The Builder Magazine
December 1922 - Volume VIII -
Albert Gallatin Mackey
BRO. ROBERT I. CLEGG. OHIO
AT Charleston, South Carolina, on March 12, 1807, this scholarly brother lived
to the age of 74 years, dying at the Hygeia Hotel at Fortress Monroe,
Virginia, June 21, 1881. He was buried by his bereaved family and sorrowing
brethren at Washington, D.C., on Sunday, June 26, with all the solemnity of
the several ceremonies of the Masonic Rites wherein he had so long been active
Graduating with honours at the Charleston Medical College in 1834, Dr. Mackey
entered immediately the busy practice of his profession which chiefly occupied
his time until 1854 when his literary and Masonic labours engrossed his
efforts. During the Civil War Dr. Mackey was a Union adherent, and President
Johnson appointed him Collector of the Port. Some active interest was taken
by him in polities and in a contest for senatorial honours he was defeated by
Senator Sawyer in the canvass. Following this experience Dr. Mackey removed to
Washington, D. C., in 1870.
Andrews lodge, No. 10, at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1841, Dr. Mackey was
initiated, passed and raised. Soon thereafter he affiliated with Solomon's
Lodge No. 1, of the same city, becoming Worshipful Master in December, 1842.
He became Grand Secretary that year and held this office until 1867, for many
years preparing the reports of the Foreign Correspondence Committee of the
Grand Lodge. He was one of the founder members in the formation of Landmark
Lodge, No. 76, in the year 1851.
Advanced and exalted in Capitular Freemasonry during the winter of 1841-1842,
he was elected High Priest in December, 1844; was also elected Deputy Grand
High Priest in 1848 and successively re-elected in that position until 1855.
In this year and every year thereafter to 1867 he was elected as Grand High
Priest of his State. Elected General Grand High Priest in 1859, he continued
in that office until 1868.
and created a Knight Templar in South Carolina Commandery No. 1, in 1842, he
was elected Eminent Commander in 1844, later being honoured as a Past Grand
Warden of the Grand Encampment of the United States.
Crowned a Sovereign Grand Inspector General of the Thirty-third and last
Degree in 1844, he was for many years Secretary-General of the Supreme
Council, Southern Masonic Jurisdiction of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish
Editorially he conducted for many years the Southern and Western Masonic
Miscellany. For two years he was editor-in-chief of the Masonic Quarterly
Review. In 1859 Dr. Mackey became editor of the Department of Masonic
Miscellany in the American Freemason, and for three years, beginning in 1872,
he published Mackey's National Freemason.
Becoming a contributor to the Voice of Masonry in 1875, Dr. Mackey continued
actively his writings in that publication until 1878 when his failing health
completely checked his further labourist for that periodical.
Prolific as an author his books included the History of Freemasonry in seven
volumes, the Encyclopedia of Freemasonry in two volumes, Symbolism of
Freemasonry, Masonic Jurisprudence, Manual of the Lodge, Book of the Chapter,
Principles of Masonic Law, Lexicon of Freemasonry and the Mystic Tie.
Dr. Mackey, located at Washington D.C., he affiliated with Lafayette Lodge,
No. 19, Lafayette Chapter, No. 5, and Washington Commandery, No. 1.
funeral services in Washington on Sunday, June 26, 1881, were begun at All
Souls Church, Unitarian, of which Dr. Mackey was a member, and were conducted
by the pastor. Then followed the ceremonies of a Lodge of Sorrow, Rose Croix
Chapter, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Masonic Jurisdiction,
and were in charge of the venerable General Albert Pike and his associate
long white flowing hair of the patriarchal Sovereign Grand Commander endowed
him with a crowned glory as he from the pulpit uttered the solemn words over
the dead body of his old friend. Their intimate fraternal relations quickened
in the speaker a multitude of memories and he was deeply affected. Brother
Pike's stern lips trembled with emotion many times, especially when he
descended from the pulpit, took the flaming torch in his hand, waved it, and
repeatedly summoned with his loud resounding words "Brother, we mourn for
thee; we call upon thee to answer us. Dost thou hear the call?"
as Brother Pike said these words, a ray of sunshine from the window at the
west streamed in splendour across the church. His hoary head was thereby
aflame with a glowing halo of light like unto the vision of some sturdy
stately saint of old. The tang of sorrow in his tones as he continued sadly
with the words of the ritual - "Our Brother answers not our call" - heightened
with the tinge of assurance the striking illusion.
remains were interred in Glenwood Cemetery with the rites of the Symbolic
Lodge in charge of Most Worshipful Noble D. Larner, Grand Master of the
District of Columbia.
Mackey as a lecturer had nationally a deservedly high reputation. He was
always most interesting and instructive. Possessing a very pleasing address,
he could deeply impress the favourable attention he invariably awakened in an
audience. As an after-dinner speaker he was declared to be second to none in
the United States, his keen wit, lively repartee, and remarkable anecdotal
powers causing his society to be sought and solicited on every possible
stalwart and commanding presence and richly cultured discourse Dr. Mackey was
in close personal charm at once gentle and dignified, acute in his warm
practical sympathies for all suffering humanity, and deeply dowered with a
strong faculty for friendship firm as the hills everlasting.
intense esteem his friends held of Dr. Mackey is well shown by the official
letter sent out at his death by the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Southern
Masonic Jurisdiction of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite. General Albert
Pike wrote this appreciative message:
"Sickness and old age have brought the ending of his days to the Dean of the
Supreme Council, its Secretary-General, Brother Albert Gallatin Mackey. Born
at Charleston, in South Carolina, on the 12th of March, 1807, made a Mason
there, it is said, in the year 1841; he became a member of the Supreme Council
and Secretary General in 1844, and continued to be both until his death at
Fortress Monroe, in Virginia, on the 20th of June, 1881.
"Brother Mackey had lived all his life among gentlemen, and had the manners
and habits of a gentleman. Tall, erect, of spare but vigorous frame, his
somewhat harsh but striking features were replete with intelligence and
amiability; he conversed well, and was liked as a genial and companionable
man, of a cheerful, tolerant and kindly nature, who, if he had quarrels with
individuals, had none with the world. Idolized by his wife and children, he
loved them devotedly, and suffered intensely when, one after another, his two
intelligent and amiable daughters died. He had many friends, and made
enemies, as men of strong will and positive convictions will always surely
do. He plotted no harm against any one, and sought no revenge, even when he
did not forgive, not being of a forgiving race for he was a McGregor, having
kinship with Rob Roy.
"Masonry will not soon lose as great a man, and she may well put dust upon her
head and wear sackcloth in her lodges, where, in Masonry, his heart always
course, as he grew old, he had his crosses and troubles, and fortune was not
kind to him. Adversity may be profitable; but the world goes too hardly with
too many of us; and Sallust truly says:
grief and sorrows, death is a rest from troubles and not a misfortune.'
great man hath fallen in Israel; and, in the words of Pushmataha, the Chahta
Chief, it is like the falling of a huge oak in the woods. The fall will be
heard afar off, and the sound be re-echoed from many and far-off lands.
the reading of this letter in the Bodies of our Obedience, the altars and
working tools will be draped in black and the brethren will wear the proper
badge of mourning during the space of sixty days. And may our Father which is
in Heaven have you always in his holy keeping."
Special Communication of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia, the
following Memorial was presented by a Committee headed by Brother Charles F.
illustrious Brother, Albert Gallatin Mackey, is no more! He died at Fortress
Monroe, Va., on the 20th day of June, 1881, at the venerable age of 74, and
was buried at Washington on Sunday, June 26th, 1881, with the highest honours
of the Craft, all Rites and Orders of Masonry uniting in the last sad services
over his remains.
announcement of his death has carried a genuine sentiment of sorrow wherever
Freemasonry is known. His ripe scholarship, his profound knowledge of Masonic
law and usage, his broad views of Masonic philosophy, his ceaseless and
invaluable literary labourist in the service of the Order, his noble ideal of
its character and mission, as well as his genial personal qualities and his
lofty character, had united to make him personally known and widely respected
and beloved by the Masonic world.
this Grand Lodge shares in the common sorrow of the Craft everywhere at this
irreparable loss, she can properly lay claim to a more intimate and peculiar
sense of bereavement, inasmuch as our illustrious brother had been for many
years an active member of this body, Chairman of the Committee on
Jurisprudence, and an advisor ever ready to assist our deliberations with his
knowledge and counsel.
testimony of our affectionate respect for his memory the Grand Lodge jewels,
and insignia will be appropriately draped, and its members wear the usual
badge of mourning for thirty days. A memorial page of our proceedings will
also be dedicated to the honour of his name.
extend to his family [a widow and three sons survived Dr. Mackey] the
assurance of our sincere and respectful sympathy, and direct that an attested
copy of this minute be transmitted to them."
AND CONVICTION OF AMERICAN MASONIC FEDERATION LEADERS
BRO. CHARLES C. HUNT, DEPUTY GRAND SECRETARY, IOWA
present article concludes Brother Hunt's account of the false claims, the
indictment, trial and conviction of The American Masonic Federation, with
headquarters at Salt Lake City, of which Mathew McBlain Thomson was president.
Brother Hunt's four articles, the first of which appeared in THE BUILDER for
September, comprise a complete record of all the important points in the case.
already described the false claims made by the American Masonic Federation to
Scottish Rite and other Masonic prerogatives in preceding accounts of the
trial and conviction of Mathew McBlain Thomson, president of that organization
of spurious "Masonry." The reader is requested to consult THE BUILDER for
September, October, and November. In the present instance I shall give an
account of the trial held at Salt Lake City, Utah, early in May of this year.
distinguished Scotch Masons agreed to accept a subpoena and testify for the
Government: they were Brothers David Reid, Joseph Inglis, and John A.
Forrest. David Reid is Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Scotland.
Joseph Inglis is Provincial Grand Master of Kincardineshire; also Past Senior
Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge; Past Master of both the Rose Croix Chapter
and Consistory; and Past Grand Prior of the Knights Templar, and a
Thirty-Second degree Mason. John A. Forrest is Grand Secretary of the Royal
Order of Scotland; Past "Provincial Grand Master of Midlothian; Past Master of
his Rose Croix Chapter and Consistory, and a Thirty-Second degree Mason.
brothers testified that Mother Kilwinning Lodge never granted a charter to
work any except the Craft degrees, and that none of the so-called higher
degrees originated in Scotland. David Reid testified that he was a member of
Mother Kilwinning Lodge, and that she had never granted to any of her daughter
lodges power to charter other lodges, and in fact Kilwinning was the only
Scotch lodge that ever had chartering power. Brothers Inglis and Reid both
testified that Mother Kilwinning Lodge kept a copy of every charter issued by
her and that she had never granted one to a lodge in France, as Thomson
claimed she had done.
Thomson was asked to show "a history, any place" which supplies the link of
granting a charter from Mother Kilwinning Lodge to the Mother Lodge of St.
John, of Marseilles, France, but he could not do so.
Brothers Reid and Inglis also testified that the Grand Council of Rites was a
very small body with no reputation, Masonically, in Scotland. Brother Inglis
first heard of it in 1880 and Brother Reid in 1911. In 1912 it was
practically declared clandestine by the Grand lodge of Scotland, and her
members forbidden to affiliate with it. Thereupon, Peter Spence, who had
signed Thomson's Patent, withdrew from it.
1914 Thomson and Robert Jamieson were expelled from Masonry by the Grand Lodge
of Scotland on the charge of conferring clandestine Masonic degrees.
cross-examination Thomson was asked to name a Scotch history that anywhere
mentioned the Grand Council of Rites, and he could not do so. He was also
compelled to acknowledge that the leading Scotch historian, D. Murray Lyon,
did not mention this so-called Grand Council.
Thomson claimed to have been made a Mason in a lodge which had been chartered
by Melrese St. Johns Lodge, but David Reid testified that this lodge never
chartered daughter lodges, and that the lodge from which Thomson claimed a
charter, if it ever existed, was clandestine; that Thomson did not become a
Mason until after he was healed in 1889, in St. James Lodge No. 125.
this connection the following extracts from the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge
of Scotland are interesting:
Proceedings of meeting of April 29, 1880:
"Memorial anent the clandestine introduction of Mathew Thomson into Lodge
operative, Ayr, No. 138, and the issuing of a diploma in his favour.
Committee having considered the whole case, Find that Mathew Thomson is not a
Freemason, and that he could not therefore be affiliated to the Lodge
Operative, Ayr: Find that certain of the Office-Bearers of that lodge knew
that Mr. Thomson was not a member of the Order when they pretended to
affiliate him: Find that the return made by the lodge to Grand Lodge under
date June 12, 1876, certifying that Mr. Thomson was Entered, Passed and Raised
in that lodge, was false and fraudulent: Find that lodge has produced no
regular books, and that such as have been produced are in many places written
in pencil and grossly irregular, and contain no evidence of Mr. Thomson's
pretended affiliation: Therefore recommend Grand Lodge to instruct the name of
the said Mathew Thomson to be deleted from the Register of Intrants, and
ordain him to deliver up the Diploma of Membership issued on 12th June 1876;
and further recommend that Grand Lodge suspend the Lodge Operative, Ayr, No.
138, and debar it from meeting for Masonic purposes until it is the pleasure
of the Grand Lodge to withdraw its suspension. Further, instruct the Grand
Secretary to call for delivery of the charter and minute and other books of
the lodge, if any such exist, and retain the same in his possession."
Proceedings of Meeting of June 24, 1880:
Secretary produced the diploma which had been issued to Mr. Mathew Thomson,
under a false return in name of the Lodge Operative, Ayr, No. 138, in June
1876, and tabled a letter from the Lodge St. James, Ayr, No. 125, anent the
admission of the said Mathew Thomson by affiliation or otherwise, as Grand
Committee may direct. Remitted to the Petitions and Complaints Committee to
consider and report."
Proceedings of Meeting of July 29, 1880:
the recommendation of the Sub-Committee on Petitions and Complaints, Grand
Secretary was instructed to direct the Lodge St. James, Newton-on-Ayr, No.
125, as to the admission of Mr. Mathew Thomson referred to in the minute of
Grand Committee of date 24th June last, - and on being satisfied that the
conditions on which the applicant's admission is authorized have been complied
with, to issue a new diploma to the said Mathew Thomson."
it is seen that this is not the first time that Thomson has been concerned
with clandestine Masonry.
March 1911 Thomson published the following account of a visit paid by him to
David Reid, Grand Secretary of Scotland:
London we went to Edinburgh, where, we visited the Grand Secretary in the
temporary offices of the Grand Lodge in Charlotte Square, the Grand Lodge Hall
being closed for repairs and enlargement. We sent in our card as President of
the A.M.F. and were received as such and had a long and pleasant talk with
him, in the course of which we informed him of conditions here, conditions
which made necessary the formation of the A.M.F., explained to him the source
from which we derived our authority, showed him our charters and explained to
him our aims and objects; showed him from our publications that we made no
claim whatever to have authority from or connection with the Grand Lodge of
Scotland; that we did claim Scottish ancestry, but from a source more ancient
than the Grand Lodge, namely from the Mother Lodge Kilwinning, through her
son, the Chevalier Ramsay, through whom the degrees went to the Scottish
Mother Lodge of Marseilles, from thence through the Lodge Polar Star,
established in New Orleans in 1794, to the Supreme Council of Louisiana; from
it to the Grand Lodge Inter-Montana, which is the foundation of the A.M.F.
"Brother Reid informed us (as we had been informed before) that the only
object that the Grand Lodge of Scotland had in the matter was representation
made to her that an officer of Grand Lodge (Brother Peter Spence) was granting
Blue Lodge charters to parties in America; and that the A.M.F. claimed to work
by authority from the Grand Lodge of Scotland; the first charge had been
disproved by Brother Spence, and what I said now had disposed of the latter."
AS A FALSEHOOD
Brother Reid testified that the only true part of this account was the fact of
the call. The interview was very short, about two minutes only. He had
remained standing throughout. The only other person present was Brother
Joseph Inglis. Thomson had not shown any charters or made any explanation of
his aims or objects, neither had he shown any publications or made any
explanations of his claims. Brother Inglis testified that the conversation
was very formal; that Mr. Reid never sat down and practically bowed him out.
He was asked if the meeting was a courteous or discourteous one. He replied:
"lt was cold, but courteous."
cross-examination Thomson was asked in regard to this interview, and admitted
that the conversation lasted about ten minutes, that he had shown no charters,
but had shown his authority, by handing Mr. Reid a copy of his magazine, which
explained his authority, but he could not tell which copy it was or what
article he referred to as giving the authority. On being recalled, Brothers
Reid and Inglis testified that Thomson had left no magazine or documents of
any kind whatever.
Bergers, one of the defendants, testified that in 1913 he went to Europe to
investigate for himself to find out what he could about the organization, and
how it was regarded there. He visited the Grand Council of Rites, the meeting
of which was postponed one month so that he could be there. At this meeting
there were twenty-eight persons present, and the meeting lasted about three or
four hours in the afternoon.
went to Ayr and visited St. James Lodge there. The members of the lodge had
not been informed of his coming but the Master called a meeting after his
arrival. In answer to the question: "How did he call the members together?"
were called by telephone, where I saw several other brothers, and they gave me
an introduction. They told me it was the Master of St. James 125, and they
said - I said, I desire to visit the lodge, and they said 'very well' they
were going to have their regular meeting that night and also they were working
the Craft degrees on one of the candidates."
However, the meeting was held in the afternoon, instead of at night, to
accommodate some visitors who wished to return home that night.
Bergera was in Scotland ten days and visited two lodges. The second lodge was
the lodge in Kilmarnock, which met in a building with the name "Kilmarnock
Lodge" over the door. Brothers Reid and Inglis testified that there were four
lodges in Kilmarnock, but none of them with that name; that there was no
building there with the name "Kilmarnock Lodge" above the door, and that the
building in which the lodges met had simply the inscription "Masonic Hall."
Bergera testified that he had not visited, nor attempted to visit, the Grand
Lodge of Scotland. He spent five days in London, and visited one lodge there,
but he did not visit nor attempt to visit the Grand Lodge of England. He spent
nine or ten days in Paris and visited one lodge, but had not visited nor
attempted to visit the Grand Orient or Grand Lodge of France. Thus, although
he testified that his sole purpose in going to Europe was to investigate the
standing of his organization, and he spent several days in each place, he
visited only two lodges in Scotland, one in London and one in Paris, and did
not attempt to go anywhere where authoritative information could be had.
Thomson gave considerable space in his magazine to the Proceedings of the
National Masonic Congress, in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1920, supposed to be
composed of the representatives of the Masonic powers of the world, and of
which he was elected President. On cross-examination he could name but eight
people who were present at that Congress, and Joseph Inglis testified that
none of the powers there represented was considered regular by the Grand Lodge
THOMSON MADE A FORTUNE
Mention has been made that considerable money was collected by this
organization, and that Thomson could not, or would not, tell what had become
of it. According to the testimony, the following fees were charged:
Election ----------------- $50.00
Confirmation ------------- 25.00
Charter ------------- 25.00
Mason's Diploma ---- 5.00
Master's Diploma ----- 4.00
Affiliation Diploma ------- 2.50
Duplicate Diploma --------- 2.00
Master's Diploma ----- 2.50
Dispensations ------------- 5.00
Catechisms, each degree --- .15
Minimum fee for Craft Degrees, $35.00; of which the lodge received $5.00.
Minimum fee for higher degrees, Fourth to Thirty-Third, $135.00, of which
$25.00 was for paraphernalia.
thirty-three degrees were sometimes given in an hour's time; frequently all of
them were conferred in one evening.
were many other facts brought out in the trial but I have here mentioned only
the leading ones. From this it will be seen that the Government clearly
proved that Thomson obtained his members by misrepresenting the facts, both as
to his authority and regularity, also as to the recognition that his members
would receive from Masons abroad, and that in the promotion of his scheme the
United States mails were used.
jury brought in a verdict of guilty against each of the defendants on every
count charged in the indictment. In this connection it is well to remember
that neither the Judge nor any member of the jury were members of the Masonic
fraternity. The regular Judge of the Utah District of the United States
District Court is a Mason; to avoid any charge of prejudice an outside judge,
Judge Wade of Iowa, was assigned to try the case. In giving his instructions
to the jury, among other things, he said:
"Therefore, gentlemen, as I said in the beginning, this involves no case here
before this jury as to which of the branches of the Masonic order is
legitimate, except in so far as that question inheres in the simple questions
in this case, which is not a question of determining which of these great
branches, or minor branches, is right or wrong, but the question here is, did
these men on trial conspire to commit a fraud on their neighbours or on their
fellow men? That I will go into more fully. Keep that in mind.
a historic matter of common knowledge that there is an organization known as
Free Masons or Free and Accepted Masons, or Masons, known for many
generations. Whether that organization is right or wrong, whether it had
conducted its business in the right way, whether its spirit is right or wrong,
speaking generally, we have nothing to do with it. . . ."
"Sometime back, the people of this country, acting through their agents,
enacted a statute through Congress which said that a man who should conceive
and organize a conspiracy with others to defraud somebody, and then use the
mails to carry out that scheme, that man should be punished. Now that is all
the Grand Jury in this Court did when last year it brought in this
indictment. And bear in mind, gentlemen, as I tried to impress upon you
before, that the action of the Grand Jury must not in any manner enter into
your consideration in determining the question of guilt. . . ."
this indictment was brought in charging these three defendants with having
done three specific things; combined, organized or maintained a conspiracy,
with the intent to defraud, and used the mails for carrying out that fraud.
That is all. The Grand Jury didn't indict anybody here for competing with
some other organization of Masonry, had nothing to do with those
organizations, whatsoever, neither do we.
charged that they conceived a plan to defraud and used the mails to carry it
out, and that they did that by conspiring together, making an arrangement to
carry it out."
then quoted from the indictment, and said:
will observe now from this recital, or these recitals, that this is not a mere
case of a dispute of title. That is involved in it, but that is not all that
is involved in it. It is not a mere case of the question as to whether or not
they got power under this endorsement on this charter from Louisiana Council.
Nor is it solely the question as to the standing or authority of the Council
of Rites of Scotland. These questions are involved, but there are many other
course now, any change in this indictment, which is not proven by the evidence
must not be considered. I am reading it to try to get to your minds what we
are trying to settle in this matter. The Government charges in this
indictment that these things were in the minds and hearts of these people;
that they were false, all of them were false, though of course it is not
essential for the Government to prove that all of them were false in order to
convict; it is only necessary that they shall prove beyond a reasonable doubt
that the fraud which they claim they had in mind consisted of some one or more
of the things which they had conceived, sufficient to constitute a fraud.
illustrate, if somebody sold you a piece of land - or to make it more
practical, if someone sold you a certain horse, representing to you that he
was an expert in the genealogy of this horse and that his breeding was of a
certain strain on back two or three generations, which made it a valuable
horse, and he also represented to you that the horse had a record upon a
lawful track of 2:05 as a trotter, and the man who was buying him relied upon
these statements, and had no opportunity of testing them out to see whether
they were true, and later he found that he did have this family tree which was
valuable, but he also found out that he never made that record at all, that
was a lie, that would be a fraud by which he induced him to part with his
money, although only the question of his record was involved in the fraud, the
other representation being true.
that, even if it were established in a given case where the question of the
family tree, so to speak, of some society, the Odd Fellows, Masons, Knights of
Columbus, Elks, whatever it might be, was a certain thing, if that was the
only thing alleged, and it was not proven that was false, of course there
would be no fraud, but if in connection with that representation were made
other representations with relation to the quality of the organization, or
character of the organization, the benefits of the organization, the thing the
man was getting for his money, aside from the question of the family tree; if
false representations were made which induced him to part with his money, that
is to say, representations which were wilfully false, then of course there
would be fraud and the plan to represent these things which were wilfully and
intentionally false, would constitute the ground for a conviction, if they
were within the things charged in the indictment . . . . "
false representation may be by word of mouth, it may be by acts, it may be
silence; it may be by all combined. We consider what effect the particular
thing, the particular act would naturally have on the mind of the other
fellow. To determine what the natural effect would be upon the mind of the
other fellow we have got to sort of look at it from the other fellow's
standpoint, and consider the question with relation, for instance, to
membership in this organization. What did the other fellow want the
membership for? What did he think he was getting? What did he in fact get? Did
he get what he bought? If not, was his failure to get what he bought and paid
for the result of misrepresentations either by word or conduct or act, in
writing or orally, by the defendants or any of them or any of their authorized
agents, authorized to do the things that they did? That is this case.
recall there was evidence here of representation made to parties, witnesses
upon the stand here, that membership in these organizations opened the doors
of the lodge rooms of Europe, and all countries, generally speaking, or words
to that effect, to the member that was sought to join. I am not stating words
exactly, and I am only using this as illustrating the principles involved. You
are the final judges of what the acts are. But if a man were induced to enter
an organization of any kind upon a representation that membership in that
organization would grant him affiliation and brotherhood relations with some
great established, organized, permanent organization in South America or
Canada or any other country, if that were not true, and the man that made the
representation knew it was not true, and he made the representation with the
intention of getting his money, that would be a fraud, even though the
organization had the right genealogical tree.
gentlemen, we have an organization here now, composed of a number of
individuals with organizers employed and sent out, and memberships taken and
memberships paid for. In any big organization you will find some organizer or
some agent who at times will not do the right thing. But a wrongful act upon
the part of an agent or organizer, except insofar as the same was induced or
authorized or approved by the defendants in this particular case - if it was
outside of his regular and authorized work, of course it would not be binding
upon these defendants, - but insofar as you can find from the evidence the
scope and power given by these defendants knowingly and intentionally to
organizers, of course the acts of such organizers would be the same as the
acts of the defendants.
gentlemen, you see it is a question as to whether or not the Government has
proven - they have got to prove that these things were false, the defendants
do not have to prove that they are true, the burden is on the Government all
the way through. Has the Government proven any of these charges of intended
misrepresentation or fraud which they set out in this indictment? If so, was
that of such a nature or character that it would have carried out -
constituted a fraud on the person who was induced to join as a member? Now,
what the evidence is and what these specific things are, you are to determine.
have repeatedly said that a fraud is not a mistake. The law is practical
common sense. No man was ever convicted of a fraud when he was acting in good
faith. A man might sue to recover money or land on the ground of mutual
mistake but as to a criminal offense, a man to be convicted of a fraud must
have knowledge, must have the wrongful intent and purpose."
Thomson and his partners in crime were found guilty. In passing sentence
Judge Wade scored them after the following manner:
"Nobody can hear this evidence in this case without being convinced,
absolutely convinced, that this thing has been a fraudulent scheme from the
beginning. I can see where an ignorant person might find some possible excuse
for the methods employed in this case. For intelligent people and experienced
people to try to convince the Court that this organization and this plan and
this work that had been going on is on the square - it can't be done.
course now we are living in a time when some of the brightest minds in the
country are devoting themselves to securing money by short cuts, by taking
advantage of the gullible for their enterprises. In fact that is one of the
dominant crimes of the present time. I know of one state in which in the last
two years, within two, there has been sold over twenty-nine million dollars
worth of stock in packing houses which were never built, and practically every
dollar of the money lost, just by shrewd practices, by trying to get the other
fellow's money in some way without working for it.
AMERICAN MASONIC FEDERATION A FRAUD
of course, after all that was stated in this case from the beginning and all
through I confess that I was astounded when I heard Mr. Thomson testify that
there was no pretence, that there was no record anywhere of a charter to
Marseilles Lodge, on the existence of which lay the right and practically the
foundation of all claims of legitimacy on that branch of the case and to have
him admit that such a lodge existed only in tradition (I realize that some
things can be proven by tradition, but tradition cannot exist with one man,
tradition must have, before it has any force as proof - such general
recognition among men in that particular occupation or relation that it forces
itself upon the mind as a truth the record of which has been lost) and it was
conceded on the witness stand that so far as this particular thing was
concerned there was no record anywhere and no one who was skilled in the
history of Masonry had ever met any such a tradition so far as the record in
this case is concerned, in any history or book or pamphlet or anything else
outside of this organization.
was I surprised when I found that the Council of Rites of Scotland which had
been one of the chief points urged by these gentlemen, had no record behind it
but a few years and it was represented - entirely aside from the question of
the origin and history of this organization and those that preceded it - it
was represented time and time again without dispute to these poor devils that
were led largely by these attractions to an ancient organization and to the
rites and rituals of the organization, it was represented to them specifically
and it has not been denied that by virtue of their association with this
organization the doors of Masonry the world over were open to them outside of
the United States, which is of course an absurd claim under the evidence in
the trip that Bergera made to Europe on the investigation, in view of what
transpired according to his own testimony, has all the appearance of being a
scheme or plan that he might come back here and state to those whose
membership was sought his capacity to enter the lodges of Europe to support
their claim, that the members immediately on getting across the water would
have the doors wide open to them.
then after making a trip and going to one or two lodges or three under
peculiar circumstances, in fact never going to the Grand Lodge of Scotland,
and that was included in the representation made, that is to say, all Europe
was included, never going to the Grand Lodge of Scotland, the Grand Lodge of
England and never going to the Grand Lodge of France, whatever it is called,
and coming back here no doubt to back up the representation that membership in
this organization was opening the doors of all Masonic Orders, all of the
regular Masonic Orders in Europe - it was a pretence, gentlemen, you can't
come to any other conclusion. If Bergera went over there for the purpose of
confirming what these organizers were representing and which is not denied
here, he certainly would have gone to the Grand Lodge of Scotland or England
or France or Germany or somewhere to find out whether the doors would be open
to these fellows that were joining their ranks.
it is not necessary to recite the details. One cannot listen to this evidence
without being forced to the conclusion that so far as the representation as to
the standing and the brotherhood and the association of people with which they
would become immediately affiliated was concerned, that aside entirely from
the genealogy of the lodge, nobody can claim that there was any truth in what
was said except insofar as they had access to certain lodges with which Mr.
Thomson through his relation had some affiliation.
spectacle of Mr. Thomson going to Switzerland to this great conference, and
parading afterwards through the journal a conference where eight men from the
entire world were present - that in itself is sufficient to condemn the whole
thing and the manner in which this business had been done is sufficient in
itself. No pretence here on the part of the defendants that this money was
kept in any businesslike way for the benefit of this organization. What
became of it I don't know but there was more than a million dollars taken in
here, of that there can be no question in view of the prices charged for
little printed sheets of paper in the form of diplomas and certificates and
things of that kind, entirely aside from the membership fee. What became of
that money is not indicated here. The head of this organization testified
before the Court that he didn't know and in fact had some difficulty in
recalling whether there was ever an account of the organization in a bank
anywhere in the world.
far as the Secretary is concerned, there is no suggestion of a report
indicating that this business was conducted as an honest organization, not a
that, gentlemen, there is only one thing for the Court to do. If it were not
for the age of Mr. Thomson at this time there would be a long prison sentence,
because I think he is the chief actor. I think he is more responsible than
anyone else. As far as Bergera is concerned, of course, I cannot understand
at all how a man would presume to parade himself as the Treasurer-General of
the organization of ten thousand members which had received from them in the
neighbourhood of a million or more dollars and never handle a cent of the
money. I cannot understand it at all, that is all, that any honest man would
allow his name to be used in that connection under such condition and the
concealment of the methods of doing business and where this money went even up
to the present time. I cannot comprehend the whole thing.
is only one thing that saves these men a long prison term. I don't feel
justified in sending any of these men to prison any longer than I do Mr.
Thomson. As I say, when it comes to this point in a trial of the case, the
charity of the law asserts itself. Old age and sickness, of course, have a
strong appeal to the Court, when it comes to the question of a prison term and
I think that the District Attorney has been very generous in his suggestion.
This Court hasn't really any power to impose a penalty here which would be
adequate punishment for this thing that has been going on when we stop to
think of the honest fellows who parted with their fifty or seventy-five or a
hundred and fifty dollars for membership in this organization. So far as the
evidence in this case is concerned, not one dollar of it was ever used for any
of the business of the society except to carry on this work of getting
members. Not a word of charity or charitable fund or anything of that kind
before this Court.
very much inclined to be lenient in all things. I am inclined to look in a
charitable way upon the mistakes of men, but this thing has in it that
deliberateness and continuous conduct which sort of overcomes my tendency.
judgment of this Court is that each one of you serve a period of two years in
Fort Leavenworth Prison and each one of you pay a fine of five thousand
dollars and costs."
POINT OF THE TRIAL
this case went to trial it was not known just what matters the Court would
require the Government to prove. Thomson's claim as to the regularity of the
established Masonic institutions before mentioned in the first part of this
paper, the Government was prepared to disprove, had the Court so ruled.
However, the ruling of the Court was that the regularity of the established
Masonic lodges did not enter into this case, and the following named witnesses
who had been summoned by the Government were not called upon to testify,
although they were instructed to be on hand in case they were needed, and
especially to listen to the testimony offered by the defendants' witnesses:
Frederick W. Hamilton, Grand Secretary, Grand Lodge of Massachusetts; William
L. Boyden, Librarian of the Supreme Council, Washington, D.C.; Charles A.
Conover, General Grand Secretary, General Grand Chapter, R.A.M. of the United
States; Robert A. Shirrefs, Grand Secretary General, Northern Supreme Council;
Ossian Lang, Historian, Grand Lodge of New York, and Charles C. Hunt, Deputy
Grand Secretary, Grand Lodge of Iowa.
CARSON - A MASON OF THE FRONTIER
BRO. F.T. CHEETHAM, NEW MEXICO
often been observed that 1809 was, of all the years of its century, most
prodigal in giving to the world great men, for it was during that twelve-month
that Lincoln, Darwin, Gladstone, Tennyson, Holmes, Poe, Edward Fitzgerald,
etc., etc, were born. After reading the following appreciations of Kit Carson
ye editor believes that many readers will feel inclined to add to the list of
illustrious men born in 1809 that of this pioneer who, despite the crudity of
his environment and the roughness of his work, was a gentleman and a hero. It
is high time that Kit Carson was rescued from dime novels and schoolboy
romances and delivered back to serious history and biography where mature men
may learn what a towering man he was. Brother Cheetham made his researches
expressly at the request of THE BUILDER and thereby became deserving of our
heartiest thanks, which are hereby rendered in full measure.
THE WRITER first set out to write a sketch of this worthy brother he was
confronted by a dearth of reliable information as to Kit Carson's Masonic
record that rendered the task discouraging. When the question was asked of
those few remaining brothers in the Craft who knew him they would invariably
shrug their shoulders after the custom of the country and say, "I don't know."
It was not until after a trip was made by the writer to Santa Fe and an
extended search was made among the records of the old Montezuma Lodge which
worked under a Missouri charter, now in the archives of Montezuma Lodge No. 1
of New Mexico, that any definite information was obtained as to the time and
place of the initiation, passing, and raising of the late Brother Carson. It
is true that the Grand Lodge of New Mexico had erected a stone, the third of
such memorials, over his grave in Taos, also an iron fence around the grave;
and it was generally known and asserted that he was in fact a Freemason, but
that does not satisfy the student of history.
Brother Carson was born in Madison County, Kentucky, December 24th, 1809.
While very young he migrated with his parents to Howard County, Missouri,
where he obtained what little education he ever received, except in the school
of the great out-of-doors. When but sixteen he joined a party en route for
Santa Fe and soon after his arrival at that place he proceeded to Fernando de
Taos, or Taos as it is called for short, which thereafter became "home" to him
during the remainder of his days.
that time on he led a very active life, having been consecutively engaged in
the occupations of trapper, hunter, trader, scout, guide, soldier and Indian
agent. The range of his activities extended from Chihuahua on the south to
the Canadian frontier on the north; from the city of Washington, whither he
went a number of times on official business, on the east, to the limpid waters
of the Pacific, on the west. In fact we have obtained a photograph of him,
taken in Boston. He made at least five trips, possibly seven, to California
and when we consider that all his travels west of Westport were accomplished
on horseback, we must admit that his was a life of activity. He was chief
scout and guide of the first three of the Fremont expeditions all of which
were successful; and while he did not accompany the General on the fourth
ill-fated expedition, yet it fell his lot to shelter that great man from the
storm. The General in writing home to his wife about the disastrous
expedition, from Taos, on January 27, 1849, said in part:-
write you from the house of our good friend Carson. This morning a cup of
chocolate was brought me, while yet in bed. To an overworn, overworked, much
fatigued and starving traveller, these little luxuries of the world offer an
interest which in your comfortable home it is not possible for you to
conceive. While in the enjoyment of this luxury, then, I pleased myself in
imagining how gratified you would be in picturing me here in Kit's care, whom
you will fancy constantly occupied and constantly uneasy in endeavouring to
make me comfortable. How little could you have dreamed of this while he was
enjoying the pleasant hospitality of your father's house! The furthest thing
then from your mind was that he would ever repay me here." (1)
can be no doubt that Brother Carson was prepared to become a Mason in his
heart for some time before he presented himself for initiation. His early
associations with Governor Bent, Colonel St. Vrain, both of whom were Masons,
and with General Fremont, who no doubt was also a member, predisposed him to a
favourable opinion of the Fraternity.
know that while he was with Fremont in California a movement headed by
Eugerilo Macnamara, a Catholic priest, was set on foot to drive out or
exterminate all Americans, the objects thereof being stated in a memorial
addressed to the Mexican President, as follows:
propose, with the aid and approbation of your excellency, to place in Upper
California a colony of Irish Catholics. I have a triple object in making this
proposition. I wish, in the first place, to advance the cause of Catholicism.
In the second, to contribute to the happiness of my countrymen. Thirdly, I
desire to put an obstacle in the way of further usurpations on the part of an
irreligious and anti-Catholic nation." (2)
knew of the prompt action of General Fremont in saving the American
inhabitants of Upper or Northern California from massacre by prosecuting what
was known locally as the "Bear Flag War"; and that by his promptness, energy
and skill he reduced the northern half of the Territory, in all of which
Carson was a participant. He knew that when Admiral Sir George Seymore, with
the priest Macnamara on board, arrived at Monterey to raise the British flag,
the Stars and Stripes were already floating over the city, nailed to the
masthead and there to stay.
testimonial to Kit's fame at that time, we have Lieutenant Walpole, an officer
in the British Admiral's fleet, who in writing home to London said in part, in
describing Fremont's army:
has one or two with him who enjoy a high reputation in the prairies. Kit
Carson is as well known there as a duke is in Europe."
Brother Carson returned to New Mexico, he found that his brother-in-law,
Charles Bent, who was the first American Civil Governor of New Mexico and a
Freemason, together with others of his closest and most intimate friends, had
been assassinated in a most cruel and inhuman manner; and that religious
fanaticism had sought to accomplish by the firebrand and dagger what the
soldier had not dared to attempt with the sword.
in our pilgrimage to Santa Fe we learned that Christopher Carson was duly
initiated an Entered Apprentice March 29, 1854, was passed June 17 and raised
December 26 of the same year. He was living at the time at Rayado in what is
now Colfax county. To attend lodge he was obliged to travel approximately 150
miles and in that day he probably made the trip on horseback. But to a man
who had time and again shown himself ever ready and willing to go on foot and
out of his way to relieve any person in distress that was nothing.
Brother Carson practised true Masonic charity is evidenced by the following
story, which to my knowledge has never been published and which was obtained
by the writer from his niece, who, after the assassination of her father,
Governor Bent, was raised by Carson, and living in the household at the time
of its happening. It is in substance as follows:
had learned that the Comanches had a slave, a white boy about twelve years of
age. He there-upon fitted out a pack outfit or train, hired a couple of
natives and furnished them with trinkets and other articles to trade and
barter with the Indians, with whom they were on friendly terms at the time.
They went out and located the Comanches and purchased the boy and brought him
back. When he was brought in he was hardly distinguishable from an Indian.
Carson had him cleaned up and provided with new clothes. He then tried to
converse with him in English, Spanish and French, all to no avail. He then
called in a gentleman who spoke German. When the lad heard his mother tongue,
for he proved to be German, he began crying. He was given to understand that
he was among friends. He then gave his name, his father's name and the place
in Texas from whence he had been stolen. Carson then fitted out another
outfit and sent him home and restored him to his parents, bearing the whole
expense himself, the boy's people having been in poor circumstances.
another time, two women, who had been captured in Mexico by the Comanches and
carried off as slaves, upon learning that Carson with a party was at the time
in the neighbourhood of the tribe, made their escape to him and he sent them
back to their people in Mexico, at his own expense.
Another incident, hitherto unpublished, and one that reveals his patriotism,
was related to me by the late Captain Smith H. Simpson, who knew Carson for
fifteen years prior to the latter's death. The Captain said that in the
Spring of 1868, just after Carson had returned from one of his official trips
(he was Indian Agent at the time) they were walking up the west side of the
plaza in Taos. Carson said to Simpson, "Do you see that flag up there?"
pointing to the American flag floating over the plaza. Simpson replied,
"Yes." Carson then said, "Well I have kept that up since 'Forty Seven. I am
not going to be here much longer. I want you to see that flag stays up." He
"passed over the great divide" about two months later, aged 58 years.
contemporary comment on his life and character, we look to the first issue of
The Pueblo Chieftain, which said:-
OF KIT CARSON. The melancholy intelligence reaches us that General Kit Carson
is no more. He died at his residence on the Las Animas on the 24th inst, of
disease of the heart. General Carson was a Kentuckian by birth, removed early
in life to the State of Missouri, and while yet a mere boy became a wanderer
on the vast plains of the then known regions of the West. From about the age
of seventeen years until fifty he lived the life of a hunter, trader and
trapper. He early explored and became familiar with the mountains and plains
from the Missouri to the Pacific ocean. During all these years of his wild
life he was constantly exposed to every hardship and danger; sometimes making
his home with some tribe of the Indians and assisting them in their wars
against other tribes; sometimes employed as a trapper by some mountain trader;
sometimes trading on his own account between New Mexico and California. His
home was always the wilderness, and danger was his constant companion. Unaided
by the advantages of education or patronage, by the forces of indomitable,
energy and will, by chivalrous courage, by tireless labour and self denial, he
rose step by step, until his name had become as familiar to the American
People as a household word. He stood preeminent among the pathfinders and
founders of empire in the Great West, and his long career, ennobled by
hardship and danger, is unsullied by a record of littleness or meanness. He
was nature's model of a gentleman. Kindly of heart, tolerant to all men, good
in virtues of disposition, rather than great in qualities of mind, he has
passed away - dying as through his life he had lived - in peace and charity
with all men, and leaving behind him a name and memory to be cherished by his
countrymen so long as modesty, valour, unobtrusive worth, charity and true
chivalry survive among men. Of his precise age we are not advised, but judge
he was very near sixty years of age. He leaves children of tender age to
mourn his loss."
Carson had many fights with the Indians while on hunting and trapping
expeditions. Of his many deeds of valour we mention but one or two. One
occurred while with Fremont, when Carson was leading a party of six scouts as
an advanced guard in southern Oregon. The Klamath Indians had been giving
trouble, even to making a night attack and killing some of Fremont's men. The
latter decided to chastise the Indians. He therefore sent Carson on ahead to
locate them. Carson and his men came suddenly upon a Klamath village.
Sending a runner back for the main party, his party and the Indians each
attacked simultaneously. When Fremont arrived on the scene the village was in
flames and such Indians as survived were in full flight.
might mention another instance. When General Kearney was surrounded by the
Mexican forces in Southern California, Carson and Lieutenant Beale of the Navy
volunteered and made their way through the Mexican lines, reached the sea
coast and secured men and munitions for the relief of Kearney.
was chief scout and guide of the Saguache campaign against the Utes, under
Colonels Fontleroy and St. Vrain, in which the Indians got a whipping that
they never forgot.
1863 Carson was made Colonel of the First New Mexico Cavalry, and one of his
first military operations was against the Kiowas and Comanches, culminating in
a battle near the old adobe fort, formerly erected by Bent and St. Vrain on
the Canadian River in Texas. These Indians had made a great deal of trouble
for years, but they were cured in the fight at the "Adobe Walls," as the fight
Carson's greatest military achievement was his Navaho campaign. The writer
has talked with men who were on the ground during that campaign; and in his
humble opinion that achievement alone lifted General Carson to the front rank
of American Indian fighters. The Spaniards had waged a war aging the Navahos
for two hundred years. Mexico had continued that war, likewise the United
States. But the Navahos remained defiant and unsubdued. When the troops
would concentrate they would scatter, and when the troops scattered they would
concentrate, and with their system of signals and knowledge of the country
they were invincible. Of that campaign we would prefer to stand aside and let
a contemporary speak. Colonel Jas. F. Meline in "Two Thousand Miles on
Horseback," in writing of the declaration of war by General Carleton upon the
to his promise, the war opened on the very day set by General Carleton, July
20, 1863. A regiment of New Mexicans, with more than a century of accumulated
wrong and oppression to avenge, were at once placed under the command of a man
who understood his Indian well - Kit Carson. These troops knew neither summer
rest nor winter quarters but pursued the Indian foe relentlessly month after
month, night and day, over mesas and deserts and rivers, under broiling suns
and in rough winter snows, killing and capturing them in their most chosen
retreats, until finally, broken and dispirited under a chastisement the like
of which they never had dreamed of, small bands began to come in voluntarily,
then larger ones, and finally groups of fifties and hundreds, nearly
comprising the strength of the tribe. The prisoners, as fast as received,
were dispatched to the Bosque Redondo, and those who remained sent out white
flags in vain. Throughout 1864, 1865 and the present year, the war went on
under these conditions, and the result is that some eight thousand Navahos,
including a few Apaches, are now living peaceably at the Bosque, engaged in
agriculture and manufactures, four hundred miles from their old homes, and
ninety miles east of Rio Grande Settlement."
cured the Navahos and they have been "good Indians" ever since. Throughout his
career Carson never failed to teach the Indians not only to fear but to trust
him. He was their friend in their hour of need and he spoke five Indian
languages besides Spanish and French. His last official act, so far as the
writer has been able to ascertain, was the making of a treaty with the Utes
which was transmitted to Congress March 18, 1868. A fitting ending for a man,
who by his conduct had set a plumb line in the wilderness, and set a level in
the desert and applied the square to all his dealings with his fellow men, who
had given his life to win the West for the country he loved. He was beloved
of all who knew him and in enclosing this sketch we wish again to quote from
pleasantest episode of my visit here has been the society of Kit Carson, with
whom I passed three days, I need hardly say delightfully. He is one of the
few men I ever met who can talk long hours to you of what he has seen, and yet
say very little about himself. He has to be drawn out. I had many questions
to ask, and his answers were all marked by great distinctness of memory,
simplicity, candour, and a desire to make some one else, rather than himself,
the hero of his story."
was the manner of the man.
Upham's "Life of Fremont," p. 279.
Idem p. 230.
FAMOUS TESTIMONIAL TO ALBERT G. MACKEY
the troublesome times of the Civil War Albert G. Mackey was confined to his
home city of Charleston, S. C., where for four years he gave his time, his
energies and his substance to the succour of his brethren, little heeding
whether they belonged to North or to South, though he himself was a Union
man. Immediately after Charleston, the "cradle of the rebellion," had passed
once again into Federal control, Dr. Mackey's brethren of New York City "moved
by a common impulse of admiration for the man, of ardent sympathy for the
unyielding patriot, of fraternal love for the zealous Mason, determined to
invite him to visit them once more, and to receive at their hands a
substantial evidence of their sympathy." (I am quoting from a very rare
account of the Dr. Mackey Testimonial printed in 1865 by Macoy and Sickels.
This copy was signed by Mackey himself and inscribed to the then Grand Master
of New York, Clinton F. Paige.)
was issued to the Masons of New York City. They met on the evening of March
15, 1865 and at that time adopted, among others, this resolution, that,
"Whereas, it has further come to our knowledge that by the vicissitudes of
war, our R.'. W.'. Brother has lost his property, and in his declining years
been reduced to the sharp necessity of beginning again the battle of life;
"Resolved, That as an earnest of our good will we solicit his acceptance of
the voluntary contributions of the brethren........."
public "Welcome and Testimonial" was held in the Academy of Music on Saturday
evening, May 20, 1865, M.'. W.'. Clinton F. Paige presiding. A number of
"distinguished artists," along with "Grafulla's Seventh Regiment Full Band,"
made the occasion memorable.
center of interest on the occasion was the gracious kindly gentleman from the
South in whose honour so large a throng was assembled. After the music had
ceased, and the Grand Master had pronounced a beautiful welcoming address, Dr.
Mackey delivered the speech, a part of which succeeds this brief narrative.
speech, however impressive as it was then - and still is - did not so deeply
stir the auditors as the incident that followed, the account of which I
transcribe from the record.
as Mme. Salvotti had breathed the last intonation of her song, and before the
sounds of her voice had died away, R.'. W.'. Robert Macoy stepped forward and
presented Brother Mackey with a beautiful gold snuffbox, of which the
following history was given:
was stated that this box had before been presented to Brother Mackey by the
Masonic fraternity, as a token of gratitude for the many years of faithful
servitude he had rendered them. Shortly after the commencement of the war,
however, Brother Mackey was compelled to part with it in order to procure
bread for his family. The box then passed into the hands of a person who took
it to Easton, Pa., and gave it to a jeweller to have the inscription erased.
This fact becoming known to Brother J. M. Porter, Jr., Past Master of Easton
Lodge No. 152, he, with other members of the lodge, having by correspondence
with New York become acquainted with its history, purchased it, and sent it to
New York to Brother Macoy, with the request that it should in their name be
returned to Brother Mackey, with a handsome little present enclosed. The box
has since been kept safely without the knowledge of Brother Mackey, until it
was presented to him last evening. In making the presentation, Brother Macoy
briefly explained the above facts, and closed by saying that the box, though
beautiful on the outside, had, also, a peculiar inside lining; he would not
say exactly what it was, but it looked green (backs).
needless to say that Brother Mackey was taken by surprise at the reappearance
of his precious gift, the snuffbox. He expressed himself much gratified at
becoming again the possessor of it, and retired amid the applause of the
transpired that Dr. Mackey had literally bankrupted himself in order to give
assistance to his brethren, even to the extent of his personal belongings. A
venerable brother who was present at the Academy of Music tells me that those
who were in attendance left with the feeling that in this Testimonial it was
already evident that Masons would take the lead in healing over the breach
between the two sections, and that in his own attitude and spirit Dr. Mackey
revealed that which so ennobled Abraham Lincoln, - "Malice toward none,
charity for all."
Freemasonry is the science of life, taught in a society of men by signs,
symbols and ceremonies, having as its basis a system of morality, and for its
purposes and aim, the perfection and happiness of the individual and the race.
- George F. Moore
FREEMASONRY IN THE CIVIL WAR
BROTHER DR. ALBERT G. MACKEY
explained in the preceding article, a public Testimonial was given to Brother
Mackey, author of Mackey's Encyclopedia, Mackey's History of Freemasonry,
etc., on the night of May 20th, 1865. Space does not permit the reproduction
of the whole or the remarkable speech delivered by him at that time, but it is
believed that many brethren will be delighted to read that part which contains
his stirring account of Masonic relief during the soul-racking days of the
MASON, holding a not altogether obscure position in the Order, I have, in the
course of my life written and said much about its excellence and beauty. I
know that it teaches fraternal love. I know that it inculcates kindness to
the destitute, and sympathy for the sorrowing. I know its pretensions to be a
science of morality and a development in one direction of the religious
sentiment. But until this war came upon us, in all its horror of want and
suffering, of demoniac hate and inhuman passion, I did not know how
successfully theory and practice could be mingled in the teachings of the
Order and the actions of the disciples. I did not know how surely and
steadfastly its rays of light could dispel the gloom of this dark night of our
the first struggles of the infant rebellion began to threaten the gigantic
future of ruin and desolation, which it subsequently too successfully
achieved, all the other social, moral and religious societies of the country
preserved a deathlike silence. No voice of warning, no voice of entreaty, no
prayer or suggestion for forbearance came from any section of the land,
already upheaving with the throes of a fratricidal conflict. The Church where
peace on earth and good will toward men should have been at all times, but
then more especially, the constant theme, was dumb as the grave. The dark
funeral pall of war was closing around the land, and there was none to raise
its gathering clouds and let in one solitary ray of peace, or hope, or love.
Masonry alone, mindful of its divine mission on earth, spoke out with
persuasive tongue of exhortation, that men and brethren should abstain from
this cruel conflict. That it thus spoke is a noble incident of its history.
And although its voice was then unheeded, none shall henceforth, forever, rob
it of the glory of the attempt.
Scarcely sixty days had elapsed after the first shot had been fired at Fort
Sumpter, when, from the National Capitol, the true-hearted Grand Master of the
Templars of the United States issued a memorable address to the knights of his
command, who were scattered over both sections of our discordant country, in
which he "implored each one, after humbly seeking strength and aid from on
High, to exert all means at his command to avert the dread calamity and
prevent the shedding of fraternal blood."
month had passed ere the officers of the Grand Lodge of Tenessee made a
similar invocation for peace; and in the tones of entreaty that ought to have
been heard, "as Masons, as members of a common brotherhood, as brethren bound
together by fraternal ties not to be broken save by the hand of death," they
appealed for a cessation of the unnatural strife.
few weeks later, the Grand Masters of Kentucky, of Ohio, and of Indiana,
united in a similar work of attempted reconciliation; and crying out from the
very depths of their hearts, "Is there no balm for the bleeding wounds of our
nation? Is there no hand to hold out the olive branch? No saviour to still the
troubled waters?" - they concluded their earnest appeal by inviting a Masonic
convention, which should recommend some plan to heal the wounds of the
country. Had the acerbity of political strife, and the cunning of political
corruption which were then overbearing the deluded people with their pressure,
permitted the holding of such a convention, who can tell what blessed results
might have been brought forth from the communion of men who had been taught
the duty of mutual kindness and mutual forbearance at the same sacred altar
and in the same mystic language?
then came with like counsels the gentle voice of Cyril Pearl from his far-off
home on the very borders of our land. He lived to see the culmination of the
war which he deprecated. Before its decline he was called from his earthly
labours of love. Masonry can illy spare such noble-hearted men.
when at last the clouds of war had not only gathered all over the land, but
had burst forth in a storm of carnage; when there was no more hope of peace
until the discordant passions of men should be diluted with the flow of blood,
the Grand Master of South Carolina, whose heart, strongly beating with Union
sympathies, has long since been quelled in death, addressed an encyclical
letter to his brethren, in which he charged them in the name of our Supreme
and Universal Master, "to suffer not the disputes and broils of men to impair
the harmony which has existed and will exist throughout the fraternity." "Let
us not," he said, in his own emphatic language, "let us not hear among us that
there is war; that strife and dissension prevail. As Masons, it concerns us
rejoice in my heart that these teachings were not unheeded. If there was war
without, there was always peace within our lodges.
you bear with me while I say of my native jurisdiction, where I think I have
some Masonic influence, that in South Carolina, reproached as I fear she
justly is, as birthplace, the benignant principles of Freemasonry were never
for a moment forgotten. In its capital city, the only place, I fear, on the
whole continent where the same deed of love was enacted, prisoners of war, who
were Masons, were relieved on their parole by the officer of their guard,
himself a Mason, and carried from the prison to the lodge room, to relieve the
weariness of their captivity by witnessing and participating in the secret
services of the Order.
can solemnly aver that I never approached a Mason or lodge in Charleston, with
a petition for the relief of a destitute, suffering prisoner of war, without
receiving the kindest response and the most liberal donation.
Throughout the length and breadth of our land, at the North and the South, the
East, and the West, wherever there was the sin of strife, there, too, was the
atoning peace of Masonry. It went into the prison, and gave comfort to the
captive. It went into the hospital, and gave balm to the wounded. It went
into the battlefield, and gave rescue of life to the conquered.
none henceforth speak of its unknown mysteries, or contempt for its pretended
merits. Let its adversaries be silent before the magnitude of its
achievements; and when the history of this unnatural war is written, while all
honour is bestowed upon the hero and the patriot, let it not be forgotten, but
let it rather be inscribed in characters of living light, that when war was
beginning to whet its beak - while other associations were indifferent and
dumb - while the churches themselves gave no sign of Christian life, Masonry
done sought to avert the impending evil; and when the full tide of conflict
had rolled in upon our shores, and blood was soaked into the ground, Masonry
again came forth, a ministering angel, to clothe in some measure the stain of
our nation's fratricidal contest with a ray of cheering light, and to give to
the black cloud of war a silver lining.
ROMAN CATHOLIC EDITOR OPPOSES ROMAN CATHOLIC SECRET SOCIETIES
Why Roman Catholics
should be so opposed to Freemasonry because it is a secret society while their
own church fosters, and has in times past fostered, some of the most powerful
secret societies that have ever existed has long been a standing puzzle to
Masons who believe that what is sauce for the goose should also be sauce for
the gander. But Masons are not the only ones to observe this curious
inconsistency. Here is a letter from a Roman Catholic editor that was
published in The Fortnightly Review, September 1st, 1922, page 327. It is
sufficiently explicit and stands in no need of interpretation. The Fortnightly
Review is a Roman Catholic journal, published on the 1st and 16th of every
month, 5851 Etzel Avenue, St. Louis, Mo. It is edited by Arthur Preuss, author
of a well known "book" on Freemasonry.
"I just finished
reading your fine article 'Combating Secret Societies' (F.R., No. 16, p. 301
sq.). While reading it, and fully agreeing with Bishop Wehrle, I wondered what
should be said about the secret societies within the Church or 'in the shadow
of the Church.'
"Thirty years ago, as a
printer, I became interested in secret societies, Every once in a while some
mysterious stuff came along 'a printers handled the cuts of various emblems,
turned out stationery, letters, etc., and began to study the material. This
will explain why I am able today to tell at first glance to what lodge a man
belongs if he wears an emblem. When I went into business for myself, I was
told of the many advantages of secret orders, and I joined one. My interest
grew, I became very active and was elected to various offices, excepting the
'paid' offices, but I have had my fill of 'honor.' Once I discussed the
question of life insurance and fraternal orders with a Lutheran pastor, whom I
respected for the stand he took against all the mummery, tomfoolery and rot.
This pastor was well read on the subject and gave me a ritual of a certain
secret society. Reading it I found that it was similar, yes, in some parts and
respects identical with the ritual which 'we' used. After that I read various
exposes, and I have reasons to believe that the latter are correct. Later I
read your book on Freemasonry. My interest grew, and I obtained some 'real
rituals.' I am in a position now to state that all secret societies are
fashioned alike. 'We' met in an I.O.O.F. Hall at one time for a monster
initiation, and let me assure you that it was not necessary to shift much
scenery to adapt the hall for our 'ceremonies.' 'We' even left the altar where
it stood, but called it the 'Center Pedestal.'
" 'We' have the
'stations,' the 'wicket,' the 'pass-word,' the 'grip,' the sign and salute,
the 'gown and cap,' the 'mysteries,' all the awe-inspiring things and all the
tommyrot of the lodge room with a few religious features to make it a little
"Of course, 'we' go to
communion in a body to remain in good standing.
"As long as 'we' act
thus and indulge in the mummery and humbug which is being condemned by our
bishops here and there, results cannot be expected. What we need, and need
badly, is a house-cleaning that begins right at home.
"I am not writing this
for publication, and cannot permit my name to be printed in connection with
it. I am simply stating facts which cannot be overlooked, or disputed for that
matter. It has gone too far, and, I believe that it is beyond remedy. When it
is borne in mind that the Wisconsin Staatsverband (D.R.K.C.V.) recently filled
a long-felt want by adopting an 'Einfuhrungs-Modus' with a very strong leaning
to secrecy, it becomes plain that the garden is full of weeds.
"Worst of all: If the
Church tolerates secret societies within and 'in her shadow,' Catholics
naturally must conclude that they are not so bad after all. Swimming against
the stream, as both of us do, we have the sensation of being living fish, but
it is folly to think that we are making any headway.
"I could give you a
'lot of dope,' but what's the use? Constant dripping may hollow a stone, but
you and I will be dead and buried a long time before the stone will show any
marks." A Catholic Fellow Editor.
CATHEDRALS USED AS CIVIC BUILDINGS
The Gothic cathedrals
were almost as much civic buildings as they were churches, and in the sense
that they embodied the pride, the ambition, and the rivalries of the cities,
this was eminently the case. But they were also actually used for town
meetings, for public festivals, and for theatrical exhibitions - the "miracle
plays" and "passion plays," which have survived in one famous instance at
Oberammergau. In the Middle Ages the church and the cathedral were always
open, like the Roman Catholic churches of our own day. Here the poor man was
the equal of the rich. The beggar and his lord met on terms of equality in the
liberty of using the building and in the theory of its religious teachings.
There were no pews for favored owners. The cathedral was the palace of the
poor, and its entire space outside the sanctuary was open to their daily
visits and sojourn at will, without disturbance.
The cathedral was the
museum of art; a museum made, not to display the ostentation of the rich or
the luxury of his life, but to teach by pictures and reliefs the history of
the world as then known and comprehended by the traditions of the church, and
the lessons of faith and of sacrifice. Here were, moreover, the actual
memorials and relics of past ages; for here was the treasury not only of the
art of the present but also of the art of the past. Finally, the cathedral was
the sanctuary of the famous and illustrious dead. Their tombs were its
decoration and its pride.
MEMORIALS TO GREAT MEN WHO WERE MASONS - GENERAL JOSEPH WARREN
BRO. GEO. W. BAIRD, P.G.M., DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
JOSEPH WARREN was Grand
Master of Massachusetts. There is a handsome memorial to him in Roxbury of
that state, where he was buried.
General Warren was born
in Roxbury in 1741, and he was killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill in 1775.
Like so many of our early patriots he was a physician before he became a
soldier. He was graduated from Harvard University and practiced medicine in
His courageous and
fiery patriotism is revealed by the fact that when Mr. Samuel Adams declined
to deliver the address on the second anniversary of the "Boston Massacre,"
March 5, 1772, Dr. Warren himself delivered it, though he knew the act was
fraught with great danger to himself.
Dr. Warren was a
delegate to the convention at Suffolk, which took measures to prevent Governor
Gage from fortifying the south entrance to Boston. He was a delegate to the
Massachusetts Congress in 1774, and was elected president of that body. It is
said that "to his energy was in great measure due the successful result of the
battle of Lexington." In 1775 he received his commission as Major General and
took part shortly afterwards in the Battle of Bunker Hill, with which his name
will ever be connected in the loving annals of this nation.
There is a story told
of him to the effect that he was warned by Elbridge Gerry against hazard in
exposing his person, to which General Warren exclaimed: "I know that I may
fall, but where is the man who does not think it glorious and delightful to
die for his country !" Another story relates that a British officer called to
him by name to warn him of his risks and even ordered his men to cease firing.
Dr. Warren was shot in the head and died instantly. If it be true that the
British officer did call to him in this manner we should feel remiss were we
to pass so gallant an act without praise.
General Warren devoted
years to the Craft and occupies a conspicuous place in the history of the
early Masonry of the United States. He was a Mason in deed as well as in word,
and such men always become the idol of the brethren. Lodges have been named
for General Warren in almost every state in the Union. The Grand Secretary of
New York, Brother Kenworthy, has made the excellent suggestion that the Craft
establish the custom of naming new lodges after these great patriots.
Perhaps I can do no
more thorough justice to the story of the Masonic career of General Warren
than by incorporating here an account of him published in the Grand Lodge
Proceedings of Massachusetts, June 14, 1916, wherein we may read:
"Joseph Warren was born
in Roxbury, Mass., June 11, 1741. He graduated at Harvard College in 1759.
During 1760 he was employed as a teacher in a public school in Roxbury and in
the following year commenced the study of medicine under Doctor Lloyd, an
eminent physician of that day. He began practice in 1763 and is said to have
distinguished himself at once. In 1764 the smallpox prevailed extensively in
Boston and he was very successful in treating it. About this time he began to
take an active part in political affairs, and his letters to public men and
his newspaper essays soon attracted the attention even of the government. They
were remarkable for clearness of thought, terseness of statement, and cogency
of argument. In 1774 he was chosen to represent the town of Boston in the
Provincial Congress and in the following year was elected President of that
body. Here he manifested extraordinary powers of mind and a peculiar fitness
for the guidance and government of men in times of difficulty and danger.
"The Congress was then
sitting at Watertown and upon its daily adjournment he hastened to the
military camp there to participate with the common soldiers in the exercise
and drills and to encourage and animate them by exhortation and example. The
Provincial Congress offered him the appointment of Surgeon General, but he
declined it and accepted a Commission as Major General, dated only three days
before the Battle of Bunker Hill.
"On the night of the
16th of June, 1775, he presided at the meeting of the Colonial Congress which
continued in session a great part of the night in Watertown. Early in the
morning of June 17th he visited a patient in Dedham and left her saying that
he must go to Charlestown to get a shot at the British and would return to her
in season for her confinement which was almost hourly expected. He arrived at
Bunker Hill only a few moments before the first attack of the British troops.
There he refused to take command when offered it by Putnam and Prescott,
seized a musket, and fought as a private. His reluctance to obey the order to
retreat resulted in his death as he was only a few rods from the redoubt when
the British obtained full possession and he; was instantly killed by a bullet
in the head. He was buried in a shallow grave on the field.
"Immediately after the
evacuation of Boston his Masonic brethren determined to go in search of the
body. They repaired to the spot indicated by an eye-witness of his death. It
was at the brow of a hill, and near the head of the grave was an acacia tree.
Upon the removal of the earth which appeared to have been recently disturbed
they found the body of their Grand Master. This was on the 6th of April, 1776.
They carefully conveyed the body to the State House in Boston, and on the 8th
of the same month an oration was delivered over his remains by Perez Morton
who was at the time Grand Marshal of the Grand Lodge. After the funeral
ceremonies the remains were deposited in a tomb in the Granary Burying Ground
where they remained for nearly fifty years. In 1825 his remains were found,
identified, deposited in a box of hardwood, designated by a silver plate, and
placed in the Warren Tomb under St. Paul's Church, Boston. A number of years
later they were again removed and found their final resting place in Forest
"King Solomon's Lodge
(then of Charlestown, now of Somerville), in December, 1794, erected and
dedicated a monument to his memory in the shape of a Tuscan pillar eighteen
feet high, resting upon a platform eight feet in height, eight feet square,
and fenced about to Protect it from injury. On the top of the pillar was
placed a gilt urn with the initials and age of General Warren enclosed within
the square and compasses. The dedicatory services and procession were
elaborate. The lodge kept the monument in repair until March 8, 1825, when
they voted to present the land and monument to the Bunker Hill Monument
Association upon condition that there should be placed within the walls of the
monument the Association was about to erect a suitable memorial of the ancient
pillar in order to perpetuate that early patriotic act of the Masonic
Fraternity. In fulfillment of that condition King Solomon's Lodge on June 24,
1845, placed within Bunker Hill Monument an exact model in marble of the
original monument. The public ceremonies were conducted by the Grand Lodge,
including many distinguished brethren from other jurisdictions. An interesting
feature of the occasion was the presentation of the working tools to the Grand
Master, Augustus Peabody, by Past Grand Mast John Soley, who had himself fifty
years before dedicated the first monument. The corner stone of the present
monument was laid with Mason ceremonies on the fiftieth anniversary of the
battle under the direction of Grand Master John Abbot, assisted by our
illustrious Brother Lafayette. The completion of the monument was celebrated
on the seventeenth of June, 1843, the Masonic portion of the procession being
under the direction of King Solomon's Lodge.
"On that occasion Past
Grand Master Benjamin Russell, a soldier of the Revolution, wore the Masonic
Apron of General Warren. On June 17, 1857, Most Worshipful John T. Heard,
Grand Master, assisted by the Grand Officers and two thousand brethren,
inaugurated a statue of General Warren in the presence of about five thousand
"Joseph Warren was initated
in St. Andrew's Lodge of Boston on September 30, 1761. He was passed on
November 2d, but there is no record as to the date of his raising. On November
14, 1765, the lodge voted unanimously that Doctor Joseph Warren be re-admitted
a member of the lodge. He was elected Master in 1769. In December of that year
he received from the Earl of Dalhousie, Grand Master of Masons in Scotland, a
Commission bearing date May 30, 1769, appointing him Grand Master of Masons in
Boston and within one hundred miles of the same. In 1773 he received another
Commission dated March 3, 1772, issued by the Earl of Dumfries, then Grand
Master of Scotland, extending his jurisdiction over the Continent of America.
He was installed under each of these Commissions on the 27th
"Erected A. D. MDCCXCIV., by King Solomon's Lodge of Freemasons, constituted
at Charlestown, 1783, in memory of Major General Joseph Warren and his
Associates, who were slain on this memorable spot, June 17, 1775.
None but they who set
a just value upon the blessings of Liberty are worthy to enjoy her. In vain we
toiled: in vain we fought: we bled in vain, if you, our offspring, want valor
to repel the assaults of her invaders!”
1628: Burnt 1775; Rebuilt 1776. The closed land given by Hon. James Russell."
is an exact model of the first monument erected on
Bunker Hill, which, with the land on
which it stood, was given A.D. 1825 by King Solomon's Lodge, of this town, to
the Bunker Hill Monument Association, that they might erect upon its site a
more imposing structure. The Association, in fulfilment of a pledge at that
time given, have allowed, in their imperishable obelisk, this model to be
inserted, with appropriate ceremonies, by King Solomon's Lodge, June 24th, A.
of December of the
respective years. Grand Master Warren presided over all the forty meetings of
the Grand Lodge held previous to his death, save four. On one of the occasions
when he was absent, namely, June 3, 1774, the record recites that the Grand
Lodge adjourned by reason of the few Grand Officers present, they being
engaged on consequential public business. He was present, however, at the
adjourned meeting on the 7th of that month.
"Joseph Warren, the
first man of distinction to lay down his life in the cause of American
liberty, was not only young and handsome, but also able, energetic, patriotic,
active and brave. Notwithstanding his youth he had the responsibilities and
care of a young family, the anxieties and labors of the large practice of a
popular physician, and the demands of an extensive correspondence both at home
and abroad, personal as well as political. With all this he was a constant
attendant upon the meetings of the Committee of Correspondence, the Committee
of Safety, the meetings of the town, of the Sons of Liberty, and other
caucuses. He was a prolific writer. He was assiduous in the exercise of his
Masonic duties to such an extent that Masonry even in those troublous days
flourished and prospered under his administration."
When Daniel Webster
delivered his masterly address at the dedication of Bunker Hill monument, he
made no mention of the monument it displaced, which seems to have been largely
forgotten. I am indebted to Brother C.F. Willard of San Diego, California, for
the reference, and to the Grand Secretary of Massachusetts (Brother Frederick
W. Hamilton) for the picture herewith produced. It tells the whole story, and
any attempt to add to its grandeur would be like an effort to paint the lily.
But how so great and important an illustration could be buried so long it is
hard to understand. The name of King Solomon's Lodge should be emblazoned in
letters of gold for this grand act; and, be it remembered, that it must have
been erected at no small sacrifice in that day when money was so scarce.
This Masonic monument
was removed to make place for a larger one, at public expense, thus removing
this evidence that the great Warren was a Mason, though his memorial at
Roxbury shows that he was.
I conclude with a poem
that gives excellent expression to the spirit of Warren. My copy is signed by
the name "Pierpont": can some reader tell us something about this
Revolutionary bard? was he the John Pierpont who was born in 1785 and died in
1866, and who divided his attention equally between themes patriotic and
WARREN'S ADDRESS AT BUNKER HILL
Stand! the ground's
your own, my braves!
Will ye give it up to
Will ye look for
Hope ye mercy still?
What's the mercy
Hear it in that battle
Hear it on yon
Ask it - ye who will.
ye foes who kill for hire?
ye to your homes retire?
behind you! they're afire!
before you, see -
have done it! - from the vale
they come! - and will ye quail? -
rain and iron hail
their welcome be!
God of battles trust!
may, - and die we must; -
oh! where can dust to dust
consigned so well,
where heaven its dews shall shed
martyred patriot's bed,
the rocks shall raise their head,
deeds to tell!
AWFUL FETISH OF FEEDING
Vol. VII, No. 3, page 47, prints a communication that is not without point on
this side of the water. Says the editor, Brother Lionel Vibert: "I advisedly
print the following outpourings without ally indications of their origin, but
I can assure my readers that they come from an eminent source." The item is as
"I was very pleased to
see your remarks on page 135 of volume VI. Royal Cumberland is very much to be
congratulated that this is the class of lodge that it is a pleasure to belong
to. This awful fetish of feeding that now exists is depressing. On the last
two occasions I have been to Chapters (Royal Arch, not in London) my whole
evening was spoilt by hustling the ceremony to get to dinner. In one case I
was in the second chair and a Provincial Grand Lodge Officer sitting behind
who was paying an official visit asked me to get the Z to cut out the lectures
and then to take the ballot for the officers in one lot. The other occasion
was an installation - only two of the principals were fully installed as the
third was already an H. A ceremony of exaltation was to follow but it was
actually cut out because they were afraid the soup would be cold! These two
Chapters were in different Provinces, but such cases are by no means uncommon.
Masonry of this sort is useless. The last time I was in a Mark lodge almost
the same sort of thing was done, the Master made very neat little addresses to
his new officers, and afterwards a visiting Provincial Grand Lodge Officer
groused about it because it made us late for dinner. This sort of thing is a
very bad example to the younger brethren.
"There is another
habit which very much wants stopping, and that is making a Masonic sign when
toasting a brother across the table; it seems to be getting much more common
than it was and is dangerous when there are so mary outside waiters about."
ALBERT G. MACKEY
BRO. H.L. HAYWOOD, IOWA
Scholar Mason, gentle, kindly,
securely has thy name,
serenely has thy fame
the years that else so blindly
undone so much we prize!
thy spirit hovers near us,
guide and now to cheer us,
harsh and always wise.
what Lodge, beyond our ken
thou found a Master's place?
thou now behold the Face
Master of all men?
grant to thee the wage
Craftsman and a Sage.
TEACHINGS OF MASONRY
BRO. H.L. HAYWOOD
The following paper is
one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings of
Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and discussion in lodges
and study clubs. From the questions following each section of the paper the
study club leader should select such as he may desire to use in bringing out
particular points for discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on each
individual question presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge
or study club may be able to devote to the study club meeting.
In conducting the study
club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the discussions closely to
the text of the paper and not permit the members to speak too long at one time
or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident that the
discussion is turning from the original subject the leader should request the
members to make notes of the particular points or phases of the matter they
may wish to discuss or inquire into and bring them up after the last section
of the paper is disposed of.
The meetings should be
closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as may have come up
during the meeting and laid over until this time should be entered into and
discussed. Should any questions arise that cannot be answered by the study
club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be submitted to
us and we will endeavor to answer them for you in time for your next meeting.
on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at the end of the article.
XVI - ENDLESS LIFE
true; 'tis certain; man though dead retains
of himself; the immortal mind remains."
WORDS, written by Homer 3,000 years ago, remind us how that ages before the
ferment of modem thought and all the crusades of our modern religions, men
believed in immortality as we do now. If one were to push himself behind
Homer into an age long anterior to his, and as ancient to him as his is to us,
one would and men cherishing the same hope. Imhotep, the father of
architecture in stone, builder to the Egyptian King Zoser, lived 5,000 years
ago, but for all that he believed in immortality as did Homer. And so with
those to whom Imhotep looked back as to those grown ancient to him; and also
with them in their turn; and so on to the beginning of things when the first
half-wild hunter paused long enough in his search of meat to gaze wistfully
across lovely valleys, where floating gossamers reminded him how frail and how
fleeting is human life.
useless to try to prove by logic or by demonstration the immortality of man.
We believe it, there is an end of it! And we do not believe it because we have
proved it, but we try to prove it because we already believe it. It is a
hope, a kind of inward certainty which finds its support not in this fact or
in that, but in the cast and colour of life as a whole. It rises up into our
minds like an exaltation from all our thoughts, all our experiences, all our
dreams, as the odour that drifts across a summer field distills from
numberless unnoted plants. We are never so puzzled as when we are challenged
to give a reasoned proof of this hope: and we are never so unreasonable as
when we cease to believe it. Men everywhere and always have believed it not
because priests have taught them or because scientists have found out the
secret of it, but because life itself has taught them, and it is something
that the universe itself is always whispering to them. The priests and the
churches have not created the belief: it is the belief that has made the
priests and churches, and no amount of ignorance, baseness, or superstition
appears able to blot out that great hope. The cannibals cling to it, and we
ourselves though we sleep in a gutter, hear it announced within that
whispering gallery which we call the soul.
"Though inland far we be,
souls have sight of that immortal sea
brought us hither."
long have men believed in immortality? Who was Homer? Imhotep? Why do you
believe in immortality? How would you set about to prove it? How do we know
that men have always believed it?
impossible to form any mental picture of the future life. No two religions
describe it in the same way, and some of them, ancient Buddhism, for example,
have refused to describe it at all. Our modern spiritists who follow in the
train of Sir Oliver Lodge, Conan Doyle, Camile Flammarion and their school,
believe themselves to have received authentic news from the Beyond but
unfortunately they have never been able to agree as to the nature of things in
that unknown realm. It appears that such descriptions as are given through
the mediums, ouija boards and such other occult means of communication usually
conform in a general way to the preconceptions of the spiritists themselves.
The Eskimo spiritist is told that heaven is a beautiful place full of icebergs
and polar bears; the American Indian learns that it is a happy hunting ground;
the Chinese spiritist - spiritism has been developed in China to a degree of
respectability and perfection never attained elsewhere - is informed that
heaven is a gloried China organized strictly in accord with the principles of
ancestor worship. All this would indicate that if bona fide communications
ever do penetrate the veil the conditions are such as to preclude the
transmission of accurate or definite information, so that spiritists
themselves are in like case with the rest of us who find that eye hath not
seen nor ear heard nor hath it entered into the mind of man to conceive what
the future life is like.
Nevertheless it is difficult to cherish even the thinnest hope of a continued
life without trying to fashion some sort of conception of it, because the mind
cannot otherwise handle the idea at all. Because we hold immortality as a
belief we are compelled to think it as a thought, and it is this psychological
necessity, perhaps, that has led men in every country and in all ages to make
for themselves some picture of heaven. One should not try to quarrel with
this, because one cannot do so successfully: man is so made that he must
behave in this manner, and that is an end of it.
is for this reason, I believe, that we should be all the more careful that our
thinking about the future life be strictly reasonable. If our nature compels
us to think out some conception of immortality, that same nature similarly
compels us to fashion a conception that won't insult the intelligence or fly
in the face of known facts. It is necessary to be reasonable while we reason
about Eternal Life. It seems to me - and I speak here only for myself - that
this principle in itself is one of the teachings of Freemasonry concerning
this subject. Our Fraternity leaves it to each individual to fashion his own
conceptions of the Beyond but at the same time, and by all the arts at its
command, persuades its votaries ever to remain in the Light, to seek more
Light, and to fear to walk farther than the Light can lead them: and this
Light itself is, of course, nothing other than reason, and knowledge, and
right thinking. When the subject passes beyond into the darkness of the
unknowable it is better to cease pursuing it further, lest we fall into
superstition. It is better to remain agnostic about what the future life is
like than to hold fast to unreason.
you picture the future life in your own mind? What is spiritism? Name a few
leading spiritists now living. Do spiritists agree among themselves as to the
future life? Give an example of some conception of the future life that is
contradicted by facts as we know them, and that is unreasonable. Why should
we try to make our picture of the future life as reasonable as possible?
both safe and wise to hold fast to the principle that all reality is bound up
together into a great unity - for the which reason we call it a Universe - and
that one part of this system does not contradict or give the lie to any other
part. There is no good reason to suppose that death makes any profound change
in the scheme of things. Death is a part of the Universe and always has been
and, it may possibly prove, always will be. It is reasonable to suppose that
the Universe will be the same after we are dead as it was before, and that
therefore the "future life," as we call it (it is no longer "future" to those
now living it) will in all essentials be of a piece with this present life.
Why should we expect marvels, wonders, and impossibilities there when such
things are not found here? What right have we to suppose that the experience
of death will change our world out of all recognition, and transform ourselves
into beings utterly different from what we are?
is human is immortal," said Bulwer-Lytton. Why is not the reverse also true?
"What is immortal is human." We are here in closest relation to an earth, out
of the surface of which we labour to wrest our bread each and every one of us
is the member of one race - the human - and of some one grand division
thereof, in consequence of which we differ greatly in colour, language,
appearance, and a hundred other things. The race as a whole is equally
divided between two sexes, the members of which are so unlike each other in
many important respects as to cause one to believe that sexual differences
extend into the inmost recesses of human nature, and are not to be put on or
off by any possible change. We are each one organized in a physical body, and
it is ceaselessly necessary for us to work, to strive, to endure, to eat and
sleep, and to suffer. It may be that all these things will be carried over
into whatever life, or lives, may be waiting for us beyond. They are neither
superficial nor accidental and are so woven into the general scheme of things
that it is difficult to understand how human life could know itself after
death with all such things omitted.
spite of one's self such a discussion leads into theology, the most irritating
of all subjects, and the least appropriate to these pages. In a field where
no landmarks are marked out for us we are necessarily forced to fall back on
private opinion, a thing I have done throughout this paper, and with the most
cordial invitation to the reader to disagree if he is so disposed. I have no
interest as a Mason in theological beliefs concerning the future life save to
secure for ourselves a principle that will guarantee for us the full
protection of the present life and all its values. It may be said that what a
man believes about the future is his own private affair and should be
respected as such. This is very true as long as the man's beliefs about the
life to come do not seriously interfere with the life that now is, a thing
that often happens. If my beliefs cause me to be illiberal or harsh, or
unkind, or if they are such as to destroy my happiness, then my beliefs become
matters of concern to my fellows, and they have a right to challenge me
thereon. It is true, as I remarked above, that Freemasonry leaves the
fashioning of this religious belief to the individual, nevertheless the
Fraternity's spirit and teachings are distinctly opposed to beliefs that lead
a man into unbrotherly behaviour or unmasonic conduct. What Masonry has to
teach concerning immortality is necessarily of a piece with its other
teachings. If democracy, equality, charity, brotherly love, truth,
kindliness, and honourable labour are good things now they cannot cease to be
good things in the life to come. If such things are of God in this life it is
hardly possible that they will cease to be divine in the next life.
man were to ask me point-blank, "what, in so many words, does Freemasonry
teach about the endless life?" I should be hard put to make a reply
"Freemasonry does not teach anything about it after the manner of an
old-fashioned church catechism, but all its rites and ceremonies, its spirit
and its laws are filled with immortality as the sky is suffused with light.
Immortality is the motif of the Masonic symphony.
is one word to be said in addition. ln the great drama of the Third Degree
there are things done and said that give one a new and enlarged conception of
everlasting life. The initiate has it brought home to him that if there are
some things which abide for ever, so that they are undestroyed by all the
deaths that are, it is possible to search out such things now, and to mould
his life about them, and give them the place of control at the center of the
heart, so that one can live the eternal life in the midst of time. This is
not easily gained, as many a man has learned to his cost: there are ruffians
at the gates, lions in the path, and often it will seem to one who seeks this
Royal Secret that his days are become a succession of deaths.
who flagged not in the earthly strife,
strength to strength advancing - only he
soul well-knit, and all his battles won,
Mounts, and that hardly, to eternal life."
do we mean by saying that we live in a universe? What is your theory about the
part death plays in the life of man? What are the things in human nature least
liable to change after death? What is meant by theology? What kind of beliefs
about the future life cause men to be harsh and unkind? What has Masonry to
teach concerning immortality? What is the meaning of the drama of the Third
Degree? In what way does the Third Degree teach eternal life?
(1915) - Immortality - The Circle, p. 133; After Death Shall We Live
P. 300; Realization of the Truth, p. 211.
II (1916) - Reflections on the Philosophy of Albert Pike, p. 9; The Spirit
Man, P. 187; The Three Grips, P. 30; The Third Degree, p. 126;
Toleration, p. 265.
III (1917) - The Landmarks, p. 211; The Feet of Time, p.25; Life After
IV (1918) - Where the Rainbow Never Fades, p. 162; The Ancient
Mysteries p. 223; Symbolism of the Three Degrees, p. 291.
(1919) - Studies in Blue Lodge Symbolism, p. 136; Eleusinian
Mysteries, p 240; The Plan of Freemasonry p. 266; Immortality, p. 145.
VI (1920) - Psychical Research, p. 918; Eternal Life, October C.C.B. p.
Freemasonry Among the American Indians, p. 295.
VII (1921) - The Immortality of the Soul, p. 50.
VIII (1922) - Death, the Liberator, p. 11; The Future Life, p. 126.
Mackey's Encyclopedia-(Revised Edition):
Buddhism, p. 122. See also related topics under Aranyaka, p. 74; Aryan,
Mahabharata, Mahadeva, Mahakasyapa, p. 460; Pitaka, p. 569;
Puranas, p. 601, Ramayana, p. 607; Sakti, p. 661, Sastra and Sat B'hai, p.
Shaster, p. 685; Shesha, p. 686; Sruti, p. 710; Upadevas, Upanishad,
818; Vedanga, Vedas, p. 824; Zenana, Zennaar, p. 878.
Egyptian Hieroglyphs, p. 231; Egyptian Mysteries, pp. 232-234; Immortality
Soul, p. 347; Master Mason or Third Degree, p. 474; Religion of
Masonry, pp. 617-619; Speculative Masonry, p. 704; Spiritualizing, p. 706;
Spiritual Lodge, p. 706; Sublime, p. 732.
STUDY CLUB PLAN
Our Masonic Study Club
Course, of which the foregoing paper by Brother Haywood is a part, was begun
in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to the beginning of the present series
on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings of Masonry," as we have titled
it, were published some forty-three papers covering in detail "Ceremonial
Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under the following several divisions: "The
Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge and the Candidate," "First Steps," "Second
Steps," and "Third Steps." A complete set of these papers up to January 1st,
1922, are obtainable in the bound volumes of THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918, 1919,
1920 and 1921.
Following is an outline
of the subjects covered by the current series of study club papers by Brother
TEACHINGS OF MASONRY
The Masonic Conception of Human Nature.
The Idea of Truth in Freemasonry.
The Masonic Conception of Education.
Ritualism and Symbolism.
Initiation and Secrecy.
10. - Democracy.
11. - Masonry and
12. - The Brotherhood
13. - Freemasonry and
15. - The Fatherhood of
16. - Endless Life.
17. - Brotherly Aid.
18. - Schools of
This systematic course
of Masonic study
has been taken up and carried out in monthly and semi-monthly meetings of
lodges and study clubs all over the United States and Canada, and in several
instances in lodges overseas.
The course of study has
for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE BUILDER and
ORGANIZE AND CONDUCT STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
Study clubs may be
organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of the lodge. In
the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably of three
"live" members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The study
club meetings should be held at least once a month (excepting during July and
August, when the study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER), either at
a special communication of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular
communication at which no business (except the lodge routine) should be
transacted,all possible time to be devoted to study club purposes.
After the lodge has
been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master should turn the
lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The committee should
be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the meeting.
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned
should be prepared with their material, and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study of it.
PROGRAM FOR STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
1. Reading of any
supplemental papers on the subject for the evening which may have been
prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of the study club
2. Reading of the first
section of Brother Haywood's paper.
3. Discussion of this
section, using the questions following this section to bring out points for
4. The subsequent
sections of the paper should then be taken up and disposed of in the same
5. Question Box. Invite
questions on any subject in Masonry, from any and all brethren present. Let
the brethren understand that these meetings are for their particular benefit
and enlightenment and get them into the habit of asking all the questions they
may be able to think of. If at the time these questions are propounded no one
can answer them, send them in to us and we will endeavor to supply answers to
them in time for your next study club meetmg.
information should enable study club committees to conduct their meetings
without difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such committees, or
any individual member of lodges and study clubs at any time such brethren are
invited to feel
communicate with us.
BLUE LODGE HAS FIRST LIEN ON A MASON
ONCE A MAN has begun to
take an active part in the activities of the Higher Degrees (as they have come
to be called) it is natural for him to become engrossed in them at the expense
of his Blue Lodge duties, and that because those degrees offer so much greater
variety. Instead of three degrees these other bodies, along with their
auxiliaries, offer a half hundred or so, and instead of one group of men there
are several, all of which makes for sustained interest as against the
comparative monotony of Blue Lodge work.
The many brethren who
succumb to this appeal are not to be too roughly scolded because they but
follow the lead of nature. Nevertheless, and even so, they should all stop,
look, and listen. Not one "higher" grade can ever rise above the level of the
Craft lodge, which is fons et origina for the whole Masonic system. As the
Blue Lodge goes so goes Masonry. If the Blue Lodge sinks into control by the
least competent groups how much better off will the other bodies be in the
course of time? The whole York Rite and Scottish Rite systems are so utterly
dependent on the health and strength of Craft Masonry that no man can be a
friend to them who is not loyal to his Blue Lodge, so that the more zealous a
man is for the prosperity of any of the additional grades the more active
should he be in the work of the three degrees. The Blue Lodge has in the
nature of things first lien on a Mason's activities.
It is of interest in
this connection to read a word written in the field and with no thought of a
literary public. In a report to his Grand Master, Brother H.E. Austin, a
Deputy District Grand Master of North Carolina, gave expression to some
sterling good sense:
"Our Masons who have
the capacity, the initiative, the personality, are not attending the Blue
Lodge. They are not occupying the stations, they are not exercising leadership
in that branch of Masonry that is fundamental and where good leadership is so
essential. Our new members are not brought into contact with that type of
Mason who can give them the vision of a true conception of what Masonry is.
They are not receiving the inspiration, not getting the social contacts that
they expect and have a right to expect.
"Our stronger Masons
must come to a realizing sense that they are doing Masonry a real harm and
putting Masonry into jeopardy, when they segregate themselves to the
Commandery, the Chapter, the Scottish Rite, etc., leaving the novice and the
poorly qualified to conduct the affairs of the local Blue Lodge.
"I don't believe the
members of the higher orders have realized this situation."
* * *
DOORS WIDE OPEN
One of our best admired
contemporaries, a Masonic monthly edited with discretion and printed with
taste, carries on its cover a symbolic representation of the doors that lead
into the Masonic Temple. Significantly enough, these portals, which swing
inward as all portals of initiation necessarily do, are wide open, and it is
evident that they are intended to remain so.
Is not this a
misinterpretation of the actual facts? is it not true that the portals of
Freemasonry are closed to all without, save when they are opened to them from
within? In a sense, yes, but not in the sense interpreted by this symbolic
representation. For the real door that opens into the Temple of Freemasonry is
not that of wood which swings upon its iron hinges, but the will, the purpose,
and the qualifications, mental and moral, which exist in a Due man. To all
such who are thus properly qualified the doors of Freemasonry are ever open.
Yea, in a real sense, as hinted by one of the old texts of the V.S.L., it is
the true and upright man who is himself the door to the Fraternity; for when
all is said and done, Freemasonry is not a thing of stones, wood, doors,
buildings, and external trappings, but rather is it a circle of open minds and
true hearts to which any man is welcome if he be worthy of such a place.
Indeed, it is
everlastingly true that we can enter into nothing for which we are not
inwardly prepared. What is music to a man who has no music in his ear? Of what
use are vast libraries of books to him who cannot or will not read? what avail
ten thousand schools to one who prefers darkness to light? of what value are
all the just laws of a noble land to the citizen who has no conscience in his
breast? All the great true eternal things in life, the things which are life
itself, if life is to be anything more than mere existence, are for them only
who are truly prepared for them. The doors are ever open day and night. All
the millions of Freemasons cannot keep one man out of Freemasonry who is
already a Freemason in his soul.
* * *
AND MASON'S MARKS IN THE ORIENT
Among the men of this
nation who are now doing most to rescue the rest of us from foggy thinking and
foolish creeds Professor John Dewey holds a privileged place, seeing that he
is a teacher of teachers, and a writer whose books are revered by young men
and women in all the continents. I do not know whether he is a Mason or not:
if he is not he should be, and could be too, for his great work on "Education
and Democracy" proves him worthy and well qualified. That he can write as well
as think, and is full of the human qualities of tenderness, humor, and
friendliness, is proved by his "Letters from China and Japan," a volume of
letters which he and his wife wrote back to their children during a year in
But this is not a book
review. Ye scribe calls attention to the fact that "Letters from China and
Japan" contains two items of some interest to Masonic students. In a letter
written from Peking (page 261) Professor Dewey remarks, while writing of a
visit to the Higher Normal School of that city, that "the head of the
industrial department, who acted as our guide and host, has been organizing
the 'national industry' activity in connection with the student's agitation.
He is now, among other things, trying to organize apprentice schools under
guild control." To those who have supposed craft guilds a thing long extinct
this should prove a clue worth following. On page 72 is another item of
similar import, and proves how natural and how inevitable, and in all
countries, has been the employment of "mason's marks." While describing a
reception tendered him in the Arsenal Grounds at Tokyo he writes a paragraph
which shows that Japanese carpenters employed marks in the old times, just as
Masons did in England and on the Continent. "On one side the Imperial
Government is theocratie, and this is the most sensitive side, so that
historical criticism or analysis of old documents is not indulged in, the
Ancestors being Gods or the Gods being Ancestors. One bureaucratic gentleman
felt sure that the divine ancestors must have left traces of their own
language somewhere, so he investigated the old shrines, and sure enough he
found on sonle of the beams characters different from Chinese or Japanese.
These he copied and showed for the original language - till some carpenters
saw them and explained that they were the regular guild marks."
Both China and Japan
are rich, historically and contemporaneously, in matters of peculiar interest
to Freemasons. The unfortunate thing is that much of the literature - perhaps
one should write it "literature" - purporting to deal with secret societies,
guilds, etc., in the Orient has been produced by cotton-headed gentlemen
utterly devoid of accurate knowledge. The men and women of the Orient are
human beings, not magicians, sages, and miracle workers: their history is real
history to be studied like any other history; and they live in a real world
among cold facts where 2 plus 2 equals 4, as among us. Books about the Orient
should be written in the pragmatic spirit, which is to say, in the spirit that
pervades the letters of Professor Dewey, who is for the present the high
priest of pragmatism in this country.
* * *
IS A MAN A "HIGHER GRADE" MASON?
A Freemason is a man
who believes that the power of God is behind and beneath him, like the ground
under his feet, and that the love of God is over him like the sky: who
believes in the endlessness of human life; who believes that it is the nature
of man to be friendly; and who allies himself with the Honorable Society of
Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, in order to join with like-minded men in the
furtherance of such ideals. When such a Mason has by his intelligent
faithfulness surpassed the rank and file of his fellows so that he understands
and practices Freemasonry more than they do, he becomes entitled to enroll
among the members of the "higher grades." Unless his membership in those
honorable ranks is thus honestly won, all his badges and distinctions and the
long train of his titles are no more than the rattle of an empty wagon on the
BRO. GERALD NANCARROW, INDIANA
shall not gild thy house, my son,"
Breathed God upon His plan.
have laid the chisel by thy side,
carve thyself a man."
even so near to me are Thou
were I less than I,
jealous were of mine own work
would not let thee try."
build thee strong and true and high
these bright tools ye see,
kingly mansion, O my Son!
thou shalt rule with Me!"
Masonic links compose a sacred chain
holy brightness and unmeasured length;
world, with selfish rust and reckless stain,
mar its beauty but not touch its strength.
UNSEARCHABLE RICHES OF FREEMASONRY
Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry, Robert I. Clegg. Seven volumes, De
Luxe fabrikoid binding. Published by the Masonic History Company, 225 North
Michigan Avenue, Chicago, III. For sale by The National Masonic Research
Society, Anamosa, Iowa. Price $56.00.
SOME FIELDS of reading
and research are complete in themselves, so that a man never exhausts them or
grows weary but finds his interest new every morning and his delight growing
by what it feeds upon. Subjects less rich in resources are exhausted at last
and pall upon one, but these larger subjects are inexhaustible so that nobody
ever comes to the end of them, and he who has given his life to them feels at
the end like Sir Isaac Newton who had merely snatched a handful of sand from
the limitless supplies of the ocean. All the major sciences, the fine arts,
the larger industries, some forms of business, and a few other fields more
difficult to classify, such as theology and philosophy, are of such a
character. They constitute in themselves a complete system of culture, so that
a man who makes himself at home with them achieves for himself an education
which, though it may always be enriched by additions from other sources, is
nevertheless complete and satisfying in and of itself. To become the servant
of any one of these major arts and sciences is to be put into possession of
those truths and uses of the mind whereby one becomes a matured man, fruitful
in labors and worthy of dignity and honor. He is like one that has won at last
to a mountain top - his position puts him into possession of the whole
country. And, so far as that is concerned, it matters little what mountain he
has elected for his own, if only it be one that gives him a commanding
Freemasonry is such a
subject. It is not as public as some, or as popular as others, and its nature
and extent may not always be known to its own sons, but for all that it is,
like one of the sciences, or professions, or an art, a world within the world,
a life inside life, a complete circle of interest inside of which any man may
find a rich culture. It infinitives itself in all directions, one of its
interests leading to another and that to a third and so on in an endless
chain, until one discovers that he who ascends the mount of Masonic learning
is master of one of the major peaks, and in possession of a vast country. "I
have been studying Masonry for thirty years," once remarked our veteran
colleague and brother, J.T. Thorp, "and don't know much about it now," the
contrast being not to the paucity of the rewards of such long study, but to
the inexhaustibleness of the subject studied. The life-long pursuit of Masonic
knowledge is one of the most richly rewarding activities in which any man can
engage. For, as Albert Pike wrote when himself grown old, "There is nothing
which will so well remunerate a man, when the days of his life are shortening
to the winter solstice, as faithful service in the true interest of Masonry."
The Craft is as large as the world itself, and somewhere or other connects
with every vital human interest on the periphery of life.
Mason's ways are
the days are
in this world."
For these reasons I
refuse to think of Freemasonry as being merely a lodge, or even as being
nothing more than a Fraternity. Neither do I like to think of it as one among
many secret societies, which have a curious but not an urgent interest.
Freemasonry is one of the great public institutions like the home, government,
the courts, the church, and the public school. It has played its own great
part in history, and has for itself its own long chapter in the troubled
annals of our race. Our clubs and societies are little sanctuaries by the way,
kindly and cheerful places of refreshment. Freemasonry is a great home at the
end of the road in which men may find work, food and peace all their days. To
grow old in its service, to learn all its ways, to be a faithful son to it, is
to live such a life as that described in the First Psalm where a good man is
described as a tree planted by living waters.
The riches of
Freemasonry do not lie on the surface. There are many obstacles to be met and
many difficulties to be overcome by the man who would possess himself of it,
especially if he seeks to appropriate it intellectually. The ritual is to the
casual member sealed and hidden and written in a dead language. The symbols
are as mute as the hieroglyphics of Egypt to one who has not the key. The
philosophy of the Craft is not a fool's paradise of easy ideas for children to
play with. Above all - and it is to this that I call special attention - the
history of the Order has not always been made safe or available to Masons,
especially to those without time or gifts for laborious research. There is no
virtue in these facts: quite the contrary! The ritual should be unsealed to
every Mason, the symbols interpreted, the philosophy be made plain, and the
story of the Craft straightforwardly told in plain language. There are many
mysteries, and necessarily so, in Freemasonry, but there need be no
To my own mind the
great value of the newly revised edition of Mackey's History of Freemasonry
lies in the fact that it now presents to each man a key to these unsearchable
riches of Masonry. In the language of one of the old mystics, "It puts a man
at home in the house." The Fraternity's own past, which is one of its greatest
treasures, and which, more than anything else, is fit to inspire a Mason with
reverence and love for it, is brought out into the open, into the sunlight,
and made available to the common man who can't read Hebrew, Greek, or Medieval
To read through these
seven volumes is like going on a journey through many lands, with stop-overs
in great cities, and side trips among ancient ruins. One begins with
Prehistoric Masonry. He reads the story of the various Legends of the Craft,
and learns about the Old Manuscripts, with digressions into the quaint stories
of Lamech's Sons, the Tower of Babel, the Legends of Nimrod, and the Legend of
Euclid. The origins of the Fraternity are admittedly a mystery but certain of
our great men have circulated hypotheses about it, and these are reviewed in
chapters on Anderson, Preston, Hutchinson and Oliver. The author then
undertakes an account of his own and begins, where it is necessary to begin,
with the Temple of Solomon: thereafter come the Dionysian Artificers, the
Ancient Mysteries, the Druids, the Crusades - a fascinating chapter - the
Scottish Templars, the Story of the House of Stuart, of the Jesuits, and of
the intriguing tale of Oliver Cromwell and his supposed connection with the
This is but one-seventh
of the journey. In Volume II there is a much needed chapter on The Royal
Society. Then come the occult groups, the tale of which has been repeated
numberless times but never exhausted; the Astrologers, the Rosicrucians, the
Pythagoreans, the Gnostics, and the Essenes. Then follows an excellent
critical account of the Hiram Abif Legend, and the first main portion of the
work, Prehistoric Masonry, is completed.
The History of
Freemasonry in the eyes of the author, and strictly so-called, begins on page
481, of Volume II, with the Roman Collegia. It is a great world in itself and
there is not space here to follow the itinerary further, or even to sketch in
an account of the main heads, which are very many. If any Mason is desirous of
possessing himself of the "unsearchable riches" of Masonry he can do so in
these seven volumes. To read them is an education, and a discipline that every
Mason owes to himself.
The ground plan of this
magnum opus was laid out, and great stores of data accumulated, by Albert G.
Mackey, to whose enduring and gentle fame this issue of THE BUILDER is
dedicated. It was Dr. Mackey's hope to make this the crown of his life's labor
but unhappily death cut him off before he had completed it. Brother William R.
Singleton took his place and brought the manuscript to shape for publication
and gave it to the world in a shape now long familiar. It is probable that
more men have been given an adequate sense of the vast scope of Freemasonry by
this History than by any other work, with possibly the exception of the
Encyclopedia. But it happens that Mackey laid down his pen at the very time
when a new era of Masonic scholarship was reaching its meridian: Lyon,
Crawley, Gould, Speth, Hughan and many others of equal fame had organized a
new school of Masonic scholarship, and there is no telling what will yet be
the outcome of their labors, seeing that every year finds some new bit of the
hitherto unknown discovered, explored and claimed for Masonic knowledge. Owing
to this new uncovering of rich deposits of lore it became necessary at last to
revise the History. This difficult and responsible task was entrusted to the
general editorship of Brother Robert I. Clegg, than whom there is not in all
the land a better known or more beloved Masonic student and writer, and whose
name is thrice familiar to these pages. It is to him, and to the equally
indefatigable labors of Brother Walter C. Burrell, President of The Masonic
History Publishing Company, that we are indebted for the new edition of the
old familiar work.
As to the calibre of
the scholarship revealed by Brother Clegg's work of revision I cannot do
better than to quote a paragraph from a letter from my friend David E. W.
Williamson, to whose learning this Society has been often indebted:
“I have just completed
the seven volumes and am much impressed with it, as I wrote to Brother Clegg.
His own work is in evidence everywhere and the immense erudition displayed
makes the book a real Masonic library. The old history has been improved at so
many points as to make the Revised History virtually a new work. Dr. Gasho, a
brother who is much interested in all these things, has the edition to which
Singleton contributed, with the final chapter by Hughan, and it is only
necessary to compare volume by volume to realize that here Bro. Clegg and his
associates have brought every subject down to date."
seven new volumes are a delight to see especially as regards the binding and
the illustrations. The index is very complete, and there are many footnotes.
Take it up one side and down the other it would be difficult anywhere to find
a set of books that will more easily enable a man of modest equipment and of
little leisure to make his own all "the height and depth, and length and
breadth, and the unsearchable riches" of Freemasonry. H.L. Haywood.
* * *
EDITION OF MACKEY'S SYMBOLISM
"Mackey's Symbolism of Freemasonry," revised by Robert I. Clegg; published by
Masonic History Company Chicago. De Luxe fabrikoid binding. For sale by
Nationai Masonic Research Society. Price $3.65 postpaid.
Dear old Mackey! as one
turns over the aging pages of the old books he seems as near and as alive as
ever. He is always quiet, always gentle, and he never resorts to the tricks of
the writers' trade to capture attention, but for all that there is a certain
virility about him that age cannot wither or custom stale. Of all the writers
of the older school he is the most contemporaneous, and far and away the most
influential. More copies of his works are being sold today than of any recent
writer and there is no doubt but that this will long continue. Mackey is a
great and universal Masonic influence with whom every student and reader of
Masonry must acquaint himself.
Mackey was at his best
in writing on the symbolism of Freemasonry. It was a task for which the bent
of his mind and the nature of his learning peculiarly fitted him. Later
writers, many of them, have been more scientific, and any number have been
more clever, but few have possessed that peculiar quality of mind that set
Mackey apart as a symbologist of the first order.
Masonic symbolism is a
subject which, by virtue of its own nature, does not very rapidly outgrow
itself. Mackey issued the first edition of his "Symbolism of Freemasonry" in
1869. Since that date the whole field of Masonic scholarship has been
revolutionized from top to bottom; the school of Preston and Oliver has
vanished and time has outlawed most of what they wrote; but, owing to the
nature of the subject, there is comparatively little of the "Symbolism" that
must be altogether discarded. The famous "nineteen propositions" of the first
chapter which "contain a brief but succinct view of the progress of
Freemasonry," and the arguments concerning "The Noachidae" and "Primitive" and
"Spurious" "Freemasonry of Antiquity," are now of very little value, and so
with a few other pages here and there. Compared with the total bulk of the
work this is almost negligible.
Brother Robert I.
Clegg, editor of the new edition of the book, has added two paragraphs to
Mackey's original Preface and has included a valuable chapter of his own by
way of "An Introduction to Symbolism," but elsewhere has made few changes.
"Up to this point,"
writes Brother Clegg in his addition to the Preface, "we have used the preface
written by the great student and need now but explain the work of revision.
Brother Mackey's examination of Masonic symbols is today as of yore admirable
Freemason at all worthy of the name can read it without pleasure and profit.
All that was necessary for us to do was to make corrections of errors that
crept into the book, and add here and there such comments as seemed to us to
be most helpful to the reader in the light of our present-day knowledge of the
"The chapter on an
Introduction to Symbolism is new and prepared by the reviser for this edition.
Here as elsewhere the purpose has been to do as Brother Mackey would no doubt
have wished the work to be done; to correct the text with every respect for
the lofty purpose of the original author, and to add such amendments as would
in the same way better facilitate the reader's progress."
Again Brother Clegg
writes in his Introduction: "Brother Mackey put into his study of Symbolism
the ripened researches of many years. No other book of his more clearly shows
the depth of his reading and reflection. His was the wisdom that never lacked
words of simplest worth to make it known and understood. None so clearly as he
could fit lucid language to the exposition of what he knew of Freemasonry. And
none packed into his sentences more meaty food for reflection."
The titles of the
thirty-two chapters will furnish a reader with a more adequate conception of
the contents of the book than a great deal of description could do. They are:
An Introduction to Symbolism; Preliminary, Origin and Progress of Freemasonry;
Noachidae; Primitive Freemasonry of Antiquity; Spurious Freemasonry of
Antiquity; Ancient Mysteries; Dionysiac Artificers; Union of Speculative and
Operative Freemasonry at the Temple of Solomon; Traveling Freemasons of the
Middle Ages; Disseverance of the Operative Element; System of Symbolic
Instruction; Speculative Science and the Operative Art; Symbolism of Solomon's
Temple; Form of the Lodge; Officers of a Lodge; Point within a Circle;
Covering of the Lodge; Ritualistic Symbolism; Rite of Discalceation; Rite of
Investiture; Symbolism of the Gloves; Rite of Circumambulation; Rite of
Intrusting, and Symbolism of Light; Symbolism of the Corner Stone; Ineffable
Name; Legends of Freemasonry; Legend of the Winding Stairs; Legend of the
Third Degree; Sprig of Acacia; Symbolism of Labor; Stone of Foundation; Lost
Word; and Synoptical Index.
The new edition is
bound in De Luxe fahrikoid binding in color and design to match the revised
edition of Mackey's History of Freemasonry reviewed otherwhere in this issue.
* * *
BOUND VOLUME OF THE BUILDER FOR 1922
Bound Volume of TIIE BUILDER for 1922, bound in goldenrod buckram, title in
gilt, published by The National Masonic Research Society, Anamosa, Iowa. Price
This is to announce the
advent of the Bound Volume of THE BUILDER for 1922, copies of which may now be
had. Readers should investigate this bound
volume: many of them
will be surprised to discover how much it adds to the sightliness and
convenience of twelve issues of this journal. When each monthly issue is
printed a certain number of copies are especially prepared for binding. At the
end of each year these twelve especially printed copies are placed together
with a complete descriptive index of fourteen pages and securely bound in
goldenrod buckram, with title label in gold. No covers are bound in. Every
page is absolutely unused, and the whole is so numbered as to form a complete
book of about 375 pages of the same size as THE BUILDER. In the index is
furnished a guide to each and every item that has appeared during the year,
along with cuts, authors, books, etc., by means of which one can locate
anything at a moment's notice. The volume is beautiful in appearance, in
typography, paper, illustrations, arrangement and size. It is an ideal
Christmas gift for a Mason.
This is the eighth of
such volumes thus far issued by The National Masonic Research Society. Taken
together these eight books constitute the most comprehensive and accurate
Masonic library in existence. They contain more than 400 complete signed
articles on important Masonic topics; hundreds of replies to questions about
Masonry; and editorials, letters, poems and book reviews on nearly every
matter of consequence connected with Freemasonry. Such a set of books is an
ideal foundation for a private Masonic library.
Nothing is of merely
local or temporary interest. Everything is designed for permanency and for
universality. THE BUILDER does not reflect sectional views; it does not
represent any party or clique or rite; it is not published for commercial
purposes. For these reasons a set of the Bound Volumes is not a file of old
magazines, the interest of which must necessarily fade with the passage of
time, but a set of books, the first page of which is as interesting as the
last; an encyclopedia of Masonry, the value of which increases with the
addition of each new Bound Volume.
Contained within this
set of books is a number of Masonic books published in serial form. He who
owns the set possesses Pound's "Philosophy of Freemasonry"; Pound's "Lectures
on Masonic Jurisprudence"; Ravenscroft's "The Comacines"; Haywood's
"Symbolical Masonry"; Haywood's "The Teachings of Masonry"; Wright's "Woman
and Freemasonry"; Wright's "Roman Catholicism and Freemasonry"; Pike's "Humanum
Genus"; Lawrence's "Military Lodges"; Barry's "The Story of Old Glory";
Street's "Symbolism of the Three Degrees"; Goodwin's "Mormonism and Masonry,"
* * *
POCKET BOOK ON FREEMASONRY
is Masonry," by Francis E. Lester, P.G.M., New Mexico. Published by the
author, Mesilla Park, New Mexico.
This is a vest pocket
volume on a big subject. Brother Lester tells us in his introductory page that
at the time he was raised he was unable to learn much about the institution of
which he had become a member, or of the ceremonies in which he had
participated. "The one thing that was missing was the kindly explanation by a
brother of what relation Masonry, with its teaching and ritual, bore to the
duties and responsibilities of daily life." This booklet of thirty pages,
bound in blue paper, is a "kindly explanation" of many of the things about
which a newly raised Mason is most anxious to learn, and to all such it is to
be recommended. On the last page there is a list of some twenty or so books
"suggested for supplementary reading": it is an excellent brief bibliography.
Copies may be secured from the author.
PUBLICATIONS WANTED, FOR SALE, AND EXCHANGE
We are constantly
receiving inquiries from readers as to where they may obtain publications on
Freemasonry and kindred subjects not offered in our Monthly Book List. Most of
the books thus sought are out of print, but it may happen that other readers,
owning copies, may be willing to dispose of the same. Therefore this column is
set aside each month for such a service. And it is also hoped - and expected -
that readers possessing very old or rare Masonic works will communicate the
fact to THE BUILDER in behalf of general information.
are here given in order that those buying and selling may communicate directly
with each other. Brethren are asked to cancel notices as soon as their wants
In no case does TEIE
BUILDER assume any responsibility whatsoever for publications thus bought,
sold, exchanged or borrowed.
By Bro. G. Alfred
Lawrence, 142 West 86th St., New York, N. Y.: Proceedings of the Scottish Rite
Body founded by Joseph Cerneau in New York City in 1808, of which De Witt
Clinton was the first Grand Commander, and which body became united, in 1867,
with the Supreme Council of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, A. & A. S. R.
Also Proceedings of the Supreme Council founded in New York by De La Motta, in
1813, by authority of the Southern Supreme Council, of which he was Grand
Treasurer-General, these Proceedings from 1813 to 1860.
By Bro. Frank R.
Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.: "The Year Book," published by
the Masonic Constellations, containing the History of the Grand Council, R. &
S. M., of Missouri.
By Brother Silas H.
Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin: "Catalogue of the Masonic Library of Samuel
Lawrence"; "Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations of Masonry"; "The Source
of Measures," by J. Ralston Skinner 1875, or second edition 1894; "Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum," volumes I to XI inclusive.
By Bro. Ernest E. Ford,
305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California: "Ars Quatuor Coronatorum,"
volumes 3 and 7, with St. John's Cards, also St. John's Cards for volumes 4
and 6; "Masonic Review," volumes 1, 2, 7, 31, 32 and 43 to 60, inclusive;
"Voice of Masonry," volumes 2 to 12 inclusive, and volume 16; Transactions
Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction for the years 1882 and 1886; Original
Proceedings of The General Grand Encampment Knights Templar for the years 1826
By Bro. George A.
Lanzarotti, Casilla 126, Rancagua, Chile: All kinds of Masonic literature in
Spanish. Write first quoting prices.
By Brother L. Rask, 14
Alvey St., Schenectady, N. Y.: "Remarks upon Alchemy and the Alchemists," by
E. A. Hitchcock, Janesville, N. Y., about 1866; "The Secret Societies of all
Ages and Countries," by C. W. Heckethorn; "Lost Language of Symbolism," by
Harold Bayley, published by Lippincott; "Sacred Hermeneutics," by Davidson,
Edinburgh, 1843; "Solar System of the Ancients Discovered," by J. Wilson,
published by Longmans Co., London, 1856; "The Alphabet," by Isaac Taylor,
Kegan, Paul, Trench
& Co., 1883, or
the edition of 1899 published by Scribners, New York; "Anacalypsis," by
Godfrey Higgins, 1836, published by Longmans, Green
Co., London; "Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," any volume or volumes.
By Brother N. W. J.
Haydon, 664 Pape Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: "The Beautiful Necessity,"
and "Architecture and Democracy," by Claude Bragdon.
By the National Masonic
Research Society, Anamosa, Iowa: "Discourses upon Architecture," by Dallaway,
1833; any or all
volumes of "The American Freemasons' Magazine," published by J. F. Brennan,
By Brother E. A. Marsh,
820 Broad Ave.
N. W., Canton, Ohio: "Numbers: Their Occult Power and Mystic Virtue," by
William Wynn Westcott, published
1902 by the
Theosophical Publishing Society.
By Bro. D. D.
Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.: "Realities of Masonry," Blake,
of the Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons," Condor,
Bibliography," Carson, 1873; "Origin of
Freemasonry," Paine, 1811.
By Brother A. A.
South Bronson Ave., Los Angeles, California: Various Masonic publications
including such as a complete set of "Ars Quatuor Coronatorum"; "History of
Freemasonry in Scotland," by D. Murray Lyon, (original edition); Thomas
Dunckerley, Laurence Dermott, etc.
By Brother Frank R.
East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.: "History of Freemasonry," Mitchell, 2
volumes, sheep; "History of Freemasonry," Robert Freke Gould,
4 volumes, cloth
in good condition; "History of Freemasonry," Albert G. Mackey,
7 volumes, linen
cloth, new; Addison's "Knights Templar," Macoy, 1 volume, cloth; "Museum of
Antiquity," Yaggy, 1 volume, morocco; "History and Cyclopedia of Freemasonry,"
Macoy and Oliver, new, full morocco. Also miscellaneous books.
THE BUILDER is an open
forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its contributors writes under
his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society, as
such, does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
another, but offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction,
leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.
The Question Box and
Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at all times.
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from our
members, particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
following our Study Club course. When requested, questions will be answered
promptly by mail before publication in this department.
INFORMATION ABOUT THE PUBLIC SCHOOL CRISIS
THE BUILDER for August
interested me more than any copy I have ever seen. My copy is worn out with
lending. Can you tell me where I can find some more literature like it?
The Bureau of Social
and Educational Service of the Grand Lodge of New York issued as their
Bulletin No. 3, for March 2, 1922, a twenty-four page booklet on "The Public
School Crisis," in which was incorporated a valuable list of up-to-date
pamphlets and booklets on the subject, written from every possible angle. The
list could not be improved.
American City Bureau,
154 Nassau Street, New York. Ask for "Know and Help Your Schools," Third
Report of National Committee for Chamber of Commerce Cooperation with the
Public Schools. George D. Strayer, Chairman.
American Council of
Education, Washington, D. C. Ask for reprint from School and Society, Vol. 13,
No. 321, article by Samuel P. Capen.
American Legion Weekly,
627 West 43d Street, New York. Ask for issue of Dec. 2, 1921, article, "The
American's Part in Americanism," by Warren G. Harding. Also Report of
Conference of Board of Directors of National Education Association and
Representatives of the American Legion, June 3, 1921, at Des Moines, Iowa.
Education Review, 93 Westford Avenue, Springfield, Mass. Ask for "Report of
Committee of Society of Directors of Physical Education in Colleges." Also
"The Aims and Scope of Physical Education."
Mrs. Rogers H. Bacon,
210 E. 61st Street, New York City, Chairman, Plan and Program Committee,
Women's Clubs of Greater New York. Ask for "Report to Board of Education on
School Building Conditions in New York City."
Boston League of Women
Voters, 553 Little Building, Boston, Mass. Ask for "How Our United States
Spends Its Income," Leaflet, by E. B. Bosa.
The Bureau of the
Census, Washington, D. C. Ask for circular, "Composition and Characteristics
of the Population." Also "Men and Women of Voting Age." Also "Citizenship of
the Foreign Born."
United States Bureau of
Education, Washington, D.C. Ask for "Report of the Commissioner for the year
ended June 30, 1921." Also "Education for the Establishment of Democracy,"
Address by P. P. Claxton, late Commissioner of Education. Also "Cost of
Education in the United States," Circular by P. P. Claxton. Also "Expenditures
for Public Education in New York," Circular by P. P. Claxton.
Naturalization, Washington, D. C. Ask for "Annual Report of the Commissioner."
Chamber of Commerce of
the United States, Washington, D. C. Ask for "Schools, Citizenship, and
Business," Civic Development Publication No. 4.
Committee on Education,
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. Ask for "Hearing on Illiteracy
under H R 15402."
The National Catholic
Weekly, 225 West 39th Street, New York. Ask for "The Case Against the
Smith-Towner Bill; Shall the Federal Government Control Our Schools ?"
Pamphlet by Paul H. Blakely, Ph.D.
Association, 1201 16th Street N. W., Washington, D. C. Ask for "American
Education Week," December 4-10, 1921," Bulletin No. 16. Also "A National
Program for Education," Pamphlet. Also "Education and the Federal Government,"
Pamphlet, by Hugh S. Magill. Also "The SmithTowner Bill; A Discussion of Its
Fundamental Principles and Brief History of Movement for a Department of
Education," Pamphlet, by Hugh S. Magill.
Hon. Horace M. Towner,
House of Representatives, Washington, D.C. H R 7. Ask for copy of
Association, 8 West 40th Street, New York. Ask for "A Primer of Public School
Progress." Also Bulletins Nos. 4, 25, 104, 105, 106, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113,
114, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120.
Foundation, Lexington Avenue and 22d Street, New York. Ask for "Trend of
School Costs," by Warren Randolph Burgess. $1.00.
School and Society, 11
Liberty Street, Utica, N. Y. Ask for Inaugural Address of Frank Pierrepont
Graves, as Commissioner of Education for the State of New York, "A State and
Its Edcation," Vol. 14, No. 357.
University of the State
of New York, Albany, N. Y. Ask for "Americanization in Industry," by Caroline
A. Whipple. Also "Community Organization and Program for Americanization
Work," by William C. Smith. Also "Education Law as Amended to July 1, 1920,"
Bulletin 707. Also "Financial Independence of Boards of Education," Pamphlet
by Frank B. Gilbert. Also "Immigrant Education," by William C. Smith. Also
"Organization and Administration of Part-Time Schools," Bulletin No. 697. Also
"School Health Service and Medical Inspection Law."
* * *
SCOTTISH RITE PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES
Can we tell me how many
of our Presidents have been members of the Scottish Rite? M. K. L., Indiana.
Your query was referred
to Brother William L. Boyden, Librarian of the Supreme Council, Southern
Jurisdiction, who kindly gave us information as follows:
James A. Garfield was a
member of the 14th degree of the Rite and made so in Mithras Lodge of
Perfection, Washington, D. C., January 2, 1872.
Andrew Johnson received
the degrees from the 4th to the 32nd by communication, June 20, 1867, at the
Warren G. Harding
received the 32nd degree in Scioto Consistory, Columbus, Ohio, January 5,
1921, and has been elected for the 33rd in the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction.
* * *
I am in search of a
poem based on the letters on the keystone and beginning with "H." The first
the man whose thoughts will bear
rigid test of the compasses and square."
some brother help me out? F. H. C., Wisconsin.
some reader please give us this poem?
* * *
Please inform me what
is meant by a phrase in the monitor about the "clouded canopy or starry decked
heaven." It is the word "decked" that puzzles me. B. M. T., Idaho.
The word is of medieval
origin and appears to have been common to Teutonic peoples. In old English it
appears as "deccan" and means "to thatch over or cover a house," by which it
is seen to belong to the same group of words - so far as our ideas are
concerned - as our "tiler." From this use it came in time to signify generally
any covering or clothing, and more especially fine clothing, as when we now
say of a woman that she is "decked out in finery." Hence also the word
"bedecked." The old Coverdale Bible of 1535 used the word in at least two
instances: "She coloured her face, and decked her headed II Kings, ix, 30.
"Thou deckest thyself with light as it were with a garment." Psalms, ciii, 2.
This makes clear the
meaning of the phrase about which you inquire. "The starry decked heaven" is
the night sky covered, or clothed, with stars. It is real poetry, worthy of
* * *
CEDARS OF THE FORESTS OF LEBANON
you kindly furnish me with some information about the Cedars of Lebanon? I am
studying the First degree.
looking through a number of Masonic articles on this subject we discovered
that the article in the Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 5, page 594, contains
all such information as well as much beside: accordingly we are reprinting
here that entire account:
Libani, the far-famed Cedar of Lebanon, is a tree which, on account of its
beauty, stateliness and strength, has always been a favourite with poets and
painters, and which, in the figurative language of prophecy, is frequently
employed in the Scriptures as a symbol of power, prosperity and longevity. It
grows to a vertical height of from 50 to 80 ft. - "exalted above all trees of
the field" - and at an elevation of about 6000 ft above sea-level. In the
young tree, the bole Is straight and upright and one or two leading branches
rise above the rest. As the tree increases in size, however, the upper
branches become mingled together, and the tree is then clump-headed. Numerous
lateral ramifying branches spread out from the main trunk in a horizontal
direction, tier upon tier, covering a compass of ground the diameter of which
is often greater than the height of the tree. William Gilpin, in his Forest
Scenery, describes a cedar which, at an age of about 118 years, had attained
to a height of 53 ft. and had a horizontal expanse of 96 ft. The branchlets
of the cedar take the same direction as the branches, and the foliage is very
dense. The tree, as with the rest of the fir-tribe, except the larch, is
evergreen; new leaves are developed every spring, but their fall is gradual.
In shape the leaves are straight, tapering, cylindrical and pointed; they are
about 1 in. long wad of a dark green color, and grow in alternate tufts of
about thirty in number. The male and female flowers grow on the same tree,
but are separate. The cones, which are on the upper side of the branches, are
flattened at the ends and are 4 to 5 in. in length and 2 in. wide; they take
two years to come to perfection and while growing exude much resin. The
scales are close pressed to one another and are reddish in color. The seeds
are provided with a long membranous wing. The root of the tree is very strong
and ramifying. The cedar flourishes best on sandy, loamy soils. It still
grows on Lebanon, though for several centuries it was believed to be
restricted to a small grove in the Kadisha valley at 6000 ft. elevation, about
15 m. from Beyrout. The number of trees in this grove has been gradually
diminishing, and as no young trees or seedlings occur, the grove will probably
become extinct in course of time. Cedars are now known to occur in great
numbers on Mt. Lebanon, chiefly on the western slopes, not forming a
continuous forest but in groves, some of which contain several thousands of
trees. There are also large forests on the higher slopes of the Taurus and
Anti-Taurus mountains. Lamartine tells us that the Arabs regard the trees as
endowed with the principles of continual existence, and with reasoning and
prescient powers, which enable them to prepare for the changes of the seasons.
wood of the cedar of Lebanon is fragrant, though not so strongly scented as
that of the juniper or red-cedar of America. The wood is generally
reddish-brown, light and of a coarse grain and spongy texture, easy to work,
but liable to shrink and warp. Mountain-grown wood is harder, stronger, less
liable to warp and more durable.
cedar of Lebanon is cultivated in Europe for ornament only. It can be grown
in parks and gardens, and thrives well; but the young,plants are unable to
bear great variations of temperature. The cedar is not mentioned in Evelyn's
Silva (1664), but it must have been introduced shortly afterwards. The famous
Enfield cedar was planted by Dr. Robert Uvedale (1642-1722), a noted
schoolmaster and horticulturist, between 1662-1670, and an old cedar at Bretby
Park in Derbyshire is known to have been planted in 1676. Some very old
cedars exist also at Syon House, Woburn Abbey, Warwick Castle and elsewhere,
which presumably date from the 17th century. The first cedars in Scotland
were planted at Hopetoun House in 1740; and the first one said to have been
introduced into France was brought from England by Bernard de Jussieu in 1734,
and placed in the Jardin des Plantes. Cedar-wood is earliest noticed in
Leviticus xiv, 4, 6, where it is prescribed among the materials to be used for
the cleansing of leprosy; but the wood there spoken of was probably that of
the juniper. The term Eres (cedar) of Scripture does not apply strictly to
one kind of plant, but was used indefinitely in ancient times, as is the word
cedar at present. The term arz is applied by the Arabs to the cedar of
Lebanon, to the common pine-tree, and to the juniper; and certainly the
"cedars" for masts, mentioned in Ezek xxvii. 5, must have been pine-trees. It
seems very probable that the fourscore thousand hewers employed by Solomon for
cutting timber did not confine their operations simply to what would now be
termed cedars and fir-trees. Dr. John Lindley considered that some of the
cedar-trees sent by Hiram, king of Tyre, to Jerusalem might have been procured
from Mount Atlas, and have been Callitris quadrivalvis, or arar-tree, the wood
of which is hard and durable, and was much in request in former times for the
building of temples. The timber-work of the roof of Cordova cathedral, built
eleven centuries ago, is composed of it. In the time of Vitravius "cedars"
were growing in Crete, Africa and Syria. Pliny says that their wood was
everlasting, and therefore images of the gods were made of it; he makes
mention also of the oil of cedar, or cedrium, distilled from the wood, and
used by the ancients for preserving their books from moths and damp; papyri
anointed or rubbed with cedrium were on this account called ced ati libri.
Drawers of cedar or chips of the wood are now employed to protect furs and
woollen stuffs from injury by moths. Cedar-wood, however, is said to be
injurious to natural history objects, and to instruments placed in cabinets
made of it, as the resinous matter of the wood becomes deposited upon them.
Cedria, or cedar resin, is a substance similar to mastic, that flows from
incisions in the tree; and cedar manna is a sweet exudation from its branches.
* * *
DUFFY'S "ORIGINAL THOUGHTS"
Can you tell me
anything about a book called "Original Thoughts," by Duffy? I imagine that it
may be out of print now. L.D.S., South Carolina.
"Original Thoughts" was
written by Brother Frank M. Duffy and published in 1868. Of the author himself
no memorials are at hand (unless perchance some reader of these pages may have
a record filed away), save that he was a member of Union Lodge No. 113,
Xartsville, Tennessee. He must have been a man of noble character and fine
mind, else his book misrepresents him, for it is one of the most beautiful
essays on Freemasonry that ye scribe has ever read. It was composed in a day
when Freemasonry was identified with Geometry, and Geometry itself was, after
the ancient fashion of Plato, deemed a revelation of the Eternal mind:
therefrom arose a blend of scientific speculation and religious mysticism very
seldomly met with now. "Original Thoughts" does not call into question any of
those views of Masonic history given currency by Dr. Oliver and his school and
is to that extent out of date, but the spirit in which the little book was
conceived will never fall from date unless it should turn out - which may God
prevent - that men will cease to feel reverence, wonder, and worship in the
depths of their nature. One of the few copies now known to exist is in the
possession of Brother J. E. Gwin, Hartsville, Tennessee.
* * *
AN AUTHENTIC BOOK ON
Can you tell me where I
might purchase an authentic book on King Solomon's Temple, containing
illustrations? C.T.R., Ohio.
Among the well-nigh
numberless books on the subject that might be mentioned two or three will
doubtless serve your purposes: "Solomon's Temple: Its History and Its
Structure," by the Rev. W. Shaw Caldecott. Preface by A. H. Sayce. The Union
Press, 1816 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. "The Tabernacle: Its History and
Structure," by same author and publisher. "The Temple, Its Ministry and
Services as they were at the Time of Jesus Christ," by Dr. Alfred Edersheim;
Hodder and Stoughton, New York. Captain Jerome B. Frisbee, Lindsay,
California, has published a book on the Temple very complete in diagrams and
illustrations and unique in its interpretations.
RECORD AS SECRETARY
I saw in the March
number of THE BUILDER (page 96) an account of Brother Arelius M. Willoughby
who had served as Secretary of Vincennes Lodge No. 1 of Vincennes, Indiana,
from 1876 to the present time excepting one year when he was elected Master,
making 45 years of service as Secretary, which is a record hard to beat.
Now I am somewhat of an
antique secretary myself I was elected secretary of Roger Williams Lodge No
32, F. & A. M., of Centerdale, Rhode Island, March 4, 1876, and have served
eontinuously to the present time June 10, 1922, and am still at it and am on
my 47th year of continuous service, which is the record for Rhode Island. I
congratulate Vincennes Lodge for having so interested and faithful a brother
for their secretary and hope he may live many years to enjoy the honor and
pleasures of a well spent life. Frank C. Angell, Rhode Island.
* * *
PERFECT CRAFTSMAN DEGREE
In order to stimulate
interest in its work as a degree team, the Fellowcraft Association connected
with St. John's Lodge No. 3 A.F. & A.M. of Bridgeport, Connecticut, has
perfected an initiatory form, which is used to initiate its new candidates
into the Association, and teach them some of the duties connected with the
After being organized
for thirteen years, it was found by experience that the members of the
Association, like the old saying "A new broom sweeps clean," came in the front
door, so to speak, and after a few years work gradually passed out the back
door, and new recruits took their places on the teams.
In order to make the
work more interesting and attractive, the idea of having a little side degree
was hit upon, and as a novelty used to "razz" some of the popular members,
worked successfully for a while. It hit the nail on the head because "all work
and no play makes Jack a dull boy." Then the War came along, and many of the
boys were called to service, and scattered to the furthermost parts of the
earth. When they returned they still remembered the joys of the gatherings
held before their departure, and the ball was started rolling for something
bigger and better. Accordingly, a committee was appointed for the purpose of
revising the ritual used. That committee did their work so well that the
degree at once came to be known as the "Perfected Craftsman's Degree" from
which the present name of "Perfect Craftsman Degree" came.
The Perfect Craftsman
Degree is based on Masonic history and traditions, and practically opposite in
form from Blue Lodge work. The degree impresses on the mind of the candidate
the importance of his Masonic ties and obligations, and presents them to him
in a manner that makes an indellible impression upon his mind. The degree
instructs and amuses at the same time. In order to be sure that there was
nothing used in the work that would, in any way, conflict with Masonic Law and
Practices the ritual was submitted to the present Grand Master of Masons in
Connecticut, M.’.W.’. Frank L. Wilder, who referred the matter to a committee
for examination and recommendation, the result being that the degree work was
found to be all right and was endorsed as "harmless."
The ritual uses a
vocabulary of its own; a local Association is known as a quarry, a chair as a
stone, etc. Since the new ritual was used for the first time last October
(1921) nine new quarries have been organized, and four more are about to be
started. The fact is that the movement, which has many aims along social
development lines, has grown so rapidly that the original Degree Committee has
had to reorganize into what is known as the "Activity Committee of Perfect
Craftsman Quarries of Connecticut." The said committee is organized solely for
the purpose of developing the social side of Masonry. Plans are being
formulated for the arrangement of a schedule of fraternal visits for the
balance of the present season, and the winter of 1922-23, and for a monster
Field Day for all Blue Lodge Masons residing within the State of Connecticut,
to be held at some central point durmg the summer at which time a gathering,
which will be a credit to the Masonic institution, will be held.
The movement started
is one of great
importance to the Fraternity. It means that the young blood in the Order is
beginning to circulate, and it spells life and action for the future. The
motto of the movement is "Service, Sociability, and Cooperation": service to
the Master of the Blue Lodge that the Quarry is organized to serve,
sociability among the various quarries, and thereby closer cooperative work on
subjects vital to the welfare and advancement of our art.
The Master of the Blue
Lodge that the individual quarries are organized in, is the head of the
quarry, and is known as the "Master of Light." At a recent meeting of the
Perfect Craftsmen held in Fair Haven, the lodge room was overcrowded, and the
spirit that prevailed among the members was wonderful. During the proper part
of the meeting, all of the Masters present spoke in favor of the movement; all
testified to the great amount of good it had done their work already by the
true service and stimulating interest it has brought about without any
advertising effort or cost.
Brother Howard W.
Gorham, 36 Harmony Street, Bridgeport, Conn., is acting as the Chairman of the
Activity Committee referred to, and stands ready to give any "Service to
Masonry" information requested in regard to the movement, on behalf of the
quarries in Connecticut, to sister jurisdictions.
Good buttons of special
design have been made up and serve to identify the workers on the various
teams in the Blue Lodge.
The advantages of a
local quarry are numerous. The degree work gives the incoming master of the
Blue Lodge an opportunity to select men of talent and service when making his
appointments to the various stations of trust and work.
It is said that in
every lodge where a Quarry has been established there is a revival of interest
and a great outpouring of members to the meetings, and all activities of the
Blue Lodge. It
inexorable law of the Craft to press forward and never turn back until their
work is completed - "Service to Masonry" is the slogan. Ray V. Denslow,
* * *
INFORMATION ABOUT GENERAL ARTHUR SAINT CLAIR
I was very much pleased
with Admiral Baird's article on General Saint Clair in the July "THE BUILDER,"
as I always am with anything he writes.
There is one feature he
overlooked and which I trust he will pardon me for mentioning as it is a
matter which should never be forgotten when speaking of General Arthur Saint
Clair. That is, he was a member of the well-known Saint Clair or Sinclair
family whose head, William Sinclair of Roslyn, was the hereditary Grand Master
when the Grand Lodge of Scotland was formed. In this Sinclair family the Grand
Mastership had been handed down for over 200 years, according to the Scottish
traditions. The Encyclopedia Brittannica tells of Thurso castle, near the town
of Thurso, which is 367 miles north of Edinburgh and which town is noted for
its stone quarries to this day.
General Arthur Saint
Clair was born at Thurso castle in 1734 and hence was only two years younger
than Washington. The Grand Lodge of Scotland was formed in 1736, two years
after his birth, and the head of the elder branch was still the Grand Master
when he was born. He came to America in 1758 as an ensign in the Royal
American regiment, known as the 60th foot, of which Colonel John Young, who
had been for thirty years the Deputy Grand Master of Scotland, was the
colonel. The man who succeeded Colonel Young was Colonel Augustine Prevost who
was created a Grand Inspector-General of the Scottish Rite by Stephen Morin in
1762, the same year in which Arthur Saint Clair resigned his commission in the
British army, married in Boston, and became an American. There is no doubt but
that he was a Master Mason at that time, as there was a military lodge in his
regiment of which Colonel Young was the Master while Arthur Saint Clair was an
He settled in the
Ligonier Valley in Pennsylvania, near Bedford, and lived there for twelve
years. When the Revolutionary War broke out he joined forces with the
colonists to whom his military knowledge was of value, he being created a
colonel of militia in 1775.
His being a
Scottish Mason, or Mason of the Scottish Rite, brought him in close connection
with Washington whose lodge at Fredericksburg was also a Scottish lodge with a
charter from the Grand Lodge of Scotland as were the majority of the lodges in
America which favored the cause of the patriots. Such were the famous St.
Andrews' lodge of Boston, and the Provincial Grand Lodge of which Dr. Joseph
Warren was the Grand Master which organized lodges in all the New England
colonies and likewise in Virginia, North Carolina and others of the colonies.
The members of the
English lodges chartered under the Grand Lodge of England were Tories, almost
to a man, while the Scotch lodges were nearly all revolutionists. I called the
attention of readers of THE BUILDER to the fact that we American Masons owe
but little to English Masonry, as most of the Revolutionary Fathers were
Scottish Masons and took their degrees in lodges which were chartered by the
Grand Lodge of Scotland. For these reasons, it is well to bring out the
connection of General Arthur Saint Clair with the Sinclairs of Rosslyn.
I was much interested
in the account of the visit in Scotland of Grand Commander Cowles of the
Scottish Rite which was published in the July number of the "New Age." Brother
Cowles has been the Grand Master of Kentucky and in his article he called
attention to the similarity of the Scotch work with that of Kentucky while the
English work was much different. We owe our Masonry in America to Scotland,
our work is Scottish and not English, and this is as it should be. California
work comes from a Scotch lodge of Connecticut under P.G.M. Warren, Provincial
Grand Master under Scotland. Cyrus
Field Willard, California.
* * *
SKETCH OF GILES FONDA YATES
Interested by an item
concerning Giles Fonda Yates that appeared in THE BUILDER, April, 1922, page
125, brethren of the Valley of Schenecteday, New York, sent to us a copy of
their beautifully printed "Memorial of the Presentation of Charters" which
contained a condensed biographical account of Yates, all of which, as
containing valuable data concerning one of the most illustrious of Masonic
careers, is here republished:
FONDA YATES, AND THE DELTA LODGE OF PERFECTION, NO. 1, OF THE CITY OF
Condensed from an
article by Isaac H. Vrooman, Jr., 32d, printed in the Proceedings Council of
Deliberation, State of New York, A.A.S.R., 1914, to whom due acknowledgment is
Giles Fonda Yates was
born in Schenectady, November 8, 1798, the son of John and Margaret (Fonda)
Yates. His great-great-grandfather, Joseph Yates, emigrated from England and
settled in Albany, in 1664, and his great-grandfather, Robert Yates, came to
Schenectady in 1711. He was graduated from Union College in the Class of 1816,
with Phi Beta Kappa rank, and later received the degree of Master of Arts. He
was by profession a counsellor-at-law and held the office of Surrogate of
Schenectady County from 1821 to 1840. For many years he edited the Schenectady
Democrat and Reflector, and contributed to that paper an extensive and
interesting series of articles on the early history of Schenectady, which have
formed the basis of most of the published history of that city.
He was initiated an
Entered Apprentice in Morton Lodge, No. 87, of Schenectady, on October 23,
1820, and received the degrees of Fellow Craft and Master Mason on October 27,
1820. On December 15, 1820, he was elected Senior Deacon of Morton Lodge and
the following year Senior Warden; to which office he was reselected in 1822,
but was not advanced in 1823. On December 7, 1824, he affiliated with St.
George's Lodge, No. 6, but did not sign the by-laws until June 24, 1825.
W.’.Bro.’. Yates served as Master of St. George's Lodgre in 1826 and 1827, and
again in 1844 and 1845, and was one of the survivors of the Morgan trouble who
helped to keep Masonry alive in Schenectady. He was also a Royal Arch Mason
and Knight Templar.
It is not known when he
received the Scottish Rite degrees but it must have been during 1821, for in
the minutes of Ineffable Lodge of Perfection, Albany, under date of January
31, 1822, he is recorded as Senior Grand Warden. For many years Ill.’.Bro.’.
Yates was connected with the affairs of Ineffable Lodge of Perfection of
In the fall of 1820,
with the consent of its surviving members, the Lodge of Perfection, which had
become dormant, was re-established under the appellation of Delta Lodge of
Perfection, and placed under the jurisdiction of a Grand Council of Princes of
Jerusalem, which had been opened previously in the City of Schenectady. The
minutes of Delta Lodge of Perfection, Schenectady, are to be found copied in
the Minute Book of Ineffable Lodge, commencing October 5, 1821, and preceded
by the stubs of two leaves which have been removed. These stubs bear evidence
of meetings having been held in 1820.
Delta Lodge of
Perfection continued to meet at Schenectady until 1825, when it was, by the
consent of its members, removed to Albany. Ill.’.Bro.’. Yates was Grand Master
of Delta Lodge during the five years of its existence at Schenectady.
The only printed
reference to Delta Lodge of Perfection is found in the Proceedings of the
Grand Chapter, R.A.M., of New York, under date of October 8, 1823, at an
"Emergency Convocation," called for the purpose of celebrating the passage of
the "first boat from the Grand Erie Canal into the Hudson River at Albany."
"Delta Grand Lodge of Perfection, No. 1, of the City of Schenectady," attended
and joined in the procession.
received the 33d on October 24, 1825, from Ill.’.Bro.’. John Barker, special
Deputy of the Supreme Council of Charleston, S. C.
In 1828, when the two
Grand Councils, Northern and Southern, agreed to a division of territory,
Brother Yates was, on July 6 of that year, "acknowledged and admitted" a
member of the Northern Supreme Council and Representative near it of the
Southern Supreme Council. Brother Yates' Patent of July 5, 1828, is in
possession of St. George's Lodge.
He was appointed
M.’.Ill.’.Ins.’.Lieut.’.Gr.’.Com.’. on June 15, 1844, and M.’. P.’.Sov.’.
Grand Commander August 25, 1851, which office he at once resigned in favor of
Ill.’. Edward A. Raymond. The latter, appreciating Brother Yates' great
services to the Supreme Council, appointed him Ill.’. Grand Chancellor H.’.E.’.
which office, together with Deputy of New York, he retained until his death.
The latter years of his
life were spent in New York City, where he took an active interest in the
local bodies of the Rite, and was appointed the first "Sovereign of
Sovereigns" of Cosmopolitan Consistory of New York City, at its organization
He died December 13,
1859, in New York and his remains were brought to Schenectady for burial. He
was buried in the "Old Dutch Burial Ground" between Green and Front Streets,
and when, in 1879, the plot was sold by the Dutch Reformed Church, his remains
were removed to Vale Cemetery, where they now rest in what is known as the
Union College plot. Brother Yates was never married.
He was the author of a
work entitled History of the Manners and Ceremonies of the Indian Tribes. He
was also engaged, for twenty years, in the compilation of a valuable
Repertorium of Masonry, which was left unfinished at the time of his death,
and which, according to his family, was stolen from his lodgings in New York
after his death. But most of his Masonic writings appeared in contemporary
journals. Moore's Freemasons Magazine and Mackey's Masonic Quarterly Review
contain valuable communications from his pen on subjects of Masonic
archaeology, in which science he has no superior. Mackey's Encyclopedia of
Freemasonry contains many articles by him, especially on the higher degrees.
He was also a poet of no mean pretension, and an artist.
His character is best
summed up in his own words. "I would fain have you believe, my dear brethren,"
said he, "that, as a member of the Masonic Institution, if I have had any
ambition, it has been to study its science, and to discharge my duties as a
faithful Mason, rather than to obtain its official honors or personal benefits
of any kind. Self-aggrandizement has never formed any part of my Masonic
creed, and all who know me can bear witness that it never has of my practice."
* * *
SCOTTISH RITE SYSTEMS
A Masonic friend of
mine who has been in Japan for some time told me of a case of certain Jewish
members of the lodge under the English Constitutions, in Kobe, who were
desirous of taking the Royal Arch, but it appears that a rule exists that no
brother can take this degree until he has been a Master Mason for a certain
number of months. These brethren proceeded to some place or other in the East
where American lodges and chapters were established and took, not only the
Royal Arch but other degrees in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite coming
back bestarred and bejewelled, with any amount of degrees including, of
course, the eighteenth, or Rose Croix. These, my friend told me, cost in the
neighborhood of $500 and were conferred one after another in a few days. What
I thought you might help me in is this: How on earth can a brother other than
a professing Christian possibly take the Rose Croix or eighteenth degree? Does
the American system differ in any way from the English and Scottish? I am a
member of the Alpha Chapter under the English Supreme Council (eighteenth
degree Rose Croix), and it seems to me that any one unable to subscribe to the
essential Christian doctrines could not possibly take the degree without
turning it into a blasphemous farce. Can you give me any information on this
William Moister, Editor
Masonic Journal of South Africa.
The Scottish Rite
degrees as practiced in England, Scotland, Ireland, and South Africa are very
different from the same degrees as practiced here; and in no degree is the
difference more marked than in the Rose Croix. With you, Brother Moister, it
is Christian and confesses Christ as Son of God and Lord of Glory: here it is
interpreted so as to be available to Jews, Free Thinkers, etc. The Jews
referred to in your letter were not at all hypocritical. It is hardly probable
that they paid five hundred dollars for initiation. Can any reader inform us
if such high fees have ever been charged?
Help! help! Such a
flood of contributions has been pouring in this past year that ye poor editor
is swamped - or should one say drowned? This means that many manuscripts wait
a long time before seeing the light of day. Several brethren have kindly
consented to having their articles passed on to other Masonic periodicals.
* * *
Brother Arthur C.
Parker, who has written for THE BUILDER some interesting items on Indian
Masonry, and four important manuscripts not yet published, has written a book
on "The Archeological History of New York." It is an important work.
* * *
Ye editor will begin a
new series of Study Club articles next March on "Chapters of Masonic History."
He is attempting to write an authentic history of Masonry in understandable
language. Many erudite brethren, here and abroad, have been lending him their
* * *
Ye editor and his
associates have formed a conspiracy to make the January BUILDER the best
number yet published. It will be the ninety-seventh issue. We are growing old!
* * *
We are available for a
few lectures - very few. For information address The Editor, THE BUILDER, 2920
First Avenue East. Cedar Ranids. Iowa.