The Builder Magazine
April 1925 - Volume XI - Number 4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Personal Views Concerning Membership in The Masonic International Association
- BY BRO. TOWNSEND SCUDDER, Past Grand Master, New York
AMERICAN COLLEGE FRATERNITIES - BY BRO. CARL A. FOSS
Masonic Service Bureaus - By BRO. PHIL A. ROTH, Wisconsin
Masonic Experiences of 1924 - By BRO. CHARLES S. LOBINGIER, China
American Freemason in France - By Bro. ROBERT I. CLEGG, Associate Editor, Ohio
CHARLES M. ROE
Men Who Were Masons - Rufus Choate - BY BRO. GEORGE W. BAIRD, P. G. M.,
District of Columbia
THE STUDY CLUB
Studies of Masonry in the United States - By BRO. H. L. HAYWOOD, Editor - PART
VIII. HENRY PRICE
AND DISTRESSED MASTER MASONS"
INEQUALITY OF RACES
ASSYRIAN CAME DOWN LIKE A WOLF ON THE FOLD"
GOSPEL OF FELLOWSHIP
CRUSADES: THE STORY OF THE LATIN KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM
EUREKA, OR WHAT A MASTER MASON OUGHT TO KNOW
to Read in Masonry - THE MAKING OF AMERICAN MASONRY
OF BOARDS OF RELIEF AND EMPLOYMENT BUREAUS
VOLUME XI – NUMBER 4
DOLLARS THE YEAR
TWENTY-FIVE CENTS THE COPY
Official Journal of the National Masonic Research Society
Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo.
Contents copyright 1926 by the National Masonic Research Society.
Entered as second-class matter at the post office, St. Louis, Mo.; accepted
for special rate of Postage provided for in §1103, Act of Oct. 3, 1917:
authorized Feb. 12, 1923, under the Act Of Aug. 24, 1912.
OFFICERS AND STEWARDS
ERNEST A. REED, New Jersey, President
NEWTON R. PARVIN, Iowa, Vice-President
CHARLES C. HUNT, Iowa, General Secretary
LITTLEFIELD, Missouri, Executive Secretary and Treasurer
BLOCK, P.G.M., Iowa
ROBERT I. CLEW, Grand Historian, Ohio
CHARLES C. HUNT, Deputy Grand Secretary, Iowa.
H. GOODWIN, Grand Secretary, Utah
MELVIN M. JOHNSON, P. G. M. Massachusetts
S. LEE, P. G. M., Missouri
FRANIC S. MOSES, P. G. M., Iowa
Joseph FORT Newton, Educational Director M. S. A., New York.
ERNEST A. REED, P. G. M., New Jersey
H. SHEPHERD, Chairman Masonic Research, Wisconsin
OLIVER DAY STREET, Deputy Grand Master, Alabama
M. WHITED,, Grand Marshal, Order of De Molay, California
Personal Views Concerning Membership in The Masonic International Association
BRO. TOWNSEND SCUDDER, Past Grand Master, New York
reader will find it greatly to his advantage to read in conjunction with Bro.
Scudder's article below the article on ''Why the Grand Lodge of New York
Withdrew From The Masonic International Association," by Pro. William A.
Rowan, Grand Master, New York, published in The Builder last month page 65.
the writer, Freemasonry is not an accident, a thing which just happened, but
an agency of Divine inspiration with a world field and mission.
sense is Freemasonry a religion, but rather a light faith.
sense is Freemasonry a substitute for the Church, but rather a tributary,
which, when functioning in harmony with its ideals, gives strength to the
Church in its place. Freemasonry should not be regarded as a rival, but should
be hailed as an aid, of the Church.
Freemasonry, it is revealed that God is universal, one God for all, the same
God, however much conception of Him may vary in localities and among different
peoples and races.
Freemasonry it is revealed that all men are brothers, notwithstanding the
inequality of endowment that exists among individuals.
most uncivilized of mankind, some way or other, has risen to the conception of
God has been revealed to man in the form or manner suited to the needs of each
race in its peculiar circumstances and environment; and God has planted in the
soul of man the seed of His love, His truth, and His justice.
Inspired by these ideals, many years ago, a group of men, calling themselves
Builders or Freemasons, resolved to share in peace and good will the world's
blessings, and to labor to make of God's children one family in spirit,
without regard to race, creed, station, or locality.
this family or brotherhood, Freemasonry has pledged that no contention should
exist, save that noble contention, or emulation, of who best can work and best
Authority for all this is not lacking; to go no farther, it is leading to
religious written in the first Masonic Constitution:
are also of all Nations, Tongues, Kindreds and Languages * * *."
also there written:
"Masonry becomes the centre of Union, and the means of conciliating true
Friendship among persons that must have remained at a perpetual distance."
that Constitution, the Freemason is exhorted to cultivate:
"Brotherly-Love, the Foundation and Cape-Stone, the Cement and Glory of this
Constitution further says:
if any of them do you Injury, you must apply to your own or his lodge * * * as
has been the ancient laudable conduct of our Forefathers in every Nation * * *
saying or doing nothing which may hinder Brotherly Love. * * *"
God's command, through Jesus, His Son, that men love one another.
thy neighbor as thyself."
higher conception of Freemasonry than a loving Brotherhood of all men -
children of one loving Father!
stars of Freemasonry are its Landmarks; and one Landmark differeth not from
another Landmark in glory, or in priority of observance.
ideal of Man's Brotherhood is an ancient Landmark. as fundamental to
Speculative Freemasonry as is belief in the Supreme Being. The twain are one
and inseparable, and ever will be, specious reasoning to the contrary
him who bases his faith on these great truths, stimulating, awe-inspiring, and
all-satisfying, Freemasonry is a serious thing, and but very incidentally, a
it has the attributes of a world force is proven by its vitality, which more
than once, and even in these so-called enlightened times, has shown those who
would destroy it, that it is unconquerable from without.
danger is from within.
the tragedy, the crushing pity of the thing!
have grafted the trunk of Freemasonry with the cuttings of sectarianism, and
the fruit is intolerance, bitterness and hate, instead of Brotherly Love,
Relief and Truth.
great ideal in Freemasonry, Brotherhood, is being sacrificed through the
sectarianism of good men and true, who honestly imagine they assist
Freemasonry, perhaps save it, by destroying its crowning glory.
fail to see that our Order has grown because it has made its appeal to an
inspiration, common to mankind, of a humanity, however separated into creeds
and nationalities and races, united in Freemasonry under its Shibboleth of
Man's Common Brotherhood, and, without condescension or presumption on the
part of any, working to establish peace on earth and good will among men.
writer has been favorably placed; he has traveled extensively; has seen much
of old-world civilization; much of the trials and tribulations of those less
happily circumstanced than are we.
has seen man attain the heights; he has seen man below beasts; yet his
admiration of man has grown with his contacts and experience. Left to himself,
man suffereth long and is kind, which is natural, being made in His image.
not for the writer to interpret the effect of all this on his own process of
reasoning. The fact is noted for such help as it may give in weighing the
merits of his contention that the Masonic Fraternity throughout the world must
get together, if it would further its high mission, and that the alternative
is fratricidal war without end, grotesque and debasing; the more absurd
because waged between men honestly believing they are fighting each other to
promote the ideal of man's Brotherhood, and peace on earth.
will make this war between Freemasons more unjustifiable will be the unhappy
truth that it will be waged on undefined issues; without the principals
getting together before hostilities, to find out whether there is anything to
fight about, and whether the war honestly can be avoided.
is it which has brought the Fraternity to this crisis? Space will not permit
more than a brief summary of the causes.
SOMETHING OF THE PAST
seems to be generally accepted by Masonic students. that toward the end of the
seventeenth century, the Society of Freemasons no longer had direct concern
with the art of building. Its then aims seem to have been the preservation of
the traditions, customs and ceremonies, as well as the moral teachings, of our
Operative brethren. Its objects were social and philosophical. It does not
appear that there existed at that time any recognized authority with power to
constitute a lodge. Individual Masons seem to have initiated candidates, and
to have formed them into lodges, receiving recognition from other lodges
likewise, or otherwise, organized, as may have been.
SOMETHING OF THE GRAND LODGE ERA
1717, a movement was started to bring together Freemasons in London. It is not
known what was behind the movement. It is a fact that it was controlled by
persons of modest station. It seems that Freemasons in London were wont in
those times, to have an annual feast, and at this feast in 1717, they elected
to preside over them a Grand Master, a title probably, and an office
certainly, until then unknown to the Craft in England. This first Grand Master
appointed Grand Wardens. Thus was inaugurated the Mother Grand Lodge which in
time constituted itself the supreme Masonic authority in England, but not
1725, the Grand Lodge of Ireland already hall been formed.
1736, certain lodges in Scotland modelled a Scottish Grand Lodge after that in
1753, there was organized in England, in opposition to Grand Lodge of 1717, a
Grand Lodge of the Antients, an independent body, which dubbed the Mother
Grand Lodge "The Moderns."
world-wide Brotherhood Ideal was zealously fostered by each of these four
original Grand Lodges; they spread out over the world through lodges sprung
from one or another of them, lodges often being constituted by two or more of
them side by side in the same country, carrying to all peoples the message of
Brotherhood. To this circumstance, doubtless, is due the assertion, that no
Freemason ever lived, whose Masonic pedigree does not begin in Great Britain.
course of time these lodges in foreign lands organized their own Grand Lodges,
sometimes two or more in the same country, which entered upon their separate
sovereign and independent careers, as equals. in the family of Grand Lodges.
are not unmindful of later Grand Lodges of Scottish Rite origin, and of other
genesis, which. through concessions and adjustments, in due time were admitted
to the family circle.
SOMETHING OF SOVEREIGNTY
Speculative Freemasonry expanded over the earth, each Grand Lodge sovereign,
going its own way, shapened, and shapening, to meet the conditions surrounding
it, as it toiled onward in the promotion of Freemasonry's Ideal of
Mother Grand Lodges entertained no pretentions of dominion, or of sovereignty
over their offshoots in other lands. They recognized their independence, and
wisely left them free to solve the problems and to overcome the difficulties
which they might encounter in furthering their common cause, as the genius of
each might suggest, and the necessities of each locality required.
persecutions were not expected in those days.
was in this way that the Ideal of Man's Brotherhood was carried to the four
corners of the earth, interpreted to each race and people, within their
limitations to understand, by the leaders of thought of their own environment.
not this in keeping with the principle underlying God's multifarious
revelation of Himself to the different groups of His children ?
SOMETHING OF THE CRAFT’S BOAST
its boast that for upwards of two centuries now, our Speculative Freemasonry
has sought to foster the Ideal of Brotherhood, and has sacrificed mightily to
replace destructive hate by fraternal love; to break down the intransigence of
sectarianism as it is intolerant, and to substitute peace and good will among
Taking stock today, what do we find?
Masonic Fraternity, divided against itself; engaged in charges and
recriminations, spiritually contracting, not expanding. We find an ever
increasing narrow-mindedness, and the growth within us of the petty dogmatic
spirit which we are pledged to supersede with truth and justice.
our dealings with brethren of the Craft seeing differently from the way we
see, we act in violent opposition to the considerate, broad-minded, brotherly
attitude inculcated in our Masonic principles and teachings.
sit in judgment of our brethren, less favored than are we in the enjoyment of
the blessings of liberty of thought, of action, and of speech. We bear false
witness against them. We pronounce sentence upon them without giving them a
hearing. We are fertile in invention, when denouncing what we lightly accept
as their viewpoint, while smugly boasting of our own superiority.
the time come to call a halt? Or is the thing to go on? The rank and file must
decide. But let not our brethren on the benches be led astray through lack of
understanding of the issues, or of what it is, which is at stake.
SOMETHING FOR OUR BEST THOUGHT
conflict is not over God and the Holy Bible; it is not between good and evil.
first, or Anderson Constitution, says of a Mason that, "if he rightly
understands the Art, he will never lie a stupid Atheist."
needs be, the converse must be the effect which the inspiration of
Freemasonry's teachings will have upon the soul of a man who, in his heart,
truly was made a Freemason.
ever winnow our store of grain after the harvest ?
ever check up on our own membership ? Is it again a case of the beam in our
own eye? Generally speaking, the trouble is here: The Anglo-Saxon Freemason
insists that a candidate for Freemasonry shall profess his belief in God,
Latin Freemason affirms his loyalty to the first Constitution of the Mother
Grand Lodge (1717), which goes no farther than to say, under the caption:
"Concerning God and Religion:
Mason * * * if he rightly understand the art * * * will never be a stupid
atheist * * * and yet 'tis now thought more expedient only to oblige them to
that religion in which all men agree, leaving their particular opinions to
themselves; that is to be good men and true, and men of honor and honesty, by
whatever denominations or persuasions they may be distinguished."
Latin Freemason has interpreted the quoted language to mean liberty of
him the light which Freemasonry diffuses will guide man to truth, will
transform the rough into the perfect ashlar.
Anglo-Saxon prefers to begin with material professing already to have obtained
that which the Latin aspires to attain at the end, rather than at the
beginning of the Masonic journey.
we perchance lost sight of our Ideal in our craving to be heroic?
Posing as the defenders of His Book, which is not attacked by any Grand Lodge,
do we work ourselves up to so great a fervor, that we forget to practice the
precepts therein laid down? The differences dividing us are largely
temperamental. Bad blood has confused the issues; cold deliberation might
SOMETHING CONCERNING THE RITUAL
to the Grand Lodge era, there was but one ceremony covering initiation, which
consisted of the imparting of a few signs, words and tokens. The Master, in
his own language, may also have explained some of the Craft's traditions, and
something of the Old Charges. This we do not know, but surmise.
the Grand Lodge era, the earlier single ceremony of initiation has been
developed and elaborated into the three ceremonies of Initiating, Passing, and
Raising, with little, if any, resemblance to the original ceremony. Our
ceremony of initiation is not a Landmark, but a modern development of the past
two hundred years.
free and independent, each Grand Lodge, as a sovereign jurisdiction, was free
to, and did, develop its Ritual to meet its own requirements and taste,
without claim of right to interfere on the part of sister Grand Lodges.
was not until about 1760 that the Bible was made the Great Light in the Mother
Grand Lodges, and a higher philosophical, or religious conception, was given
to the Ritual. The highly dramatic features found today are of a still later
development; are far from universal; and in England, are not permitted.
SOMETHING OF FRENCH FREEMASONRY
Freemasonry was introduced into France about 1724. The Grand Orient, the name
given its Grand Lodge, dates back, as a sovereign body, to 1736, according to
its tradition which is not seriously challenged.
its beginning down to 1849, no declaration of a belief in Deity was in its
constitution; notwithstanding during all these years, it was in full fraternal
relationship with the Masonic world.
1849, of its own motion, and following England by nearly one hundred years, it
introduced the religious conception.
1877, it substituted tolerance and liberty of conscience.
Between these dates many things had happened. Among other things, Garibaldi,
the Freemason, and great Italian patriot, had captured Rome and deprived the
Pope of his temporal power. Reprisals came swiftly. The Roman Catholic Church
charged Freemasonry with founding upon the Bible a spurious religion. To meet
this charge, a Protestant Minister of the Gospel, in the hope of foiling these
attacks which were sadly depleting the membership as was natural in a Catholic
country, moved the change for which we now ostracize France. He stated at the
time that it was not to be regarded as a negation in any sense of a belief in
Deity. This has been, and this is, the attitude of the Grand Orient of France.
We did not however break with the Grand Orient over a Spiritual question, but
over a Temporal question, territory and material.
circumstances in which Latin Freemasonry was placed, by conditions which it
could not control, deserve that sympathetic and patient study and
consideration which a brother in the Craft has a right to expect of his
brother, before condemnation.
painstaking study of Freemasonry's persecution, will invite commendation of
the zeal and fortitude of our Latin brethren, in holding high the banners of
the Craft against fierce and unrelenting assault.
us also there are forces hostile to Freemasonry and its Ideals, but, happily
for us, these forces do not directly, or indirectly, dominate the State.
would be our situation if they did?
study of what our Latin brethren have suffered, let us contrast their carrying
on with what we did in the Morgan period. Then we shrunk up and al] but blew
intolerant spirit which dominated during the Morgan crisis, and all but wiped
us out, ruthless and unrelenting, has raged against Freemasons in Latin
countries almost for two hundred years; yet our Latin brethren have kept the
fire of their faith brightly burning; they have not surrendered to suffering
and sacrifice, but have grown in numbers and in influence; slowly, but they
was in 1738 that Clement XII issued the first Bull against Freemasonry. The
grounds of its condemnation were that Masons admitted members of all religious
sects, and bound themselves by an oath of secrecy.
Latin Catholic countries, the term atheist is colloquially applied by the
Church to non-Catholics. Coming from this high authority, the appellation has
been accepted as a correct characterization of nonCatholics, without regard to
the real meaning of the word. Subtle propaganda has put over this idea, and
the term is now quite generally accepted by Catholics, as properly applying to
all Freemasons; and by us, as properly applying to French Freemasons.
opponents are more clever than are we.
fact that Freemasons bound themselves by a secret oath, was held by the
authorities of the Catholic Church to be an admission of perfidy. No further
proof was needed.
the date of this Bull, it was followed by others, a conflict, bitter in its
intensity, and more bitter, where the Church politically was all powerful, has
been waged between the Catholic Church and the Masonic Fraternity.
Attack was followed by counter-attack. Great bitterness was engendered, and a
war of extermination has raged, its intensity limited only by the power of the
Church over Government.
difficult for Freemasons who are free to meet, free to act, free to live their
own lives and advance their ideals, and to pursue their happiness, to
understand the trials of their brethren, pursued, persecuted, destroyed,
because of their faith.
situation in Italy today tells something of the story, and in Hungary the
chapter is not closed.
not surprising that after the Bull of 1738, the development of Speculative
Freemasonry in Protestant countries was under happier auspices than in
Catholic countries. In Protestant lands it was often patronized by men of
influence and high standing, and fortune smiled upon it. On the other hand, in
these countries where the enemies of Freemasonry were in power, it had to
struggle for its existence, suffer for its faith, and keep its fires burning
only at great peril to its members.
such widely varying conditions, it was to be expected that Speculative
Freemasonry would have a development possessed of striking contrasts.
SOMETHING OF OPERATIVE FREEMASONRY
divergence in its development, somewhat similar, but under conditions in no
wise comparable, had taken place in Operative Masonry, when the various lodges
of our Operative forefathers developed their art of Gothic architecture along
differing lines, according to the genius, culture and taste of the people for
whom they worked, and to the talent of their Master.
organization of Operative lodges, and the machinery devised for efficient
service, likewise differed materially in the several countries where the Craft
none of this was there seen heresy in the olden days. It was just growth,
shaped by local conditions. This condition has been repeated in the
development of Speculative Freemasonry, which likewise, has been shaped by
local conditions. The duty today is to harmonize it.
Operative days, the building was of stone and mortar, and a perfect structure
was the aspiration of the Craft.
development of Gothic architecture is the crowning glory of our Operative
forefathers. As this style grew, architecture became more and more a highly
technical science, and the secrets of the art became the possession of the
organized wherever cathedrals, churches and abbeys were being constructed, and
spread over western Europe, blending into its environments, and developing the
Gothic along lines reflecting the culture and aspirations of its own genius
and that of those it served, until the Gothic had diverged into many styles,
each reflecting The contribution which each band of Craftsmen had to make to
SOMETHING OF SPECULATIVE FREEMASONRY
Speculative days, the development of the Ideal of the Temple of the
Brotherhood of Man, has been the aspiration; an-d its realization will be the
crowning glory of our Fraternity. As the possibilities of the Ideal were
better appreciated, the aspiration grew, and its triumph was realized to
depend more and more upon service and sacrifice. The secret of its success
became the possession of our Craft. It was to purge man of intolerant
sectarianisms, of racial and unworthy prejudices.
Speculative Freemasonry organized wherever man sought a higher life. It spread
over the face of the earth. In each country it developed the Ideal along lines
within the grasp and abilities of its people to see the Light. It broadened
out to include within its appeal the contribution of every race and
nationality to a higher and better order of things here below.
Forefathers of the ancient Operative lodges did not excoriate and
excommunicate each other, because, in the perfection of Gothic architecture,
some diversified its details to harmonize with the culture and taste of the
countries where they were at work. They possessed the intelligence to see in
these differences, the contribution which each had to make to the perfecting
of their art.
did they excommunicate each other for differences in the method of organizing
and operating their respective lodges. There was more serious and worthwhile
work to do.
instance of our progress, let it be noted that in the days of primitive
Speculative Freemasonry, the Jew had no part in the Order; but since the
eighteenth century, the Jew has been a growing constructive factor and
influence for good, in the Craft.
Originally Freemasonry did not include others than Christians. This is still
true in some Grand Lodges, which Grand Lodge of New York holds high. Here we
have another extreme, out of tune with modern best thought. Nevertheless the
Craft is slowly progressing toward the inclusion of all monotheists, in "that
Religion in which all men agree."
SOMETHING OF THE TWO GREAT SCHOOLS
Reverting to the two distinct schools of thought in Speculative Freemasonry,
let us briefly consider some of their distinguishing characteristics.
said, they are the Anglo-Saxon School and the Latin School.
numbers, the Anglo-Saxon is the stronger; the numerical ratio between the two
may be six to one. Grand Lodges, of Anglo-Saxon derivation, exercise
jurisdiction over a larger area of the world than do Latin Grand Lodges; but
this fact does not lessen the importance of those areas where the Latin School
is established and dominant.
Latin race is widely dispersed over the earth, its contributions to
civilization are beyond estimate; to the ideals of liberty, instance the help
of France to our American "independence"; to the arts and sciences, witness
its institutions of learning, its museums and galleries, which Americans visit
by thousands. Its influence is far reaching, its vitality without bounds. It
has been the progressive force in many lands. The numbers it has contributed
to Freemasonry are few compared to what the Anglo-Saxon has given, but the
quality is choice, both in culture and zeal.
SOMETHING OF MASONIC INTERNATIONAL LAW
Anglo-Saxon Freemasonry, in its progress, particularly in North America, under
the influence of our doctrine of State rights, has developed a system of
Masonic International Law, having for purpose the harmonizing and regulating
of the relationship one to the other, of American Grand Lodges in the matters
of sovereignty, jurisdiction over territory, over Freemasons, and over
candidates for Freemasonry. The number and the proximity of our States and of
Canadian Provinces, our common language, and similar aspirations and genius,
have favored the advance which we have made. On this continent, no one of our
Grand Lodges would invade the boundaries of a sister jurisdiction, or accept
equal development of Masonic law governing the conduct, or limiting the
powers, of Grand Lodges has not occurred on the continent of Europe. Over
there, Grand Lodges for the benefit of their nationals, have established or
recognized, as a matter of course, lodges and even Grand Lodges, within the
conches of other countries already covered by Grand Lodges. The Mother Grand
Lodge of England did this in France, only a few years ago. European Grand
Lodges have extended this practice to the Americas, justifying it on the
ground that, since the Grand Lodges of the world have never gotten together to
discuss rules of conduct, and to agree upon laws qualifying the sovereignty of
Grand Lodges, each Grand Lodge still remains a free agent, and a law unto
itself. Each still is sovereign and supreme, and particularly each is free of
all obligations to those Grand Lodges which brand it as Clandestine, and
refuse even to talk over with it unhappy differences of opinion.
Grand Lodges, offenders as we are wont to call them, do not question the
desirability and the advantages of comity, of dignity, and of the spirit of
fraternity, in the relationship of Grand Lodges. On the contrary they urge it,
asking no favors. They do, however, insist that the laws which are to govern
their relations with other Grand Lodges, shall be laws in the making of which
they shall have a part.
sovereign and independent jurisdictions, they refuse to obey laws attempted to
be imposed upon them by Grand Lodges which scorn them, and in the making of
which laws they have had no part.
jurisdictions express approval, in principle, of Masonic law covering the
question of territoriality, as it has developed in America, and they stand
ready to agree upon a system of laws covering the relations of Grand Lodges,
when made in a congress or convention of Masonic Grand Lodges duly assembled,
where all meet upon the level, act by the plumb, and part upon the square.
Latin brothers have called many such conventions; they have invited our
attendance. We have discourteously ignored the invitations, or declined them
with scant courtesy, but with profuse protestations of self-righteousness, and
assertions of our own superiority.
Strange it would have been if under such provocation, resentment had not been
engendered, and, in anger or in sorrow, mistakes made, or steps taken, which
it is now difficult to retrace!
there is no law there is anarchy. We are drifting towards Masonic anarchy.
Nothing could be more incongruous or grotesque.
not good Masonic doctrine to be constructive in criticism, slow to condemn,
kind in all things?
SOMETHING OF RESPONSIBILITY
Anglo-Saxon Masons are not without responsibility for present conditions of
chaos and anarchy within the Craft.
the beginning it was wise to give independence to new Grand Lodges and to call
them sister jurisdictions. It was unwise to neglect them thereafter.
the path which our Latin brethren believed themselves compelled to follow,
diverged from our path, we sought to impose upon them conditions for our
favor, and arbitrarily broke off all relations when they refused to comply
with our ultimatum. Thus we closed the door on all possibility of negotiation
and persuasion, on all possibility of helping them in their sorely distracting
Anglo-Saxon Masons had for purpose, in this treatment of our Latin brethren,
to compel them to return to our ideas of the orthodox path, we signally have
failed. No self-respecting body of men will permit itself to be thus coerced.
Threats and ultimatums do not comport with Masonic teachings.
policy was at fault. Instead of standing by our Latin brethren, to support
them in the crushing difficulties confronting them in their persecution, we
left them to the mercy of their enemies. We might have helped and influenced
them to greater moderation had we stood by. Our assumed superiority seems to
have blinded us.
us not forget that we, Anglo-Saxons, gave Speculative Freemasonry to the
world. We spread it far and wide among the peoples and races of the earth; and
then we neglected it, our own child! We permitted it to drift, driven by the
hate and vengeance of its and of our implacable foe. When assailed by forces
stronger than it, we gave it no support; and when in dire straits it
blundered, as we think, we cast it out from our fellowship without laboring
SOMETHING OF SELF-RIGHTEOUSNESS
Neither man nor institution can ignore responsibility and remain honorable and
respected. We Freemasons have a duty which we must perform or suffer
discredit. That duty is to make every honorable effort to get together, and
patiently to work out a proper solution of our internal problems, so that,
once more a united Brotherhood, in concert, shoulder to shoulder, we may bear
forward and higher Freemasonry's Ideal of Man's Brotherhood, of which a
suffering humanity stands in such sore need.
it will be said we cannot hold communion with those who do not profess a
belief in God, and who do not maintain the Holy Bible upon the lodge altar.
this true? And is it worthy of Freemasonry? Does it comport with the teachings
and practices of Him who ate and drank with publicans and sinners?
Conferences ever are being held between individuals holding the most divergent
opinions without either party, by meeting his opponent, being held to have
forfeited standing or prejudiced principles.
since, enlightened Governments abandoned the practice of breaking off friendly
relations with other States because of laws for their citizens of. which these
Governments did not approve. It is different when one Government does some
wrong to another Government or to its nationals. This may justify the breaking
of diplomatic relations, but not so when what a State does concerns only its
own internal affairs.
Remembering that every Masonic Grand Lodge is sovereign and independent, and
that we tolerate no interference by foreign Grand Lodges in our internal
affairs, by what logic can we justify our refusal to discuss, face to face,
our differences or misunderstanding with legitimate sister Grand Lodges based
on the conduct of their internal affairs?
us not ignore the truth that these Latin Grand Lodges, which we scorn, have
made no attack on our sovereignty, have in no way injured our members, nor
violated any Masonic law to which they have given sanction. They have not
declared that they would not recognize Freemasons who do believe in God. They
hold that they have no right to concern themselves with man's religious
beliefs. They were driven to this by the propaganda of the Catholic Church,
but they have gone no farther than to say that they do not make belief an
essential to initiation, and they point out that no such test is called for in
the Anderson, or First Constitution, of the Mother Grand Lodge.
regrettable that this is the fact. We are right in our stand that the
development of Freemasonry in harmony with the religious principles taught and
exemplified by Jesus, makes for far greater happiness in the human family,
than possibly can abstract philosophical truth. Let it be remembered however
that nothing in Latin Freemasonry opposes religion, opposes belief in God, or
the inspiration of Holy Bible. Let it be remembered that no Latin Grand Lodge
preaches atheism, or ungodliness, but that all of them stand for the highest
conception of morality as the rule of conduct, and insist that real service to
man and brotherhood shall precede advancement to each higher degree.
SOMETHING OF THE BIGNESS OF NEW YORK’S PAST GRAND MASTERS
Rowan has shown fine spirit in quoting liberally from the pronouncements of
his predecessors, as Grand Masters of New York, on the duty and opportunity of
the Craft throughout the world, in these troublous times. What Past Grand
Masters Farmer, Robinson and Tompkins have said and done for the unification
of Freemasonry the world over in co-operative effort to promote its Ideal of
Brotherhood, have made their names immortal in the annals of the Craft. They
pointed the way and laid the foundation. All honor to them.
"Build, for the world is sick of tearing down....
building, not for wrecking, swing your blade."
to be hoped that all that these great brothers have said upon this great
subject will be read and considered; the time will be well spent.
Nothing any one of them has said or done justified the conclusion that he
expected the millennium to be attained in a single year.
year only, measures the membership of the Grand Lodge of New York in the
Masonic International Association. It voted to consummate its membership in
May, 1923. It was received in full membership in September, 1923. It was
withdrawn as a member by Grand Master Rowan in August, 1924. As a member it
attended no regular meeting of the Association; the one meeting it was
privileged to attend was a special meeting, the business of which was limited
to the matters in its call.
much for the opportunities it has had to do constructive work.
spirit of the first gathering at Geneva in 1921 when, so hopefully, a little
band laid the foundation for the Masonic International Association and for a
better order of things in our Fraternity, has been well described by Past
Grand Master Arthur S. Tompkins. That spirit has grown!
opportunity for service in and through the Masonic International Association,
has been fervently presented by Past Grand Master Robert H. Robinson. It is
honor and credit of the inspiration, and of having the courage to respond to
the call to duty in the broad spirit of Masonic Love, is with Past Grand
Master William S. Farmer. All hail to him, and to his co-workers of vision!
They have entered the Hall of Fame and will think twice before they recant.
SOMETHING OF A NARROWER VIEWPOINT
Master Rowan is right when he points out that the Constitution of the Masonic
International Association does not give it power:
To protest the massacre of women and children
The slaughter of Boy Scouts, and
Fratricidal struggles unworthy of our civilization
To express interest in the fate of suffering people like the Armenians,
persecuted unto death for their religious faith; the Jews when the victims of
To express regret that events of a political nature have kept our Hungarian
brethren from their labors.
To express the hope that a more complete understanding by the Hungarian
Government of the true character of Hungarian Freemasonry may result in its
soon serving anew openly, the cause of humanity;
To express the hope that conflicts between peoples may be decided by a Court
of International Jurisdiction, and the calamity of war ended;
To express the belief that Freemasonry, however represented, has, for an
object, the creation of a spirit of fraternity between peoples, and to war on
a fact that no Grand Lodge was bound by anything the delegates to the Masonic
International Association did in reference to these matters, and every Grand
Lodge is free to disavow the action taken, or dissent from the Masonic
Masonic International Association has suggestive functions only. But these sad
things happening while a group of Freemasons are nearing or are in session,
what should they do ? Forget the Landmarks, the great Ideal, and supinely
remain silent, or proclaim anew Man's Brotherhood, and the duty which man owes
SOMETHING OF POLITICS
Freemasonry, if its professions are more than sham pretensions, will not
permit certain questions to be dubbed "political," to place them outside the
pale of its protection, or to escape its wrath; massacres, for instance!
Suppose a political movement were to be started with us, to turn over the
control of our public school system to some church, is it not probable that
the Fraternity would be heard from in no uncertain terms, Bro. Rowan and his
political scruples to the contrary notwithstanding ?
Circumstances alter cases. Witness the "Boston Tea Party."
is "politics" in any great crisis, of needs be must be left to the high
conscience of the Grand Lodge affected; and other Grand Lodges should be slow
SOMETHING OF SHADOWS WHICH AFFRIGHT
Master Rowan is disturbed:
Because a telegram of felicitations was ordered sent to a brother who had won
a prize of one hundred thousand francs for an article on Peace.
not the world want peace?
Because sundry appeals for justice and the right to live, addressed to the
Masonic International Association, were passed on to the League of Nations, of
which he points out, the United States has refused to become a member.
better disposition could have been made of them ?
Freemasons not told, somewhere, of their duty to Brother Man in like destitute
Because someone suggested it might be useful to study theoretically,
"academically," what labor is.
not? Is not knowledge of the truth helpful?
Because a delegate, attached to the International Bureau of Labor of the
League of Nations, invited the delegates to the Masonic International
Association to visit that Bureau.
Should a Freemason resent a hospitable invitation to him and his brethren in a
foreign land to visit institutions of educational interest which may be there
Master Rowan seems alarmed because someone or another of the delegates of the
twenty-two Grand Jurisdictions advanced sundry proposals, to his way of
thinking dangerous, and which the Congress did not adopt, evidently sharing
his view; and he indicates the peril in this.
agree with him, there is danger here. I confess that I know but one way to
minimize that danger, and finally to eliminate it, and that is by doing our
part as Brothers in our Universal Brotherhood; by attending its International
Congresses, and through persuasion, not by idle, futile threats, and long
range denunciations, but by brotherly contact and logic, prove our views the
wiser, and the better suited for the service of humanity.
superficial, how silly it would be, to pronounce the Government of the United
States ineffective and useless, because of the foolish things which individual
members of Congress say, and have said or done, in our Legislative Halls !
there not some of this sort of thing going on in the early days of our
Republic? There still is. Great oaks from little acorns grow.
cannot build by tearing down, advance by going backward!
not our duty to make the most of what is, and to try to improve it, rather
than to destroy it, without providing something better?
SOMETHING OF HONEST TOIL
a word with reference to the question of work which Grand Master Rowan seems
to confuse with some organized labor question or difficulty, the nature of
which he does not disclose.
the Masonic International Association was given birth, the world's recovery
from the effects of the Great War was retarded by the inability of people to
settle down to steady work. Nerves were at too high a tension.
Masonic International Association inserted in its principles the declaration:
"Freemasonry, deeming work to be one of the essential duties of men, honors
equally those who toil with their hands and those given intellectual
purpose of this was to help bridge the gap between classes, and lessen
jealousy and discontent, by proclaiming anew the Landmark of the dignity of
Surely no one challenges the axiomatic truth that happiness and the world's
welfare are dependent upon work! True, these are days when workmen combine for
the maintenance of their rights, which is proper. Labor Unions are here. They
have a useful service to perform. They cannot be gotten rid of excepting by a
class war, which would be suicidal. Is it not better for us all to study and
seek to understand the capital and labor question, so that with understanding,
as individuals, we may aid enlightened public opinion to promote fair play
between these two great and essential forces?
SOMETHING OF WHAT MIGHT BE
ranks today are composed of a wonderful aggregation of sterling men, attracted
to Freemasonry by its Ideal, the Brotherhood of Man; by its field, the world;
by its opportunity, the promotion of peace on earth.
all organized groupments of men, Freemasonry alone makes equal appeal to men
of every race, nationality and religion.
According to no one dominance, it urges all men to co-operate, each in his own
sphere of usefulness, for the common welfare and happiness.
Ideal cannot triumph, excepting Freemasons get together on terms of brotherly
equality, and in the spirit of charity for all and malice towards none. If
this be their will, we shall be doing God's work; if it be not their will,
what is there to prevent Freemasonry from drifting into and becoming a
vainglorious mutual admiration society, kept alive by the sale of valueless
titles and sham honors to cheap men who can shine nowhere else, and who,
following false gods, will be wasting time and spending money which they
cannot afford, to the injury of their family and themselves ?
to a trend, the Freemason is often misled; and misled, he too often loses his
sense of proportion.
does not permit consideration, item by item, of all the points which Bro.
Rowan makes. The writer has sought to group some of the more important of
rejoices that this great subject is now open to discussion, and, in course of
time, to a verdict which will reflect the present day policy of the Craft in
humanity's greatest crisis.
believes the big, the broad, the generous purpose of the Fathers, in due time,
will triumph; that their vision will be vindicated. As we have boasted, so it
will be adjudged, and the boast made true, that in our times as in theirs,
Freemasonry's mission is to unite men of every race, nationality and religion,
without regard to worldly wealth or station, "provided they be good men and
true, men of honor and honesty."
writer passes over without comment the withdrawal by Grand Master Rowan of the
Grand Lodge of New York from the Masonic International Association.
is a matter of local politics. Greater the pity!
Master Rowan acted, of course, according to his lights, both when he withdrew
the Grand Lodge of New York from the Masonic International Association, and
when he withdrew it from the Masonic Service Association of the United States.
isolation be magnificent, New York is magnificent!
now for a brief summary of a subject here most inadequately presented, in fact
only opened, but upon which, let us have all the light there is to shed.
cannot close our eyes to the fact that there exist two great schools of
thought within the Masonic Fraternity. That due to lack of contacts,
association and understanding, these two schools are drifting farther and
farther apart and nearer and nearer to open wart7are. Surely we know the
bitterness and the relentlessness with which family feuds are waged.
general way, one of these two schools represents the Anglo-Saxon race and the
other the Latin race. The influence of these two races leads civilization, and
has it in its keeping.
Freemasons within these two great divisions of men strive, in their Masonic
way, to bring them together in co-operative brotherly effort for the promotion
of peace and the progress of civilization, or shall they permit them to drift
further apart, and to the inevitable clash, if differences be not reconciled
and wounds healed ?
ignore the threatened crisis is cowardly. Let us not cry peace when there is
no peace. Men of great soul throughout the world see the danger, and for the
sake of the peace of the world are striving for friendly co-operation between
the two great races.
high endeavor was Freemasonry's task in the inspired plan of our Forefathers.
This was its great ideal. This was Freemasonry's mission! Its excuse for
being! Its vindication! We cannot repudiate the past without betrayal. We must
go forward, expanding, or die, and rot!
Masonic International Association is an existing thing; it is far from perfect
but it is a beginning, giving expression to a great aspiration. It is a
present functioning agency confronting Anglo-Saxon Freemasonry either as a
means to make a great contribution to peace within and without the Craft, or
as a force to be reckoned with. The Association embraces within its membership
nearly all the Latin Grand Lodges of the world, also some of those on the
border line between the two schools, and Holland and New York, of the
Anglo-Saxon School. It promises to live. Its foundation is safe. It affords
contacts without recognition. Its meetings are not "Masonic Intercourse." Its
founders sought to respect sensitive susceptibilities.
disciples of these two schools in Freemasonry working together in and through
the Association, can make for one Freemasonry the world over. Whether
Anglo-Saxon Freemasonry is big and broad enough, and its conception of
Freemasonry is godly enough, to see the light and play the great role, time
will tell. If it fails to rise to this inspiring task, there will be two
systems of Freemasonry in the world, locked in deadly warfare, each
excoriating and excommunicating the other, and dividing races, nationalities
and religions, instead of uniting men and destroying divisions.
shall it be ? One system of Freemasonry, and peace, or two systems of
Freemasonry and war? The momentous decision rests with the Craft, not with any
Grand Master or Past Grand Master.
AMERICAN COLLEGE FRATERNITIES
BRO. CARL A. FOSS
NATIONAL SECRETARY OF THE INTERCOLLEGIATE MASONIC FRATERNITY OF SQUARE AND
COMPASS, NEW YORK
Concluded from March
1825 the Kappa Alpha Society was founded at Union College and, in many
respects, was a copy of the Phi Beta Kappa that had been established at Union
eight years before. Within two years, two other fraternities, Sigma Phi on
March 4, 1827, and Delta Phi on Nov. 18, 1827, were established. There were a
number of other college fraternities founded at other colleges about this
time, but we shall speak only of those through whose example and influence
have arisen the large number of college fraternities to-day. Calling itself
the Alpha of New York in 1831, Sigma Phi established a Beta chapter at
Hamilton College (Clinton, N. Y.). This resulted in Alpha Delta Phi being
established at Hamilton one year later and, in November, 1833, Psi Upsilon was
founded at Union. Also in 1833 Kappa Alpha placed a chapter at Williams
College (Williamstown, Mass.) and this was followed one year later by a third
chapter of Sigma Phi being established at Williams. In 1837 the Mystical Seven
fraternity was founded at Wesleyan College (Middletown, Conn.). In 1835 Alpha
Delta Phi established its second chapter at Miami University (Oxford, Ohio)
and, in 1839, Beta Theta Pi, the first western fraternity to be founded, was
established at Miami to compete with the earlier Alpha Delta Phi. In 1841, the
Mystical Seven fraternity (without a Greek name but similar to its
predecessors in the college world) established a chapter at Emory College
(then at Oxford, Ga., and since removed to Atlanta) and, in 1844, another
chapter was established at Franklin College, now the University of Georgia, at
Athens. The extension of the Mystical Seven fraternity to the south led to the
founding of W. W. W., or Rainbow Society. Neither the Mystical Seven nor W. W.
W. exist to-day as separate societies. From these beginnings have come the
present college fraternity system. In almost every case, the foundation of a
new fraternity has been the result of the establishment of a new chapter of an
existing fraternity and there has been considerable similarity in the
character of the organizations.
college fraternities, even including Delta Upsilon which was founded as an
anti-secret society at Williams in 1834, are more or less secret. We say
"less" for during the course of many years of college rivalry, chapters have
stolen the rituals of other fraternities and the secrecy is more theoretical
than actual, although, of course, attendance at meetings is limited to members
and business transacted at such meetings is not known to others. Most of the
social fraternities have grown to such limits, in membership and wealth, that
secretaries, office and travelling, stenographers, inspectors and editors are
employed, a far cry from the time when the work was done by the students
STATISTICS FOR THE LEADING TEN ARE GIVEN
give some idea of the standing of these college fraternities a list is given
below of the ten largest fraternities to-day in point of membership. (The
figures are for 1923 and are taken from Baird’s Manual.)
Name of Fraternity – Founded at
Value of Property
Beta Theta Pi, Miami University
Phil Delta Theta, Miami University
Sigma Alpha Epsilon, U. of Alabama
Kappa Sigma, U. of Virginia
Sigma Chi, Miami University
Phi Gamma Delta, Jefferson College
Delta Kappa Epsilon, Yale College
Delta Tau Delta, Bethany College
Sigma Nu, Virginia Mil. Inst.
Alpha Tau Omega, Virginia Mil. Inst.
should be remembered that the above membership figures do not refer to living
members, but to the actual number initiated from the establishment of the
will be observed that none of the earliest fraternities are included in the
above list and the reason is found in the intense conservatism of the
societies founded in the east. Delta Kappa Epsilon is the only one that had a
vision of the America to come outside of the section in which it was born.
1869 there was founded at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) the first
so-called professional fraternity. This was Phi Delta Phi, which was limited
in membership to those studying the profession of law. Since then fraternities
have been founded for almost every profession under the sun. There are
fraternities for chemistry students, journalists, women medical students, male
medical students, commercial, dental, veterinary, architectural, homeopathic
medical, women educational, pharmaceutical, women musical, textile, women
osteopathic, art, women normal, scientific, public speaking and actors, music
and oratorical, women legal, physical education, home economics, geology,
mining and metallurgy, dramatic, and engineering students. Many of the
professional students have a large number of professional fraternities,
notably legal and medical, to which they are eligible for membership. The
principal characteristic of difference between the social and the professional
fraternity is that one can only belong to one social fraternity, but he can
belong to as many professional fraternities (not of the same profession) as
may care to invite him, and he can also belong to a social fraternity as well
as the professional fraternity. The membership of the latter is confined,
principally, to the upper classmen.
very few cases do the members of a professional fraternity live together in a
chapter house. Nearly all of the chapters of social fraternities maintain
homes in which the members live, and because of this fact and that many of the
members of the professional societies are also members of the social
fraternities, the former could hardly maintain chapter houses with the small
number not already living in fraternity homes.
there are the honorary fraternities, and of these there are a couple of dozen.
Among them must be included Phi Beta Kappa, of the highest rank; Sigma Xi, an
equally fine honor society for scientific students, and others of less and, in
some cases, of doubtful merit. We have just learned of a college organization
founded to honor Masonic college students, by membership, who live up to the
principles of Freemasonry while in college. We have always thought that
Freemasonry honored its own, either by election to office or, in the case of
the Scottish Rite, election to the governing body of the Rite; or else one was
honored by the esteem in which he was held by his brother members; but,
seemingly, to some it may appear to be an even greater honor to be elected to
membership in another organization.
AND CONS ARE DISCUSSED
the course of years through which the college fraternity system has existed
there have been praise and condemnation, loyalty of the highest quality from
its members and bitter opposition from its enemies. With no exceptions that we
know of, the enemies of the Greek-letter fraternities have been those who have
not belonged to any fraternity. Against the college fraternities has been
raised the cry of undemocracy and in some cases the charge has been well
founded. However, on the whole, the Greek-letter system is worthy of existence
and is controlled by serious minded men of high character and citizenship.
Attacks have, however, led to the banishing of college fraternities at the
state institutions in South Carolina and Mississippi and, at the University of
Arkansas, members of college fraternities are not eligible for college honors.
contest is whether fraternities, intercollegiate in character, shall exist, or
clubs having no connection with any organization at another institution. The
evidence seems to bear with the fraternities. These are controlled, almost
entirely, by alumni who, being more mature than undergraduates, are not likely
to permit things to go on that would be permitted in a club, the only control
of which is exercised by the members in college. Many of the fraternities
exercise a control that would be impossible for a local club to' assert. The
Greek-letter fraternity to which the writer belongs has, for many years,
enforced an edict, under penalty of expulsion, that no member shall gamble in
a chapter house or shall bring liquor into that house or introduce a woman
therein for immoral purposes. For some years prior to the adoption of the 18th
Amendment to the Federal Constitution, Delta Tau Delta made a determined fight
against drinking among college men. Other fraternities have made determined
efforts to increase the scholarship of their members.
answer to the condemnation of being undemocratic it must be conceded there is
considerable truth in the assertion. The system of "bidding" is, in the first
place, the principal cause and considerable undemocracy will continue so long
as "bidding" controls the manner of election to membership. This is especially
true when the "bidding" is practiced on boys who have just landed at college,
their true characteristics being almost unknown to the members of the various
fraternities. Another evil is occasioned by the social fraternities laying too
great a stress upon the social qualities of the candidates. Social heroes are
not always desirable fraternity brothers in other characteristics. However, it
is noticeable that where there are so many fraternities in an institution that
considerable rivalry results and a large percentage of the student body
belongs to the fraternities, there is little cause for charging the societies
with lack of democracy. At Washington and Lee University (Lexington, Va.),
with over twenty social fraternities for a student body of about 600, students
are invited to join fraternities even when they have only a year remaining in
college. The charge of undemocracy can only be made rightfully where college
fraternities do all of their "bidding" in the first week of the freshman year
and later refuse to take in students, no matter how worthy they may be, after
they have made a name for themselves in college.
ACACIA WAS FOUNDED IN 1904
Organizations limited to Masons have existed in American colleges for years
but, until 1904, these were entirely local Masonic clubs; no intercollegiate
organization existed until the founding of The Acacia Fraternity at the
University of Michigan in 1904. At the present time, Acacia has 27 active
chapters, a membership of 6,130, and property valued at $830,000. At some time
prior to 1917, Acacia adopted the provision that college Masons who were
members of Greek-letter social fraternities would no longer be eligible to
membership. Acacia practices "bidding" and is considered a rival of the
Greek-letter social fraternities, being a member of the Interfraternity
Conference, which accepts as members only those college societies that are
rivals. Its chapters are approximately of the same size as those of the
Greek-letter fraternities and, consequently, only a limited number of the
Masonic students in an institution can become Acacians.
second intercollegiate Masonic fraternity to be founded was Square and
Compass. Its establishment was due directly to Acacia's prohibition against
having as members any Masons who were already members of social Greek-letter
fraternities. In 1916-17, the Masonic Club at Washington and Lee University,
wishing to strengthen itself and increase the interest of its members, set out
to petition Acacia for a charter, but found itself unable to do so with
success on account of the large proportion of Greek-letter fraternity members
in the club. (It should be remembered that whereas the average age of college
freshmen is perhaps eighteen or nineteen, he is not eligible to become a Mason
until he is twenty-one. It is, therefore, natural that he should become a
Greek-letter fraternity member if he has the opportunity.) Consequently, the
club determined to organize another intercollegiate Masonic society, which it
did. The organization laid dormant during the War and the second chapter
(called a square) was not founded until 1920. since then the fraternity has
grown rapidly until it has entered 47 institutions all over the country,
publishes a magazine, has a paid secretary, and property of a value of about
$75,000. Square and Compass has been extraordinarily successful because the
local Masonic clubs have quickly seen the advantage of the intercollegiate
form of government offered by Square and Compass. This fraternity does not
practice "bidding" but any Master Mason who is eligible to membership on
account of his connection with the institution where Square and Compass is
established may apply for membership, and his application can only be rejected
by a majority vote based on un-Masonic conduct.
was, formerly, an organization known as The Trowel Fraternity, membership in
which was limited to Masonic students in dental schools. Its scope was
confined to the Pacific coast, and whether it is still in existence is not
known. Another college Masonic organization has recently been founded that has
two chapters. It practices "bidding." There are in addition to these perhaps a
hundred or more local college Masonic clubs. Many of them are in good
condition, have homes and the loyalty of their members. However, most of them
do not have a strong, continued existence.
know of no chapters of the Order of Builders or of the De Molay being
established at an educational institution with membership limited to the
students, but when a chapter is established in a college town, a large
proportion of the membership is necessarily made up of college students. At
Central College (Fayette, Mo.) no fraternities are permitted and so the local
chapter of the Order of De Molay has taken on very much of the character of a
closing we wish to assert that, with the exception of Freemasonry, no
organization commands such undiluted loyalty from its members as the American
college fraternity. Regardless of what is said about it, the college
fraternity must have features of value in order to make men, grown old and
engrossed in the affairs of the business world, willing to take of their time
to devote it to an organization they joined years ago. And many of them have
gone even further; they have given of their wealth to erect costly fraternity
houses that provide a home for the youngsters of today and tomorrow. For
college men and for those who have not been privileged to go to college, the
American college fraternity is a subject of increasing attraction, the more
one reads. For many, the college fraternity has started the interest that has
led to membership and active interest in the Freemasonry of the years to
follow after leaving college.
NOTE--The writer wishes to express his thanks for the assistance obtained from
Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities for the preparation of this
article. For one interested in the subject, no better or more trustworthy book
on the American college fraternity system can be obtained. The book is
published by James T. Brown, 363 West 20th St., New York city. Another
publication of value to those interested is Banta's Greek Exchange, a
quarterly, published at Menasha, Wisconsin .
keen blade makes an open wound
crimson stains are bright,
laws are made for blade and blood,
keep man's conduct right
what of those who stab and slay
human heart--and go away?
open wound is red and raw
everyone may see
those who use a knife, the law
those who only stab the heart
strike in safety and depart.
keen blade makes an open wound
cruel wound and red
every man will cry that law
its course be sped;
souls are murdered everywhere
men but smile and call it fair.
--Grace E. Hall.
Masonic Service Bureaus
BRO. PHIL A. ROTH, Wisconsin
was upon our urgent request that Bro. Roth stole time from his pressing work
as Manager of the Masonic Service Bureau Milwaukee, Wis., to prepare this
paper on a subject so dear to his own heart and so close to the conscience of
the American Craft. Brethren desiring further light on the rapid development
of organized Masonic relief may address Bro. Roth at Scottish Rite Cathedral
470 Van Buren St., Milwaukee.
word service is a great, if not the greatest, word in our vocabulary.
Conscientious service is ennobling and helps to build a stronger manhood.
Selfishness is one of the meanest of words. Selfishness in mankind breeds
unrest in the mind, and stimulates ignorable thoughts, in which is nourished
evil and vice.
Selfishness, as you may observe from the diagrams below, narrows down to
misery and death. It is that prevailing thought which brings forth and
nourishes aggrandizement--self-admiration--power-domination and harshness, and
which develops into vanity-speculation--immorality and conceit. Out of these
grow jealousy-degradation, and crime. The results of these habits are
punishment and suffering ending inevitably in misery and finally in death.
Thus we can plainly realize and understand how dreadful and full of woe are
the lives of those unhappy mortals who allow that ugly word selfishness to
creep into their existence and to become a part of their thoughts and actions.
let us study the word "Service." It is a most commendable virtue to be devoted
to God, to our glorious country, and to practice and exemplify kindness on
every occasion. In doing that we learn a deep reverence for God in all His
works, to be obedient and loyal to the laws of our Government, to esteem our
friends, to love our neighbor, and to respect ourselves.
loving our neighbor we may live in peacefulness; by our reverence to God we
cleanse our minds and bodies of the "vices and superfluities of life," and we
enlighten our way to the path of righteousness and happiness. Obedience and
loyalty to our Constitution and flag brings tranquility and selfrespect and
builds character. Possessing these splendid attributes, we find the
peace-loving neighbor ready and willing to favor and serve us, to find
employment for us when we need it, and to aid and assist in every form. A
clean conscience is ever ready to protect and provide relief, which invariably
develops honesty of purpose, happiness and cheer. Thus we find that in the
practice of these virtues we have built a pure character, God's highest and
most beautiful gift to man.
Service, therefore, embodies everything that is good and clean and that makes
life worth living. It is the key to the road that leads to the establishment
of the Brotherhood of Man and the recognition of the Fatherhood of God.
Service is the keynote throughout the Holy Bible; we can find no clearer and
better definition for the word than is contained in the Golden Rule. In
Service we find all that is beautiful in the eyes of God and Man; all that
makes man happy and content, the straight path to that haven of eternal peace,
"that house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens."
in our time-honored Institution, we discover much use for service. By service
we train our hearts and consciences to observe, and to alleviate the troubles,
the sorrow and misery of those less fortunate than we; by it we discern the
exemplary teachings of real Masonry, applied in a practical way. What then are
all our splendid Ritual teachings, beautiful phraseology, the high ideals, and
many wise inculcations contained therein unless they are brought into
practical wholesome effect? To do this successfully to the honor and glory of
our Fraternity, we must go outside of the four walls of the Temple. It is well
indeed to receive our instructions there, but it is much better and more
beneficent by far, to mix and mingle with the multitude in order to feel the
pulse of our brother away from the environments of the lodge room, and by
reminding him of his errors.
FREEMASONRY MUST BE APPLIED
Theory and practice in Freemasonry are what theory and existing practice are
in business. Our Ritual is our theory, and that theory must be put to
practical test before it becomes a useful factor. In these days of progress
and advancement, of keen competition and unscrupulous men it is essential that
we come forth from our chrysalis, bear our burden, and make our usefulness
felt, if not seen. This does not mean to alter our ancient landmarks or our
laws, to engage in religious disputes, or enter into political strife: but in
the performance of service to mankind to inculcate by example a correct and
moral code of living to elevate the unfortunate ones to a better plane of
life, and to inspire them with the loftiest ideals of man.
order to radiate the effects of these constructive attributes among the masses
in the most effectual way, we are obliged to follow the rule of modern
progress--that is, organization. The average man or woman is too busy in these
strenuous times to spread individually the lessons they have learned. Even if
this were not true, it is a fact that a great portion possess neither tact nor
influence to bring about the desired results. For this reason organization
into bureaus or associations to concentrate the forces, and the appointment as
managers such men as are capable of carrying out this work has been found the
most expedient, practical, effectual and economical manner of dispensing
Masonic Service to the members of the Craft and others of the human family.
Hence the creation of Relief Boards, Employment and Service Bureaus.
Relief Boards have long existed. They were pioneers, and for generations gave
needed relief to the unfortunate and deserving needy. But in the march of
progress and time, there was found a need for another highly important
Service--that of Employment. This new branch of Service is very necessary, and
should be adjudged as highly as Relief. You may ask why? Because if a man,
especially a brother Mason, can be spared the humiliation of accepting relief
or charity, he can better maintain the dignity of his manhood, keep himself
aloof from financial difficulties, and hold the respect of his family and
friends. Then why not "Help a Brother to help Himself ?" and accord him the
highest quality of Masonic Service within our power.
Picture in your mind the peace and contentment of him whom you have aided to
help himself, thereby enabling him to retain his self-respect, independence
and manhood. It impresses him with the importance of self-sacrifice, rather
than accepting donations given out meagerly! Think of the joy and happiness
that will come to those that are near and dear to him, those that are
dependent upon his efforts for the maintenance of the home ! How much better
to stimulate the mind of a brother to greater efforts to help himself than to
make him dependent on charity !
RELIEF SHOULD AVOID HUMILIATION
Thousands and thousands of our brethren, their widows, daughters and minor
sons are placed in employment annually by our Masonic Employment or Service
Bureaus. What does this signify? That thousands have been spared humiliation
and hardship, maintained their rightful places as head of families, have been
able to provide the necessaries of life and thereby bring happiness into the
homes, where before there were dreary firesides and despair. Not only that,
but thousands of dollars have been saved lodge treasuries and the work of
Relief Boards has been reduced accordingly.
not constructive work that helps a brother to his feet, that starts him out
again on the highway of life with quickened aspirations and better equipped to
meet the stern realities of life? These Bureaus create, in this new era of
progressive ideas, better conditions for the Craft. They are helpful in aiding
to rebuild manhood and womanhood and to re-establish broken homes. In
congested cities and districts, where the Masonic population is naturally
larger, where misfortune and distress are always more prevalent, it has been
deemed necessary and judicious to consolidate Relief and Employment Boards
under the name of Service Bureaus. First, because they can be operated on a
more economical basis, and second, the bureau that combines the work of both
boards can carry on the work more efficiently, and expedite the work of
putting a brother back on his feet, since both wants of a brother in such
unfortunate circumstances can be administered to by the same agency.
relief is extended, employment is usually necessary to overcome the
conditions. Relief is beautiful indeed yet it is only temporary aid, while
employment furnishes a service that is usually lasting. Nor does the service
of such a bureau end here. The Masonic Service Bureau of Wisconsin, with main
offices in the Scottish Rite Cathedral in Milwaukee, furnished us an example.
There the needy sojourner finds medical advice, given gratuitously by a staff
of physicians and surgeons, who generously tender their services for the
benefit of those who are unable to pay. Likewise there is a staff of lawyers,
who handle the legal end of the Service Bureau free of charge; as well as a
staff of dentists who aid and assist along their lines. Arrangements are made
with four hotels where food and shelter for hungry, destitute, and homeless
wanderers is furnished until communication with their respective lodges can be
had. Masonic physicians and Masonic hospital employees report sick sojourners,
so that flowers and visits can be arranged for, which help to cheer the sick
and disabled. These Service Bureaus are actually Masonic advisory stations,
places to which men and women, husbands and wives, widows and children, sons
and daughters may bring their business and employment problems, their private,
fraternal and domestic troubles. The Bureau provides legal and material aid
for the protection of women and children who are brought into the courts.
doing, Masonic Bureaus have reached the widows and orphans of deceased
brethren, reached the needy who through pride, misfortune or disability did
not seek the companionship of their brethren, reached the aged, the weak and
the wanderer, the employer who does not attend his lodge, and creates a
renewed interest in the Fraternity in the hearts of many Masons, whose
membership meant only the payment of annual dues.
HARMON IS QUOTED
all their purposes, these Service Bureaus aim to be of service to the Masonic
brotherhood and their dependents. Their work, as such, is practical as well as
beneficent. To the slacker who fails to back these Bureaus and give them his
hearty support, I would direct attention to the remarks of Bro. Harmon,
President of the Cleveland Employment Bureau, in his 1919 report as follows:
small degree some of our bodies look upon the work of the Bureau from the
standpoint of benefit alone to their individual members, overlooking the one
great principle of Masonry, that of universal helpfulness to all Masons and
the past, men have looked too frequently upon such institutions as this from
varied standpoints of indifferent interest, which becomes so confusing in
effect as to hamper or retard its very existence; but if one will seek out its
aims and purposes, and look upon its ideals, rather than the commercial
element of its operation, and, beyond any ambitions which it serves, and away
from the clouds of poverty and need which it uplifts, they will see shining
the Light of Eternal Truth, that Truth guided by the Almighty Hand, which
inspires and reaches into our hearts, directing through brotherly love and
relief the means to make others happy."
these Bureaus in active service throughout Freemasonry there is no good reason
why any brother or his family should ever be a stranger in a strange land, or
lack food, shelter or friends, wherever they may roam. Of course much depends
upon the brother in charge of such a Service Bureau. He should of necessity be
a mature man, sympathetic, and keen of judgment, proficient in the study of
human nature to enable him to distinguish the impostor from the worthy man,
and have ability to serve the right person, at the proper time and in the
proper way. Andrew Carnegie is quoted as saying, "The most difficult thing to
do is to spend money properly."
the Masters of lodges changing annually, does it not follow that the managers
of such Bureaus become, better educated by their continued experience, perform
more efficient service, better detect the worthy from the unworthy and give
advice, kindness and sympathy whenever and wherever it is needed than the
Worshipful Master who is brought face to face with these problems only
occasionally ? Even granting that a Master is at all able to handle such
cases, has he the time, the patience, the necessary methods and connections
properly to care for the unfortunate sojourner, his widow, or his children? I
dare say he has not. Then who is there to do it? Only the Service Bureau.
must remember that there are many forms of Service daily rendered by these
Bureaus almost too numerous to mention, such as writing letters for those who
have a claim on us, rendering information to lodges and sojourners residing in
other jurisdictions, locating missing men, wives, sons and daughters, caring
for, and leading back to the paths of rectitude, those who are traveling the
road of destruction. Such a case came to the writer recently when a weeping,
distracted and heartbroken widow and mother in Milwaukee appeared at the
Service Bureau begging its assistance to save her minor son, who had fallen
into the clutches of the California law. A message and letter directed to the
worthy manager of the Stockton Bureau brought him on the job. He took charge
of the case, saved the boy from a possible prison sentence, gave him his
protection and fatherly advice and put him to work. The boy is now doing well.
You may well imagine, dear reader, how this poor mother's suffering heart was
changed to extreme joy and happiness. Could we have done anything more
beautiful, more satisfactory, or more gratifying to our mind, than that of
saving this boy to that loving, sacrificing mother and widow? Put yourself in
her place, and then judge. This is one of many similar cases on the records of
the various Service Bureaus.
ORDERS FOR BOYS ARE COMMENDED
the Service Bureau in Chicago, under the management of our good Bro. Arthur M.
Millard, and that in Kansas City, under the able management of our friend and
Bro. Frank S. Land, every credit due them for leading our youths into the
paths of morality and righteousness by organizing the Order of Builders and
the Order of De Molays respectively. What a wonderful work ! this trying to
make real men out of the boys, taking them in hand in that tender age when
they are easy prey and most susceptible to all the vices of life, to instruct
them carefully in the proper code of morals, and teach them to honor father
and mother; especially the mother, the dearest, sweetest and best friend man
ever had ! This work is a service not only to the Craft. but to the country.
the necessity of the Service Bureau is becoming more apparent is evidenced by
their ever increasing numbers. As previously stated, Relief Boards have been
in existence for many years and there are now known to be 143 in the United
States, scattered over 38 states. Prior to 1905 Employment Bureaus were
practically unknown. About that time the Chicago, Cleveland and Cincinnati
Bureaus sprang into existence. Since then the number has increased to thirty.
Of these New York and New Jersey have state organizations divided into
districts, under one head. This plan has been followed in Wisconsin where
several districts have already been started; and we understand that the State
of Washington is contemplating doing the same. This is really the best mode of
conducting Masonic Service. No one city can properly reach every part of the
state; even if that were possible the manager even with additional help could
scarcely devote enough time to any one district, except the home office, to
conduct its work properly and efficiently. Therefore, the New York and New
Jersey plans, where each district has its own manager, subject to the orders
of the home office will, in all probability, become the popular one to follow.
whatever the plan may be, the members of our Brotherhood should give these
Bureaus their unified support. No lay member, however versed he may be in
Masonic affairs, will ever know how much splendid, efficient and beneficent
work is being accomplished. By the operation of these Bureaus we are enabled,
as a body, to practice what we preach in our Ritual. We are in a position to
aid, support, assist and serve according to our teaching in a friendly,
brotherly way. We can better protect and support our members, their widows and
orphans, and throw a broader mantle of charity over those in dire need.
All-Seeing Eye of God is surely upon us in this beneficent work; in supporting
these Bureaus in the performance of these duties of Brotherly love and
affection, you merit the thanks and appreciation of the greatest and best
Fraternity ever created by man, our good old F. & A. M.
wish to note the following twelve Bureaus which in 1918 placed 7,886
applicants in employment:
York, Buffalo, Rochester, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago Pittsburgh, Jersey
city, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Columbus and Milwaukee.
1922, only four years later, Buffalo, Cleveland, Chicago cincinnati, Kansas
city, Los Angeles, Jersey city, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Portland,
Seattle, and Milwaukee, twelve Bureaus, placed 16,578 in employment.
1918 there were seventeen Employment Bureaus among the Craft.
1924 there were thirty such Bureaus in operation.
know definitely that the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts is contemplating the
formation of such a Bureau at the time of writing this.
figures show a healthy condition of Employment Bureaus, and demonstrate their
value to Masonic brethren and their families. I predict that within a few
short years every state will boast of several like organizations within their
Jurisdiction, and thus promote the practical application of Freemasonry.
Masonic Experiences of 1924
BRO. CHARLES S. LOBINGIER, China
Inspector General Honorary, Deputy and Legate of the Supreme Council in China,
Bro. Lobingier's is a name well known in the Craft, especially among Scottish
Rite brethren. He has a number of contributions to The Builder to his credit,
among them being a memorable article in the first volume, December, 1915, on
"Masonry in 'The Temple of Heaven.'" Bro. Lobingier is a life member of the
National Masonic Research Society.
one has lived a score of years in the Far East, a long furlough in the
homeland affords an interesting change. While life on the other side of the
globe has many attractions, there are also certain disadvantages, not the
least of which is the inability to attend regularly our great national
gatherings, notably those of the Masonic Order. There, for example, is the
General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the United States, representing,
probably, the largest single Masonic unit in the world. It meets triennially
and unless the furlough of a Far-easterner happens to fall in that particular
year, he is "out of luck". On several previous occasions I had planned to
attend this great gathering but something had always interfered. So in
planning my furlough this time, the 1924 Convocation was among my objectives.
happened that, just before sailing for home, I received a letter from my good
friend Bro. Graff M. Acklin, 33d, asking Mrs. Lobingier and me to join him and
his good wife in an automobile tour to Portland, Maine, where the Convocation
was to be held, and through New England. When the time came to start I was in
New York and left there on Sept. 3 to join the Acklins and Mrs. Lobingier, who
had been visiting in the West, at Lake George. A daylight voyage up the
Hudson, with its varied scenic beauties, brought me to Albany, where I spent
the night, taking the trolley the next morning for Lake George via Schenectady
and Saratoga, for the trolley affords a better opportunity than the train to
view a rural region like that. Lake George is a picturesque hamlet situated at
the foot of the lake of that name, with a rather famous hotel, the Fort
William Henry, where we spent the night. Leaving early the next morning the
region so full of historic scenes of the French and Indian War, we proceeded
by automobile across Vermont and the Connecticut River and then as far north
as Woodsville, N. H.
GLIMPSE OF DARTMOUTH
the middle of the afternoon we reached Hanover, the seat of Dartmouth College,
the campus of which we halted to view. We were surprised at the number and
size of the buildings, which would do credit to a university, although
Dartmouth has never assumed that rank.
institution, which is still the principal one of higher learning in New
Hampshire (though the newer State University at Durham promises to become a
successful competitor), has a rather unique history. It was the outgrowth of
"an Indian charity school" founded about 1754 by Dr. Eleazar Wheelock, who,
some fifteen years later, with the assistance of the Earl of Dartmouth,
obtained a charter from King George III "for Dartmouth College, for the
education and instruction of youth of the Indian tribes * * * and also of
English youth and any others." ( Note 1. ) The Indian youth long since
vanished and the English youth never attended. But these indefinite "others",
in successive and expanding generations of American boys, have taken full
advantage of the privileges thus offered. We were told that the limit of
accommodations had long since been reached and that great numbers of
applicants had to be turned away every year. A recent gift of $100,000 to the
college may help to relieve the congestion.
charter, granted on the eve of the Revolution was held, a generation later,
not only to have been unaffected by that cataclysm but to be protected from
any legislative alteration by the clause of the Federal Constitution (Note 2)
forbidding a state to "pass any law impairing the obligation of contracts".
This case (No. 3) was the subject of one of Chief Justice Marshall's most
famous decisions; viz., that a charter was a contract--and the institution was
represented by its most distinguished alumnus, Daniel Webster--who, in the
course of his argument, observed of his Alma Mater, "It is a small college but
there are those who love it."
SCENIC NEW HAMPSHIRE
next day our route lay through that portion of the granite state which
contains its most celebrated scenery. We visited successively Franconia Notch
and the "Old Man of the Mountain", a stone figure resembling the human face
and projecting from the summit of a mountain which has since been taken over
as a state park. We also visited "The Flume," a narrow passage about a half
mile long between high walls of rock, through which flows a mountain torrent.
In the West this would be called a "canon" (e. g., Clear Creek, near Denver),
and though it attracts many visitors it is not to be compared with the
Pagsanjan Gorge in the Philippines nor with the Royal Gorge of Colorado.
the afternoon we found ourselves in sight of the "Presidential" mountain
range. Though there are others like Mt. Adams and Mt. Jefferson, its most
famous peak is Mt. Washington, already then covered with snow, to whose base
we approached and watched the train descend on the cog railway and discharge
its passengers, but we did not ascend. Turning then toward the seacoast we
passed through Bretton Woods and Crawford Notch.
New England the term "notch" appears to be used in much the same sense as the
western "canon," and there are many "notches." I know one in Sandgate, vt.,
which, the neighbors are fond of telling, was once visited by General
PORTLAND CAME NEXT
city chosen for the last triennial of the General Grand Chapter was the
metropolis of Maine and the birthplace of the poet, Longfellow, who sings in
his poem on "My Lost Youth":
"Often I think of the beautiful town
is seated by the sea;
in thought go up and down
pleasant streets of the dear old town
my youth comes back to me."
seaside house, built in 1784, where the poet was born, is in good repair and
has been taken over by a memorial association.
reached the city late Saturday evening and the next day it was my privilege to
attend services in Longfellow's church--the first church of Portland, now
Unitarian. Two nieces of the poet occupied the family pew on that day. It was
the first service after the summer vacation and the pastor, Rev. Joel H.
Metcalf, preached on the timely topic "Coming Back." As is customary in
sermons he spiritualized his theme. It was a stimulating sermon and I was not
surprised to learn afterward that he was among the foremost of Maine's clergy.
Incidentally, the Grand High Priest of that state is a Congregationalist
General Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters met on Monday, Sept. 8, and
on Tuesday, the General Grand Chapter. The sudden death of General Grand High
Priest, Bro. Wm. F. Kuhn, just as he was about to start for the Convocation,
cast a gloom over the entire gathering. Fortunately his address had been
prepared, was already in print, and was read by General Grand Secretary,
Companion Charles A. Conover, after which the routine business was proceeded
with. The Committee on Charters and Dispensations, upon which I had the honor
to serve, had the pleasant duty of recommending charters for several chapters
abroad, including two in Mexico. Incidentally, I was able there to render some
service to the Fareastern chapters and Companion Acklin presented a very
interesting report on Luzon Chapter, Manila.
INTERNATIONAL MASONIC TREATY
of the happiest results of the Convocation was the settlement, in a manner
honorable and satisfactory to both General Bodies, of the decade long
controversy between the General Grand Chapter and the Supreme Grand Chapter of
Scotland, over the latter's institution of Keystone Chapter at Manila. That
unfortunate episode, which had interrupted the fraternal relations between
these Grand Chapters for some time and embarrassed the adherents of Capitular
Masonry not only in the Philippines but throughout the Far East, was
permanently adjusted by ratifying the following treaty entered into between
their respective presiding officers:
"First That the jurisdiction of the General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch
Masons of the United states of America over Royal Arch Masonry in the
Territory known as the Philippine Islands is supreme, and that said General
Grand Chapter has this right and authority for the reason that, since the year
1826 the General Grand Chapter has exercised the right and power to grant
dispensations and charters for Royal Arch Chapters in the United states, its
territories, dependencies and protectorates, and also in unoccupied territory
of districts where no chapter exists.
"Second. That said Keystone Chapter, No. 354, shall be permitted to retain its
charter from the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Scotland, and that its
members shall be recognized as regularly made Royal Arch Masons under the
further agreement that no more chapters shall be chartered by the Supreme
Grand Chapter of Scotland in the said territory of the Philippine Islands or
any other territory or protectorate of the United states.
"Third. That said Keystone Chapter shall accept no petitions for membership or
exaltation, except from members of the Scottish Lodge of Manila, known as
Lodge Perla del Oriente No. 1034.
"Fourth. That Luzon Chapter, No. 1, shall have exclusive jurisdiction over all
petitioners for the chapter degrees or for affiliation, resident or
sojourning, within the Philippine Islands, except members of Perla del Oriente
Lodge, No. 1034." (Note 4.)
SOCIAL FEATURES WERE ENJOYABLE
During each day of the convention some time was set apart for social
enjoyment, into which the visiting bodies especially entered with great zest.
There was an excursion to Old Orchard Beach and a real Maine clam bake on one
of the islands of Casco Bay. There in a huge tent the entire assemblage of
visitors was treated to a feast of sea food such as only the coast affords. On
the evening of Sept. 10, the Maine Grand Chapter and Council gave a brilliant
banquet to the visitors at the Congress Square Hotel. The committee did me the
honor to place me on the list of speakers and I took as my theme "Capitular
Masonry in the Far East," to which I found my audience more responsive than I
expected. I shall never forget the pleasant experiences of my first General
Grand Chapter Convocation.
NORTHERN SUPREME COUNCIL SESSION NEXT ATTENDED
Portland we motored to Boston to attend the 112th annual meeting of the
Supreme Council, Scottish Rite, of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction. It was
preceded by a session of the Provincial Grand Lodge, Royal Order of Scotland,
which conferred its degrees on Monday, Sept. 15, and held its annual banquet
that evening. Invited by Provincial Grand Master Corson to speak at the
banquet I dwelt on the work of the Royal Order in the Far East, particularly
at Shanghai. The substance of my address appeared later in the Christian
was interesting to witness the conferring of the 33d upon the large class
gathered from the populous northeastern states. Another enjoyable feature,
especially to the visiting ladies, was a concert given under the Supreme
Council's auspices on the evening of Sept. 18, by fifty members of the Boston
Symphony Orchestra. I had heard nothing like it since my visit the preceding
season to Harbin where a large orchestra plays nightly.
Wednesday morning, just before the Supreme Council retired for its executive
session, Grand Commander Abbott called me to the East and asked me to conduct
a symposium on Fareastern and other topics for the benefit of the honorary
members who remained I was quite unprepared for such an invitation but
proceeded to speak for a time on Masonry in the Far East and then gave
opportunity for anyone to propound questions. I was agreeably surprised at the
i response and found an especially keen interest in Buddhism, so that I
devoted the balance of my talk mainly to that subject, pointing out some
analogies between Buddhism and Christianity. The result was that this informal
conference, instead of lasting for an hour or less as I had expected,
continued nearly three hours and until time for adjournment for one of the
ample lunches which the Supreme Council provided at the Copley-Plaza each day
except the last on which it was served at the Masonic Temple. There I bade
farewell to the many friends, old and new, whom I had met at the session, and
we resumed our motor journey across the full length of the old Bay state. We
stopped to see the Eastern states Fair at Springfield, and also to revisit the
historic scenes in and around Bennington, Vt., meanwhile enjoying, between the
two places, the almost unrivaled beauty of the Berkshire hills. On the
afternoon of Sept. 20, we reached Troy, where I left the party and took the
night boat for New York.
JOHN'S DAY AT ERIE, PA.
pleasant aftermath of the Boston meeting was an invitation from the Erie, Pa.,
brethren, who were present there, to repeat my address on Masonry in the Far
East before their annual observance of St. John's (the Evangelist's) Day by
the five lodges at Erie. I accepted the invitation and on Dec. 27 journeyed
from New York to Erie and gave the address. I was agreeably surprised at the
numbers present when Ill. Bro. Turner W. Shacklett, 33d, rose to introduce
me--about 900, including the resident member of the state Supreme Court and
the local Congressman, who had visited the Far East. But I was especially
impressed with the interest displayed and the rapt attention shown. It is
always an inspiration to address an audience like that and St. John's Day at
Erie will long linger in my memory. Thus my Masonic year, 1924, which began at
Shanghai, in connection with the numerous affairs attending the holidays,
shifted in April to Japan, where I conferred the 33d and took part in the
Maundy Thursday observance--shifted again in September to New England with
many novel experiences--and ended in Pennsylvania, my ancestral home, where my
family has lived for two centuries and where many of my kinsmen still reside.
It has been an unusual year and its Masonic memories are among the brightest
of my Craft career.
American Freemason in France
Bro. ROBERT I. CLEGG, Associate Editor, Ohio
victoria Station in London to Paris is but a few hours' journey. Many of the
things that have been told to us regarding this trip are not altogether in
accordance with the facts. We have been informed that the system of checking
baggage so common and so much appreciated in the United states is unknown in
Europe but you can check your baggage, or "luggage" as it is commonly termed
over there, from victoria Station at London to the railway station at Paris in
France. It is not called "checking"--it is termed "registering" the
baggage--but it amounts to the same thing. Your baggage is weighed, you pay
something for it, get a receipt, and then you forget it until you hunt it up
at the depot in Paris.
trip across is but a few hours. You can leave London soon after breakfast and
be in Paris for dinner. I took by no means the shortest route, which is first
to Dover by rail and then to Calais by sea and then again by railroad on to
Paris. I went to New Haven and then by way of Dieppe. Thus, instead of
spending about an hour on the water as would have been the case between Dover
and Calais, I spent several hours over what has seldom, if ever, been known to
be a smooth stretch of water. Almost everybody offered from sea-sickness and a
couple of young women near me whose baggage bore the letters of the District
of Columbia said in my hearing that they suffered more on the trip from
England to France than they had in crossing the Atlantic.
However, that was not the only surprise because in talking with one of the
sailors--or perhaps I ought to say, in attempting to talk with one of the
sailors-I discovered that, while he had been traveling daily back and forth to
England for many years, he knew nothing of the English language. I was later
on astonished to meet some professors of the University of France who spoke no
English and this seemed at first very surprising but, after all, it is a
common thing to find people on the other side of the Atlantic on the English
Channel who frequently visit France and yet make no attempt to learn the
language that is spoken there.
arrived in Paris in due season but unfortunately about the time that my train
arrived there were also several hundred passengers delivered there who had
come in from one of the Transatlantic boats. I should imagine that two
inspectors only at the Customs House were assigned to take care of probably
300 people. Nothing was done by the examiners until all the baggage had been
laid out on the counters ready for inspection. They made a fairly rapid trip
around the room looking at the baggage and paying no attention whatever to
many of the passengers who are unusually anxious to get away before the rest
of us. I dare say many of them wanted to catch trains going to other parts of
Europe as it is singular when you come to think of it how general the tendency
is to see Europe from the window of a railroad car. Few people stay at ally
spot very long and never think of going back again to the same place on a trip
if they can possibly avoid it. Almost everyone is possessed with the idea that
the more towns you visit the better the trip. I did not happen to be in that
class and so could afford to take things leisurely at the Customs House and
listen to the prayers and pleading and curses in apparently all languages
which were indulged in by the people around me. I was a little surprised as I
listened attentively to the customs inspector (I had to listen carefully as my
knowledge of the language was not only imperfect but I was sadly out of
practice and, on the other hand, he was somewhat rapid in utterance and it
seemed to me his words came like a torrent) to find that he wanted to know
whether I had brought any matches or cigar lighters and I discovered later
that both are controlled in some way by the government. However, I got free of
the Customs House in due season and secured a taxi and was glad to get away
from the Gare de St. Lazare.
BEWARE THE TAXI !
weather had been cloudy all day and the rain now began to fall and the
interior of the taxi was very comfortable--especially after I had made it
clear to the driver where I wanted to go. He set off at a remarkable speed and
I do not wonder now that during the war moving soldiers in taxicabs was done
at the Battle of the Marne because the way they handle passengers is certainly
expeditious. I was told by an American engineer in Paris that when anyone is
knocked down by a taxi in the street he is liable to fine and perhaps
imprisonment unless he can show quite clearly that it was not his fault. I had
no means of checking up this assertion but I have heard the story more than
once and one may easily see what an undertaking it is and how much
responsibility you carry in crossing the streets in Paris.
anticipated during my taxi trip that immediately upon arriving and getting
some of the dust of the trip off me I would order up an appetizing meal but my
hotel did not possess a dining room. The love of restaurants in Paris is
carried to even a greater extent than in the United States of America. I
discovered that even a very satisfactory hotel in all other respects might not
possess a dining room but I found that only a few doors away there was a
restaurant where the man in charge spoke English and I soon made my way to his
place. His English was not very good from a linguistic point of view but at
the close of what had been a far from perfect day his words were eminently
satisfactory and I was soon seated over in a corner on a seat which ran along
two sides of the room. The bill of fare had been written originally in a faint
ink and by a person whose handwriting was, to say the least, of an inferior
grade. It had been reproduced in some fashion and the ink had run on the copy
that was given to me and it was almost impossible to spell out the words and
after I had discovered the spelling I was more than once entirely at a loss to
grasp the meaning. I studied over that bill of fare for some little time.
Suddenly at my right a young fellow leaned my way and held out his left hand,
which bore a ring showing the compasses and square. He said, "Brother, it is a
long time since I saw that button," and he looked at the little emblem of the
Shrine which I wore in my coat. I whispered to him, "Where do you hail from?"
as I held out my hand for the grip. He said, "Atlanta," to which I replied,
"By any manner of means, do you know a good brother down there called Forrest
Adair ?" He answered, "You mean the old real estate man, don't you?" I nodded
and he said, "I sure do !"
WINE, AND OIL AT LAST !
took the bill of fare away from me, marked several items as being especially
good in that particular restaurant, briefly gave me some idea as to things I
could call for with advantage and I soon had ordered my dinner and was engaged
in chatting with him and another good brother who happened to sit at my left.
To use his phrase, they were "leftovers" from the American Army who had, in a
spirit of adventure, decided to stay in France and try their luck for a few
years. They were most interesting companions and that first evening of mine
was spent very happily and I came back to the hotel through the rain, which
bothered me no longer. The rain might fall and the snow and wind might keep it
company in that wintry season at Paris but I had found the brotherhood of the
Craft and I was well content. After a good night's rest, I spent the morning
leisurely about the streets and early in the afternoon made a search for
Oswald Wirth, the scholarly editor of Symbolisme. I found his apartment and
discovered him exceedingly glad at my call. He is somewhat frail of physique
and it would almost seem that the fire of his research had burned out much of
the stamina that was formerly his. We talked of Freemasonry generally and I
found that he still presides as Master of his lodge. He was preparing an
address on "The Alchemy of Freemasonry" and, as he has alluded to this subject
in several of his books, I was more than usually interested in what he had to
say. I begged him for a copy of his manuscript but this request he could not
concede because he had planned to speak from memory and therefore had no
intention at the time of writing out his address.
IMPORTANT LETTER FROM OSWALD WIRTH
say that later on I persuaded him to jot down in a letter the gist of what he
said and this he very kindly consented to do and the translation of his letter
is as follows:
I received your most fraternal letter of the 20th of this month I sent you the
two last numbers of Symbolisme but you would not find there my discussion
given at the beginning of January on Masonic alchemy or the art of transmuting
profane lead into initiated gold. I had nothing in writing prepared and I
spoke fully on a subject which has been for a long time familiar to me.
insisted on the fact that the true initiation does not express itself by
symbolic acts like those prescribed by our rituals. Those are only images of
what ought to be passing in the mind in order that the recipient may be really
transformed into an Initiate. Nothing is more quickly done than to take off
the metals (emblems) that one wears; but it is a long and difficult task to
perform in reality what the rite signifies. (To put away all prejudices, to
forget all mistakes, to make for oneself a virgin mind, capable of conceiving
the truth without distortion.) What Mason can flatter himself that he has put
off his metals in spirit and in truth after being made to do so symbolically?
"Then, reviewing the other proofs, I explained that there is no magic virtue
in the formalities of the reception, for instance, and that it is not enough
to undergo them symbolically to be initiated in reality. Ritual is the image
of what asks to be lived. It traces the allegorical course of the
transformation which ought to be taking place in our inmost being if we are to
see the light clearly. The fact of remaking one's will does not prove that one
is indeed dead to all the profane frailties, and the three journeys only
purify by allusion. They tell us what we ought to do to be properly initiated;
but when we understand nothing of Masonic allegory, we are contenting
ourselves with the bare outline of initiation, with the letter, not the
spirit, so that we do not become real Masons because we content ourselves with
the symbol of what we ought to be in reality.
finished by begging the brethren not to hold to appearance and forms. If they
wish to be Initiates, they must go deep down. They ought to retire within
themselves by concentration until they forget the outside world. This movement
of the mind is symbolized among the ancients by a descent into hell. We must
know how to leave the level of objectivity in order to understand how to
think, and above all to know the abstraction made of the wrappings of our
personality. You have all passed by le cabinet de reflexions but you have only
stayed there a few minutes, and have never thought since or burying yourself
there and being absorbed in the profundity of your own thoughts. How, then,
can you imagine you have become thinkers superior to the multitude of the
"Having never descended to the centre of the earth, you have never been able
to rise to the skies. You cannot judge of sublime things without giddiness. So
you remain shackled to school, to business, and you have not attained your
liberty. The flow of opinion carries you along with it, you have not arrived
at the simple vision which absorbs our sages. However, you are not insensible
to the proof of fire. The heat of the purifying flames has warmed your hearts
and your wishes are frank and loyal. You long ardently for the general good.
You are full of generosity, full of eager aspirations for truth, the just and
the beautiful. You are real initiates by sentiments. This is fundamentally the
essential thing and I congratulate you on it.
BECOME INITIATES IN REALITY !
make yourselves become Initiates in a complete sense, conscious of what you
feel, understanding clearly what you try to portray. Work hard, struggle to
understand, and make your initiation again, not symbolically but in spirit and
in truth. Initiates are necessary to us, they alone can save the world from
chaos, they alone can apply the motto Ordo ab Chao. Therefore, my brethren,
take Masonic instruction, become thinkers who work, Masons who construct the
grand temple of humanity.
Master finished by recommending to all the careful study of the Books of
Apprentice, of the Companion, and of the Master, not forgetting close
application to Symbolisme, that learned review, etc. You see all passed off
you meet brethren who read French, I beg of you not to forget Symbolisme,
which they can buy for an absured price, benefiting by the exchange.
"Hoping to see you soon, believe me, your very cordial and devoted-Oswald
say that Brother Wirth is a member of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite
and translated some of the degrees that are used over there and did this from
the work of the Southern Masonic Jurisdiction as prepared by General Albert
Pike. He has some delightful views about Freemasonry internationally and it is
most edifying to converse with him. I shall never forget a brief statement of
his, covering, in his judgment, what was the purpose of the first three
degrees. The Entered Apprentice Degree deals with what a Freemason should be,
the Fellowcraft Degree with what he should know, and the Master Mason's Degree
with what he should do.
During the course of our conversation he told me that, of course, I had made
the trip to Paris at that particular time to attend the annual festival of the
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. I assured him that I had not even heard of
it and that I should be delighted to attend because that was about the only
body in France which was recognized by Masonic organizations of which I was a
member. The question then came up as to how I could get to the place and
whether there were any difficulties about my attendance. I secured the
address, No. 8 Rue Puteaux, and, after a little examination of the map, came
to the conclusion that I could easily get into the neighborhood without delay.
Brother Wirth inquired if I had any regalia and when I said I had only the
jewel and diploma with me he shook his head in dismay and admitted that the
problem would need further study, but he concluded that it would be all right
if I had a letter of introduction.
grateful for this offer though his suggestion seemed to me an extraordinary
one. Gaining an entrance into the meeting of a Masonic Order by means of a
letter of introduction was to me a truly remarkable course, indeed. He loaned
me the necessary regalia and I may say that this was resplendent. The apron
particularly was adorned with much embroidery and a profusion of spangles. The
brilliance of the colors and the glitter of the rest of it made me certainly a
very conspicuous person later on.
MET BY A SWORD
thanked him for his kindness and hurried off to the underground railway and in
a short time found myself on the narrow street which is not only the
headquarters of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite for France but also
houses the Grand Lodge. I was eligible to visit one of these but not the
other. At the door I met a good lady in charge of the entrance and after some
little difficulty with the French language I managed to make clear what I
wanted. She directed me to continue on my way along the corridor and go down
the steps. This I did and found myself in a rather small room facing a
sentinel armed with a very long sword. This weapon was used to salute me later
on and was not at all fitted to the size of the chamber. I was a little afraid
that in the swinging of this two-handled sword one or the other of us might
come to grief, but I told the sword-bearer who I was and presented my letter
of introduction. He read it and then bowed quite impressively, inquired if I
had any regalia and, on being assured that I had, he told me to put it on
while he announced my arrival.
little time later I was, ushered into a room which probably contained forty or
fifty brethren attired in all sorts of regalia, much of which seemed novel to
me. At one end of the room were seated the officers of the Supreme Council and
the meeting was presided over by the Sovereign Grand Commander, Raymond. I was
familiar with Raymond from his pictures as an elderly bearded brother, but
this presiding officer was a much younger man than I expected to find. I
discovered later on that the man I was thinking of was Jean Raymond, while the
man I met bore the name of Rene Raymond.
festival of the Scottish Rite, or annual meeting, is open, apparently, to
members of Freemasonry of all grades. They attend, wearing the emblems of
their respective bodies, and the plan seems to be an excellent one as it is
carried on for keeping the members of the fraternity clearly informed of what
is going on in Scottish Rite circles in France and elsewhere.
listened to the reports which were read and the reading of documents does have
a tendency to speed and I am sorry to say that I got very little of what was
presented by the respective officers. I had missed the allocution of Brother
Raymond owing to the lateness of my arrival but I heard something of the
activities of the Scottish Rite. Toward the close of the meeting a sturdy
Frenchman rose to his feet to deliver a very earnest address. He wore a red
apron and collar, which was suggestive to me of the Royal Arch but which, it
occurred to me as I thought more of the circumstance, was not likely to
represent that body in France where it is by no means as popular as we have
found it to be in the United states of America. The brother was near enough to
me that I could carefully examine the jewel he wore. At the end of the collar
were the compasses resting upon the arc of a circle and I wondered as he went
along if he was not a member of some Grand Lodge.
MEETS GRAND MASTER MONIER
was soon apparent to me that I had guessed right because this was Bro. Maurice
Monier, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of France, and it was, curiously
enough, the only place in France where I could meet him as a brother Mason
because my Grand Lodge does not recognize his. He spoke with great
deliberation and selected his words with care. He was so deliberate that it
was no great difficulty to follow what he had to say and I heard with the
utmost pleasure the expression of his regard for the United states and he did
not confine himself to our Freemasonry, at that. He impressed upon me his hope
that when I returned I would assure my brethren from him that he wanted them
to believe that France was not a militaristic nation. He not only wished to
send his good wishes to our brethren but he did hope for the maintenance of
the best possible feeling between our two nations. I assured him later that I
would be glad to carry that message whenever I had the opportunity to express
it over here.
an opportunity to meet Brother Raymond later on. He had taken up the work of
his father and I could see how deeply impressed he was with its
responsibility. Perhaps the burden has been too great for him and may have
impaired his health. since I have returned I notice that he has resigned but I
am quite sure that I quote a recent letter from him correctly when I say that
he is as much interested in Freemasonry as ever and will not lose any
opportunity to advance its interest.
me say further, in talking of Masonry in countries dominated by the Roman
Catholic Church, that Freemasonry there has a tremendous struggle to live. I
am making no argument whatever for any change in our policy in regard to
France. I believe that most of our Grand Lodges have felt that certain things
are essential in order to recognize any body as being Masonic and I do not
propose to argue here for any change in the policy followed by the majority of
our Grand Lodges, but I cannot but feel keenly sympathetic towards the
brethren of any obedience who must struggle for existence in Roman Catholic
countries. I know something of the harsh conditions they must meet and that
men do under these circumstances preserve their identity as Freemasons and
their organizations as lodges is a strong testimony, I am sure, to the
earnestness and faith of their belief. Nearly every French Freemason, and I
met some of those who belong to bodies recognized by the Grand Lodge of
England, can tell some convincing facts as to what Freemasonry means when it
must meet the opposition of those instructed from the banks of the Tiber.
CHARLES M. ROE
CHARLES M. ROE died at Jackson, Miss., Feb. 6, last, while on a business trip
through the Middle West. Exigencies of publication, very much regretted, made
impossible an announcement of his death in these pages last month. He had of
late been so active, and apparently in such robust health that his sudden
passing brought a shock as well as genuine grief to his friends, of which he
had a very large number.
Roe, a descendant of Bishop Francis Asbury, and of Rear Admiral Francis Asbury
Roe, a famous member of Union Lodge, No. 95, Elmira, N. Y., was not known in
the official councils of our Craft - as far as the present writer knows he was
never a lodge officer - nevertheless, in his own quiet way, he had an
influence in Masonry far above many whose names are prominent in our annals,
and that for a reason immediately to be explained.
manager of one of the departments of the George H. Doran Company he became
interested in Masonic literature and saw, as no publisher ever before had
seen, how badly the American Craft needed books equal in value and appearance
to those published in other fields. The result was the National Masonic
Library, issued under the auspices of the Masonic Service Association, and a
number of other volumes of similar character, now in preparation, and to be
published in due course of time. These issues from a great publishing house
will stand in the future as a monument to his inspiring enthusiasm and wise
management. May he therefore be remembered "in the long hereafter of our
speech and song!"
STONE THE MORE"
stone the more swings to her place
that dread Temple of Thy Worth -
enough that through Thy grace,
nought common on Thy earth.
not that vision from my ken;
whatsoever may spoil or speed,
me to need no aid from men
I may help such men as need."
Men Who Were Masons
BRO. GEORGE W. BAIRD, P. G. M., District of Columbia
COMPLETE account of the Masonic history of Bro. Rufus Choate is given in the
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, 1908, page 241.
famous lawyer and orator was born in Essex, Mass., Oct. 1, 1799. He was so
precocious as a child that when only six years of age he could repeat long
portions of Pilgrim's Progress. In 1819 he graduated from Dartmouth, and from
the Cambridge Law School two years afterwards. For a time he was assistant to
the Attorney General, William Wirt, with whom fame has bracketed his name, and
then practiced law at Danvers, Mass., for some five years. He was elected to
the State Legislature from Salem in 1828, where he distinguished himself by a
speech on the tariff. In 1834 and again in 1836 he was re-elected.
the course of time Choate became the acknowledged leader of the Massachusetts
Bar, and was greatly admired by the younger lawyers. In 1814 he became a
member of the United States Senate to fill out the unexpired term of Daniel
Webster, his beaux ideal as lawyer and orator. In the Senate he distinguished
himself by speeches on the Oregon Boundary, the Tariff Bill, the United States
Bank Bill, and the Smithsonian Institute; he opposed the annexation of Texas,
strongly advocated Daniel Webster for President, and later on was a supporter
of Bro. James Buchanan.
Choate possessed genius in the best sense of the word. His knowledge of the
law was profound. He was a man of striking personality, handsome even in his
old age, and marked out in any company by his attractive and brilliant
manners. When to those qualities were added his great ability in forensic
addresses, his unsullied honesty of heart and purpose, it is easily understood
why he became so famous in his own generation.
1858 his health became so impaired that he was obliged to retire from public
life. He died at Halifax, N. S., on his way home from a trip abroad, and his
body was interred in Mount Auburn Cemetery, where the beautiful memorial shown
herewith was erected.
memoir of him will be found in E. P. Whipple's Recollections of Eminent Men.
His writings, sketches, and correspondence were edited by S. G. Brown of
Boston, in 1862, in two volumes.
RELIGIONS are many, religion is one," wrote an old scribe. By the same token,
governments are many, government is one; moralities are many, morality is one;
philosophies are many, philosophy is one. Deep down in man, rooted there
eternally like the tree Ygdrasil, are needs and powers which take all the
forms of Proteus, which pass through as many incarnations as Buddha, embodying
themselves in countless institutions. And while the forms and institutions,
the creeds, theories, and dogmas come and go, like the "solid hills" in
Tennyson's poem, that out of which they arose and to which they ministered
goes on forever, just as hunger and appetite remain through all the changes of
diet or cuisine.
one of the open secrets of Freemasonry, explaining alike the breadth and
narrowness of it, that it is based on the enduring principles rather than on
temporary forms. It builds on religion, but not on any one theology; it is a
"science of morality," but adheres to none of the thousand codes; it teaches
charity, but is not partisan to any institutional method; it stands for
democracy, the right of every man to a voice and a vote, but not for any one
political scheme; it is a teacher of truth, but of no particular philosophy;
it demands equality, but not in this or that form; liberty, but not any one
man's scheme for it; education, but not any patented curriculum; patriotism,
but not any one governmental regime; brotherhood, but no one form of it;
immortality, but no particular theory of it.
has this position, not because it is uncertain of itself or ambiguous in its
teachings, but because its genius is to search out and to build on that which
lies in human nature underneath the sects that shatter, the creeds that
divide. They who, out of ignorance of its character and purpose, seek to
harness it to some favorite propaganda or pet theory know not what spirit they
are of. Could they succeed - which they never can - the great Craft would
vanish with the next shift in the winds of doctrine.
THE STUDY CLUB
Studies of Masonry in the United States
BRO. H. L. HAYWOOD, Editor
PART VIII. HENRY PRICE
THE most important event in the history of Masonry in New England, and one of
the most important in the history of the whole of the American Craft, was the
issuance of a Deputation to Henry Price by the Grand Master of England, Lord
viscount Montague, in which Price was authorized to be "Provincial Grand
Master of New England and Dominions and Territories thereunto belonging."
There has been much debate over the date of this instrument. The Beteihle
Manuscript (see Study Club article last month), written between July 27 and
Aug. 23,1737, gave the date as April 13, 1733; this same date was given in the
petition for charter of the First Lodge in Boston, July 30, 1733; in the Duke
of Beaufort's Deputation to John Rowe in 1768; and in a communication from
Grand Secretary French of the Grand Lodge of England. Bro. Melvin M. Johnson
believes April 13 to have been correct. But the earliest records of the Grand
Lodge of Massachusetts, written by Pelham, gave it as April 30; so did
Ebenezer Swan in the earliest records of the First Lodge of Boston. A number
of later writers, such as Drummond, MacCalla, Stillson and Hughan have
followed Swan and Pelham; but a careful analysis of the facts preponderate in
favor of the date as April 13. This point is of little intrinsic importance,
nevertheless it has been made the basis for attacks on the validity of Price's
Deputation, of which more anon.
Henry Price received his Deputation in person, while visiting the Grand Lodge
of England, and paid for it a fee of three guineas. It was signed by Thomas
Batson, Deputy Grand Master, and by the Grand Wardens, and is supposed to have
carried the seal of Grand Master Montague. No record of the issuance of the
Deputation was entered in the minutes of the Grand Lodge of England, but the
same thing holds true of other Deputations known to have been issued, as
described in this department last month. A Deputation for a Provincial Grand
Mastership was issued privately by the Grand Master, as one of the
prerogatives of his office, and was held to be the personal property of the
recipient; for these reasons it frequently happened that no minutes of such a
transaction were entered in Grand Lodge records. Price's Deputation has been
printed in full in Johnson's Beginnings of Freemasonry in America, and in the
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, 1871, taken from the Beteihle
Manuscript of 1737. Price brought his Deputation with him upon his return to
Boston in the spring of 1733 and almost immediately laid it before a number of
Price was born in London in 1697. The Minutes of the Grand Lodge of England
show that in 1730 he was a member of Lodge No. 75, meeting at the Rainbow
Coffee House, in London, and as such was doubtlessly well and favorably known
to the brethren of Grand Lodge. He was in Boston in 1723, but later returned
to London where, as noted above, he was present at Grand Lodge in 1733.
Between April 18 and July 30 of that same year he returned to Boston, where he
remained during the whole of a long life.
Records of a suit filed by him in Boston in 1733-4 have him described as
"Henry Price of Boston," a tailor by profession, in which calling he could not
have stood very high in the social hierarchy of the city; but in 1733 Governor
Jonathan Belcher appointed him cornet, or standard-bearer, in the Governor's
troop of cavalry, with the rank of major, by which title he was always known
thereafter; this office, according to the usages of the time, bestowed upon
him a certain amount of social distinction. Price formed a business
partnership with Francis Beteihle in 1736, to operate a general store and
tailor shop, with Price in charge of the latter. But in three or four years
Price severed the connection, purchased a lot of land for 100 pounds, erected
on it a brick building in which he kept a clothing and dry goods store, and
very evidently prospered greatly, for he retired in 1750 in possession of a
great amount of real estate. By religion he was an Episcopalian, against which
there was a great deal of prejudice in Boston in those times; but later in
life, though without any change in his creed, he also purchased pews in three
meeting houses not of his faith, a fact that evidences a life-long and sincere
interest in religion without the taint of sectarianism.
1737 he was married to Mary Townsend. A year after her death in 1751 he
married Mary Tilden of Boston. His second wife died in 1759 or 60, and a short
time thereafter their daughter, a double bereavement that left Price saddened
all his days. In 1771 he married Lydia Randall, from which union two children
were born. During all those years Price prospered in business, bought many
properties in Boston and suburbs, and for several years had a country home in
Cambridge. His home at Menotomy was so large that it was generally described
as the "great house." His death occurred in 1780 from an accident while
splitting rails, when his axe glanced against his abdomen. From this severe
wound he died on the 20th of May at the age of eighty-three, leaving behind
him a large estate. All extant evidence go to prove that Henry Price was a man
of firm character and fine intelligence, who by his own diligence built up a
fortune considerable in that period, and who was accepted socially and
commercially among the leading citizens of the Province.
During the past forty years several attempts have been made, notably by a
notorious and violently prejudiced American Masonic writer whose name need not
be mentioned, to call into question Price's good faith and even to accuse him
of having forged his Deputation; such canards fall utterly to pieces against
the undeniable record of his consistent character and his reputation. Had he
been such a man as his traducers have undertaken to paint him, it would have
been impossible for him to make for himself such a place in Massachusetts
during the forty-seven years in which he was so active in and about Boston.
Neither could such a man have so long remained the actual or virtual head of
Freemasonry in New England--virtual, that is, in the sense that he was looked
up to as a father in the Masonic Israel. He was appointed to be the first
Provincial Grand Master of New England in 1733, and as such was universally
accepted; he served continuously as Grand Master from his appointment until
1737; again from July, 1740, to March 6, 1743-4; again from July 12, 1754, to
Oct. 1, 1755; and yet again from Oct. 20, 1767, to Nov. 23, 1768. He was
charter Worshipful Master of the Masters' Lodge of Boston; charter Worshipful
Master of the Second Lodge; and one of the Worshipful Masters of the First
Lodge. Even so late as 1773, when he was seventy-six years of age, he was
asked to preside over Grand Lodge in the absence of Grand Master John Rowe.
All his Masonic activities were public, known in every detail to the brethren
on both sides of the water, and were by all accepted as regular and official;
had his Deputation been a forged document, had he assumed leadership
unlawfully, the fact would have been discovered very early and made impossible
his long and honorable Masonic career.
Henry Price was buried in Townsend, a small Massachusetts town incorporated in
1732, forty-six miles distant from Boston, on the border line of New
Hampshire. The original stone placed at the head of his grave, a photograph of
which is given herewith, carries an inscription, here copied just as it
"In Memory of Henry Price, Efq. Was born in London about the Year of our Lord
1697 he Remov'd to Bofton about the Year 1723 Rec. a Deputation Appointing him
Grand Mafter of Mafons in New England & in the Year 1733 was Appointed a
Cornet in the Governors Troop of Guards With the Rank of Major by his
Diligence & induftry in Bufinefs he Acquired the means of a Comfortable Living
with which he remov'd to Townfen in the latter Part of his life. He quitted
Mortality the 20th of May A. D. 1780 Leaving a Widow and two Young Daughters
With a Numerous Company of Friends and Acquaintance to Mourn his Departure Who
have that Ground of hope Concerning his Prefent Lot Which Refultfi from his
undifsembled Regard to his Maker & extenfive Benevolence to his Fellow
Creatures Manifefted in Life by a behaviour Confiftent With his Character as a
Mafon and his Nature as a Man. An honeft Man the Nobleft Work of God."
Those who have called in question the genuineness of Price's original
Deputation and who have sought otherwise to discredit him and his Masonic
career before the bar of history have made much capital out of three facts:
first, that no record was made of the Deputation in the Minutes of the Grand
Lodge of England; second, that in a letter to the Grand Lodge of England under
date of Jan. 27, 1768, and while referring to his own Deputations (Price
received a second Deputation, as will be later explained, in which his powers
were extended) he spelled Montague as "Montacute"; and third, he mentioned in
a letter to the Grand Secretary of England in 1768 his second Deputation as
having been of the year 1735, whereas it should have been 1734. Reasons for
the absence of any Grand Lodge record of his Deputation have already been
given. As to his misspelling of the name of the Grand Master who issued his
first Deputation that is easily explained by the fact that the name was
spelled "Montacute" in Entick's edition of the Constitutions, widely used by
American Masons as an official book. The error in the date is really of no
consequence at all. Thirty-four years had elapsed since 1734, so that when he
wrote the letter Price was seventy-one years of age and forty-six miles away
from his books, papers, and documents. Any other man under the same
circumstances might have made a similar slip. Also it is worthy of note that a
petition which accompanied Price's letter spells the name of Lord Montague
correctly and accurately gives the date of Price's second Deputation as 1734.
The latter facts would indicate that the errors in Price's own letters were
One will find all these facts, and many others equally germane, set forth at
great length and in a manner very interesting to read, by William Sewall
Gardner in an address delivered before the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, of
which he was then Grand Master, Dec. 27, 1871, printed in full in the
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, 1871, page 284. Bro.
Gardner's estimate of the man, along with a summary of his arguments for the
authenticity of Price's first Deputation is embodied in the last pages of his
address, in three paragraphs worthy to be quoted:
"It would seem, however, from the evidence now produced that no one could
reasonably doubt that the officers and members of the Grand Lodge at London
were fully informed of the proceedings of Henry Price, in Boston, who publicly
claimed to be the authorized delegate and representative of that Grand Body
here; that from 1733, down to the war of the Revolution they were as familiar
with his doings as with those of their Provincial Grand Masters in the several
districts of England. It cannot even be argued with any degree of
plausibility, that they, or the Craft in general, could be ignorant of his
pretensions, acts and doings. If they had knowledge of his claim to a
Deputation from England, as Provincial Grand Master, or if it is apparent that
they ought reasonably to have known it, the conclusion is irresistible that
Price held the Commission and office, which he publicly professed to have,
under which he openly acted, and which were notoriously throughout America
ascribed to him. From all the Grand Officers at London, as well as from all
the Members of the Fraternity, from 1733 to 1780, there was universal,
undoubted belief in Henry Price, as the legitimate founder, under lawful
authority, of Masonry in America. Not a doubt, suspicion, or insinuation were
breathed against him. He was entirely, unconditionally, absolutely confided
in, upon both sides of the Atlantic. During all the years of his Masonic life
he enjoyed the fullest confidence of the Grand Lodge at London. It would seem
to be too late now to originate doubt and suspicion against a man of pure
character, unsullied name and spotless reputation, after the lapse of one
hundred and thirty-eight years [written in 1871], unless the clearest evidence
and undeniable proofs of the charges made are adduced. Suspicion and
suspicious circumstances are not sufficient to weigh down his more than eighty
years of life, characterized by honesty, integrity and Christian virtue.
"In reviewing the life of Henry Price, we cannot escape the impression that
the Ancient Society of Free and Accepted Masons, through his persistent labor,
emerged from a position of comparative insignificance to one of prominence and
great respectability in the Province. When he opened the Provincial Grand
Lodge at Boston in July, 1733, the brethren whom he called around him, with
the exception of Andrew Belcher, occupied humble places in life, and were not
calculated to extend the influence of the Society, nor to make proselytes from
among the best men of Boston. But Henry Price set his standard high. He was
ambitious that the institution should be known by the good character of its
members, and that it should be represented by able and respectable officers.
He retained the office of Provincial Grand Master only so long as it was
necessary to carry out his cherished scheme. All of his successors were
gentlemen of the highest respectability and character, while those who had
become members of the lodges gave to the Society a position which commanded
the respect of all classes of men. The reverend clergy gave to it their
sanction, and aided by the sacred rites of their office, in their churches,
the public demonstrations which from time to time occurred. The press spoke in
terms of respect of 'that ancient Society, whose benevolent constitutions do
honor to mankind,' and of the distinction conferred upon those called to
preside as Grand Master over its proceedings. Thus the institution won its way
to favor in public estimation. When Price installed his successors, each one
with more ceremony and pomp than that of the preceding one, he saw that the
honor which he claimed, of being the 'Father of Masonry in America', was not
an empty honor, but one which in his day was worthy of pride, and which he
well hoped might be ascribed to him in history.
"He had been successful beyond his fondest anticipations. Wealth, political
and social distinction, the high authorities in the Province, the teachers of
Christian virtue and the leaders in the two great parties of loyalty and
liberty, had bowed before the altar of Freemasonry erected by him. Thus he had
accomplished all that he dared to dream of in the early days of his labor."
NOTES AND REFERENCES
Price's Deputation see The History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould;
Philadelphia, 1889, Vol. IV, page 330. Beginnings of Freemasonry in America,
Johnson, New York, 1924, pages 74, 115. History of the Most Ancient and
Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons in New York from the Earliest
Date, Charles T. McClenachan; New York, 1888, Vol. 1, page 77. History of the
Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons, and Concordant
Orders. Stillson and Hughan; Boston and New York, 1891, pages 219, 239.
The most complete lay-out extant of data concerning Price will be found in the
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts; for 1871, published in Boston
in 1872, page 284 ff. In that volume will be found Price's will, page 345, his
Deputation, page 347; Tomlinson's Deputation, page 349; Franklin's letters to
Price, page 356; Grand Secretary French's letter to Price, page 366; Price's
reply thereto, page 368; Price's address at the installation of John Rowe,
page 322; etc.
Price's personal and Masonic career in general consult the following: The
Freemason's Monthly Magazine, Charles W. Moore; Boston, Vol. XV, page 163;
Vol. XVI, page 129; XVII, page 11, XX, page 266, XXV, page 343; XXVIII, page
301; XXX, pages 95, 148; XXXI, page 125; XXXII, page 33. History of
Freemasonry in Canada, John Ross Robertson; Toronto, 1900, Vol. I, page 147.
History of Freemasonry in Rhode Island, Henry W. Rugg; Providence, 1895, page
27. Beginnings of Freemasonry in America, Johnson; New York 1924, page 92,
etc. History of Freemasonry in the State of New York, Ossian Lang; New York.
1922, pages 10, 13. The Evolution of Freemasonry, Delmar D. Darrah, Illinois,
1920, page 230. History of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and
Accepted Masons, and Concordant Orders, Stillson and Hughan; Boston and New
York, 1891 page 242. History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould; Phiiadelphia,
1889, Vol. IV, page 241. Freemasonry in Michigan, Jefferson S. Conover;
Michigan, 1897, Vol. I, page 8. Washington and His Masonic Compeers, Sidney
Hayden; New York 1866, page 233. Masonic Review, Thomas J. Melish; Ohio, Vol.
XXVIII, page 83; Vol. LXIX, page 311.
QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
Why was the issuance of the Price Deputation so important an event? What
American Mason preceded Price as a Provincial Grand Master? Who issued Price's
Deputation? What was its date? Where and how did Price receive it? Why, do you
suppose, did he pay a fee for it? By whom was it signed?
Where was Price born? Where was he made a Mason? When did he return to Boston?
What was his profession? What is the importance of his appointment by Belcher?
Who was his business partner? What was his religion?
what extent did he prosper? How did he build up his fortune? How often was he
Grand Master? Worshipful Master?
Where was he buried? What does his epitaph indicate?
Why has his Masonic record been questioned? Name the grounds taken by his
critics. Why was no record of his Deputation made in Grand Lodge minutes of
England? How did Masonry prosper in Massachusetts under his leadership?
Editor‑in‑Chief - H.L. HAYWOOD
ROBERT L. CLEGG, Ohio
GILBERT W. DAYNES, England
V. DENSLOW, Missouri
GEORGE H. DERN, Utah
N.W.J. HAYDON, Canada
CHARLES F. IRWIN. Ohio
JOSEPH E. MORCOMBE, California
JOSEPH FORT NEWTON, New York
ARTHUR C. PARKER, New York
M. WHITED, California
E. W. WILLIAMSON, Nevada
is the secret of the mountains? We may see them from afar with indifference,
while they hang like cloud shapes in the sky, but once we have ascended to
their own places among their peaks and elevated Valleys, they take possession
of us in a manner all their own. The sight of granite lifted into the air
disturbs us with a shock of astonishment; we are accustomed to think of
granite as hidden in the earth. We have been believing that soil and rock
should lie under our feet; here they hang over our heads. In the streets of
our cities and on our farms we have been living amid human beings, immersed in
the buzz of their movements; here we come into a strange solitude, as if to
the "one spot of earth devoted to eternity," and it gives us the feeling that,
in contrast to this calmness, our ordinary activities are fretful and vain,
like the stuff of dreams. Our houses, fields and forests change with the
seasons or through the influence of our work; these crags appear to be
indifferent to all such permutations, as if that changelessness which men
attribute to eternity were here made evident. The beauty of the mountains, the
unexpected shapes of slope and cliff, the metallic foliage of the pines, " the
stationary blast of waterfalls," the transformations of light, and shade, and
color has a startling originality in it, like that of an apparition. And the
elemental forces, usually hidden from us by verdure or pavement, here lay
aside their familiar disguises, with their
"Characters of the great Apocalypse,
types and symbols of Eternity
first, and last, and midst, and without end."
is nothing private in these impressions. Men everywhere and always have been
moved by them to feel in their beings something that corresponds to the great
peaks, so that they have at times tried to make artificial mountains for
themselves, like Babel or the Pyramids. This has given sanctity to high
places, and hills, and has set a range of peaks across the Great Divides of
religion - Ararat, Nebo, Carmel, Zion, Olivet, Olympus; it has given mountains
a place in literature and art, like the Mountains of the Moon, the Old Man of
the Mountains, and Dante's Mount of Paradise, with its concentric aspiring
circles, leading toward the unfoldment of some ultimate mystery. Mountains
have a place in man's traditions, because there is something mountain-like in
man himself. He lifts his eves unto the hills: he cries out to God. "Thy
righteousness is like the great mountains!”
the center of our Masonic mysteries stands such a peak, Mt. Moriah, commanding
the scene like some Fujiyama. It is the symbolical High Place on which Solomon
erected his Temple, which is itself symbolical focus. And it is there in our
rituals, this temple and its mountain, because that which it typifies is in a
Mason's life, if he is really a Mason.
many there are who live in the Lowest Vales! Unhappy, troubled by many fears,
confused, perplexed, apprehensive, they are like men that have lost their way,
worried by their own ignorance but helpless, so they believe, to escape from
it, or to find the Word of Life that they have lost. Such lives are covered
with rubbish; such men almost literally walk in darkness.
salvation for these lost souls is to erect a Temple in the midst of the
rubbish, on some stable hill. Such architecture requires no occult powers, no
superhuman skill; it is what any man can do, for the nature of things does not
compel one to go unhappy all his days, because each of us possesses in his own
self from birth the capacities for such building. If he does not know this
secret his Masonry is there to teach him, for it is this ability to transform
a log cabin existence into a temple that Masonry teaches; it is this which is
its "science of morality, veiled in allegory, and illustrated by symbols."
foundations on which such a new life may be erected are already in a man's
nature if only he will learn to use them. He can develop a sincere desire for
better things; he can cultivate a tenacity of purpose; he can learn how to
become steadfast of aim; he can summon strength of will; he can discover for
himself what is meant by fearlessness of mind and confidence in life. On such
a Mt. Moriah of his own - and these are the true qualifications of a Mason -
he can build his own King Solomon's Temple, which, once it is finished, is a
new kind of life for him, wherein are Wisdom, Strength and Beauty.
* * *
AND DISTRESSED MASTER MASONS"
the article on page 104 by Bro. Phil Roth - in whom moral enthusiasm is so
perfectly blended with practical sense - is found a story of Applied Masonry
that is as significant of the new mood of American Masonry as anything could
be. Once was when Employment Bureaus were looked upon with suspicion because
they were not mentioned among the Landmarks or required by Masonic
Jurisprudence. As if for that reason our Craft should be forbidden to carry
its own teachings into practice! When almost every lodge was a village lodge,
when every member knew every other member personally there may have been no
need of Employment Bureaus; but in this day, when more than half of the
Masonic population is to be found in cities, when hundreds of lodges approach
or surpass the "one thousand members" mark, it is impossible to carry out our
old tenet of Brotherly Relief by individual efforts. Employment and Relief
Bureaus have become a necessity; and not because the individual member is
under any the less obligation to practice Relief and Charity inside the length
of his own Cable Tow.
sometimes objected to Masonic charity that it is for Masons only. In one sense
this is true and necessary. Our lodges make no levy for charitable purposes;
our Fraternity is not a charitable or insurance society. The Masonic principle
is that Freemasons assist each other by way of relief, as when a member meets
with an accident or some similar misfortune. The Craft has no monies for
charity in general; and as far as that is concerned other fraternities, and
churches, clubs, and societies do the same; each takes care of its own.
even so, and in another real sense, Masonic charity is just charity, charity
itself, pure and simple, with no label attached. Though Masons as Masons do
not have the use of large funds for relief, as men in every walk of the world
they are expected, because of their Masonic vows, to be charitable to all men;
and the relief dispensed by lodges and Grand Lodges is only incidental to that
Masonic charity which a real Mason carries everywhere in his heart.
INEQUALITY OF RACES
NOBODY has ever given satisfactory proof of an inherent inequality of races.
The current unfavorable opinion of the Negro is based largely on complete
ignorance of African native conditions, and of Negro achievements in the
industries and arts and in political organization. The glorification of our
own race is founded exclusively on a consideration of the cultural
opportunities given to the few and on the complete neglect of the cultural
primitiveness of the great mass of individuals. This primitiveness shows
itself intellectually in the uncritical acceptance of second-hand ideas and
emotionally in the ease with which most persons succumb to the power of
fashionable passions. – Franz Boas.
ASSYRIAN CAME DOWN LIKE A WOLF ON THE FOLD"
ANNALS OF SENNACHERIB. By Daniel David Luckenbill, Professor of the Semitic
Languages and Literatures in The University of Chicago. This is Vol. II of The
University of Chicago Oriental Institute Series. University of Chicago Press.
May be ordered through the National Masonic Research Society Book Department,
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Boards, 9x12 inches, illustrated, 196
pages with index. Price, postpaid, $4.20.
of us know nothing about "Sennacherib, the great king, the mighty king, king
of the universe, king of Assyria" (his own description) save Byron's poem that
tells how he "came down like a wolf on the fold" and the few pages in the Book
of Kings II, chapter 18, etc. It is our loss. He was a great personage, a fact
abundantly set forth in his own clay records, an illustration of which will be
found on page - .
account of how he took Jerusalem in 701 B. C. is told in II Kings 18:13 If.
with admirable brevity:
in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah did Sennacherib king of Assyria come
up against all the fortified cities of Judah and took them. And Hezekiah king
of Judah sent to the king of Assyria to Lachish, saying, I have offended;
return from me; that which thou puttest on me will I bear. And the king of
Assyria appointed unto Hezekiah king of Judah three hundred talents of silver
and thirty talents of gold."
Compare with that Sennacherib's own version:
for Hezekiah, the Jew, who did not submit to my yoke, 46 of his strong cities,
as well as the small cities in their neighborhood, which were without number -
by levelling with battering-rams (?) and by bringing up siege-engines (?), I
besieged and took (those cities). 200,150 people, great and small, male and
female, horses, mules, asses, camels, cattle and sheep, without number, I
brought away from them and counted as spoil. Himself, like a caged bird I shut
up in Jerusalem, his royal city. Earthworks I threw up against him - the one
coming out of the city-gate, I turned back to his misery.
cities of his which I had despoiled I cut off from his land and to Mitini,
king of Ashdod, Padi, king of Ekron, and Silli-Bel, king of Gaza, I gave. And
(thus) I diminished his land.
added to the former tribute, and laid upon him the giving (up) of their land
(as well as) imposts - gifts for my majesty.
for Hezekiah, the terrifying splendor of my majesty overcame him, and the Urbi
(Arabs) and his mercenary (?) troops which he had brought in to strengthen
Jerusalem, his royal city, deserted him (lit. took leave).
addition to the 30 talents of gold and 800 talents of silver (there were),
gems, cosmetics (?), jewels (?), large sandustones, couches of ivory, house
chairs of ivory, elephant hide, ivory (lit. elephant's teeth), ushu-wood, all
kinds of valuable (heavy) treasures, as well as his daughters, his harem, his
male and female musicians, (which) he had (them) being after me to Nineveh, my
royal city. To pay tribute and to accept (lit. do) servitude, he dispatched
Sennacherib's Annals, all written in the Royal first person singular, are rich
as alabaster, golden as leaves from a book of dreams, redolent of ancient
poetries and forgotten mysteries, especially when they relate the rebuilding
of Nineveh, and of Sennacherib's "Palace Without a Rival." Hear how he speaks
that time, Nineveh the noble metropolis, the city beloved of Ishtar, wherein
are all the meeting-places of gods and goddesses; the everlasting
substructure, the eternal foundation; whose plan had been designed from of
old, and whose structure had been made beautiful along with the firmament of
heaven, the beautiful (artistic) place, the abode of divine law (decision
rule), into which had been brought all kinds of artistic workmanship, every
secret and pleasant (?) plan (or command, of god); where from of old, other
kings, who went before, my fathers, had exercised the lordship over Assyria
before me, and had ruled the subjects of Enlil, and yearly without
interruption, had received therein an unceasing income, the tribute of the
princes of the four quarters (of the world)."
see what manner of temple-palace he erected, with its great pillars!
"Thereon (lit. therein) I had them build a palace of ivory, ebony (?), boxwood
(?), musukannu-wood, cedar, cypress and spruce, the 'Palace without a Rival,'
for my royal abode. Beams of cedar, the product of Mt. Amanus, which they
dragged with difficulty out of (those) distant mountains, I stretched across
their ceilings (?). Great door-leaves of cypress, whose odor is pleasant as
they are opened and closed, I bound with a band of shining copper and set up
in their doors. A portico, patterned after a Hittite palace, which they call
in the Amorite tongue a bit-hilani, I constructed out of the 11,400 talents of
shining bronze, the workmanship of the god Nin-a-gal, and exceedingly
glorious, together with 2 colossal pillars whose copper work came to 6,000
talents, and two great cedar pillars, (which) I placed upon the lions
(colossi), I set up as posts to support their doors."
* * *
EXCITING BOOK OF RITHMETIC: REVIEWED
CASSIUS J. KEYSER
OWN ARITHMETIC. By Raymond Weeks. Illustrations by Usabal. New York: E. P.
Dutton & Co. For sale by National Masonic Research Society Book Department,
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Red (very red) cloth, index, 188 pages.
Price, postpaid, $2.10.
is a book that will gladden the hearts and brighten the eyes of millions of
boys if they get a chance to read it. And they will get the chance if their
fathers and mothers and their other teachers discover the book and learn what
it really is.
not a book of arithmetic as commonly understood. It is not one of those dead
and deadening things known as textbooks. It is a living bit of literature
based on arithmetic for the amusement and incidentally for the edification of
real boys, of funloving boys, of girls, too, and, I dare say, even of
grown-ups, for the book, like all genuine literature, is universal in its
author makes no claim to being a mathematician though it is evident that he
could have been one had he so elected. Neither is he a professional teacher of
arithmetic. He is an eminent professor of romance languages and literature in
a great university. But he was a boy once, is now a father of boys, and,
though mellowed with the wisdom of experience and years, he is still a boy at
heart, in his recollections, in his sympathies and understanding and love. It
is that together with a certain rare and amiable genius that enabled Mr. Weeks
to write this book of charming stories for the amusement and education of
children, causing them to learn while laughing, and to laugh while learning.
has thus employed a most important principle of human education. For laughter
is not sub-human like eating and sleeping, for example. Laughter is a human
Laughter, divine river of joy, thou art the blessed boundary line between the
beasts and men."
laughter is even divine. Did not high Olympus often ring with the laughter of
the gods! Recently it has been contended by eminent theologians that even the
God of good Christians possesses a sense of humor. They must be right for how
could He fail to be amused by the claims solemnly made on His behalf by the
have said that the book is literature; it is literature based on arithmetic,
and the manner fits the matter as neatly as the bark fits the tree. There are
more than a hundred short stories. The list of their titles is itself a poem -
far more galvanic than the Iliad’s famous list of ships. Here are a few
samples chosen at random: Race between ten boys and a cinnamon bear; Opossum
eating persimmons; Red mule Absolum; Smile of a crocodile; Dog scratching off
fleas; Cats in Catalonia; Moving power of a hornet; The boy, the bulldog and
the ice-cream; Standing a fraction on its head; and so on with the range and
diversity of a live boy's manifold world.
regret that there is here no room to quote a few specimens of these stories,
for their is no other way to give a right sense of their fidelity, their
quaintness, their charm, their pure fun, their fine union of sense and sane
nonsense, now reminding one of Tom Sawyer and now of the immortal creations of
each story there lurks an arithmetical problem; it leaps forth to challenge
the boy just as he finishes the reading. What grappling and battling will
result, especially if two boys are playing the game together!
Fortunately not all the numbers mentioned in a given story are essential to
its problem, for else the boy would not have the delight of discriminating
what is essential from what is not. Fortunately the stories are not so
arranged that the problems are presented in the order of increasing
difficulty, for else the book would not be true to life. Neither would it be
true to life if it did not set some problems whose answers are cumberous and
some that seem to be genuine but are not.
book is profusely illustrated by Usabal, who has caught its spirit of humor
and fun. The illustrations are alone worth more than the price of the book.
Cassius J. Keyser, Columbia University.
* * *
RELIGION SOCIALIZED AND APPLIED
GOSPEL OF FELLOWSHIP. By Charles D. Williams D. D., Late Bishop of Michigan.
Published by Fleming H. Revell. May be purchased through the Book Department
of National Masonic Research Society, 1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo.
Cloth, 218 pages. Price, postpaid, $1.60.
BISHOP WILLIAMS established a national reputation for himself in church
circles by his early and courageous advocacy of a socialized Christianity. He
was one of the first religious leaders to see that religion exists for the
community as much as for the individual, and that a Gospel for the individual
alone is only a half Gospel. True to the convictions of a lifetime, he made
his last book a plea for this insight, and a noble book it is, albeit the
author might have given it more literary finish had he lived to see it through
him the central reality in a socialized religion is fellowship; accordingly he
seeks to apply "The Gospel of Fellowship" to every and all social, political,
and economic problems, which, as the whole of modern literature attests, are
too numerous for comfort.
problems have grown up out of the nature of things. Out of the break up of
feudalism developed the political state as we now know it, with independent
nations lying alongside each other; with the discovery of steam in 1789 came
industrialism, with its new alignment of social classes; with the development
of transportation systems came a shrinking up of the world, with its clash of
cultures; and with the rise of democracy came a new social consciousness, with
new demands on church, school, and state. The need of readjusting human life
to these changed conditions constitutes "the social problem".
Bishop Williams' solution of this problem is the application to it of the
spirit and principle of fellowship. Such an effort is both Masonic and
Christian in the larger senses of those words, and reflects nothing but credit
upon our author. But there is in it a difficulty, a difficulty that stands out
above the book: it is that "fellowship" is not defined. We are told that
fellowship can solve our economic, political, racial, and religious problems
but we are not told what this fellowship is. The indistinct generalized idea
of it given by Bishop Williams will not serve; when spread over so wide a
territory his idea becomes so thin that at times it becomes almost invisible.
Masons have the same difficulty in managing some of our own key words;
brotherhood, truth, toleration, relief, landmarks. Perhaps it is because we
have not yet thought them out. Almost the final achievement of the mind is the
definition of a word (not in the dictionary sense of "definition") when it
stands for some fundamental idea. Inspirational books help us to make up our
minds to travel toward the goal, but they seldomly open any of the gates that
stand locked across the path.
* * *
HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES AND OF THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR
CRUSADES: THE STORY OF THE LATIN KINGDOM OF JERUSALEM. By T. A. Archer and
Charles L. Kingsford. Published by G. P. Putnam's Sons: New York. May be
purchased through the National Masonic Research Society Book Department, 1950
Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Cloth, illustrated, index, 467 pages. Price,
Mohammed passed away the Caliphs immediately W set to planning the conquest of
the world in the name of Islam. They conquered the Near East, North Africa,
and, at last, Spain. Unsuccessful in breaking through into France and Italy
from the west, they reduced the powers to the east and arranged for the
overthrow of Constantinople. Hemmed in by this dreaded Infidel power on the
east, south and west the Christian nations of Europe found themselves in
terrible straits. If Rome were to fall, what would become of Paris? what would
become of England? of Christendom itself? This possible doom hung over Europe
like a pall.
Europe met this danger with the Crusades. Inspired by a common fear the kings
and princes and bishops let off warring among themselves, pooled their men and
money, and set off to attack Islam in its own stronghold.
stranger thing never happened in all history, or a bloodier, or more romantic.
There were no nations in Europe, only dynasties; there was no lasting unity,
not even in the church; there was no knowledge of the world outside of Europe;
there was no patriotism, only personal loyalty to a leader, and allegiance to
a common Faith. Consequently the Crusades became a seethe of cross-currents,
of feuds, and of internecine war; kings, princes, counts, dukes, like
multitudes of the common folk, perished like snowflakes in the sea.
moving tale of it all, of how Europe found itself in its defeat, of how
Jerusalem was taken and lost again, of how the Knights Templar were created
and destroyed, how chivalry waxed into a wondrous bloom, then faded, and how
the long troubled era of two hundred years flared finally in the burning of De
Molay is told in Archer and Kingsford's The Crusades with clarity and
simplicity. No better account has ever been written in one volume.
* * *
MONITOR FOR GENERAL USE
EUREKA, OR WHAT A MASTER MASON OUGHT TO KNOW. Published by The Peerless Co.,
Kenmore, Ohio. May be purchased through the National Masonic Research Society
Book Department, 1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis Mo. Paper, 117 pages.
Special price in quantities. Single copy, price, postpaid, sixty-five cents.
is a collection of lectures, charges, and addresses compiled by a brother
whose modesty has led him to hide himself behind the screen of anonymity.
"While we do not claim," he writes, "that these lectures are the best there
are, we do say that the ones submitted have been accepted by many as some of
the best ever printed and are suitable for use in any Blue Lodge. The order of
arrangement being natural and in rotation, they can be used as a whole or
separated and any part desired used as the occasion presents." Brethren who
have grown weary of repeating the same lectures on the Apron, the Winding
Stairs, and other familiar portions of the exoteric work of the Blue Lodge,
will find in this little brown volume a variety of forms from which to draw
* * *
Freemasonry is the subjugation of the human that is in man by the divine, the
conquest of the appetites and passions by the moral sense and the reason; a
continual effort, struggle and warfare of the spiritual against the material
and sensual. That victory - when it has been achieved and secured, and the
conqueror may rest upon his shield and wear the well earned laurels – is the
Holy Empire. – Albert Pike
to Read in Masonry
MAKING OF AMERICAN MASONRY
appears that we American Masons have been more interested to learn how Masonry
helped to make America than how America helped to make Masonry. At any rate,
there has this long time existed a sad lack of adequate literature on the
history of Freemasonry in this broad land; why, it would be difficult to say,
unless it be that we are so obsessed by the present as to think - as many
undoubtedly do – that what happens today is the peak and culmination of time,
and what happened day before yesterday is dead and done with, and not worth
Unless it be accounted for by this prejudice against the past the paucity of
readable, comprehensive and reliable histories of American Masonry is a
mystery. One thing is certain! If our scribes have left the subject alone it
has not been for lack of opportunity, or the failure of an audience, or for
any dearth of materials. As for materials they stand about everyone of us
mountain high, ready to be worked into precious metals for the enrichment of
the Craft; as for an audience, it is a large one, of three million brethren
good and true; and as for opportunity, it is endless, and calls loudly to men
of knowledge and skill.
is not to fling a dornick at the works already extant. Quite the contrary!
Many of them are good work, true to the plumb and to the square, and fit
ashlars for any library, as will be instantly patent to the discerning brother
who scans the list below.
Meanwhile, the student's attention is especially called to the files of our
American Masonic periodicals, the names of which, in past and present, are
almost legion. The Freemason's Magazine, The Masonic Record, The
Tyler-Keystone, The American Mason, The Evergreen, The Voice-Review, The New
Age, The BUILDER, The Quarterly Review of Masonry, etc.; in the back files of
these, and in a score of others, equally valuable, are to be found thousands
of articles on every imaginable phase of American Masonic history. In addition
to whatever intrinsic value they possess, many of them carry references to now
forgotten books or to other sources, often obscure or unknown; only the
careful student can appreciate the full value of such references.
cannot be expected that many brethren could carry complete files of
periodicals in their library, as much for the difficulty of securing them as
for their cost; but in most cases a studious brother can manage to consult
them in some Masonic library. There are such libraries in many cities, a
partial list of which is as follows:
Boston, Massachusetts. Fargo, North Dakota. New York City (2). Sioux Falls,
South Dakota. Topeka, Kansas. San Francisco, California. Montgomery, Alabama.
Washington, D C. South Portland, Maine. Waynesville, North Carolina. Chicago,
Illinois (2). Evanston, Illinois. Minneapolis, Minnesota. Spokane, Washington.
Hot Spring, Arkansas. Delta, Colorado. Portland, Maine. Baltimore, Maryland.
Minneapolis, Minnesota. Duluth, Minnesota. Salem, Oregon. Altoona,
Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Nashville, Tennessee. Fredericksburg,
Virginia. Tacoma, Washington (2). Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Madison, Wisconsin.
South Pines, North Carolina. Los Angeles, California (2). Winnipeg, Man.,
Canada. Portland, Oregon. Oakland, California. Muscatine, Iowa. Cedar Rapids,
Iowa. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Beginnings of Freemasonry in America, Melvin M. Johnson.
Benjamin Franklin as a Freemason, Julius F. Sachse.
Centennial Memorial of Aurora Lodge, A. F. & A. M., A. D., 1801-1901,
Frederick A. Currier.
Dedication Memorial of the New Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, Sept. 26, 29,
80,1878, Compiled by the Library Committee of the R.W. Grand Lodge of
Franklin Bi-Centenary Celebration, Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
Freemasonry in America Prior to 1750, Melvin M. Johnson.
Freemasonry in Canada, Osborne Sheppard.
Freemasonry in Michigan (2 vole.), Jefferson S. Conover.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania, 1727-1907, as Shown by the Records of Lodge, No.
2, F. & A. M., of Philadelphia, From the Year A. L. 5757, A. D. 1757, Compiled
by N. S. Barratt and Julius F. Sachse.
Freemasons' Monthly Magazine, edited by Charles W. Moore.
History of Brother General Lafayette's Fraternal Connections With the R. W.
Grand Lodge, F. & A. M., of Pennsylvania, published by the G. L. of
History of Brother Stephen Girard's Fraternal Connections With the R. W. Grand
Lodge, F. & A. M., of Pennsylvania, published by the G. L. of Pennsylvania.
History of Freemasonry (American Edition), R. F. Gould
History of Freemasonry in Canada, J. Ross Robertson.
History of Freemasonry in Maryland, Edwart T. Schultz.
History of Freemasonry in Ohio From 1791, W. M. Cunningham.
History of Freemasonry in Rhode Island, Henry W. Rugg.
History of Freemasonry in South Carolina, Albert G. Mackey.
History of Freemasonry in the State of New York, Ossian Lang.
History of Lodge No. 61, F. & A. M., Wilkesbarre, Pa., Oscar Jewell Harvey.
History of St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 16, A. F. & A. M. Henry T. Smith. '
History of the Grand Lodge and of Freemasonry in the District of Columbia,
Kenton N. Harper.
History of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, Morcombe and Cleveland.
History of the Most Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted
Masons in New York From the Earliest Date Charles T. McClenachan.
Indian Masonry, Robert C. Wright.
and Masonry in the United States Before 1810, Samuel Oppenheim.
LeTellier's Lodge at Honolulu: A Masonic History, Ed. Towse.
Story of Albert Pike, Fred Allsopp.
Little Masonic Library, Masonic Service Association.
Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry, Robert I. Clegg.
Masonic Light on the Abduction and Murder of Wm. Morgan, P. C. Huntington.
Masons as Makers of America, Madison C. Peters.
Memoir of Sylvanus Cobb, Jr., Ella Waite Cobb.
Military Lodges, R. F. Gould.
Military Lodges, Alfred Lawrence.
Minutes of the Right Worshipful Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honourable
Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania and Masonic
Jurisdiction Thereunto Belonging, published by the Grand Lodge of
Mormonism and Masonry: A Utah Point of View, S. H. Goodwin.
Masonic Lodges of Pennsylvania, "Modern and Ancients." 1730-1801, Which Have
Surrendered Their Warrants or Affiliated With Other Grand Lodges, Vols. I and
II, published by G. L. of Pennsylvania.
Pioneering in Masonry, Lucien V. Rule.
Proceedings of the R. W. Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
Report of the Masonic Overseas Mission on Efforts to Secure Governmental
Permission to Engage in Independent War Relief Work Abroad.
Reprint of the Minutes of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of
Pennsylvania (six volumes), compiled by Joshua L. Lyte.
Sacred Mysteries of the Mayas and the Quiches, Auguste Le Plongeon.
Scarlet Book of Freemasonry, M. W. Redding.
Souvenir Album, Showing the Various Places of Meeting of the R. W. Grand
Lodge, F. & A. M., of Pennsylvania, for the Past century and a Half, Together
With Interior Views in the New Temple, prepared under the direction of the
Committee on Library.
of Mount Vernon Lodge, No. 4, Free and Accepted Masons, Providence, Rhode
Island, 1799-1924, William Evans Handy.
of "Old Glory". John W. Barry.
in American Freemasonry, Arthur Preuss.
Thomson Masonic Fraud, Isaac Blair Evans.
Washington and His Masonic Compeers, Sidney Hayden.
Washington, the Great American Mason, John J. Lanier.
Washington, the Man and the Mason, Charles H. Callahan
Washington’s Masonic Correspondence, Julius F. Sachse.
OF BOARDS OF RELIEF AND EMPLOYMENT BUREAUS
can I find a list of Boards of Masonic Relief and of Employment Bureaus? We
are thinking of organizing some thing of the kind in our own city and would
like to correspond with a few Secretaries before doing so.
can find a list right here, brought up to date for us by Bro. Andrew J.
O'Reilly, Secretary of Masonic Relief Association of the United States and
Canada, and many thanks to him for his kindness:
Akron, Ohio. Masonic Relief Association, R. A. Walkup, Secretary, Masonic
Albany, N. Y. Board of Relief, Lewis J. Barhydt, Secretary Masonic Temple.
Alexandria, Va. Board of Relief, Edgar Warfield, Secretary 300 Prince St.
Atchison, Kansas. Board of Relief, Guy W. Sharp, Secretary, 308 Commercial St.
Atlanta, Ga. Masonic Board of Relief, Walter C. Taylor, Secretary, City Hall.
Bakersfield, Calif. Masonic Board of Relief, A. D. Whittemore, Secretary.
Baltimore, Md. Masonic Board of Relief, B. Friedman, Secretary, 109 W. Lombard
Barrie, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, Alfred Wilkes, Secretary.
Rouge, La. J. S. Busse, Secretary-Treasurer, P. O. Box 617
Beaver Falls; Pa. Board of Relief, J. L. B. Dawson, Secretary.
Billings, Mont. Masonic Board of Relief, C. S. Bell, Secretary, 406 Stapleton
Binghamton, N. Y. Board of Relief, A. P. Kelsey, Secretary Masonic Temple.
Bloomington, Ill. Masonic Board of Relief, Bloomington, Ill.
Boston, Mass. Board of Relief, John A. Blake, Secretary, 207 Masonic Temple.
Brockville, Ont., Can. Board of Relief, W. H. Kyle. Secretary.
Brooklyn, N. Y. Williamsburgh Masonic Board of Relief, John Milford,
Secretary, 827 Bedford Ave.
Buffalo, N. Y. Masonic Relief Board, M. O. Denny, Secretary 2 Masonic Temple.
Buffalo, N. Y. Masonic Service Bureau, E. Earle Axtell, Secretary, Room 6,
Butte, Mont. Masonic Board of Relief, George T. Wade, Secretary, Masonic
Calgary, Alberta, Can. Masonic Board of Relief, Masonic Temple.
Camden, N. J. Joseph B. Davis, Secretary, 817 Hadden St.
Charleston, S. C. Masonic Board of Relief. J. Berkman, Secretary, 4 Carolina
Charlotte, N. C. Masonic Board of Relief, H. A. Franklin. Secretary-Treasurer,
1704 Cleveland Ave.
Chattanooga, Tenn. Masonic Board of Relief.
Chillicothe, Mo. Masonic Board of Relief.
Chicago, Ill. Board of Relief, Nicholas E. Murray, Secretary 5812 West End
Chicago, Ill. Board of Relief, W. O. Robinson, Agent, 77 W. Washington.
Cincinnati, Ohio. Cincinnati Relief Association. Rolland L. Kraw, Secretary,
602 Southern Ohio Bank Bldg
Cleveland. Ohio. Board of Relief, Isaac Morris, Secretary, 3515 Euclid Ave.
Cleveland, Ohio. Masonic Employment Bureau, R. S. Rovers Sec'y and Supt., 316
Clinton, Iowa. Board of Relief, Dr. E. F. Martindale, Secretary.
Colorado Springs, Colo. Masonic Board of Relief, Oliver E. Collins. Secretary,
Columbia, Mo. Masonic Board of Relief.
Columbus, Ohio. Columbus EmpIoyment Bureau, W. S. Andrews. Secretary, Masonic
Concord, N. H. Board of Relief, John H. Wasson, Secretary.
Cortland. N. Y. Board of Relief, Charles H. Jones, Secretary.
Council Bluffs, Iowa. Masonic Relief Board, W. E. McConnell, Secretary, 414
Cumberland, Md. Masonic Relief Committee.
Dallas, Tex. Masonic Board of Relief, W. C. Lemon, Chairman, 300 Austin St.
Davenport, Iowa. Davenport Relief Board, C.E. Harrison. Agent, 1201 Bridge
Dayton, Ohio. Board of Masonic Relief, W. A. Marietta, Secretary, Masonic
Decatur, Ill. Masonic Relief Board, Elmer O. Brintlinger, Secretary, 543 N.
Denver, Colo. Board of Relief, Dr. M. H. Dean, Secretary, 219 Masonic Temple.
Moines, Iowa. B. F. Stretson, Charity Agent, 4th floor, Masonic Temple.
Detroit, Mich. Masonic Board of Relief, Fred J. Lawrence Secretary, Masonic
Dubuque, Iowa. Board of Relief, C. W. Walton, Secretary 1072 Main St.
Duluth, Minn. Masonic Board of Relief, H. VanBrunt, Secretary, Masonic Temple.
St. Louis, Ill. Masonic Board of Relief.
Edmonton, Alberta, Can. Masonic Board of Relief, Lorne Muir, Secretary, P. O.
Paso, Tex. Masonic Board of Relief, Forest E. Baker, Secretary, Masonic
Evansville, Ind. Masonic Relief Association, Fred H. Ruff Secretary Masonic
Temple Association, Third and Chestnut St.
Wayne, Ind. Fort Wayne Relief Board, J. M. Stouder Chairman, 122 E. Columbia
Worth, Texas. Masonic Relief Association, E. F. Green Secretary-Treasurer, 215
1/2 Main St.
Fresno, Calif. Board of Relief, S. B. Leas, Secretary.
Galveston, Texas. Masonic Board of Relief, Walter L. Norwood, Chairman
Rapids, Mich Masonic Board of Relief, David Farbs 225 Ottawa Ave.
Falls, Mont. Great Falls Relief Board, O. B. Kotz, Secretary, P. O. Box 112.
Guelph, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, A. Jeffray, Secretary, 54 Perston
Hamilton, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, H. R. Clark, Secretary, 24
Hannibal, Mo. Masonic Relief Board, W. H. Blackshaw, Secretary, 1241 Paris
Hartford, Conn. Hartford Masonic Board of Relief, George A. Kies,
Secretary-Treasurer, Masonic Temple.
Helena, Mont. Masonic Board of Relief, Wm. T. Hull, Secretary, care Nat'l Bank
Honolulu, T. H. Masonic Board of Relief. Wm. Bell, Secretary.
Houston, Tex. Houston Board of Relief, J. E. Chestnutt, Chairman, 302 Main St.
Independence, Mo. Masonic Board of Relief, F. Walker, Secretary.
Indianapolis. Ind. Masonic Board of Relief, Rev. Willis D. Engle. Secretary,
Jacksonville, Fla. Jacksonville Relief Committee, W. S. Ware Secretary, 210
Jeffersonville, Ind. Masonic Board of Relief, Wm. G. Young. Secretary.
Joliet. Ill. Masonic Board of Relief, E. W. Willard, Secretary, 407 Union St.
Joplin, Mo. Joplin Relief Board. M. Wyler, Secretary.
Kansas City, Kansas. Masonic Board of Relief, J. R. McFarland. Secretary.
Kansas City, Mo. Masonic Board of Relief, W.S. Lane, Secretary, Masonic
Temple, 9th and Harrison Sts.
Kingston, Ont.. Can. Masonic Board of Relief, W. A. Bearance
Secretary-Treasurer, 493 Princess St.
Kirksville, Mo. Masonic Board of Relief.
Knoxville, Tenn. Knoxville Relief Board, Dr. J. D. Henderson Secretary, Box
Leavenworth. Kansas. Leavenworth Relief Board, Geo. W. Leek, Secretary.
Lethbridge, Alberta, Can. Masonic Board of Relief, John A Livingstone,
Secretary, P. O. Box 94.
Lexington. Ky. Masonic Board of Relief, John W. Lancaster Secretary, 129
Mont. Board of Relief, S. W. Vance, Secretary
Ohio. Masonic Relief Board, Fred Barrington, Secretary, 901 Albert St.
Lincoln. Neb. Masonic Board of Relief, Fred W. Tyler, Secretary, 1204 A. St.
London. Ont..- Can. London Benevolent Association, Inc., Rt. Wor. J.W.
Metherall. Pres.-Chairman, 633 Queens Ave. W. Bro. H. J. Childs.
Secretarv-Treasnrer, 293 Dundas St.
London, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, A. Ellis, Secretary, Masonic
Angeles, Calif. Masonic Board of Relief, Dr. J.M. Dunsmoor, Secretary, 435
Louisville, Ky. Louisville Relief Board, Charles H. Boden Secretary, 961 S.
Lowell, Mass. Masonic Board of Relief, Lucius A. Derby, Secretary.
Manila, P. I. Masonic Board of Relief, R. E. Clarke, Secretary, 105 Escolta.
Maryville, Mo. Masonic Board of Relief, Dr. L. C. Dean, Secretary.
Meadville, Pa. Masonic Board of Relief, Edwin M. Hoffman Secretary, 545
Memphis, Tenn. Memphis Relief Board, Chas. E. Lodge, Secretary, 4th and Court
Mexico City, Mexico. Masonic Board of Relief, C. T. Craig, Secretary, Aparto
Milwaukee, Wis. Masonic Service Bureau, P. A. Roth, Field Secretary, 2nd
floor, 470 Van Buren St
Minneapolis, Minn. Masonic Board of Relief, R. A. Saunderson, Secretary, 420
Missoula, Mont. Masonic Relief Board, Levi Whithee, Secretary, Masonic Temple.
Montreal, Que., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, Alexander Strachan, Secretary,
271 Prince Arthur St., West.
Muskogee, Okla. Masonic Relief Committee, F. L. Walton, Secretary.
Nashville, Tenn. Masonic Relief Board, Aaron Bergado, Secretary, 610 Church
Albany, Ind. New Albany Relief Committee, Hugh J. Needham, Secretary, Room
207, Post Office Bldg.
Haven, Conn. Masonic Board of Relief, S. A. Moyle P. O. Box 872.
Orleans, La. Louisiana Relief Lodge No. 1, John A. Davilla, Secretary, 301
Newport News, Va. Masonic Board of Relief, A. L. Evans Secretary, 228 29th St.
York City, N. Y. Masonic Board of Relief, Robert S. Wardle, Secretary, 71 West
York City, N. Y. Italian Board of Relief, F. W. Chillemi Secretary, 156
Franklin St., Astoria, L. I
Westminster, B. C., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, A. Minn, Secretary, Custom
Oakland, Calif. Masonic Board of Relief, R. G. Evans, Secretary, Masonic
Omaha, Neb. Masonic Board of Relief, Chas. Bradley, Secretary, Masonic Temple.
Ottawa, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, D. A. Esdale, Secretary.
Pasadena, Calif. Masonic Board of Relief, Luciene A. Parmalee, Secretary.
Pekin, Ill. Masonic Board of Relief, F. W. Soady, Secretary.
Peoria, Ill. Masonic Board of Relief, Chas. H. Toddhunter, Secretary.
Peterborough, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, Henry Rush, Secretary.
Pocatello, Idaho. Masonic Board of Relief, E. G. Houde, Secretary
Portland, Maine. Masonic Relief Board, Almon L. Johnson, Secretary, Masonic
Portland, Oregon. Masonic Service and Employment Bureau, N. H. Atchison,
Manager, Multnomah Hotel.
Portland, Oregon. Masonic Board of Relief, P. P. Kilbourne, Secretary,
Pueblo, Colo. Masonic Board of Relief, Wm. Peach, 40 Masonic Temple.
Quincy, Ill. Masonic Board of Relief, Paul G. Duncan, Secretary, Masonic
Rahway, N. J. Masonic Bureau of New Jersey, R. A. Vertseeg, Secretary.
Raleigh, N. C. Masonic Board of Relief, Wm. P. Little, Secretary, care Wake
Co. Savings Bank.
Regina, Sask., Can. The Masonic Council of Regina, J. G. Lowrie, Secretary,
3273 Retallock St.
Richmond, Ind. Masonic Relief Board, Clarence W. Foreman, Secretary.
Richmond, Va. Masonic Board of Relief, B. C. Lewis, Jr., President, 1015 E.
Rochester, N. Y. Masonic Service Bureau, H. G. Oliver, Manager, 61-63 Clinton
Sacramento, Calif. Masonic Board of Relief, A. V. Henning, Secretary, 302
Capitol Nat'l Bank Bldg.
Saginaw, Mich. Saginaw Board of Relief, C. J. Phelps, Secretary, 410 Bearinger
Salina, Kansas. Masonic Board of Relief, W. G. Dewees, Secretary.
Lake City, Utah. Masonic Board of Relief, F. J. Keller, Secretary, Masonic
Antonio, Texas. Masonic Employment and Relief Bureau Leland S. Wood,
Secretary, Masonic Temple.
Diego, Calif. Masonic Board of Relief, R.W. Belding, Secretary, Masonic Temple
Francisco, Calif. Masonic Board of Relief, Leo Bruck Secretary, Masonic Temple
Jose, Calif. San Jose Relief Committee, W. J. Anthes, Jr., Secretary, Sciot's
Ste. Marie, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, E. I. Scott, Secretary
Savannah, Ga. Masonic Relief Association, A. L. Maxwell, Chairman, Court
Scranton, Pa. Masonic Relief Association, Ernest I. Paine, Chairman, 731
Seattle, Wash. Masonic Relief and Employment Bureau, Harry M. Welliver,
Secretary 5193 Arcade Bldg
Sedalia, Mo. Masonic Board of Relief, J. Rautenstrauch, Secretary, 703 W. 7th.
City, Iowa. Masonic Board of Relief, Charles L. Guiney Secretary, 302 Motor
Bend, Ind. South Bend Relief Board, F. M. Boone, Secretary, Tribune Printing
Southern Pines, N. C. Masonic Board of Relief, R. H. Chandler, Secretary.
Springfield, Ill. Masonic Board of Control, J. R. Orr, Secretary, Masonic
Springfield, Mass. Springfield Emergency Fund, Howard L. Kinsman, Secretary,
43 Maplewood Terrace
Springfield, Mo. Masonic Relief Board, M. F. Smith, Secretary, Masonic Temple.
Johns, New Brunswick. Masonic Board of Relief, Alexander R. Campbell,
Secretary, 26 Germains St.
Joseph, Mo. St. Joseph Board of Relief, Orestes Mitchell, Secretary, 304
Paul, Minn. Masonic Board of Relief, Andrew B. Swansstrom, Agent, Masonic
Louis, Mo. Masonic Board of Relief, Chas. H. Schureman, Secretary, 2207 S.
Louis, Mo. Masonic Employment Bureau, Wm. C. Heim Secretary, 2159 Railway
Louis County, Mo. Board of Relief, Homer N. Lloyd, Secretary, 517 Meramec St.,
Thomas, Ont., Can. St. Thomas Relief Board, Fred W. Judd, Secretary, 379
Stockton, Calif. Masonic Board of Relief, E. H. McGowen, Secretary.
Syracuse, N. Y. Masonic Board of Relief, S. D. Solomon Secretary, 712 S. A. &c
Tampa, Fla. Masonic Board of Relief, D. C. Hill, Secretary 1323 Franklin St.
Haute, Ind. Terre Haute Relief Board, Charles H. Traquair, Secretary, 320 N.
Toledo, Ohio. Masonic Executives' Association, Joseph J. Devlin, Secretary,
Toronto, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, J. B. Nixon, Secretary-Treasurer,
154 Bay St.
N. Y. Masonic Relief Board, F. E. Bowen, Secretary National State Bank.
Tulsa, Okla. Masonic Relief Board, Frank S. Davison, Secretary, 316 E. 3rd St.
Utics, N. Y. Masonic Board of Relief, Arthur D. Evans, Secretary.
Vancouver, B. C. Masonic Board of Relief, Lewis E. Frith, Secretary, Masonic
Vancouver, Wash. Masonic Board of Relief, C. A. Parrish, Secretary, 807 Main
Vicksburg, Miss. Board of Relief, Dan G. Flohr, Chairman, 1322 Washington St
Victoria, B. C. Masonic Board of Relief, Stewart M. Manuel, Secretary, Masonic
Washington, D. C. Masonic Board of Relief, Wm. Mehn, Secretary, Masonic
Waterbury, Conn. Masonic Board of Relief, O. A. Ziglatzki, Chairman.
Wheeling, W. Va. Masonic Relief Association, Thos. T. Meek Secretary, Scottish
Wilmington, Del. Masonic Board of Relief, Walter I,. Morgan, Secretary, 3rd
and Franklin Sts.
Wilmington, N. C. Masonic Board of Relief, H. E. Walton Secretary, 19 S. 9th
Windsor, Ont., Can. Windsor Relief Board, John Fry, Secretary.
Winnipeg, Man., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, John McCrea, Secretary, 63
Woodstock, Ont., Can. Masonic Board of Relief, John Morrison, Secretary.
Worcester, Mass. Masonic Board of Relief, Arthur H. Burton, Secretary, City
Ypsilanti, Mich. Masonic Relief Committee, J. R. Dell, Chairman.
then you'll be sure
avoid many troubles