The Builder Magazine
June 1922 - Volume VIII - Number 6
Shriners' Hospitals for Crippled Children
BRO. FORREST ADAIR, GEORGIA, SECRETARY OF THE SHRINERS' HOSPITALS FOR CRIPPLED
TRAIN is wrecked. From its debris of wrathing steel, temples to suffering
childhood have arisen. A man is maimed and from his pain racked body came a
tremendous force to banish pain. Throughout North America, hospitals, to make
anew helpless and hopeless crippled children, are being built by the Nobles of
the Mystic Shrine. Eventually there will be scores of these hospitals on the
continent and every one of them can trace its beginning back to the smoking
runs of a locomotive and its inspiration back to the man who defied pain in
order to keep his word.
relating the history of how this came about, THE BUILDER played an imporant
part in what some people might call a series of coincidences, but most people
will recognize as the hand of a Divine Providence.
in the stormy year of 1914 that the train went out from Atlanta, Ga. Ed
Roberts was a member of the crew and Ed Roberts was a Noble of Yaarab Temple
of the Mystie Shrine. When he was rescued from the wreck it was discovered
that a leg was crushed. There was also a dislocation of the hip, which was
overlooked by the railroad surgeons.
brought back to Atlanta, Roberts called for me as I was then Potentate of
Yaarab Temple, and throughout his long suffering I was a daily visitor at his
bedside. His crushed leg was amputated, but the dislocated hip, pressing on a
sciatic nerve, continued to give ceaseless and terrible pain. Opiates were
constantly administered until one day I, speaking brother and counsellor,
said: "Ed, don't let the doctors give you any more of that stuff. Stick the
pain out. If you continue on the opiate it will get you the pain you are now
called on to endure will be nothing compared to the suffering you'll then have
undergo as a drug addict."
Roberts gave his word. That word was never broken. He was finally discharged
from the hospital, but the pain remained with him. Months passed until one
day I was summoned by the wife of Brother Roberts. I found him in agony.
dont believe I can stand this suffering any longer," he told me, "but I've
given you my word about morphine. I won't break it, but something has got be
done and done quickly."
Atlanta was Dr. Michael Hoke, one of foremost orthopaedic surgeons in
America. I called Dr. Hoke and explained the case. Roberts was again taken
to the hospital, where Dr. Hoke manipulated his hip, forcing it back into the
socket. It took weeks for its successful healing and all the time Roberts was
given special nursing, and was finally sent out whole.
called on Dr. Hoke for an accounting. Yaarab is a wealthy Temple and its
officials have always believved that their first duty is to their members. I
knew Dr. Hoke was a high priced specialist, and was prepared to pay
Hoke rendered the bill. It was $5! I protested. Dr. Hoke told me to mind my
own busines "You haven't any idea of the suffering this man was going
through," said the Doctor, "and he was undergoing it just because he had given
you his word. You have your pleasures and it's my pleasure to do something
for a man like that I wouldn't have missed this opportunity for a good many $5
wasn't satisfied. "I want to do something too," I explained.
tell you what you can do," said Dr. Hoke." You can do one of the biggest
things it has ever been given man to do. Do you know that right in this
section there are hundreds of children, all gnarled and twisted, doomed to
helplessness and pain, who could be made whole just like our friend?
parents come to me every day. I'd be glad to treat all of them. That's my
pleasure, but I haven't the money to furnish them with hospital equipment. I
haven't the money to pay a skilled orthopaedic nurse. But, I'll tell you what
I'll do. If you Masons will furnish a little house, say with three or four
beds, and pay for a nurse, I'll undertake the cases of all the patients that
couldn't possibly pay, and you'll get more fun out of it than anything you've
ever tried. Think it over."
think it over. I wanted to think it over all by myself, so I dismissed my car
and began walking about the streets with Dr. Hoke's words chanting in my ears.
It just happened that I passed the Masonic Temple and wandered in - still
temple I encountered the late Joseph C. Greenfield. He was busy writing but
stopped as I entered and handed me the sheets of paper on which he was
working. It was an article for THE BUILDER and was headed "What Are We
Doing?" The tenor of the article was that while we were making vast numbers of
badge-wearing Masons each year, we were doing nothing tangible for the benefit
the idea struck me. Here was a great organization anxious to do something for
somebody and not knowing where to turn. I had just left a great man, anxious
to do something very definite. Why not bring the two together? "Joe," I said,
"call a meeting of the Executive Comittee of the Scottish Rite Bodies, I have
a proposition to put up to them."
meeting was called and I submitted Dr. Hoke's plan. It was enthusiastically
accepted. Then I suggested that we submit it to the entire Scottish Rite
jurisdiction of Atlanta. I wanted whole-souled cooperation in this thing, for
I saw the chance for doing something big.
the proposal was submitted, there wasn't a dissenting vote or voice. We were
ready to do something. We leased a little cottage near Decatur, equipped it
with six beds and Dr. Hooke went to work.
wasn't many months before we saw that our field for doing things was
limitless. What seemed to us miracles were performed each month. We saw
children who could barely crawl come out from that little cottage walking
erect. We saw life made new, not only for the little ones, but for their
mothers and fathers and for us. Gradually we added to the hospital, but we've
always kept that little cottage. Today the hospital has sixty beds and is
considered a model in every way by orthopoedic specialists.
was just one drawback to the whole arrangement. We could care only for the
children of our immediate section. Railroad transportation from a distance is
sometimes an insurmountable obstacle to the poor. Parents like to be near
their little ones as they go through this trial.
arose another opportunity.
Freeland Kendrick, at that time Imperial Potentate of the Mystic Shrine, had
become interested in a "Home" for Crippled Children in Philadelphia, his home
town. It was his idea for the Shrine to sponsor some such charity and he
submitted a plan in accordance.
plan did not meet with as hearty response as it deserved. Maybe this was
providential. For there is a distinction between a "Home" and a "Hospital."
There have been established in a great many states and in nearly all the large
cities, "Homes" for crippled children. These little beings with club feet,
twisted legs, paralyzed arms and legs, bent backs, tubercular joints and
spines, have been sent to these homes, where they have been kept reared and
fed until a kind Providence removed them, but in these homes practically
nothing has been done to restore the child to a normal or approximately normal
condition and send it back where every child belongs - to its own mammy and
was exactly the work that was being accomplished in the Scottish Rite Hospital
in Atlanta, and there was the great Shrine order waiting to have someone give
them the opportunity to do something big and generous and constructive.
Shrine has been in existence for forty-six years and has grown to a membership
of 500,000. The Shriners are organized along the lines of legitimate fun and
clean sport and no body of men on earth ever get more real pleasure out of
life than they do.
were some members, however, a good many of them too, who I believe were
undoubtedly acting under a Divine inspiration, who thought it might be well if
the Shriners continued to have these good times, but at the same time began to
do something for humanity.
of them had visited the Scottish Rite Hospital for Crippled Children. Among
these was Imperial Potentate Kendrick, who had already made a move in a
similar direction. Those who had visited the hospital began to dream of more
hospitals and more of them until a hospital could be placed within the reach
of every poor little crippled child in North America.
dream became a reality when the proposal was made to the Shrine in concrete
form in a resolution assessing each member $2.00 annually to carry on this
work, producing the staggering total of $1,000,000 each year for the building
and maintenance of Shriner's Hospitals for Crippled Children. A Board of
Trustees was named to take charge of the plan and to build these little
"miracle shops" as rapidly as funds became available.
work is already far advanced. The Board of Trustees visited Atlanta and the
Scottish Rite Hospital a year ago, accepted it as a model, and now five
similar institutions are in course of construction in different sections of
the country. The first five to be located were in St. Louis, St.
Paul-Minneapolis, Shreveport, La., San Francisco and Montreal, while five
others have been tenatively located, one in Portland, Oregon, one in New
England, one in Pennsylvania, one in Virginia and one in the Rocky Mountain
States. As soon as these are under way five more will be authorized until
there is a hospital for crippled children wherever there is a Temple of
Board of Trustees has made but two provisions of admission into the
hospitals. In the first place, the patients must be financially unable to
enter a private insttution for treatment. In the second place, they must be
susceptible to improvement. There are some children so hopelessly crippled
that science can do nothing for them. The Trustees believe that under these
conditions it is poor charity to have a hospital bed and hospital care and
attention given where no good can result, when so many little ones who can be
helped are crying for just that care and attention.
However, these cases are few and far between. The orthopoedic surgeons in
charge of these Shriners' Hospitals are men hard to convince that their
science can not improve practically every case.
science is a comparatively new one and is constantly being developed.
Operations are now successfully performed that were undreamed of just a few
years ago, and research, study and experiments are part of the regular routine
of these Shriner institutions.
instance there was the case of the daughter of Brother Frank Higgins of New
York, the Masonic writer. This daughter, Pauline, had been stricken with that
dreadful infantile paralysis during the epidemic in New York in 1916. She
spent four and one-half years in the marble wainscoted, splendidly equipped
"Homes" for crippled children in New York and Philadelphia, but no surgeon's
knife had ever been used and no physical therapist had ever made an effort to
start her dormant muscles to renewing their functions.
Pauline couldn't walk a step when she was brought to the Hospital for Crippled
Children in Atlanta, but five months later when her father came for her, she
walked down the broad driveway to meet him. When he had dried his tears of
joy, he sat down in the hospital and wrote a wonderful article for the "New
Age," headed "The Greatest Scottish Rite Cathedral on Earth," and in it he
described the institution as "the temple of babies' smiles." John H. Atwood,
Past Imperial Potentate of the Shrine, an eminent lawyer now residing in
Kansas City, Mo. after visiting the little hospital in Atlanta, wrote to one
of his closest friends in the Imperial Council as follows:
who fancied that I knew a lot of things, find that I knew nothing about
certain aspects in life that I now feel are more important than any of those
of which I have had knowledge.
such a multitude of unfortunates existed, I did not appreciate; that such
marvelous things can be done to tight the wrongs done by Providence, I did not
imagine was possible.
mind, it is the finest thing I know of in the whole world today-churches, big
and little, homes and harbors of refuge, as I have known them, shrivel and
shrink into insignificance beside the things I saw in those unpretentious
buildings among the pines in the suburbs of this good city.
"Better than sky-touching towers, stately halls, gorgeous paraphernalia and
all the pomp and circumstances that so frequently mark Shrine activities, is a
bungalow hospital or two, that might, with perfect truth - if like this
Atlanta institution - be described as 'Miracle Houses.'"
Advisory Board of Orthopaedic Surgeons cooperates with the Board of Trustees.
This board is now composed of Dr. Robert B. Osgood of Boston, a fanner
President of the American Association of Orthopoedic Surgeons, Dr. Michael
Hoke of Atlanta, Dr. John C. Wilson of Los Angeles, Dr. W. E. Gallie of
Toronto, Canada, and Dr. W.E. Ryerson of Chicago. Their services are
contributed to the Shrine without cost. They attend all the meetings of the
Board of Trustees and select, subject to approval of the Board of Trustees,
the chief surgeon for each of the new institutions.
Shriners are very jealously guarding the integrity of the hospitals. At the
last meeting of the Board of Trustees it was decided to accept no bequests to
the hospitals which carried with them provisions for memorial tablets or other
methods of converting the institutions into monuments to individuals. The
hospitals are simply and solely for the relief of suffering childhood. That
in the Scottish Rite Hospital in Atlanta there hangs a picture of Noble Ed.
Roberts, the man whose suffering made the whole system possible, the picture
months ago Brother Roberts visited the hospital. He was being shown about by
a nurse, a newcomer. As she entered the room where the picture hangs, she
pointed it out, not realizing that she was showing the visitor his own
not know who that gentleman is," she said, "but I understand he founded this
hour later he was found in an isolated spot on the hospital grounds. He was
sobbing a prayer of thanksgiving, thanks for the railroad wreck, thanks for
his shattered hip, thanks for the Providence that had made him the unwitting
instrument for this work, whose blessings will cover all North America.
AMERICAN FREEMASONRY IN THE WORLD WAR - AN ANNOUNCEMENT
BRO. CHARLES F. IRWIN, OHIO
ability to write, speak and organize, hy his unflagging zeal, and by his
standing among overseas Masons, Brother Charles F. Irwin has peculiarly fitted
himself to superintend The National Masonic Research Society's efforts to
collect and arrange the records of Masonic activity during, and as a result
of, the Great War. Every brother who has even a grain of information to
contribute is urged to communicate with Brother Irwin whose address is Eaton.
AMERICAN Freemasonry in
the World War has learned from the experiences of the past. The losses
sustained by the Fraternity in our several wars have been incalculable because
no systematic efforts were made to collect, arrange, and embody in print the
incidents and events of special worth to the Craft. This condition has been
foreseen by modern Masonry and a movement is afoot to rescue from the rubbish
heap the innumerable occurences of value to the Craft in the Great War.
Various Grand Lodges from year to year have turned their attention to this
important work as attested in their Proceedings. Masons individually have been
investigating and collecting material because of their zeal for the
Institution. But the field is so vast that nothing short of a nation-wide
effort can hope to cover the ground.
throughout the United States have been gravitating toward each other as their
lines of investigation have crossed each other's paths. At last a concerted
plan of activity is to be put on foot. The National Masonic Research Society
is logically the central organization to head this movement. Its past record
merits such leadership. The experiences gained by its staff together with
their intimate knowledge of active Craftsmen throughout the country assures
the Fraternity that proper care will be taken to cover the whole field of war
time Masonic activity.
The writer has been
invited to become the chairman of this new movement. I have been asked to
outline the policy of our department and to explain our purpose. This is done
under considerable hesitancy. There are many difficulties to be faced and much
labor to be undertaken. The prayer of the New England fisherman is
appropriate: "O God, the ocean is so vast, and my bark is so small !"
It seems that the best
results can be obtained through representatives in each state and territory
who were themselves overseas and participated in the struggle. Their personal
experiences and their contact with war time conditions fit them to express in
written form the conclusions they arrived at as the war burnt its way to its
final end. Among the thousands of Craftsmen who went across the ocean there
are many who observed and participated in events which held a Masonic
significance. Incidents isolated and unrelated to the general sweep of Craft
activity, when brought into contact with other incidents, reveal the general
relativity of the whole Masonic fabric.
Our task is to secure
the material, to examine it carefully for the purpose of establishing
accuracy, and to publish its results, in order that Masonry may enter into the
How can this objective
be obtained? By contact with those who are in possession of the facts or who
can lead us to the facts. It will be the purpose of our group of workers to
secure the material from those who have it. This will be sought by encouraging
a correspondence with the brethren who were in the service abroad. We will
trace the officers of the various overseas Masonic clubs in order to secure
complete histories of these organizations. We will encourage the continuance
of the ties formed while we were far from home. As striking material comes to
hand it will be presented to the Craft through the pages of THE BUILDER from
month to month. There are stirring tales as yet unpublished. There is material
to satisfy the Masonic appetite for Masonic lore.
Brethren will be
encouraged to communicate with the chairman. The occurences which each had may
seem obscure and trivial. Nothing is trivial that comes under the observation
of Masons. These insignificant events may fall one by one into a chain of
significant processes that explain why the world disaster came. These
individual recitals may have messages needed by the Fraternity. And you, my
brother, are invited to unite with us in our present undertaking.
Our objective as I have
said will be at first the collecting of overseas Masonic data. This will be
done under a number of distinct heads: Military Organizations, Camps, Depots,
Combat Areas, the Enemy, our Allies, etc. To this end we shall encourage
papers by active brothers embodying the conclusions reached by the writers on
various Masonic principles and relationships. We shall ask and seek the
answers to searching questions as to the practical worth of Masonry in times
of extreme danger and distress. Observations of continental conditions will be
presented. Biographies of prominent members of the Fraternity, who
participated in the struggle, will be prepared and published.
The World War did not
end with the Armistice. The after effects continue and will continue for years
to come. Masonry's duties are to continue till the objectives of the war are
finally attained. Only by securing the principles for which such great
treasure of money and men was given can we expect to rest from our labors.
It is important to
discover whether the sinister influences that produced the strife are
destroyed. To know this requires a study of obscure currents of thought and
action, on the part of men and organizations before, during, and since the
American Masonry went
to Europe during the war. It carried definite benefits to peoples in desperate
need. But American Masons also received definite impressions in their contact
with Europe. What these impressions were, and the interpretation of them will
be one of our undertakings.
THE BUILDER opens to
overseas Masons a field for expression. The time is ripe. The Craft are ready
to hear. Those who have been considering experiences have had sufficient time
to arrange them into lines of definite thought. We invite such to place these
ideas in written form and to send them to us. Thus we shall be doing not only
our own comrades a benefit but we shall be leaving for future generations a
wealth of Masonic action that will prove an inspiration to younger Craftsmen.
MASONIC STUDY CLUBS ARE WORTH WHILE
BRO. FRANK G. BURROUGHS, IDAHO
THE DETERMINED effort
now being made by a large number of Grand Lodges in the United States along
the line of Masonic Education had its inception as a response to the need of a
fuller realization by Masons of Masonic opportunities and Masonic duties.
'Tis an unsettled world
today, largely due to the great unrest created by the World War and its
readjustment problems. This unrest creates Masonic opportunity and Masonic
obligations. We dare no longer placidly rehearse our ritualistic obligations
and relinquish all memory and thought of them when we lay aside our aprons.
We have work to do and
Masonic wages to earn.
We must be taught to
realize our obligations to our fellow man as well as to our brothers in
We must obtain a
clearer and more definite understanding of what Masonry is and what it stands
We must learn how to
apply to the problems of life the principles taught within the lodge room.
We must obtain ritual
interpretation as well as ritual instruction. We must help in that building of
character which is the cornerstone of our Masonic edifice.
We must be brought to
realize that the whole duty of man is contained within the ritual instruction
of the three degrees of Masonry, and, by constant discussion and constant
search, we must learn to dig out for ourselves each little bit of symbolism
and every lesson contained in each word of our ritual, every little bit of our
lodge furnishings, and every article of Masonic use and clothing.
We must learn new
meanings of the word "Fraternalism," and learn the true significance of the
Masonic ritual in its relation to business life, to home life, to every-day
intercourse and to social obligations.
does not imply only a delving into Masonic symbolism, or research into Masonic
antiquities. It means an effort to induce Masons to view in their true light
the esoteric principles of our ritual and teachings and to indicate the
application of these principles in our daily intercourse with the world at
The wherefore of
Masonic instruction lies in its practical application. The real Mason is he
who practices outside of the lodge those virtues inculcated in it, not he who
is able to deliver a ritualistic recital of those principles and straightway
doffs his apron and leaves the principles sticking under the flap until again
called for, meanwhile forgetting or ignoring the fact that they form a real
working formula for life and conduct twenty-four hours a day, seven days a
week, and fifty-two weeks in every year of life.
application, then, is the ultimate end and aim of Masonic study. The Mason
whose deep studies in the symbolism and ritual of the order had led him to a
thorough understanding of the hidden mysteries of Masonry cannot avoid having
it become a part of him and a part of his every-day life and conduct.
Masonry is a
never-ending study, and a study that grows on one. It's something like the
medical profession. A doctor is never too old to take a post graduate course
and learn something new. But there is a difference. In medicine the new things
come because of new discoveries in medical science, while in Masonry the
thoughts have been there for ages, and need only the mental pick and shovel of
The average Mason does
not give much attention to the never-ending symbolism of Masonry, to the
meaning of the working tools, to the level, the square, the compass and the
apron. But he only needs waking up a little to discover how valuable and
beautiful are the lessons conveyed by each act done and each word spoken, and
by each and every object used in a Masonic lodge.
Why the square? - To
square our actions, says the ritual. Why the plumb? - To teach uprightness.
Why the level ? - To teach democracy. But did you ever stop to think that the
combination of the three makes that all-embracing rule of life and conduct -
the Golden Rule, "Do to others as you would they should do unto you" ?
Let's think it out.
If we are square, we
shall easily put ourselves in the other fellow's place. If we are upright as
the plumb we shall be just in all of our dealings, and if we seek no unearned
advancement over our fellows, as the level teaches, we shall be able to see
our own failings as plainly as we can see the other man's, and the combination
of the three, the square, the level and the plumb, comprises the Golden Rule
the great rule and guide of our faith.
The educational course
in THE BUILDER is planned to arrest the attention and drive home those things
not at once apparent. If once Masons realize that the ritual of the Order is
not an empty thing, not a string of words to catch the ear, but an ancient
composition, every word of which bristles with symbolism and every act of
which contains an esoteric significance, then and then only can Masonry become
that which it is intended to be a great moral force for the upbuilding of
character, a power in the ethical education of millions.
If Masonic education
realizes its ultimate logical conclusion, our Order will be lifted to an
immeasurably higher plane. We shall cease to become merely members of the
greatest "fraternal order" on earth, but will become members of the greatest
"fraternity" that ever existed - a fraternity that will live as well as speak
the Brotherhood of Man and the Fatherhood of God.
To reach this high
ideal the Masonic ritual, Masonic emblems, Masonic symbolism, clothing,
furnishings, and every and each little act ordained as part and parcel of our
work provide the machinery.
By the study of Masonry
as it is we bring to ourselves the realization of our duties - our duty to
ourselves, to our families, to our Masonic brethren, to our associates in
business or pleasure, in a word, as our Monitor so tersely puts it, to
practice outside of the lodge those virtues taught within it.
By Masonic study we
come to a realization of the duties and obligations of fraternity. We learn
that the symbolism of the cable tow obligates us to help our fellow Mason in a
material way anywhere within the length of that piece of string, and that its
length is only to be gauged by our ability to help and by his necessities. Our
study of the cable tow will show us that we should ever be on the alert to
assist the material interests of the brethren as well as our own.
By Masonic study we
learn to apply as well as recite the lessons of the working tools. To act on
the level, and, by the same token, to seek not for undue superiority, and to
recognize the equality of others. To be square in all our dealings and to
gauge our time properly so that after devoting a time to rest and recreation
and a time to work, we may still have an equal period of time left in which we
may assist a brother Mason, his widow or orphan. To be upright, straight up
and down like the plumb, with no deviation from the absolute perpendicular.
By Masonic study we
learn the meaning and everyday application of all Masonic symbolism. To keep
ourselves as spotless as a piece of lambskin, to be willing to learn and to
stand in the northeast corner of the world so as to be near the fountain of
knowledge and follow the rising sun from the east by way of the south to the
west and thence to the happy contentment of a life full of years and good
Brothers, we want to
make our fraternity truly fraternal and a power in a materialistic world of
We possess the weight
of numbers, we have the greatest system of ethics, we need no change, either
in our ritual or our teachings - all we need is to bring home to ourselves
just what our obligations obligate us to do.
And after we have
driven that home to ourselves we shall go out into the world and proclaim our
Masonic membership - not by wearing a pin or hanging a certificate on the wall
of our home or office - but by conducting our lives in such a manner that he
who runs may read, that those with whom we come in contact may recognize our
Masonic membership by reason of our consistent practice of the ethics of
MEMORIALS TO GREtAT MEN WHO WERE MASONS - GENERAL MORGAN LEWIS
BRO. GEO. W. BAIRD, P.G.M., DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
MORGAN LEWIS, who was
Grand Master in New York from 1830 to 1843, is recorded in history as a
soldier, and Governor of New York, but he was also the popular and very active
Grand Master; and also the son of Francis Lewis, one of the signers of the
Declaration of Independence.
He had every early
advantage, and such a nature as could not be spoilt. After graduating from
Princeton in the class of 1773, he began the study of law in the offices of
that great diplomat, John Jay, who was afterwards the Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court of the United States.
Though an apt pupil,
and apparently much in love with his chosen profession, Morgan Lewis heeded
the shrill notes of the fife when the Revolutionary War was announced, and at
once volunteered his services and joined Washington's Army at Boston. He was
elected Captain of a company of the New York militia but soon was promoted to
the rank of Major. It is mentioned in the dispatches of General Stephens that
Lewis behaved very gallantly in the battle at Germantown.
In 1776 Lewis was made
Quartermaster-General, with the rank of Colonel under General Gates at
Saratoga, and in the action at Bemis' Heights shared tne perks and tne nonors
of the day with Arnold, Morgan and the other officers. After the surrender of
Burgoyne he was engaged in the operations undertaken by General Clinton
against the mixed force of British regulars and the hostile Indians in the
northwestern part of the State of New York.
After the War of the
Revolution Lewis resumed his law practice in the City of New York in 1788, and
was soon elected to the state legislature. In this case the office sought the
man; not the man the office. In the legislature he did well, but as the
purposes of the people were generally in the same direction, there was no
opportunity for a contest, and therefore no exciting debates.
Morgan Lewis moved his
domicile to Dutchess County, and in a short time was appointed, first, a judge
of the court of common pleas, and later, attorney general of the State of New
York, and in 1801 Chief Justice of the same court.
His popularity was by
that time nation wide. His splendid record in the Grand Lodge of New York was
generally known to the brethren over the whole land. In 1804 he was elected
Governor of the State, and was obliged to take up his residence in Albany. In
this office he did much to advance the cause of education and to strengthen
the militia, two grand steps in the interest of the republic.
He was elected to the
state senate in 1810, and two years later at the beginning of the war of 1812
he was made Quartermaster-General in the U.S. Army with the rank of Brigadier.
He was advanced to the rank of Major-General in 1813.
During the campaign of
that year General Lewis was with General Dearborn on the Niagara frontier. He
captured Fort George and was in command for some time at Sackets Harbor and
French Creek. In the latter part of the year 1813 he accompanied General
Wilkinson in his expedition against Montreal, and in 1814 had command of the
forces which were held for the defense of the city and harbor of New York.
From the year 1815
General Lewis seems to have lived much in retirement, so far as politics and
his profession go, but did not lose interest in Freemasonry. He lived in a
time when the Order sought the man, and made strenuous efforts to keep the
best man at the head. No man was elected because it was his turn in the early
days of the Republic.
He was born in New York
City in 1754 and died there in 1844. He was buried at Staatsburgh, where a
beautiful memorial was erected in his honor.
The cut here shown was
loaned by the Rev. Brother Edward Pearson Newton, rector of Saint James
Parish, Hyde Park on the Hudson, who is a member of Rhinebeck Lodge No. 432,
of Rhinebeck, N. Y.
No prayer is unheard,
none is wasted, there is none that we shall not meet again in the world to
come. Oh! when we come to die, how bitterly shall we mourn that we have prayed
so little, prayed so negligently; ah; we shall see then that life was hardly
life when it was not also prayer. - Faber.
Diligence is the mother
of good luck. - Benjamin Franklin.
HOLY SAINTS JOHN
BRO. BENJAMIN WELLINGTON BRYANT, CALIFORNIA
ST.JOHN the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist! What was their connection
with Freemasonry? Is the Monitorial tradition supported by historical fact?
Why does our Fraternity, firmly committed as it is to that regulation in the
Constitutions of 1723 which obliges its members only to "that religion in
which all men agree," dedicate its lodges to the memory of two Saints
belonging distinctly to the Christian calendar? Whence came the tradition?
When was it adopted? Why the St. Johns rather than St. Thomas whom tradition
denominates the patron of architecture? Such are a few of the questions
frequently asked and seemingly no Masonic Question Box is complete without one
or more of them. Much has been written on the subject, but unfortunately
little of it appears to have any real value, or to lead us nearer to a
solution of the mystery. The excuse for the present paper is not the hope that
anything can be added to the accumulation of data, so much as it is an attempt
to gather and arrange the available material, and possibly give some hints
that may lead to a feasible interpretation.
appear to have been bat two attempts at a serious and extended consideration
of the subject in Masonic literature. The first, and among English-speaking
brethren, the only readily available publication, is Dr. Oliver's "Mirror for
the Johannite Masons," (1) originally published in England in 1848, as a
protest against the action of the United Grand Lodge of England in 1813 when
the Johannine dedication was discarded by that body when it adopted the
Hemming lectures. Dr. Oliver collected and made accessible a great mass of
material which he arranged and discussed in most readable form albeit his
conclusions are too evidently biased by his own peculiar theological views to
have much real value for present day Masonic scholarship. However we must
acknowledge our debt of gratitude for him for his indefatigable labors as a
pioneer in what, in his day, was an unknown field. We cannot read his
writings or look upon his portrait which so clearly reflects his benign nature
without loving him for his sincere and upright character and his fearless
stand for the right as he saw it, even while we take exception to the
eighteenth century orthodoxy which appears in almost every page of his Masonic
second work in which the Johannine claims are discussed at some length is the
"Kunsturkunden," or "Three Oldest Professional Documents of the Brotherhood of
Freemasons," which Krause published about 1810. Although antedating Oliver's
work, I have placed this second because it is little known to the
English-speaking Craft, due to the fact that, so far as I have been able to
determine, no translation has been published. This is the work the
publication of which was so violently opposed by the German brethren, and for
which the author was suspended by the Dresden lodge. Having access only to
the meager quotations and references given by a few Masonic writers, I am not
prepared to discuss its contents.
these two extended works upon the subject we should perhaps add Mackey's
Encyclopoedia (2) which gives many references and considerable data upon the
Sts. John, as well as several versions of the tradition as it appears in
different systems of lectures. Most of them are evidently quoted from Dr.
Oliver's work. However, he has given us a hint of a broader and seemingly a
truer interpretation by tracing the St. John Festivals back to the solstitial
celebrations of the Ancient Mysteries. (3) Except for these three writers I
have been unable to find any extended works which attempt a detailed
consideration of the matter.
arrive at an intelligent understanding of this rather obscure subject it seems
necessary first to examine into the origin of the two festivals which are far
older than Christianity. They appear to have originated in that ancient
wisdom- or light-religion in which so much of that which we now know as
Freemasonry had its origin; and of which we catch some comparitively
latter-day glimpses in what is commonly referred to under the general name of
Ancient Mysteries. Writers and historians are notably unanimous in their
agreement that the rituals of many of those ancient ceremonials included
festivals in observance of the equinoxes and solstices. This was true, not
merely of one or two of the pagan lands of antiquity, but of many, for they
appear to have been very widely diffused in the ancient world wherever any
great degree of civilization had been attained. The Egyptian, Phoenician,
Dionysian, Adonisian, Phrygian, Eleusinian, Scandinavian and Druidical
mysteries, each in its own land and time, appear to have introduced the
astronomical features and all celebrated dramas and festivals in which the
phenomena of nature were veiled in myth and allegory. Thus the priests of
each of those faiths of olden time celebrated, each in his own peculiar, and
usually beautiful and poetical symbolism, the passing of the equinoxes and
solstices as well as other natural phenomena; and hence must have possessed a
fairly comprehensive knowledge of the contents of "the great book of nature
and revelation"; of astronomy and its vital influence upon the rotation of the
seasons. In the mysteries of Eleusis the story of Ceres and her search for
her daughter Prosperine, when divested of its mythological setting, becomes
the tale of the seasonal rotation. In Egypt the thought was the same, but
veiled in the allegory of Isis, Osiris, and Horus. Bear in mind that this is
intended to refer only to those aspects of the mysteries which were held less
secret and were consequently better understood and more frequently discussed,
and about which considerable data has been preserved. Of the inner secrets of
those Greater Mysteries celebrated in some localities, little is known with
certainty. However there is good reason to believe that when the novice proven
himself and won past the ordeals of the liminary initiation, he was rewarded
with instruction in the eternal verities of life and its relation to Deity.
Here, it is believed, he was led on from the consideration of the simpler and
more evident truths of visble nature, which were embodied in his earlier
initiation, to the contemplation of the more abstract truth of one God? (4)
of those early mystery-systems with their attendant festivals, were still
celebrated in the early centuries of the Christian era, and while their
original meaning had, to some extent perhaps, been obscured, the festival days
still played an important part in the life the people among whom Christian
missionaries were seeking converts, much as do our own public holidays present
day social and religious life. They were therefore a difficult problem with
which the mission and church fathers had to contend. Of the customs
prevailing in the Roman Empire at this period one author has written:
as the entire State, so also every community, every city, every circle of
cities, had its special cult, well founded institutions, rich and
distinguished colleges for priests and special feast days and sacrifices.
Every province, every city, every village, honored with local rites its
protecting divinity, and everywhere the various religious observances were
most intimately connected with the civil constitution of the community and
sustained by local patriotism." (5) Such was the system with which
missionaries had to compete for recognition. As a parallel situation, let us
suppose that a people alien thought as well as blood were to come among us
here in America and in the fire of their zeal seek to engraft their religious
faith upon our thought. It would be a difficult, nay, an almost impossible
task, to wean away from the observance of Christmas, Thanksgiving or New
Years, and perhaps most difficult of all to from our memories the events and
traditions as ciated with the Fourth of July; and while the memory of these
days persisteed in the thought-life of our people, the missionaries' success
could not be complete. Such was the problem confronting the early
progagandists of Christianity. So long as the older festivals remained, the
memory of the older faith remained. So as the "heathen" retained a ghost of
the memory of the original meaning of those festivals there was a weak link in
the chain that bound them to Christianity.
appears that the officials of the early church about the solution of the
difficulty in a thoroughly diplomatic way. Numerous authors from Sir Isaac
Newton in 1733 (6), to the new volume of the Encyclopaeda of Religion and
Ethics' just off the press, have given up a picture of the transition from the
pagan to Christian observances. It appears that during the third century or
thereabouts, the missionaries having with the above mentioned difficulty,
Gregory Thaumaturgus, and after him St. Augustine, and St. Gregory the Great,
each advised that an attempt be made to Christianize rather than to extirpate
the popular observances. If a certain day had been previously observed as a
pagan holiday, let it be changed into a Christian festival. Thus the
Christmas observances succeeded those of the Bacchanalia and Saturnalia; the
Floralia gave way to the floral ceremonies of May day, and festivals to the
Virgin Mary, John the Baptist and various of the apostles took the place of
the zodiacal observances. Gregory Thaumaturgus, to whom Sir Isaac Newton
gives credit for the institution of the movement, died in 265, hence the
change began to take place very early in the history of the church. In the
fifth century, Theodoret speaks of the change of the festivals of the old
heathen gods into those of Peter, Paul, Thomas, and other saints, but mentions
no other names of apostles. (8) According to Gregory of Nyssa, writing about
379, the church was then observing the festivals of Stephen, Peter, Jaines,
John and Paul between Christmas and New Years, on the principle that "the
prodse of the proto-Martyr should be followed by a commemoration of the
apostles." (9) The author of "Greek Religion" gives a picture of the
transition in Greece:
in Greece itself ancient rites should persist under cover of the new religion,
and that ancient deities or heroes should reappear as Christian saints is
hardly surprising to one who considers the summary method by which
Christianity became the established religion. It was not so difficult to make
the Parthenon a Christian church when the virgin goddess of wisdom was
supplanted by a St. Sophia (Wisdom), then by the Virgin 31axy- Siniaarly
Apollo was more than once supplanted by St. George, Poseidon by St. Nicholas
the patron of sailors, Aselepius by St. Michael and St. Damian, and in grottos
where nymphs had been worshiped, female saints received similar worship from
the same people." (10)
connection of the Baptist's day with the ancient midsummer rites of the
Teutonic, and Scandinavian peoples also seems well established. (11)
we are able to trace quite clearly some of the influences which finally
crystallized in the observance of the Baptist on Midsummer's day, June 24, and
of the death of the Evangelist on December 27. But much odf it still remains a
mystery. It is enough to note here that the nature of the festivals - the one
of birth, coming in the summer and on the longest day of the year; and the
other of a death falling upon the shortest day and at the season when the hand
of death seems laid upon all nature - is particularly fitting. The peculiar
character and history of the men themselves as shown in records and traditions
also seems to coincide with the same thought. The Baptist is reputed to have
been a member of the sect of Essenes, who were mystics and celibates and held
all property in common. He is frequently characterized as a "Seeker of
Light." He was a man of stern integrity and unshakable fidelity, and bravely
met death in the full bloom of his strength in the service of the Cause to
which he had devoted his life. In marked contrast to his short life and
tragic martyrdom is the long life and peaceful end of the Evangelist. While
the life and teachings of the one are veiled in obscurity and can scarcely be
verified with certainty, the work of the other stands out in clear colors.
The Evangelist appears to have come of a well-to-do family, his mother being
one of those who contributed to the support of the work of Jesus and to have
been a man of considerable learning. Truly, he seems to have been well
equipped to "finish by his learning what the other began by his zeal." In
marked contrast to the simplicity of the message attributed to the Baptist is
the finished and scholarly Gospel credited to the Evangelist. Opening with
the mystic doctrine of the Logos- "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word
was with God, and the Word was God," he has given us a work notably at
variance with that of the other Apostles. Again, his name appears in
connection with the mystic and apparently esoteric book of the Apocalypse. At
every point, in their history, their circumstances, their messages, and their
methods we find the same sharp contrast that has its analogy in the extremes
of the seasons in which their festivals fall.
considered the genealogy of the festival, it may be of interest briefly to
note that of dedications. "Among the ancients," says Bro. Mackey, "every
temple, altar, statue, or sacred place was dedicated to some divinity." This,
in Rome at least, was required by law, and the necessary proceedings were
definitely defined. In the laws governing the Collegia, a fundamental legal
requirement for organization was that the College should select a patron
divinity. It served in the Roman legal process as a means of identification.
Among the Jews there was a distinction between consecration and dedication;
sacred things being both consecrated and dedicated, while profane things were
dedicated only. (12) This custom was practiced as early as the time of Moses,
the Tabernacle being both consecrated and dedicated, and the same is true of
the Temple of Solomon. (13) The practice has been continued among Christians;
and it is probably needless to call attention to the fact that Masonry has
done the same.
where or when the Craft became connected with these saints and when it began
to dedicate its lodges to them cannot be traced with any degree of certainty.
A writer in THE BUILDER asserts that our dedication to them finds a
counterpart in the recognition accorded them by the Comacines. Many of their
churches were dedicated to one or the other of them. The Island of Comacina
was dedicated to St. John the Baptist, and his festival is still celebrated
annually by the inhabitants with much pomp and ceremony. (14) This is
particularly significant, for many authorities now believe that the Comacines
form an important link in the history of our Fraternity. James I of Scotland
in 1424 passed a statute legalizing trade societies, and provided for the
dedication of each to some patron saint. The early craft guilds of England
appear to have followed the same custom, practically all of them being
similarly dedicated, usually to some Saint connected with their calling, and
frequently the guild was namned after him. (15)
of the Londan trades appear to have formed fraternities without ranging
themselves under the banner of some saint," says Bro. Gould, "and if possible
they chose one who bore some fancied relation to their trade. Thus the
fishmongers adopted St. Peter; the drapers chose the Virgin Mary, mother of
the 'Holy Lamb' or 'Fleece' as the emblem of that trade. The goldsmiths'
patron was St. Dunstan, represented to have been a brother artisan. The
merchant tailors, another branch of the draping business, marked their
connection with it by selecting St. John the Baptist who was the harbinger of
the 'Holy Lamb' so adopted by the drapers.... Eleven or more of the guilds ...
had John the Baptist as their patron saint, and several of them, while keeping
June 24 as their head day, also met on December 27, the corresponding feast of
the Evangelist." (16)
Toulmin Smith examined the records of some six hundred of these guilds and
found few cases where the patron saints were omitted.
than the Comacine recognition, which cannot strictly be considered as that of
a guild, inasmuch as it was their churches and their island home which were
the subjects of dedication, the earliest Masonic connection of these
particular saints of which we have record, appears in a, guild of Stone Masons
and Carpenters at Cologne in 1430 called the Fraternity of St. John the
Baptist. (17) On the other hand, the "Quatuor Coronate," or "Four Crowned
Martyrs," are invoked in the Strassburg Ordinances of 1456 and those of Torgau
of 1462, while in neither of these, nor in the Brotherbook of 1563, is there
any reference to the Baptist." (18) Bro. Mackey says that the earliest
festivals of the Operative, or Stonemasons of the Middle Ages were those of
St. John the Baptist on June 24, and of the "Four Crowned Martyrs," on
November 4. (19)
Oliver quotes a bit of doggerel verse which he says "it is confidently
affirmed" was a part of the O. B. of a system in use in the fourteenth
you will always keep, guard and conceal, And from this time you never will
reveal, Either to M. M., F. C., or apprentice Of St. John's Order what our
grand intent is." (20)
learned brother neglects, however, to cite his authority for the above, and
Mackay, who has evidently copied the stanza from him, adds the comment,
without giving reason or authority, that it is doubtful if it can be traced to
an earlier date than the beginng of the eighteenth century. (21) I have been
unable identify it among the MSS. listed in Gould's History. Of a similar
character is the reputed antiquity of so-called Charter of Cologne, which
purports to date from 1535, and which contains these Articles:
That the society of brethren began to be call 'the fraternity of Freemasons'
A.D. 1450 at Valenciennes Flanders, prior to which date they were called 'the
brethren of St. John.'"
Every year a feast is held in honor of St. John the patron of the community."
authenticity of this, like the former quotation is gravely questioned by
almost every Masonic scholar so we may dismiss them both without further
comment. Among the Craft in Great Britain the earliest definite date of a
Johannine reference appears to be "St. John's day in Christmas," 1561, when it
is related that Queen Elizabeth sent an armed force to break up the annual
Grand Lodge at York. But the Masons, as it were, executed a counter-attack
and initiated a number of the officers of the force, who returned to the Queen
with so favorable an account of the objects and nature of the society that the
Craft remained unmolested during the remainder of her reign. (23) This appears
to the earliest reference to the festival of the Evangelist in connection with
the Fraternity to which a semblance of credence can be given. Gould gives a
list of early dates which he has succeeded in verifying, where the festival of
the Evangelist is mentioned in the lodge minutes, as follows: Edinburgh, 1599;
Aberd 1670; Melrose, 1674; Dunblane, 1646; Atcheson Haven 1700, while the
earliest notice of the Baptist's day appears in the York minutes of June 24,
1713. These are the earliest references appearing in the records of any
exclusively Masonic organization. There is mention of the feasts of both
saints in the records of Gateshead Sodality in 1671, but that was an
organization of mixed trades. (24) The earliest date, that of Edinburg,
1599, is entry in the minutes of the Lodge of Edinburgh No 1, providing that
annually on St. John the Evangelist's day the Wardens shall be chosen. (25) A
ritualistic notice appears in the Sloane MS. of 1646, the date of the
initiation of Elias Ashmole, which contains the question and answer: "Where
did they first call their Lodge? A. At the holy chapel of St. John." (26) In a
copy the Gothic Constitutions exhibited before Henry Jermyn, Earl of St.
Albans, at an assembly held on John the Evangelist's day, 1663, it was
strictly joined that the Grand Festivals should be held on John's day in
commoration of a custom which existed from time immemorial. (27) Both Anderson
Preston refer to that meeting, but the Roberts MS states that it was held
December 8. (28) According the Alnwick MS. the members were required to attend
the parish church of that town each "St. John's day in Christmas", - "Clad in
aprons and carrying common squares." (29) In a charter granted by the Bishop
of Durham, April 24, 1671, it is directed that the incorporated body "shall
upon the fower and twentieth day of June, comonly called the feast of St. John
Baptist, yearely for ever, assemble themselves together before nine of the
clock in the forenoone of the same day, and there shall, by the greatest
number of theirs voices, elect and chuse fouer of the said fellowshippe to be
there wardens, and one other fitt person to be the clarke . . . and shall vpon
the same day make Freemen and brethren; and shall vpon the said fover and
twentieth day of June, and att three other feasts or times in the yeare - that
is to saie, the feast of St. Michael the Archangel, St. John Day in
Christeninas, and the five and twentieth day of March, . . . for ever assemble
themselves together." (30) This was the Gateshead Sodality mentioned above.
Four Old Lodges of London having constituted themselves a Grand Lodge pro tem
in 1716 or early in 1717, set the date for the formal revival of the quarterly
communications for St. John the Baptist's day of 1717. It is related in
Anderson's Constitutions that "Accordingly on St. John the Baptist's day in
the 3rd year of King George I., A. D. 1717, the ASSEMBLY and Feast of the Free
and Accepted Masons was held at the Goose and Gridiron Ale-house." "The
ASSEMBLY and Feast" was held on the same date in 1718, 1719, and 1720; but
there appears no record of the observance of the Evangelist's day under the
Grand Lodge until 1720 when a quarterly communication or Grand Lodge was held
on that day. This was under the Grand Mastership of George Payne. The
festival of St George the patron saint of England, which falls on April 23,
was later adopted as the principal feast of the Grand Lodge.
earliest known minutes of the Craft in Ireland show a meeting of the Grand
Lodge of Munster on the Evangelist's day, 1726. The annual meeting was held
on the same date in 1727. The meetings for 1728, 1730, and 1731 were dated on
the Baptist's day. In 1732, that day falling on Sunday, the Grand Lodge met
on Saturday and adjourned until Monday the 25th. The year 1729 shows no record
of a meeting. The General Regulatians incorporated in the same minutes are
dated as having been adopted on the Evangelist's day, 1728, but there is no
other record of that communication. They provide "In due Honour, Respect, and
obedience to ye right Worshipful the Grand Master, that his Worship may be
properly attented for the more solemn and proper holding our Grand Lodge on
St. John the Baptist's day, annually, for ever . . . . "(31) The minutes of
the Munster Grand Lodge do not continue beyond 1733. The present Grand Lodge
of Ireland was established in 1730, but its earliest minutes have been lost,
and Gould gives no dates of the early communications. According to Mackey,
however, the present custom includes the observance of both the Baptist's and
the Evangelist's festivals. (32)
Scottish Grand Lodge was established in 1736, the minutes showing a
preliminary meeting on September 30, which suggests the festival of St.
Michael though Gould makes no reference to it in his account of the formation
of that body. The actual organization took place an St. Andrew's day,
November 30, and that day is still observed as the principal feast of Scottish
Masons, thus concurring in the celebration of the feast of the patron of their
country. Bro. Mackey, however, quotes Lawrie to the effect that Scottish
Masons always observed the festival of the Baptist until 1737 when the change
was made to St. Andrew's day. This statement is in marked variance with Gould,
who, I believe, is the safer guide. The Johannine dedication still prevails
under the Grand Lodge of Scotland and the three degrees are officially
designated "St. John's Masonry."
evidence appears, therefore, to indicate that the two festivals had already
attained an immemorial status in the customs and traditions of the Craft long
before the dawn of the Grand Lodge era. Even during the Middle Ages there is
sufficient evidence to warrant a belief that they were quite widely
recognized. Indeed, if we may accept the Comacine theory now gaining ground
among our Masonic scholars, there is, in the peculiar attention accorded these
two saints and their festivals by those architects and builders, another link
in the chain of Masonic evolution. Through them the line leads back to the
Roman Collegia, and thence to the ancient pagan solstitial observances. The
change from the pagan to the Christian nomenclature would have been a natural
result of the Christianization of the Empire. Thus, apparently we have in our
Johannine dedication and festivals a direct line of descent from the most
ancient observances known to man, and from the evidence at hand, I am inclined
to believe that in remarkably few instances have their celebration been
entirely neglected by the Craft. That this is not far-fetched will be
realized when we remember that many a recognized and time-honored historical
or genealogical tree has little more to support it.
"Mirror for the Johannite Masons," Rev. George Oliver; J.W. Leonard & Co., New
York, 1855; included in vol. 5, Universal Masonic Library., Rob. Morris,
Lodgeton, Ky., 1856.
of Freemasonry," A. G. Mackey, see articles on "Dedication," "Parallel Lines,"
"St. John the Baptist," "St. John the Evangelist," "Festivals," etc.
Ibid, article on "Dedications."
"History of Freemasonry," Robert Freke Gould, vol. 1, p. 15.
"Conflict of Christianity with Heathenism," Uhlhorn, p. 31.
"Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John,"
Sir Isaac Newton, 1733, Chap. XIV, pp. 204-5.
of Religion and Ethics," Ed. by Dr. Jas. Hastings, vol. 11, p. 58; New York,
"Dictionary of Christian Antiquities," vol. 2, p. 1907.
of Religion and Ethics," vol. 5, p. 847.
"Greek Religion," Fairbanks, pp. 285-6.
Americana," New York, 1904, Article on "Eve of St. Johns."
of Freemasonry," article on "Dedications."
"THE BUILDER," vol. 3, CCB. May.
"THE BUILDER," vol. IV, p. 262.
Essay on "History and Development of Gilds," Brentano, 1870.
History of Freemasonry," Gould, vol. 3, p76
Ibid. p. 79
of Freemasonry," article on "Festivals."
"Mirror for the Johannite Masons," p. 32.
of Freemasonry," article on "St. John's Order."
"History of Freemasonry," Gould, vol. 2, p. 117.
"Some Account of the Schism," etc. Oliver, p. 7; Universal Masonic Library,
vol. 5. Also "History of Freemasonry," Gould, vol. 2, p. 179.
"History of Freemasonry," Gould, vol. 3, p. 75.
"Ibid, vol. 2, p. 79.
of Freemasonry," article on "Lectures."
"Mirror for the Johannite Masons," Oliver, p. 102.
of Freemasonry," Mackey, article on "Saint Albans, Earl of"
Ibid, article on "Alnwick Manuscript."
"History of Freemasonry," Gould, vol. 2, p. 275.
Ibid, vol. 3, pp. 282-3-4.
"Encyclopedia of Freemasonry," Mackey, article on "Festivals."
DUTY TO THE MERCENARY CRAFTSMAN
BRO. FRANCIS E. WHITE, GRAND SECRETARY, NEBRASKA
Here is an utterance
from the sagacious and much experienced Grand Secretary of Nebraska that can
and should be recommended to the attention of every Master and Grand Master in
the land. It deals in a telling way with a problem that has reached scandalous
proportions in large centers, and will probably reach to larger proportions
still if the present rate of membership increase continues. Ye editor
expresses a pious hope that Brother White will follow this with another paper
on those unhappy brethren who make use of the Fraternity for political and
business purposes, often in the most unblushing
WHATSOEVER a man soweth,
that shall he also reap" is as true today as it was when Paul, the Apostle,
wrote it. I am assuming that the Apostle Paul used the words as a figure of
speech, and with no reference to the fruits of the soil.
Applying this gem of
wisdom to Freemasonry, we might say that we are now reaping, and will continue
to do so, what we have sown, a portion of which we do not want and which we do
not know what to do with. If the crop exceeds our expectations, we must
remember that Nature makes allowances for losses and produces accordingly. It
would be a waste of time to refer at length to the great increase in
membership in the past few years. Every student of Masonic conditions knows
what it has been, and the statistical tables give the facts. I believe it is
safe to say that every Masonic student realized, when noting the great
increase in membership, that there was a percentage without which Freemasonry
could have prospered very nicely. One Masonic writer puts it rather tersely,
saying, in reply to the query: "Are we making too many Masons?" "No; a
thousand times no! We are making them entirely too slowly; in fact, we are not
making one for every one hundred Master's degrees conferred. We are too busy
making members to devote our attention to making Masons." This statement seems
to me to be a little overdrawn.
However, we have to
consider conditions as they exist and not as they might be. It is a question
that needs the wisdom of Solomon to answer, and I can only give my personal
views on the subject. I have always taken the view that becoming a member of
the Masonic Fraternity is in the nature of a contract, whereby the lodge
promises to do and perform certain things, and receives from the candidate his
promise to something, not exactly in return for what we give, but to fulfill
his part of the contract, not only for his own brood, but for the good of the
Fraternity. After due consideration, I have reached the conclusion that we are
responsible for a percentage of mercenary Craftsmen. People see our Masonic
Homes, note our Relief Committees, see our funeral processions, and the little
real charity that we do reaches them in an exaggerated form, and who can blame
them, if from our own acts, they are impressed with the idea that to belong to
the Masonic Fraternity carries with it a Masonic funeral such as the town
never saw before, and a living, in case of death, to your wife, your children,
your wife's kin and yours to the most remote of them. Many a wife, mother,
sister, and daughter has received just such an impression as the above from
some member of the family who no doubt believed it himself. Too many of our
members construe charity as coming in place of going: that is to say, they
expect to receive it, in place of extending it. A little education on the
right lines might change a mercenary Craftsman into a charitable one; in any
event, it might change some of our members and their dependents from
demanding, where they have only the right to request.
Candidates should be
advised more fully on what they can expect from the Fraternity, also on what
we shall expect from them. This, however, relates more properly to a different
subject than it does to the one I am trying to answer. As long as a brother
continues to fulfill his promise, we are in duty bound to extend to him the
same fraternal consideration that we do to our most just and upright brother.
It is difficult for some of us, at times, to feel the same spirit of
fraternity towards some Masonic brother that we do to others, but the time to
set him apart in a different class passed when we received him into
fellowship. Therefore, we must consider that he has some rights, and if he
obeys the laws of the land and transgresses no Masonic laws, we must render to
him a full measure of consideration.
The mercenary Craftsmen
might be divided into three classes. First - A percentage among these brethren
might, by proper proceedure, become worthy members of the Fraternity, and it
is our duty to try to induce them to change their selfish natures and grow to
be more in keeping with the spirit of our Fraternity. We might try to get them
interested in our charity work, if we are doing any. If we are not doing
anything on these lines, let us take up some of it for our own benefit as well
as for the benefit of the Masonic brother. Precept and example will do much.
Bear in mind that the brother you are trying to win over has some good in him
and perhaps needs to be reached in the right way to produce deeds of charity
that will bring abundant fruit. Do not forget that if you want the Masonic
brother to walk in the paths of rectitude, charity, and brotherly love, you
must walk in these paths once in a while yourself. The privilege of
association with men of character and standing is one of the incentives for
some men to seek admission into the Masonic Fraternity, and sometimes a
mercenary Craftsman realizes that getting into the Order does not carry with
it the association privilege, and when he wonders why, some one might suggest
that good deeds are the only passport to full fellowship in the Fraternity.
The above suggestions refer to a class of members that I believe we can
benefit: members who are susceptible to good influence, and will respond to
the right effort that is made to reach their better natures. Let us fulfill
our part of the contract, and by persuasion endeavor to turn a part of the
crop we have reaped from the seed sown, into a valuable asset, in place of
letting it remain a liability.
The second class of
mercenary Craftsmen will doubtless solve the problem as to what shall be done
with them, for themselves and for us, when they learn that they can get out of
Freemasonry only what they put into it, and being entirely destitute of
anything to put in, many of them will drop out, either by demission or by
suspension, and the laws in regard to suspension should be kept in good,
first-class condition, and not be permitted to rust for the want of service.
The mercenary Craftsmen
who will cause us the most trouble will be those who think that the world owes
them a living and who are trying to collect the entire debt, as they view it,
from the Masonic Fraternity. Finding neither sympathy nor financial assistance
in their own Masonic lodges, the members of this class will take "to the
road," and open up again the beaten path that formerly ran from the south to
the north in the summer time, and reversed the line of travel at the approach
of cold weather. I said that this class would cause us the most trouble, and
yet it should cause us the least. We have now and for some time have had a
remedy for this trouble in our own hands; but the well-learned hard luck story
related to the Master of a lodge, whose sympathy is large and whose judgment
for the time being is set aside, brings a few dollars that are worse than
wasted. This class of mercenary Craftsmen should be dealt with kindly, firmly,
and effectively. Kindly, so as to be sure that the applicant for relief is not
entitled to it. Try to convince him in a kindly manner that if he were
entitled to relief, he would receive it. If there is any doubt, solve it in
favor of the applicant. If you are going to err in a matter of this kind, err
on the right side, but do not err too much. Firmly, by insisting upon some
evidence of Masonic good standing, more than a simple statement of the name
and number of the lodge, and the old, old story of stolen receipts and Masonic
papers. Insist upon something in the way of documentary evidence; a receipt
for dues for the current year, with some authentication by the Grand
Secretary, should be demanded. Effectively, by spreading the information
regarding impostors, far and wide.
To these might be added
the class of men who apply for admission to our lodges, hoping for increased
business or for help of a political nature. Our duty to Craftsmen of this
kind, is to ignore their mercenary proclivities.
To sum up this subject:
Every Grand Lodge should give it careful consideration; provide ways and means
for the identification of their members, so there would be no possibility of
them being taken for impostors. A very small percentage of the money wasted on
unworthy Masons would provide first-class documentary evidence in the way of
diplomas and receipts for dues. Legislation should be enacted prohibiting
lodges from contributing any of the lodge funds without such documentary
evidence, showing that the applicant for relief is in good standing in a lodge
that is recognized by the Grand Lodge. With a list of regular lodges before
the examining committee, a diploma or a receipt for dues in the hands of a
worthy brother should always and most always will receive a steady response to
reasonable requests for assistance; all others should he denied.
SONG OF THE RED BIRD
BRO. H. L. HAYWOOD, IOWA
a cold and wintry day
down a sullen city street
my silent, gloomy way
heavy heart, reluctant feet.
day itself, as sad as I,
roofed with clouds of heavy gray;
weary wind was but a sigh;
city street was mired with clay.
from the sky's deep heart of peace,
wafting soft, and still, and slow,
though to put my heart at ease,
fell great innocent flakes of snow.
my head the maples met
branches gray, wind-swept, and bare;
spirit hears their mourning yet
many sorrows lingered there:
many sorrows lived in me
many fears, regrets, and woes
there I stood beneath that tree
lived with it amid the snows:-
all at once I heard a song,
tender, winsome song I heard,
heart-enthralling to belong
so small, so shy a bird!
heart had broken down in me!
lived again that holy day;
when that bird sang in the tree,
more long winter passed away.
PASSING OF CHARLES HOMER
the Past go more dead faces,
Loved leave vacant places,
Everywhere the sad eyes meet us,
evening's dusk they greet us,
come to them entreat us,
ON MARCH 9 last,
Charles Christopher Homer died at his home in Baltimore, Maryland, the city of
his birth, after an illness of a year. His passing left a gap that will not
easily be filled, because he was a man who wrought largely and in many
circles. Following his father, for whom he was named, he became president of
the Second National Bank of Baltimore. Later he became president also of the
Savings Bank of Baltimore, and a director of the Baltimore Clearing House
Association, as well as president of the National Currency Association.
But he was not content
with his activities in banking, multifarious as they were, and never refused
to place his tireless faculties, his business experience, and his trained
faculties - he was a graduate of the Law School of the University of Maryland
- at the disposal of worthful causes: he was a director of the German Orphan
Asylum, a trustee of the Shepherd and Enoch Pratt Hospital, and he was one of
the original members of the City Service Commission. In addition to all this
he held membership in a large number of societies and associations, the scope
of his interests being indicated by this incomplete list of them: - Academy of
Political Science, American Academy of Social and Political Scienee, American
Asiatic Association, American Forestry Association, American Geographical
Society, American Institute of Banking, Maryland Historical Society, Municipal
Art Society, National Economic League, National Geographic Society, National
Masonic Research Society, National Municipal League, Navy League of the United
States, Society for the History of Germans in Maryland, and the Maryland,
Baltimore, Baltimore Country, Baltimore Athletic, Baltimore Yacht, Merchants,
Baltimore Press, Automobile and City Clubs, Baltimore.
Along with all these,
and in some senses over and above all these, went a passionate interest in
Freemasonry that waxed more and more compelling for twenty-six years. From his
being made a Mason in 1896 until his
death he labored tirelessly in all the Rites, and always with patience, with
good humor, and with sanity. Maryland Masons gave to him the highest possible
expression of their regard by electing him to succeed Thomas J. Shryock, who
was serving his thirty-third term as Grand Master. When he was made Grand High
Priest of the Grand Chapter of Maryland in 1919, the Grand Chapter published a
record of his Masonic affiliations, as follows:
Companion Homer was
initiated April 2, 1896, passed May 8, 1896 and raised June 1, in Germania
Lodge, No. 160; dimitted March 22, 1901.
dimit in Kedron Lodge, May 7, 1901.
Filled the chairs in
Kedron Lodge, No. 148, A.’. F.’. & A.’. M.’., of Maryland, serving as Master
Member of the Board of
Grand Inspectors in 1907.
Elected Senior Grand
Warden of the Grand Lodge in 1908.
Elected a member of the
Board of Managers of the Masonic Temple in 1908, serving thereon to date.
Elected Deputy Grand
Master in 1911.
Chairman of the Finance
Committee of the Grand Lodge for four years.
Acting Grand Master,
February 3, 1918 to November, 1918.
Elected Grand Master
November, 1918; re-elected November
Elected member of and
Treasurer of the Grand Lodge Charity
Fund in 1915, succeeded by Brother Daniel J. Emich, as Treasurer, in February,
Exalted in Druid Royal
Arch Chapter, No. 28.
Became charter member
of the Baltimore Royal Arch Chapter, No. 40, serving as High Priest of that
Chapter in 1912.
He was knighted in
Beauseant Commandery, No. 8, Knights
Templar, 1897: Eminent Commander, 1906; Grand Commander Knights Templar, 1913;
Concordia Council, No. 1, Royal and Select Masters; Albert Pike Lodge of
Perfection, Meredith Chapter Rose Croix, Maryland Preceptory, Chesapeake
Consistory, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite; Master of Kadosh, 1913 to
1918; Knight Commander of the Court of Honor, 1911; Coroneted 33d, October,
1913; appointed Deputy of the Supreme Council in the State of Maryland, March,
1918; Sovereign Grand Inspector General, October, 1919; member of Finance
Committee and Committee on Foreign Relations of Supreme Council
Scottish Rite; Treasurer of the War
Relief Fund the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite; Member of Executive
Commission and Treasurer of Masonic Service Association of the United States;
appointed Provincial Magus for Maryland of Rosicrucian Society, in 1918; M. P.
Sovereign St. Cyprian Council, U. S. Red Cross of Constantine; Grand Warder
Encampment Knights Templar, September, 1919.
To this should be
added the fact that he was one of of
the founders of the Masonic Service Association, attended all its annual
sessions, except the last, and was treasurer until illness compelled his
resignation: and that, from its beginning in 1915, he has been an enthusiastic
member of the National Masonic Research Society - so enthusiastic that we
shall for many a long day sadly miss his cheery presence, and his hearty
voice. Peace to his ashes, and a long remembrance to his illustrious name !
TEACHINGS OF MASONRY
BRO. H. L. HAYWOOD, IOWA
The following paper is
one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings of
Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and discussion in lodges
and study clubs. From the questions following each section of the paper the
study club leader should select such as he may desire to use in bringing out
particular points for discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on each
individual question presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge
or study club may be able to devote to the study club meeting.
In conducting the study
club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the discussions closely to
the text of the paper and not permit the members to speak too long at one time
or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident that the
discussion is turning from the original subject the leader should request the
members to make notes of the particular points or phases of the matter they
may wish to discuss or inquire into and bring them up after the last section
of the paper is disposed of.
The meetings should be
closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as may have come up
during the meeting and laid over until this time should be entered into and
discussed. Should any questions arise that cannot be answered by the study
club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be submitted to
us and we will endeavor to answer them for you in time for your next meeting.
on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at the end of the article.
XII - THE BROTHERHOOD OF MAN
we hear it said by zealous reformers that we men must learn to be social
beings, that individualism, egoism, and all such creeds are vicious in their
effects, and-that the socializing of life will bring in an era of which
William Morris dreamed when he wrote that "Brotherhood is heaven, the lack of
brotherhood is hell." (Or did he use the word fellowship?" It matters not.)
Admirable as is the spirit and intent of these reformers a fallacy lies at the
heart of their theory. We men are already social beings: we were born that
way. To tell us that we must become social is like telling the fishes to live
in the water.
human babe is born it finds itself from the first in the midst of a family,
and bound by indissoluble ties to father, mother, brother, and sister. After
the child grows up a little, it discovers itself to have neighbors all about
it. When school years come he learns that there are hundreds of other little
people like himself. After he has reached maturity he will marry and have a
family of his own. If he engages in an occupation he will find, almost
without an exception, that his daily work is made possible by the fact that
there are ther human beings to whom he is tied by all manner of common
social nature of man's world is reflected in the structure of his own body and
mind. He is possessed of the faculty of speech, which implies that there are
others about him who have something to communicate to him, and to whom he has
something to communicate. Nearly all his thinking has reference to his
relations with others. When he sets himself to the task of learning, most of
his learning is about others, and what they have been or done. The very
nature of his private self-consciousness, so the psychologists have learned,
is such that if a babe could grow up alone on a desert island it would be
idiotic or insane, no matter how healthy it might be in body. There is no way
in which a man can set out to become a social being, because he is already a
social being, and can never be anything else. Sociality is an organic fact,
built into the nature of man and of man's world, from which a man can no more
escape than he can escape from his skin. This fact, so it seems to me, is
absolutely essential to a right understanding of our subject.
your own definition of "brotherhood." Carefully examine in your own mind the
idea that man is by nature a social being. Give other facts than those in the
second paragraph to prove that man is a social being by nature. Why would a
person growm up on a desert island necessarily be an idiot? What is the
difference between "sociality" and "sociability"? What has the social nature
of man to do with Freemasonry? Could Freemasonry succeed in its mission if it
were true that man's nature is essentially egotistic and anti-social?
facts are to us so self-evident that it seems impossible that any mature
person could ever have overlooked them: such however has been the case, and
that with millions, for this understanding of man as by nature a social being
is one of the achievements of modern thinking and scientific research. Once
psychologists assumed that man comes into existence as a lonely individual
untied to others, and that he gradually assumed social relations.
Sociologists and political economists were hard put to explain how a
self-sufficient individuality like man ever came to exist in communities.
Rousseau advanced the theory of the "Social Contract" as his explanation of
the matter: Hobbes brought forth another theory, and so on. Economists began
their treatises with an account of some hypothetical man living on a desert
island and then tried to show how that man's economic interests would lead him
to form industrial associations with others. The theologians placed before
their minds a picture of an individual brought into existence as a solitary
unit, who had later to be brought somehow into relation with God with man.
All such theorizing, then or now, for it still lives in some form or other
with many men, is useless because it begins by assuming that man is a solitary
unit who must become social by his own effort, whereas the truth is that a man
is a social being already, and from the very beginning.
being true it is easily seen that brotherhood is anything but a merely
sentimental aspiration, which sensitive people can feel, and idealistic people
can strive after. On the contrary it is already a fact, as hard and real a
fact as the mother rock that makes the foundation of the mountains. To
practice brotherhood is to discover that we men are already brothers by nature
and that we can never be happy, or live in harmony with the laws and forces of
our own beings, until we learn to love each other, and to cultivate the
fraternal spirit. Men make a fatal mistake who suppose that we are really by
nature such beings as the wolf or the tiger, that we are kept from devouring
each other only by fear or custom, and that he who builds on raw egotism is
the only man who has Nature on his side. The only man who has Nature on his
side is he who builds on the fact that man is a social being, and therefore
that he can never be happy until he is in harmony with his fellows.
you furnish other examples of how much of the thinking of the past has assumed
that man is by nature an un-social being? Who was Rousseau? What is an
"economist"? Is industry social by its nature? Can you name any well known
theological doctrines which assume that man is by nature a separate unit? In
what sense is it true that "brotherhood" is already a fact? Were the French
the brethren of the German, and vice versa, during the battle of Verdun? If
they were not, when were they brothers? Are they brothers now? How can they
become brothers, if not? If they really were brethren all the time may that
not explain the horror of the war? Do you habitually act on the supposition
that each man you know is by nature an egotistic being who must be coaxed into
being social? Is unselfishness as natural as selfishness?
present day psychologists, who are making such careful investigations of
instincts, tell us that the old idea that the first and most powerful force in
a man is the instinct of self-preservation, and that everything else must be
secondary to that, is a fearful fallacy. The truth is, so they aver, that the
instincts which look towards others, such as the instinct of parenthood, and
the instinct of sociality, are equally primitive and equally powerful, and
that the individual who stultifies those instincts will suffer in a hundred
ways. Why is it that a man who sees some person about to drown, and that one
a total stranger, will dart away from his own wife and children to leap into
the water, and there risk possible death? He doesn't reason or argue about the
matter, but acts on his instinct. The need to live a brotherly life is
written in the very scriptures of blood and tissue and bone, and he who lives
in opposition to that need will bring himself into an abnormal condition in
which his happiness will perish. This, so it seems to me, is one of the first
laws of brotherhood: it is no mere sentimental luxury, but a necessity, and
that in the same sense that bread and air and water are necessities.
may describe brotherhood as the normal development of the social instincts, or
he may describe it as the wise, commonsense adjustment of one's self to one's
fellows. When one makes that wise and harmonious adjustment he makes it not
in response to some sentimental and pious wish that such things should be, but
in response to facts, to the way things really are with man's being. Just as
a man must be in right relation with the food he eats in order to maintain
health, so must he likewise be in right relation to his fellows if he would
live in happiness.
man who understands that brotherhood is one form of wisdom, and that it is
demanded by the way things really are in man's world, will not be troubled by
sentimental difficulties. Neither will he permit a few accidental private
experiences to sour him of all brotherly striving. It may be that my neighbor
and I have natures that are the antipodes of each other. What I admire he
detests. What he loves I hate. His temperament is antagonistic to mine. My
vocation is one that is opposed to his interests. We cannot hold social
intercourse because we discover too many antipathies. Such a thing has
nothing to do with brotherhood when it is rightly understood. Brotherhood
does not demand of us that we privately like people who are obnoxious to us,
or that others should like us who find our company distasteful. Such things
are in the domain of one's intimate likes and dislikes and have to do with
private friendship rather than with brotherhood.
cannot like this neighbor of mine I can be a brother to him nevertheless. I
can give him exact justice in all my dealings with him. I can always refuse
to do evil to him or speak evil of him. I can always maintain an attitude of
good will to him, and wish for him good fortune and happiness. I can ever
stand ready to help him to fullness of life, insofar as circumstances make
that possible, and I can always refuse to place any obstacles in his path. If
I have a difference with him I can differ with him as one man to another,
honestly and openly, without childish petulance. Such in attitude is the
brotherly spirit, and it can flourish where private friendship is impossible.
are the "psychologists"? What are the various instincts at the bottom of man's
nature? Is the instinct of fraternalism as deeply rooted as the instinct of
self-preservation? What does Brother Haywood mean by the phrase "in right
relation to one's fellows"? How do you get along with persons you do not
personally like? Does brotherhood demand that we have a personal liking for
every man? Could such a thing be possible? What is meant by the saying in the
V.S.L. that "We should love one another," and "Love your enemies"? How can a
man "love" his enemies? How can one Mason love another Mason whom he
Practical men of affairs usually like to think of brotherhood in the terms of
cooperation, and that is perfectly legitimate. The greatest things in the
world - it is a banal statement to make - are accomplished by a great many men
agreeing to act harmoniously together. The National Masonic Research Society
is an example of this. We who belong to it, and work for it (this includes
you as well as myself) have no desire (or opportunity) to make money out of
it, or to gain private ends by means of it. We are all interested to learn
and teach more about Freemasonry and we have therefore formed a society
whereby we may the better accomplish that purpose. Such a thing is in itself
brotherhood. The great Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research, founded in England
in 1884, to which reference is so often made in these pages, is another case
in point. The able scholars who toiled so diligently under the aegis of the
lodge, and who laid the whole Fraternity under such an obligation to them,
toiled without money and without price, but solely in order that we could all
know more about our Craft. In so doing those men acted as brothers in as
literal a sense as if they had all donned monk's habits and gone to live
somewhere in the communal society of a monastery.
you give two or three other examples of brotherhood as being cooperation?
Could one describe the cooperation, or "team play," of a baseball club as
being brotherhood? Do you believe in brotherhood sufficiently to practice it?
to risk things on the strength of it?
Freemasonry we speak of the bond which holds men together in such endeavor as
the "Mystic Tie." It is quite impossible to describe or to explain that tie,
those who know what it is by experience, do not need it to be defined. There
is something of private friendship in it, for I believe that the majority of
Masons have a feeling towards brother Masons that they do not have towards
outsiders, and there is something of the purpose of cooperation in it, as
described above. It is a mixture of these two things, plus many other things.
that as it may it is true that what we mean by that tie is really the hope of
the world. It is only as men are bound by it, whether they are Masons or not,
that the race can go on towards happiness. For after all is said and done the
world is a unity, and is one. That is the nature of mankind and mankind can
never be happy in living until all act in harmony with their nature. Those
who make sport of the aspirations towards racial unity, internationalism, all
such endeavors to bind man closer to man, woman to woman, know not of what
they speak though they know it not, it is they who are miss by sentimental
illusions, and imaginary mirages, the men who work to build life on the
foundations on which life was intended to rest. In proportion as a man
understands brotherhood and acts in conformity with its demands, he will
always work for human unity. In his lodge he will not be a dividing and
distracting force. In his community he will be a good citizen who knows that
the community has a right to demand many sacrifices on the part of its
children. He will uphold and maintain the principles of his country, and
oppose every influence that makes for its degredation and division. He will
everywhere use his efforts to break down racial antipathy, religious
differences, and class hatred. War, fanaticism, national jealousies and
unjust ambitions, the base intrigues of false statesmen, and the public
conivance in public vices, he will everywhere and oppose. It is his task as a
true soldier of brotherhood.
Masonry has played a great part in bringing about these conditions, and the
part it is yet to play "is more than the twelve labors of Hercules." It is a
great thing for the world that at a time when everywhere the spirit of strife
and division is so rampant there should be in existence a powerful
international body of men who preach and emphasize the need for unity,
harmony, and international comity. I like to think that the Fraternity is a
kind of great school in which men learn brotherhood by practicing it towards
fellow Masons, because he who begins by practicing it towards fellow Masons
will come sooner or later to practice it everywhere. And I like to think that
Freemasonry is a world inside the world, and that in Masonry those habits of
fraternity are developing which will one day take root everywhere. While the
winter winds are raging the gardener sows the seed in the protection of his
hothouse. After a while the plants will be carried outdoors to live under the
sky. Inside the protecting arms of the Fraternity is growing a spirit which,
as rapidly as conditions permit, must make itself felt everywhere. The great
work of the world must be done by the combined and cooperating efforts of all
the men of the world. At present that world lies dismembered about us,
bleeding at every pore. This does not mean that brotherhood is a failure. It
means that a world without brotherhood is a failure. It is the only
practicable means of healing the hurts of mankind. Every individual who learns
in the lodge the lessons of brotherhood and who goes through life everywhere
practicing that lesson is helping toward the new order of things wherein will
dwell peace for all men.
thing that must achieve such a work as this cannot be a puny growth of private
sentimentality. It is a world power capable of gigantic efforts. Those who
think of it merely as a hand clasp and a slap on the back are dealing with it
like children. It is a world law, destined to change the earth into
conformity with itself, and as a world power it is something superb, awe-
speak the password primeval, I give the sign of Democracy; By God! I will
accept nothing which all cannot have their counterpart of on the same
terms.... I dreamed in a dream I saw a city invincible to the attacks of the
whole of the rest of the earth; I dreamed that was the new City of Friends;
nothing was greater there than the quality of robust love - it led the rest
..... Swiftly arose and spread around me the peace and ledge that pass all the
argument of the earth, And I know that the hand of God is the promise of my
own, And I know that the spirit of God is the brother of my own, And that all
men ever born are also my brothers and the women my sisters and lovers, And
that a kelson of the creation is love. . . . Is it a dream? Nay, but the lack
of it the dream, And, failing it, life's lore and wealth a dream, And all the
world a dream " (Whitman.)
I may be allowed to refer the reader to another article of mine on a different
aspect of this me theme which appeared in THE BUILDER for January 1917. H. L.
How would you explain
the "mystic tie" ? Tell in what ways Freemasonry endeavors to make brotherhood
prevail in the world? Does a man have to wait to understand brotherhood before
he can practice it? May it not be that he learns what it is by practicing it
as far as he can understand it and believe it ? What is international
brotherhood ? Who was Whitman ?
Mackey's Encyclopaedia - (Revised Edition):
Bible, p. 104; Brother,
p. 120; Brotherhood, p. 120; Brotherly Love, p. 121; Companion, p. 173; Mystic
Tie, p. 501; Wisdom, p.
STUDY CLUB PLAN
"The Bulletin Course of
Masonic Study," of which the foregoing paper by Brother Haywood is a part, was
begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to the beginning of the present
series on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings of Masonry," as we have
titled it, were published some forty-three papers covering in detail
"Ceremonial Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under the following several
divisions: "The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge and the Candidate," "First
Steps," "Second Steps," and "Third Steps." A complete set of these papers up
to January 1st, 1922, are obtainable in the bound volumes of THE BUILDER for
1917, 1918, 1919, 1920 and 1921.
Following is an outline
of the subjects covered by the current series of study club papers by Brother
TEACHINGS OF MASONRY
The Masonic Conception of Human Nature.
The Idea of Truth in Freemasonry.
The Masonic Conception of Education.
Ritualism and Symbolism.
Initiation and Secrecy.
10. - Democracy.
11. - Masonry and
12. - The Brotherhood
13. - Freemasonry and
14. - The Fatherhood of
15. - Endless Life.
16. - Brotherly Aid.
17. - Schools of
This systematic course
of Masonic study
has been taken up and carried out in monthly and semi-monthly meetings of
lodges and study clubs all over the United States and Canada, and in several
instances in lodges overseas.
The course of study has
for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE BUILDER and
ORGANIZE AND CONDUCT STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
Study clubs may be
organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of the lodge. In
the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably of three
"live" members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The study
club meetings should be held at least once a month (excepting during July and
August, when the study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER), either at
a special communication of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular
communication at which no business (except the lodge routine) should be
transacted,all possible time to be devoted to study club purposes.
After the lodge has
been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master should turn the
lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The committee should
be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the meeting.
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned
should be prepared with their material, and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study of it.
PROGRAM FOB STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
1. Reading of any
supplemental papers on the subject for the evening which may have been
prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of the study club
2. Reading of the first
section of Brother Haywood's paper.
3. Discussion of this
section, using the questions following this section to bring out points for
4. The subsequent
sections of the paper should then be taken up and disposed of in the same
5. Question Box. Invite
questions on any subject in Masonry, from any and all brethren present. Let
the brethren understand that these meetings are for their particular benefit
and enlightenment and get them into the habit of asking all the questions they
may be able to think of. If at the time these questions are propounded no one
can answer them, send them in to us and we will endeavor to supply answers to
them in time for your next study club meetmg.
information should enable study club committees to conduct their meetings
without difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such committees, or
any individual member of lodges and study clubs at any time such brethren are
invited to feel
communicate with us.
CLUB PAPERS DISCONTINUED UNTIL SEPTEMBER
As the majority of
lodges and study clubs usually "call off" during the months of Jul,y and
August, the next installment of the current series of study club papers will
be published in the September issue.
INSTINCT FOR ANTIQUITY
article on the "Mission of the Masonic Press" Robert Freke Gould had some
sport with Dr. Oliver's famous remark about the antiquity of the Masonic
Order. It was honest sport as the reader himself will acknowledge from the
following, which is the sentence that caused the laughter: "Ancient Masonic
traditions say, and I think justly, that our science existed before the
creation of the Globe, and was diffused amid the numerous systems with which
the grand empyreum of space was furnished." This is a fair sample of the sort
of thing that used to be said by our writers about the age of Masonry, and it
is little wonder that critical historians were moved thereby to feel and
express a vast contempt for such so-called history.
after all - there is no need to say that THE BUILDER has no patience whatever
with such fables - leaving the matter of historical accuracy on one side, it
was a very human and therefore justifiable instinct that led our Masonic
fathers to allege so enormous an antiquity. They felt that Freemasonry was a
thing of supreme value and truth, they believed that it had exercised in the
world so vast an amount of good influence, that they could not believe it to
be of recent origin. Believing it to be of such worth they could not help but
believe that it was consequently of great antiquity. The instinct for
antiquity which seems to be an ineradicable part of man's nature usually
springs from such roots. What is new, man feels, cannot be very true, and what
is of world-wide value cannot have been recently contrived. The ideas of
antiquity and great worth go inevitably together.
and Virgil always furnished their heroes with a pedigree from the gods. Rome,
so the Romans themselves believed, was built from heaven; the Jews and the
Mohammedans each also as firmly considered their own holy cities of celestial
origin. The Greek Catholic is convinced that his religious system came
directly from the Lord, while his Roman Catholic brother has as little doubt
that his came from the same source, through the mediation of St. Peter. The
Anglican Catholic, not to be outdone, asserts the same claim for his own
church, or, if he chance to be an unlearned man, believes that Christianity
was brought to Britain by Joseph of Arimathea. The Albigenses, who were Rome's
bitterest foes during the Middle Ages, taught their children that their own
faith was original Christianity undefiled by modern accretions; and
Protestants and Liberals of our own day do the same thing.
scientific historian, with his pedestrian mind and his insistence on the facts
in the case, will have scant sympathy for any of these pious beliefs, it may
be, but what of that? One should interpret such beliefs with the more
charitable faculties of the imagination. There is a great deal of good sense
in the belief that what is new cannot be true, in this region at an rate, for
it is inconceivable that through all antiquity men should have been left in
the dark about the simple fundamentals of life. Freemasonry, in any form
recognizable by us, most certainly did not exist at the beginning of the world
(if the world ever had a beginning) but the men and the women who lived at
that time, we may believe, were not altogether bereft of the things that give
us wisdom. Those "hopes that make us men," those truths that sustain us
inwardly and outwardly, which the great Order brings home to our business and
our bosoms, are not mushroom growths of a day, which some learned pundit of
last week chanced to come upon.
* * *
following words have been reported of John H. Reddin, Supreme Knight of the
Knights of Columbus:
necessary, the Knights of Columbus will put its whole force of 800,000 members
into the movement to end foreign propaganda in America, be it European or
are brave words. One cannot but regret that the Knights of Columbus did not
heed them when it lent its powerful aid to the Sinn Fein movement by
resolution and by money. The Sinn Feiners had no more business in these United
States than would the minions of the Soviets. If they, their president and
their spellbinders did not carry on a "foreign propaganda" those two words
have no meaning.
one can't help but remember that the Knights of Columbus themselves are in
existence here to propagate the influence of a church and a political power
that is as foreign to us and to all that we stand for as are the gibberings of
Lenine and Trotsky. If the Knights wish to put a stop to "foreign propaganda"
they might experiment on themselves.
do you visualize your job?"
story of three stone cutters leaves nothing of wisdom to be said. They were
working on a stone. A stranger asked the first what he was doing.
working for $7.50 a day," he replied.
you?" the stranger asked the second.
cutting this stone," growled the laborer.
the question was put to the third stone cutter, he answered,
building a cathedral."
Christian Register (Boston).
COMMUNICATION FROM THE REVISER OF GOULD'S "CONCISE HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY"
BUILDER is greatly pleased to publish this letter from Bro. Fred J. W. Croffe,
whose Revision of Gould's "Concise History of Freemasonry" was reviewed in the
Library Department last January. The rare spirit in which this communication
is conceived will surely tempt a number of our readers to extend their
acquaintanceship with the author. He was made a member of Quatuor Coronati
Lodge of Research, of London, England, in 1898, and became Worshipful Master
of the same - which office was once described by Brother W.J. Hughan as the
"blue ribbon" of Masonry - in 1909. He has contributed many now familiar
essays to the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, one of the most notable of which was a
critical examination of "The 'Charta Transmissionis' of Larmenius," published
in the Ars, Volume XXIV, page 185. He has written "What Is Freemasonry," and
also three Master Mason's Handbooks, one each for England, Scotland. and
Editor of THE BUILDER:
just seen your able review of the new edition of Gould's "Concise History,"
which appeared in the January, 1922, number of THE BUILDER, and I am sure I
may rely on your courtesy and fairness to allow me to state my side of the
case in your famous journal.
always a thankless task to revise a book, because whatever line you take,
someone is sure to disapprove of it, and of course everyone has a right to
criticise as freely as he likes.
done as you suggest and left the original matter intact, and inserted any
revisions, etc., as footnotes, I should have largely increased the
cumbrousness of the work, and considerably increased the price. On the other
hand, a well known English student and author reproaches me for not having
entirely rewritten it! When doctors disagree, who shall decide?
in great doubt what line to take, and finally did as you know.
justify my action, I must beg to make a short personal explanation. I had the
great privilege of being a humble member of a band of intimate friends which
included such Masonic first-magnitude stars as Hughan, Lane, Speth, Chetwode
Crawley, Murray Lyon, Sadler and others. Gould I also knew well, but not so
intimately. I had conversations, and saw correspondence from and between all
these, and for some dozen years I lived close to William James Hughan, and saw
him almost daily on Masonic matters, so that I may claim a more intimate
knowledge than most people of what they all really thought and felt. I rank
Hughan highest of all. Hughan had been at work on a complete "History of
Freemasonry" for some years, but he was the most unselfish man I ever knew,
and when he found Gould wanted to write it, he recommended him to the
publishers, and handed over to him the whole of his material, and helped him
in every way, even to reading every page of the proofs. It is an open secret
on this side that he actually wrote parts of the book, as he himself told me.
Others also rendered much assistance.
the "Concise" came out, Hughan rendered the same services, and I was often
with him at the time he was at work on the proofs, and he told me he
considered the opening chapters too long, and having little really to do with
Freemasonry, whilst as to the Irish origin of the "Ancients" he utterly
disagrees with Gould, and did his utmost to alter the chapter. The other
friends did the same, but without success for Gould never liked to change his
views, and so in all our minds there was a blot on the work.
the earlier part of the book being somewhat tedious and irrelevant, I may
mention that when it first appeared I was shown a criticism in a very
important London paper, which said, "It is neither concise nor a history." I
don't know who wrote this, but it shows that I was not alone in finding it
these circumstances, I decided that my wisest course was to cut the chapters
concerning which I had heard wide complaints of unnecessary length, and to
alter the Chapter VII, of which I do not personally know a single English
supporter, thus following exactly the objections of Hughan, than whom no
greater authority has existed to my mind. In this way I made what seemd to me
as little alteration as possible. In fact, another English critic
"congratulated me on the reverence with which I handled Gould." A third, who
is probably the most learned now with us said "Do be sure and cut out all that
talk about 'schism' and 'schismatics' which has no foundation." You know now
how diverse opinions were, and hence my difficulties.
don't really see how there can be any doubt of what is Gould, and what Crowe.
"Cutting" leaves the remainder still Gould, whilst I have indicated clearly
what I altered. The additions you quoted from page 349 of the originals are
only a list of the "Important Occurrences in Freemasonry" as given in the
Official Year Book of the Grand Lodge of England from the date of the
"Concise" first appearing to my own writing. Surely this must be clear, and
being merely official statements of facts, it doesn't matter whether Gould or
Crowe inserted them. All the other additions, I think, will be found as
similiar statements of facts since the first edition appeared. I think,
therefore, I have taken the only possible way of executing my task, and I cry
mea culpa for any unintentional sins of omission or commission.
conclusion, I thank you very sincerely for your kind compliments, and
acknowledge your perfect fairness from your own point of view. I can only
regret that we do not altogether see eye to eye, and I still hope our American
brethren will find the new edition as useful as the old was.
sincerely and fraternally yours,
Lodge "Quatuor Coronati" 2076,
P.A.G.D.C., England, P.S.G.W., Iowa, etc.
* * *
PRESIDENT HARDING CONQUERS MR. WELLS
"Washington and the Riddle of Peace" by H.G. Wells. Published by The Macmillan
Company, 66 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. The book sells at $2.00.
Through "the enterprise and driving energy of The New York World" Mr. H.G.
Wells was brought to the Washington Conference in order that he might
therefrom convey to an interested world his impressions of the outcome of that
bold experiment in the New Diplomacy. The Wellsian articles, as the reader
already knows, appeared in many dailies in the United States and abroad, and
were read by multitudes of people. The twenty-nine papers have now been
gathered into a volume and published under the title "Washington and the
Riddle of Peace."
twenty-nine papers," writes Mr. Wells, "do not profess to be a record or
description of the Washington Conference. They give merely the impressions and
fluctuating ideas of one visitor to that conference. They show the reaction of
that gathering upon a mind keenly set upon the idea of an organized world
peace; they record phases of enthusiasm, hope, doubt, depression and
irritation. They have scarcely been touched, except to correct a word or a
phrase here or there; they are dated; in all essentials they are the articles
just as they appeared in The New York World, the Chicago Tribune, and the
other American and European papers which first gave them publicity."
Wellsian style is here in all its plenitude; rushing by one like a torrent;
sparkling, dipping, splashing; there is no need to review its thrice-familiar
character. To the reviewer, and doubtless also to a great majority of American
readers, the "feature" of the volume is the delightfully frank confession on
Mr. Wells' part of his conquest by Brother Warren G. Harding, President of the
United States. "I saw the President for the first time at Arlington. He is a
very big fine-looking man and his voice is a wonderful instrument. He spoke
slowly and very distinctly, his gestures admirably controlled. He is - how can
I say it? - more statuesque than any of the American Presidents of recent
times, but without a trace in his movements or appearances of posturing or
vanity. Men say he is a sincerely modest man, determined to do the best that
is in him and at once appalled and inspired by the world situation in which he
finds himself among the most prominent figures.... I have heard much
detraction of the President both before I came to America and since I have
been here, but here I have found also a growing and spreading belief in him.
And this address of his, rhetorical though it was in a simple and popular
American way, was nevertheless a very dignified address and one inspired by a
spirit that is undeniably great.... Every other gossip tells you that
President Harding comes from Main Street and repeats the story of Mrs. Harding
saying, 'We're just folk.' If President Harding is a fair sample of Main
Street, Sinclair Lewis has not told us the full story and Main Street is
destined to save the world."
President Harding's great peace plan, Mr. Wells is frankly enthusiastic. These
letters, he writes in his Introduction, "record - and in a very friendly and
appreciative spirit - the birth and unfolding of the 'Association of Nations'
idea, the Harding idea, of world pacification, they note some of the peculiar
circumstances of that birth, and they study the chief difficulties on its way
to realization. It is, the writer believes, the most practical and hopeful
method of attacking this riddle of the Sphinx that has hitherto been
* * *
DICTIONARY OF RELIGION AND ETHICS
Dictionary of Religion and Ethics," edited by Shailer Mathews and Gerald B.
Smith, with the aid of about one hundred specialists. Published by The
Macmillan Company, 66 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. Price $8.00.
Freemasonry is so infused with religion and ethics that any book dealing
freely with the two latter subjects will be of interest to the Craft. The work
under consideration contains 513 pages, 7 x 10 inches, and the articles have
room for briefly defining all the words of importance in the field of religion
and ethics and many of them are discussed at some length.
the subjects are written apparently by those most in sympathy with them there
is well maintained the historical rather than the propagandist or speculative
attitude. From a strictly Masonic viewpoint, the definition of Freemasonry
will for us probably have first place. Written by a well known Freemason,
Brother Roscoe Pound, his examination of the subject is attractive in vision
but necessarily limited in treatment owing to the amount of space permitted.
Brother Pound says, in part, that Freemasonry is
'art' or 'Mystery' of the Freemasons or Free and Accepted Masons, a universal,
religious, moral, charitable and benevolent fraternal organization. It is
religious in requiring belief in God as a prerequisite of initiation and
insisting on such belief as one of its unalterable points. Beyond this and
belief in immortality it has no religious dogmas but expects the brother to
adhere to some religion and obligates him upon the sacred oath of the religion
he professes. For the rest it seeks to promote morals by ceremonies, symbols
and lectures, inculcating life measured by reason and performance of duties
toward God, one's country, one's neighbor, and one's self. It relieves needy
brothers, cares for their dependents, educates orphans and insists upon duties
of charity and benevolence."
Following this definition there is a brief account of the Fraternity's
history. Brother Pound states that there is no authentic evidence as to its
origin but that the manuscripts, "Old Charges," show that in the 14th century
it was an established Institution with a long past.
"Dictionary" has many other items that tempt the making of similar abstracts.
Among these are the following references: "Catechisms," "Cathedral
Architecture," "Charms and Amulets," "Crusades," "Cult," "Drama in Religion,"
"Foundation Rites," "Initiation," "Inquisition," "Miracle Plays," "Morality
Plays," "Mystery Plays," "Mystery Religions," "Oaths and Vows," "Rites,
Rituals and Ceremonies," "Secret Societies, Primitive," "Symbols," etc. The
essay on "Rites, Rituals and Ceremonies" is especially valuable. A
bibliography is appended but so far as its references relate to Freemasonry
this is the least useful part of the book.
* * *
MASONIC YEAR BOOK
Masonic Year, 1922," prepared by Robert I. Clegg and published by THE MASONIC
HISTORY COMPANY, 225 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago. A few copies are
available for general distribution at $1.00 per copy.
Brother Robert I. Clegg, who has so long been at home in these pages, and who
is editor for The Masonic History Company, is making it his custom at the end
of each year to gather out of his clippings and memoranda of the past twelve
months such items as are most salient, and most interesting; these he collates
in a little volume, bound in blue cloth, and tastefully printed which he
offers to the Craft as a handbook bearing the title of The Masonic Year. The
volume for 1922 runs to 142 pages and contains items clustering about some
twenty-three heads, such as Masonic Enlightenment, Masonc Statistics, Unusual
Masonic Events, Royal Arch Masons, Cryptic Rite, etc. The great majority of
these items are taken from the Masonic press of 1921; a half dozen or so are
drawn from Grand Lodge Proceedings, and two or three are of a personal
character. There is not a dead paragraph in the book, or a useless fact. The
volume is one that cannot but be highly prized by those who take any interest
at all in contemporaneous Freemasonry. If only it possessed an index, which
unfortunately it does not, there would be nothing in it to offend the most
Masonic Year is a prophecy of what may yet be done in its line. Now that the
Fraternity has grown to such prodigious proportions in these States, and is
everywhere making itself felt with abounding vigor, its activities have
outgrown the power of any one mind, with our present facilities for knowledge,
to keep pace with them. We need badly a real annual cyclopedia which would do
for Masonic workers, officials, Grand Lodge members, students and laborers in
all the grades what the Statesman's Year Book does for the members of the
United States Congress, and what the World Almanac does for everybody. Such a
volume would be worth its weight in gold. It cannot be made suddenly and out
of the whole cloth, and at a leap, as it were; it will have to grow from less
to more, from humble beginnings to great endings. Perhaps The Masonic Year is
destined to become, some day, such an annual cyclopedia. So mote it be !
PUBLICATIONS WANTED, FOR SALE, AND EXCHANGE
constantly receiving inquiries from members of the Society and others as to
where they might obtain books on Masonry and kindred subjects, other than
those listed each month on the inside back cover of THE BUILDER. Most of the
publications wanted have been out of print for years. Believing that many such
books might be in the hands of other members of the Society willing to dispose
of them we are setting apart this column each month for the use of our
members. Communications from those having old Masonic publications will also
Postoffice addresses are here given that those interested may communicate
direct with each other, no responsibility of any nature to be attached to the
requested that all brethren whose wants may be filled through this medium
communicate with the Secretary so that the notices may then he discontinued.
Bro. D. D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y.: "Realities of
Masonry," Blake, 1879; "Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons,"
Condor, 1894; "Masonic Bibliography," Carson, 1873; "Origin of Freemasonry,"
Bro. G. Alfred Lawrence, 142 West 86th St., New York, N.Y.: Proceedings of the
Scottish Rite Body founded by Joseph Cerneau in New York City in 1808, of
which De Witt Clinton was the first Grand Commander, and which body became
united, in 1867, with the Supreme Council of the Northern Masonic
Jurisdiction, A. & A.S.R. Also Proceedings of the Supreme Council founded in
New York by De La Motta, in 1813 by authority of the Southern Supreme Council,
of which he was Grand Treasurer-General, these Proceedings from 1813 to 1860
Bro. Frank R. Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.: "The Year Book,"
published by the Masonic Constellations, containing the History of the Grand
Council, R.& S. M., of Missouri.
Bro. Ernest E. Ford, 305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California: Ars
Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes 3, 6 and 7, with St. John's Cards, also St.
John's Cards for volumes 4 and 5; "Masonic Review," early volumes; "Voice of
Masonry," early volumes; Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction
for the years 1882 and 1886; Original Proceedings of The General Grand
Encampment Knights Templar for the years 1826 and 1835.
Brother Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin: "Catalogue of the Masonic
Library of Samuel Lawrence"; "Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations of
Masonry"; "The Source of Measures," by J. Ralston Skinner 1875, or second
edition 1894; "Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," volumes I to XI, inclusive; "Masonic
Facts and Fictions," by Henry Sadler; "The Kabbala Unveiled," by S. L.
Brother Geo. A. Lanzarotti, Casilla 126, Raneagua, Chile
kinds of Masonic literature in Spanish. Write first quotin prices.
Brother L. Rask, 14 Alvey St., Schenectady, N. Y.: "Remarks upon Alchemy and
the Alchemists," by E. A. Hitchcock, Janesville, N.Y., about 1865; "Secret
Societies of all Ages," Heckethorn; "Lost Language of Symbology," by Harold
Bayley, published by Lippincott; "Sacred Hermeneutics," by Davidson,
Edinburgh, 1843; "Solar System of the Ancients Discovered," by J. Wilson,
published by Longmans Co., London, 1866; "The Alphabet," by Isaac Taylor,
Kegan, Paul, Trench & Co., 1883, or the edition of 1899 published by Scribners,
New York; "Anacalypsis," by Geodfrey Higgins, 1836, published by Green &
Longmans, London; "Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," any volume or volumes.
Bro. J. H. Tatsch, Union Bank & Trust Co., Los Angeles, Calif.: Fascilus 2, "Caementaria
Hibernica," by Chetwode Crawley; Volumes 1, 2, 5 and 8, Quatuor Coronati
Antigrapha; "Some Memorials of Globe Lodge No. 23," Henry Sadler;
"Constitutions of the Freemasons," Hughan, 1869; "Numerical and Medallic
Register of Lodges," Hughan, 1878; "History of the Apollo Lodge and the R. A.,
York," Hughan, 1894; any items on Anti-Masonry, especially tracts, handbills,
posters, old newspapers, almanacs, etc., relating to Morgan incident,
1826-1840, and recurrence of same from 1870 to 1885.
Bro. J. H. Tatsch, Union Bank & Trust Co., Los Angeles, Calif.: Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum, Volumes 6 to 26, in parts as issued, with St. John Cards;
"Masonic Reprints and Revelations," Sadler; "The Natural History of
Staffordshire," Dr. Robert Plot, 1686, folio; "The History of Freemasonry,"
Robert Freke Gould, Yorston edition, 4 volumes; "History of Freemasonry in
Europe," Emmanuel Rebold, 1867; "Bibliographie der Freimaurerischen Literatur,"
August Wolfsteig, 1911-13, two volumes and register, paper, as issued;
"History of Freemasonry," Mackey, 7 volumes; "History of Freemasonry and
Concordant Orders," Hughan and Stillson; facsimile engraving Picard's "Les
Francmassons," 1735, fine copy.
Brother A. A. Burnand, 690 South Bronson Ave., Los Angeles, California:
Various Masonic publications including such as a complete set of "Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum"; "History of Freemasonry in Scotland," by D. Murray Lyon,
(original edition); Thomas Dunkerly, Laurence Dermott, etc.
Brother Frank R. Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.: "History of
Freemasonry," Mitchell, 2 volumes, sheep; "History of Freemasonry," Robert
Freke Gould, 4 volumes, cloth, in good condition; "History of Freemasonry,"
Albert G. Mackey, 7 volumes, linen cloth, new; Addison's "Knights Templar,"
Macoy, 1 volume, cloth; "Museum of Antiquity," Yaggy, 1 volume, morocco;
"History and Cyclopedia of Freemasonry," Macoy and Oliver, new, full morocco.
Also miscellaneous books.
BUILDER is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
contributors writes under his own name, and is responsible for his own
opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of
opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one school of
Masonic thought as over against another, but offers to all alike a medium for
fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.
Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society
at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly
invited from our members, particularly those connected with lodges or study
clubs which are following our "Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When
requested, questions will be answered promptly by mail before publication in
McKINLEY BECAME A MASON
you p]ease tell me when McKinley was made a Mason? There is so much doubt
about the presidents that have been Masons (supposedly) and there is so little
to be learned about it, that I am dutious about them all. A friend assures me
that McKinley really was a member of the Order, but I prefer to make sure of
it before I believe it. G.T.W., Illinois.
scruples are laudable but in this connection unnecessary, because William
McKinley was a Mason beyond all peradventure of a doubt, and he was a man who
thought highly of the Order. An account of his making is found in
"Recollections of Thirteen Presidents," a volume written by John S. Wise, who,
unless the writer is off the track, was one time governor of Virginia. The
book is published by Doubleday, Page & Company, 1906, and contains personal
reminiscences of thirteen presidents, including Jefferson Davis of the
Confederacy. Those who enjoy a volume that is rich with interesting facts,
wise and witty, and often illuminating, will find this a work to place
alongside Richard W. Thompson's "Personal Recollections of Sixteen
Presidents." Here is the story of how McKinley was made a Mason.
day, while the Fitz Fohn Porter case was under discussion in the House,
McKinley gave a party of us assembled in the cloak-room an interesting account
of how, although he was a Union soldier and resident of Ohio, he became a
Mason in the lodge at Winchester, Virginia, during the war. He said he was
stationed at Winchester in the winter of 1864, and that Judge Richard Parker,
a citizen of the town, was conspicuously active in alleviating the suffering
of the people. This brought him into frequent contact with the Federal
authorities. They all conceived a fondness for the old gentleman, which he in
turn soon reciprocated. One of the Federal officers was a prominent Mason and
discovered that Judge Parker was Master of the Winchester lodge. The lodge
room had been dismantled and was probably occupied by Federal troops, but the
faithful Master had all the paraphernalia in his possession. The Federal
officer proposed to him to re-open the lodge. At first, as a loyal
Confederate, he opposed the idea, but at last yielded to the argument that
Masonry was a universal brotherhood, and that its teachings would be
peculiarly available then and there to mitigate the harships of war. So the
lodge was re-opened, and a number of Masons in the Federal Army attended its
meetings. Masonry became a fad among the uninitiated in Winchester, and
McKinley, among others, joined."
you need more detailed information, turn to the excellent article on "McKinley
the Mason" which Brother Frederick W. Hart contributed to THE BUILDER for
March 1918, page 81.
* * *
GREEK CATHOLIC CHURCH
am a Mason of Greek birth and a member of the Greek Orthodox Church I would
like to know for my information and as a guide to investigating committees for
applications of men of Greek descent and religion, something about these
there a schism between the Greeks and Catholic Church? 2.-Has the Greek Church
ever been excommunicated by the Pope of Rome? 3.-Isn't the Greek Church more
closely related to the Church of England than to the church of Rome? A. G. R.,
questions 1 and 2 may be answered together. The real causes for the split
between the churches of the East (or Greek) and of the West (or Roman, or
Latin) were the same as those that split the political empire in two, and
which made necessary two emperors, one at Constantinople, and one at Rome.
Christians in the eastern half of the Mediterranean world were oriental in
thought and custom and lived under political despotisms; those in the western
half of that same world were essentially occidental in their natures and
always strove for political freedom. (This is necessarily a very broad
generalization.) It was the case of "East is east and west is west." But the
technical and formal split first appeared in the ninth century when pope
Nicholas (863) excommunicated Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople. Photius,
as head of the Eastern Church, immediately retaliated by publishing an
encyclical in which he described the Roman church as an heretical organization
(which it was in all strict literalness, for it had departed far from the
rules laid down by the old General Councils). In 867 Photius excommunicated
the Pope of Rome, and thus the long feud was begun. Efforts were made to
restore amity, and excommunications were made and then recalled on both sides,
but at last Pope Nicholas placed the ban on the patriarchs of Constantinople
(head of the Greek, or Eastern, church) and it was never recalled. The great
rupture between the two churches, as churches, did not come until 1054, in
which year Pope Leo IX excommunicated the whole of the Eastern church. Since
then many feeble attempts have been made to bring together the two branches of
the Christendom but to no avail. The theological "crux" of this long quarrel
lay in the separation of view as between East and West concerning the doctrine
of the Holy Spirit. After the phrase "and in the Holy Ghost" found in the
Apostle's Creed the Eastern church added the words "who proceedeth from the
Father." To this the Roman church added the term "filioque" - that is, "and
the son." For this reason the theological warfare between the East and the
West is often described as "the filioque controversy." There were, however,
many other differences, almost any one of which, apart from this particular
difference of opinion, would most probably have brought about a split. In the
West churchmen themselves gradually assumed control of the church, whereas in
the East church government remained largely in the hands of the Emperors, or
political despots. The Eastern theologians were speculative and mystical,
whereas the Western concerned themselvs more closely with practical problems.
The monastic orders, though monasticism was originally an Eastern product,
soon became stagnant in the East; they were the most militant and aggressively
missionary element in the West. Church rules and ordinances became rigidly
stereotyped in the East; in the West there was more growth, change, and
adaptation. The Eastern Church became much more conservative in every way, as
in its restrictions on religious art, and it never succeeded as well as the
West in assimilating the rival sects within its membership.
3.-There is as much difference between the Church of England and the Greek
Church as between the latter and the Roman Church. The Church of England
retains the "filioque" clause, which is so obnoxious to the Greeks. The
Greeks have never recognized the validity of Anglican orders. The relation,
or possible relation, between these two churches, was brought to the fore by
the Oxford Movement in England, of which Cardinal Newman became the symbol. At
that time there was much talk of a possible union of the two bodies but
nothing ever came of it, and there was never, on either side, the slightest
attempt made at official overtures.
* * *
other day I was reading the "Story of Freemasonry" by Sibleyand on page 23 I
read the following:
". . .
The epistle of 1873 was in no better temper. It attributedMasonry to Satan,
and declared the Evil One founded it andcontrived its development. These
fierce denunciations of Pius IXare of peculiar interest to Masons, because the
records of theItalian Grand Lodge show His infallible Holiness to have
beenexpelled from the fraternity after his election as pope. VictorEmanuel,
having been aided by Garibaldi, a 33 degree Mason, inoverthrowing the temporal
power of the papacy and establishingreligious and constitutional liberty in
Italy, was informed thatthe pope, when a young man, had been initiated, passed
and raisedin a Masonic lodge. He therefore caused him to be tried forrepeated
violations of his obligations to the Masonic brethren. Pius IX was found
guilty, expelled and the proclamation of hisexpulsion, signed by Victor
Emanuel, then King of Italy and GrandMaster of Masons in that country, was
sent all over the Masonicworld."
above statement is very conclusive and decisive. However, inthe August 1921
issue of THE BUILDER I read the following:
far as is known no pope has been a member of the Fraternity. This could have
happened a thousand years ago when Masons were,builders of church buildings,
favored by the Papal See, and allloyal churchmen, but, so far as we can
discover, it has neveroccurred."
see, this statement is also very positive. As the twostatements are
contradictory to each other will you pleasegive me more
Light? G. J. M., Manila, P. I.
difficult to ascertain the facts concerning this celebratedincident. Each man
must study the evidence for himself andarrive at his own conclusions. Readers
have been generous insending forward the various accounts that have long been
current. Here is one:
"Apropos of the Note on p. 61, of the February 1922 number of THEBUILDER, in
regard to a query as to the affiliation of the latepope Pius IX, as a
Freemason, I will say:
1868, before I became a Mason, a white-haired Scandinavianfriend told me that
he knew Count Mastai (not Mastlai) Ferrettibefore the pope became a priest,
and that he was then a Mason."
added that Ferretti was then anything but devoutly pious.
1912, Canon J. W. Horsley, lately deceased, published a letterwhich he had
received from a friend whom, so he writes, he cantrust both as a clergyman and
as a Mason. The paragraphfollowing gives the Monte Video version:
answer to your letter, it is a fact that the signature ofpope Pius IX exists
in one of the native lodges of Monte Video. Soon after his ordination Mastai
was sent out as an auditor tothe Vicar General of Chile. It was generally
reported that hewas initiated into Masonry in that country, although I have
notbeen able to get the exact date. Anyhow, when later on he wasappointed
Apostolic delegate in the Uruguay, he appeared in thelodges as a full-blown
Mason. This matter is generally known andaccepted as historical in S.
America, both among brethren of theCraft and profane persons. I forget the
name of the lodge but itwas an Italian one."
Another version was recently published in that scholarly Masonicjournal, The
Montana Mason, and is here reproduced by permissionof its editor, Brother R.J.
Lemert, whose, name is always welcomein these pages:
many years it has been maintained that Pope Pius IX, whosename before his
accession to the pontificate was GiovanniFerretti Mastai, had received the
degrees of Masonry in hisyounger life. The editor of The Montana Mason has
sought forproof of this assertion for a number of years hitherto
withoutsuccess. Recently he came into possession of a number of oldMasonic
publications in various foreign languages, among which isa copy of the "Bollettino
Officiale del Grande Oriente NazionaleEgiziano" (Official Bulletin of the
National Grand Orient ofEgypt), published in the Italian language at
Alexandria, Egypt,in March, 1876. This old Bulletin contains a copy of
acertificate issued in 1839 by a Masonic lodge of Palmreo, Italy,styled the
"Eternal Catena" (Eternal Union) lodge, in which thepope was made a Mason. A
translation from the Italian follows:
"Orient of Nuremburg, Lodge of Germanic Loyalty, daughter of theGrand Lodge of
Bavaria, working under constitutions emanatingfrom the Grand Mother Lodge of
the Three Globes of Berlin.
archives contain, under No. 13,715, the following document,certified and
authenticated in regular and required form, writtenin Italian, and bearing the
great seal of the Grand Lodge LucePerpetua of Naples:
"'Masonic Lodge Eterna Catena of Palermo:
Master Masons, dignitaries and officials of the thirddegree of Masonry of St.
John, certify in the name of the SupremeMaster, who directs all, that on this,
the date given below, atthe hour of twelve at night, we have received in this
lodge inthe form prescribed by our rituals, and with entire conformity toour
constitution, the Brother Giovanni Ferretti Mastai, a nativeof the Pontifical
States, who, having assuned the oath in thepresence of all of us, declared
that he did not belong to anysecret society hostile to this lodge, and who has
paid thecharges demanded of him.
"'Wherefore we call upon all the Masonic lodges of the world torecognize him
and hold him as a genuine, and true Mason, receivedin a just and perfect
lodge, and thus we regard and certify him,as a conscientious and honorable
testimony of the entire truth of the present document, wesign in Palermo, in
the profane and civil year 1839, on thefifteenth day of the month of August.
varietur: Giovanni Ferretti Mastai.
Chiava, Master of the Lodge.
"'Paolo Duplessi, Secretary of the Lodge.
Calano, Grand Master of the Lodge of Naples.'
certify to the truth of the foregoing, and that our archivescontain the above
document under the number indicated.
von Wittelsburg, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge ofBavaria, Prince of
* * *
HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY IN NOVA SCOTIA
parents spent all their lives in Nova Scotia, that solid and substantial old
land. That being the ease I need not tell you that I was born there. But
unfortunately, before I was old enough to know anything about Masonry I came
to these states. Now I should like to learn something about the history of
Masonry in Nova Scotia. I know it is too long a subject for the Question Box
but I thought you might give me the "high lights." F.D.S., Michigan.
will find a rather complete account of Freemasonry in Nova Scotia - albeit in
barest outline form - in the Transactions (always worth seeing) of The Nova
Scotia Lodge of Research, Vol. I. No. 2, for January 31, 1916. The account was
written by Bro. J. Plimsoll Edwards, of Londonderry. The paragraphs given
below compromise the first five pages of his narrative and omit altogether the
long account he gives of local lodges.
surprising that so little has been published or ever written - so far as I
know - on the history of Freemasonry in Nova Scotia, especially when we
consider that not only did the Masonry of Canada originate in this province,
and work actively under most distinguished social auspices for many years
before its establishment in any other portion of the Dominion - but that we
have in our possession a singular wealth of early records, minutes, papers and
written memoranda available to any aspirant for historic work. Undoubtedly
lectures and essays on the subject have been at times read; but the only works
which to my knowledge have appeared in print, and faced the cold critical eye
of the reading public have been limited to two; one a book entitled "A concise
account of the Rise and Progress of Freemasonry in the Province of Nova Scotia
from the first settlement of it to this present time 1786" - of which the only
copy known to exist is in the library of the Grand Lodge of Massachusettsthe
other a pamphlet of 32 pages "Early History of Masonry in Nova Scotia" - being
a lecture delivered before Virgin Lodge, Halifax, in June, 1910, by our late
lamented Brother Hon. William Ross, formerly Grand Secretary of this
jurisdiction. This latter work is well known.
monumental and most interesting history of the Craft in all Canada has been
published by M.'.W.'. Bro. J. Ross Robertson, of Toronto; it is a credit not
only to the Dominion but to the Empire, and few works of the sort throughout
the Masonic world approach its high standard of excellence.
Disregarding as of minor consequence certain hieroglyphics which were found in
1827 on a stone near Annapolis Royal, we learn that the founder, and first
great figure in our Masonic life was Erasmus James Philips, Major of His
Majesty's 40th Regiment of Foot, who sometime prior to 1726 - the exact date
is unknown, and of little importance - came to Annapolis Royal. He was made a
Mason in Boston in 1737, being then 31 years of age. In 1739 or 1740 he
apparently received from the Provincial Grand Master of New England a warrant
as Provincial Grand Master of Acadia, and bears this title in the record of
the minutes of the Boston lodge. Of his Masonic work in Annapolis we
practically know nothing, but undoubtedly a lodge was established there. As
far back as 1854 the then Provincial Grand Master of Nova Scotia, the
Honorable Alexander Keith, in his address at the annual communication of the
Provincial Grand Lodge, referred to Annapolis Royal as the "cradle of Masonry
in Nova Scotia." The work done by this lodge was still in evidence when, in
1719, Halifax came into being as a civilized community. Now appears on the
scene one of the most distinguished Masons in Nova Scotian life - Hon. Edward
Cornwallis, founder and first Governor of town and province; and on 12th of
June, 1750, a petition came to Major Philips signed by Cornwallis and four
other men prominent in the social life of the young town, - Wm. Steele, Robert
Campbell, William Nesbitt, and David Haldane - requesting a Warrant to be
granted them to hold and establish a lodge in Halifax. This was granted, and
the Warrant received on the 19th of July, on which date began Masonry in
Halifax; Governor Cornwallis was the first W.'.M.'., and on leaving the
province was succeeded in the chair by Governor Lawrence. On this evening Lord
Colvill, a distinguished naval officer and afterwards prominent in social and
Masonic life in Boston, where the duties of his profession soon led him, was
initiated Entered Apprentice. Other prominent residents of the town followed
in his wake, and the lodge flourished. In the following March another lodge
was founded in Halifax, and the existence and success of the Craft in the
province became established on a sound footing.
brethren celebrated the first anniversary of St. John the Baptist in Halifax
by a Masonic procession to the Governor's house, thence to church - all
clothed in mourning on account of the recent death of the M.'. W.'. Bro. the
Prince of Wales, eldest son of King George the Second.
Edward Cornwallis, as the first W.'.M.'. of the first Halifax lodge, deserves
special mention. His marked ability as both soldier and administrator made him
prominent in these important capacities; and as a Mason he is entitled to our
homage and respect. He had in 1748 established and been Master of the lodge of
the 20th Regiment of the British Army - now the Lancashire Fusiliers -
warranted as No. 63 on the roll of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, and afterwards
known as "Minden" Lodge, in honor of the great victory of that name in which
the 20th took so large a part. Next year, 1749, he was seconded from active
military service to be leader of the expedition to found the town of Halifax,
and was succeeded in the 20th by James Wolfe, the hero of Louisbourg and
Quebec. Records of Cornwallis' further career in this province are scant: but
his zeal must have burned brightly, for we know that soon after leaving Nova
Scotia he became for a third time the founder of a lodge, being that of the
24th Regiment, warranted as No. 426 on the Register of the Grand Lodge of
England. It seems strange that so great a name in the annals of our Craft has
not been perpetuated in any lodge now existing in this jurisdiction. In 1786
there was a charter granted to Cornwallis Lodge No. 15, to meet in Halifax, a
lodge which included in its members some of the most distinguished and honored
names of our early citizens such as Salter, Binney and Murdoch; but it
surrendered its privileges in the early years of the next century. There
exists therefore, ant excellent opportunity for any incoming lodge to work
under ones of the greatest names in both our Masonic and Provincial history.
have seen the first lodge in Halifax - the second in Nova Scotia - was
warranted in July, 1750. The lodge instituted at Annapolis Royal ten or twelve
years earlier had probably ceased working at this time, and Halifax, No. 1,
stood alone. Next came the second Halifax lodge warranted in 1761. At this
period and for several years following, R.'.W.'. Bro. Philips acted under what
was called a Deputation or Special Warrant for provincial control, for it was
not until 1768 that a Grand Warrant was issued by the Grand Lodge of England,
constituting him Provincial Grand Master of Nova Scotia and of the territories
No. 1, of Halifax, does not appear on the English Register until 1770, when it
was entered as No. 109; Lodge No. 2, Halifax, apparently did not exist long
and probably amalgamated with No. 1.
1768 there was warranted a lodge which has left an imperishable record in the
Masonic annals of British North America, "St. Andrew's" in Halifax, Nova
Scotia, warranted on 26th of March of this year as No. 155, and now not only
No. 1 of Nova Scotia, but the real and authentic No. 1 of all Canada.
1757 to 1770, three other lodges were warranted but there is no record of
their warrants being made effective or of any work done by them. In 1780,
however, there came into being another of the long lived pioneer lodges of
Nova Scotia, that known as St. John, which still flourishes as No. 2 on the
Register of this jurisdiction. Of the splendid work done by this lodge during
the 136 years of its vigorous life, there is no occasion to speak. It was
closely followed (September 1781) by another Halifax lodge, called "Union No.
1," which existed until 1820, and which included in its membership many men of
prominence in the provincial capital. The third permanent addition to the
Masonic forces of Nova Scotia was made in 1782 in the formation of "Virgin
Lodge" under dispensation from St. Andrew's and St. John. In October 1784 it
was warranted by the new Provincial Grand Lodge but with a change of name,
being called "Artillery Lodge" - due probably to the military character of its
members; sixteen years later the original name was resumed, by authority of
the Grand Lodge.
noting the history of the Craft in our province from 1750 to 1784 we must not
lose sight of the existence and work of the military lodges during this
period. In Halifax in 1766 a lodge known as the "Lodge of Social and Military
Virtues," and attached to the 46th Regiment of Foot, worked under a warrant
issued in 1762 by the Grand Lodge of Ireland. The charter of this lodge was
reissued about 1846 to certain Montreal brethren; it is now No. 1, "Lodge of
Antiquity" on the Quebec Register, and still flourishes. At Louisbourg in
1768, at least six of the regiments in the great siege had lodges attached to
them; these were the 1st, 16th, 17th, 36th, 47th and 48th. The 28th Regiment
(which was also on duty there) fathered a lodge constituted on that historic
soil by Colonel Richard Gridley, and which was warranted as Louisbourg Lodge,
in honor of its birth place; there are also evidences of one existing in the
43rd Regiment. These were, however, Masonic birds of passage, and moved on in
due course to take part in the great attack on Quebec which decided the fade
of the northern part of this continent. In 1782 there were military lodges in
the Nova Scotia Volunteers, the Royal Artillery, and the 82nd Foot, all
working in Halifax under dispensation from regular lodges No. 166, and No. 211
(now respectively No. 1 St. Andrew and No. 2 St. John of the Nova Scotia
dispensation antedated an event which we now chronicle as being of great and
far-reaching importance in our history - the organization in September, 1784,
of a new governing body, the Provincial Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia, and which
thereafter assumed full Masonic authority in the province. It resulted largely
from the vigorous efforts (begun in 1781) of the Halifax lodges, whose
persistence was thus crowned with success. This Provincial Grand Lodge
deserves our special attention. It was constituted on most liberal lines, and
its charter was similiar to that granted at the same time to the Craft in
Lower Canada, while that granted Upper Canada was more restricted. It gave
ample power practically for every Masonic act, including ability to elect
successors in office - the Grand Lodge of England reserving only the right to
hear appeals and similar supreme and final privileges. This admirable charter,
- a credit to that branch of the Masonic family "The Ancient York Masons" from
which it emanated, - gave every facility for extension as well as
self-government, and during its existence as originally granted excellent work
was done by the Craft in this province; but soon after the union of the
"Ancients" and "Moderns" in 1813, the liberties of the Nova Scotia and lower
Canada lodges began to be impaired; and within fifteen years self-government
in these jurisdictions largely ceased. To this I will refer later. I might
however mention that the controversy between the "Ancients" and "Moderns" -
the two somewhat hostile camps into which English Masonry was then divided -
had resulted in a rather confusing issue of warrants during the preceding
thirty or forty years; but our brethren of that time took little share in the
have already referred to the first great name in Nova Scotia Masonry, Major
Philips, and to his appointment in 1739 as Provincial Grand Master of this
jurisdiction. On his death he was succeeded in office by Lieut. Governor the
Hon. Jonathan Belcher, who died in 1776. During his tenure of office
comparitively little activity existed in matters Masonic, and after his death
the Grand Warrant lay dormant until the revival in the Craft in 1784 when the
new Provincial Grand Lodge came into being. The latter was presided over by
R.'.W.'. Brother John George Pyke as Grand Master, assisted by R.'.E.'.
Brother William Campbell as Deputy Grand Master; R.'. W.'. Brother Joseph
Peters (Postmaster-General) Secretary; Rev. Brother Joshua Wingate Weeks,
Chaplain. The latter's prayer at opening was one of singular eloquence. The
good effects of a recognized governing body were at once apparent, and the
Craft grew and flourished. R.'.W.'. Brother Pike resigned the chair in 1785,
and was succeeded by the Hon. John Parr, Lieutenant Governor of this province.
Governor Parr was elected Grand Master annually until his death in November,
1791: and his funeral on the 29th of that month was the occasion of a most
imposing Masonic display. He was succeeded as P.'.G.'.M.'. by the Hon. Richard
Bulkeley, Secretary of the province, who held office until 1800. During M.'.W.'.
Brother Parr's regime six lodges were chartered and in that of his successor
eight more came into existence.
* * *
RELIGION AND THE GRAND ORIENT OF FRANCE
you give me some information on Freemasonry in France? Have they removed the
requirements of a belief in God, or merely removed the Bible from the altar?
There is a real difference to me. O.T.C., New Hampshire.
Grand Orient of France was organized in 1736 on the basis of Anderson's
Constitutions, which were purely Theistic, so far as religion is concerned.
During the first half of the eighteenth century the Grand Lodge of England did
not require belief in God in the sense in which it now does, neither did it
keep the Bible on the altar, as now: belief in God and the Bible on the altar,
were made landmarks in or about 1760. Prior to that time the Grand Orient, in
its religious requirements, was like the Grand Lodge of England, and was
recognized by Grand Lodges everywhere. About a century after its origin the
Grand Orient adopted belief in God and the Bible on the altar as landmarks,
after the fashion of England, but conditions became so different in France
that after the Franco-Prussian War it was deemed wise to return to the
original Constitutions, Accordingly, in 1877, M. Desmons, a Protestant
Clergyman, who was a delegate to the September Convention at Paris, introduced
a motion to that effect. The motion was later adopted. As one of its recent
secretaries expressed it, "The Grand Orient permits to each one of its members
the liberty to believe or not to believe in God." "Its only principle is an
absolute respect for freedom of conscience. In matters of faith it confirms
nothing and it denies nothing." Every subordinate lodge may keep the Bible on
the altar, and it may obligate the candidate in the name of T.S.G.A.O.T.U.
* * *
TERRITORIAL JURISDICTION IN THE UNITED STATES
did American Grand Lodges first begin to claim exclusive territorial
jurisdiction? D.F., Montana.
first Grand Lodge to claim exclusive territorial jurisdiction, so far as the
writer has been able to ascertain, was the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. In
1783 it declared itself "free and independent of any other Grand Lodge or
Grand Master in the Universe," which was "a large order" but one that was
subsequently made good, although one naturally can't speak with certainty
about the Universe. At the same time the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts claimed
jurisdiction in any other state or territory, where there was not already a
Grand Lodge, over such lodges as it might establish. And it furthermore, and
at the same time, declared that no person, save itself or its own Grand
Master, should be permitted to exercise the prerogatives of a Grand Master or
a Grand Lodge "within any part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the
rightful and appropriate limits to which the authority of this Grand Lodge
forever hereafter extends." Other Grand Lodges followed suit until today the
right of an American Grand Lodge to claim absolute and total jurisdiction over
all lodges existing within its territory is everywhere acknowledged.
* * *
COUSTOS, MASONIC MARTYR
reading an article in THE BUILDER we noticed your inquiry as to a volume of
The Scarlet Book of Freemasonry relating to the adventures of one John Coustos.
I have such a book in my possession, it being a very finely bound, printed and
illuminated leather volume, handed down to me by my wife's grandfather, one
Mr. George Q. Gardener, of Decorah, Iowa. Thinking the information might be of
some value to you, beg to advise that it is being read by many of the Craft
here as an interesting piece of history.
Peoples. Jr., Minnesota.
* * *
just occurred to me that in the September issue of THE BUILDER, page 246,
speaking of "The Sufferings of John Coustos for Freemasonry" you say "does any
reader know where a copy of this book may be had?" If you mean where it may be
purchased, will have to answer, no. But if you merely wish to read it, a
matter of a couple of hours, a copy is to be found in the library belonging to
Kinderhook Chapter No. 263, Kinderhook, N. Y., a small village about twenty
miles south of Albany, well worth a visit if you happen to be coming east to
either New York City or Boston, in which case it would not be much out of your
way. You might possibly persuade the Hon. R. C. Waterbury, M.D., P.M., P.H.P.,
etc., to loan you a copy, for I think they have two copies.
Irick, Vincentown, N. J.
* * *
MASONIC BURIAL SERVICES
brief history of the origin and first use of the present Masonic Burial
Service I am sure would interest many readers of THE BUILDER, - when and
where, are questions that I have been asked, but have not been able to answer.
* * *
caption of "The Masonic Burial Service," you have published a sentiment which
I have entertained for a long time and talked about for years. Burial services
usually say something like this "We consign the body of our brother to the
earth there to remain until the last trump sounds" or words to that effect.
And again "Soft and safe to you, my Brother, be this earthly bed. Bright and
glorious be your rising from it" etc., then intimating that some time in the
dim future, "on the bright morning of the resurrection" he will be raised into
immortality. How few there are who believe anything of the kind! Masonry
plainly teaches immortality, a part of which is right here and which never
ends, nor is suspended indefinitely.
much more beautiful and in accord with general belief are the words of the
Senior Warden in the Scottish Rite burial service where he says in part "In
what state, and where he is, we do not know; but only that he has not ceased
to be, and that he is in the hands of his Father, who loves and pities him, as
He doth all the children He hath made." And again, in the second part also
where he says, "Our Brother still lives, though the breath of his life has
returned to God that gave it."
not revise our burial service and let it be rendered in words that we can
believe? For I can imagine that there migh easily be those who would not care
to have the Masonic burial service rendered as it is, for it seems little less
than mockery to recite sentiment which scarcely any Masons believe. Let us
revise our burial service by all means.
* * *
February issue (page 56) THE BUILDER publish an editorial which, to judge from
the great number of commendatory letters received, evidently expressed a
growing dissatisfaction with the Masonic Burial Service generally in use. Of
these communications the two printed above are representative. There is a
short and easy road to a modification of the Service now in use; take it
before your Grand Lodge. Each Grand Lodge has full power to make such a Burial
Service as it may choose; the present formulary is not a landmark. As for the
information requested by Brother Schenck, that has been a difficult thing to
come upon. If our readers chance to possess old books or Masonic magazines
containing data on the subject they will confer a favor on us all by passing
on their information.
* * *
would like a little information on Roman Catholicism. Who was the first pope?
impossible to tell who was the first pope, because the papacy came of slow
growth, and did not reach recognizable form until the fifth or sixth
centuries; but it is generally held that Leo the Great (440-461) was the first
real pope, though Gregory the Great (590-604) was the first real pope in our
present sense, for he was the first to exercise the claims to political as
well as to spiritual domination which came to characterize the popes during
the Middle Ages. Consult the following books: Milman's "Latin Christianity";
Pennington's "Epochs of th Papacy"; Lea's "Studies in Church History"; Bryce's
"The Hol Roman Empire"; Guizot's "History of France", Vol. 1; an Bright's "The
Roman See in the Early Church."
* * *
AMERICAN MASONlC PERIODICALS
you kindly inform me through your columns if TE BUILDER has at any time
published any bibliography of th earlier Masonic periodicals in the United
me is a bound copy of Volume 4 (1854) of the sonic Union, published and edited
by R.'. W.'. Finley M. King (later Grand Master of this state) at Port Byron,
N. Y. The last number of this issue was June, 1854, and in September of the
same year it reappeared in connection with the Masonic Register, published by
J.F. Adams at 343 Broadway, New York City, the combined monthly being called
the Masonic Register and Union.
Masonic Union exchange column or by giving credit for articles reprinted, the
names of several contemporary periodicals are mentioned. Among them are the
Freemasons Monthly, Boston, Mass.; the American Freemason (semi‑monthly),
Louisville, Kentucky; the Ancient Landmark (monthly), Mt. Clemens, Michigan;
and the Masonic Signet, Montgomery, Alabama. M.W. Mitchell was editor of the
these periodicals contained as much interesting Masonic history as Volume 4 of
the Union they would be well worth digging out of the ruins, so far as
possible, and preserving for the edification of the historically inclined
Previous to 1854 the Register was published as a Masonic weekly but Dr. Adams
informed his readers that the inadequate income from that arrangement made the
change to a monthly and combination with the Union necessary to keep the wolf
from his door. W.R.M., New York.
BUILDER has never published a bibliography of the earlier Masonic periodicals;
nor has the subject been given adequate publication except by Josiah H.
Drummond in his "Historical and Bibliographical Memoranda." This is one of the
best reference works for bibliographical study that has ever been compiled,
but is very limited in its scope. It covers the proceedings of the different
Grand Bodies, periodicals, monitors, manuals, constitutions and text-books.
Thirty-two pages are devoted to the periodicals before 1882, the date it was
published. Unfortunately this is one of the many valuable works that have
become quite scarce.
Regarding the periodical literature of Freemasonry, there seems to have been
certain periods when the quality was of particular excellence, one of which
was the decade of 1850-60. During that period a number of exceptionally
talented brethren were devoting much of their time to articles for the Masonic
press, and editing Masonic magazines. Among such brethren the names of Mackey,
Morris, King, Yates, Hyneman, Moore and Brennan are but a few of the more
Civil War brought an end to much of the literary work in Freemasonry, and it
only gradually resumed the quality it had attained. The advance that was made
in Masonic study by the able efforts of Fort, Gould, Hughan, Sadler, Crawley,
Lyons, Speth and many of their contemporaries in the last of the nineteenth
century has brought about an entirely superior class of literature for the
present student. The reader of today may avoid the fallacies of earlier times
regarding the historical phases. He has the results of an abundance of
critical research. The older periodical literature has a very great value,
however, in showing the developments of our present jurisprudence, the changes
of opinion regarding traditions, and the interpretations of symbolism.
Although the brethren of the middle of the nineteenth century held many views
which are now considered erroneous, we owe them a very great debt of gratitude
for the foundations they laid by their literary efforts. A knowledge of the
periodicals of the Fraternity is of much value to those who desire a
comprehensive knowledge of both our usages and our history.
will repay the efforts of any student to read any of the earlier periodicals
and become familiar with the views of the pioneers who paved the way to such
periodicals as THE BUILDER. The "notes" on Masonic periodicals, by Drummond
ought to be republished for the information of the Craft. One hundred and
forty-two periodicals are listed with very comprehensive descriptions. It may
be of interest to the readers to mention the few following:
American Freemason (Louisville, Ky.) was first published by Robert Morris, in
1853. It was taken over by J.F. Brennan in 1858, discontinued in 1860, and
resumed in 1868 and again finally abandoned in 1870.
Ancient Landmark (Mt. Clemens, Mich.) was started in 1851 and discontinued in
Masonic Signet and Literary Mirror was commenced at St. Louis, in 1848 by
J.W.S. Mitchell, and ran until 1854 when it was published at Montgomery, Ala.
It then united with the Masonic Journal and only four numbers were published.
Masonic Journal, edited by Geo. W. Chase (1854-60); The Masonic Mirror by Leon
Hyneman (1852-55); The American Quarterly Review of Freemasonry by A.G. Mackey
(1857); The Masonic Review by Cornelius Moore (1845-1882).
* * *
GERMAN BOOK ON MASONRY
you please furnish me with the name and address of the publishers of August
Wolfstieg's "Bibliographie der Freimaurerischen Literature ? Can this work be
purchased in U.S.? W.J.J., Minnesota.
Wolfstieg, August. Bibliographie der deutschen freimaurerischen Literatur.
Published at Burg, b-M, by A. Hupfer for the Society of German Freemasons. 2
vol., X 990 and XVI 1041. Price, 64 Marks.
price quoted was in 1916. It is the opinion of the undersigned that at present
the price would be almost that many dollars. If you are thinking of
purchasing, write Alfred Unger, Berlin C, Spandauer Strasse 22, Germany, or
perhaps address A. Hupfer, Burg, b-M, Germany, directly.
our good libraries can, for a week or ten days, borrow the work for you from
the Library of Congress at Washington.
COUNSELLOR SCHOTT AND MODELS OF SOLOMON'S TEMPLE
letter published in THE BUILDER in January last page 31, Brother John F.
George asked the question, "Who was Counsellor Schott?" It happens that ye
editor is able to reply to this question himself with facts based on two
articles that appeared in the ARS QUATUOR CORONATORUM, Vol. 12 page 150, and
Vol. 13, page 24. The former of these two articles was written by Bro. W.J.
Chetwode Crawley, the veteran Masonic savant of Ireland. Its opening paragraph
is worth transcribing entire:
not a little remarkable that the two cardinal epochs in English Freemasonry
were associated with the appearance in London of models of the Temple of
Jerusalem. At the first epoch, that of the Revival of Freemasonry, the model
ascribed to Counsellor Schott had arrived in London, and was on exhibition in
1723 and 1730. At the second epoch, when the organization of the Antients was
struggling into existence, the model of Rabbi Jacob Jehuda Leon was on view in
1759-1760. The former exhibition seems to have won its way to popular favor,
and cannot have been without effect on the rank and file of Freemasons at the
very time when our legends were being moulded and harmonized. Much of the
outside interest in the affairs of the Craft was doubtless due to the object
lessons presented by the models of the building to which, it was understood,
Freemasons referred their origin. As a matter of history, the three years we
have specified, 1723, 1730 and 1760, were severally marked by an otherwise
unaccountable outburst of spurious rituals, called forth by the curiosity of
Counsellor (or Rathsherr) Gerhard Schott was born in Hamburg, Germany, on
April 16th, 1641, and lived there until his death in 1702. He was founder,
manager, and proprietor of an Opera House in which an opera was produced that
was called "The Destruction of Jerusalem." "At first the public were by no
means satisfied with the scenery at the conclusion of the first portion. This
consideration, combined with a religious bent of mind, with the general
admiration, at that period, of the Temple as an architectural masterpiece, and
with a genial devotion to the scenic decoration of his musical plays, caused
in Schott . . . the determination to reproduce the whole Temple, with all its
personnel, sacrifices and ceremonial, in actual model form." The model was
completed in 1692 or 1694 and placed on exhibition in a special building at
the rear of the Opera House. In 1717 the model was sold to an Englishman who
moved the huge structure to London where it was placed on exhibition, much to
the general interest of the public, as already described by Crawley. Drawings
of the model have been pretty generally distributed over the world; one
encounters these pictures in many Masonic temples.
* * *
PIKE'S ELECTION AS SOVEREIGN GRAND COMMANDER
that in your review of Allsopp's "Life Story of Albert Pike," on pages 58-59
of the February issue of THE BUILDER, you noted some of the misinformation
therein given. It appears to me that it might be well to add that General Pike
was Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Consistory of Louisiana when, in 1857, he
received at the hands of the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction, the
33d of the A. & A.S.R., and on the same date he was appointed Deputy of the
Supreme Council. He was elected to active membership in the Supreme Council in
1858, and was elected Sovereign Grand Commander, ad vitam, January 2, 1859. He
was elected by a "Letter Vote in Vacation," and the last vote electing him was
received January 2, but the election was not announced, formally, until
January 3, 1859. M. W. Wood, Idaho.
* * *
TO THE CANDIDATE BEFORE INITIATION
Friend: Before we proceed with the ceremony of admitting you into our Order I
wish to make a few remarks concerning the nature of Freemasonry, so that you
may understand in a general way what you may expect and what will be expected
of your friends may have referred jokingly to your initiation, and may have
led you to believe that you will be required to submit to certain humiliating
or embarrassing experiences, in order to provide amusement for those of us who
are already members. If you have any such idea, I beg of you to dismiss it
from your mind at this moment.
Masonry is a serious undertaking. Its ceremonies are intended to teach great
moral truths. Some of these ceremonies partake more or less of a religious
nature. And while Masonry does not adopt any particular form, or creed, or
denomination of religious observance, yet one of its fundamental and essential
requirements is a belief in a true God as the Father of the universe; and if
you cannot earnestly and conscientiously subscribe to such a belief, I would
advise that you withdraw now and make no further attempt to proceed in our
will find that Masonry has no place for frivolity. You will perhaps find it
entirely different from all your preconceived ideas, and you will possibly be
surprised at the character of the ceremonies through which you will pass. You
will, I hope, be pleased and benefitted by the revelations which will be made
to you, and by the associations which will come to you through membership in
simply to suggest; therefore, that as you pass through these ceremonies, you
place yourself as much at ease and in as receptive a frame of mind as
possible. Let your mind be open to receive impressions as they come to you.
Pay close attention to what is said and done at all times, and try to remember
as much as possible of what occurs. At each stage of the ceremonies there will
be someone near at hand to assist you, and to tell you or show you what to do
and how to do it. And you need have no fear of humiliation, embarrassment or
these preliminary suggestions I beg to request that you make yourself as
comfortable as possible hare until your presence is desired in the preparation
room of the lodge.
A. Hall, Iowa.
* * *
SUGGESTIONS FOR INVESTIGATING COMMITTEES
February 1922 issue of THE BUILDER, under the title of "Committees of
Investigation," you quote from the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Illinois,
on the difficulty of securing the proper information on petitioners.
have a small lodge of one hundred and thirty members, and always have from one
to a dozen petitions every meeting. We have adopted the following plan, and
find that it works nicely:
standing committee on petitions is appointed by the Worshipful Master composed
of Past Masters and the Secretary of the lodge. The Secretary is always paid a
salary that should enable him to have sufficient time to get the desired
information, and in addition, always has the necessary papers on file at any
time. There is a small liklihood of a Past Master not being in a position to
get information along any line that might be denied "Dick, Tom and Harry," if
you will permit me to use the expression in speaking of the members of the
Craft as such. We find that the members will confide in the older men of the
lodge more quickly than they will the younger ones, which is of course to be
expected, and we are getting excellent results from this work, together with
not being forced to let petitions lay over due to the absence of the
Investigating Committee on that particular petition.
no reason why this could not be done with any number of petitions, regardless
of the size of the lodge.
E. Davis. Tennessee.
* * *
MASTER AFTER OUR OWN HEART
have recently adopted the Study Club plan of the N.M.R.S. in Day Star Lodge
No. 798, Brooklyn, N.Y., of which I awn Master.
made it my duty (and it certainly is my pleasure) to speak of the necessity
for some such course of Masonic study as a regular policy in all lodges
wherever and whenever I could, and as a result I have had many lodges, or
rather the Masters, ask me to speak on the subject at their meetings. Whenever
possible I have done so, and I am quite sure that many other New York and
Brooklyn lodges will follow the lead of Day Star lodge by adopting the
Society's Study Club plan in the very near future.
seems astounding that this, or similar courses, have not been made just as
compulsory a part of the work of the lodges as the conferring of degrees.
the life of me I cannot see how the responsibility of the lodge to the
candidate ends with the conferring of the Third degree. Perhaps my opinion has
been influenced by my over zealousness. Nevertheless, I hope my disease gets
to such a malignant stage that every Mason with whom I come into contact will
get the same thing, if possible in much shorter time.
Dunn, New York.
* * *
SEARCHER FOR LIGHT
have it! The only fault I can find with your work is that your obligation
stops you from explaining some things on which I need light.
brother handed me Volume II of THE BUILDER and in running through these copies
Masonry began to unfold. As committing to memory is easy for me, I took up the
work and was rapidly advanced in the chairs, all the while foolishly
bebelieving Yours Truly was getting to be "some old head" in Masonry. Then
Brother Louis Block, in your issue of August last, calls me a "Phonograph,"
highly insulting my egotism.
did not some brother insult me long ago, and maybe I would have known what I
have been talking about to the candidate by this time.
mind is now "muddled." There is no one in this vicinity who can answer my
questions and I can't write them to you. Until such time as I am able to
explain some of the deeper meanings of our ritual, I will feel guilty when
assisting with the work. It is true there is a great moral lesson in the bare
"work," but to me it would be great if every member could understand the
deeper truths and take the ritual more seriously, eliminating the occasional
snicker. "Give Us Light."
* * *
OF THE ROCK," ON SITE OF SOLOMON'S TEMPLE
is an item that I believe may be of some interest to our circle. I found it
while reading an article in the magazine "Adventure" for December 10, 1921. I
have read many magazine articles and books by Talbot Mundy and know him to be
well informed on matters about which he writes. The article states:
Dome of the Rock - more commonly miscalled the Mosque of Omar - is the next
most sacred place after Mecca and Medina in the Moslem world; and being on the
site of Solomon's and Herod's Temples, it is equally. sacred to Christian and
Jews. In fact, few orthodox Jews will enter the precincts for fear of treading
unaware on the spot (now unknown) where the Holy of Holies stood.
"Excavation under the Dome of the Rock is, of course, absolutely forbidden.
Any attempt at it, if known, would be certain to stir fanaticism to its
depths. But there was a German or Austrian (I am not sure which) who did
contrive to excavate pretty much as told in the story; he was caught, the
affair was hushed up, and Grim is one of the very few who know what lies under
the Rock of Abraham." N.W.J. Haydon. Ontario.