The Builder Magazine
July 1922 - Volume VIII - Number 7
The George Washington Masonic National Memorial
BRO. LOUIS A. WATRES, P.G.M., PA., PRESIDENT, THE GEORGE WASHlNGTON MASONIC
NATIONAL MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION
TWELVE YEARS ago on the
22nd of February prominent Masons from several of our Grand Jurisdictions
gathered at Alexandria, Virginia, to discuss the feasibility of erecting a
fitting Memorial to Washington, the Mason. As they met in the historical lodge
room of Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22, the sacred environment and the
hallowed memories of him who presided over the lodge while he was Chief
Magistrate fired them anew with the spirit of Masonry. Though fully conscious
of the fact that the history of Washington, the Mason, is a saered heritage of
the Republic, they strongly felt, as all Freemasons truly feel, that
Washington's connection with Masonry and the inspiration he gave to the
Fraternity are especially dear to the brethren. Remembering the invaluable
services rendered by Washington to his country, and that to him and those
Masons who were closely associated with him was due the fact that the
fundamentals of Freemasonry were made a part of the basic law of our land,
they resolved to erect at Alexandria a memorial which should reflect the
gratitude of the Masons of the United States to him in whose memory it should
stand in the coming years.
To carry out this high
purpose, the George Washington Masonic National Memorial Association was
formed. That distinguished Mason, Brother Thomas J. Shryock, of Maryland, was
elected President and plans were formulated under which the work was to
In this connection it
is proper to say that ever since its inception one of the most inspiring minds
in this great movement has been that of Brother Charles H. Callahan, of
Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22. He is the author of that splendid volume
entitled "Washington, the Man and the Mason." The data assembled by Brother
Callahan and his fascinating was of presenting the facts relating to
Washington, the Mason, have been and are of great assistance toward the
consummation of our movement.
The brethren of
Alexandria generously donated for the Memorial a little over two acres of land
Hill on the commanding Arlington Ridge, and the Association has since acquired
about twenty-nine acres, so that now the site contains approximately
thirty-two acres. The National Cemetery at Arling ton is also located on the
beautiful Arlington Ridge.
Each year since that
first meeting the Association has assembled on the 22nd of February, and each
year has seen marked progress in the movement.
In 1917 the Association
resolved to broaden its organization and to commit the Masons of the United
States to "the erection of a Temple costing not less than $500,000 with an
endowment fund of $250,000.” As the importance of our great movement has
developed, however, it has been resolved to make our objective as many dollars
as there are Masons in the United States, approximately 2,500,000, and to
arrange for every Grand Jurisdiction to fill its quota, which is as many
dollars as there are brethren in the respecting jurisdictions.
At our convention in
February we had paid in, in cash, $708,223.31, of which $577,100 was invested
in United States Govermnent securities; the balance to be thus invested and
cash retained sufficient to pay for the work for which contracts are now about
to be let.
A number of the Grand
Jurisdictions have already gone over the top. Massachusetts, with 92,000
Masons, has paid in, in cash, over $110,000, and the Grand Lodge has in
addition thereto agreed to pay $5,000 when called upon. New Hampshire is one
hundred per cent.; so is Connecticut. Rhode Island is over the top. So is the
District of Columbia. Maryland and Delaware are over one hundred per cent.
Pennsylvania has paid in $93,500. The States of Washington, Arizona and Utah
are over the top. Illinois has paid in to our Treasurer $49,000, and there is
a very substantial sum now in the hands of its Grand Treasurer. New Jersey has
paid in nearly $50,000. Some of the Grand Jurisdictions are just getting at
work, among them New York under the chairmanship of Past Grand Master Judge
William S. Farmer. Iowa, Minnesota, Michigan, the Dakotas, Missouri, Texas,
and many others of the Western and Southern States are enthusiastic in the
movement; and there is no possible doubt that the objective will be reached
and that the money will be available as required.
One year ago the Board
of Directors was authorized to employ an architect and to submit to our
Twelfth Annual Convention plans and a model of the proposed Memorial Temple.
Helmle and Corbett, of New York, were engaged as Architects, and S. Eugene
Osgood, 33d, of Grand Rapids, Michigan, was employed as Consulting Architect.
It is also proposed to engage Olmsted Brothers, of Brookline, Mass., as
The plans and model
prepared by the architects were approved by the Executive Committee and the
Board of Directors and submitted to the Association on the 22nd of February
On that occasion the
firm of architects was represented by Harvey Wiley Corbett. He is a graduate
engineer of the University of California, and a graduate architect, Ecole des
Beaux Arts, Paris. He received a government diploma and is seven times a
Medalist. The Nero York Chapter, American Institute of Architects, presented
him with a Medal of Honor. He built the Springfield Municipal Group at
Springfield, Mass.; the Bush Terminal Office Building, New York; the Bush
Buildings, of London, England; and other notable structures.
S. Eugene Osgood,
representing the firm of Osgood and Osgood, of Grand Rapids, Michigan, is a
33d Mason, Past Master of his Blue Lodge, and Past Commander-in-Chief of his
Consistory. During the last fifteen years he has designed many notable Masonic
Temples. He received his architectural training at Cornell University, and is
the junior member of a firm that has been in continuous architectural practice
for over forty-five years.
In presenting the model
and plans to our Association for approval, Brother Corbett gave us in a most
interesting manner a vision of the Memorial. In opening his remarks he said:
"The George Washington
Masonic National Memorial is primarily a memorial to George Washington, the
Man and the Mason. Its form is inspired by the great towers built in the
ancient days of Greece and Rome to mark the entrances to their harbors and
from whose summits permanent burning flares that could be seen for miles at
sea, guided the mariner on his way. The great tower of the Memorial represents
to the world at large the guiding spirit of Washington in statesmanship, and
his revered precepts which for all time will set an example by which the Ship
of State may direct its course.”
Brother Corbett, in
continuing his description, did not undertake to go into the details of the
plans, but gave us an excellent conception of what the work is to include.
The Temple will be in
plain view of Washington, D. C., and will be passed by all who travel between
the City of Washington and George Washington's old home at Mt. Vernon. The
edifice will be surrounded by artistic landscaping, and will be reached by
broad walks and stone steps ascending through seven terraces. From the topmost
colonnaded tower of the Memorial, visitors will view for many miles around the
region in which the immortal Washington passed a great part of his life.
The architecture is
classic. The main masses of the building comprise a base in which will be
located the great George Washington Memorial Hall and various Masonic rooms,
and above this base will rise a form of tower.
The dimension of the
edifice over all will be one hundred and sixty feet in width, by two hundred
and thirty feet in depth, exclusive of its steps, terraces, and approaches.
Its height to the summit of the covered observation platform crowning the
tower will be two hundred feet.
One of the most stately
features will be a great atrium, seventy feet wide, by one hundred feet deep,
which will form the Memorial Hall, and in which it is now proposed to set a
statue of George Washington. This great hall will be sixty-four feet in
height, rising by a clerestory above the surrounding portion of the building.
It will be flanked by great Ionic columns, forty feet high, and surrounded by
a number of rooms devoted to Masonic interests, above the roof of which
clerestory lights admit the light of day.
The entrance of the
building will be expressed in a six-columned portico of pure Greek Doric
design, forming an interesting contrast to the plain unbroken side walls of
the Masonic rooms. The Memorial Hall will be reached through the portico by
Rising above the great
Memorial Hall, and forming the second story of the tower, will be a museum
room to house the many memorabilia of George Washington and his time, as well
as interesting relics connected with Washington's service as Master of
Alexandria, Washington Lodge. This museum will be fifty by seventy-five feet,
with lofty ceiling and fine light. It will be reached both by stairs and
There will be a third
level above the museum. Above it will be a covered observation platform. The
three levels will be screened by stately colonnades.
These four elements
will form the great tower, inspired by the classic towers which, as Mr.
Corbett has stated, guided the mariners of old.
The broad steps and
grassy terraces, adorned with shrubs, will add to the imposing and beautiful
effect of the Temple.
The plans and model
were unanimously approved by the Association, after which the President
offered the following recommendation:
“That working drawings,
specifications, etc., be completed as soon as possible, so that total
estimates of cost can be procured; that contracts for the excavation and
foundation units be awarded, with the end in view of laying the cornerstone
some time in early fall; that further contracts be awarded from that point on
up to and including the completion of the work, but with the distinct
understanding that no contract, under any circumstances, shall be let until
the money is actually in hand to meet it."
This recommendation was
adopted by the Association.
convention's adjournment the Board of Directors authorized the working plans
to be proceeded with, and the work of excavating and the building of the
foundation walls will be begun at a very early day.
It is hoped that the
cornerstone may be laid on the 4th of November next, which will be the 170th
anniversary of the entry of Brother Washington into Masonry. That should be
made a grand, gala day for Masons from all over the United States. It should
be made such an affair as will impress the brethren with the deep meaning of
the important work we have on hand, and broad enough in scope to include not
only the Grand Lodges of the forty-nine Jurisdictions, but all the Bodies
The lasting value of
this Memorial building can not be measured by money. It will do much more
thanhouse and preserve the priceless relics of Washington's lodge. It will be
a center and rallying-point for Masons not only in our own country, but for
members of the Fraternity in every land, and it will cement and strengthen
Freemasonry. This great Memorial will serve to teach the power that inheres in
a closer co-ordination of fraternal energy and will promote the unity of
purpose which is so much to be desired.
MISSION OF MASONRY
BRO. OWEN SCOTT, GRAND SECRETARY, ILLINOIS
midst of our researches into the technical problems of Masonic history and
cognate matters it is wise now and then to go aside into a place of vision in
order to see Freemasonry as a whole, and in the spirit, lest we forget the
great aims and ideals in the service of which we are all laboring. What could
be better for such a purpose than the following? Its author is among the
workers in the forefront of one of our most powerful Grand Jurisdictions. He
needs no introduction.
the structure which we raise,
is with materials filled;
todays and yesterdays
the blocks with which we build.
do our work as well,
the unseen and the seen.
the house where God may dwell
Beautiful, entire, and clean."
INSTITUTION of Freemasonry is the legacy of the ages gone. What began with the
organization of a band of builders, like the stone cut out of the mountain,
has grown until it fills the whole earth. Where civilized man abides and
opens the great light of truth and beauty, there stands Masonry like the
monarch of the woods, immortal and invincible. Unlike the great tree, its foes
come not from without, but from within.
destruction of the creature of our speculative art impends only when defective
materials have entered into its composition. Our building is made of living
stones and is eternal in the heavens.
Freemasonry men are the artisans and the end is the building of manly
character. It has ever been the aim to build wisely and well. We seek the
nearest perfect materials. We go into the quarries of everyday life and
select the living stones offered, rough ashlars though they be. If moved by
proper motives or, if standing upon firm foundations, the unfit are by th
ballot cast out into the rubbish. Do you say that this is ideal and that
through over anxiety to be big and rich improper materials are put into our
edifice? True, but that does not destroy the value of the ideal. The lives of
institutions, no less than those of men, are shaped and colored by their
visions. The key to noble doing is to see clearly and then to act in
obedience to this highest vision.
sculptor at work on a block of stone, appear to the passer-by to be doing a
purely mechanical act. The observer sees but the chisel, the mallet, and the
marble. In the sculptor's brain is a presence we can not see. It is the
ideal form to be wrought out by his hand. His vision makes him an artist;
without it, he becomes merely a stone cutter.
are fashioned by our ideals. Only as thes are true and beautiful can the life
become noble an truly great.
Freemasonry is an institution of high ideals an lofty standards for human
living. That all do not reach these, does not diminish the power for good.
The names of the mercenary and the ignoble blur our rolls of membership.
Unworthy men prostitute the symbols of the craft to base and unworthy ends.
Would we contribute most to build up our great fraternity? Then we should
regard fitness above fame and worth above wealth. If Masonry has a mission, an
aim, it must not content itself with merely a beautiful ritual, faultlessly
rendered. If the exalted teachings of the Craft are to end with dramatic and
spectacular exhibitions in lodge, there is little room or use for our
fraternity in the affairs of men.
first aim, therefore, is to uplift the individual life. Each man who bows at
our altar and assumes the solemn obligations placed upon him should rise with
clearer purpose and loftier aim. If he can but realize that as a Master Mason
he has had given him the plans and specifications drawn by the Supreme
Architect of the Universe for the erection of the sublime structure of his own
character, he will have caught the real spirit and aim of Masonry.
contrary, if merely moved by desire to improve his business, to wear a Masonic
charm or to be able to start in a mad chase for the "higher degrees," the
newly made Mason has been spoiled in the making. To be a real Mason is to be
a better man in every relation of life. A more loyal, loving, and considerate
husband; a more devoted and indulgent father; a better citizen; a truer friend
- are a few of the fruits to be gathered from the Masonic orchard. Many are
so intent upon selfish achievements that these are little esteemed.
first and greatest aim of Masonry is toward a loftier individual manhood, a
purer womanhood, and a more tender and promising childhood. That Masons are
builders can be seen by the name. While the operative craftsman uses
perishable brick or stone and cements it into one common mass, the speculative
workman uses living stones, which when propery united with the cement of
brotherly love and affection, constitutes an edifice eternal in the heavens.
teaching men the doctrines of temperance, fortitude, prudence and justice,
together with the many other lessens drawn from, and daily applicable to the
activities of life, deep foundations are laid upon which loftiest character
must stand. When brotherly love, relief, and truth really enter into the
fiber of a man's being, there is little room for the selfish and the debased.
His instincts and his aspirations are toward the uplift that comes from a
joyful service to mankind. That I am my brother's keeper is demonstrated in
every avenue of life whether I am ready to concede it or not. He who achieves
fortune, fame, or power over the crushed form of his fellow has made a
Mephisto bargain and will render his grievous service in the Inferno of his
own creation. Service and sacrifice are the crucible in which the base metals
of greed, avarice, and selfishness are left as the dross of life. If thy
brother would have thee go with him one mile, that is thy duty. When to this
is added gladly, a second mile, that is a blessed privilege. Masonry puts
into a man's breast the sweet service of the second mile.
everyday life the man who renders the scantest service to complete his
obligations, will find his burden onerous and distasteful. If in the employ
of another, his tenure will hang by a slender thread. If the force is to be
reduced, he will be first to go. On the other hand, if one is concerned more
in doing excellent work than in merely putting in a specified number of hours
each day, his promotions will follow one after the other unsolicited. The one
who willingly and regularly does more than he is paid for and who seeks to do
those things which his employer prefers not to do himself will be
indispensable and secure in his position. Our eight hours for refreshment and
sleep are that we may have and retain sufficient strength of body and mind to
follow our usual vocations with vigor and success. Both these are the basis
for our worship of God through relief of our worthy, distressed brother.
Masonry's mission, therefore, to the individual is to uplift his character and
establish a nobler manhood.
aggregate of individuals, constituting the social state, Masonry has a message
of vast importance. Civilization has ever had as a companion, our great
fraternity. Whether the one or the other is the cause or effect cannot easily
be determined. The warp cannot say to the woof of a fabric, "I have no need
of thee." Each is so intermingled with the other that one cannot be injured
without weakening the whole. So where the great light of Masonry and the
world - the Bible - has gone, there is civilization and there is also
Freemasonry. Without God's revelation to man in the Book of books, there has
been and there can be little progress toward ethical standards.
Masonry has not been concerned with the dogmas of theology and the factional
feuds of rival sects. The church, organized religious thought and activity,
stands supreme. To this we reverently bow, modestly claiming the privilege of
casting out the devils of human need in the name of the Master of men.
product of Judaism and Christianity, the Holy Scriptures, is the great light
of Masonry. A belief in God and his Book is fundamental. Hence no atheist
can become or remain a Mason and be honest. When he ceases to rely upon God
as the Supreme Architect of the Universe, he owes it to himself and to the
Craft to go out from us because he is not of us.
founded on the eternal truth of the revealed word and leanang from this our
duties to God and man, we, as Masons, are willing that the various schools of
religious thought should settle the disputes of theology to their own liking.
On such a foundation members of all churches, whether Jew or Christian, come
together and work as craftsmen of character without discord or difference.
Harmony is the strength of all institutions and especially of Freemasonry.
times past the mistaken notion existed, that in some way Masonry was an
antagonist of the church. Masons themselves may have been to some extent
responsible for this error. In their enthusiasm for the lodge they were
betrayed into saying some things regarding the relations of the fraternity and
the church of the living God, not justified by the teachings of the Craft. In
these days there is a better understanding, so much so that a large proportion
of the clergy and the laity of most religious denominations deem it an honor
to wear, the white apron, the emblem of innocence and the badge of a Mason.
Masonry's Mission in the state is one of peace and fidelity. Good citizenship
can only be fostered by a society whose members are taught lessons of
obedience to law.
Freemasonry is the first law and order league in the world. From the minutest
details in ritual all the way up through its ethical teachings and wonderful
philosophy of human action it stands immovable for order. In no human
institution is greater emphasis placed upon the ancient customs and usages
than in the acient Craft. Even to such an extent has this gone that some look
upon this conservatism as partaking somewhat of fogyism and fossilism. The
landamrks are our common law. This charter of liberties may sometimes be in
some doubt in its application and re-adjustment to changed conditions of
conceded that it is not in the power of a man or a body of men to make
innovations in the body of Masonry. In this age of organization in all its
scope, many societies, patterned more or less after this ancient instituton
have sprung up. Many of these mixing fraternity and the business of insuring
against sickness and death have led some of those, less thoughtful, upon
lodges and many brethren can see no reason why Masonry should not leave its
impregnable fortress of pure fraternity to enter into competition with
societies which occupy a different place and are organized for distinctly
different, yet useful, purposes. Through all this Masonry has stood like the
rock of Gibraltar against the beatings of the ocean of modern orders. So
thoroughly have the laws and customs evolved through the ages been adhered to
that our Royal Craft stands today greater and better than in any age since its
foundation. Every Mason whether in humble or exadted station in life learns
and practices lessons of equality.
President of the United States sits as a loyal and faithful member of his
lodge. Presidents, judges, senators, congressmen, governors they may be when
in the world, but in the lodge they are Masons and meet upon the level, act by
the plumb, and part upon the square with men of all places and conditions.
Farmers, mechanics, teaehers, ministers, and those in professional or other
vocations of life form a society of friends and brothers among whom no
contention should ever exist, except that noble contention, or rather
emulation of who best can work and best agree. Standing as it does upon such
foundations, the equality of merit and thorough obedience to law, it is easy
to perceive how profoundly Freemasonry contributes to good government.
republic in fact is built upon precisely this basis. All men are equal before
the law of the land and must obey it. Social distinctions may exist by reason
of wealth or station. Society may be divided into clans and classes, but by
the genius of our republican institutions, all men are created equal.
Opportunity opens the doors of success to those able and worthy to enter. The
ignoble and the indolent and the shiftless may rail at their want of luck, but
their failure is from within not from without. Masonry regards no man for his
worldly wealth or honors. Worth of the man is its only concern. Being moved
by these principles it cannot fail to be a powerful factor in the state.
Universal peace is largely in the keeping of such agencies as our great
brotherhood. All over the world men come together as friends and brothers.
Discord is frowned upon peace is encouraged. The vast army marching under
Freemasonry's banner of "peace on earth good will toward men" must move
mightily in the direction of universal amity and concord.
Peaceable settlement of international difficulties is rapidly coming. The
great Hague tribunal may have falled to avert the war between Russia and
Japan, but its mighty voice has penetrated to the ends of the earth commanding
universal peace. Silent but potent means are gradually wearing the rocks of
bloodshed and strife away. In this great movement toward millennial peace,
Masonry is a willing worker. She says to those battling for conquest or for
glory or for power:
were a voice, a convincing voice,
borne on the restless wind,
wherever I saw warring nations torn,
creep to the hearts full of spite and scorn,
love's own chain to bind," and tell them to be free.
fraternity's mission in the state is distinctly for good citizenship and for
voice of Masonry not only appeals to the individual life in the upbuilding of
character; to the man's religious thought in the broadest toleration and yet
with greatest emphasis; to the state in sustaining law and order; but it
recognizes as one of its special fields of missionary endeavor the relief of
want and woe and suffering. It looks upon the worthy distressed brother, his
widow and orphan as its chief concern. Our fellow man is our brother. Though
we may be of another race or creed we are yet taught that our charity is
be the Jew, robbed, wounded, half dead by the Jericho roadside, yet the
Samaritan, despised and shunned, stoops to bind up the wounds and ministers to
the wants of his enemy in distress. This is the spirit ot Freemasonry. With
Abou Ben Adhem we teach that those who would stand highest in love to God must
prove their claims by practical love to man. In almost every Grand
Jurisdiction in our great country in some practical, effective form provision
is made for aged and indigent Masons, their wives, their widows, and helpless
orphans. The particular methods adopted to meet the exigencies in various
states differ according as one theory or another may have gained sway. In all
cases, however, there is absolute unity in the willingness to provide for the
aged brother and his dependents when the storm and stress of life have come.
In our state with its vast fraternal army crossing the 200,000 mark, Masonry
is marching with no faltering step toward its highest achievement. In the
ranks there may be honest difference of opinion concerning methods, but when
our commander speaks we all gladly obey. Our Grand Lodge, composed as it is,
of the picked fruit of Illinois' superb manhood, is invincible and infallible.
aggregate wisdom of the Craft as shown in the actions of this Grand Body can
safely be depended upon to settle aright all questions arising from our great
charities. There is little more than the mere mercenary in conferring favors
and privileges upon persons from whom we expect an equivalent in return. When
a man has nothing to give in exchange for the favors of his brethren it is a
genuine blessing to those who are willing to make for him a home and a
competency of comfort.
is the philosophy of our home for the aged and indigent.
recipients of the willing service of their brethren have the happy reflection
of a well spent life. Their eyes are dim, their natural strength abated and
their ears dulled by age and infirmity. They are waiting until the hour glass
shows the sands of life fully run. The silver cord may be almost loosed, the
golden bowl be nearly broken, the pitcher be frail at the fountain or the
wheel unsteady at the cistern, and yet they feel the gentle but mighty arms of
a great fraternity upon which they can lean with absolute security. The
everlasting embrace of human brotherhood gives them solace in their
can be no more noble or unselfish service that any Mason can render than to
one who can neither help himself nor make a return for what others do for
him. Equally is this true of the aggregate of our great Craft in supplying
the needs and comforts of life to those who are now cared for as a special
privilege. The law of growth is in doing. Unselfish service will increase
not only the ability to serve but with this growth will come added power.
Timid hearts may have shrunk from the magnitude of the task of providing for
our worthy distressed brother wherever he may be found. But the pitiful sum
from each affiliated Mason so far entirely adequate for all needs, would
willingly be increased many fold if necessity demanded.
Afffliated bodies based upon and drawing their inspiration from Ancient Craft
Masonry would esteem it an honor as well as a privilege to Participate in
financing our great institutions now sheltering young and old from the storms
the sentimental and the artistic sit to contemplate and admire the glories of
the setting sun. Every activity, every thrill of life springs toward the
dawn. Man shakes off the drowsiness of a sleep of recuperation as the
morning's new light calls him to the achievements of the coming day. Every
bird joins in the glad jubilee of the morning. The world of life turns toward
the rising sun for a new baptism for new duties. So, while we may view with
satisfaction the aged as they near the sundown of their existence with the
solid comforts their able and willing brethren supply them, we turn with a new
thrill of joy and expectation toward those who in the morning of life are
looking to us for succor and assistance.
the choicest fruits gathered from our great old tree of fraternity is,
therefore, the care and support of the children of youth and of three steps
upon the master's carpet are the our system of fraternal charities. In
manhood with all its power and its glory we look toward toward youth and
toward second childhood and greet them with open hearts and purses to fit the
one to fill our places and to bring ease and comfort to those who have fought
and lost the battle of life. In the world at large egoism is well nigh
universal. In Masonry the altruistic spirit softens and beautifies the
otherwise harsh and disagreeable outlines of character. It is the Hiram Abiff
which beautifies and adorns what the wisdom of a Solomon and the strength of
the Tyiian have produced. If we would make Freemasonry eternal we must make
sure that we do not allow eternal conflict between the mercenary and the
unselfish to result in the destruction of the noble sentiment that "the
greatest of these is charity." Our ritual is a classic. Its structure is
mechanically perfect. To master it and present it effectively is a great
accomplishment. Our growth and strength have been in proportion to its unity
and beauty. Yet a ritual without the soul of Masonry is dead. It is a
skeleton of dry bones hung together by wires as may be seen in the doctor's
office or the class room of the medical college. Our care for the old and
young in our homes is not our whole duty. In every lodge in city, town, or
hamlet, are abundant needs for the kindly and friendly offices of the
individual Mason. Organized charity, so-called, does not supersede the
generous duty of the Craftsman. If he has really imbibed the true spirit of
our wonderful brotherhood he will not allow the sun to go down without the
relief of every worthy distressed brother within the length of his cable-tow.
Neither will the measurement be by any circumscribed standards. Wherever there
is a human sigh, a pain of anguish, a sorrow-stricken heart or a fevered brow
this cable tow will be found sufficient to reach it. The mission of Masonry
is to every corner of the world, in which may crouch distress or suffering or
want. It goes to uplift, to gladden, and to beautify. To uprear noble, manly
character whether in society, in religion, in the state, or in the infinite
relations of individual life is Masonry's divinest mission.
world wants men, large hearted, manly men.
who will join its chorus and prolong
psalm of labor and its song of love.
age wants heroes: Heroes who shall dare
struggle in the serried ranks of truth,
clutch the monster Error by the throat,
bear opinion to a loftier scat,
blot the era of oppression out
lead a universal freedom in."
is without some quality, by the due application of which he might deserve well
of the world; and whoever he be that has but little in his power should be in
haste to do that little, lest he be confounded with him that can do nothing. -
are more needed than mathematics; right living will do more for us than right
spelling; graciousness is more esential than grammer; equity is a nobler
tribute than eloquence.
MEMORIALS TO GREAT MEN WHO WERE MASONS - MAJOR GENERAL ARTHUR ST. CLAIR
BRO. GEORGE W. BAIRD, P.G.M., DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
GENERAL ST. CLAIR was
born in Scotland, in 1734, of noble family. After graduating at the University
of Edinburgh he served an apprenticeship with Dr. William Hunter of London.
His father had died when he was as yet a boy: after the loss of his mother in
1757 he purchased the remaining time of his indentures and bought a commission
in the Royal American regiment of foot. He was in the fight at Louisburg, N.S.,
under Generals Amherst, Wolf, and other English general officers. He
participated in the capture of Quebec in 1759, and it was he who seized the
colors which had fallen from the hands of a dying soldier on the Plains of
Abraham and bore them to victory.
The writer has always
believed that the defeat of the French at that time had more to do with the
establishing of freedom, the inherent rights of man, and equality on this
continent than our own Revolution!
St. Clair married Miss
Bayard, a French Huguenot of Boston, whose fortune, added to his own, made him
quite independent. He resigned from the British Army in 1762 to reside in
Boston. Two years later he moved to Bedford, Pennsylvania, where partly by
purchase and partly by grant, he had secured a tract of land. Here he
established his residence and erected a grist mill. He was elected surveyor of
the Cumberland District and justice of a court, recorder of deeds, and clerk
of the Orphans Court.
All this he abandoned
at the approach of the Revolutionary War. In 1775 he was commissoned a Colonel
by Hancock, president of the Congress at that time. In a letter to
Witherspoon, St. Clair said, "I hold that no man has a right to withhold his
services when his country needs them. Be the sacrifices ever so great, it must
be yielded upon the altar of patriotism."
He raised the famous
Second Pennsylvania regiment, filling his ten companies in a few weeks. His
first service was at Quebec, where he arrived in time to cover the retreating
American armies. He commanded at the disastrous fight of Three Rivers, after
the death of General Thompson. He was in the fight of Ticonderoga, and was
promoted to the rank of Brigadier. After being with Washington in New Jersey
at the battles of Trenton and Princeton, he was made Major General. It was at
this time that he became so endeared to Washington. He met some reverses later
which, in appearance, might have caused us to reflect on his character as a
military leader: but fortunately Jared Sparks has preserved for us the real
facts and thus saved his admirable record. Spark says of him, "Time proved
that he had acted the part of the skilful and judicious officer."
His subsequent career
was all brilliant. He was appointed to the command of West Point when General
Arnold had flunked; and he was a member of the court that convicted Major
Andre. His last battle was at Yorktown. After the war he was elected to
Congress, of which he served as president. Later, he was made governor of the
brilliant and honorable career he died poor. In the eighty-fourth year of his
life he undertook a journey to Youngstown, and was found dead on the road the
next morning. Whether he was buried by charity or not his biographers do not
say, but they do say this, which will be of keen interest to my reader:
"In the cemetery at
Greensburg, Pennsylvania, there is a neat little sandstone monument erected by
a Masonic lodge with this inscription:
earthly remains of Major General Arthur St. Clair are deposited beneath this
humble monument, which is erected to supply the place of a nobler one, due
from his country."
That a nobler monument
was due there is no question, but the lodge that erected the sandstone
memorial probably had in mind the kind of countrymen who then lived. But times
have changed. When the writer first heard of that memorial he took steps to
induce the Sons of the American Revolution to consider the erection of that
"nobler one due from his country," but while making the effort found that
Brother John S. Sell, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania had, on
the 15th day of August 1913, unveiled a "nobler monument" in granite, an exact
duplicate of the old sandstone memorial, except for the explanatory
inscription on the east panel: even the quaint style of lettering is closely
imitated. On the east Danel this is added:
"Beneath this monument also lies Phoebe Bayard, wife of General St. Clair. She
died September 18th, 1818."
A new and deeper
foundation was placed under this granite monument than had existed under the
General St. Clair was a
member of N. C. Harmony Lodge. No. 2. in Ohio.
HOLY SAINTS JOHN
BRO. BENJAMIN WELLINGTON BRYANT, CALIFORNIA
COME to the era of Grand Lodges, and the resultant crystallization of ritual.
Here it will be interesting to follow the growth of the Johannine idea through
the various rituals and ritualistic revisions of the eighteenth century. The
collection of ritualistic and Monitorial allusions which I have been able to
gather is probably far from complete, but I, believe that they are fairly
representative and hence sufficient for the purpose of the present paper.
Possibly some brother having access to other Johannine formulae may be able to
add further items of interest. From a bare reference in the earliest
catechisms, we find it developing into the historical extravagances of the
tradition in its full flower. Thence, with the broadening of Masonic thought
bringing better understanding of the true import of the Regulation of 1723, we
see it finally declining to the less pretentious form in use at the present
time. Here we have an excellent opportunity to follow the sectarian tendency
which held the Fraternity in so firm a grasp during the eighteenth, and well
into the nineteenth century. This tendency, it appears, was at last checked
largely through the labours of Bro. Pike and Bro. Mackey, the latter drawing
much of his inspiration from the former. (We are prone to think of Albert Pike
as distinctively the exponent of the high degrees, but we should not forget
the debt of gratitude we owe to him and to those brethren whom he gathered
about him for their influence in extending the horizon of thought in Blue
Lodge Masonry, for what Bro. Roscoe Pound denominates "Masonic Protestantism."
earliest lectures in use under the "revived" Grand Lodge after 1717 we find
the formula: "From whence came you? A. From the holy Lodge of St. John. Q.
What recommendation do you bring from thence? A. A recommendation from the
brothers and fellows of that right worshipful and holy lodge of St. John from
whence I came, who greet you thrice heartily." (34) In 1721 we find a hint of
the developing sectarian tendency in the lecture, which nevertheless still
retains the pleasant ring of goodfellowship expressed in the earlier form:
"God's good greeting be to this happy meeting. And all right worshipful
brothers and fellows of the right worshipful and holy Lodge of St. John. Q.
Why do you denominate it the holy Lodge of St. John? A. Because he was the
forerunner of our Saviour, and laid the first parallel line to the Gospel."
(35) The Chetwoode Crowley Ms. quotes allusion from the Catechism of 1723:
"Here am I, the youngest and last entered apprentice, as I am sworn by God and
St. John, by the Square and Compass and common judge." (36) (Possibly "common
judge" is a corruption of "common guage"). "The Grand Mystery" published in
1725 gives the following in the Catechism: "Q. What Lodge are you of? A. The
Lodge of St. John," and later in the same: "How many angles in St. John's
Lodge? A. Four, bordering on Squares." (37) In the ritual as improved by
Desaguliers and Anderson, both of whom were clergymen, we find a further
sectarian development of the reference, for it is explained that the lodges
were called St. John's Lodges because: "he was the baptizer and forerunner of
our Saviour; and announced him as the Lamb of God which taketh away the sins
of the world." This corresponds with the French ritual of 1730: "D. Comments
appele cette Loge? R. La Loge de S. Jean," and the passage was thus explained:
"Il fait toujours repondre ainsi que c'est le nom de toutes les Loges." (38)
Dr. Oliver also quotes from the second edition of Anderson's Constitutions of
1738 as follows: "In France these festivals are celebrated on the same days
but they are call 'Fetes Solstitiales; hommage au G. A. D. l'U." (39), which
would seem to indicate that the French brethren still retained a solstitial
form of the tradition at a time when the Craft in Britain were abandoning it
in favour of a more theological version. In the year 1732 Martin Clare
prepared a revision of the ritual, but I have not been able to find any
quotations from it. Oliver credits him with a continuance of the Johannine
tradition, but Dr. Mackey sees in this revision the beginnings of an attempt
to counteract the sectarianizing or Christianizing tendency which had hitherto
been on the ascendant. (40) Evidently some of the brethren were beginning to
awaken to the real spirit of the Regulation of 1723, but there was yet a long
road ahead, as we shall see.
Clare lectures appear to have prevailed with some revision until the adoption
of those of Dunckerley in 1770. Dunckerley's lectures give the earliest
example where an allusion is incorporated in the O.B. which I have been able
to locate. It is as follow s: "In the presence of God and this right
worshipful and holy lodge dedicated to God and Holy St. John," and the
asseveration corresponded to it, "so help me God and Holy St. John." (41) To
Dunckerley is also ascribed the first introduction of the "lines parallel."
(42) His formula runs thus: "This code is embordered by two perpendicular
parallel lines, representing St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist
who were perfect parallels in Christianity as well as in Masonry." (43)
what is known as the "Old York Lecture," used about the same time, we find a
most elaborate catechism of a type which must have delighted the heart of Dr.
Our Lodges bong finished, furnished and decorated with ornaments, furniture
and jewels, to whom they were consecrated?"
Thank you, brother, and can you tell me to whom they were first dedicated?"
Noah, who was saved in the Ark."
And by what name were the Masons then known?"
They were called Noachidee, Sages, or Wise Men."
whom were the lodges dedicated during the Mosaic dispensation?"
Moses, the chosen of God, and Solomon, the son of David."
And under what name were the Masons known during that period?"
Under the name of Dionysiacs, Geometricians, or Masters in Israel."
But as Solomon was a Jew, and died long before the promulgation of
Christianity, to whom were they dedicated under the Christian dispensation?"
From Solomon the patronage of Masonry passed to St. John the Baptist."
And under what name were they known after the promulgation of Christianity?"
Under the name of Essenes, Architects, or Freemasons."
Why were the lodges dedicated to St. John the Baptist?"
Because he was the forerunner of our Saviour, and by preaching repentance and
humiliation, drew the first parallel of the Gospel."
Had St. John the Baptist any equal?"
had; St. John the Evangelist."
Why was he said to be the equal of the Baptist?"
Because he finished by his learning what the other began by his zeal, and thus
drew a second line parallel to the former; ever since which time Freemason's
lodges in all Christian countries, have been dedicated to the one, or the
other, or both of these worthy and worshipful men." (44)
understand the next version of the tradition we must return to the year 1740,
when Chevalier Ramsey, as Orator of the Grand Lodge of France, promulgated the
Templar theory in an oration delivered before that body. Mackay and Gould both
quote from that oration, the part referring to the subject under consideration
being as follows: "During the time of the holy wars in Palestine, several
principal lords and citizens associated themselves together, and entered into
a vow to re-establish the temples of the Christians in the Holy Land; and
engaged themselves by an oath to employ their talents and their fortune in
restoring architecture to its primitive institution.(?) They adopted several
ancient signs and symbolic words drawn from religion by which they might
distinguish themselves from the infidels and recognize each other in the midst
of the Saracens. They communicated these signs and words only to those who
had solemnly sworn, often at the foot of the altar, never to reveal them.
This was not an oath of execration but a bond uniting men of all nations into
the same confraternity. Some time after our order was united with the Knights
of St. John of Jerusalem. Hence our lodges are, in all Christian countries,
called Lodges of St. John." (45)
oration must have created a profound sensation among the Craft in England as
well as in France, and we find in this extract from a lecture in use in the
north of England late in the century, a reply to it: "Our lodges are untruly
said to be dedicated to St. John because the Masons who engaged to conquer the
Holy Land chose that saint for their patron. We should be sorry to
appropriate the Balsarian sect of Christians to St. John as an explanation of
this principle. St. John obtains our dedication as being the proclaimer of
that salvation which was at hand by the coming of Christ; and we as a set of
religious men, assembling in the true faith, commemorate the proclamations of
the Baptist. In the name of St. John the Evangelist, we acknowledge the
testimonies which he gives, and the divine Logos which he makes manifest." And
again in the same lecture: "Our beauty is such as adorns all our actions; is
hewn out of the rock, which is Christ; raised upright by the plumb-line of the
Gospel; and squared and levelled by the horizontal of God's will in the holy
Lodge of St. John; and as such becomes the temple whose maker and builder is
Oliver also cites another version of similar import which he ascribes, rather
indefinitely, "to our transatlantic brethren," and which is certainly an
ingenious attempt to propitiate all parties and sects:
dedications are made to these Saints, not as Christians, but as eminent
Masons; and if we are gratuitous in bestowing such a character upon them, this
does not affect the merit of the argument, because the dedication is made
under the supposition that such was their character. They are honoured by us,
not as Saints, but as good and pious men - not as teachers of religion, but as
bright examples of all those virtues which Masons are taught to reverence and
practice. And if it incidentally happens that they were also Christians, such
a circumstance should, with a tolerant Jew, be objection to the honours paid
to them; but with th sincere Christian a better reason." (47)
Ramsey idea was adopted by the notorious imposter Finch, who incorporated a
passage upon the oration of 1740 into one of his rituals: "What is the chief
reason why our lodges are dedicated to St. John? A. Because in the time of the
Crusades, the Masons having united themselves with the Knights of St. John of
Jerusalem to fight against the infidels, they adopted that Saint as their
tutelary protector and being victorious in their conflicts with the Saracens,
they unanimously agreed that all Masonic lodges should in future be dedicated
to him." (48)
is another version which Mackey quotes from an old lecture adopted into the
Prestonian system, which, while it bears some resemblance to the old York
lecture, is less ambitious in its historical claims. It is said that a group
of early Christians did actually send a deputation to the Evangelist, who was
then at Ephesus, requesting him to give them a code of rules for their
observance, "that the identity of their faith might be preserved as an
exclusive society" (49) and the story of that event may have inspired some
eighteenth century ritualist to compose this beautiful bit of Masonic fiction:
the building of the first temple at Jerusalem to the Babylonish captivity,
Freemason's lodges were dedicated to King Solomon; from thence to the coming
of the Messiah they were dedicated to Zerubbabel the builder of the second
temple; and from that time to the final destruction of the Temple by Titus, in
the reign of Vespasian, they were dedicated to St. John the Baptist; but owing
to the many massacres and disorders which attended that memorable event
Freemasonry sunk very much into decay; many lodges were entirely broken up,
and but few could meet in sufficient numbers to constitute their legality; and
at a general meeting of the Craft, held in the city of Benjamin, it was
observed that the principal reason for the decline of Masonry was the want of
a Grand Master to patronize it. They therefore deputed seven of their most
eminent members to wait upon St. John the Evangelist, who was at that time
Bishop of Ephesus, requesting him to take the office of Grand Master. He
returned for answer, that though well stricken in years (being upwards of
ninety), yet having been initiated into Masonry in the early part of his life,
he would take upon himself that office. He therefore completed by his
learning what the other St. John effected by his zeal, and thus drew what
Freemasons term a 'line parallel'; ever since which time, Freemasons lodges in
all Christian countries have been dedicated both to St. John the Baptist and
St. John the Evangelist." (50)
Preston lectures were the standard in England until the reconciliation between
the "Ancient" and "Modern" factions in 1813, when the Hemming lectures were
adopted as a compromise ritual. In the Hemming system the Johannine
dedication was eliminated, the parallel lines were said to represent Moses and
Solomon, and the lodges dedicated "to God and his service." (51) Thus our
English brethren silenced, so far as these two Saints were concerned, all
possibility of a charge of sectarianism. The change was not made without
protest however; many brethren withdrew from the Fraternity rather than accept
the new lectures, and as previously noted, even as late as 1848, Dr. Oliver
was inspired to write and publish his "Mirror for the Johannite Masons," which
would indicate that the change was still rankling in the hearts of numbers of
the English brethren.
concludes our review so far as European Masonry is concerned. In this country
Thomas Smith Webb had already published his Monitor, which was based on the
Prestonian system, prior to the Reconciliation, and by the time that event
took place his system had evidently gained sufficient foothold largely to
counteract whatever influence the Hemming system might otherwise have exerted,
and, supported by the, anti-British feeling engendered by the then recent
Revolution and by the troubles which the young Republic was still having with
the motifer country, was sufficiently strong to prevent the young American
Grand Lodges from abandoning the Johannine in favour of the Solomonic
formula. The first edition of Webb's Monitor appeared in 1797, coincident
with the movement to sever the Royal Arch from the Blue Lodge system, in which
he was a leading spirit. In 1813, while the Reconciliation was being
consummated in England, he was serving as Grand Master of Rhode Island, thus,
perhaps unwittingly, adding the weight of that dignity to the side of the
balance against any change that might have taken place.
edition of the Webb Monitor to which I have access is the fifth, published in
1866, but does not appear to have been revised to any extent. In it the
formula is as follows:
recurrence to the chapter upon the dedication of lodges it will be perceived,
that although our ancient brethren dedicated their lodges to King Solomon, yet
Masons professing Christianity dedicate theirs to St. John the Baptist and St.
John the Evangelist, who were eminent patrons of Masonry." (52)
also uses the phrase: "who were perfect parallels in Christianity as well as
also a copy of the Macoy Monitor of the middle nineteenth century which gives
a version apparently based upon the Ramsey theory as enunciated by Finch:
"Lodges in ancient times were dedicated to King Solomon ... and continued to
be so dedicated until after the Crusades. Among the various orders of knights
engaged in those chivalric wars, none were more conspicuous than the
magnanimous order of the Knights of St. John. Many brethren of our ancient
Craft also went forth to aid in redeeming the sepulchre of the Saviour from
the hands of the infidel; between these and the Knights of St. John there
existed a reciprocal feeling of brotherly love. On the plains of Jerusalem
they entered into a solemn compact of friendship, and it was mutually agreed
between them that henceforth all lodges whose members acknowledge the divinity
of Christ, should be dedicated to St. John the Baptist and St. John the
Evangelist, who were two eminent patrons of Freemasonry." (53)
Finally, and to us most interesting of all, is the "Manual of the Lodge," by
Dr. Mackey, published in 1862, wherein we find the earliest publication of the
version which seems to be most generally in use among American Grand Lodges at
the present time:
ancient brethren dedicated their lodges to King Solomon because he was our
first Most Excellent Grand Master; but modern Masons dedicate theirs to St.
John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist who were two eminent patrons of
this Bro. Mackey adds a note in which, as in his Encyclopedia, he lays
particular stress upon the solstitial character of the Johannine festivals and
dedication. It was as follows:
two parallel lines, which in the modern lectures represent St. John the
Baptist and St. John the Evangelist, really allude to particular periods in
the sun's annual course. At two particular points in this course, the sun is
found on the zodiacal signs, Cancer and Capricorn, which are distinguished as
the summer and winter solstices. When the sun is at these points he has
reached his greatest northern and southern limit. These points, if we suppose
the circle to represent the sun's annual course, will be indicated by the
points where the parallel lines touch the circle. But the days when the sun
reaches these points are the 21st of June and the 22nd of December, and this
will account for their subsequent application to the two Sts. John, whose
anniversaries the Church has placed near these days." (55)
we find that, while the Johannine tradition cannot be accepted as based on
veritable historical fact in the sense of regarding the Baptist and the
Evangelist as having been personally connected with the Fraternity, yet its
recognition by the Craft, in one or another of its varied forms, dates from
most remote antiquity. In modern speculative Masonry there are no missing
portions in the line of descent from the "revival" of 1717 until the present
time. In the words of Dr. Oliver:
the original lectures compiled by Sayer, Payne, and Desaguliers, and as
improved by Anderson, Desaguliers and Cowper; in the revisions of Dunckerley
and Martin Clare, twice repeated, and in the extended rituals of Hutchinson,
Preston and others, the St. Johns occupy their place as patrons of Masonry. In
no one ritual, whether ancient or modern, in use during the 18th century, have
they been omitted." (56)
must remember that the centuries prior to the birth of speculative Masonry
knew little or nothing of the almanac and the calendar as popular
conveniences, and hence the annual festivals of pagan times and the Saint's
days which took their places under Christian influence were indispensable aids
in marking the years and the seasons. In Britain, even long after 1534 when
the yoke of the Vatican was thrown off, the religious thought remained
strongly under its influence and there was little change from the church
customs of the earlier allegiance. What more natural then, than that our
brethren of that period should preserve the midyear and midsummer festival of
the Baptist as the date for their annual assemblies. Later when the need for
more frequent fraternal communication became manifest, the Evangelist's day in
midwinter was the most logical companion date.
spite of the narrow and almost iron-clad theology of the time, the close of
the sixteenth century, as Bro. Waite notes in his "Real History of the
Rosicrucians," beheld a great wave of mysticism spreading over central Europe,
and thence into England, France, Italy, and Denmark. (57) In England this
movement found its chief expression through the Rosicrucian school of thought
and we find that the influx of speculatives during the seventeenth century
brought in the Fraternity such men as Ashmole, Vaughn, Sir Robert Moray (or
Murray), Wren, Locke, Boyle, and others of strong Rosicrucian tendencies, and
of sufficient learning and prominence to be Fellows of the Royal Society. The
Rosicrucian philosophy embodied much of that universal religion which is the
basis of Freemasonry, but its adherents found it wise to conceal its broad
principles under a veil of Christian mysticism in that age when any open and
free statement of such doctrine would have subjected them to persecution or
ostracism. These men must have understood, as possibly the operatives of
their day did not, the astronomical origin of the Johannine festivals, and
from the standpoint of that knowledge, might very possibly have lent their
influence to the more regular observance of those dates. Coming upon the
scene during the period when the stage was unwittingly being set for the
"revival" or "revolution of 1717," they must have lent a very considerable
influence to the shaping of the circumstances which led up to that event.
Viewing the Johannine dedication and festivals in the light of solstitial
observance which had been celebrated from most remote antiquity, and thus
truly in harmony with the liberal spirit, not only of Rosicrucian, but also of
Masonic faith, it seems even more probable that we are indebted in
considerable measure to those early mystics for the perpetuation of this
custom of the Craft.
the revival in 1717 the ritual fell into the hands of such orthodox ministers
of the Gospel as Dr. Anderson and Dr. Desaguliers, who would, of course, see
the observances in their Christian, rather than in their solstitial and
mystical aspect. Under their hands it was shaped into a Christian tradition,
and the ritualists who followed them apparently adopted their lead and further
developed it as we have seen. It is most fascinating to trace, through the
early meager references and the later wild fabrications of tradition, the
development from the early dedication and festival observance, through the
full bloom of a sectarian legend down to our modern unassuming and inoffensive
version. It is not surprising, when this one item could develop into such full
flower that many other fabulous statements could gain circulation and credence
among the brethren. Bro. Gould quotes and condemns a number of these.
According to one, "27,000 Masons accompanied the Christian princes in the
Crusades." Another was the statement that Martin Luther was received into the
Society on Christmas night, 1520, just fifteen days after he had burned the
Pope's Bull; and still other, and even more absurd were that the Craft was
introduced into Britain, A. M. 2974, by "E-Brank, King of the Trojan race, and
into Ireland by the prophet Jeremiah." (58)
According to Bro. Mackey, a reaction from the sectarian influence and the
flights of imagination of the earlier ritualists began to become manifest in
the Clare revision, (59) though I have found no quotations from it bearing
upon the subject of the present paper. Neither have I found any from the
ritual used by the Dermott or "Ancient" faction unless the "old York lecture"
above quoted belonged to them. However, the opponents of the Christianizing
tendency apparently finally made their voices heard and gained a signal
victory in the adoption of the Hemming lectures. I am not prepared to discuss
the wisdom of that change other than to remark that one argument in its favour
is that it removed one point of temptation beyond the reach of those
susceptible to its influence. Here in America we seem to have gradually
receded from the more sectarian versions to the unassuming one in general use
at present which apparently gives no offence to our brethren of the Jewish
have long since abandoned the belief that the two Johns in person were patrons
of the Fraternity. Both Gould and Mackey recognize their symbolical
character. (60) Dr. Mackey thus defines a symbol in the Masonic acceptance of
the word: "A symbol is defined to be a visible sign with which a spiritual
feeling, emotion or idea is connected." (61) This thought should be ever borne
in mind in the study of Masonic ritual and symbolism, for in no other way can
much of our system of speculative Masonry be interpreted. As the operative
art of our ancient brethren was deemed a high and noble science, so their
organization, well worthy of so noble a fate, has been bequeathed to us as a
Speculative Fraternity, and has become, by some yet unexplained method, the
repository of a wonderful science of symbols based partly upon the builder's
art and partly upon ancient mystical religion and philosophy.
well to remember that the whole purpose of symbolism, in the sense used by
Bro. Mackey, in the ages which saw its origin as a development of the earlier
picture writing, was to convey or reveal truth only to such as were duly and
truly prepared, worthy and well qualified; and that its early authors were
remarkable adepts in the art of so concealing those truths which they held to
be too sacred for the unworthy profane. It is well to remember these facts in
approaching the study of Masonry, for we may thus, if we in our turn "are duly
and truly prepared," open the way to clues which will lead to the discovery of
some of those vast treasures of hidden truth which modern Freemasonry has
inherited from those schools of the secret wisdom of antiquity, - the Ancient
Mysteries, and from some of their later successors.
Nowhere in the ritual or monitors of the Craft is there a more perfect example
of this, nor one more easily demonstrated when we find its key, than in the
great natural truths so carefully hidden behind the meager references
remaining in our work to the two characters which are the subjects of the
present paper. I would not minimize the importance of the moral which the
monitor attaches to them, but would emphasize my belief that this represents
only a fraction of the real lesson. Their festivals, engrafted as we have
seen, upon the old solstitial festivals which were so prominent in the
Light-religions of antiquity, give us a miniature statement of the whole
philosophy of Masonry, which is a mystery-drama of human life. Falling upon
June 24th and December 27th, dates so close to the summer and winter solstices
as to leave no doubt as to their origin, they give us more than a hint of the
close relation of man with the phenomena of the visible universe, - "the
microcosm in the macrocosm. For our Masonic purposes, it matters little what
particular story we ascribe to these dates; the fact of our observance of them
as ancient festivals of the Fraternity preserves the spirit of the symbolism;
and whether we observe them as the midsummer and midwinter solstices under the
beautifully poetical phraseology of the Osiric, Eleusinian or Druidic
Mysteries, or as the feast days of Christian saints traditionally alleged to
have lent their patronage to our Fraternity, the fundamental lesson is the
reputed character of the Baptist and of the Evangelist adapts their festivals
very readily to the symbolism. The feast of the Baptist recalls to our memory
his inflexible fidelity and martyrdom for his faith, and thus, while reminding
us of another martyrdom for similar high principles which is familiar to all
Masons, furnishes a worthy ideal for Masonic consideration. In the rite of
baptism from which his distinctive title is derived is symbolized the
cleansing of the heart from the dross of selfishness and vice, and the
spiritual initiation of the soul into the knowledge of the mysteries of
eternal life. Thus the festival of his birth very appropriately coincides
with the summer solstice, when all visible nature is at the zenith of life,
light, and joy. On the other hand, the festival of the Evangelist who is so
fortunately represented as a man in the winter and wisdom of life; who so
insistently proclaimed the gospel of brotherly love; and whose writings teem
with allegories of the mystical initiation into the secrets that lie beyond
the veil of material vision, is very properly assigned to that period of the
year when life has reached its full maturity and seems about to depart from
the earth. Considering all this he too becomes a worthy and appropriate
figure for Masonic recognition.
therefore find in these two figures, so peculiarly and even mysteriously
connected with Masonry, that broad symbolism which admits of universal
interpretation and appreciation. It is truly in harmony with the spirit of
"that religion in which all men agree" and is therefore really Masonic. Their
festivals falling upon the two extremes of the year well represent the cycle
of nature and of human life, and thereby give us a key to the whole philosophy
of Masonry. Though of Christian derivation, their Masonic interpretation
carries the same lesson for the Jew and the Theist as for the Christian
brother. They tell of the eternal cycle of existence, of manifestation and
disappearance, of activity and repose, which is the eternal and immutable law
of God, and which is so fittingly expressed in our familiar phrase: "From
labour to refreshment and from refreshment to labour again."
"Philosophy of Freemasonry," Pound, p. 66.
"Mirror for the Johannite Masons," Oliver, p. 26.
Ibid, p. 34.
"Essays," Gould, p. xix
"History of Freemasonry," Gould, vol. 4, pp. 281-2.
"Mirror for the Johannite Masons," Oliver, p. 27.
Ibid, p. 67.
"Encyclopedia of Freemasonry," Mackey, article on "Martin Clare."
"Mirror for the Johannite Masons," Oliver; p. 27.
"Encyclopedia of Freemasonry," Mackey, article on "Dunckerley."
"Mirror for the Johannite Masons," Oliver, p. 35.
"Mirror for the Johannite Masons," Oliver, p. 27; also "Encyclopedia of
Freemasonry," Mackey, article on "Dedications."
"History of Freemasonry," Gould, vol. 3, p. 341; also "Encyclopedia of
Freemasonry," Mackey, article on "Ramsey."
"Mirror for the Johannite Masons," Oliver, p. 29.
Ibid, p. 20.
on John," Kitto.
"Encyclopedia of Freemasonry," Mackey, article on "Dedication."
Ibid, article on "Parallel Lines."
"Freemason's Monitor," Webb, P. 31, 5th Edition, republished, Cincinnati 1866.
"Masonic Manual," Robert Macoy, 15th Edition, New York 1858.
"Manual of the Lodge," Mackey, New York, 1862.
Ibid, p. 57.
"Mirror for the Johannite Masons," Oliver, p. 32.
"Real History of the Rosicrucians," Waite, p. 39, New York 1888.
"History of Freemasonry," Gould, vol. P. 127.
"Encyclopedia of Freemasonry," Mackey, article on "Lectures."
"History of Freemasonry," Gould, vol. 3, p. 79; also "Encyclopedia of
Freemasonry," article on "Dedication."
"Encyclopedia of Freemasonry," Mackey, article on "Symbols."
FREDERICK L. HOSMER
"Flag Day," edited by B.H. Schauffler, and published by Moffat, Yard & Company
age to age they gather, ail the brave of heart and strong,
strife of truth with error, of the right against the wrong;
see their gleaming banner, I can hear their triumph song;
Truth is marching on!
this sign we conquer"; 'tis the symbol of our faith,
holy by the might of love, triumphant over death;
finds his life who loseth it, forever more it saith:
Right is marching on!
earth is circling onward, out of shadow into light;
stars keep watch above our way, however dark the night;
every martyr's stripe there glows a bar of morning light;
Love is marching on!
on, O cross of martyr faith, with thee is victory!
forth, O stars and reddening dawn, the full day yet shall
On earth his kingdom
cometh, and with joy our eyes shall see:
Our God is marching on!
MARCH THROUGH THE NIGHT
United by his fellow
men by the strongest of all ties, the tie of a common doom, the free man finds
that a new vision is with him always, shedding over every daily task the light
of love. The life of Man is a long march through the night, surrounded by
invisible foes, tortured by weariness and pain, towards a goal that few can
hope to reach, and where none may tarry long. One by one, as they march, our
comrades vanish from our sight, seized by the silent orders of omnipotent
death. Very brief is the time in which we can help them, in which their
happiness or misery is decided. Be it ours to shed sunshine on their path, to
lighten their sorrows by the balm of sympathy, to give them the pure joy of a
never tiring affection, to strengthen failing courage, to instil faith in
hours of despair. Let us not weigh in grudging scales their merits or
demerits, but let us think only of their need,of the sorrows, of the
difficulties, perhaps the blindnesses, that make the misery of their lives;
let us remember that they are fellow-sufferers in the same darkness, actors in
the same tragedy with ourselves. And so, when their day is over, when their
good and their evil have become eternal by the immortality of the past, be it
ours to feel that, where they suffered, where they failed no deed of ours was
the cause; but wherever a spark of the divine fire kindled in their hearts, we
were ready with encouragement, with sympathy, with brave words in which high
Our Porto Rico brethren
have conceived the novel idea of establishing a "Masonic Bank," which has
become one of the "great banking institutions of San Juan," to use the words
of Grand Secretary J. G. Torres. In a little more than a year its original
capital has been multiplied nine times over, its deposits exceed $150,000, and
its loans also exceed this sum. It has branches in Sabana Grande and Lares and
agencies at three other points. The stock is quoted at a premium of 7 1/2% and
is expected to go higher. It pays interests on open deposits which permanently
exceed $500.00; it has enabled the brethren as well as profanes to hold their
fruits instead of having to sell them at low prices; it has freed the poor
from the grip of the usurers by making loans as small as $25.00 at the legal
rate of interest; it has encouraged thrift and saving; it has aided Grand
Lodge with necessary advances; and has assisted the lodges in building, buying
and enlarging their temples. It is declared to have increased greatly the
prestige of our institution. The bank, though owned and operated by Masons, is
not controlled by Grand Lodge. - Proc., Grand Lodge of Alabama.
BRO. GERALD NANCARROW, INDIANA
God of Earth, and Air, and Sea;
never dying Fire,
Thee within and round about
part of Thee, aspire.
art the flame within our hearts,
countless Gods in One;
are the light above the hills,
Moon, the Stars, the Sun.
the worlds rose in the vast
shone Thy Deathless Ray;
dust to Suns, from Suns to dust
Thy endless day.
ever through our darkness, yea,
no more is night,
us shining on our path
Thou, Unwaning Light.
SHORT HISTORY OF THE EARLY DAYS OF TEMPLARISM
BRO. STANLEY C. WARNER, PAST GRAND COMMANDER, COLORADO
Brother Stanley Clark Warner was born at Wilton, in Lenox County, Ontario,
Canada, June 25, 1863. He attended Victoria University at Coburg, Ontario,
and graduated from that institution in May, 1884, with the degree of B.A.;
studied law and was admitted to the bar in the Province of Ontario in May,
1887, entering into the practice of his profession at Napance, Ontario. He is
now engaged in a steadily increasing legal practice in Denver, Colorado.
Brother Warner was raised in Doric Lodge No. 316, A.F. & A.M., Toronto,
Canada, on May 19, 1887, later affiliating with Union Lodge No. 7 at Napanee,
serving that lodge as Secretary and Senior Warden and chosen as Worshipful
Master in December, 1889. He was a District Deputy Grand Master of the Grand
Lodge of Canada in 1891-92, and served one year on the Board of General
Purposes of that Grand Lodge. In January, 1906, he affiliated with Albert
Pike Lodge No. 117, at Denver, Colorado. He has served the Grand Lodge of
Colorado on various committees, being Chairman of the Committee on Foreign
Correspondence since 1917. He has been an indefatigable worker in all Masonic
Bodies in Denver. In the Grand Commandery of Colorado he was elected Grand
Commander on October 24, 1920.
numbers of our members and, in fact, many of our Templar speakers, are still
imbued with the fiction that modern Masonic Templarism has a direct connection
with and is the lineal descendant of the Knights Templar Order, instituted in
1113 by Hugh DePayne to protect pilgrims on their journey to the Holy Land,
and one often hears both publicly expressed and inferentially suggested that
our present Grand Master holds his office in direct accession to the martyred
Jacques De Molai, whom an avaricious king of France, with the concurrence of
an infamous Pope of Rome, burned at the stake in Paris, March 18, 1313: this
despite the fact that this pleasing fiction has been discarded by numbers of
our prominent Masonic writers and historians during the last quarter of a
century, Sir Knight Colman in his Centennial address to the Grand Encampment
in 1916 upon the subject of the early history of that body, said:
"There is no probability, hardly even any possibility, that our modern Order
of Christian Masonic Knighthood is directly connected with the ancient Order
of Christian Knights whose name and date we proudly bear and whose valiant
character and Christian virtues we emulate."
Rugg, Past Grand Master of the Grand Encampment, in his Centennial address to
the Grand Commandery of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, said:
"Tradition and common belief have their value, but they must not be allowed to
offset historic evidence. It is the part of unwisdom to cling to a theory
that has been generally discarded by those who have made the most extensive
and careful examination of the grounds on which it rests. In this case the
most reliable authorities concur in judgment that Masonic Templary, as
recognized in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, is not historically
connected with or lineally descended from the chivalric orders of the
Hopkins, Past Grand Master of the Grand Encampment, at the Conclave held in
Louisville in 1901, said:
readily admit that we can not show an indisputable title to this inheritance,
but the claim is precious although the title may not be secure. I would fain
believe that the founders of the Order did not leave the organization which
they founded and cemented with their blood to become the plaything of chance
or to rest upon the uncertain tenure of the will or whim of a rapacious king
and a weak pope. I am disposed to admit that it is only a sentiment, but it
is one to which some of us cling tenaciously and which we only surrender when
we recognize that tradition must yield to history."
Knight Parvin, Past Grand Recorder of Iowa and for many years closely
connected with the Grand Encampment, has said: "The popular theory under
which so many writers view the origin and history of Templar Masonry would
trace it back by some mysterious line of connection to the Order of Malta
which was dissolved in 1798, or back to the Order of the Temple, which ceased
to exist in 1313, and the latter theory, even at this day, has many advocates.
A better and truer theory, is to credit the whole system of Masonic Templarly
to the inventive genius of the ritual makers of the eighteenth century."
Col. W.J.B. MacLeod Moore, Supreme Grand Master, ad vitam, of the Sovereign
Great Priory of Canada, frequently declared in his annual allocutions that
Freemasonry was not the successor of the military Templars.
published addresses of the distinguished Templars to which references have
been made are not of easy access to the membership of our Order, and in
presenting a short account of our early history at this time, we have in mind
that the information will be thereby more generally available to such Templars
as are interested therein. We make no claim of any personal research, but
simply present to you the facts as collected from the works of Eminent Sir
Knights who have made a life study thereof.
long centuries elapsed after the death of Jacques De Molai and the destruction
of the ancient Order before history or even Masonic tradition suggests the
existence of Masonic Templarism. During these four centuries civil history is
silent as to the Templars, and little is known or related of the Masonic
Order. Masons met without charter or other authority, initiated candidates,
often without even an organized lodge or without record of the same, this by a
claim of inherent right, and with no intent or desire to make their
proceedings public. It was only in 1717 that the Masonic Fraternity assumed
an organized existence, and it was shortly after this date that we find the
first suggestion of the Modern Templar Degree. The long cherished alleged
connection of the two orders through Scottish sources rests largely upon the
fact that among the adherents of the Stuart Pretender who fled to France after
his defeat in the early part of the eighteenth century, was one Chevalier
Ramsay, a Mason, a gentleman of much culture, and a tutor of the Second
Pretender, Charles Edward. This distinguished exile, while in France, is said
to have developed a Masonic system with a sixth degree, designated the Knight
of the Temple, and during one of his visits to Scotland, to have created
Knights Templar there. With the Pretender's approval he attempted to use his
Masonic connection to aid the exiled Stuarts, and in grafting upon Masonry a
Military Order, he may have had in mind the assistance which it might be to
his benefactor. Masonic authorities differ as to the truth of these
statements, but in any event the Templar Degree was occasionally conferred in
Great Britain during the middle of the eighteenth century, and encampments of
the Order were during that period formed at London, York, Bristol, and
Salisbury, more or less intimately connected with Craft Masonry.
says that "Templarism was first introduced into the British Empire in the
Masonic lodges known as the Ancients under the Duke of Athol, who was also
Grand Master of Scotland, in the eighteenth century," and that about 1780 the
Templar Degree was merged into the Masonic system, following the Royal Arch in
the sequence of additional degrees.
Redfern Kelly, G.C.T., in a series of articles in the Toronto Freemason,
published since this speech was first written, says that the records of the
York Grand Lodges, designated also the Grand Lodge of all England, of date
June, 1780, announced that lodge as asserting authority over five degrees or
orders of Masonry, the Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, Master Mason, Royal
Arch and Knight Templar, and also show the conferring of the Templar Degree at
York, England, on November 29, 1779. He further asserts that this Grand Lodge
was the only one which officially recognized the Order of the Temple as being
Masonic, in either Great Britain or Ireland during the eighteenth century.
history of the Order of the Temple, by Sir Patrick Colquhoun of London,
England, published in 1878, is authority for the statement that in 1769 the
Mother Kilwinning Lodge of Scotland issued a charter to Kilwinning Masonic
Lodge of Dublin, which authorized the conferring of the degree of Knight
Templar therein, but it would appear that the Order was found in Dublin prior
to that date in the possession of military organizations composed of the
soldiers of Scotland and Ireland. It is probably by this same military source
that the Order was introduced into this country in Boston about the same
period. Hughan, the great English Masonic authority, makes the positive
statement that the first authentic record of the conferring of the Order is
found in the minutes of St. Andrews Royal Arch Lodge in Boston under date
August 28, 1769, where we read that "the petition of Bro. William Davis coming
before the lodge begging to have and receive the parts belonging to a Royal
Arch Mason, which being read, was received and he unanimously voted in, and
was accordingly made by receiving the four steps, that of Excellent,
Super-Excellent, Royal Arch, and Knight Templar."
the history of Masonry prior to 1717, the early history of Masonic Templarism
consists of the record of the meetings of Knights of the Order in various
places for the purpose of conferring the same, without any constituted
authority, by inherent right only, acting sometimes with and sometimes without
the sanction of regular Masonic lodges.
records of this same St Andrews Royal Arch Chapter show that in December,
1769, "the petition of Bro. Paul Revere coming before the lodge begging to
become an Arch Mason, it was received and he was unanimously accepted and
accordingly made." He subsequently became in the same body a Knight Templar.
In 1770 it was voted "that the M. M. Joseph Warren, Esq., should be made a
Royal Arch Mason this evening, and he was accordingly made, gratis." The
minutes of this body show the conferring of the order or degree of Knight
Templar on about 50 candidates between the years 1769 and 1794.
last decade of the eighteenth century encampments were formed by prominent
Craftsmen in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, at Boston, Providence,
Newburyport, and Portland (now in Maine), at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; at
Wilmington, Delaware; at Albany and New York City; at Baltimore, Maryland; and
at Charleston, South Carolina, in all of which encampments the Order of the
Temple was conferred.
next step was the formation of Grand Encampments, as they were then called, in
the various states. The first was organized in Philadelphia, May 12, 1797,
with four constituent bodies. It had but a brief existence, was revived in
1814, again became extinct in 1824, and remained so during the Anti-Masonic
Excitement. It was again revived in 1852 under the authority of the Grand
Lodge of Pennsylvania, to which it acknowledged allegiance until 1857, when,
with the consent of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, it became part of the
Grand Encampment of the United States.
most important event in this era of Templar history was the organization in
1805 at the city of Providence of the Grand Encampment of Massachusetts and
Rhode Island. This is especially true, because the Templars responsible for
its organisation were almost identically those who subsequently in 1816
participated in the organization of our present governing body, and as any
history of our Order is incomplete which does not particularly deal with the
lives of at least three of these pioneers of American Templarism, we shall for
a few moments digress from the actual subject under consideration.
Smith Webb, founder of St. John's Encampment in Providence in 1802, presiding
officer from 1805 to 1817 of what is now called the Grand Commandery of
Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and Deputy Grand Master from 1816 until his
death in 1819, of the General Grand Encampment of the United States, was born
in Boston in 1771, was made a Mason in New Hampshire in 1792, a Royal Arch
Mason in Philadelphia in 1796, and a Knight Templar sometime previous to 1802,
either in Temple Encampment at Albany, in a Philadelphia Encampment, in the
Boston Encampment, or in the Old Encampment of New York City, all four of
which still claim the honour. He was the author of several successive
editions of "The Free Mason's Monitor," was an organizer of great ability, had
an attractive personality, a win-some manner, with indefatigable energy, and a
great versatility of language, both written and oral, all of which joined in
making for him the high reputation which he has since held as a Masonic
ritualist and organizer. He has been said to have invented the American
system of Templary, and there is no doubt that he, along with Fowle, is
responsible for the present impressive ceremonies, not only of the Templar
Order but, in a large measure, of Craft Masonry and the Royal Arch system. He
died suddenly July 6, 1819, while on a visit to Cleveland, Ohio, and was
buried there just shortly prior to the Second Triennial Session of our Grand
Encampment. His remains were subsequently removed to the North Burial Ground
at Providence, Rode Island, where a monument of white marble has been erected
to his memory.
Fowle, first Sovereign Master of Boston Encampment of Red Cross Knights and
Grand Master of that Encampment when it was reorganized as a Templar body in
1806, which office he held until 1824, Grand Generalissimo of the Grand
Commandery of Massachusetts and Rhode Island from its organization in 1805
until 1817, then its Deputy Grand Master and subsequently its Grand Master
from 1820 to 1825; was named Grand Generalissimo of the General Grand
Encampment at its organization in 1816, and was elected Deputy Grand Master at
the Triennial Conclave in 1819. Sir Knight Fowle was a member of St. Andrew's
Chapter of Boston, where he received the Knight Templar degree on the 28th of
January, 1795. He was a great friend of Webb, and a ritualist of a very high
order. He was a well known lecturer and his powers of organization made him,
when working in conjunction with Webb, a potent factor in all branches of
Masonic, work. To the efforts of these two men is due the organization of
what is known at present as the Grand Commandery of Massachusetts and Rhode
Island, and also that of our present governing body, to which reference will
be made later.
DeWitt Clinton was born at Little Britain, New York, in 1769, and died in
February, 1828. He was the father of the Great Canal System of the Empire
State, served as its Governor, having resigned a seat in the United States
Senate for the purpose, was in 1812 a candidate against James Madison for
President of the United States, was Grand Master of Masons of New York from
1806 to 1819, was selected first Grand Master of the General Grand Encampment
of the United States in 1816, and served as such until his death on the 11th
of February, 1828. He devoted a busy and useful life to the service of his
community and to an Order which he considered as wielding a great influence
for good in the government, both of his state and country. He was at the head
of the Order during the early days of the unfortunate Morgan excitement, and
did much by his influence to alleviate the disastrous conditions which
resulted therefrom. He was a lawyer, a statesman, and a patriot, and with
Webb and Fowle formed a combination to which is largely due the present status
of Templarism in the United States.
Grand Encampment of New York was organized in 1814; and was in a great measure
an outgrowth from the "Sovereign Grand Consistory" organized by the well-known
Masonic charlatan, Joseph Cerneau.
were in existence in 1816 three sovereign grand bodies of the Order -
Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and New York, in addition to
which there were isolated encampments working in Connecticut, Maryland and
South Carolina. The great organizers Webb and Fowle, having about twenty
years previously launched the General Grand Chapter of the United States,
endowed by their state Grand Encampment with more or less authority, along
with some Templars from New York, held a convention in Philadelphia on June
11, 1816, where they met with delegates from Pennsylvania and endeavoured to
organize a United States Grand Encampment. Opposition developed thereto on
the part of the delegates from Pennsylvania, who refused to concur in the
adoption of a proposed constitution, preferring rather their own ritual, their
own customs, and their own powers of government, being influenced largely by
their connection with the Mother Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, to which they
were then and until 1857 subject. Unsuccessful in their efforts, but still
undaunted, Webb and Fowle stopped over in New York City on their way home and
there, within ten days, organized what is today the Grand Encampment Knights
Templar of the United States of America; adopted a constitution, carefully
prepared by Webb, which remained essentially unchanged until 1856; prepared a
roster of officers substantially the same as at present prevailing; and named
candidates for those offices from their two state jurisdictions, Webb and
Fowle wisely subordinating themselves to Governor Clinton, whose civil
position, along with his Masonic record and his powerful influence rendered
him eminently fit to act as Grand Master of the organization. It remained
only for the Knights of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and New York to ratify
this action and make such changes in the constitution of their different
bodies as were thereby necessary.
the thirty-six years following the formation of the Grand Encampment but six
additional Grand Commanderies were added to its roster, a slow growth due
solely to the persecution of the members of the Order for a score of years
following the Morgan Excitement. During the fifties, ten Grand Commanderies
were added to the list, when our great Civil War, along with its disturbance
of the general affairs of the nation, for many years delayed the spread of the
Order over the United States. Since that war its growth has been healthy and
normal, and today we have forty-seven Grand Commanderies in the United States,
with a total membership of over 368,000.
Outside of the United States, the activities of modern Templarism are confined
to the British nation, with whose Great Priories of England and Wales,
Ireland, Scotland, and Canada, we are, by the Concordat of 1910, in fraternal
MASONIC HISTORY IN NEW MEXICO
This exceptionally able
article was written upon special request of TEIE BUILDER and is here offered
as a specimen of what might be done by the way of brief histories of every
state in the Union. Would not a volume made up of such sketches be of great
value? Our thanks go to Brother Walter who is now Vice President of the First
National Bank of Santa Fe, the same bank of which William W. Griffin, the
first Grand Master of New Mexico, was one time President; and also to Brother
Francis E. Lester, Past Grand Master of New Mexico, who recommended Brother
Walter as a suitable historian of New Mexico Freemasonry. The Southwest is a
great store of the most romantic Masonic history, a virgin mine of inspiration
and fact, awaiting development at the hands of Masonic writers.
IT WAS in 1831 that
Albert Pike, the noted Masonic author, visited Santa Fe. Very near the spot
from which he first viewed the city, rises the splendid Scottish Rite
Cathedral, in which the Consistory and other bodies make their home. In the
collected poems of Pike are a few verses which record the impression that the
historic and ancient city made upon the distinguished visitor. This is perhaps
Santa Fe's first connection with the history of Masonry.
However, ten years
later, in 1841,
reference to what appears to have been an attempt to establish a lodge in
Santa Fe. In an address delivered before the Grand Lodge on May 13, 1901, Wm.
G. Ritch, then Secretary and acting Governor of New Mexico, refers to this
attempt, which is based upon a reference in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge
of Texas to the effect that a dispensation was granted for the institution of
a lodge at Santa Fe. Nothing further seems to have come of the attempt, and it
was not until
1847 that a
military lodge was instituted. In the archives of the Grand Lodge of Missouri
we find the following notation: "Missouri Military Lodge No.
Regiment, Missouri Volunteers; dispensation issued June
by John Ralls, Grand
Master. Chartered October
closed with the Mexican
War." Colonel Ralls commanded one of the volunteer regimants from Missouri
stationed at Santa Fo after Colonel Price had been relieved by new levies. As
was noted, he was also Grand Master of the Masonic jurisdiction of Missouri.
Lt. Col. H. P. Boyakin, who served with the First Illinois Regiment, also
stationed at Santa Fe, was a craftsman who later was Master of a lodge.
Says Colonel R. E.
Twitchell in his "Leading Facts of New Mexican History," Vol. 5, page 315: "Of
the work of this lodge we are without information; there being no returns or
files among the archives from which to glean facts. And we have no further
evidence of its having existed, save that the lodge is referred to by name and
number in the minute book of Hardin Lodge No. 87 at Santa Fe, as having been
visited by the latter under date of October 26, 1847. We are thus able only to
speak of Missouri Military Lodge No. 86 as an existing lodge at Santa Fe,
apparently working regularly from some time in September, 1847, down to the
close of the service of the regiment a year later. That No. 86 did good work
there can be no doubt, since it was under the immediate fostering presence and
care of the Grand Master of the jurisdiction issuing its charter, and who no
doubt instituted the same. A second lodge contemporaneous with the latter as
to time and place bears the name of Hardin Lodge No. 87, A.F. & A.M. Of the
latter, there is the evidence of its existence, well known to the older
members of Montezuma Lodge No. 1.
This lodge had also
been organized under the authority of Grand Master John Ralls, its duration
also being limited to the service of the regiment. The minutes of Hardin Lodge
show work, especially in initiation, and the names of some of the old-timers
are preserved in the minutes of Montezuma Lodge No. 1. These lodges existed
before the instituting of any other Masonic organizations west of the
Missouri. They are the beginnings of Freemasonry in that immense domain lying
between the Missouri River and the Pacific Ocean, and between the British
possessions and the Republic of Mexico and the State of Texas. Quoting the
same historian further:
"These military lodges
go down in history as marking the first dawn of fraternity in an immensity of
area since developed into an empire of free states, each having its grand
jurisdiction, the peer of any other jurisdiction in Masonry the world over.
And thus Masonry in the great west kept step with the vanguard of
civilization. We must not forget that among the pioneers and early
inspirations of modern Masonry, the military lodge was an important agency in
the planting of the Craft far and wide."
However, these military
lodges were short lived, and it was not until the institution of Montezuma
Lodge on the 22nd day of August, 1851, that the history of permanent Masonry
in New Mexico begins. In those early days, the lodge room was the center of
civic and social activity for a wide domain. Trappers and scouts, pathfinders
and pioneers, made it their place of social gathering, and here we find Kit
Carson, Saint Vrain, military officers, federal and territorial officials,
mingling in social intercourse. The first death to be recorded by Montezuma
Lodge was that of Robert T. Brent, junior warden of the lodge, who was killed
on December 4, 1851, while crossing the Jornado de Muerto, or "Journey of
Death." He fell a victim to the Apaches and was buried by the lodge on
December 23rd. The legislative assembly granted a civil charter to Montezuma
Lodge on February 6, 1854. Up to 1860, Montezuma Lodge was the sole Masonic
organization within a radius of almost a thousand miles, and its membership
was drawn from far distant communities and settlements. Says Col. Twitchell:
"The Masonic lodge in
those days became something more than a mere civic society. In the absence of
American women very generally during the first two decades of the American
occupation, there were no social centers, no places of amusement, no homes of
the American family, no attractive resort in which to while away an hour -
unless, forsooth we mention the Mexican baile, the gambling room, and the
saloon. Naturally members congregated at the Masonic lodge room. The Masonic
hall became the club room and social center of those who would avoid contact
with the dissipations of the country. The sole protestant church of the
period, indeed, had representatives on the ground - sometimes."
In the lodge room of
Montezuma Lodge in Santa Fe are preserved a number of the relics, including
Kit Carson's rifle, of those early days. The furniture and furnishings which
were brought from St. Joseph, Missouri, in 1852 over the Santa Fe Trail in
wagons are still in use, and on the walls are the portraits of several score
of the first members. It was not until 1855, that the Masonic Order gained
further footing west of the Missouri except in a few lodges in Oregon and
California. It was in 1860 that Bent Lodge was insituted at Taos. Then
followed lodges at Las Vegas, Elizabethtown, Cimarron, Silver City, and
Tiptonville. Vicissitudes of fate resulted in the surrender of the charters of
the lodges at Taos, Elizabethtown, and Cimarron.
In 1877, the Grand
Lodge of New Mexico was instituted at Santa Fe by the representatives of
Montezuma, Chapman, and Aztec lodges. The first Grand Master was Wm. W.
Griffin, president of the First National Bank at Santa Fe. The Grand Royal
Arch Chapter was organized in 1898, the first Royal Arch chapter having been
instituted in Santa Fe in 1865. The Grand Commandery of the Knights Templar
was organized in 1901. The Shrine was granted a charter in 1887, and has its
temple at Albuquerque.
The four bodies of the
Scottish Rite trace their beginnings to February 1st, 1883, when Santa Fe
Lodge of Perfection No. 1 was instituted under the direction of Charles
Spaulding of Topeka, Kansas, deputy of the Supreme Council. The two last
surviving resident members of the first session of the lodge, U.S. Senator
Thomas B. Catron and Dr. W. S. Harroun, died only recently. It was not until
1905 that the lodge became active in conferring the degrees. It was then that
Cony T. Brown, under the direction of the late Col. Max Frost, deputy of the
Supreme Council, communicated the degrees from the fourth to the fourteenth
upon a small class, including Judge Richard H. Hanna, the present deputy of
the Supreme Council for New Mexico. Since then, the lodge has grown rapidly.
In 1908, Aitlan Chapter, Rose Croix No. 1, was instituted under the direction
of Col. Frost. A few months later in the same year, Coronado Council of Kadosh
and New Mexico Consistory No. 1 were instituted.
The first reunion was
held in 1909, at which time the late James E. Richardson, Sovereign Grand
Commander, and many other distinguished Masons were present.
The Blue Lodge now owns
its own home on the south side of the beautiful plaza, which is also the
business center in Santa Fe. The Scottish Rite bodies have built a cathedral
that is monumental in character and unique among the Masonic buildings of the
United States. It is a replica in part of the Court of Lions of the Alhambra
The building is tinted a deep, rich red, and while complete in itself, yet is
only one unit of the great structure as it will finally appear. In addition to
the magnificent auditorium, it has a great banquet hall as well as ante-rooms
and social center, together with offices occupied by the permanent seeretary.
The stage of the auditorium is equipped with ninety drop curtains and complete
electrical apparatus for the production of brilliant lighting effects. Above
the proscenium arch is a mural painting representing Boabdil delivering the
keys of the Alhambra to Ferdinand and Isabella. A great pipe organ has been
installed, and the Scottish Rite choir is famous throughout the southwest for
its musical renditions.
Taken all in all,
Masonry has played a very important part in the development of the southwest.
It gathered into its fold the men who were leaders in active affairs as well
as in science and the arts. Every large town now has its Masonic lodge, and
each year there are four or five pilgrimages and reunions at Santa Fe, where
the degrees up to and including the thirty-second are conferred with much
beauty and splendor. Membership runs into the thousands, and all of the
various bodies are flourishing in every respect. The future of the
organization is sure to be a brilliant one, and the impress its members are
making upon the commonwealth and its progress is marked.
FREEMASONRY AND POLITICAL REFORM
THE RADICAL and the
revolutionist are abroad in the land in such force as has not been seen for
many years. It was all to be expected, one may suppose, as a part of the
inevitable aftermath of the war during which trying period many men and women
suffered grievous wrongs; civilization itself was called in question; and
multitudes were given a sense of insecurity in the very ground under their
feet. Such a condition, maintained for some five years, was sure to breed a
vast deal of discontent and morose opposition to the scheme of things.
Furthermore, in that period of excitement - it has not yet passed away - minds
worked at fever heat and tongues were loosened. A great commotion of
propaganda, discussion, political diatribes, and general riotous redness is
the consequence of it all.
penetrated to the intellectual centers of the land, into books, and into
colleges and universities. A kind of modified bolshevism, watered down into a
more familiar phraseology, is being steadily preached in a great many college
recitation rooms by admired and intelligent men. In some of the most
respectable of our colleges - as the present writer learned from his own
investigations in some cases - there are from ten to twenty per cent of the
members of the faculty in avowed alliance with some one or more of the many
There is no need to be
greatly alarmed at all this, for ten per cent of all the college professors in
the land could not shake the Goddess of Liberty from her pedestal; but such
facts are set forth as indications and illustrations of a general condition
which is a justly considered source of alarm. It may even be said without fear
of exaggeration that in some form or other thousands and thousands of our
citizens are organized in direct opposition to the political principles and
ideals on which the United States government is organized.
These men and women
must be left free to ventilate their hostile opinions. The very Constitution
which they hate and seek to destroy guarantees them that right. Neither should
force be used in order to put a stop to their dangerous teachings. The history
of the whole world, from Adam down, offers pretty convincing proof that the
use of force is the least successful of all antitoxins where political
poisoning is feared. The men and women who search all the histories for
arguments to show that we are an enslaved people unjustly governed, and that
America does not spell liberty, equality, and fraternity but rather
capitalistic greed and tyranny; who work day and night to devise arguments to
convince our citizens that such is the case; and who try in one way or another
to inoculate our young men with their heresies,these men and women must be met
by reason, persuasion, facts and argument. Reason must be met by reason,
argument by argument, thought by thought. In no other wise can they be truly
defeated. Those who believe in Americanism, intelligently and without bigotry
or ignorant jingoism, must organize themselves and carry on their own
propaganda, and evermore stand ready to win their
It is coming more and
more to be felt that Freemasonry cannot wholly remain aloof from the defense
of a genuine, well considered, and intelligent Americanism. A number of our
representative journals have frankly said as much, and in some cases have
published notable calls to the Fraternity in order to awaken it from its sleep
and to make it know that the day is at hand, and that it is high time that it
should buckle on its armor. Grand Masters have in their turn delivered their
own minds to the same effect, and already a number of organizations are coming
into existence wherethrough the Fraternity, rapidly approaching the three
million mark in its membership, may deliver its stupendous power into the
hands of Americanism.
Freemasonry is not
opposed to reform. On the contrary it is itself the mother of many reforms,
and hundreds of the men who have wrought so successfully to improve and change
the political scheme of things have been - and are - active and reputable
Masons. Grand Lodges themselves, even, have done many things by way of
political and social change.
But reform and
revolution are not the same thing. The reformer believes that the fundamentals
of our social and political system are sound and right, but that details of
its operation should here and there be remedied. He believes in the wage
system, for illustration, but strives to have wages increased and hours of
labor cut down; he believes in representative government but is in favor of
electing senators by popular ballot; he believes in private property but also
thinks that an income tax is just and necessary; and so on and so on. A man
may be ever so much of a reformer, as Henry Demarest Lloyd was, as Lincoln
was, and as Roosevelt was, and at the same time have the most fervent belief
in the principles anal general outlines of the American scheme of government.
But your revolutionist
is very different. He disagrees with the very scheme itself, and would tear up
the principles and fundamentals. He is not out to reform the wage system but
to destroy it; he is not wishing to levy a tax on incomes, he would do away
with the whole principle of private incomes; he would not waste time
protecting property in land, he would sweep the whole system of private
ownership in land into the discard; he would not deign to work for the direct
election of United States senators, he would do away with the senate; he does
not care a straw for the amendments to the Constitution that may be proposed,
because he is out to undo the Constitution altogether, and to set up in its
place some form of commuxusm, or socialism, or syndicalism, or what not.
The position which this
Fraternity occupies is out in the open, and perfectly justifiable. It stands
ready to become the friend and aider of any reform, if that reform appears
wise and just, as is illustrated by the universal Masonic support of the
Towner-Sterling Bill: but it at the same time stands like a wall of adamant in
opposition to any and every scheme which seeks to overthrow the American
system in order to replace it by something different.
QUESTION OF SOCIAL CLUBS
Ever and anon ye editor
receives a letter - usually from a brother grown gray in the Craft, to judge
by tone and handwriting, and therefore to be received with respect - to
protest against the existence of social clubs inside the Fraternity. These
clubs, so it is alleged, contravene our laws and contradict our spirit.
Is this true? Not
unless ye editor has been reading the histories of Masonry to no avail. The
fact is that the earlier lodges, those that existed in the days when
speculative Masonry was aborning, were anything but the solemn conclaves of
serious men that we often picture them; for they usually met in taverns and
enjoyed such privileges as went therewith, and they were a joyous happy lot,
who made a practice of bringing their tables of meat and drink into the lodge
room with them. They sang, and often they roistered, and many times their wit
and their humor flowed about them like wild streams. There was not, and they
knew there was not, any contradiction between all that and the spirit and
principles of Freemasonry, for Freemasonry is not a funereal, sour faced thing
at all, but full of life and gladness and youth. It must needs be serious but
it does not have to be solemn; it is well for it to remain sober but it does
not have to grow sour. And if young men wish to gather in a dining room and
have a feed together, and a few songs, and a list of humorous toasts, where is
Also, where are the
laws that are contravened? or the principles that are violated ? As the old
gentleman said in the humorous story, "there ain't any sich thing." Whether a
social club in a Masonic Temple is a oood thing or a bad thing depends
entirely upon local conditions. Such matters have no place in the body of
Masonic principle whatsoever, and are left aside as matters of wish,
expediency, and individual desire.
BRO. FRANK C. HICKMAN, MICIIIGAN
the sand, how swift it goes;
Likewise our lives draw to a close.
can't without astonishment,
these particles take vent
that we've much to think anent.
pass on to eternity;
an hour none remain,
have exhausted to the grain:
wasteth man," but not in vain.
his leaves of hope will sprout,
To-morrow blossoms thick come out.
bears his blushing honors on, -
goals he feels are fairly won,
disappointment laughs anon.
next day comes a frost and nips
shoot, prolific to its tips,
while he glorys in his worth,
Autumn leaves he falls from mirth,
help enrich our Mother Earth.
ARTICLES OF INTEREST TO THE MASONIC STUDENT IN HASTINGS' "ENCYCLOPEDIA OF
RELIGION AND ETHICS"
WITH THE RECENT
appearance of the twelfth volume this magnificent reference work has been
brought to completion, with the exception of the Index volume which is now in
course of preparation. There is nothing like it anywhere in the language in
its own field, and it easily places Dr. Hastings on the throne as the greatest
editor of his generation. The work is sold by the publishers direct, acid may
be purchased by the impecunious - which includes most of us - on the payment
plan. For terms and conditions address the publishers, Charles Scribner's
Sons, 5th Avenue and 48th Street, New York, N. Y.
The scope of the work
is adequately described by the title except that there is a great deal more
material on folklore, anthropology, magic and all that than one might expect.
One of the best features of all is the adequate and quite modern bibliography
included with each article; this feature in itself malies the set almost
indispensable to students and serious readers. Each volume contains brief
notes about the authors of the various articles; a table of cross references
and a list of abbreviations. Unlike other encyclopedias each important article
has been broken into sections and each section allocated to an author of its
own; for example, the excellent article - a treatise in length - on Symbolism
is divided as follows, with the authors appearing in brackets - where learned
writers so frequently find themselves:
Christian (J. Gamble),
Greek and Roman (P.
Gardner), p. 139.
(I. Abrahams), p. 143.
(D. S. Margoliouth), p. 145.
(A. S. Geden), p. 141.
Semitic (M. H. Farbridge), p. 146.
Very frequently each of
these authors contributes a bibliography on his own section, all of which,
when added to the general bibliography at the end of the article, furnishes
one with as complete a list of books as any but the specialist will ever need.
Ye editor has found
this encyclopedia so useful in steering the courses of THE BUILDER that he has
kept it ever at his elbow, and it is this use of it that has suggested to him
the value of publishing in these pages a list of the articles on subjects
about which Masonic students so often find themselves interested.
Absolute, p. 40; this is a treatment of one of the philosophical conceptions
religion, p. 141; much about Greek ritual, etc.
Affirmation, p. 157; deals with oaths, etc.
Agnosticism, p. 215; helpful in the study of Atheism.
Ahriman, p 237; Persian god of darkness.
Albigneses, p. 277; one of the heretical sects, persecuted by the Roman
Catholic Church. Some believe that traces from the Albigenses remain in
Freemasonry. See "New Light on the Renaissance," by Harold Bayley.
Alchemy, p. 287.
Allegory, p. 327.
p. 333; covers usages in all countries. A very complete article.
Altruism, p. 355; scientific study of charity and brotherhood.
Analogy, p. 415; helpful in the study of symbolism.
Anarchy, p. 419.
Annointing, p. 549.
Anti-Semitism, p. 593.
Appollonius of Tyana, p. 609.
Apostolic Succession, p. 633; thorough study of the rise of the Papacy.
Architecture, p. 677; deals principally with religious architecture, and is
developed in twenty-four parts.
Arthur, Arthurian Cycle, p. 1; deals with the Holy Grail legends.
Assassins, p. 138.
Atheism, p. 173; studied in ten different varieties.
p. 266; the sacred book of Zoroastrianism.
Francis, p. 321.
Badges, p. 325.
Basilidies, p. 426; one of the founders of Gnosticism.
Benevolence, p. 474.
Bhagavad-Gita, p. 535; one of the sacred books of India.
p. 562: a treatise of more than fifty closely printed pages.
Binding and Loosing, p. 618; a careful examination of one of the fundamental
claims of the Papacy.
p. 778; one of the great mystics.
of Life, p. 792, has much to say about astrology.
Brahmanism, p. 799.
Branches and Twigs, p. 831; side lights on ritualistic customs.
Brotherhood, p. 857.
Brotherly Love, p. 872.
p. 878; one of the martyrs of free thought.
Buddha, p. 881.
Buddhism, p. 887.
p. 889; one of the conspicuous devices used in primitive ritual.
and briefs, p. 891; deals with papal bulls from the earliest time.
Calendar, p. 61; indispensable to the student of astrology.
Canaanites, p. 176; furnishes the historical background for King Solomon's
Casuistry, p. 239; belongs to the study of ethics.
Catholicism, p. 258.
Character, p. 364.
Charity, p. 373.
and Amulets, p. 392.
Cherub, Cherubim; p. 508.
p. 549; religion and ethics in that country.
Chivalry, p. 565; has much to say about the Knights Templar.
Christianity, p. 679.
Chronology, p. 610.
Church, p. 616.
Circumambulation, p. 657; a wonderful article written by a noted Masonic
scholar, Count Goblet d'Alviella.
Clericalism and anti-clericalism, p . 689 .
and medals, p. 699.
Commemoration of the dead, p. 716.
Communism, p. 776; useful in the study of Socialism.
Concordat, p. 800; necessary in the study of Freemasonry in France.
Conditional immortality, p. 822; deals with a peculiar conception of
Confession, p. 825; tells the story of how the confessional came into use by
the Roman Catholic Church. A very long article. It is principally devoted to
the various creeds of Christendom and contains a complete and valuable table
of Confessions of Faith.
Conscience, p. 30.
Consistency, p. 65; belongs to ethical theory.
Cooperation, p. 112.
Corners, p. 119; useful in the study of the Northeast Corner.
Cosmogony and Cosmology, p. 125; a treatise of more than 50 pages.
Councils and Synods, p. 179; necessary to an understanding of the history of
the Roman Catholic Church.
and Articles, p. 231; should be read along with the articles on Confessions.
and Punishments, p. 248.
Criminology, p. 305.
p. 324: every Masonic student should read this article.
Crusades, p. 345; all about the Knights Templar, etc.
Culdees, p. 357; some writers have tried to trace Freemasonry back to Culdees.
Cursing and Blessing, p. 367; useful in cations and Oaths.
and Disposal of the Dead, p. 411; a great treatise of one hundred pages
covering all countries.
p. 533; one of the forms of the theory of God.
Deluge, p. 545; useful in a study of Noachite Masonry.
p. 846; read this article in connection with the study of the Ceremony of
p. 40; an interesting subject of costume and dress symbolism.
Druids, p. 82; it was once the custom to credit the Druids with the
establishment of Freemasonry.
Education, p. 166; as developed among twelve peoples.
Egoism, p. 231.
Egyptian Religion, p. 236; this was written by W. M. Flinders Petrie.
Enlightenment, The, p. 310; an account of the rise of modern thought.
Equity, p. 357.
and Truth, p. 366.
Essenes, p. 396; written by James Moffatt.
Eternity, p. 401.
Ethical Discipline, p. 405.
Ethics, p. 414.
and Morality, p. 436: eighty-five pages.
Ethnology, p. 522; gives scientific classification of peoples.
p. 678; contains much folklore material.
Feet-Washing, p. 814; consult this when you study Maundy Thursday.
Principle, p. 827; useful in studying the Lesser Lights.
Festival and Fasts, p. 836.
Fire-gods, p. 26.
Cause, p. 36; philosophical discussion of the idea of God.
Fleece, p. 51; useful in studying the Golden Fleece.
Folklore, p. 57.
Foundation-Rites, p. 109; deals with custom of laying cornerstones, etc.
Freemasonry, p. 118; two and one-half pages by E. L. Hawkins.
Free-Thought, p. 120.
Friendly Societies, p. 127.
Friendship, p. 131.
p. 147; deals with one group of Zoroastrians.
Gallicanism, p. 156.
Guilds, p. 215; the latter half of this article deals with the Roman Collegia.
Girdle, p. 226; important for studying the Cable Tow.
Gnosticism, p. 231; the Knights Templar were accused of Gnosticism.
p. 243; sixty-seven pages.
Rule, p. 310.
and Evil, p. 318.
Government, p. 358.
Religion, 374; has much to say about the Mysteries.
The Holy, p. 385.
Greece, Greek Religion, p. 392.
Orthodox Church, p. 425.
p. 482; the symbolical and ritualistic use of the hand.
Happiness, p. 510.
p. 532; in folklore, symbolism, etc.
p. 556; in symbolism and religion.
Heresy, p. 614; treats of some of the heretical sects of the Middle Ages.
Hermes Trismegistus, p. 686.
Holiness, p. 731; interesting to the Royal Arch Mason.
p. 779; one of the Theological Virtues.
p. 791; its use in symbolism and magic.
Huguenots, p. 823.
p. 889; a chapter in Egyptian History.
Idealism, p. 89.
Ignorance, p. 103.
Immortality, p. 172.
Incense, p. 201; a Scottish Rite student will be interested in this.
p. 209; religions, cults, etc.
Infallibility, p. 256; gives the historical background of the doctrine of
Infinity, p. 282.
Initiation, p. 314, a long treatise on initiation among Buddhists, Greeks,
Hindus, Jews, Parsees, Romans and Tibetans. Introductory section is written by
Count Goblet d'Alviella.
Inquisition, p. 330; its history and doctrines.
Invocation, p. 407.
Israel, p. 439.
Jesuits, p. 500; includes an exceptionally complete bibliography.
Christ, p. 505.
Josephus, p. 569.
Judaism, p. 581; a long treatise by Herbert Loewe.
Kabbala, p. 622; also written by Herbert Loewe.
Kabeiroi, p. 628; one of the ancient mysteries. Often spelled "Kabiri."
Kingdom of God, p. 732.
Kneeling, p. 745.
Landmarks and Boundaries, p. 789.
and Death, p. 1.
and Darkness, p. 27.
Litany, p. 78.
and Keys, p. 120; treats of their symbolical uses
Loyalty, p. 183.
Loyola, p. 188; founder of the Jesuits.
Luther, p. 198.
p. 245; a treatise of seventy-five pages.
Magical Circle, p. 321.
Mahabharata, p. 325; one of the sacred books of India.
Maimonides, p. 340; greatest Jewish philosopher of the Middle Ages.
p. 375; important in the study of magic.
Manichaeism, p. 394; the Abbey Barruel traced Freemasonry back to Manichaeism,
a wild theory.
Massebhah, p. 487; sacred stones and pillars of the Old Testament.
Materialism, p. 488.
Midsummer, p. 601; important for the study of St. John's Day.
Mendelssohn, p. 549; has much to say about Brother Lessing.
Merlin, p. 565; deals with the King Arthur legends.
Messiah, p. 570.
and Minerals, p. 688; throws light on one of the famous incidents of the First
Miracle-Plays, Mysteries, Moralities, p. 690; important in the study of the
Hiram Abiff drama.
Mithraism, p. 752.
Modernism, p. 763; deals with the attempt to establish modern thought inside
Roman Catholic theology.
Molinism, p. 774; the teachings of Molinos, one of the great mystics.
Monotheism, p. 817; the doctrine of one God.
of the Gods, p. 847.
p. 869; as used in ritual and symbolism.
Muhammad, p. 871; frequently spelled Mohammed: founder of Mohammedanism.
Written by D. S. Margoliouth.
Muhammadanism, P. 880.
Mysteries, p. 70.
Mysticism, p. 83.
Mythology, p. 117.
p. 130; a thorough treatise of forty-six pages.
of God, p. 177; deals with the Tetragrammaton.
Naturalism, p. 195.
Neo-Platonism, p. 307.
Numbers, p. 406; in ritual, magic, symbolism, etc.
Occultism, p. 444.
Oddfellows, p. 448.
Office, The Holy, p. 460; about the inquisition.
490; one of the sacred names of Deity in India.
Pantheism, p. 609.
Papacy, p. 620.
p. 640; about the Persian Zoroastrians.
p. 652; famous for his attack on the Jesuits.
Persecution, p. 742.
Phallism, p. 815: on sex worship.
Philanthropy, p. 837.
Phrenology. p. 897.
Sophia, p. 45.
Pleroma, p. 62.
of the Compass, p. 73; a thorough treatise, and exceedingly valuable to the
Masonic student. Contains much about orientation.
and Posts, p. 91; interesting in connection with the Great Pillars.
Polytheism, p. 112; the doctrine of many gods.
Prayer, p. 154.
Wheels, p. 218; written by Count Goblet d'Alviella.
Pre-Existence, p. 236.
Priest, Priesthood, p. 278.
Processions and Dances, p. 356
Profanity, p. 378.
Protestantism, p. 410.
Purification, p. 455; useful in a study of Masonic lustration.
Pythagoras, p. 520.
Quietism, p. 533; one of the schools of mysticism.
p. 538; usually spelled Koran.
Reformation, The, p. 609.
Regalia, p. 632.
Regeneration, p. 639; read this in connection with the Raising of Hiram Abiff.
Religion, p. 662.
Religious Orders, p. 693; useful to a student of the higher grades.
Righteousness, p. 777.
religion, p. 820; the religion of the ancient Roman people. Wlitten by W.
Rosicrucians, p. 856; written by Arthur C. Jones.
Russian Church, p. 867.
Salutations, p. 104.
Samaritans, p. 161.
Satanism, p. 203.
Societies, p. 287; a treatise in twenty pages and six parts.
Serpent Worship, p. 399.
Sleepers, p. 428; an old legend sometimes found in Masonic books. Seven
Virtues, p. 430; contains a section on the Cardinal Virtues.
Shekinah, p. 450.
and Sandals, p. 474.
Sibylline Oracles, p. 496.
Magus, p. 514.
and Sky Gods, p. 580.
Socialism, p. 634.
Stones, p. 864.
Strangers. p. 883.
p. 10; a school of Mohammedan mystics.
Bonum, p. 44; the doctrine of the greatest good.
Moon and Stars, p. 48; a wonderful treatise of 50pages.
Superstition, p. 120.
Swedenborg, p. 129.
Symbolism, p. 134.
p. 181; often spelled "Taboo."
p. 187; an Asiatic nature god.
Taoism, p. 197; one of the three great religions of China.
Tatuing, p. 208; usually spelled "tattooing."
Temples, p. 236.
p. 259; a secret society of criminals which existed a long time in India.
Theism, p. 261; the philosophical doctrine of the personal God.
Theology, p. 293.
Theosophical Society, p. 300.
Therapeutae, p. 315; see THE BUILDER, December, 1921 page 365.
Toleration, p. 360.
Totemism, p. 393.
Tradition, p. 411.
Transmigration, p. 425: an article in eight parts.
and Plants, p. 448; read this in connection with the Acacia.
Trinity, p. 458; the
Christian doctrine of God.
Typology, p. 600; read
this in connection with the article on symbolism.
Under world, p. 516.
Universality, p. 535.
Upanisads, p. 640; a
Sanskrit treatise much venerated in India
Vampire, p. 589,
Brother Dudley Wright's book on this subject is listed in the bibliography.
Vedanta, p. 597; the
most widespread of the six philosophical systems of the Brahmans.
Vedic Religion, p. 601;
a religion founded on the Vedas.
Voltaire, p. 627.
Vows, p. 644.
Waldenses, p. 663.
Water, Water Gods, p.
Western Church, p. 727;
"The epithet 'Western' differentiates the Church of the West, or Roman
Catholic Church, from that of the East, known as the Holy Orthodox Church."
Wisdom, p. 742.
Word, p. 749.
Worship, p. 752.
Yoga, p. 831.
Zionism, p. 865.
Zohar, p. 868; the
greatest of the Kabbalistical books.
Zoroastrianism, p. 862.
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By Bro. D. D.
Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.: "Realities of Masonry," Blake,
1879; "Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons," Condor, 1894;
"Masonic Bibliography," Carson, 1873; "Origin of Freemasonry," Paine, 1811.
By Bro. G. Alfred
Lawrence, 142 West 86th St., New York, N. Y.: Proceedings of the Scottish Rite
Body founded by Joseph Cerneau in New York City in 1808, of which De Witt
Clinton was the first Grand Commander, and which body became united, in 1867,
with the Supreme Council of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, A. & A. S. R.
Also Proceedings of the Supreme Council founded in New York by De La Motta, in
1813, by authority of the Southern Supreme Council, of which he was Grand
Treasurer-General, these Proceedings from 1813 to 1860.
By Bro. Frank R.
Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.: "The Year Book," published by
the Masonic Constellations, containing the History of the Grand Council, R. &
S. M., of Missouri.
By Brother Silas H.
Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin: "Catalogue of the Masonic Library of Samuel
Lawrence"; "Second Edition of Preston's Ellustrations of Masonry"; "The Source
of Measures," by J. Ralston Skinner 1875, or second edition 1894"Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum," volumes I to XI, inclusive; "Masonic Facts and Fictions," by
Henry Sadler; "The Kabbalah Unveiled," by S. L. MacGregor Mathers.
By Bro. Ernest E. Ford,
305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California: Ars Quatuor Coronatorum,
volumes 3, 6 and 7, with St. John's Cards, also St. John's Cards for volumes 4
and 6; "Masonic Review," early volumes; "Voice of Masonry," early volumes;
Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction for the years 1882 and
1886; Original Proceedings of The General Grand Encampment linights Templar
for the years 1826 and 1835.
By Bro. George A.
Lanzarotti, Casilla 126, Rancagua, Chile: All kinds of Masonic literature in
Spanish. Write first quoting prices.
By Brother L. Rask, 14
Alvey St., Schenectady, N. Y.: "Remarks upon Alchemy and the Alchemists," by
E. A. Hitchcock, Janesville, N. Y., about 1865; "Secret Societies of all
Ages," Heckethorn; "Lost Language of Symbology," by Harold Bayley, published
by Lippincott; "Sacred Hermeneutics," by Davidson, Edinburgh, 1843; "Solar
System of the Ancients Discovered," by J. Wilson, published by Longmans Co.,
London, 1856; "The Alphabet," by Isaac Taylor, Kegan, Paul, Trench & Co.,
1883, or the edition of 1899 published by Scribners, New York; "Anacalypsis,"
by Geodfrey Higgins, 1836, published by Green & Longmans, London; "Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum," any volume or volumes.
By Bro. J. H. Tatsch,
Union Bank & Trust Co., Los Angeles, Calif.: Fascilus 2, "Cementaria Hibernica,"
by Chetwode Crawley; Volumes 1, 2, 5 and 8, Quatuor Coronati Antigrapha; "Some
Memorials of Globe Lodge No. 23," Henry Sadler; "Constitutions of the
Freemasons," Hughan, 1869; "Numerical and Medallic Register of Lodges," Hughan,
1878; "History of the Appolo Lodge and the R. A., York," Hughan, 1894; any
items on AntiMasonry, especially tracts, handbills, posters, old newspapers,
almanacs, etc., relating to Morgan incident, 1826-1840, and recurrence of same
from 1870 to 1885.
By Bro. J. H. Tatsch,
Union Bank & Trust Co., Los Angeles, Calif.: Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Volumes
6 to 26, in parts as issued, with St. John Cards; "Masonic Reprints and
Revelations," Sadler; "The Natural History of Staffordshire," Dr. Robert Plot,
1686, folio; "The History of Freemasonry," Robert Freke Gould, Yorston
edition, 4 volumes; "History of Freemasonry in Europe," Emmanuel Rebold, 1867;
"Bibliographie der Freimaurerischen Literatur," August Wolfsteig, 1911-13, two
volumes and register, paper, as issued; "History of Freemasonry," Mackey, 7
volumes; "History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders," Hughan and Stillson;
facsimile engraving Picard's "Les Francmassons," 1735, fine copy.
By Brother A. A.
Burnand, 690 South Bronson Ave., Los Angeles, California: Various Masonic
publications including such as a complete set of "Ars Quatuor Coronatorum";
"History of Freemasonry in Scotland," by D. Murray Lyon, (original edition);
Thomas Dunckerley, Laurence Dermott, etc.
By Brother Frank R.
Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.: "History of Freemasonry,"
Mitchell, 2 volumes, sheep; "History of Freemasonry," Robert Freke Gould, 4
volumes, cloth, in good condition; "History of Freemasonry," Albert G. Mackey,
7 volumes, linen cloth, new; Addison's "Knights Templar," Macoy, 1 volume,
cloth; "Museum of Antiquity," Yaggy, 1 volume, morocco; "History and
Cyclopedia of Freemasonry," Macoy and Oliver, new, full morocco. Also
SCHOOL NUMBER OF "THE BUILDER"
The August issue of THE
BUILDER will be a PUBLIC SCHOOL NUMBER. Features of this number will be a
symposium of opinion of the Public School question by a majority of the Grand
Masters of the United States and leading articles by Brother Horace M. Towner,
father of the Sterling-Towner Bill, Brother Samuel Gompers, President of the
American Federation of Labor, and Brother William F. Russell, Dean of
Education, University of Iowa. Tell your Masonic friends about this issue.
THE BUILDER is an open
forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its contributors writes under
his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society, as
such, does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
another, but offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction,
leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.
The Question Box and
Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at all times.
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from our
members, particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
following our "Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions
will be answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
From paragraphs in
various numbers of THE BUILDER I have gathered that you do not wish to overdo
the subject of Roman Catholics and their ways, nevertheless I am writing to
ask of you as a favor that you will furnish me with the oaths that are
administered to Jesuits. Please maks sure to give me the legitimate oath,not
some wild thing published on hearsay. I shall thank you very much. D. L. K.,
Jesuit oaths are found
recorded in the Constitutionis Societatis Jesu, Part V, chapters 3 and 4. It
would also be well for you to consult "The History of the Jeeuits," by
Nicolini, Bohn Edition, 1854, pp. 47-52. According to the Jesuits' own laws
the first oath is administered to the individual after he has passed a
novitiate of two years; it is the oath that makes him a "student," or
"scholastic." It is here given in full:
God! I, N. N., although most unworthy in thy divine sight, yet relying on thy
infinite pity and compassion, and impelled by the desire of serving thee, vow,
in the presence of the most Holy Virgin Mary and thy universal court of
heaven, perpetual poverty, chastity, and obedience in the Society of Jesus to
thy divine Majesty; and I promise to enter the same society, and live in it
perpetually, understanding all things according to the Constitution of the
Society itself. Of thy boundless goodness and mercy through the blood of Jesus
Christ I hereby pray that thou wilt deign to accept this sacrifice (holocaustum)
in the odor of sweetness; and as thou hast granted the desiring and offering
of this, so wilt thou give thy abundant grape for the fulfillment."
After from eight to
fifteen years of labor as a "scholastic" the Jesuit passes on to the grade of
"Coadjutor," and accordingly takes the oath that follows:
"I, N. N., promise to
Almighty God before his Virgin Mother and the whole court of heaven, and to
thee, Reverend Father, President-General of the Society of Jesus, holding the
place of God, and to thy successors, or to thee Reverend Father, in the place
of the President-General of the Society of Jesus, and to his successors,
holding the place of God, perpetual poverty, chastity, and obedience, and
according to it (i. e., the obedience) special care in the education of boys,
according to the mode set down in the Apostolic Letters and in the
Constitutions of the said Society."
Such vows are called
"simple," or "dispensable," and one who has taken them may, for sufficient
cause, leave the Order; not so with the next vow, which is called the vow of
the "professed"; it is binding for life. Those who have taken this obligation
constitute the fourth class and are called "professi." They are the real
"I, N. N., make
profession and promise to Almighty God, before his Virgin Mother and the
universal court of heaven and all standing by, and to thee, Reverend Father,
President-General of the Society of Jesus, holding the place of God, and to
thy successors or to thee, Reverend Father, Vice-President-General of the
Society of Jesus, and to his successors holding the place of God, perpetual
poverty, chastity, and obedience, and according to it peculiar care for the
instruction of children, according to the method of living contained in the
Apostolic Letters of the Society of Jesus and in its Constitutions. In
addition I promise special obedience to the chief Pontiff in regard to
missions, so far as may be contained in the same Apostolic Letters and
In some cases a
"professed" is not compelled to take the vow covering missions, but all must
take in addition to the above the following oath. The first part of this last
oath repeats much of the one preceding and is omitted to save space:
"I, N. N., promise that
I shall never for any reason do or consent that what is ordained about poverty
in the Constitution of the Society shall be changed, unless when from just
cause of things impelling poverty should seem to be better restricted.
Further, I promise that I shall never by any act or pretense even indirectly
seek or move for any honor or dignity of the Society. Further, I promise that
I shall never care for nor seek any honor or dignity outside of the Society,
nor consent to my election, unless compelled by obedience to him who can
enjoin me under penalty of sin. Besides, if I should know of anyone who cares
for or seeks the aforesaid honors, I promise to divulge him and the whole case
to the Society or the President. In addition, I promise, if it should ever
happen that for some reason I should be advanced to be president (or bishop)
of any church, for the care which I owe to the salvation of my soul and to the
right administration of the matter imposed upon me, the President-General of
the Society having for me in that place and number, that I shall never refuse
to hear the counsel which he or any of the Society whom he may substitute for
himself deigns to give me. I promise always to yield to counsels of this kind
if I judge them better than those which come to my own mind understanding
everything according to the Constitutions and declarations of the Society of
* * *
THE "LOST WORD"
I would like to get a
book or two on The Lost Word. If you know of such editions let me know. I once
saw a reference to a book entitled The Lost Word Found by Dr. Buck. Is this
book available? R.E.M., Texas.
You might be able to
find a copy of Dr. Buck's book through any good second hand book store, but
the volume would now be of little value, because it is a presentation of the
claims of TK, and TK's claims, as you know, collapsed. If you have access to
the books you will find in the two volumes of A. E. Waite's The Secret
Tradition in Freemasonry many references to the doctrine of the Lost Word
which, if you will consider them in their totality, furnish a complete account
of the matter. In THE BUILDER for February 1915 you will find the subject
dealt with by W.F. Kuhn. In November of the same year, on page 271, you will
find quite a lengthy article on The Ineffable Name by George W. Warvelle. THE
BUILDER for June 1916 contains an article by A. E. Waite in which he briefly
summarizes the legend. In an article on The Legendary Origin of Freemasonry,
on page 297 of the issue for November 1919, Dudley Wright deals with the
subject in a few paragraphs. A more extended treatment of the subject will be
found in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin sections of THE BUILDER for
February and for May of 1920, especially the latter, in which the writings of
many men are summarized. Mackey's Encyclopedia contains a short article
entitled "Lost Word." Albert Pike's "Morals and Dogma" may be consulted to
advantage, as may also any good treatment of the Kabbala. In looking through
books on this subject always be sure to consult all references to "The
Tetragrammaton" and "The Letter 'G"' as well to "The Lost Word."
* * *
GUIDE TO ROGER BACON
l have occasion to
prepare a paper on Roger Bacon ("Roger," you will note, not "Francis") and I
should like to be referred to something simple and brief, as I am always hard
put to find time to read. G. H., New York.
For your purpose it
would be difficult to find anything better than The Open Court magazine for
August, 1914. The entire number is devoted to Roger Bacon and contains
articles on Roger Bacon by Paul Carus; Biography of Roger Bacon; The Two
Bacons, by Ernest Duhring; Roger Bacon the Philosopher by Alfred H. Lloyd;
Roger Bacon as a Scientist, by Karl E. Guthe; and Roger Bacon, Logician and
Mathematician, by Philip E. B. Jourdain. You will find everything you need
inside the compass of these various articles.
* * *
AFFILIATIONS OF MEMBERS OF CONGRESS
I have been requested
by our Study Club leader to report to our Club what are the church
affiliations of the members of the U. S. Congress. I have not been able to
find the infor nation anywhere; can you furnish it to me? S.P.Y., Indiana.
The Methodist Church
made an investigation of the subject with the following results:
Out of a total of 435
members of congress 24 are non-members, and church affiliation of 98 could not
be ascertained. The following are the church affiliations:
Mormon, Independent, Mennonite, Dutch Reformed, Evangelical have one member
each. There are two Universalists. There are three members of the Quaker
church and three of the Jewish church. Five Unitarians, 10 Disciples, 10
Lutherans, 11 Christians, 18 Catholics, 23 Congregationalists, 35
Episcopalians, 29 Baptists, 56 Presbyterians and 99 Methodists.
In the senate the
survey showed that out of a total of 96 senators the church affiliation of 23
was unknown and only four were non-members. There was one Protestant
Episcopalian, one Christian. The Lutherans, Dutch Reformed, Unitarians and
Mormans all have two members each. There are 6 Catholics and 6 Baptists, 7
Congregationalists, 11 Presbyterians, 12 Episcopalians and 17 Methodists.
* * *
DAUGHTERS OF THE NILE
Will you kindly furnish
me with some information about the woman's organization known as The Daughters
of the Nile ?
The above query was
referred to Mrs. Edith E. Gattis, Supreme Queen of the Order, whose address is
317 West Blaine Street, Seattle; in reply she has very obligingly given us the
"The Daughters of the
Nile is an institution composed of Shriners' wives, daughters, mothers,
sisters and widows, and is one of the loftiest institutions in the world
today, composed strictly of women. Masonry was screened of its best, giving
the purest and noblest ideals, to which womankind could subscribe and abide
by. We have at the present time temples scattered throughout the United
States, also Canada, and very soon a temple will be organized in the
Phillipines. The present temples are Hatasu No. 1, Seattle; Tirzah, No. 2,
Butte, Montana; Miriam, No. 3, Victoria, B.C.; Nydia, No. 4, Portland, Oregon;
Zora, No. 5, Tacoma, Washington; El Karnak, No. 6, Spokane; Lotus, No. 7,
Duluth, Minnesota; Zenobia, No. 8, Chicago, IIIinois; Zuleika, No. 9,
Binghampton, New York; Pyramid, No. 10, Davenport, Iowa; Netiken, No. 11, Des
Moines, Iowa; Mokattum No. 12, Los Angeles, California; Zuleima, No. 13,
"These temples can only
be organized where a Shrine Temple exists, and they are known as Hatasu Temple
No. 1, Daughters of the Nile, and the Daughters of the Nile is added to each
of the above names I have quoted, just as we would say, 'Nile Temple,
A.A.O.N.M.S.' We elect our members to membership before we invite, - in other
words, membership cannot be solicited, and in this way we keep our membership
to the highest standard of womankind. I might add at this time that it was my
privilege and pleasure this last May to initiate Mrs. Warren G. Harding, the
wife of the President, into the order of The Daughters of the Nile. She favors
the organization very much, and is proud to be classed as a member. I might
further add that the membership throughout the nation is equally exclusive and
any community is benefitted by this organization I would be very glad to give
you further information.
"I enclose a copy of
one of my addresses made a few years past, that will give you perhaps a more
full idea of its purpose and aim, and I would add that this organization is
composed of the best women on earth, regardless of their high standing before
they come into the order: the standard of ideals taught are so high that our
new initiates will at once become bigger, better and broader women. I cannot
say too much in favor of the institution, and recommend it to all worthy
women, and urge the organization of a temple in every eligible district to
give our best women the opportunity and advantage of such an organization.
Edith E. Grattis, Washington."
* * *
CONCERNING THE HUGUENOTS
Can you give me the
title of a good history of the Huguenots? My ancestors for several generations
belonged to that blood and faith. Have any of them ever figured in
"The Rise of the
Huguenots," in two volumes, by H. M. Baird, published by Scribner's in 1883,
is generally accepted as the history on the subject. You can find it in almost
any public library. "French Blood in America," by Lucian J. Fosdick, and
published by Fleming H. Revell Co., is also very good; it contains a chapter
on the Huguenots and Freemasonry. Yes, they have figured much in the forefront
of Freemasonry, as you will learn from the chapter just mentioned. Paul Revere
was a Huguenot.
* * *
OF MASONIC TOPICS
I should like to "read
up" on Freemasonry but I find it difficult to find out the various subjects.
Can you furnish me with a list of Masonic topics? L.J.P., Idaho.
This is a very
incomplete list, drawn up at random, and offered as being merely suggestive.
The best way to get a line on the topics of Masonic study is to run through
the pages of some good Masonic Encyclopedia and note the headings, Primitive
Secret Societies, The Men's House, The Ancient Mysteries, Isis and Osiris,
Mithraism, Magna Mater, Eleusinian Mysteries, King Solomon's Temple, Dionysian
Artificers, King Hiram of Tyre, The Roman Collegia, The Comacini, The
Cathedral Builders, Craft Guilds, Operative Masonry, Non-Operative Masonry,
Speculative Masonry, Decline of Operative Masonry, Occultism, Hermeticism,
Rosicrucianism, Kabbalism, The Old Charges, The Knights Templar, The Revival
of Masonry, The Modern Grand Lodge, The Ancient Grand Lodge, The Grand Lodge
of All England, Military Lodges, The Union of 1813, Negro Masonry, The
Founding of Masonry in Various Countries, Steinmetzen, Compagnonnage, The
Druids, The Culdees, Symbolism, Ritualism, Divergencies of Ritual, Degrees
Theory, Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, Master Mason, The Assembly, Theory
of Grand Lodges, The Apron, The Three Great Lights, The Three Lesser Lights,
The Square and Compasses, Circumambulation, The Letter "G", The Lost Word, The
Middle Chamber, The Orders of Architecture, Approaching the East, The Lion's
Paw, Working Tools, Obligation, Qualifications, Hiram Abiff, The Raising,
Preparation, All-seeing Eye, Tetragrammaton, Masonic Jurisprudence, The
Theories of Jurisdiction, Masonic Criminal Procedure, Prerogatives of Masonic
Officials, Philosophy of Masonry, Equality, Liberty, Fraternity, Masonic
Ethics, Immortality, Democracy, Christopher Wren, Ashmole, Dugdale, James
Anderson, Dr. Desaguliers, Laurence Dermott, William Preston, Dr Geo. Oliver,
Wm. Hutchinson, Thos. Smith Webb, Jeremy Cross, Albert Pike, Theo. Sutton
Parvin, Masonic Music. Masonic Poetry, Masonic Journalism, Masonic Oratory.
LEGENDS AND TRADITIONS" ONCE MORE
You review of Brother
Dudley Wright's book, "Masonic Legends and Traditions," in the February number
of THE BUILDER interested me. I wonder if the readers of THE BUILDER would not
be interested to read a review of the same book that appeared in The Occult
Review and that was written by Brother A. E. Waite, who has had articles in
THE BUILDER. I am sending you the clipping and ask you to print it. The review
was published last October.
J. Hingley, Illinois.:
BROTHER A. E. WAITE'S REVIEW
"By a process of
exhaustion, we have most of us reached the conclusion, or have accepted as a
working hypothesis, that the Hiramic Myth of Craft Masonry was first
formulated in the years which followed immediately the foundation of Grand
Lodge in 1717. It is not for such reason to be regarded a lying fable; on the
contrary it is comparable to Bacon's New Atlantis or Bunyan's Pilgrim's
Progress, in the sense that it is a morality, a tale possessed and permeated
by an allegorical motive. It belongs in this sense to symbolism, and is part
as such of the speculative Masonic system. It is neither of history nor
tradition, and it has been allocated to these in the past only by minds devoid
of critical gifts. Insofar as it is a myth with a meaning there is a broad
sense in which it seems to have been framed on the Ancient Mysteries, the
death and resurrection of the god. When the high grades developed there were
some which emerged in the direct sense from the central story of the Craft,
but their makers knew nothing, unfortunately, of the old mystery pageants and
them were among those who took the Hiramic Myth literally. There rose up in
this manner a series of barren grades, embodying further fables to extend the
original story; but unlike this they were stories without a meaning. There was
no morality "veiled in allegory" or "illustrated by symbols." In his account
of Masonic Legends Brother Wright has eschewed these things of imposition and
vanity, which might have filled his volume easily, and has had recourse to the
curious storehouse of the Old English Constitutions and to accessible
rabbinical sources. To those who are not Masons his collection is almost sure
to be new, and perhaps as much may be said of the rank and file in the
Brotherhood. There are chapters on the Temple of Solomon in lore and legend,
on Solomonic traditions, On Hiram King of Tyre, Hiram Abiff and even the Queen
of Sheba, for whom a niche has been found - for better, for worse,
as it may be -
in Masonic archives. It should be understood that these things belong to the
lighter side and the accidents of a great subject, but they have their place
on its outskirts, and they are left here to produce their own impression,
without discussion of their value. There are a few which have an aspect of
importance which will appeal only to students as they connect with the Secret
Tradition imported by Freemasonry from old antecedent sources."
Many thanks, Brother
Hingley, for calling our attention to so interesting a review of an excellent
little book. Meanwhile our readers will care to know that The Occult Review is
a monthly journal devoted to the occult and to the esoteric that is published
by William Rider and Sons, Cathedral House, Paternoster Row, E. C., London,
England, and is edited by Ralph Shirley. It is the leading English journal of
THINGS IN GENERAL
Being a Fraternal Forum
in miniature as carried on through the mails among Brother David E. W.
Williamson, Brother R. J. Lemert, and H. L. Haywood, the last named acting as
chairman. It is herewith presented in dialog form - or should one say triolog?
- and published for the good of the Order. If any brother wishes to put in a
word on the matters discussed in this melange let him not hesitate to do so;
he will find himself in good company.
EXCAVATIONS ON THE TEMPLE SITE AT JERUSALEM
D.E.W.W. - Just a line.
In THE BUILDER it was stated I think in the last number, that nothing had been
done about excavations on the Temple site at Jerusalem. This is wholly correct
and it might have been added that there is little prospect of anything being
done, owing to the certainty that the first move would call forth a howl from
all faiths and sects. But I notice in the Quarterly Statement of the Palestine
Exploration Fund for October (London, just at hand) that Professor Sayce, in
the Expository Times for August, has an article on the Temple Mount. This
publication is a new one to me. I shall try to get it through Stetcher, New
York. The Quarterly Statement merely prints two lines that Sayce has such an
article in such a publication.
H. L. H. - Brother
Haydon has sent in a clipping from Adventure, I don't recall what issue, to
the effect that an Austrian - named Grim as I recall it - did, more or less
surreptitiously, do some excavating. The story sounds more or less apocryphal
- more rather than less - but I shall wait to learn about the matter in detail
with some interest. As to Sayce, he is a bit persona non grata with me. Years
ago I purchased a volume of his that determined me to purchase no more. He is
warped by theological presuppositions, it appeared to me, and reminded me of
the saying of Ole John Burroughs about Henry Drummond, that Drummond "tried to
prove that God is a Presbyterian." But if Sayce has written anything on the
subject I shall be glad to see it. He is formidable if not convincing.
IDEAL MASONIC HISTORY
(H.L.H. wrote to R.J.L.
and to D.E.W.W. to ask them their opinions about what a Masonic History should
be, in order that he might have the advantage of their advice on his own
venture in that line.)
R.J.L. - You ask me a
question that I've been asking myself for years - my ideal of a Masonic
History. Heaven knows! I've been wanting to write one, too, for a long while;
and I have made two or three starts, only to chuck the whole thing up in
disgust each time. I have pretty nearly everything that has been written, I
think, and it is almost impossible to prepare a work that is worth printing
without threshing over old straw. Still, I am not in the least satisfied with
any of the histories on the market. Even Newton couldn't keep
a lot of
questionable stuff out - stuff that is wholly unjustified. There are some
excellent points about the works of Vibert, Armitage and McBride.
I have an idea,
however, that I propose to develop one of these days - a book to be entitled,
probably, "Essentials of Masonic History." In fact, I have a lot of the
manuscript licked into condition now - a holdover of a time some four years
ago when I had some time hanging heavily upon me. It will be a sort of
amplification of the theory laid down in my "Ancestors" - a series of
thumb-nail sketches of each of the various elements which in my opinion have
contributed to the making of modern Masonry: a short chapter, for instance, in
prehistoric building, particularly of sacred and public structures, in the
different lands; a statement of the facts, so far as ascertainable, regarding
the various Mystery systems, with a supplementary statement of the deductions
that may reasonably flow from the known facts; the same thing as regards the
Dionysian Artificers and the Essenes and the Culdees and the School of
Alexandria, and the various Pythagorean and Platonian schools of thought, and
the Collegia and the Magistri Comacini, and the ancient vestiges of building
art and traditions in Britain and on the Continent; the Johannites and the
Manicheans and the Vaudois; the Templars and what they may have picked up in
the south; the Rosicrucians, the Alchemists, the Troubadours, the old
Theosophists and mystics and the Hermetists and all that sort of thing. lt
will be a sort of scrapbook, I suspect, but I'll try to clear up a lot of
misconceptions, poke around in a lot of dark corners, give a lot of cold
facts, and label any of my own or others' speculations for exactly what they
It may not appeal to
any vast number of people, but I'll have a lot of fun doing it, and I'll drag
out in the open a lot of stuff that isn't available to the ordinary reader
I wish to goodness that
some chap would find it possible to dig down into the facts surrounding the
condition of the Craft at and before the formation of the Grand Lodge of
London in 1717. I am absolutely convinced, in my own mind, that that whole
transaction was a colossal fraud, although I can't get quite through my head
the peculiar variety of hypnosis by which Anderson and his colleagues put the
thing over. I'd bet the best goosenest I ever saw that the Third Degree was
known and was being worked long, long before 1717; and then I'd gamble my
reversion in the aforesaid goosenest that it wasn't known to the Grand Lodge
of London some years afterward. I have the strongest sort of hunch that the
"Ancients" were pretty much on the square, and that that bunch were in more or
less legitimate possession of a much richer Masonry, from the ritualistic
standpoint, at least, than Anderson's people, and that it probably came from
Ireland. The problem of Stuart Masonry has always intrigued me (pardon me, but
I like to use that word at least once in each letter; it's so delightfully
mouthfilling), and I don't mind saying that I have a good deal of admiration
for our ancient and querulous friend, John Yarker - peace to his ashes - even
if he was an arrant old rebel.
I have an idea that the
Irish lodges - and maybe some on western English soil, as at Bristol, for
instance - worked the Third much as we do; and that the Anderson lodges, when
they finally got the dope on that work, merely illustrated it, much as the
Emulation and similar workings do today. There can't be much doubt that French
Masonry sprang from the Grand Lodge of London, although I think there was
Masonry in France of the Irish variety in 1688 and from that time on until the
rise of the Emperors of the East and West and the other elements which later
fused into the Rite of Perfection. But this, the Stuart Masonry, was
apparently kept in the background, the popular variety being that fathered by
Anderson and his friends. Now I have a number of exposes printed in France
from 1746 on. Clearly they were of the dominant Masonry, or the English
Masonry; and a most significant thing is that the Third Degree, which is
described most fully, and rather elaborately pictured, does not work the
tragedy, but merely exemplifies it, a la Emulation et al.
(The design that R.J.L.
laid out upon the trestle board made H.L.H. feel rather humble. "Who is equal
to such things ? " To his humbleness was added despair when he received from
D.E.W.W. his specifications.)
D.E.W.W. - I am not
competent, I fear, even to offer a suggestion at to what a short history of
Freemasonry should include. It seems to me, though, that it ought not to be
controversial, as all Gould's writings are. What the inquiring Freemason wants
to know is first whence he came and why from such a lodge. That, it seems,
should be answered with a concise statement of, first the organizing of
Freemasonry in London and environs between 1717 and 1723 under a Grand Lodge,
secondly the existence of Freemasonry in Scotland as shown by historical
records and in Ireland by assumption from that speech at Trinity college
quoted in Gould, as well as at York and other cities in England outside of the
jurisdiction of the London Grand Lodge. This Masonry outside of London was
organized into Grand Lodges - Ireland, I believe, in 1725; Scotland in 1736
and York about the same time or earlier, as well as a Grand Lodge under the
Scottish constitution in London. Mention of Masonry outside of London would
include the Ashmole references, the Randell Holme writings, the Tattler
quotations and the statement about Christopher Wren. In this way of starting
you would follow the Aristotelian rule of plunging at once into the midst of
things. Possible derivations might be considered as your second chapter or
even be placed in ah appendix - referring to the Comacines, the Cathedral
Builders, the Essenes, the Ancient Mysteries, the Mithraic cult, the Druses,
the Knightly Templar, the Culdees, the Kabbala. America deserves a better and
broader consideration at the hands of historians than she has yet received and
Freemasonry in the United States, if I may offer this advice, should be given
credit for existence as early as most of the "time immemorial" lodges in
England, if not in Ireland.
We know that Franklin
was raised up in some lodge - whence did it draw its authority? The same way
with the lodge in which Washington was raised. These lodges existed without a
doubt and, if they were "working" it is reasonable to believe that others were
doing the same thing. To get at a broader understanding of Freemasonry and its
scope in the first half of the eighteenth century may not be so difficult
after all, as I think there are good histories of the Craft in Pennsylvania
and Massachusetts, possibly also in Virginia, from which it might be possible
to extract much information. As far as New York is concerned, if the history
written by Brother Ossian Lang and published last year in the Masonic Standard
is a fair account of all that is available there, it is not encouraging, but I
fear Brother Lang has not achieved all that is possible. Reading the little he
was able to give us it seems to me that no practical newspaper writer could
fail to see the strong, dramatic possibilities of the story that could be
written on the documents that plainly were in the hands of Brother Lang.
Freemasonry in the
Colonies as the War of the Revolution affected it can only be glimpsed, but
from the time of what might be called the reorganization of the Grand Lodges
you would have a clear field if through the members of the National Masonic
Research Society, whose services could be made available in the different
jurisdictions, you would get a narrative of the work in those jurisdictions.
The summarizing would be some job, I'll concede, but it would produce in
concise, easily comprehended form a credible history - something we lack now.
Through a Montana brother some time ago I obtained the loan of a book on the
work of Freemasonry and the Chapter, written by a person who gave the name of
Malcolm Duncan, probably a pseudonym - if not, it should be. In the back part
of this expose (I read every one of them I can get hold of and have been
promised the loan of some from France) is an account of the spread of the
ritual in the United States, alleged to have been taken from an address by a
Grand Master of Vermont. I am sorry I have not the book at this moment, or I
would copy this for you, but any second-hand store in Los Angeles has the
Duncan book for sale and the Society headquarters at Anamosa undoubtedly
possesses a copy. It is said to be as common and widely circulated as the
Jabez Richardson work. However, the inquiring newly-made Mason wants to know
about the ritual and he should be told something reasonable, and he might at
least be told that, since the present "work" in England was adopted as a
compromise between the Ancients and the Moderns in 1813 (and that there are
three versions there, as you pointed out in the last number of THE BUILDER -
Emulation, Stability and Oxford), the stamp of greater antiquity certainly
rests upon the "work" closely followed with slight differences in American
jurisdictions. He might be told that Pennsylvania is sui generis and is close
to the present English work, that Massachusetts is probably as close to the
original Webb work as any Grand Lodge but that New York insists on being
closer, while Virginia and Louisiana each pretends to trace direct to the
fountain head, but that those who really know declare that Illinois and
Indiana, Michigan and the Middle West are the real thing. And our Californian
brothers should consider themselves lucky if let of without mention, because
they got their original standard from four different jurisdictions and it is
only some fifteen years since they failed to improve it by rearranging it
altogether. For instance, basing their statement on what is universally
admitted to have been a misdrawing in the original Jeremy Cross chart, they
tell the newly obligated Master Mason that a Master Mason should wear his
apron with the right corner turned up but they go on to explain that it isn't
done, you know. I'm not saying much about Nevada. We use the New York standard
Just how much space to
devote to the Compagnonnage de la Tour de France I do not know. Since you
mentioned tracing Gould on one topic to a source that proved untrustworthy or
at least unworthy of serious consideration, I have been thinking that perhaps
Gould has given too much weight to Perdiguer's account. It is virtually all we
have and none of the manuscripts spoken of by Perdiguer has ever been traced
in the eighty years since the book was published. But the Compagnonnage, of
course, ought to be mentioned somewhere in your second chapter or as an
appendix, itself. In my belief that we shall find someday the origin of the
legend in the monasteries, I have depended much on this Compagnonnage story,
but candidly I'm beginning to be rather skeptical.
If A. E. Waite were not
such a terribly involved and tedious writer, one could read his volume on "The
Secret Tradition" and get a very fair idea of the origin of what we in this
country call the York Rite as well as the Scottish Rite and the various other
existing versions of the work. But it
is out of the
question. Every young Mason is early given to understand that the "higher"
degrees offer a rich reward. Hence, a short Masonic history ought to tell
something about the Royal Arch and its attachments, the Cryptic rites, the
Knights Templar on the one hand, and the Scottish Rite, with its wide
influence, on the other. Every published book on the Chapter in the United
States is definitely and unquestionably wrong in assuming that the Royal Arch
was ever a part of the Third Degree, according to the investigations on this
subject published by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. As for the Templars, the only
reasonable account of them, so far as Masonry is concerned, was published in
the same lodge's publications in 1913, by Chetwood Crawley.
And, as to the Scottish
Rite, something should be said about the refusal of English, Scotch, Irish and
many American Grand Lodges to recognize the Grand-Orient of France. The Mason
should be told why.
would spoil your book. Five or six at most ought to be enough and they should
avoid the rut that we have got into in the United States in all the Macoy
publications - a picture of George Washington, one of Lafayette, Washington's
apron, General Warren, occasionally one of Benjamin Franklin. These are about
worn out. A live group of eminent Past Grand Masters of today would be far
more likely to catch the student's eye. (Excuse me if I speak dogmatically -
it’s a daily habit of me in my work.)
LEGEND OF THE THIRD DEGREE
(In a letter of some
weeks back D.E.W.W. had urged the theory that our Third Degree drama had
probably sprung from some of the old monastic ceremonies. When asked by H.L.H.
to amplify the idea he sent the following.)
Well, let me take up as
briefly as I can "The Case for the Monasteries." The diegesis of the
Halliwell, or Regius, manuscript and the Cooke manuscript believed by all
editors to have been written by some learned monk - mannerisms those of
monasteries, as seen in Ranulf's "Polychronicon." Indications of these oldest
manuscripts of Masonry are that they were composed for the edification or
instruction of a lodge of Masons at work on the monastery, abbey or church at
the time. The legend of the Third Degree is common to English, Irish and
Scottish Masons and is found, in slightly altered form, in the Compagnonnage.
Gould says the Compagnonnage derives the story from "The same sources of
origin as our own Freemasonry." What were those sources? Except the church,
the people of England and France in the Middle Ages had nothing in common. It
was the center of social life as well as the repository of what learning
existed. There was no education among the people in general, as we understand
the term and there was little or no travel. Such travelers as there were had
no place to go except to the monasteries for food and lodging and the
travelers, we know, were welcomed by the monks to whom they told the news of
the day and with whom they exchanged gossip and the latest songs and stories.
Those who traveled from place to place were principally the masons and
builders and thus they had
access to the
learning and literature of the most widely disseminated fraternity ever known
- the fraternity of the Roman Catholic Church. Since the Masons of England and
those of France both had a legend dealing with Hiram, the artifices it is a
fair assumption that they obtained it from the one common source - to-wit: the
There may be some
significance to the fact the Compagnonnage connects the town of Arles with the
legend and this Arles of Provence was a famous center of religious dramas and
it has more than once occurred to me that our ancient charges with their
mention of such names as "Tuball" and "Noe" and "Euclid" and so forth and the
general spirit of the "history" were written by some monk - the only person
who could write at all at that period - who had before him, as he composed the
lecture, a mental picture of one of those pageants for which the Middle Ages
were famous. Then you may have observed that these charges were first printed
as "The Old Constitutions." Now where did they get that plural form of
Constitution? I have never seen it referred to anywhere, but it has occurred
to me that the Diatagai were first published as "Apostolic Constitutions" by
the Jesuit Turrianus in 1563 and we are told by the Encyclopedia Brittanica
(eleventh edition, vol. ii, page 199) that this spurious work was "more highly
esteemed in England than elsewhere." Just a bit of evidence of no particular
importance by itself but helping in connection with the other facts in the
cumulative effect. Then the late E.L. Hawkins (Transactions of the Quatuor
Coronati Lodge, 1913) drew attention to the fact that in the old charges the
certain direction "Tunc unus ex senioribus teneat librum" etc., is always in
Latin. It seems to me that this is a clincher, though Hawkins did not see it,
for here we have a clear case of the church practice of printing the rubric in
I have simply
summarized this and have written it in the shape of notes because it is by no
means complete. There is much to be investigated before a decisive judgment
can be reached. But I think the case as it stands is sufficiently strong to
warrant following up. Do you ? And I think I told you about Brother Robert
Clegg's referring me to volume four of Gould's history, to the picture copied
from the Illustrated London News of 1870 showing the ordination of a
Benedictine monk. (I have been wholly unable to get the Roman ritual of
ordination of priest or monk. Could you suggest where I could get one?) I know
I wrote to you or was going to write that there are faint resemblances (very
faint, but they are there) in the Book of Common Prayer to the questioning of
OCCULTISM AND FREEMASONRY
(R.J.L. is something of
a browser in occultism, especially insofar as it has to do with Freemasonry.
H.L.H. asked him to write something on the subject for THE BUILDER.)
I'm getting material
together for the series on occultism which you are so kind as to say you think
you can use, and hope to get at it one of these days. One of my late purchases
from France, Pierre Piobb's "Evolution de l'Ocultisme," gives me some
excellent ideas, which I propose to work in whenever the time comes. I was
somewhat astonished to learn from Piobb that the word "Occultisme," the
prototype of our own word, I assume, is of recent coinage, having been first
applied by Papus (Dr. Encausse) in 1888. By the way, speaking of words, I
observe that the barbarism "Hermeticism" now and then appears in THE BUILDER.
H.L.H. - What's wrong
with "Hermeticism"? I find it used in the Ars Quatuor Coronati? Isn't that
good enough for you ?
R.J.L. - Why, my
objection to it is that its formation is faulty. Your root word is, of course,
"Hermes"; hence and ergo, Hermes-ic - Hermetic for the sake of euphony. Also,
Hermes-ism - Hermetism, for the same reason. The root of the latter word
"Hermetic," but "Hermes."
forced to coin a word to express a burgeoning thought; but even in such case
it is well to consider some rules. And neither rule nor rhyme nor reason
justifies "Hermeticism" as you will appreciate if you just think a moment. It
may be that some of the dictionaries carry the word of which I complain, but I
Of course, in employing
such a word one has the weight of authority of Humpty Dumpty, cited in that
standard work, "Alice in Wonderland," in which when reproved by Alice for a
solecism, he defends himself by saying (I paraphrase from ancient memory):
"Words are my servants,not my masters; and I require them to mean whatever I
will that they shall mean."
One occasionally finds
weird and wonderful words in English and Scottish publications. I have before
me as I write the latest Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Scotland,
containing an auditor's report, in which the accountant remarks sweetly, ong
passong, "the income effeiring to Grand Lodge . . . from dues of Intrants,"
etc. And yet I fear I shall never be justified in employing these two gladsome
accessions to my vocabulary, dearly as I might desire it, in one of my
reports. I can imagine some keen lawyer quizzing me about them on the witness
TRIVIUM AND THE QUADRIVIUM
something in a letter to R.J.L. about the "trivium and the quadrivium." H.L.H.
has stolen R.J.L.'s reply.)
I dug into this "seven
liberal arts and sciences" matter some years ago, and there a few things which
persist in my memory which may be of some use to you.
Both the trivium and
the quadrivium formed the basis of the instruction in the old University of
Athens, the School of Alexandria, and that university at Rome which began to
be called the Athenaeum in Hadrian's day, about A. D. 120.
Possibly before, and
certainly from the time of Isocrates (436-338 B.C.) and under the influences
of Speusippus (407-339 B. C.) and Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) human knowledge was
summarized under seven heads - grammar, rhetoric and dialectics, later known
as the trivium; and music, astronomy, geometry and arithmetic, the quadrivium,
just as friend Pafnutius observes.
My notes - such as I
have been able to lay my hand on tonight - tell me that these designations
were first employed about the end of the fourth century. It is quite certain
the terms applied to these branches of knowledge were elastic, sometimes
comprehending two or three things, sometimes half a dozen. In the
Romano-Hellenic schools dialectic embraced logic, ethics and metaphysics, but
with Quintillian only logic and ethics.
I think our
classification into seven liberal arts and sciences is extremely old. I have
Matter's "Ecole d'Alexandrie" on my shelves, and it is my impression that
there's quite a bit of data in it; but there are three laborious volumes,
unindexed, more's the pity.
By the way, of course
you know that at least in the Middle Ages the quadrivium group was regarded as
wholly mathematical, even to music; the trivium was the literary group.
POINT WITHIN A CIRCLE
himself of an opinion as to the origin of the Point Within the Circle that is
interesting,"intriguing," as the young lions of The New Republic would say.)
I have an idea
regarding the Point Within the Circle that I hope to develop to somewhere near
my satisfaction one of these days - and there's no phallicism in the guess I'm
making either. I have a rather huge collection of ancient coins, and among
them possibly a dozen old Athenian tetradrachms running from 600 or more B. C.
down several hundred years. All bear, in semiarchaic Greek characters, the
abbreviation of the name of the city - AOE. You will observe that the "theta"
is not made as we now make it, an O with a bar across an ellipse, but it is a
true circle with a dot in its center.
I haven't dug into the
origin of the Greek alphabet as much as I have into some of the others -
Hebrew and Phoenician, for example. But theoretically the ancient Hebrew
"aleph" was a hieroglyphical representation of the head of an ox, and the
Phoenecian aleph is easily recognizable as such a drawing. "Aleph" means ox or
bullock. "Beth" is a house or a tent, and the character was originally a
drawing of part of a house. "Cimel" is "camel," and once more a hieroglyph.
When the Phoenician alphabet was first formed the writers selected common
words beginning with the sound they wanted to represent, and then drew a rough
picture of that object, which later became conventionalized. We all know that,
so please don't think that I imagine I'm playing the schoolmaster; I'm merely
thinking on paper.
When the Greeks adopted
their alphabet, they borrowed largely from their elders as to many of their
characters. In some cases they didn't. One of their words for the Supreme
Being was,and is,"theos," as we know. Was there once a time, in a proto-Greek
tongue, when it was "theta" ? The words are tremendously alike. If so, or if
the character "theta" was originally called "theos," or if, as a third
possibility, reverence for a sacred name or superstitious fear led them to
adopt a modification, a sort of diminutive, and to call the God "theos" in
sacred ceremonies, but "theta" in ordinary conversation, and if they followed
the time-honored custom of adopting an hieroglyph like the Hebrews and the
Phoenicians, it is clear that the Point Within a Circle must have been a
conventional representation of Deity when the alphabet was formed.
I never have believed
much in many of the derivations to which some writers are so firmly wedded -
phallicism, sun worship, stellar cults, and all that sort of thing.
Relatively, phallicism is a late development - that is, in the old Aryan
religions it was unknown, practically. Long ages ago there was a cult of life
- and a very noble and lofty thing it was, coordinate with the worship of the
male principle in nature. Later the female principle was introduced by a
rebellious party, who sought a slogan, as we would call it today, to gain
adherents. And to get something "catchy," something that would gain the
adhesion of the masses, the bolsheviki, they substituted the female principle,
and female gods - or goddesses - for the old male gods. And then - the usual
result when the male and female principles are juxtaposed.
I'm inclined to believe
that the Point Within a Circle was originally exactly the same thing as the
All-seeing Eye, and that as a symbol of Deity it is to be found on some of the
very oldest monuments. Of course, we know that it was the Ra symbol on the
Egyptian monuments, meaning not only God, but the sun; but here again I can't
believe the sun was regarded as a deity, but merely as the visible
manifestation of Deity - once more an eye.
Some of the Vedic
quotations in Ragozin's "Vedic India" demonstrate quite clearly how the Aryans
regarded the sun - merely as the manifestations of Deity, and not as Deity
I know quite well that
most of what I've written is trite to you, but as I said on the earlier page,
I've been merely thinking on paper.
Have you ever read
Dupuis' "Origine de Tous les Cultes"? I have the original work, in ten or
twelve volumes, and also a later abridgement. But Dupuis saw sun worship in
H.L.H. - One could say
much about your "theta" theory, "for and ferninst." You know that the
alchemists used the Point Within the Circle as a sign for the sun, and for
such things as they associated with that luminary, gold for example (see
Campbell Brown's History of Chemistry): since alchemy goes so far back, since
it was so prevalent during the Middle Ages, and since so many of its signs -
as witness a doctor's signature to his prescriptions - have remained in use, I
am inclined to believe that the symbol came thence, and that it has generally
meant the sun, and by analogy, Deity.
(From the sublime to
the ridiculous. H.L.H. enclosed his "phiz" in a letter to R.J.L. with the
And also thank you for
the likeness. You're a younger man than I would have expected. Don't fret
about the lack of gray hairs. You'll get them if you keep up the writing game.
I put in about 25 or 30 years of my sweet young life in newspaper work, and
I'm mighty nearly snow white - and just a kid yet - only 55 next month. It's a
deep pity that you didn't wait about three weeks before being born, so you
could have seen the light under the auspices of Sagittarius. Then you'd have
taken to occultism like a duck to water. Of course, no Scorpio individual
could be expected to like it.