The Builder Magazine
January 1925 - Volume XI - Number
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Massachusetts Freemasonry in China - BY FREDERICK W. HAMILTON, Grand
Grave of Brother Lafayette - BY BRO. ED TOWSE, HONOLULU, HAWAII
MASONIC RELIEF AT ROCHESTER, MINN.
and Men - BY CASSIUS J. KEYSER ADRAIN PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS, COLUMBIA
UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK
Purpose and Genius of Royal Arch Masonry - By BRO., THE LATE WILLIAM F. KUHN
GENERAL GRAND HIGH PRIEST, GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Fellowship of Masonry in Alaska - BY BRO. CHARLES E. NAGHEL SECRETARY, MT.
JUNEAU LODGE, No. 147, ALASKA
History of Masonry in China
Grand Lodge Become a Nursing Mother? - BY BRO. DONALD HUGHES, California
STUDIES OF MASONRY IN THE UNTED STATES - BY BRO. H.L. HAYWOOD, EDITOR - PART
V. FIRST GRAND LODGES IN PENNSYLVANIA
Men Who Were Masons - Dr. James Milnor - By BRO. GEORGE W. BAIRD, P. G. M.,
District of Columbia
Eternal Life Now
Book on Symbolism
Ashmole: Freemason, Occultist, Antiquarian
Steps in Egyptian
to Read In Masonry – “A Pig in a Poke”
QUESTION BOX AND CORRESPONDENCE
Wanted: Missing Volumes of “Masonic Review”
Moore’s “Freemasons’ Magazine for Sale
Jonathan Trumbull not a Mason
Church of England and the Masonic Craft
Daniel Boone a Mason?
Information about Webb’s Monitor
“Knights Templar” is correct
Book for Sale
Missing since Nov. 10, 1924
Massachusetts Freemasonry in China
FREDERICK W. HAMILTON, Grand Secretary, Massachusetts
activities of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts in China date back sixty years.
The founding of overseas lodges was no new experience for Massachusetts. Henry
Price, Provincial Grand Master for North America, established the see of his
Provincial Grand Lodge in Boston in 1733, and at the same time warranted The
First Lodge in Boston. Only five years later, in 1738, he warranted a lodge in
Antigua, B.W.I. From that time on Massachusetts has continually had more or
less to do with Masonic work overseas. The oldest of these overseas lodges now
in existence and under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts is Bethesda, of
Valparaiso, Chile, dating from 1853.
13, 1863, M.W. Bro. William Parkman, Grand Master, issued a dispensation to
Charles E. Hill and sixteen others to form Ancient Landmark Lodge, U.D., in
Shanghai. Communication was slower then than now, and the first meeting under
the dispensation was not held until May 9, 1864.
letter of W. Bro. Hill making return on the dispensation and asking for a
charter contains the following interesting passage with reference to a visit
which had been received from R. W. the Hon. William Thomas Mercer, then
District Grand Master for China, English Constitution:
"Before leaving Shanghai he visited the three lodges under his jurisdiction
and called their attention to the proficiency of the American Lodge,
recommending the officers and members to often visit us, and ordered [italics
in the original] them to adopt our course as to the examination of applicants
does not wonder at the enthusiasm of the distinguished visitor. Elsewhere in
the same letter W. Bro. Hill says that R. W. Bro. Mercer said that he had
heard of the proficiency of the lodge and asked to see a Master Mason Degree.
W. Bro. Hill sent out for a candidate who happened to be entitled to the
Degree and ordered all the chairs vacated and filled them from the floor. He
then had the Degree worked in full and proudly affirms that "the work was done
without a single mistake."
report recommending a charter the committee says:
committee feel that the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts can look with pleasure
and pride upon this their offspring beyond the seas. This ancient Grand Lodge,
true to her traditions, has ever been zealous in disseminating Masonic light
to those residing in darkness, and is now performing a duty which it early
learned, and has never ceased to practise, of sending to distant lands her
messengers of peace. In her humble way she obeys the divine injunction, 'Go ye
into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.' "
charter of Ancient Landmark Lodge was issued March 8, 1865.
nearly forty years Ancient Landmark was the one outpost of American
Freemasonry in China.
1903, however, there was a great awakening of interest in American Masonry in
China. The acquisition of the Philippine Islands, the declaration of the
famous "open door policy" by John Hay, and the general renewal of interest in
the Orient on the part of Europe and America caused a rapid increase of
American population in China and a desire for American Freemasonry. English
Freemasonry was solidly established in China, but the English lodges did not
offer precisely what the Americans desired. Naturally, there was a tendency to
turn to Massachusetts, as the American Grand Lodge with missionary experience
and with an existing establishment in China.
1903 four dispensations were issued for lodges in China. These were Pei-He, in
Tientsin; and Orient, Cathay, and Shanghai in Shanghai.
had a brief and stormy existence. It started off well and a charter was voted
it in 1904. When the time for constitution arrived, however, the hand of
misfortune was heavy upon it. The Senior Warden had been called to a distant
part of the country by business. The Junior Warden had been murdered by two
natives. The Treasurer had died. The Secretary had been transferred to the
Philippines. The Master proved himself entirely unfit for his position and
incapable of dealing with the difficulties which faced him. The lodge
struggled along for a couple of years and finally surrendered its charter in
never got to the point of receiving a charter. Cathay was chartered as Sinim,
the original name being considered too near to Far Cathay, of Hankow, No.
2855, on the English roster. Shanghai also received its charter in due time
and these two lodges are now in active, flourishing existence.
further changes in the situation in China occurred until 1915. In that year
the overseas establishments of Massachusetts were organized into the District
Grand Lodges of the Canal Zone, Chile and China, and District Grand Masters
were appointed to govern them.
INTERNATIONAL LODGE WAS FORMED
Shortly after this a petition was received from thirteen Master Masons
resident in Peking asking to be formed into a lodge to be known as
International Lodge. Three of the petitioners were Chinese brethren who had
received their degrees in Washington, D. C. It was clearly stated that the
desire of the petitioners was to found a lodge in which East and West might
meet on the common ground of Masonry. The petitioners believed that there were
elements in Chinese society ready for Masonry, sympathetic with its
fundamental ideas, and capable of assimilating and practicing them. It was
believed that among these elements Masonry had a great field of most wonderful
opportunity, and that nothing could do more to bring the Chinese and Americans
into sympathetic understanding than such points of contact between the best in
both races as could be furnished by Masonic lodges.
presentation of this petition was an epoch in our Massachusetts Masonry. It
raised questions upon whose settlement depended the future of our Masonry in
China and, by reaction, the future attitude of our Masonry at home.
are many religions in China. Should the new lodge be founded and opened to
Chinese candidates, what should be our attitude toward those religions ?
Should we continue to assume (there had never been any legislation on the
subject) that the Volume of the Sacred Law meant only the Holy Scriptures of
the Old and New Testaments, or at least the Old, or should the phrase take on
a wider meaning ? Could Massachusetts, without for one moment considering the
abandonment of the first great Landmark--belief in the Supreme Architect of
the Universe--show hospitality to many divergent forms of acceptance of that
was also the question of race to be considered. Was Massachusetts Masonry in
China to continue, as it has been for fifty years, to be the fraternal home of
Americans and Britishers only, or should it become cosmopolitan and universal?
original American Masons in China were business sojourners and seafaring men.
The American lodges, all located in Shanghai, had grown up under the shadow of
the old English lodges and were much influenced by them. England had a strong
establishment and a District Grand Lodge. English influence predominated
generally in the foreign portion of Shanghai. The English and the Chinese did
not and do not meet socially. Chinese were not admitted to the English lodges
nor had they been to the American lodges. Were the American lodges to continue
this policy, or were they to move out from the sphere of dominating English
influence and give American Masonry in China a character of its own?
came to this: Was Freemasonry in China to mean anything to the Chinese?
MADE TO GRAND LODGE
only necessary to say that Bro. Melvin M. Johnson was then Grand Master of
Masons in Massachusetts to make it clear that the problem received the careful
consideration of one of the finest Masonic minds in the United States. The
Grand Master called upon the advice of the strongest committee he could raise
in the Grand Lodge. The report of the committee was drawn by Bro. Roscoe
Pound. [Published in THE BUILDER, October, 1916, page 302.]
result of these deliberations International Lodge received its dispensation
and, in due time, its charter.
that time Massachusetts Masonry in China has had a distinct individuality of
its own and has meant something to the Chinese. Be it understood, there has
been no breach and no antagonism with English Masonry. Not the slightest cloud
dims the cordiality of our fraternal relations. Possibly some of the more
conservative of our English brethren may in their hearts question the wisdom
of our new policy, so different from their established ways of thinking, but
they recognize its Masonic regularity, they acknowledge our unquestionable
right to adopt it, and they continue to be our very dear brethren.
essentials of our policy in China are these. Of course no attempt will ever be
made to coerce the older lodges, or any lodges, to accept unwelcome
applications. As a matter of fact, four of our lodges in China, the three
Shanghai lodges and Talien Lodge, of Dairen, Manchuria, have no Chinese
members. Three-- International, of Peking, Hykes Memorial, of Tientsin, and
Chin Ling, of Nanking--have Chinese members. New lodges are contemplated at
other strategic points, and it will be understood that Massachusetts lodges in
China are to be chartered with the understanding that they are not to be
closed to Chinese who possess proper personal qualifications. There is no
thought of establishing lodges made up wholly or even predominantly of
Chinese, at least for many years to come. There is no thought of abandoning
the English language, even for a single lodge, or of modifying the
Massachusetts Ritual. Our Chinese brethren have no desire for any of these
things. Every applicant must profess his belief in a Supreme Being, but he may
be obligated upon the sacred writings of his own religion. We hold that this
meets the requirements regarding the Volume of the Sacred Law.
years' experience in International Lodge, fortified by the shorter experience
of Hykes Memorial and Chin Ling, strengthen our conviction of the wisdom of
our policy. Our Chinese brethren are Masons of the highest type, both in and
out of the lodge. Their Ritual is correct and impressive. International has
had two Chinese Masters, Wor. Paonan Meinsang Whang, elected in 1917, and Wor.
Ssu Pang Chen, now presiding. [See note.] Our Chinese brethren take their
Masonry very seriously. They try fully as hard as any of us to practice it in
their daily lives. They are most scrupulous in their investigations of Chinese
applicants. In several cases Chinese of great wealth and even international
reputation have had their applications declined because the Chinese members
have said to the Master, "We could not call him brother."
Chinese gentlemen of the highest standing have sought admittance. A Prime
Minister and a Chief Justice of the Supreme Court have taken their degrees. A
President is understood to have withheld his application only because of his
very slight knowledge of English. He granted an audience to Grand Master
Prince when he visited our lodges in China in 1922, received him most
graciously, and expressed his high appreciation of Masonry and his sense of
its great value to the people. Three members of International Lodge were among
the Chinese delegation at the making of the treaty of Versailles.
in brief, is the story of Massachusetts Freemasonry in China. We do not regret
the time, effort and money our Grand Lodge is putting into it, for we believe
that it has a great mission and a great future .
by Editor: For item concerning a Chinese W. M. in Hawaii see
Grave of Brother Lafayette
BRO. ED TOWSE, HONOLULU, HAWAII
one of the dozens of Sunday mornings that the sharp bow, high white sides and
revised masts of the U.S.F.S. Philadelphia rested big and bright from the
wharves of Honolulu. The handsome unit of "white squadron" architecture was a
striking picture from Punchbowl, from Roundtop, Tantalus or Konahuanui, or
from beneath the palms at Waikiki beach. Capt. Henry Cochrane, U.S.M.C. (later
major with a Spanish War record), had seated himself with his guests in the
shade of the shelter of one of the heavy pieces of the port battery. It was
near the gangway. Out on the other side we looked upon the odd little
lighthouse, with the reef and surf and sea beyond. Along the opposite bend of
the bay were the homes of the local boat clubs--Myrtles, Healanis, Leilanis,
Alohas. The young men were getting out shells and barges or were lounging or
swimming. From a small wharf native men and women with shouts and laughter
were making running jumps into the bay.
for the purpose of drawing out the veteran officer, one of his party had
remarked that for even, full grace and genuine general charm the Hawaiian
half-caste woman was the superior of the daintiest thoroughbred of any kind or
then a sergeant of marines, a fine, soldiery fellow, approached to make a
report to his commander. As the man left the captain began:
fellow is the complete ideal of a living Bertie Cecil. stepped from Ouida's
Under Two Flags. He's a marine and was with me in Paris."
Cochrane had a detail of thirty-two United States marines at the Eiffel Tower
asked the captain what sort of a showing they made with samples of the other
armies and navies. The captain now became unreserved, fluent and earnest; here
is what he said, and how:
were the best looking, best drilled, best dressed, best behaved, best paid,
best fed and most intelligent lot of enlisted men there. Their allowance made
them princes among their associates and I was proud of them and our country
and its soldiery. Every wealthy American who saw them made them a present.
They were in clover all the time and had furloughs and half a dozen honorable
mentions in orders when they came home. I have a picture of the company taken
at the grave of Lafayette.
certainly pardonable that I plume myself upon having instituted the custom of
decorating the grave of Lafayette on the Fourth of July.
sort of a patriotic inspiration suggested the plan to me. This was in the
month of April. I, of course, thought of May 30 as the appropriate day for the
ceremony. Mr. Whitelaw Reid, then our envoy to France, was at once
enthusiastic. He said he knew a Lafayette, a bachelor member of the deputies.
or some other legislative body.
Reid, certain that his acquaintance was a relative of the man who made France
and America such great friends, at once dictated a letter to him, setting
forth fully the plan and indicating a day and hour at which both of us would
we made the visit we were kept waiting perhaps an hour, when one of the most
delightful of old gentlemen came in and offered in excellent English the
excuse of detention on public business. Very pleasantly did he entertain us.
He was the only living male descendent of the companion of Washington.
widowed sister and her daughter were mentioned with the assurance that they
would co-operate in the proposed exercises. M. Lafayette, on condition that we
should assume entire control and direction and the management of all details.
consented to make an address in English.
Reid was quite busy at this time and assigned me to the executive work, which
included enlistment of a committee of prominent Americans. This was no trouble
at all. Then. about May 5, I set out to have a look at the grave of Lafayette
and mark a line of march and parade position.
was a most astonishing thing, but an actual fact, that no one seemed to know
where the remains of this noble and famous man had been placed. I hunted for
days, being aided by volunteers and paid men. Mr. Reid communicated officially
with the Government and we learned that his inquiry was being referred from
one bureau to another.
the end of May all of us were well nigh hopeless. Then one day I ran across a
young American resident who was married to a French woman. He was from
Philadelphia, but was at home enough in Paris and with the language to be a
very successful professional guide. Well, he knew where Lafayette's grave was.
was a Freemason, was intimately acquainted with the circumstances of the
visits of Lafayette to his own lodge and that of Washington at Alexandria, Va.
This guide told me that I might have made the quest simplicity itself by
consulting members of the Supreme Council of Thirty-third Degree Scottish Rite
Masons of France or any brother of a subordinate body of that great
organization. He began to describe the location of the grave, but I took him
right along with me.
tomb, very simply inscribed, was in a small cemetery in one of the most
interesting sections or districts of old Paris. Near it was a large cemetery
where there had been interred 1,300 victims of the Reign of Terror. This was
told in a few lines on a weather-beaten sign over the broken gate. Overlooking
both of these burial grounds was a convent made famous in Victor Hugo's Les
Miserables. One could study French history and literature in that vicinity for
30 was now an impossible date for the ceremony and we fixed upon July 4. There
was quite a gathering, though there was no intent to make it a general affair.
We raised the Stars and Stripes and fired a salute. Then my men stacked arms
and fell out. The color sergeant laid his flag on top of the rifles. The
sister and niece of M. Lafayette, who were dressed in black, walked over to
the line of arms, gently lifted a fold of Old Glory and kissed it reverently.
That was a sweet and simple tribute to the United States and all were
floral offerings included some that I knew to be Masonic and of the Scottish
Rite. There was a beautiful cross of red roses, a triangle with a Hebrew
character in the center and an elaborate piece with a monogram displaying the
letters 'L.F.E.' These, I was told, were for the initials of the words
'Liberty, Fraternity, Equality.' They surmounted the figures 33. Each
Freemason present joined in a procession around the grave and at the final
encircling of it dropped a sprig of green at the head.
Lafayette's speech was a success beyond our most sanguine hopes excepting,
perhaps, the very last sentence.
spoke of our country and his own, of our immortal forefather and of his own
great ancestor, of our President and his President, of Mr. Reid and myself and
of the occasion.
came his peroration and his accident from lack of practice with English. As
nearly as I can recall, he said:
is peculiarly fitting that this recognition of the distinguished son of such a
thriving, busy Republic as France has become, should be at the hands of
citizens of that great model and time-tried Republic, that country of brave
and brilliant and generous men, that country of such grand institutions and
complete liberty, that country which leads the entire world in the march of
scientific, mechanical and intellectual-mte-lectual-ah-ah go head.'
course 'achievement' was the word he was after. The Americans repressed their
laughter and were ready with compliments to the speaker. A few evenings later
most of us met him at dinner and he then told the joke on himself. The custom
of remembering Lafayette's grave continues and I hope it endure."
Afterwards Capt. Cochrane told of witnessing a Russian coronation and his
recital of seeing two men guillotined in Paris gave at least one of his
hearers more thrills than several legal hangings and a halfdozen lynchings
witnessed in the Rocky Mountain country.
MASONIC RELIEF AT ROCHESTER, MINN.
to the fame of its physicians and hospitals this city has become a mecca for
thousands of sick men and women from all parts of the world. Of late years the
Grand Lodge of Minnesota has been carrying on among these unfortunates a
magnificent relief work, the nature and extent of which is amply set forth in
the report of the committee made to Grand Lodge at St. Paul at the
Seventy‑first Annual Communication, here republished by consent of Grand
Secretary John Fishel:
Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Minnesota:
Pursuant to the resolution of one year ago, whereby the Grand Lodge of
Minnesota took over the matter of Fraternal Service at Rochester, Minn., the
M. W. Grand Master appointed the following trustees to take charge of the
work: W. N. Kendrick, P. G. M., Herman Held, P. G. M., and W. Bro. Guy
Streator. S. G. S. The appropriation committee placed $3,000 in the hands of
the committee to cover the expense.
committee retained the service of Bro. Frank G. Warner as fraternal
representative at a salary of $2,500 per year, placing in his hands five
hundred dollars to be used as a revolving fund for the financial assistance of
brethren who might be temporarily in need of money.
small beginning a few years ago when the Master and brethren of Rochester
Lodge, No. 21, carried on a splendid work as well as the limited means at
their command would admit, this work has developed to such lengths that this
year Bro. Warner has met and administered to the comfort of 1956 brethren and
members of the O. E. S., making 5,471 calls during the year, besides doing a
tremendous number of errands of various kinds and having an average of 163
persons on his list daily. Bro. Warner is present at this session of the Grand
Lodge and will supplement this report with a statistical report of his work
and a further explanation of what his work consists.
addition to the routine work required of your representative his presence in
Rochester has been the means of saving thousands of dollars to the brethren
coming there; the majority never having been in Rochester before, come there
with a definite amount of money which they feel will cover their traveling
expenses, examination at Clinic, operation, if necessary, and their hospital
bills, not realizing that often their examination may take from a few days to
two or three weeks. Being strangers, sick and often discouraged, and not
knowing where to get accommodations within their means, they naturally drift
to the easiest place, which is often an expensive hotel, so that by the time
they are ready to go to the hospital their funds are seriously depleted. By
getting in touch with these brethren upon their arrival your representative is
enabled to furnish them with accommodations within their means and often to
expedite their examination by seeing that they do not miss their regular
Hitherto, Bro. Warner has received his list of brethren at the separate
hospitals, but now, through the generous efforts and co‑operation of Bro.
Harry Harwick, financial manager of the Clinic, Bro. Dr. A. W. Adson, who has
on former occasions represented the Clinic in our negotiations, and the Rev.
Bunge their social service representative, all people are registered as to
their fraternal affiliations at the Clinic and he receives his list there. He
is thereby enabled to get in immediate touch with the brethren and members of
the O. E. S., and the value of his services is greatly enhanced. To these men
the Grand Lodge of Minnesota owes a debt of gratitude.
wisdom of providing the revolving fund of $500 has been thoroughly
demonstrated by the feet that Bro. Warner has turned this fund over four
times, or in other words has loaned $2,000 and the fund is now intact with the
exception of a recent loan of $50. In every instance these loans have been
promptly returned with expressions of gratitude and appreciation which amply
repay the Grand Lodge for any expense which it may have been to and the
committee feel that their time has been well spent.
committee feels that the fund has been rather economcally administered in that
the expense outside the salary and Wee expense of your representative has been
less than $40, which covers the traveling expense of the members of the
committee, telephones and correspondence.
commenting upon the use of picturesque phrases recently, The London Times
asked: How many of those who talk glibly of shibboleths have before them the
picture of the wretched Ephraimites at the ford striving frantically to frame
the word which is going to be the arbiter for them of life and death? Rev.
Walter Crick, of Oving Vicarage, in answer, mentions a striking repetition,
not of the word, but of the facts which the word connotes, as related to him
by Major‑General Sir George MacMunn, who served at the Dardanelles and in
Mesopotamia during the war:
Lord Allenby's final routing of the Turkish forces broken parties of fugitives
arrived at the fords of Jordan. There were many Arabs and Syrians conscripted
in the Turkish Army. The fords were held by our Arab allies, and when Turkish
soldiers tried to pass they one and all said they were Syrians. So the Arab
guards said, "Say now 'Bowel' " (onion), and they said, "Bossel," for no Turk
could pronounce it right.
History is said to repeat itself, adds Mr. Crick, and, if this is so, no more
singular illustration of the feet could well be imagined than is presented by
this picture of the Turkish soldiers "striving frantically to frame the word
which is going to be the arbiter for them of life and death," just as did the
Ephraimites 3,000 years ago, and probably at the self‑same ford! – Toronto
CASSIUS J. KEYSER ADRAIN PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, NEW
KEYSER is known to the country by virtue of a list of notable books, among
which is "Mathematical Philosophy," a glorious triumph of right reason in a
difficult field, reviewed in these pages, October, 1922, page 319. Count
Korzybski's book, to which Dr. Keyser refers below, was reviewed in August of
the same year, page 256. The reader will find it worth while to read "Man and
Men" along with Bro. Sidney Morse's captivating apologue, "The Grand Vizier's
Quest," in The Builder, November last, page 330; the general theme is
identical. The present essay is based on an address delivered before the
Bureau of Personnel Administration of New York in January, 1924.
CHOSE this subject--"Man and Men"--because I desired to discuss with you the
most important subject that I or you or anyone else could think of. In our
world there are many realities but they differ much in dignity or rank. Of all
the realities with which you and I have to deal, with which it is our
privilege and obligation to deal, the supreme one is not matter nor material
energy nor space nor time, though the importance of these is very great. The
supreme reality is Man. The supreme concrete realities of our world are human
individuals--men, women, children. The supreme abstract reality of the world
is man--the human race--Humanity. What do I mean by that term ? I mean, I
suppose, what you mean. By Humanity I mean all mankind--not merely the
living--but the living, the dead, and the unborn. By Humanity I mean, if I may
answer abstractly, those propensities and powers in virtue of which humans are
human. Have you ever considered what those propensities and powers are? I
shall not tarry here, for it would detain us too long, to name them and
analyze them. Being human, you have them in some measure. As intelligent
humans, interested to understand your own nature, you are bound to ascertain
what they are, if you can. And you can, if you will. There is a book that will
greatly help you in the quest. I mean Count Korzybski's Manhood of Humanity.
It is a work that you and every other man and woman ought to read open
mindedly, re-read, and ponder. With its central idea I have dealt briefly in a
chapter of my Mathematical Philosophy, but the reading of that chapter, though
it may help, is far from sufficient.
remaining minutes of the hour I wish to say a few things, by way of opening up
an immense subject, about the relations of individual human beings to
Humanity. I can hardly do more than drive into the wall, rather rudely, a few
wooden pegs to which you may desire to attach some reading and reflection in
diagram given herewith will help us. The mid-part represents the Present,
occupied by the existing people of the world. On the left is our human Past,
tenanted by the dead, a long backward stretch, perhaps a half million years.
On the right is the wide strange Future, mysterious realm of the unborn.
Humanity embraces the three--the Past, the Present, the Future the dead, the
living, the unborn. Today you and I are among the living. Yesterday we were
unborn. Tomorrow our bodies will have perished. In each estate we are members
of Humanity--representatives, as W. K. Clifford might have said, of "Father
here tonight because it is the fortune of the living to have to deal with what
we are wont to call "the problems of the world." Of these the so-called
industrial problems, in which you are especially interested, are only some of
the elements or aspects. All the problems are primarily and essentially human
problems, problems about humans for humans to solve, and no such problem
exists alone or admits of a lone solution. Each of them is in a network
involving all the others. In this matter the mystic's contention is true--each
is all and all is each.
MAGGOTS IN A CHEESE
no single formula for the solution of all your industrial problems, much less
have I one for solving all the great problems of our troubled modern world.
But it is my conviction that the chief source of trouble is this: We have been
and are living in the midst of a great civilization like maggots in a cheese.
is not a conclusion arrived at in haste. It is very deliberate. Perhaps you
will consider it carefully.
living immersed in a civilization which, despite all its short-comings, is so
vast and rich and manifold that we cannot measure its proportions nor assess
its worth. The industrial and other social troubles of the world will be
found, if we view them fundamentally, to have their roots in the fact that we
have been living, and are still living, in and upon that civilization, without
serious thought of our relations to it, without a sense of our indebtedness
and obligations, like maggots in a cheese.
the best formula I can think of for dealing with industrial and the other
human problems of the world is this: Stop living in the midst of our great
modern civilization as maggots in a cheese.
that to be done? The first means thereto is to study civilization--its origin,
its genesis, its essential nature, our human relations obligations.
did our civilization come from?
intimate the answer by means of an example.
months ago I was teaching a class in the calculus. The boys were dealing with
problems in maxima and minima. Some of you know, and others do not know, what
that means, but all of you will understand what I am about to say. We had one
hour. The boys finished in forty-five minutes. "Boys," I said, "please be
seated. I want to say something more important than the calculus.
and I are probably quite ordinary people. It may be that some one among you is
extraordinary but, if so, the happy fact is not yet manifest. So let us assume
that our native gifts are ordinary. Yet you have just now readily solved
problems of a kind that the greatest genius that ever lived on our planet
could not solve without the instrument you have employed--an instrument you
have been getting acquainted with during the last few weeks, namely, the
calculus. Where did it come from?"
was invented by Newton," said one of the boys. Another one said: "It was
invented by Leibniz."
said: "Boys, both of those answers are commonly given and in a sense they are
correct. But in a deeper sense both of them are false because Newton and
Leibniz did but improve the mathematics of their immediate predecessors, and
these did but improve the mathematics of their predecessors, and so on back
till you come down here somewhere in the sharp angle of our diagram where our
dear remote ancestors are engaged in the struggle of learning to count: the
calculus was invented back there ages ago--I mean it started there. And so
calculus was not created by Newton or Leibniz. It was produced, little by
little, by many generations now in the state of those we are accustomed to
call the dead."
said: "Boys, they are not dead--that-must be evident to you. Their bodies are
dead but the men are living and are here in this room--Newton and Leibniz and
the rest are here-- they are at work, working with us and through us as agents
of Humanity, by means of ideas which they invented, which we inherited and
which it is our privilege as humans, and our obligations, to use, to improve,
and to transmit. I say 'transmit', for the unborn are coming--if you will go
to your cloister and there meditate in the silence, you can see them approach
generation after generation of them, fellow children with us of 'Father
Man'--they look to you and me and appeal to us as the present occupants and
guardians of their future home, fol the kind of world they will find depends
upon our loyalty as representatives of Humanity."
PRINCIPLE IS UNIVERSALLY TRUE
used the calculus, my friends, merely as an illustration. The calculus is but
one element of our civilization. What I have said of the calculus is true of
all the other elements--speech, the arts, the sciences, the inventions, the
great literatures of East and West, the wisdoms of philosophy and law, the
ways of social organization and order, and all the other kinds and forms of
material and spiritual wealth. We, the people of this generation, were born in
the midst of an immense civilization. We may have improved it a little in some
respects but we did not create it. It is of the utmost importance for us to
grasp that fact and hold it fast and realize it keenly; for else we shall be
as maggots in a cheese. Our civilization--the material and spiritual wealth of
the world--was not produced by us. We have it as a gift. It is the fruit of
the time and thought and toil of many generations of those whose bodies have
indeed perished but whose spirits survive and are now active in the ideas and
ideals and sentiments and aspirations embodied and transmitted to us in the
form of instrumentalities and institutions, knowledges and arts.
must understand and not forget that there was a time when there were no human
beings on this globe. There was a time when humans began to be. We must try to
realize, for it is true, that our remotest human ancestors did not know what
they were nor where they were. They had no clothes nor houses--they were
probably covered with hair and dwelt in caves. They had no language, no human
history, not even human tradition, no knowledge of number, no guiding maxims,
no tools nor craftmanship. But they had a marvelous thing--a gift that enabled
them and impelled to start what we call civilization; and they were, moreover,
the first of a race that had another equally marvelous and equally precious
gift--a gift enabling them and impelling them to advance civilization. These
are the gifts that make humans human.
CIVILIZATION IS THE CREATURE OF MAN
we see that civilization is the creature, not of men, but of Man. It is the
product of Humanity. It is to the time and thought and toil of those remote
rude ancestors, groping in the dark, and of the many generations of their
descendants that you and I and our living fellows are indebted for the
immeasurable riches--the material and spiritual wealth--of our present world.
receive that Human Inheritance as we habitually do receive it, taking it all
for granted as we take the gifts of Physical Nature-- land and light and sea
and sky; not to realize in thought and in feeling that, though we are
individuals, we are living organs of Humanity; not to realize in our heads and
hearts and ways of living, and not to teach in home and school, our relations
and obligations to the Dead and the Unborn: that is what I mean by "living in
and upon our civilization like maggots in a cheese."
proportion as we learn to understand and to feel those relations and
obligations, we shall emancipate ourselves from the lower ideals dominant in
the world and come under the sway of the higher ones. For, as Benjamin Kidd
has justly insisted, there is a hierarchy of ideals and a hierarchy of
emotions begotten of them. From the power of the emotion of the ideal of
self-efficiency-- causing us to live and kill and die for self; from the power
of the emotion of the tribal ideal--causing us to live and kill and die for
tribe; from the power of the emotion of the state ideal -- causing us to live
and kill and die for state: from the domination of these we shall emancipate
ourselves and more and more come under the sway of the highest of all possible
ideals, the ideal of Man-- causing us to live and, without killing, to die for
"Masonry teaches man to practice charity and benevolence, to protect chastity,
to respect the ties of blood and friendship, to adopt the principles and
revere the ordinances of religion, to assist the feeble, guide the blind,
raise up the downtrodden, shelter the orphan, guard the altar, support the
Government, inculcate morality, promote learning, love man, fear God, implore
His mercy and hope for happiness."
Purpose and Genius of Royal Arch Masonry
BRO., THE LATE WILLIAM F. KUHN GENERAL GRAND HIGH PRIEST, GENERAL GRAND
CHAPTER, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
his term as General Grand High Priest Bro. Kuhn visited as many Grand Chapters
as he could find opportunity to do, and at the same time accepted invitations
to speak before other Grand Bodies. Such brethren as have been able to read
the Proceedings of these various Grand Bodies must have been impressed with
the vitality and resourcefulness of the speaker's mind, for while his theme
was everywhere very much the same he managed to give it on each occasion a
form and application appropriate to the occasion. One of the best reported of
his addresses as Grand High Priest will be found in the Proceedings of the
Seventy-sixth Annual Convocation of the Grand Chapter of Mississippi, held at
Vicksburg, Feb. 21, 1924, here reproduced.
General Grand High Priest, I am endeavoring to visit as many Grand Chapters as
possible during my term of office, and I have but one theme: more dignified
and impressive ritualism and a moral and educational value of the Capitular
degrees. It is a lamentable fact that Royal Arch Masonry has not come into its
own. Many Freemasons are proud of the fact that they are Master Masons, or
Knights Templar, or Scottish Rite Masons, but seldom do they boast of being
Royal Arch Masons. There must be a reason for this, and it lies in the fact
that Capitular degrees have been conferred in an undignified manner, and the
moral, historical and educational value have been entirely neglected. But a
change is coming, and these degrees are receiving more attention and a more
dignified rendition than ever before. It has been established beyond a doubt
that even the most light-headed of men prefer dignified work and an occasional
glimpse of the moral and intellectual values contained therein.
Arch Masonry will come to its own as soon as these facts are recognized.
Freemasonry is a beautiful allegory which unfolds to the thinking Freemason
the interesting story of the Loss, the Recovery and the practical application
of that which we call the Word. This is all that the great text book,
Freemasonry, contains. The Loss is symbolized in the lodge, and the Recovery,
with its practical application to life, is symbolized in Royal Arch Masonry.
Freemasonry has a golden thread, a central idea running through all of the
degrees and around which all the symbolism of Freemasonry revolves. This
central idea, or the goal of Freemasonry, upholds the entire fabric, and
unless this is kept in mind, the whole structure falls to the ground. This
center is the Master's Word.
Freemasonry is not a lot of degrees piled one upon another without any
connecting link, or a heterogeneous mass gathered together with the mere idea
of fooling the candidate into taking many degrees. But there is this goal
running through Ancient Craft Masonry of which the Capitular degrees are an
important part thereof. The non-recognition of this fact has prevented Royal
Arch Masonry from coming into its own. It has been misunderstood,
misinterpreted and made a jest, instead of recognizing the greatest field for
intellectual and moral development of anything in Freemasonry. This
co-relation of the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry was recognized by the
United Grand Lodge of England when it stated that "Ancient Craft Masonry
consists of the degrees of Entered Apprentice Fellow Craft, Master Mason,
together with the Holy Royal Arch," and in section second, it declared "that
the lodges may confer the Orders of Chivalry under their several
A PART OF ANCIENT CRAFT MASONRY
means that the Royal Arch Degree is a part of Ancient Craft Masonry, and the
Orders of Chivalry were recognized as Masonic. This constitutes York Rite
Freemasonry. It naturally follows that one degree is not higher than another,
but is a part of the unfolding of an interesting story, and the Royal Arch is
as much a part of Ancient Craft Masonry as the Master's Degree, and it may be
truthfully stated that no one is in possession of all of Ancient Craft Masonry
without the Royal Arch. In this interesting relation and co-relation we have
the beautiful symbolism of the Loss, the Recovery and the interpretation of
the Master's Word. If there is a Loss there must be a Recovery, and the
Recovery is of little value unless you interpret the Recovery. It would be
merely theoretical, philosophical nonsense to discover the Master's Word, and
fail to interpret it in a practical application to our duties as Freemasons.
Royal Arch portrays this Recovery. That is, if you receive the degree in a
manner that will enable you to recognize that you have made the Discovery.
Unfortunately, many who have received the Royal Arch Degree did not receive
anything and the whole thing was merely a joke. Many newly-made Master Masons
have been disappointed in not receiving that which was promised them, and in
the fact that they were put off with a substitute, although they received the
promise that at the proper time the true Word should be discovered....
Originally, the Word may have been given in the Master's Degree, but the
introduction of the legend of Hiram Abiff necessarily made a fourth degree
possible. Not only made it possible but absolutely necessary to symbolize the
Recovery. This is the story of Freemasonry. The candidate feels a
disappointment in not receiving the Master's Word as had been promised him,
but he fails to grasp the truth behind this denial, this disappointment, but
when he analyzes the question from every angle and side he will invariably
come to the conclusion that he w as unprepared and unqualified to receive it.
Men are not qualified to receive great truths instantly. It has been stated
that a great truth requires three hundred years before it is accepted. The
philosophy and history of religion bear out this idea. It is a lamentable fact
that great truths, throughout the ages, have found unqualified ears. This is
true of ancient Babylon, of Persia and Egypt. It is true of the Hebrew nation.
All have been searching for truth. They have been reaching out. They have been
grasping for it. All the prophets of the Hebrew people, from Moses to Malachi,
and even including many great men of modern times, have spoken words and
taught truths that fell upon unqualified listeners and deaf ears. It is the
old, old history, of rejection, because not understood. It requires years of
discipline, research and intellectual toil before arriving at the stage of
being qualified to comprehend great truths in their completeness. The Master
Mason did not receive that which was promised him, because he was not
qualified in those things that "Mark the perfect man."
searching for the truth, the Master's Word, and this search is evolutionary,
constantly rising to a higher and better conception. This is well illustrated
in the conception of Jehovah from that of Abraham down to the time of Christ.
Every prophet took an advanced step in his conception of Deity and the Tribal
God of Moses became the Father Omnipotent and loving to all who worshipped
FREEMASONRY IS A GREAT SCHOOL
Freemasonry is a great school in which every Freemason, if he desires, may
educate himself. He will not only be a historian, but a Bible student. If he
is a reader he will find the footprints of Freemasonry in all history, in the
arts and sciences.
chapter degrees illustrate symbolically and teach four important and necessary
lessons, which he who seeks that which was lost who would make the recovery,
must have in his heart and soul. Without the possession of these attributes no
recovery will ever be made and that which was lost will forever remain in
Freemason is symbolically a workman, whether his place is in the quarries or
shop. Every day finds him standing before the Overseers to test the work
wrought by him, according to the design laid down in the "Great Trestle
Board." These designs require good work, and square work, because only good
work and square work can be used in the building of the temple. A square man,
and a square man only; a man who stands foursquare to the world, not a
trickster, a politician, a doughface, or a weathervane, is demanded. A man who
can face the world unshaken, unashamed, a bold uncompromising man for all
things right, is needed everywhere. In the great search for that which was
lost, such a man has taken a long step on his journey.
the great essentials today is to have an open mind. You and I are too bigoted
in many things. We have our set ways, our set way of thinking. You remember
that when a beautiful stone was presented, it was rejected because it did not
fit the square of the Overseer, and they heaved it over among the rubbish. The
trouble has been in the past, and is today, a great hindrance to progression,
that we are all carrying about little dinky squares and every time anything
new comes up we put our squares to it, our notion of the thing, not our
reason, but chiefly a notion and conception, and if it does not fit the little
squares of ours, we heave it among the rubbish. We do not stop to analyze the
question. We have a preconceived notion, not an idea, hence we throw the new
thing overboard. This is true in politics; it is true in religion, it is true
in science. In fact it is true in everything that is new. This is the story of
the Master's Word. Everything new that comes we meet it in a defensive manner.
We do not canvass it and examine it, but without thinking about it, reject it.
We are not open minded.
not believe that any man can discover the Master's Word who is a bigot, who is
not willing to weigh things. We know what bigotry has done in this world; that
it has kept churches apart and has made partisan politics. A Freemason ought
to be a man with an open mind, willing to analyze anything that comes along,
from the humblest to the most scientific. We have heard a great deal about the
fundamentalists and the liberals in religion. The fundamentalist backs up and
says, "No, that is not according to my notion; I will reject it." The
liberalist takes everything that comes along, fails to analyze it well enough
to see whether it fits or not. You have heard of a distinguished citizen who
was scared to death for fear that somebody would find that his grandfather was
a monkey. It is being said that on account of science men are doubting the
Bible and rejecting it. This is a purely unthinking, superficial view. My
advice is, read all the scientists and all the higher criticism, then analyze
them and think it over. I know where you will land. There is no danger to the
thinking man of becoming an atheist. All the criticism and all the scientific
books, all the theories of creation, when we apply them intelligently and
correctly, make the Bible stronger than ever. That which was mere faith before
now is substantiated by reason. Do not be afraid of higher criticism. Do not
be afraid of the so-called sciences. If the religion you have cannot stand the
test of true and proven science, it is not worth very much. Religion will meet
all scientific truth and meet it in the proper spirit and in the proper way.
It may change some of our preconceived notions, but laying aside these
notions, your religion will come out stronger and better than ever. I am not
afraid about evolution. I believe in evolution. I cannot see the flowers in
the front yard without making me believe in the principles of evolution. These
beautiful flowers were once weeds. The process of evolution has made them what
they are now. So with everything. But evolution does not necessarily mean
monkeyism at all. Even if it did, behind it all stands the fiat, created. We
cannot get away from that. I do not care whether this world was made in seven
days or whether it took billions of years. Back of it all stands the word,
created. So far as the monkey is concerned, if we are evolved from the monkey
then it is a fine type of evolution and we must congratulate the monkey. Of
course, a great many people are afraid of having their ancestry exposed, and I
do not blame them, but the world does not care a fig as to who your
grandfather was, but it is asking, "Who are you, what are you going to do?"
Even the monkey evolution is not nauseating, as I would rather have a good
clean monkey for my great, great, great grandfather than some people I know.
Freemason ought to look things squarely in the face, lay aside his prejudice,
and study the question carefully. There is nothing to be afraid of. Let us lay
aside our dinky squares and recognize the beautiful and not heave it over
among the rubbish because we do not understand it. There are many things that
have been thrown in the rubbish heap that in after years were discovered as
the most beautiful and important things. Men have lived, wrought hard, and
died rejected. It took years before their work was recognized, and they stand
today as remarkable men in the history of nations of the world. An open-minded
man is never a partisan. It is all right to belong to a party; but it is all
wrong to have a party own him, and he fail to exercise horse sense in
analyzing questions. A Freemason ought to be an independent man, with no yoke
about his neck. When Freemasons can analyze questions, consider them
deliberately, come to a rational conclusion, they are coming closer to
receiving the Master's Word.
SECOND LESSON IS SELF-CONTROL
second lesson is that of self-control, obedience to constituted authority.
This is taught in the Past Master's Degree. Of course, very few of you have
seen this lesson in the degree. This degree is used chiefly in some Grand
Jurisdictions as a means of making a fool of a man and, as conferred, is a
disgrace to Freemasonry; yet it contains one of the fundamental principles of
Freemasonry; that before a man will rule, he must first learn to obey; that
before he would teach, he must first be a student; a Craftsman before he will
be a Master of the Craft; a subject before he would be a king; and before he
would enlighten others, he must become enlightened himself. These principles
are fundamental, but the tendency of our present day is, that a man wants to
be the boss before he is an Entered Apprentice; be Master of his lodge before
he has been an obedient Craftsman. The world is suffering from unprepared men;
unprepared for existing conditions; for an honest day's work; for adverse
conditions that may arise, possessed of a mere smattering of everything, but
little of anything; an expert in all things but an expert in nothing.
Undisciplined men, men who lack self-control, are a curse of the age. A
disregard of law, and incompetency to perform, is as prevalent among the
better class as among the crooks. Bold defiance of law is everywhere present.
Men wink at the violation of law, especially the eighteenth amendment. No
Freemason will violate this law or wink at the violation thereof. If he does
he will never find the Master's Word. A true Past Master has learned the
lesson of obedience in the school of discipline, has become master of himself
and is thoroughly prepared for the duties upon which he would enter.
must have been supreme satisfaction to King Solomon to erect the magnificent
and costly Temple of Jehovah. It represented all that the Oriental mind could
conceive as an offering to God. The inspiring display that marked the
preliminary step to, and the dedication of, the Temple is one of sublimity and
glory. The inspired writer depicted it so graphically, describing this scene,
touched the theme with more than mortal pen. Picture the Temple reflecting its
golden splendor under the noon-day sun; imagine the great choir chanting
antiphonally that wonderful psalm, "Lift up your heads, oh ye gates, and be ye
lifted up, ye everlasting doors, and let the King of Glory come in." Listen to
that inspiring prayer of the King, standing on the brazen scaffold in his rich
and kingly robe, see the fire descend on the sacrificial altar, and the Temple
illuminated by the Divine Presence, while the vast throng fall prostrate
worshipping and praising. "For He is good, for His mercy endureth forever."
Who would not like to have witnessed this wonderful scene?
has not the same scene been re-enacted in many a human heart? It may not have
had the external splendor; it may not have been that of a King or Prince, but
that of an humble man, who toiled daily, yet this individual, personally
dedicated, partook of the same splendor, heard the same choir, uttered the
same prayer, and beheld the fire descend on his meager sacrifice, and felt the
glory of the Divine Presence. We are, indeed, Temple Builders. Some are
building a magnificent temple. Some are building the best temple they can. Men
differ in ability. Men differ in opportunities. But it does not matter whether
you are building a little temple, building of bricks rather than granite, or
bricks without straw, yet the temple is being builded. You and I will have to
complete our temple and the last stone must be put in position and may it
receive the plaudits as of old, "Grace, grace be unto it."
Companions, do you not think that if a man is independent, does square work,
and square work only, controls himself and is obedient to constituted
authority, who is building a temple in this world, do you not think he is
getting pretty close to the Master's Word?
DESCRIBERS PURPOSE OF THE WEARY SOJOURNERS
often thought of those three weary sojourners coming out of Babylonian
captivity, making their long and toilsome journey from Babylon to Jerusalem
with only one purpose in mind, and that was to rebuild the city and the House
of the Lord. These three Jews were heroes but, while just released from
captivity, it should be remembered that the great age of the Jewish nation was
not in regal splendor in its solidarity as a nation, in its armies, in its
wealth, or its expansive boundaries, but its golden age was the seventy years
of captivity. It was the literary age of Jewry. Out of it came its sacred
writings, the collation of its remarkable history of her people, her prophetic
literature and her psalter. Had the captivity never occurred the world might
have been denied its greatest heritage, the Old Testament. From the school of
captivity emerged a people immortal, a people who were the creators of the
sacred and undying literature of the world, and the steadfast adherence to
the purpose and aim of these three weary sojourners. A purpose that was never
lost in their long and toilsome journey, on foot, over rough and ragged roads
through desolation and amid ruins, but ever onward toward Jerusalem, the city
of their fathers. The journey was not taken to secure ease, comfort, emolument
or honor, but solely for the purpose of engaging in the noble and glorious
work of rebuilding the city and House of the Lord. This truly was a noble
purpose, but it did not embrace all, as they did not expect even "the hope of
a fee or a reward." This was the climax of their noble purpose. It was
unselfish. It was unstinted service, a service to their home, to their people
and to their God. What greater encomium can be given to these faithful,
devout, returning captives than to say they served? Any portion of the work,
however humble, their willing hands were willing to perform. The keystone of
the Royal Arch should bear upon it, "I Serve." Service, self-sacrifice, should
be the battle cry of Freemasonry, and he who does not wish to serve or
sacrifice, will never discover the Master's Word.
three zealous Jews discovered it. They did not discover it in a palace but in
a vault. They found it after digging away the rubbish, away from the sight of
men, not for worldly applause or honor, but for pure service, and they found
is the beautiful story of Freemasonry: The loss of the Master's Word and its
recovery by men being fully prepared and qualified searching for it, and
willing to make long and toilsome journey through life, with one end in view,
to assist the noble and glorious work of building the House of the Lord,
working for humanity without the hope of fee or reward. When Freemasonry
grasps this idea, that it is a life service, a life of self-sacrifice, then
will Royal Arch Masonry come to its own. When we grasp the idea of Royal Arch
Masonry as I have tried to explain it, it will not any longer be a mere
stepping stone from the lodge to the commandery, but we shall consider it an
honor to be Royal Arch Masons, and no higher honor can come to any man than to
appreciate and understand Royal Arch Masonry.
Companions, many of you are High Priests of your chapters, candidates are
coming into your chapters. Will you explain to them this story--that they are
searching for eternal truth, or will you make these solemn ceremonies a scene
of buffoonery? I sincerely hope not. These ceremonies are too sacred and it
would be a sacrilege to introduce anything that is not in keeping with the
dignity of Freemasonry. Shrine ceremonies have no place in Freemasonry and
only the light-headed and the moron will indulge in it.
HAS BEEN TOO MUCH RUSH
was never a time in Freemasonry when this ought to be brought home with
greater force. There has been a great rush into Freemasonry. There has been a
hip and hoorah about it. Men have come having no conception of what
Freemasonry is, but they are going to drop out. The tide is going out.
Dimissions and suspensions for non-payment of dues will increase. What are you
going to do with this vast amount of unthinking material? Among this material
are many good men as well as a mass of driftwood. Many have come without
tell you a little story. During the Civil War, Senator Vance of North
Carolina, one of the most brilliant men of the Southern States, being an
active Confederate, was disfranchised by the government. After the war he was
elected to the United States Senate. He went to Washington with his
certificate of election and was informed that his election was all right, but
having been disqualified, and this disability not yet removed, he therefore
could not be seated. He was informed that if he would remain in Washington a
short time, Congress would doubtless pass a bill removing his disability. But
Senator Vance determined to go home. In doing so he took an ordinary coach and
a seat opposite two ministers, a Baptist and a Presbyterian. These two
Dominies soon became engaged in a warm discussion on the question of
foreordination and election. The war waged hotly between the Navy and Infantry
of the Lord's Kingdom. After a while, the Presbyterian minister, noticing that
Senator Vance was very much interested, said to him, "Stranger, you seem to be
interested in our discussion. What is your opinion of election ?" Senator
Vance said, "I have a very positive opinion. An election is not worth a damn
until your disabilities are removed." This is a good Masonic as well as
theological statement. Too many men have been and are still coming in whose
disabilities have not been removed. They are here. What are you going to do
about it? Are you going to educate them as Freemasonry ought to educate her
young men, or are you going to let them drift and finally drop out by taking
their dimits or by non-payment of dues? Every man is not fit to be made a
Mason. There are some who naturally will drop out if Freemasonry is not
congenial. We have moral morons as well as intellectual morons, and a moron is
not fit to be made a Mason, whether he be one morally or intellectually. Will
you help those that remain ? Are you going to have a circus out of it, or are
you going to be sincere and teach these men the great central thought of
Freemasonry? Now, Companions, as Royal Arch Masons, will you please consider
these things: that the chapter means much. It is the great stepping stone to
the central idea, the Master's Word, the Recovery of it and its interpretation
and application. It is not foolishness. It is sincere, dignified work, just as
much as the church itself. I sometimes think that if we took Freemasonry
sincerely, studied it, brought it out as I have tried to explain to you, it
will lead every man to the door of the church .
Name! I learned it at a mother's knee When, looking up, the fond and tearful
face Beaming upon my eyes so tenderly, She prayed that God her little son
Name! I spoke it when I entered here And bowed the knee, as each Freemason
must; From my heart's center with sincerity I said, "In God, in God is all my
Name! I saw it o'er the Master's chair "The Hieroglyphic bright," and, bending
low, Paid solemn homage at the emblem there That speaks of God, before whom
all must bow!
Name! In silence I invoked its power When dangers thickened and when death was
nigh! In solemn awe I felt the death clouds lower And whispered, "God be with
me if I die!"
Name! the last upon my faltering tongue Ere death shall still it, it shall
surely be The Password to the high celestial throng Whose Lord is God in truth
and majesty !
Name then, Brothers, always gently speak, Before your father's, mother's name
revered! Such blessings from His gracious hand we take, O be His honor to our
Fellowship of Masonry in Alaska
BRO. CHARLES E. NAGHEL
SECRETARY, MT. JUNEAU LODGE, No. 147, ALASKA
Territory of Alaska is within the jurisdiction of the M. W. Grand Lodge of
Masons of the State of Washington. The list given herewith of Alaska lodges
shows the number of Master Masons on the respective rolls at the end of 1924:
White Pass Lodge, No. 113
Gastineaux Lodge, No. 124
Anvil Lodge, No. 140
Mt. Juneau Lodge, No. 147
Ketchikan Lodge, No. 159
Tanana Lodge, No. 162
203 (The farthest north lodge)
Valdez Lodge, No. 168
Mt. McKinley Lodge, No. 183
Seward Lodge, No. 219
Anchorage Lodge, No. 221
Petersburg, U. D
are small active Masonic clubs at Hanies and Sitka, Alaska. The brethren at
the latter place have applied for dispensation, but still lack two dimits of
having the requisite fifteen to obtain favorable action on their petition.
Juneau, Alaska, are located the following Scottish Rite bodies: Alaska Lodge
of Perfection, No. 1; Alaska Chapter of Rose Croix, No. 1; Alaska Council of
Kadosh, No. 1, and Alaska Consistory, No. 1.
is an active Scottish Rite club located at Ketchikan, Alaska, and active
Shrine clubs are located in all the larger cities of the territory.
chapter of Royal Arch Masons is located in Nome, and commanderies at Anchorage
several lodges and clubs throughout the territory have always been active in
carrying on the work of the Fraternity and maintaining its high principles.
various lodges are visited by sojourning Masons from jurisdictions scattered
throughout the world, and it is not uncommon to find a dozen or more Masonic
jurisdictions, including a number of foreign countries, represented at our
small Masonic meetings. Oftentimes two or more brethren will meet and make
themselves known to each other in the most unexpected manner and in remote
places, as while out on hunting or prospecting trips, and these meetings out
in the vast researches of an undeveloped territory are quite illustrative of
the universality of Freemasonry, for often the brother whom you meet thus
unexpectedly hails from a lodge in some distant foreign country.
experienced the pleasure of such meetings in a small way myself while out on
hunting trips. In 1916 I accepted an invitation from an acquaintance, whom I
had met occasionally in Juneau when he was here on his infrequent visits to
the city, to have my hunting trip with him that fall. I had been informed that
he was a Mason and, after making part of the journey by the mail boat and
finishing it by traveling in a row boat, I arrived at his little cabin where,
by due examination, we established our fraternal relationship, and afterward
he climbed up to the attic of the cabin and brought down his Knight Templar's
uniform and sword, which he told me had not been out of their cases for many
years. He held membership in a lodge and commandery in Idaho. However, we were
not on common ground beyond the Blue Lodge, having traveled different routes.
Several years later, while hunting with this brother, we were camped on the
beach on the shore of a large inlet filled with reefs, rocks and small
islands. We had finished the day's hunt, and just as night was falling, after
we had washed the supper dishes and were cleaning up the arsenal of small arms
in the tent, we heard the "put, put" of a small gas boat approaching the camp.
I stepped outside the tent and called out to the boat's occupant the
directions for making the anchorage in our small sheltered bay, but it was not
until he had pulled almost to the shore in his tender that I recognized him as
a Mason from Ukiah, Cal., whom I had sat in lodge with several times years
previously in Juneau. He had been informed at a small settlement some miles
away of my being in the inlet, and he searched about in his little launch
until nearly dark before he located our camp. We had an enjoyable and
interesting fraternal session in the tent until late into the night, disturbed
by no sound outside the tent except the occasional call of a loon, duck or
goose, which is music to the hunter; and often the volume of sound from the
feathered tribe at night would prompt us to venture the prediction that wing
shooting on the morrow would be more attractive than seeking the more
very nature of our surroundings in Alaska brings members of the Fraternity
together in a closer bond than is the case in the more thickly populated
communities, I believe. If you ever have the leisure and inclination you
should spend a few weeks on one of the most fascinating journeys to be had
throughout the world, a trip to our Northland during the summer, and see our
wonderful scenery, which has sufficient variety throughout the territory to
always be pleasing to the eye as one journeys along. The trip can be made
without much expense during the summer tourist season, which time is most
attractive to many people, although I always maintain that winter is the most
productive of beautiful sights, although not a good time for travel or to make
good connections along the route. You would enjoy a visit to Alaska, viewing
its attractive scenery and meeting the people that make this land their home.
Besides, you would go back to your home with the knowledge that Alaska is a
different land than you had conceived it to be at long range.
History of Masonry in China
Republished from "Encyclopedia Sinica" BRO. I. V. GILLIS, Peking, China,
called our attention to an illuminating article on the Craft in China in the
"Encyclopedia Sinica." The Oxford University Press, American Branch, 35 West
32nd street, New York City, publishers of the "Encyclopedia," very graciously
gave consent to our reprinting it here. We desire to give full credit to the
Press, and to the estate of Samuel Couling, editor of the "Encyclopedia." This
great reference work is one that may be heartily commended to any and all
brethren that may have an interest in China. It may be purchased from the
Oxford University Press at $14.00. The article, as here given, is taken from a
photostat and printed exactly as it stands except for the sub-heads. It is
signed by G.L. The "Cyclopaedia" was published in 1917.
FREEMASONS claim the creation of the world as the starting point of their
practical Craft. But an immediately following admission tells of the founding
of the Original Grand Lodge of England, to which so much of modern Masonry may
be traced, and places the origin of that at no earlier date than A. D. 1717.
Ireland, Scotland and Massachusetts followed in order with like institutions
of their own, the last named forming its Grand Lodge in 1792. Two classes of
detractors base their criticisms on these facts, one ridiculing the claim of
the ancient lineage, the other running down the institution on account of its
modernity. Both are wrong. The claim that the first Mason was the Creator of
the Universe need not be discussed, but historic research shows plainly enough
that "a peculiar system of morality, veiled in allegory and illustrated by
symbols," has existed from time immemorial.
China's own records--the finest, best and most complete in the world in some
respects--prove that within her borders there was such a system known before
the days of Confucius, hundreds of years B.C., and what is more interesting is
the fact that the square and compasses were used then as emblems of morality
much as they are being used now. We need not feel surprised that this should
be so. The early connexion of the Chinese with our own Western ancestors is
being slowly but inevitably traced. Similarity in words alone is sufficient to
satisfy those who have gone into the matter that there must have been
similarity, if not identity, in origin.
Chinese classics, therefore, speak in terms masonic, as, for example, when
Mencius urges those in "pursuit of wisdom" to "make use of the compasses and
square," we may well surmise that the germ of the idea was common to the
progenitors of those who came east on the one side and went west on the other.
Confucius at seventy congratulated himself that he could then "venture to
follow the inclinations of his heart without fear of transgressing the limits
of the square."
the Chinese Triad Society should have a ritual and practice in many respects
almost identical with that of Freemasonry need not surprise us, for just as
China has for many generations been the happy home of secret societies opposed
to the government, so was it--and to some extent is still--in Continental
Europe, where only here and there were governments and rulers wise enough to
place themselves at the head of such movements. Nine out of ten of the many
rebellions in China have been the work of secret societies connected more or
less intimately with religious beliefs.
the first Freemasons of Shanghai built for themselves a home in which to meet,
they applied to the then Consul for his advice as to the Chinese name which
should be given to their hall. Mr. Medhurst had no great difficulty in meeting
the request. He knew what has been said above respecting the use by the
Chinese of the square and compasses, and advised accordingly. He suggested "Kweikeu-t'ang,"
or "Compass and Square Hall"--the Chinese reverse the order of the
implements--as a fitting title, and the designation being accepted, has
continued till the present time to suggest to our native fellow residents, and
to the few amongst them who have been accepted as "brethren," that the
practices to which the building is dedicated are of that moral and reputable
order known from of old and practised by their Great Sage himself.
FIRST HOME WAS IN HONGKONG
Western Freemasonry on the China coast, however, found its first home, not in
Shanghai, but in Hongkong, where the Royal Sussex Lodge, named after the Duke
of that title, received its warrant in 1844, and opened its meetings on the
3rd of April, 1845. In 1848 it removed to Canton, where it remained for ten
years and was then dormant until its resuscitation in Shanghai in 1863. The
original number of the Royal Sussex Lodge was 735. It is now 501, and it is
thus senior to the Northern Lodge of China, the first to be formed in
Shanghai, whose number is 570. Both are under the English Constitution.
Northern Lodge warrant is dated Dec. 27, 1849, the lodge at first being No.
832. Its first place of meeting was in the Kiangsi road (then Church street),
where it occupied a Chinese building, much as one of the Weihaiwei lodges did
recently. Thence it migrated to a building of its own in the Nanking road
(then Park lane). Outgrowing its accommodation, it was compelled to make a
fresh move, and for some time used a building in the Foochow road. Meanwhile
its second hall was being built in the Canton road, where it still stands.
But, once again, developments necessitated a change, this time to the Bund,
where the foundation stone of the new building was laid on the 3rd of July,
1865. Most unfortunate as to the circumstances which immediately followed, the
new Masonic hall found itself one of two "white elephants" which the Shanghai
community had on its hands. The other was Trinity Church, now the Cathedral.
Shanghai had had its fat years during the late fifties and early sixties when
the Taiping rebels were over-running the province. Its lean ones dated from
the overthrow of those pests at Nanking in 1864, and for years the cost of the
two big buildings was felt very severely by the small and comparatively
impoverished community. The Northern Lodge, however, bore half the burden of
the hall, the other half being carried by the Royal Sussex and the Tuscan
Lodges in the ratio of 3 to 1.
Tuscan Lodge warrant dates from Aug. 18, 1864. As a working lodge it has had
its ups and downs, but during the course of its existence it has provided
three District Grand Masters, Bros. Miller, Moore and Hough, for Freemasonry
in the Far East, and is now reported to be in a highly flourishing financial
Arch Freemasonry began in Shanghai in 1861 with the charter of the Zion
Chapter, working under the Northern Lodge, No. 570, E. C. It continued alone
till 1869, when the Rising Sun R. A. Chapter, under the Scottish Constitution,
was formed. The Zion Chapter has ever been one of the most successful of Far
Eastern Masonic bodies, and its list of Past First Principals contains many
names of men who made their mark in Shanghai history in other than Masonic
is now time to turn to constitutions other than the English. All three made
their debut in Shanghai. The year 1864, the last of the fat years, was
prolific of Masonic growth. We have seen that the Royal Sussex was
re-constituted in Shanghai in 1863. On the very same day the Lodge of
Assiduity was formed. It was on the 7th of March, 1864, that the Lodge
Cosmopolitan, working under the Scottish Constitution, was granted its
warrant. The Tuscan immediately followed, as we have seen, and on the 14th of
December it was the turn of the American Constitution to come in with a
warrant for the formation of the Ancient Landmark Lodge.
not necessary here to dilate on the slight differences existing between the
English, Scotch and Massachusetts Constitutions. They are all in the realm of
detail, not of principle, and the consequences have almost without exception
been very happy, for while unity in principle secures solidarity in
essentials, diversity in working is always attractive to visiting brethren who
delight in tracing similarities and contrasts in the differing rituals.
COSMOPOLITAN LODGE BEGAN IN 1864
Cosmopolitan Lodge, No. 428, S. C., began working in 1864 under the mastership
of one of the best known of the older Shanghai Masons, W. Bro. C. M.
Donaldson. It has always been a strong lodge, and was long distinguished for
its charitable work. The Saltoun Lodge, No. 936, S. C., dates from Dec. 23,
Ancient Landmark Lodge, acting under the Constitution of Massachusetts, began
work on the 9th of May, 1864, and sprang rapidly into complete success. It was
the outcome of the meeting of a few friends at the house of Dr. H. W. Boone,
who, with Bro. Hill- -afterwards well known for his connexion with Gen. Ward
of the "Ever Victorious Army"--and Bro. Blanchard, was one of the leading
lights in Masonic circles for years after. Bro. Eames, learned in the law, and
father of the great singer, Madame Emma Eames, was another of the little
fraternity, as was the learned gentleman who in later years became Bishop of
the American Episcopal Church in China, Bishop Schereschewsky. Amongst the
list of Past Masters of this lodge will be found W. Bros. Hill, Eames, Jansen,
the Rev. J. R. Hykes, D. D., and E. T. Williams, some time Charge d'Affaires
for the United States in Peking.
Keystone Royal Arch Chapter may be looked on as an offshoot of the Ancient
Landmark Lodge, as its mainstays were found amongst the stalwarts of that
body. Its charter dates from the 20th of September, 1871.
Masonic bodies founded in the early days of the settlement should be noted
here, the first of which was the "Celestial Encampment," embodying Knight
Templar and other degrees not officially recognised by the English
Constitution. Its charter dates back to Oct. 3, 1862. In 1877 its name was
changed to that of the "Celestial Preceptory," under which it was the only
body in China conferring degrees of Masonic Knighthood. In 1900 it ceased to
exist, but has since been resuscitated. The Cathay Rose Croix was another. It
came into existence under a warrant dated May 18, 1869, and conferred degrees
following the Royal Arch to the 18th. It has long been extinct.
warrant for the construction of a Provincial Grand Lodge of the Royal Order of
Scotland is dated Aug. 10, 1865, and W. Bro. C. M. Donaldson was appointed
first P.G.M., an office held for life. This post he continued to fill till
1892, when, after his death, his mantle fell upon P.G.M. Bro. J. H. Osborne,
who held it until 1916, when he resigned and was succeeded by Bro. M. E. H.
Wells. The Royal Order differs from the degrees that precede it in being
purely Christian in tendency. It embraces two parts, the second of which is a
degree of Knighthood.
other interesting occurrences in the olden days may be recorded. The first
Masonic Ball was held in 1865, but it was not till 1874 that another provided
a small surplus and so formed the nucleus of the Masonic Charity Fund, which
has done so much good in Shanghai and elsewhere. In 1866 the foundation stone
of the present Cathedral was laid with fitting Masonic ceremonial. In 1867 the
Masonic hall on the Bund was dedicated. It has since been rebuilt and adapted
to modern requirements. In 1868 Ningpo joined the fraternity by forming the
"Star of Peace" Lodge, No. 1217, E. C. It lasted but two years, however.
During the year following, Shanghai Scotsmen formed a new lodge, St. Andrew in
the Far East, No. 493, S. C. Dr. Coghill was its first Master and it had every
promise of a long and successful career. But its hopes were shattered and the
lodge came to an end in 1874. The Hankow was next to try its hand with "The
Star of Central China," No. 511, S. C. This was in 1871.
Hankow Lodge might have been known as the Tea Lodge, for its founders were
mainly engaged in the great tea trade of the port as it then was. When that
fell off, and regular residents became fewer, the lodge lapsed. Since 1901,
however, its place has been supplied by the Far Cathay Lodge, No. 2,855, E. C.
GERMAN LODGE WAS INAUGURATED
year 1872 saw the inauguration of the Lodge Germania, which had a chequered
career for some ten years and was then closed. Dr. Zachariae was one of its
Masters, and the lodge was revived in 1895 by no less a celebrity than W. Bro.
P. G. von Mollendorff, since which time it has been in regular working order.
In this, as in all other cases, members of the English Constitution freely
gave their aid wherever it was possible and necessary.
1909 an effort was made to start a lodge under the Dutch Constitution, and the
English District Grand Lodge had the pleasure of performing the Consecration
ceremony, but the experience of the following year proved that an insufficient
number of resident members was forthcoming and the warrant was returned to the
story of the development of District Grand Lodges in China is one of
considerable interest. The first W. M. of the Royal Sussex Lodge, Bro. J. H.
Murray, was also the first Provincial Grand Master of the whole Masonic
Province of China, and the W. M. who succeeded him in the chair of the Royal
Sussex also succeeded to the honor of the Prov. Grand Mastership. This was
Bro. S. Rawson. It was not till 1877 that this immense "Province" was divided
into two "Districts" of North and South China. Bro. Cornelius Thorne was the
first D. G. M. of the Northern section and held the post for eight years.
Leaving for home in 1885, he was succeeded by Bro. J. I. Miller, who in turn
resigned in 1896, and was followed by Bro. L. Moore, who held the office till
his death in 1903. Bro. W. H. Anderson was the next incumbent, and remained in
office till his departure for home in 1908, Bro. R. S. Ivy filling the vacancy
in the following year and still remaining in office, thus surpassing in length
of service all his predecessors.
G. M. is entitled to Past Rank only after a service of three years. His office
is by no means a sinecure. He has the appointment annually of a score or more
of officers to serve under him in the District Grand Lodge, and he is in
undisputed control of all the lodges--be they few or many--of his own
Constitution in the district over which he rules. Territorially in China he
may have to share his sway with D. G. M's of other Constitutions who, of
course, rule only over lodges using their own ritual and having warrants
granted by their own Grand Lodges. As matters stand at present [the
Cyclopaedia was published in 1917], the lodges under the District Grand Lodge
of Northern China, E. C., are as follows:
Name of Lodge
Date of Warrant
Northern Lodge of China
Union Lodge of Tientsin
Northern Star of China
Kiukiang Lodge in consequence of constant removals from the port and an
insufficient number of permanent residents found itself unable, in 1914, to
carry on its regular meetings and so lapsed. The date given for the warrant of
the Tongshan Lodge is actually the date of its consecration. This Lodge has
had the peculiar experience of losing its warrant by theft, and of being
compelled in consequence to go into recess until a new one had been obtained.
Some years ago the present writer paid a flying visit to this remarkable
little community which was then the proud possessor of a racecourse, a club, a
rifle association, a church and a Masonic Hall, with what other social centres
is not recorded, while the census showed a total, including the last baby, of
seventy-five souls only.
fact points to one of the causes of the spread of Masonry in the Treaty Ports
of China. As it is now in such a place as Tongshan, so it once was in
Shanghai, Tientsin, etc. Men formed lodges for companionship. Now, when social
amenities in the larger settlements are multiplied, that particular attraction
is not only lost, but is antagonised by endless other facilities provided by
clubs of every description. It is only in the outports that the earlier
conditions are repeated.
AMERICAN D. D. G. M'S ARE NAMED
the earliest days the American lodges have had the advantage of a District
Deputy Grand Master, the following being the list of worthy brethren who have
held the post: Bros. C. E. Hill, first W. M. of the Ancient Landmark Lodge, W.
C. Blanchard, J. B. Eames, D. C. Jansen, A. W. Danforth, J. R. Hykes, George
A. Derby and Dr. Stacey A. Ransom, the present incumbent. But it was not till
1915 that the number of American lodges was sufficient to call for the
formation of a regularly organized District Grand Lodge. Application then made
to the Grand Master of the State of Massachusetts resulted in the issue of a
charter, and the ceremony of installation of R. W. Bro. Dr. Ransom was
conducted by the D. G. M. of the English Constitution, R. W. Bro. R. S. Ivy,
assisted by the officers of the English D. G. Lodge. This interesting ceremony
occurred on the 24th of November, 1915, and the new District Grand Lodge held
its first annual meeting on the 27th of December, 1916.
many years the Ancient Landmark was the only lodge under the rule of the
American District Deputy Grand Masters, but on the 28th of January, 1904, the
Sinim Lodge was organized, at first under the name of the Cathay Lodge, its
first Master being Clinton, son of the late R. W. Bro. D. C. Jansen. Another,
the Shanghai Lodge, has its charter dated Sept. 14, 1904. A provisional
warrant was given to the Peiho Lodge of Tientsin, but the only occupant of the
chair was W. Bro. L. C. Emery, the lodge finding itself incapable of carrying
China's capital, curiously enough, held out longer against Masonic influences
than any of the Treaty Ports of importance. It was not until the 2nd of
October, 1915, that an International Lodge was established in Peking, which
has since received its warrant from the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, and is
thus under the control of the American D. G. Lodge. On the 4th of November,
1916, a Lodge of Perfection-- 14th Degree--of the Ancient and Accepted
Scottish Rite was also opened by Illustrious C. S. Lobingier, holding an
Honorary 33rd Degree. No fewer than 17 Master Masons received higher degrees
at the temporary Masonic Hall on the Austrian Glacis on that date, but the
most interesting portion of the ceremony was an adjournment to the Temple of
Heaven and the working of several degrees in the Emperor's Robing Chamber. W.
Bro. Pettus was installed as first V. M., and amongst the officers was Bro. C.
C. Wu, son of the well known Chinese diplomatist and statesman, Dr. Wu
higher degrees just mentioned form part of the complete system known as the
Ancient and Accepted Rite of Freemasonry (U. S. A.), which was established
more than a century ago in Charleston, South Carolina. Its Shanghai members
were consolidated on the 19th of September, 1901, into the following bodies:
Yangtze Lodge of Perfection, No. 4, under Bro. G. A. Derby.
Shanghai Chapter Rose Croix, No. 3, under Bro. G. A. Derby
Cathay Council of Kadosh, No. 2, under Bro. John Goodnow.
Orient Consistory, No. 1, under Bro. John Goodnow.
Ancient and Accepted Rite, under the "Supreme Council of England," is thought
to have originated in France about the middle of the 18th century. As has
already been remarked, the Grand Lodge of England concerns itself with none
but the first three degrees with the Royal Arch, but it will be of interest to
the Craft as well as to the general reader to have a list of the thirty-three
degrees as recognised under the Ancient and Accepted Rite. They are the
Provost and Judge.
Superintendent of the Buildings.
Elected Knights of the Nine.
Illustrious Elect of Fifteen.
Sublime Knights Elected.
Grand Master Architect.
Knight of the Ninth Arch.
Grand Elect, Perfect and Sublime Mason.
Knight of the Sword of the East.
Prince of Jerusalem.
Knight of the East and West.
Sovereign Prince of Rose Croix.
Grand Master of all Symbolic Lodges.
Noachite or Prussian Knight.
Knight of the Royal Axe, or Prince of Libanus.
Chief of the Tabernacle.
Prince of the Tabernacle.
Knight of the Brazen Serpent.
Prince of Mercy, or Scotch Trinitarian.
Sovereign Commander of the Temple.
Knight of the Sun.
Grand Scotch Knight of St. Andrew.
Grand Elect Knight of Kadosh.
Grand Inspector, Inquisitor Commander.
Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret.
Sovereign Grand Inspector General.
form of Masonic activity, the working of the Mark Degree in a separate lodge,
has so far been left unnoticed. The District of N. China possesses but two of
these lodges, the Orient Mark Lodge, No. 482, E. C., at Shanghai, and the
Northern Lodge of China of Mark Masons, No. 583, E. C., at Weihaiwei. The
former was established in 1894, its first Master being Bro. F. M. Gratton. The
latter first saw the light in 1906. The Mark Degree is conferred under other
constitutions without the formation of separate lodges.
CHINESE MASONRY HAS FINE RECORD FOR CHARITY
Freemasonry has many claims to the honor and respect of the world, but none
based on surer foundation than its first and foremost practice, the practice
of charity. We have shown that the brotherhood dates its beginning on the
China coast from the year 1844, but when we find that the first Charity Fund
was not founded till thirty years afterwards, in 1874, we must not jump to the
conclusion that Craft benevolence slumbered all that time. It was not so.
Whatever was required to minister to the needs of those in distress came
freely from the pockets of individual brethren or the treasury of individual
lodges. In 1874, however, a Masonic ball surplus of $529 formed the nest-egg
of the first combined fund in which all Shanghai lodges of whatever
constitution could find membership. At first a rather haphazard undertaking,
the fund made but slow progress, working, so to speak, from hand to mouth.
Bro. Gratton re-organized it under bye-laws in 1888, and since then its
progress had been ever onward and upward. Its present invested funds amount to
Tls. 32,500.00 and are supported by all lodges in the district.
Tientsin and district has followed Shanghai's example and now has a thriving
Charity Fund of its own. In times gone by it subscribed freely to the Shanghai
Fund. Newchwang has done the like, and the volume of its fund is a telling
tribute to the generosity of its small community.
might be said of the high standing of prominent Masons in China in other walks
of life. The list includes at least one Bishop, many high church dignitaries,
many Consular officials, various Knights, a large body of representatives from
the liberal professions, many heads of firms, and a vast body of "just and
upright" men who have carried on the traditions of the Craft after the manner
which, in all ages, has led monarchs themselves to become "promoters of the
art." One of the most prominent of Masonic historians was Bro. R. F. Gould,
once Secretary to the Shanghai Municipal Council, and a member of the Northern
two public schools of Shanghai, for boys and girls, owe their origin to that
founded by the Masonic Fraternity in 1886. For years the lodges provided a
liberal prize fund which has now been consolidated and forms three valuable
scholarships tenable for three years. The Craft hold in perpetuity the right
to nominate four free scholars, boys or girls, in the Municipal Schools, in
return for their outlay on the original institution.
further outgrowth from the ranks of the Fraternity may be mentioned the
Masonic Club at Shanghai. This institution dates from the 1st of April, 1882,
has its quarters in the Masonic building on what is one of the very best sites
in the Model Settlement, and has always filled a well recognised position in
Shanghai clubdom. It is not likely that there exist many cities where Masonry
is stronger, in proportion to its Western population, than it is in Shanghai.
bless the Old Tyler! how long he has trudged, Through sunshine and storm, with
his "summonses due!" No pain nor fatigue the Old Tyler has grudged To serve
the great Order, Freemasons, and you.
bless the Old Tyler! how oft he has led The funeral procession from Lodge door
to grave! How grandly his weapon has guarded the dead To their last quiet home
where the Acacia boughs wave.
bless the Old Tyler; how oft he has knocked, When, vigilant, strangers craved
welcome and rest! How widely your portals, though guarded and locked, Have
swung to the signal the Tyler knows best!
There's a Lodge where the door is not guarded nor tyled There's a Land without
graves, without mourners or sin There's a Master most gracious, paternal and
mild And He waits the Old Tyler, and bids him come in!
there the Old Tyler, no longer outside-- No longer with weapon of war in his
hand-- A glorified spirit, shall grandly abide And close by the Master, high
honored, shall stand.
Grand Lodge Become a Nursing Mother?
BRO. DONALD HUGHES, California
HUGHES is a genial philosopher who has the knack of expressing his opinions
with such good humor as to please even those who most violently disagree with
him. We are hoping that he will let us publish three or four other essays
about which he has been gossiping in a number of recent letters.
philosophize a little! It is a harmless pastime with occasional utility, and
seldomly does anybody serious harm, more especially if the so-called
philosopher is as absent-minded and grandfatherly as myself. There is
sometimes a little excitement to be had out of it, too; hardly anybody can
ever tell what a philosopher is aiming at until he gets there, and then
sometimes, as the Irisher said, it isn't the place at all but another. You
remember Professor Huxley's gentle jibe at good Bishop Berkeley? He said the
sainted metaphysician began his discourse with tar water and ended with the
Trinity. Huxley added, it may be recalled irrelevantly for the sake of the
fun, that the pages on tar water were much the better !
friend The Editor has asked me to contribute to THE BUILDER a few of my
lucubrations. I have warned him of my awful habit of digressing, of pausing by
the way to gossip about this and that, of all my literary lapses, my ingrained
garrulousness, and other faults, but he has insisted natheless; perhaps after
I have once wandered all over the inside of the magazine he will recant.
(Others have done as much.) Public taste in letters is all for speed and jazz.
People want their literature served up in rapid little packages, like bullets.
They have gazed so much on the face of the flapper that they have lost taste
for gazing on the face of truth. The shop girl going to work attired in satin
slippers, and a few other things, is setting the fashion for books. "Make it
snappy!" is our motto. The bread of life has become gingerbread; the wine of
life has become coca-cola.
not comfortable in this atmosphere. To me it is a heresy to suppose that the
history of the world can be crowded into an Outline, or that the poetry of
existence can be expressed in five lines of vers libre, or that the drama of
life can be presented in one act. I like the rigor of the game but, like
Charles Lamb's Mrs. Battle, I prefer to play it with my friends in front of
the open fire. The old-fashioned essay is my favorite literary form; its
leisureliness pleases me, its winding in and about through its subject; the
sense it conveys of plenty of time, as if the author knew well enough that we
human beings may as well begin to practice the eternal life right now. You can
make a machine as rapidly as you please, but you cannot make a human being
that way; life grows, and growth takes time, under the patient sun and the
unhurried rains, with time for doing nothing and for dreams. All that is as
true in our lodge life as anywhere else. It grinds me to see the Third Degree
rushed through, with candidates "initiated" in gangs, and everybody screwed up
to the pitch of haste; we shall never teach our novices the lesson of
immortality unless we take time for it.
that pass ! What I started to philosophize about is history, among other
things. Not history in general, in the sense of everything that has ever
happened, but history as understood by Trevelyan, Wells, Robinson, Breasted,
Macaulay, Greene, Hume, Hallam, Gibbon, Freeman, Bishop Stubbs, and all those
disciples of Clio who write big books and organize themselves into learned
their labored disquisitions have any value above the literary pleasure they
furnish bookworms like you and me ? Can one make any practical use of their
chronicles ? Can history be applied ? Is there any method for plotting out the
future on the strength of what we have learned about the past? Are Guglielmo
Ferrero, Lathrop Stoddard and President Herbert Spencer Hadley warranted in
telling us what America is coming to on the strength of what happened two
thousand years ago in Rome ? What these queries amount to, I believe, may be
jammed into one short question of four words--is history a science?
HISTORY IS AN ART
myself I agree with Mr. Trevelyan in his Clio, a Muse, where he argues that
history is an art rather than a science because it is of the essence of any
real science to permit its devotee to foretell the future, whereas the
historian can do nothing of the kind, as anyone knows from the sorry failure
that has attended every well meant effort of an historian to don the mantle of
the prophet. The astronomer can tell you to the second when Halley's Comet
will next put in its appearance because he knows when it has been here before,
but no historian on top of Mother Earth can make any similar prediction. A
thing can occur ten thousand times in the historian's realm and then never
are obvious reasons for this, of course. Man is by nature an unpredictable
being. The mere fact that he possesses such a thing as a history means that
his world is always making new beginnings, new departures, new experiments;
unforeseen factors irrupt into it; if it were everlastingly repeating itself
there would be no news to tell about it, and hence no history, which is news
about the past. Who foresaw the railway ? the automobile ? the aeroplane ?
wireless ? What biologist can tell when human heredity will take a Mendelian
leap into an utterly unexpected variety, with a new kind of blood, a new cast
of human brain? Because the unexpected happens, nobody can tell what to
expect, therefore there can be no prediction and consequently no science.
historian is an artist. Like every other practitioner of that gild he picks
and chooses among his possible materials for those which suit him, leaving out
of account what some other artist may consider of first value, for the purpose
of shaping its plastic substance into impressive forms that please him and may
possibly please his readers.
saying that the historian is an artist, I have in mind the large true sense of
that word and not merely a painter of pictures. Now the one chief and all
engrossing subject of all art is human nature. The artist's proper study is
mankind. Even the art of architecture has man for its theme; a building takes
its shape' and structure not in order to reveal the geological nature of the
stones but to exhibit the purpose and aspirations of the men who will live or
work inside it. Every artist, in any possible medium, is out to show man
something about himself, to reveal him to himself, to put him into completer
possession of himself, so that he can the better shape and govern and enjoy
his own life. This is as true of those forms of art which seem farthest
removed from us as of the more immediate and intimate forms, such as lyric
poetry. Art is a history of human life presented through the forms of the
imagination; it may ignore facts but it cannot ignore truths. Our Ritual,
which as I believe is one of the masterpieces of the world's art, is a history
of the human heart in some of its deeper moods and more tragical moments.
should like to say here that we shall never understand the art of fiction
writing properly until we come to think of it as an attempt to give us this
same kind of history. The notion that it is a novelist's business to construct
frothy tales out of his fancy to furnish pastime to idle souls seems to me a
libel on all the wise and true practitioners of that great art. Imagine a
Conrad, a Willa Cather, a W. H. Hudson, a Balzac, a Henry James wasting his
time at such petty stuff ! It is ridiculous! Those and all others like them
have in view the serious purpose of telling the truth about human life; when
they deceive us by telling lies about it they cease to be great novelists. And
that is the trouble in chief with so many of the poor novels that often become
so popular (no need to mention any names); they mis-represent man's nature,
and therefore practice deception on the unwary minds that steep in their
IS GIVEN AS AN EXAMPLE
Consider as in point here Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim. This admirable and heroic
novelist cherished in his boyhood among the Polish plains far removed from
salt water the dream of becoming a sailor on an English ship, and then lived
out his dream against all the odds of race and language. That done he turned
novelist and left behind him--he has recently passed into the Unseen--the most
valuable body of fiction given us by any writer of this present day. The
professional critic may value his books for the skillful managements of his
themes, or for his sophisticated style, but others of us love them for their
truth. Perhaps there was never a real Jim; never a young sailor who caved in
when he believed his ship to be going down; never such a hidden and barbarous
land as that in which he tried so nobly to bury his shame; but what does it
matter ? The story of this young "Tuan" is a transcript of human nature, true
and revealing, and every reader is the wiser for having read it; wiser, that
is, not alone because he understands others better, and the world better, but
for knowing his own nature better. And what a mystery is this nature of ours!
It is our own, but at the same time not our own, much of it lying outside our
own self-grasp as distantly and strangely as the Malay Archipelago or the
Indian Ocean, so that to have it laid bare to ourselves, and interpreted, is a
great gift to our wisdom, and enables us to know and therefore to manage our
lives the better. To write a novel, such as this, is as much a feat as to
write a great history; in either event the purpose is a truthful unveiling of
human nature. The historian makes his interpretation by means of known facts
about the past; the novelist by means of truths won through the imagination.
One is as valuable, for "serious," or any other purposes, as the other.
long believed that we make a great mistake in supposing that a historian is
necessarily concerned with the so-called "dead past." For one thing, it is not
a fact, as a rapid reading of the biographies of historians will prove. Some
of them have been learned pundits completely divorced from the present, and
more excited about the size of a stone in King Tut's tomb than about the
living world; but for the most part (one recalls Macaulay, Gibbon, Mommsen and
a score beside) they have been moi e interested in present affairs than the
majority of men are, and for that very reason have become historians. For
another thing, the past is not "dead," not much of it anyhow, but very much
alive, most of it quite busily at work in our present day. For time, as
Bergson made us see with his persuasive eloquence, is a continuum, like the
flow of a river, carrying with it into the future what it has gathered up in
the past. Consider your own life ! The experiences of your boyhood have not
been left behind you, like stones lying inertly on a road; they continue
functioning inside you, influencing you as much now, perhaps, or even more
than at the time they occurred. To condemn history, which is literature
dealing with old events, in the name of the urgent needs of the present is to
be peculiarly short-sided about that same present. Almost everything that
lives and moves in our own immediate world derives its momentum and its vigor
from past generations.
this understanding of the matter we can easily see in what sense history, the
record of times past, can be put to the service of the present and of the
future. By knowing what men have been in the past, how they have behaved in
certain conditions, what motives have moved them, what inspirations have drawn
them along, what hopes have animated them, we are the better enabled to
understand what is going on about us, and what we may reasonably expect will
grow from present conditions in the future. This is the truth of Goethe's
profound saying, already quoted, I recall, several times in THE BUILDER, that
"men change but man remains the same." There can be no predictions of matter
of fact but there can be anticipations; anticipations of the future based on
knowledge of men in the past. For these reasons and in this sense I believe
that Ferrero, Stoddard, Hadley and the others are safely within their province
in warning us -- about the trends in the present world from their knowledge of
how we humans have behaved under similar conditions in past generations.
CITY IS A KEY TO OUR PROBLEM
rapid survey of a number of such books as are represented by those of these
authors--I have a stack of them on the table before me as I write--shows that
the thing which bulks largest in their troubled view of our modern world is
the preponderant place of the large city in our life, and of the industrial
and economic system that has brought these huge towns into existence. There is
no need here to go into a detailed analysis of the problem of the city as
envisaged by them, for space is limited; it will be sufficient to quote an
utterance, already become familiar, of James Bryce, who was as keen a critic
of his own times as he was a keen historian, and who succeeded better than
most in bringing the lessons of the past to bear on the difficulties of the
present. He said these words to a group of Americans about to leave London for
home, and they were directed at American cities, but their application is
back to the splendid world across the sea; but don't you make a failure of it.
You cannot go on twenty-five years more in your great cities as you have been
doing. Don't you do it. If you do, you will set us liberals back in Europe
five hundred years." (For this quotation, and for a striking work on the whole
subject, see The Challenge of the City, by Josiah Strong; his statistics are
now out of date, but his general treatment is as valid as ever.)
problem of the city is the key to a number of the most perplexing problems of
government. For consider. In a stable rural community an individual is
buttressed and supported by the whole neighborhood; he is linked to his
neighbors by a lifetime of associations, and to many of them by ties of blood.
If he is out of work he doesn't need to appeal to some stranger in an
employment bureau; if he loses all his money he isn't thrown upon "organized
charity, scrimped and iced, in the name of a cautious statistical Christ"; if
he becomes ill the neighbors come in to help nurse him; and if he dies
penniless he isn't buried in a Potter's Field. He has moral resources outside
himself; his character has roots in the neighborhood.
the same man in a great city to live among indifferent strangers and nobody
will care much whether he lives or dies. He no longer wages the battle of life
upheld and assisted by a neighborhood but goes it alone, and as a result may
very well become economically morally and physically bankrupt. The time comes
when he is overwhelmed by his own sense of isolated helplessness.
meanwhile the same industrial process that has thus herded him and his family
into a roaring community of strangers has been reacting on those left in rural
communities. A farmer no longer raises produce for a local market well
understood by himself but for a distant city market over which he has no
individual control; the mysterious juggling of prices by distant influences
may cause it to turn out that a bumper crop will bankrupt him; and in the
course of time he will very likely find himself mortgaged to money lenders
sent out from the towns. What will men do under such circumstances? The
historians tell us they will most probably do what they have nearly always
done when similarly situated: they will begin to call loudly upon the
government to help them out; they will ask it to guarantee wages for them, and
prices; they will want all manner of subsidies and grants from the public
purse. The national government will become more and more complicated, adding
bureau to bureau, until finally it becomes a despotism; and meanwhile the
dependent and helpless groups and blocs will have become pauperized, because
it is as plain as the nose on your face that a man who accepts money from his
government is indirectly accepting it as a gift from those classes that have
money wherewith to pay taxes. Once this process gets under way it
automatically perpetuates itself; the very subsidies create new reasons for
further subsidies, and so on ad infinitum. It is an old, old story !
purposes of offering tangible proof of these rather sweeping generalizations
let me refer you to the last report of the Census Bureau, capitulated and
summarized by Bradstreet's. In 1915 the average state in the Union increased
its per capita tax on us from $4.66 in 1915 to $10.71 less than ten years
later. In the same period the per capita net indebtedness for the average
state increased from $4.31 to $8.12. The cost of government increased 158.7
per cent in the same years. There is only one possible interpretation of these
stark figures: they mean that power, wealth and activity is rapidly pyramiding
in government. It seems to me that this process is getting a strangle hold on
our own government, and I am afraid that the deadly process has only just
begun. So far as such things are concerned we face a melancholy future. We
shall have not the "Great State" or the "Servile State" that so many
publicists are writing about, but what is much worse, a Maternal State, a
state that has become a mere nursing mother to its weak citizens.
this thing that poured so much rage into the sensitive soul of Nietzsche, who,
whatever may have been his faults otherwise, saw into the core of this whole
situation with clairvoyant clearness. "Why do we go on with a system," he
demanded, "that automatically breeds classes of weaklings ? Do we not know
that when these weaklings have become numerically powerful they will pull
everything else down to their own level ? Strength will be submerged in
weakness, and the foolish will govern the wise!" It perturbs me to see so many
Masons swept into this habit of calling on their own central government, the
Grand Lodge, in this selfsame manner. One might suppose, to judge from a dozen
indications, that the individual Mason and the individual lodge had lost all
power or ability, the way they ask Grand Lodge to become a nursing mother for
them. They want Grand Lodge to manage their charities, to superintend their
new building enterprises, to look after them as if they were helpless infants;
they even become afraid to ask a man into lodge to give a speech without first
creating a Grand Lodge bureau to do it for them. What has become of the old
sturdy independence of character by which our early brethren went out into the
wilds beyond the frontier where there were no Grand Lodges? Has it all leaked
out of our natures? It is idle to justify this steady centralization of
activity on the score that we need discipline and order; you can't have
discipline among sheep!
was a young man I was so much oppressed by the various and sundry social evils
about me that I almost became a professional reformer. It seemed to me that
one could find no better way of investing his life than in an effort to help
tidy up and clean up and better organize our communal life; and I believed
that much of that work could be accomplished without impossible difficulty if
only "the people" could be brought to recognize the evils and to accept the
methods. Like other members of the group in which I worked I devoured barrels
of books. They were good books, and they are still to be recommended: books by
Henry Demarest Loyd, Josiah Strong, Professor Rauschenbusch, Elisha Mulford,
and scores more like them. I distinctly recall what an excitement it caused
when H. G. Wells first arrived on the scene; it seemed to some of us that we
could never tire of his brilliant cataracts of words, his tireless preaching
of a new "World Order."
I remained as much interested in seeing our social life made more sound and
beautiful as ever I was but somehow I lost interest in most of the reforms
specifically advocated. In analyzing them in after years, I have come to
believe that I lost interest in them because at the core of the majority of
them I found an unconfessed, or half confessed, scheme to throw all the
problems upon the shoulders of the State or National Government. The same
thing is true, as I understand them, of most of the schemes being proposed
today. (I am not discussing politics.) Your typical radical wants things
bettered but he usually wants them bettered by the State. He wants to shift
the responsibility from the individual on Main street to some other individual
in Washington. He loses sight of the patent fact that the individual in
Washington has no more ability or wisdom or idealism than the individual on
Main street; and that if the individual in Washington manages life for the
individual on Main street, poor Main street will be worse off at the end than
not trying to break any lances against national or united effort in Masonry,
least of all in the field of Masonic education, or for the sake of such
concerted relief work as the project of a National Masonic Tuberculosis
Sanitarium; but I do believe that we need to be on our guard lest we become a
Fraternity governed paternalistically, which is the last way any real man
wishes to be governed.
own way of thinking there is a very deep distinction to be made among all the
programs of centralized Masonry. If such a program asks Grand Lodge to serve
as a committee of the whole, and as an agency through which individual Masons
and lodges can better perform their work, we can have general unity of action
without pyramiding authority; unless I have misunderstood its methods the
George Washington National Masonic Memorial project could be so described, for
in most cases its money was raised locally and voluntarily, Grand Lodge being
only a machinery of collection. But if in carrying out some such program Grand
Lodge takes the place of the individual and of the local lodge; if it acts in
lieu of men; if it takes money from its own treasury that should come from the
member or his lodge; if, in short, it acts because individuals have failed to
act, then it has become a paternalism.
TRUE RADICAL IS DESCRIBED
find myself in a quarrel with many of my Masonic brethren on our own Main
streets, it is because they are falling into this habit. They may call
themselves "radicals" but at bottom they are not radicals at all. A radical
should be fearless and daring, willing to fight alone with his back to a wall.
All the efforts to have Grand Lodge become a nursing mother are not of that
character; it is the timid, nerveless, half-scared individual who wants to be
nursed and chaperoned through life. I believe that we need a new radicalism in
Masonry, a radicalism that will boldly place responsibility exactly where it
belongs, asking for no charity, with each individual Mason willing to stand
the gaff in his own right, and not begging for help from outside. For that
reason I was rejoiced to come upon a paragraph or two in Bro. Ashley A.
Smith's Report on Foreign Correspondence in the Grand Lodge Proceedings of
Maine for 1924. His words cap off my argument better than my own:
writer of this report would desire no higher praise than to be termed a
Masonic conservator of the school of Josiah H. Drummond or a traditionalist of
the type of Albro E. Chase, because in the truest meaning of the word these
men of Maine were radicals of a vital type even though they are invariably
termed conservatives. How far have we traveled from the original meaning of
the word - radical, - may be seen when we consult the lexicon and find it to
mean--one who goes to the roots of truth. Surely no one thinks of a radical
today in that way. The usual meaning of the word is quite different in the
minds of the majority of men, and the type which comes before our vision when
we say--radical--is that of the superficial doctrinaire, the irresponsible
social agitator, the long-haired type of fanatical reformer with an easy
panacea for all social ills and international maladies and disorders. Masonry
seems to have few of that type of radicals, and in this sense it is a kind of
misnomer to use the term 'radical Freemasonry.' This is not to say, however,
that there are many who seem to us to have overstepped the bounds of a
wholesale and radical conservatism The whole point and purpose of this brief
essay is to make clear that there is precisely this reality at the heart of
Freemasonry, as we have this year and last year observed it throughout the
world--a wholesome and radical conservatism. Several Grand Jurisdictions,
which have our fraternal respect veneration and cordial good-will, incline in
the matter of legislation, attitude and interpretation, rather too much toward
the untried and even positively dangerous, while others no less devoted to the
ideal and progress of the Fraternity veer the other way, toward the old and
tested and tried principles and ancient landmarks of the Order. Maine would
unquestionably belong to the latter class. It would be both invidious and
fraternally ungracious to point out examples of the former. It may well be
that those who are inclined toward the untried and dangerous will keep the
conservative from crystallizing and becoming moribund and pull them ahead,
while on the other hand, the old fogyism of the Masonic mossbacks (the alleged
conservatives) may exert their influence in a no less wholesome way in holding
the aggressively dangerous (the alleged radicals) from going too far away from
the well-tried landmarks. In short, they may accomplish in this union, jarring
as it often is what neither alone would do so well."
BRO. JOSEPH ROBBINS, Illinois
Asylum! here we meet And tell our vows at Friendship's shrine Father! guide
Thou our wandering feet, And make the hearts before Thee Thine.
Beneath the bannered Cross we stand From worldly noise and strife apart, And,
trusting, grasp the offered hand, That holds within its palm the heart.
off our pilgrim sandals brush The dust of busy, toiling day And here, in
evening's quiet hush, Bending before the Master, pray--
in our hearts, without alloy May dwell the love that Christ hath shown,
Responsive to a Brother's joy, And making all his griefs our own.
firm reliance on Thy name, May we the path of duty tread O'er frozen ways, or
through the flame, Whence Molay's martyr-spirit fled.
when, at last, this mortal dust Shall put on Immortality; O, grant us then
serenest trust In Thine unending verity.
STUDIES OF MASONRY IN THE UNTED STATES
BRO. H.L. HAYWOOD, EDITOR
V. FIRST GRAND LODGES IN PENNSYLVANIA
already stated on page 314 of THE BUILDER for October, the Grand Lodge of
England adopted in 1721 a regulation to the effect that no lodge could come
into existence as duly and regularly constituted without a warrant from the
Grand Master. This new law came into effect gradually. Such lodges as had
existed from time immemorial, or as had been organized since 1717 and could
show otherwise a clean bill of health were accepted as legitimate or duly
evident," writes Gould, in his History, Vol. IV (American edition), p. 240,
"that brethren who had left the old world, and brought to their new homes a
knowledge of the Craft, were as much within their rights in holding Lodges in
Philadelphia, Portsmouth (New Hampshire), and elsewhere in America, as those
who assembled in like manner in England and Scotland.... The Fraternity there
in Philadelphia must be held to have been as much and as legally a Grand Lodge
as that of 'All England at York.' "
also previously noted, the old St. John's Lodge at Philadelphia functioned at
one and the same time as a "private" lodge and as a Grand Lodge. The records
of this lodge, as given in Liber B, go back to February, 1731 (New Style), at
about which time, so it is believed, it first perfected a formal organization,
with William Button as Master. When Button left for Newfoundland William Allen
was elected to take his place. On June 24, the brethren assembled as a Grand
Lodge, and Allen was made Grand Master. It should be understood that this was
a "Grand Lodge" according to the ancient customs, and not in the sense now
used; this means that "Grand Lodge" was a general assembly of the brethren and
that all Masons were permitted attendance, wherever their membership might be;
it is probable that the officers were more or less nominal, and acted as such
only at the feast on St. John's Day.
Grand Lodge thus working according to the ancient style was evidently not very
powerful. Until 1757 it never had (so far as we know) more than three lodges
on its roster; and the fourth lodge, organized under its authority in that
year, later withdrew its allegiance, under circumstances to be described. Its
membership was drawn from a restricted class, and the interest of these men
appears to have waxed and waned with circumstances, as during the anti-Masonic
flurry of 1737 in William Plumstead's Grand Mastership. During a period of
fourteen years no notice of the Craft had appeared in a Franklin's Gazette;
perhaps it was because the brethren preferred no publicity; but it may be also
that interest had lapsed. If such was the case it took on a new lease of life
in 1752, for in March of that year a movement was put under way by the Grand
Lodge and the First Lodge to erect a Freemason's Hall to be used exclusively
by the brethren. On March 13, 1754, a subscription list was passed around
"with gratifying results", except that the lodge which met at Tun Tavern held
out for a time, though it joined the enterprise later. A three-story brick
building was erected on what is now Sansom Street, Philadelphia; in this the
brethren assembled until 1782, some of the rooms meanwhile being used for
general public purposes, as when in 1777 a number of Quakers were incarcerated
in it on suspicion of Royalist sympathies. It was popularly known as "Mason's
Lodge" and was the first specifically Masonic building to be erected in the
alas ! As the Revolution approached the original Grand Lodge and its
subordinates became stricken with decay; to some extent, no doubt, because so
many of their members were on the Royalist side, and because so much of their
life was transfused into the veins of a new set of lodges working under the
Ancient Grand Lodge of England, of which more anon. The last official meeting
of the brethren in Mason's Lodge was on Feb. 25, 1782. The title of the
building had been vested in the trustees of the three lodges; the survivors,
Bros. Shippen and Swift, were empowered by the Assembly to sell the property
in 1785; two-thirds of the money realized was returned to individual Masons;
the other third went to the First Lodge and by it was turned over, 500 pounds,
to the City Corporation for charitable purposes.
various Grand Masters of this first Grand Lodge the most important was, next
to Franklin, William Allen, closely associated with Franklin through a long
course of years. He was a Philadelphian by birth, born there Aug. 5, 1704.
After studying law at the Temple in London he returned to practice in the city
and was soon one of its prominent leaders. He purchased the lots on which
Independence Hall was built in his own name and paid for them with his own
money; and while mayor opened that historic building with a banquet, as we may
learn from Franklin's Gazette under date of Sept. 30, 1736. He served as
member of the Assembly and in 1750 was made Chief Justice of the Province.
Being, like so many of his friends, a confirmed Royalist, he returned to
England at the advent of the Revolution and while there published a book to
show how England might retain the Colonies. He returned to Philadelphia after
the war and died there Sept. 6, 1780. According to Libel B he must have been
Grand Master in 1731, because he is thus referred to under date of June 24 of
that year; we know of a certainty that he was Grand Master in the following
year, and that he appointed Franklin his Deputy. In 1750 he was appointed
Provincial Grand Master of Pennsylvania by Lord Byron, Grand Master of
Humphrey Morrey (or Murray), elected Grand Master June 28, 1733, less is
known. He was a merchant of old Quaker stock, and evidently related to
prominent Philadelphia families. He died in August, 1735. Franklin succeeded
him in office and by virtue of a deputation from Henry Price, already referred
to, figured as "Provincial Grand Master for the Province of Pennsylvania."
After Franklin came James Hamilton, elected Grand Master July 3, 1735, born in
Philadelphia in 1710, later residing at Lancaster for a while, in which town
he lived during his incumbency. Hamilton was a brother-in-law of William
Allen. In 1745 he was Mayor of Philadelphia, and in 1748 was commissioned
Lieutenant Governor of the Province. His death occurred in New York, Aug. 14,
HOPKINSON WAS ELECTED
July 8, 1736, the Grand Lodge elected Thomas Hopkinson to succeed Hamilton.
Hopkinson was born in London, April 6, 1709, studied law, and, after coming to
Philadelphia, soon forged to the front, becoming a member of the Provincial
Council, first president of the American Philosophical Society, and the
incumbent of other positions equally important; he was the father of one of
the signers of the Declaration of Independence; his grandson, Joseph.
Hopkinson, was the author of "Hail Columbia." He died Nov. 5, 1751. The
anti-Masonic scare, occasioned by a catastrophe incident to a mock initiation,
came at the end of his administration; he issued a statement to the public in
order to clear the Fraternity of any guilt in this most unfortunate occurrence
and ridiculous misadventure. The Grand Master for 1737/8 was also prominent in
the larger affairs of the city. William Plumstead (or Plumbstead) was born in
Philadelphia Nov. 7, 1708. He held many offices of public trust, being Mayor
in 1754, and was active in Masonic circles. Benjamin Franklin appointed him
Grand Treasurer in 1749; and he was one of the Committee elected to build the
"Mason's Lodge." His death occurred in Philadelphia, Aug. 10, 1765. Plumstead
was succeeded by Joseph Shippen, Jr., born Nov. 28, 1706, a grandson of the
first Mayor of Philadelphia under Penn's charter. It was his misfortune to
reach the Grand Mastership in June, 1738, at the time when the anti-Masonic
crusade was so strong that the Craft apparently lapsed into more or less
inactivity. One of his Grand Wardens was Dr. Thomas Cadwallader, associated
with the Bell Letter episode. He was made Senior Grand Warden under Franklin
in 1749 at the first Grand Lodge held under the Oxnard warrant. Shippen died
at eightyseven years of age.
thumbnail sketches of the early Grand Masters, included here to show what
manner of men governed the Philadelphia Craft in its early years, are given as
being typical of the brethren who worked in, or under, the first Grand Lodge;
they were, many of them, prominent in public affairs, belonged to the "best
families" and moved in exclusive circles; and it is probable that all the
lodges then in activity were similarly recruited from the same social strata.
Bro. Sachse believes it was because of this fact that a great transformation
was worked in Philadelphia Masonry, beginning about 1758, which it is now in
order to describe.
"ANCIENT" MASONRY APPEARED ON THE SCENE
reader will recall that in 1751 a new Grand Lodge sprang up in England as a
rival to the original Grand Lodge organized in 1717. (See The Study Club,
April, 1924, page 111.) The brethren behind the Grand Lodge of 1751 believed
themselves to adhere more closely to the old working and regulations and
therefore fell into the habit of dubbing themselves "Ancients"; the older Body
they nicknamed "Moderns" it is most probable, as Henry Sadler has abundantly
shown, that a social cleavage was also party responsible for this "schism," as
Gould and others have not very happily described it, for the Ancients were
made up, for the most part and at least in the beginnings, of Masons drawn
from among workmen, many of them from Ireland; Laurence Dermott, their
creative genius, was an Irish painter, and their Grand Lodge was organized to
follow closely the pattern of the Irish Grand Lodge.
middle of the eighteenth century Philadelphia was an important port to which
came many seafaring men, along with laborers of all description; it was most
natural for men of these classes, not in sympathy with the social
exclusiveness of the "Modern" lodges, to prefer lodges under "Ancient"
warrants. Furthermore, many of the brethren who migrated into Pennsylvania and
its sister colonies were members of, or had been made Masons in, military
lodges; and since it was the Ancient Grand Lodge and the Grand Lodge of
Ireland that had discovered the device of issuing ambulatory warrants for
lodges in the armies and navies, it naturally followed that these Masons newly
come to Philadelphia were predisposed to favor the Ancient working.
to these causes, and to the fact already mentioned that many of the leading
"Moderns" of the city were Royalist in their sympathies, Modern Masonry
gradually passed into the background so that by 1793 it had become entirely
replaced by its rival. Under the original Grand Lodge there had been, until
the middle of the century, three "subordinate lodges"--St. John's, warranted
in 1731 or previously; Lodge No. 2, warranted by Franklin in 1749; and Lodge
No. 3, warranted some time before 1749. In 1757, probably to meet the changed
social conditions in the city, Lodge No. 4 was added to the list, opened in
due form on July 2 of that year. It was in this last named lodge that the
first definite defection appeared. A committee from Lodges Nos. 1 and 2
accused its W. M. and two of his officers with being "Ancients"; this they did
not deny. In the following January they showed their determination to remain
Ancients by calling together a committee for the purpose of petitioning the
Ancient Grand Lodge of England for a warrant. Such a warrant was issued (Blessington
was Grand Master) under date of June 7, 1758, was given the number 1; and was
listed on the Ancient Grand Lodge list as No. 69. Following the precedent set
by the Ancient Grand Lodge and the Grand Lodge of Ireland, this lodge vacated
the number 1 position, and took for itself number 2, probably leaving the
first number open for a Provincial Grand Lodge to be organized later. It began
work under the new warrant, received in January, 1759, with forty members, and
chose for itself the official name of "Lodge No. 1 of Ancient Free and
Accepted Masons in the City of Philadelphia, and Province of Pennsylvania."
During the year this lodge divided itself into two sections, under two sets of
officers, except for the treasurer, and met on different nights---a strange
procedure not now possible to explain.
brethren determined to form a Provincial Grand Lodge. On Feb. 13, 1760, they
elected William Ball to be their first Grand Master, and on the following day
asked Grand Lodge at London to issue them a warrant therefor. This request was
complied with in the course of time, and Grand Lodge issued a warrant July 15,
1761. The Philadelphia brethren learned of this but, for some reason, the
document failed to arrive. A second warrant was issued but it also became
lost. A third was made under date of June 20, 1764, and this time reached
Philadelphia safely in 1764. William Ball was installed as Provincial Grand
Master with solemn ceremony Feb. 2, 1764.
the first official acts of this new Grand Body was to issue a warrant for the
formation of Lodge No. 3, composed of members drawn from Lodge No. 2. In the
following year Grand Lodge warranted a lodge in Cantwell's Bridge, Delaware,
and later, lodges in Maryland, New Jersey, Virginia, etc. It met with the
difficulties usually incidental to new organizations, but these it surmounted,
and in the course of time it solidly established itself as one of the Mother
Grand Lodges of this country. The Revolution caused it to sever its official
relations with the English parent body, and in 1786 it was dissolved, and a
new Grand Lodge organized in its place, as remains to be described in later
chapters; the present Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania dates without break in
continuity from that year.
persons prominent in this Ancient Grand Lodge Bro. William Ball was easily
first. He was raised in Lodge No. 2 under the original Grand Lodge in March
1750/1. He was again raised in the "Ancient way" in 1759 or 1760, but retained
his membership in his mother lodge until 1763. As Provincial Grand Master he
served continuously from 1761 to 1781, and then again, after Grand Lodge
became independent from England, for the year 1795. He was born on his
father's estate, now included within the city of Philadelphia, Oct. 6, 1729.
He learned the goldsmith trade, and probably followed it in Philadelphia; but
retired in middle life as one of the richest men in the Colony. He died May
30, 1810, and was buried with Masonic honors.
general field covered by this article the most important literary source is
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania 1727-1907, Barratt and Sachse; Philadelphia; 1908,
Vol. I. Of almost equal importance is Old Masonic Lodges of Pennsylvania
"Moderns and Ancients" 1730-1801, Julius F. Sachse- Philadelphia; 1912- Vol.
I. See also the following: History of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of
Free and Accepted Masons, Stillson, Hughan, etc.; Boston and New York ; 1891.
History of Freemasonry in Rhode Island, Henry W. Rugg; Providence; 1895.
History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould; Cincinnati and Chicago; Vol. IV.
History of Freemasonry in Canada John Ross Robertson; Toronto; 1900, Vol. I.
History of Freemasonry in Maryland, Edward T. Schultz; Baltimore; 1844, Vol.
I. Freemasonry in Michigan, Jefferson S. Conover; Coldwater; 1897, Vol. I.
Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry Robert I. Clegg; Chicago; 1921.
Beginnings of Freemasonry in America, Melvin M. Johnson; New York; 1924.
Benjamin Franklin as a Free Mason, Julius F. Sachse; Philadelphia 1906.
History of Freemasonry in the State of New York Ossian Lang; New York; 1922.
History of the Most Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted
Masons in New York from the Earliest Date, Charles T. McClenachan; New York;
1888, Vol. I. History of Lodge No. 61, F. & A. M., Wilkesharre, Pennsylvania,
Oscar Jewell Harvey; Wilkesbarre; 1897. Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Vol. III,
page 124- Vol. XVII, page 137- Vol. XXVIII, page 270; Vol. XXIX, page 308.
Origin of Masonry in the State of New Jersey, and the Entire Proceedings of
the Grand Lodge, from Its First Organization, A. L. 5786, Joseph H. Hough;
Trenton; 1870. Concise History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould; New York;
1924. Militaiy Lodges, Robert Freke Gould; London; 1899. In above references
early Pennsylvania worthies in addition to above see the following on William
Allen:--Pennsylvania: A Primer, Barr Ferree; New York; 1914, page 84. An
Historical Account of the Old State House of Pennsylvania, Frank M. Etting;
Philadelphia; 1891, pages 12, 24, 35, 52, 58, 122, 132, 136, 147, 151.
Pennsylvania Archives, Samuel Hazard; Philadelphia; 1852, page 362. James
Hamilton:-- Pennsylvania: A Primer, Barr Ferree; New York; 1914, pages 135,
140, 141. An Historical Account of the Old State House of Pennsylvania, Frank
M. Etting; Philadelphia; 1891, pages 16, 18, 25, 34, 39, 122, 136. Humphrey
Morrey:--Pennsylvania: A Primer, Barr Ferree; New York; 1914, page 37. Thos.
Hopkinson:--An Historical Account of the Old State House of Pennsylvania,
Frank M. Etting; Philadelphia; 1891 pages 25, 126. Wm. Plumstead:-- An
Historical Account of the Old State House of Pennsylvania Frank M. Etting;
Philadelphia; 1891, pages 35, 151. Benjamin Franklin:-- Pennsylvania: A
Primer, Barr Ferree; New York 1914, pages 79, 84, 111, 113, 139, 141, 142,
145, 163, 170, 174, 214, 227, 229, 234, 235, 236, 241. An Historical Account
of thc Old State House of Pennsylvania, Frank M. Etting; Philadelphia; 1891,
pages 16, 25, 33, 38, 40, 41-44, 49, 53, 65, 81, 85-87 94, 97, 101, 106 109,
118, 119, 124-126, 154. Pennsylvania Archives, Samuel Hazard; Philadelphia;
1852, pages 294, 295 297, 309, 274, 344, 467, 548, 766, 420. Joseph Shippen:--Pennsylvania
Archives, Samuel Hazard; Philadelphia; 1852, pages 622, 636. An Historical
Account of the Old State House of Pennsylvania, Frank M. Etting; Philadelphia;
1891, pages 7, 65. Much light is thrown on the Shippen family by a volume of
correspondence entitled Letters and Papers Relating Chiefly to the Provincial
History of Pennsylvania, edited by Thomas Balch; Philadelphia; 1855.
general field see THE BUILDER: 1916, page 230; 1917, page 254; 1918, pages
165, 168; 1919, pages 35, 155.
QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
was the regulation adopted in 1721? When was it enforced in the American
Colonies? In what sense was St. John's Lodge a Grand Lodge? Who was its first
Grand Master? What was the first Masonic building erected in this country?
When and by whom was it built? How was it disposed of?
brief sketch of the career of William Allen. Of Thomas Morrey. Of James
Hamilton. Of Thomas Hopkinson. Of William Plumstead. Of Joseph Shippen. To
what social class did these brethren belong? What eflfect did this have on the
future of Philadelphia Masonry?
sketch of the Ancient Grand Lodge. When was the first Grand Lodge organized?
Why did the Grand Lodge of 1751 come into existence?
did Ancient Freemasonry come to be established in Pennsylvania? Tell what you
know about Lodge No. 4. Why did it secede from the original Grand Lodge? How
did it secure its warrant? Tell how the Ancient Provincial Grand Lodge was
organized in Philadelphia. Who was its first Grand Master? In what states did
it warrant lodges? Give a sketch of William Ball. What light does the history
of Pennsylvania Masonry throw on Masonry of today? How many Grand Lodges use
the word "Ancient" in their title? Do you know what influence Pennsylvania
Ancient Masonry had on the American Ritual?
ORGANIZE A STUDY CLUB
pamphlet on "How to Organize and Maintain a Study Club" will be furnished free
to those asking for it in any quantities up to fifty or one hundred. For
further information address the National Masonic Research Society, 1950
Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. The Society answers questions lends books,
clippings, etc., free of charge to clubs. Text books recommended are
"Symbolical Masonry" and "Great Teachings of Masonry," both by H.L,. Haywood,
the former of which should be used in beginning.
Men Who Were Masons
BRO. GEORGE W. BAIRD, P. G. M., District of Columbia
the notable Grand Masters of Pennsylvania in the early part of last century
Bro. Dr. James Milnor held a distinguished position, alike for his magnificent
character - he was in many ways, in appearance and spirit, very much like
Phillips Brooks - and his unusual abilities. He had been made a Mason, in the
twenty-second year of his age, at Norristown, Pennsylvania, in the old Lodge
No. 31 of that town; this was in August, 1795. In the following year he
transferred his membership to Lodge No. 3 in Philadelphia. During 1798‑9‑1800
he held the office of Senior Grand Warden; in 1801 and in 1803 he was Deputy
Grand Master; in 1805 he was elected Grand Master and held that office to and
including 1813, the longest term held by any Grand Master in the history of
the present Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
Milnor was born in Philadelphia June 20, 1773, of Quaker parentage. After a
public school course and graduation from the University of Pennsylvania, he
took up the study of law, and was admitted to the bar when only twenty‑one
years of age. He practiced first in Norristown, and later opened an office in
Philadelphia. He fell into difficulties with his Quaker brethren when his
marriage was solemnized by an Episcopalian clergyman.
few years he arose to a position of prominence in Philadelphia. After serving
as a member of the city council from 1805 to 1809 he was elected to Congress,
in which he held a seat until 1813. It was during his political career that he
began to experience a call to enter the Episcopalian ministry. After serving
as assistant minister in the Associated Churches in Philadelphia he accepted
an invitation to the rectorship of St. George's Church, New York City. This
was in 1816. As a Christian minister he prominently identified himself with
the Bible Society, the American Tract Society, and many important charities.
In 1830 he went to England as a delegate of the American Bible Society, and
while abroad traveled in France, Wales, Ireland and Scotland.
Master Milnor possessed a charming manner, a wonderful control of language and
it is said was one of the gentlest leaders imaginable, an ideal Grand Master,
one would say. He was a leader of men, not a driver. His religion was sincere,
earnest and fervent. His portrait shows a benign handsome face. He was a
prolific writer, always on religious or moral subjects: he published "An
Oration on Masonry" delivered before the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in 1811;
"A Plea for the American Colonization Society" in 1826; "A Sermon on the Death
of De Witt Clinton" in 1828, etc.
died in New York City April 8, 1845. His funeral at St. George's Church was
attended by an immense throng. Of his memorial his biographer, Mr. John S.
remains repose beneath the chapel floor, from which he so often delighted to
dispense the symbols of his Savior's love; while, in the recess on the body of
the base rises a beautiful marble bust which, by its faithful likeness, speaks
continually of the long lived feelings of love and emotion."
interest Grand Master Milnor took in disseminating the Holy Scriptures, that
book of the law and the testimony so revered by Masons, endears him to us all.
Perhaps he builded more wisely than he knew; for that book, the rule and guide
of a Mason's faith, has had much to do with the preservation of our inherent
Nevertheless he was not a zealot, and did not fear that some breath of adverse
wind would over‑turn the ship of truth. During the height of the anti‑Masonic
craze, when some of the best heads inside and out the Craft became very much
be‑addled, and when Christian ministers led in a most unchristian attack on
Freemasonry, Dr. Milnor remained as steadfast as a rock. A country clergyman
asked of him if it would be wise for him (the country clergyman) to withdraw
from the Order out of deference to popular clamor. Dr. Milnor's reply has been
preserved for us by Sidney Haydon:
you wish to renounce Masonry ?" asked Dr. Milnor.
was the reply, "I love Masonry too well."
do as I do," was the rejoinder. "Put down your foot firmly, and say, 'I am a
Mason, and am proud of it!' and if anyone asks you what Masonry consists in,
tell them 'Love to God, and good‑will to man !' "
whole man revealed himself in that reply! It was such men as he that built the
ever enduring structure of the Craft in these states!
Editor‑in‑Chief - H.L. HAYWOOD
L. CLEGG, Ohio
GILBERT W. DAYNES, England
H. DERN, Utah
CHARLES F. IRWIN. Ohio
E. MORCOMBE, California
FORT NEWTON, New York
C. PARKER, New York
M. WHITED, California
E. W. WILLIAMSON, Nevada
Members of the National Masonic Research Society:
Is hereby given that on Monday, Feb. 2, 1925, a meeting of the National
Masonic Research Society Jill be held at the Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar
Rapids, Iowa, at 7:30 p.m.
is an adjournment of the Annual Meeting of Oct. 2, 1924, and the annual report
of the officers and election of members of the Board of Stewards will take
members of the Board of Stewards whose terms expire are:
Parvin, Grand Secretary, Iowa,
Fort Newton, New York City,
M. Whited, California,
Day Street, Alabama.
all also given that there will be presented for adoption an amendment to
Article XI, Section 1, of the By‑laws, changing the date of the annual meeting
of the Society from the fret Thursday of October "to the first Monday of
February in each year."
A. Reed, President.
* * *
ETERNAL LIFE NOW
BERNARD drew his hood down over his eyes while passing Lake Lucerne. He did
not deem beauty a sin, but believed the enjoyment of loveliness should be
postponed until after death. Some who scoff at this old saint because of his
superstition may, if they examine their own minds as carefully as did he,
discover themselves to be thinking in the same way - or shall one say, not
thinking! Such men somehow believe that the solutions of our human problems
will be found out in some distant time, where or when they know not. They live
now without much happiness, without much success, with little knowledge,
because they assume that the inner nature and explanation of things has been
indefinitely reserved. They cease trying to develop themselves because they
believe it of no use, thinking that, once death is behind them, such things
will be granted them by a sudden revelation. Or they believe that the true
knowledge of things is somehow hidden behind a veil, hung at the back of the.
sky, accessible only to elect souls. This is a trick the human mind plays on
itself, out of its habit of expectancy and its vice of postponement. All that
exists, from the height of it to the bottom, and in all its breadth, is as
eligible to us now as ever it can be. They who have found this out sometimes
describe themselves as living the eternal life in the midst of time.
* * *
all his wit, his humor, his abundant humanity, Mark Twain was exceedingly
unhappy. This was made evident throughout the latter portions of Albert
Bigelow Paine's Mark Twain: A Biography (published by Harpers'), than which it
would be difficult to recall a biography in which the subject himself is more
tangibly present. In the Autobiography, edited by Mr. Paine, recently
published by Harpers', this misery of soul is rendered more evident still, and
in such manner as makes clear what were the causes of it. Mark Twain was an
atheist. It became impossible for him after reaching maturity to believe or
think that a Being exists that can be described as God in any sense of that
name, or that human life itself is such as makes that faith possible. This
incalculable misfortune came at last to take possession of his whole mind; no
doubt he did not wilfully contrive to have it so, but it became so, and that
because of certain deeds, or habits of thought, some of which may be traced to
his early days. It made a pessimist of him in the absolute sense of the word,
and contributed to all his humor a flavor of bitterness more easily felt than
too much honor and candor of mind to have any desire to conceal all this from
the world, though it was doubtless responsible for his leaving some books to
be published after his death. In his Autobiography he interrupts his long and
loving account of the life of his daughter Susy to pen a diatribe against the
whole scheme of existence, as bitter as any uttered by Schopenhauer or Dean
Swift. It will sound almost blasphemous to many ears:
myriad of men are born; they labor, sweat and struggle for bread; they
squabble and scold and fight; they scramble for little mean advantages over
each other; age creeps upon them; infirmities follow and humiliations bring
down their prides and their vanities; those they love are taken from them, and
the joy of life is turned to aching grief. The burden of pain, care and misery
grows heavier year by year; at length ambition is dead, pride is dead, vanity
is dead; longing for release comes in their place. It comes at last - the only
unpoisoned gift earth ever had for them, and they vanish from the world where
they were of no consequence; where they achieved nothing; where they were a
mistake and a failure and a foolishness; where they left no sign that they
existed - a world which will lament them for a day and forget them forever.
Then another myriad takes their place and copies all they did, and goes along
the same profitless road, and vanishes as they vanished - to make room for
another, and another, and a million other myriads, to follow the same arid
path through the same desert and to accomplish what the first myriad, and all
the myriads that came after it, accomplished - nothing!"
agonized utterance shows what atheism is made of. It is a complete misreading
of plain facts, to which beliefs and unbeliefs are only incidental. The
paragraph quoted makes that clear. "A myriad men are born." In saying this he
doubtless had in mind such creatures as gnats and flies; it was a favorite
idea of his; but men are not creatures, or such things as gnats and flies, nor
are they born in myriads. "They labor, sweat and struggle for bread." This is
a wilful exaggeration, due to an ill‑regulated habit of mind; men do labor,
sweat and struggle because they enjoy to do so, as did Mark Twain himself; but
their lives are not wholly made up of such strivings, and there are countless
goods for which they labor other than for bread. "They squabble and scold and
fight." Some of them do, all of them do at times, but if they do it is because
they choose to, not because the universe forces them. "They scramble for
little mean advantages over each other." If Mark Twain did such things himself
he made a mistake; there was no power outside himself compelling him to. If he
attributed his own weakness, failure and hopelessness to the whole scheme of
things, that also was a blunder.
this does not lessen the nation's admiring regard for the man or spoil its
enjoyment of his rugged books, our legacy from his genius, in which, with a
humor as wholesome as the sunlight and a humanity as strong and tender as
father love, he lets us know what manner of man he really was, and what, with
his misinterpretations out of mind, he knew human life to be. It was his own
private misfortune that he did not understand his nature better than he did,
of what there was in himself of greatness and power that should have made any
form of atheism impossible. It is sad that one so noble should have suffered
so deeply when no such suffering was necessary.
subject of atheism has long been held of primary importance in Freemasonry; it
is dealt with in the Constitutions, has its place among the landmarks, and is
to day the determining factor in all attempts to bring into fraternal union
with American Grand Lodges those of other countries that at this point have
lost their way. No atheist is eligible to membership in the Craft. There is no
just or conceivable way in which he could be made eligible; all the realities
of the case render it impossible. Every human being is perfectly equipped to
live in this world with happiness and satisfaction. There is no. horrible
mystery, like some lowering monster, hidden away behind the scenes. This world
is not a vale of illusion, nor is man an orphaned child wandering helplessly
in bewildering shadows. Birth is not a thing that can be despised, death is a
thing that need not be feared. There is THAT at the basis of all things which
renders pessimism a vain and useless error. The knowledge of these facts, the
habits of thought and life developed out of them is indicated in Freemasonry
by faith in the Sovereign Grand Architect of the Universe, a Builder that
leaves no Temple incomplete. All that Masonry is or does comes by inevitable
logic out of such a wisdom, stands in the light of it, moves by the power of
it. Naturally the man who does not so think and work cannot be at home in the
lodge, because his whole manner of thinking is necessarily incompatible with
that human wisdom which it is the lodge's mission to teach.
BOOK ON SYMBOLISM
ANCIENT PAGAN AND MODERN CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM. By Thomas Inman. Published by
Eckler. For sale by National Masonic Research Society Book Department. Fourth
Edition. Cloth, 200 illustrations, index, 147 pages. Price, post paid, ';1.60.
SYMBOL is a conventional device intended to suggest some idea. If it stands
for no idea the devise is an emblem, such as a nation's flag, which means one
thing under one governmental regime, something else under another; or it is
merely an ornamental figure such as printers use "to dress up a page," or
architects sometimes employ, often for no "reason" at all. The devices
employed by Freemasonry have the specific purpose of suggesting ideas, and all
of these ideas together comprise the "system of Masonic teaching." Thus the
"square" in Masonry is a symbol intended to suggest the idea of dealing
"squarely" with one's fellows; the "compasses" are intended to stand for the
idea that one must preserve his moral nature intact, so that no unruly
passions will disrupt it. The thing that makes these symbols "Masonic" is the
feet that they stand for ideas Freemasonry desires to teach to its members.
The display of them in a lodge room serves to keep every brother in
remembrance of all the Masonic ideals; it is as if the lodge said to him, "I
cannot always be teaching these things with spoken or written language,
therefore I say them by means of these symbols."
Symbols have been in universal use. Many of those employed by the Craft are
being used, or have hitherto been used, for all manner of purposes by all
manner of organizations: the All-Seeing‑Eye, the Swastika, the Circle,
Triangle, Cross and scores beside. In each instance Masonry uses them for its
own purposes, endows them with its own meanings, interprets them in its own
way. To a Mason it matters very little for what purpose a symbol has been used
outside the Craft; its Masonic meaning is that which the Craft intends it to
have. For these reasons it is always futile to attempt to lug into the Masonic
system the interpretation of a symbol borrowed from some nonMasonic source,
Masonry is not a savage cult, an "Ancient Mystery," an Egyptian religion, an
occult secrecy; it is Masonry.
Nevertheless a student of Masonic symbols often finds it of great value to
know how these same symbols, or others similar to them, have been used by
groups other than Masonic. For such a purpose Thomas Inman's Ancient Pagan and
Modern Christian Symbolism contains certain virtues that recommend it. In some
ways it is not a pleasant book to read. The author appears to have been
rabidly opposed to Christianity, at least in its orthodox forms, so that one
detects a bias in much that he says. The book is old, the first edition having
been published in 1869, and much water has gone under the mill since that
time. The present edition has evidently been printed from plates used before;
the illustrations are stiff old‑fashioned line drawings. These facts, along
with a certain emphasis on sex worship that must be distasteful to some
readers, tell against it.
However one can make allowances for such things and yet find much remaining of
singular value. The author's method is to write a section or chapter to
explain each picture. His explanation of a symbolical drawing of the Virgin
and Child is typical:
copy of a medieval Virgin and Child, as painted in Della Robbia ware in the
South Kensington Museum, a copy of which was given to me by my friend, Mr.
Newton, to whose kindness I am indebted for many illustrations of ancient
Christian art. It represents the Virgin and Child precisely as she used to be
represented in Egypt, in India, in Assyria, Babylonia, Phoenicia and Etruria;
the accident of dress being of no mythological consequence. In the framework
around the group, we recognize the triformed leaf, emblematic of Asher; the
grapes, typical of Dionysos; the wheat ears, symbolic of Ceres, l'abricot
fendu, the mark of womankind, and the pomegranate rimmon, which characteries
the teeming mother. The living group, moreover, are placed in an archway,
delta, or door, which is symbolic of the female, like the vesica piscis, the
oval or the circle. This door is, moreover, surmounted by what appear to be
snails whose supposed virtue we have spoken of under Plate I. This
identification of Mary with the Sacti is strong; by‑and‑by we shall see that
it is as complete as it is possible to be made.
the symbols thus treated are a number of especial interest to Masons: Adonis,
Ahriman, Aleph, altar, anchor, arcane, architecture, ark, atheists, boundary
stones (landmarks), box, candlestick, Ceres, circles, coins, crescent, cross,
crux ansata, David and ark, delta, dualism in nature, east, Egyptian crosses,
emblems, esoteric, feet, fetish, fire, five, four, Gnostics, goat, hammer,
hand, Hiram, Masonic, Mason's Marks, etc., etc.
* * *
ASHMOLE: FREEMASON, OCCULTIST, ANTIQUARIAN
ASHMOLE: FOUNDER OF THE ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM, OXFORD. By Dudley Wright. Published
by The London Freemason. May be purchased through National Masonic Research
Society Book Department, 1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Paper, 35
pages. Price, postpaid, forty cents.
DUDLEY WRIGHT has once again placed us all under obligation to his tireless
pen. If his latest volume is not equal in bulk to its predecessors it suffers
nothing from the fact, either in value or interest, for it tells us all we
need to know about its subject and that is sufficient.
Ashmole, to use an American cant expression of the day, "intrigues" us. He
himself tells us in his famous Diary that on Oct. 16, 1645, he was "made a
Free Mason at Warrington." In the same private record he says that on March
10, 1682, he "rec'd a Summons to appear at a Lodge to be held the next day at
Masons' Hall." From these data questions arise. Ashmole was not an Operative
Mason; what led him to unite with the Order ? What influence did he have on
Masonry, if any, between 1645 and 1682 ? Was the lodge he visited at London
the mysterious "Accepcon" of the Masons' Company of which Edward Conder has
given us a history in his Hole Crafte' Bro. Wright has crowded into six pages
such known facts about Ashmole and the lodges of his day as help to answer
questions lead to another. In the Masonic Ritual there are a number of
elements undeniably occult. Ashmole himself was an occultist, more
particularly an alchemist, and acquainted with Moore, Lilly, Booker, Wharton
and Dr. Fludd; could he himself have grafted into the rites of the old
builders the "golden bough" of hermetism ? Some have believed this, at least
in part, as did George Fort and Albert Pike; others have suggested its
possibility, as did Bro. A. E. Waite. In any event an examination of Ashmole's
Masonic connections opens the question of Masonic occultism. It is a
fascinating question, even if difficult or impossible to answer in the present
state of knowledge.
Occultism in Masonry is a fact. Wherever the occult elements originated, from
whatever source they derived - gnosticism, alchemy, rosicrucianism, kabbalism
- however they are to be interpreted, they are in the ritual, a challenge to
the Masonic student. And as far as that it concerned, and more especially in
this land, there is a vast deal of occultism still alive outside Freemasonry,
multitudes of individuals continue to believe in omens, signs, horoscopes,
dreams, mystic numbers, and all that, and possess the same right to such
beliefs as any others.
Occultism was the "science" of an earlier day, a matter of searching out the
same kind of facts for which the modern sciences are seeking; a method for
employing actual forces for practical purposes. In this it differed from
mysticism, which was religious rather than scientific in its nature, and
sought its ends in character and worship, although many men were occultists
and mystics at the same time. A few of our sciences sprang from occultism -
astronomy came from astrology, chemistry from alchemy, and physics, botany,
anatomy were full of occultism in the beginning. The elimination of occultism
from such sciences came as the result of an exceedingly slow process; even so
late as 1646 when Sir Thomas Browne, an alumnus of the best European
universities of his time, wrote his Vulgar Errors as a blast against occultism
in science his own mind was itself so steeped in it that his very arguments
were themselves based on occultistic premises.
occultist of the present day feels that he has an ancient and respectable
tradition behind him. He believes that facts not known to the modern sciences
may be found in old books; that there are forces in nature not yet discovered
by present day chemists and physicists; and that he has methods for employing
them in behalf of practical purposes known only to those initiated in secret
philosophies. Such men are as sincere and as intelligent as any others, and
their views are deserving of the same respect.
this account of the ease be true it may suggest to us how to make the right
approach to the understanding of the occultist elements in our Craft. The
Masonic occultist is entitled to his own day in court, deserving of all the
courtesies, with a right to state his own ease in his own way; there is no
just way of ruling him out of order; and as for those who may deride him as a
fool or a charlatan he has his own to quote ready to hand; he knows as well as
anybody that men who live in glass houses should not heave bricks about.
other hand those of us who may not be Masonic occultists have the same rights
in the ease. If the occultist makes statements, we can ask him for his facts,
authorities and credentials; if he challenges our beliefs, we have a right to
challenge his; if he believes himself entitled to his own theory of
Freemasonry, we have the same privilege; if he betrays a leek of logic in his
arguments we have the right to point them out; and he has no more license to
try to force his beliefs on the Craft, than have those who hold otherwise. In
short, occultism need not be made a matter for controversy, as is often
unhappily the ease; it is a question of fact, and all our prejudices and
emotions are worse than useless while we are attempting to deal with such a
* * *
THE STUDENT OF THINGS EGYPTIAN
STEPS IN EGYPTIAN. By Sir E. A. Wallis Budge. AMENISM‑ATENISM AND EGYPTIAN
MONOTHEISM. WITH HIEROGLYPHIC TEXTS OF HYMNS OF AMEN AND ATEN AND ENGLISH
TRANSLATION. By Sir E. A. Wallis Budge. Both books may be purchased through
the National Masonic Research Society, the former at $3.85, the later at $5.
have recently come to notice two books bearing the above titles. Sir Wallis
Budge is keeper of the Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities in the British Museum
and has spent a great deal of his own time and money in trying to keep people
interested in those old kings and pyramid builders who have for so many
thousand years rested in the rocky tombs situated along the banks of the Nile.
The First Steps in Egyptian gives us a very helpful account of the manner in
which the ancient inscriptions were read and translated. The author gives us
the ancient texts of nearly all the most important inscriptions and furnishes
us with so much information regarding phonetics that almost any fair student
of languages should be able to pronounce the words and separate the phonetic
elements of the hieroglyphic word from the signs which were simply
ideographic. We do not say that a few hours' or a few days' study would enable
the average student to read and translate Egyptian texts, but we do say that
the average student could in that time acquire much that is worth while
towards attaining that end.
scarcely a century ago that travelers thought the cuneiform inscriptions on
the garments of the carved statues of Darias were simply trimming and
ornaments. It took some time before scholars could determine that the
inscription was writing at all. For ages the most learned men could not
translate the first letter or sound of Egyptian. We now know that the Egyptian
alphabet does not differ materially from the Hebrew so far as the sounds go,
though there are many different figures employed for the same sound under
different circumstances and meanings. We also find that the Egyptian has the
same habit of dropping out vowel sounds that the Hebrew had. The direction in
which the inscriptions should be read, Sir Wallis makes clear. We are also
forcibly struck with the fact of how little the Egyptian texts differ during
the forty centuries of their history. An Englishman or American of today
cannot read without a dictionary and grammar the English of King Alfred of
blessed memory, but we see no reason why it would have been specially
difficult for Cleopatra to read the hieroglyphic inscriptions of Queen
Hattisue or Rameses, any more than the hieroglyphic writings of her own day.
It may be quite possible that their spoken tongue changed from age to age, but
their writing underwent very little alteration through the five or six
thousand years of its prevalence.
Regarding the Book of Tutankhamen, we must hold the impression that it was
published before the tomb was thoroughly investigated and its inscriptions
read. Most of the contents of the book are devoted to the inscriptions
belonging to the age of Tutankhamen's father‑in‑law, Akhtenaten, who is known
as the heretic king, because he withdrew his patronage from the priesthood and
temples of Thebes and the worship of AMEN‑RA and set up a city and worship of
his own. Many writers have claimed that his reformation was a change from
polytheism to monotheism. Sir Wallis' investigations fail to bear out any such
claim. He says that when an ancient Egyptian invoked any particular deity in
prayer, he was sure to address that deity as the one and only God in the
universe, self‑creating and selfexisting, and that when Akhtenaten addressed
particularly the solar disk, he addressed it as the one Only God, though he
might the same day address Osiris and Horus in the same way.
would seem that most of these names of deity used by the Egyptians referred to
the sun under one or more aspects as regards time of year or situation in the
heavens and, of course, they would address the sun as being the One and Only
Living Diety. This practically destroys the theory of monotheism other than
the theory of Solar Monotheism, which had existed for many centuries, and was
a sensible and intelligent conception of Deity; that the sun is the source of
life and light upon the earth is easy to see, and we have only to suppose the
sun to be the dwelling place of Jehovah, to make it also the Divine Wisdom,
the Divine Word, the Divine Power, or strength. We understand that all
generations of solar worshippers in Egypt believed so far in monotheism and
when they picture the Solar God as in the mural decorations of the tomb of
Akhtenaten, showing every ray of light extending from the solar disk to the
food on the king's table with a human hand attached to it, the Deity becomes
personal enough to be addressed in prayer and praise. We have been much
instructed and edified by these books. They are not specially adapted for
children of any age; for students who have grown up they will be found
GREATEST OF UNIVERSITIES
Masonry is essentially an educational institution. Its streams of learning are
broad and deep, and they are richly freighted with the priceless wisdom of the
wisest minds of all lands and all times. Masonry is the greatest of all
universities. Men of diverse nationalities, faiths and opinions meet on the
checkered floor on equality. Mutual respect, begotten of a common purpose, a
desire to disseminate peace, kindliness and good will among men, becomes the
chief desideration of those who are diligent in applying themselves to the
study of the history, literature and philosophy of Masonry. Masons are
learning that the mere knowledge of the ritual and work, while necessary and
desirable, must, to be of any value, be based upon an understanding of the
origin and meaning of the symbols, ceremonies allegories and traditions used
and taught in Masonry. – American Tyler-Keystone.
to Read in Masonry
IN A POKE"
our purpose to publish on this page for a few months a series of informal
essays on what to read in Masonry. The need for this has been suggested by the
increasing number of members of the N. M. R. S. who write that while they
desire to read about Freemasonry in some of its countless phases they are at a
loss where to begin, or how to lay out a course of reading to suit their own
particular interests. It is to be hoped that the papers in the present series
may be interesting in themselves, and that they will be lit up occasionally by
sidelights on Masonic questions; but their main purpose will be to bring
together under separate heads such of the thousand or more Masonic books in
English as are most worth reading, and that in such a manner as to give a
brother some idea of a book before he undertakes to read it.
is a large field to cover. Freemasonry has existed a long while, and in many
lands; it has always been busy at many tasks, some of which have had their
effect on general history; and at the present it is grown to be so huge in
size, so worldwide in influence, and so complex in organization that nothing
less than a great library can possibly hold all the volumes that to some
extent or other contain records of its prolific life.
Usually it is convenient to lay out the field as a whole in general
departments, of which the chief are history, philosophy, jurisprudence,
ritualism, symbolism, fiction, poetry and miscellaneous - the last named of
which represents a variety of subjects not easily classified, such as poetry,
music, architecture, orations, periodicals, Negro Masonry, Women in Masonry,
Side Orders, and so on ad infinitum.
Masonic history naturally includes all written records of the Craft's past
activities up to a year or two ago; with such writings must also be included
non‑Masonic books that deal incidentally with Masonic themes: there are
general histories of architecture from which one can learn much about
Operative Masonry; histories of economics, containing chapters on various
forms of gild life; treatises on symbolism, etc. The list might be almost
philosophy of Masonry covers a field almost as large, for under that head are
grouped religion, equality, liberty, toleration, democracy and a score of
other subjects equally comprehensive. It will be seen at a glance that books
more or less useful for reading on these matters are literally legion in
number. Of course Freemasonry has its own peculiar philosophy and only such
books as deal specifically with it are to be technically described as Masonic
philosophy; nevertheless the well read student of that philosophy will find it
necessary to read in literature outside the Craft.
same thing may be said of Masonic jurisprudence. For while it must confine
itself to Masonic constitutions, laws, customs, regulations and landmarks each
of these has its roots in the general ideas of law and of social order, so
that the more one focuses his mind on Masonic jurisprudence per se the more he
needs an auxiliary literature as a general foundation. It is a misfortune that
some of our manuals on jurisprudence were written by laymen with little
knowledge of law.
one turns to ritualism and symbolism he meets a similar condition. In some
form or other ritual is as universal as the race, and so is symbolism, and the
extant literature on both Subjects is enough to occupy a man for a lifetime,
providing he is ambitious to get to the bottom of a subject that appears to
have no bottom.
not to be supposed that there will be many ambitious enough to take all
knowledge for their province, as Humboldt did, and it will not be the purpose
here to make any attempt to list books by the thousand. The above indication
of the extent and richness of the general field were given to entice some
brethren to enter it, or to persuade those who have had the misfortune to read
a few Masonic books of no value to try again with the expectation that where
there is so much to read there will be found something abundantly worth
IN A POKE”
very widely read Mason - widely read, that is, in general literature - wrote
us a little while ago that he considered the buying of books in general a
pleasure, but, as he expressed it, "not Masonic books; they are too much of a
risk; too few of them have any standing. It is like buying a pig in a poke."
There was some justification for such an attitude some years ago, but not now,
what with so many Grand Lodge educational committees, Masonic libraries and
such organizations as the Masonic Service Association and the National Masonic
Research Society willing and ready to give advice as to what is worth owning
among Masonic books.
there is no need that a brother should lay out a lot of money before beginning
to read on Masonry.
However far he may be from the center of things he can almost always manage to
borrow somehow, if only he will set his mind to it - a feet proved up years
ago by the present writer. Most of the Masonic libraries in the country are
very generous with the loan of their volumes, and always there are individual
Masons here and there to help a brother along; a great many such exchanges of
courtesy are carried on through the headquarters of this Society.
Brethren who do purchase an occasional Masonic book sometimes complain of
exorbitant prices and frequently have sound justification for their complaint.
There is a reason for this. For consider! The greater number of Masonic books
are published by private individuals or by small printing concerns; that means
high costs of manufacture and distribution. Few of these books ever enjoy the
possibility of a wide circulation, and that means a price in proportion. And
then there are many books that must be imported, thereby adding to the
original price the expenses incidental to long shipping and various import
duties. Take it by and large, the prices on Masonic books are nearly always
reasonable, and in a melancholy number of instances return very little profit
at all to the publishers and none to the authors.
AUTHOR A HUMAN BEING?
a marvel that we have as many books as we do, considering that last item. It
is sometimes forgotten that an author is also a human being. "Hash not an
author eyes? bath not an author hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections,
passions? fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, Subject to the
same diseases, healed by the same means, warm'd and cooled by the same winter
and summer, as a Christian is?" The answer is, if Shakespeare will forgive
this paraphrase, that he is, even if some ultra-conservative brethren
sometimes appear to believe that while it is perfectly ethical to pay rent for
a Masonic hall, it is somehow unethical to pay for a. Masonic book, and that
while Masonry may pay a man a salary for giving all his time to be a Grand
Secretary for a year (may their salaries, as well as their tribe, increase) it
iota traducing of all Masonic principles to pay a man for his time who devotes
a year to writing a Masonic book! Masonry can never be a "science of morality"
as long as it persists in thwarting the development of its own badly needed
literature by any such reasonings.
spite of all the drawbacks and the handicaps both publishers and authors have
persevered from generation to generation, content to work underground when not
permitted a place in the sun, until now we have become the legatees of a rich
heritage of noble books, good to read, pleasant to know, and not at all
disgraceful to the Craft. It will be a privilege to recommend a number of
lists of them in this page from month to month.
WANTED: MISSING VOLUMES OF "MASONIC REVIEW"
a file of "Masonic Review," volumes six to thirty-one inclusive, and volumes
thirty-three to forty-eight inclusive. I should like any information
concerning the missing years, where they may be obtained, what they may cost,
Fitzpatrick, Bethany, Neb.
* * *
MOORE'S "FREEMASONS' MAGAZINE" FOR SALE
noted a query in THE BUILDER'S Question Box for November, on Moore's
"Freemasons' Magazine," I am prompted to say that I am trustee for the sale of
a Masonic Library in which the "Freemasons' Magazine" is listed. There are for
sale thirteen volumes of the magazine in all, from Vol. I, 1841, to and
including 1853. This has been priced at $25 for the set. The books are bound
in three-quarter morocco.
W. Chandler, Trustee,
Rucker Ave., Everett, Wash.
* * *
page 245 of the August BUILDER is a picture of some Indian silver brooches.
You mention in the title that Dr. Orr (Bro. Orr) says that they were obtained
from the Ojibways.
the Ojibways did not make these brooches of Masonic motif, but obtained them
from the Iroquois. There is no doubt of this. They did not come from "sailors
or traders," for they are of Indian make. See my American Indian Freemasonry.
I have collected many.
C. Parker, N. Y.
* * *
JONATHAN TRUMBULL NOT A MASON
you please inform me if Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., Governor of Connecticut
1798‑1809, was a member of the Craft ?
Through Bro. James J. Tyler, of Warren, Ohio, we have received information
from Bro. William B. Hall, Secretary, Masonic Veteran Association of
Connecticut, Meridian, Conn., as follows:
"Referring to the matter of Gov. Trumbull being a Mason. Bro. Brown, a Past
Master of Trumbull Lodge, of New Haven, has searched the records of that lodge
and cannot find any record to show that Gov. Trumbull was a Mason.
Goddard, who is Librarian of the Connecticut State Library, has also searched
the records of Gov. Trumbull, as filed in the State Library, and cannot find
any reference to his having been a Mason. It is, therefore, evident that he
was not a Mason."
* * *
CHURCH OF ENGLAND AND THE MASONIC CRAFT
the Church of England ever, at any time in its history, anathematized Masonry
or taken a position opposing it?
there records of Archbishops of York and Canterbury having been Masons?
the present Archbishops of York and Canterbury Masons ?
recall reading at one time in THE BUILDER of lodges in England composed
exclusively of priests of the Church of England; Are there such lodges in
existence now, and where?
Church of England at no time in its history has anathematized Masonry, or
taken up a position opposing it.
3. We are not aware of any Archbishops, whether of Canterbury or York, having
been Masons, though it is possible some of them have been, but it is certain
that the present Archbishops are not members of the Craft.
There are no lodges in England composed exclusively of priests of the Church
of England; but certain lodges are distinctly associated with church effort;
and notably the Abbey Lodge, No. 2030, which is specially composed of
clergymen and clerical officials of Westminster Abbey; and the Cathedral
Lodge, No. 2741, which is similarly composed in relation to St. Paul's
Cathedral. But these lodges do not stand alone in being specially associated
with religious effort. The Epworth Lodge, No. 3789, is to all intents and
purposes Methodistic in its character, and embraces a great number of
ministers as well as laymen of both the Wesleyan Methodist and Primitive
Methodist Connexion. The Aretas Lodge, No. 4268, is a London offshoot of
Epworth, as we think also is Peace and Concord Lodge, No. 3947, while there is
a Manchester Epworth Lodge, No. 3921, which is plainly an offshoot of the
original Epworth Lodge in London, having the same ideas and style of
membership. The Congregationalist or Independent body likewise have a lodge,
the Streatham Hill, No. 3784, composed almost, if not entirely, of members of
that denomination, including several ministers. But despite their apparent
denominational character, these lodges work in the utmost amity with the
lodges around them, and there is no sort of sectarian display or exclusiveness
among them, while anything in the nature of associating denominational or
sectarian propaganda with Masonry has never been attempted by these lodges,
and if attempted would promptly be sternly deprecated by the authorities.
* * *
DANIEL BOONE A MASON?
to ask if there is any evidence to show that Daniel Boone was a Mason?
Ray V. Denslow, Grand Secretary, Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons of Missouri,
has expressed to us his opinion that Boone was not a member of the Craft.
However, he has added this: "I have a very good friend who lives in St.
Charles and who is very familiar with early historical conditions who seems to
be very positive that Daniel Boone was a Mason. So far as I can ascertain, if
Boone was a Mason he was never affiliated with any Missouri Lodge. He died
about 1819 and this was before our Missouri lodges had very much of a start.
It is possible that he may have been a member in Virginia or North Carolina."
Fred W. Hardwick, Grand Secretary of Kentucky, and Charles Comstock,
Secretary, Historical Committee, Grand Lodge of Tennessee, have been unable to
discover any proof of Boone's membership, but they refer to a resolution
printed in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, 1852, page 53, as
"Whereas, Daniel Boone, as the hardy, energetic, and indefatigable pioneer,
rendered incalculable service to our state; and whereas, at much expense, and
trouble, the citizens of Frankfort have removed his remains from the State of
Missouri to the cemetery at Frankfort, where they now rest in a conspicuous
and eligible position; and whereas, no monument marks his resting place.
"Resolved, That the sum of fifty dollars be appropriated by this Grand Lodge
for the purpose of aiding in erecting some lasting monument over his grave,
and that the treasurer of the Grand Lodge pay the same over to Bro. E. H.
Taylor, treasurer of said company; provided the same shall not be paid until
the monument be contracted for."
Comstock has searched the Centennial History of the Grand Lodge - of Kentucky,
by H. B. Grant, but has found no reference to Boone save to the above
resolution. Bro. Comstock adds: "I recall seeing a picture of the burial of
Daniel Boone, many years since, and one of the participants appeared to be
wearing a Masonic collar.”
* * *
INFORMATION ABOUT WEBB'S MONITOR
November issue, page 349, you have an inquiry from L. H. L., "Was Webb's
Monitor published in more than one edition?" I have a record of the following
editions: *1, New York, 1797. *2, New York, 1802. 53, Providence, 1805. 4,
Boston, 1808. *5, Salem, Mass., 1812. 6, Andover, 1816. *7, Boston and Salem,
1816. 8, Montpelier, 1816. 9, Salem, 1818 (published by Flagg). *10, Salem,
1818 (published by Cushing). * 11, Salem, 1821. 12, Spanish only. There were
no further editions as such; versions published over the name of Morris,
Carson, etc., are revisions and not entitled to the title of Webb's Monitor
any more than Webb's is entitled to be called Preston's. Of the editions
listed, I have those marked * and they are available for use by any student.
Berolzheimer, New York.
* * *
"KNIGHTS TEMPLAR" IS CORRECT
H. E. Zimmerman's contribution to the Question Box in THE BUILDER, vol. X, No.
10 (October, 1924), contains, among others, the question, "If Masonry was
justified in adopting a form that is wrong historically and philologically,
when was the change made and why?" I cannot answer the question, but I wish to
deny the quasi premise it contains.
plural form Knights Templar is not wrong, certainly not philologically. On
that point I would take issue with even the editor or compiler of a
dictionary. The publisher of a dictionary need not be either a scholar,
grammarian or philologist, and his opinion, as publisher, merits no greater
consideration than would that of any other business man with equal education.
Notwithstanding the publishers' statement to the contrary, "Templar" is an
adjective, as much so as is "apple" in the compound "appletree." Of all the
trees growing in God's universe, high trees, low trees, spreading trees,
scrubby trees, there is a group or family of them that we identify as
appletrees. Though the word "apple," as commonly used, performs the functions
of a noun and is, then, a noun, in the compound "appletree," it performs the
function of an adjective and is an adjective; as much so as "high" or "low"
are adjectives, as commonly used. In a phrase or sentence it is the use or the
function of a word alone that determines what that word is. So "Templar" is an
adjective in the phrase "Knight Templar." It tells us what particular kind of
a knight the Knight Templar is. Among all the knights in the world, rich,
poor, fat, lean, good, bad, each a member of a group with one or the other of
these characteristics, there is also a group of knights who have the
characteristic of being, each one of them, a Templar. In the phrase "Knight
Templar" the adjective, instead of preceding the noun, as it generally does in
the English language, follows its noun. In the French language the more common
position for an adjective is after its noun and not preceding it. In neither
language, however, is that position for the adjective with respect to its noun
absolutely fixed or demanded. It depends somewhat upon the writer's mood
whether "A young and charming maiden lightly skips across the green," or
whether "A maiden, young and charming," does so. A Knight Templar might just
as well be a Templar Knight and, in the German language, that is actually what
he is, a "Tempelritter," joined into one word, even, exactly like our "appletree,"
where the adjective precedes its noun instead of following it.
Historically there may have been Templars who had not the distinction of being
also knights of this or that Order, and there undoubtedly were knights who
were not Templars. But a member of the Order under discussion was a Knight
Templar, and two of them were Knights Templar exactly the same as, in the
present day, two knights of the Order of the Garter are not Knights of the
Orders of the Garters. Dictionaries may and do say that "Knights Templars" is
the correct plural, usage may establish it as being correct, but, logically
and philologically and as a plural, Knights Templars is as wrong as would be "feetsteps,"
"spoonsfuls," or "cupsfuls." Horrors!
* * *
BOOK FOR SALE
for sale a copy of The Sufferings of John Coustos for Freemasonry, and for his
refusing to turn Roman Catholic, in the Inquisition at Lisbon, etc. Part II,
from page 78 to 400 inclusive, is occupied by a history of the Inquisition.
Bound in ornamented leather; covers loose. Published by Strahan, London, 1746.
Offers will receive careful consideration.
Schmits, 1124 Chestnut Ave. Flat, Minneapolis, Minn.
* * *
MISSING SINCE NOV. 10, 1924
William Egge, age 35, 574 Hamilton avenue, North Bergen, N. J. About 5 feet 9
inches tall, 167 pounds, medium built, fair complexion, smooth shaven, brown
hair, blue eyes. Wore an old grayish suit with Masonic pin in coat. When last
seen was driving a Daniels' sedan auto, license No. 124639, N. J. Carpenter
and builder by trade. If found please notify Mystic Tie Lodge, No. 123, Union
Hill, N. J.
you have a happy and prosperous New Year.
* * *
the old feller, see he: "This evolution theory is funny monkey business."
* * *
George Bernard Shaw: "Democracy prefers second-bests always." It certainly did
when it preferred George Bernard Shawl
* * *
Sir Alfred Robbins' now famous visit to this land attracted the attention of
men in high places. President Coolidge wrote to congratulate him on his
mission as having helped to cement Anglo-American friendship; Secretary Hughes
asked the American Ambassador at the Court of St. James to congratulate Sir
Alfred on "the splendid work he is doing to strengthen the ties which bind our
countries together;" and Chief Justice Taft wrote to felicitate him on "the
very fine and useful impression which your visit to the United States gave to
* * *
Grand Lodge of Mexico has published a chart showing the genealogy and other
connections of all lodges now under its jurisdiction. The chart is accompanied
by five pages of explanatory text. Thanks to the generosity of York Grand
Lodge we have received, at our own request, a package of copies for free
distribution. In asking for a copy please enclose stamp, and write your name
and address plainly.
* * *
is a cross-word puzzle. What word contains three of itself ? No prizes are
offered for the correct answer, because the correct answer is not anticipated.
* * *
children should respect their parents it would naturally follow that parents
should be respectable. Q. E. D.
* * *
SKINKLE'S HOLIDAY GREETINGS
the Christmas and New Year's events for a wide circle of his friends each year
is Bro. Gene Skinkle's holiday greetings, entitled "Treasures" this time. We
pass it on to you for your "Golden Treasury" of friendly verse:
Fortune smiled on us, we will say,
she gave us you for a friend one day;
others she's given a golden hoard
wontonly scattered, or miserly stored.
ours is the treasure that's cherished more
gleaming gold, or the sparkling gem
graces the monarch's diadem.
gems may be lost and wealth takes wing,
friendship for aye to the heart cloth cling
Cheering, uplifting the faltering soul
the rugged trail, toward the final goal.
thank Dame Fortune, and tender to you
friendship, as kindly and loving and true
yours has been through the passing years
friendship we cherish and love that cheers.