The Builder Magazine
June 1925 - Volume XI - Number 6
TABLE OF CONTENTS
a Grand Lodge Regulate Advancement to the Higher Degrees? - A Grand Masters'
Jackson, the Man and Mason - By BRO. ERIK MCKINLEY ERIKSSON
Jersey and the Grand Orient of France
Hypocrisy of Goodness" - By BRO. HENRY TAYLOR, Missouri
Norse Discovery of America - By BRO. ALFRED NEWTON MINER, Massachusetts
MORIAH'S BROW - --Robert Rexdale.
Concerning Henry Clay, Jefferson Davis, Dr. George Oliver and Other Notables
CONCERNING A "REAL MENACE"
Men Who Were Masons - John Anthony Quitman - By BRO. GEORGE W. BAIRD, P. G.
M., District of Columbia
VISION - Frederick Lawrence Knowles
Studies of Masonry in the United States - By BRO. H. L. HAYWOOD, Editor -
PART IX. THE FOUNDING OF DULY CONSTITUTED MASONRY IN MASSACHUSETTS
SYMBOLICAL SIZE OF A LODGE
VITALITY OF MASONRY
POETRY OF ARCHITECTURE
TOMB OF TUT-ANKH-AMEN
OXFORD PRESS ENTERS MASONIC FIELD
to Read in Masonry - ON RITUAL AND SYMBOLISM
MEETING PLACES OF THE GRAND LODGE OF PENNSYLVANIA
FOR DECORATIVE PURPOSES
QUESTION BOX and CORRESPONDENCE
STATISTICS OF MASONIC HOME OF FLORIDA
WAS LAFAYETTE MADE A MASON?
KIPLING GIVES HIS MASONIC EXPERIENCES
"PHYSICAL QUALIFICATIONS IN LEVITICUS"
BOONE PROBABLY A MASON
MU SIGMA FRATERNITY: OR "SELECT MASONS SOCIETY"
"ENCOURAGED AND DISCOURAGED"
MASONIC EXPEDITION TO TIBET, KIPLING'S STORY, ETC.
GENERAL PHILLIP JOHN SCHUYLER AND ALEXANDER HAMILTON
a Grand Lodge Regulate Advancement to the Higher Degrees?
Grand Masters' Symposium
a Grand Lodge try to set a fixed time between a brother's receiving the Third
Degree and his going on to the Higher Bodies? This question has been so much
discussed, officially and unofficially, during the past few years, that it has
become one of the live issues of the day. To give its readers some light on
the pulse of Masonic opinion concerning this problem THE BUILDER addressed to
each of the forty-nine Grand Masters of the country the following letter:
"Should a Grand Lodge by law regulate the time to elapse between a candidate's
receiving his Third Degree and his petitioning for membership in Royal Arch or
Scottish Rite bodies? We shall greatly appreciate your contributing to this
important discussion something concerning your own Grand Lodge's action (if it
has taken action) or your personal opinion, or both."
sheaf of twenty-one representative replies is published herewith.
HIGHER DEGREES SHOULD NOT SERVE AS A REWARD
legislation of this nature would, in my opinion, indicate to the candidate
that the further degrees were highly desirable and that they are a part of our
Masonic work which he might hope to attain by additional service and as a
FOULDS, JR., Grand Master, New Jersey.
LODGE HAS NO AUTHORITY
Grand Lodge of South Carolina has taken no action on this matter, nor has any
discussion been held. In my opinion, the proper place to handle such a
regulation would be in the bodies concerned. These bodies fix the
pre-requisites for membership, and the lodge has no authority over them. C. K.
CHREITZBERG, Grand Master, South Carolina.
WISCONSIN HAS TAKEN NO ACTION
favor of the 25th of March was duly received. In reply would say that none of
the Grand Bodies of Wisconsin have ever taken any action or steps regulating
the time to elapse between a candidate's receiving his Third Degree and his
petitioning for membership in the Royal Arch or Scottish Rite bodies.
JOHNSON, Grand Master, Wisconsin.
KENTUCKY HAS TAKEN NO ACTION
yours of the 25th inst., and in reply will say that our Grand Lodge has taken
no action on this, nor has anything come before it; though two years ago one
of our Past Masters had a resolution prepared, but died just before the Grand
Lodge met. I have heard incidentally that it is very likely that something of
that kind will come up at this meeting; however, I have no positive knowledge
of it at this time. Personally I have not given the matter any thought and do
not know whether there should be a law on the subject or not.
GRUNDY, Grand Master, Kentucky.
ACTION HAS BEEN TAKEN IN ILLINOIS
reply to the inquiry embodied in your favor of March 25, I wish to state that
in my opinion the extent to which the Royal Arch and Scottish Rite bodies go
in soliciting Masons for membership should determine whether or not there
should be a Grand Lodge by-law in the particular state regulating the time
which should elapse between the raising of a member and his petitioning these
the present time no action of this nature has been taken by the Grand Lodge of
RICHARD C. DAVENPORT, Grand Master, Illinois.
BELIEVES A YEAR SHOULD ELAPSE
answer to your question I will say that our Grand Lodge has not acted, but
personally I think no Master Mason should petition for any other degrees that
are based on membership in the Blue Lodge until he shall have passed a
satisfactory examination and shall have received a certificate of proficiency
in his Blue Lodge Degrees, provided this certificate shall not be issued until
after he has attended his own Blue Lodge regularly for at least twelve months.
act of attempting to evade these regulations should be punishable by
W. POLK, Grand Master, Tennessee.
LODGE HAS NO RIGHT TO MAKE SUCH LAWS
Answering your first question, permit me to say that the Grand Lodge of
Indiana has taken no action on the subject.
my opinion on this subject, I cannot see how a Grand Lodge could pass a law
preventing a Master Mason from doing anything as long as he conducted himself
as a man and a Mason. I think a Grand Lodge would have as much right to say
that a newly made Master Mason could not join a church for one year after he
was raised, as to say he could not petition for membership in the Royal Arch
or Scottish Rite bodies. I cannot see how a Grand Lodge can assume control of
a Master Mason, except as to his general behavior, unbecoming a Mason.
DINWIDDIE, Grand Master, Indiana.
IS REQUIRED IN NEW HAMPSHIRE
Grand Master has asked me to reply to you for him as to your inquiry of March
one has received the Master's Degree in New Hampshire, a year must elapse
before he may petition for degrees in a Royal Arch Chapter or in the Scottish
requirement has not been brought about by any action on the part of the Grand
Lodge, but was voluntarily made, without suggestion, on the part of the Grand
Chapter and the Scottish Rite bodies.
an exhibition of their opinion rather than that of Grand Lodge.
seems to be working just as many of us felt it would, to the end of making
better material ultimately for them.
M. CHENEY, Grand Secretary, New Hampshire.
EDUCATION BETTER THAN AN EDICT
subject of the regulation by Grand Lodge of the time which must elapse between
the third and subsequent degrees is one upon which I have no very intelligent
opinion to offer. The idea is new to us in Vermont, and while I called the
attention of the brethren to it during my remarks at the various District
Meetings, I do not know that it has been discussed very much since then. It is
safe to say that Grand Lodge action in the matter is very improbable. While
there is too much solicitation of our newly made brethren the situation has
not reached the point where drastic action is wise or necessary, as it
evidently has been in other fields. So for the present we shall work along the
line of Masonic education rather than edict, and keep closer watch of
developments along this line.
CROWELL, Grand Master, Vermont.
MONTANA HAS A LAW
Pursuant to the recommendation of G.M., C. J. McAllister, 1922-23, the Grand
Lodge of Montana, at its 1923 session, adopted the following resolution, and
it now appears in our 1924 Code, on page 101, as Article XIXa, as follows:
XIXa. Master Masons Not to Apply for Further Degrees Until Certain
Requirements Are Met. RESOLVED, That it shall be a Masonic offense for any
Master Mason raised in the jurisdiction of this Grand Lodge to petition any
Royal Arch Chapter or Scottish Rite body in Montana, until one year shall have
elapsed from the date of his raising; or before he shall have passed
successfully an examination in the lecture of the Third Degree; or before he
shall have attended at least twelve meetings of his own or some other lodge,
unless excused for good cause by his lodge from such attendance. (Adopted,
1923 Proceedings, p. 156.)"
assure you that I am heartily in accord with this section of our Code. There
is entirely too much of a tendency to become Masons in name only. H. L. HART,
Grand Master, Montana.
WOULD SUBSTITUTE KNOWLEDGE OF MASONRY FOR ANY TIME PERIOD"
Replying to your letter of March 25, it seems to me there are two ways you can
look at this proposition:
That of the applicant desiring to secure Masonic degrees who labors under the
false impression that the more degrees he secures the bigger Mason he is. For
this impression both the York and Scottish Rites are at least partly
responsible because they solicit Master Masons, leading them to infer at least
that degrees are true Masonic advancement.
Second. That of the welfare of the Rites as viewed by intelligent and zealous
members--zealous for the strength and stability of the Rites, who take the
position that degrees should be steps in development of Masonic lives. To such
is due the present regulation of the Scottish Rite that only Master Masons of
six months' standing shall be eligible for membership in the Rite, the
supposition being that six months is the least time in which a Master Mason
may gain a comprehensive knowledge of Symbolic Masonry. This, however, works
out more in theory than in practice.
Personally, I would substitute knowledge of Symbolic Masonry for any time
period, as a condition of eligibility to Higher Degrees. SAMUEL M. GOODYEAR,
Grand Master, Pennsylvania.
LODGE HAS NO CONTROL IN THE MATTER
Grand Jurisdiction had this question up before it and we decided that the Blue
Lodge did not have any control over applicants making advancement to the
so-called Higher Degrees.
appears to me that Masonry being a progressive Science, and Proficiency in the
Speculative Art of the Craft being deemed a pre-requisite as to advancement
toward Higher Degrees founded upon Symbolic Masonry, it should be a very
essential factor to advancement.
do not see how a subordinate lodge could have any control over its membership
when they desire to make advancement to the higher bodies of the York Rite or
of the Scottish Rite. Therefore, the higher bodies should require a higher
degree of proficiency of its applicants before permitting them to become
members of their bodies.
applicant for either the Royal Arch Degrees or the Scottish Rite, should be
proficient in the three symbolic degrees of Masonry. Advancement without a
knowledge of this would bring upon the higher bodies a membership whose
knowledge would be so limited that they would not be worth anything as a
member of either, and become parasites upon these fraternal institutions.
JAMES D. HAMRICK, Grand Master, Georgia.
ARIZONA IS TRYING OUT A LAW
Grand Lodge of Arizona two years ago adopted a regulation resolution which
requires one year to elapse from the time the candidates receive their Third
Degree before they are permitted to petition for membership in the Royal Arch
or Scottish Rite bodies. This action was taken owing to the fact that there
seemed to be a great desire on the part of many to become Shriners. Candidates
immediately upon receiving their Third Degree applied for advancement in the
Scottish Rite, which would qualify them to apply to a Shrine. Complaint was
made that these applicants upon receiving the Shrine neglected and failed to
give much attention either to the Blue Lodge or the concordant, being
satisfied with the Shrine.
the general impression of many at our Grand Lodge session that by thus doing,
the real purposes and objects of Masonry were being abolished to satisfy the
whims of those who took this course. We felt that they should be familiar with
the work of the Blue Lodge before they should advance.
rule we have adopted is still in effect and an attempt was made at the last
Grand Lodge session to repeal it--the Scottish Rite brethren being insistent
upon this being done, but we concluded to give it a trial for another year to
see to what extent, if any, it would effect the application for membership in
these concordant bodies. What action the Grand Lodge will take at its next
session, if an action is taken to replace this one, I cannot say.
CLEMENT H. COLMAN, Grand Master, Arizona.
CHAPTERS AND SUPREME COUNCILS SHOULD TAKE THE INITIATIVE
Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia has taken no action on the question of
the length of time which should elapse between the date a brother receives his
Master Mason Degree and the date he may apply for the degrees in Capitular or
Scottish Rite Masonry.
Grand Master, I have not given the subject intensive study, but I am inclined
to think this matter is one which should be left to regulation by Grand
Chapters and Supreme Councils. Experience demonstrates that too rapid a
progress up the Masonic ladder does not produce the best quality of Masonry,
yet it seems to me unnecessary that Grand Lodges should act as keepers of the
gates of other Masonic bodies. I should welcome a ruling from the supreme
authorities in Capitular or Scottish Rite Masonry, that they would not elect
to their bodies Master Masons who had not attained a certain age in Ancient
Craft Masonry, but as a Thirty-third Degree Scottish Rite Mason, and as a Past
Grand High Priest, I should feel that Grand Lodge was stepping beyond its
province, though, of course, not beyond its right, should it forbid Master
Masons to abide by the laws governing application to those bodies, whether
such laws permitted immediate or demand deferred application. The college sets
standards of education for admission which high school graduates must reach.
It seems unnecessary for high schools to set standards by which its graduates
could enter college. Ancient Craft Masonry is not a primary school for the
so-called "Higher" Degrees, but as its degrees are pre-requisite for Capitular
and Scottish Rite Masonry, the comparison seems justifiable. ROE FULKERSON,
Grand Master, District of Columbia.
LOOK AND LISTEN !"
question you ask raises some doubt and much speculation. One who has been
privileged to receive the various degrees of the York Rite and Scottish Rite,
cannot discount their value. When we reflect, however, that the Three Degrees
as conferred by the lodges under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of
Missouri may be said to be Universal Masonry, admitting initiates through the
portals of Masonic lodges throughout the world, teaching great lessons and
having a great work to do, it would seem desirable that the member of the
lodge should be given an unhampered opportunity to study the sublime beauty
and purpose of the symbolism of the Three Degrees, before being importuned to
"take" other degrees.
often is it insinuated to the prospective candidate, by the over-zealous, that
it takes degrees to make him a Mason, or give him Masonic standing. What we
need is more loyalty to the lodge and less talk about degrees. The profane as
well as the members of the lodge should be made to know that it is not the
number of degrees possessed that makes a Mason, but that it is the active
performance of the pure principles of right in one's home, religion, politics
and business dealings that distinguishes one as a real Mason.
seems to me that when a candidate has received the Sublime Degree of Master
Mason, he should be required to "Stop, Look and Listen," or "find himself"
Masonically, before being allowed to petition for the Royal Arch or Scottish
Rite. I believe that if he were required to wait one year after having passed
his Proficiency Examination in the Third Degree, we would add strength to our
Order in all its departments.
ORESTES MITCHELL, Grand Master, Missouri.
DOES NOT CONCERN GRAND LODGE
communication of 25th ultimo received containing the following questions and
requesting a reply:
"Should a Grand Lodge by law regulate the time to elapse between a candidate's
receiving his Third Degree and his petitioning for membership in Royal Arch or
Scottish Rite bodies?"
Answering thereto would state that our Grand Lodge has taken no action upon
this question. There seems to be a perfect mania for legislation both in
Congress and forty-eight state legislatures and very largely city councils
suffer from this affliction, and from reading the proceedings of some of Grand
Lodges even they have not escaped.
Symbolic Masonry is interested in the welfare and deportment of its members.
Beyond that it does not or should not care to go. It makes no difference to
Symbolic Masonry how much time elapses or, on the other hand, whether he ever
joins any of the York or Scottish Rite bodies.
contention is, if a brother Mason is in good standing, that is, no charges
preferred against him and is not in arrears for dues or assessments, he should
be free to go or to join anything so far as the Grand Lodge is concerned that
is not incompatible or subversive of the principles of Freemasonry or good
government. Therefore that such restrictive legislation, paternalistic in its
nature, is both unwise and unnecessary.
course, it would be perfectly competent for any of the York or Scottish Rite
bodies to legislate upon this matter if they were disposed to do so, but it
would be a matter in which the Grand Lodge would not be interested.
C. DEXTER, Grand Master, Rhode Island.
NOT HINDER THE ASPIRANT FROM ADVANCING AS SOON AS HE WISHES"
response to your request that I contribute an article from Florida to the
Grand Masters' Symposium dealing with the question of requiring a newly raised
Master Mason to serve a given length of time, as such, before applying for
admission into the Royal Arch or Scottish Rite bodies, will say that this
question has never been officially discussed at any meeting of our Grand Lodge
within our memory.
laws provide for one month probationary period preceding the conferring of
each of the degrees but no other restrictions as to time.
annual convocation of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, which was
attended by the Inspector General of the Scottish Rite bodies in Florida, a
resolution was adopted by the Grand Chapter and accepted by the Inspector
General requiring an applicant for the degrees, in either of the bodies, to
serve at least six months as a Master Mason. But this law remained in force
only one year when it was abrogated by the newly appointed Deputy of the Rite
and rescinded by the Chapter, hence we have but little opportunity to judge
its merits from our own experience.
is no doubt but that the Grand Lodge would have ample authority to adopt this
restriction, but I would seriously question the wisdom of such action, because
we should be legislating a pre-requisite upon the candidates for the York and
Scottish Rites which should properly be left for suchaction as these bodies
saw fit to adopt. Might we not, with the same propriety, deny our Master
Masons the privilege of joining any organization within six months from the
time of their raising?
the beautiful admonitions, ceremonies and lectures of the other bodies detract
from the inspiring lessons presented in the Symbolic Lodge? I say no. So do
not hinder the aspirant from advancing as soon as he wishes. T. T. TODD, Grand
WASHINGTON DEMANDS A ONE-YEAR INTERVAL
answer to your question: "Should a Grand Lodge by law regulate the time to
elapse between a candidate's receiving his Third Degree and his petitioning
for membership in Royal Arch Scottish Rite bodies?" I will say that at the
last meeting of the Grand Lodge of Washington the following resolution was
passed: "Do you promise on your honor that, until you have been a Master Mason
for a period of one year and have creditably passed an examination of
proficiency as a Master Mason, you will not petition for or accept membership
in any other organization which has membership in a Masonic lodge as a
pre-requisite ? " This law is more drastic than it would be if stated as your
Personally I am opposed to any legislation of this character. We as "Blue
Lodge Masons" do not recognize any other body in Masonry, so why legislate for
something that does not exist for us? By such legislation we automatically
I believe that this regulation should come from the Royal Arch and the
Scottish Rite bodies. I do not think that it makes any difference whether a
man takes six months or six years to take all the degrees of Masonry. If he is
going to make a good Mason and work in the first Three Degrees then he will do
so irrespective of how many degrees he has taken, and in how short a time. If
he is not going to be a good "Blue Lodge Mason," then holding him back for a
year, or thereabouts, from taking the so-called Higher Degrees, will not
change him one jot. You cannot legislate a man into being a good Mason.
to the old Jeffersonian idea of states Rights, and I want to allow the fullest
freedom to the individual. We are too prone as Grand Lodges to pass laws that
interfere with the inherent rights of the individual Mason. Such a law as the
one above is an encroachment upon those rights.
are my own personal views and I am going to bring in a recommendation at our
next Grand Lodge meeting to rescind the law passed last year. ROBT. C.
McCROSKEY, Grand Master, Washington.
"MASONIC KNOWLEDGE SHOULD BE THE BASIS FOR ADVANCEMENT
communication of our Grand Lodge in 1922 a resolution was adopted declaring it
to be the will of this Grand Lodge that no Master Mason should apply for
appendant degrees within a year from the time of his receiving the Third
Degree. Thereafter an agreement was entered into between the Most Excellent
Grand High Priest, Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons of Oregon, and Most
Worshipful P. S. Malcolm, Past Grand Master and Inspector General of Oregon,
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, whereby it was
ordered by them that on and after June 1, 1923, no petition from any Master
Mason, raised within the period of one year prior to the date of such
petition, should be received by any Chapter of Royal Arch Masons or Lodge of
Perfection in Oregon, unless such petition was accompanied by a certificate of
proficiency, executed in proper form, by the Worshipful Master of a duly and
regularly constituted Lodge of A. F. & A. M., and attested by the Secretary of
such lodge with the seal affixed.
communication of the Grand Lodge in 1924, a complete Masonic Code was
re-enacted. In this new Code it is provided that no candidate is a full
fledged Master Mason until he shall have been instructed and passed an
examination in open lodge in the candidate's lecture of a Master Mason. All
Master Masons are required to sign the by-laws of their lodge. They are also
now required to pass the required examination before signing the by-laws. A
candidate is not entitled to receive a certificate of proficiency until he
shall have signed the by-laws. He is not eligible, therefore, to receive any
of the appendant degrees until he shall have signed the by-laws and received
his certificate. This briefly states the action taken by the Grand Lodge of
Oregon with reference to the appendant degrees.
opinion this is a better way to treat the troublesome matter, than to
prescribe a definite length of time between receiving the Third Degree and the
right to petition for the appendant degrees. Masonic knowledge should be the
basis for advancement. One who is deeply interested in Masonry, and is
informing himself in Masonic teachings, and is desirous of advancing, should
not be restrained. In my opinion, a desire to receive more light is a laudable
ambition. He should be encouraged in this rather than discouraged. I am in
sympathy with the desire to discourage the hasty journey through the various
orders for the mere purpose of wearing the fez and the tiger claw. I would
like to have a regulation requiring all votaries of the appendant degrees to
learn the work as they advance. I would like to see every candidate who takes
the Capitular Degrees, and all other appendant degrees, be required to learn a
lecture in a similar way as the lectures of the symbolic degrees are taught.
Masonic information and Masonic knowledge should be our goal rather than a
mere limitation of time. OLIVER P. COSHOW, Grand Master, Oregon.
LODGE SHOULD NOT PASS SUCH LEGISLATION
matter under discussion the Grand Lodge of North Dakota has not passed any
time limit to a brother petitioning for membership in the two bodies you name,
except that a Master Mason must have obtained a Certificate of Proficiency
from his lodge before joining either the Royal Arch or Scottish Rite bodies.
heard this subject discussed both pro and con in this and in many other Grand
Jurisdictions. My personal opinion is that no Grand Lodge should pass
legislation regulating the time to elapse between a candidate's receiving his
Third Degree and his petitioning for membership in the two bodies named
provided said Master Mason has not passed an examination of proficiency in the
lectures of the three symbolic degrees. If a Master Mason believes that he
will receive further or clearer light in Masonry by taking further degrees,
that such additional degrees will give him a better understanding and
conception of Masonry, I can see no good reason for denying him that
privilege. Masons desire to learn something of the purposes of life and how
best to live in order to conform to the Divine Plan of the G. A. O. T. U. Many
will say that this will be found in the three symbolic degrees if the Master
Mason will look and search for it. True --but how many do make a search for it
there! We know it takes less effort to learn by means of oral instruction and
degrees than by self imposed study and reading. So, I firmly believe, if a
Master Mason can obtain more light in the purpose of life, in the manner of
living for the good of himself, his neighbor and his God, in impressions of
the future life and in the aim of the Divine Plan, he should be allowed to
follow his inclination in seeking it in further degrees. He may not find that
which he seeks but some degree in one of these other bodies may in a manner
give him the true insight and meaning of Masonry which he has not received in
the three symbolic degrees, thereby making him a better man and a better
Mason, of great good to his brethren, his neighbors and his community, thus in
his life exemplifying practical and spiritual Masonry. It is an illusion that
Masons taking the degrees in these recognized bodies without a time limit
after the Third Degree will hurt the lodge.
that Grand Lodges have passed laws regulating the time to elapse before
joining these orders, but I have no sympathy with their reasoning. Masons
should not be prohibited from joining recognized Masonic organizations which
make them better Masons, better men and thereby better citizens of this great,
wonderful and opportunity-giving country.
THEODORE S. HENRY, Grand Master, North Dakota.
MONTHS SHOULD ELAPSE
Grand Lodge of Louisiana has no law or regulation fixing the time that should
elapse between the Master's Degree and the application for a higher body in
personal opinion in the matter is that there should be no minimum time limit
placed upon the candidate who has just received his Master's Degree and who
desires to make application for the Royal Arch or the Scottish Rite. If the
candidate of his own free will and accord, and without any solicitation on the
part of others, desires to apply for the Royal Arch or the Scottish Rite
Degrees, he should be permitted to do so without the intervention of any
specific period of time whatever. However, his right or freedom to petition
for the degrees voluntarily and without solicitation should be kept entirely
separate and apart from the right of a member of the Royal Arch or the
Scottish Rite to solicit applications for the Royal Arch or Scottish Rite from
Master Masons. Nothing so wounds the pride of a Master Mason of moderate or
small financial resources as to have some member of the Royal Arch or the
Scottish Rite or some other Masonic body approach him on the night that he
receives his Master's Degree with the statement that conveys to the neophyte
the impression that he has received but very little of what there is in
Masonry--that unless he wants to live ill ignorance he must apply for and take
or receive the other degrees, which every Master Mason is supposed to do
unless he is a pauper or a cheap-skate who does not show the proper
appreciation of Masonry. Such statements to such Master Masons have a tendency
to lessen his ardor, zeal, interest in and love for the Fraternity. For that
reason, in my opinion, members of other Masonic bodies than the Blue Lodge
should not be permitted to seek applications from Blue Lodge Masons within a
period of at least six months from the date that the prospect received his
Master's Degree. This can easily be ascertained by the first question that the
proselyte asks the Mason: "How long have you been a Master Mason?" If the
answer is to the effect that six months have elapsed, he could then proceed
with his solicitation of the application; otherwise he should not broach the
subject in any way to his prospect under penalty of being reprimanded for so
the average Mason has had so much of the beautiful philosophy of Masonry
unfolded to him in the Blue Lodge, and been informed of the various and
manifold duties of a Master Mason, all during the usual period of not more
than three hours, since these lessons and the philosophy of Masonry must be
studied and repeated by him and to him after he has had the Third Degree
conferred upon him, there should be at least six months for the Blue Lodge to
have the undivided attention, as it were, of the neophyte. And if members of
other rites would put forth more effort toward helping and encouraging this
neophyte to go to all Blue Lodge meetings possible, with a view to making a
better Mason of him, then it would be much easier for then at the end of six
months, or some such time, to secure his application for the other Masonic
no circumstances should my remarks be interpreted as an improper disregard for
the other degrees in Masonry, both York and Scottish Rites, for some of the
most beautiful lessons, some of the most beneficial philosophy, and some of
the most practical applications of Masonry are there unfolded. And my sincere
desire is that every worthy human who is eligible would take all of the work.
But I think that not only the Blue Lodge, but all other Masonic bodies would
be materially benefitted by allowing at least six months to elapse before
applications could be solicited from a Master Mason, though I wish everyone of
them would voluntarily apply much earlier.
CONNER, Grand Master, Louisiana.
Jackson, the Man and Mason
BRO. ERIK MCKINLEY ERIKSSON,
PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, LOMBARD COLLEGE, II
ERIKSSON will be remembered as the author of "The AntiMasonic Party,"
published in these pages, March, 1921, an essay characterized, like that
printed below, by adequacy, impartiality, and accuracy. The student who wishes
to make a thorough investigation of the whole Anti-Masonic period is
recommended to read along with Bro. Eriksson's study McCarthy's "Anti-Masonic
Party," published in the American Historical Association Reports, 1902, p.
370; it will be found in almost any public library. Bro. Charles Comstock
P.G.M., of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee Historical Research Committee, has
published a leaflet on "The Masonic Record of Andrew Jackson."
the truly great men of the United states must be included Andrew Jackson,
victor at the famous Battle of New Orleans, President of the United states for
two terms, and for two years Grand Master of Masons of Tennessee. Not only was
he a military genius and a master politician, but he was an active Mason. His
record is one in which all Masons may take pride.
Perhaps no man in American public life has been more reviled by his enemies or
more warmly praised by his friends than Jackson. This was natural in view of
the fact that, during the period in which he occupied the presidential chair,
1829-1837, politics became most bitterly partisan. It was at this time that
political parties were for the first time definitely organized under the
control of leaders at Washington. It was inevitable that a man of such strong
will and domineering personality as the leader of the new Democratic Party,
should be hated by his political opponents who included the Anti-Masons, the
National Republicans, and the Nullifiers, all of whom later merged to form the
Whig party. Because in the past historians and biographers have depended
largely on the writings of these political opponents for their sources of
information, it has not been until recently that Jackson has been presented in
a true light.
Jackson was far from being a perfect man, but he was not the uncouth,
illiterate, head-strong individual pictured by unfriendly critics. He was a
man whose personality presented many contradictions, which make it difficult
to characterize him. His enemies described him as irascible, egotistical,
stubborn, vindictive, intolerant of the opinions of others, and unforgiving.
He was regarded as embodying all the coarseness and crudity of the frontier.
To his friends he was a very different man. They praised him as a military
hero, a true patriot, a great statesman and referred in glowing terms to his
probity, his sagacity, his firmness, his courtesy, his generosity, his virtue,
his bravery, his chivalry towards women, his hospitality, and his
from the historical perspective of the present time, he appears to have been a
man in whom these faults and virtues were curiously blended, but with the good
qualities over-balancing the bad. Had he been the kind of a man pictured by
his enemies he could never have achieved the greatness to which history shows
he is entitled.
order to understand Jackson it is necessary to know something of his career
and the conditions under which he lived. Born on the frontier, he spent almost
all of the fifty-seven years of his life, prior to his accession to the
Presidency, under frontier conditions. The date of his birth was, March 15,
1767, but there is some dispute as to the place where the: event occurred. Two
years before, his parents had come from northern Ireland to join the
Scotch-Irish settlement, the Waxhaws, near the boundary between North and
South Carolina. Only a few days before Andrew was born the head of the family
died. It has been contended that the mother then crossed the line and went to
the home of a relative in North Carolina, where the child was born. However,
the latest historical research indicate South Carolina as Jackson's native
State, and he, himself, always referred to it as such.
MOTHER WISHED HIM TO BECOME A MINISTER
Elizabeth Jackson, the future President's mother, was a pious woman of the
Presbyterian faith, as were most of the Scotch-Irish, and cherished the hope
that her son Andrew would become a minister. But there was little in his rough
frontier environment to incline him towards that calling. As a boy he not only
was an active participant in the rough sports of the frontier settlement, but
he is reported to have excelled his companions. He was always ready for a
quarrel or for a cock-fight, and he was proficient in the use of oaths which
seemed so essential to the frontiersman. Yet vice was not a passion with him
and his constant striving to excel boded well for his future.
Educational opportunities at that period of history in this country were very
meagre, except for a very few individuals. On the frontier the educational
standards were not high and it was regarded as sufficient if one could read
and understand English in an indifferent manner, write a legible hand, and
perform a few arithmetical calculations necessary for business transactions.
Of such education Jackson partook insofar as opportunity was offered in the
rude neighborhood school. The formal learning which he thus acquired was sadly
inadequate for one who was to occupy the prominent position which he later
attained. Later, in his study of law, he picked up some Latin phrases, but he
never acquired the knowledge of literature or history which distinguished such
of his contemporaries as Thomas Hart Benton.
spelling was faulty and yet not to such a degree as commonly supposed. The
reason so much stress was put on this was that, during the campaign of 1828,
his political opponents sought to discredit him as an illiterate, and
therefore unfit to be President, by magnifying his inability to spell
correctly. Though largely untaught he was not unlearned. He, through his own
efforts, acquired the ability to express himself in clear, vigorous English,
and his ideas were original with him. His state papers were essentially his
own, though others helped put them in final form for publication.
he was still a mere boy and before he could have attended school much, the
fact that a War for Independence was being fought was forcibly impressed on
him. In 1780, the British captured Charleston and over-ran South Carolina.
Though but a boy of thirteen, Andrew Jackson served as a trooper with the
American forces. The following year, he and his brother were taken prisoners
by the British. Refusing to shine an officer's boots he was slashed across the
hand and head with a sword. The scars of this and the marks left by smallpox,
which he contracted while in prison, he carried to the end of his life.
brother died, but Andrew's release was secured by his mother. Shortly
afterwards she died of fever contracted while serving as a volunteer nurse
caring for Americans who were held prisoners at Charleston. The end of the
Revolution found Andrew alone in the world with the necessity of relying on
his own resources. While he considered continuing his education, there was no
opportunity in his locality for doing so. He then undertook to become a
saddler but after a short period he found the life too monotonous. He is
reported to have spent more time in the saddle--for he was an expert
horseman--than in working at the trade.
SOWED HIS WILD OATS
this, he thought to make his fortune in the world beyond the frontier, and
went to Charleston. There he became associated with the sporting element and
by reckless betting on horse races involved himself in debt. Extricating
himself from his difficulties by a fortunate wager, he turned from the gay
life of the city.
must have been conscious that the frontier offered him the best opportunity
for success, for he returned to the region of his nativity. In 1784 he took up
the study of law at Salisbury, North Carolina, in the office of Spruce Macay.
Finally completing the law course he was admitted to the bar in 1787 and
launched out on his professional career at Martinsville, North Carolina. There
is no record to indicate how much practice he had but it is reasonable to
think that he received few clients, since he was as yet not twenty one years
old, was given to the pursuit of pleasure, and probably knew little law.
time, Tennessee was still a part of North Carolina, and had been but little
settled. Three counties in the eastern part had been organized and, in 1788,
these were constituted a judicial district by the North Carolina legislature,
and John McNairy, one of Jackson's fellow law students at Salisbury, was
appointed judge. He persuaded Jackson to accompany him with the result that
the autumn of the year found them established at Nashville. Jackson soon
acquired a lucrative business among the merchants, for the most part. The only
lawyer of the vicinity had been retained by a group of debtors, so the
creditors were glad to retain Jackson. He was also appointed solicitor in
McNairy's district with a salary of forty pounds for each court he attended.
He invested his income in land and in eight years was one of the wealthy land
owners of the new community.
Jackson rapidly acquired prestige and was soon recognized as one of the
outstanding men in Tennessee. His rise to fame was aided by his personal
appearance, for he was tall, slender, and erect, with a pale face and keen
blue eyes surmounted by a high narrow forehead. His hair was bushy and of a
sandy hue; his chin was clear-cut and square, and h his lips expressive. He
carried himself like one who was his own master and his actions were quick and
he appeared in court he always created a favorable impression. While acting in
his capacity as solicitor he exhibited such courage and such love for justice
that he won the respect of the law abiding while the evil doers came to fear
him. It was not long before he received further preferment. When only twenty
three years old he was appointed United States attorney. When Tennessee was
admitted into the Union as a State in 1796 he was elected as its first and
only Representative in the lower house of Congress.
later he was appointed United States Senator, but resigned this office in
April, 1798. The national capital at that time was located at Philadelphia,
and Jackson seems to have found the life in that metropolis distasteful. Upon
his return to Tennessee he was appointed a justice of the Tennessee Supreme
Court, and served acceptably until 1804. His decisions, while not always
exhibiting as much knowledge of law as might have been desirable, were
eminently fair and were characterized by their common sense.
Meanwhile two important events had taken place in Jackson's life which were to
mean much to him in the future--his marriage and his entrance into the Masonic
Fraternity. Concerning the former much has been written; little is known of
his early Masonic record.
he first came to the Nashville settlement Jackson became acquainted with
Rachel, the daughter of John Donelson, one of the pioneer leaders. She was
married to one Lewis Robards of Kentucky, a worthless individual whose cruelty
forced her to seek refuge in her parental home. At the time there were no
divorce laws in Kentucky so it was necessary for Robards to petition the
Virginia legislature, which then exercised jurisdiction over Kentucky, for
permission to sue for a divorce in a Kentucky court. When this petition was
granted, in 1791, his wife married Jackson, both believing that she had been
freed from Robards. But two years later, that individual sued for divorce in a
Kentucky court and was granted it on the grounds that his wife had for two
years been unlawfully living with Jackson as his wife.
FINDS HIMSELF IN A HUMILIATING SITUATION
the news reached Tennessee, Jackson was much mortified and hastened to
re-marry in 1794. Later, especially in the campaign of 1828, his political
enemies sought to make political capital of the event by circulating stories
of this marriage. But, while Jackson acted precipitately in the matter, there
is no doubt that both he and his wife were innocent of any intentional
wrongdoing. He was always very sensitive concerning the matter and nothing
would arouse his ire more quickly than allusion to the circumstances of his
marriage. He killed one man in a duel, it is supposed, because of some
disparaging remark in regard to his marriage, though the quarrel leading to
the duel began over a horse race. Jackson was always fondly devoted to his
wife and she to him.
Concerning his early Masonic record the facts a not so clear. Several lodges
claim him, but there is doubt as to which lodge conferred on him the first
three Degrees of Masonry. At the time of his going to Tennessee the region was
under the jurisdiction of the North Carolina Grand Lodge as the Grand Lodge of
Tennessee was not organized until 1813. The claim of Greeneville Lodge, No. 3,
of Tennessee, formerly No 43, of North Carolina, seems to be the most weighty.
The records were destroyed by fire during the Civil War, so it is unknown just
when he took the three Degrees. But an original transcript of the lodge record
for Sept. 5, 1801, shows that he was a member at the time.
Philanthropic Lodge, No. 12, at Clover Bottom, Tennessee, the only lodge in
the territory chartered by the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, has claimed Jackson,
but as it was not chartered until 1805, its claim does n seem valid. The
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina for 1805 list him as a member
of Harmony Lodge, No. 29, at Nashville, which later became No. 3, in the
Tennessee jurisdiction. He might have been made a Mason in this lodge, but
here, too, the evidence is not conclusive. During this period he appears to
have been active in the work of the Fraternity, and is known to have served as
a Worshipful Master. He also became a Royal Arch Mason.
Jersey and the Grand Orient of France
INSPIRED by a desire to have Freemasonry become a united and universal
brotherhood, a desire accentuated by the disrupting influences of the World
War, and willing to go more than half way, three or four American Grand Lodges
entered into fraternal relations with the Grand Orient of France during the
war period. A further step in that direction was taken when certain of our
Grand Lodges took membership in the International Masonic Association, the
grand purpose of which was world-wide Masonic duty. It was hoped by those
Grand Lodges, and by many brethren in Grand Jurisdictions not participating,
that some basis of unity could be found on which all Grand bodies of the world
might have common footing without sacrifice of principle or regularity.
the obstacles in the way of this approchement, so far as many American Grand
Lodges were concerned, was the fact that so many of them had long before
severed relations with the Grand Orient of France: first, because it had
invaded American territorial jurisdiction; second, because of its position on
belief in God; and the Grand Orient had to be reckoned with because of its
influence in Europe, and because of its membership in the International
Masonic Association. The American brethren who led in the movement toward
unity, and who hoped to have the International Masonic Association become the
nucleus for a future association of Grand bodies of the world, tried to find a
way out of the religious difficulty and hoped the Grand Orient might come to a
better understanding of the American principles of religion and the American
system of territorial jurisdiction.
transpires that the Grand Orient has no thought of co-operating with regular
American Masonry at all--at least so one gathers from its Compt Rendu, issued
official records show the Grand Orient deliberately undertaking to enter into
fraternal relation with an irregular Masonic Grand body, the Region Grand
Lodge of France (italics ours):
Mille, President, recalls the conditions of the covenant that is to be made
with the Regional Gr. Lodge of Pennsylvania, which has requested the patronage
of the Gr. Or. of France. He states in what circumstances that important group
has applied for our patronage. He thinks that it is our duty to answer the
call of our American Brothers. The Council, desirous of cultivating good
relations with the Masonry of the whole world, has examined at length this
question. We are not accustomed to trespass on the jurisdiction of other
Obediences, and therefore, it is only after mature reflection and a careful
study of the facts that we have taken a decision. Our right is unquestionable.
We are not in relations of amity with the official Gr. Lodge of Pennsylvania.
The question of territorial jurisdiction is not raised.
Council gives full powers to its Board to pursue this affair and make the
Past Master of the Atlantide (in New York City) our Bro. Biny, has sent us,
with a kindness for which we cannot thank him too much, documents concerning
the Gr. Lodge of Pennsylvania. In a first statement, he shows us the attempts
made by the York Rite, especially in 1906, to suppress the Lodges of the Gr.
Or. of Spain. A second statement gives us a real summing-up of the history of
the Gr. Lodge of Pennsylvania. A last one explains the origin of the Lodges of
the Gr. Or. of Spain in the United States. All this is very intertesting to us
at the moment when we are going to form a close connection with the Regional
Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. * * *
Delauney, Secretary of the Council of the Order: 'It is owing to the desire of
the Council of the Order, to develop our international influence, any time an
opportunity occurs that the parleys entered into with the Regional Gr. Lodge
of Pennsylvania are due.'
Gr. Lodge of Pennsylvania, which comprises thirty five lodges, several
Chapters and Councils, was founded in 1893 under the auspices of the Grand
Orient of Spain and remained subject to it until 1922. The separation took
place under the following circumstances: When the Supreme Council of Spain
asked to be admitted to the International Meeting in 1922 of the Supreme
Councils at Lausanne, the American Masons required before all, that the Grand
Orient of Spain should give up the lodges which were under its dependency in
American territory. The Supreme Council for Spain acceded to them and later
advised its lodges to become afflliated with the York Rite (in America).
York Rite Masonry did not correspond to the philosophical ideal of the
Regional Gr. Lodge of Pennsylvania which, on the other hand, saw with chagrin
the manner in which it had been treated by the Gr. Or. of Spain. In order to
have a definite explanation with the Spanish obedience the Gr. Lodge sent its
Gr. Commander, Bro. Gould Lawyer to Madrid. In Europe he received confirmation
of the abandonment in Lausanne. He was then put into communication with the
Gr. Or. of France through Bro. Biny, Past Master of our Lodge 'l'Atlantide' of
New York City. * * *
we have only to read you the main lines of the projected Convention between
the Regional Gr. Lodge of Pennsylvania and the Gr. Or. of France:
The Regional Gr. Lodge of Pennsylvania shall pay every year to the Gr. Or. of
France the sum of ten dollars for each active lodge.
The Regional Gr. Lodge shall buy all the third degree diplomas which they may
need at a price which shall be fixed immediately. These diplomas shall be on
parchment printed in English and in French from a model furnished by the Grand
Lodge (That model is a diploma in use at the time when the Gr. Lodge was
subject to the Gr. Or. of Spain).
The Constitution of the Gr. Or. printed in English shall be furnished to the
Regional Gr. Lodge at a price of 500 francs for 100 copies.
All the communications between the Gr. Or. of France and the Regional Gr.
Lodge shall be in English.
The Gr. Or. of France shall furnish (for a price to be fixed) letters patent,
printed in English and in French, for the lodges which belong actually to the
Gr. Lodge or may be created later. Those letters patent shall bear the actual
names and numbers of the lodges already in existence.
The Gr. Lodge shall have the right of working according to the Scottish Rite.
The Gr. Lodge shall have the right of recording all legislative acts
concerning the regulation of the lodges of its obedience.
The Gr. Lodge shall have the right of establishing new lodges in the United
States when it shall deem it proper, it will receive for them letters patent
from the Gr. Or. of France.
The Regional Gr. Lodge requests that every time a lodge or a member of its
obedience shall write directly to the Gr. Or. such letters be communicated to
the Gr. Lodge before the adoption of any solution.
matter is not concluded. We trust in our Lodge l'Alantide of New York City,
which knows that Gr. Lodge well and which has asked to keep us informed; as,
being on the ground, it knows better than we do all the precautions which
should be taken.
the other hand if most American Grand Lodges ignore us there are some with
which we are in relations of amity. Such are the Grand Lodges of Alabama, of
Iowa, of Louisiana of Minnesota, of New Jersey and Rhode Island.
Regional Gr. Lodge of Pennsylvania asks to be granted the right of
establishing new lodges in the United States it would be proper on our part to
tell them not to establish any in the States with which we are in relations of
amity. There are hardly any besides two obediences, very small ones, New
Jersey and Rhode Island, which might become mixed up in this affair on account
of their relative nearness to Pennsylvania. * *
L. the Atlantide, Or. Of New York, gives us the following information
concerning the 'Loyal Order of Moose,' which had manifested a desire to enter
into a connection with us. As many other American secret societies of the same
kind, the Loyal Order of Moose is interested in one of those things which form
the aim and ideal of Masonry; it is in itself an honorable society, but its
object is before all--mutual aid and assistance; a member is entitled to
benefits in case of sickness, death, etc. Our lodge earnestly entreats you to
avoid all connection with the Loyal Order of Moose, or any other society of
the same kind. We would run the risk, the lodge says, of becoming the laughing
stock of all America and of the European Masonry. It does not seem as if we
should hesitate; we must adopt the line of conduct pointed out to us by the
Lodge the Atlantide, Or. of New York, writes us another letter concerning the
'Loyal Order of Moose'. The details which it contains confirms the information
previously furnished by the Atlantide and specify this fact that the 'Loyal
Order of Moose' presents no Masonic character. In the latter part of the
letter our lodge from beyond the sea tells us to be on our guard against
certain portentous manceuvres:
can only urge you to refrain from forming any connection with that Order which
would never even have dared put such a question as it dared put to you in
Paris. We repeat it, beware of the snares which the Americans lay for you, and
remember well that Americans do not come for nothing and without purpose to
the European Masonries and especially to the International Masonic Association
in Switzerland in which they did not take any interest at all before 1920. On
the day when something disagreeable will happen to you (bear well in mind that
just now we only indulge in guesses) you will regret very much the advances
that you shall have made to the Americans.
United States are, for such as have not lived here, the most incomprehensible,
the most unlike people in the world. Study well the English and you wiil know
somewhat their Anglo-Saxon brothers called the Americans.'
must thank that devoted lodge, the Atlantide." * * * * *
The lodge L'Atlantide, Orient of New York, requests the Grand Orient to give
to Brother Felix Levy 18d the necessary powers by which to effect the
conferring of the Chapter degrees, for the purpose of forming a Chapter, on
some brethren of the lodge L'Atlantide.
project being justified by the importance of our lodge in New York, your
committee proposes that you render the following decree:
Council of the Order.
view of Article 70 of the Constitutions and the paper of the lodge L'Atlantide
dated Aug. 2, 1923, and the favorable advice of the Grand College of Rites.
"'Article first:--Delegation is given to Brother Felix Levy, 18d member of the
lodge L'Atlantide, to effect the conferring of the Chapter degrees on the
Brothers who shall be designated by that lodge:--'
interesting sequel to all this will be found in Bro. Frank C. Sayrs' Grand
Master's address, delivered to the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, April 16, 1924,
the relevant portions of which are here quoted from the Proceedings of the
Grand Lodge of New Jersey, 1924, page 91 ff:
relations with all other jurisdictions with which we are in fraternal
communication are undisturbed, but I am constrained to bring to your attention
correspondence with the Grand Orient of France, which may prompt your
consideration of the propriety of the continuance of our present friendly
relations with that organization. Let it be understood that the Grand Lodge of
New Jersey has never formally recognized the Grand Orient of France; that the
interdict laid against it in 1871 at the request of the Grand Lodge of
Louisiana, because of the alleged invasion of territorial jurisdiction of the
latter was in reciprocation of New Jersey's request of all American Grand
Jurisdictions to support it in interdicting the Grand Lodge of Hamburg for
invasion of our jurisdiction by warranting a Lodge in Hoboken.
interdict continued until its rescission in 1918. Perhaps the controlling
reason being that during the war, members of New Jersey Lodges in the American
Expeditionary Forces had reported the welcomes, the kindnesses shown them by
their brethren in France and had suggested the removal of the interdict
against Masonic communication with them.
then, the Grand Orient has occasionally written requesting to be informed of
the regularity of spurious organizations which had applied for recognition,
such as the American Masonic Federation, the Memphis Rite of Chicago, and have
been left in no doubt of in what "regularity" consists in the United States of
attitude regarding the exclusive territorial jurisdiction of American Grand
Lodges has always been governed by Standing Resolution No. 1, adopted in 1840:
Resolved, That the Grand Lodge of New Jersey regards the Grand Lodges of the
several States and Territories of this Union, which have been heretofore
recognized, as holding exclusive jurisdiction within the limits of those
States and Territories; and will regard any attempt to violate this principle
in this or in any other State or Territory as an innovation in the established
regulations of the Fraternity, tending to its destruction."
therefore surprising to have received the letter which t follows:
17th, 1923. "To the Grand Lodge of New Jersey:
DEAR BRETHREN--Our Lodge L'Atlantide of New York informs us that a certain
number of your Lodges receive as visitors, French Masons who come from France,
and who are passing a limited time in your State, but they refuse admittance
to those of our Masons who are residents in America, and in particular, those
members of our Lodge L'Atlantide of New York.
"However, these last are Masons of the Grand Orient of France with the same
title as the others.
are convinced that you will think, as we do, that your Lodges misinterpret
shall be grateful of your good will if you will give thought to the foregoing
and we hope you will direct by the very next advices that all the Masons of
the Grand Orient of France shall be fraternally received as visitors in your
"Receive, very dear brethren, the assurance of our devotedly fraternal
of the Secretaries of the Council of the Order.
which answer was made as follows:
Delaunay, "Secretary, Grand Orient of France, "Paris, France.
SIR AND BROTHER--I acknowledge receipt of your letter of July 17th, 1923, in
which you advise the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, that members of your Lodges in
France, who may be temporarily sojourning in New Jersey, are received as
visitors in our Lodges, while members of a lodge of your obedience,
L'Atlantide, situated in the city of New York, are denied the like privilege
of visitation, and requesting that our Lodges be instructed to receive them.
Lodge of any foreign obedience, situated within the territorial jurisdiction
of an American Grand Lodge, in defiance of its sovereignty, is an irregular
Lodge and its members cannot be recognized as regular Masons.
Grand Orient of France cannot be ignorant of the long established principle of
exclusive territorial jurisdiction, maintained by the Grand Lodges of North
America, violation of which principle was the reason for the interdiction of
Masonic communication with the Grand Orient of France for so many years.
Grand Lodge of New Jersey annulled its interdict in 1918, under a resolution
to be found recorded in its Proceedings of 1918 on page 146, and you are aware
of the fact that in 1921 the Grand Lodge of Louisiana suspended its recently
resumed fraternal relations with the Grand Orient for the explicit reason that
the latter still maintained two Lodges in North America, one in San Francisco,
Cal., and another in New York City.
date of July 21st. 1920, it is of record in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge
of Louisiana, that the Grand Orient had considered the existence of the Lodge
L'Atlantide justified, but that it was disposed to order the dissolution of
the Lodge Jerome Lalande (California). If the latter was considered irregular
or offensive to the interests of fraternal amity between the Grand
jurisdictions, then also will the former be, while it continues to exist
within the jurisdiction of an American Grand Lodge.
annual proceedings (Comptes Rendu) of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey are
regularly sent to the Parls office of the Grand Orient, and if you will refer
to the volume of 1918, page 146 and then to the volume of 1922 you will find
in the appendix (pages 46, 47, 48) a full explanation of the attitude of the
Grand Lodge of New Jers in regard to the principle involved, and particularly
in relation to the Lodge L'Atlantide.
Masonic communication with the members of an irregular Lodge cannot be
tolerated in New Jersey, I be leave to suggest, in the interest of undisturbed
fraternal relations, that you formally withdraw your letter, as otherwise its
subject matter must be officially communicated the Grand Lodge at its Annual
Commmunication in April 1924, and I have reason to assume that suspension of
amicable relations with your Grand Orient would probably result from its
trust this greatly to be regretted conclusion can be averted, by your further
consideration of the subject, and your adoption of the suggestion I have
offered. Accept an expression of the fraternal sentiments with which I
subscribe myself, your friend and brother, "FRANK C. SAYRS, "Grand Master."
Evidence that the Grand Orient of France willingly continued to request
information regarding suspiciously irregular bodies in America is afforded by
the following letter:
(Translation) "GRAND ORIENT OF FRANCE, "16 Rue Cadet, Paris, "November 7,
1923. "Grand Lodge of New Jersey:
DEAR BRETHREN--We have received a communication of which the following is a
brethren of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, make a request for the foundation
of a Council and desire you to send us a Patent, so that we may be recognized
under and by the Rites of the Grand Orient of France. "'Will you send us a
charter under which we shall be able to work? We form a Council of nine
members under the name of the Supreme Council of the United States. "'The
names of the brethren of the Council are the following: A.G. Wilkes, Robert M.
Ford, William Bull, W. Williams, C. C. Holoway, Forest Pitts, Nattian Pitts,
Robert Calhone, W. H. Matthews Thanking. "'Will you address your reply to A.
G. Wilkes, 458 No. Franklin Street, Philadelphia, or to Robert M. Ford, 209
Taylor Ave. Camden (N. York)
shail pay for the charter after reception. Put on it the French seal. We pay
you all charges.'
shall be obliged if you will kindly tell us what you think of the contents of
that letter and of its authors. We wait your reply (before) for writing to the
"Accept, very dear brethren, my thanks and the assuance of my devoted
fraternal sentiments. THE SECRETARY-GENERAL, "ARIES. "
was answered as follows:
December 5th, 1923. "V. Fr. Aries, Secretary-General, Grand Orient of France:
F.--Your letter of November 7th, 1923, containing the translation of a letter
requesting the issue of a Patent for a 'Supreme Council for America' to
certain persons named therein asserting themselves to be members of the Grand
Lodge of New Jersey, has been read with astonishment at the impudent mendacity
of the writers, and at the display of their ignorance in presuming that the
Grand Orient of France would consider such an overture upon a mere demand,
without a careful consideration of the reasons which had prompted such a
request. Your prudence in desiring an expression of our opinion on the subject
is an appreciated Masonic courtesy to the Grand Lodge of New Jersey and it is
only with an earnest desire to reciprocate that courtesy and to render you a
real service, that we advise you that the persons named in the letter are not
members of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, nor of the Lodges of its obedience.
We have reason to suspect the names to be of persons identified with the
irregular and clandestine groups which had been operating in the State of
Pennsylvania, under the pseudo-authority of the Grand Orient of Spain, and
which had been renounced by that body at the instance of the Supreme Council
of Spain, because of their known irregularity.
these outcasts have been added other irregular and clandestine survivors of
the so-called American Masonic Federation, of which the organizers, Matthew
McBlain Thompson and his associates, are now under sentence of conviction in a
Federal Court to pay fines of $5,000.00 and suffer two years' imprisonment for
their fraudulent use of the United States mails in solicitation of their
may be of ultimate and important service to the Grand Orient of France to be
reminded that American Masonic theory and practice, well justified by long
experience, imparts a very serious meaning and consideration to
'regularity'--for every Mason in America by the obligations which alone make
him a Mason is thereby prohibited from Masonic communication with an
irregular, spurious or clandestine Mason, and the regularity of any individual
Mason is determined by his making in a just and lawfully constituted Lodge of
the obedience of a Grand Lodge possessed of sole territorial jurisdiction
within its own State lines.
"Therefore, nothing could be done or authorized by any Masonic authority
outside of the United States of America to establish within its geographic
boundaries any kind of a Masonic body and invest it with fundamental
regularity. This applies equally to Grand Orients and Supreme Councils of any
or all degrees of legitimate Masonry.
this connection, and perhaps of even greater relative importance, your
attention is called to the subject matter set forth in your Compte Rendu of
March 25th, 1923 (soir), pages 156 to 159, inclusive, by which it appears that
the same 'irregulars' had overtured the Grand Orient to take an exaggerated
number of so-called Lodges, chapters and philosophical (?) councils under its
protection and thereby identify itself with a so-called Regional Grand Lodge
for North America.
would seem impossible that such an association could be seriously considered,
but giving all credence to the story and complimenting the Illustrious
brethren participating in the discussion, upon their almost extreme courtesy,
as reported, we feel that we would be gravely derelict did we not renew and
emphasize the advice tendered herein, and offer for your most serious
consideration the view that your official cognition of the parties thus
soliciting your protection and assimilation could have but one result; namely,
the immediate termination of friendly relations with the Grand Orient of
France by the Grand Lodges of the United States.
"Accept our fraternal assurance that this invited expression of opinion is
based on the facts and is offered solely in your interests and in behalf of
the continuance of the friendly relations now existing between the Grand
Orient of France and several of the American Grand Lodges.
high consideration and fraternal esteem, I am "Sincerely yours "FRANK C. SAYRS,
reply to this letter embodies the French understanding of American exclusive
"PARIS, January 29th, 1924. "To the Grand Lodge of New Jersey: "DEAR
BRETHREN--We desire to again state the point of view of the Grand Orient of
France regarding our relations with the Masonic Powers which have formed a
friendly connection with us, and especially our relations with your Grand
me to remind you of the facts that our Lodge. 'The Atlantide' Orient of New
York (City), having called to our attention that while you accept as visitors
our brethren who pass through the United States, you strictly forbid to our
brethren of 'The Atlantide' entrance to your temples. We wrote you July 17th,
1923, requesting you not to make such an arbitrary distinction between regular
Masons of our Obedience. Your answer of August 31st, 1923 advised us to
formally withdraw our letter lest your Grand Lodge should suspend its
relations with us. You founded your demand on the fact that a foreign Masonic
Power cannot have a Lodge on the territory of a friendly Power.
this principle, which we entirely accept, apply to our case? No, most
evidently. The United states is, politically, a federation of many states, but
Masonically it is not so. Each one of these states is, indeed, a Masonic
Power, and so far as we know these individual Powers do not constitute one
effective group, regulated by one constitution and working as one regular
Masonic organization. Therefore, to us, the fact that we have Lodges in one
state does not seem to place an obstacle in the way of our having relations
with another state.
"Article 21 of our Constitutions reads: 'The Grand Orient of France does not
establish Lodges in those countries where there exists a regular Masonic Power
with which it is in fraternal relations.' Nothing is changed in the situation
of those Lodges that are in actual existence. Which means to us that should we
form a friendly connection with the Grand Lodge of New York we would bind
ourselves not to create Lodges on the territory of the Grand Lodge of New
York, but the Grand Lodge of New York would have to recognize the regularity
of the Lodge which already exists there.
still more reason and especially as the existence of our Lodge, 'The Atlantide,'
was previous to the forming of our friendly connections with your Grand Lodge,
it seems to us inadmissible that you should refuse to recognize our New York
Lodge, which is outside of your territory, and to deny the right of visitation
to such of its members as might visit your Lodge.
these conditions you will understand that we cannot do otherwise than maintain
the point of view just stated.
the other hand allow us to thank you for the information which vou gave us in
answer to our letter of November 7th, 1923. That information corresponds with
a request which has reached us from the so-called Brother Robert M. Ford, of
Camden (New York), who pretends that he and the other eight signers are
members of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey.
question therefore did not implicate the Regional Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania,
with which we are in negotiations and concerning which we take the liberty of
offering you some fraternal explanations.
the Grand Orient of Spain, which had granted its Constitution to the said
Grand Lodge, severed its connection, the Grand Lodge requested us to become
its patron, that is, to take the place of the Grand Orient of Spain, as its
warrantor and to furnish its Constitution and the diplomas for its members.
definite decision has not been taken on the matter, for our Grand Orient has,
first of all, requested the Regional Grand Lodge of Philadelphia to show
proofs of its Masonic regularity. The Grand Lodge gave us these proofs
consisting in its previous Constitution granted by the Grand Orient of Spain,
and a decision of the High Court of Philadelphia by which its legal existence
was recognized with the exciusion of the other groups of the same kind.
negotiations continue and no definite decision has been reached. You may be
sure that in this order of ideas also our Grand Orient will not swerve from
its ancient line of conduct and be inconsistent with the principles of its
Constitution or the agreements it has entered into with friendly Powers.
"Accept, dear brethren, the assurance of our devoted and fraternal sentiments.
"DELAUNAY "One of the Secretaries of the Council of the Order."
statement that the Grand Orient had not yet decided to afliliate the
Pennsylvania clandestines, might reasonably serve to delay action on the part
of this Grand Lodge, were it not for the utter misunderstanding of American
practice, evinced in this correspondence, and which alone may justify at least
a temporary severance of our friendly relations.
extracts from the current Proceedings of the Grand Orient of France,
translations of which have been sent me by the Chairman of your Committee on
Foreign Correspondence, presents such curiously erratic details as would
justify a suspension of friendly relations until our French brethren realize
the gravity of their proposed action.
portion of the Grand Master's address was referred to the Committee on Foreign
Correspondence which recommended (its recommendations were adopted by Grand
Lodge) as follows:
M. W. Grand Lodge:
duly considered the subject matter contained in the printed address of the M.
W. Grand Master, under the caption "Foreign Relations" (pages 15-23) which was
referred to this committee, we respectfully report:
reference to the suggestion that the existing relations with the Grand Orient
of France be terminated because of its attitude in regard to the American
practice of exclusive territorial jurisdiction as set forth in the letter
dated Jan. 29, 1924, which traverses and ignores the practice of this and all
other American Grand Lodges, we agree that entire justification is found in
the correspondence, but we are of the opinion that the decision to terminate
our relations may with propriety await final action by the Grand Orient as to
its affiliating the Pennsylvania irregular and clandestine groups with which
it is in negotiation, and therefore recommend that the M. W. Grand Master be
empowered by his declaration to terminate the existing relations between this
Grand Lodge and the Grand Orient of France when by such action it shall appear
to be expedient. * * * *
WILLIAM VAN EERDE
CHARLES W. GARMAN
Committee on Foreign Correspondence.
Trenton, N. J., April 17th, 1924.
Hypocrisy of Goodness"
BRO. HENRY TAYLOR, Missouri
ROB MORRIS invented the term "Cryptic Masonry" to designate the set of three
degrees that closely follow the Royal Arch: Royal Master, Select Master, and
Superexcellent Master. The word is from the Latin crypticus, derived from an
older Greek term krupte, meaning a vault, or underground passage or room. The
suitability of this name is instantly apparent to every brother fortunate
enough to have taken these beautiful degrees. It is regrettable that so few,
comparatively speaking, have embraced this privilege; it is said that only
about nine per cent of Master Masons have taken them, whereas about
twenty-seven per cent are Royal Arch members, and some fourteen per cent are
Knights Templar. The Rite seems to flourish most in Connecticut, New
Hampshire, Ohio, Rhode Island, and Texas.
older historians say that the Cryptic Degrees began as honorary or side
degrees of the Scottish Rite, more especially of the original Rite of
Perfection, founded in France in the middle of the eighteenth century. The
Proceedings for the Supreme Council at Charleston, dated Dec. 4, 1802,
apparently show that the R. &; S. ceremonies were then claimed by that Body,
but as "detached" degrees: "Besides those degrees which are in regular
succession, must of the Inspectors are in possession of a number of detached
degrees, given in different parts of the world; and which they generally
communicate, free of expense, to those brethren who are high enough to
understand them, such as Select Masons of Twenty-Seven," etc. On the same
subject Charles T. McClenachan wrote: "In the Southern states of the Union,
the Supreme Council initiated, chartered, and fostered Councils of Royal and
Select Masters; and as rapidly as they were selfsustaining they became
independent." Bro. George W. Warvelle disagrees with all this, and attributes
the degrees to American sources. In THE BUILDER of May, 1924, he said that
"the history of Cryptic Masonry, as coherent and connected system, commences
with the year 1818, and that it owes its present existence" to the enthusiasm
of Jeremy L. Cross, who derived the material from earlier American ritualists.
In either event, the ultimate sources of the degrees are lost to us; but that
Symbolically there is a connection between the Cryptic Rite and the Temple of
Solomon. I. Kings, Chapter VI, verse 7, says: "And the house, when it was in
building, was built of stone made ready before it was brought thither: so that
there was neither hammer nor ax nor any tool of iron heard in the house, while
it was in building." The ashlars were hewn out and perfected--many of them at
least--in a quarry dug into the hill underneath the building. The entrance
became concealed by rubbish and so the very existence of that underground work
chamber became lost until rediscovered by modern archaeologists. It appeals to
one's imagination to think how many of the stones which graced the arches of
King Solomon's Temple or shone from tower and wall were carved and quarried by
craftsmen working in silence and in secrecy.
is more of this kind of cryptic work in our Fraternity than most
Masons--especially of the younger set--ever know of. The Worshipful Master and
his officers putting in their evenings and Sundays working out the problems of
the lodge; the Tyler, going to his dingy ante-room through all kinds of
weather; committees visiting the sick, and planning the work of the brethren;
much of all this necessary labor is never published to the world; oftentimes
the casual attendants at lodge hear of it not at all. But if it were not for
this hidden labor, going on without sound of ax or hammer--they make all their
sound, usually, where everybody can hear--there would be no Masons, no lodges,
brother who really practices his Masonry is in a large sense a Cryptic Mason,
though he may not work much in lodge--how few ever do that ! Circumstances may
make it impossible for him to attend meetings or to serve on committees, but
he is doing Masonic work, often, just the same. He does a good turn here,
drops a helpful word there, passes on a needed dollar, or pays a call, and all
because his Freemasonry is inspiring him to do it.
that matter, there is plenty of Cryptic Masonry going on everywhere in the
world outside our ranks. The cynic makes much capital of the fact that so many
men are hypocrites; he thinks--if ever he does think-that all goodness is
merely a thing for display, and all men are rotten at the core. A hypocrite,
so the word literally means, is "one who takes part in a show or play." He is
a "play actor." There is truly, as the cynic wishes us never to forget, much
acting at being good by men who are anything but good. But what the cynic
himself always forgets is that there are also many men who play at being worse
than they really are.
is such a thing as "the hypocrisy of goodness." Oftentimes the fellow who
makes a great bluster at being a "regular tough" has a heart as soft as a
woman's but he would as lief be caught stealing as have anybody discover all
"his little nameless unrecorded acts of kindness and of love." There is just
as much concealed goodness in the world as concealed wickedness. Down
underground, hidden in the crypts of the world, are multitudes of silent
workmen; they may doff the apron before coming to the surface; they may hide
their tools; they may make no sound at their work; they may not leave their
mark on the ashlar where it can show; nevertheless, to some degree, they are
royal and select masters, and after they are forgotten their children's
children will see their anonymous work, shining in the sun.
Norse Discovery of America
BRO. ALFRED NEWTON MINER, Massachusetts
history of the city or country of Norumbega is vested with the charm of
antiquity, fable and early explorations. Early historical accounts contain
many references to Norumbega [a name given to a lodge in Newtonville, Mass.],
and the place was much sought for in the 15th Century. Who founded it, where
it was located, and what was the cause of its abandonment, are questions that
have never been fully answered to the satisfaction of all. One late writer has
referred to Norumbega as "The Lost city of New England."
study of ancient historical subjects, especially before the era of the written
word, one is dependent upon the traditional narratives or legends of the
people, which were handed down by word of mouth, from generation to
generation, until at last set down in writing by some scribe and presented as
historical narratives. These legendary or traditional accounts are found
mingled with the early written historical accounts tending to corrupt the
authenticity of the earliest records. This mixture has often led to the
serious questioning of the early records, and caused many discussions between
the students of narrative and critical history. Such is the case with the
earliest records of Norumbega.
theories have been advanced regarding its situation and founder. Early maps,
from 1520 to 1634, show it variously located along the eastern coast of North
America from Nova Scotia to Florida. John Smith speaks of Norumbega as
including New England and the region as far south as Virginia. Some later
historical students have placed Norumbega on the Penobscot River in Maine,
others in Rhode Island, others near our Massachusetts Bay.
as is known, no trace of ancient settlements has been found indicating that
this city was located along the Penobscot River. The old stone tower at
Newport is now believed to be the work of an early governor of Rhode Island,
rather than the work of the Norsemen. The Dighton Rock at Dighton, R. I., on
which were found runic figures, is now believed by some to be the work of
early Indians. In the main, however, it is agreed that if such a city or
country existed, it was undoubtedly an early settlement of the roving
Norsemen. It is probable that Norumbega will never be definitely located to
the satisfaction of all, unless historical records clearer than those at hand
Inasmuch as our interest is in the origin of the name and the location of the
ancient city of Norumbega, the writer has made a careful study of early Norse
history, the Norsemen and their voyages of exploration, their discovery of
America, their early settlements, as well as the works of recent writers
substantiating or refuting the possibility of this city being located on the
Charles River near the Massachusetts Bay.
appreciate the hardy, courageous, adventurous nature of the Northmen or
Norsemen, their exploration and their discovery of America, nearly five
hundred years before Christopher Columbus, it is necessary to glance briefly
at the early history of these people, and their settlement of Iceland and
name Northmen or Norsemen was applied in a general way to the early
inhabitants of Denmark. Norway and Sweden, these people forming the northern
branch of the Teutonic or Germanic race. Later, the names were specifically
applied to the people of Norway, Iceland and Greenland, and are so applied in
LEGEND PRIOR TO TENTH CENTURY
the first few centuries, the Norsemen were more or less hidden from view in
their remote northern home, Norway. Their history only becomes authentic with
the introduction of Christianity, at the close of the 10th Century. All
previous to this date is a compound of legend, mythology and doubtful history.
Enough is known, however, of these hardy sea kings to make it certain that
they were the most intrepid voyagers of the day. Though they had no compass,
no guide, in fact, but the sun and stars, yet they continually made long
voyages in rudely built vessels, not larger than some of our fishing boats.
The beaks of their long ships were seen in every known port of Europe, as far
south as the Golden Horn, and they explored other countries then unknown in
general. Their armed aid could be secured by every ruler who could afford to
pay them. Their craft crept along the coast of Germany, Gaul and the British
Isles. Every summer these dreaded sea rovers made swift descents upon the
exposed shores of these countries, plundering, burning, murdering and retiring
to the north before winter set in. Before long they began to winter in the
southern countries, and soon the shores were dotted with their stations and
made their first appearance on the coast of England in 787 A.D., and from the
year 832 A.D. repeated their invasions, until they became masters of the whole
country for about fifty years under King Canute. Land, which the Norsemen
named Normandy, an ancient province of France, was granted Rollo, one of the
most renowned of Norman chieftains, together with the daughter of Charles the
Simple, to stop the ravaging of France in the 10th Century.
Wherever they settled, they rapidly adopted the more civilized form of life of
the country, but they inspired everything they adopted with the bold, fearless
spirit of the Norsemen, producing marked internal improvements and fearless
Iceland was discovered in 860 A. D. by the bold Norse Viking Naddodd, sailing
from Norway. It was settled by immigration from Norway in 874 A. D. This
island, although located in the cold North Sea, was soon well peopled. The
nature and climate of the island, where winters are long, the whole year
surrounded by chill ice mountains, where the main support must be from
fishing, developed a hardy, brave race, one who loved the freedom of the wild
country, the spirit of the Viking.
the adventurous nature led to the discovery of Greenland, in 876 A.D., but it
was not until about a century later, in 984 A.D., that the land was visited
and explored by Erik the Red, an adventurous Norseman, who had fled from
Norway on account of manslaughter and was later banished from Iceland for the
same cause. He returned after two years to obtain settlers for Greenland,
giving the new country this name to attract them. Greenland, too, was soon
Iceland soon after its settlement became the literary center of the
Scandinavian world. There grew up a class of Scalds or Bards, who before the
introduction of writing preserved and transmitted orally the Sagas or legends
of the northern races. About the 12th Century these poems and legends were
gathered together, and they constitute a small body of Icelander literature
that has come down from the period of the events narrated, held for a long
time in the memory by frequent recitations, transmitted by father and mother
to son and daughter, and later, with the introduction of writing, written on
parchment. They are among the most important and interesting of the literary
memorials that we possess of the early Teuton people and reflect the beliefs,
manners, customs and the wild adventurous nature of the sea kings, as well as
giving the historical data of the people and age, at a time when literary
darkness overshadowed the European continent.
voyages which led to the discovery of North America by the Norsemen and their
settlements are set forth in the Old Norse Vinland Sagas, or early traditional
songs, which tell the following story:
A. D. a Norseman named Bjarni, son of Herjulf, who was voyaging from Iceland
to Greenland, was driven far out of his reckoning to the west by a gale. He
saw several times in the distance a bold, rugged coast line, probably that of
"New Foundland" or "Laborador", but made no landing. The account of this
voyage was related when he returned to Iceland.
ERIKSON SETS OUT
year 1000 A. D., Lief Erikson, son of Erik the Red, bearing in mind the tale
told by his predecessor, set out with the avowed object to test the truth of
his report and sailed with thirty-five men. He visited first an island seen by
Bjarni, and named it "Helluland" (flat stone land), supposed to be
Newfoundland, next "Markland" (woodland), supposed to be Nova Scotia, and last
"Vinland" (vineland, because they found vines and grapes in great abundance),
supposed to be the coast of New England. Lief built houses and wintered in
Vinland and in the spring loaded his vessel with timber and returned to
1002 A. D., Lief's brother Thorvald went to Vinland with thirty men and
wintered at the same place. In the succeeding year he sent a party to explore
the coast, who were gone all summer. In 1004 A. D. he explored the coast
eastward and was killed in a skirmish with the natives, and in 1005 A. D. his
companions returned to Greenland.
spring of 1007 A. D., Thorfinn Karlsefne, a rich Icelander, set sail for
Vinland with three ships and one hundred and sixty men and women. They took
with them their cattle and sheep. Three summers were passed on the Vinland
coast. While here Thorfinn's wife, Gudrid, bore a son, Snorre. Finding the
natives hostile, they at last returned to Greenland. The old Icelander
manuscripts make mention of other visits to Vinland, or to Markland in 1011,
1121, 1281 and 1347 A. D.
Briefly, this is the accepted account of the first discovery of America by the
Norsemen. The truthfulness of the Sagas' account is confirmed by the accounts
of Adam of Bremen, almost contemporary with the voyage of Thorfinn. Later
documentary evidence, in relation to the intercourse between Greenland and
America, is the Venetian narrative of the visit of Nicolo Zeno about 1390
A.D., when he met fishermen who had been on the coast of America.
connection between this early Norse settlement, called "Vinland," and the
Norumbega of today has been discussed by many. Why this city was not
discovered before the ruthless hand of time had entirely destroyed it is not
definitely known. Apparently but very little voyaging of exploration was done
between the time the Norsemen finally abandoned their settlement and voyages
to America in the early part of the 13th Century, and the voyages of
Christopher Columbus in 1492, John Cabot, 1497, and contemporary explorers.
COLUMBUS KNEW OF NORSE EXPLORATIONS
fact that Christopher Columbus knew of the land discovered by the Norsemen is
not disputed today. Several years before he sailed on his memorable voyage he
had visited Iceland, and undoubtedly talked with the descendants of those who
had lived in Vinland, North America. He also undoubtedly had opportunity to
see and study the map of Vinland, thought to have been procured for the
Vatican by the first Bishop of Iceland, who visited Vinland in the year 1121.
manner in which the knowledge of this ancient city was handed down to the
later explorers was not found by the writer. It may have been from the Vatican
reports, as Gudrid, the wife of Thorfinn, the mother of Snorre, made a
pilgrimage to Rome after the death of her husband, and recounted the story of
her three years' residence in Vinland. Rome at this time was paying much
attention to geographical discoveries, and took pains to collect all new
charts and reports. England, France, Portugal and Spain were all vying with
each other in discovering new lands and extending their territories. The
roving Norsemen, themselves, may have spread the stories of the new land,
through these countries, as recounted by the men at home. Whatever the way,
the stories of this wonderful place in a new country began to carry historical
weight. Many maps of the early explorers carry reference to it, although in
many cases the name is spelled differently. Norway was known as "Norvega" in
Europe in the early centuries, and is so shown on some of the ancient maps in
late 1500, and the Norsemen undoubtedly settled the new country in the name of
the motherland, "Norvega."
name Norumbega is said, by Professor Horsford, to be the Indian attempt to
pronounce the name given to the country by the Norsemen. Their inability to
pronounce it aright may have accounted for the diversified spelling of the
name found on the early maps of explorers. In the Spanish Document of 1523,
the name "Arembi" appears in place of Norumbega. Peter Martyr also mentions "Arembi"
as a province known and visited by the Spaniards. Thevel, in his instructions
to mariners about 1557, speaks of a small fort erected by the French some ten
or twelve leagues from the mouth of a river, which place was name "Fort of
Norumbegue." Verranzano's map of 152 shows a place on the New England coast
called "Aranbega." The Dieppe Sea Captain, in 1539, speaks of "Norumbega" as a
vast and opulent country extending from Cape Breton to Florida, discovered by
Verran zano. Jean Allefounsce, in 1543, who about that time visited
Massachusetts Bay, describes "Norombegue , from reports "as the capital of a
great country". The great French map of 1543, which represented much of the
geographical knowledge of the day, shows the "Los City of New England" with
stately castles and imposing towers. Michael Lok's map of 1582 gives the name
"Norombegue" in prominent letters. Champlain's map of 1612 gives the name as "Naranbergue."
Several old maps of this time give the name as Norumbega, and this so appears
on Dutch maps to the end of the 17th Century.
WROTE AN ACCOUNT OF "BEGA"
first Englishman certainly known to have reached any portion of the country
known as Norumbega was David Ingram, a sailor, who passed through this
territory in following Indian trails north from the Gulf of Mexico, where he
had been sent ashore with some one hundred and twenty men, on account of lack
of provisions, by Sir John Hawkins in 1568. Although his account is a mingling
of facts and fable, that he accomplished the journey has never been doubted.
He states he saw the city of Norumbega, called "Bega," which was three-fourths
of a mile long and abounded with peltry.
easily seen that these ancient names Arambe, Arambec, Aranbega, Norvega,
Oranbega, Norombegue and Norumbega are similar in sound, and may be said to
support Professor Horsford's theory as to the origin of the name "Norumbega."
ancient maps of the early explorers, although establishing the fact that there
was a country or city of Norumbega, are inaccurate as to its definite location
so that much is left to conjecture. The first known English expedition to
Norumbega was made in a little frigate by Simon Ferdinando, who sailed from
Darthmouth in 1579. His brief account does not state the exact location.
HORSFORD DISCOVERS NORSE REMAINS
was one, however, who believed that the early city of Vinland, of the Norse
Sagas, was the Norumbega, as given on the ancient maps, and that this city
could be located from the old narratives. This was Professor Eben Norton
Horsford, of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Early in 1880 he began his careful
study of the old Norse Sagas and traditions, the accounts of early explorers
and their crude maps. He became firmly convinced that the description of the
country, as given in the Sagas, pointed to the Charles River Basin as the
location of Vinland, and that the ancient city and seaport, Norumbega, one of
the early settlements of the roving Norsemen under Lief Erikson in 1000 A. D.,
underlay the modern Watertown. Here were found the stone walls on either side
of the Charles River beginning just above the United states 'Arsenal, in some
places undermined or removed, but in the main nearly continuous, running up
the river and expanding at Watertown into docks, wharves, a fishway and a dam
at the head of tide-water, which he states may be traced to the
Norsemen--"indispensable requirements for the conduct of a great Norse
industry of which glimpses are given in the Vinland Sagas."
the head of stony Brook in Weston and Newton were found remains of their
canals in which they floated the mosurr wood (a burr growth on the trunks of
trees) to the river to be floated to the seaport and loaded into their ships
for Norway, where this wood was greatly prized for the fashioning of drinking
cups, bovrls, kneading troughs, etc.
Scattered throughout the basin of the Charles are found the theatres and
amphitheatres, where the ground has been terraced so that all might see the
events taking place. One may be found near Breed's Pond, Mount Auburn, another
near the Charles River, about a half mile above the United states Arsenal (in
front of the Perkins Institute for the Blind), where their water sports might
have been held, another near Riverside, all pointing to the work of man before
the colonization of New England by our forefathers.
are many who do not agree with Professor Horsford, and there have been
controversies of long standing over his placing Norumbega in this region. The
critical historians, however, do not offer proof to definitely disprove his
findings. Due honor should be paid him for the long years of painstaking
research work, the careful search of the countryside where he believed the
city to be located, and the offering of proof to substantiate his beliefs.
That these facts are disputed does not dim our appreciation of the Norsemen as
a race, barbarous and adventurous, but attaining a degree of civilization in
an age when Europe was but emerging from darkness.
referring to his works and writings on this subject, so late a writer as
William Hovgaard, late commander in the Royal Danish Navy, Professor of Naval
Design and Construction in Massachusetts Institute of Technology, writes after
a careful study, examination and discussion of the ancient Norse Sagas and
subsequent works in his book, "The Voyages of the Norsemen to America":
"Certain ruins of houses and graves, found by the late Professor Horsford and
by Miss Cornelia Horsford on the banks of the Charles River, at Cambridge,
Massachusetts, were believed by them to be Norse. The researches which some
years ago were undertaken on the spot did not bring to light any positive
evidence to substantiate the theory, but on the other hand there appears to be
nothing absolutely to disprove it."
Professor Horsford, to commemorate the early discovery of America by the
Norsemen and to mark the site of their settlement, erected a tower on the site
of their fort on the Charles River in Weston, near the Newton line, which
carries the inscription as given on page 170.
of this tower appears on the Seal of Norumbega Lodge as well as on the cover
of the lodge notices.
kings have crumbled into dust,
scepter and the sword
e'er the master builder stood
never strikes the solemn hour,
not where or when,
that His name is whispered low,
the lips of men:
conjure with its magic spell,
strange barbaric lands,
lo! the temple's beauties rise
out the desert sands:
the Arab's guarded tent,
Refreshed from travel's toil,
welcome to his little store
corn and wine and oil:
mighty ones of all the earth,
rustic at the plow,
gone with me along the road
Mount Moriah's brow:
charm of creed, no power of birth,
pride in battles won,
blight the green acacia bloom
sleeps the widow's son:
humble guise, with contrite heart,
the lonely way,
sore beset where dangers lurk,
kneel me down and pray;
though the road is dark and rough,
angly threats be heard?
journey onward to the light
seek the Master’s Word:
twelve or high, it matters not,
that He calls to me,
me on from Lebanon
Joppa by the sea:
never night goes round the world,
not where nor when,
that His gentle spirit speaks
the hearts of men.
Concerning Henry Clay, Jefferson Davis, Dr. George Oliver and Other Notables
Iowa Masonic Library are a large number of original letters from brethren
notable in Masonic history; and an almost equally large number about famous
men who were not Masons. A little collection of these letters is given
herewith, as much for the light they throw on questions still mooted as for
their intrinsic interest.
JEFFERSON DAVIS WAS NOT A MASON
reader will recall a discussion in the Question Box of recent issue of THE
BUILDER concerning Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy, as to
whether or not he was a Mason, and what may have been his feelings about the
Craft. These questions are settled once and for all by two letters, the former
of which was evidently forwarded by its recipient to Bro. T. S. Parvin, who in
turn himself wrote to Jefferson Davis, as is indicated by the second Davis
I. L. Power Dear Sir:
received with others of a similar character, the enclosed sheet, having a
paragraph underlined to secure lily attention and I send it to you to attract
your notice. Under the head of "Summary" is a concentrated instillation of
malice and mendacity. The main attack seems to be against the fraternity of
Free and Accepted Masons and as many slanderers have heretofore done, the
writer avails himself of a sectional prejudice existing against me to point
his attack against Freemasonry and in less than the three underscored lines,
perpetrates at least, as many falsehoods.
I, Jefferson Davis, am not and never have been a Free and Accepted Mason.
As a citizen of the sovereign state of Mississippi, I obeyed her commands and
as sovereigns cannot "rebel" neither led or followed a Rebellion, great or
As I have no Masonic standing, the assertion that it was not tainted by the
imputed act of mine, rests not upon a fact, but upon a misrepresentation.
Masonry could not have had much to do with securing "my pardon", as I have
never been pardoned, nor applied for a pardon, or appealed to Masonry to
secure to me the benefit of the writ of Habeas Corpus, that I might have the
constitutional right of every American citizen, to be confronted with my
exclude a possible inference, I will add that my father was a Mason and I was
reared to regard the fraternity with respect, and have never felt any
disapproval of it other than that which pertains to every secret society.
viewing Freemasonry from a distance, and judging the tree by its fruit, I have
believed it to be in itself good.
Respectfully and truly yours,
following is a portion of the "Summary" referred to in the foregoing,
evidently taken from some crude Anti-Masonic blast: "Benedict Arnold, first
traitor to American liberty, learned his patriotism in Hiram Masonic Lodge,
No. 1, New Haven, Conn., and died a Freemason in good and regular standing.
Aaron Burr, another traitor to the government, plotted his treason in Royal
Arch cipher, and also died a Free and Accepted Mason in good and regular
standing. Jefferson Davis, a Free and Accepted Freemason, led the great
rebellion and the fact did not even taint his Masonic standing, but did have
much to do in securing his pardon.")
Theodore S. Parvin, Esq.
of the 6th inst. has been received. Col. Power could not have intended to
inform you that I had complained of the treatment received by me from the
Masons. I have never felt otherwise than a friendly regard for the Fraternity
and never could have written or spoken in any other spirit. A publication by
the Antimasons was sent to me in which my name was used as a stalking horse
and falsehoods employed in the assailment of Masonry. I wrote to my friend,
Col. Power, a refutation of the charge for publication in the "Jackson
Clarion." The paper was issued during my absence from home and I have not seen
the paper, but not doubting that my letter was published in the "Clarion" I
will request Col. Power to send to you a copy of the paper containing it.
copy of your proceedings which you kindly sent to me came safely to hand, and
was so highly appreciated as well for itself as the evidence it contained of
prosperous development in a country I had known as a wilderness that I am only
surprised at my having failed to acknowledge your courteous consideration.
Respectfully and truly,
GEORGE OLIVER WRITES A LETTER
Dr. George Oliver is a name known to almost every Mason in the world. He was
born at Pepplewick, England, of Scotch ancestors, Nov. 5, 1782. His father
raised him in St. Peter's Lodge, Peterborough, in 1801. Immediately he took a
great interest in Freemasonry, and at last became one of the most scholarly
and voluminous of Masonic writers. His influence in England was incalculable;
so also in America, where his writings ranked second only to those of Bro. Dr
Albert G. Mackey in their power to shape Masonic opinion. Like Bro. William
Preston before him, with whom his name is so often bracketed, he received the
displeasure of a Grand official because of a misunderstanding, and as a result
withdrew from all active participation in lodge activities, a fact mentioned
in the letter below. The Hist. L'n'ks referred to was doubtless his Histonical
Landmarks and Other Evidences of Freemasonry Explained, of which Dr. Mackey
said, "No work with such an amount of facts in reference to the Masonic system
had ever before been published by any author. It will forever remain as a
monument of his vast research and his extensive reading." The Golden Remains
of the Early Masonic Writers was, as the title indicates, a collection in five
volumes, each of which carried an introduction by him. Because of the massivTe
literary production produced by him, of which these two titles are only
slightly indicative, and because of the far-reaching influence of his fourteen
or fifteen principal works, Dr. Mackey gave him a very proud position in the
hierarchy of Masonic authors, as witness: "While his erroneous theories and
his fanciful speculations will be rejected, the form and direction that he has
given to Masonic speculations will remain, and to him must be accredited the
enviable title of the Father of Anglo-Saxon Masonic Literature."
Scopdwick vicarage, May 6th, 1854.
sir and Brother:
much gratified to receive so good an account of Masonry in your part of the
world, for altho' I am getting too far advanced in years to take any active
share in the details of a working Mason yet it gives me pleasure to hear of
the successful exertions of younger and more able brethren.
at all times ready to reply to any suggestions or to answer any enquiries
relative to a science in which for so many years I took a warm interest, so
far as my judgment and recollection will allow; and I enter at once on a brief
notice of your alleged difficulties.
naked facts of the legend attached to the Third Degree are not borne out by
legitimate history, for it is well known that H.A.B. lived to see the
T-finished, and afterwards returned to Tyre. (See the Hist. L'n'ks, Vol. II,
p. 154.) In fact the legend is a pure myth, and has been variously
interpreted. Some think it refers to the death of Abel--others to the mystical
death of Noah when he entered the Ark, and his resurrection from it when the
waters had subsided as is commemorated in the Pagan mysteries; some to the
atonement of Christ on the cross; and others, amongst whom was the late Sir W.
Drummond, the learned author of the Origines, refer to it as an astronomical
origin. An examination of the arguments by which each of these opinions is
supported would occupy too much space for discussion in a single letter. The
view which I take of it is Death in Adam and Life in CHRIST, and the
particulars are developed so far as it is consistent with the O. B. in my Hist.
L'n'ks, Vol. II, pp. 179-183. But it never can be thoroughly understood by any
Master of a lodge who does not extend his researches beyond the ordinary
lectures and ceremonies; which are, as you truly observe, vox et proeterea
Margoliouth, whose lecture I have not seen, would, I am inclined to think,
take his illustration of the Cross of Christ, formed by the junction of the
Level and Plumb Rule, etc., from my Hist. L'n'ks, Vol. II, p. 627.n. 29, where
it is stated as an idea suggested by Bro. Willoughby of Birkenhead. You will
find the subject discussed in loc.
XII Chapter of Eccles, which you have rightly introduced into the discussion
of the lodge, is a legitimate object of Masonic illustration and was used by
Dr. Anderson at the revival of Masonry about the beginning of the last
century. You will find it, as explained by that eminent Mason, in the first
volume of the Golden Remains, page 65. If you have a convenient opportunity of
sending your paraphrase I should like to see it.
Respecting the nine characters on the coffin, which you mention, I am quite in
the dark, not having been in a lodge room for the last dozen years. I have not
even seen the latest Tracing (Trestle) Board and therefore am ignorant what
those emblems may be.
the only list of books in my possession. I approve of your seal, as the
emblems are strictly Masonic.
Believe me to be, dear Sir
faithful Brother. Geo. Oliver.
Principal U. C. College,
M. OF IOWA WROTE ON HENRY CLAY
well known that Henry Clay was a Mason. The next letter in this group shows
that he bowed before the almost irresistible (to a politician) mania of the
Anti-Masonic craze but never became an out-and-out "renouncer."
Iowa Lodge, No. 2.
Sir and Brother:
request thro Br. LaCassitt that the Masonic Fraternity of the city may appear
in regalia and unite in the procession which the citizens design forming on
Monday next to testify their respect for the memory of Henry Clay recently
deceased is respectfully declined, for the reason that the illustrious
deceased long since withdrew from the institution to which he belonged the
credit and lustre of his great name and declared publicly that he should no
more cross her thresholds and that there was no further use in keeping up the
organization, and by his conduct evinced a disposition to shun the contact of
his Brotherhood, though to his credit be it spoken he never renounced the
citizen I shall join my fellow citizens in the ceremonies of the day and
sincerely testify my respect for the illustrious dead who has filled so large
a space in his country's history and whose efforts to extend the area of
freedom throughout the world deserve the lasting gratitude of mankind. In this
I hope to be joined by all my brethren while a sense of duty to the Order,
whose reputation I have in charge, compels me reluctantly to deny your
Parvin, Grand Master
Lodge of Iowa.
FINDEL GOSSIPS ABOUT HIS "HISTORY"
Dr. J. G. Findel is a name almost as well known as that of Dr. Oliver, largely
because of the fame enjoyed by his Geschichte der Freimaurerei, or General
History of Freemasonry, first published in 1861 in German, later translated
into many languages, "the first attempt at a critical history of the Craft."
He was once the editor of Die Bauhutte, and founded the Verein Deutscher. The
letter below, addressed to Bro. T. S. Parvin, Grand Secretary, Grand Lodge of
Iowa, is a bit of gossip about the Geschichte. It is evident that our
illustrious German brother had some difficulties with our language.
Leipzig, 18 Mar. 1869
sir and Bro.
year I was rejoiced in receiving Vol. I-IV of the Proceedings of the Gr. L. of
Iowa and I hastened to acknowledge the acceptation. since then I send you,
regularly my paper "Die Bauhutte." The packages for the Gr. L. of 3 Globes,
Royal York, etc., at Berlin, I have sent to their address.
the spirit which seems to animate your Grand Lodge and is a truly fraternal
and free of some prejudices of American Grand Lodges, I was very much pleased.
In the meantime, I opened a very fraternal correspondence with your able and
modest Grand Master, Reuben Mickel, very much respected by me, and I asked for
the permission to dedicate the 2nd edition of my History of Freemasonry to
your W. Grand Lodge, which was granted. I have sent you some copies of the
Prospectus hoping and wishing that you will be kind enough to distribute them
and work in some way for the sale of my work. It should be in the hands of
every Worshipful Master and Lodge Officer at least; this I must wish not only
for myself to earn a small remuneration for the great labours (Of the 1st Ed.
500 copies burnt at the printers, not injured) I had, but in the first place
for the welfare of the Craft. The ignorance under the brethren in your blessed
country is horrible and the Masonic literature with the exception of 3 or 4
works, quite worthless, full of errors and nonsense. I think my work will do
some good and promote the interests of the Craft. If the Grand Lodges of the
U. S. instead of wasting Gr. L. moneys for lecturers and other things, would
buy some 100 copies to distribute them under their particular lodges, it would
be very good and honor them in the eyes of every thinking Mason. I will be
very much obliged to you, if you will do your best to give my work a large
circulation within your jurisdiction. Your Gr. Master, I am sure will assist
you. The 2nd Edition will be better printed and revised and more correct in
the contents and shall especially the chapters on Freemasonry in America
become enlarged and more complete, as far as there are reliable sources.
Relating to modern time I will have opportunity to give a special attention to
the G. L. of Iowa. The G. L. of Ky. has given me notice that she would take it
as a great honour the dedication also and be thankful for it.
Frank Gouley has written to me a very flattering letter about my work, so that
I hope he will in this issue, also review my work in his paper. [The Missouri
Freemason.] Some day or other my name will be as familiar in America at the
brethren, as in Germany and England.
to give my best compliments to the Iowa Brethren and believe me, Most
GENERAL GRAND LODGE !
John Snow, an apostle in the middle west of the Webb Ritual system, once Grand
Master of Ohio, was a famous Mason in his day, especially in the Buckeye
state. His voluminous correspondence should be published. In the letter
immediately following we find Bro. Jonathan Nye, a leader in North Carolina,
seeking to persuade him ill favor of that venerable ignus fatuus, a General
Claremont,. N. C.
to call your attention to a subject, in my view, important and desirable. It
is the establishment of a General Grand Lodge for the United states. Such an
establishment would strengthen the cord which now feebly unites the brethren
of the different states and induce them to feel and take a deeper interest in
disseminating the true principles of the institution. It would promote a good
and general understanding and uniformity and harmony in this work and labor.
It is time for us to wake from our lethargy and by united exertions to
maintain the station that belongs to us. Our Society is ancient and honorable.
Let us render it so by combining all our exertions in the cause of truth. Let
us form a solid column and present to the world our harmonious efforts.
is expected that there will be a meeting of the 99 chapters in the city of
Washington next winter, this would be a good time for the formation of a
General G. Lodge. Delegates might be chosen in the course of the summer. If
you feel engaged in this pursuit, I wish you to converse with some of your
influential brethren and ascertain their views and feelings, and communicate
to me without delay the result as well as your opinion.
respectfully your friend and obedient servant, Jonathan Nye.
NICKERSON WRITES AGAINST "HIGHER DEGREES"
author of the last letter of this little group was a mighty pillar in the
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts in his day,' being Grand Master in 1872-74, and
Grand Secretary for twenty-six years, 1882-1908. During that long period of
service he ranked along with Mackey, Pike, Drummond, and Parvin as a national
leader in the Craft. The publication of this letter thirty-five or forty years
ago would have raised a storm; now, time has removed its sting. It has value
here as evidence of the opposition met with by the higher degrees ill their
laborious progress to their present position of influence and prestige.
Masonic Temple, Boston, Sept. 24-1885.
letter of the 21st inst. is received. I have this day mailed to your address a
copy of the Proceedings of our Grand Lodge at its Quarterly Communication in
June 1882. That was the only session at which we have had any discussion of
any account in regard to "Spurious Rites and Degrees." The subject was acted
upon at one or two other meetings but without much talk. I send you also a
pamphlet of which we printed about 15,000 copies, containing all we had
previously printed on the subject, except some twaddle that was not worth
reprinting. Please look it over and see whether you want copies of other
Proceedings from which extracts are made, or if you desire it, I will send you
a copy of the Proceedings of each meeting at which any reference to the
subject was made.
more I think upon it, the more I am satisfied that I took the true ground in
the discussion in June, 1882, and the clearest-headed among the Fraternity all
over the country, are rapidly coming to my opinion. The legislation then
proposed seemed to me vastly more in the interest of true Masonry and the
Craft at large than of the Scottish Rite and the few who acknowledge its
authority. The "higher degrees"--falsely so called--have always been a curse
to Masonry in this country-and probably everywhere else. I thought we were
taking the first step towards the sweeping of them all into oblivion, and I
still hope it will prove so. They are all the work of degree mongers, and most
of them are (not to put too fine a point upon it) a nuisance and an
abomination. I trust the day is not far distant when Grand Lodges will unite
in putting an end to the whole batch of them. It is enough to make the angels
weep to think how much time and money we waste on the worthless trash.
truly and fraternally yours, Sereno D. Nickerson.
CONCERNING A "REAL MENACE"
December number of THE BUILDER, page 355, Bro. Dr. Parkes Cadman contributes
an article entitled "A Real Menace" and you ask our support in your efforts to
obtain for the purifying influence of his writings the wider and more enduring
power which they not only so well merit, but which our so-called civilization
so greatly needs. May I, for one, accede to your request, writing as from
England, because I believe we here quite as much as you in America need to
bestir ourselves in view of this menace. At its root, and contributing largely
to its growth I submit, is that insidious thing which being universal may be
so innocent and may be so guilty--the making of money.
take an illustration from the sphere of the public press. A few weeks ago an
optimistic lecturer said he regarded as a most hopeful sign the fact that a
leading newspaper should find place once a week for so novel a departure as to
give a whole column to an article on some religious or moral subject which
should appeal to the spiritual side of man's nature. His optimism was not due
to a perception that those responsible for this were prompted to it by a sense
of obligation, as people of considerable influence, to helping in uplifting,
but rather arose from the conclusion that there must be an increasing number
of thoughtful newspaper readers who could welcome the appearance of such
articles and hence they were produced because it paid to do so.
weeks since in a village newspaper shop I noticed the advertisement boards by
which our leading English papers inform the public day by day of their chief
contents. There were four of these in the little shop and of them, although
matters of public welfare were transpiring at the time, three gave as the all
important item the proceedings of a trial for blackmailing an Indian Prince
whose conduct with an English woman was a disgrace to both nations.
these papers which of late has given column after column to the disgusting
details of murder, impurity, divorce, and other putrid things which would
appeal to the lower passions, and has been frequently "sold out," on Christmas
Eve published a Christmas article of the sweetest and most elevating type. For
what purpose? Need the question be asked, seeing there can be but one
answer--the making of money! And when the enormous influence of the
press-greater than that of the pulpit--is remembered, this becomes a matter
which should compel the thought and such action as is within the power of
every good Mason.
there are doubtless many excellent Masons engaged in newspaper production,
good men, whose nature if it could be brought to realize the awful
responsibility of stewardship involved in their influence, would revolt
against the demoralization which their inertia allows, if not produces. Cannot
their position be brought home to them? Their loyalty to Masonic obligation
and principle is seriously in peril through their indifference or want of
realization of their responsibility in this matter.
are not wanting indications here in England, and with you also, that a feeling
of protest against the existing state of things in connection with newspaper
influence is growing. Religious newspapers, magazine articles, and by no means
the least; our Masonic press, all illustrate this; but as long as the
production of our great daily newspapers has money making at the foundation,
protest, as directed against the results, will avail but little.
tragedy of it all is that good and evil call it God and Devil if you like--are
simply, to them, means to an end. If God pays He shall have the service; if
the Devil, no matter the consequences to humanity, it shall be his; and still
further, if both can be made to pay, both shall be served.
behooves every Mason to face this tragedy and to deal with it, each in the way
he finds himself most capable of doing, and to let it be seen that Masonry
does stand for something more than ritual, degrees, jewels and good
fellowship. And we need to be brave not only in the matter of newspapers but
also in the realm of all such literature as novels, movies, plays, etc., which
seek to sell humanity for gold.
Surely, too, it would be a great step if candidates for admission to our Order
were seriously impressed with the fact that their admission involves a
life-long obligation to build in the widest sense in which the word can be
used; to build unceasingly, sword at, and trowel in, hand, in face of
difficulty it may be, and in spite of discouragement, the Holy Temple of
consecrated Humanity; and never for a moment being found to side with those
who, for their own mercenary ends, would damage or destroy its steady growth
Men Who Were Masons
BRO. GEORGE W. BAIRD, P. G. M., District of Columbia
praise Quitman would be like trying to paint the lily. His father was a German
Lutheran minister who, though he was born in Germany, migrated to America and
became one with us as well as of us. John himself was born in Duchess County,
New York, in 1799, the same year in which Washington died. He received an
education in the classics and began preparation for the Lutheran ministry, but
instead became a lawyer and ultimately a general officer in the American Army.
As a Freemason he traveled fast and far, becoming Grand Master of the Grand
Lodge of Mississippi for many years; upon his death Albert Pike wrote an
obituary of him. His death occurred in Mississippi in 1858. He was buried in
the family lot on his estate at Monmouth, near Natchez, with Masonic honors,
all of which is recorded by Claibourne, his biographer.
Quitman took up his residence in Natchez, Miss., in his early manhood and soon
ranked as a leader in the state of his adoption, for he served in the state
legislature several terms, became chancellor of the state and later president
of the State Senate. He met with no opposition in the path of promotion.
1836 he raised a body of men in Mississippi to assist the American Texans;
after he had assisted at the capture of Santa Anna he returned to Natchez.
Quitman was commissioned a Brigadier General in the United States Army in 1846
and ordered to report to General Taylor at Camargo for service in the Mexican
War. At the Battle of Monterey he distinguished himself by his assault on Fort
Tenerice, and by his daring advance into the heart of the city. At the siege
of Vera Cruz he commanded in the first engagement and subsequently led an
expedition against Alverad~ in conjunction with the naval forces under
Commodore Perry. He was with the advance under General Worth which took
possession of Puebla, where he was brevetted a Major General and received a
sword that Congress had voted to him. At Chepultepec he stormed the formidable
works at the base of the hill, pushed forward to the Belem gates, which he
carried by assault, and then took possession of the City of Mexico, of which
he was appointed governor.
establishing order and discipline he returned to the United States and soon
after, almost by acclamation, was elected Governor of the state. In this
office he fell a victim to scandal-mongering. He was accused of complicity
with General Lopez in the formation of a filibustering expedition to Cuba.
Quitman resigned his office as Governor, went to New Orleans with the United
States Marshal; all effort to obtain any kind of evidence against him proved
abortive and the prosecution was abandoned. He was nominated, or rather
re-nominated, for Governor, but declined the honor. He was elected to the
National Congress in 1855, and again in 1857, serving all the time as chairman
of the Committee of Military Affairs.. He attracted the attention of the
country by a speech on the repeal of the neutrality laws and by his argument
on the powers of the Federal Government, the latter speech winning him
recognition as a States' Rights leader. Quitman was a presidential elector in
1848 for Cass and Butler.
Masonic career Quitman was also a maker of history. The first lodge to be
organized in Mississippi was Harmony Lodge, No. 7, constituted at Natchez Oct.
16, 1801, under a warrant from the Grand Lodge of Kentucky. Andrew Jackson
Lodge, No. 15, was the second to be organized, also located in Natchez, and
constituted Aug. 13, 1816, on a dispensation from the Grand Master of
Tennessee. Tennessee also chartered Washington Lodge, No. 17, at Port Gibson,
April 19, 1817. Harmony Lodge took the initiative in the organization of a
Grand Lodge. Masters and Wardens of the three lodges met at Natchez July 27,
1818, and there voted unanimously to organize a Grand Lodge and at once
elected and installed the first Grand Master, Bro. Seth Lewis, who had been
born in Massachusetts in 1764 and who had been the first Worshipful Master in
John A. Quitman entered the Grand Lodge as the Junior Warden of Harmony Lodge
in 1823. His first Grand Lodge appointment was that of Grand Marshal. He was
elected to the Grand East in 1826, being reelected year after year until 1838.
He was again elected as Grand Master in 1840, during an absence from the
state, but declined to accept; however, in 1845, and again in 1846, he again
held the exalted office.
during this period that the famous American principle of Exclusive Territorial
Jurisdiction was becoming crystallized and established. Quitman took the
position that any Grand Lodge had the authority to organize a lodge in any
territory or state, irrespective of any Grand Lodge that might be in existence
there. "In the first year of his Grand Mastership," writes Josiah H. Drummond,
"he granted dispensations for lodges in Louisiana and maintained his right to
do so; the lodges, however, surrendered these dispensations and took charters
from the Grand Lodge of their state. A few years later the Grand Lodge decided
that its former action was erroneous."
principle of Exclusive Territorial Jurisdiction is one that sticks out like a
sore thumb in all the efforts being made to establish fraternal communication
with foreign Grand Lodges. It is a subject about which we do not have any
authoritative book; one is very badly needed. If ever such a volume is
prepared Quitman's experience and arguments will necessarily find a prominent
place in its chapters.
navies are forgotten,
fleets are useless things,
the dove shall warm her bosom
Beneath the eagle's wings.
the memory of battles
last is strange and old,
faiths have found one banner
creeds have found one fold.
the hand that sprinkled midnight
its powdered drift of suns
hushed this tiny tumult
sects and swords and guns.
Hate's last note of discord
God's world shall cease,
conquest which is service
the victory which is Peace.
Frederick Lawrence Knowles
Studies of Masonry in the United States
BRO. H. L. HAYWOOD, Editor PART IX. THE FOUNDING OF DULY CONSTITUTED MASONRY
this department for April (the Study Club was omitted last month to make way
for the special British number) something was said about the personal career
of Henry Price, who was deputized by Lord viscount Montague, Grand Master of
England to be "Provincial Grand Master of New England and Dominions and
Territories thereunto belonging." Price returned from England to Boston in the
spring of 1733; on July 30 of the same year he called together a group of
Boston brethren and then and there brought into existence a Provincial Grand
Lodge. So far as the existing written records show this was the first Masonic
body to be organized in America under written auhthority. As shown in earlier
chapters of this series a lodge was in existence in Philadelphia in 1731,
perhaps in 1730, but thus far nobody has discovered anything of a written
character to show how it was organized.
appointed as his Deputy Andrew Belcher, Esq., son of Governor Jonathan Belcher
(see THE BUILDER, October, 1924, page 312), and Bros. Thomas Kennelly and John
Quane as Grand Wardens. Little is known of the circumstances attending this
important event because the early records are meager; the oldest existing
account is found in the Charles Pelham MS., written in 1750, some seventeen
years after the event; but this has nothing to do with the authenticity of the
account, which fits squarely into all the known facts of the period. Moreover,
Pelham based his own narrative on older documents, "When Charles Pelham (in
1750) wrote the record of this evening in the first existing volume of the
Grand Lodge record book," writes Bro. Melvin M. Johnson in his Beginnings of
Freemasonry in America, "he either copied from the Beteilhe Manuscript or both
were taken from an original now lost."
same connection Bro. Johnson goes on to relate how th e First Lodge of Boston
came into existence. "For in language so nearly identical that the accounts
could not have been written independently, both report that after forming the
Grand Lodge Price ordered his Commission or Deputation to be read, and then
ordered to be read a petition of eighteen Brethren addressed to him praying
that they might be Constituted into a regular Lodge by virtue of said
Deputation. Ten, at least, of the petitioners had been 'made here,' i. e., had
been made Masons in Boston in some of the earlier meetings held, like those in
Philadelphia and elsewhere perhaps, without charter or warrant but according
to 'Old Customs.' Thereupon he granted the prayer thereof and did then and
there in the most solemn manner according to ancient custom and form as
prescribed in the book of Constitutions, constitute them into a regular Lodge.
This original petition, apparently in the handwriting of Henry Hope, who that
evening was chosen Master, is still in the archives of the Grand Lodge of
Massachusetts, bearing the original signature of the petitioners. . . ."
(Beginnings of Freemasonry in America, pages 80, 81.)
brethren had "met at the house of Edward Lutwych, at ye sign of the Bunch of
Grapes in King's street [now state street], Boston, New England"; their first
meeting as a lodge was held Aug. 3, 1733, when "John Smith was made." It
adopted its by-laws printed in full by Johnson and in the Massachusetts Grand
Lodge Proceedings, 1871, on Oct. 24 of the same year. The earliest known
records of the lodge begin with an entry under date of Dec. 27, 1738; and a
list of members is set forth in the Massachusetts Grand Lodge Proceedings,
just mentioned, beginning on page 386.
"MASTERS LODGE" WAS ORGANIZED
certain amount of mystery hangs about the next lodge constituted in Boston.
Known as the Masters Lodge it was organized Dec. 22, 1738, with Henry Price as
its W. M. and Francis Beteilhe as secretary, the latter a business partner of
Price's. The existing records, written by Beteilhe, and. now in the archives
of the Grand Lodge of Boston, begin with the date of constitution. The first
regular meeting of this lodge was held Jan. 2, 1738/9.
was it called "Masters Lodge"? It is known that not all its members had been
Masters of lodges. Was this lodge brought into existence expressly for the
purpose of working a degree new in the Masonic system? There is some hint of
such a thing having been done in England. Or did it practice what would now be
known as a "higher degree"? Bro. Johnson accepts this latter alternative. "I
believe the answer to be that the degree worked by the Masters Lodge was what
is sometimes known as the 'Chair Degree' or installation of a Master, absorbed
nowadays in the United states by the Royal Arch Chapter and transformed into
the degree of 'Past Master'."
indicating a different function than this, or at least as showing that at the
period a theory of the Masters Lodge was held in Massachusetts other than that
set forth by Bro. Johnson, is the case stated in. the charter issued to a
lodge in Newport, Rhode Island, by Jeremy Gridley, Grand Master of
Massachusetts. In that official paper, dated March 20, 1759, are statements to
show that the Masters Lodge may have been a lodge organized to confer the
Master Mason Degree:
ye that Whereas a Considerable Number of Master Masons have from Time to Time
congregated themselves at Newport in the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence
Plantations within our district as a Lodge of Master Masons, and have therein
raised some Brothers of the Fellow Craft to Master Masons, not thinking but
they had Authority so to do, and have now Petitioned us to confirm the said
Degree, and to form theln into a Masters Lodge.
therefore by the Authority given us, by the Grand Master of Masons, do hereby
confirm the said Degree to which any Bro's have been so raised and do appoint
Our Beloved and Right Worshipful Brother John Maudsley to be Master of a Right
Worshipfull Master's Lodge, to be held at New Port, he taking Special Care in
Choosing Two Wardens and other officers necessary for the due reputation
thereof, and do hereby give and grant to the said Lodge all the Rights and
Privileges which any Master's Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons have or ought
to have," etc., etc.
is need that this whole subject of Masters Lodges in the early Colonies be
carefully traversed by a competent student; the findings would undoubtedly
throw needed light on the earliest ritualistic developments and at the same
time, perhaps, on the beginnings of the Higher Grades in America.
third lodge, called The Second Lodge in Boston, was organized by Grand Lodge,
Feb. 15, 1749/50; and still another, called The Third Lodge in Boston was
similarly constituted on the 7th of the following month. The former was to
meet at the Royal Exchange Tavern, the latter, at the White Horse Tavern.
LODGES ARE CHARTERED
Meanwhile the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts (known as the "St. John's Grand
Lodge" in after years) had chartered lodges outside of Massachusetts, a few of
which may be noted, the first of these being in 1736, for a lodge at
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, from which six representatives sent a petition to
Henry Price under date of Feb. 5, 1735/6. The records of this lodge, showing
the adoption of a set of by-laws on Oct. 31, 1739, are still in existence; as
is also the above mentioned petition, now in the archives of the Grand Lodge
of Massachusetts. The language in this petition is most interesting, and shows
that a lodge was already in existence at the time it was made:
the under named persons of the holy and Exquisite Lodge of St. John do request
a deputation and power to hold a Lodge According to order as is and has been
granted to faithful Brethren in all parts of the Worldwee have our
Constitutions both in print and manuscript as good and as ancient as any that
England can afford," etc.
regard to the next lodge to be mentioned in chronological order it will be
necessary to postpone discussion until some future chapter, for there are many
questions to be raised concerning it; in the present paragraph it will suffice
to say that somewhere between 1735 and 1738 it is believed that Massachusetts
chartered a lodge in Charleston (then CharlesTown), S. C. Charles W. Moore
gave the date as Dec. 27, 1735, but this is certainly an error. Dr. Mackey, in
his History of Freemasonry in South Carolina, gives the date as reputedly of
1738, when he says: "There is, however, no longer any doubt that the lodge
said to have been held in 1738 in Charleston, at 'the Harp and Crown,'
received its warrant from St. John's Grand Lodge of Boston. . . ."
Robert Tomlinson was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge at Boston he went to
England by way of the West Indies, where he visited Antigua, and founded, so
it is believed, a lodge there. A lodge had been already organized in the
preceding year. In this connection it is worth noting that in September, 1734,
the Earl of Crauford chartered a lodge at Montserrat, in the West Indies, the
second known to have been constituted in the Western Hemisphere on the basis
of a written instrument.
Masonry was planted in Nova Scotia under Massachusetts authority in 1738, or
thereabouts. While in Boston in 1737 Erasmus James Phillips was made a Mason,
and upon his return to Annapolis Royal in the following year organized a
lodge, of which he himself was made the first Master. "In the Boston Gazette
of March 12, 1738," wrote Bro. R. V. Harris [see THE BUILDER, August, 1924,
page 228], "we find a note of the appointment by Henry Price of Major Phillips
as Provincial Grand Master of Nova Scotia; and on the occasion of his next
visit to Boston in April, 1739, he appears as such in the minutes of St.
John's Lodge." Under Phillip's authority a lodge was organized at Halifax, N.
S., July 19, 1750.
in this wise, by planting a lodge here and there as need arose, that
Freemasonry spread under the leadership of Massachusetts, so that by the
middle of the century some forty or more lodges had been warranted or
officially recognized by Massachusetts authority, beginning with Henry Price.
TOMLINSON FOLLOWED PRICE
was succeeded in office by Robert Tomlinson. Inasmuch as all authority
proceeded from the Grand Master of England it was necessary that the brethren
at Boston send there a petition for "a new Grand Master." This they did on
June 28, 1736, in which they requested that Tomlinson be appointed to rule
over them. In response thereto the Earl of Loudoun, Grand Master of England,
issued a Deputation to Robert Tomlinson to be Grand Master of New England;
this bore date of Dec. 7, 1736. Inasmuch as the document was some time in
reaching the colony Price continued in office, and on the 27th of the same
month made Tomlinson his Deputy. By April 20, 1737, Tomlinson received his
Deputation, and on the following st. John's Day sat in the Grand East. His
term of office lasted until July 16, 1740.
Tomlinson's early life little is known, but it appears that he came originally
from Antigua. He was made a Mason in the First Lodge at Boston Jan. 13, 1735;
became a member of the Masters Lodge; and in 1736 become W. M. of the First
Lodge. From that position his advance in office was rapid, as already
indicated. Incidental to his first presiding as Grand Master on St. John the
Baptist's Day in June, 1737, occurred what is believed to have been the first
public procession of a lodge as such in America. This attracted wide
attention, and was noted in Saint James' Evening Post, published in London, in
its number dated Aug. 20, 1737. After relating how Grand Lodge was opened, and
giving a list of the officers appointed, this account goes on to relate that
after this "the Society attended the Grand Master in procession to his
Excellency Governor Belcher's, and from thence the Governor was attended by
the Grand Master and the Brotherhood to the Royal Exchange Tavern in King
street, where they had an elegant entertainment." (This incident is especially
worth noting by those brethren who look upon feasts as a modern contrivance
out of keeping with the traditions of the Craft; the opposite is the case, for
in early times feasts were among the great events of the Masonic year, and
considered among the normal functions of the lodge. ) When a similar feast and
procession was held in 1739 it was celebrated in doggerel verse, printed in
the American Apollo, the first of many such satirical descriptions of the
doings of Masons, whose regalia, highly colored parades, and mysterious
customs appealed powerfully to the imagination of the times. Tomlinson died
while visiting in Antigua in 1740.
BECAME GRAND MASTER
followed in office by Thomas Oxnard, who received a Deputation from Lord Ward,
Grand Master of England, under date of Sept. 23, 1743, a copy of which, duly
attested, is in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. This
instrument was received in Boston in March of the following year, from which
time Oxnard served in the Grand East. According to this Deputation he was to
be "Grand Master of North America," as a quotation will show: "NOW KNOW YE We
John Lord Ward have Nominated Constituted and Appointed, and by these Presents
do Nominate Constitute and Appoint Our Well Beloved Bro. Thomas Oxnard, Esq.,
To Be Provincial Grand Master of North America, etc." Gould believed that Lord
Ward made an error in thus appointing Oxnard for the whole of North America.
Bro. Ossian Lang believes the Deputation was intended to mean for all North
America where there was not already a Grand Master in authority, and points
out the fact that whereas Oxnard, evidently acting upon the plain words of his
Deputation, appointed Benjamin Franklin as Deput Grand Master of Philadelphia
in 1749; this action was evidently set aside by the Grand Master of England
who, a few months later, appointed William Allen to be Grand Master of
Philadelphia, thereby going over the head of Oxnard. During his term (
1743-1754) Grand Masters of England appointed Richard Riggs for New York,
William Allen for Philadelphia, Francis Goelet for New York, George Harison
for New York, and Peter Leigh for South Carolina, which would indicate that
the Grand Lodge of England did not look upon Oxnard as holding authority for
the whole of North America. These and many other facts in the case show that
during the first half of the eighteenth century there was much confusion in
the minds of officials on both sides of the Atlantic as to the Provincial
Grand Lodge system in the Colonies; at an rate such facts as are of record are
most confusing to a present day Mason. Perhaps the surest clue out for such an
one is to hold firmly in mind the fact that a Provincial Grand Master was the
creature of the Grand Master of England; that all his authority as Provincial
Grand Master was of the delegated variety; and that this authority was
extended, revised, or withdrawn according to needs or changes of policies on
the part of the Grand Masters of England. If for a period the influence of
Massachusetts more or less predominated in Colonial Masonry it was not because
the Grand Lodge of England extended to Massachusetts peculiar powers or
privileges, but because Massachusetts Masonry was so virile, its leaders so
capable and so active, and its geographical situation, relative to the centers
of population, so central that its influence sprang out of natural causes.
Oxnard and of the Oxnard family much is known, because the Oxnards played a
leading part in the public life of their day. Thomas Oxnard himself was born
in England in 1703. He was made a Mason in the First Lodge of Boston Jan. 21,
1735/6; became W.M. of the lodge in December of the same year; helped found
the Masters Lodge; became Tomlinson's Deputy in 1739; and served as Grand
Master from March 6, 1743/4 to June 25, 1754. His son Edward became a
notorious Tory during the Revolutionary period, and was banished from the
Colonies; his son Thomas became prominent in the Masonry of Maine. An account
of the family will be found in Willis' History of Portland, and in the New
England Historical and Genealogical Register.
GRIDLEY WAS AN OUTSTANDING LEADER
Oxnard's death in 1754 Henry Price served as Grand Master pro tem for a year,
upon which Jeremy Gridley was appointed to the office. Of Gridley (brother of
Richard Gridley of equal fame) himself a book might be written, he was active
in so many fields, being school teacher, some time preacher, lawyer, public
official, journalist, author, a citizen of substance, and a leader in Masonry.
Unlike his predecessor in the Chair of Solomon he was American by extraction,
having been born in Boston, March 10, 1701/2. After receiving an education at
Harvard he climbed steadily up the steps of promotion until at last he stood
forth among the mightiest of his day, of wide influence and commanding
personality. He was made a Mason in the First Lodge, May 11, 1748; was raised
in the Masters Lodge in 1750; became W. M. of the First Lodge in 1763; and in
October of the following year was recommended by Grand Lodge to succeed Price,
serving temporarily. When no reply was received to this petition Price, in
August of the following year, himself addressed a letter to the Grand Master,
interesting because of the many facts it contained concerning Massachusetts
Masonry, among which was the statement, "Here is not less than Forty Lodges
sprung from my First Lodge in Boston." Meanwhile, and under date of April 4,
1755, James Brydges, Marquis of Carnarvan, Grand Master of England, had issued
a Deputation to Gridley appointing him to be "Provincial Grand Master of all
Such Provinces and Places in North America and the Territories thereof, of
which, no Provincial Grand Master is at presently appointed," etc. This was
received in Boston, Aug. 21, 1755, and on the first day of the next October,
with great eclat, Gridley was installed Grand Master, and held office until
his death in 1767, after which Henry Price once again served as Grand Master
QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
and by whom was the Provincial Grand Lodge of Massachusetts brought into
existence? On what authority was it organized? Whom did Price appoint as his
Deputy? What are the oldest existing records of the Grand Lodge of
was the First Lodge in Boston organized? Under what circumstances? What
evidences are to show that Masons were living in Boston prior to 1733? When
did the First Lodge hold its first regular meeting?
was the Masters Lodge organized? Why was it called "Masters Lodge"? How many
degrees were practiced at that time? What does Gridley's charter to the lodge
at Newport, Rhode Island, indicate? What is Johnson's theory concerning this
was the second lodge organized? the third lodgc? When and by whom was the
lodge at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, chartered? When did Massachusetts charter
a lodge in South Carolina? Where is Antigua? What was the second lodge
constituted by written authority in the Western Hemisphere?
and by whom was Freemasonry planted in Nova Scotia? Name two lodges that were
whom was Henry Price succeeded as Grand Master? Tell what you know about
Robert Tomlinson. Where and when was the first lodge procession held in
America? What part did feasts have in early American Masonry?
did Thomas Oxnard receive his deputation? What was the scope of Oxnard's
authority? What is your opinion concerning this? Describe the Provincial Grand
Lodge system then in existence in the colonies? Define the authority of a
Provincial Grand Master. Tell what you know of Thomas Oxnard.
whom was Oxnard succeeded? Who followed Henry Price as Grand Master? Tell what
you know of Jeremy Gridley. By whom was Gridley followed?
Henry Price see bibliography given on page 116 of THE BUILDER for April last.
subjects treated in the above chapter see Beginnings of Freemasonry in
America, Johnson, New York, 1924; consult index. On the organization of the
Grand Lodge see also The Freemasons Monthly Magazine, Charles W. Moore Boston,
Vol. XXIII, page 260. The History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould
Philadelphia, 1889, Vol. IV, page 330.
First Lodge see Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts; 1871, page
374, 386. Charles W. Moore, Vol. XXII, page 173, Vol. XIX, page 131. Gould,
Vol. IV, page 243.
Masters Lodge see Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts; 1871, page
322. For Gridley's charter to New port, Rhode Island, see History of
Freemasonry in Rhode Island, Henry W. Rugg; Providence, 1895, page 34.
Masonry in Nova Scotia see THE BUILDER, August, 1924, page 227.
Tomlinson see History of the Most Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and
Accepted Masons in New York, Charles T. McClenachan, New York, 1888, Vol. I,
page 85. History of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted
Masons, and Concordant Orders, Stillson and Hughan; Boston, 1891, page 241.
Gould, Vol. IV, page 332. History of Freemasonry in the State of New York,
Ossian Lang, New York, 1922, pages 12, 14. Massachusetts Proceedings; 1871,
pages 219, 308; 1916, page 237.
Oxnard see McClenachen, Vol. I, page 85. Stillson and Hughan, page 241. Gould,
Vol. IV, pages 249, 332. New England Historical and Genealogical Register,
Vol. XXVI, page 3. Massachusetts Proceedings; 1871, pages 312, 318, 350; 1916,
page 211. Benjamin Franklin as a Freemason, Sachse; Philadelphia 1906, page 3.
History of Freemasonry in Maryland Edward T. Schultz; 1884, Vol. I, page 85.
Jeremy Gridley see Moore, Vol. XIX, page 134. Gould, Vol. IV, page 253.
Massachusetts Proceedings; 1871, pages 320, 321, 351, 362, 364. Stillson and
Hughan, page 242. McClenachan, Vol. I, page 86.
the above subjects see also Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry, Robert I.
Clegg; Chicago, 1921; consult index. For a list of the Grand Masters in
Massachusetts from 1733 to 1870 see The Lodge of St. Andrew, and the
Massachusetts Grand Lodge; Boston, 1870, page 289.
Editor‑in‑Chief - H.L. HAYWOOD
L. CLEGG, Ohio
GILBERT W. DAYNES, England
H. DERN, Utah
CHARLES F. IRWIN. Ohio
E. MORCOMBE, California
FORT NEWTON, New York
C. PARKER, New York
M. WHITED, California
E. W. WILLIAMSON, Nevada
American Craft appears to be entering a new era of oratory. The old style
discourse, ninety minutes in duration, delivered with great solemnity in heavy
periods a mile long, is going the way of all flesh; in its place has come the
"talk," usually given in conversational style, and otherwise informal. This in
itself is a gain, except to such as enjoy a sleep during a speech; but it has
its own dangers, and is guilty of its own blunders.
Allowing for the inevitable incompetency of some speakers, it may justly be
said that the failure of a talk is usually due to a sad lack of intelligent
management on the part of a W. M., or his committee, and that on several
points, the most culpable of which is that a speaker is frequently left
completely in the dark as what to expect, or what is expected of him. The
typical manner of arranging for a speaker runs somewhat in this fashion:
"Can you give us a talk next Wednesday night? It is our monthly, you know."
Orator: "I think I can. What am I to talk about ?"
"O. anything you please, just so it is snappy."
Orator: "Snappy! Yes! Yes! I have heard that word before. How long shall I
"Long as you please. Will be ready for you about 9:30."
night arrives. The lodge is called to order a half hour late. Business drags
and drags. There are many bills presented; each one is argued about. Some
important proposal comes up unexpectedly; it is debated at enormous length.
"The Good of the Order" comes around about 10:50; the speaker is announced; he
is one hour and twenty minutes delayed. (The present scribe has more than once
been introduced at 11:30, after having been scheduled for 9:00!) Everybody is
tired; many leave; the air is fetid with stale smoke; the talk is a fizzle.
Why shouldn't it be!
serious failure is often due to a mix-fire. The W. M. did not tell the invited
speaker (lodges often forget that he is an invited guest, and should be
treated as such) what would be an appropriate theme. So he is obliged to draw
a bow at a venture, shoot an arrow into the air, and leave it to hit where and
when it may. Too often it doesn't hit anything at all, but once in a while it
will unfortunately sink itself into some subject about which there is deep
feeling among the brethren. Result! Trouble, uproar, fireworks!
there is that abomination of the introduction Who has not seen it happen!
While men are coming and going, or buzzing about the Secretary's desk, the W.
M. arises, gives a rap with his mallet, and then mumbles something like this:
"Brethren, we are tonight privileged to have with us Bro. So-and-so who will
speak to us on Pdqurstuvwxyz. . .," etc., etc. Nobody catches the speaker's
name. or learns who or what he is, or what he is to talk about. He arises in
the midst of the confusion, starts off as best he can, and battles with the
racket. What wonder that he often will grow discouraged, or lapse into
banalties, or be betrayed into exaggerations. when he is confronted by so much
wise W. M. will adopt a more excellent way. He will give his prospective
speaker a detailed account of the circumstances under which the address is to
be given; will tell him of the character of the lodge. how many are expected
to attend, and what theme will be most acceptable; he will write out carefully
all the facts to be embodied in the introduction; and he will see to it that
the speaker is presented promptly and on time. And the speaker on his part, if
he also be wise, will prepare his address specifically for the lodge itself;
will confine himself strictly to Masonry; and will stop exactly on time, not a
* * *
ACCORDING to its latest statistics the Grand Lodge of Mississippi numbers
33,308 Masons in its 382 active lodges, with an average of slightly less than
90 members per lodge. This showing ranks it as about twenty-ninth or thirtieth
among 50 American Grand Lodges (including Philippine Islands) as far as size
is concerned; but if its total population is taken into consideration, along
with a number of local conditions, it ranks relatively much higher from the
standpoint of accomplishment.
careful study of the Mississippi Grand Lodge Proceedings for 1924 one is led
to suspect that something of this fine record is due to the exceptionally
faithful work of the Grand Lecturer, Bro. J. Rice Williams. His analytical
report is a little window to give one a peep into the inner life of the
lodges, as a few items will show. During the year ending Jan. 29, 1924, 119
lodges conferred 5,428 degrees, and 259 lodges conferred 2,605 degrees, a
grand total for 378 lodges of 8,033 degrees. In twelve months 2,162 mature
men. with all their faculties alert, had impressed on their inmost natures the
deep lessons of the first three degrees of Freemasonry; if one will visualize
this he can the better understand why the Fraternity has so great an influence
in the life of a state and of the nation. Bro. Williams found that one lodge
was located on the first floor of a building, 217 on the second floor, 15 on
the third floor, one on the fourth; 153 owned their own building, 38 were
using stereopticons, 135 were using charts; that 203 had the proper number of
ante-rooms properly located, with 30 failing to accord with the regulations on
this point; that 162 were using an historical ledger and 68 not. During the
year 119 lodges conferred twenty-two degrees or more.
such an analysis could be made of the records of every Grand Jurisdiction in
the country it might amaze the most hardened veteran! It would most certainly
give pause to the Masonic pessimist. It is probable that no other institution
in the world, depending almost entirely on voluntary work, could show such a
tale of accomplishment. Those who have been seeking to discover the "secret"
of Freemasonry might profitably try to learn what it is in our Mysteries that
gives vitality to so many activities.
* * *
a man thinks that his own little world, his daily work, his community, his own
life and that of his neighborhood is all simple and intelligent enough, lying
in the daylight, familiar and friendly, but that "out beyond," back of the
sky, perhaps, or somewhere at the center of the "universe" are great dark
mysteries in which lurk portentous powers. He is not sure in his mind as to
what these things may be, but he fears them, and they menace his sense of
security and peace. If he chances to have an element of superstition in his
make-up he will find himself in fear of this great unknown darkness, and the
fear will cast a disquieting shadow over his life.
uncivilized peoples this fear gives rise to religions of dread, with expiatory
rites, and haunted myths, or else takes the form of magic, which was
originally man's attempt to control, in his own interest, the mysterious
powers. In its lowest form this becomes a kind of voodooism, with charms and
amulets to ward off evil spirits and devils. The same fear, based on the same
primitive emotions, is often found among civilized men also, but takes a
different form. When Edgar Allan Poe, with a pen dipped in the bitter blood of
his own heart, composed "The Raven," he unwittingly confessed just such a
voodooism of his own. He pictures man as seated in his own home, with art,
wisdom and love about him, tormented by a raven, the voice of an
all-environing darkness. The darkness was the negative of the lamplight and of
the firelight; to every memory, hope, thought and dream it croaked the one
annihilating word, "Nevermore."
certain ceremony known to Masons a man finds himself in a dark room. When he
is given that which he most desires he finds he has been all the while among
brethren, and also amid, at least the symbols of, light and all the truths by
which men live. Perhaps this is an allegory. If so, never was an allegory more
true or more profound. There is no dark room at the center of creation. The
Sovereign Grand Architect of all things has left none of His architecture
without its own Great Lights.
* * *
SYMBOLICAL SIZE OF A LODGE
is the ideal size of a lodge? This question is being ventilated right and
left, among Grand Lodges, and in the Masonic press; the whole Fraternity is
curry-combed for arguments for and against, and some stand up for big lodges,
others for small. While we are so interested in this question why cannot we
carry it a step farther than usually is done? Why not apply the principles of
symbolism to the problem, somewhat after the following manner, for example ?
is a lodge too big? When the individual becomes lost in the crowd; when the
machinery grows too complicated for the average man to manage; when the
multiplication of activities swamps legitimate lodge duties; when the lodge is
no longer a brotherhood but a crowd; when fellow Masons can be members but not
is a lodge too small? When it can't fill the chairs at the monthly
communication; when it cannot pay its debts; when it breaks out into
bickerings and quarrels; when it has no money for charity; when it grows small
in spirit and ideals; when it leaves no trace of its influence in the
is a lodge too rich? When it builds a costly temple but lets its charity funds
run low; when it becomes filled with vanity because of its rich furniture;
when a poor man ceases to feel at home among his brethren; when it becomes an
is a lodge too poor? When it loses the love and loyalty of its members,
however many there may be; when it has lost its vision; when its Ritual
becomes as clanging brass, nothing but "Words! Words! Words!"; when it has
ceased to break the bread of fellowship; when it has degenerated into a mere
* * *
VITALITY OF MASONRY
is nothing mysterious about the deathless vitality of Masonry. It survives the
centuries and makes its way everywhere because of the ideas at the center of
it. The existence of God, the immortality of man, the solidarity of the race,
the necessity for righteousness, the desire for knowledge, loyalty to the
motherland, the desire for sociability, and relief for the distressed - it is
these that give vitality to government, church, and school, and animate the
whole world of men. There is no need to seek for the origin of Masonry in
antiquity, or for its secret in occultism; its origin is in our own natures,
its secret is as public as the light. Its truth is not far from any one of us;
in it all men live and move and have their being.
Human Side of Architecture
POETRY OF ARCHITECTURE. By Frank Rutter. Published by George H. Doran. For
sale by National Masonic Research Society Book Department, 1950 Railway
Exchange, St. Louis. Green cloth, glossary of architectural terms, index, 236
pages. Price, postpaid, $1.35.
first thing to be said is that The Poetry of Architecture contains ho poetry.
Mr. Rutter feels and thinks about buildings very much as a poet might, and is
justified in so doing because there is much of the substance of poetry in all
the great architectural styles. His volume reminds one of that other poetic
treatment of the subject, Claude Bragdon's The Beautiful Necessity, except
that he has no thesis to defend. What does architecture mean to our emotions,
our ideals, our ethics, our religious life, our sense of art, what part has it
played in shaping our world; it is to a discussion of such subjects that he
has set himself, and that with success.
"Introductory" Mr. Rutter writes of some of the definitions of "architecture":
Lethaby's "the art of building and of disposing buildings"; somebody's
"Architecture is good building, and Building is bad building"; somebody else's
"Architecture is Building touched with emotion"; and Ruskin's contention that
all great architecture is illumined by certain definite moral principles,
rhetorically described in his The Seven Lamps of Architecture, "the grandest
book on architecture ever planned."
author poetically describes the huge structures of Egypt, Babylonia, and
Assyria as the architecture of "The Age of Fear": of Babylonia he says that
"the most characteristic edifice" is the Temple; of Assyria, the Palace; of
Egypt, the Tomb; and he attributes the form taken by these edifices to the
fear of the gods and of the unknown so general among the population of those
three vast empires. The Mason will be pleased with the discussion of Egypt,
the mother land of the mysteries, especially the pages on pillars, columns and
the Great Pyramid. Of the last of these a twelfth century Arab wrote: "All the
world fears Time, but Time itself fears the Pyramids." On this subject our
author's page 48 is good to be quoted:
Gaston Maspero has told us that the Egyptian temple was built 'in the image of
the earth such as the Egyptians had imagined. The earth was for them a sort of
flat slab more long than wide, the sky was a ceiling or vault supported by
four great pillars. The pavement of the temples represented the earth, the
four angles stood for the pillars, the ceiling, vaulted at Abydos, or more
often flat, corresponded to the sky.'
Egyptians of course, had no idea that the earth was round, and there is
evidence for supposing that they imagined the sky to be flat as they thought
the earth was. The symbolism begun in the very elements of the structure was
continued in its decoration, and the ceiling was painted blue, punctuated with
five-pointed stars, and sometimes adorned with sun and moon in imitation of
the heavens. The pavement, on the other hand, which represented the earth, was
appropriately decorated with forms of vegetation. Sometimes, as a memorial of
foreign conquest, the monarch had executed in the temple carvings of plants
and animals, not indigenous to Egypt, which he had seen abroad, but these are
always allotted to their right sphere, or rather their right plans. 'The
ornamentation,' says our authority, 'was restricted to a small number of
subjects, always the same.'"
Greek period of architecture, of which the Parthenon was the perfect gem, is
happily described by Mr. Rutter as "The Age of Grace." The "gleaming eyed
Hellenes" were a race of artists, so we read, who discovered "the quality of
charm," and who learned, as some Masonic architects have not yet learned,
"that Bigness is not Beauty." A Mason fond of the Second Degree - what real
Mason is not! - will find that Chapter III throws some light on our own "Five
Orders of Architecture."
Romans were a military race, who thought in the terms of armies and
fortresses. They had skill but not art; engineers but not architects; their
very churches were either forums or fortresses readapted to religious uses.
Thick walls, low ceilings, small windows, round arches, hidden buttressings,
and gloomy interiors naturally grew out of such a civilization, characterized
by Mr. Rutter as "The Age of Strength."
afterwards came "The Age of Piety." The Roman state became an ecclesiastical
system; the Roman Pontiff became the Roman Pope. Almost everything became
interpreted into the terms of religion. The church edifice was a basilica; and
the basilica reached its term with the Byzantines, for whom Constantinople was
the cultural capital, and Greek Catholicism the official religion. In
describing this stage of development our author has something to say about
Mosaics, a subject of some importance in our Masonic Ritual. This period was
profoundly affected by the universally accepted belief that with the fatal
year A. D. 1000 the world would come to a catastrophic end; such a fear
paralyzed everything, architecture included. The first builders to escape from
that superstition were the Lombards (to them belonged the Comacine Masters),
and the Normans, whose buildings have been summed up in a verse:
"Massive arches, broad and round
ponderous columns, short and low."
Masonic reader feels most at home in the chapter on "The Age of Aspiration,"
for it deals with the Gothic, among the builders of which we usually seek for
the originators of Freemasonry. The uses of the pointed arch,
flying-buttresses, the ribbed vault, and the elimination of dead wall spaces,
these were the discoveries out of which Gothic developed; those and the
artistic crown of all, the stained-glass windows:
the bright gift of some mechanic gild,
loved their city, and thought gold well spent
make her beautiful with piety."
are some luminous interpretations of the "inner secrets of Gothic":
nature of an arch has been very happily illustrated by Professor Lethaby.
'If,' says he, 'you bend a piece of cane into an arch between two piles of
books, the books have to be heavy enough or they will be pushed asunder by the
elastic bow.' This tendency to push the books away is what is known as the
lateral thrust. 'An arch is perfectly safe, and, indeed, inactive, as long as
it is imprisoned, but let the restraining forces be an ounce too little and it
will break out like water through too weak a dam, and a moving arch is as
terrible as a flood.' The problem, therefore, resolved itself into this: how
could the arch be so imprisoned as to be inactive? The Romans of course, had
dodged the problem, for their solid concrete 'lids' exerted no lateral thrust
upon the walls beneath them, but their ponderous methods did not commend
themselves to later generations. The Romanesque builders made an honest
frontal attack on the arch by 'piling up the books' on either side, yet even
when they had made the imprisoning walls exceedingly massive and strong they
sometimes miscalculated and the building came toppling down; and when they
succeeded it was only by a sacrifice, namely, by narrowing the width or span
of the vaulted spaces. Since the desire was for even wider, not narrower naves
and aisles, this restriction was eminently unsatisfactory.
one day some unknown genius had the bright and happy idea of abandoning the
frontal and attempting a flank attack. On the principle of ‘set a thief to
catch a thief’ he conceived the notion of making arches imprison one another,
of setting them up so that each might fight against the lateral thrust exerted
by the other. Thus was Gothic architecture born, and thus it became possible
with safety to balance the ends of two, four, eight or more arches on one
slender pier. This brilliant device was put into operation by means of the
ribbed-vaulting described in the last chapter, the intersecting ribs being
converted into actual arches which, resting on piers, became the main
structural support. One thing more was needed to complete the scheme, and a
hint of this had already been given at Caen....
"Whether we consider the architecture of Egypt, Greece, Rome, Byzantium or
Early Europe, all the buildings have this one characteristic in common: they
are inert. They consist of lifeless enclosing walls, sometimes pierced to
admit light, on which a roof rests quietly like a lid. All this lifelessness
disappears in a Gothic structure, which is kept together by its energy, its
stonework is functional, and all its ribs and arches and columns are 'at
bowstring tension.' As Professor Lethaby has said, 'we may think of a
cathedral as so "high-strung" that if struck it would give a musical note':
and a mason can tap a pillar so as to make its stress audible. In a word, the
Gothic style substituted a dynamic for a static architecture.
this new conception of building all sorts of interesting consequences
followed. Now that the main walls of the building were relieved from the
strain of the lateral thrust by flying-buttresses, the spaces between the
internal isolated points of support were of no greater structural importance
than the silk which covers the ribs of an umbrella; they could be made of
quite light Material and almost replaced by vast windows of stained glass.
Thus, as it has been well said, a cathedral became 'a stone cage with films of
stained-glass suspended in the void, a marvellous jewelled lantern."'
Gothic passed "The Age of Elegance" came on, best represented by the Italians
of the Renaissance, of whom Mr. Rutter names Arnolfo as chief. The Renaissance
was a co-mingling of new and unexpected influences, most quickly described by
saying that a New World had been discovered. The Great Explorers - Magellan,
Columbus, and the rest - gave men a wholly new conception of the earth; the
re-discovery of the lost civilization of Greece and R. me gave them a new
Past, a new History, and consequently a new culture. The mixing and clashing
of these novel forces broke light dazzling stars into new constallations of
art and thought; Lorenzo the Magnificent came on the scene, and with him
Leonarda, Pico Mirandello, and all the others, art and learning dislodged
religion from its monopoly of thought; the Palace became the typical
architecture; Popes and Bishops lived in kingly residences. In England this
became the Elizabethan style, and Wren its prophet in chief; Wren and the
others who derived Gothic as "barbarous," in fact gave it its name of Gothic
out of derision.
came the Georgian style (in England), and "The Age of Memory." The old
Freemasons passed away with the Palaces and Cathedrals; and their ideals were
received as a precious heritage by our own Fraternity. The only new style
since developed in our American sky-scraper, which if it cannot be "a joy
forever" is rapidly becoming "a thing of beauty."
* * *
TOMB OF TUT-ANKH-AMEN"
TOMB OF TUT-ANKH-AMEN. By Howard Carter and A. C Mace. Published by George H.
Doran Company, New York May be purchased through National Masonic Library Book
Department, 1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. Cloth, 334 pages, with
index, illustrated. Price, postpaid, $5.25.
is a description of the tomb of King Tut-Ankh-Amen discovered by the late Earl
of Carnarvon and Howard Carter; with 104 illustrations by Harry Burton from
photographs taken by him at the site, Harry Burton being the official
photographer of the Metropolitan Museum of Arts of New York.
is the first volume of what we hope will prove a long series of books on the
discoveries made in this tomb. We have impatiently looked for this book with
great anticipatory pleasure since we read of the great find in the Valley of
the Tombs of the Kings of Thebes. We have seen from time to time in the
illustrated journals pictures of some of the articles discovered and have
greatly desired something authentic from the pens of these fortunate
discoverers. This find is probably the most valuable of any made as a result
of the expensive excavations that have occupied the labor and study of so many
of the best students along archaeological lines, and that have so long taxed
the resources of our great universities of both continents, as well as those
of vast private fortunes. All have desired some part in this great work, and
when word was received that a new tomb had been found our two discoverers
received generous offers of help from the most noted scientists engaged in the
work. All desired some mementoes for their museum shelves. All were anxious to
learn what they could of this old buried civilization of Egypt in order to
compare it with this new civilization of which we all take so much pride, and,
as it seems, not a little vain glory. We read, with much concern, of the death
of the Earl of Carnarvon, whose fortune had been devoted to this particular
discovery. But trig death but goes to demonstrate part of the price that
educational work pays for these valuable and rare discoveries.
departments which this book discusses may be noted as follows:
biographical sketch of the late Earl of Carnarvon by his sister, Lady
Burghclere, describing his childhood education, travels of adventure, war
Description of the valley and the tomb.
valley in modern times.
prefatory work at Thebes.
finding of the tomb.
survey of the antechamber.
clearing of the antechamber.
Visitors and the press.
The work in the laboratory.
The opening of the sealed door.
The removal and description of the objects discovered, occupying the space
from pages 258 to 325 as an appendix to the main book.
this tomb they have brought to light many objects of great artistic beauty,
made at a period when mere time was evidently of little account. It could
hardly be said of these - "art is long and time is fleeting." It is evident
that these articles were produced by hands made eloquent with great devotion.
Perhaps their makers valued the praise of a prince, who tried to be a father
to his people. We doubt if mere wages could purchase such skill at any time in
the history of the world. However it appears that gold was estimated as the
stones of the street as in the days of Solomon. The intrinsic value of the
discovery is mighty, to say nothing of its educational value. Mr. Carter tells
of the infinite care and pains taken in removing and preserving these
treasures so that some time in the future any of us who possess the means of
travel may study them in the museums of Cairo and England. It appears that Tut-Ankh-Amen
did not stint himself in providing his outfit for that long journey to that
undiscovered country from whose bourne no traveler returns. Here are chariots
for transportation, camp and household furniture, food and clothing, armor and
weapons, lest enemies be encountered by the way. We cannot speak of the many
articles in particular that are so beautifully illustrated in this book. We
look for many more of a like nature, and we long to read the inscriptions
which doubtless accompany many of the treasures and abound on the walls of the
tomb. It will take some time to translate these, even to study out and collate
* * *
OXFORD PRESS ENTERS MASONIC FIELD
eve of putting this issue through the press. word comes that the Oxford
University Press, American Branch, is preparing to enter the field of Masonic
literature with a magnificent program of new Masonic titles. This is welcome
news indeed to all Masons who love good books. With its thirteen branches in
various parts of the world this great old publishing house will be in a
position to give American Masonic books a world-wide distribution. And its
standards of excellence, than which nothing could be higher, guarantee in
advance the quality of its productions. THE BUILDER has arranged with the
management of the American Branch, having offices at New York City, to publish
next month a more extended announcement of the plans, and possibly a list of
the first books to be published.
to Read in Masonry
RITUAL AND SYMBOLISM
subject, surely, and one that breaks through the fences into all manner of
adjacent fields! Nobody has yet made a selection of titles on Ritual and
Symbolism satisfactory to anybody, least of all to himself, though the
Wisconsin Grand Lodge Committee on Masonic Research has come close to it in
its Selected List of Masonic Literature, a bibliography on which heavy demands
were levied in the preparation of the list printed below. The reasons are many
and various. For one thing, not many volumes have been devoted exclusively to
Masonic Symbolism; the subject usually has been treated incidentally, and
during the discussion of other subjects, as is so frequently the case in Ars
Quatuor Coronatorum, in which are so many mines of material. For another
thing, the symbols of Masonry are found scattered throughout the world, so
that often one will come upon a discussion of them in non-Masonic works, of
which Harold Bayley’s The Lost Language of Symbolism is a case in point. For
these and other reasons one is obliged to pick his way through a widely
scattered literature in order to assemble material on the subjects now in
and this is another difficulty in the way of a student, many of the titles
usually recommended are out of print (like Bromwell's Symbolry); they must be
included because they are so often referred to. In most cases they may be
borrowed from Masonic libraries, a list of which was given on this page last
from so many sources, and being in nearly all eases written by individuals
with their own axes to grind, books on Ritual and Symbolism have unequal
value, so that alongside a title by some such master as d'Alviella will stand
a work of no value at all save as a thing of curious interest. No attempt can
be made here to separate the wheat from the chaff; the reader can easily find
his own way after he has gone through a half dozen books and learned something
of the lay of the land.
addition to general works on the Ritual a thoroughgoing student will need the
use of copies of the Old Charges, exposes, the old catechisms, and such other
source material as usually will be found only in technical works. The most
accessible supply to an English speaking reader will be found in the
publications of the various research lodges or societies, most of which are in
England, in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, and in Quatuor Coronatorum Antigrapha. A
forthcoming work by Bros. A. L. Kress and R. J. Meekren on the old catechisms
will be an addition to the permanent literature in this field.
Ritualism is a many-sided subject, with ramifications going off into folklore,
the history of religions, liturgy, and symbolism; among the titles below are a
number that contain not a word about the Masonic Ritual but are included by
virtue of their great value as supplementary works. Such works as are here
listed are not in any sense exhaustive, but have been chosen because they are
representative, and because they serve well as introductions to various
Algonquin Legends of New England, Charles C. Leland.
Ancient Freemasonry, Frank Higgins.
Ancient Mystic and Oriental Masonry, R. Swinburne Clymer.
Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian Symbolism, Thomas Inman.
of Freemasonry, Albert Churchward.
Schools, John Yarker.
Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross, A. E. Waite.
Builders, The, Joseph Fort Newton.
Cathedral Builders, The, Leader Scott.
Century of Masonic Working, F. W. Golby.
Discrepencies of Freemasonry, George Oliver.
Druidism, Dudley Wright.
Emblematic Freemasonry, A. E. Waite.
English Miracle Plays, Alfred W. Pollard.
on Symbolism, H. C Barlow.
Examination of the Masonic Ritual, An, Meredith Sanderson
Francis Bacon and His Secret Society, Mrs. Henry Pott
Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods, J. S. M. Ward.
Freemasonry: Its Symbolism, Religious Nature and Law of Perfection, C. I.
Freemasons' Treasury, The, George Oliver.
of Freemasonry, J. D. Buck.
Glossary of Important Symbols, A. S. Hall.
Gnostics and Their Remains, C. W. King.
of Freemasonry, Bascom B. Clarke.
Church of the Holy Graal, A. E. Waite.
Illustrated History of the Emulation Lodge of Improvement, Henry Sadler
Illustrations of the Symbols of Masonry, Jacob Ernst.
Interpretation of Our Masonic Symbols, An, J. S. M. Ward.
Kabbalah, The, C. D. Ginsburg.
Keystone, The, John T. Lawrence.
The, of Como, Its History, Art and Archaeology, T. W. M. Lund.
Lecture on Masonic Symbolism, Albert Pike.
Liturgica Historica, Edmund Bishop.
Liturgies, Eastern and Western, F. E. Brightman.
and the Craft, Rollin C. Blackmer.
Language of Symbolism. Harold Bayley.
and Fetishism. A. C. Haddon.
Masonic Initiation, The, W. L. Wilmshurst.
Masonic Symbolism, A. H. Ward.
Meaning of Masonry, W. L. Wilmshurst
Mediaeval Art, W. R. Lethaby.
Mediaeval Stage, The, E. K. Chambers.
Migration of Symbols, Count Goblet d'Alviella.
of the Johnannite Masons, George Oliver.
and Dogma, Albert Pike.
Mummers' Play, The, R. J. L. Tiddy.
Mysteries of Mithra, Franz Cumont.
Masonry J. D. Buck.
Light on the Renaissance, Harold Bayley.
Numbers, Their Occult Power and Virtue, W. Wynn Westcott.
and New Magic, Henry R. Evans.
Charges, The, Herbert Poole.
Charges of British Freemasons, W. J. Hughan.
English Drama, A. W. Ward.
arid Antiquity of Freemasonry, Albert Churchward.
and Evolution of Freemasonry, Albert Churchward.
of Masonic Ritual and Tradition, William Rowbottom.
of the English Rite of Freemasonry, W. J. Hughan.
Degree Ceremony, J. Wells.
Perfect Ashlar, The, John T. Lawrence.
Primitive Secret Societies, Hutton Webster.
Primitive Symbolism, W. W. Westropp
Old and New, G. R. S. Mead.
Restorations of Masonic Geometry and Symbolry, H. P. H. Bromwell.
Revelations of a Square, George Oliver
of the Twice-Born, The, Mrs. Sinclair Stevenson.
and Belief, E. B. Hartland.
Graal, The, F. G. Bergmann.
Science and the Infinite, Sidney T. Klein
Lecture on Symbolism, Albert Pike.
Tradition, The, in Freemasonry, A. E. Waite.
Shakespeare and the Emblem Writers, H. Green.
and Symbols, George Oliver.
and Symbols of Primordial Man, Albert Churchward.
Solomon's Temple, W. S. Caldecott.
Speculative Masonry, A. S. MacBride.
of Masonry, William Hutchinson.
in the East, The, George Oliver.
Stellar Theology and Masonic Astronomy, R. H. Brown.
of Alchemy The, M. M. Pattison-Muir.
Swastika, The, Thomas Carr.
of Glory, The, George Oliver.
Symbolic Teaching, Thomas M. Stewart.
Symbolical Masonry, H. L. Haywood.
Symbolism in Christian Art, F. E. Hulme.
Symbolism of Churches and Church Ornaments, Durandus.
Symbolism of Freemasonry, A. G. Mackey.
Symbolism of the East and West, Mrs. Murray-Aynsley.
Symbolism of the Three Degrees, Oliver Day Street.
Symbols and Legends of Freemasonry, J. F. Finlayson
of Solomon, The, P. E. Osgood.
of a Hidden Tradition in Masonry and Mediaeval Mysticism, Isabel
Treasure, The, of the Magi, James Hope Moulton.
Wisdom, Strength and Beauty, C. N. McIntyre North
Witch-Cult, The in Western Europe, Margaret Alice Murray.
The, in the Pattern, Mrs. G.F. Watts
Mystery Plays, L. Toulmin Smith
MEETING PLACES OF THE GRAND LODGE OF PENNSYLVANIA
course of an address as Grand Master, delivered at a Quarterly Communication
of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania Sept. 5, 1923, Bro. Abraham Beitler gave a
valuable resume of Pennsylvania Masonic history. One section of his address
will be found interesting to such readers as have been following the present
Study Club series:
Right Worshipful Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania has occupied the Temple in which
we meet tonight for a half century, and it has seemed to me that it would be
interesting and instructive to take a hasty glance at what happened in those
Grand Lodge has had fourteen different places of meeting: In 1732 it met at
the "fun" Tavern, also called "Peggy Mullen's Beefsteak House," King (Water)
street, between Chestnut and Walnut streets (a gathering place for the most
noted citizens of Philadelphia).
1735 it met at the "Indian King" Tavern, south side of High (Market) street,
below Third, southwest corner of Biddle's Alley (Bank street). This was the
home of the "Leathern Apron Club," the first Masonic Club known. Its members
included Benjamin Franklin, Hugh Roberts and Charles Thomson.
1749 it met at the Royal Standard Tavern, High (Market) street, near Second.
1755 it met at "The Freemasons' Lodge," Lodge Alley, west of Second and north
of Walnut streets. This was the first Masonic Hall erected in the United
States, and title was held by trustees of the three lodges then meeting in
1769 to 1790 it met at Videll's (Lodge) Alley, Second street below Chestnut,
the American Revolution it met at the City Tavern Second street, southwest
corner Gold (Moravian) street.
1790 to 1799 it met in the Free Quaker Meeting House, southwest corner Fifth
and Arch streets.
1800 to 1802 it met in the State House (Independence Hall), Chestnut street.
between Fifth and Sixth streets.
1802 to 1810 it met in the Pennsylvania Freemasons' Hall, Filbert street above
Eighth street, north side.
1811 to 1819 it met in the Masonic Hall, Chestnut street, between Seventh and
Eighth streets, north side.
FOR DECORATIVE PURPOSES
Ward Beecher said that a wall covered with books is decoratively more
beautiful than a wall hung with the costliest tapestries. Some lodges appear
to accept this doctrine in its severest application. They lock their books up
in cases, leave them there for years, and make it almost impossible for any
man to lay hands on them. Perhaps they fear that a volume may be pilfered. It
is preferable to miss a few copies than to lose the use of them all.
STATISTICS OF MASONIC HOME OF FLORIDA
March issue of THE BUILDER, page 74, I note an error in the statistics
covering the Masonic Home of Florida, due, it is probable, to a typographical
error in our Annual. The compilation as printed reads: Land owned, 10 acres;
assets, $200,000; residents, 52; annual cost, $172,810; provided for 100 old
people, boys and girls. Please change the last three items to read: Residents,
70; annual cost, $27,153; provided for 90 old people, boys and girls.
Ware, Secretary, Jacksonville, Fla.
* * *
WAS LAFAYETTE MADE A MASON?"
never been-denied that Lafayette was a Mason, but it has been disputed when
and where he was initiated. Gould says it was at Morristown, N. J., in an Army
Lodge, and Gould was a great authority. In your March issue, page 75, it was
stated, by a good authority, and quoted from a good authority, that Lafayette
was initiated in "an Army Lodge during the winter of 1777-78 at Valley Forge,
Pa." But in an address to the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, May 4, 1825, Lafayette
himself stated that he was initiated before he ever came to this country. I
had a letter from Bro. Stith Cain, Grand Secretary of Tennessee, confirming
this. It is in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee.
W. Baird, District of Columbia.
* * *
KIPLING GIVES HIS MASONIC EXPERIENCES
James A. Shirras, New York, has sent for publication an item clipped from The
London Times that explains itself:
following letter was sent recently by Rudyard Kipling in reply to an inquiry
as to his Masonic experiences:
reply to your letter I was secretary for some years of Lodge Hope and
Perseverance, No. 782, E.C. [Lahore, English Constitution], which included
Brethren of at least four creeds. I was entered by a member of the Brahmo
Somaj (a Hindu), passed by a Mahomedan, and raised by an Englishman. Our Tyler
was an Indian Jew. We met, of course, on the level, and the only difference
that anyone would notice was that at our banquets some of the Brethren, who
were debarred by caste rules from eating food not ceremonially prepared, sat
over empty plates. I had the good fortune to be able to arrange a series of
informal lectures by Brethren of various faiths, on the baptismal ceremonies
of their religions."
Kipling was initiated in the lodge mentioned in the same year that he
published "Departmental Ditties," before he attained his majority.
* * *
"PHYSICAL QUALIFICATIONS IN LEVITICUS"
BUILDER for January last I find an article in the Question Box regarding
"Physical Qualifications in Leviticus XXII." Bro. Gillis leaves the impression
that no person with a blemish, etc., can approach the altar to offer the bread
of his God. I think that is wrong. It is the offering that should not have a
bemish. I would be glad to have a little more "light" on this. Bro. Gillis
takes his reference by taking a few words here and there throughout the
quotation by Bro. Gillis is really from Chapter XXI, verse 17, but the
reference is to the family of Aaron only, the members of which, according to
the Biblical account, were to be the priests of the children of Israel.
Physical perfection and ceremonial purity were demanded in them as
qualification to perform the sacred ritual. But how far such a qualification
for a priestly caste should be taken as a precedent to govern the acceptance
of candidates for Masonry is very much a matter of individual opinion.
* * *
BOONE PROBABLY A MASON
an item on the question as to Daniel Boone's membership in the Fraternity, in
THE BUILDER, page 31, January, 1925. Permit me to add to the information
therein contained one or two of my own notes. In Rob Morris' History of
Freemasonry in Kentucky I came across, in the historical account of Kentucky
lodges, an item which would seem rather significant: "Boone Lodge No. 100 (at
Petersburg) organized U. D. in 1836 and chartered in 1837." This lodge lived
but to 1854 when it threw up the sponge like so many early Kentucky lodges.
With the other information at hand, although meager, I am of the opinion that
Boone was a Mason, probably being made in North Carolina. The early lodges of
Kentucky seem to have nearly all been named after members of the Craft or else
given the name of the town where located.
* * *
MU SIGMA FRATERNITY: OR "SELECT MASONS SOCIETY"
present instance we have ourselves contributed an inquiry to this department
in the shape of a letter addressed to Bro. Sidney C. Brown, Jr., of
Washington, D. C., concerning a new fraternity for college Masons. His reply
is a complete description in brief of the fraternity in question, and good to
have in its own behalf, as well as to serve as a valuable addition to Bro.
Carl Foss's magnificent essay on "American College Fraternities," published in
the March and April issues of this journal:
Realizing the need of an organization of students selected from the Masonic
Order who would devote themselves to the fostering of the highest ideals of
the Fraternity and to the promotion of Masonic fellowship, three Master
Masons, Harold Van Vranken, Charles Knapp, and Claude Brown, students of
Tri-State College of Angola, Ind., met on Good Friday, March 25, 1921, and
organized the Sigma Mu Sigma fraternity. The first requisite of the new
society was that the members should be Master Masons in good standing and
should be imbued with a zeal for the promotion of the cardinal principles of
Sincerity, Morality, and Scholarship by thought, speech and practice. The
social fellowship that followed such lofty ideals was of the highest type, and
the society at once became firmly fixed in the plans and lives of the young
men who became affiliated with it.
Interest being manifested from other sources, a national organization was
perfected in Washington, D. C., in May, 1924, by Sidney C. Brown, attorney,
who was elected National President. Hon. L. W. Fairfield introduced in
Congress a bill which would grant a National Charter to the fraternity.
Brigadier General Fries, head of the division of Chemical Warfare, is sponsor
of the National organization and these two men are the first national honorary
object of the national body is to establish in leading universities and
colleges chapters of Sigma Mu Sigma for the promotion of these same cardinal
virtues. The plan is to select from Master Masons who are attending the
various schools, those who are interested in promoting the true spirit of
Masonry as applied to student life and for the development of sincerity,
morality and scholarship in the lives of young men fitting themselves for
service in the world. Established on such an exalted plane there is no need
for wonder why the fraternity is attracting attention and a long and
flourishing career is anticipated for Sigma Mu Sigma among those who have
given thought to its aims and its teachings.
are now three active chapters, located at Angola, Ind.; Washington, D. C.; and
Oklahoma University, at Norman, Okla. Chapters will be installed at Purdue
University, Indiana; Milwaukee Engineering School; Alabama University;
National University; and George Washington University, Washington, D. C., this
C. Brown, Jr., Dist. of Columbia.
* * *
"ENCOURAGED AND DISCOURAGED"
read with considerable interest the article by Bro. R. J. Newton entitled "J'Accuse!"
in THE BUlLDER of October, 1924, also the letter by Bro. Ernest E. Murray of
Montana in the December issue.
two contributions bring to my mind a sermon that I heard over the radio
recently, entitled "Encouraged and Discouraged." What impressed me most in
this sermon was the following statement: "In the recent World War it was
considered a serious offense for anyone to break the morale of the army, and
that it was of the utmost importance to encourage the soldiers to the highest
degree, so that when the time came for them to go to the front, they would do
so with courage and a determination to win, and to this encouragement, I am
sure, we can attribute the successful termination of that terrible conflict."
Newton has set the morale and should be encouraged. He has sounded a call,
which, when accomplished, will be the most noble achievement that Masonry has
ever attained. In every great enterprise there is always somebody to knock it,
no matter how worthy it may be. Show me a Mason, or anyone else for that
matter, who would not be willing to contribute $2.00 per year for such a noble
cause! What is Masonry for, anyway? What do the words Brotherly Love, Relief,
and Truth mean? What do the Five Points of Fellowship mean? It seems to me
that if our brethren will just stop and think for a moment, they will see that
Bro. Newton's call is entirely in line with the teachings of Masonry.
are several ways for raising sufficient money with which to carry on this
work. The initiation fee could be raised in all the lodges of the United
States. This will not affect the incoming membership in any way. When one
wants to join the Fraternity $10.00 or $20.00 more or less will not stop him
from joining. The lodges in the State of California all raised their
initiation fee, $20.00 I believe, which amount is being used to help maintain
the two homes, the one at Decoto for the old folks and the other at Covina for
our orphans. Nevertheless, the percentage of new members was not decreased by
the increase in the initiation fee. Besides, I am sure there are
philanthropists among us who would be willing to help in a more substantial
way such as outright contributions, also bequests.
hospitals need not be gratis to our brethren. A small fee, say $10.00 or
$15.00 per week, could be charged. Some could perhaps pay more.
enterprise is beset with dangers, more or less. There is no paved road to any
great accomplishment. Then again, is it not worth facing these "dangers" for
the good that can be accomplished? We boast of the Masonic Institution being
the best in the world. Let us live up to it, or else cease boasting.
Newton, you have opened the eyes of the Masonic Fraternity. You have started
something which, when accomplished, will immortalize your name among Masons.
The eyes of other fraternities who have already established such hospitals are
now upon us, and the reputation of Masonry is at stake. If we lose in this
proposed undertaking, Masonry will have received a terrible blow which will
take more than a generation to overcome. If we win, and I feel sure we will
win, we shall retain our enviable position among the fraternities of the
W., Los Angeles, Calif.
* * *
MASONIC EXPEDITION TO TIBET, KIPLING'S STORY, ETC.
would like to get some information regarding the English expedition that went
to Tibet and discovered many Masonic relics, and also found some of the
natives of that country who were familiar with parts of the Masonic ritual,
although the Englishmen in question were supposed to have been the first white
men to visit that country.
my impression that Bro. Rudyard Kipling wrote a story or described that
M., New Jersey.
inquiry was referred to Bro. Gilbert W. Daynes, Associate Editor, England. He
has replied as follows:
believe the only English Expedition, or rather Armed Mission to Tibet, was the
one that took place in 1904. It was on this occasion that Lhasa was reached,
and its mysteries unveiled. (See The Unveiling of Lhasa, by E. Candler; also,
Lhasa, by P. Landon.) This was clearly, however, not the first visit of white
men to the country of Tibet, because, in the 18th century, European Jesuits
visited and resided in Lhasa; and Dr. Samuel Van de Patte, of Flushing,
visited Lhasa (1730) and resided there for a sufficiently long time to learn
the language, and became intimate with some of the lamas.
first Englishman to enter Tibet was George Bogle, in 1774. In 1811-12, Thomas
Manning, of Caius College, Cambridge, visited Lhasa and stayed there five
the 19th century Europeans were systematically prevented from entering the
country, or speedily expelled if found in it. From 1888 onwards, much
exploratory work has been done in Tibet by Englishmen, and also Europeans, of
whom the most famous was Sven Hedin (1896-1908). (See Central Asia and Tibet,
1903, and Adventures in Tibet, 1904, both by Sven Hedin).
facts as given in the query are, therefore, not in accordance with the true
facts concerning Tibet. If, which is extremely doubtful and is unknown to
London Masons, anything Masonic was found in 1904, they might easily have been
taken into the country during the 18th and 19th centuries, either by the
various explorers, or by Tibetans, who on many occasions had visited Russia,
China, and India.
regard to the last sentence of the query, I can state positively that Bro.
Rudyard Kipling has never written any story or described any expedition to
your correspondent has got hold of is a story, writtten by Bro. Rudyard
Kipling, entitled "The Man Who Would Be King," which is to be found in his
book Wee Willie Winkie and Other Tales. This book was, I believe, first
published during the nineties of last century. This piece of fiction, and a
very good piece, tells of the adventures of two rolling stones, Peechey
Carnehan and Daniel Dravot, in Kafiristan, part of Afghanistan. Peechey, after
being away for three years, comes back a total wreck, and tells how they had
been to Kafiristan and ruled that country. While there, they found that all
the chiefs and priests knew the words and tokens of the first two Degrees, and
could work a Fellowcraft lodge in a way that was familiar to Peechey. They did
not, however, know the Third Degree. Making the Temple of Imbra the lodge
room, they painted the black pavement with white squares, and used special
stones for the three principal chairs. A lodge is duly opened in the Third
Degree, and the head priests and chiefs are raised. The story is certainly one
that should be read by Freemasons; but the statements made in this story must
not be taken even as legends, which have often some substratum of truth, but
must be acknowledged to proceed from the very fertile brain of the author, one
of the most gifted now living.
think it is quite clear that your correspondent has got hold of the facts of
the story I have outlined above; perhaps it has been told him as a fact. The
evidence, however, is all against its truth.
Gilbert W. Daynes, England.
* * *
GENERAL PHILLIP JOHN SCHUYLER AND ALEXANDER HAMILTON
you inform me through the Question Box in THE BUILDER if General Philip John
Schuyler, Revolutionary War general, was a Mason? General Schuyler was born at
Albany, N. Y., Nov. 22, 1733, and lived there most of his life. The writer is
a descendant of that General and would appreciate very much to know if he was
a member of the Craft or not.
referred your inquiry to Bro. Isaac Henry Vrooman, Jr., of Albany, N. Y., and
along with it, for our own needs, a question or two concerning Alexander
Hamilton. In an essay published in THE BUILDER, March, 1920, page 59, Bro.
Geo. W. Baird gave Hamilton's membership as in Philadelphia, second lodge of
Moderns, and the date of his raising as December, 1757. This was based on
Sachse's Old Masonic Lodges of Pennsylvania. Since the appearance of that
article, and through Bro. J. E. Burnett Buckenham, Librarian, Library of Grand
Lodge of Pennsylvania, Bro. Baird has learned that the Alexander Hamilton
referred to in that book was not the Alexander Hamilton famous in our history.
Bro. Vrooman's notes are here given:
Regarding General Sehuyler's name:
Baptismal Record of the First Reformed Church, of Albany, N. Y. (Published in
the 1906 Year Book of the Holland Society of New York), the following entry
11. Philip (son) of Joh. & Corn. Schuyler
Jer Van Rensselaer, Maria Miln.
a Dutch custom, apparently for purposes of identification, for a son at times
to add the name of his father to his own and, in the Schuyler Family Bible
(quoted in Lossing's Life of Philip Schuyler, v. 1, p. 82) is this entry:
the year 1755, on the 17th day of September, was I Philip John Schuyler,
married to Catharine Van Rensselaer. . . "
is the only place where I have found the "John" used. The General almost
always signed his name "Ph. Schuyler" and is known to history as PHILIP
Regarding the question of his Masonic membership:
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge, F. & A. M., of New York for 1900, the Grand
Historian presented a valuable report on the Masonic lodges and members in New
York during the Revolution (pp. 294-316). On page 309 is the following:
"Schuyler, Philip (Gen.) ….. (no lodge given)."
generally held that General Schuyler was a member of the Fraternity, but if
so, I cannot substantiate it.
page 305 is this entry:
"Hamilton, Alexander ….. (no lodge given)."
not known of what lodge Alexander Hamilton was a member. His name is recorded
among the visitors to American Union Lodge, at Morristown December 27, 1779.
Although only his surname is given, he is identified by his being the only one
of that name then holding a commission with the army under Washington. In a
recent paper by Henry Whittemore read before the Masonic Historical Society of
New York, his identity was clearly established in this connection. The
visitors present on that memorable meeting of American Union Lodge are taken
from the minutes, as published by the Grand Lodge of Connecticut, as follows:
(Here follows a long list of names containing, among others, those of Bros.
Washington, Schuyler and Hamilton.)
known that General Philip Schuyler was in Morristown during that winter and it
is fair to assume that the "Schuyler" listed among those present was the
only one of that name listed in the 1900 report as being a member of a New
York lodge is John De Peyster Ten Eyck a member of Masters' Lodge, No. 2 (now
No. 5). He was my great-great-grand uncle and I represent him in the Society
of the Cincinnati, by virtue of his service as Captain-Lieutenant in the First
Canadian Continental Regiment, Colonel James Livingston.
probably were other Ten Eycks who were Masons and who were in the army, but
this is the only one of which I have record.
any of the readers of THE BUILDER have any additional information, it will be
Henry Vrooman, Jr., Albany, N. Y.
this may be added Bro. Buckenham's letter to Bro. Baird. It disposes once and
for all any idea that the Alexander Hamilton of the Sachse volume may have
been the great financier:
Masonic Temple, Phila.,
December 19th, 1924.
dear Brother Baird:
your favor of 16th for which I thank you. I note you make reference, in your
article on Alexander Hamilton to the Old Masonic Lodges in Pennsylvania. capes
45, 48 and 73. These references all relate to another Alexander Hamilton who
lived in Philadelphia, and was a member of the Fraternity. Alexander Hamilton,
First American Secretary of the Treasury was born Jan. 11, 1757, in the Island
of Nevis, W. I., and did not come to this country until October, 1772, when he
landed in Boston and then went to New York, later settling in New Jersey, and
again in New York, and only incidentally in Philadelphia on government
page 45, the name of Alexander Hamilton is found in a list of subscribers to
the fund to build the Masonic Hall, March 13, 1754.
page 58, the name appears in a list of those who paid their subscriptions, and
is only a repetition of the former reference.
reference on page 78 is only the date of the raising of Alexander Hamilton, as
shown on the secretary's books Dee. 17,1767. This date was when Hamilton (of
Nevis) was almost one year old.
always doubted Alexander Hamilton being a Mason. for if he had been, some
mention of it would have been made at the time of his death. However if you
learn of any evidence, I hope you will let me know.
(Signed) J. E. Burnett Buckenham,
Librarian and Curator.
this talk about the world coming to an end reminds one of Emerson's famous
mot. When warned by a fanatic thy the whole mundane scheme of things was to
come to an early and immediate wind-up, the Concord Sage demurely replied "Let
it end. I can do without it."
* * *
said that Bro. Ralph Welsh, twenty-two years of age, is the youngest W. M. in
the country. Does anybody know of a younger? He presides over King Solomon
Lodge, No. 197, Kane, Ill.
* * *
Missouri Grand Lodge Bulletin for February, 1925, is the best thing we have
ever seen of its kind. It contains a notable article on Marat. Bro. Ray V.
Denslow, its editor, has kindly given us a limited number of copies for free
distribution. Send stamp and name and address, plainly written.
* * *
Thirty-three Chinese Masons have received dispensation to organize Mencius
Lodge - a beautiful and appropriate name at - Escolta, Manila, P. I. There are
many Chinese members in Philippine lodges but Mencius is to be the first
composed exclusively of members of that race.
* * *
York Grand Lodge of Mexico has published an exceedingly valuable book entitled
Historical Notes on Masonry in the Republic of Mexico Relative to the Gran
Logia Valle De Mexico and the York Grand Lodge of Mexico, F. & A. M. Bro. C.
I. Arnold, Apartado No. 1986, Mexico, D. F., is Grand Secretary. A word to the
wise is sufficient!
* * *
look here! The office boy has been saying mean things about Ye Editor, and has
been punished appropriately and corporally therefor, so the aforesaid office
boy appealed to Bro. George W. Baird to draw up a cartoon, of a libellous and
sarcastic character, of the aforementioned Ye Ed. But Bro. Baird had the gout
and couldn't use his hands, and he thereupon entered into a conspiracy with
Bro. J. Harry Cunningham, also of Washington, D. C., to do the vile deed, and
the picture alongside is the result. It may be said that The Green Hat is NOT
among the books, but it has to be confessed that the pen is made of a goose’s