The Builder Magazine
November 1920 - Volume VI - Number
A SUMMER RESORT FOR MASONS --- MASONIC PARK,
J.L. ELICKER, COLORADO
Thousands of tourists, hailing from nearly every State in the
Union, annually visit the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Among these are
hundreds of Masons and their families. But very few of the latter have ever
heard of this summer resort for Masons - Masonic Park, Colorado.
This Park is under the management of the San Luis Valley
Masonic Association, of which Brother Marshall H. Van Fleet, Alamosa,
Colorado, is President, and Brother Jesse C. Wiley, Del Norte, Colorado,
Secretary. Either of these brethren will be interested in hearing from any
reader of THE BUILDER who may desire further information concerning the Park.
Ideas go booming through the world louder than cannon. Thoughts
are mightier than armies. Principles have achieved more victories than
horsemen or chariots. - W.M. Paxton.
THE MASONS of the rich San Luis Valley, Colorado, are enjoying
something rather unique in the history of Masonry. It is a park devoted to
summer-home purposes, and the San Luis Valley Masons are sharing their summer
vacational pleasures with other Masons.
Many years ago, when it was decided to elevate Chicago out of
the mud by raising its immense blocks up to grade, the young son of a poor
mechanic, George M. Pullman by name, put in a bid for the big undertaking and
secured the contract.
While George was successfully completing this job, he was
revolving in his mind his pet project of building a “sleeping car,” which
would be adopted by all railroads, not so much, we take it, for financial
emolument as for the service it would be to those who travel long distances.
Accordingly, George fitted up two old cars on the Chicago & Alton road with
berths, and soon found that they would be in demand. He then went to work on
the principle that the better his cars, the greater would be the demand, and
the greater the service rendered. After spending three years in Colorado gold
mines, it is said that Mr. Pullman returned and built two cars which cost
$18,000 each. Everybody laughed at what they called “Pullman's folly.” But
George believed that whatever relieved the tediousness of long trips would
meet with speedy approval; he had supreme faith in his idea, and risked
all in it. The result is well known.
So it has ever been, and always will continue to be; the man
with an idea which he puts into practical effect, contributing to the health,
comfort and happiness of his fellowmen - the highest mission men and Masons
can perform, and for which they will ever be held in high esteem.
The germ of the steam engine, we are told, can be seen in the
writings of the Greek philosophers, but it was not developed until more than
two thousand years later.
Likewise, the Supreme Architect of the Universe wrought His
plans of marvelous beauty in Masonic Park ages before the fertile brain of
Marshall H. Van Fleet, Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Colorado,
conceived the idea of providing a permanent summer home for Masons and their
families among the picturesque Rocky Mountains - a home with an ideal climate,
located over 8,000 feet above the level of the sea; a home where mosquito
netting is unnecessary; where refreshing sleep is always possible, the days
always delightful, and close communion with nature sweetest.
When you step down off the platform of a Denver & Rio Grande
passenger coach, or alight from your automobile within the limits of Masonic
Park, the high mountains greet you on the east with their enticing wildness,
while at the base of these mountains you behold the rippling waters of the Rio
Grande River wherein the lively trout bids defiance to the angler.
In this picture (Cut No. 1) you see these mountains in the
distance and to your right. Their ascent is not so steep but that it is good
exercise for a mountain hike in the early morning hours, followed by a cold
bath in the river, if such be your custom. The novelty of a cold bath in the
Rio Grande, at an altitude of 8,200 feet in water from the snow-capped peaks,
may not be relishing at first, yet you will be surprised at the good derived
This picture also conveys an idea of the stupendous rocks so
familiar in this locality. Many a three-pound rainbow trout has been caught
along these tracks. There is genuine sport and lasting benefit from such
early-morning exercise out in the open.
By looking to the northeast from the Denver & Rio Grande shed
depot, this big rock (Cut No. 2) greets the eye. It has been named King
Solomon's Rock. The gentleman seen at the base of this rock is Marshall H. Van
Fleet, the man whose brain conceived such a camping ground for Masons and
their families as is offered in this Masons' Park. This rock is estimated to
be upwards of one hundred feet high. To the right of King Solomon's Rock is
another rock on which nature has carved the picture of a man's face. This rock
has been named George Washington. This is another good morning hike. You cross
the bridge over the Rio Grande river, after which you have perhaps a climb of
two hundred feet up to the base of these rocks. As you become accustomed to
hiking, you may make longer trips.
The big San Luis Valley, wherein is located this beautiful
Masonic Park, is an empire by itself. It is from forty to fifty miles wide, by
one hundred to one hundred twenty miles long, and is surrounded by high ranges
of mountains, with an average elevation of about 7,500 feet. In parts of this
rich valley there are evidences of glacial formation. In other parts there are
evidences of this valley once being the bed of a prehistoric lake. This is the
opinion of scientists. It is noted for alfalfa, peas and hogs, the raising of
which have netted many independent fortunes. Potatoes are also another product
of this valley.
There are seven lodges of Masons in the San Luis Valley,
namely, Olive Branch No. 32 of Saguache, Alamosa No. 44 of Alamosa, Monte
Vista No. 73 of Monte Vista, Amethyst No. 94 of Creede, Vulcan No. 103 of
Hooper, Del Norte No. 106 of Del Norte, and Temple Gate No. 128 of Center. The
present membership of these seven Masonic bodies totals, it is estimated,
between six and seven hundred. With these Masonic brethren are associated an
equal number of wives in the Order of Eastern Star, so that upwards of fifteen
hundred are today interested in this Masonic Park.
It was the custom of these San Luis Valley lodges to celebrate
St. John's day by all gathering at one of these lodges. These meetings were
always well attended, and for the good of the Order. Brother Van Fleet, who is
so well known among Colorado Masons and who has done so much for Masonry, saw
these lodges growing, not only in enthusiasm but in numbers, noticed that it
was beginning to become somewhat burdensome for one lodge to take care of the
immense crowd that assembled on St. John's day, thought that it would be nice
to have a place to celebrate this day - a place that Masons could call their
Accordingly, at the meeting of these lodges, June 24, 1913, it
was decided to appoint a committee to plan otherwise for these annual
celebrations. This committee, after careful consideration and much effort,
decided to buy a hundred and sixty acres. This was done, and the Association
incorporated under the laws of Colorado as a “Non-profit Incorporation.”
The first Association meeting was held at this park June 24,
1914. There were present at that celebration five hundred Masons, their
families and friends. Conservative estimates place the number attending the
last gathering, June 24, 1920, at fifteen hundred, three times that of the
first annual celebration in this park.
Masonic Park contains one hundred and sixty acres of land on
both sides of the Rio Grande river, is located about fifty miles from Alamosa,
Colo., and three miles above South Fork. It has been plotted, with that broad
spirit of fraternity and brotherly feeling with which the Western Mason is
endowed, to sell to Masons at only $25.00 per lot. The Association has opened
this park to all Master Masons and their families, and invites them to buy
lots and erect summer cottages, and make this their summer home.
The location of Masonic Park is one of the most beautiful and
picturesque spots of the Rocky Mountains. The Denver & Rio Grande Railroad and
the Rio Grande River (Cut No. 3) run through the park from northwest to
southeast. The elevation is about 8,200 feet. Fine fishing and hunting in
season an ideal place to spend a summer vacation and rejuvenate
for the coming year's work.
Trains on the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad (Cut No. 4) pass
through Masonic Park twice each day. It is worth while making a trip over the
D. & R.G. from Alamosa to Creede. The scenery along this route is the best,
and the mines and other historic points of more than ordinary interest. Creede,
it will be recalled, is the town in which the slayer of Jesse James, the
outlaw, was shot.
The elevation of the Rio Grande river at Masonic Park is 8,200
feet above sea level. The Association has already built a bridge across the
river (Cut No. 5), and erected a large pavilion. Several cottages have been
erected, and many more are contemplated in the near future.
A large spring (Cut No. 6) has been opened on the top of the
mountain, and fine mountain water piped to every cottage in the park. To the
left of the big pavilion there is a winding path leading up to this spring
which supplies Masonic Park with pure mountain water, it being piped from this
spring. To the unaccustomed and inexperienced in mountain hiking, this will be
a good beginning. It is 1500 feet up this trail, and in places you may have to
“pull yourself up” by catching the twigs occasionally. When you get to the
spring, you will enjoy a drink of this clear, cold water. You can then
continue as much further, if you desire. On the top of this peak, you have a
bird’s-ye view of the surrounding
mountams and river that becomes more interesting the longer you stand and
gaze. You gain three things by taking this short hike: The benefit of the
climb, a drink of good water, and a look at what nature has done. After you
descend, you may enjoy a camp breakfast of trout, or an additional nap, or
Inquiries are being received from Masons of Iowa, Nebraska,
Kansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Texas, and other central States, and no doubt ere
long Masonic Park will be the summer home for Masons and their families from
these and many other states.
The principal forms of recreation to be enjoyed in and around
Masonic Park are hunting, fishing, hiking, packing, camping, automobiling and
picnicking. In hunting and fishing, the only restrictions are the reasonable
requirements of the Colorado game laws.
Outdoor recreation is a necessity of our modern civilized life,
and as civilization becomes more intensive this necessity increases and the
demand grows keener. The infant as well as grandmother; in fact, every member
of the family must have a vacation of some kind. Summer is growing time for
children as well as for gardens. The mountains, glaciers, lakes, streams, and
spring water to drink, contribute largely and effectively to human health and
enjoyment - help to make strong, sturdy boys and girls out of delicate babies.
The human value of a summer spent at Masonic Park would indeed be hard to
Chapelle, Willow, Elk, Myers, Beaver and Trout Creeks are
within from one to nine miles of Masonic Park, and easily accessible by team
or automobile. Fishing is good in all of them, and present fine scenery to the
tourist and camper. The roads throughout this section of Colorado are
first-class, and are being made better each year. State highway No. 15 runs
through the property. The state highway from Denver to the San Juan country is
but three miles east of the park. The South Fork of the Rio Grande, another
stream famous for its hunting and fishing, is but a short drive from the park;
in fact, Masonic Park is ideally located in every respect for a summer home.
There is a large brick furnace on which campers may prepare their meals. There
is plenty of wood, and water has been piped into this Public Cook House.
The annual Association meeting, June 24, is the day when all
Masons of the San Luis Valley are as one great family. Every one brings his
lunch, and the Association furnishes ice cream, lemonade and hot coffee, and
St. John's day spent at Masonic Park will never be forgotten.
is the description of the outing, June 24, 1920, as published in The Alamosa
Courier. This conveys an idea of this outing:
“The San Luis Valley Masonic association, which is composed of
Del Norte, Monte Vista, Saguache, Center, Hooper and Alamosa lodges, met in
the twenty-sixth annual communication on St. John's day, June 24, at Masonic
“The day was spent in general intercourse and in becoming
better acquainted. After a most sumptuous basket lunch, which each individual
furnished, supplemented by ice cream and coffee, furnished by the association,
addresses were made by Frank L. Bishop, Grand Master of Masons of Colorado;
W.W. Cooper, Grand Lecturer of Colorado, and ex-Governor Alva Adams, Inspector
General of Colorado for the Southern Jurisdiction Scottish Rite Masons.
“Mr. Adams' address was an inspiration to all who were
fortunate in getting into the pavilion to hear it. He is conceded to be one of
the best talkers in the state. His address treated of the history of the San
Luis Valley, and no one is better qualified to discuss its history than is Mr.
“The meeting was presided over by our fellow townsman, Marshall
H. Van Fleet, Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of Colorado. Mr. Van
Fleet also acted as general manager of the day's festivities.
“After the program was concluded, the young folks were
permitted, with the assistance of the Alamosa orchestra, to trip the
fantastic, in which they joyously indulged until about nine o'clock in the
evening, stopping just long enough to try and finish the remnants of the
basket picnic dinner.
“It was an ideal day and the number present was estimated at
from sixteen to eighteen hundred. One party
nave counted bud automobiles. A conservative estimate is five persons to the
car. Quite a number came on the train. It was one of the most wonderful
gatherings ever held in the San Luis Valley, and the largest attendance in the
history of the association during the last twenty-six years, practically all
being Masons, their families and relatives.
“The Masonic Park is situated on the Rio Grande river, fifty
miles west of Alamosa, and is one of the most beautiful spots in the Rocky
Mountain region. It is owned by the Masons of the San Luis Valley, and a Mason
from any place is privileged to buy a lot, build him a summer home and become
a member of the association.
“To date the association has spent nearly $20,000 in the
erection of two large pavilions and piping water from a spring upon the
mountain, which can be piped into every cabin on the grounds; the building of
a bridge across the river and other extensive improvements to make it a
first-class summer resort for Masons and their families.
“Fishing in the Rio Grande is always attractive to the angler,
and the park is so situated that it is only a short automobile drive to the
South Fork of the Rio Grande river, Goose Creek and the head waters of the Rio
“The Wheeler national park is easily accessible, and few
people, even of the San Luis Valley, realize the beauties, or know that we
have a national park in our widst, one of the most wonderful spots in the
world - a large tract of land, a sort of wildernes - where the dirt has been
washed away, leaving nothing but rocks, standing like giant trees pointing
“A number of prominent Masons from distant points were in
attendance during the day, some from Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Ohio,
in fact this Masonic Park is rapidly becoming known all over the country.
“Masonic Park is as yet in its infancy, although it has made
big strides in the short life of its existence, but in a few years it is going
to be one of the most famous and widely known resorts of the state of
Colorado. It is easy of access from almost any part of the valley.
“There are no hotel accommodations in the park for tourists,
but it is the intention of the association that all Masons going there shall
be on an equality, and provide for their own comfort and convenience. No
doubt, some day, some Mason will come along buy a lot, and build a hotel for
the accommodation of touring Masons.
“The Order of Eastern Star, which is the ladies' auxiliary of
Masonry, has built a large pavilion.
“Every year sees more and more cottages built, and in a few
years Masonic Park will be the equal of any of the celebrated summer resorts
“About a dozen good sized trout were caught during the day and
presented to the speakers of the afternoon as a souvenir of this twenty-sixth
Masonic Park is a new undertaking, practically in its infancy. The outlook is
very encouraging, however, and the interest already manifested in this rather
unique project, not only by the Masons in the valley but by Masons from
distant points (one brother having written from the Philippines for a lot),
insures its future.
Luis Valley has a Masonic population well able to make this summer park home a
brilliant success, but this is not wholly the intention of its founder and the
Masons of the valley. They wish brethren from every part of the United States
- from the we for that matter, to share with them in the pleasures and
advantages offered by this park - this strictly Masonic recreation grounds,
where Masons and their families may spend their vacations among the beauties
of the Rocky Mountains.
are about fifty by one hundred feet, and may be purchased on the payment plan,
if desired. The writer was at this park July 27, and personally talked with a
contractor who was building a cottage with a sleeping porch. Being thirsty, we
drank of the mountain water from a hydrant within six feet of this cottage.
The contractor remarked about the quickness with which this cottage was
supplied with excellent drinking water. About two weeks were required to build
the cottage. Other cottages are in process construction.
FREEMASONRY AMONG THE AMERICAN INDIANS
ARTHUR C. PARKER, SECRETARY, NEW YORK STATE INDIAN COMMISSION
the most frequent questions directed to the ethnologist who concerns himself
with a study of the American aborigines is, "Are Indians Masons?" There have
been various answers to this question, the reply depending on the informant's
knowledge of Masonry. There are positive assertions both ways. There are also
many rumours of lodges, signs and miraculous escapes due to the giving of some
Masonic sign or exclamation denoting distress. The student is apt to be quite
at loss to know what the real truth is and how much fiction has been woven
about these assertions.
investigator might ask some Indian whether or not he ever heard of an Indian
lodge of Freemasons and receive an affirmative answer; again an Indian of the
same tribe might as positively declare that no such institution existed among
his people. Now what is the truth?
there are numerous Indians who are Free and Accepted Masons. One can scarcely
travel in Oklahoma, Nebraska, Kansas or the Dakotas without meeting Indians
who belong to the ancient fraternity. Many of the most influential Indians of
the Dakotas and especially of Oklahoma have full knowledge of the mysteries of
Masonry and have sought further light in the concordant orders, yet so far as
is known to the writer no exclusively Indian lodge exists.
of the older Indians who inherit the traditions of their forefathers, do they
not have lodges of their own not connected with the rite as the white man
knows it? Surely there is plenty of testimony as to this.
Freemasons Library" by Samuel Cole, published in Baltimore in 1826 is this
quotation from the Masonic Mirror, (date not given):
describe certain private societies among the Indians which apparently resemble
our lodges of Free Masons. Their rules and government of admission of members
are said to be nearly the same. No one can be received as a member of the
fraternity except by ballot, and the concurrence of the whole is necessary to
a choice. They have different degrees in the order. The ceremonies of
initiation, and the mode of passing from one degree to the other, would create
astonishment in the mind of an enlightened spectator.
similar institution, it is said, prevails among our Iroquois. These have never
been suspected of Welsh extraction. Still they may have derived the signs
from those who were. We receive the information from Gov. Clinton, to whom it
was communicated by a respectable Indian preacher, who received the signs of
the mystery from a Menonie (Menominee) chief. The institution, therefore,
must be prevalent among the Menonies as well as other Indians. In this secret
institution among the Indians, the members are very select. Among the
Iroquois the society consists of five Oneidas, two St. Regis and six Senecas.
They are said to have secret signs, and pretend that the institution has
existed from eternity. The period of their meetings is unknown; but they
assemble once in three years, as deputies, under pretense of other business."
considering the question of freemasonry two views may be taken, one that there
is a universal freemasonry in which through the medium of philosophical and
symbolic teachings a system of morality is inculcated by a brotherhood; and
the second that Free and Accepted Masonry does not exist unless able to show a
charter or dispensation from some Grand Body of competent Masonic
jurisdiction. According to the second view any similar is not "Free and
Accepted Masonry" but an extra-limital institution without any ties of
affiliation. This view makes the possession of a charter and adherence to a
certain basic constitution of primary importance. The first view, however,
recognizes that there is an universal freemasonry and asserts that adherence
to certain principles and a certain type of ceremonies leading to the
expression of a certain set of moral ideas of primary importance. Both of
these views are correct within their fields.
make the term "freemasonry" or "universal freemasonry" generic, then any form
of freemasonry, that embraces the characteristics of freemasonry, may be said
to be a part of a great whole. If, on the other hand, we define freemasonry
as a certain system and organization controlled by certain Grand Lodges of
competent jurisdiction, each Grand Lodge recognizing the other and having
fraternal intercourse with it, then we take the specific view and refer to
"Free and Accepted Masons."
sake of our subject let us admit that there is an extra-limital or universal
freemasonry which men outside the order itself may discover and understand.
This is not unreasonable to the philosophy of the organized craft. Let
competent Masons remember where they first became Masons, though their eyes
had not beheld or their minds conceived the beauties of a single Masonic
rite. Yet, having once seen and understood, their previous beliefs were
shaped by the ritual and the power of true faith confirmed and put to labour.
thought before us let us examine the beliefs and principles of the American
Indians and see whether or not any were capable of erecting out of these
things the superstructure that might be fitly termed "a temple of Masonry."
red man of America believed in a Supreme Deity. Many authorities have denied
this, some of them, perhaps, through prejudice and some of them through a
misunderstanding of the words translated gods, spirits, powers. Perhaps some
who have denied that the Indians had the one God concept have done so because
they desired to prove that the white man and his religion brought this idea to
the "benighted heathen." But however this may be there were some cults among
the many tribes that saw back of the god of the winds, the god of the thunder,
the god of the rivers and the god of the harvest, a supreme god who was the
chief of all and who ruled the powers of the air as his subordinates.
Imperfectly understood, perhaps, was this Supreme Architect, but nevertheless
he was known if but feebly. And how well understood and known today is the
concept of Deity? We have knowledge of the ineffable name, and, likewise, the
red man of the desert, the plains and the forest gave a name to this
Omnipotence. Whether to the Algonquin it was Gitche Manitou, to the Pawnee
Tirawa, to the Sioux Wakanda, or to the Iroquois Haweniu, the same idea
prevailed, - that of the one Great Spirit who was the Creator. The Supreme
Architect of the Universe to the American Indian was the Maker-of-All.
practice of virtue was demanded of the red man. He must be just in his
dealings with his fellows. He must be truthful, considerate, hospitable and
loyal. He was likewise taught to be stoical, slow to anger, slow to announce
personal discomfort and to exercise due toleration for the views of his
fellows. At all times he must acknowledge his dependence upon his Creator and
never undertake any great or important underrating without first invoking the
aid of Deity. He actually did this and at all times rendered thanks for the
blessings he enjoyed. To be thankful and never do anything that would lead
the Maker to think his creature ungrateful was one of the great essentials of
the religions of the Indian.
is a future life," announced the red man. It was one of his most inbred
beliefs. His elaborate funeral ceremonies were built up upon this faith. This
was a visible world but there was an invisible world inhabited by innumerable
spirits of departed creatures, - men, animals, plants. Whether it was called
the "Happy Hunting Ground," the "World Beyond the Sky," "the Abode of the
Creator," - to the Indian it was the home-world of spirits; it was heaven. A
thousand ceremonies and a myriad of prayers were devised because of this
deeply rooted belief. It may have been superstitious to have called to
Haweniu in the World-Above-the-Sky and to have attempted to talk to departed
spirits of animals and friends, but nevertheless, in it all a belief was
4. One of
the most precious beliefs of the Indian was that of the universal and eternal
kinship of all created things. This belief affected and influenced the Indian
in every act of his life. Man was not only the brother of man because a
Supreme Father had created both, but every animal, plant and rock, as well as
every force of nature was believed to sustain a certain spiritual relationship
to man, and man had certain obligations to them. The deer and bear were
brothers and "very near man." The trees and waterfalls had spirits. Thus, the
red man thought it quite rational to speak to them as friends and brothers.
Animals were not killed in a wanton way, but when it became necessary to kill
for meat and pelt a propitiary sacrifice was given and the spirit of the
animal invoked for pardon. "I have killed you," chanted the Indian, "that I
might use your meat and fur. Should you need me I, too, am here. But the
Creator has given me great cunning and I have used that power fairly. Hold no
evil thought about me, your soul is the real of you and to it I will render
pleasing sacrifice. Ascend in peace, my brother, and be happy. This incense
is grateful to you, these beads will show you that I desire to render you a
gift. I have spoken."
Indian the creatures of earth were kinsmen, though different in form from
man. This mattered not for the Creator made all to suit his purpose. The food
and pharmaceutal plants of the forest were not taken without a thank offering
and the planting of seeds in hole where the root had been. This feeling of
fraternity worked out in many other ways as by the organization of numerous
fraternities and societies, by the knitting of the clan and totemic systems
and by the ties of a complex social organization. There were binding laws and
customs that governed every social action and regulated conduct. So impressed
was Roger Williams with the kindness and consideration which was shown him by
the Indians among whom he laboured in New England that he wrote:
Nature's sonnes both wild and tame, Humane and courteous be, How ill becomes
it Sonnes of God To want humanity."
this brotherly feeling for fellow creatures there grew up many associations
and fraternities devoted to one cause or another. Some were purely selfish,
others were associations of warriors, others devoted to a propitiation to the
spirits of the nature forces and still others were sworn brotherhoods devoted
to charity, the preservation of ancient rites and to a system of reverent
ceremonies whereby morals were inculcated. In recent years these societies
have received much attention and study by ethnologists, particularly by those
of the American Museum of Natural History of New York. (1)
these four characteristics of the more cultivated natives of the new world we
may deduce their ability to construct an organization similar under the
circumstances of forest and plains life to the freemasonry of the white man.
It will easily be seen that the American Indians except through contact with
white Masons could know nothing of the words used in Masonry nor could they
know anything of the special initiatory rites. They might have signs, similar
to Masonic signs but as for Asiatic words and Hebrew traditions they had
nothing, notwithstanding the immature and superficial observations of those
who have assumed to find them. Such assertions must today stand the
inspection of the trained philologist and ethnologist, and they will not
pass. Yet from what we have stated as to the beliefs of the Indians we may
yet say whether or not they had the mental or moral capacities to understand
Let us go
further. Samuel Cole in the quotation we have cited mentions the Menominees
and the Iroquois and says, "Travellers describe certain private societies
among the Indians which apparently resemble our lodges of Free Masons." Let us
see what these were and find out whether indeed there is any similarity.
Menominees of Wisconsin do have certain fraternal or "medicine" societies,
among them the Mide Wiwin. It has several degrees culminating in the
resurrection of the candidate who represents a slain hero. Alanson Skinner of
the Museum of the American Indian is now writing a description of this
ceremony as a contribution to the by-lights of Masonry. In due time we shall
have the results. But Cole mentions, also, certain ceremonies of the
Iroquois. About this group of native American natives, I feel free to speak,
it being my special province to record their history and traditions for the
State of New York. The Iroquois had a "grand medicine lodge" and still have
several chapters among the Senecas and Onondagas. Its real name is Neh Ho-noh-chee-noh-ga
Nee-ga-hee-ga-aa, which may be interpreted."The Ancient Guards of the Mystic
Potence." This society is the most influential among the non-christianized
Iroquois of New York state today and numbers on its rolls many nominal
Christians. It meets four times each year and holds one business session.
this organization is called "The Little Water Society" because the "potence"
which it guards is used ceremonially in connection with a cup of water, though
other reasons are also ascribed. This potence is represented to be the tips
of the hearts and the brain bases of the primitive founders of the society who
gave the "sparks of their lives" that their hero and leader might be
resurrected. These founders were the great game animals and birds and the
major food plants, which had been befriended in times of dire distress by the
Hero Chief. Slain and scalped by the foe they sacrificed themselves that he
might live by the administration of the life essence which they gave him from
an acorn cup. Thus, in the ceremonies today, the members impersonate these
animal founders and at intervals in the tripartite ceremony, imitate their
calls. The ritual is chanted in unison in three parts in total darkness.
Between each section there is an interval of refreshment when the members
drink strawberry juice, then eat honey, then partake of the fragrant native
tobacco. The ritual is a long one and relates how in the end the slain Hero
Chief is brought to his feet and to life by the firm grip of the bear's paw,
his left paw concealing the grip of his right.
writer personally knows white persons who have witnessed these ceremonies. He
has vouched for at least three who have been shown the mysteries. (2) Today
there are flourishing lodges of this order of Ancient Guards of the Mystic
Potence in the State of New York and in the province of Ontario, where the
Iroquois still hold forth.
It may be
interesting to state further that the form of the lodge is an oblong and has
two altars, one east and one west. Its ritual is sung or chanted by all the
members, thereby rendering "lost words" or forgotten sections next to
impossible. The society bears all the ear-marks of great antiquity and its
members cling faithfully to it, for it is the tradition that when the Guards
cease their vigilance that the red man will pass into extinction.
ceremonial lesson taught is that a man should willingly lay down his life if
need be to save the life of him who has sacrificed to save his, and the ritual
shows that through enduring love for one's fellow man and the potency of
sacrifice the Great Spirit will restore life and health though both have gone.
a strange similarity between this ceremony and the rites of Osiris, whereby he
is raised by the lion. Perhaps the same mystery has appealed to the minds of
many races widely separated by time and space. Perhaps this shows that
certain elements in Freemasonry are universal in their appeal and that all men
have reached out for them, some wisely and well and some imperfectly. Yet the
fact that many have sought proves that there may be an extra-limital masonry,
as if some uninstructed groups of mankind saw through a glass darkly, - and
craved more light.
researches of the American Bureau of Ethnology, of the American Museum of
Natural History and of the State Museum of New York, as well as other public
and private institutions clearly prove the existence of numerous cults and
fraternities among the American Indians. That some should have certain
attributes similar to Masonry is not strange. The human mind and heart
whether in barbarism or in enlightenment hungers for knowledge, longs for
genuine friendship, and knows that without morality no society can endure
Anthropological Papers, American Museum, N.Y. City.
Publications of Buffalo Consistory, A.A.S.R., G.K. Staples, Commander,
"American Indian Freemasonry."
DUDLEY WRIGHT, ENGLAND
tell us that there never has been a woman Freemason. Perhaps that is true.
This question has been called to the attention of the able scholar and devoted
Mason who contributes this series of articles. Can Freemasonry enlarge its
borders to include women or must they forever remain outside the pale? If they
are to be made Masons in literal truth in what way can we reorganize the
ritual so as to eliminate certain features which might prove embarassing to
them? If they cannot be admitted into full membership in what way can the
spirit and teachings of this ancient Fraternity be made available to them?
Since Freemasonry began to be this has been a moot question; it is still. It
will be for years to come. It is a theme of perrennial interest. For this
reason we are very glad indeed to give to our readers the reasoned and mature
judgments of a scholar who has every right to speak on this interesting
MASONRY AND COUNT CAGLIOSTRO
IMMEDIATELY after the downfall of Napoleon, societies were formed in various
European countries, chiefly by exiles for the promotion of Italian
independence. Even Egypt became a centre of this propaganda and, under the
auspices of Mehemet Ali, who aspired to render himself independent of the
Sublime Porte, an Egyptian rite was established under the name of the "Secret
Egyptian Society." In the lodges of Alexandria and Cairo alone, the Greek and
Arab women numbered more than three hundred.
bound up with this Egyptian Masonry was the celebrated unprincipled
adventurer, Joseph Balsamo, better known as the Count Cagliostro, who imposed
upon our Masonic forefathers as he did upon the rest of the world. In 1776,
he was initiated into Freemasonry in the Esperance Lodge, No. 289, which was
attached to what was known as the Rite of Strict Observance. The lodge met at
the King's Head Tavern in Gerrard Street, Soho, W., and was composed mainly of
French and Italian brethren. His entry into the Craft was made through the
mediumship of Comte de Sainte Germain.
Courland Count and Madame Cagliostro established Masonic lodges under what
they claimed to be sublime rites of Egyptian Masonry, which he claimed it was
his mission to restore; and in Paris he prosecuted with great vigour his plans
to resuscitate Freemasonry according to the Egyptian rite. A lodge was
founded at Lyons by Cagliostro, to which was given the name of "Triumphant
Wisdom," and this was regarded as the Mother Lodge of the rite. Its patent
was as follows:
Wisdom Union, Beneficence, Comfort. We, Grand Copt in all Eastern and Western
parts of Europe, Founder and Grand Master of Egyptian Masonry, make known to
All who may read this that during our stay at Lyons many members of the Lodge
of the Orient and Ordinary Rite, which has adopted the distinguishing title of
"Wisdom" have expressed their ardent wish to place themselves under our rule,
to be enlightened in true Masonry.
pleased to accede to their wish, etc., etc.
Cagliostro was Grand Mistress of the Lodge of Isis, which, in 1784, counted
among its Adepts some of the most prominent of French titled women.
August, 1785, there was a great ceremony of initiation in a mansion in Rue
Verte, Faubourg Saint-Honore, Paris, when thirty-six females were admitted
into the Order. Each initiate had to contribute the sum of one hundred lois,
to undertake to abstain from all intimacy with mankind and to submit to
everything which might be imposed on them. On entering the first apartment of
the mansion, the ladies were ordered to disrobe and to put on a white garment
with a coloured girdle. The candidates were then separated into six groups of
six candidates, each group wearing different coloured girdles. They were then
conducted into a temple lighted from the roof and seated upon thirty-six
arm-chairs upholstered in black satin. Madame Cagliostro, clothed in white,
was seated on a throne, and, when the light was lowered, she commanded the
candidates to uncover the left leg to above the knee, to raise the right arm
and to rest it upon an adjacent pillar. The Grand Mistress then delivered an
oration, which advocated the emancipation of woman-kind from the shameful
bonds imposed upon them by men. At the conclusion of the oration, the
candidates were conducted to separate apartments, each of which opened on to
the garden. There they were visited by male admirers, but, having regard to
the oath taken, they refused to enter into any conversation with them and
spurned all overtures, and, after a time, the thirty-six were conducted once
more into the temple. Within a short time, the vaulted roof opened suddenly,
and Cagliostro, seated on a golden sphere, as naked as he was born, holding a
serpent in his hand, and with a flaming star an his head, descended into their
midst. The Grand Mistress announced that this was the Genius of Truth, the
divine Cagliostro, who had come to initiate them into the secrets of
Freemasonry. Cagliostro, or the Grand Copt, as he described himself, then
ordered them to dispense with all their clothing. If they were to receive the
truth, they must be as naked as Truth. The example of dispensing with
clothing was set by the Grand Mistress and followed by the thirty-six
candidates. Cagliostro then delivered his address, at the conclusion of which
he was hauled up on his golden sphere through the opening in the roof. The
ladies clothed themselves and the evening terminated in an elaborate banquet,
when the initiates were joined by their male acquaintances, notwithstanding
the obligations they had taken.
Cagliostro asserted that this particular brand of Masonry was instituted by
Enoch and its teachings promulgated by Elijah. As Grand Copt he claimed to
possess the power of communicating with angels and to be enaned to accomplish
wonders through the miraculous power with which he had been divinely endowed.
All religions were tolerated under his system: a belief in God was the sole
qualification for membership. The Obligation taken by candidates was as
before the Eternal God, the Grand Mistress, and all who hear me, never to
write or cause to be written anything that shall pass under my eyes,
condemning myself in the event of imprudence and to be punished according to
the laws of the grand founders and of all my superiors. I likewise promise
the exact observance of the other six commandments imposed upon me: that is to
say, love of God, respect for the sovereign, veneration for religion and the
laws, love of my fellow-creatures, an attachment without bounds to our Order,
and an unquestioning submission to the rules and code of our ritual as ma be
communicated to me by the Grand Mistress.
initiation of a candidate the Grand Mistress breathed on her face from the
forehead to the chin, saying:
breathe upon you to cause the Truth possessed by us to germinate and penetrate
within your heart; I breathe upon you to fortify your spiritual part; I
breathe upon you to confirm you in the faith of your brethren and sisters, in
accordance with your undertaking. We greet you as a lawful daughter of
Egyptian Masonry of the Lodge; We desire that you be recognized as such by all
the Brethren and Sisters of the Egyptian ritual, and that you enjoy the same
prerogatives as they. Lastly, we impart to you the supreme pleasure of being
henceforth and forever a Freemason.
ceremony of the Third degree was rendered with great pomp and ceremony. On
that occasion a young, innocent girl, to whom was given the name of columba
(dove), was introduced, and the Grand Master claimed to impart to her the
power he possessed of communing with spiritual beings. These spirits were
said to be seven in number, governing the seven planets and surrounding the
throne of the Eternal, their names being Azael, Michael, Raphael, Gabriel,
Ariel, Zobiachel, and Anachiel. The girl, who was clothed in a long, white
robe, which was adorned with blue ribbons, and wearing a scarf, was shut up in
a tabernacle which was placed on the altar of the temple. From a window in
this tabernacle she gave the replies to the questions asked her, which related
generally to the fitness of the candidate for advancement to the degree.
emblems used in Egyptian Masonry were the triangle, the septangle, the trowel,
the compasses, the square, the gavel, the death's head, the cube, the rough
ashlar, a wooden bridge, Jacob's ladder, the Phoenix, the globe, and Father
following advertisement from Cagliostro appeared in the Morning Herald in
November, 1786, explanatory words, which did not appear in the advertisement,
being placed in brackets:
Name of 9, 5, 8, 14, 20, 1, 8 [Jehovah]; 9, 5, 18, 20, 18. [Jesus].
is at hand when the Building of the New Temple or New Jerusalem, 3, 8, 20, 17,
8 [Church] must begin; this is to invite all True Masons in London to join in
the Name of 9, 5, 18, 20, 18, [Jesus] the only one in whom there is a Divine
19, 17, 9, 13, 9, 19, 23 [Trinity] to meet tomorrow evening, the 3d instant,
1786 (or 5790), at Nine o'clock at Riley's, Great Queen Street; to lay a plan
for the laying the first stone of the foundation of the true 3, 8, 20, 17, 8;
[Church] in this visible world, being the, material representative Temple of
the Spiritual 9, 5, 17, 20, 18, 1l, 5, 12. [Jerusalem].
and member of the new 3, 8, 20, 17, 8. [Church].
It is not
without interest to note that, in 1789, Cagliostro was arrested by the police
and taken to the castle of St. Angelo, where he died. His Egyptian Masonry,
so called, perished with him.
OF THE EASTERN STAR
of the Eastern Star is believed to be the fifth largest fraternal organization
and the largest female Order in the world. It had in 1917 nearly 900,000
members and its membership roll is increasing at the rate of 50,000 a year. It
does not claim to be a Masonic Order, although its membership is restricted,
in the case of men, to those who are already members of the Masonic
Brotherhood, and, in the case of women, to those whose nearest male relatives
or connections are Freemasons of good standing. It is the custom of the
Chapters of the Eastern Star to hold their meetings in the lodge rooms or
temples of Masonic lodges, when such permission can be obtained, but the Order
does not come under the category of "Adoptive Masonry." The terrn "Adoptive"
implies the power of government and control, and this is not exercised by any
Masonic body in regard to the Order of the Eastern Star.
is believed to have taken its rise in the United States of America in 1778,
but it did not attain any degree of eminence until 1850, when it was revived
by Rob. Morris, a prominent American Freemason. The various units were known
as "Constellations," and, in 1855, a "Supreme Constellation" was established,
though it does not appear to have had a long life. The Order itself, however,
continued to flourish and, in 1874 a serious attempt was made to organize a
Supreme Grand Chapter, which, two years later, was crowned with success.
District or Provincial Grand Chapters have since been established in all
quarters of the globe and the Order is making great headway in Scotland.
England stands practically alone in her aloofness from the Order. The utmost
care is evinced in the admission of candidates. The fee for initiation and
the annual subscription are moderate, averaging twelve shillings and five
shillings respectively, and a certain proportion of each is devoted to
beneficence. The Order is doing a noble and unselfish work and it was the
first to establish a Masonic Home in Kansas, charging itself also with the
furnishing of the Home on its erection. In the various States of America
members are, at their own expense, building cottages, furnishing and supplying
them with every need, and, in some instances, constructing hospitals and
Eastern Star Chapter is held in the Masonic lodge room or temple it is the
custom to make no charge for rent, light or heating. A candidate for
initiaton must be recommended by two members from personal knowledge. A
committee of three is then appointed to report upon the application at the
next meeting, when a ballot is taken for the admission of the applicant, and
this ballot must be unanimous.
object of the Order of the Eastern Star is to give practical effect to the
beneficent purpose of Freemasonry, particularly in provision for the wives,
daughters, widows, mothers, and sisters of members of the Craft, and, at the
same time, inculcate various principles. These principles are five in number,
represented by the five Degrees of the Order and said to be read by the
enlightened in the cabbalistic motto of the Order - F.A.T.A.L. They are as
Fidelity to vocations of right and duty. This is the teaching of the Degree
of Jephthah's daughter, as set forth in XI Judges, verses 30-40.
Obedience to the demands of honour and justice in all conditions of life.
This is the teaching of the Degree of Ruth and is set forth in I Ruth, verses
16 and 17.
Fidelity to kindred and friends. This is illustrated in the Degree of Esther
and set forth in IV Esther, verse 2, and VII Esther, verses 2-5.
Trustful faith in the hour of trial. This is the teaching of the Degree of
Martha and set forth in the character of Martha.
endurance of the wrongs of persecution when demanded in the defence of truth.
This is illustrated in the character of Electa, or "the elect lady" as shown
in the narrative recorded in the second epistle of St. John.
of the Order is a five-pointed star, the first point being blue with a sword
and veil to represent Adah, or Jephthah's daughter. The second is yellow with
a sheaf of barley to represent Ruth. The third is white and bears a crown and
sceptre to represent Esther. The fourth is coloured green and has a broken
column to represent Martha. The fifth is red, with a golden cup to represent
Manual of the Order of the Eastern Star the following historical essay on the
foundation and aims of certain secret institutions appears:
Societies imitating Freemasonry for the admission of females as members were
first organized in France during the early part of the eighteenth century, and
still exist there and in other parts of Europe, as a distinctive rite. By the
term "Adoptive Masonry" is implied that system of forms, ceremonies, and
explanatory lectures which is communicated to certain classes of ladies, who
from their relationship by blood or marriage to Master Masons in good
standing, are entitled to the respect and attention of the entire Fraternity.
These ladies are said to be adopted into the Masonic communion because the
system of forms, ceremonies, and lectures above referred to enables them to
express their wishes, and gives satisfactory evidence of their claims in a
manner that no stranger to the Masonic family can do. To the organization
thus established for the initiation of females the French have given the name
of "Adoptive Masonry," "Maconnerie d'Adoption," and the lodges are called
"Loges d'Adoption," or "Adoptive Lodges," because every lodge of females was
obliged to be adopted by, and under the guardianship of, some regular Masonic
lodge. One of the first of these Societies was the "Order of Perfect
Happiness," for so we may be permitted to translate the name "Felicitaires",
which they adopted. This Society assumed a nautical character in its emblems
and its vocabulary. It was divided into the four degrees of "Cabin Boy,"
"Master," "Commodore," and "Vice-Admiral." What little information we have
been enabled to obtain from a very brief notice of its ritual leads us to
believe that it was not of a character to merit countenance. It did not long
retain its existence, for two years after its formation it gave place to the
"Knights and Heroines of the Anchor," which was, however, but a refinement of
the original Society, and preserved its formula of initiation and nearly all
its ceremonies. In 1747, one Beauchaine, the Master of one of the Parisian
lodges, instituted a new Society, which he called "L'Ordre des Fendeurs," or
"The Order of Wood Cutters." This institution borrowed its principal
ceremonies from the Society of the Carbonari, or Coal-burners, which had been
previously established in Italy. The place of meeting of the Woodcutters was
called the Wood Yard, and was supposed to represent a forest; the presiding
officer was called "Father Master" and the male and female members were called
"Cousins." The Society became at once exceedingly popular, and the most
distinguished ladies and gentlemen of France united themselves to it. It was
consequently the cause of the institution of many similar societies, such as
the Order of the Hatchet, of Fidelity, etc. In consequence of the increasing
popularity of the numerous secret associations which, in their external
characters and mysterious rites, attempted an imitation of Freemasonry -
differing, however, from that Institution, of which they were, perhaps, the
rivals for public favour, by the admission of female members - the Grand
Orient of France, in 1774, established a new rite, called the "Rite of
Adoption," which was placed under the control of the Grand Orient. Rules and
regulations were thenceforth provided for the government of these Lodges of
Adoption, one of which was that no men should be permitted to attend them
except regular Freemasons, and that each lodge should be placed under the
charge and held under the sanction and warrant of some regularly constituted
Masonic lodge, whose Master or, in his absence, his Deputy, should be the
presiding officer, assisted by a female president or mistress. Under these
regulations a Lodge of Adoption was opened in Paris in 1775, under the
patronage of the Lodge of St. Anthony, and in which the Duchess of Bourbon
presided, and was installed as Grand Mistress of the Adoptive Rite. Many
systems of Adoptive Masonry have from time to time been introduced in the
United States with varied success, none of which, however, seems to possess
the elements of permanency, except the Order of the Eastern Star, which was
established in this country during the year 1778. The success of this Order,
therefore, corresponds in its beneficence and usefulness with the extent of
Freemasonry. Its obligations are based upon the honour of the female sex, and
framed upon the principles of equality and justice; that whatever benefits are
due by the Masonic Fraternity TO the wives, widows, daughters, and sisters of
Freemasons, corresponding benefits are due FROM them to the members of the
Masonic Fraternity. The theory of the Order of the Eastern Star is founded
upon the Holy Writings. Five prominent female characters, illustrating as
many Masonic virtues, are selected, adopted, and placed under Masonic
protection. The selections are:
Jepthah's daughter, illustrating respect to the binding force of a vow.
illustrating devotion to religious principles.
Esther, illustrating fidelity to kindred friends.
Martha, illustrating undeviating faith in the hour of trial.
illustrating patience and submission under wrongs.
all Masonic virtues, and have nowhere in history more brilliant exemplars than
in the five characters, illustrated in the lectures of the Order of the
honourable and exalted purposes had in view in its dissemination can have no
opposition worthy the name. Its effects in winning to the advocacy of Masonry
the virtuous, intelligent, and influential lady members of our families are
truly encouraging, and stimulates its friends to persevere in a general
promulgation of the system. According to the tenets of the Order of the
Eastern Star, Adoptive Masonry stands a bright monument to female secrecy and
fidelity, and proves how wrong all those are who fancy a woman is not to be
trusted. There is not in the whole of the ceremonies of this rite a single
point with which the most ascetic moralist could find fault. On the contrary,
all is pure, all is beautiful; it is among the brightest jewels which spangle
the records of Masonry. As the Adoptive privileges of the lady entirely
depend upon the good standing and affiliation of the brother through whom she
is introduced, this system will be a strong inducement, it is thought, to keep
a brother, otherwise inclined to err, within the bounds of morality. A
general diffusion of this rite will tend to supersede the other so-called
female degrees as being, at the best, but trivial and henceforth superfluous
several Chapters owning allegiance to the Supreme Council of France of the
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, at the instigation of the Grand Orient,
seceded from that allegience and reconstituted themselves as La Grande Loge
Symbolique de France. One of these Chapters, bearing the name of Les Libres
Penseurs, meeting at Pecq, a village of Seine et Oise, in November 1881,
proposed to initiate into Freemasonry, Mlle. Maria Desraimes, a well-known
writer on Humanitarian and women suffrage questions, which they did on 14th
January, 1882, for which act the Lodge or Chapter was suspended. Mlle.
Desraimes was instrumental in bringing into the ranks of Freemasonry several
other well-known women in France, with the result that an Androgynous Masonic
body, known as La Grande Loge Symbolique Ecossaise was formed on 4th April,
1893 although its jurisdiction at that time extended over only one lodge, that
known as Le Droit Humain, which came into being on the same day, and which, in
1900, adopted the thirty degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
One of the principal workers in the formation of this new schismatic Grand
lodge was Dr. Georges Martin, at one time a member of the Lodge Les Libres
Penseurs. The schismatic movement spread to Paris and Benares and afterwards
to London, at which last-named place, in September, 1902, the Lodge "Human
Duty," now No. 6 on the Co- Masonry Register, was consecrated. The title
"Co-Masonry" in lieu of "Joint Masonry" was adopted in 1905.
Principles of Universal Co-Freemasonry are set forth in the official documents
Universal Co-Freemasonry in Great Britain asserts, in accordance with the
ancient declarations of Freemasonry, the existence of a Creative Principle,
under the title of "The Great Architect of the Universe."
It maintains the open "Volumes of the Sacred Knowledge" in every lodge, when
duly formed for Masonic purposes.
It maintains the ancient landmarks of Freemasonry.
It withholds recognition from all irregular and clandestine meetings, or
lodges not holding proper charter.
It imposes no restrictions on the free search for Truth, and to secure that
freedom exacts tolerance from all its members. Art. 6. It is open to men and
women, without distinction of race or religion, who are free, of good report,
and irreproachable life.
It pledges its members to obedience to the laws of the country, loyalty to the
Sovereign, silence with regard to Masonic secrets, a high standard of honour,
and ceaseless endeavour to promote the welfare of humanity.
Every Freemason belonging to the Ancient and Accepted Rite is bound faithfully
to observe the decision of the Supreme Council to which he owes allegiance.
movement is identified closely with the Theosophical Society, or that
particular section of which Mrs. Annie Besant is President and, on the death
of Dr. Georges Martin, the President Grand Master, Mrs. Besant was chosen to
succeed him in that office.
however, another and a very influential branch of the Theosphical movement,
which repudiates the Besant leadership, and with it the Co-Mason movement.
This is presided over by Mrs. Katharine Tingley, who has set forth her views
on Co-Masonry the following words:
first state what is my attitude towards Masonry. Many of the happiest
recollections of my childhood are associated with my dead grandfather, who was
one of the best known Masons in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and received
some of the highest Masonic honours in these States. It was from him that I
received my earliest education. It was from his Masonic books that I learned
to read and spell and draw, and from his noble and sweet character, I came to
regard Masonry as associated with the best in life. In fact, I came to think
that all the best men in the world must be Masons.
does not necessarily follow that this last statement is true, for some of the
noblest men I have met have not been Masons. Still, on the other hand, many
of the best men I have known have belonged to the Masonic Order, and I have
seen nothing but the best results flow from a deep interest in Masonry
wherever I have known of it, and from my knowledge and acquaintance of Masons
I regard Masonry and the principles which underlie it as a great force for
good in the world.
understand how any true woman would wish to intrude into an Order held to be
exclusively for men. There are lines of work which I hold are exclusively in
the province of men just as there are lines of work which are exclusively in
the province of women. I hold that woman can only yield her full share of
influence in the world from a knowledge gained by using and fulfilling her
opportunities as a woman, and in her own sphere. I consider that she steps
away from her true position and greatly lessens her influence by seeking to
invade the sphere of man.
should women be disturbed that men have an organization which is exclusively
for men? As I understand Masonry, it seems to inculcate all the virtues -
honour, rectitude, chastity, etc. - for this much has often been publicly
stated by Masons; and, speaking generally, I have no hesitation in saying
that, from my experience, the majority of them - to a degree at least - try to
exemplify these virtues in their lives. There may be some who fall far short
of the Masonic ideals - in our present disturbed civilization it can hardly be
expected otherwise - but that cannot be laid at the door of Masonry, but of
human frailty, and as a result of men's failing to grasp their higher
opportunities in life.
woman has known of the uplifting and refining power, tending towards
self-restraint and nobility and virtue, which Masonry has exercised in the
life of brother, husband, or son; and without in any way encroaching on
Masonry or seeking to pry into its secrets, every true woman, in the light of
the knowledge that is publicly given out by Masons themselves of Masonic
principles, can, if she will, help brother, husband, son or friend to be true
to these principles and be a true Mason.
needed today by both men and women is a greater respect, first for themselves,
in their true natures as man and woman, and following that, a greater respect
each for the other - of women for men and of men for women. Such respect
implies no invasion of one another's sphere, but the very contrary, and in
fact can only suffer terribly from such invasion.
a common ground on which men and women can meet, which is preeminently in the
home. It is also in the world of art, music, literature, education, and all
the highest ideals of social, civic, and national life.
had many letters from all classes asking questions as to my attitude in this
matter, seeing that the name Theosophy has, most unfortunately, and without
any warrant, become associated with "Co-Masonry." Such association is
absolutely unwarranted, and I hold that no true Theosophist will give his
adherence or support to "Co-Masonry." The fact that any person or body of
persons should attempt to attach themselves to an organization from which, by
the rules of that organization, they are excluded, would make me seriously
question their motives, and one would probably find such people to be either
fanatics or exeremely credulous or ----(!) Whatever knowledge such people may
think they have in the matter, it must indeed be very limited, or rather no
knowledge at all, otherwise they would see the absurdity of trying to attach
themselves to an organization in which, in the very nature of things, they
would be out of place. If it were possible to conceive of the secrets of
Masonry being given to a woman, from my understanding of the matter it could
be only through some one unfaithful to his vows as a Mason, and no true and
self-respecting woman would think of availing herself of such information; nor
could it, by the nature of things, be held to be reliable, for he who is
unfaithful in one thing will be unfaithful in others, and I prophesy that this
attempt of certain women to seek admission where they do not belong can result
only in confusion, disaster, and serious embarrassment for all such women.
hardly be said that the clandestine movement of Co-Masonry is placed outside
the pale by all who pledge their adherence to the Antient Charges of
WITH THE WORLD
L. B. MITCHELL, MICHIGAN
Square with the world, square away to vision true,
Never mind the creeds, 'tis the world you're holding to.
Square with the world, 'twas for you laid in the plan
That's forever right, for there was to be a man.
And there was to be for him a way sublime
In the plan of life with its rugged heights to climb,
And 'twas left to him to prove that by the square
The beautiful might e'en be made more fair.
Square with the world, though no great deeds be done
You may find just where there’s splendid greatness won;
In the kindly ways, in the cheerful word and smile
You may help so much to make life more worth while.
O, there's so many, and such grand ways to Square
Your life to this old world that's in your care!
To be Square with youth and manhood in the race
Will be forging on to earth's best, noblest place.
Square with the world, as Square as earth to sun
In the little things as in arduous duties done;
'Tis the royal way, the relation to, that's grand,
And itself the wage, paid in to heart and hand.
Square with the world, to it your heart hold true,
The adjustment rare will win the points for you
For the old world holds its pathway in the skies
For naught else save to help you win the prize.
It is not what a man gets, but what a man is, that he should
think of. He should think first of his character, and then of his condition:
for if he have the former, he need have no fears about the latter. Character
will draw condition after it. Circumstances obey principles. - H.W. Beecher.
Get into the habit of looking for the silver lining of the
cloud, and, when you have found it, continue to look at it, rather than at the
leaden gray in the middle. It will help you over many hard places. - Willitts.
Nothing can work me damage, except myself. The harn that I
sustain I carry about me, and never am a real sufferer but by my own fault. -
MONTHLY LODGE MEETING
CORRESPONDENCE CIRCLE BULLETIN NO. 42
Bro. H. L. Haywood
BULLETIN COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
FOUNDATION OF THE COURSE
Course of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
references to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the
Course with the papers by Brother Haywood.
Course is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown below:
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
Work of the Lodge.
Lodge and the Candidate.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
Official Duties and Prerogatives.
Qualifications of Candidates.
Initiation, Passing and Raising.
V. Historical Masonry.
Mysteries--Earliest Masonic Light.
Studies of Rites--Masonry in the Making.
Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
Philological Masonry--Study of Significant Words.
month we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
the foregoing outline. We are now in "First Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry.
There will be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
two, preceding each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used
by the chairman of the Committee during the study period which will bring out
every point touched upon in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin articles from
other sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
by Brother Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
supplemental papers in addition to those prepared by the members from the
monthly list of references. Much valuable material that would otherwise
possibly never come to the attention of many of our members will thus be
monthly installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
Bulletin should be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done
the Committee will have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in
advance of the meetings and the brethren who are members of the National
Masonic Research Society will be better enabled to enter into the discussions
after they have read over and studied the installment in THE BUILDER.
REFERENCES FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
Immediately preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Correspondence Circle Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE
BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. These references are pertinent to the paper
and will either enlarge upon many of the points touched upon or bring out new
points for reading and discussion. They should be assigned by the Committee to
different brethren who may compile papers of their own from the material thus
to be found, or in many instances the articles themselves or extracts
therefrom may be read directly from the originals. The latter method may be
followed when the members may not feel able to compile original papers, or
when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations or
ORGANIZE FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live" members. The
study meetings should be held once a month, either at a special meeting of the
lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which no business
(except the lodge routine) should be transacted--all possible time to be given
to the study period.
lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master should
turn the lodge over to the Chairman of the Research Committee. This Committee
should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for the evening. All
members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned should
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive grasp of
Brother Haywood's paper.
FOR STUDY MEETINGS
Reading of the first section of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
(Suggestion: While these papers are being read the members of the lodge should
make notes of any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the
discussion is opened. Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in
elections should be distributed among the members for this purpose at the
opening of the study period.)
Discussion of the above.
subsequent sections of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same manner.
"QUESTION BOX" THE FEATURE OF YOUR MEETINGS
questions from any and all brethren present. Let them understand that these
meetings are for their particular benefit and get them into the habit of
asking all the questions they may think of. Every one of the papers read will
suggest questions as to facts and meanings which may not perhaps be actually
covered at all in the paper. If at the time these questions are propounded no
one can answer them, SEND THEM IN TO US. All the reference material we have
will be gone through in an endeavor to supply a satisfactory answer. In fact
we are prepared to make special research when called upon, and will usually be
able to give answers within a day or two. Please remember, too, that the great
Library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa is only a few miles away, and, by order of
the Trustees of the Grand Lodge, the Grand Secretary places it at our disposal
on any query raised by any member of the Society.
foregoing information should enable local Committees to conduct their lodge
study meetings with success. However, we shall welcome all inquiries and
communications from interested brethren concerning any phase of the plan that
is not entirely clear to them, and the Services of our Study Club Department
are at the command of our members, lodge and study club committees at all
ON "THE LION'S PAW"
the article in Mackey's Encyclopedia have to say concerning the Lion's Paw?
What is the substance of Mackey's article on "The Lion of the Tribe of Judah"?
the lion always been a favourite subject with symbolists? What was the
symbolism of the lion among early peoples in India? Of what was it a symbol to
the Nile dwellers? Give an example of the use of the lion symbolism in
Egyptian sculpture. How does Harrison describe the raising of Osiris?
the crux ansata, or "ansated cross" originally? In what manner did it develop
into the "Symbol of life" ? What did Albert Pike see in the crux ansata?
the lion as a symbol used by the Jews? Where is it supposed that the Comacine
Masters derived their habitual use of the lion in their cathedral building?
What has Leader Scott to say concerning the lion in architecture? What is
Brother Haywood's theory as to how the symbolism of the Lion's Paw came into
power did the people of the cathedral building period believe the lioness to
possess? Of what was this a symbol to them ?
did the early Freemasons consider the lion a symbol?
any difference between the real meaning of the symbolism of the Lion's Paw as
interpreted by Albert Pike and as interpreted by Leader Scott?
symbol refer to a raising in this life, or in a future life?
- The Square and the Cross, p. 52. Vol III. - Egyptian Cross, p. 355. Vol. IV.
- The Lion of the Tribe of Judah, p. 295. Vol. VI. - Symbolism of the Lion's
Paw, Nov. C. - .B., p. 4.
Encyclopedia: Crux Ansata, p. 191; Lion's Paw, p.448; Lion of the Tribe of
Judah, p. 802.
STEPS BY BRO. H.L. HAYWOOD, IOWA
VII-THE LION'S PAW
Mackey Encyclopedia article on this subject is very brief, as may be seen from
the following: "A mode of recognition so called because of the rude
resemblance made by the hand and fingers to a lion's paw. It refers to the
'Lion of the tribe of Judah.'" This is true as far as it goes, but it doesn't
go far enough, for it leaves unanswered the questions of origin and
interpretation. Nor does the companion article on the "Lion of the Tribe of
Judah" give us much more information. If Mackey refrained from saying more
because he knew no more we can sympathize with him, seeing that at this late
day there is still very little known about the matter. But we have learned
something since Mackey wrote, enough maybe, to set us on the track toward a
satisfactory understanding of the matter.
its appeal to the imagination, and to the fear and reverence it has ever
aroused, the lion has always been a favourite with symbolists, especially
religious symbolists. Our modern anthropologists and folk-lore experts have
furnished us with numberless examples of this, even among savages, who are
sometimes found worshipping the animal at this day. Among the early peoples
of India the lion was often used, and generally with the same significance, as
standing for "the divine spirit in man." Among the early Egyptians it was
still more venerated as may be learned from their monuments, their temples,
and especially their sphinxes; if we may trust our authorities in the matter
the Nile dwellers used it as a symbol of the life-giving power of the sun and
the sun's ability to bring about the resurrection of vegetation in the spring
time. In some of the sculpture left by the Egyptians to illustrate the rites
of the Egyptian Mysteries the candidate is shown lying on a couch shaped like
a lion from which he is being raised from the dead level to a living
perpendicular. The bas-reliefs at Denderah make this very plain, though they
represent the god Osiris being raised instead of a human candidate. "Here,"
writes J. E. Harrison in her very interesting little book on "Ancient Art and
Ritual," "the God is represented first as a mummy swathed and lying flat on
his bier. Bit by bit he is seen raising himself up in a series of
gymnastically impossible positions, till he rises..... all but erect, between
the outstretched wings of Isis, while before him a male figure holds the crux
ansata, the 'cross with a handle,' the Egyptian symbol of life."
ansata was, as Miss Harrison truly says, the symbol of life. Originally a
stick, with a cross-piece at the top for a handle, it was used to measure the
overflow of the Nile. Inasmuch as it was this overflow that carried fertility
into Egypt, the idea of a life giving power gradually became transferred to
the instrument itself; in the same manner that we attribute to a writer's
"pen" his ability to use words. A few of our Masonic expositors, among whom
Albert Pike may be numbered, have seen in the crux ansata the first form of
that Lion's Paw by which the Masonic Horus is raised. If this be the case,
the Lion's Paw is a symbol of life-giving power, an interpretation which fits
in very well with our own position as outlined in the two preceding sections.
But it is
also possible to trace the Lion's Paw to another source. Among the Jews the
lion was sometimes used as the emblem of the Tribe of Judah; as the Messiah
was expected to spring from that tribe the Lion was also made to refer to him,
as may be seen in the fifth verse of the fifth chapter of the Book of
Revelation, where Jesus Christ is called the "Lion of the Tribe of Judah." It
was from this source, doubtless, that the Comacines, the great Cathedral
Builders of the Middle Ages, who were always so loyal to the Scriptures,
derived their habitual use of the lion in their sculptures. Of this, Leader
Scott, the great authority on the Comacines, writes that "My own observations
have led me to the opinion that in Romanesque or Transition architecture, i.e.
between A. D. 1000 and 1200, the lion is to be found between the columns and
the arch - the arch resting upon it. In Italian Gothic, i.e. from A. D. 1200
to 1500, it is placed beneath the column. In either position its significance
is evident. In the first, it points to Christ as the door of the church. In
the second, to Christ, the pillar of faith, springing from the tube of Judah."
Since the cathedral builders were in all probability the first Freemasons it
seems clear that the lion symbolism was inherited from the Comacines.
the cathedral building period, when symbolism was flowering out on all sides
in medieval life, the lion was one of the most popular figures in the common
animal mythology, as may be learned from Physiologers, the old book in which
that mythology has been preserved. According to this record, the people
believed that the whelps of the lioness were born dead and that at the end of
three days the lion would howl above them until they were awakened into life.
In this the childlike people saw a symbol of Christ's resurrection after He
had lain dead three days in the tomb; from this it naturally resulted that the
lion came to be used as a symbol of the Resurrection, and such is the
significance of the picture of a lion howling above the whelps, so often found
in the old churches and cathedrals.
Freemasons, so the records show, read both these meanings, Christ and
Resurrection, into the symbol as they used it. And when we consider that all
Freemasonry was Christian in belief down at least to the Grand Lodge era, we
may be certain that the lion symbol is one of the vestiges of that early
belief carried over into the modern system. If this be the case the Lion's
Paw has the same meaning, whether we interpret it, with Pike, as an Egyptian
symbol, or with Leader Scott, as a Christian emblem, as it stands for the
life-giving power, a meaning that perfectly accords with its use in the Third
degree. This also brings it into harmony with our interpretation of Eternal
Life, for in both its Egyptian and its Christian usages it refers to a raising
up to life in this world, and not to a raising in the world to come.
OF THE LION'S PAW
explain clearly the symbol of the Lion's Paw, as it relates to Masonry, is a
difficult matter. Mackey terms it a symbol of recognition, so-called because
of the rude resemblance made by the hand and fingers to a lion's paw.
emblem of the Lion's Paw was found in the sarcophagus of one of the great
kings of Egypt, entombed in the Pyramid erected to his everlasting
remembrance. It brings to mind the representation of the king's initiation
into those greater mysteries of Osiris held to be the highest aim of the wise
and devout Egyptian. It is claimed by some writers that the Hebrews were
probably instructed in the legend of Osiris, and afterwards changed the whole
to accord with the wonderful and wise Solomon and his master architect Hiram.
Craftsmen reject the death of Hiram only as a myth.
emblem may be thus explained. The form that lies dead before the altar is
that of Osiris, the personified sun god, whom the candidate represents in the
drama of raising, lying dead at the winter solstice, slain by the grim Archer
in November, the fatal month in the year of the sun. The figure of the lion
grasping the dead sun god alludes to the constellation of Leo, which did
prevail 4,000 years ago to raise the sun god to his place of power and glory
on the summit of the grand royal arch of heaven at the summer solstice, and
denoted then, as it does now, that the sun or the candidate is about to be
raised from a symbolical death to life and power by the strong grip of the
Lion's Paw; or, as it has been termed, "the lion of the tribe of Judah." The
cross, which the lion holds in his other paw, is the ancient Egyptian symbol
of eternal life. The figure erect at the altar is doubtless that of the grand
hierophant, with his hand raised in an attitude of command, forming a right
angle, with eyes fixed on the emblematic lion as he gives the sign of command
that Osiris, or the candidate, be raised from death and darkness to light and
be determined who Osiris was, but he was certainly to the Egyptians what
Jupiter was to the Greeks. It is even difficult to determine whether the
legend as recorded in mythology is reliable and authentic, but the lessons
sought to be conveyed is the triumph of good over evil or light over darkness.
view the scene that has just been described we see an exact representation of
an instance that occurs in the making of every Craftsman. He may look upon
the form as somewhat inconsistent, but a little study will show him that it
was quite the reverse, and that his part was enacted by the devout Egyptian in
the days of the most remote antiquity.
of the sun starting in weakness and ending in victory, waging a long warfare
against darkness, clouds and storms, and scattering them all in the end, is
the story of all heroism, of all patient sacrifices and of all Christian
is monotony in the thought of the daily toil of the sun for beings weaker than
himself, of his wrath as he bides his face behind the dark cloud, of his
vengeance as he tramples on the vapours which crowd around him at his setting,
of the doom which severs him from the dawn at the beginning of his journey to
restore her at its close, then there is monotony also in the bare record of
birth and love, and toil and death, to which all human life may be pared down,
that the Lion's Paw had reference to the sun, I refer to a form in the
mysteries of Hindoostan. While performing a ceremony the candidate was taught
to exclaim, on his arrival each time in the South, "I copy the example of the
sun and follow his benevolent course." This being completed, he was again
placed in the centre and solemnly enjoined to the practice of religious
austerities, as the efficient means of preparing his soul for final
absorption. In the Mysteries of Bacchus the candidate was imprisoned in a
pastos or cell. He was alarmed by a crash resembling the rush of waters
bursting with sudden impetuosity from a deep abyss or the deadening fall of a
tremendous cataract, for now was the representation displayed of the waters of
the deluge breaking forth from Hades to inundate the globe. The monstrous
Typhon, raging in quest of Osiris, discovered the ark in which he had been
secreted, and violently rending it asunder, scattered the limbs of his victim
over the face of the earth, amidst the din of dissolving nature. The aspirant
heard the lamentations which were instituted for the death of their god, whose
representative he was, accompanied with doleful cries and howlings of men,
women and animals, to symbolize the death-shrieks and exclamations of terror,
consternation and despair which prevailed throughout the world at the
universal destruction of animated nature, and which would undoubtedly salute
the ears of Noah while within the vessel of safety. Should we follow up the
ceremonies of the various mysteries, we will find that in all instances the
candidate passes from darkness to light, as personified in the Third degree.
To ascertain at what period the Lion's Paw was introduced into Masonic ritual
cannot be done; but this is nothing uncommon with our ancient Order. Even its
origin is clouded in uncertainty. Associated with the Lion's Paw is a code or
covenant called the Five Points of Fellowship. These five points, taken
together, compose the Mason's creed. I cannot conceive any thing more
binding, more humane and sympathetic than these five admonitions. They
contain the fundamental principles of Freemasonry, and the brother that fully
observes them is certainly the ideal Mason.
Burton in "Freemasons Journal," May 17, 1888.
remember what Masonry is, and what it stands for; remember that it is not a
religion, but that it is a series of moral teachings, it points the way to man
to a better and cleaner life; it broadens his knowledge of his duty to his God
and to his fellow man; Masonry cannot make a man live better, but it puts
within his grasp these moral precepts which, if he follows their literal
meaning, will make him a better man, a better father, a better neighbor and a
better Mason; there is no plausible reason for a Mason to go radically wrong;
the greatest teachings ever written come from the Great Light in Masonry; a
Mason has no excuse for not knowing what is right, fair and just in his
actions toward his fellow man; many of us consider ourselves Masons because we
have taken its degrees and are permitted to wear its symbol on our coat
lapels, but that conception of it is as far from the truth as the East is from
the West; a true Mason is a man; a man who is willing to make sacrifices of
time, money and opportunity in behalf of mankind and the brother at his elbow.
- Charles B. Eddy, P.G.M., Michigan
can say that he has done his best if there even one more least thing he can
do. - Stone.
MARKS AND MARK MASONRY
CHARLES C. CONOVER, MICHIGAN
SELECTION AND REGISTRATION OF “MARKS” WITH LAWS AND CUSTOMS RELATING THERETO
MY ATTENTION was particularly attracted to this subject when I
read the following article in the American Tyler-Keystone of Novembers 1915:
“A Michigan companion was recently visiting in a neighboring
state, and upon being examined was asked to show his Mark. He was unable to do
so, never having complied with the instructions to select and register a Mark.
He was somewhat at a loss to know just what the examining committee meant, and
later made inquiry and was instructed.
“Every companion is supposed to select and record a Mark that
will identify him. The Mark should be engraved upon the watch charm or some
token. Some Grand Chapters require that this should be done before a companion
is exalted, but others trust to the companion following the instruction given,
which many times is neglected, and the companion later on finds himself in an
embarrassing position because of his failure to comply with the regulations.
We wonder what percentage of Royal Arch Masons of Michigan have really
selected and registered their Mark ?”
I thought at the time that it was fortunate this matter had
been brought to the attention of our Michigan companions, for some other
jurisdictions are making strenuous efforts to have every brother Mark Master
Mason select and record his “Mark,” and a good majority of Grand Jurisdictions
have legislated that a brother cannot be advanced until he has selected his
“Mark” and had it recorded with the Secretary.
I find that nearly if not all Masonic Supply Houses furnish
“Books of Marks” in various forms but showing a conventional keystone with the
letters in the circle in the center of which each brother is expected to
register his own particular mark (Fig. 1). One jurisdiction, Alberta,
furnishes a printed blank form of size to fit an official envelope with spaces
for name, number of chapter, date of M. M. M., and description of Mark. This
blank is supplied to the candidate to make it as convenient as possible for
him to select his Mark and forward it to the Secretary of the chapter for
proper record in the Mark Book.
Now it happens that all chapter Secretaries are not born
artists and many refrain from endeavoring to depict the intricate designs
which some brothers see fit to choose; then again the Mark Mason himself may
not be an artisan skilled in the use of a pen but might wield an axe with
precision, so that it finally seems to narrow down to having the chapter
select a companion who has the artisan temperament coupled with the necessary
ambition to do the work. In the absence of all the above, it generally obtains
that the requirement is entirely neglected.
Many chapters, mine among the number, present each Mark Master
with a “token” in the form of a “penny” which gives on the obverse the name,
number and location of chapter, together with a conventional Royal Arch
emblem; on the reverse a keystone with a space in the center for engraving the
mark after it has been selected, but there it leaves the more or less
mystified brother and when he is examined as to his proficiency for the Mark
degree (if this is done at all) no question is asked as to whether he has
selected and recorded his Mark.
As a rule I find that foreign chapters give much more attention
and care to selecting and recording of Marks than do the chapters of the
In order to get more definite information upon the various
angles of this subject, I addressed a questionnaire to the Grand Secretary of
each Grand Chapter of the world which contained the following:
“I am preparing an article for the next Grand Chapter
proceedings on the selection and recording of Marks by Mark-Master Masons.
Will you please briefly answer
these questions so far as
they relate to your Grand Chapter:
“1. Has any ruling been made as to what constitutes a Mark?
“2. Does Grand Chapter require that the Mark shall be recorded
previous to Royal Arch?
“3. Are Mark Masons examined as to proficiency in Lecture
“4. Does the custom of presenting a 'Penny' to Mark Masters
obtain among your chapters?
“5. Has Grand Chapter legislated on No. 4?
“6. Cite page and year of legislation on Marks in your
proceedings, if any.
“Any further information on the subject of Marks generally you
can refer me to will be greatly appreciated.”
Most of the Grand Secretaries were very courteous in answering
promptly and supplying all the information
asked. Armed with this information, I have arranged the replies in tabulated
form which will at a glance, give the interested student a world survey of
this interesting and important subject.
*Mark Master degree not conferred in the Royal Arch Chapter,
but controlled by Mark Lodges under Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons.
The following citations to constitutional or statutory
provisions have been gathered which will give the reader a good general idea
of the extent to which selection of Marks and proficiency in the degrees have
had the attention of the several Grand Chapters:
Alabama. - Whereas, The traditions of the Mark Master's degree
made it obligatory and imperative upon every one, who has been advanced to
this degree, to “choose for himself a Mark”; and
Whereas, The Mark is not a mere ornamental appendage to the
degree, but is a sacred token of the rites of friendship and brotherly love,
and its presentation at any time by the owner to another Mark Master Mason,
would claim for him certain acts of friendship which are of solemn obligation
among the Fraternity, therefore
Resolved, 1st, That every Mark Master Mason in this Grand
Jurisdiction be required to choose a Mark and record it in the Lodge Book of
Marks, and that the R.’. W.’. Masters of the several Lodges of M.’.M.’.
Masons, working under the Jurisdiction of this Grand Chapter, require each and
every candidate, immediately after being advanced to the M.’.M.’. degree, to
record his name and date of advancement in the “Lodge Book of Marks,” and
inform him that, before he can receive the R.’.A.’. degree, he must complete
the record by selecting and recording his Mark.
Resolved, 2d, That it shall be the duty of the High Priest of
each and every chapter in this Grand Jurisdiction, whenever a candidate is
announced for the R.’.A.’. degree, to ascertain from the Secretary of the
Chapter if such candidate has chosen his Mark and had same recorded in the
“Book of Marks”; and that the R.’.A.’. degree shall not be conferred upon any
candidate until such record is made.
Resolved, Ed, That the Secretaries of the Subordinate Chapters,
under this Grand Jurisdiction be required to furnish the Grand Secretary with
the names and descriptions of the Marks chosen by the members of their
Resolved, 4th, That the Grand Secretary of this Grand Chapter
be required to keep in his office a book, in which shall be recorded the names
and descriptions of all Mark Master's Marks in this Grand Jurisdiction. (Proc.
1899, p. 28.)
Alberta. - Candidates for reception are examined in M. M. M.
Lodge; candidates for exaltation are examined in M. E. M. Lodge. (Proc. 1919,
Arkansas. - The Secretary of each subordinate chapter, in
reporting exaltations occurring three months or more prior to the meeting of
Grand Chapter, shall state whether each companion so exalted has recorded his
Mark. The Grand Secretary shall immediately notify any companion delinquent in
this jurisdiction that unless his Mark shall have been properly recorded
within thirty days, he shall be subject to discipline by his subordinate
chapter. (Proc. 1912, pp. 197, 205.)
California. - Every Mark Master must select his Mark and record
the same in the Book of Marks, kept by the chapter for that purpose; and no
chapter shall confer the Royal Arch degree until this requirement has been
complied with. (Con., sec. 136.)
Connecticut. - Every chapter is hereby required to procure and
keep with its records a Book of Marks. Hereafter no candidate shall be exalted
within this jurisdiction until he shall have selected and caused to be
recorded a Mark. (Constitution and Laws, Art. 2.)
Delaware. - All Mark Masons are required to adopt a Mark, and
have the same recorded in the Book of Marks, officers of subordinate chapters
using all endeavors to have those who are at present members and who have not
chosen for themselves a Mark, to do so. (Adopted Jan. 16, 1895.)
Resolved, Hereafter all Marks must be recorded in the Lodge
Book of Marks in ink, with a full description of same. (Proc. 1919, p. 78.)
England. - By a resolution of the Grand Mark Lodge of England,
on the 14th of December, 1864, the regulation confining speculative Masons'
Marks to any specified number of points was abrogated. But straight lines are
Florida. - Art. V., Sec. 2. A Book of Marks. Reg. 38. It is the
duty of each chapter to maintain a suitable Book of Marks, and to require
every member and all candidates, after receiving the Mark Master's degree, to
select and have recorded a suitable “Mark” therein. The Royal Arch degree
shall not be conferred until the “Mark” is selected and recorded, unless it be
done at a Grand visitation by the Grand High Priest, in which case the matter
of the “Mark” should be attended to as soon as possible thereafter. (Con.
1919, p. 25.)
General Grand Chapter. - In case of a Mark, constructed in part
of “initials per a certain key,” inscribed correctly as to instructions, but
incorrectly as to intention, through erroneous explanation of the key by the
High Priest: Held that the intention should prevail, and the inscription be
made to comply therewith. (Pro. 1897, pp. 42, 173.)
Illinois. - 267. It shall be the duty of every chapter to
provide itself with a Book of Marks which shall be on the Secretary's desk
whenever the Mark Master's degree is conferred.
268. Every Mark Master is expected to select and record a Mark
before receiving the Royal Arch degree, and when once chosen and recorded as
such in the Lodge Book of Marks no one can alter or change it. If erased or
changed on the book, such action being illegal, does not thereby alter or
change the Mark, which remains as originally selected and recorded, and the
Secretary of the chapter should cause its restoration on the book.
269. It is not necessary for a Mark Master to engrave with his
own hand his chosen Mark upon the Lodge Book of Marks, but it may be done by
another with his approval. (Constitution, Secs. 267, 268, 269.)
Indiana. - Resolved, That in no case shall any candidate
receive the Royal Arch degree until he has adopted and filed with the
Secretary of his chapter a copy of the Mark he is obliged to adopt; that a
petition for affiliation shall be accompanied by a copy of the Mark of the
applicant, and that no demit shall be issued to any companion who has not
previously selected a Mark and had the same recorded. (Proc. 1911, p. 79.)
Iowa. - Sec. 122. Every chapter in this jurisdiction shall keep
a Book of Marks, in which shall be entered the Mark of every member advanced
to the honorary degree of Mark Master; and every member so advanced is
required to select a Mark and have it entered in said Book of Marks before he
receives the Royal Arch degree. (Constitution and Laws.)
Ireland. - In Ireland there are no definite rules, and the
Marks are accepted just as they are sent in. No attention is paid practically
to the matter, and not one Mark Mason in twenty adopts a Mark of any kind.
Those who do frequently select designs quite unsuitable for the purpose, such
as crests or monograms, but they are all registered in Grand Chapter books
Kansas. - Sec. 81. No candidate shall be exalted until he shall
have selected his Mark and caused it to be recorded in the Lodge Book of
Resolved, That the High Priests of the various chapters in this
jurisdiction be directed to require that all members of their respective
chapters who have heretofore failed to select and record their Marks do so
without further delay. (Standing Regulation, 1892, p. 502.)
Resolved, That the Grand Lecturer be directed to examine the
Book of Marks of any chapter visited by him, and report to the Grand High
Priest and the Grand Chapter every non-compliance with the Grand Chapter
By-laws referring to the selection and recording of Marks. (Standing
Regulation, Proc. 1892, p. 502.)
When a companion joins a chapter on demit, he should record his
Mark in the Lodge Book of Marks, if it has not been recorded where he
previously held membership. (Laws of 1907, p. 102.)
Kentucky. - Reg. 498. The “Mark” is a pledge in seeking relief,
not for ordinary loans.
Reg. 499. Recording a “Mark” must be done before the Royal Arch
can be conferred. (Grand Chapter Regulations.)
Maine. - No candidate shall be advanced to the Royal Arch
degree until he shall have selected a Mark and presented it to the Secretary
for record. (Digest, p. 196.)
Maryland. - 3. All chapters are required to procure and keep
Mark Books for the registry of the Marks of their respective members. The
registry shall include copy of Mark, with description. No candidate shall be
exalted to the degree of Royal Arch who has not previously recorded his Mark.
4. No candidate shall be exalted, unless by dispensation, until
he has made sufficient proficiency in the preceding degrees to satisfy the
Council that he can make himself known in those degrees. The examination as to
proficiency to be had in open M.’.E.’. Master's Lodge. (regulations.)
Michigan. - It is not necessary for the High Priest to require
Mark Masters to choose a Mark and have the same recorded. (Proc. 1898, p. 14.)
Minnesota. - Resolved, That all High Priests; be obliged under
the law to see that all candidates be required to record their Marks before
exaltation to the Royal Arch degree; and that High Priests use their best
endeavors to have all companions whose Marks are not yet recorded attend to
this duty at their earliest convenience. (Proc. 1903, p. 20.)
Mississippi. - Ritual requirements only.
Missouri. - Only requirements are in the ritual.
Montana. - Proficiency in lecture refers to proficiency in
grips and words; practically no other examination. (Gd. Sec.)
Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of every member of this chapter,
within six months from the date of his exaltation, to select his Mark and
cause the same to be recorded in the Book of Marks. (Cons. and By-laws, 1892,
Resolved, That the Secretary of each chapter in this
jurisdiction, be required to secure, so far as possible, the signature to the
roll book and the Mark of each companion who has ever been a member of his
chapter, and that the incoming Grand High Priest inquire into the fulfillment
of this recommendation and report. (Proc. 1914, p. 28.)
Nebraska. - Before advancement, each candidate shall prove
himself to be a skilful workman as a Master Mason, by an examination before
the Council; and as a Mark Master and Most Excellent Master in open lodge to
the entire satisfaction of the chapter in which he seeks advancement, by
examination in the degrees last conferred.
No Mark Master shall be exalted to the Royal Arch degree until
his Mark is recorded. (Const. and Bylaws, Chap. 110, 1906.)
Nevada. - Every Mark Master Mason attached to a chapter under
this jurisdiction, must, before his exaltation, select his Mark and record the
same in the Book of Marks kept by the chapter for that purpose. And every
candidate for affiliation must in like manner record his Mark before being
permitted to sign the bylaws; and it is made the duty of the Secretary of each
chapter to see that this regulation is complied with. (Gen. Reg., Sec. 2.)
Proficiency. That the subordinate chapters under our
jurisdiction be, and they are hereby recommended not to confer any degree in
Capitular Masonry until the candidate has become proficient in the preceding
degrees of Masonry, and especially that he be found thoroughly conversant with
the first sections of the Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Masons'
degrees, and with all the means of recognition practiced among Master Masons,
to be ascertained by a committee or otherwise. (Proc. 1878, p. 135.)
New Jersey. - Sec. 20. No Mark Master Mason shall be exalted to
the Royal Arch degree in this jurisdiction until he shall have chosen his
particular Mark, and have delivered a representative of the same for record to
the chapter in which he was advanced.
Sec. 43. It is the duty of the Secretary of the chapter under
the direction of the High Priest, to ascertain from the Shook of Marks, that
no Mark bearing the same device as that offered, has previously been recorded;
and to refuse to record a duplicate of any Mark already recorded in the Lodge
Book of Marks, except as provided in Sec. 53.
Sec. 44. It is incumbent upon subordinate chapters to require
candidates to memorize the lectures and pass examination thereon in open lodge
Sec. 53. A Mark Master Mason may select as his Mark any design
he may wish not previously selected by another. If the Mark so to be selected
be inscribed upon a jewel or a badge, bearing the Mark of a deceased brother,
and shall come to the brother as a gift or an inheritance, it may be adopted
as his own particular Mark by such Mark Master Mason; provided, it be actually
in his possession, unincumbered by pledge. (Const. 1905.)
New York. - Sec. 52. 4. A Book of Marks, in which shall be
recorded the Marks of the members. It shall be the duty of each member of a
chapter to choose a Mark, and to furnish the Secretary with a copy or
description thereof. This duty is incumbent on all who have not previously
selected and had recorded their Marks in the Lodge Book of Marks. A pictorial
description is not obligatory. A written description on the page set apart for
the member shall be sufficient. The Mark of a Mark Master Mason must be
selected and recorded before the Royal Arch degree is conferred upon him.
A duly recorded Mark cannot be altered or changed, and, during
the lifetime of the owner, must not be chosen by another member of the same
chapter. If a companion changes his membership, his Mark remains as a matter
of record with the mother chapter, but a copy thereof may be placed on record
in the Book of Marks belonging to the chapter with which he subsequently
affiliates, due reference being made to the original record.
Sec. 75. No candidate shall be exalted until he has exhibited
suitable proficiency in the preceding degrees. (Con., Secs. 52, 75.)
New Zealand. - Only the ritual construction, viz.: Three, five,
seven, or any other odd number of lines, or salient points joined by lines,
the equilateral triangle always excepted. (Gd. Scribe E.)
North Dakota. - Each subordinate chapter under this
jurisdiction is required to keep a “Book of Marks,” in which shall be entered
the Mark of every brother advanced to the honorary degree of a Mark Master
Mason, and every brother so advanced is hereby required to select a Mark, and
have it recorded in said “Book of Marks,” before being exalted to the sublime
degree of a Royal Arch Mason. (By-Laws, Sec. 24, p. 28.)
That the use of monograms, initials, or the given or surnames,
in whole or in part, of a Mark Master Mason as his Mark, selected by him to be
placed in the Book of Marks, be prohibited; that the report of the subordinate
chapters to the Grand Chapter be so arranged as to include therein the remark
that each Mark Master Mason passed, had selected his Mark prior to receiving
the degree of Royal Arch, and that the same had been duly recorded in the
Lodge Book of Marks. (Pro. 1904, p. 154.)
A candidate for advancement must have sufficient knowledge of
the preceding degree to make himself well known. (By-laws, Sec. 28, p. 27.)
Nova Scotia. - It is competent for a companion to select as his
own, the Mark of a deceased companion. (Pro. 1899, p. 16.)
Ohio. - Sec. 25, p. 95. The petitioners for a new chapter, and
the candidates advanced in it to the degree of Mark Master whilst such new
chapter is working under a dispensation, have the right, respectively, to
choose a Mark, and have the same recorded in the Mark Book of such new
chapter, and those of the petitioners who had before that time chosen Marks
and had them recorded elsewhere, may also have them recorded in the Mark Book
of such new chapter.
Sec. 25, p. 98. It is the duty of each chapter to keep a
suitable Mark Book, and keep therein a record of the Marks of its members.
In no case shall any candidate receive the Royal Arch degree
until he has adopted and filed with the Secretary of his chapter a copy of the
Mark he is obligated to adopt. (Pro. 1911, p. 46.)
Sec. I, p. 51. All the degrees of the chapter except the Royal
Arch may be conferred on a candidate on the same day. Two special meetings may
be called and all degrees may be conferred.
Before a charter for such new chapters shall be granted by
Grand Chapter, that certificates of the High Priests and Secretaries, under
seal, of the various chapters of which the petitioning companions are members,
should be filed with the Grand Secretary, showing that the requirements of
selecting and registering the companion's Mark, have been complied with. (Pro.
1919, p. 53.)
Pennsylvania. - There is no published ruling as to what
constitutes a Mark in this jurisdiction, but before a Mark Master Mason may be
exalted to the degree of Roval Arch Mason, he must adopt as his Mark a device
to be engraved upon a hard substance, within a circle, surrounded by letters
with which you are familiar and within the lines of a keystone, the said Mark
must be recorded in a Book of Marks which every chapter is required to keep.
(Grand Secretary Wells.)
Rhode Island. - Every brother, before being exalted to the
sublime degree of the Royal Arch, should adopt a Mark and have the same
properly recorded. (Pro. 1906, p. 8.)
Scotland. - The writer has had considerable correspondence with
Grand Scribe E. Murray who has edited a “Memorandum on Marks” which was
submitted to the Grand Chapter for its approval. This is the most
comprehensive treatment of the subject I have seen and I have Companion
Murray's permission to reproduce such portions as desired, for which he has
our grateful thanks.
MEMORANDUM IN REGARD TO INTERPRETATION OF INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE MAKING OF MARKS
A clear statement has frequently been requested as to the exact
rules governing the form of Marks. In particular, a prominent chapter has
specially asked to be provided with a definite rule. In consequence the
following Memorandum was submitted to Supreme Grand Committee for the purpose
of information so that they might consider the subject and, if so advised,
give an official ruling on the meaning of the instructions for the degree. The
matter was remitted to a special Sub-Committee on Marks, and in the interval
the Memorandum has been revised and corrected.
In Ireland there are no definite rules, and the Marks are
accepted just as they are sent in. No attention is paid practically to the
matter, and not one Mark Mason in twenty adopts a Mark of any kind. Those who
do frequently select designs quite unsuitable for the purpose, such as crests
or monograms, but they are all registered in Grand Chapter books without
I am informed that by a resolution of the Grand Mark Lodge of
England, on 14th December, 1864, the regulation confining speculative Masons'
Marks to any specified number of points was abrogated. But straight lines are
In America, so far as can be ascertained, there is no rule
specifying what should be selected as a Mark, this being left entirely to the
candidate himself to determine.
The Grand Lodge of Scotland has never, so far as can be
ascertained, laid down any rule whatever, and disclaims any responsibility for
any ritual on the subject.
The way, therefore, appears to be quite open to this committee
to suggest a definite ruling for themselves, and to let others follow it or
not as they choose.
The instructions as they stand at present substantially consist
of a direction that any Mark adopted by a candidate and member must consist of
any number of odd points connected by lines, with the exception of one special
figure containing three points. The old manuscript copy of the working, in the
possession of Supreme Grand Chapter, says, “3, 5, 7, 9, or 11 points joined
together to form any figure they pleased except, etc.” It may be interesting
to add, in parenthesis, that according to the old independent Yorkshire
working early last century, the members present had also to be 3, 5, 7, 9,
etc., and the fee was “one mark, 1s 1 1/2d., neither more nor less.”
The theory held by some is that the Mark was, and is still
supposed to be, made by the workman with the edge of a chisel, not by its
corner point, so that each stroke therefore will make nothing but a straight
line. This would apply to the Mark on the blade of the chisel, but I should
rather think the Mark cut on a stone would be made by a pointed chisel, and
therefore that so far it would be conveniently possible to form a curved
figure. As the Mark was reproduced on the hewn stones, it should have been the
same as that which was struck on the blade of the Mason's own tools to
identify them in the boxes, or when returned from sharpening, or for any other
While the actual words of the instructions do not expressly say
“straight” lines, this is commonly understood to be implied. The old ritual of
Chapter Esk, No. 42, however, expressly says, “straight or curved lines.”
There may be others giving the same reading.
Among the operative Masons of Scotland for centuries genuine
curved Marks are by no means unknown, but are very few. For instance, at
Fortrose Cathedral out of 265 Marks there is only one with curved lines
(representing a vessel). A heart is also an emblem not uncommon. But, on the
whole, out of the many thousand specimens from the thirteenth century
downwards, it is almost unusual to find a Mark with curved lines....
The speculative Masons are lineal descendants of the Operative
Craft, though not the only branch, and theoretically they are subject to the
same rules of work and interpretation as the body from which they sprang.
The first question which arises is as to the regulation about
the number of points. This regulation may hold with the present speculative
system, but it has nothing whatever to do with King Solomon's Temple, where
not a single Mason's Mark has ever been found. Indeed, there are no Mason's
Marks on any known historic and ancient Jewish building, or at least if so I
am not aware of it. The story about a Mark of approval made by an equilateral
triangle and about juxtaposition Marks is apocryphal. The regulation has no
sanction or foundation in the practice of the Operative Craft.
No system of counting will ever prove that such a rule existed
operatively. Numberless specimens prove the contrary.
There used to be a story current in the Craft some thirty years
ago that there was a distinction between the Mark of a Fellow of Craft and
that of a Master Mason, the former having an even number of points and the
latter an odd number. The idea was a fad of some theorists and had no
foundation in fact, except that when the agreement between the Grand Lodge of
Scotland and the Supreme Grand Chapter of Scotland regarding the Mark degree
was entered into, it evidently ignored the fact that the Mark Man and the Mark
Master were two separate degrees - the former worked after the second degree
and the latter after the third. But the Mark was chosen by the Mark Man, and
the indiscriminate use of any number of points for a Mark, odd or even, is
therefore, according to the basis of the theory mentioned, correct.
Incidentally, it may be added that the part of our present ritual referring to
the infliction of the penalty is incorrectly expressed. It was the Entered
Apprentice who suffered, because he had no Mark to present, not the
Fellowcraft, who presented his own Mark. It is absurd to suppose that he
suffered because he used the triangle instead of his proper Mark. The American
ritual I have seen solves this difficulty by making the Mark Master present
and withdraw his hand in a different way to that of his workmen.
Assuming, however, that the rule according to the ritual is to
be observed, a difficulty arises as to what precisely is meant by a point
which has to be counted. The instruction is that the Mark must have a certain
number of odd points connected by straight lines. Now every straight line
consists of an innumerable number of points. Logically, therefore, the
definition means and implies that every point in a straight line is not to be
counted solely because it is in that line. Any point to be counted must be
selected for some other reason. Now, according to the definition, it is quite
clear that the end points of a straight line must be and are intended to be
counted because they are the points which are connected by a straight line. It
beyond question that any point which is the beginning, or ending, of one or
more straight lines must be a point to be counted according to the rules of
difficulty arises as to the counting when two straight lines intersect, or
rather when they not merely intersect but cross one another. In such a case is
the point of intersection a point within the meaning of the instructions for
the degree? Varying opinions have for the past half-century been held among
Freemasons about this, but the old records rather support the rule that a mere
intersection or crossing does not constitute a point. The point is and must be
the end of a line and not merely a part of it in the middle. (Fig. 3).
footing of odd points only being counted, this consists of four points and is
wrong, “O” being a point, while Fig. 4 is right and consists of five points,
“O” being a point at the end of both e separate and distinct lines - CO and
OD. On the other hand, a prominent member of the Scottish Craft holds that O
is not a point in either case, because in both illustrations it is wiped out
as such by being merged in the line AB. He holds that a point must be a
salient point, either acute or obtuse, or the free end of a line.
Again Fig. 5 is right and consists of five points, A, B. C, D
and O. Take another example, Fig. 6, this is wrong because it consists of four
points, both ends of the line OC requiring to be counted. It is on the same
footing as if the figure were one like Fig. 7. Fig. 8, which has been
submitted, is evidently wrong, because on any system of counting,
intersections or not, it contains an even number of points.
The following series of figures is given (Fig. 9) as an
instance of common Marks some of which were undoubtedly used by operatives,
but which according to a strict reading of the ritual, odd points only, would
appear to be improper.
For illustrations of old operative Marks reference may be made
to the historical examples to be found in the Mark Book now under issue by the
Supreme Grand Chapter. (Companion Murray has sent this writer a copy of this
In the petition to Lodge Mother Kilwinning in 1677, of which
the Warrant to Lodge Canongate Kilwinning was granted, nine out of the twelve
petitioners append their Marks. They are all composed of straight lines
connected together. If the crossings are not counted, there were 8 even and 1
odd. If crossings are counted, there were 3 even and 6 odd. One of them was
even and had no crossing point.
In the first minute-book of the Lodge of Edinburgh, if
crossings are not counted, about two-thirds of the Marks are odd and the
remaining one-third even. If crossings are counted, there is a slight
preponderance of odd points.
In the Mark Book of Chapter Edinburgh for the first fifty years
or so, if crossings are not counted, there are 33 odd and 40 even. If
crossings are counted, the same proportion remains. But 134 out of 233 Marks
transgress the rule that straight lines only must be counted. The use of
curved lines has, however, in this case ceased for several decades. As in the
case of the Roman Eagle Lodge, when the Mark degree was introduced in 1785, a
large number of the transgressing Marks are not Marks at all, but
representations of Masonic symbols and emblems such as the hive, the
irradiated sun, the ladder, the skull and cross-bones, the heart, and so on.
Jewish and other letters, a hand grasping an arrow, or a sword, or a pen, or a
musket. There is a horse vaulting a gate, and a lion passant, a clam shell, a
stag's head, a man in the moon, a harp, the volume of the sacred law, an
irradiated star, and a laurel branch, etc., all drawn illustratively. There
are also several Marks with points alone and no lines at all. There are also
instances of, say a shield with a triangle or a cross, or some entirely
separate figure within it. Latterly, it is only too common to find puerile
attempts to combine initials.
I contribute illustrations of the Marks in the Roman Eagle
Lodge Minute Book (Fig. 10), and of those found in Culross Abbey, (Fig. 11).
A sheet of operative Marks from the Queen Street Garden Walls,
within a short distance of the Seat of Supreme Grand Chapter, is also appended
for illustration (Fig. 12). These may be taken to be about 100 years old.
To sum up, the main points for decision are:
1. Whether a “point” (a mere dot) can be counted if it is shown
alone and not as part of a line.
2. Whether a point means the end of a separate and distinct
line or a free salient angle.
3. Whether the lines must be straight or may be curved.
4. Whether the lines must all be connected or whether they may
be disconnected as, for example, a triangle within a shield, or dots or a
small or large circle.
5. Whether the points must be odd in number.
6. Whether in this case a crossing point must be counted.
7. Whether in the same case a crossing point need not be
counted unless desired, and, if one is counted, must all in the same figure be
8. Whether the points may be odd or even in number. In this
case it is not necessary to trouble about crossing points, because they can
make no difference to the ultimate result.
As a closing remark it ought to be added that, looking to the
number of different Marks required for the large number of members now being
admitted, if any mere point of intersection is allowed to be counted it will
make it greatly easier to multiply the available number of possible Marks. If
such a point of mere intersection is not to be counted and is ruled out, the
number of available Marks with a reasonable number of lines will be cut down
probably by onefourth. This is admittedly an argument ad convenientiam, but in
certain cases expediency rises to the height of principle.
The rule suggested is simply that all Marks in future must be
composed of straight lines joined together, and the counting of points be
If this rule be adopted no further question can apparently
arise, and the simplicity of the rule is greatly in its favour. It would
involve, however, that the ritual should be subject to a slight correction to
bring it into conformity with the rule, but this can easily be done.
A. A. MURRAY.
Revised 18th September, 1919.
South Carolina. - I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your
letter, and am much interested to know that you are preparing an article on
the selection and recording of Marks, by Mark Masters. I trust that you will
favor us with a copy of this address, for I am much interested in the general
subject, and our Grand High Priest is of the opinion that some sort of
legislation is needed in our own Grand Chapter upon the subject.
I return your questionnaire herewith, and have endeavored to
make general answers to the interrogatories therein propounded. It is somewhat
difficult for us to answer with simple yes or no, however, for we have always
thought that the matter of Marks was a subject for General Grand Chapter laws,
and did not know that different customs obtain in the various jurisdictions
with reference to the selection and recording of Marks.
I can find no law or ruling upon the subject in the minutes of
our Grand Chapter, and the answers are therefore based upon the general
doctrine that obtains among us in South Carolina, which I have never heard
questioned by any one. (Grand Secretary Hart.)
Tennessee. - Article 24, Sec. 1. Every Mark Master attached to
a chapter must select his Mark and record the same in a book of Marks kept by
the chapter for that purpose, and the degree of Royal Arch Mason shall not be
conferred upon any brother until he shall have thus selected and recorded his
Mark. (Pro. 1915, p.71.)
The law concerning the recording of Marks is only obligatory
one time, and that in the chapter where the companion receives the Mark
Master's degree. If a companion desires to record his Mark which he selected
when he took the Mark Master's degree, in the Book of Marks of the chapter
with which he may thereafter affiliate, he may do so; but it is a matter of
courtesy and not a matter of law that he be permitted to do so; otherwise we
concur in the ruling of the Most Excellent Grand High Priest. (Pro. 1915, p.
Texas. - Mark Masters have six months in which to select their
Marks. (Grand Secretary Bartley.)
Utah. - Sec. 85. No candidate shall be exalted to the degree of
Royal Arch Mason until he shall have chosen his Mark and the same has been
recorded, and every constituent chapter is required to keep a proper Book of
Marks in which shall be recorded the Mark of each and all its members. (Pro.
1919, p. 28.)
- I. That every chapter be and is hereby, required to procure and keep with
its records a Book of Marks.
II. That hereafter no candidate shall be exalted within this
jurisdiction until he shall have selected and caused to be recorded a Mark.
III. The High Priests are hereby directed to require all
members of their respective chapters, who have not previously done so, to
select and record their Marks, and that report of all companions in this
jurisdiction who have neglected or refused to comply with these resolutions be
made to the Grand Secretary. (Pro. 1889, p. 24.)
Victoria. - No Marks are used in the Grand Chapter of Victoria
for the reason that Mark Masonry is not made a part of Royal Arch Masonry but
is under a separate constitution. A Master Mason may become a Royal Arch
companion without having advanced to the degree of a Mark Master Mason, but as
a rule a Mason belongs to a Craft Lodge, a Mark Lodge and a Royal Arch
In Mark Lodges, under the jurisdiction of the United Grand
Lodge of Mark Master Masons of Victoria, it is customary to present a “penny”
to the candidate on his advancement. A record of all “Marks” is kept in a Mark
Lodge and returned for registration to the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge.
It is customary for each Lodge of Mark Master Masons to adopt
some suitable device for its members generally,
alterable in some way for each
individual (Fig. 13).
The equilateral triangle, however, is excepted and not allowed
to be used except by the Worshipful Master as referred to in a portion of the
ceremony. (G. L. Marquand, Grand Scribe E.)
Washington. - Selection of Mark. Sec. 77. It is not proper to
adopt a resolution in a chapter to suspend the advancement of a Brother Mark
Master to the higher degrees until he has selected his Mark, if properly
reminded to do so by the Secretary, whose duty it is to see that it is done,
and who should be disciplined for neglecting to perform this duty. For refusal
to record his Mark, the Brother may be disciplined by the chapter. (Code, Sec.
72, p. 24.)
Wyoming. - Sec. 87. No candidate shall be exalted to the degree
of Royal Arch Mason until he shall have chosen his Mark and the same has been
recorded, and every constituent chapter is required to keep a proper Book of
Marks in which shall be recorded the Mark of each and all its members. (Con.,
PHILOSOPHY OF INDUSTRY
PHILOSOPHY of Industry deals with general principles and not
with the technique of industrial organization or with programs of social
reform. Questions of social reform fall within the province of sociology and
matters pertaining to the forms of industrial organization belong to
economics. We are concerned herewith only with the aims and purposes of
industry considered as a whole. Industry as it actually exists can not be
subsumed under a single generalization; it is too complex, too vast, even, to
be grasped by the mired as a single whole; but just as there are general laws
threading the infinite complexities of nature so are there general principles
running through industry, and it is these general principles which constitute
the problem and the substance of a Philosophy of Industry.
Eighteenth century thought laid down as its most fundamental
law of industry the doctrine of private right, and the corollary of the
sanctity of private contracts. Actual experience has disproved this assumption
because it has shown that it offers us no remedy when private rights conflict
with social welfare. Private rights must be secured by any philosophy of the
matter but a philosophy of industry must have a more comprehensive grasp.
Karl Marx and his followers have translated the whole matter
into the terms of a class struggle. The owners of industry and the workers are
engaged in a struggle for dominance of the industrial processes. Such a
struggle, no doubt, does exist, but this fact does not comprise an industrial
philosophy. How is society as a whole to arbitrate this struggle? By what
criterion is it to determine when this struggle has eventuated in a
satisfactory form of industry? In the hands of the workers industry may be so
organized as to fail to fulfil the functions of an industrial system; and vice
For the same reason the present essay throws out of court all
forms of a priori programs for industrial reorganization; these programs can
not in themselves constitute a true philosophy of industry because we need a
criterion whereby to test whether or not any given program is efficient for
the needs of society.
The thesis of the present paper can be stated in few words:
society consists of actual men, women and children who have certain actual
needs, such as for food, clothing, fuel, shelter, education, recreation, and
opportunity to earn a livelihood. An industrial system is judged by whether or
not it succeeds in satisfying these needs. All questions having to do with
matters of ownership, management, control, etc., are secondary to this
function, and are to be judged by whether or not they enable industry to do
that which society can rightly demand that it do.
One may form a mental picture of this simple thesis. On the one
hand are the millions of men, women, and children whose needs are to be
served; on the other hand are the natural resources wherefrom the materials
are to be drawn which alone can satisfy these needs; the industrial system
stands between the people and the materials, and its function is to secure, to
prepare, and to distribute the latter. It is a just, efficient, and successful
system exactly in proportion as it achieves this end.
To illustrate. The people of the United States need a certain
quantity of meat; the sources of supply are found in the great herds that feed
upon the plains; it is the function of the meat industry to see that these
herds are transformed into useable units and delivered to the points of need
at the least possible expense. If the meat industry fails of fulfilling this
function it must be reorganized.
The needs of society are prior to all private interests. If any
given unit of industry fails of its function it must be reorganized though
that should conflict with the interests of some one man or of a group of men.
In seeking to satisfy the needs of men, women, and children
industry must necessarily adjust itself to the factors in the case, and these
factors must be taken into consideration in this connection. Of these we may
Industry is not a system apart from society; it is society
itself at work to satisfy its own needs; accordingly, it is necessary for
industry continually to seek to adjust itself as closely as possible to the
plain and unchangeable realities of human nature. These are the human factors
in industry and they may be described as follows:
(a) Man is by nature a social being; no form of industry can
therefore be tolerated which tends to disrupt the social bonds. Among these
bonds are those that link husband and wife, parents and children, etc. Also,
the essential social institutions, such as the home, the church, the school,
etc., must evermore be safeguarded.
(b) Man has by nature many interests other than industrial,
such as, for example, amusements, politics, religion, etc., and industry must
as far as possible be held in mutual organization with these.
(c) Man has an indestructible instinct for possession,
therefore industry must make it possible for an individual to own property;
but this does not indicate just what kind of property it is possible for man
(d) Man has within himself, as an inalienable part of his
nature, an instinct for contrivance, for invention, etc.; if this instinct is
suppressed beyond a certain limit his nature is mutilated and he is rendered
(e) Man has within himself an equally inalienable instinct for
private freedom. Any form of enforced servitude is impossible.
(f) Man's body is susceptible to external conditions; he can
not long work under unhealthful conditions.
(g) Industry has become in nature a complicated process;
therefore the individual who is efficiently to perform his own particular
functions therein must be educated, and has a right to such education.
(h) Man's capacity of readjustment to new environmental
conditions is limited and all changes in industrial methods must be adjusted
thereto. This fact renders dangerous all schemes for a sudden revolution in
These human factors are not here thought of in the terms of
private and individual rights but in the terms of concrete fact. Just as the
organization of a living animal is adjusted to the realities in its own
particular environment so must industry be adjusted to the realities of human
Many idealists, in their demands for a complete reorganization
of industry, overlook industrial limitations which are inherent in nature
itself. Coal lies underground and must be mined; if we are to have coal, men
must work subterraneously. Farm products grow in the soil and men must plow,
and sow, and reap if they are to harvest the same. Fish live in water; lumber
exists in forest, often difficult of access; oil must be drilled for, etc.,
etc. Industry can not escape the forms imposed upon it by these natural
factors and society can not expect it to.
FACTORS OF INSTRUMENTALITY
Industry by its very nature must be carried on by tools,
machines, and other mechanical contrivances and instrumentalities.
(a) Industry is under obligation to develop its mechanical
agencies as efficiently as possible in order that society be served with the
least possible expenditure of energy;
(b) And society can not reasonably demand of industry such a
degree of efficiency as mechanical art can not make possible.
FACTORS OF CHANGE
Industry must be so organized as to be capable of readjustment
(a) New devices may at any time be invented;
(b) New natural resources may be discovered;
(c) Man himself may develop new needs and wants;
(d) Old resources, devices, or wants may fail.
For these, and similar reasons, there is an element of the
unpredictable in industry, and in human society; therefore no given program of
industry can remain fixed, nor can any such program be imposed upon the
It is not possible for society at large dogmatically to dictate
what form industry must take at any given point of time or space; the function
to be fulfilled in any given event, and the factors whereto it is necessary to
make adjustment, must always determine what is the most satisfactory form of
ownership, management, control, etc., etc.
In just what manner any given industry must organize itself in
order to harmonize with the various factors as above described, and in order
to satisfy the needs as above indicated, is always a problem for the
economist. H. L. Haywood.
BRO. ROBERT TIPTON
The object of this Department is to acquaint our readers with
time-tried Masonic books not always familiar; with the best Masonic literature
now being published; and with such non-Masonic books as may especially appeal
to Masons. The Library Editor will be very glad to render any possible
assistance to studious individuals or to study clubs and lodges, either
through this Department or by personal correspondence.
It will be our aim to publish in this Department each month a
list of such publications as we may be able from time to time to secure for
members of the Society. However, a book listed herein this month may be out of
stock next month, and further copies unobtainable, and for this reason it is
recommended that when ordering books or pamphlets from these lists the latest
monthly issue of TElE BUILDER be consulted, and no orders be made from lists
more than thirty days old.
In the monthly reviews the names and addresses of the
publishers of the books are given in order that our readers may order such
books direct from the publishers instead of through the Society. In many
instances the books may be found in stock
local book stores.
“Psychical Research,” by Dr. John S. King. Published by the James A. McCann
Co., New York, N. Y. Price $4.00.
DURING the period of the War we were seriously confronted with
the question, Is there Life after Death? The unparalleled onslaught upon human
life severing from the world so many of those who promised so much naturally
induced fresh speculation on the question of Immortality.
In the early days of the War we were told of the vast
congregations which thronged the churches in belligerent countries. Then, a
little later, we were told that a fatalistic attitude had become
characteristic of the vast number, and with the acceptance of the doctrine of
fatalism there came a visible decline in church attendance. Since the signing
of the Armistice this attendance has become almost negligible.
That the question of Immortality abides, persistently
challenging the thoughts of men, is due, we believe, less to the voice of the
church than to those who hitherto but shared the contempt of the church,
namely, the spiritualists, and those dubbed scientific researchers in
It will be noted that those engaged in scientific research have
been regarded with a greater degree of toleration than the spiritualists. To
our mind, however, there is but little difference between the two, inasmuch as
it seems that every investigator of psychical phenomena gains a conviction of
possible communication and contact with disembodied spirits, thus proving
beyond any doubt, as they readily assert, that Immortality is a fact.
admitting the existence of frauds and deceptive practices in connection with
occasional spiritualistic seances, the burden of the conviction lies in the
possibility of communion between this and the spirits life. We are ready to
admit that the books dealing
with the matter are practically all written in the same vein,
and we feel that when one has read the discoveries of such men as Professor
Hyslop or Sir William Crooks, he has grasped in substance what others have
said or are saying. The evidences are much alike in character, and the modes
of obtaining contact of but little variation.
However, an occasional book is brought forth which possesses a
freshness of presentation, and such a book coming from a distinguished
personage ought to merit our respect. Dr. John S. King, the President of the
Canadian Psychical Research Society, is the latest contributor to this fiefd.
We thoroughly enjoyed the chapters wherein Dr. King is the great apologist for
his position. Rarely have we read anything so fair in its appeal for a
reasonable and impartial consideration of a much mooted question. His work is
so readably written that its perusal at once imparts both knowledge and charm.
But few readers, perhaps, would care to peruse the mass of
evidences submitted, but the chapters dealing with seances in which the
materialization of departed people take place, will not fail to attract and
hold the attention. The interest in what was so absorbing a topic during the
war has waned, but the time for sane estimates of such important subjects is
not when the sorrows encompass us, but at a time which admits of calm and
dispassionate reflection. To those desiring an easy and authoritative
introduction to the subject we recommend this work of Dr. King.
* * *
to En-Dor,” by E. H. Jones, Lieutenant I. A. R. O. Published by the John Lane
Co., 116-120 West 32nd St., New York, N. Y. Price $2.00.
introduction to the book on psychical research by Dr. John S. King, we will
let the foreword of this work bespeak its own contents.
This book, besides being an extraordinary story, will
especially appeal to everyone who is interested in spiritualism. It tells in
minute and exact detail how two young British officers who previously knew
nothing of the subject took up spiritualism originally to amuse their
fellow-prisoners in a Turkish prison camp; how they afterwards convinced not
only the Turkish officers of their mediumistic powers, but even their fellow
officers; how eventually the “spook” ran the camp, securing many privileges
for the inmates, and finally nearly effected the escape of the two mediums and
kidnapped the Turkish commandant and interpreter.
Afterwards the two officers feigned madness so effectually that
they were repatriated on compassionate grounds as insane, and later had some
difficulty in convincing the British authorities of their sanity.
The book reads like a wild romance, but is authenticated in
every detail by fellow-officers and official documents. The Turkish governor
was actually courtmartialled for his part in a treasure hunt instituted by the
“spook,” and since the Armistice the authors have received letters from
Turkish officials asking them to return and persist in the search for the
* * *
COLLECTION OF GOVERNOR COOLIDGE'S ADDRESSES
Faith in Massachusetts,” by Governor Calvin Coolidge. Published by The
EIoughton, Mifflin Company, 16 East 40th Street, New York, N. Y.
“Let every inhabitant make known his determination to support
law and order.” In these few words Calvin Coolidge, the man and citizen, is
seen as he reveals himself in this collection of addresses arranged under the
above title. That we have a clear thinker is at once evidenced. His world
perspective is not of the yesterday or tomorrow, but concerns the today. He
clearly distinguishes the necessity of putting the house in order before the
things of the morrow can be rightly undertaken. Do the day's work, whatever
comes, and do it with reference to right and justice, the fundamental
principles on which this country was founded. Some of the addresses sound
academically cultural, but none of them are void of those crisp epigrammatic
sayings that go right to the heart of things. There is a fearless arraignment
of demagoguery and an expression for a firm, broad, deep faith in man, and a
passionate appeal for its realization, as upon this platform alone can the
righteousness that endures be established.
The following list embraces practically all the standard works
on Masonry which we are able to secure and keep in stock for the accommodation
of individual members of the Society, Study Clubs and Lodges.
We are finding it more difficult each year to procure new or
second-hand copies of the earlier works on Masonry of which, owing to the
limited market for them at the time of their publication, but a small number
of copies were printed.
We are continually in search for additional items which will be
listed in this column whenever it is our good fortune to secure them.
It is suggested that the latest list be consulted before
sending in orders and that no orders be made from lists more than one month
old, since our stock of these books is limited and a book listed this month
may be out of stock by the time next month's list is published.
Since the publishers are constantly increasing their prices to
us the following prices are subject to such changes.
PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY THE SOCIETY
bound volume of THE BUILDER $3.75
bound volume of THE BUILDER 3.75
bound volume of THE BUILDER 3.75
bound volume of THE BUILDER 3.75
bound volume of THE BUILDER 3.75
Philosophy of Freemasonry, Pound 1.25
Freemasonry in America Prior to 1750, Melvin M. Johnson, P.G.M.,
Constitutions ( reproduced by photographic plates from an original copy in the
archives of the Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids). Edition limited, 2.00
Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," Bro. J. W. Barry, P. G. M., Iowa, red
buffing binding, gilt lettering, illustrated. A story of the Flag and Masonry,
Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," paper covers .50
Notes on the Comacine Masters," W. Ravenscroft, England. A sequel to "The
Comacines, Their Predecessors and Their Successors," a Masonic digest of
Leader Scott's book "The Cathedral Builders" and containing the latest
researches of Brother Ravenscroft which present a very logical argument for
the connection of Freemasonry of the present day with the Roman Collegia and
traveling Masons of the early times, paper covers, illustrated .50
of the First Degree, Gage, pamphlet .15
of the Third Degree, Ball, pamphlet .15
of the Three Degrees, Street, 68 pages, paper covers. The lessons and symbols
of each degree traced to their origin, in every instance that it has been
possible to so trace them. Brother Street gives many explanations of our
symbols in this little book on which our monitors but vaguely touch
Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite, pamphlet .15
Entered Apprentice Ought to Know,” by Hal Riviere. (Special prices on lot
orders for 25 or more copies for presentation purposes.) Pamplet, paper
* * *
PUBLICATIONS FROM OTHER SOURCES IN IN STOCK AT ANAMOSA
Builders," a Story and Study of Masonry, by Brother Joseph Fort Newton,
formerly Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER $ 1.75
Encyclopaedia, 1919 edition, in two volumes, Black Fabrikoid binding
of Freemasonry, A. G. Mackey 3.15
Jurisprudence, A. G. Mackey 3.15
Parliamentary Law, A. G. Mackey 2.65
“Freemasonry Before the existance of Grand Lodges,” Lionel Vibert. A digest of
the researches of Gould, Hughan, Rylands, Speth and others on the origin and
early history of Masonry 1.75
History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould 4.50
Essays on Freemasonry, Gould 7.00
* * *
foregoing prices include postage and insurance or registration fee on all
items except pamphlets. The latter will be sent by regular mail not insured or
is a missionary, now and forever, for good or for evil, whether he intends or
designs it not. - Chalmers
THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion.
Each of its contributors writes under his own name, and is responsible for his
own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of
opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one school of
Masonic thought as over against another, but offers to all alike a medium for
fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.
The Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to all
members of the Society at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic
subjects are earnestly invited from our members, particularly those connected
with lodges or study clubs which are following our "Bulletin Course of Masonic
Study." When requested, questions will be answered promptly by mail before
publication in this department.
STATUS OF PRESIDENTIAL AND VICE PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES
Will you please tell me, through the Question Box Department of
THE BUILDER, whether or not the Presidential and Vice-Presidential candidates
are Masons ?
Senator Warren G. Harding is a Master Mason in good standing in
Marion Lodge No. 70, Marion, Ohio.
Governor Cox is a Master Mason in good standing in Jefferson
Lodge No. 90, Middletown, Ohio.
Franklin D. Roosevelt is a Master Mason in good standing in
Holland Lodge No. 8, New York, N. Y.
Governor Coolidge is not a member of the Masonic fraternity. He
and his family are attendants at a Congregational
* * *
NATIONAL LEAGUE OF MASONIC CLUBS
Can you give me any information concerning the “National League
of Masonic Clubs” that recently held their Annual Convention in New York City
? C. H. B., Rhode Island.
The “National League of Masonic Clubs” is a national
association comprising at the present time 240 Masonic Clubs located in
twenty-seven Grand Jurisdictions.
In March, 1905, Brother S. R. Clute, Secretary of the Masonic
Temple Club of Syracuse, New York, with the consent and co-operation of his
Club, decided to send out a call to the Masonic Clubs then in existence in New
York State asking them to send representatives to a meeting in Syracuse to
consider the advisability of working out a plan to provide for the interchange
of courtesies to Visiting members of Masonic Clubs in the State. Pursuant to
this call there assembled at Syracuse, New York, on April 20, 1905, in the
rooms of the Masonic Temple Club, representatives from the following Clubs:
Masonic Temple Club, Syracuse, New York.
Masonic Club, New York, N. Y.
Masonic Club, Auburn, New York.
Oswego Masonic Club, Oswego, New York.
Representatives from Herkimer Lodge No. 432, Herkimer, N. Y.
A discussion followed upon general measures for increasing good
fellowship among the various Masonic Clubs of the State, and there was adopted
a form of traveling card to enable its possessor to secure Masonic Club
privileges, not only in his own Club, but throughout the State. The following
resolutions were adopted:
Resolved: That we, the representatives of the Masonic Clubs of
Syracuse, New York City, Rochester, Oswego, Herkimer and Auburn, do hereby
constitute an organization to be known as “The League of Masonic Clubs,” with
headquarters at Syracuse, and that we meet annually on the third Thursday in
April, with the Masonic Temple Club of Syracuse.
Resolved: That the purpose of this League shall be the
promotion of fraternal relations between the Masonic Clubs comprising it and
to facilitate the interchange of courtesies to visiting members.
Resolved: That it is the sense of this organization that the
several clubs forming this League may issue, to members in good standing,
traveling cards signed by the Secretaries of the Clubs and countersigned by
the members to whom they are issued, and entitling said members to the
courtesies of the Clubs comprising the League for a period not to exceed six
months from the date of issue - the foregoing, however, subject to
ratification by the Clubs forming the League.
Annual Conventions of the League have been held as follows:
First Annual Convention. - Held at the Masonic Temple Club,
Syracuse, N. Y., April 19, 1906. Representatives were present from many Clubs
throughout the State. It was at this Convention that the name of the
organization was changed to “The National League of Masonic Clubs,” that the
League might branch out and include Clubs other than those in New York State.
President, S. R. Clute, Syracuse; Secretary-Treasurer, F. D. Clark, Oswego.
Second Annual Convention. - Held at the Masonic Temple Club,
Syracuse, N. Y., April 18, 1907. League Constitution and By-Laws were adopted
at this meeting. President, S. R. Clute, Syracuse; Secretary-Treasurer, F. D.
Third Annual Convention. - Held at the Masonic Club, Rochester,
N Y., April 16, 1908. President, Andrew Ludolph, Rochester;
Secretary-Treasurer, W. H. Hornibrook, Fulton, N. Y.
Fourth Annual Convention. - Held at the Masonic Temple, Troy,
N. Y., April 15, 1909. President, Eugene Bryan, Troy, N. Y.;
Secretary-Treasurer, W. H. Hornibrook, Fulton, N. Y.
Fifth Annual Convention. - Held at the Acacia Club, Buffalo, N.
Y., April 21, 1910. President, Albert Barber, Buffalo, N. Y.;
Secretary-Treasurer, W. H. Hornibrook, Fulton, N. Y.
Sixth Annual Convention. - Held at the Masonic Club, Brooklyn,
N. Y., April 20, 1911. At this Convention a League sign was adopted and
arrangements made to have a sign sent to every Club in the League. President,
Francis G. Coates, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Secretary-Treasurer, W. H. Hornibrook,
Seventh Annual Convention. - Held at the Masonic Temple,
Herkimer, N. Y., April 18, 1912. President, Arthur H. Smith, Herkimer, N. Y.;
Secretary-Treasurer, W. H. Hornibrook, Fulton, N. Y.
Eighth Annual Convention. - Held at the Masonic Temple,
Reading, Pa., April 17, 1913. President, Francis F. Seidel, Reading, Pa.;
Secretary-Treasurer, W. H. Hornibrook, Fulton, N. Y.
Ninth Annual Convention. - Held at the Masonic Temple, Ithaca,
N. Y., April 16, 1914. At this gathering Brother Joseph F. Lance, member of
the Acacia Club, Buffalo, was elected Emeritus Past President. President, J.
Warren Georgia, Ithaca, N. Y.; Secretary-Treasurer, W. H. Hornibrook, Fulton,
Tenth Annual Convention. - Held at the Masonic Temple, Glens
Falls, N. Y., May 13, 1915. President, Chas. N. Van Trump, Glens Falls, N. Y.;
Secretary-Treasurer, W. H. Hornibrook, Fulton, N. Y.
Eleventh Annual Convention. - Held at Hiram Lodge No. 1, A. F.
& A. M., New Haven, Conn., May 11,1916. A seal of the League was adopted at
this meeting and provision was also made to publish a quarterly bulletin.
President, Charles D. Eggleston, New Haven, Conn.; Secretary-Treasurer, W. H.
Hornibrook, Fulton, N. Y.
Twelfth Annual Convention. - Held at Pittsburgh, Pa., May 9-10,
1917. President, George P. Kountz, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Vice President, Robert I.
Clegg, Cleveland, Ohio; Secretary-Treasurer, Joseph T. Slingsby, Rutherford,
N. J. At this meeting plans were gone into very thoroughly with a view to
furthering the interests of the League and in arranging the official line-up
for general progress, and the appointment of Deputy Vice-Presidents all over
Thirteenth Annual Convention. - Held at Buffalo, N. Y., June
10-11, 1918. President, Robert I. Clegg, Cleveland, Ohio; Vice President,
Jesse I. Penney, Ingram, Pa.; Secretary-Treasurer, A. G. Pitts, Detroit, Mich.
Fourteenth Annual Convention. - Held at Detroit, Mich., June
18-19, 1919. President, Jesse I. Penney, Ingram, Pa.; Vice President, Joseph
T. Slingsby, Rutherford, N. J.; SecretaryTreasurer, A. G. Pitts, Detroit,
The membership has grown as indicated in the following
Clubs in League Year Clubs in League
Fifteenth Annual Convention of the League was held in New York City, July 6, 7
and 8, 1920. The business of the Convention was largely of the routine affairs
of the League, though it went outside of this in adopting resolutions
condemning the government of Hungary for having barred Masonry. The resolution
Whereas, It has been brought to the attention of the National
League of Masonic Clubs that the present government of Hungary has recently
barred Masonic gatherings or conventions of Masonic lodges within her borders,
be it ,
Resolved, That the National League of Masonic Clubs of America,
in annual convention assembled, register a fervent protest against this
drastic and unseemly action as unbecoming a free and untrammeled people and as
being against the promotion of fraternity and brotherly love which was the
star of hope followed by all civilized peoples in the World War, and
That this resolution be embodied in the proceedings of this
Convention and a copy sent to all Clubs associated with the League.
The new President of the League is Brother Joseph T. Slingsby,
of Rutherford, N. J. The next Annual Convention will be held in Washington, D.
C., in May, 1921.
* * *
In the San Francisco Masonic bodies we have a Dramatic Club,
known as the “Square and Compass Players.” We have already produced “The
Eighteenth Century Lodge,” “The Legend of the Temple” and “The Traitor.”
We are always on the lookout for something new, and the thought
has just occurred to me that perhaps you might know of something along this
line. J. M. W., California.
We regret that we do not know of any Masonic dramas that might
be added to this list. Perhaps some of our readers can help us out.
KNIGHTS OF RHODES
George Sandys, poet, traveller, and gallant cavalier, was one
of the earliest to embark on foreign travel, and write a description of his
journey. He started out in August, 1610, and returned apparently in 1612. The
volume relating his “Travailes”
shortly after and among the many interesting contents is the following account
of the Origin of the Knights of Rhodes, which will be read with interest by
not a few readers of THE BUILDER.
The story runs: This Order of Knighthood received their
denomination from John, the charitable patriarch of Alexandria, though vowed.
to St. John the Baptist as their patron. Their first seat was the Hospital of
St. John in Jerusalem (whereupon they were called Knights Hospitallers), built
by one Gerrard by such time as the Holy Land became famous by the successful
expeditions of the Christians; who drew divers worthy persons into that
society, approved by Pope Gelasius the second. They, by the alliance of
Honorius the second, wore garments of black signed with a white cross.
Raymond, the first master of the Order, did amplifie their canons, instilling
himself “The poor servant of Christ and Guardian of the Hospital in
Jerusalem.” In every country throughout Christendom they had hospitals and
revenues assigned them with contributions procured by Pope Innocent the
second. They were tyed by their vows to entertain all pilgrims with singular
humanity; to safeguard their passages from thieves and incursions, and
voluntarily to sacrifice their lives in defence of that country.
The ceremonies used in Knighting are these: First, carrying in
his hand a taper of white wax, he kneeleth before the altar, clothed in a
long, loose garment, and desireth the order of the ordinary. Then in the Name
of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, he receiveth the sword therewith
to defend the Catholic Church, to rel ulse and vanquish the enemy, to relieve
the oppressed, if need be to expose himself unto death for the faith, and all
by the power of the Cross, which by the sword hilt is defigured. Then is he
girt with a belt and thrice strook on the shoulders with his sword to put him
in mind that for the honour of Christ he is cheerfully to suffer whatever is
grievous; who, taking it of him there flourisheth it aloft as a provokement to
the adversary, and so sheaths it again, having wiped it first on his arm to
testify that henceforth he will live undefiledly. Then he that gives him
knighthood, laying his hand on his shoulder, doth exhort him to be vigilant in
the faith and to aspire unto true honour by courageous and laudable actions,
etc. Which done, the Knights do put on his spurs, gilt, to signifie that he
should spurn gold as dirt, not to do what was ignoble for reward. And so goes
he to Mass with a taper in his hand; the works of piety, hospitality, and
redemption of captives being commended unto him; told also of what he was to
perform in regard of his Order.
Then is asked if he be a freeman, if not joined in matrimony,
if under vow to another order, or not of any profession; and if he be resolved
to live among them, to revenge their injuries and quit the authority of
secular magistrate ? Having answered thereunto, upon receipt of the Sacrament,
he vows in this Order: “I vow to the Almighty God, to the Virgin Mary, His
Immaculate Mother, and to St. John the Baptist, perpetually by the help of
God, to be truly obedient to all my superiors appointed by God and this Order
to live without anything of mine own and withall to live chastly.” Whereupon
he is made a partaker of their privileges and indulgences granted unto them by
the see of Rome. Dudley Wright, England.
GERALD A. NANCARROW, INDIANA
the endless flood of years
stands a bold majestic isle,
hearts aweary cease their tears
aching souls find rest awhile.
the headlands of this Rock
beacon never tires
and welling fears to lock,
our dying spirit fires.
As to us
in an endless wave
swelling beams illume the way,
anew the checkered pave
our journeyings are gay.