The Builder Magazine
May 1930 - Volume XVI - Number 5
FREEMASONRY IN THE CIVIL
the Triennial Convention of the General Grand Chapter held in St. Louis,
September, 1868, a banquet was held in the new Masonic Hall on Tuesday
evening, the 15th with 320 guests present. During the program of speeches
there were many loud calls for Albert Pike, who finally arose, amid a
thunderous applause, and delivered an impassioned speech about the record of
the Craft during the Civil War. His address was doubly significant; first, in
view of the fact that he had himself been an officer in the Confederate Army,
and secondly that his being called upon was a gesture of friendship as between
the North and the South. Surely it is a matter for just pride that our
Fraternity was the first in the field to heal over the wounds of that
Companions! Have you ever realized until now, as fully as you do now realize
it, the true meaning of that word, Companion? We generally think that, while
we call a Master Mason Brother, we only call a Royal Arch Mason Companion,
which simply means one associated with us, perhaps for the day, in the day's
work; from whom we separate at night without a care whether we shall see him
on the next day or not, or into whatever paths fortune may take us on the next
morning. Is that the meaning that Masonry attaches to the meaning of the word
Companion? If that is the meaning, if that has been the meaning that you and
I, and the rest of us, have heretofore given to the word Companion, it seems
to me that tonight, in this glorious assemblage, the Royal Arch Masons from
all the States and Territories of this great Union, must have learned that
there is a different meaning to the word Companion from that which we have
heretofore attached to it.
When she whom we love, when she whom we loved in our youth placed her little
hand in ours, and at the altar, in the presence of the minister of God,
pledged her faith to us that she would love, honor and obey us all our life,
she became our companion through the thorny ways of life. When out in the
great desert, through which now the steamhorse is carrying the blessings of
civilization to the extreme West, thirty odd years ago, when I clasped hands
with a bosom friend on that prairie, when my life was in his hand and his life
in my hand, and we were there together, hand in hand and heart to heart,
depending on one another, almost alone in the world, he was my companion, as
Masons should be companions to one another in the dark days of trouble. Ah !
shame upon the Mason, shame upon the Mason who could go away from such an
assemblage as this, and carry in his heart one single feeling of malice or ill
will to any worthy and true Mason in the world. Shame upon the man who, after
coming here and seeing these intelligent faces, these faces that will put to
shame the Legislatures of two thirds of the States of the Union, the seeing
these faces, that would put to shame two thirds of the Parliament of England
and of the Congress of the United States; shame upon the man who recollects
that here, in this hall, are assembled the representatives of the States of
this great Union of States, that not long ago were disbanded by the
convulsions of civil war, during which the bonds of the Masonic Fraternity
were not weakened, thank God, and seeing us met here again as Brothers; not
coldly welcomed, when we have clasped hands with you here, on your own soil,
west of the Mississippi; not coldly received, as some of us feared, perhaps,
that we might be; but when in every Northern face we meet a smile of glad
welcome and rejoicing as we once more clasp hands together; shame on the man
who can carry away from this assemblage one single unholy feeling that should
not belong to a pure Masonic heart. God pity the man who will not here lay on
the altar of Masonry every feeling of rivalry, every feeling of ambition,
every feeling of ill-will in his heart toward his Brother Mason; no matter
what rite you believe, at what altar of Freemasonry you worship, Freemasonry
is one faith, one great religion, one great common altar, around which all men
of all tongues and all languages can assemble; in which there can be no
rivalry, except a noble emulation of rites, orders, and degrees, which can
best work and best agree.
the Name of All humanity!
brethren, how can I return you my thanks? Shall I return them in my own name,
because you have so highly honored me as to call upon me again and again to
address you ? No. I know the compliment was not paid to me alone. I know it
was but an expression of the Masonic love and regard and affection that you of
the Northern States feel toward the brethren whom you think erred in the late
civil war, but toward whom you maintained, through that war, those feelings of
charity, Masonic kindness, love and affection, that become Masons to entertain
toward one another in the convulsions of civil war. Shall I thank you in the
name of my State ? Shall I thank you in the name of Tennessee ? Shall I thank
you in the name of the whole South? No thanks that the South could return to
you, if the South had authorized me to speak on behalf of the whole body of
Masons in the South, with my single tongue, could adequately express the
thanks you deserve for the kindness you have shown on this occasion. I return
you the thanks of universal humanity. I return to you - and this nation ought
to return to you - thanks for teaching them the great lesson, that brethren of
a common country, with the same blood flowing in their veins, may fight a
desperate and bloody war for years; may expose their lives breast to breast,
in supporting that which they believed to be right - a portion supporting the
rights of States as they understood them, and the other portion supporting the
glorious old flag - the stars and stripes; that through it all, thank God,
Masonry has furnished an example of charity and toleration, that shall teach
the men of the South to respect the men of the North for fighting for what
they believed to be right, and shall also teach the men of the North to
respect the men of the South for fighting for what they believed to be right
in regard to their States.
any rate, whether they have that charity or not - whether they believe they
were honest or not - they shall at least have charity to forgive their
Brother, though he offend against them ninety and nine times. I thank God, my
brethren, that the news of this great assemblage will go over the whole world;
that it will not, as it ought not, be confined here in our own country, but
that the cry shall go over the whole world, to the honor of Masonry, that
after a long and bloody and devastating civil war - when, having come away
fresh from our ruined homes and impoverished communities among a people who
were triumphant over us, we have come here and trusted to your magnanimity,
because it is the loser that can afford to be magnanimous more than the
winner. And that we have been met with open arms, with no coldness or
reservation, as Masons ought to meet; and if there was a latent, lurking,
hidden ill-feeling, in the bosoms of any of us, that right here now we should
all take the oath, and I propose to you to take it - that we swear that we
will bury all feelings here under the altar of Masonry; that we here sacrifice
upon the altar of Masonry all feelings of ill-will, jealousy, and rivalry, and
ambition, within Masonry and without; and, moreover, that we will hereafter,
by our lives, conversations, or teachings, make Masonry a great power in this
world; that we will show mankind that we have intellect, learning, power and
might, to make Masonry a great power for the benefit of the human race; and
Masonry will never be true to her mission till we all join hands - heart to
heart and hand to hand - around the altar of Masonry, with a determination
that Masonry shall become, at some time, worthy of her pretensions; no longer
a pretender to that which is good, but that she shall be an apostle of peace,
good- will, and charity, and toleration.
The Real Cagliostro
His Memorial to the French Parliament
BRO CYRUS FIELD WILLARD
(Concluded from April)
WOULD anyone believe that innocence could be reduced to such a degree of
misfortune that a decree of prise de corps would be regarded as a favor from
Such was my situation. After five months captivity, when I received legal
notice of this decree, the bailiff appeared to me as an Angel from Heaven who
had descended into my prison to announce to me the liberty to see a lawyer,
and the right to vindicate myself.
The decree was dated December 15th and it was declared to me on January 30th,
and the same day I submitted to an examination. I believe that it would but
imperfectly fulfill the promise I have made to the public to show myself as I
am did I not put before their eyes, a document which will give a clear idea of
my character, my innocence and the nature of the accusation brought against
me. [Note This has been written from memory but my memory is good and I can
assure the reader that there is no essential omission. ]
EXAMINATION OF THE COUNT DE CAGLIOSTRO. January 30, 1786.
Question. What is your age ? Answer. 37 to 38 years
The place of your birth?
I cannot assert whether I was born at Malta or Medinah: I have always been
with a tutor who told me that my birth was noble, that I lost my father and
mother at the age of three months, etc.
How long have you been in Paris?
I arrived here January 30, 1785.
When you arrived here in what neighborhood did you live ?
At the Palais-Royal, in a furnished hotel, where I remained twenty days more
When you arrived had you the money necessary to set up a house?
Most assuredly: I brought with me all that I might need in order to take a
Where did you take this house?
In the rue St. Claude, near the Boulevard.
Who took this house, you or the Prince?
I requested M. de Carbonnieres to go over this contract, never having made one
before in any part of the world. It is for this reason that I begged M. de
Carbonnieres to make the necessary arrangements and bargainings, for the house
as well as for the upholsterers, the carriages, etc., etc. From time to time I
furnished him the money necessary to pay for these different matters and for
which he gave me afterwards the receipts.
Who has provided for your livelihood?
Always myself and for everything.
But the Prince went to eat with you?
Although he came to my house, it was none the less at my expense that this was
done. Some times, however, when he came to dine and brought with him friends
or proteges, he ordered that they bring from his house one or two dishes.
But nevertheless, in spite of that, I did not fail to reimburse my cook every
evening for any outlay made during the day.
Did you see the Prince immediately on your arrival ?
No, not until two or three days later.
What did he say to you when you saw him for the first time ?
He persuaded me to remain at Paris and not travel any more.
Did the Prince come every day to dine with you ?
In the beginning he came but rarely to dinner, but since then he came three or
four times a week.
Have you known a lady called la Motte?
Certainly: the first time I saw her she told me that I had seen her in men's
clothes at the foot of my stairway at Strasburg; that she had asked me news
of the Marquise de Boulainvilliers; that I had answered her that she was at
Saverne and she had departed the same day to join her.
Have you seen her since in the house of the Prince?
Was she with one of her nieces?
But you have made a performance with the niece?
Permit me to relate to you the facts: (See the narrative on page 23 and
They say that you put a crucifix on the neck of the girl and ribbons of black,
green, red and other colors, with an apron having a fringe of silver, and
that you made the said girl swear on her knees?
That is false. I only recollect that the Prince added some ribbons to the
attire of the girl in order to please her. I believe that I also found in my
pocket an apron of ordinary Masonry, but I am not sure that it was used on
the girl. I would defer to the memory of the Prince whether or not it was
used and what he says will be the truth for me.
Did you put a sword, I do not know how, on the girl? A. I do not know any such
thing, but having my sword at my side I may have taken it off.
And with regard to the oath ?
That is false. I have already told you why I did all that I have done on that
Is it true that after the second performance and the girl having withdrawn,
you passed with the Prince and Madame de la Motte into another room, in the
middle of which was a poniard, crosses of St. Andrew, a sword, crucifixes,
crosses of Jerusalem, some Agnus Dei, and besides these, lighted candles, to
the number of thirty, giving a great light; that you made Madame la Motte
take an oath, declaring that it was necessary that she swear she would tell
nothing to any person of what she would see; that you said then to the
Prince: "Well, Prince, take that which you know"; that the Prince opened his
secretary, from which he took an oval box of white wood filled with unmounted
diamonds; that you added: "Pay attention, Prince, there is another one of
them which you know"; that in fact the Prince took it and said to Madame de la
Motte, "Well, Madame, I am giving you six thousand francs and these diamonds
which you will give to your husband and tell him to make the voyage to London
quietly in order to sell them or have them mounted, and he is not to return
until he has executed all that?"
That is false; false and very false; and I have the proofs to the contrary.
What proofs can you produce?
First, every time that this magnetism was produced, it was M. de Carbonnieres
who prepared the room, and, after the second performance was finished, he
brought in a respectable person whom I do not wish to name. But the Prince
will tell you who he was, as I do not care to call a man respectable for such
a folly. Prince Louis and both these persons will say truly that there was in
that room neither poniard nor cross nor candles, and the servants will bear
witness whether the room was more lighted than usual.
Is it true that you have said, or made the Prince believe, that he would be
raised up to the Ministry of the King?
That is false. I have always advised him to leave Paris and withdraw to
Saverne, because he would be able to do much more good there and live more
Is it true that you have said, or made the Prince believe, that your wife was
the intimate friend and confidant of the Queen, and maintained a daily
correspondence with the Queen?
Parbleu! This is too hard to swallow. If the Prince said that, with all the
respect I owe him, I can only say that it is a deception false in character.
M. the Reporter showed me then a little note and asked me: "Are you
acquainted with this note, yes or no?"
I do not know what this note is, and I am not acquainted with the handwriting.
My wife and I have never been at Versailles, we never have had the honor to
know the Queen, and we never have left Paris since we came here. Besides
that, as my wife does not know how to write, how could all this be possible?
[Note It often happens that the Roman ladies, even the best brought up, do
not know how to write. It is a precaution they take in order to avoid love
Has the Prince ever given diamonds to you or to your wife?
Never have I known of any other thing than this: When I was at Strasburg I had
a very curious knob of a cane, containing a repeating watch, surrounded with
diamonds. I made a present of it to the Prince. He wished to offer me some
other jewels in exchange, but I refused them, having always had more pleasure
in giving than in receiving. It is true that every time my wife's birthday
came around, the Prince made her some small present, but I believe that all
these consisted of was this: in a Saint- Esprit, in a circle around my
portrait which was in pearls, the Prince caused them to be replaced with
small diamonds, and a little watch with its chain in small diamonds, of which
there were five a little larger than the others. As to the rest of my diamonds
they are known in all the foreign courts of Europe, where I have been. The
proof is easy to obtain. I am at the Bastille, my wife is there likewise, as
well as all my fortune. You have only to examine and convince yourself of the
But you make expenditures; you give a great deal and take nothing, you pay
everybody; then what do you do in order to obtain money ?
That question has no relation to the matter in action, but I am willing to
satisfy you. What matters it to know whether I am the son of a monarch or the
son of a poor man, and why I travel without wishing to make myself known?
What matters it to know how I act in order to procure money for myself ? As
long as I respect Religion and the Laws, as long as I pay everybody, as long
as I do good only and never evil, the question you ask me becomes needless
and is not at all suitable. You should know that I have always taken pleasure
in not satisfying the vulgar curiosity on that point, in spite of all they
have said about me when they circulated the story that I was the anti-Christ,
the Wandering Jew, the man of 1400 years, the Unknown Philosopher, and in
short, all the horrible things that the malice of the wicked could invent. I
am pleased to avow to you, however, that which I have never disclosed to
anyone. Learn that the resources are these: that immediately I go into a
country, I have a banker there who furnishes me with all that I need, and who
is reimbursed for it afterwards. For example in France I have Sarrasin of
Basle, who would give me all his fortune if I wished it; even as at Lyons M.
Sancostar would do likewise. But I have always begged these gentlemen not to
say that they were my bankers. I have besides other resources in various
things which are known to me.
Did the Prince show you a note with the signature, Marie Antoinette de France?
I believe that 15 or 20 days before being arrested he showed me the note of
which you speak.
What did you say about it?
I said that I could not believe any other thing than that Madame la Motte was
a cheat and was deceiving the Prince. Indeed I have always told the Prince to
beware of her and that she was a vile wicked woman, but the Prince never
wanted to believe me. I have always thought the note was a forgery.
Look at this note and tell me if it is the same?
M. the Reporter showed me then a note on which I saw the name of Marie
Antoinette de France. But having noticed that it was covered with figures, I
replied: "I am not able to testify that this is the same, because there are
figures on it which I have not seen before."
You may know that these figures were made by us.
That is all the same to me. I say that I am not able in my conscience to
certify that this is the same. Besides that, I examined it too little before,
since it was an affair that did not concern me and so it was of little
consequence to me to know whether it was real or a forgery.
Is it true that before entering the Bastille you wished to buy a house for one
hundred and fifty thousand francs?
That is false. I remember one day, while having my hair dressed by my
wigmaker, some persons spoke to me about a summerhouse that a company of my
friends wished to buy and I said that I would like to take it for myself. But
I held this talk as only in the air and without any purpose. The persons who
wished to buy this house were M. de Bondy and others. [Note The Examination
was closed after I recalled this last circumstance, and M. the Reporter did
not believe that it was necessary to add it to my answer.]
promised after I had made myself known that I would answer those things which
concern me in the injurious charges which the Countess de la Motte permitted
herself to make. This task will be as fatiguing to me as it will be tedious
to the public. Nevertheless I shall fulfill this duty scrupulously while
begging the readers who know me and those who are ready to appreciate me, not
to give themselves the trouble to read this part of my defence.
REFUTATION OF THAT PART OF THE MEMORIAL OF THE COUNTESS DE LA MOTTE WHICH
CONCERNS THE COUNT DE CAGLIOSTRO.
Extract from the Memorial:
The Countess de la Motte thus begins in her exordium, page 3:
"Here is introduced one of those persons whom the ignorant vulgar call
extraordinary Men, an Emptric, Dreamer on the Philosophical Stone, False
Prophet in the Sects in which he says he is educated, Profaner of the only
true worship, and called by himself Count de Cagliostro. Yes, depository on
the part of M. de Rohan of the splendid Necklace, Cagliostro has cut it up in
pieces in order to increase by it the occult treasure (I) of an unheard-of
Whatever one might say of the style which reigns in the defense of the
Countess de la Motte, it has at least one great advantage of including a
great many insults in a very small space. However, it is not my intention to
set myself up as a censor of the grammatical part of her memorial. I would
have passed over in silence even this slight observation if, satisfied with
wounding the language, the Countess de la Motte had respected in her writings
the public, decency and truth.
Let us then pass on to the insults.
"Empiric in the art of human cures."
remember having heard this word often in the mouth of certain persons; but I
have never been able to know exactly what it meant? If they wish by this to
designate a man who without being a Doctor yet has a knowledge of Medicine,
who goes to see the sick and never wishes pay for his visits; who cures the
poor as well as the rich and receives money from no one; then in that case I
confess it and have the honor to be an empire.
Alchemist or not, the qualification of "low" becomes only those who beg and
crawl. Everyone knows whether the Count de Cagliostro has ever asked favors
or board and lodging of anyone.
"Dreamer on the Philosopher's Stone."
Whatever may be my opinion on the Philosopher's Stone. I have kept silence and
the Public has never been troubled with my reveries.
"False Prophet," etc.
have not always been so. If M. the Cardinal de Rohan had believed me he would
not have trusted the Countess de la Motte and we would not be where we are
"Profaner of the only true Worship."
This is more serious. I have always respected Religion. I deliver my life and
exterior conduct to the inquisition of the law; as to my inner life, God
alone can demand an account of it.
"Styled by himself Count de Cagliostro."
have borne the name of Cagliostro throughout all Europe. As to the quality of
Count one can judge by the education I have received and by the respect that
has been shown me by the Mufti Salshaym, the Sherif of Mecca, the Grand
Master Pinto, the Pope Rezzonieo [Clement XIII] and the greater part of the
sovereigns of Europe whether it is not rather a disguise than a title.
"Depository of the splendid Necklace."
have never been the depository of the splendid Necklace. I have never ever
has cut it up in order to increase by it the occult treasure of an unheard-of
my fortune is so surprising, if I am the possessor of an "occult treasure" I
have no need then to cut up a necklace in order to enrich myself.
When a man is rich enough and great enough, to be able to scorn the favors of
sovereigns all his life and refuse constantly gifts that the common run of
mankind can receive without degrading themselves, he does not tarnish the
glory of a life without reproach in a moment. He does not descend suddenly
from the magnificence of a Prince to shameful actions to which man can be led
only by an excess of misconduct and dissipation.
The Countess de la Motte continues:
order to conceal his theft, Cagliostro commanded M. de Rohan by the power he
has created over him, to cause to be sold and to have mounted small portions
of the diamonds at Paris by the Countess de la Motte, and to cause to be
mounted and sold in England more considerable portions of them by her
The intention of the Countess de la Motte has been in this story, which is
void of all probability, to turn into ridicule M. the Cardinal de Rohan by
representing him not as my friend, but as a slave so submissive to my will
that when I command him to become an accomplice in a theft, of which the
profit would have been entirely mine, he does not hesitate to obey me.
Such an assertion which combines at the same time extravagance and indecency
does not merit a serious answer.
may however become valuable in this lawsuit, inasmuch as it contains a formal
avowal that a part of the diamonds coming from the necklace had been sold in
France by the Countess de la Motte, and that another part had been also sold
find in the Memorial of the Countess de la Motte, on page 23, the following
Here are the vast plans of Cagliostro which though veiled at first are
developed by the beginnings, the progress and an issue equally murderous for
the Cardinal and the Lady de la Motte.
The development of which the Countess de la Motte here speaks, these vast
plans which are at first veiled, and which are developed afterwards by
beginnings, some progresses, and an issue, imply at least an entire year
dedicated to intrigue before I succeeded in making myself master of the
Necklace. But how can this supposition be reconciled with the fact?
came to Paris in 1783 for the first time, but I remained here only thirteen
days, occupied from morning till night in treating the sick. It was certainly
not then that I could occupy myself with intrigue. Let us see if it is not
possible that I may have mixed in it on my last trip.
The complaint returned by the Attorney-General makes known the fact that the
negotiations relative to the Necklace were made at the end of January, 1785.
It shows also that the jewelers put their acceptance at the foot of the
proposition presented by the Cardinal, and that the Necklace was delivered in
the morning of the first of February. I arrived at Paris (and the fact is
easy to verify) on January 30,1785, at nine o'clock in the evening.
Everything was then consummated at the time of my arrival excepting the
delivery of the Necklace, which took place thirty-six hours later.
was at Lyons during the negotiations; and I was at Bordeaux at the time of
the appearance of the false Queen in the thicket of Trianon.
Would I then come to Paris expressly to gather the fruit of an intrigue that
another than myself had plotted?
What absurdity !
Yet I am decreed under arrest and the dungeons of the Bastille re-echo for the
past six months with my groans and those of my unfortunate wife. And still
the cries of oppressed innocence have not yet been able to reach the ears of
the most just of Kings. But let us continue with this libel.
The Countess de la Motte after having pretended to have proved the necessity
of arresting me and treating me as a swindler and an ethereal being, etc.,
expresses herself thus:
What will he answer to the first article of his examination. His name, his
surname, his titles, he the Count, the woman attached to his fortunes, the
Countess de Cagliostro?
was not enough, then, for the lawyer of the Countess de la Motte to calumniate
and insult me. He attacks me in the most easily affected part of my being. He
seeks to vilify my wife. I could have pardoned everything personal to myself,
but my wife? What has she done to him? What has she done to the Countess de
la Motte ? How can a man who has a public character permit himself to abuse
it by steeping in bitterness the heart of an innocent and virtuous woman, who
is adverse in no sense to his party, against whom he has neither complaint
nor decree and whom he can reproach with nothing except the misfortune of
having linked her fate with mine?
to the proofs of the celebration of our marriage, which they claim the right
to demand, I engage myself, if it is necessary, to make them public when I
shall recover the liberty of my papers.
The Countess de la Motte dares to say that one of my servants boasts of having
been for 150 years in my employ; that some times I assume to be 300 years old
and at other times I boast of having assisted at the wedding of Cana. It is
for that reason, in order to parody the miraculous transformation of that
unnatural element, that I have conceived the idea of multiplying the necklace
after cutting it up into a hundred pieces and then delivering it entire, so
they say, to an august Queen.
That I am sometimes a Portuguese Jew, sometimes a Greek, and sometimes an
Egyptian from Alexandria, from whence I have brought allegories and sorceries
into Europe. That I am one of those extravagant Rose-Croix who possess the
art of conversing with the dead; that I treat the poor for nothing in order
that I may sell immortality to the rich for some price. That my society is
composed of visionaries of all classes. She finishes by letting it be
understood that I have committed various wrong acts in certain courts of
Europe, and that some of these are within the knowledge of Madame Bohmer.
The reader may depend on it that I shall not answer in detail all this torrent
of insults and absurdities.
have already said that I have been educated as the son of Christian parents. I
have never been a Jew nor Mahometan. These two religions leave certain
ineffaceable marks on those professing them.
The truth of what I say can be proved and rather than leave a shadow of a
doubt in this respect I will submit myself to an examination more shameful
for those who require it than for him who suffers it.
Moreover I desire that the Countess de la Motte would deign to particularize
the deeds that she ascribes to me. Let her without fear say who is the rich
person to whom I have sold immortality. Let her be kind enough to cite one of
those high deeds which have made me known in all the Courts of Europe. Above
all I defy her to declare what are the evil deeds she ascribes to me and
which are within the knowledge of Madame Bohmer.
the Countess de la Motte is content to speak of me in vague insulting phrases
and to make perfidious omissions when so speaking, and does not answer these
formal challenges, I declare to her, once for all, that I shall be pleased to
make to all her omissions and all her insults, past, present and future, a
very laconic response which is very clear and energetic, and which the author
of the "Provincials" made formerly in a like case, to a powerful society, a
response which politeness forbids me to put in French but which the lawyer of
the Countess de la Motte can explain to her and which is, Mentiris imp
entissine. [Thou liest most shamelessly. ]
The Lady de la Motte relates afterwards, in her own fashion, the story of the
magnetism exercised on her niece, that is to say, by adding to it many
circumstances contrary to the truth and making them enter into this story of
the Necklace with an awkwardness and air of improbability which she does not
even take pains to disguise. She puts in the mouth of the Cardinal de Rohan,
an Academician and man of the Court, phrases of a meanness so repugnant that
the worst of footmen would blush to have uttered them. She hears behind a
screen the sound of the kisses which a good angel and her niece give each
other reciprocally. On a table, she says, were heaped objects most suitable
to excite terror. These were crossed swords, ribbons of different colors,
crosses of different Orders, a poniard and a carafe of extremely clear water.
the limit of horror she says: "This sombre spectacle was illuminated by an
astonishing light." As a sequel to all this bizarre apparatus I make the
Countess de la Motte swear to keep the secret, and then I order the Prince to
go and find a great white box. He opens it and the Prince gives the
commission to the Countess de la Motte to sell, and cause her husband to
sell, a certain quantity of diamonds.
One must believe either that the Countess de la Motte has lost her mind
entirely or else she has great confidence in the credulity of her judges, to
hope that she may get out of this affair by circulating such absurd stories.
have already given an account on page 40 of my memorial and the following
pages, of how it occurred and the honest motive which induced me to lend
myself to this comedy. M. the Prince of Luxemburg (2) and M. de Carbonnieres
can testify if there is need of it as to the truth of my answer as given in
"On the first or second of August," she says, "M., the Cardinal, showed the
Countess de la Motte a little note which he folded from top and bottom so as
to let her read the middle only. The Lady de la Motte read (this deserves
attention), 'I send by the little Countess,' and as a continuation a number
of figures which the Lady de la Motte was not able to add up. She read again:
'In order to quiet these unhappy wretches; I would be sorry if they were in
difficulties. 'On reading this M. de Rohan exclaimed: 'Has she deceived me,
this little Countess? But that is impossible, I know Madame de Cagliostro too
well.' There is no ambiguity here, for the Countess de la Motte was present
and to whom he truly might have said: 'Have you deceived me ? But I know
Madame de Cagliostro too well '. "
Always fables and never proofs nor even probability. What does Countess de la
Motte wish to say by this equivocal language? To whom was this letter
addressed? She does not speak of the address; by whom was it written? By my
wife? But she does not know how to write as I have already said. By me ? I
never write in French, and very rarely in Italian. By M. the Cardinal de
Rohan? If so, why would he read to the Countess de la Motte only a part of
the letter and carefully hide from her the remainder? Why this exclamation on
reading three or four words from a letter written by him? What is this deceit
of which he suspects my wife for a moment? Why in speaking of her does he
name her at one time with familiarity as "the little Countess" and the next
time with respect as "Madame de Cagliostro?"
is clearly seen that in this part of the memorial of the Countess de la Motte,
she has sought to implicate my wife in an affair of which she never had the
slightest knowledge in order to lay on me all the blows at once.
The Countess de la Motte thus terminates her long diatribe:
This Person must learn by a new education that while the enlightened Tribunals
have not for a long time now condemned men to capital punishment for sorcery,
properly so called, yet the same Tribunals are keeping in store judgments
when the sorcery is accompanied with witchcraft, with thefts and swindlings,
and above all when they are multiplied by scholars and in schools.
Thus the Countess de la Motte regrets not to be in that happy time when an
accusation of sorcery would have brought me to the stake. Then she represents
me as instructing scholars in sorcery and giving them lessons in theft and
swindling. Who are the men vile enough to come and listen to the lessons of
such a master? It is certainly not in my society that she will find them. It
is not necessary, I think, to name here the persons who have done me the
honor to visit my house; but I can say with truth that there is not one of
them whom, the man the most delicate and most finical in his social
relations, would not be honored to know.
am persuaded, moreover, that the Countess de la Motte has done me all the evil
she did, less from hatred of me than with the purpose of exonerating herself.
Whatever has been her intention, I pardon her, as much as is in me, for the
bitter tears she had made me shed. Let her not think that this is an affected
moderation on my part. From the depths of the dungeons where she caused me to
be dragged I invoke for her the elemeney of the Law. If at last when my
innocence and that of my wife shall be recognized, the most just of Kings
shall think that he owes some indemnity to an unfortunate foreigner who
settled in France only on the faith of his royal word, and that of
hospitality and the rights of nations, the only satisfaction I shall ask is
that His Majesty will be kind enough to accord at my prayer, a pardon and
liberty to the unfortunate Countess de la Motte. This pardon, if I obtain it,
cannot injure Justice. However guilty may be the Countess de la Motte, she
has been punished enough. From my own bitter experience the world can believe
there is no crime, no matter how great, but six months in the Bastille will
You have read, judges and citizens. Such is the man who was known at
Strasburg, at Bordeaux, Lyons and Paris, under the name of the Count de
Cagliostro. I have written this to satisfy the Law; and it will satisfy all
other sentiments save that of vain curiosity.
Will you say that this is not enough? Will you insist to know more
particularly the country, the name, the motives and resources of this unknown
? What matters it to you, Frenchmen ? My country is for you the first place
in your empire, where I submitted with respect to your laws. My name is that
which I have made honored among you, my motive is God; and my resources are
my own secret.
When, in order to relieve the sick or feed the poor I shall ask to be admitted
into your doctors' associations or into your benevolent societies, then you
may question me; but to do, in the name of God, all the good that I am able
to do is a right which requires neither name nor country, proofs nor
Frenchmen, are you only inquisitive? You read these frivolous pamplets where
malice and levity are pleased to pour ridicule and infamy on a friend of man.
you not wish on the contrary to be good and just? Do not question him but
listen and love him who has always respected Kings because they are in the
hands of God, governments because they protect them, religion because it is
the law, and law because it is the complement of religion; and finally, men
because they are His children like himself.
Once more, do not question him further but listen and love him who came among
you to do good, who suffered himself to be attacked, in patience, and
defended himself with moderation. (4)
(Signed) THE COUNT DE CAGLIOSTRO.
(1) Madame de la Motte spelled tresor, treasure, as thresor. Cagliostro makes
fun of her ignorance.
(2) The Duc de Montgomery-Luxembourg was Deputy Grand Master of the Grand
(3) It is very difficult to render into English the force and eloquence of
this passage in the original French.
(4) This Memorial helped to tear down the Bastille three years later.
The Freemasonry of the English Speaking World
Review of Sir Alfred Robbins
BRO. J. HUGO TATSCH, Associate Editor.
is a safe venture to predict that no book by a modern Masonic writer has been
awaited with so much interest, or will receive such a hearty reception, as
English-Speaking Masonry. Its author, R.W.Bro. Sir Alfred Robbins, P.G.W.,
President, Board of General Purposes, United Grand Lodge of England, is better
known in the United States than many an American Grand Master; his name has
been a familiar one to the Craft for many years. His never to be forgotten
journey to the United States, in 1924, when he visited ten American Grand
Lodges - an itinerary in which Iowa was included because of its
internationally known Grand Lodge Library - lingers in the memory of those
who know what an outstanding event it was, and has been deeply etched in the
hearts of the Craftsmen who were privileged to hear and meet him. Not only was
his visit an important one from the standpoint of Freemasonry, but it was also
of great significance as an expression of the cordiality and good will
existing between the English and American people. This is indicated by the
meeting which took place at the White House between Calvin Coolidge, then
President of the United States, and Sir Alfred Robbins. As I look back upon
this meeting, it is not inappropriate to also make a reference to Lady
Robbins, whose personal charm and graciousness is vividly remembered, and who
contributed in no small way to the success of the mission of her husband.
English-Speaking freemasonry comes to our shores at a singularly appropriate
time, for as Brother Robbins says in the opening lines of his book, the year
1930 marks "the bicentenary of the Craft's official introduction into the
United States." He also pays a graceful tribute to the American Craft by
saying that "American Masons have never failed to own what is due to the
parent Grand Lodge to which they owed their birth and infant nurture. . . .
English-speaking Masonry, indeed, whether acting under independent
jurisdiction or remaining within the sovereignty of the United Grand Lodge of
England, has kept its torch alight and held its banner high for over two
The undertaking of such a book as Brother Robbins has so ably prepared is a
difficult task, one which no one is better qualified to judge than himself.
Brother Robbins modestly disclaims any marked qualifications for his task; in
speaking of the historian who would essay the task, he says: "But not least of
all his qualifications should be a portion of literary ability as will cause
his endeavor to interest as well as enlighten his readers." Those who read the
new book will soon realize that the volume is interesting as well as
informative, and is a book that is pleasingly different from the usual
presentations. The author avoids a difficult situation very skilfully and
tactfully by saying: "To Masonic friends, and especially some in the United
States, who have assisted him with facts and hints, he is sincerely grateful;
but he finds it impossible to quote every source of information, whether oral,
written, or in print." He protects himself against responsibility for
inevitable errors by saying that he has had to rely upon certain documents by
quotations which have been extracted from the writings of other authors. "It
is the lot of every first writer of a comprehensive h story," he says, "to
receive a multitude of corrections or suggestions on points of detail." Such
errors as may be found in the new book are insignificant, and in no way affect
the worth of the undertaking and the splendid panorama it unrolls before the
The purpose of the book is most concisely told in these words:
The book is an endeavour fairly to set before all interested in Freemasonry,
whether or not from the inside, the inner meaning and outer expression of a
world-spread Fraternity. Nothing is revealed a Mason should preserve; what is
told is what all may know. It mainly deals with English-speaking Freemasonry,
which covers that of England, Ireland, Scotland, the British Dominions and
Dependencies, the United States, and a number of Lodges in South America, thus
embracing fully three-quarters of the Masonry of the world.
The scope of the work is best told by the table of contents, herewith
What is Freemasonry?
Masonic Origin and Growth.
III. The Grand Lodge Era Begins.
IV. Grand Lodge Develops.
Grand Lodge Divides.
VI. United Grand Lodge.
VII Success and Semi-Schism.
VIII. English Masonry Extends.
IX. The Rising Tide.
Early Twentieth-Century English Masonry.
XI. The Great War and After.
XII. England's Grand Lodge and Its Work.
XIII. The Grand Lodge of Ireland.
XIV. The Grand Lodge of Scotland.
XV. English-Speaking Masonry in the Americas.
XVI United States Masonry Before Independence
XVII. American Masonic Independence Accomplished.
XVIII Fruits of America's Freedom
XIX. English Masonry in Canada.
Its Work in the Eastern Hemisphere.
XXI. Masonry's Educational and Beneficent Results.
XXII. A League of Masons.
Chapter I opens with a definition and a declaration which will instantly find
a place with the other great definitions and declarations that have been made:
Freemasonry can be defined as an organized system of morality, derived from
divine wisdom and age-long experience, which, for preservation from outer
assault and inner decay, is veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbol.
The.influence of divine inspiration is with it throughout. Every English
Masonic Lodge is dedicated to God and His Service. Each candidate for
membership declares his belief in the Supreme Being. Guidance from on High is
sought step by step. Keeping strictly aloof from all doctrinal differences and
political divisions, it demands from its members, whatever their race, tongue,
or creed, a recognition of the Eternal and of the Light which comes from
Above, loyalty to their country and obedience to its laws, with Strict regard
for the rights and liberties of their fellow-men.
Coming from such an eminent authority, one whose utterances can be accepted as
es-cathedra, when considering the position he holds in the Mother Grand Lodge,
this quotation should effectively silence the enemies and calumniators of
Freemasonry. The entire chapter is an inspirational presentation, worthy to be
placed in the hands of each Mason as a chart by which he is to progress
through the Fraternity, and to reflect honor upon himself and the Craft in his
life before the world.
Like all real scholars of the Craft, Brother Robbins flouts the claims of
prehistoric origins, and distinguishes clearly between legend, tradition and
fact in the opening paragraphs of Chapter II. He says very truly:
Freemasonry, like Churches and States, can stand on its own merits, and needs
no false bolstering of its strength. Of late years an assiduous and
hard-working School of Masonic students, has arisen in England, Ireland, the
United States, and Germany, determined on a thorough Search for truth. This
School, pursuing the methods of the higher criticism, has sought proof for all
assertions, and has treated legend as the English Church does the Apoerypha
- to be employed for example of life and instruction of manners. The result,
while ridding Masonry of many pleasant stories and fabulous pretensions, has
been to strengthen its hold on serious adherents by showing that its evolution
has been natural and its development sure, and this because it rests on
foundations of precept and practice which nothing can shake.
an active member and Past Master of the famous Quatuor Coronati Lodge No.
2076, nothing short of such a declaration is to be expected.
The succeeding chapters, treating of English Masonic history, are unique in
their treatment of the subject. The reader is not bored by the presentation of
dry statistical data, nor by a chronological recital of events which has a
soporific effect. On the contrary, the pages are alive with interesting facts,
and carry the reader along in a manner which shows that Freemasonry is not a
thing separate and apart from the period in which it finds itself. Brother
Robbins portrays underlying causes which expressed themselves in effects that
are confusing to only those who try to study Freemasonry as an isolated
specimen beneath a powerful microscope. The Fraternity invariably eludes such
attempts; the student who would know the Craft as it really is must make a
Some peculiar situations develop in the book. One such is on page eighty-five,
where we read of Francis, second Earl of Moira, later Grand Master of Masons,
fighting in the American Revolution and opposing our troops at Bunker Hill -
where Joseph Warren, Provincial Grand Master, fell in serving his country.
Later the valiant British soldier distinguishes himself further at Brooklyn
and White Plains, as well as at Camden and in "the last flicker of British
success" at Hobkink's Hill. Such extracts not only reveal Masonic history
unknown to us in America, but their presentation illustrates the proverbial
sportsmanship of our overseas cousins, to whom defeat in contests of skill is
nothing to sulk about, but to be borne with a smile and unbroken spirit.
Another sidelight of the book, one which will appeal to the students of the
Craft, is the reference to the Duke of Sussex aiding in the formation of a
Masonic library for the Grand Lodge of England. This institution, not so
widely known as some others, is to be housed in the magnificent Memorial
Temple now under construction at London - an undertaking which R. W. Bro. Sir
Alfred Robbins has supported and promoted in a degree not so well known in
America as it should be.
American Masonic students are fairly well familiar with the history of the
English Craft up to the time of the Union of 1813; but we are not so well
informed on what occurred after that memorable event. Brother Robbins makes up
for this deficiency in his book; and he tells us some interesting things about
the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) becoming a Mason. Very few of us
have access to the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of England for the period of
1868-1875; there are some interesting things to be read between the lines of
English Masonic history relative to the Prince's Freemasonry, the visit of the
Earl de Grey and Ripon, Grand Master, to the United States, and the change of
Grand Masters when de Grey and Ripon became a convert to Roman Catholicism.
The story is charged with a dynamic force that is very apparent when one
considers the religious and political background of the period, especially in
Continental Europe. The break with the Grand Orient of France is told by
Brother Robbins - having to do with the new declarations of what Freemasonry
was, and with the banishment of the Bible from the Masonic altars of French
The part that English-speaking Masonry played in the events of 1914-18 is not
overlooked. Upon the outbreak of the World War in 1914 the ties which existed
between the Craft on both sides of the Atlantic were strengthened. At Grand
Lodge in 1914, a message was read from the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, "your
oldest child in the Western Hemisphere," expressing not only deep concern for
the English brethren and their dependents who were suffering in body and
estate, but offering all the Masonic succor within their power, consistent
with citizenship in a neutral nation. Similar expressions came from other
sources; and special recognition was given to them in 1917, when the
bi-centenary celebration of the founding of the Grand Lodge of England made
such action particularly significant. Twenty-eight American Masons,
representing sixteen Jurisdictions of the United States, from Massachusetts
and New York through Iowa and Michigan to Colorado and California, were
present at the Bi-Centenary Celebration June 24, 1917.
Sticklers for the doctrine of physical perfection, an outworn heritage from
operative days and of no importance today, will find food for thought in the
following quotation from Brother Robbins' text. Speaking of difficulties which
needed adjustment he says:
They included such alterations in procedure as to permit the entrance into
Lodges of private soldiers as well as those of commissioned or
non-commissioned rank, and to provide for the admission of candidates who,
being in all other respects fit and proper persons to be made Masons, were
able, even though blind or maimed, to explain or exemplify the working of the
With the story of the Grand Lodge told from its origin to present times,
Brother Robbins carries on the account with a chapter telling of its work. The
vast amount of work done requires funds; there is an annual income of
approximately $500,000. England has a custom which we in America should
observe: each Master Mason is given a parchment diploma of membership, for
which he pays a slight fee - five shillings, I believe. Such documentary
evidence is something which has many unexpected uses. There are also direct
levies upon the membership for Masonic charity; what a protest there would be
in the United States if such procedure were followed here ! The entire levy
upon London brethren goes into the central fund; in the case of brethren in
the Provinces, half goes to the Grand Lodge and the other half to the
Provincial Grand Lodge; overseas brethren are not called upon for
contributions. There is also an assessment for the Building Fund, and
voluntary contributions are expected for the Million Memorial Fund, for which
nearly $5,000,000 has been raised. With a membership about a sixth of that we
enjoy in the United States, the English brethren have raised nearly $5,000,000
for their Memorial Temple while we in America, with three million Masons, have
not yet succeeded in raising half of that amount for the George Washington
Masonic National Memorial. Perhaps the reason lies in the fact that
Freemasonry in England is primarily that of the Craft and Royal Arch; the
English Fraternity is not burdened with additional degrees, orders or "side
perusal of a list of countries in which English Freemasonry is at work would
be an excellent lesson in geography - Bermuda, Bulawayo, Cape Coast Castle,
Coomassie, Cyprus, Funchal, Fiji, Mashonaland, Madeira, Sierra Leone, Solomon
Islands, Zanzibar - to mention a few spots. "They are rallying points for
Britons," says our gifted author, "and in them men of the same race and tongue
come together for common converse, Masonic, social, and persona], fraternal
and friendly alike. There is no social organization other than Freemasonry
which covers so wide a field, or does so much to preserve touch between
Britons and their fellows in the far parts of the world."
The story of Freemasonry in Ireland and Scotland is also told in a graphic
manner, and the contributions these two Jurisdictions have made to the
development of Freemasonry during two centuries are not slighted. A full
chapter is given to each Grand Lodge.
The chapters devoted to American Freemasonry will be read with particular
interest. We all like to see how others regard us. Brother Robbins is no
superficial observer; he says well, "A Masonic visitor to the Americas, both
North and South, has to avoid judgments formed on first impressions, just as
should all in the reverse direction."
Opening with mention of his visit to the United States in 1924, already
alluded to in an earlier paragraph, Brother Robbins says:
his return [from the visit], he reported through the Grand Master to Grand
Lodge that, in regard to such differences as are plainly visible between the
system of Grand Lodge and Private Lodge government in the United States and
the English Jurisdictions - differences, it is ever to be understood, in
degree but not in doctrine - national characteristic and local circumstances
always and most steadily have to be borne in mind. A marked divergence in
national psychology accounts for the one difference which to the Englishman is
most apparent, and that is that what English Masons present to the mind's eye
is in America represented to the bodily vision. It is impossible openly to say
more; but the manner in which the English Masonic working has developed across
the Atlantic, must impress those Brethren who desire to know what are the
differences in practice, and how and why they arose. When an enquiry of this
kind is undertaken, it must be with the preliminary recognition that American
Masonry is very largely descended from the Antients, and from military Lodges
working under Irish Masonic influences. And it must not be forgotten that,
when the time was considered to have come at the Union for a simplified
assimilation of the two "workings," Britain and the United States were engaged
in a four years' war, which left very rankling feelings behind. Even if
American Freemasons had been likely to adopt the simplified method in happier
times, nothing was less probable in the first quarter of the nineteenth
century than a following of English example.
The study suggested would have fully to realize the temperamental and
psychological differences between the English and the American peoples -
differences more easily observed than accounted for. There are problems which
directly touch American Lodges alone, and those which directly touch only
English Lodges; but, at the most, they are non-essential. It is always to be
remembered that the forty-nine American Grand Jurisdictions are independent of
each other, having no central authority, acting on their own regulations and
by their own methods of government within their several boundaries. As a
consequence, the composition of the various Grand Lodges, the method of
selection of the several Grand Masters, and even the term of service of these
high officers, vary greatly with the Jurisdiction, just as does the working of
the Private or Subordinate Lodges.
Brother Robbins pays just tribute to M. W. Bro. Melvin M. Johnson, Past Grand
Master of Massachusetts, 1914-16, in designating him as a "painstaking,
patient and accurate chronicler," and quotes from his book, The Beginnings of
Freemasonry in America, regarding the introduction of the Fraternity in the
American Colonies. An entire chapter is given to "United States Masonry Before
Independence," with two others following in which the story of American
Freemasonry is ably epitomized. The story is carried down to the present, with
mention made of Massachusetts constituting lodges in China, Canal Zone and
Chile, and New York doing likewise in the Near East and in Finland. He closes
with a reference to the George Washington Masonic National Memorial, saying:
this superb erection American Masons will specially commemorate the First
President who took the oath to the Constitution on a Masonic Bible, and whose
Chair, occupied by him while Master, is regarded by American Masons with the
same reverence as the Germans give to the Master's gavel used by Frederick the
Great as head of the senior Lodge among those which compose the Grand National
Mother Lodge of the Three Globes, most ancient of the traditional three Old
Prussian Grand Lodges with headquarters in Berlin, and having its home on
ground given by Frederick himself.
Our near neighbor, Canada, has also had the benefit of Masonic influence in
its history; the story is told in a chapter devoted to the Dominion. In early
days, there were close relationships between the seaboard towns on the
Atlantic, and the student of Colonial Freemasonry cannot disregard this fact.
Later years saw the same fraternal relationships continue as the Craft
followed the course of empire to the west; today the brethren of Washington
and British Columbia, fronting on the Pacific, cross the invisible boundary
line and unite in the ceremonies of our ancient and honorable Fraternity.
The final chapter is a practical recommendation for still closer union between
English-speaking Masons. The basis is stated in a short sentence: "Reverent
recognition of the Eternal, resolute renouncement of the political - these
are the foundation and corner stones of the Masonic system." Bro. Robbins
presents an ideal we all can cherish; I will close with his own words:
Bound to each other by ties or common origin, identical ideals, and never
broken friendship, English-speaking Freemasonry all the world through could
render inestimable service, not only to the Brotherhood but to mankind, by
more intimacy of association, elevation of idea, and intensity of aim. The
task is worthy the devotion of all, and English-speaking Masons in every clime
should arise to so supreme an occasion. Then even the War which provoked these
thoughts will have had its compensations. Out of the eater will have come
forth meat, and out of the strong will have come forth sweetness. The far
flung battleline will have given place to the faring Brother-line; and severe
though the labour the reward will be sure.
Did a Grateful Republic Intend?
BRO. LEONARD G. COOP, Missouri.
the benefit of those who did not read my articles in the March and April
issues of THE BUILDER, a very brief digest of their contents is here given.
They touched upon the treatment (or more accurately the lack of it) afforded
some of the really disabled veterans of the World War by the Veterans Bureau,
may be instructive.
the March issue the case of a Mason who committed suicide in 1924 was related,
in which the Bureau admits that:
" . .
. the cause of death was directly due to and proximately the result of mental
disease which disability was held as incurred in service. ..."
Although the merits of this most distressing case have been repeatedly brought
to the attention of the Bureau, and in particular to the Director
individually, and in addition discussed in detail last January with Mr. L.B.
Foster, the personal representative of the Director, the Bureau has refused to
grant either compensation or insurance benefits in this case.
filed his claim in February, 1920, and committed suicide in March, 1924.
Quoting from the World War Veterans Act regarding mental diseases, we find,
under Title 11, Section 200:
. that an ex-service man who is shown to haves or, if deceased, to have had,
prior to January 1, 1925, neuropsychiatric diseases - developing a 10 per
centum degree of disability or more - shall be presumed to have acquired his
disability in such service. ..."
Medical evidence in this veteran's folder at the Bureau should prove to any
fair-minded individual, or group of men, that he was suffering from a severe
mental condition practically from the day that he was discharged.
understood that Gen. Frank T. Hines, Director of the Veterans Bureau, is a
Mason and belongs to Temple-Noyes Lodge, No. 32, Washington, D. C., and for a
Mason to permit such rank injustice to another Mason is almost unbelievable.
Masons most emphatically should not receive more consideration than those who
are non-Masons, but does not the denial of even common justice to a brother
Mason emphasize and aggravate the shame of such misuse of what is practically
freely granted that as a rule it is a physical impossibility for the Director
to review all individual claims; anyone who understands Bureau matters will
readily realize this. But this particular case was brought to his personal
attention, not once, but repeatedly, and was, in - addition, fully discussed
with his personal representative, so that there seems to be no possible excuse
for such outrageous injustice.
this claim were an isolated one there might be some conceivable excuse
conceded him, but it is not isolated. The writer has full and complete records
of many more that are fully as distressing and equally without adequate
was no question of any misconduct disease in this claim; and when the full
history is known to any fair-minded man he will be amazed that such injustice
would be tolerated (if not actually authorized), particularly by one Mason
toward another; he is now dead and no longer able to defend his rights.
story of the totally disabled blind veteran (Wm. J. Shackelford) which
appeared in the April issue, was but another illustration of what is going on
widely throughout the country, and again it must be insisted it lies largely
within the hands of the Director of the Veterans Bureau to stop such things,
if he chooses, and when he chooses.
Shackelford crashed, from 900 feet, in an airplane during service, and there
is abundant official record concerning his injuries; but outside of one small
check for back compensation, mailed to him last month, he has never received
any compensation nor any insurance benefits, and is not (at the time this
article is written, April 20, 1930) receiving anything from the Veterans
case is an illustration of multiplied Bureau technicalities and concentrated
rigidity; it is one of the worst cases that has come to the attention of the
writer, and that is saying quite a good deal.
space would permit, it would be interesting to make a full copy of what the
Regional Office Rating Board of the Bureau in St. Louis had to say about this
particular claim in 1928. This Board saw him personally many times, and were
able to confer with the doctors who had made the examination, while all those
at the Central Office who are responsible for the unjust and rank decisions
have never seen nor talked to the veteran.
excerpts from the St. Louis Board's findings, dated November 2, 1928, will be
illuminating. This report first gives a history of injuries in the service as
disclosed by official records, then of the treatment in hospitals, and finally
the relationship between those injuries and the injuries received in an
automobile accident in 1927.
Bureau's own consulting eye specialist, a physician of national reputation,
closes his exhaustive study of the case relative to the injuries to the
veteran's eyes by stating:
. it may be assumed that his airplane crash in 1919 was the etiological factor
in the optic atrophy . . . his present loss of vision even if aggravated by
the automobile accident of 1927 may be properly ascribed to the airplane crash
while in active service in 1919."
Rating Board's decision continues:
" . .
. this Board has made a very careful and painstaking study of all disabilities
. . it impresses us that one thing stands out and that is that this veteran
unquestionably suffered disabilities on his whole right side as well as his
head and eye from the airplane crash - to make a decision that all of his
disabilities existing at the present time are wholly attributable to the
automobile accident is, in our opinion, to shut our eyes to the real facts in
the case.... Dr. 'X' is consulting specialist in this office and is considered
an authority on eye . . . diseases. Much reliance has been placed by this
Board upon the statement and conclusion of Dr. 'X'. . ,"
Rating Board then allowed him service connection on eye, fracture of leg,
crushing of knee, and multiple facial scars, concluding their report by
. the granting of service connection for the above disabilities is an exercise
of our best judgment as to what we believe to be the facts - and reflects the
intention and spirit of the law. . ."
in spite of this decision the veteran is receiving nothing at the present time
from the Veterans Bureau, due to the wonderfully sympathetic and highly
intelligent attitude of those in authority in the Central Office in
express the feelings induced by contact with the victims of such injustice in
any adequate manner, would probably seem to those without such knowledge,
intemperate and exaggerated - it will be better to let the reader make his own
Ordinary publicity is ignored by the Veterans Bureau; and not until some
Senator or Representative demands the names of those who have made an
iniquitous decision, and then insists on their punishment, may the Bureau be
expected to change its hide-bound, red-tape entangled methods of procedure.
have heard much over the radio, and through various forms of publicity, as to
the enormous sums being spent for the relief of the veterans, and apparently
there is much opposition in Congress, at the present time, to bills that would
add many more millions to the present staggering costs.
the proposed new legislation becomes a law, the question is here seriously
raised: What possible good will be accomplished if the director and his
bureaucratic advisors continue to flaunt their power in the faces of the
lawmakers and of the citizens in the manner illustrated in the two claims
digested in the foregoing paragraphs ?
will undoubtedly happen, as has repeatedly occurred in the past, is that new
laws, or the liberalization of old laws, will compel the Bureau to take care
of some of the cases now denied under their maladministration, while it at the
same time opens more widely the gates to thousands of veterans whose present
disabilities are in no way connected with their service.
is every reason to believe that it will still continue to be the policy of the
Bureau to deny as many claims as possible, and I this regardless of merit.
present laws are liberal in their intent and were clearly designed to cover a
large majority of the very claims that are now being denied, but so long as
such men as the director has chosen, either on their own initiative, or by
being forced to make decisions in accord with the director's official wishes,
continue to disregard the existing laws, which are the wishes of the people,
as enunciated by Congress, just so long will we have injustice and privation,
with consequent deaths and suicides. And the Veterans Bureau will continue to
be held in just contempt by all those who know anything of the actual facts.
word regarding the employee of the Bureau at their various Regional Offices.
There are, and have been many times when Regional Rating Boards would have
given justice, if they had so dared, but they must needs follow policies and
precedents as laid down by authorities in Washington; quickly would they lose
their positions if they did not.
following is a verbatim report of the conversation which was held between the
writer and the medical member of one of the Regional Rating Boards in
connection with a case which will soon be tried in a Federal Court for
was such a palpable miscarriage of justice that a special protest was made
against the decision which had been rendered, and this doctor was asked how he
could possibly give such a decision in the light of the evidence in this
disabled veteran's case. His reply was:
representative came from the Central Office while you were away and picked out
a few cases that our Rating Board could not see any way out of giving
compensation and this representative jumped all over us and intimated if we
could not discover a way to deny service connection to appeal the ease on some
minor technicality, and they would take care of it as they had had more
experience in this line."
space would permit, a great many more instances could be cited indicating to
what extreme lengths the Veterans Bureau will go to evade the law, quite
possibly in pursuit of a policy they erroneously believe to be in the
interests of economy, but which in the final analysis will but cost the
government millions of dollars more, and this because new laws will be passed
to endeavor to correct the very conditions now created and maintained by
long-time prevailing Bureau administration.
words at this time, with an illustrative case, in connection with this
Government Insurance, of which we hear so much, and of the wonderful benefits
( ?) that are to be derived by veterans taking out government insurance in
preference to that offered by the old line private companies.
Apparently compensation is considered by the Veterans Bureau as a gift to the
disabled veterans; in reality it should be thought of as an obligation. Suit
in court cannot be brought for payment of compensation, at least there is
hardly any possibility of winning any suit that might be attempted. But
Government Insurance is a contract, it is something that was purchased and
paid for by the veteran, by no flight of imagination may it be held as a gift.
Yet thousands are finding out, to their dismay and sorrow, and disgust, that
it is necessary to bring suit in a Federal Court to force the Bureau to pay
them that to which they are entitled, because they have paid for it.
anyone who has followed any number of these suits, it is plain to be seen that
the disabled veteran is very decidedly at a disadvantage when it comes to a
trial in a Federal Court; it would take too long to prove this statement in
this article, but it can be proved beyond the peradventure of a doubt, and as
a matter of fact is probably readily comprehensible to thinking minds.
many disabled veterans, government insurance is quite probably the only
insurance that he can now secure; and in this particular instance the
government has been liberal in permitting the disabled veteran to acquire or
reinstate a prior policy. However, the collecting of benefits on this policy
(even after it has been issued, and after he has paid premiums for a number of
years) is quite another story. In other words, if insurance has been granted,
and the veteran dies, having carefully kept up his premium payments, then his
beneficiary may not have quite so much trouble in collecting. This, however,
is by no means always certain; in fact in one case that I have in mind the
veteran died within three weeks after discharge, with his policy still in
force, and the beneficiary has not yet been paid, but she has been forced to
start suit for her rights.
main difficulty that the veteran is likely to encounter is, if, and when, he
becomes permanently and totally disabled. It is this outrage against justice
that has caused the large majority of the thousands of suits, all over the
United States, to be filed.
writer can cite several cases where outside insurance companies have been
paying permanent and total benefits for years to veterans who happened to have
been insured in private companies. But these same men have been compelled to
sue the Federal Government for benefits from their government insurance,
although the government claims to be liberal in their decisions in connection
with disabled veterans. This, in reality, has not been demonstrated to be a
Caspar W. Bruns, 32d, of St. Louis, Mo., whose pictures appear with this
article, took out government insurance in April, 1927, and since then has paid
his premiums regularly. He is now suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis,
moderately advanced, active; pulmonary laryngitis, chronic; heart disease, and
also arthritis of the spine.
Quoting from the Bureau's own decision dated Oct. 19, 1928:
view of the fact that this veteran has been hospitalized for a period of one
year and the recommendation of the hospital authorities that he will not reach
a condition of arrest by further hospitalization, he has been rated as allowed
temporary total disability from Sept., 1928, to Sept. 1, 1931, in accordance
with the terms of Section 202 (3)."
effect this means that tile Bureau's own examiners have decided that he has
been totally disabled since Sept., 1927, and will continue to be totally
disabled until Sept., 1931, a period of four years without a break.
would be interesting to place this case before any disinterested reputable
life insurance company to see whether they would have denied the man the
benefits of the insurance he had bought and paid for, when he is in the
condition that is shown by the Bureau's own hospital report.
Demand was made for payments of insurance benefits in February, 1928. The
director denied his request June 27, 1929. Suit was filed August 3, 1929. On
November 5, 1929, the Government asked for another 60 days in which to answer
his petition. January 6, 1930, the government filed a demurrer on an absurd
technicality. The case has been set for trial for May 22, 1930, and if he is
lucky, the suit will be tried on that date.
needless to mention that this veteran must keep up his insurance premiums
during all this time, and as he is utterly unable to work, these premiums must
be taken from the small amount of compensation he now receives.
two years and three months he has been trying to secure that to which he is
justly entitled and may have to wait yet another year before it is finally
you have a concrete illustration of government ideas and methods when you
purchase government insurance; it is something to think over very carefully,
might be well for veterans who are now in good physical condition, and who are
now considering government insurance, to hesitate somewhat before making their
final decision; for Bro. Bruns is but one of many that are having trouble.
are thousands of suits already filed against the government, and undoubtedly
more will follow. Do you desire to have the expense and worry over a suit in a
Federal Court if you too become permanently and totally disabled, or do you
wish to have the thought constantly in your mind that those dependent upon you
may have to wait for years and years before they finally, if ever, get the
benefits for which you paid?
Government has almost unlimited strength and resources, this is unquestioned,
but government officials may use that enormous power to try to make it
impossible for you and your loved ones to secure that which is rightly their
much observation and experience in these government suits, the statement is
made, that, where the suit is based on the benefits from the old War Term
Insurance (carried during service) the Veterans Bureau apparently secretly
hopes and trusts that you will die before your case comes to trial; they know
full well how difficult it is for a deceased veteran's dependents to win a
suit when the veteran himself is not there to tell the truth, the whole truth
and nothing but the truth, about himself.
Disabled veterans are now dying at the rate of ten daily (according to a
recent statement made by the Veterans' Bureau) .
attorneys for the Bureau well understand that if they can secure continuance
after continuance of suits, the law of averages will strongly operate in the
Bureau's favor before the suits do come to be tried, and as strongly operate
against the veteran 's.
think that many of these boys, who in the country's hour of need sacrificed
everything, are now compelled to die knowing that they have not received even
that which the law specifically provides they shall receive and for which they
fully paid, due to an intentional and premeditated delay and procrastination
on the part of those who are government paid to do this work in their behalf.
A delay that it is hard to avoid stigmatizing in the harshest terms, but which
is certainly morally indefensible.
Personally the writer would much rather earn his living working as a day
laborer than receive the pay of the Veterans Bureau, with its easy hours and
substantial vacations, if thereby he would be compelled to be the direct cause
of denying some of the claims with which he is fully acquainted, and for which
he has been working for years.
at this moment there is a disabled veteran who is unquestionably permanently
and totally disabled, who has paid for his government insurance up to date,
and he tells me that he now has nothing to live for anyway, and that the only
way in which he can force the government to grant his insurance benefits will
be by committing suicide. His case has been in court for many months and the
delays have well nigh broken his morale. It will not be at all surprising if
this boy does precisely what he states that he intends to do.
Solemn promises have been made by me to some of these pathetic veterans while
on their death-beds, that I would fight for the rights of their dependents and
loved ones; and so long as I have health and strength and am financially able
to do so, I shall continue to fight the callous incompetency, the unnecessary
red tape, the delay and personal indifference, that abounds in the Veterans
Bureau; particularly the individuals who compose the appeal groups, and others
in authority in the Central Office in Washington.
time is fast coming when the old pension system will be revived, it seems to
be the most probable solution, and if I am not very much mistaken the director
of the Bureau knows this full well.
Meantime Director Gen. Frank T. Hines has it in his power to cause thousands
of cases to be properly rated if he so chooses; likewise he has it in his
power to cause meritorious claims to be denied.
SHALL IT BE!
author hopes that every reader interested in just administration in behalf of
the deserving disabled ax-service man will take the time to write a letter of
protest to his Senator or to his Representative; and that he will also pass
this magazine on to others interested in justice.
Masonic Clubs of the A.E.F. In the Great War The Heather Hill Masonic Club
BRO. CHARLES F. IRWIN, Associate Editor
ONE of the finest organizations within our American Army was the Engineer
Corps. And among its diverse branches were the Railway Units. Of this number
we find the 13th Engineers scattered all over France doing yeoman work in the
way of building and operating the American system of Railways and associating
with the Allied forces in handling their railroad problems.
The personnel that constituted this branch necessarily consisted of highly
trained men in the railroad business of our country and represented every
section of our land. Some of the biggest American Systems have to their credit
an unusually percentage of their employees enrolled on their Honor Flags.
Occasionally you can still discover in their important Depots in the large
cities the huge red banners with the white stars upon them, indicating that
these business organizations have long memories about the deeds their men and
women performed during the crisis that confronted our nation.
The 13th Engineers consisted of men drawn from all parts of the country, with
Chicago men representing quite a large percentage. From the account of this
Club which came to me years ago from several fragmentary accounts we learn
that the Club was born in England. The Regiment was in Camp at Camp Bordon in
that kingdom, when on August 8, 1917, a group of their members, who were
Craftsmen, met and formed their Club. To this Club they gave the name "Heather
Hill" from the adjacent hills covered with the beautiful heather of the
that time they selected as their officers the following:
President - Lieut. George S. Case, Auburn Park Lodge, No. 789, Chicago.
Vice-President - Capt. Thos. P. Horton, Frontier Lodge, No. 45, La Crosse,
Treasurer - Sergt. Maj. J. F. Hays, Owensboro Lodge, No. 30.
Assistant Treasurer - Private Frank Girdiner, Wellington Lodge, No. 160.
Secretary - Sergt. A. G. Wyant, Geary Lodge, No. 139.
have learned that Vice-President Horton and Secretary Wyant are deceased.
From a letter mailed to the Club at Blois and dated as follows:
Postal Sector 215,
Pvt. Waldo E. Oettinger Secy.
Masonic Club, F. &A.M.
AP0 726, AEF
a recent army issue of the army edition of the New York Herald, my attention
was called to the announcement of the existence of your Masonic Club.
There was also a Masonic Club formed in our regiment, having been in existence
Since August 8, 1917. The organization took place on one of the Heather Hills
surrounding Bordon Camp, England. There the club acquired the present name of
the "Heather Hill Masonic Club." We have banded ourselves together to extend
brotherly love of our fraternity, helping the needy and caring for our dead so
far as possible.
the name of our club, as Secretary, I extend you most hearty congratulations,
wishing you success and offering you any assistance and co-operation that we
are in a position to give.
Fraternally, G. M. KING, Secretary,
Co. D, 13th Ang. (Ry.)
come upon evidences of a change in officers within the Club, Brother King
replacing Brother Wyant as Secretary.
When the Club was organized a number of Committees were formed and among them
was one which they called the "Preparation Committee," consisting of Bros. G.
H. King and J. A. Elliott. We do not know for sure just what the duties of
this Committee were, but our-own intimate knowledge of some of the ceremonies
developed in many of the overseas clubs leads us to suspect that these husky
Engineers were abreast of the same. If so, then the way of their initiates was
most strenuous and the sands most hot.
From a copy of the menu and program of one of their banquets which was sent to
me by Bro. Sam. E. Ferguson, of Olathe, Kan., I take the following: The second
of the accompanying illustrations reproduces the first page of the card.
Cakes Chocolate Doughnuts
Music of the 13th Engineers'
Bro. Col. N L. Howard
History or the Club:
Bro. F. G. Taylor
Bro Lt. Col. C. L. Whiting
Bro. Maj. W. C. Arn
Bro. Maj. E. Schultz
Addresses and Presentations
Bro. Lieut. S. S. McConnell
Closing Music: AMERICA
These references to individual brothers rescue from oblivion a very few of the
roster of this Club. We are hoping that some former member of this Club will
read this sketch and mail in to us a copy of the complete roster so that we
may type it and file it with other rosters we are accumulating of various
Masonic Clubs in the A. E. F.
The last page of the card is devoted to a brief sketch of the Club history.
For the benefit of our membership who are accumulating research material we
give it here in full.
HISTORY OF THE CLUB
The Heather Hill Club was founded by a small body of Masons on August 8, 1917,
in Bordon Camp, England. Led by Bro. Perry, one of the most congenial members
of the A.F. & A.M. we ever met, we climbed to the top of a high hill
overlooking our camp and the surrounding country, which is the Historical
Thereafter, being led in prayer by Bro. Perry, under the Blue Canopy of Heaven
and the Ever Watchful Eye of the Supreme Ruler of the Universe, sentinels were
posted and a Lodge of Masons was duly opened.
After due deliberation this Club was formed and, due to the great quantity of
both Scottish and English heather growing on the hill, the beautiful Scottish
Heather was adopted as our Emblem and from it the Club received its name.
The Club has grown from a membership of thirty-two at that time to some three
hundred at present. We have held our meetings under the greatest difficulties
- in the open, under the ground, and often under shell fire and air raids from
our common enemy called the Central Powers.
Never for a moment have we forgotten those Masonic principles taught us in our
early lessons, never tiring and always extending a helping hand to the needy.
Herbert Clark, Printer, 338 rue St. Honore,
There are a few stray indications as to the territory covered by this migrant
Club indicating the duty which carried their regiment from one end of the
battlefront to the other and far back into the intermediate and rear sections
of our A. E. F.
the Report of the Overseas Mission (p. 175) we come upon this: "Proceeding on
April 6th (1919) to Nimes, he (one of the Mission) investigated that leave
area from a Masonic point of view and determined that it would close so
shortly thereafter as to require no service from the Mission. Proceeding to
Marseilles that afternoon, he conferred with Brothers Charles M. Conant, Capt.
A.C. Gilbert, and other brethren regarding the "American Masonic Club" at
Marseilles. The following day he attended a meeting of the A.M.C. at
Marseilles, held in conjunction with the "Heather Hill Masonic Club" of the
13th Eng. (which was about to return home), at the Macaroni Factory in Camp
Covington outside Marseilles, and addressed about 400 brothers."
Another reference to this regiment indicates that it returned to Chicago
intact and was demobilized.
Turning to the minutes of the "Masonic Club, A. P. O. 726," we come upon this
paragraph: "Feb. 5, 1919, a pamphlet was submitted for examination by a
brother present, describing Heather Hill Masonic Club of the 13th Engineers,
who carry a traveling charter (?) granted from the Grand Jurisdiction of North
Dakota; having their first organization on the high hill back of Wennall Downs
Camp, Winchester, England, tyling the lodge, there formed, by sentries and
administering Masonic Rites."
When I came into possession of this reference I wrote immediately to Grand
Secretary W.L. Stoekwell, at Fargo, N. Dak (Oct. 27, 1928) asking his
verification of this story. In reply he informed me that there was a mistake,
since North Dakota had issued but one dispensation for a Field Lodge and that
was to the 165th Infantry.
can conceive of no other explanation than that it may have been the Banquet
folder above referred to and quoted by me. It will be noticed that the
brethren "opened a Lodge." Now we can understand what happened. The brethren
having all proved themselves by showing membership cards in home Lodges
informally constituted themselves a "Lodge" in the same manner as did the
brethren on the Cunarder in August of 1917, and called themselves the "Saxonia
Lodge, No. 1, somewhere at Sea." And as did the brethren in the Punitive
Expedition into Mexico, 1916, who styled themselves the "Sierre Madre Lodge,
have attempted, for a number of years, to obtain responses to letters I have
written to various former members of this Club whose lodge numbers and
locations were known to me. None has ever been returned to me nor have any
is chiefly through the information from Brother Sam E. Ferguson that it has
been possible to furnish the information contained in this sketch. He says:
. . my entire family was engaged. Two boys, Aviators, and a daughter, a Nurse,
with wife and I keeping the home fires burning.
do not know how the menu card came into Bro. Ferguson's hands. We wrote him
for further information but he failed to reply to the letter.
There is scarcely a doubt but some one of our readers will prove to have been
a member of this Club. If so, we urge upon you to send to us your account of
your Club as you remember it, especially telling the various parts of England
and France and possibly Germany, in which your Club functioned. Also, if you
have a copy of Brother Taylor's "History of the Club," which he read at the
January Banquet, we would appreciate the loan of the same that a copy may be
made for our research files.
Also, if any of the brothers (whose names are found in this sketch) comes upon
his name, we trust he will communicate with us so that we may add to the file
further information concerning this Club's history for future use.
THE AMERICAN MASONIC CLUB OF LE MANS, FRANCE IN my series of "American
Masonic Lodges in the World War," I published in the April, 1929, issue of THE
BUILDER, the History of Sea and Field Lodge, No. 3, Le Mans. " This was a
Field Lodge under dispensation of the Grand Lodge of New York. The history of
that Lodge was intimately associated with the Masonic Club which constitutes
the study of this series as denoted above.
have been quite fortunate in establishing for some years a brotherly
relationship to W. Bro. Harry B. Mook of New York City, who was the active
originator of the Club and Lodge at Le Mans, and to him must go the major
credit for the preservation of its records.
From letters and from magazine and newspaper reports of the Club, I have also
obtained material upon which this paper is founded. From a letter to me from
W. Bro. Mook, dated Nov. 2, 1928, I quote the following:
Several months previous to the entry of Masonry into France, a number of
Y.M.C.A. Secretaries being Masons, organized the American Masonic Club and
honored me with the Presidency. Our Club house was situated at 45 rue Chanzy,
quite a pretentious building as you will see by the photograph. The American
Officers and Doughboys joined in large numbers under the same roof, making the
undertaking a financial and social success. Here we billeted both Officers and
Doughboys under the same roof; here they met upon a common level. A request to
the Commanding Officers of the different camps always brought Military Bands,
and Jazz Orchestras from the various Units. The female element was supplied by
girls from the Y.M.C.A., Red Cross, and English W.A.A.Cs.
Here we had weekly and semi-weekly dances. The place was a Source of enjoyment
to all. It was no uncommon sight to see a doughboy tag an officer's partner
and dance with her.
Now let us return to the location of this Club. Le Mans was from the beginning
one of the largest and most active areas of American forces in France during
the war. It is situated in Brittany on the direct route between Brest, Tours,
Paris, St. Nazaire. Through it passed the major part of the American Forces
and within its bounds hundreds of thousands of our troops found shelter and
more or less extended location.
Subsequent to the Armistice Le Mans became what was known as the "Neck of the
Bottle." And at its height of activity held over 300,000 troops at one time.
Over 2,000,000 passed through Le Mans.
All welfare organizations centered their activities in this area. The one
doing the largest work was the Y.M.C.A. The secretaries of this organization
proved to be to an unusually large number members of our Craft. Consequently
there sprang up in the Le Mans area the clubs in which brethren might meet and
hold social intercourse.
From an article entitled " American Masonry in France," contributed by R.W.Bro.
Mook, to the Detroit Masonic News, for January, 1921, he gives the following
account of the inception of the Club:
March, 1919, one of the Y.M.C.A. Secretaries asked me if I thought there were
any Masons around the "Y" headquarters as it would be a good idea to form a
Masonic party and give an evening's entertainment to the Sanitary Corps of the
91st Division (Pacific Coast), every member of which, from the Colonel down,
was a Mason. They were quartered at Le Fertie Bernard, about 50 kilometers
from Le Mans. This division hailed from California we had about 50 Secretaries
around the "Y" Headquarters where we placed a notice on the Bulletin Board,
inviting such of them as were Masons to meet in my office that evening. Thirty
responded. The American Masonic Club was organized and I was honored by being
elected their President. Accompanied by "Y" girl entertainers, we journeyed to
Seton (a short distance beyond LeFertie Benard) where the Sanitary Corps was
encamped, and a place that you might call a "theatre." We gave them the
entertainment, with plenty of "eats" and "smokes." The boys declared it was
the best evening that they had spent during their two years in France.
wish to interpose here that the story of this California Corps is very
fascinating and will be related later in this series. I am in possession of
material furnished to me by the Club Officers of the Corps itself.
Bro. Mook goes on to say:
Upon our return to town, it was decided that we continue as an organization. I
obtained a lease on the house at 45 rue Chanzy, complied with military
courtesy by gaining the consent of our Commanding General, with the hearty
endorsement of his Chief of Staff (neither of whom were Masons), who bade me
"go to it."
From April 1st to August 1st, the Club became the home of our Masonic
Brethren, both officers and enlisted men, in the A. E. F. This club and other
ones furnished the place where the officers and men could meet upon a common
level. Both thoroughly enjoyed it. The Engineer Corps strung electric lights
in our 100 feet of garden I had permission to call upon the regimental bands
at the different camps. Every Wednesday and Saturday nights we gave a dance,
with the bands in the garden and jazz bands in the parlors, which were
spacious and had hardwood Coors. "Y" girls, Red Cross nurses, English girls,
Jewish Welfare girls, all joined, with plenty to eat and smoke. The boys had
the time of their lives, and in many cases it was with regret that they left
for home. They took interest in the place because it was theirs. They paid
five francs (less than $1.00) for life membership.
an article in the American Legion Monthly, published in 1929, a former "Y"
girl, in giving her experiences in France during the war, informs us of having
danced at Le Mans with Gene Tunney, who did not prove as expert a dancer as he
did later as a boxer. She remarks that her feet were in bad condition after
the end of their dance. I do not know that this dance was in the Masonic Club
but it may have been.
Bro. Mook informs us that:
They were billeted in the club, both officers and men, who held the place in
such respect that not one ever crossed the portals under the influence of
liquor. And so were spent four happy months for them and for me.
August 1, 1919, the curtain dropped on our Masonic activities in the Le Mans
region. The boys had all left for home, so we folded our tents and crept away.
I returned on the Northern Pacific.
Having myself returned on the Northern Pacific on this same trip I had the
pleasure of making personal contact with R. W. Bro. Mook and found him to
possess a very winsome personality. To his untiring efforts much of the
Masonic success in the Le Mans area is to be accredited.
Turning to the "Report of the Overseas Mission" we discover, on page 173, the
After a conference at Paris, with Bro. Harry B. Mook, Regional Financial
Director of the A.E.F., Y.M.C.A., in that area, we determined to aid and
sustain an American Masonic Club in that district. This Club was established
with Brother Mook as President, occupying the building at 45 rue Chanzy, the
rent of which the Mission furnished, and its membership approximated 900,
besides which it served a very large number of men, visitors to that area, or
temporarily therein. On April 9, 1919, Brothers Moore, Lay and Goodrich
visited Le Mans, and addressed large gatherings of brethren, besides
performing other important Masonic work.
is from this source then that we learn that the Le Mans Masonic activity was
made possible on a large scale through the practical assistance furnished by
the "Overseas Masonic Mission," which was composed of a group of Prominent New
York Masons, sent to France by a number of the Grand Lodges of our country,
and bearing with them a large sum of money secured from these same Grand
Lodges. Thus the brethren who did not get to France during the war should feel
that they were personally identified in a fine piece of work. This same
Overseas Mission aided many of the Masonic Clubs in the later days of our
location in France in 1919, parts of which story appeared in various articles
of my series in THE BUILDER last year. The full story of this Mission will be
retold in this present series later on
a letter to me, at another time, Bro. Mook says:
had a roster of over 1000. Life membership was bought for five francs. The
Grand Lodge Commission from the Grand Lodge, State of New York, furnished the
funds that helped to get started, but in the main the Club was
have come upon the following in the Masonic Standard, an undated number,
which, from internal evidence, must have been issued late in 1919 or early
1920. It is a report by Bro. Mook upon his return to New York on August 14,
Never was heard an angry tone. All was peace and harmony. Three large
connecting rooms with hardwood, polished floors and a marble-floored foyer.
And all this belonged to the soldier. Did he not pay his five francs to become
a life member? And what he paid for he thoroughly enjoyed. I was Uncle Harry
and Daddy to the finest bunch of boys the sun ever shone on. So were spent
four happy months for them and me.
Some years ago I received a very kindly letter from Dr. T.M. Shortley, who
resides at Tidioute, Penn., in which he enclosed a typewritten copy of his
membership card in the Le Mans Club, which is here given for my reader's
THORNTON M. SHORTLEY is a member of THE AMERICAN MASONIC CLUB of LE MANS,
FRANCE and has paid his admission fee. A. E. TAYLOR, Treasurer.
The only trace we have as yet secured as to the Officers of this Club are as
President - Harry B. Mook, New York. Secretary - H. W. Ross, Kentucky.
Treasurer - A. E. Taylor.
The fund of money remaining after the close of this Club was left on deposit
in France to await the rise in exchange rates. The Club voted that the History
of the Club should be written by Brother Mook and be paid for from this fund.
I have as yet no knowledge as to whether or not Brother Mook has completed
this work but am waiting, with considerable interest, the time when his story
in complete form, with roster attached, shall appear. It will become a very
valuable official document in the accumulating records of our Craftsmanship
activity during the World War. This Club appears on our official Register of
Overseas Masonic Clubs as No. 5.
May I again ask all those who have any information on these Army Clubs to
write to me.
Humber Installed Masters Lodge
BRO. J. G. WALLIS, England
interesting account of one of the most Nourishing and active ret search lodges
in England may serve to show how the Past Masters of a group of lodges can
serve the Craft, making available their knowledge and experience. There is no
reason whatever why there should not be a Past Masters lodge in every city in
those American Jurisdictions which allow dual or plural membership. And where
this is not permitted, Past Masters Associations with the same aims might take
their place. One other prominent research body in England is not a lodge, the
Manchester Association for Masonic Research, and there is also the more
recently formed Mersyside Association. While the membership in these two
bodies is open to Master Masons, there is no reason why there should not be
Past Masters Associations for the same purpose.
Wallis is one of the few surviving founders of the Hall Installed Masters
lodge, and almost the oldest member. He has served as its faithful Secretary
for many years, and also as editor of its proceedings
Humber Installed Masters Lodge No. 2494, meeting on the premises of the Humber
Lodge No. 57, Anne Street, Hull, Yorkshire, was consecrated on February 2,
1894 - being founded for the promotion of Freemasonry in its literary,
archaeological, and philosophical characters; to provide a special Lodge as a
bond of union for Worshipful Brethren who have passed the chair; to undertake
public lectures and discussions for the improvement of the Brethren in Hull
and neighborhood, and generally to endeavor to raise the standard of Masonry,
and to support the principles of the Craft in their highest sense.
Previous to the formation of the Lodge, a Lodge of Instruction for Installed
Masters was formed in 1882 - W. Bro. Dr. Bell in the chair - when the objects
of the Lodge were defined, and a code of By-Laws adopted.
meetings were subsequently held, and the approval and sympathetic co-operation
of prominent Masons obtained, including many Brethren holding high rank in
various districts who promised lectures, and were of valuable assistance. At a
later date it was considered desirable to obtain an established status, and on
October 6, 1893, it was resolved to apply to the Grand Lodge of England for a
Warrant of Constitution for a Lodge to be named the Humber Installed Masters
Lodge; this was accordingly carried into effect, and necessary arrangements
made - the new warrant was obtained and is dated 14th December. A. It. 5893 A.
D. 1893, at London, by Command of H.R.H. the M.W. Grand Master, and numbered
2494; Signed: Mount Edgcumbe, D. G. M. E. Letchworth, G. S.
first W. Master of the newly consecrated Lodge was Bro. M. C. Peck, a Brother
known all over the province of Yorkshire as a most zealous and enthusiastic
Mason. Poor over 40 years he was Prov. G. Secretary in the Province of N. & E.
Yorks, and a Past G. M. Bearer, Eng. He was a most ardent Mason, a model
Secretary and a profound reader of anything pertaining to Masonry, especially
in the literary and Archaeological aspect of the Craft, and the Editor of the
appendix to "Mackey's Lexicon of Freemasonry" brought out in 1883. In his
death Masonry lost one who did much to raise the caliber of the intellectual
and historical side of our Order. In a roll of Past Masters for over
thirty-six years, it is invidious to select any for special reference, the
list being one that any Lodge might justifiably feel proud of. During the
Great War, when Hull suffered so dreadfully from Zeppelin raids, and it was
difficult to keep Lodges working, the Lodge was greatly indebted to the Deputy
Prov. G. Master, Bro. Miles J. Staplyton, for occupying the chair during those
trying years of 1918-19. Other Worshipful Masters have occupied the Civic
Chair as Lord Mayors of the important City of Hull. Others have filled the
leading positions in the medical, legal, architectural, and allied
professions. We must, however, mention our late Bro. G. L. Shackles. The name
of Shackles is well known on both sides of the Atlantic. Past Master of his
Mother Lodge, No. 1511 Hornsea, P.M. of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, and Master
of this Lodge in 1896, he was one of our most zealous and active members. He
was also a leading authority on Masonic medals and jewels, and possessed the
largest collection in the world.
address, Bro. J. H. Payne, P. M., said: "In the passing of our Worshipful
Brother Shackles, Freemasonry has sustained an irreparable loss, while this
Lodge - of which our late Brother was one of the Founders and the oldest
member - deplores the death of one of whom vie justly proud.
"Brother Shackles was a distinguished ornament of the profession to which some
of us have the honor to belong, and his legal Brethren knew and appreciated
his worth. I saw him almost daily for many years, and as I think of him I am
reminded of the words of that eccentric American genius - the poet, Walt
Whitman - who, when dying, was heard to murmur, 'I love God and flowers and
little children.' There could be no moral or spiritual bankruptcy for such a
the days that are to come we shall in imagination look back again down that
great Corridor of Time, wherein the lights and shadows have fallen upon us,
for after all only a few brief moments, for we spend our years as a tale that
is told. As we look back down that Corridor, with its yearning and haunting
memories, recalling some of those friends with whom we have walked and talked
- and as we think of George Lawrence Shackles, the truth of an old saying will
once more be borne home to us - it is this: The memory of the just is
Glancing down the list of Past Masters, we remember with the greatest pleasure
many of its names - Bro. W. N. Cheesman, an active member of the British
Society for the advancement of Science, an author of several papers for this
Society, an authority on "Masons' Marks" and a beautiful exponent of our
ritual. Bro. Corris, "our silver-tongued orator." Bro. J. Wright Mason,
Medical Officer of Health for Hull for forty-four years, and an examiner in
forensic medicine at the Universities of Edinburgh and Aberdeen. "There is
gladness in remembrance," gladness in thinking of the work many did, not only
for the elevation and general welfare of the craft, but comforting the sick,
relieving the distressed, and alleviating the aggregate of misery and woe.
During its history, the Image has had visits from many of the leading authors
and lecturers on Masonic subjects, including Pros. W. J. Hughan, R. F. Gould,
G. W. Speth, T. Inane, J. T. Thorp, and others.
intervals of four or five years the Transactions of the Lodge are published,
Vol. VIII being issued in February, 1930. These volumes are in great request
by Masonic students, the first seven being out of print. Bro. J. G. Wallis, P.
Asst. G. St. B. Eng., who has been Secretary of the Lodge since 1912, and
acted as Editor to all Volumes from the third, can supply a few copies of
Lodge celebrated its Installation on February 7th last, when Bro. T. T. Field
was installed as W. Master, and the evening being made interesting by a
presentation of a silver Tea and Coffee Set to the Asst. Sec. Bro. R. Witty,
the presentation being made by the Dep. P.G. Master. Bro. M.J. Staplyton.
Lodge is in a most prosperous condition, Masonically, financially and
numerically, having the largest number on its roll since its formation.
the Lodge has fulfilled in a large measure the aims and objects of its
founders is evident from the improvement rendered in the ritual among the
various local Iodges in the neighborhood, the greater interest shown in the
literary and historical side of our order, and the readiness of so many of its
members to assist in arranging the syllabus of lectures each session.
MEEKREN, Editor in Charge
OF ASSOCIATE EDITORS
ROBERT I. CLEGG, Illinois
GILBERT W. DAYNES, England
V. DENSLOW, Missouri
GEORGE H. DERN, Utah
CHARLES F. IRWIN, Pennsylvania
JOSEPH E. MORCOMBE, California
ARTHUR C. PARKER, New York
HUGO TATSCH, Iowa
M. WHTED, California
E.W. WILLIAMSON, Nevada
CHANGE OF ADDRESS
request all our readers and correspondents to note that the offices of the
Research Society have been removed to 105 South 9th St., St. Louis, Mo. May we
especially ask the editors of our exchanges to see that the change is made in
their mailing lists as soon as possible.
* * *
EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE AT PHILADELPHIA
the Third Informal Conference of Masonic Librarians and Educators held a year
ago at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, it was tentatively suggested - for, these
Conferences being informal, nothing can be definitely decided as to the future
- that Pennsylvania should call the next one. The hope that these meetings
might be continued has been fulfilled, and the Committee on Library of the
Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania has invited those prominent in Masonic Educational
and Library work to attend the Fourth Informal Conference at Philadelphia, May
8, 9, and 10.
year the program as arranged deals more with Educational work and less with
Libraries than was the case in the preceding years.
C.S. Plumb, Bro. C.C. Hunt, Bro. Silas H. Sllepherd and Bro. W. L. Boyden,
whose names are probably almost household words to readers of THE BUILDER, are
to read papers. Among others on the program, are Bro. H. V. B. Voorhis, who
has contributed some useful articles to THE Builder recently, Dr. J. Austin
Evans, President of the Society for Masonic Research of Toronto, Canada, and
M. W. Bro. Frank S. Moses, who is in charge of the educational work of the
Grand Lodge of Iowa. THE BUILDER will be represented by our associate editor,
Bro. J. Hugo Tatsch.
William Dick, Librarian and Curator of the Library of the Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, will preside, and Dr. Arthur Mather, Grand Secretary of the
Grand Lodge of Missouri, is to reply to the address of greeting and welcome of
the Grand Senior Warden of Pennsylvania, Bro. Otto R. Heiligman.
gatherings have in the previous years been productive of much good. They have
aroused interest, and have stimulated those who have attended them. There is
every prospect of the present Conference being up to the standard of those
held previously, and perhaps even setting a new record. This last is not at
all improbable, for those who have attended all of the former gatherings seem
to agree that each was better than the one before.
the June number we expect to give a full account of the proceedings, as was
done last year.
* * *
FUTURE OF FREEMASONRY
the April number of the Masonic World, Bro. J. E. Morcombe, the editor, has an
arresting article under the title "Freemasonry at the Crossroads." It is one
that should have the widest publicity, for, in spite of the assertions by
those who love to prophesy smooth things, there is a crisis in the affairs of
keynote of the article is given in the first paragraph, in which Bro. Morcombe
quotes a Past Grand Master of California:
expect that Masonry will continue to exist for a long period of time -
forever, as the usual phrase goes. But I am not so sure that it will hold its
present high place in the estimation of men
recalls a dictum of Albert Pike, in reference to a state of affairs somewhat
similar to that with which we are now faced, which existed some years after
the Civil War. He said that "Masonry, by its nature intended to be exclusive,
had become popular."
all know the really extraordinary influx into the Fraternity that began just
after the World War, and which reached its peak in 1921, in which year very
nearly three hundred thousand men became members. The article in THE BUILDER
just a year ago entitled "Where Are We Drifting ?" may be recalled. In the
second of the charts there given the curves of gains and losses indicated that
in a year or two they would meet. This forecast has been fulfilled. In some
Grand Lodges the year 1929 has actually shown a net loss of members, and
others are at a standstill.
condition is not peculiar to the Masonic Fraternity. It is known, and Bro.
Morcombe in his article gives the figures, that other fraternal organizations
are faced with the same conditions, and even more intensely. And not only
fraternal societies, but clubs and churches are feeling the pinch of slackened
interest and loss of members.
Statistics of membership give a somewhat superficial test of an institution's
condition. Members there must be, obviously, but without knowing the quality
little of value can be deduced from the quantity. Masonry has in the past
attained a high reputation in the world, but this reputation was not in the
least founded on the number of men who were Masons, but on their character. It
was because in every community it was observed that many of the best men, the
men most respected, the men most trusted, were of the Craft, that Masonry
gained the reputation it has enjoyed. And reputation cannot long survive the
conditions which give rise to it.
obvious, because it is common human nature, that as soon as any state or
condition is highly esteemed in the community there will be a greatly
increased desire to attain to it. In proportion as a society is highly
esteemed, and membership in it is regarded as a distinction, so will the
number increase of those who desire to join it for the benefits it will bring
them personally. In other words, the more an institution prospers the greater
the number of parasites who seek to attach themselves to it. The condition is
inevitable, human nature being what it is.
those who give who make an institution, whether it is a society, a church, or
a nation. It is those who take without giving who reduce it to weakness. The
parasites can hardly be wholly eliminated, but when their number grows to be
too great the organization, or organism, is weakened, becomes sickly, and may
America have been bitten by the lust for size, for numbers, for wealth.
Freemasonry has in every country and in every period reflected in its own way
the external environment. Some things it yields to, others it opposes, but
whichever it be, it would not so act but for the existing conditions. The
things that are accepted as a matter of course in the environment inevitably
outnumber those which are resisted. That we should be gratified by increase in
our numbers is natural, and such increase is not in itself evil so long as the
level of qualification is maintained. But to maintain the standard means that
increase in numbers must be set on one side as an aim. It is not something to
be sought for, but if it comes, it must come of itself.
an undoubted fact that it has become altogether too easy for men to enter our
lodges. The standard has been lowered; and though in theory any brother may
undertake the task of raising it through the ballot box, in reality he is
helpless. In most lodges it would be impossible, even could he devote his
whole time to it, for a brother personally to satisfy himself of the
qualifications of every applicant. Besides even those who feel the situation
most keenly are necessarily affected by the actual conditions. They inevitably
feel that it is hard to reject a man who is no whit worse than many who are
already in the lodge. The effect is cumulative, and increases in geometrical
proportion. And while it may be true that candidates should not be accepted
for negative reasons, because there appears nothing overt against their being
received, but that there should be something positive, something in their life
and character that fits them for initiation, yet it is most difficult to act
on this principle, for it has come to such a pass that most Masons actively
resent the rejection of any petition they have presented to the lodge and
regard it as a personal injury. For one brother, or even a group, to attempt
to act in this way would mean in most cases a disruption of the harmony of the
lodge. It is a choice of evils.
obvious conditions, that all thinking brethren deplore, do not stand alone,
they are all really symptoms, by-products of the way in which the Craft in
America has developed, incidents of its evolution. It is this that makes it so
difficult to find a remedy. Most expedients that are offered do not touch the
deep-seated root of the evil. Perhaps there is now no cure but the operation
of natural laws. If the represent tendencies continue the Fraternity will lose
its prestige, many will drop out, fewer will seek to join, and finally, it may
be, a fresh start can be made.
we can hardly be satisfied to wait for this process, which may end in death
rather than cure. We must strive as we can to improve matters. There are
thousands of Masons who are Masons in fact as well as in name, and could they
work unitedly much might be accomplished. Much more is being accomplished as a
matter of fact than we know, even as Elijah learned there were men in Israel
who had not bent the knee to Baal. The problem is gradually being realized,
most Grand Lodges are now actively trying to do something to meet it. The
first necessity is to realize that the body is sick, the next to diagnose the
disease. After that there may be some hope of a cure if the right treatment
can be found.
* * *
OBJECTS OF MASONRY
Freemasonry any specific objects? According to some people it has - very
definite ones. Among them we may note the destruction of all religion and
overturning of every government, the establishment of a state of anarchy and
the downfall of civilization and the final triumph of the powers of hell and
the kingdom of Satan. For further details, General Ludendorff, Leo Taxil, Col.
Gustav Wolf, Mrs. Nesta Webster and many others may be referred to. But
setting aside the assertions of our friends the enemy, who may or may not
believe what they say, has Masonry any objective aim or purpose as a reason
for its existence?
of our contemporaries has raised the question and has answered it by saying
that "Freemasonry has always existed for its own sake" and that a man "becomes
a Mason in order to be a Mason."
it is perfectly true that the Fraternity does not exist for the purpose of
furthering any specific cause, whether religious, political or charitable, yet
is it, as an institution, entirely self-centered? It certainly was not
instituted, nor do men become Masons, in order to further the cause of
universal education in a particular country, or universal peace between all
nations or any such aim or purpose; but is it true that it has no interest in
the welfare of humanity That universal benevolence is a characteristic of
every true Mason has always been understood; that a society of men
individually benevolent may not exercise benevolence collectively is
us recall a question that most American Masons will remember ?
you seriously declare . . that you are prompted to solicit the privilege of
Masonry by . . a sincere wish of being serviceable to your fellow creatures?
Consider too the old charge at the closing of the lodge. After rehearsing the
duties and obligations Masons specifically owe to each other it is said:
generous principles are to extend farther. Every human being has a claim upon
your kind offices. "Do good unto all."
by liberal benevolence and diffusive charity; by constancy and fidelity in
your friendships, discovered the beneficial and happy effects of this ancient
and honorable institution.
the instructions given to the Apprentice it is stated that the tenets of a
Mason's profession are brotherly love, relief and truth, and we are told that:
the exercise of brotherly love, we are taught to regard the whole human
species as one family; the high and low, the rich and poor, who as, created by
one Almighty Parent, and inhabitants of the same planet, are to aid, support
and protect each other
statement is remarkable in that it is said that it is by the exercise of
brotherly love that we come to know these things.
the head of relief it is said:
relieve the distressed is a duty incumbent upon all men, but particularly on
Masons, who are linked together by an indissoluble chain of sincere
affections. To soothe the unhappy; to sympathize with their misfortunes; to
compassionate their miseries and to restore peace to their troubled minds, is
the great aim we have in view.
highly probable that many who hear these words assume without much thought
that they apply only within the limits of the Fraternity. But this was not the
original intention. This passage in our Monitors appeared first in Preston's
Illustrations of Masonry in a context which shows conclusively it was intended
as of universal application. Preston says:
bounds of the greatest nation or the most extensive empire cannot circumscribe
the generosity of a liberal mind.... A mutual chain of dependence subsists
throughout the animal creation. All of the human species are, therefore,
proper objects for the exercise of charity.
next section to that in which this appears. is headed "The Discernment
displayed by Masons in the choice of objects of charity," and it contains some
very excellent remarks on the subject of the relief of the poor and needy and
it is concluded thus:
this view of the advantages which result from the practice and profession of
Masonry, every candid and impartial mind must acknowledge its utility and
importance to the state; and surely, if the picture here drawn be just, it
must be no trifling acquisition to any government to have under its
jurisdiction a society of men, who are, not only true patriots and loyal
subjects, but the patrons of science and the friends of mankind.
was the conception of Masonry that was held by the intellectual leaders of the
Craft when our ritual was still in a formative state, and there could be
collected a multitude of instances to show that it was accepted and put into
practice. Not perfectly, not universally, yet there is no doubt that it was
held to be a proper activity for Masons, both individually and collectively.
The idea that Masonic lodges should be restricted to self-centered objects is
of quite recent appearance, and the positive prohibition of external
benevolence is to be found only in the United States, and fortunately, not yet
in very many of our jurisdictions.
study of the ritual will show, once the language used is appreciated in its
full meaning and in all its implications, that a Mason's duty and obligation
is first to those to whom he is bound by natural ties, second to those to whom
he is bound by the voluntary ties of the Fraternity, the duty to whom includes
also all who are united by natural ties to each member, that is those who are
dependent on him; and finally to all mankind.
any one can do to help others is limited, often very limited. But the limits
are set, or should be set, only by external circumstances and not by a
self-centered view. Priority of claims comes properly into effect only when
claims clash. That we are unable to aid a brother because of some material
obstacle is no reason why we should not help our neighbor whose need is at our
man lives to himself alone, and the same is true of institutions To become
self-centred is the beginning of moral deterioration - and on that road
finally lies dissolution and death. It was said once "What shall it profit a
man if he gain the whole world and lose his own soul?" What shall it profit
the Craft if it counts its adherents by millions, and has unlimited wealth and
power, if it has forgotten the law of its being? It may be true that the
average Mason has never thought much of these things, and it may not be his
fault, but it is a condition that should not be acquiesced in, or regarded as
normal and proper. Though in truth the problem of amending it seems almost
hopeless. Probably those who see it had best begin by looking for what needs
to be reformed in themselves. For it is in the practice of moral and social
virtues that we learn.
Chronicle and Comment
Review of Masonry the World Over
Masonic Library of Los Angeles.
the current number of Freemasonry and Eastern Star is a brief report of the
Los Angeles Masonic Library Association. Bro. John W. Crawford was elected
President, and Bro. T. S. Southwick, who has long been librarian, was elected,
or reelected, Secretary-Treasurer.
reported that the demands on the library were greater than ever before. The
library is at the service of all Masons and their families. It is not
official, but is supported voluntarily by the LOB Angeles Lodges. It shows
what may Be done in any center of population by intelligent and enthusiastic
Southwick also announced that a number of purchases of cut-of-print books had
been made advantageously, and that many donations of books had been received.
Incidentally we may note that Bro. E. P. Ramsay no longer has any connection
with Freemasonry and Eastern Star. His retirement from its editorship will be
a real loss lo the Masonic journalism of the United States.
Instruction of Candidates.
William C. Rapp, editor of the Chicago Masonic Chronicler, has made some
pertinent remarks on the above subject in a recent issue of his journal. He
believes in the wisdom of requiring candidates to learn the "Lecture" or
catechism of each degree before he is advanced to a higher one, and observes
that the efficacy of this method of imparting instruction is demonstrated by
the fact "that most Masons are more completely informed concerning matters
touched upon by the catechism than in other aspects of the Masonic system."
might be observed incidentally, that if so much as is required of our
candidates is of proved value, it might be well that the whole lectures be
learned instead of merely the first sections. For as a matter of fact there is
nothing in our esoteric system that is not comprehended in them.
Rapp mentions also a suggestion made some time ago by M. W. Bro. Hohy, when
Grand Master of Ohio, that additional questions might be asked, for example,
on Masonic duties and privileges, and on the elements of the Constitution of
the Grand Lodge and the by-laws of the Lodge. In addition Pro. Rapp suggests
(hardly seriously, though the matter is serious enough) some ironic questions
touching the false impressions so many people have of the benefits of
belonging to the Fraternity. This is certainly a point that needs
consideration. All would-be petitioners should receive some authoritative
information regarding the real nature of the Masonic institution, and what is
expected of every member. It is possible that this might go a long way toward
solving the problem of excluding the unfit.
Masonic Education in Georgia.
the Masonic Messenger for March we learn that the following circular letter
has been sent to the lodges in Georgia, signed by M. W. Bro. Raymund Daniel,
the Chairman of the Board. The circular reads as follows:
will see from the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Georgia of 1929 that Grand
Lodge not only endorsed the Educational program inaugurated in 1929, but made
further plans for its enlargement by creating a BOARD OF GENERAL MASONIC
EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES, the purpose of which is to assist in providing
speakers and programs for Lodges, County and District Conventions. Details are
now being arranged.
fraternally request that you name from the active members of your Lodge a
Committee on Masonic Education, whose duty it shall be to arrange meetings for
pleasure and benefit in your Lodge during the year.
also ask that you appoint a Masonic Home Committee to bring about a greater
interest in our Home and children. This being the twenty-fifth year of their
organization, the Masonic Home is to celebrate its silver anniversary, plans
for which will soon be ready. The Masonic Home Committee can also be of great
service in furthering the interest of the Masonic Messenger.
two Lodge committees mentioned above are committees that were a part of the
educational program of 1929. Won't you be so good as to advise me of the
membership of the two committees as soon as you have appointed them.
time to time it will be the pleasure of the Board to endeavor to be of
assistance to you by bringing certain details to your attention.
assure you of my fraternal love and desire to co-operate with your Lodge for
the advancement of Masonry.
contemporary also states that a questionnaire is being prepared by which it is
hoped to obtain information that may guide the Board in making its plans and
enable it to render assistance where it is needed in the most effective way.
many Grand Lodges are now experimenting with "Education" that it seems as if
there should be some sort of clearing house for the exchange of information on
methods and results. It is not in accord with common sense to attempt things
that have been tried elsewhere without finding out how they have worked.
Though there sometimes appears to be a tendency to undervalue the experience
of other jurisdictions.
Present State of the Craft.
According to M. W. Bro. J. J. Phoenix, in his address to the Grand Lodge of
North Carolina at its last Annual Communication, Masonry is facing a critical
situation throughout the country, as well as specifically in North Carolina.
He stated the chief factors of the problem as he saw them in the three
Loss of interest in meetings and complaint of high cost of Masonry.
Large suspension for non-payment of dues.
Careless methods of subordinate lodge finances and inability to meet Grand
Lodge obligations promptly.
went on to say:
earnestly believe these conditions will continue unless this and other Grand
Bodies make it possible for the Grand Master to maintain close supervision
over the subordinate lodges, . . . No official successfully represents the
Grand Master. The subordinate lodge officer will not accept a substitute for
the Grand Master. The Grand Master should be adequately financed so that he
could devote considerable time to the Grand Lodge work during his term of
office. Frequent visits should be made to the weaker subordinate lodges and
every district meeting taken advantage of. It is in district meetings that
best results are observed. Here the interchange of ideas and discussion of
problems result in renewed interest in Masonic conditions. I have been
impressed with the questions submitted for discussion and the general desire
for more light.
statement that no one can successfully represent the Grand Master sounds
somewhat curious. Most jurisdictions find that Deputy Grand Masters and
District Deputies are able to take the Grand Master's place to very good
advantage. There iB little doubt, however, that the conditions he speaks of do
exist, and it is probable that the Fraternity in the United States as a whole
it in for the period of depression that thinking brethren have long been
Physical Qualifications of Candidates.
well known there are very considerable differences in the regard given to the
supposed landmark that a candidate must be physically perfect. Outside of the
United States little attention is given to this rule, and even within this
country practice varies from an almost fanatical observance of the letter to
the liberal interpretation that if a man is able to comply with the
requirements of the ceremonies, and could give the traditional proofs of his
membership in the Fraternity, he may be accepted.
Square believes that "thinking Masons" are coming to believe that the
"landmark in reference to physical qualifications" should be changed, to
permit "the initiation of one who has been maimed" by dispensation. It justly
are many excellent men in the world who, because of some slight physical
defect, are debarred from receiving the privileges of Masonry. Many of them
would be a credit to the Craft. They would be infinitely better than some of
the moral cripples that every lodge must be on the watch to prevent entering
the tyled limits of the lodge.
it goes on to add that "Freemasonry must grow more and more liberal in its
views," and that it is only a question of time before the change is made.
thing in regard to this subject must have occurred to many "thinking Masons."
Why should the letter of the old operative law that required an apprentice "to
be able of body" or "whole of his limbs as a man ought to be," a perfectly
proper requirement for working Masons, be continued in the Speculative
Fraternity? The lodge, the working tools, and everything else that was
objective, has been transformed into a purely symbolical system, except this
one thing. To be consistent we should interpret this old requirement as
symbolical of moral and spiritual fitness. On the whole it would Seem that
this clinging to the rigid literal interpretation of the old rule is really a
Masonic Research in New Zealand.
last part of the Transactions of the Masters' and Past Masters' Lodge, No.
130, New Zealand, to come to hand contains the inaugural address of W. Bro.
Courtney Mills Suckling, on his installation as Master of the lodge for the
present year. The following paragraphs on the origin and work of this lodge
ale of sufficient general interest to reproduce in full:
founders of this Lodge had two special objects in view, viz., perfection in
ritual work and Masonic research and mutual instruction. The former was early
quietly dropped, and I hope we shad not again venture upon ritual
exemplifications, and the time is all too short to properly carry out our
other design, yet the need is great, and no ordinary Craft Lodge appears to be
able to do much more than a little perfunctory talk (or perhaps argument is
the more correct term) in their meetings for rehearsal.
late Grand Master has brought before the Craft the urgent necessity for
further instruction for the newly raised M. M., and looking back upon my own
experience, I must admit that he has touched upon one of the great weaknesses
of our Order.
Lodge has been striving now for over a quarter of a century to supply
information and instruction to the Master Mason, which he is generally unable
to obtain elsewhere, and, although we have labored under many difficulties
(finance being one), a measure of success has undoubtedly been obtained.
"Still, I regret to have to say that we are not yet receiving that full
support from our Sister Lodges which I think we may be fairly entitled to
claim. It is but a rare occasion for a Master or I.P.M. to seek admission to
our ranks, and yet what a field of' interest, adventure and work is presented
"There is, I understand, no other similar organization in the world that can
claim such an honorable record and, avoiding as it does all subjects of
political and religious differences, it enables men of all ranks to meet upon
a common level. Never was there a greater need for a true spirit of fraternity
amongst all men and a spreading of brotherhood amongst peoples of all nations
curious with what general indifference the intellectual aspects of Masonry are
regarded everywhere in the English speaking Masonic world. The reasons for
this widespread state of affairs seem to call for investigation. This is a
subject that some enterprising brother seeking a new field of research might
well take up.
Utilization of Past Masters.
one of the lodges in Wisconsin a Past Masters' Association
recently been formed, as we learn from the Masonic Tidings of Milwaukee. Such
organizations are not uncommon in other countries, but they do not seem to be
frequently met with in the United States. The objects of the new Association
above referred to are thus set out:
believe that such an association can be of service to the lodge in various
ways, viz.: Instruct the officers in the ritual and floor work. I propose this
year to delegate a number of the younger Past Masters to be present at the
visit of the Grand Lecturer, each one to make mental notes of corrections made
in one particular office, and then to follow this up at some near future date
with the officers of the lodge, each Past Master watching the work of his
particular officer and correcting him when necessary.
also believe that through the association we can pick out a more efficient
team each year for our Past Masters' night than it would be possible for the
Master to do, which has been the practice in the past.
Elsewhere such organizations, though occasionally undertaking instruction in
the letter of the ritual, conceive that their greatest field of usefulness is
in encouraging the study of Masonry in general, which really seems a more
fitting occupation for Past Masters; because, after all, learning the ritual
by heart is only the rudimentary stage of Masonic knowledge.
Officers of Massachusetts and Britain Confer.
Grand Master of Massachusetts, M. W. Bro. Herbert W. Dean, has recently been
in England, and from an interview with him published in the London Freemason,
we learn that an important conference took place between him and Grand
Officers of the Grand Lodge of England, Scotland and Ireland on their
respective policies in regard to China, where each of the four Grand Lodges
have lodges under their jurisdiction. According to American theories of
jurisprudence, China is open territory, there being no Grand Lodge in
existence there, though there are District Grand Lodges in the Far East under
the different British supreme bodies.
Pro. Dean also expressed himself as being in favor of the British system of
many lodges with small membership rather than the large lodges of which so
many exist in this country.
Italian Fascism in America.
January we noted the widely advertised disbanding of the Fascist League in the
face of a threatened inquiry by Congress, and it was suggested that it would
not be surprising if some new organization were formed to take its place.
learn, though not from the daily newspapers, that such an organization has
been formed, under the name of the "Great Federation of Lictors." At its head
we understand is a man who was very active in the Fascist League, and who is
said to be closely connected with the Fascismo of Italy.
recent number of the London Freemason appears a rather amusing story of an
enthusiastic ritualist. For the benefit of American Masons it may be as well
to explain that in England there is no official standard ritual. Each lodge is
autonomous in this matter within certain not too sharply defined limits. There
are a number of "workings," as our English brethren style them, which have a
considerable vogue, while many older lodges jealously guard their own peculiar
brother was visiting a lodge and noted certain features of the work that were
new to him, and afterward he inquired of the Master of the lodge to what
school they pertained. Was it Emulation working? Or Stability? Logic? Oxford?
And to each the answer was negative. "Then what was it?" asked the earnest
inquirer, and the reply was "Intuition."
Perhaps a little more room for intuition, on the part of qualified brethren,
might be a good thing in America.
Proposed Mark Masons Temple in London.
England Mark Masonry is an entirely separate organization from the Royal Arch.
A Master Mason may proceed directly to the latter, while Mark Master is a side
degree. The Grand Lodge of Mark Masons has hitherto leased premises from the
United Grand Lodge, but these had to be relinquished to make way for the
magnificent Peace Memorial Temple that is being erected by the English Craft.
Mark Grand Lodge has, however, secured a site on the other side of Great Queen
Street, opposite to its old premises, and plans have been approved for the
erection of a temple of their own. Lord Aldenham, Deputy Grand Master, stated
at the last Quarterly Meeting of the Grand Mark Lodge that the Provincial
Grand Masters, and the Masters of London Mark Lodges have promised full
support of the project and pledged themselves to assist the "New Premises
Fund" in every way possible.
Prestonian Lecture for 1930.
lecturer chosen for this year was W. Bro. H. T. Cart de Lafontaine, whose name
will be remembered by some of our readers as the author of several articles in
THE Bumps in past years. The lecture was given at a meeting of Quatuor
Coronati Lodge, No. 2076, held in the Albert Hall, London, March 7. The
Pro-Grand Master, Lord Amthill, was present.
According to the London Freemason, Bro. Lafontaine "broke away from whatever
tradition exists in dealing with the origin of the Lecture and with the life
of Preston." His subject was the Seven Liberal Arts and Sciences, which were
apparently treated objectively as well as in connection with the Fellowcraft's
curious, though it has so often happened in regard to endowed foundations,
that Preston's purpose has been entirely ignored in the recent revival of the
Lecture. His intention was to perpetuate and propagate the peculiar system of
catechisms he had compiled. Now no one is entirely certain just what they
were, while the Prestonian Lecturer may select any subject he chooses that is
connected with Masonry.
MASONIC EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES
his address to the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands at its last Annual
Communication, M. W. Bro. Seldon W. O'Brien, the retiring Grand Master, had
something to say upon the pressing subject of Masonic Education. The Cabletow,
Manila, published this part of the address in full, from which we take it with
due acknowledgments. The editor of the Cabletow remarks that if the program
outlined by Bro. O'Brien is carried through in the proper manner that the
Craft will reap incalculable benefit from it. One of the greatest difficulties
that American Masonry has to deal with is the lack of continuity in any
eonstruetive plans owing to the constant changes in the executive officers of
the Fraternity. This affects both the Lodges and the Grand Lodges. Under
existing circumstances continuity can only be attained by putting such
activities in the hands of permanent committees or boards. But this is really
only a makeshift after all. We hope that Bro. O'Brien's successor in office
will carry out the plans here outlined.
way of thinking, one of the greatest problems that confronts Masonry in the
Philippines today is the education of its membership in the history and
philosophy Of Freemasonry. The ideals and principles of this great
institution, which we would implant in the hearts of our brethren and have
them apply in their daily lives are expressed by symbolism. If we hope ever to
weave and build into the character of our members the steadying and balancing
influence of those purifying principles and tenets, and thereby ennoble and
beautify their lives? they must know and comprehend the true meaning of those
symbols. In the ceremonies of our initiation, we do not attempt to do more
than to indicate the pathway to Masonic knowledge, to lay the foundation for
the Masonic edifice. The initiate is left to pursue the journey or complete
the structure for himself through contact with his brethren of the Lodge and
by reading and reflection. The natural result of our initiatory ceremonies, if
correctly and impressively conducted, with a proper understanding of their
meaning, is that the new member is impressed with the seriousness and high
purpose of the Order. He leaves the Lodge Room fired with enthusiasm and eager
to forward its noble objects. He is inspired by a glimpse of the spirit and
meaning of the words of the ritual. But, as the weeks and months pass by, he
receives little or no encouragement in his pursuit of knowledge; his
enthusiasm becomes dulled; his keen interest wanes, and he finally drops into
the easy rut of inactivity and fraternal inertia. It is from this lethargic
attitude that so many of the members of our Lodges need to be aroused. There
is need for reinspection, a rekindling of enthusiasm, a reconstruction to the
principles of Masonry, on the part of many hundreds of our membership. Among
them, there must be a revival of the true Masonic spirit. I believe that the
surest way, although slow and tedious, to accomplish this is through a
definite and concrete program of education in the fundamentals of Freemasonry.
Considerable thought has been given to this subject in the hope that I might
be able to offer you some practical suggestions. It would seem that the only
feasible way for the members of the Craft to obtain the knowledge which they
ought to have of what Masonry is, its history, its philosophy, and its
symbolism, is through their own well-directed individual efforts. They must be
caused to educate themselves in the possibilities of the Order, inspired by
the knowledge of what others are doing, what can be done, and what must be
done to fulfill what we believe to be the noble purposes of the Fraternity. In
order to bring this about, there must be created a self-consciousness on the
part of the leading members of the Order that education is essentially
necessary to the welfare of Freemasonry, and, along with that, some practical
method must be developed to bring to the membership the knowledge which they
should have. This I conceive to be a proper function of the Grand Lodge. The
officers of the subordinate Lodges must be not only good ritualists, but wide
readers and keen students of the inner meaning of the ceremonies which they
perform, so that they may sot the Craft at work under good and wholesome
instruction, and create in them a renewed interest for further light in
Masonry. If they are to possess these qualifications, the most important
requisite is that they be provided with the best Masonic literature in order
to enable them to take the knowledge which has come from highly authenticated
sources and remake It into a form which the average member of the Lodge can
understand and which will give him some enthusiasm for the organization of
which he is a part. With these ideas in mind I would propose, merely as a
basis of our future Masonic educational program, the following:
That the present Special Committee on Masonic Study and Research be abolished,
and that there be created in its stead a permanent Committee on Masonic
Education to assist and cooperate with the officers of the subordinate Lodges
in devising and adopting some practical plan for the education and
enlightenment of our Masonic brethren along the lines herein suggested.
That this Committee make every effort to encourage and stimulate Masonic
research and study on the part of the officers and members of the subordinate
Lodges, and for that purpose, to prepare and furnish to them suitable courses
of study on Masonic subjects, with information as to where the literature on
the various topics mentioned therein may be found, in order to facilitate
That a general Masonic library be established in Manila and maintained by the
Grand Lodge with a suitable and convenient reading room, under the supervision
of the new Committee on Masonic Education, with an ample appropriation for
that purpose and that an effort be made to obtain the co-operation and support
of our constituent Lodges and the York Rite and Scottish Rite Bodies of Manila
at least to the extent of the use of their present libraries in this worthy
That in relation to the general library and under the super" vision of the
same committee, there be established what is known as "Travelling Libraries"
for the use and benefit of our provincial brethren, who will not be able to
avail themselves of the books in the general library.
That the subordinate Lodges be urged to purchase and place in the hands of
each of its candidates a copy of the presentation edition of M. W. Brother
Oliver Day Street's "Symbolism of the Three Degrees". The set consists of
three volumes one for each degree and the volume pertaining to each degree
should be presented to the candidate when he is learning the lecture of that
That for the purpose interest in this educational program, a Prize Essay
Contest be held each year under the supervision of the Past Grand Masters of
this jurisdiction similar to that of the Scottish Rite Bodies in 1925, with
suitable prizes to be awarded to the winners of first and second places in the
* * *
MASONIC EDUCATION IN IDAHO
are indebted to the Idaho Freemasonry for the following report of the
Education Committee of Idaho, which was presented by its Chairman, Bro. Curtis
F. Pike (who is also Grand Secretary) at the last annual communication of the
Grand Lodge. It seems to be of sufficient general interest to reproduce here
problems Of our Idaho lodges today are quite different from those of a
generation ago. Within the memory of men not yet old conditions were much
simpler. Men in those days had leisure evenings, and the lodge room afforded
them a place to spend a pleasant hour. Homes were much more isolated and roads
were of the pioneer type. Having little else to do in the evening, they
enjoyed going to lodge, where besides disposing of their Masonic obligations
they met congenial spirits and talked over the problems of the day with the
came the automobile, good roads, moving pictures, radio, and many other modern
forms of attraction and the old days passed away never to return. Men are no
longer troubled with idle evenings. There are so many things to do and so many
places to go that there are not evenings enough in the week.
order to attend lodge now they must forego some other pleasure or business
engagement. It is more interesting to turn on the radio and listen to the
varied and attractive programs that are offered, or to step into the car and
speed away on a drive to the neighboring town.
no longer need to go to lodge for a diversion. Those who go now must do so for
a more substantial reason. It must be more because of loyalty to the lodge,
love of Masonic principles and teachings, or because of a deeper faith in the
fundamentals of the fraternity. These are new conditions and it can readily be
seen that the problem of lodge attendance assumes greater importance.
However, there was probably never a time when the stabilizing influence of
Masonry was needed more than at the present. Under the swiftly changing
standards of modern life it seems all the more necessary that the fundamental
principles of correct living as taught by the Masonic fraternity should be
kept constantly before our members. The subject of Masonic education assumes
more importance rather than otherwise as other conditions change.
Educational Committee has nothing of a striking or unusual nature to report.
The cause of education does not lend itself to the dramatic. Education is a
growth, and growth is seldom rapid or dramatic. It has been a year of
painstaking work along lines followed for several years past. The chairman of
the committee and the nine district deputies have followed up the work mapped
out in previous years. We are pleased to be able to report that some progress
has been made and that the fraternity generally is in a fairly healthful
have written a number of circular letters to the lodges giving suggestions and
instructions on educational matters. Our monitor contains no form of ceremony
for the reception of the Grand Master and other Grand Lodge officers.
Consequently there was always much confusion and dissimilarity in the way it
was done in different lodges, and often embarrassment to the Master and other
officers To remedy this condition we prepared a leaflet setting forth the
proper form. This was approved by the Grand Master and furnished to the
lodges. The results were noticeable and very beneficial.. Having seen it in
operation, however, we are of the opinion that still further improvement is
assist the lodges in building up their lodge libraries, as well as to give
individual readers and students the proper information we prepared a short
book catalog of a few of the leading and most worthwhile Masonic books to be
had at the present time, giving the list of books and a brief description of
each, the price of each, names of publishers, etc. I note as we go about among
the lodges that they are taking advantage of the information furnished and are
buying and reading more than was formerly the case. · A small Masonic library
is a necessity if educational work is to be carried on.
have written many letters giving suggestions to individual lodge officers and
committees. We have spent more time in the field than has been done in any one
year before. We have corresponded with educational committees in other states
and secured their plans. We have not as yet prepared any uniform course for
their own lodges, but suggestions have been furnished leaving the choice of
work tot he initiative of each local committees or Master. We have felt the
great work for this committee is to stimulate a desire for "Masonic Light" and
to direct the work in general, leaving details of method to local authorities.
a number of lodges have formed themselves into study clubs. Special meetings
are called once a month at which matters of' Masonic knowledge are presented
for instruction. These study programs are generally found helpful. Young
Masons are taught the meaning of Freemasonry and their interest has been
aroused. Masters often find these educational programs of assistance in adding
to the life and interest of the lodge, helping to maintain attendance as well
as enlightening the members and giving them a more intelligent understanding
of what the Masonic life should be.
almost every community there are men capable of' giving instructive talks on
Masonic subjects. We would strongly urge lodge officers and educational
committees to take advantage of this situation, and invite capable men to
prepare themselves on certain selected subjects and present them to the lodge.
During the past year the Grand Master and I have listened to many
presentations that could with profit be passed around among the lodges in the
community. When a member prepares himself on his subject and gives a valuable
presentation, it is a waste of talent to drop the matter without passing it to
progress has been made within the past few years throughout Masonic circles
everywhere toward preparing materials for Masonic study. Many of the large
Grand Lodges have committees preparing leaflets and addresses and complete
courses of study. More Masonic books have been written during the past fifteen
years than in all the years before - books of a high type of literature.
Material is to be had in great abundance from various sources. It is our hope
that another year the Committee may be able to systematize the work somewhat
more than has been done in the past, by furnishing a more definite and
detailed program so that the committees may more nearly follow the same
several years' service on the Committee we are thoroughly convinced of the
advisability and necessity of continuing work of this nature. It remains the
greatest problem facing the fraternity.
year $500 were appropriated for the use of the committee, including not to
exceed $200 for office assistance. $315.36 have been expended for traveling
expenses; $150 for office assistance; and $17.25 for printing, or a total of
$482.61 - leaving an unexpended balance of $17.39.
desire to further supplement our report by calling on several representatives
of lodges to report informally to the Grand Lodge on the problems and success
of their work in their lodges in presenting educational work.
Curtis F. Pike,
Chairman of Committee.
* * *
PRAGUE SUMMER SCHOOL. 1930.
have been requested to publish the following information regarding this
school, which, while having no special Masonic connections except the fact
that we are informed that many of those connected with its organizations are
members of the Craft, notably Eduard Benes, Minister for Foreign Affairs. Bro.
Roucek, several of whose articles have recently appeared in THE BUILDER, is to
be one of the lecturers.
invitation to American tourists to attend the school is given by the American
Educational Committee. The objects of the school are thus stated:
aim of these courses, both of which have the same programme of lectures, is to
give an outline of Central European, particularly Czechoslovak, civilization
for those English-speaking travelers who wish to gain a clear knowledge of the
actual civilization of Central Europe.
Thousands of tourists travel through Prague, the capital of Czechoslovakia,
during the summer months from Germany to the south, and thousands of visitors
go to Carlsbad (Karlovy Vary), Marienbad (Mariansko Laxno), Jachymov (Joachimstal),
Plstany, and other famous spas and watering-places of Czeehoslovakia. Guides
and handbooks give them a certain amount of information regarding the
civilization of the country, but ignorance of the Czech and German languages
hinder them from comprehending the spiritual life of Central Europe, and
especially Czechoslovakia. Combine your journey to Prague, or your stay in
Carlsbad (or even Marienbad and Jachymov) with attendance of the lectures
given by experts, and the excursions conducted by English-speaking guides to
the castles and charming medieval towns of Czechoslovakia.
of our readers who expect to be travelling in Europe this summer might be well
advised to obtain further information about the school, which may be done by
writing to Clarence A. Manning, Columbia University, 61 East 25th
St., New York.
books reviewed in these pages can be procured through the Book Department of
the N.M.R.S. at the prices given, which include postage, except when otherwise
stated. These prices are subject (as a matter of precaution) to change without
notice; though occasion for this will very seldom arise. It may happen, where
books are privately printed, that there is no supply available, but some
indication of this will be given in the review. The Book Department is
equipped to procure any books in print on and subject, and will make inquiries
for second-hand works and books out of print.
MISSOURI FRONTIER LODGE. By Ray V. Denslow. Published by the Masonic Service
Association of Missouri, 1929, 92 pages. Index.
little publication is a collection of Masonic documents, woven together by the
author. The story covers the history of "Franklin Union Lodge, No. 7," at Old
Franklin, Missouri, between 1822 and 1832. The volume will be of interest to
historically minded Masons, and to the American historian Or social conditions
of the frontier. At the time of its organization the Lodge was the most
westerly of Lodges in the United States, and among the names on its roster may
be found those of the leading citizens of a century ago. The Lodge had
evidently many troubles. The prohibitionist will point with interest to the
record that the evil of strong drink found its way into the Lodge and was one
of the causes, together with its accompanying trials, of the downfall of the
dramatic incidents suggest a comparison between their and our present-day
Masonic doctrines. The Lodge felt that any quarrel or business disagreement
needed the intervention of the Lodge. We try to keep "business and polities"
out of our Lodges. J.S.R.
* * *
KATALOG DER BIBLIOTHEK DER LOGE MINERVA ZU DEN DREI PALMEN, LEIPZIG. BY Karl
Markert. Part 1. Leipzig, Germany. RM2.75 ($0.70).
American Mason who does not have contact with the Craft in Great Britain and
continental Europe by means of membership in various research lodges and
associations, correspondence with overseas brethren, or as a reader of foreign
periodicals, misses many of the delights which Freemasonry holds for its
students. His views cannot help but be more or less provincial if his
knowledge of Freemasonry is restricted to his own Jurisdiction, or his own
country. It may come as a surprise to such a Mason to learn that the craft in
foreign lands functions in ways different than his own, and that there is a
past and present spirit to the Fraternity which can only be understood by a
knowledge of its history and literature.
brief introduction to the bibliography of Freemasonry appeared in The BUILDER
for August, 1923, pages 250-51, in which the colossal Wolfstieg Bibliographie
der freimauerischen Literatur was reviewed; another account of the same work,
with the story of the Beyer and Quint supplements, was given in the Iowa Grand
Lodge Bulletin, January, 1928, pages 435-37 Both are from the present
reviewer's pen. Each review gives the essential facts regarding the principal
foreign catalogues; we have nothing in the English language which approaches
the Wolfstieg-Beyer-Quint productions in number Or items, wealth of
description and detailed classification. The two best American lists are the
Catalogue of the Masonic Library . . . belonging to Samuel C. Lawrence
[Boston, 1891], and the 1873 and 1884 catalogues of the Iowa Masonic Library,
Cedar Rapids, Iowa. The Grand Lodge of Iowa in 1925 authorized a Parvin
Memorial Catalogue of the Iowa Masonic Library, but no funds were appropriated
until 1929 for this purpose - and then only an amount quite insufficient for
the work in hand. Let it be said, however, that the plan is to make an
appropriation yearly until the funds are sufficient to produce the catalogue;
but unless more than the mere title and author of a book is given, the long
awaited production will have no such worth as the European catalogues already
published, or in progress. It is devoutly to be wished that at least the great
rareties which the Iowa Masonic Library possesses will be described in minute
detail, such as can be done in most capable fashion by the skilled and
experienced assistant librarian now working under the direction of Bro. C.C.
Hunt, Grand Secretary and Librarian. My own activities in that great Library
from 1925 to 1929 give me a most intimate knowledge of the treasures to be
this lengthy introduction - which I feel is justified because the present
review covers only one out of twelve parts to be issued within the next two
years or so - we can examine Part I in detail. The pages give promise of a
good sized volume; they measure 11 x 7 1/2, and Part I has sixty-four pages.
There is a frontispiece depicting an interior view of the lodge library, with
books neatly arranged in closed eases. Subscribers to these parts (I state
this for the benefit of the half-dozen leading American Masonic libraries
which have subscribed for the catalogue upon my earnest recommendation ) may
rest assured that there will be a title page and an introduction to the volume
when all parts are completed.
Sixteen pages of the catalogue are devoted to manuscripts alone - and at the
very outset the author states that only a portion of the collection is listed.
Bro. Markert whets one's appetite in the very first sentence, in which he
tells us that among the treasures are manuscripts from the period of the Rite
of Strict Observance, as well as the diaries of Baron von Hund and material
formerly owned by Bro. Johann Georg Eck. Von Hund needs no introduction to the
students of Freemasonry and the older rites; Eck (1746-1808) was an associate
of Von Hund and the sixteenth Master of the Lodge zip den drei Palmed,
Leipzig. The diaries and the Eck material are to be published some time in the
future. Libraries and students take note!
Eck goes the credit for making the first catalogue Of the Lodge; there is a
manuscript with 476 titles listed, compiled in 1806. Others follow - circa
1810, 1839 and 1838-1900. Biographies, histories, manuscript songs and lyric
poetry, occult and mystical papers - these are just a few of the subjects
included in the manuscript collection.
B opens with encyclopedias and dictionaries. Those who fondly imagined that
the Mackey Lexicon (1842) or his Encyclopedia (1874) were the first books of
the kind will be surprised to know that Lenning wrote a three-volume work as
early as 1822; its modern successor is the famous Allgemeines Handbuch der
Freimaurerei [Leipzig, 1900-01]. I do not find Mackey listed, but Waite's
two-volume encyclopedia appears, as does Bro. Merz's Ask Me, Brother!
Tschoudy's L'etoile flamboyante 1766) is the oldest reference work listed;
there are many reissues known to the student.
second section of Part B treats of bibliographies. Here is where the bookworm
can revel! Bro. Silas Shepherd's fine list of 1923 appears, but what treasures
of the eighteenth century and the early nineteenth we find included! One could
write a whole article on them alone. A familiar item is the Barthelmess
catalogue of Pythagoras Lodge No. 1, Brooklyn, N.Y., 10 and 146 pages, printed
Periodicals are numerous. One observes that the Lodge lacks Vol. 32 of Ars
Quatuor Coronatorum, and Vols. 4, 6, 7 and 9 of THE BUILDER. Does any reader
of this review wish to donate these missing volumes to the German Library?
Another treasure is a goodly run of The American Freemason, Storm Lake, edited
by the redoubtable Joseph E. Morcombe. Ah, that was a fearless periodical
and one really representative of the best the American Craft has to offer. But
its worth was recognized by too few, and it went the way of all non-commercial
publications struggling without endowment.
Sometimes Masonic bibliophiles wonder where the good old treasures go. To
begin with, here are two rarefies from England - The Free Mason's Pocket
Companion, (Smith's) editions of 1736 and 1738. The catalogue states that the
1736 is the "eldest Pocket-companion," but there was one earlier, published in
1735. There are German translations of the Pocket Companion of 1738 and 1740
American Masonic libraries which regard lodge notices, lists, etc., of no
account can take a lesson from the Leipzig library, which has preserved, in
235 thick volumes, rosters of lodges on the exchange list, ranging from 1870
to 1930. What a fertile field for the researcher who seeks an answer to the
question, was So-and-So a Freemason? If we had taken the precaution to
preserve the printed lists, etc., of our early American lodges, we might be
able to claim a few more notable Americans as members of the Fraternity.
40 to 64 contain titles of Grand Lodge publications, local lodge histories,
serial works, chrestomathies, addresses, and books on general Masonic topics.
compiler, Bro. Karl Markert, is to be congratulated upon his capable
production. He has set a high standard for those who would bring out similar
works. The part before me is ample assurance that the remaining issues of the
catalogue will be sought after by libraries and collectors. The terms of
subscription are RM 2.75 for each part, equivalent to about seventy cents.
Orders can be placed with Markert and Petters, Publishers, Leipzig, C-1,
Germany. Brethren desiring the catalogue must agree to purchase the entire
work, which is planned to cover twelve parts. J.H.T.
* * *
DIARY OF JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. Edited by Allan Nevins. Published by Longmans,
(Green and Co. Cloth, preface, table of contents, introduction, index, 585
other diary, it is claimed, has touched American life at so many points, or
extended over so great a period - 1794-1845 - as that of John Quincy Adams.
The complete diary first appeared as a twelve-volume work; but it has been out
of print for fifty years, and thus the republication of its more outstanding
passages will be welcomed by those of present generations unfamiliar with the
details of a life so greatly devoted to public service. Born in 1767, Adams
was only a lad when in 1778 he accompanied his father to France on a special
mission. Launched on a diplomatic career of his own, he saw service for his
country in Russia, Prussia, Holland, Sweden, France and Great Britain. Later
he became a United States Senator from Massachusetts, then Secretary of State
for eight years, and finally President of the United States, being the only
son of a President to hold the same exalted office as his father.
is tempted to touch upon the details of Adams' public life as he develops
certain aspects in his own observations. Couched in expressive and effective
language, written in a simplicity of verbiage and style, and breathing the
rigid Puritanism which we are so prone to consider an unfailing New England
characteristic, the diary entries grip one, and give us an intimate insight
into the man and his thoughts. We all have our heroes in American history, and
we also have individuals for whom we hold scant regard. Others leave no
impression; Adams was one such in my younger days. In later life, however, I
felt averse to Adams because of his unreasonable opposition to Freemasonry;
yet I confess that this dislike has been tempered by my admiration for the
man's better qualities, his sincerity of purpose and his accomplishments.
my previous reviews of biographies possessing Masonic appeal because the
subjects were members of the Fraternity, or had played a part in Freemasonry's
development, comments must be limited to the sections of Masonic interest. Let
it be stated and emphasized that John Quincy Adams, like his father, John
Adams, was not a Freemason. Both names loom up in Craft history; the father,
because he wrote a letter to the Masons of Massachusetts in which he stated
that he was not a Freemason, but that he held the Fraternity in esteem (this
was in connection with the anti-Masonic developments of 1798 and 1799); the
son, the writer of the Diary under review, because he took a still more
pronounced part in Masonic developments in later years. He became one of the
most bitter and most virulent opponents the American Fraternity has ever had.
Bro. Erik McKinley Eriksson tells the story in his "John Quincy Adams:
Anti-Masonic Letter Writer," originally published in The Iowa Grand Lodge
Bulletin, March, 1926, which article forms a chapter of The Morgan Affair and
Anti-Masonry, written by him and the reviewer, and now awaits publication in
book form. Briefly, Adams admits in a letter written in 1832 that he had
little knowledge of Freemasonry until the "murder of Morgan," and had been
only "an occasional witness of its childish pageantry and the mock solemnity
of its processions."
editor of the present Diary omits the first Anti-Masonic reference penned by
Adams, but it appeared October 25, 1827, in which he mentions a letter
received from A. H. Tracy, and to which he authorized a reply that "I am not,
and never was, a Freemason." Additional sentences under the same date show
that he accepted the current Anti-Masonic propaganda without question, and
displayed a credulity which should have been foreign to an experienced
politician like himself.
there are enough Anti-Masonic references in the new publication to warrant the
purchase of the book by the serious Masonic student and by Masonic libraries.
Andrew Jackson, Past Grand Master of Tennessee when he was President, is
referred to in no complimentary terms, when appointments "are conferred upon
the vilest purveyors of slander during the electioneering campaign, and an
excessive disproportion of places is given to editors of foulest presses. Very
reputable appointments have been made." These appointments, and their
corolIaries of removals (which I touched upon in the review of Andrew Jackson:
The Gentle Savage, in THE BUILDER for....... ......), are mentioned frequently
by Adams. Thomas Hart Benton is referred to as "a liar of magnitude beyond the
reach of Ferdinand Mendez Pinto."
cannot mention all of the Anti-Masonic references, but one or two are worthy
of emphasis. Under date of February 28, 1834, Adams writes:
Edward Everett brought me a letter from Caleb Cushing, a Royal Arch Mason, and
member of the Massachusetts legislature, to Mr. Webster. This gentleman had
written to enquire what was the reason of their delay upon the resolutions
respecting the distress and removal of deposits and recharter of the Bank of
the United States.
Cushing answers, bitterly complaining that all are paralyzed by the
Anti-Masons, who upon all occasions vote with the Jackson party, and enquired
if I could not do something to heal this breach. I said that I had done
everything in my power, and if anything had been done to conciliate the
Anti-Masons they would have met every advance in the same spirit. * * *
a strange state of affairs - the Anti-Masons supporting the Masonic President!
month later this interesting record appears, March 27th:
seven in the evening I attended the meeting of the Anti-Masonic members of the
House of Representatives.... The occasion of the meeting was the presence of'
Mr. Granger, of New York, in the city; and he was present at the meeting.
Nothing special was proposed, but Mr. Granger was requested to give a
statement of the condition of Anti-Masonry in the State of New York, and
especially in that part of it where he resides. He said that in all the
western counties of New York Masonry was extinct; the lodges and chapters were
all abandoned, and almost all of them formally dissolved; that the spirit of
Anti-Masonry had consequently subsided - there was no adversary left to
contend with, and as a distinctive party there could scarcely be said to be
any Anti-Masonry left. If the Freemasons should attempt to revive their
institutions in those counties, he had no doubt the Anti-Masonic spirit would
instantly revive with as much zeal and ardor as it had ever manifested.
Freemasonry did revive in due course of time, and grew steadily in spite of
the opposition which lurked for many years in certain parts Or the country. As
is known to students of Masonic history, Anti-Masonry flourished longest in
the western part of Pennsylvania; hence the following entry of January 17,
1836, is of interest to us:
writing an answer to a letter from Thaddeus Stevens, a member of the
Pennsylvania Legislature, in which he asked my opinion of General William H.
Harrison's Anti-Masonry. Stevens is the great Anti-Masonic leader in
Pennsylvania at this time; he is also a partisan of Mr. Webster succession to
the Presidency. He had a correspondence with Harrison upon Masonry, and was
not satisfied with his answers.
Masonic reader, who will go through the Diary for Masonic references, will
stop often and long upon other passages, for they are interest compelling in
their subject and treatment. They shed light on many phases of American
history, and bring out as commonplaces of the time a number of topics which
were destined to become important in the story of the American nation.
occasional footnote throughout the book illuminates certain entries to the
delectation of the reader, making him wish there were more. But I suspect the
editor omitted many that he had prepared, for if he had yielded to such an
indulgence, tempting as it must have been in view of the fine selections made,
one probably could not have found the text of the Dorm because of the
explanatory notes. The Diary is such an excellent cross section of American
history and polities that a commentary upon it would necessarily be a most
voluminous work, and entirely beyond the scope of the editor's purpose.
know I voice the sentiment of others who have examined the book that the
reader will return to the volume again and again because of the fascination it
holds for brethren interested in the story of the American Craft and that of
the American nation. J. H. T.
* * *
SOCIAL DESTINY, IN THE LIGHT OF SCIENCE. By Charles A. Ellwood, Ph.D., LL.D.,
Published by the Cokesbury Press, Nashville, Penn. 219 pages. Price, $2.15.
period of the man's history has there been so much progress in practically all
lines of scientific research and discoveries as in the last past hundred years
or so. Whether it be biology, zoology, botany, chemistry, physics, geology, or
archaelogy, science has affected our modes of living and our ideas. Whether it
has made life more miserable or pleasurable to the average man, is very hard
to say. One of the greatest difficulties in estimating culture or civilization
is the fact that we always credit it with the good qualities common to all
cultures. Furthermore, it is only natural that we are very much satisfied with
it because it so clearly works. But it must be remembered that every
civilization and culture has worked; to say that it works is the only other
way of saying that it is here.
patted ourselves on our back until the World War brought us a sudden and
unpleasant realization that something was wrong with that system of ours. When
it was all over, we realized that the world had a very severe headache, from
the effects of which it has not yet recovered. The simple answer lies in the
feet that we are very slow in opening our mind and in modifying our opinions
and theories in accordance with the observed facts. The scientist gave us this
marvellous scientific civilization. He outstripped the rest of the world in
the power, vigor and keenness of his thought. He is able to set aside his
prejudices, open his mind, and make a nice bonfire out of the rubbish that
cannot be used any more. Mr. Ford, for example, changed his "flivver"
overnight, so to speak, and substituted his methods and the factory system
with machinery standing the test of the time. However, we cling religiously to
our idea" concerning man's relation to man.
Hence, there has developed a tremendous gap between "science" and so-called
"social science." Men are interested today in material culture and pecuniary
gain. It is only natural, therefore, that such men also object to the social
scientist who dares to examine our social structure and who discovers defects
in contemporary economic and social institutions. It takes a certain amount of
courage to do so, because such a social physician opposes the strongest groups
of our civilization, which are also the pillars of our society.
Whether or not anyone wants to admit that we have a headache, there have
appeared recently numerous scholars and men of imagination, who try to
diagnose the ailment. Whether they can prescribe some kind of aspirin or other
cure-all is questionable. But even the most casual inquiry impresses us with
the names of those who see the working of civilization in retrospect and ask
whether all this is worth the trouble, and, if it is, what does trouble imply.
The popularity of Dr. Beard's work, Whither Mankind, suggests that his effect
is supported by other classes of thinkers. R. B. Fosdick's brilliant addresses
and publications brought him a certain amount of popularity. We all know the
following authorities: Ghandi, Tagore, Hu Shih, Ferrero, Croce, Spengler,
Keyserling, Fabre-Luee, Wells, Barnes, Belloe, Shaw, Inge, Trotzky, etc.
true that some of these authors capitalized on their gloomy conclusions and
made money by lecturing on the topic to our American women's clubs, and other
American audiences, who simply "eat up" the criticism of visiting foreign
lecturers. But they performed one service for us at least; they called our
attention to the problem which is being attacked by some outstanding American
scholars at home. Bro. Ellwood belongs to that group.
Ellwood's book is undoubtedly one of the most brilliant contributions to the
subject that has yet appeared. The more so because his academic training and
profession did not hinder his writing in a style which is eminently readable
and enjoyable. The author's name is known to us as one of the names in
occasion for this work was the invitation of the Faculty of the Vanderbilt
University School of Religion to Dr. Charles A. Ellwood to deliver the Cole
Lectures for 1929.
author became known outside academic circles about a generation ago, when he
challenged the facile optimism prevailing at that time. He has now reversed
his attitude and in a time of widespread pessimism he comes with this book. He
treats the whole field of human endeavor in a remarkable set of
generalizations, and pays special attention to the fields concerning social
sciences in their relation to physical science. He is mainly concerned with
the problem of Government and democracy as well as with the future of
education and the future of religion.
whole book is permeated with Masonic philosophy. Anybody acquainted with our
Masonic problems, whether a member or not, will realize that the lectures were
delivered by a scholar as well as by a Mason. Note the following statement:
the sense of tested knowledge, science may be compared to light in the
physical world. It illuminates all objects and shows the path of safety as
well as dangers. It enables us, therefore, to descry practical values. While
it cannot furnish us with motives, it may modify our motives. It can even
indicate to us possible consequences, and so in part reveal the future. It
may, therefore, reveal to us responsibilities and become a basis for our faith
and hopes as well as for our fears.
Translate the statement into Masonic phraseology and you will find one of the
foundations of our Masonic teachings.
thesis on which Bro. Ellwood builds his book can be found, in general, in my
previous discussion. To be more specific, let me quote him directly:
civilization is imperiled today simply because it is ill-balanced. Our
spiritual culture lags so far behind our material culture in its development
that we have no adequate control over the latter.
thesis itself is that of the other writers in the field, especially of Beard,
Fosdick and H. E. Barnes. From that point of view, Bro. Ellwood's treatment
cannot be regarded as wholly original. It is fortunate, however, that he gives
ample references to all necessary authorities, and often picks up the thread
where his predecessors have dropped it. His special contribution is his
discussion of the place of religion in the future development of our
civilization. It is evident that he avoids taking into his consideration other
civilization and cultures, and limits his survey to those that are Christian.
Foreign critics may find fault with him in that respect. The more so because
his assumption is that the Christian civilization is of higher order than all
others. Thus he can be accused of identifying social sciences with
Christianity. "The building of a Christian civilization will be, equally with
the saving of individual souls, the concern of the Church. To challenge this
statement would mean to go into the field of comparative religions and to get
on dangerous ground.
reader is amazed at the accurate generalizations sweeping the book. It
breathes an optimism probably much needed in the present juncture. However,
Just as his optimism is the main point of the strength, it is also the chief
point of weakness in Bro. Ellwood's treatment of his subject. To be fair, one
must state that it is an optimism founded in the future, rather than on the
present state of affairs. In other words, Bro. Ellwood always looks on the
future with bright-colored glasses, without attempting to excuse the points of
weakness of the present.
the weaknesses of our social structure are also the weaknesses of Bro.
Ellwood's treatment. His amazing power of abstract thinking nearly prevents
one from grasping particulars - but when one does, there are numerous
statements with which one can quarrel. I must admit, very frankly, that he is
very hard to pin down. I might also say that such weak points are nearly
always prefaced by "if" and "should." This system, of course, proves again my
point of contention that he is first of all an optimist, and, secondly, if at
all, a diagnostician of the actual facts. For example, we find, on page 120:
"Patriotism should be regarded as a virtue only in so far as it leads to
unselfish service, not simply of one's own state, but of all humanity." (The
italics are mine.) I should like to congratulate Bro. Ellwood on this
statement. But I dare him to propound it in a Fourth of July oration, or
discuss it before some of our patriotic organizations, who even go so far as
to print a blacklist of the type of people, who make statements such as this.
simply could not digest this noble statement of democracy: "Democracies . . .
for their own protection are forced to support systems of education; but they
are not supposed to dictate what opinions shall be taught in the schools, and
again in proportion as they do so they lose their character as democracies."
Again the italics are mine. If we apply our individual American cases, then we
evidently lose entirely the character of democracy according to Bro.
Ellwood. "A free school and freedom of teaching are . . . necessary for a
democracy." But why forget the cases of the Tennessee "Monkey Trial," "Big
Bill" Thompson of Chicago, recent troubles in the University of Missouri,
etc., etc. "Democracies . .. encourage every individual to think and judge for
himself, and they thus free the whole cultural process." There is a whole
school of' scholars who have written libraries opposing this thesis. Let me
mention such problems as the "tyranny of the majority," or the decisions of
democracies made by sentiment or passion instead of by reason and real
interest. Even such friends of democracy as Lord Bryce, H. J. Laski, G. L.
Dickinson, W. Lippmann, and others, emphasize that it is the ignorance and
apathy of those to whom the ultimate power is confined in democracy. Or let us
remind ourselves that if ". . . war is the mother of autocracy," how is it
possible that we fought for "democracy" and out of that terrible struggle came
more established democracies in Central Europe than we ever dreamed of?
Internationalism - on the basis of Christianity - is the final goal of our
education, according to Bro. Ellwood. The reviewer is in perfect accord with
the writer. But objection again must be made to the assumption that "if
patriotism is taught in our schools, it must be taught critically, or
education will foment rather than allay political passions and prejudices."
Personally I should like to mention my experiences as a teacher in American
institutions, and enumerate numerous instances where I was refused a simple
consideration of a teaching position because I could not show the
qualification of 100-percentism, though I am an American citizen, and would
define patriotism as Bro. Ellwood.
Ellwood seems to have sharpened his razor when dealing with Russia. Let me
quote "Russia officially sanctions . . . a system of sex relations lower than
any sanctioned by the lowest African tribe." In the first place, does Bro.
Ellwood know what are the sex relations of the lowest African tribe? What is
the lowest African tribe? He seems to be confusing promiscuous sex relations
with marriage. Assuming, however, that he means the Russian marriage system,
we might ask, how he considers this inferior to our American system, which
allows certain classes of our people to have six or seven divorces - legal
divorces - and which awards sometimes even one million dollars to the
after all, all these objections lose much of their value when we realize that
Bro. Ellwood is careful to put any such statement into the realm of
possibility, in the future. Hence, we may disregard them, and admit that the
book is truly remarkable. It is a pity that a majority of the "democracy,"
which is so admired by Bro. Ellwood, will not read his book, though it
deserves wide publicity. It would be interesting to learn how many copies of
this excellent work will be absorbed by our democracy. That would be probably
the best answer to Bro. Ellwood's optimism. But, whether his optimism is
justified or not, the book is a real contribution to our inquiry as to what
kind of road we are traveling and whether we can improve it and smooth out
some spots in this troublesome journey.
* * *
UNIVERSAL MASONIC LEAGUE.
INCREASING interest accompanies the preparations for the annual meeting of the
League, which is to be held this year at Geneva (Switzerland), August 21 to
24. Since the Congress held at Amsterdam last year a number of national and
local groups have been organized and many new members from all parts of the
world have joined, hence a gathering is foreseen far exceeding in number any
of our previous Congresses.
program will be interesting and varied. The General Meeting will be divided
into two sections in order to facilitate broader and full discussions.
Administrative questions will be disposed of in the opening session so that a
whole afternoon will be kept free for an ample discussion of important Masonic
topics, and Special Committees will deliberate as well. Our Measures of
Defense will form the main subject, and Special Groups for the Youth Problem,
for the advancement of Peace and for Masonic Publishing (Journalists and
Authors) will furnish important debating material.
Congress will open on August 21, with meetings of the Acting Committee and the
General Board. On this day and the following morning the members of the League
will have opportunity to attend to the Congress of the Lufton Associations.
Solemn Opening of the Congress will take place in Victoria Hall on August 22
by the Chairman, Bro. Doctor von Bury, the president of the Swiss National
Group, and will be immediately followed by the first part of the general
assembly. The special groups and committees will take up work in the
the morning of August 23, sessions of the National Groups will be held, and
these will be followed by those of the General Sections, and at noon by the
second part of the General Assembly. The afternoon and evening will be
reserved for a five o'clock tea with the ladies and an excursion on the Lake
Leman by special steamers.
the morning of August 24, one of the Geneva Lodges will hold a Festival
Communication in honor of the Congress, and a banquet for all its members will
close the proceeding.
Organizing Committee is presided over by Bro. E. J. Sallaz.
all information about the Congress, Traveling Arrangements, etc., brethren
should apply to Central Bureau of the Central Masonic League, Bro. Eugen
Lennhoff, Managing Director, Vienna (Austria), I., Kohlmarkt 5, III./8. The
Central Bureau will also furnish any other information desired about the
League, and will receive applications for membership, as only members of the
League are entitled to participate in the Congress.
Universal Masonic League particularly desires that it should be understood
that its principles, actions and aims in no way interfere with the authority
or sphere of action of Grand Lodges. It is an entirely unofficial organization
composed of Master Masons.
the League is working for is individual rapprochement and mutual
understanding, and the establishment of personal friendships among regular
Masons from all over the world, with the view of practically forming The
Chain Embracing the Globe.
PROBLEM OF THE DISABLED VETERAN
have read with great interest the article by Brother Leonard G. Coop, entitled
"The Broken Men of the Great War," which appeared in the March issue of THE
Please accept my congratulations and my personal appreciation for publishing
this very illuminating article.
Brother Coop was formerly a resident of San Diego, and it has been my pleasure
to know him intimately for many years and to have a knowledge of his
activities in connection with the Red Cross and Veterans' Bureau work.
Brother Coop has always been a man of highest character and one in whom every
confidence and trust could be imposed, and I am confident that his statements
in respect to the Veterans' Bureau and the problems of the Disabled Veterans
are exactly as he knows them to be. I hope you will find it possible to give
Brother Coop consideration in your future issues, as I feel that the work
which he is doing should have the backing and support of every right thinking
thank you again for Brother Coop's article, and express the hope that he may
have the continued support of your excellent publication.
recently I read an article in the official journal of the National Masonic
Research Society concerning the disabled ex-soldiers. I believe such articles
are very worth while, and that the public should be informed through articles
similar to this, as to the actual conditions of disabled men of the World War.
Far too many people think a generous government is caring for its disabled
adequately. The situation is certainly full of many complexities.
article by Leonard G. Coop in the March issue is good. Hope there will be more
articles in coming issues, helping to stimulate interest in the disabled men
of the War.
disabled myself, and compensated, I am anxious that everything possible be
done to help those who are not compensated, and want you to know that I was
pleased to read the clear cut case set forth in the March issue.
DuPont Chapter, No. 78, National Sojourners, looks with favor upon the
publicity you are giving to the relief of World War Veterans, in the article,
"The Broken Men of the Great War," written by Brother Leonard G. Coop in the
March number of THE BUILDER. I have also expressed my personal opinion on such
publicity in a personal letter mailed to you today. Apparently Bro. Coop has
the facts, and it is good for the brothers of the great Masonic Fraternity to
know of the condition that exists.
VICTOR E. DEVETREAUX,
Second Lieut., Eng. Res., Secretary, DuPont Chapter, No. 78.
the personal letter above referred to, Bro. Devereaux expressed himself, in
part, as follows:
sincerely believe that such article, based on facts that Bro. Coop must have
in his possession, can only do good. Now twelve Years after the war, it is
time that our great government give full and complete justice to the men who
gave their all that this Nation might live. There should be more articles of
this nature published, in my opinion, by men who have the facts."
finished reading a copy of your magazine and was specially interested in the
article by Bro. Leonard G. Coop, of Missouri, "The Broken Men of the Great
are to be commended on this, as everybody feels that the public should know
about the treatment the ex-soldiers are getting.
and Mrs. E.E.C. Missouri
article by Bro. L.G. Coop in the March, 1930,, issue of THE BUILDER is a clear
and concise statement of facts which the general public are ignorant of.
writer knows Bro. Coop personally and also knows of a number of eases where
Bro. Coop has aided a deserving ex-service man who has been denied aid by the
Veterans' Bureau through red tape or some petty distinction of Veteran Bureau
feel safe in saying that sixty per cent of the ex-service men of this country
are ignorant of the benefits due them. The writer was helped by Bro. Coop in
the past and knows that his efforts are untiring when any deserving ease is
brought to his attention.
believe that more of these articles will give enlightenment to the Craft and
be of benefit to a "forgotten legion."
* * *
OR TRIPLE TAU?
you please give me the meaning of "Templum Hierosolymae," which is, I am told,
Dunkerley's explanation of the Triple Tau Cross (being "T" over "H" according
can you recommend to me a book treating on the various emblems, hieroglyphical
designs or characters, foreign language letters and initials, etc., having or
claimed to have, any connection with Masonry, and which is well illustrated. I
am a Royal Arch Mason, Scottish Rite Mason and a Shriner, so that anything
that is written from the viewpoint of any of those bodies would be
Hierosolymae" is the Latin form of Temple of Jerusalem. In Latin "Hi" is
roughly equivalent to sound to our "J" and, of course, our word Temple is
simply the Latin "Templum" with a change of the ending. There is little doubt
that the monogram "TH" originally referred to the Temple of' Jerusalem and was
only later given a mystical interpretation. We are afraid that there is no
such book as you desire yet in existence. The only thing that would partly
cover your need would be Mackey's Encyclopaedia. We understand that a new
edition has just been published and possibly this would be even better than
the old. However, you will find a great deal of information along these lines
in any one of the different editions.
* * *
discussion has arisen as to the proper pronunciation of a certain word
occurring in our ritual and I am referring the question to you. I refer to the
word meaning to conceal or hide and which, I believe, is correctly spelled
"here" though Mackey - in the one volume edition of the Encyclopaedia - spells
it "hale." From this author I would infer that the word should be pronounced
as though spelled "Hale" or "hail" and until recently I have always heard it
so pronounced. However, Webster's International Dictionary, and also the
Standard Dictionary, give the pronunciation as though it were spelled "heel."
The Little Masonic Dictionary by Boyden contained in the Dollar Masonic
Library confuses the question by uniting the three words "hail," "hale" and
"here" and stating that they are "used in two senses - 1. To conceal or hide.
2. To regularize an improperly made Mason or Masonic body." By thus grouping
them I assume that the author intended to imply that they were all pronounced
alike. However, he spoils it all by inserting the second definition which does
not apply to any of the three spellings but rather to the word "heal",
pronounced "heel," meaning to cure.
realize that so far as its ritual is concerned, Masonry is more or less of a
law unto itself and it can pronounce a word contained therein as it sees fit
dictionaries to the contrary notwithstanding.
seem to have a hazy recollection that you gave a discussion of this word in
THE BUILDER at one time, but I have been unable to locate the article.
shall appreciate any help you can give me in this matter either by reference
to THE BUILDER article or by letter or if you prefer through the Question Box.
seems no doubt that in early American rituals this word was pronounced "hail"
or "hale," and whenever it was written was almost invariably spelled as in the
first example. It is probable, too, though more conjectural, that it came to
be generally understood to be the word "hail" in the sense of greeting, or
calling to anyone.
are, in reality, an unusual number of distinct words variously spelled hail,
hale, haill, halle, heill, heal, and other permutations of the possible
letters. Of those still in common use are, hale in the sense of well; heal, to
cure; heel, part Or the foot; hail, frozen rain; hail, to call or greet. Less
common, but by no means obsolete is hale, to drag, draw, or haul, which last
is really only a variant spelling and pronunciation. Also there is the sea
term, "heel," to careen, or turn over, spoken of a vessel. And to this may be
added the gardener's technical term, "to heel in," i. e., to cover the roots
of plants temporarily with earth.
Of these are derivable from the same root. The greeting, Hail, was originally
"be hale" or whole, or well. And heal, to cure, is also the same word
word retained in the Masonic ritual is derived from the Anglo Saxon helan, to
conceal, and that again is supposed to come from an Indo-European (Aryan) root
kel, from which the Latin "conceal" itself is derived by another line of
sounds in English are very uncertain, and there is no doubt that two hundred
years ago educated people in England pronounced many words with a long "a"
that now have a long "e" sound. Conceal was consayl (probably), tea was tay.
In fact, pronunciations supposed now to be Irish brogue were once good English
- when the Irish learned them.
would thus seem that our word might quite properly be pronounced as it used to
be, hale or hail. Only in this case, consistency would demand that we say
also, "concayl" and "revail," so that there is no need to quarrel with those,
who, to mark its derivation and meaning, prefer to spell it "hole," and to
pronounce it according to modern usage. As long as the meaning is made clear
(and whichever way it is pronounced it needs explanation for the average
candidate) there seems to be no question of principle involved. There is no
absolute right and wrong in pronunciation. It is a matter of usage, which is
always changing. Masonry has retained in its formulas many old and obsolete
words and phrases, which should be carefully preserved, as marks of its
antiquity, and which every "Intender" of candidates should be prepared to
explain. To consult any good dictionary will remove most difficulties, in
regard to these unusual words, and for the residue Murray's New English
Dictionary may be consulted. It is to be found in most reference libraries.
* * *
EVENTS IN ITALY
months ago I saw a notice in THE BUILDER of the book by John Bond, entitled
Mussolini: The Wild Man of Europe, which book I have since purchased and read.
events in Italy, as related, concerning Masonry, seem almost unbelievable. I
have talked to a number of Masons about it and they all feel as I do. I would,
therefore, appreciate it very much if you could tell me who John Bond is,
whether he was in a position to get information at first hand, whether the
statements in the chapter on Masonry are true, and how reliable is the book
generally. Any information you can give me on these points will be
Bond is the correspondent in Italy of the Fellowship Forum. Further than this
we have no information concerning him. As there is no doubt that this
connection will lay his work open to suspicion in the minds of many of our
readers, we may say that the substance of his communications to that journal,
and differentiated from his comments and presentation, have been borne out
from other sources of information in all cases where we have been able to
Speaking generally, the account given by Mr. Bond of the career of Mussolini
and the rise of Fascism is much the same as that of many other independent
observers. And in regard to the suppression of Italian Freemasonry and the
persecution of Masons, there is nothing exaggerated or untrue. Incredible as
the relation may seem it is, if anything, an understatement of the facts. The
article translated from the Freimaurer Zeitung of Vienna, which appeared in
THE BUILDER for August and September of 1927 may be referred to in this
* * *
CEREMONIES OF OPENING THE LODGE.
are the ss. of all the first degrees given in the opening of the M. M. lodge ?
is a difficult question to answer for a number of reasons, some of which are
obvious enough. No answer, in any ease, can be more than conjectural in the
present state of our knowledge.
Originally, so far as our information goes, a lodge was regarded as a lodge of
Masons, and not a lodge of Masons of some particular degree; every grade was
supposed to be represented. The first thing done was "to constitute" the
lodge. In this special sense the expression has long been dropped in America,
although it is still retained in English rituals. The ceremony that is there
spoken of as "constituting the lodge," is, however, still retained in America,
even though the term has fallen into disuse, and with this, to a large extent,
the realization also of its being a distinct part of the whole proceeding.
This "constituting" had as its culmination the salutation common to all Masons
as such, what in our present terminology is called the s. Of an E. A., so
termed because it is given in the first degree.
the business of the craft was transacted in the lodge thus constituted and
opened, with the exception only of such matters as pertained specifically to a
higher degree. When such matters required attention, further precautions and
ceremonies were in order. In the Masonry of the British Empire this is often
spoken of as "raising the lodge" to a higher degree. The converse process is
"lowering" it. In these additional ceremonies the form of "constitution" is
not repeated, as it is in this country, for in this respect the rituals of
other countries are much closer to the older usage. An important part of these
additional ceremonies was the salutation proper to the degree to which the
lodge was "raised." It follows that when a M. M. lodge was opened, all these
salutations had been given, and were also given again in reverse order before
the lodge was closed. As we find, generally speaking, that in the development
of Masonic ceremonial there is a powerful tendency always at work to retain as
much as possible of old usage in the newer arrangement, even if its position
and emphasis is quite changed, we may suppose it was at work here also, and,
though in America we now constitute the lodge and open directly in the third
degree, we still as a survival of the past, give the salutations of all three
Another explanation is possible. The procedure can be interpreted as a
symbolic reminder that all present have progressively passed through the three
stages, are possessed of their particular secrets and are bound by their
specific obligations. And, though this is probably only a secondary motive,
yet it may have had considerable effect in the retention and preservation of
* * *
time ago I wrote you asking for information as to the history and meaning of
the shape of our present Masonic apron. I had expected a letter in reply which
would contain one or two paragraphs concerning my inquiry.
may imagine how pleased and how surprised I was when I received the bundle of
clipped articles about this matter. That is SERVICE! I wish to take this
opportunity to thank you for sending me such full information upon this
subject. I read every word of it. I am more or less a tyro in Masonic
scholarship, but I hope that I may learn more and more as the years roll on.
have told several brother Masons here about the fine service which I have
received from you. I also stress the value of THE BUILDER. Such work as you
are doing should prosper, especially among intelligent Masons who are awake to
the wonderful visions of Masonry which Masonic scholars have left us.
C.V., South Dakota