian of it, has no right to surrender it to any one except to that body from whom it emanated. The "arrest of the warrant" is only a decree of the Grand Master in the character of an injunction, by which he forbids the Lodge to meet until the complaints preferred against it can be investigated and adjudicated by the Grand Lodge.


85 - In what degree are the seven liberal arts and sciences explained?


            Arts, Liberal. The seven liberal arts and sciences are Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Logic, Music, Geometry, and Astronomy. They are beautifully explained in the second, or Felloweraft's, degree.


86 - How does a Fellowcraft ascend to receive his wages?


            Ascent. The ascent of a Fellowcraft, when he goes to receive his wages, is by a staircase of five divisions, referring to the five orders of architecture, and the five senses. These are the several links of that powerful chain which binds us to the works of the creation, where‑with we can have no connection without those feelings which result from the delicate mechanism of the ear, the eye, the smell, the palate, and the touch.


87 - Of what is the Ashlar emblematic?


            Ashlar. "Freestone as it comes out of the quarry." In Speculative Masonry we adopt the ashlar in two different states, as symbols in the Apprentice's degree. The Rough Ashlar, or stone in its rude and unpolished condition, is emblematic of man in his natural state - ignorant, uncultivated and vicious. But when education has exerted its wholesome influence in expanding his intellect, restraining his passions, and purifying his life, he then is represented by the Perfect Ashlar, which, under the skilful hands of the workmen, has been smoothed, and squared, and fitted for its place in the building. In the older lectures of the eighteenth century the Perfect Ashlar is not mentioned, but its place was supplied by the Broached Thurnal.


88 - What name is applied to a seeker of Masonic light?


            Aspirant. A seeker of Masonic light, who has applied for admission to the mysteries of the Order, and, having been accepted, is pre‑paring himself for the induction.


MASONRY DEFINED          123


89 - Of what is the ass an emblem?


            Ass. An emblem of stupidity and ignorance. In the Egyptian system it represented the unitiated, ignorant, and profane.


90 - Why cannot an atheist become a Freemason?


Atheist. One who denies the existence of a God, or of a supreme intelligent being. The old charges declare that a Mason is obliged by his tenure to obey the moral law and, if he rightly understands the art, he will never be a stupid atheist. A belief in God is one of the unwritten landmarks of the Order.


91 - What is the duty of a Mason in respect to attendance at his Lodge?


            Attendance. Every brother ought to belong to some regular lodge, and should always appear therein properly clothed, truly subjecting himself to all its by‑laws and the general regulations. He must attend all meetings, when duly summoned, unless he can offer to the Master and Wardens such plea of necessity for his absence as the said laws and regulations may admit. By the ancient rules and usages of Masonry, which are generally adopted among the by‑laws of every lodge, no plea was judged sufficient to excuse any absentee, unless he could satisfy the lodge that he was detained by some extraordinary and unforeseen necessity.


92 - Under what circumstances is it necessary for a Lodge to submit an attested copy of charges against a member?


            Attested Copy of Charges. In event of a Masonic trial, in order that the Grand Lodge may be enabled to come to a just conclusion on the merits of the question, it is necessary that the Lodge should furnish an attested copy of the charge or charges, and of the proceedings on the trial, and this it is bound to do.


93 - In what city are some of the best examples of operative Masonry to be found?


            Augustan Style. It was during the reign of Augustus that the learned Vitruvius became by his admirable writings the father of true architecture. This imperial patron first employed his Fellowcrafts in repairing or rebuilding all public edifices, much neglected, if not injured, during the civil wars. In the golden days of Augustus, the patricians, following his example, built above a hundred marble palaces at Rome, fit for princes; and every substantial citizen rebuilt his house in marble. All united in the same disposition of adorning Rome, so that Augustus, when dying, justly said, "I found Rome built of brick, but I leave it built of marble!" Hence it is, that in the remains of ancient Rome are the best patterns of true Masonry extant, an epitome of old Grecian architecture, now commonly expressed by the Augustan style, in which are united wisdom, strength, and beauty.




94 - What regulations govern Masonic avouchments?


            Avouchment. The regulations by which avouchments are to be governed appear to be three:


1. A Mason may vouch for another, if he has sat in a Lodge with him.


2. He may vouch for him if he has subjected him to a skillful private examination.


3. He may also vouch for him if he has received positive information of his Masonic character from a competent and reliable Brother.


Of these three, the first is the safest, and the last the most dangerous. And in all of them it is essential that the voucher should be a skillful Mason, for it is better to subject the visitor to a formal examination, than to take the avouchment of an ignorant Brother, though he may declare that he has sat in the Lodge with the person desirous of being admitted. In fact, the third kind of avouchment by an eminently skillful Mason is safer than the first kind by an ignorant one.


95 - May a Master Mason lawfully vouch for a visitor on the authority of another?


            Avouchment at Second Hand. There may be sometimes an avouchment at second hand. Thus A may be enabled to vouch for C, on the information derived from B. But in this case it is essential to its validity that the avouchment should have been made when the whole three were present. Thus it is not admissible that B should inform A that a certain person named C, who is then absent, is a Master Mason. A cannot, upon this information, subsequently vouch for C. There may be some mistake or misunderstanding in the identity of the person spoken of. A may have been referring to one individual and B to another. And the person afterwards vouched for by A may prove to be entirely different from the one intended by B. But if B, in the presence of C, shall say to A, "I know this person C to be a Master Mason," or words to that effect, then it is competent for A to repeat this avouchment as his own, because he will thus have de‑rived "lawful information" of the fact.


But here again the same principle of competency must be observed, and B must not only be known to A to be a skillful and experienced Mason, incapable of being imposed upon, but A must him‑self be a fitting judge of that skill and experience.


This second‑hand avouchment is, however, always dangerous, and should be practised with great caution, and only by eminently skillful Masons. It is to be viewed rather as an exception to the general rule, and as such is generally to be avoided, although between Masons of great learning and experience, it may sometimes be a perfectly safe dependence.


MASONRY DEFINED          125


96 - Why was King Solomon's temple built without the use of iron tools?


            Axe. In the construction of King Solomon's Temple, every piece of timber, stone, or metal, was brought ready cut, framed, and polished, to Jerusalem; so that no other tools were wanted or heard than were necessary to join the several parts together. All the noise of axe, hammer, and saw was confined to Lebanon, the quarries and the plains of Zeredatha, that nothing might be heard among the Masons of Zion save harmony and peace.


97 - What is the color appropriate to symbolic Masonry?


            Azure. Sky‑blue. The appropriate color of the symbolic Lodge. A favorite color in heraldry; employed in blazonry. The Grand Lodge of England has adopted Garter Blue, the color of the Order of the Garter.


98 - What punishment was meted out to the Jews who failed to keep the ordinances of Jehovah?


            Babylonish Captivity. The Jews had fallen into great errors and corruptions, and were guilty of the most abominable sins; wherefore Jehovah, in his wrath, denounced heavy judgments against them by Jeremiah and other prophets, declaring that their fruitful land should be spoiled, their city become desolate and an abomination, and them‑selves and their descendants feel the effects of his displeasure for the space of seventy years, which commenced in the fourth year of the reign of Jehoiachim, A. L. 3398.


99 - What is the symbolism of the fourth point of fellowship?


            Back. Freemasonry, borrowing its symbols from every source, has not neglected to make a selection of certain parts of the human body. From the back an important lesson is derived, which is fittingly developed in the third degree. Hence, in reference to this symbolism, Oliver says: "It is a duty incumbent on every Mason to support a brother's character in his absence equally as though he were present; not to revile him behind his back, nor suffer it to be done by others without using every necessary attempt to prevent it." And Hutchinson, referring to the same symbolic ceremony, says: "The most material part of that brotherly love which should subsist among Masons is that of speaking well of each other to the world; more especially it is expected of every member of this Fraternity that he should not traduce a brother. Calumny and slander are detestable crimes against society. Nothing can be viler than to traduce a man behind his back; it is like the villany of an assassin who has not virtue enough to give his adversary the means of self‑defense, but, lurking in darkness, stabs him whilst he is unarmed and unsuspicious bf an enemy."




100 - What is the badge of a Master Mason and why?


            Badge. Johnson defines a badge as "a mark of cognizance worn to show the relation of the wearer to any person or thing." The badge of a Mason is his apron‑‑an emblem of innocence and purity. It was originally a skin of plain white leather. In 1730 it was regulated in Grand Lodge that the Grand Officers should "wear white leather aprons with blue silk; and that the Masters and Wardens of particular lodges may line their white leather aprons with white silk, and may hang their jewels at white ribbons about their necks." At present in England a Master Mason wears a lambskin apron with sky‑blue lining and edging, one inch and a half deep, with a rosette on the fall or flap. No other color or ornament is allowed, except to officers or past officers of lodges.


101 - What is the symbolism of the canopy over the Master's chair?


            Baldachin. The canopy over the oriental chair in the Master's Lodge also denotes the covering of the Lodge itself. Both are symbols of the star‑decked heavens, and signs of the universality of Free‑masonry. In Pritchard's catechism we meet with the following: "What has the Lodge for a covering`?" Answer: "The vaulted skies of various colors, or the clouds." It is remarked by Krause that the "sense of this beautiful system of symbols is not'well understood. Some think that the primitive Lodge was not covered above, and that the skies were literally its covering; hence the ceiling of a Lodge room is generally made to represent the celestial planisphere." The Baldachin, in this sense, is also a symbol of the extent of Free‑masonry; for as the skies, with their troops of stars, spread over all regions of the earth, so Freemasonry holds in its embrace all the world, and reaches through all time.


102 - What is the proper method of conducting the ballot?


            Ballot, Method of. Before proceeding to any further inquiry into the laws concerning the ballot, it will be proper to explain the mode in which the ballot is to be taken.


In some jurisdictions, it is the custom for the Senior Deacon to carry the box containing the ballots around the Lodge room, when each officer and member having taken out of it a white and black ball, it is again carried around empty, and each Brother then de‑posits the ball of that color which he prefers - white being always a token of consent, and black of dissent. The box is then inspected by the Master, or by the Master and Wardens, and the result declared, after which the Deacon again goes around and collects the remaining balls.


I have always objected to this method, not because the opinion of the Lodge was not thus as effectually declared as in any other, but


MASONRY DEFINED          127 


because there seemed to be a want of solemnity in this mode of per‑forming an important duty. I therefore prefer the more formal ceremony practiced in some other jurisdictions, and which may be thus described: The ballot box, containing two compartments, one holding a number of black and white balls, and the other empty, is first exhibited to the Junior Warden, then to the Senior, and afterwards to the Master, that these officers may be satisfied that the compartment which should be empty is really so. This compartment is then closed. A hole, however, in the top of the box communicates with it, which is for the purpose of permitting the balls deposited by the voters to be dropped in. The compartment containing the white and black balls indiscriminately is left open, and the Senior Deacon, having placed the box upon the altar, retires to his seat.


The roll of members is then called by the Secretary, beginning with the Master, and as each Brother's name is called, he advances to the altar, masonically salutes the East, deposits his ball taken from the compartment lying open before him through the hole in the top of the closed compartment, and then retires to his seat.


When all the officers and members have voted, the Senior Deacon takes the box from the altar, and submits it to the inspection of the Junior and Senior Wardens and the Master, when, if all the ballots prove to be white, the box is pronounced "clear," and the candidate is declared elected. If, however, there is one black ball only, the box is pronounced "foul," and the Master orders a new ballot, which is done in the same form, because it may be possible that the negative vote was deposited by mistake or inadvertence. If, however, on the second ballot, the one black ball again appears, the candidate is declared by the Master to be rejected. If, on the first ballot, two or more black balls appear, the candidate is announced as having been rejected, without the formality of a second ballot.


103 - Has a Grand Master power to order reconsideration of a ballot?


            Ballot, Reconsideration of. Neither the Grand Master nor the Grand Lodge has the power, under any circumstances whatever, to order a reconsideration of a ballot. Everything concerning the ad‑mission or rejection of candidates is placed exclusively in the Lodge. The Regulations of 1721 declare this to be "an inherent privilege not subject to dispensation."


104 - Has a Mason the right to announce how he has cast his ballot for a candidate?


            Ballot, Secrecy of the. The secrecy of the ballot is as essential to its perfection as its unanimity or its independence. If the vote were to be given viva voce, it is impossible that the improper influbnces of fear or interest should not sometimes be exerted, and timid




members be induced to vote contrary to the dictates of their reason and conscience. Hence, to secure secrecy and protect the purity of choice, it has been wisely established as a usage, not only that the vote shall be taken by ballot, but that there shall be no subsequent discussion on the subject. Not only has no member a right to inquire how his fellows have voted, but he may not explain his own vote. The reason of this is evident. If one member has a right to rise in his place and announce that he deposited a white ball, then every other member has the same right; and in a Lodge of twenty members, where an application has been rejected by one black ball, if nineteen members state that they did not deposit it, the inference is clear that the twentieth Brother has done so, and thus the secrecy of the ballot is at once destroyed. The rejection having been announced from the Chair, the Lodge should at once proceed to other business, and it is the sacred duty of the presiding officer.peremptorily and promptly to check any discussion on the subject. Nothing must be done to impair the inviolable secrecy of the ballot.


105 - Do the members of a lodge under dispensation have the right of ballot on candidates?


            Ballot Under Dispensation. I am perfectly aware that it is the general rule for all the brethren present to ballot for candidates in Lodges under dispensation; but the question is not, what is the usage, but what is the law which should govern the usage? The balloting may take place in such a Lodge, but it must be remembered,. if we are to be governed by the principles and inferences of law, that each Brother, when he deposits his ball, does so, not by any legal right that he possesses, but simply by the courtesy of the Master and Wardens, who have adopted this convenient method of consulting the opinions and obtaining the counsel of their brethren, for their own satisfaction. All ballots held in a Lodge under dispensation are, except as regards the votes of the Master and Wardens, informal.


106 - How should Lodge officers wear their jewels?


            Band. A ribbon worn around the neck of the officers of Grand Lodges, and also of individual Lodges, to which are attached the official jewels. The color of the band differs in different Lodges, but blue is most common.


107 - Should the Worshipful Master be present at Masonic banquets?


            Banquet. After the closing of some lodges for initiations or festivals, and also upon special occasions, a banquet is held, that is to say, the brethren assemble for recreation and refreshment at a supper. But if the brethren merely meet to eat and drink, then the appellation Masonic banquet is not appropriate. Eating and earnest Masonic discourses or appeals for charitable purposes to the brethren should


MASONRY DEFINED          129 


be so blended together as to produce a beautiful and harmonious evening's entertainment; for this reason the officers of the Lodge, at least the Worshipful Master, Wardens, and Master of the Ceremonies, or his substitute, should be present.


108 - What is the symbolism of pulling off the shoes?


            Bare Feet. Nakedness of feet was a sign of mourning. God says to Ezekiel, "Make no mourning for the dead, and put on thy shoes upon thy feet." It was likewise a mark of respect. Moses put off his shoes to approach the burning bush; the priests served in the Tabernacle with their feet naked, as they did afterwards in the Temple. The Talmudists teach that if they had but stepped with their feet upon a cloth, a skin, or even upon the foot of one of their companions, their service would have been unlawful.


Putting off the shoes has a threefold signification in Scripture. First, it was usual to put them off in token of mourning and grief, as David is said to have gone from Jerusalem barefoot, when he fled from Absalom. Second, it signified the yielding of one's right to an‑other, and is so prescribed in Deuteronomy, and matured by Boaz. Third, it was a token of respect and reverence, as appears by the com. mand of God to Moses, and the reason assigned for it was that the ground whereon he stood was holy, or sanctified by God's immediate presence.


109 - What is a Basilica?


            Basilica. By this name market‑houses and halls of justice, erected after the fashion of religious edifices and Christian churches, were called in the middle ages. These buildings were of an oblong rectangular form, with a semicircular niche at one end. Anderson, in his Book of Constitutions, remarks that "Our modern temple has arisen from the Basilica, having the same interior arch."


110 - What is the badge of a Marshal of a Lodge?


            Baton. A staff or truncheon, about two feet long, generally ornamented or gilt at each end, and the middle enveloped in a scroll. It is usually carried in the right hand, and is the distinguishing mark or emblem of authority of Marshals in Masonic and other processions. The badge of a Marshal in a subordinate Lodge is two crossed batons, and that of the Marshal in the Grand Lodge two crossed batons en‑circled in a wreath.


111 - Why do Masons cultivate order, harmony and beauty?


            Beauty. The Freemason is a true admirer of all the liberal arts and sciences, but he much more admires a beauty of his own, which stands as fast as the pillars of the earth - is immovable and immortal. All our working tools are given to us to find out symmetry, propor‑




tion, and applicability. We are conducted by every step in our Order to order and harmony, the very being of beauty. We do not crawl in loathsome caverns, but our places of meeting are beautiful halls. The outward tokens and clothing of our Order are composed of the most beautiful colors. We refuse neither silk nor metal in our jewels; we rejoice in the purity of the clothing of our Order; but more especially we endeavor to make the spirit of true beauty shine in our assemblies, and not to allow it to degenerate into a lifeless appearance.


112 - Of what is the beehive emblematic?


            Beehive. The beehive is an emblem of industry, and recommends the practice of that virtue to all created beings, from the highest seraph in heaven to the lowest reptile in the dust. It teaches us that as we came into the world rational and intelligent beings, so we should ever be industrious ones; never sitting down, contented while our fellow‑creatures around us are in want, if it is in our power to relieve them without inconvenience to ourselves.


113 - What is the ethical code of Freemasonry?


            Behavior. The subject of a Mason's behavior is one that occupies much attention in both the ritualistic and the monitorial instructions of the Order. In "the Charges of a Freemason," extracted from the ancient records, and first published in the Constitutions of

1723, the sixth article is exclusively appropriated to the subject of "Behavior." It is divided into six sections, as follows:


1. Behavior in the Lodge while constituted.

2. Behavior after the Lodge is over and the Brethren not gone.

3. Behavior when Brethren meet without strangers, but not in a Lodge formed.

4. Behavior in presence of strangers not Masons.

5. Behavior at home and in your neighborhood.

6. Behavior towards a strange brother.


The whole article constitutes a code of ethical conduct remarkable for the purity of the principles it inculcates, and is well worthy of the close attention of every Mason. It is a complete refutation of the slanders of anti‑Masonic revilers. These charges are to be found in all the editions of the Book of Constitutions, and in many recent Masonic works which are readily accessible to everyone who desires to read them.


114 - Upon what scriptural basis are the lectures of Freemasonry largely founded?


            Belief. The most prominent scriptural teachings upon which Free‑masonry bases its lectures are these: that there is a God; that he created man, and placed him in a state of perfect happiness in Paradise; that he forfeited this supreme felicity by disobedience to the divine commands at the suggestion of a serpent tempter; that, to alleviate his repentent contrition, a divine revelation was communicated MASONRY DEFINED       131  to him, that in process of time a Saviour should appear in the world to atone for their sin, and place their posterity in a condition of restoration to his favor; that for the increasing wickedness of man, God sent a deluge to purge the earth of its corruptions; and when it was again repeopled, he renewed his gracious covenant with several of the patriarchs; delivered his people from Egypt; led them in the wilderness; and in the Mosaic dispensation gave more clear indications of the Messiah by a succession of prophets, extending throughout the entire theocracy and monarchy; that he instituted a tabernacle and temple worship which contained the most indisputable types of the religion which the Messiah should reveal and promulgate; and that when the appointed time arrived, God sent his only begotten Son to instruct them, who was born at Bethlehem, as the prophets had fore‑told, in the reign of Herod (who was not of the Jewish royal line, nor even a Jew), of a pure virgin of the family of David.


115 - How were the Fellowcrafts employed in the building of King Solo‑ mon's temple?


            Benai. The Benai, who were setters, layers, or builders at the erection of King Solomon's Temple, were able and ingenious Fellow‑crafts, who were distributed by Solomon into separate lodges, with a Master and Warden in each, that they might receive commands in a regular manner, take care of their tools and jewels, be paid every week, and be duly fed and clothed, that the work might proceed with harmony and order.


116 - Of what do the charities of the Masonic order (in part) consist?


            Benefits. The Society expends thousands of dollars every year in the relief of the virtuous distressed. Nor can the existence of these benefits be denied, for they are open and undisguised. The relief of widows and orphans, and of aged Masons in want, youth of both sexes educated and trained to a life of usefulness and virtue, the stream of charity disseminated through every class of wretchedness and misery - all these are so evident, that none can doubt the benefits of the institution. Those who decry it are fighting against truth, and condemn by their writings what their conscience secretly approves.


117 - Do we betray Masonic secrets?


            Betraying. By a full and fair exposition of our great leading principles, we betray no masonic secrets; these are safely locked up in the heart of every Mason, and are never to be imparted except in a constitutional manner. But our leading tenets are no secrets. It is no secret that Masonry is of divine origin; it is no secret that the system embraces and inculcates evangelical truth; it is no secret that there is no duty enjoined nor virtue required in the volume of inspiration, but what is found in, and taught by, Speculative Free‑




masonry; it is no secret that the appropriate name of God has been preserved in this institution in every country where Masonry existed, while the rest of the world was literally sunk in heathenism; and above all, it is not, neither can it be, a secret, that a good Mason is, of necessity, truly and emphatically a good man and citizen.


118 - What is the relation of the Bible to Freemasonry?


            Bible. The Bible is properly called a great light of Masonry, for from the center of the Lodge it pours forth upon the East, the West, and the South its refulgent rays of Divine truth. The Bible is used among Masons as the symbol of the will of God however it may be expressed. And, therefore, whatever book expresses to any people God's will may be used in a Masonic Lodge as a substitute for the Bible. Thus, in a Lodge consisting entirely of Jews, the Old Testament alone may be placed upon the altar. And Turkish Masons make use of the Koran. Whether it be the Gospels of the Christian, the Pentateuch to the Israelite, the Koran to the Mussulman, or the Vedas to the Brahman, the Book of the Law everywhere conveys the same Masonic idea - that of the symbolism of the Divine Will revealed to man.


The history of the Masonic symbolism of the Bible is interesting. Although referred to in the manuscripts before the revival as the book upon which the covenant was taken, it was never referred to as a great light. In the oldest ritual that we have, that of 1724, - a copy of which from the Royal Library of Berlin is given by Krause, - there is no mention of the Bible as one of the lights. Preston made it a part of the furniture of the Lodge; but in rituals of about 1760 it is de‑scribed as one of the three great lights. In the American system, the Bible is both a piece of furniture and a great light.


119 - Is a candidate for Masonry required to believe in the divine authen‑ ticity of the Scriptures?


            Bible, Requirement of. Within a few years an attempt has been made by some Grand Lodges to add to the simple, moral, and religious qualifications, another, which requires a belief in the divine authenticity of the Scriptures. It is much to be regretted that Masons will sometimes forget the fundamental law of their institution, and endeavor to add to or to detract from the perfect integrity of the building, as it was left to them by their predecessors. Whenever this is done, the beauty of our temple must suffer. The Landmarks of Masonry are so perfect that they neither need nor will permit of the slightest amendment. Thus in the very instance here referred to, the fundamental law of Masonry requires only a belief in the Supreme Architect of the universe, and in a future life, while it says, with peculiar toleration, that in all other matters of religious belief, Masons are only expected to be of that religion in which all men


MASONRY DEFINED          133 


agree, leaving their particular opinions to themselves. Under the shelter of this wise provision, the Christian and the Jew, the Mohammedan and the Brahman, are permitted to unite around our common altar, and Masonry becomes, in practice as well as in theory, universal. The truth is, that Masonry is undoubtedly a religious institution - its religion being of that universal kind in which all men agree, and which, handed down through a long succession of ages, from that ancient priesthood who first taught it, embraces the great tenets of the existence of God and the immortality of the soul - tenets which, by its peculiar symbolic language, it has preserved from its foundation, and still continues, in the same beautiful way, to teach. Beyond this, for its religious faith, we must not and cannot go.


It may, then, I think, be laid down as good Masonic law, with respect to the moral and religious qualifications of candidates, that they are required to be men of good moral character, believing in the existence of God and in a future state. These are all the moral qualifications that can be demanded, but each of them is essential.


120 - What do the colors, black and white, symbolize?


            Black. Among the Athenians, black was the color of affliction, and white of innocence, joy, and purity. The Arabs give to black a signification evidently derived from traditions of initiation. It designates among the Moors grief, despair, obscurity, and constancy. Black, in blazon named sable, signifies prudence, wisdom, and constancy in adversity and woe. Hence the mosaic work of a Mason's lodge.


121 - Is the rule that one black ball rejects of universal application?


            Black Balls. What number of black balls is necessary to constitute a rejection? Here we are entirely without the guidance of any express law, as all the Ancient Constitutions are completely silent upon the subject. It seems to me, however, that in the advancement of an Apprentice, as well as in the election of a profane, the ballot should be unanimous. This is strictly in accordance with the principles of Masonry, which require unanimity in admission, lest improper persons be intruded, and harmony impaired. Greater qualifications are certainly not required of a profane applying for initiation than of an Apprentice seeking advancement; nor can I see any reason why the test of those qualifications should not be as rigid in the one case as in the other. I am constrained therefore to believe, notwithstanding the adverse decision of the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin in 1849 that on the application of an Entered Apprentice for advancement to the second degree, the ballot must be unanimously in his favor to secure the adoption of his petition. It may be stated,




once for all, that in all cases of balloting for admission in any of the degrees of Masonry, a single black ball will reject.


122 - What is the symbolism of the blazing star?


            Blazing Star. The blazing star is the expressive symbol of that Great Being himself, who is described by the magnificent appellations of the Day Spring, or Rising Sun; the Day Star; the Morning Star; and the Bright, or Blazing Star. This, then, is the supernal reference of the Blazing Star of Masonry, attached to a science which, like the religion it embodies, is universal, and applicable to all times and sea‑sons, and to every people that ever did or ever will exist on our ephemeral globe.


123 - What is the symbolism of the color blue?


            Blue Masonry. The three degrees of symbolical Masonry are clothed in or ornamented with blue, whence they are commonly known as Blue Lodge Masonry. Blue is the color of truth or fidelity; and it is a remarkable fact that the brethren have ever remained true to the blue degrees, while the authenticity of the other degrees have often been disputed, and in many places altogether denied. Under the reign of William III. of England blue was adopted as the favorite color of the Craft.


This durable and beautiful color was adopted and worn by our ancient brethren as the peculiar characteristic of an institution which has stood the test of ages, and which is as much distinguished by the durability of its materials or principles, as by the beauty of its super‑structure. It is an emblem of universal friendship and benevolence; and instructs us that, in the mind of a Mason, those virtues should be as expansive as the blue arch of heaven itself.


124 - What was the name of the left‑hand pillar on the porch of King Solomon's temple?


            Boaz. The name of the left‑hand pillar that stood at the porch of King Solomon's temple. It is derived from the Hebrew and signifies "in strength."


125 - What is the Book of Constitutions?


            Book of Constitutions. This book contains the written landmarks, rules, regulations, ancient charges, and fundamental principles of the Order, a detailed exposition of the duties of officers of Grand and Subordinate Lodges, and the rights and privileges of members. In all processions when the Grand Master appears the Book of Constitutions is carried before him guarded by the Tiler's sword.


126 - What is the symbolism of the Book of the Law?


            Book of the Law. The Holy Bible, which is always open in a Lodge as a symbol that its light should be diffused among the breth‑


MASONRY DEFINED          135 


ren. The passages on which it is opened differ in the different degrees.


Masonically, the Book of the Law is that sacred book which is believed by the Mason of any particular religion to contain the revealed will of God. Thus, to the Christian Mason the Book of the Law is the Old and New Testament; to the Jew, the Old Testament; to the Mussulman, the Koran; to the Brahman, the Vedas; and to the Parsee, the Zendavesta.


The Book of the Law is an important symbol in the Royal Arch degree, concerning which there was a tradition among the Jews that the Book of the Law was lost during the captivity, and that it was among the treasures discovered during the building of the second Temple. The same opinion was entertained by the early Christian fathers, such, for instance, as Irenacus, Tertullian, and Clemens Alexandrinus; "for," says Prideaux, "they (the Christian fathers) hold that all the Scriptures were lost and destroyed in the Babylonish captivity, and that Erza restored them all again by Divine revelation." The truth of the tradition is very generally denied by biblical scholars, who attribute its origin to the fact that Erza collected together the copies of the law, expurgated them of the errors which had crept into them during the captivity, and arranged a new and correct edition. But the truth or falsity of the legend does not affect the Masonic symbolism. The Book of the Law is the will of God, which, lost to us in our darkness, must be recovered as precedent to our learning what is TRUTH. As captives to error, truth is lost to us; when freedom is restored, the first reward will be its discovery.


127 - What are the ornaments of a Lodge?


            Border. The ornaments of a Lodge are said to be the Mosaic pavement, the indented tessel, and blazing star. The indented tessel represents the beautiful border that embellished the outer edges of the Mosaic pavement. This border consisted of small stones of various colors, artistically arranged, so as to produce the most pleasing effect.


128 - What do the two pillars on the Tracing Board represent?


            Brazen Pillars. The two pillars on the Tracing Board are the representations of those which stood at the entrance of the porch of King Solomon's Temple, emblems of strength and stability. They are particularly described in Scripture. They were composed of cast brass or, more properly, bronze, and were manufactured in the clay ground between Succoth and Zeredatha, along with the holy vessels lilih,äfor the temple worship.


129 - What is the duty of a Mason with respect to a brother's secrets?


            Breast. A Mason's breast should be a safe and sacred repository for all just and lawful secrets. A brother's secrets, delivered to me




as such, I would keep as my own, as to betray that trust might be doing him the greatest injury he could sustain in this mortal life; nay, it would be like the villany of an assassin who lurks in darkness to stab his adversary when unarmed and least prepared to meet an enemy.


130 - What is a Mason called who has mastered the ritual?


            Bright. A Mason is said to be "bright" who is well acquainted with the ritual, the forms of opening and closing, and the ceremonies of initiation. This expression does not, however, in its technical sense, appear to include knowledge of the history and science of the Institution, and many bright Masons, are therefore, not necessarily learned Masons. On the contrary, some learned Masons are not well versed in the exact phraseology of the ritual. The one knowledge depends on a retentive memory, the other is derived‑from deep research. It is scarcely necessary to say which of the two kinds of knowledge is more valuable. The Mason whose acquaintance with the Institution is confined to what he learns from its esoteric ritual will have but a limited idea of its science and philosophy. And yet a knowledge of the ritual as the foundation of higher knowledge is essential.


131 - What was the broached thurnal?


            Broached Thurnal. This was the name of one of the original immovable jewels, and was used for the Entered Apprentice to learn to work upon. It was subsequently called the Brute Stone, or rough Ashlar.


132 - Of what is the broken column emblematic?


            Broken Column. Among the Hebrews, columns, or pillars, were used metaphorically, to signify princes or nobles, as if they were the pillars of a state. Thus, in Psalm xi. 3, the passage, reading in our translation, "If the foundations be destroyed, what can the righteous do?" is, in the original, "when the columns are overthrown," i. e., when the firm supporters of what is right and good have perished. So the passage in Isaiah six. 10, should read: "her (Egypt's) columns are broken down," that is, the nobles of her state. In Freemasonry, the broken column is, as Master Masons well know, the emblem of the fall of one of the chief supporters of the Craft. The use of the column or pillar as a monument erected over a tomb was a very ancient custom, and was a very significant symbol of the character and spirit of the person interred.


133 - In what sense is Freemasonry called a brotherhood?


            Brotherhood. When our Saviour designated his disciples as his brethren, he implied that there was a close bond of union existing between them, which idea was subsequently carried out by St. Peter


MASONRY DEFINED          137' 


in his direction to "love the brotherhood." Hence the early Christiana designated themselves as a brotherhood, a relationship unknown to the Gentile religions; and the ecclesiastical and other confraternities of the Middle Ages assumed the same title to designate any association of men engaged in the same common object, governed by the same rules, and united by an identical interest. The association or fraternity of Freemasons is, in this sense, called a brotherhood.


134 - How does the master of a European Lodge greet a newly made Mason?


            Brotherly Kiss. At the close of their meetings the first Christians were accustomed to kiss each other; this took place also at the holy evening banquet - agape - of the community of brothers and sisters. To this practice the Apostles Paul and Peter refer in their epistles: "Greet each other with the holy kiss." This holy kiss, as a sign or token of brotherly love, is found likewise as a venerable custom in many Lodges, particularly in Europe, where the Master greets with a kiss each newly initiated member.


135 - What Masonic duties are implied by the tenets of brotherly love?


            Brotherly Love. At a very early period in the course of his initiation, a candidate for the mysteries of Freemasonry is informed that the great tenets of the Order are Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth. These virtues are illustrated, and their practice recommended to the aspirant, at every step of his progress; and the instruction, though continually varied in its mode, is so constantly repeated, as infallibly to impress upon his mind their absolute necessity in the constitution of a good Mason.


Brotherly Love might very well be supposed to be an ingredient in the organization of a society so peculiarly constituted as that of Freemasonry. But the brotherly love which we inculcate is not a mere abstraction, nor is its character left to any general and careless understanding of the candidate, who might be disposed to give much or little of it to his brethren, according to the peculiar constitution of his own mind, or the extent of his own generous or selfish feelings. It is, on the contrary, closely defined; its object plainly denoted; and the very mode and manner of its practice detailed in words, and illustrated by symbols, so as to give neither cause for error nor apology for indifference.


'Every Mason is acquainted with the Five Points of Fellowship - he knows their symbolic meaning - he can never forget the interesting incidents that accompanied their explanation; and while he has this knowledge, and retains this remembrance, he can be at no loss to understand what are his duties, and what must be his conduct, in relation to the principle of Brotherly Love.


Brotherly Love can be manifested in innumerable opportunities not




only in the Lodge but also out of it. It is acknowledged by the nearly imperceptible pressure of the hand as much as by the vindication of an innocently accused absent brother. It is an essential element to bind the brethren unto each other; we have pledged our‑selves to exercise it, and it is one of the greatest duties of a Free and Accepted Mason to deny it unto no man, more especially to a brother Mason. To exercise brotherly love, or to feel deeply interested in the welfare of others is a source of the greatest happiness in every situation in life.


136 - What were the bulls issued by the Popes against the Masonic order?


            Bull, Papal. An edict or proclamation issued from the Apostolic Chancery, with the seal and signature of the pope, written in Gothic letters and upon coarse parchment. It derives its name from the leaden seal which is attached to it by a cord of hemp or silk, and which in mediaeval Latin is called Bulla. Several of these bulls have from time to time been fulminated against Freemasonry and other secret societies, subjecting them to the heaviest ecclesiastical punishments, even to the greater excommunication. According to these bulls, a Freemason is ipso facto excommunicated by continuing his member‑ship in the society, and is thus deprived of all spiritual privileges while living, and the rites of burial when dead.


Of these bulls, the first was promulgated by Clement XII., on the 27th of April,

1738; this was repeated and made perpetual by Benedict XIV., on the 18th of May,

1775. On the 13th of August, 1814, an edict continuing these bulls was issued by the Cardinal Gonsalvi, Secretary of State of Pius VII., and lastly, similar denunciatory edicts have within recent years been uttered by Pius IX. Notwithstanding these reiterated denunciations and attempts at Papal suppression, the Mason may say of his Order as Galileo said of the earth, e pur si muove.


137 - What right of burial has a Master Mason?


            Burial. The right to be conducted to the last resting‑place on earth, by his brethren, and to be committed to the grave with the ceremonies of the society, belongs alone to Master Masons. Among the old regulations is the following: "No Mason can be interred with the formalities of the Order, unless it be at his own special request, communicated to the Master of the Lodge of which he died a member  - foreigners and sojourners excepted; nor unless he has been advanced to the third degree of Masonry, from which there can be no exception."


138 - May an Entered Apprentice or Fellowcraft take part in a Masonic Funeral procession?


            Burial, Masonic. As Master Masons alone possess the right of Masonic burial, and as the Lodge, preparatory to that occasion, is


MASONRY DEFINED          139 


required to be opened in the third degree, it follows that Fellowcrafts and Entered Apprentices are not permitted to join in a funeral pro‑cession, and accordingly we find that in the form of procession laid down by Preston no place is allotted to these inferior classes of the fraternity, in which he has been followed by all subsequent monitorial writers.


139 - Does an Entered Apprentice have the right of Masonic burial?


            Burial of Entered Apprentices. Apprentices are not entitled to the honors of Masonic burial, nor can they join in paying those honors to a deceased Master Mason. In this respect they are placed precisely in the position of profanes; this is a practical proof that they are not Masons in the strict sense and significance of the word. They are really nothing more than Masonic disciples, permitted only to enter the porch of the temple, but with no right to penetrate within its sanctuary.


140 - Where is the burial place of a Master Mason?


            Burial Place. The burial place of a Master Mason is under the Holy of Holies, with the following legend delineated on the monument: A virgin weeping over a broken column, with a book open before her; in her right hand a sprig of cassia, in her left an urn; Time standing behind her, with his hands enfolded in the ringlets of her hair. The weeping virgin denotes the unfinished state of the temple; the broken column that one of the principal supporters of Masonry (our Ancient operative Grand Master) had fallen; the open book implies that his memory is recorded in every Mason's heart; the sprig of cassia refers to the discovery of his remains; the urn shows that his ashes have been carefully collected; and Time standing behind her implies that time, patience, and perseverance will accomplish all things.


141 - Where were treasures commonly concealed in ancient times?


            Buried Treasures. We have a tradition that King Solomon concealed certain treasures beneath the foundation of the temple, which were found when they were opened to build the second temple. It was common in ancient times to secrete treasures in such vaults and caverns.


142 - On what degree should the business of a Lodge be transacted? Why?


            Business. A Lodge has the right to transact all business that can be legally transacted by regularly congregated Masons. This is one of the objects for which the warrant was granted, but it is to be exercised under the regulation of certain restrictions.


It seems now to be almost universally conceded that all mere business (by which word I wish to make a distinction from what is tech‑




nically called "Masonic work") must be transacted in the third degree. This is a very natural consequence of the change which has taken place in the organization of the craft. Originally, the Fellow‑crafts constituted the great body of the fraternity - the Master's degree being confined to that select few who presided over the Lodges. At that time the business of the Order was transacted in the second degree, because the possessors of that degree composed the body of the craft. Afterwards, in the beginning, and up almost to the middle f the last century, this main body was made up of Entered Apprentices, and then the business of Lodges was necessarily transacted in the first degree. Now, and ever since the middle of the eighteenth century, for more than one hundred years, the body of the craft has consisted only of Master Masons. Does it not then follow, by a parity of reasoning, that all business should be now transacted in the third degree? The ancient Charges and Constitutions give us no explicit law on the subject, but the whole spirit and tenor of Masonic usage has been that the business of Lodges should be conducted in that degree, the members of which constitute the main body of the craft at the time. Whence it seems but a just deduction that at the present time, and in the present condition of the fraternity, all business, except the mere ritual work of the inferior degrees, should be conducted in the third degree. Another exception must be made as to the examination of witnesses in the trial of an Entered Apprentice or a Fellowcraft, which, for purposes of justice, should be conducted in the degree to which the defendant has attained; but even here the final decision should always be made in the third degree.


143 - What are the rules called that govern a Lodge?


            By‑Laws. Every lodge has the power of framing by‑laws for its own government, provided they are not contrary to or inconsistent with the general regulations of the Grand Lodge. The Old Constitutions provide that the by‑laws of the Lodge shall be delivered to the master on the day of his installation, when he shall solemnly pledge himself to observe and enforce them during his mastership. Every brother shall also sign them when he becomes a member of the Lodge, as a declaration of his submission to them.


144 - What are the powers of a Grand Lodge with respect to the by‑laws of a subordinate Lodge?


            By‑Laws, Powers of Grand Lodge Over. A Grand Lodge has the power of making by‑laws for its subordinates; for the by‑laws of every Lodge are a part of the Regulations of Masonry, and it is the prerogative of a Grand Lodge alone to make new regulations. Yet, for the sake of convenience, a Grand Lodge will, and most Grand Lodges do, delegate to their subordinates the duty of proposing by‑laws for their own government; but these by‑laws must be approved and confirmed


MASONRY DEFINED          141


by the Grand Lodge before they become permanent regulations. And a Grand Lodge may at any time abrogate the by‑laws, or any part of them, or of any one or all of its subordinates; for, as the power of pro‑posing by‑laws is not an inherent prerogative in the Lodges, but one delegated by the Grand Lodge, it may at any time be withdrawn or revoked, and a Grand Lodge may establish a uniform code of by‑laws for the government of its subordinates.


It is from the fact that a Lodge only proposes its by‑laws, which the Grand Lodge enacts, that the principle arises that the Lodge can‑not suspend any one of its by‑laws, even with unanimous consent, for here the maxim of law already cited applies, and the same method must be adopted in abolishing as in creating an obligation. That is to say, the by‑law having been enacted by the Grand Lodge, that body alone can suspend its operation.


145 - Has a Lodge the right to prescribe its own by‑laws?


            By‑Laws, Right of Making. A Lodge has the right to make by‑laws for its local government. This right must be considered as a concession or regrant by the Grand Lodge to the subordinates of that which had been previously conveyed to it. Undoubtedly every congregation of Masons must originally have possessed an inherent right to make rules for their government; but on the organization of Grand Lodges, the supreme legislative jurisdiction of the Order was vested in these bodies. Hence the law‑making power is now admitted to reside primarily in Grand Lodges; but a portion of this power - just so much as is necessary for making local regulations - has been reconveyed by the Grand Lodges to their subordinate Lodges, with the qualifying restrictions that all by‑laws made by a Lodge must be in accordance with the Landmarks of the Order and the Regulations of the Grand Lodge, and must also be submitted for approval to the Grand Lodge. This right then, of making by‑laws is not an inherent and independent right, but one which is derived from the concession tf the Grand Lodge, and may at any time be still further abridged or altogether revoked.


146 - Has the Grand Lodge the right to prescribe the by‑laws of constituent Lodges?


            By‑Laws, Uniform Code of. It has been suggested in some jurisdictions that the Grand Lodge should prepare a uniform code of by‑laws for the government of its subordinates, thus depriving them of the power of enacting their own local regulations. I cannot deny the right of a Grand Lodge to assume such a power, which seems to be clearly within its prerogative. And indeed, while some liberty should be al‑lowed a Lodge to make laws for its government in certain particulars, which can in no way affect the general condition of the Order, such, for instance, as relate to the contributions of members, the time of meeting, etc., I am clearly convinced that it would be most expedient for




every Grand Lodge, like that of New York, to leave as little as possible in the way of law‑making to its subordinates, but to incorporate in its own constitution the most important articles for the government of Lodges.


147 - What is the length of a Mason's cable tow?


            Cable Tow's Length. Gaedieke says that, "according to the ancient laws of Freemasonry, every brother must attend his Lodge if he is within the length of his cable tow." The old writers define the length of a cable tow, which they sometimes called "a cable's length," to be three miles for an Entered Apprentice. But the expression is really symbolic and, as it was defined by the Baltimore Convention in 1842, means the scope of a man's reasonable ability.


148 - What country did King Solomon cede to Hiram, King of Tyre?


            Cabul. A country in Galilee ceded to Hiram, King of Tyre, by Solomon, as a reward for his assistance in building the temple. The history of this event is given in the degree of Intimate Secretary of the Ancient and Accepted rite.


149 - What calendars have been adopted by the various branches of Free‑ masonry?


            Calendar. An almanac - a method of marking" exactly the division of the years, starting from some great epoch. Thus Christian nations reckon their time from the birth of Christ, while those of the Mohammedan faith reckon theirs from the hegira, or flight of Mohammed from Mecca. The Masonic era commences with the creation of the world (Anno Mundi), or, Masonically expressed Anno Lucis, year of light, or year of the Lodge. Between the creation of the world, according to sacred chronology, and the advent of Christ 4000 years intervene; thus A. D. 1866 added to 4000 gives the Masonic year,

5866. The Rite of Misraim adopts the chronology of Archbishop Usher, which adds

4 years to the common era, and makes 5870 the Masonic year. The Scotch rite employs the Jewish chronology; thus the Hebrew year 5826 is the A. L. of Scotch Masonry. This rite also adopts the Hebrew manner of dividing the year into months, and closes the year Sept. 17, and begins the new on the 17th (Tisri, 1st). The York rite commences the year with Jan. 1; the French with March 1. The Royal Arch degrees begin their computation with the year in which Zerubbabel began to build the second temple, which was

530 years before Christ. So that 530+1866=2396, the Masonic year of the Royal Arch. The Royal and Select Master's degree reckons time from the year in which Solomon's Temple was completed, viz.: 1000 years before Christ. Thus, 1000+1866=2866, the year of the Royal and Select Master. The Knights Templar compute time from the founding of the Order, A. D. 1118; so that A. D. 1866 - 1118=748 the


MASONRY DEFINED          143 


year of the Order of the Temple. Others (Strict Observance) commence their reckoning from the destruction of the Templars, in 1314; therefore, A. D. 1866‑1314=552. The following will place these Masonic years directly before the eye: A. D. 1866=A. L. 5866, the common Masonic year; A. D. 1866=A. L. 5870 of the Rite of Misraim; A. D. 1866=A. M. 5826 of the Scottish rite; A. D. 1866=A. I. 2396 of the Royal Arch; A. D. 1866=A. D.

2866 of the Royal and Select Master; A. D. 1866=A. O. 748 of the Templars; A. D. 1866=A. 0‑552 of the Strict Observance.


150 - What term is applied to a temporary postponement of the labors of a Lodge?


            Calling Off. A technical term in Masonry, which signifies the temporary suspension of labor in a Lodge without passing through the formal ceremony of closing. The full form of the expression is to call from labor to refreshment, and it took its rise from the former custom of dividing the time spent in the Lodge between the work of Masonry and the moderate enjoyment of the banquet. The banquet formed in the last century an indispensable part of the arrangements of a Lodge meeting. "At a certain hour of the evening," says Brother Oliver, "with certain ceremonies, the Lodge was called from labor to refreshment, when the brethren enjoyed themselves with decent merriment." That custom no longer exists; and although in England almost always, and in this country occasionally, the labors of the Lodge are concluded with a banquet; yet the Lodge is formally closed before the brethren proceed to the table of refreshment. Calling off in American Lodges is now only used, except in a certain ceremony of the third degree, when it is desired to have another meeting at a short interval, and the Master desires to avoid the tediousness of closing and opening the Lodge. Thus, if the business of the Lodge at its regular meeting has so accumulated that it cannot be trans‑acted in one evening, it has become the custom to call off until a subsequent evening, when the Lodge, instead of being opened with the usual ceremony, is simply "called on," and the latter meeting is considered as only a continuation of the former. This custom is very generally adopted in Grand Lodges at their Annual Communications, which are opened at the beginning of the session, called off from day to day, and finally closed at its end. I do not know that any objection has ever, been advanced against this usage in Grand Lodges, because it seems necessary as a substitute for the adjournment, which is resorted to in other legislative bodies, but which is not admitted in Masonry. But much discussion has taken place in reference to the practice of calling off in Lodges, some authorities sustaining and others condemning it. Thus, twenty years ago, the Committee of Correspondence of the Grand Lodge of Mississippi pro‑




posed this question: "In case of excess of business, cannot the unfinished be laid over until the next or another day, and must the Lodge be closed in form, and opened the next, or the day designated for the transaction of that business?" To this question some authorities, and among others Brother C. W. Moore, reply in the negative, while other equally good jurists differ from them in opinion.


The difficulty seems to be in this that if the regular meeting of the Lodge is closed in form, the subsequent meeting becomes a special one, and many things which could be done at a regular communication cease to be admissible. The recommendation, therefore, of Brother Moore, that the Lodge should be closed, and, if the business be unfinished, that the Master shall call a special meeting to complete it, does not meet the difficulty, because it is a well‑settled principle of Masonic law that a special meeting cannot interfere with the business of a preceding regular one.


As, then, the mode of briefly closing by adjournment is contrary to Masonic law and usage, and cannot, therefore, be resorted to, as there is no other way except by calling off to continue the character of a regular meeting, and as, during the period that the lodge is called off, it is under the government of the Junior Warden, and Masonic discipline is thus continued, I am clearly of opinion that calling off from day to day for the purpose of continuing work of business is, as a matter of convenience, admissible. The practice may indeed be abused. But there is a well‑known legal maxim which says, "No argument can be drawn from the abuse of a thing against its use." Thus, a Lodge cannot be called off except for continuance of work and business, nor to an indefinite day, for there must be a good reason for the exercise of the practice, and the brethren present must be notified before dispersing of the time of re‑assembling. Nor can a Lodge at one regular meeting be called off until the next, for no regular meeting of a Lodge is permitted to run into another, but each must be closed before its successor can be opened.


151 - What are the qualifications for admission to Freemasonry?


            Candidate. An applicant for admission into Masonry is called a candidate. The Latin candidatus means clothed in white, candidis vestibus indutus. In ancient Rome, he who sought office from the people wore a white shining robe of a peculiar construction, flowing open in front, so as to exhibit the wounds he had received in his breast. From the color of his robe or toga candida, he was called candidatus, whence the word candidate. The derivation will serve to remind the Mason of the purity of conduct and character which should distinguish all those who are candidates for admission into the order. The qualifications of a candidate in Masonry are some‑what peculiar. He must be freeborn, under no bondage, of at least ,c.


MASONRY DEFINED          145 


twenty‑one years of age, in the possession of sound senses, free from any physical defect or dismemberment, and of irreproachable manners, or, as it is technically termed, "under the tongue of good report." No atheist, eunuch, or woman can be admitted. The requisites as to age, sex, and soundness of body have reference to the operative character of the Institution. We can only expect able workmen in able‑bodied men. The mental and religious qualifications refer to the duties and obligations which a Freemason contracts. An idiot could not understand them, and an atheist would not respect them. Even those who possess all these necessary qualifications can be admitted only under certain regulations. Not more than five candidates can be received at one time, except in urgent cases, when a dispensation may be granted by the Grand Master, and no applicant can receive more than two degrees on the same day. To the last rule there can be no exception.


152 - What is the Masonic significance of the cardinal points?


            Cardinal Points. The cardinal points of the compass have a peculiar signification amongst us, and particularly the east, west, and south. The east is a place of light, and there stands the Worshipful Master, a pillar of Wisdom, as a representation of the rising sun; and as that luminary opens the glorious day to light mankind to their labors, so the Worshipful Master occupies this station to open Lodge, and to employ and instruct the brethren in Masonry. The south is a station of another important officer, the pillar of Beauty, who is placed in that quarter that he may be prepared to mark the sun at its meridian, to call the workmen from labor, and to recruit their strength by necessary refreshment and rest, that their toils may be resumed with renewed vigor and alacrity, without which neither pleasure nor profit can mutually result. In the west stands the pillar of Strength, to mark the setting sun, and close the labors of the day by command of the presiding officer; because the declining luminary warns mankind of the necessity of repose, else our nature would sink under the effects of incessant toil, unrelieved by rest and recreation.


153 - What are the four cardinal virtues?


            Cardinal Virtues. They are Fortitude, by which we are taught to resist temptation; Prudence,‑by which we are instructed to regulate our conduct by the dictates of reason; Temperance, by which we learn to govern the passions; Justice, which constitutes the cement of civil society.


154 ‑ What is the Masonic carpet?


            Carpet. A kind of map, on which are pictured the emblems illustrative of the several degrees of Freemasonry. and by reference to




which neophytes are instructed. They were formerly traced upon the floor, hence the term carpet.


155 - What part of the Masonic ritual is in the form of a catechism?


            Catechism. This is the most important document in Freemasonry. The catechism was formerly only communicated by conference from one lodge to another, or from one brother to another; and this is the reason why we have so many different forms of the catechism, al‑though in spirit there is no material difference in any of them. As a religious catechism contains a summary of all that is taught by that religion, so our catechism contains the essentials of Freemasonry; but it is not to be understood without the teacher taking great pains in instructing the student, nor without his having previously been instructed in a Lodge, and being able to reflect upon and remember the instructions there given. Every degree has its own catechisms; and in many Lodges it is customary to explain part of it at every meeting, in order that the members may become intimately acquainted with it.


156 - What great woman ruler prohibited Masonry in her country and after‑ wards fostered, encouraged and protected it?


            Catharine II. Catharine the Great, Empress of Russia, in 1762, prohibited by an edict all Masonic meetings in her dominions. But subsequently better sentiments prevailed, and having learned the true character of the Institution, she not only revoked her order of prohibition, but invited the Masons to re‑establish their Lodges and to constitute new ones, and went so far as to proclaim herself the Protectress of the Lodge of Clio, at Moscow. During the remainder of her reign Freemasonry was in a flourishing condition in Russia, and many of the nobles organized Lodges in their palaces. She died November

6, 1796, and the persecutions against the Order were renewed by her successor.


157 - What new name is given to the entered apprentice and why?


            Caution. The Entered Apprentice, at his initiation in the United States, is presented with a new name, which is Caution, to teach him that, as he is then imperfectly instructed in the mysteries of Masonry, he ought to be cautious over all his words and actions, that nothing may escape him which may tend to afford information to the opponents of Masonry. This is one of the triad of duties recommended in the first degree.


158 - What new name is given to the Entered Apprentice and why?


            Cautious Secrecy. The cautious secrecy of the Craft in early ages was used to prevent the great principles of science, by which their reputation was secured and maintained, from being publicly known.


MASONRY DEFINED          147 


Even the inferior workmen were unacquainted with the secret and refined mechanism which cemented and imparted the treasure of wisdom. They were profoundly ignorant of the wisdom which planned, the beauty which designed, and knew only the strength and labor which executed the work. The doctrine of the pressure and counter‑pressure of complicated arches was a mystery which they never attempted to penetrate. They were blind instruments in the hands of intelligent Master Masons, and completed the most sublime undertakings by the effect of mere mechanical skill and physical power, without being able to comprehend the secret which produced them; without understanding the nice adjustment of the members of a building to each other, so necessary to accomplish a striking and permanent effect; or without being able to enter into the science exhibited in the complicated details which were necessary to form a harmonious and proportionate whole.


159 - Where did King Solomon have a cave dug and for what purpose?


            Cave. Solomon, according to Masonic tradition, had a deep cave dug underneath the Sanctum Sanctorum of the Temple, with many intricacies, over which he fixed a stone, wherein he put the ark and cherubim. According to Manasseh Ben Israel, the rabbis say he did this because he foresaw that that house would be destroyed and therefore made a secret place where the ark might be kept, so that its sanctity might not be profaned by heathen hands; and they are of opinion that subsequently Josiah secreted therein the ark. They prove it firstly from 1 Kings vi. 9: - "And the oracle within the house he prepared to place there the ark," where by prepare they under‑stand a preparation for the future; they quote the passage, "And they were there until this day," a term in the Holy Scriptures to signify "to all eternity," as, "And no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day," that is, never.      


160 - What are the characteristics of the cedars of Lebanon?


            Cedar. The cedar grows on the most elevated