ENCYCLOPEDIA OF
FREEMASONRY
AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES
by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D.

Browse the Encyclopedia by clicking on any of the letters below.

A  |  B  |  C  |  D  |  E  |  F  |  G  |  H  |  I  |  J  |  K  |  L  |  M

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A

In the Accadian, Greek, Etruscan, Pelasgian, Gallic, Samaritan, and Egyptian or Coptic, of nearly the same formation as the English letter. It originally meant with or together, but at present signifies one. In most languages it is the initial letter of the alphabet not so, however, in the Ethiopian, where it is the thirteenth. This familiar first letter of the alphabet comes down to our own modern times from the most remote period recorded of the world's history. The common form of the letter corresponds closely to that in use by the Phoenicians at least ten centuries before the Christian Era, as in fact it does to almost all its descendants. Men of Tyre were Phoenicians, and we may trace the sound of the name they gave this letter by noting the pronunciation of the first letters in the alphabets of the Hebrews and the Grieks who took them from the same source. We derive the word alphabet from the first two Greek letters, and these are akin in their names to the Hebrew Aleph, or Awlef, and Bayth. Sounds of these letters, as in English words, must not be confused with the pronunciation of the names for them. The name of the Hebrew Aleph, signifies ox from the resemblance of the letter to the head and horns of that animal.
The sacred Aleph has the numerical value of one and is made up of two Yodes, one on each side of an inclined bar or Vawv. This combination of characters is said to typify the Trinity in Unity. The Divine name in Hebrew connected with this letter is, A H I H.

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A. A. O. N. M. S.

These letters are the initials of the words Ancient Arabic Order Noblea Mystia Shrine (see shrine).. They may be rearranged to spell out the words A Mason. The claim has been made in all sincerity that this peculiarity was prearranged and is not at all accidental. Such a probability is not as rare as in type as may at first be imagined.

For instance the York Roll No. 1, about 1600 A.D., starts out quaintly with such an endeavor in the form of an anagram, the letters of words or phrases transposed to make different words or phrases, thus:

An Anagraimee upon the name of Masonrie
William Kay to his friend Robert Preston
upon his Art of Masonrie as Followeth :
Much might be said of the O noble Artt
A Craft that'a worth estieming in each part
Sundry Nations Noobles & their Kings also
Oh how they fought its worth to know
Nimrod & Solomon the wisest of all men
Reason saw to love this Science then
Ile say noe more lest by my shallow verses I
Endeavoring to praise should blemish Masonrie.

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AARON

Hebrew, A-har-ohne, a word of doubtful etymology, but generally supposed to signify a mountaineer. Mackenzie says the name means the illuminated. He was the brother of Moses, and the first High Priest under the Mosaic dispensation, whence the priesthood established by that lawgiver is known as the Masonic. He is mentioned in the English lectures of the Second Degree, in reference to a certain sign which is said to have taken its origin from the fact that Aaron and Hur were present on the hill from which Moses surveyed the battle which Joshua was waging with the Amalekites, when these two supported the weary arms of Moses in an upright posture, because upon his uplifted hands the fate of the battle depended (see Exodus xvii, 10-12). Aaron is also referred to in the latter section of the Royal Arch Degree in connection with the memorials that were deposited in the Ark of the Covenant. In the Degree or Grade of Chief of the Tabernacle, which is the Twenty-third of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, the presiding officer represents Aaron, and is styled Most Excellent High Priest. In the Twenty-fourth Degree of the same Rite, or Prince of the Tabernacle, the second officer or Senior Warden also personates Aaron.

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AARON'S BAND

A Degree instituted in 1824, in New York City, mainly for social purposes, and conferred in an independent body. Its ceremonies were similar to those of the Order of High Priesthood, which caused the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the State to take offence, and the small gathering dispersed in 1825.

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AARON'S ROD

The method by which Moses caused a miraculous judgment as to which tribe should be invested with the priesthood, is detailed in the Book of Numbers (chapter xvii). He directed that twelve rods should be laid up in the Holy of Holies of the Tabernacle, one for each tribe; that of Aaron, of course, represented the tribe of Levi. On the next day these rods were brought out and exhibited to the people, and while all the rest remained dry and withered, that of Aaron alone budded and blossomed and yielded fruit. There is no mention in the Pentateuch of this rod having been placed in the ark, but only that it was put before it. But as Saint Paul, or the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews (Hebrews ix, 4), asserts that the rod and the pot of manna were both within the ark, Royal Arch Masons have followed this later authority. Hence the rod of Aaron is found in the ark; but its import is only historical, as if to identify the substitute ark as a true copy of the original, which had been lost. No symbolical instruction accompanies its discovery.

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AB

1. The 11th month of the Hebrew civil year and corresponding to the months July and Augustus, beginning with the new moon of the former.
2. It is also a Hebrew word, signifying father, and will be readily recognized by every Freemason as a component part of the name Hiram Abif, which literally means Hiram his father (see Abif).

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ABACISCUS

The diminutive of Abacus- and, in architecture, refers to the squares of the tessellated pavement or checkered surface of the ground floor of King Solomon's Temple.

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ABACUS

A term which has been erroneously used to designate the official staff of the Grand Master of the Templars. The word has no such meaning ; for an abacus is either a table used for facilitating arithmetical calculations, or is in architecture the crowning plate of a column and its capital. The Grand Master's staff was a baculus, which see.

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ABADDON

A Hebrew word ab-ad-done, signifying destruction. By the Rabbis it is interpreted as the place of destruction, and is the second of the seven names given by them to the region of the dead.
In the Apocalypse (Revelation ix, 11) it is rendered by the Greek word Apollyon, and means the destroyer. In this sense it is used as a significant word in the high degrees.

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ABAZAR

Probably from the Hebrew word ab-ee-ay-zer, meaning helpful. The title given to the Master of Ceremonies in the Sixth Degree of the Modern French Rite.

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ABBREVIATIONS

Abbreviations of technical terms or of official titles are of very extensive use in Freemasonry. They were, however, but rarely employed in the earlier Masonic publications. For instance, not one is to be found in the first edition of Anderson's Constitutions. Within a comparatively recent period they have greatly increased, especially among French writers, and a familiarity with them is therefore essentially necessary to the Masonic student.

Frequently, among English and always among French authors, a Masonic abbreviation is distinguished by three points,.:, in a triangular form following the letter, which peculiar mark was first used, according to Ragon, on the 12th of August, 1774, by the Grand Orient of France, in an address to its subordinates. No authoritative explanation of the meaning of these points has been given, but they may be supposed to refer to the three lights around the altar, or perhaps more generally to the number three, and to the triangle, both important symbols in the Masonic system.

A representative list of abbreviations is given, and these will serve as a guide to the common practice, but the tendency to use such conveniences is limited only by personal taste governed by the familiarity of the Brethren using them with one another. This acquaintance may permit the mutual use of abbreviations little known elsewhere. All that can be done is to offer such examples as will be helpful in explaining the usual custom and to suggest the manner in which the abbreviations are employed. With this knowledge a Freemason can ascertain the meaning of other abbreviations he may find in his Masonic reading.

Before proceeding to give a list of the principal abbreviations, it may be observed that the doubling of a letter is intended to express the plural of that word of which the single letter is the abbreviation.

Thus, in French, F.:, signifies Frére, or Brother, and FF :. Fréres, or Brothers. And in English, L :. is sometimes used to denote Lodge, and LL :, to denote Lodges. This remark is made once for all, because we have not deemed it necessary to augment the size of the list of abbreviations by inserting these plurals. If the reader finds S:.G:.I:. to signify Sovereign Grand Inspector, he will be at no loss to know that SS:.GG:.II:. must denote Sovereign Grand Inspectors. A:.&A:. Ancient and Accepted.

A:.&A:. R :. Ancient and Accepted Rite as used in England.
A:.&A:. S :. R :. Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
A:.&P:. R :. Ancient and Primitive Rite.
A:.C:. Anno Coadio. Latin, meaning the Year of Destruction; referring to the year 1314 in Knights Templar history.
A:.D:. Anno Domini. Latin, meaning Year of Our Lord.
A:.Dep:. Anno Depositionis. Latin, meaning In the Year of the Deposit. The date is used by Royal and Select Masters.
A:.F:.M:. Ancient Freemasons.
A:.F:.&A:.M :. Ancient Free and Accepted Masons.
A:.H:. Anno Hebraico. Latin, meaning Hebrew Year.
A:.Inv:. Anno Inventionis. Latin, meaning In the Year of the Discovery. The date used by Royal Arch Masons.
A:.L:. Anno Lucis. Latin, meaning In the Year of Light. The date used by Ancient Craft Freemasons.
A.:L:.G:.D:.G:.A:.D:.L:.U:. A la Gloire du Grand Architecte de l'Universe. French, meaning To the Glory of the Grand Architect of the Universe. The usual caption of French Masonic documents.
A:.L:. O:. A L Orient. French, meaning At the East. The Location or seat of the Lodge.A.:M:. Anno Mundi. Latin, meaning In the Year of the World. The date used in the Ancient and Accepted Rite.
A.:O:. Anno Ordinis. Latin, meaning In the Year of the 0rder. The date used by Knights Templar.
A.:Q.:C:. Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, the Latin name for the printed reports of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 2076, London.
A.:V.:L:. An du Vraie Lumiére. French, meaning Year of the True Light.
A.:V:.T:.O:.S.:A.:G:. Ad Universi Terrarum Orbis Summi Architecti Gloriam. Latin, meaning To the glory of the Grand Architect of the Universe.
A.:Y.:M:. Ancient York Masons or Ancient York Masonry.
B.: Bruder. German, meaning Brother.
B.:A.: Buisson Ardent. French, meaning Burning Bush.
B:.B:. Burning Bush.
Bn:. Brudern. German, meaning Brethren.
Comp.: Companion. Used by Brethren of the Royal Arch.
C:.C:. Celestial Canopy.
C:.H:. Captain of the Host.
D:. Deputy.
D:.A:.F:. Due and Ancient Form.
D:.D:.G:.M:. Sometimes abbreviated Dis :.
D:.G:.M:. District Deputy Grand Master.
D:.G:.B:.A:.W:. Der Grosse Baumeister aller Welten. German, meaning The. Grand Architect of all Worlds.
D:.G:.G:.H:.P:. Deputy General Grand High Priest.
D:.G:.H:.P:. Deputy Grand High Priest.
D:.G:.M:. Deputy Grand Master.
D:.M:.J:. Deus Meumque Jus. Latin, meaning God and my right.
D:.Prov:.G:.M:. Deputy Provincial Grand Master.
Deg:. Degree or Degrees. Another way is as in 33 ,meaning Thirty-Third Degree.
Dis:. District.
E:.Eminent; Excellent; also East.
E:.A:. Entered Apprentice. Sometimes abbreviated E:.A:.P:.
E:.C:. Excellent Companion.
Ec:. Ecossaise. French, meaning Scottish; belonging to the Scottish Rite.
E:.G:.C:. Eminent Grand Commander.
E:.G:.M:. Early Grand Master. A central Authority had been made to control the Knights Templar of Ireland independently of the Grand Lodge and at the very first meeting of the Lodge "at High Noon of St. John." 1779, the Worshipful Master appended to his name the letters E. G. M.,that is, Early Grand Master. There was then no governing body in Freemasonry except the Grand Lodge (see "Templar Legends," by Brother W. J.Chetwode Crawley, Transactions, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 1913, volume xxvi).
E:.O:.L:. Ex Oriente Lux. Latin, meaning Out of the East comes Light. E:.V:. Era Vulgus. Latin, meaning Common Era, also stands for Ere Vulgaire, French, meaning Vulgar Era; Year of the Lord.
F:. Frére. French, meaning Brother.
F:.A:.M:. Free and Accepted Masons.
F:.E:.R:.T:. According to the statutes of the United Orders of the Temple &nd Saint John of Jerusalem, etc., the standard of Saint John is described as gules, on a Cross Argent, the Agnus Dei-meaning Red on a Silver Cross with a representation of the Lamb of God-with the letters F.E.R.T. These letters are the initials of the words of the motto Fortitudine Ejus Rhodum tenuit, meaning By his courage he held Rhodes. Brother Gordon P. G. Hills, Transactions of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 1914, volume xxvii page 233, says, "I suppose it refers to the gallant defense by the Grand Master in 1522, when however, the Island was surrendered, although the garrison were permitted to depart with the honors of war." A writer in the Pall Mall Gazette, June 4, 1901, states that the legend appears on the coinage of Louis of Savoy in 1301 and on that of Thomas in 1233.
F:.C:. Fellow Craft.
F:.M:. Freemason.
G:.Grand- Sometimes read as Great; Geometry. Also has another meaning well known to the Craft.
G:.A:.O.:T:.U:. Grand Architect of the Universe.
G:.A:.S:. Grand Annual Sojourn.
G.:C:. Grand Chapter; Grand Council; Grand Cross; Grand Commander; Grand Chaplain; Grand Conclave; Grand Conductor; Grand Chancellor.
G:.C:.G:. Grand Captain General; Grand Captain of the Guard.
G :.C:.H.: Grand Captain of the Host; Grand Chapter of Herodom.
G:.Com:. Grand Commandery; Grand Commander.
G:.D:. Grand Deacon.
G:.D:.C:. Grand Director of Ceremonies.
G:.E:. Grand Encampment; Grand Bast; Grand Ezra.
G:.J:.W:. Grand Junior Warden.
G:.G:.C:. General Grand Chapter
. G:.G:.H:.P:. General Grand High Priest.
G:.G:.K:. General Grand King.
G:.G:.M:.F:.V:. General Grand Master of the First Veil.
G:.G.:S:. General Grand Scribe.
G:.G.:T:. General Grand Treasurer.
G:.H:.P:. Grand High Priest.
G:.K:. Grand King.
G:.L:. Grand Lodge. Grande Loge, in French. Grosse Loge, in German.
G:.M:. Grand Master; Grand Marshal; Grand Monarch.
G:.N:. Grand Nehemiah.
G:.O:. Grand Orient; Grand Organist.
G:.P. Grand Pursuivant; Grand Prior; Grand Prelate; Grand Preceptor; Grand Preceptory; Grand Patron; Grand Priory; Grand Patriarch; Grand Principal.
G:.P:.S:. Grand Principal Sojourner
G:.R:. Grand Registrar; Grand Recorder.
G:.R:.A:.C:. Grand Royal Arch Chapter.
G:.S:. Grand Scribe; Grand Secretory; Grand Steward.
G:.S:.B:. Grand Sword Bearer; Grand Sword Bearer.
G:.S:.E.: Grand Scribe Ezra.
G:.S:.N:. Grand Scribe Nehemiah.
G:.S:.W:. Grand Senior Warden.
G:.T:. Grand Treasurer; Grand Tyler.H:.A:.B:. Hiram Abif.
H:.E:. Holy Empire.
H:.J:. Heilige Johannes. German, meaning Holy Saint John.
H:.K:.T:. Hiram, King of Tyre.
H:.R:.D:.M:. Heredom.
Ill:. Illustrious.
I:.N:.R:.I:. Jesus Nazarenus, Rex Iudoeorum. Latin, meaning Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews. The Letters are also the initials of a significant sentence in Latin, namely, Igne Natura Renovatur Integra, meaning by fire nature is perfectly renewed.
I:.P:.M:. Immediate Past Master. English title of an official last promoted from the chair.
I:.T:.N:.O:.T:.G:.A:.O:.T:.U:. In the Name of the Grand Architect of the Universe. Often forming the caption of Masonic documents.
J:.W:. Junior Warden.
K:.King.
K:.E:.P:. Knight of the Eagle and Pelican
K:.H:. Kadash, Knight of Kadosh.
K:.H:.S:. Knight of the Holy Sepulcher
K:.M:. Knight of Malta
K:.S:. King Salomon (Suleiman)
K:.T:. Knights Templar; Knight Templar.
L:. Lodge. Lehrling, the German for Apprentice.
L:.R:. Lonon Rank. A distinction introduced in England in 1908.
L:.V:.X:. Lux Latin, meaning Light.
M:. Mason; Masonry; Marshal; Mark; Minister; Master. Meister, in German. Maitre, in French.
M:.C:. Middle Chamber.
M:.E:. Most Eminent; Most Excellent.
M:.E:.G:.H:.P:. Most Excellent Grand High Priest.
M:.E:.G:.M:. Most Eminent Grand Master (of Knights Templar).
M:.E:.M:. Most Excellent Master.
M:.E:.Z:. Most Excellent Zerubbabel.
M:.K:.G:. Maurer Kunst Geselle. German, meaning Fellow Craft.
M:.L:. Maurer Lehrling. German, meaning Entered Apprentice.
M:.L:. Mére Loge. French, meaning Mother Lodge.
M:.M:. Master Mason. Mois Maçonnique. French, meaning Masonic Month. March 18 the first Masonic month among French Freemasons.
Meister Maurer. German, meaning Master Mason.
M:.P:.S:. Most Puissant Sovereign.
M:.W:.Most Worshipful.
M:.W:.G:.M:. Most Worshipful Grand Master; Most Worthy Grand Matron.
M:.W:.G:.P:. Most Worthy Grand Patron.
M:.W:.M:. Most Wise Master
M:.W:.S:. Most Wise Sovereign
N:. Novice.
N:.E:.C:. North-east Corner.
N'o:.P:.V:.D:.M:. N'oubiez pas vos décorations Maçonniques French, meaning Do not forget your Masonic regalia, a phrase used in France on the corner of a summons.
O:. Orient.
O:.A:.C:. Ordo ab Chao. Latin, meaning Order out of Chaos.
OB:. Obligation.
P:. Past; Prelate; Prefect; Prior.
P:.C:.W:. Principal Conductor of the Work.
P:.G:.M:. Past Grand Master; Past Grand Matron.
P:.J:. Prince of Jerusalem.
P:.K:. Past King.
P:.M:. Past Master.
P:.S:. Principal Sojourner.
Pro:.G:.M:. Pro-Grand Master.
Prov:. Provincial.
Prov:.G:.M:. Provincial Grand Master.
R:.A:. Royal Arch; Royal Art.
R:.A:.C:. Royal Arch Captain; Royal Arch Chapter.
R:.A:.M:. Royal Arch Mason; Royal Arch Masonry; Royal Ark Mariner. R:.C:. or R:.t:. Rose Croiz. Appended to the signature of one having that degree
R:.E:. Right Eminent.
R:.E:.A:.et A:.Rite Ecossaise Ancien et Accepte. French, meaning Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
R:.F:. Respectable Free. French, meaning Worshipful Brother.
R:.L:. or R:.[]:. Respectable Loge. French, meaning Worshipful Lodge.
R:.S:.Y:.C:.S:. Rosy Cross (in the Royal order of Scotland).
R:.W:. Right Worshipful.
R:.W:.M:. Right Worshipful Master.
S:.Scribe,Sentinel, Seneschal, Sponsor.
S:.C:. Supreme Council.
S:.G:.D:. Senior Grand Deacon.
S:.G:.I:.G:. Sovereign Grand Inspector General
S:.G:.W:. Senior Grand Warden.
S:.M:. Secret Master; Substitute Master; Select Master; Secret Monitor; Sovereign Master; Supreme Master; Supreme Magus.
S:.O:. Senior Overseer.
S:.P:.R:.S:. Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret.
S:.S:. Sanctum Sanctorum. Latin, meaning Holy of Holies. Formerly also used for Soverein of Sovereigns
S:.S:.M:. Senior Substitute Magus.
S:.S:.S:. The initials of the Latin word Salutem, meaning Greeting, repeated thrice and also found similarly in the French, Trois Fois Salut, meaning Thrice Greeting. A common caption to French Masonic circulars or letters
S:.W:. Senior Warden.
Sec:. Secretary.
Soc:.Ros:. Societas Rosicruciana
Sum:. Surveillant. French, meaning Warden.
T:.C:.F:. Tres Cher Frére. French, meaning Very Dear Brother.T:.G:.A:.O:.T:.U:. The Grand Architect of the Universe. T:.S:. Tres Sage. Meaning Very Wise, addressed to the presiding officer of French Rite.
U:.D:. Under Dispensation.
V:.or Ven:. Venerable. French, meaning Worshipful.
V:.D:.B:. Very Dear Brother.
V:.D:.S:.A:. Veut Dieu Saint Amour, or Vult Dei Sanctus Animus. A formula used by Knights Templar. The expression Veut Dieu Saint Amour means literally, Wishes God Holy Love, which in correct English might be expressed by Thus wishes God (who is)holy love. Vult Dei Sanctus Animus is the Latin Version of the same phrase. Only in this case God is in the genitive case and therefore the exact translation would be The holy spirit of God wishes or Thus wishes God's holy spirit.
V:.E:. Viceroy Eusebius; Very Eminent.
V:.F:. Venerable Frére. French, meaning Worshipful Brother.
V:.L:. Vraie Lumiere. French, meaning True Light
V:.S:.L:. Volume of the sacred Law.
V:.W:. Very Worshipful
W:. Worshipful
W:.M:. Worshipful Master. Wurdiger Meister, in German, meaning Worshipful Master.
[]Lodge.
[][]Lodges.

An equilateral triangle is an emblem of the Trillity and also of the Chapter in Royal Arch Masonry.
The Swastika or Pylfot or Jaina Cross, as it bears all three names which are explained else where, has been used as a part of the signatures of members of Hermetic bodies and is then called the Hermetic Cross, which is attached to documents. The position of such a Cross in relation to the signature and the color of the ink indicates the rank of the signer and these particulars are subject to change.

This combination of the Maltese Cross and the equilateral triangle is not only sometimes found as a designation for the Knight of Rose Cross but was used as early as 1725 to mean a reference to a Lodge of Saint John.

The supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, for the Northern Jurisdiction of the United States, has on page 36 of the book entitled information for Bodies and Officers (this being a part of the report of the Committee on Rituals and Ritualistic Matters in the Proceedings of 1870, pages 64, 65), the following illustrated Instructions :

The Sovereign Grand Commander shall prefix the triple cross, in red ink, to his signature, thus:-

The Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, has in the Statutes as amended to October, 1921, Article xiv, section 3, the following illustrated instructions: The distinctive symbol to be used before the signature of the Sov:.Gr:. Commander is a Cross with three cross-bars, near that extremities of which and of the shaft are small cross-bars, the signature to be followed by a rayed equilateral triangle enclosing the figures 33 (violet ink to be used). The Symbol Cross to precede the signature of a Sov:.Gr:.Insp:.General has two cross-bars near the extremities of which and of the shaft are small cross-bars, the signature to be followed by a rayed equilateral triangle enclosing the figures 33 (purple ink to be used);the title to be written Sov:.Gr:.Insp:.Genl:.. The Symbol Cross to precede the signature of an Inspector Honorary is a plain cross with two crossbars (no crossbars at the extremities), followed by a rayed equilateral triangle enclosing the figures 33, the title to be written Insp:.Genl:.Hon:.(crimson ink to be used). The rest of the symbols to precede signatures and titles to remain the same as given in the present edition of the Statutes (the ink to be red). In each of the above the cross-bar are to be horizontal and except where shown differently the shaft is inclined to the right to correspond with the angle of the strokes of slanting writing. The shafts of the crosses used by the Court of Honor are vertical, the ends of the shaft and cross-bars being provided with a cross-bar at the extremities.

For the Rose Croix the symbol is a Passion Cross set on the apex of a pyramid or equatorial triangle.

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ABDA

A word used in some of the high degrees. He was the father of Adoniram (see First Kings iv, 6). Lenning in the Encyclopedie der Freimaurerei is wrong in saying that he is represented by one of the officers in the degree of Master in Israel. He has confounded Abda with his son.

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ABDAMON

The name of the Orator in the Fourteenth Degree of the Rite of Perfection, or the Sacred Vault of James VI. The word means a servant, from abed, to serve, although somewhat corrupted in its transmission into the rituals. Lenning says it is the Hebrew Habdamon, meaning a servant; but there is no such word in Hebrew.

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ABDIEL

A Hebrew word meaning servant of God. The name of an angel mentioned by the Jewish Cabalists. He is represented in Milton's Paradise Lost, Book V, lines 894-7, as one of the seraphbn, who, when Satan tried to stir up a revolt among the angels subordinate to his authority, alone and boldly withstood his traitorous designs :

Among the faithless, faithful only he;
Among innumerable false, unmoved,
unshaken un-seduced, un-terrified,
His loyalty be kept, his love, his zeal.

The name Abdiel became the synonym of honor and faithfulness.

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ABDITORIUM

A secret place for the deposit of records

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ABELITES

A secret Order which existed about the middle of the eighteenth century in Germany, called also the Order of Abel The organization was in possession of peculiar signs, words, and ceremonies of initiation, but, according to Gadicke, Freimaurer Lexicon, it had no connection with Freemasonry. According to Clavel the order was founded at Griefswald in 1745.

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ABERCORN, DUKE OF

Grand Master of Ireland 1874 to 1885.

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ABERCORN, EARL OF

James Hamilton, Lord Paisley, was named Grand Master of England by the retiring Grand Master, the Duke of Richmond, in 1725. He was at that time the Master of a Lodge, and had served on the Committee of Charity during that year. He succeeded his father as Earl of Abercorn in 1734.

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ABERDOUR, LORD

Grand Master of Scotland, 1755 to 1756. Also of England 1757 to 1761.

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ABIB

The original name of the Hebrew month Nisan, nearly corresponding to the month of March, the first of the ecclesiastical year. Abib is frequently mentioned in the sacred scriptures, and signifies green ears of com or fresh fruits.

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ABIBALE

The name of the first Assassin in the Elu of the Modem French Rite. The word is derived most probably from the Hebrew abi and balah, which mean father of destruction, though it is said to mean le Meurtrier du Pere, this phrase meaning in French the Murder of the Father.

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ABIDE BY

See stand to and abide by.

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ABIF

(or ABIFF, or perhaps more correctly ABIV).
A name appeared in scripture to that celebrated builder who was sent to Jerusalem by King Hiram, of Tyre, to superintend the construction of the Temple. The word, which in the original Hebrew is ...and which may be pronounced Abiv or Abif, is compounded of the noun in the construct-state ....Abi, meaning father, and the pronominal suffix i, which, with. the preceding vowel sound, is to be sounded as iv or if, and which means his; so that the word thus compounded Abif literally and grammatically signifies his father. The word is found in second Chronicles iv, 16, in the following sentence:

"The pots also, and the shovels, and the flesh hooks, and all their instruments, did Hiram his father make to King Solomon." The latter part of this verse is in the original as follows: shelomoh lamelech Abif Huram gnasah

Luther has been more literal in his version of this passage than the English translators, and appearing to suppose that the word Abif is to be considered simply as an appellative or surname, he preserves the Hebrew form, his translation being as follows: "Machte Hiram Abif dem Konige Salomo." The Swedish version is equally exact, and, instead of "Hiram his father," gives us Hiram Abiv. In the Latin Vulgate, as in the English version, the words are rendered Hiram pater ejus. We have little doubt that Luther and the Swedish translator were correct in treating the word Abif as a surname.

In Hebrew, the word ab, or father, is often used as a title of respect, and may then signify friend, counselor. wise man, or something else of equivalent character.

Thus, Doctor Clarke, commenting on the word abrech, in Genesis XLI, 43, says: "Father seems to have been a name of office, and probably father of the king or father of Pharaoh might signify the same as the king's minister among us." And on the very passage in which this word Abif is used, he says: " father, is often used in Hebrew to signify master, inventor, chief operator."

Gesenius, the distinguished Hebrew lexicographer, gives to this word similar significations, such as benefactor, master, teacher, and says that in the Arabic and the Ethiopia it is spoken of one who excels in anything.

This idiomatic custom was pursued by the later Hebrews, for Buxtor tells us, in his Talmudic Lexicon, that "among the Talmudists abba, father, was always a title of honor, " and he quotes the following remarks from a treatise of the celebrated Maimonides, who, when speaking of the grades or ranks into which the Rabbinical doctors were divided, says: "The first class consists of those each of whom bears his own name, without any title of honor; the second, of those who are called Rabbanim; and the third, of those who are called Rabbi, and the men of this class also receive the cognomen of Abba, Father."

Again, in Second Chronicles11, 13, Hiram, the King of Tyre, referring to the same Hiram, the widow's son, who is spoken of subsequently in reference to King Solomon as his father, or Abif in the passage already cited, writes to Solomon: "And now I have sent a cunning man, endued with understanding, of Huram my father's." The only difficulty in this sentence is to be found in the prefixing of the letter lamed, before Huram, which has caused our translators, by a strange blunder, to render the words Huram abi, as meaning of Huram my father's, instead of Huram my father. Brother Mackey remarked that Huram my father's could not be the true meaning, for the father of King Hiram was not another Hiram, but Abibal.

Luther has again taken the correct view of this subject, and translates the word as a surname: "So sende ich nun einen weisen Mann, der Berstand hat, Huram Abif"; that is, "So now I send you a wise man who has understanding, Huram Abif." The truth, we suspect, is, although it has escaped all the commentators, that the lamed in this passage is a Chaldaism which is sometimes used by the later Hebrew writers, who incorrectly employ, the sign of the dative for the accusative after transitive verbs.

Thus, in Jeremiah XL 2, we have such a construction, vayikach rab tabachim l Yremyahu; that is, literally, "and the captain of the guards took for Jeremiah,"

Where the l, or for, is a Chaldaism and redundant, the true rendering being, "and the captain of the guards took Jeremiah." Other similar passages are to be found in Lamentations IV, 5; Job V, 2, etc.

In like manner we suppose the .. before Huram which the English translators have rendered by the preposition of, to be redundant and a Chaldaic form.

The sentence should be read thus : ''I have sent a cunning man, endued with understanding, Huram my father;" Or, if considered as a surname, as it should be, Huram Abi.

From all this we conclude that the word Ab, with its different suffixes is always used in the Books of Kings and Chronicles, in reference to Hiram the Builder, as a title of respect. When King Hiram speaks of him he calls him ''my father Hiram," Hiram Abi and when the writer of the Book of Chronicles is speaking of him and King Solomon in the same passage, he calls him "Solomon's father, his father," Hiram Abif. The only distinction is made by the different appellation of the pronouns my and his in Hebrew. To both the kings of Tyre and of Judah he bore the honorable relation of Ab, or father, equivalent to friend, counselor, or minister. He was Father Hiram.

The Freemasons are therefore perfectly correct in refusing to adopt the translation of the English version, and in preserving, after the example of Luther, the word Abif as an appellative, surname, or title of honor and distinction bestowed upon the relief builder of the Temple, as Dr. James Anderson suggests in his note on the subject in the first edition (1723) of the Constitutions of the Freemasons.

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ABIRAM

One of the traitorous craftsmen, whose act of perfidy forms so important a part of the Third Degree, receives in some of the high degrees the name of Abiram Akirop. These words certainly have a Hebrew look; but the significant words of Freemasonry have, in the lapse of time and in their transmission through ignorant teachers, become so corrupted in form that it is almost impossible to trace them to any intelligible root. They may be Hebrew or they may be anagrammatized (see Anagram) ; but it is only chance that can give us the true meaning which the two words in combination undoubtedly possess. The word Abiram means father of loftiness, and may have been chosen as the name of the traitorous craftsman with allusion to the Biblical story of Korah, Dathan and Abiram who conspired against Moses and Aaron. Numbers xvi. In the French ritual of the Second Elu it is said to mean murderer or assassin, but this would not seem to be correct etymologically. Brother Mackenzie suggests that Akirop may be from, Karab, the Hebrew meaning to join battle. He also offers Abi-ramah, to mean in Hebrew destroyer of the father.

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ABLE

There is an old use of the word able to signify suitable. Thus, Chaucer says of a monk that "he was able to ben an abbot," that is, suitable to be an abbot. In this sense the old manuscript Constitutions constantly employ the word, as when they say, in the Lansdowne Manuscript, that the apprentice should be "able of Birth that is free borne," the ff then meaning F.

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ABLUTION

A ceremonial purification by washing, much used in the Ancient Mysteries and under the Mosaic Dispensation. It is also employed in some of the advanced degrees of Freemasonry. The better technical term for this ceremony is lustration, which see.

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ABNET

The band or apron,. made of fine linen, variously wrought, and worn by the Jewish priesthood. It seems to have been borrowed directly from the Egyptians, upon the representations of all of whose gods is to be found a similar girdle. Like the zennaar, or sacred cord of the Brahmans, and the white shield of the Scandinavians, it is the analogue of tho Masonic apron.

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ABOMINABLES, LES

Terms of contempt used in some of the foreign rites, referring more particularly to Philippe le Bel and Bertrand de Got, persecutors of the Knights Templar.

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ABORIGINES

A secret society which existed in England about the year 1783, and of whose ceremony of initiation the following account is contained in the British Magazine of that date. The presiding officer, who was styled the Original, thus addressed the candidate:

Original. Have you faith enough to be made an Original?

Candidate. I have.

Original. Will you be conformable to all honest rules which may support steadily the honor, reputation, welfare, and dignity of our ancient undertaking?

Candidate. I will.

Original. Then, friend, promise me that you will never stray from the paths of Honor, Freedom, Honesty, Sincerity, Prudence, Modesty, Reputation, Sobriety, and 'True Friendship.

Candidate. I do.

Which done, the Crier of the Court commanded silence, and the new member, being uncovered, and dropping on his right knee, had the following oath administered to him by the Servant, the new member laying his right hand on the Cap of Honor, and Nimrod holding a staff over his head:
"You swear by the Cap of Honor, by the Collar of Freedom, by the Coat of Honesty, by the Jacket of Sincerity, by the Shirt of Prudence, by the Breeches of Modesty, by the Garters of Reputation, by the Stockings of Sobriety, and by the Steps of True Friendship, never to depart from these laws."

Then rising, with the staff resting on his head he received a copy of the laws from the hands of the Grand Original, with these words, "Enjoy the benefits hereof."

He then delivered the copy of the laws to the care of the servant, after which the word was given by the secretary to the new member, namely: Eden, signifying the garden where ADAM, the great aboriginal, was formed.

Then the secretary invested him with the sign, namely: resting his right hand on his left side, signifying the first conjunction of harmony.

This organization had no connection with Freemasonry, but was simply one of those numerous imitative societies to which that Institution has given rise.

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ABOYNE, GEORGE, EARL OF

From 1802 to 1803 Grand Master of Scotland.

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ABRAC

In the Leland Manuscript it is said that the Masons conceal "the wey of wynninge the facultye of Abrac." John Locke (though it is doubtful if it was he who wrote a commentary on the manuscript) is quoted as saying: ''Here I am utterly in the dark.'' However, it means simply the way of acquiring the science of Abrac. The science of Abrac is the knowledge of the power and use of the mystical abraxas, which see ; or very likely Abrac is merely an abbreviation of Abracadabra

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ABERDEEN Alter, THE LODGE

The second quarter of the Twentieth century in the 'Literature of Freemasonry was characterized above everything else by the publication (in some twenty languages) of Lodge histories. Taken collectively, and in their impact as a single body of writings, these histories have worked some two, or possibly three, fundamental changes in the older conception of the history of the Fraternity, and their data have caused the revisions of many details-this last applying particularly to the work of the pioneers of modern historical scholarship, Gould, Hughan, Crawley, Lane, Sadler, etc., and Gould especially. Of the Lodge histories some five or six are indubitable masterpieces, both in their literary form and in their scholarship.

Among the more slender books of the last named class is Notes on the Early History and Records of The Lodge, Aberdeen, No. Alter, by A. L. Miller, a Past Master of it; Aberdeen;
University Press; 1919. It is written modestly, with a fine spirit, and with a just sense of proportion ; it is a model for Lodge historians everywhere to pattern on; moreover it contains the clearest of pictures of a Lodge of the Transition Period, as it was and as it worked, a century before the first Grand Lodge of 1717.

Only three Lodges take precedence of it on the rolls of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, Mother Kilwinning, Mary's Chapel, and Melrose St. John.

There is a written record of a Mason in Aberdeen in 1264, a Provost. In 1357 Andrew Scott came with other Masons from Melrose to rebuild the Cathedral. The records of the Burgh of Aberdeen, unbroken since 1398, contain many references to Masons. Masons came from everywhere to build King's College, In those same records is a reference to the Mason "Lodge" (a building) in 1483. In the Burgh minutes of 1483 is the wording of an oath taken by the masonry of the luge; offenders were to be "excluded" (expelled). In 1486 the Burgh adopted rules governing Masons. In 1493 three Masons were permanently employed by the Burgh (now called "town"). A record of 1544 refers to the Lodge building, which was a permanent Masonic headquarters.

In 1527 the Masons were incorporated (by a Seal of Cause) and given disciplinary powers over their own members.

A Warden over the Masons was appointed in 1590. Masons, unlike most workers, could work inside or away from the town; they were "free." An early Masons' Lodge "supposed to have been situated on the southern slope near the top of st Katharine's Hill, was built of Wood and was burned by enemies of the Craft, who were said to have been numerous, and to have in cludet the clergy "(From Wycliff down "the clergy"have been the hardest workers in it. The Roman Church has been officially against it ever since the General Council of Afignon, when all secret societies"were condemned) Another Lodge was afterwards built near where Aberdeen's St. Paul's now stands, but was burned down, and many old records with it, probably by the Marquis of Huntly when be ravaged Aberdeen with 2000 soldiers.

In 1700 the members built yet another Lodge, out upon the links, well apart ; the father of the famous architect James Gibbs lived in part of it.

Thus the written records prove a continuing existence of Masonry in Aberdeen from 1264, and doubtless Aberdeen iter is in a direct and unbroken line of descent from the Thirteenth Century. It is probable that the Masons have had a separate and organized society, self-governing, since at least as early as 1541, which was in the earliest period of Protestantism.

The Work Book written in 1670 contains pictures of Working Tools. Of the members at that date ten of the forty-nine were Operative Masons; among the non-operatives were four noblemen. The oldest known written record of a non-Operative in Scotland is 1600.

In Aberdeen records mention is made of "the Mason Word" : of "the oaths we received." The Officers in 1670 were a Master, Warden, Boxmaster, Clerk and Officer (Tiler). Masons' sons (the "Lewis") received special privileges. Until 1754 "intrants" (apprentices) made presents of aprons and gloves; they were trained by "Intenders." A permanent Charity Fund (in the "Box") was set up in 1670.

The most interesting among the records are these two: "No Lodge be holden within a dwelling house where there is people living in but in the open fields, except it be ill weather, and then let there be a house chosen that no person shall hear nor see us." And : "We ordain likewise that all entering Prentices be entered in our ancient outfield Lodge in the Mearns in the parish of Nigg at the sources [piers or bulwarks] at the point of the Ness." the principal point made by the members when they wrote the Work Book of 1670 was that they were making sure that old customs were to be continued.

The first Freemason to come to America was John Skene, in 1684, of which the record was discovered by Bro. David McGregor. John Skene was a member of the Aberdeen Lodge. the first name in the list of members in the Work Book of 1670 was Harrie Elphingston, the Master; be was the booking agent who arranged passage on the vessel Henry and Francis on which a number of Aberdeenians emigrated to New Jersey, in America. The arrangement was made under the patronage of the Earl of Perth, one of the chief proprietors of New Jersey, also a Freemason, Robert Gordon, George Alexander, John Forles, also on the same list of members, purchased an interest in New Jersey. John Forbes came to East Jersey in 1684, then returned to Scotland. John Skene settled at Burlington, capital of East Jersey, and was Deputy Governor from 1685 until his death in 1690.

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ADULTERINE GILDS

In the Anglo-Saxon period of English history the majority of gilds ("frith gilds," "crich ten gilds") were religious, military, or social fraternities. In the Twelfth Century a number of "secular gilds" began to arise, and it was these which later came to be called City Companies or (because certain of their members wore a prescribed costume) Livery Companies. The Exchequer Rolls of London show that by 1180 a number of these were legally organized; and because they could enforce laws, enact rules, levy fines and other penalties, etc., they had to have legal sanction for these governmental functions. This sanction was obtained in two ways : first, by having their rules and records approved at certain times by the Court of Aldermen, which was called Prescription ; or, second, by receiving a Charter of Incorporation from the King.

If a company, society, fraternity, or gild undertook to perform gild functions without the required legal authorization it was called an Adulterine (illegal) Gild; and after being tried and found guilty was heavily fined or otherwise punished, or was destroyed.

In l181 no fewer than 18 such gilds were found in London, and each was heavily fined. The fact is important in Masonic history because it shows why Masons attached so much importance to their Charters, Old Charges, etc. To act in association or hold assemblies or enforce rules and regulations without legal authorization would have made of them an adulterine Gild. The Masons Company of London became a recognized body not later than 1220, and by prescription. In 1481 it received its "Enfranchisement," or permission to wear Livery. In 1677 it received a Charter (a very expensive luxury) from Charles II. What Prescription, Enfranchisement, and Charter were to a City Company, the Old Charges must have been to Lodges; once such a Lodge set itself up as a permanent society its first thought would be to have a written sanction lest it be condemned as adulterine. By the same token the new Grand Lodge of 1717 began as soon as possible to have a written legal instrument of its own, which took the form of the Book of Constitutions in 1723, and it compelled each new Lodge to have written warrant from it, and later, it began to issue Charters of its own to new Lodges.

A clandestine Lodge of the present time, which is a body without a regular Charter, is nothing other than the modern form of the ancient ''adulterine gild."

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AFRICA, CONTINENT OF

The historic mission of Freemasonry in Africa has been for its Lodges and other Bodies to serve as a center of union and unity in communities of which the majority of citizens belong to a conglomerate of nationalities, languages, and races. The first Lodge in South Africa was Goede Hoop, of Holland origins, constituted in the Transvaal in 1772. (See article in this Supplement under Slavery, etc. ) The English founded British Lodge, No. 334, at Cape Town, in 1811. In 1860 a Lodge under Scotland was constituted as Southern Cross, No. 398. The earliest Lodge under an Irish warrant was Abercom No. 159, in 1895. Haille Selassie, the Emperor, was preparing to establish Lodges in Abyssinia shortly before the Italian conquest.

By 1936 there were on the Continent 389 Lodges recognized by Grand Lodges in the United States, and an undiscoverable number not recognized, many of the latter being of French, Spanish, and Italian origin. There were 254 Lodges under English Constitutions 103 under Scotland, 31 under Ireland. Since very little of Africa is under any Exclusive Territorial Jurisdiction the way is open for Lodges for America. nationals, of which there are many in port cities businessmen, sailors, men of the Navy, airmen etc. In size African Lodges range from 25 to 301 members.

Egypt at the Sudan had in 1936, 25 Lodges; Province of Natal, 46; Union of South Africa and the Transvaal, 228; Johannesburg, 31; Cape Town, 12 Nigeria, 21; Rhodesia, 24; West Africa, 17; East Africa, 11; Tanganyika Territory, 6; Cape Colony, 9 Orange Free State, 2; etc. The English Lodges have five District Grand Lodges, Ireland has a Provincial Grand Lodge of South Africa, Southern. The Scottish Rite has two Grand Inspectors General among Lodges under English Constitutions. The Knights Templar and the Royal Arch are vigorous. The Transvaal Bodies have a Masonic Home. the majority of Bodies have a Benevolence Fund. A possible United Grand Lodge for South Africa is discussed, but appears unlikely.

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ALCHIMY, THE ORDINALL OF

This is the title of a book by Thomas Norton, of Bristol, England, which was reproduced in facsimile by Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 1929, taken from Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum with annotations by Elias Ashmole (made a Freemason at Warrington Lodge, in 1646). It contains an introduction, tantalizingly brief, by E. J. Holmyard. the study of chemistry, then called alchemy, is said to have been introduced into Europe in l144 when Robert of Chester translated Book of the Composition of Alchemy. (See Renaissance of the Twelfth Century, by Haskins.)

Thomas Norton's father was Mayor of Bristol in 1413, and was a member of Parliament. Thomas himself was a man of much education and wealth. He learned his art (mystery it was then called, meaning craft or trade) from a study of the works of George Ripley, born fifteen years after the death of Chaucer. The Ordinal is one of three books on alchemy written by Thomas Norton. It is somewhat cryptic ; presupposes a certain amount of erudition; is written in a loose imitation of Chaucer's verse; is not a great work of literature but is easy to read, and surpasses on most counts books written in the first half of the Fifteenth Century.

In addition to Ashmole's interest in it, the original has two particular points of interest for Masonic students. First, in describing the contemporary craze for chemistry, Norton declares that common workmen are as curious about it "as well as Lords," and among them, along with weavers, goldsmiths, tailors, etc., he names "Free Masons" and it is interesting that be used that form of the word.

Second, on page 33, be tells how the "Master" from whom he learned alchemy refused to instruct him in writing, therefore Norton had "to ride to my Master an hundred miles and more" for oral, and secret, instruction (chemistry was an unlawful science) ; and on the same page, addressing prospective pupils he writes:

"Wherefore it is need that within short space,
We speak together, and face to face;
If I should write, I should my fealty [oath] break,
Therefore mouth to mouth I must needs speak.''

This passage caught Ashmole's eye. In a long annotation he gives a paragraph about famous instances of secret, mouth to-ear instructors and instructions, including Aristotle, and hints that because of dangers from the vulgar and prohibitions from princes and prelates "divers" arts and sciences have been thus propagated.

In a page contributed by him to Ars Quatuor coronatorum, 1894, entitled "The Medical Profession and Freemasonry" Robert Freke Gould devotes a paragraph to each of a number of famous physicians (Michael Scott, Lully, Paracelsus, Jerome Cardan, etc.) who had been alchemists, kabbalists, or had engaged in other forms of Hermetism. After quoting Dr. Stukeley as baving averred that Freemasonry may be suspected to be "remains of the Mysteries of the Ancient," Gould continues: "With very little latitude of interpretation, the conclusion he arrived at, may be safely accepted as a correct one. the mysteries of Freemasonry are evidently the fragments of some ancient and nearly forgotten learning." Gould then admits it as possible that "the Cabbalists, the Hermetical [or Occult] Philosophers, and the Rosicrucians, are the intermediaries" by whom those "fragments" have come down to us.

These remarks, coming as they do from one whom Hughan described as the premier Masonic historian, are interesting in themselves, and also may serve as the point of departure for a set of comments which it is now (a half century later) possible to make:

1. The remarks show that the veteran historian, with both his History and his Concise History behind him, and after eight years of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research, was not yet sure in his own mind about the origin of Freemasonry ; for if Freemasonry came from Medieval chemists, mathematicians, astronomers, etc., it did not come from the cathedral building and other Freemasons.

2. Hermetism was not a vague, floating or "occult" tradition ; but derived from a book full of Greek materials on the sciences and entitled Hermes Trismegistus, copies and fragments of which came into Europe via Constantinople, Sicily, and Spain.

3. The physicians named by Gould had not been "occultists," they had been physicians and chemists; the 'alchemy" they studied was chemistry, and they studied it for medical uses. The fact that they studied chemistry (along with botany, etc.) affords no ground for believing that they had any reason to be "the channel" for transmitting fragments of the Ancient Mysteries-in their day they had heard fragmentary reports of ancient mythologies, of old forms of secret knowledge and of mysteries in the sense of skilled or professional trades, but they had never heard of the Ancient Mystery Cults properly so called; even Mithraism which had been the createst of the Mystery cults, had been wholly forgotten in the Middle Ages, and continued to be so until the Renaissance, and was not fully recovered until modern archeology unearthed the data.

4. Rosicrueianism was not " Medieval " It was a fantasy of the seventeenth Century. Freemasonry was full blown long before it was invented.

5. Documentary evidence, external evidence internal evidence Craft traditions, The Old Charges and the kind of reasoning which historians use, combine into one body of evidence to show that Freemasonry had its origin among the Medieval Freemasons, who were builders or architects scarcely a one of which, as far as any records show (and the names of hundreds are known, and as far back as the Twelfth Century) was ever an occultist or a mystic except in some such pedestrian, commonplace sense as could be applied to the Church in the Middle Ages.

Hermetism, properly so called, connected with a book, a collection of writings, composed in Alexandria in Ptolemaic times, and containing many portions on Greek and Alexandrian science. (Almost everything Medieval men, even scholars, knew about Egypt came to them via Alexandria. The Crusaders, contrary to assumptions of some Masonic writers, were little in Egypt but were established in Palestine, Syria, Armenia, etc.) Kabbalism was a form of religious mysticism concocted by Jews in Spain; and Graetz, whose knowledge of Jewish history was encyclopedic, believes it was a reaction to the science and rationalism of Maimonides (a modern man astray in the Middle Ages.) Medieval astrology was a vague version, or half memory, as if written on a palimpsest, of Ptolemy's astronomy; and that, as present-day astronomers now admit, if his "cycles theory" were deleted out of it, was very sound astronomy. It is admitted that the texts and nomenclature of Medieval materials on those subjects (Cornelius Agrippina wrote the most dreadful nonsense) were cryptic and queer; but for that there are several explanations the need for secrecy, the mixture of languages owing to the many living and dead languages of the sources used, the need to keep laymen from endangering themselves with drugs they could not understand (Norton's Ordinall mentions this), a general use of symbols in an illiterate age, etc. To throw Hermetism, alchemy, astrology, Kabbalism, and Rosicrucianism into one pot, to stir them up into an olla podrida, and then to call the mixture by the one misleading name of "hermetism" is not history but is obscurantism.

It certainly has nothing to do with Masonic history, because no Freemason ever built a cathedral, abbey, or priory from a recipe found in the Kabbala, nor was he in the practice of medicine.

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ALL-SEEING EYE, THE

On page 52 Dr. Mackey interpreted the All-Seeing Eye as a symbol of God's omniscience, and in doing so had at the time (about 1870) the support of the Masonic students of his generation. The soundness of that interpretation need not be questioned in the sense that it represents the logical goal toward which any other possible interpretation may be aimed; but it is doubtful if it can be supported by Masonic history. Almost less is known about the symbol (and it is a symbol!) than any other; it did not once come into the purview of the studies on which this Supplement is based, and if any researcher has found anywhere solid data on the origin of the symbol it must be hidden in a book of more than average obscurity. There are a number of considerations based on other known data which throw some sidelights on the question :

1. During the long formative period of the Ritual from about 1717 to about 1770 Lodges were small, convivial, worked while seated about their dining table; they were serious, reverent, and the great majority of Masons were members of a church, but they were neither theological nor mystical, and they instinctively shrank from anything which bordered too closely upon the province of the Church. It is a sound rule in the interpretation of the symbols on the Tracing Boards used by those Lodges not to begin by assuming a theological meaning, because as a rule they shrank from theology. In Freemasonry before 1717 they shrank from it even more. They were a Brotherhood, a Fraternity, carrying on the traditions of the building craft, and they never had any consciousness of standing in the tradition of religion. Solemnity, seriousness, symbolism, ritualism, these do not betoken theology because they belong to man by nature and are found everywhere. Though the All-Seeing Eye is one of the religious symbols, it does not follow that the early Speculative Masons used it as a religious symbol.
2. The All-Seeing Eye may have denoted the Divine omniscience. Also, it may have symbolized any one or more of some five or six other truths or ideas. It may have denoted the sun originally, as it came up at dawn - it had been thus used by Shakespeare and many other writers. It may have meant the Grand Master or the worshipful Master, and been a reminder of the fact that wherever a man is and in whatever he may be doing he continues to be a Mason, and the eye of the Craft is on him. It may have stood for enlightenment, wisdom, intelligence ; and it may have been the Tracing Board representation of the Blazing Star in the Tessellated Pavement, in which case it was again the sun, or day-star, which shines on through day and night. (Note: Until modern astronomy made a number of its difficult facts familiar to everybody the majority of men did not see any necessary connection between daylight and the sun, because the day begins before the sun appears, and remains after it has sunk.) There are many omnisciences in addition to those known to theology and metaphysics-the omniscience of the law, the omniscience of the Government which keeps its eye on every citizen, etc.; if the first Freemasons had a symbol for omniscience it does not follow that it was therefore the Divine Omniscience that was meant.

3. If their symbol signified the Divine Omniscience it does not follow that it would have had for them a depressing meaning, as if that Omniscience were for no other purpose than a final Judgment Day. Omniscience needs not search a man out in order to condemn him for sins he has tried to hide ; it may search him out to honor him for virtues he has tried to hide. The Sword Pointing at the Naked Heart is another emblem which need not have a depressing meaning; it should have, rather, a cheerful meaning, because when justice searches out every heart it means that men have security, live in civil order, and therefore can be happy. We could use the All-Seeing Eye as a symbol of the Divine Omniscience we could use it at the same time as a symbol for what ought to be the Fraternity's own omniscience (the word need not be defined so absolutely as many think it should) in the sense that it never loses sight of a man once that man has become a member, not even if he does not attend Lodge, or is confined at home by illness or accident, or has moved away.

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ABRAHAM

The founder of the Hebrew nation. The patriarch Abraham is personated in the Degree or Order of High Priesthood, which refers in some of its ceremonies to an interesting incident in his life, After the friendly separation of Lot and Abraham, when the former was dwelling in the plain in which Sodom and its neighboring towns were situated, and the latter in the valley of Mamre near Hebron, a king from beyond the Euphrates, whose name was Chedorlaomer, invaded lower Palestine. and brought several of the smaller states into a tributary condition.

Among these were the five cities of the plain, to which Lot had retired. As the yoke was borne with impatience by these cities Chedorlaomer, accompanied by four other kings, who were probably his tributaries, attacked and defeated the kings of the plain, plundered their towns, and carried their people away as slaves.

Among those who suffered on this occasion was Lot. As soon as Abraham heard of these events, he armed three hundred and eighteen of his slaves, and, with the assistance of Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre, three Amoritish chiefs, he pursued the retiring invaders, and having attacked them near the Jordan, put them to flight, and then returned with all the men and goods that had been recovered from the enemy. On his way back he was met by the King of Sodom, and also by Melchizedek, King of Salem, who was, like Abraham, a worshiper of the true God. Melchizedek refreshed Abraham and his people with bread and wine, and blessed him. The King of Sodom wished Abraham to give up the persons, but retain the goods that he had recovered; however, Abraham positively refused to retain any of the spoils, although, by the customs of the age, he was entitled to them, and declared that he had sworn that he would not take "from a thread even to a shoelatchet" (Genesis XIV). Although the conduct of Abraham in this whole transaction was of the most honorable and conscientious character, the incidents do not appear to have been introduced into the ritual of the High Priesthood for any other reason except that of their connection with Melchizedek, who was the founder of an Order of Priesthood.

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ABRAHAM, ANTOINE FIRMIN

A Freemason who made himself notorious at Paris, in the beginning of the nineteenth century, by the manufacture and sale of false Masonic diplomas and by trading in the higher degrees, from which traffic he reaped for some time a plentiful harvest. The Supreme Council of France declared, in 1811, all his diplomas and charters void and deceptive. He is the author of L'Art du Tuileur, dédié à tous les Maçons des deux hémisphéres, French for The Art of the Tiler, dedicated to all the Freemason of the two hemispheres, a small volume of 20 pages, octavo, printed at Paris in 1804, and he published from 1800 to 1808 a periodical entitled Le Miroir de la vérité, dédié à tous les Maçons, French for The Mirror of Truth, dedicated to all the Freemasom, 3 volumes, octavo. This contains many interesting details concerning the history of Freemasonry in France. In 1811 there was published at Paris a Circulaire du Conseil Supréme du 33e degré, etc., relative à la vente, par le Sieur Abraham de grades et cahiers Maçonniques; French, meaning. A Circular from the Supreme Council of the Thirty-third Degree, etc., relative te the sale by the Mr. Abraham of Masonic information in books and grades. This announcement, in octavo, sixteen pages, shows that Abraham was nothing else but a Masonic fraud.

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ABRAXAS

Basilides, the head of the Egyptian sect of Gnosties, taught that there were seven outflowings, emanations, or aeons, from the Supreme God ; that these emanations engendered the angels of the highest order; that these angels formed a heaven for their habitation, and brought forth other angels of a nature inferior to their own ; that in time other heavens were formed and other angels created, until the whole number of angels and their respective heavens amounted to 365, which were thus equal to the number of days in a year; and, finally, that over all these an omnipotent Lord-inferior, however, to the Supreme God - presidented, whose name was Abraxas. Now this word Abraxas, in the numerical force of its letters when written in Greek, ABPAZAE, amounts to 365 the number of worlds in the Basilidean system, as well as the number of days in the year thus A,1...,B,2..,P,100...,A,1...,Z,60...,A,1...,E 200 = 365. The god Abraxas was therefore a type or symbol of the year, or of the revolution of the earth around the sun. This mystical reference of the name of a god to the annual period was familiar to the ancients, and is to be found in at least two other instances. Thus, among the Persians the letters of the name of the god Mithras, and of Belenus along the Gauls, amounted each to 365.

M = 40
E = 5
I = 10
O = 9
P =100
A = 1
Z = 200
= 365

B = 2
H= 8
A = 30
E = 5
N = 50
O = 70
Z = 200
= 365

The word Abrazas, therefore, from this mystical value of the letters of which it was composed, became talismanic or magical. This was frequently inscribed, sometimes with and sometimes without other superstitious inseriptions, on stones or gems as amulets. Many of these have been preserved or are continually being discovered, and are to be found in the cabinets of the curious.
There have been many guesses and beliefs among the learned as to the source of the word Abrazas.

Beausobre, in his History of Manicheism, volume 2, derives it from the Greek, A., signifying the magnificent Savior, He who heals and preserves.

Bellermann, Essay on the Gems of the Ancients, supposed it to be compounded of three Coptic words signifying the holy word of bliss. Pignorius and Vandelin think it is composed of four Hebrew and three Greek letters, whose numerical value is 365, and which are the initials of the sentence: saving man by wood, that is, the Cross.

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ABRAXAS STONES

Stones on which the word Abrazas and other devices are engraved, and which were used by the Egyptian Gnosties as amulets.

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ABSENCE

Attendance on the communications of his Lodge, on al convenient occasions, is considered as one of the duties of every Freemason, and hence the Old Charges of 1722 say that ''in ancient Times no Master or Fellow could be absent from it [the Lodge] especially when warned to appear at it, without incurring a severe censure, until it appeared to the Master and Wardens that pure Necessity hindered him."

At one time it was usual to enforce attendance by fines, and the By-Laws of the early Lodges contain lists of fines to be imposed for absence, swearing and drunkenness, but that usage is now discontinued, so that attendance on ordinary communications is no longer enforced by any sanction of law.

Attendance is a duty the discharge of which must be left to the conscientious convictions of every Freemason. In the ease, however, of a positive summons for any express purpose, such as to stand trial, to show cause, etc., the neglect or refusal to attend might be construed into a contempt, to be dealt with according to its magnitude or character in each particular case.

The absence of an officer is a far more important matter and it is now generally held in the case of the absence of the Worshipful Master or Wardens the inferior officer assumes the duties of the office that is vacant The Wardens, as well as the Master, are entrusted with the government of the Lodge and in the case of the absence of the Master at the time of opening, the Senior Warden, if present and, if not, then the Junior Warden may open the Lodge and the business transacted will be, regular and legal.

While this is the practice in the United States of America, the same rule is not followed under the Grand Lodge of England, where it is provided in Rule 141 of the Book of Constitutions that in the absence of the Worshipful Master the Immediate Past Master shall take the chair. In the event that the Immediate Past Master is not present, then the Senior Past Master of the Lodge or, if no Past Masters of the Lodge are in attendance, the Senior Past Master who is a subscribing member of the Lodge shall officiate. But failing all of these, then we have the Senior Warden or, in his absence, the Junior Warden shall rule and govern the Lodge, but shall not occupy the Master's chair and no degree can be conferred unless a Master or Past Master in the Craft presides at the ceremony.

Thus it will be seen that the general rule does not apply to both countries in the same way.

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ABSENCE OF WORSHIPFUL MASTER
Rule 141 of the English Book of Constitutions states that the Immediate Past Master or in his absence the Senior Past Master of the Lodge, or, if no Past Master of the Lodge be present, the Senior Past Master who is a subscribing member of the Lodge shall take the chair. Failing all of these the Senior Warden, or, if he is absent, the Junior Warden, is to rule the Lodge, but without occupying the Master's chair. No initiation is to take place or Degree be conferred unless a Master or Past Master in the Craft occupies the chair. In the United States, however, especially where many Candidates await their Degrees, the custom has developed for the Worshipful Master at his pleasure to place in the chair temporarily any Brother in his judgment competent to properly give the ritualistic work.

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ABYSSINIA

A Lodge at Adis-Ababa was constituted by the 'Grand Orient of France on October 20, 1909.

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ACACIA

An interesting and important symbol in Freemasonry. Botanically, it is the acacia vera of Tournefort, and the mimosa nilotica of Linnaeus, called babul tree in India. The acacia arabica grew abundantly in the vicinity of Jerusalem, where it is still to be found, and is familiar in its modern use at the tree from which the gum arabic of commerce is derived.

Oliver, it is true,'says that "there is not the smallest trace of any tree of the kind growing so far north as Jerusalem" (Landmarks, volume 2, page 1490). But this statement is refuted by the authority of Lieutenant Lynch, who saw it growing in great abundance in Jericho, and still farther north (Expedition to the Dead Sea, page 262).

The Rabbi Joseph Schwarz, who is excellent authority, says: "The Acacia (Shittim) tree, Al Sunt, is found in Palestine of different varieties, it looks like the Mulberry tree, attains a great height, and has a hard wood. The gum which is obtained from it is the gum arabic" (Descriptive Geography and Historical Sketch of Palestine, page 308, Leeser's translation, Philadelphia, 1850). Schwarz was for sixteen years a resident of Palestine, and wrote from personal observation. The testimony of Lynch and Schwarz should, therefore, forever settle the question of the existence of the acacia in Palestine.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, page s51, states that the acacia seyal and the acacia tortilis are plentiful around the Dead Sea.

The acacia is called in the Bible Shittim, which is really the plural of Shittah, which last form occurs once only, in Isaiah XLI, 19. It was esteemed a sacred wood among the Hebrews, and of it Moses was ordered to make the tabernacle, the ark of the covenant, the table for the shewbread, and the rest of the sacred furniture (Exodus xxv-xxvii).

Isaiah (XLI, 19), in recounting the promises of God's mercy to the Israelites on their return from the captivity, tells them that, among other things, he will plant in the wilderness, for their relief and refreshment, the cedar, the acacia, (or, as it is rendered in our common version, the shittah), the fir, and other trees.

The first thing, then, that we notice in this symbol of the acacia, is that it had been always consecrated from among the other trees of the forest by the sacred purposes to which it was devoted. By the Jew, the tree from whose wood the sanctuary of the tabernacle and the holy ark had been constructed would ever be viewed as more sacred than ordinary trees. The early Freemasons, therefore, very naturally appropriated this hallowed plant to the equally sacred purpose of a symbol, which was to teach an important divine truth in all ages to come.

Having thus briefly disposed of the natural history of this plant, we may now proceed to examine it in its symbolic relations.

First. The acacia, in the mythic system of Freemasonry, is pre-eminently the symbol of the IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL--that important doctrine which it is the great design of the Institution to teach. As the evanescent nature of the flower, which "cometh forth and is cut down," reminds us of the transitory nature of human life, so the perpetual renewal of the evergreen plant, which uninterruptedly presents the appearance of youth and vigor, is aptly compared to that spiritual life in which the soul, freed from the corruptible companionship of the body, shall enjoy an eternal spring and an immortal youth. Hence, in the impressive funeral service of our Order, it is said that "this evergreen is an emblem of our faith in the immortality of the soul. By this we are reminded that we have an immortal part within us, which shall survive the grave, and which shall never, never, never die." And again, in the closing sentences of the monitorial lecture of the Third Degree, the same sentiment is repeated, and we are told that by "the evergreen and ever-living emblem of immortality, the acacia" the Freemason is strengthened "with confidence and composure to look forward to a blessed immortality." Such an interpretation of the symbol is an easy and a natural one ; it suggests itself at once to the least reflective mind; and consequently, in some one form or another, is to be found existing in all ages and nations.

There was an ancient custom-which is not, even now, altogether disused-for mourners to carry in their hands at funerals a sprig of some evergreen, generally the cedar or box, or the cypress, and to deposit it in the grave of the deceased.

According to Dalcho, the Hebrews always planted a sprig of the acacia at the head of the grave of a departed friend.

Dalcho says, in his Second Oration (page 23), "This custom among the Hebrews arose from this circumstance. Agreeably to their laws, no dead bodies were allowed to be interred within the walls of the City; and as the Cohens, or Priests, were prohibited from crossing a grave, it was necessary to place marks thereon, that they might avoid them. For this purpose the Acacia was used.'' Brother Mackey could not agree to the reason assigned by Dalcho, but of the existence of the custom there can be no question, notwithstanding the denial or doubt of Doctor Oliver. Blount, Travels in the Levant (page 197), says, speaking of the Jewish burial customs, "those who bestow a marble stone over any [grave) have a hole a yard long and a foot broad, in which they plant an evergreen, which seems to grow from the body and is carefully watched." Hasselquist, Travels (page 28), confirms his testimony. We borrow the citations from Brown, Antiquities of the Jews (volume 2, page 356), but have verified the reference to Hasselquist. Potter, Antiquities of Greece (page 569), tells us that the ancient Greeks "had a custom of bedecking tombs with herbs and flowers." All sorts of purple and white flowers were acceptable to the dead, but principally the amaranth and the myrtle.

The very name of the former of these plants, which signifies never fading, would seem to indicate the true symbolic meaning of the usage, although archeologists have general supposed it to be simply an exhibition of love on the part of the survivors. Ragon says that the ancients substituted the acacia for all other plants because they believed it to be incorruptible, and not liable to injury from the attacks of any kind of insect or other animal thus symbolizing the incorruptible nature of the soul.

Hence we see the propriety of placing the sprig of acacia, as an emblem of immortality, among the symbols of that degree, all of whose ceremonies are Intended to teach us the great truth that "the life of man, regulated by morality, faith, and justice, will be rewarded at its closing hour by the prospect of Eternal Bliss'' as in the manuscript of Doctor Crucefix quoted by Brother Oliver in his Landmarks (11, 20). So, therefore, says Doctor Oliver, when the Master Mason exclaims, "My name is Acacia," it is equivalent to saying, "I have been in the grave, I have triumphed over it by rising from the dead, and being regenerated in the process, I have a claim to life everlasting" (see Landmarks 11, 151, note 27).

The sprig of acacia, then, in its most ordinary signification, presents itself to the Master Mason as a symbol of the immortality of the soul, being intended to remind him, by its ever-green and unchanging nature, of that better and spiritual part within us, which, as an emanation from the Great Architect of the Universe, can never die. And as this is the most ordinary, the most generally accepted signification, so also is it the most important; for thus, as the peculiar symbol of immortality, it becomes the most appropriate to an Order all of whose teachings are intended to inculcate the great lesson that "life rises out of the grave." But incidental to this the acacia has two other interpretations which are well worthy of investigation.

Secondly, then, the acacia is a symbol of INNOCENCE.

The symbolism here is of a peculiar and unusual character, depending not on any real analogy in the form or use of the symbol to the idea symbolized, but simply on a double or compound meaning of the word.

For ....., in the Greek language, signifies both the plant in question and the moral quality of innocence or purity of life. In this sense the symbol refers, primarily, to him over whose solitary grave the acacia was planted, and whose virtuous conduct, whose integrity of life and fidelity to his trusts have ever been presented as patterns to the craft, and consequently to all Master Masons, who, by this interpretation of the symbol, are invited to emulate his example.

Hutchinson, indulging in his favorite theory of Christianizing Freemasonry, when he comes to this signification of the symbol, thus enlarges on the interpretation. We Masons, describing the deplorable estate of religion under the Jewish law, speak in figures.

Her tomb was in the rubbish and filth east forth of the temple, and ACACIA wove its branches over her monument, acacia being the Greek word for innocence, or being free from sin, implying that the sins and corruptions of the old law, and devotees of the Jewish altar, had hid religion from those who sought her, and she was only to be found where INNOCENCE survived, and under the banner of the divine Lamb ; and as to ourselves professing that we were to be distinguished by our ACACY, or as true ACACIANS in our religious faith and tenets" (see Hutehinson's Spirit of Masonry, Lecture IX, page 160, edition of 1775). '

But, lastly, the acacia is to be considered as the symbol of INITIATION. This is by far the most interesting of its interpretations, and was, we have every reason to believe, the primary and original ; the others being but incidental. It leads us at once to the investigation of the significant fact that in all the ancient initiations and religious mysteries there was some plant peculiar to each, which was consecrated by its own esoteric meaning, and which occupied an important position in the celebration of the rites. Thus it was that the plant, whatever it might be, from its constant and prominent use in the ceremonies of initiation, came at length to be adopted as the symbol of that initiation.

Thus, the lettuce was the sacred plant which assumed the place of the acacia the mysteries of Adonis (see Lettuce). The lotus was that of the Brahmanical rites of India, and from them adopted by the Egyptians (see Lotus). The Egyptians also revered the erica or heath; and the mistletoe was a mystical plant among the Druids (see Erica and Mistletoe). And, lastly, the myrtle performed the same office of symbolism in the mysteries of Greece that the lotus did in Egypt or the mistletoe among the Druids (see Myrtle).

In all of these ancient mysteries, while the sacred plant was a symbol of initiation, the initiation itself was symbolic of the resurrection to a future life, and of the immortality of the soul. In this view, Freemasonry is to us now in the place of the ancient initiations, and the acacia is substituted for the lotus, the erica, the ivy, the mistletoe, and the myrtle. The lesson of wisdom is the same-the medium of imparting it is all that has been changed.

Returning, then, to the acacia, we find that it is capable of three explanations. It is a symbol of immortality, of innocence, and of initiation. But these three significations are closely connected, and that connection must be observed, if we desire to obtain a just interpretation of the symbol. Thus, in this one symbol, we are taught that in the initiation of life, of which the initiation in the Third Degree is simply emblematic, innocence must for a time lie in the grave, at length, however, to be called, by the word of the Great Master of the Universe, to a blissful immortality.

Combine with this instruction the recollection of the place where the sprig of acacia was planted-Mount Calvary-the place of sepulture of Him who "brought life and immortality to light," and Who, in Christian Freemasonry, is designated, as He is in Scripture, as the lion of the tribe of Judah; and remember, too, that in the mystery of His death, the wood of the cross takes the place of the acacia.

Therefore, in this little and apparently insignificant symbol, but which is really and truly the most important and significant one in Masonic science, we have a beautiful suggestion of all the mysteries of life and death, of time and eternity, of the present and of the future.

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ACACIAN

A word introduced by Hutchinson, in his book, The Spirit of Masonry, to designate a Freemason in reference te the akakia, or innocence with which he was to be distinguished, from the Greek word axaxia (see the preceding article on the Acacia). The Acacians constituted a heretical seat in the primitive Christian Church, who derived their name from Acacius, Bishop of Caesarea from 340 to 365. The doctrine of these Acacians was that Christ is not of the same substance as God, but merely resembles Him. There was subsequently another sect of the same name under Acacius, who was Patriarch of Constantinople from 471. He died in the year 489. But it is needless to say that the Hutchinsonian application of the word Acacian to signify a Freemason has nothing to do with the theological reference of the term.

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ACADEMIE DES IILLUMINES D'AVIGNON

meaning, literally, the School of the Enlightened Ones at Avignon. The words Illumines and Illuminati have been used by various religious sects and secret societies in their names. A Hermetic system of philosophy created in 1785, and making some use of the doctrines of Emanuel Swedenborg.

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ACADEMY

The Fourth Degree of the Rectified Rose Croix of Schroeder who founded a Rite by this name.

ACADEMY OF ANCIENTS OR OF SECRETS

The French name is Académie des Secrets. A society instituted at Warsaw, in 1767, by M. Thoim de Salverte, and founded on the principles of another which bore the same name, and which is said to have been established at Rome, about the end of the sixteenth century, by John Baptiste Porta. The object of the institution was the advancement of the natural sciences and their application to the occult philosophy.

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ACADEMY OF SAGES

An order which existed in Sweden in 1770, deriving its origin from one credited with being founded in London by Elias Ashmole, on the doctrines of the New Atlantis of Bacon. A few similar societies were subsequently founded in Russia and France, one especially noted by Thory in his book, Acta Latomorum, as having been established in 1776 by the Mother Lodge of Avignon.

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ACADEMY OF SECRETS

See Academy of Ancients

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ACADEMY OF SUBLIME MASTERS OF THE LUMINOUS RING

The French name of this society is Académie des Sublimes Maîtres de l'Anneau Lumineux. Founded in France, in 1780, by Baron Blaerfindy, one of the Grand Officers of the Philosophy Scotch Rite. The Academy of the Luminous Ring was dedicated to the philosophy of Pythagoras, and was divided into three Degrees.

The first and second were principally occupied with the history of Freemasonry, and the last with the dogmas of the Pythagorean school, and their application to the highest grades of science. The historical hypothesis which was sought to be developed in this Academy was that Pythagoras was the founder of Freemasonry.

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ACADEMY OF TRUE MASONS

The French name of the society is Académie des Vraies Maçons. Founded at Montpelier, in France, by Dom Pernetty in 1778, and occupied with instructions in Hermetic Science, which were developed in six Degrees, namely :

1. The True Mason ;
2. The True Mason in the Right Way;
3. Knight of the Golden Key;
4. Knight of Iris;
5. Knight of the Argonauts;
6. Knight of the Golden Fleece.
The Degrees thus conferred constituted the Philosophic Scotch Rite, which was the system adopted by the Academy. It afterward changed its name to that of Russo-Swedish Academy, which circumstance leads Thory to believe that it was connected with the Alchemical Chapters which at that time existed in Russia and Sweden. The entirely Hermetic character of the Academy of True Masons may readily be perceived in a few paragraphs cited by Clavel (page 172, third edition, 1s44), from a discourse by Goyer de Jumilly at the; installation of an Academy in Martinique. "To seize," says the orator, "the graver of Hermes to engrave the doctrines of natural philosophy on your columns; to call Flamel the Philalete, the Cosmopolite, and our other masters to my aid for the purpose of unveiling the mysterious principles of the occult sciences,-these, Illustrious Knights, appear to be the duties imposed on me by the ceremony of your installation. The fountain of count Trevisan, the pontifical water, the peacock's tail, are phenomena with which you are familiar."

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ACADEMY, PLATONIC

Founded in 1480 by Marsilius Ficinus, at Florence, under the patronage of Lorenzo de Medicis. This organization is said by the Freemasons of Tuscany to have been a secret society, and is supposed to have had a Masonic character, because in the hall where its members held their meetings, and which Doctor Mackey reported was remaining in his time, many Masonic symbols are to be found. Clavel (page 65, third edition, 1844) supposes it to have been a society founded by some of the honorary members and patrons of the Fraternity of Freemasons who existed in the Middle Ages, and who, having abandoned the material design of the Institution, confined themselves to its mystic character. If his suggestion be correct, this is one of the earliest instances of the separation of Speculative from Operative Masonry.

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ACANTHUS

A plant, described by Dioseorides, a Greek physician and botanist of the first century,. with broad, flexible, prickly leaves, which perish in the winter and sprout again at the return of spring. Found in the Grecian islands on the borders of cultivated fields or gardens, it is common in moist, rocky situations. It is memorable for the tradition which assigns to it the origin of the foliage carved on the capitals or upper parts of Corinthian and Composite columns. Hence, in architecture, that part of the Corinthian capital is called the Acanthus which is situated below the abacus or slab at the top, and which, having the form of a vase or bell, is surrounded by two rows of leaves of the acanthus plant.

Callimachus, who invented this ornament, is said to have had the idea suggested to him by the following incident: A Corinthian maiden who was betrothed, fell ill, and died just before the appointed time of her marriage. Her faithful and grieving nurse placed on her tomb a basket containing many of her toys and jewels, and covered it with a flat tile. It so happened that the basket was placed immediately over an acanthus root, which afterward grew up around the basket and curled under the weighty resistance of the tile, thus exhibiting a form of foliage which was, on its being seen by the architect, adopted as a model for the capital of a new order; so that the story of affection was perpetuated in marble.

Dudley ( Naology, page 164) thinks the tale puerile, and supposes that the acanthus is really the lotus of the Indians and Egyptians, and is symbolic of laborious but effectual effort applied to the support of the world.

With him, the symbolism of the acanthus and the lotus are identical (see Lotus).

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ACCEPTED

The Worshipful Company of Masons of the City of London-a flourishing Gild at the Present day-possesses as its earliest document now existing an account book headed:1620.

The Account of James Gilder Mr William Warde & John Abraham wardens of the Company of freemasons within the City of London beginning the first day of Julie 1619 And ending the day of Julie 1620 of all receipts & payments for & to the use the same company as followeth, viz. From the entries in this book it appears that besides the ordinary Freemen and Liverymen of this Company there were other members who are termed in the books the Accepted Masons and that they belonged to a Body known as the Accepcon or Acception, which was an Inner Fraternity of Speculative Freemasons.

Thus in the year 1620 the following entry is found:

"They charge themselves also with Money Received of the Persons hereafter named for they're gratuities at they're acceptance into the Lyvery viz" (here follow six names). Among the accounts for the next year (1621) there is an entry showing sums received from several persons, of whom two are mentioned in the entry of 1620, "Att the making masons," and as all these mentioned were already members of the Company something further must be meant by this.

In 1631 the following entry of the Clerk's expenses occurs, " Pel in going abroad at a meeting at the hall about the Masons that were to be accepted vi- vid," that is, Paid in going about and at a meeting at the hall about the Masons that were to be accepted. vi, -vi-.

Now the Company never accepted its members; they were always admitted to the freedom either by apprenticeship, patrimony, or redemption. Thus the above entries suggest that persons who were neither connected with the trade nor otherwise qualified were required, before being eligible for election on the livery of the Company, to become Accepted Masons, that is, to join the Lodge of Speculative Masonry that was held for that purpose in the Company's Hall. Thus in the accounts for 1650, payments are entered as made by several persons ''for coming on the Liuerie & admission upon Acceptance of Masonry," and it is entered that Mr. Andrew Marvin, the present Warden, and another paid 20 shillings each "for coming on the Accepcon," while two others are entered as paying 40 shillings each "for the like," and as the names of the last two cannot be found among the members of the Masons Company it would seem as if it was possible for strangers to join "the Accepcon" on paying double fees.

Unfortunately no books connected with this Acception, or Lodge, as it may be called, have been preserved. But there are references to it in several places in the account books which show that the payments made by newly accepted Freemasons were paid into the funds of the Company, that some or all of this amount was spent on a banquet and the attendant expenses. Any further sum required was paid out of the ordinary funds of the Company, proving that the Company had entire control of the Lodge and its funds.

Further evidence of the existence of this Symbolical Lodge within the Masons Company is given by the following entry in an inventory of the Company's property made in 1665.

"Item. The names of the Accepted Masons in a faire inclosed frame with lock and key."' In an inventory of the Company's property for 1676 is found:

"Item. One book of the Constitutions of the Accepted Masons." No doubt this was a copy of one of the Old Charges.

"A faire large table of the Accepted Masons."

Proof positive of its existence is derived from an entry in the diary of Elias Ashmole-the famous antiquary-who writes:

"March 10th. 1682. About 5 p.m. I received a summons to appear at a Lodge to be held next day at Masons Hall London.

"March 1lth. Accordingly I went and about noon were admitted into the. Fellowship of Free Masons:

Sir William Wilson Knight, Capt. Rich Borthwick, Mr Will Woodman, Mr Wm Grey, Mr Samuell Taylor, and Mr William Wise."

In the edition of Ashmole's diary published in 1774 the above paragraph was changed into "I went, and about noon was admitted, by Sir William Wilson &c.," an error which has misled many Masonic historians (see Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume xi, page 6).

"I was the Senior Fellow among them (it being 35 years since I was admitted)."

Ashmole then mentions the names of nine others who were present and concludes: "We all dinned at the half Moone Taverne in Cheapeside, at a noble dinner prepared at the charge of the New-Accepted Masons."

All present were members of the Masons Company except Ashmole himself, Sir W. Wilson and Capt. Borthwick, and this entry proves conclusively that side by side with the Masons Company there existed another organization to which non-members of the Company were admitted and the members of which were known as Accepted Masons.

It may here be mentioned that Ashmole has recorded in his diary that he was made a Freemason at Warrington in Lancashire on October 16, 1646. In that entry the word Accepted does not occur.
No mention is made of the Accepted Masons in the accounts of the Masons Company after 1677, when £6, the balance remaining of the last Accepted Masons' money-was ordered to be laid out for a new banner. It would seem that from that time onward the Lodge kept separate accounts, for from the evidence of Ashmole's diary we know it was at work in 1682, but when and why it finally ceased no evidence is forthcoming to show.

However, it may fairly be assumed that this Masons Hall Lodge had ceased to exist before the Revival of Freemasonry in 1717, or else Anderson would not have said in the Constitutions of 1723 (page 82), "It is generally believed that the said Company, that is the London Company of Freemen Masons, is descended of the ancient Fraternity; and that in former Times no Man was made Free of that Company until he was installed in some Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, as a necessary Qualification. But that laudable Practice seems to have been long in Desuetude." This passage would indicate that he was aware of some tradition of such a Lodge as has been described attached to the Masons Company admitting persons in no way operatively connected with the Craft, who were called Accepted Masons to distinguish them from the Operative or Free Masons (see Conder's Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masonry and Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume ix).

Anderson in the 1738 Constitutions quotes from a copy of the old Constitutions some regulations which he says were made in 1663, and in which the phrases accepted a Free Mason and Acceptation occur several times. These regulations are found in what is known as the Grand Lodge Manuscript No. 2, which is supposed to have been written about the middle of the 17th century, so that Anderson's date in which he follows the Roberts Old Constitution printed in 1722 as to the year, though he changes the day from December 8th to December 27th, may quite possibly be correct. Brother Conder (Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masonry, page 11), calls special attention to these regulations on account of the singular resemblance that one of them bears to the rules that govern the Masons Company.

The extracts given above from the books of the Masons Company, the Ancient Regulations, if that date be accepted, and the quotation from Ashmole's diary, are the earliest known instances of the term Accepted Masons. Although the Inigo Jones Manuscript is headed "The Ancient Constitutions of the Free and Accepted Masons 1607," yet there is a consensus of opinion among experts that. such date is impossible and that the document is really to be referred to the end of the seventeenth century or even the beginning of the eighteenth.

The next instance of the use of the term is in 1686 when Doctor Plot in The Natural History of Staffordshire wrote with reference to the secret signs used by the Freemasons of his time "if any man appear, though altogether unknown, that can shew any of these signs to a Fellow of the Society, whom they otherwise call an Accepted Mason, he is obliged presently to come to him from what company or place soever he be in, nay, though from the top of steeple."

Further, in 1691, John Aubrey, author of The Natural History of Wiltshire, made a note in his manuscript: "This day (May 18, 1691) is a great convention at St. Paul's Church of the fraternity of the free Masons," in which he has erased the word free aud substituted accepted, which, however, he changed into adopted in his fair copy.

In the ''Orders to be observed by the Company and Fellowship of Freemasons att a Lodge held at Alnwick, Sept. 29, 1701, being the Gen Head Meeting Day," we find: "There shall not be apprentice after he have served seven years be admitted or accepted but upon the Feast of St. Michael the Archangel."

From that time onward the term Accepted Masons becomes common, usually in connection with Free.
The term Free and Accepted Masons thus signifying both the Operative members who were free of their Gild and the Speculative members who had been accepted as outsiders. Thus the Roberts Print of 1722 is headed, "The Old Constitutions belonging to the Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons." In the Constitutions of 1723 Anderson speaks (on page 48) of wearing "the Badges of a Free and Accepted Mason" and uses the phrase in Rule 27, though he does not use the phrase so frequently as in the 1738 edition in which "the Charges of a Free-Mason" become "the old Charges of the Free and Accepted Masons," the "General Regulations" become "The General Regulations of the Free and Accepted Mason," and Regulation No. 5: "No man can be made or admitted a Member" becomes "No man can be accepted a Member, " while the title of the book is The new book of Constitutions of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons instead of The Constitution of the Free-Masons as in the earlier edition.

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ACCEPTION or ACCEPCON

This term occurs in the records of the Company of Masons of London in the years 1620 and 1621 aud Brother Hawkins thought it to be the name of the non-operative or speculative body attached to that Company, this being the Lodge that Ashmole visited in 1682. Brother Edward Couder, Jr., says (in his work, The Hole craft and Fellowship of Masons, page 155), "It is evident that these Accepted Masons were on a different footing to those who were admitted to the freedom of the Company by servitude or patrimony. The word Accepted only occurs a few times in the whole of the accounts, and from the inventories of the Company's goods and the other entries concerning these members, proof is obtained that the Accepted Masons who joined this London Masons' Gild, did so not necessarily for the benefit of the freedom of the Company but rather for the privilege of attending the Masons' Hall Lodge at which Ashmole was present." Brother Conder points out that the item of 1631, referring to the Masons that were to be Accepted, together with the entries in the Minute Book of 1620, are the earliest post-reformation notices of speculative Freemasonry yet discovered in England (see Accepted).

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ACCEPTION, THE

The Masons Company of London show this phrase in one of their records, 1620-1, in connection seemingly with a non-operative or speculative body which was associated with them.
In 1682 Elias Ashmole visited this Lodge.

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ACCLAMATION

A certain form of words used in connection with the battery. In the Scottish Rite it is hoshea; in the French vivat; in Adoptive Masonry it was Eva; and in the Rite of Misraim, hallelujàh (see Battery).

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ACCOLADE

From the Latin ad and collum, meaning around the neck. Generally but incorrectly it is supposed that the accolade means the blow given on the neck of a newly created knight with the flat of the sword. The best authorities define it to be the embrace, or a slight blow on the cheek or shoulder, accompanied with the kiss of peace, by which the new knight was at his creation welcomed into the Order of Knighthood by the sovereign or lord who created him (see Knighthood).

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ACCORD

We get this word from the two Latin ones ad cor, meaning to the heart, and hence it means hearty consent. Thus in Wiclif's translation we find the phrase in Philippians, which in the Authorized Version is "with one accord," rendered "with one will, With one heart." Such is its signification in the Masonic formula, "free will and accord," that is, "free will and hearty consent." The blow given among the Romans to a slave was a necessary part of the manumission ceremony in bestowing freedom upon him, the very word manumit in Latin being derived from manus, hand; and mitto, send (see Free Will and Accord).

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ACCUSER

In every trial in a Lodge for an offense against the laws and regulations or the principles of Freemasonry any Master Mason may be the accuser of another, but a profane cannot be permitted to Prefer charges against a Freemason. Yet, if circumstances are known to a profane upon which charges ought to be predicated, a Master Mason may avail himself of that information, and out of it frame an accusation to be presented to the Lodge. Such accusation will be received and investigated although remotely derived from one who is not a member of the Order.

It is not necessary that the accuser should be a member of the same Lodge. It is sufficient if he is an affiliated Freemason; but it is generally held that an unaffiliated Freemason is no more competent to prefer charges than a profane.

In consequence of the Junior Warden being placed over the Craft during the hours of refreshment, and of his being charged at the time of his installation to see "that none of the Craft be suffered to convert the purposes of refreshment into those of intemperance and excess," it has been very generally supposed that it is his duty, as the prosecuting officer of the Lodge, to prefer charges against any member who, by his conduct, has made himself amenable to the penal jurisdiction of the Lodge. We know of no ancient regulation which imposes this unpleasant duty upon the Junior Warden; but it does seem to be a very natural deduction, from his peculiar prerogative as the custosmorum or guardian of the conduct of the Craft, that in all cases of violation of the law he should, after due efforts toward producing a reform, be the proper officer to bring the conduct of the offending Brother to the notice of the Lodge.

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ACELDAMA

From the Syro-Chaldaic, meaning field of blood, so called because it was purchased with the blood-money which was paid to Judas Iscariot for betraying his Lord (see Matthew xxvii, 7-10; also Acts 1, 19 ). The reader will note that the second letter of the word is sounded like k. It is situated on the slope of the hi1ls beyond the valley of Hinnom and to the south of Mount Zion. The earth there was believed, by early writers, to have possessed a corrosive quality, by means of which bodies deposited in it were quickly consumed; and hence it was used by the Crusaders, then by the Knights Hospitaler, and afterward by the Armenians, as a place of sepulture, and the Empress Helena is said to have built a charnel-house in its midst. Doctor Robinson (Biblical Researches, volume 1, page 524) says that the field is not now marked by any boundary to distinguish it from the rest of the field, and the former charnel-house is now a ruin. The field of Aceldama is referred to in the ritual of the Knights Templar.

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ACERRELLOS, R. S.

A nom de plume or pen name assumed by Carl Rössler, a German Masonic writer (see Rossler).

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ACHAD

One of the names of God. The word Achad, in Hebrew signifies one or unity. It has been adopted by Freemasons as one of the appellations of the Deity from the passage in Deuteronomy (vi, 4): "Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God is (Achad) one Lord'' which the Jews wear on their phylacteries, and pronounce with great fervor as a confession of their faith in the unity of God. Speaking of God as Achad, the Rabbis say, "God is one (Achad) and man is one (Achad). Man, however, is not purely one, because he is made up of elements and has another like himself; but the oneness of God is a oneness that has no boundary.

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ACHARON SCHILTON

In Hebrew signifying the new kingdom Significant words in some of the advanced degrees. The Latin term is given in the Manuel Maçonnique (1830, page 74) as Novissimus lmperium.

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ACHIAS

A corruption of the Hebrew Achijah the brother of Jah; a significant word in some of the advanced degrees.

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ACHISHAR

Mentioned in first Kings iv, 6, under the name of Ahishar, and there described as being "over the household" of King Solomon. This was a situation of great importance in the East, and equivalent to the modern office of Chamberlain. The Steward in a Council of Select Masters is said to represent Achishar. In Hebrew the word is pronounced ak-ee-shawr.

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ACHMETA

See Echatana

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ACHTARIEL

A Cabalistic name of God belonging to the Crown or first of the ten sephiroth ; and hence signifying the Crown or God. The sephiroth refer in the Cabalistic system to the ten persons, intelligence or attributes of God.

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ACKNOWLEDGED

When one is initiated into the degree of Most Excellent Master, he is technically said to be received and acknowledged as a Most Excellent Master. This expression refers to the tradition of the degree which states that when the Temple had been completed and dedicated, King Solomon received and acknowledged the most expert of the Craftsmen as Most Excellent Masters. That is, he received them into the exalted rank of perfect and acknowledged workmen, and acknowledged their right to that title. The verb to acknowledge here means to own or admit, to belong to, as, to acknowledge a son.

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ACOUSMATICI

The primary class of the disciples of Pythagoras, who served a five years' probation of silence, and were hence called acousmatici or hearers. According to Porphyry or Porphyrius, a Greek philosopher who lived about 233-306 A.D., they received only the elements of intellectual and moral instruction, and, after the expiration of their term of probation, they were advanced to the rank of Mathematici (see Pythagoras).

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ACQUITTAL

Under this head it may be proper to discuss two questions of Masonic law.

l. Can a Freemason, having been acquitted by the courts of the country of an offense with which he has been charged, be tried by his Lodge for the same offense?

2. Can a Freemason, having been acquitted by his Lodge on insufficient evidence, be subjected, on the discovery and production of new and more complete evidence, to a second trial for the same offense?

To both of these questions the correct answer would seem to be in the affirmative.

l. An acquittal of a crime by a temporal court does not relieve a Freemason from an inquisition into the same offense by his Lodge. Acquittals may be the result of some technicality of law, or other cause, where, although the party is relieved from legal punishment, his guilt is still manifest in the eyes of the community. If the Order were to be controlled by the action of the courts, the character of the Institution might be injuriously affected by its permitting a man, who had escaped without honor from the punishment of the law, to remain a member of the Fraternity. In the language of the Grand Lodge of Texas, "an acquittal by a jury, while it may, and should, in some circumstances, have its influence in deciding on the course to be pursued, yet has no binding force in Masonry. We decide on our own rules, and our own view of the facts" (Proceedings, Grand Lodge of Texas, volume ii page 273). The Code Governing Procedure and Practice in Masonic Trials, in the Book of Constitutions edited by Brother Henry Pirtle for the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, says, on page 195, fifth edition, "Conviction or acquittal by a civil or military court for the same offense can not be pleaded in bar of trial by a Masonic Lodge.

"2. To come to a correct apprehension of the second question, we must remember that it is a long-settled principle of Masonic law, that every offense which a Freemason commits is an injury to the whole Fraternity, inasmuch as the bad conduct of a single member reflects discredit on the whole Institution. This is a very old and well-established principle of the Institution. Hence we find the Old Constitutions declaring that Freemasons ''should never be thieves nor thieves' mountaineers''(Cooke Manuscript line 916 ).

The safety of the Institution requires that no evil-disposed member should be tolerated with impunity in bringing disgrace on the Craft. Therefore, although it is a well-known maxim of the common law - Nemo debet bis puniri pro uno delicto - that is, No one should be twice placed in peril of punishment for the same crime, yet we must also remember that other and fundamental maxim - Salus populi suprema lex-which may, in its application to Freemasonry, be well translated. The well-being of the Order is the first great law. To this everything else must yield. Therefore, if a member, having been accused of a heinous offense and tried, shall, on his trial, for want of sufficient evidence, be acquitted, or, being convicted, shall, for the same reason, be punished by an inadequate penalty, and if he shall thus be permitted to remain in the Institution with the stigma of the crime upon him, ''whereby the Craft comes to shame, " then, if new and more sufficient evidence shall be subsequently discovered, it is just and right that a new trial shall be had, so that he may, on this newer evidence, receive that punishment which will vindicate the reputation of the Order. No technicalities of law, no plea of autrefois acquit, already acquitted, nor mere verbal exception, should be allowed for the escape of a guilty member, for so long as he lives in the Order, every man is subject to its discipline. A hundred wrongful acquittals of a bad member, who still bears with him the reproach of his evil life, can never discharge the Order from its paramount duty of protecting its own good fame and removing the delinquent member from its fold. To this great duty all private and individual rights and privileges must succumb, for the well-being of the Order is the first great law in Freemasonry.

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ACTA LATOMORUM

ou Chronologie de l'Histoire de la Franche-Maçonnerie française et étrangére, etc. That is: The Acts of the Freemasons, or a Chronological History of French and Foreign Freemasonry, etc. This work, written or complied by Claude Antoine Thory, was published at Paris, in two volumes, octavo, in 1815. It contains the most remarkable facts in the history of the Institution from obscure times to the year1814; the succession of Grand Masters; a nomenclature of rites, degrees, and secret associations in all the countries of the world ; a bibliography of the principal works on Freemasonry published since 1723; and a supplement in which the author has collected a variety of rare and important Masonic documents. Of this work, which has never been translated into English, Lenning says in his Encyclopädie der Freimaurerei that it is, without dispute, the most scientific work on Freemasonry that French literature has ever produced. It must, however, be confessed that in the historical portion Thory has committed many errors in respect to English and American Freemasonry, and therefore, if ever translated, the work wi1l require much emendation (see Thory)

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ACTING GRAND MASTER

The Duke of Cumberland, grandson of George II, brother of George III, having, in April, 1782, been elected Grand Master of England, it was resolved by the Grand Lodge "that whenever a prince of the blood did the Society the honor to accept the office of Grand Master, he should be at liberty to nominate any peer of the realm to be the Acting Grand Master" (Constitutions of Grand Lodge of England, edition 1784, page 341). The officer thus provided to be appointed was subsequently called in the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of England (edition 1841), and is now called the Pro Grand Master.

In the American system, the officer who performs the duties of Grand Master in case of the removal, death, or inability of that officer, is known as the Acting Grand Master. For the regulations which prescribe the proper person to perform these duties, see Grand Master.

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ACTIVE LODGE

A Lodge is said to be active when it is neither dormant nor suspended, but regularly meets and is occupied in the labors of Freemasonry.

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ACTIVE MEMBER

An active member of a lodge is one who, in contradistinction to an honorary member, assumes all the burdens of membership, such as contributions, arrears, and participation in its labors, and is invested with all the rights of membership, such as speaking, voting, and holding office.

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ACTUAL PAST MASTERS

This term is sometimes applied to those who have actually served as Master of a Craft Lodge in order to distinguish them from those who have been made Virtual Past Masters, in Chapters of the United States, or Past Masters of Arts and Sciences, in English Chapters, as a preliminary to receiving the Royal Arch degree (see Past Master).

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ADAD

The name of the principal god among the Syrians, and who, as representing the sun, had, according to Macrobius, a Roman author of about the early part of the fifth century, in the Satualiorum (I, 23), an image surrounded by rays.

Macrobius, however, is wrong, as Selden has shown, De Diis Syris, volume I, page 6, in confounding Adad with the Hebrew Achad, or one-a name, from its signification of unity, applied to the Great Architect of the Universe.

The error of Macrobius, however, has been perpetuated by the inventors of the high degrees of Freemasonry, who have incorporated Adad, as a name of God, among their significant words.

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ADAM

The name of the first man. The Hebrew word, Adam, signifies man in a generic sense, the human species collectively, and is said to be derived from , Adamah, the ground, because the first man was made out of the dust of the earth, or from Adam, to be red, in reference to his ruddy complexion. Most probably in this collective cense. as the representative of the whole human race, and, therefore, the type of humanity, that the presiding officer in a Council of Knights of the Sun, the Twenty-eighth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, is called Father Adam, and is occupied in the investigation of the great truths which so much concern the interests of the race. Adam, in that degree, is man seeking after divine truth. The Cabalist and Talmudists have invented many things concerning the first Adam, none of which are, however, worthy of preservation (see Knight of the Sun). Brother McClenachan believed the entered Apprentice Degree symbolizes the creation of man and his first perception of light. The argument in support of that belief continues: In the Elohist form of the Creation we read, Elohim said, "Let us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness, and let him have dominion over the fishes of the sea, over the fowls of the air, over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every Reptilia that creeps upon the earth. And Elohim created man in His image, in the image of Elohim He created him, male and female He created them. And Yahveh Elohim formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed in his nostrils the breath of life, and man was made a living being."

Without giving more than a passing reference to the speculative origin and production of man and to his spontaneous generation, Principe Générateur, as set forth by the Egyptians, when we are told that "the fertilizing mud left by the Nile, and exposed to the vivifying action of heat induced by the sun's rays, brought forth germs which spring up as the bodies of men," accepted cosmogonies only will be hereinafter mentioned ; thus in that of Peru, the first man, created by the Divine Omnipotence, is called Alpa Camasca, Animated Earth. The Mandans, one of the North American tribes, relate that the Great Spirit molded two figures of clay, which he dried and animated with the breath of his mouth, one receiving the name of First Man, and the other that of Companion. Taeroa, the god of Tahiti, formed man of the red earth, say the inhabitants; aud so we might continue.

But as François Lenormant remarks in the Beginnings of History, let us confine ourselves to the cosmogony offered by the sacred traditions of the great civilized nations of antiquity. "The Chaideans call Adam the man whom the earth produced. And he lay without movement, without life, and without breath, just like an image of the heavenly Adam, until his soul had been given him by the latter," The cosmogonic account peculiar to Babylon, as given by Berossus, says: "Belos, seeing that the earth was uninhabited, though fertile, cut off his own head, and the other gods, after kneading with earth the blood that flowed from it, formed men, who therefore are endowed with intelligence, and share in the divine thought," etc. The term employed to designate man, in his connection with his Creator, is admu, the Assyrian counterpart of the Hebrew Adam (G. Smith, Chaldean Account of Genesis). Lenormant further says that. the fragments of Berossus give Adoros as the name of the first patriarch, and Adiuru has been discovered on the cuneiform inscriptions.

Zoroaster makes the creation of man the voluntary act of a personal god, distinct from primordial matter, and his theory stands alone among the learned religions of the ancient world.

According to Jewish tradition in the Targumim and the Talmud, as also to Moses Maimonides, Adam was created man and woman at the same time, having two faces, turned in two opposite directions, and that during a stupor the Creator separated Hawah, his feminine half, from him, in order to make of her a distinct person. Thus were separated the primordial androgen or first man-woman.

With Shemites and Mohammedans Adam was symbolized in the Lingam, whilst with the Jews Seth was their Adam or Lingam, the masculine symbol, and successively Noah took the place of Seth, and so followed Abraham and Moses. The worship of Adam as the God-like, idea, succeeded by Seth, Noah, Abraham, and Moses, through the symbolism of pillars, monoliths, obelisks, or Matsebas (images), gave rise to other symbolic images, as where Noah was adored under the emblems of a man, ark, and serpent, signifying heat, fire, or passion.

Upon the death of Adam, says traditional history, the pious Gregory. declared that the "dead body should be kept above ground, till a fulness of time should come to commit it to the middle of the earth by a priest of the most high God.'' This traditional prophecy was fulfilled, it is said, by the body of Adam having been preserved in a chest until about 1800 B.C., when "Melchizedek buried the body in Salem (formerly the name of Jerusalem), which might very well be the middle of the habitable world."

The Sethites used to say their prayers daily in the Ark before the body of Adam. J. G. R. Foriong, in his Rivers of Life, tells us that ''It appears from both the Sabid Aben Batric and the Arabic Catena, that there existed the following 'short litany, said to have been conceived by Noah.' Then follows the prayer of Noah, which was used for so long a period by the Jewish Freemasons at the opening of the Lodge.

'' O Lord, excellent art thou in thy truth, and there is nothing great in comparison of thee. Look upon us with the eye of mercy and compassion. Deliver us from this deluge of waters, and set our feet in a large room. By the sorrows of Adam, the first made man ; by the blood of Abel, Thy holy one ; by the righteousness of Seth, in whom Thou art well pleased ; number us not amongst those who have transgressed Thy statutes, but take us into Thy merciful care, for Thou art our Deliverer, and Thine is the praise for all the works of Thy hand for evermore. And the sons of Noah said, Amen, Lord."

The Master of the Lodge would omit the reference to the deluge and add the following to the prayer:

"But grant, we beseech Thee, that the ruler of this Lodge may be endued with knowledge and wisdom to instruct us and explain his secret masteries, as our holy brother Moses did (in His Lodge) to Aaron, to Eleazar, and to Ithamar (the sons of Aaron), and the several elders of Israel."

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ADAM KADMON

In the Cabalistic doctrine, the name given to the first emanation or outflowing from the Eternal Fountain. It signifies the first man, or the first production of divine energy, or the son of God, and to it the other emanations are subordinate.

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ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY

Sixth President of the United States, who served from 1825 to 1829. Adams, who has been very properly described as "a man of strong points and weak ones, of vast reading and wonderful memory, of great credulity and strong prejudices," became notorious in the latter years of his life for his virulent opposition to Freemasonry. The writer already quoted, who had an excellent opportunity of seeing intimately the workings of the spirit of Anti-Masonry, says of him: "He hated Freemasonry, as he did many other things, not from any harm that he had received from it or personally knew respecting it, but because his credulity had been wrought upon and his prejudices excited against it by dishonest and selfish politicians, who were anxious, at any sacrifice to him, to avail themselves of the influence of his commanding talents and position in public life to sustain them in the disreputable work in which they were enlisted. In his weakness, he lent himself to them. He united his energies to theirs in an impracticable and unworthy cause" (IV. Moore, Freemasons magazine, volume vii, page 314).

The result was a series of letters abusive of Freemasonry, directed to leading politicians, and published in the public journals from 1831 to 1833. A year before his death they were collected and published under the title of Letters on the Masonic Institution, by John Quincy Adams (published at Boston, 1847, 284 pages).

Some explanation of the cause of the virulence with which Adams attacked the Masonic Institution in these letters may be found in the following paragraph contained in an Anti-Masonic work written by one Henry Gassett, and affixed to his Catalogue of Books on the Masonic Institution (published at Boston, 1852). "It had been asserted in a newspaper in Boston, edited by a Masonic dignitary, that John 11. Adams was a Freemason. In answer to an inquiry from a person in New York State, whether he was so, Mr. Adams replied that 'he was not, and never should be.'

These few words, undoubtedly, prevented his election a second time as President of the United States. His competitor, Andrew Jackson, a Freemason, was elected."

Whether the statement contained in the italicized words be true or not, is not the question. It is sufficient that Adams was led to believe it, and hence his ill-will to an association which had, as he supposed, inflicted this political evil on him, and baffled his ambitious views.

Above reference to Adams being a member of the Craft is due to a confusion of the President's name with that of a Boston printer, John Quincy Adams, who was proposed for membership in St. Johns Lodge of that city on October 11, 1826. He was admitted on December 5.

But on the latter date the President was busily engaged at Washington as may be seen by reference to his Memoirs. This diary' also shows (on page 345, volume vii, Lippincott edition), a statement by Adams himself which settles the question. He says "I told Wilkins he might answer Tracy, that I am not and never was a Freemason."

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ADAR

Hebrew, pronounced ad-awr; the sixth month of the civil and the twelfth of the ecclesiastical year of the Jews. It corresponds to a part of February and of March. The word has also a private significance known to advanced Brethren.

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AD AREL

Angel of Fire. Referred to in the Hermetic Degree of Knight of the Sun. Probably from ... pronounced eh-der, meaning splendor, and .., El, God' that is, the splendor of God or Divine splendor.

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ADRRESSES, MASONIC

Doctor Oliver, speaking oi the Masonic discourses which began to be published soon after the reorganization of Freemasonry, in the commencement of the eighteenth century, and which he thinks were instigated by the attacks made on the Order, to which they were intended to be replies, says : "Charges and addresses were therefore delivered by Brethren in authority on the fundamental principles of the Order, and they were printed to show that its morality was sound, and not in the slightest degree repugnant to the precepts of our most holy religion. These were of sufficient merit to insure a wide circulation among the Fraternity, from whence they spread into the world at large, and proved decisive in fixing the credit of the Institution for solemnities of character and a taste for serious and profitable investigations."

There can be no doubt that these addresses, periodically delivered and widely published, have continued to exert an excellent effect in behalf of the Institution, by explaining and defending the principles on which it is founded.

Not at all unusual is it now as formerly for Grand Lodges to promote the presentation of such addresses in the Lodges. For example, the Grand Lodge of Ohio (in the Masonic Code of that State, 1914, page 197, section 82), says of the several Subordinate Lodges: "It is enjoined upon them, as often as it is feasible, to introduce into their meetings Lectures and Essays upon Masonic Polity, and the various arts and sciences connected therewith."

The first Masonic address of which we have any notice was delivered on the 24th of June, 1721, before the Grand Lodge of England, by the celebrated John Theophilus Desagullers, LL.D, and F.R.S. The Book of Constitutions (edition 1738, page l13), under that date, says "Brother Desaguliers made an eloquent oration about Masons and Masonry." Doctor Oliver, in his Revelations of a Square (page 22), states that this address was issued in a printed form, but no copy of it now remains---at least it has escaped the researches of the most diligent Masonic bibliographers.

On the 20th of May, 1725, Martin Folkes, then Deputy Grand Master, delivered an address before the Grand Lodge of England, which is cited in the Freemason's Pocket Companion for 1759, but no entire copy of the address is now extant.

The third Masonic address of which we have any knowledge is one entitled "A Speech delivered to the Worshipful and Ancient Society of Free and Accepted Masons, at a Grand Lodge held at Merchants' Hall, in the City of York, on Saint John's Day, December 27, 1726, the Right Worshipful Charles Bathurst, Esq., Grand Master. By the Junior Grand Warden. Olim meminisse juvabit. York: Printed by Thomas Gent, for the benefit of the Lodge."

The Latin words Olim meminisse juvabit, as given on the above copy of the title page of this printed address, are taken from the works of the Roman epic poet Vergil, Who writes thus: Forsan et haec olim meminisse juvabit meaning Perchance even these things it will be hereafter delightful to remember.

The author of the above address was Francis Drake, M.D., F.R.S., who was appointed Junior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of All England at York on December 27, 1725 (see Drake, Francis). The first edition of the speech bears no date, but was probably issued in 1727, and it was again published at London in 1729, and a second London edition was published in 1734, which has been reprinted in Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Reprints (American edition, page 106). This is, therefore, the earliest Masonic address to which we have access. It contains a brief sketch of the history of Freemasonry, written as Masonic history was then written. The address is, however, remarkable for advancing the claim of the Grand Lodge of York to a superiority over that of London, and for containing a very early reference to the three degrees of Craft Masonry. The fourth Masonic address of whose existence we have any knowledge is "a Speech Delivered to the Worshipful Society of Free and Accepted Masons, at a Lodge, held at the Carpenters Arms in Silver-Street, Golden Square, the 31st of December, 1728. By the Right Worshipful Edw. Oakley, Architect, M.M., late Provincial Senior Grand Warden in Carmarthen, South Wales." This speech was reprinted by Cole in his Ancient Constitutions at London in 1731.

America has the honor of presenting the next attempt at Masonic oratory. The fifth address, and the first American, which is extant, is one delivered in Boston, Massachusetts, on June 24, 1734. It is entitled "A Dissertation upon Masonry, delivered to a Lodge in America, June 24th, 1734. Christ's Regm."

This last word is doubtless an abbreviation of the Latin word for kingdom. Discovered by Brother C. W. Moore in the archives of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, it was published by him in his magazine in 1849. This address is well written, and of a symbolic character, as the author represents the Lodge as a type of heaven.

Sixthly, we have "An Address made to the body of Free and Accepted Masons assembled at a Quarterly communication, held near Temple Bar, December 11, 1735, by Martin Clare, Junior Grand Warden."

Martin Clare was distinguished in his times as a Freemason, and his address, which Doctor Oliver has inserted in his Golden Remains, has been considered of value enough to be translated into the French and German languages.

Next, on March 21, 1737, the Chevalier Ramsay delivered an oration before the Grand Lodge of France, in which he discussed the Freemasonry and the Crusaders and traced an imaginary history of its course through Scotland and England into France, which was to become the center of the reformed Order.

Ramsay and his address are discussed at length in Doctor. Mackey's revised History of Freemasonry. A report of this speech is to be found in the Histoire &c. de la tre ven. Confratenité des F. M. &c. Traduit par 1e Fr. de la Tierce. Francfort, 1742. This French title means History of the very Worshipful Fraternity of Freemasons, etc. Translated by the Brother of the Third Degree. Frankfort, 1742. An English version of this much discussed address by the Chevaller Ramsey is given in Robert F. Gould's History of Freemasonry, vo1unle 3, pages 84-9 (see Ramsay).
After this period, Masonic addresses rapidly multiplied, w that it would be impossible to record their titles or even the names of their authors.

What Martial (1, 17), in the first century, said of his own epigrams, that some were good, some bad, and a great many middling, may, with equal propriety and justice, be said of Masonic addresses. Of the thousands that have been delivered, many have been worth neither printing nor preservation.

One thing, however, is to be remarked : that within a few years the literary character of these productions has greatly improved. Formerly, a Masonic address on some festal occasion of the Order was little mor than a homily on brotherly love or some other Masonic virtue. Often the orator was a clergyman, selected by the Lodge on account of his moral character or his professional ability. These clergymen were frequently among the youngest members of the Lodge, and men who had no opportunity to study the esoteric construction of Freemasonry. In such cases we will find that the addresses were generally neither more nor less than sermons under another name.

They contain excellent general axioms of conduct, and sometimes encomiums or formal praises on the laudable design of our Institution.

But we look in vain in them for any ideas which refer to the history or to the occult philosophy of Freemasonry. Only in part do they accept the definition that Freemasonry is a science of morality, veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols. They dwell on the science of morality, but they say nothing of the symbols or the allegories. But, as has been already said, there has been an evident improvement. Many of the addresses now delivered are of a higher order of Masonic literature. The subjects of Masonic history, of the origin of the Institution, of its gradual development from an operative art to a speculative science, of its symbols, and of its peculiar features which distinguish it from all other associations, have been ably discussed in many recent Masonic addresses. Thus have the efforts to entertain an audience for an hour become not only the means of interesting instruction to the hearers, but also valuable contributions to the literature of Freemasonry.

Masonic addresses should be written in this way.

All platitudes and old truisms should be avoided.

Sermonizing, which is good in its place, is out of place there. No one should undertake to deliver a Masonic address unless he knows something of the subject on which he is about to speak, and unless he is capable of saying what will make every Freemason who hears him a wiser as well as a better man, or at least what will afford him the opportunity of becoming so.

*

ADELPH

From the Greek, meaning a brother. The first degree of the Order of the Palladium. Reghellini says that there exists in the archives of Douai the ritual of a Masonic Society, called Adelphs, which has been communicated to the Grand Orient, but which he thinks is the same as the Primitive Rite of Narbonne.

*

ADEPT

One fully skilled or well versed in any art; from the Latin word Adeptus, meaning having obtained, because the Adept claimed to be in the possession of all the secrets of his peculiar mystery.

The Alchemists or Hermetic philosophers assumed the title of Adepts (see Alchemy). Of the Hermetic Adepts, who were also sometimes called Rosicruzians, Spence thus writes, in 1740, to his Mother: "Have you ever heard of the people called Adepts? They are a set of philosophers superior to whatever appeared among the Greeks and Romans. The three great points they drive at, are, to be free from poverty, distempers, and death; and, if you believe them, they have found out one secret that is capable of freeing them from all three. There are never more than twelve of these men in the whole world at a time ; and we have the happiness of having one of the twelve at this time in Turin.

I am very well acquainted with him, and have often talked with him of their secrets, as far as he is allowed to talk to a common mortal of them" (Spence's Letter to his Mother, in Singer's Anecdotes, page 403).

In a similar allusion to the possession of abstruse knowledge, the word is applied to some of the advanced degrees of Freemasonry.

*

ADEPT, PRINCE

One of the names of the Twenty-eighth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite (see Knight of the Sun). It was the Twenty-third Degree of the System of the Chapter of Emperors of the East and West of Clermont.

*

ADEPT, THE

A Hermetic Degree of the collection of A. Viany. It is also the Fourth Degree of the Rite of Relaxed Observance, and first of the advanced degrees of the Rite of Elects of Truth. "It has much analogy, " says Thory, "with the degree of Knight of the Sun." It is also called Chaos Dismantled.

*

ADEPTUS ADOPTATUS

The Seventh Degree of the Rite of Zinnendorf, consisting of a kind of chemical and pharmaceutical instruction.

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ADEPTUS CORONATUS

Called a1so Templar Master of the Key. The Seventh Degree of the Swedish Rite.

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ADEPTUS EXEMPTUS

The Seventh Degree of the system adopted by those German Rosicrucians who were known as the Gold und Rosenkreutzer, or the Gold and Rosy Cross, and whom Lenning supposes to have been the first who engrafted Rosicrucianism on Freemasonry.

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ADHERING MASON

Those Freemasons who, during the anti-Masonic excitement in America, on account of the supposed abduction of Morgan, refused to leave their Lodges and renounce Freemasonry, were so called. They embraced among their number some of the wisest, best, and most influential men of the country.

*

ADHUC STAT

Latin phrase meaning It yet stands or She yet stands and frequently found on Masonic medals (see Mossdorf's Denkmûnzen). Probably originally used by the Strict Observance and then refers to the preservation of Templary.

*

ADJOURNMENT

C. W. Moore (Freemasons Magazine xii, page 290) says: "We suppose it to be generally conceded that Lodges cannot properly, be adjourned. It has been so decided by, a large proportion of the Grand Lodges in America, and tacitly, at least, concurred in by all. We are not aware that there is a dissenting voice among them. It is, therefore, safe to assume that the settled policy is against adjournment."

The reason which he assigns for this rule, is that adjournment is a method used only in deliberative bodies, such as legislatures and courts, aud as Lodges do not partake of the character of either of these, adjournments are not applicable to them. The rule which Brother Moore lays down is undoubtedly correct, but the reason which he assigns for it is not sufficient. If a Lodge were permitted to adjourn by the vote of a majority of its members, the control of the labor would be placed in their hands. But according to the whole spirit of the Masonic system, the Master alone controls and directs the hours of labor.

In the fifth of the Old Charges, approved in 1722, it is declared that "All Masons shall meekly receive their Wages without murmuring or mutiny, and not desert the Master till the Lord's work is finished." Now as the Master alone can know when "the work is finished," the selection of the time of closing must be vested in him. He is the sole judge of the proper period at which the labors of the Lodge should be terminated, and he may suspend business even in the middle of a debate, if he supposes that it is expedient to close the Lodge. Hence no motion for adjournment can ever be admitted in a Masonic Lodge. Such a motion would be an interference with the prerogative of the Master, and could not therefore be entertained.

The Earl of Zetland, when Grand Master of England, ruled on November 19, 1856, that a Lodge has no power to adjourn except to the next regular day of meeting. He said: "I may, say that Private Lodges are governed by much the same laws as Grand Lodges, and that no meeting of a Private Lodge can be adjourned; but the Master of a Private Lodge may, and does, convene Lodges of Emergency. "

This is in the Freemasons Magazine (1856, page 848).

This prerogative of opening and closing his Lodge is necessarily vested in the Master, because, by the nature of our Institution, he is responsible to the Grand Lodge for the good conduct of the body over which he presides. He is charged, in those questions to which he is required to give his assent at his installation, to hold the Landmarks in veneration, and to conform to every edict of the Grand Lodge, and for any violation of the one or disobedience of the other by the Lodge, in his presence, he would be answerable to the supreme Masonic authority. Hence the necessity that an arbitrary power should be conferred upon him, by the exercise of which he may at any time be enabled to prevent the adoption of resolutions, or the commission of any act which would be subversive of, or contrary to, those ancient laws and usages which he has sworn to maintain and preserve.

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ADMIRATION, SIGN OF

A mode of recognition alluded to in the Most Excellent Master's Degree, or the Sixth of the American Rite. Its introduction in that place is referred to a Masonic legend in connection with the visit of the Queen of Sheba to Kings Solomon, which states that, moved by the widespread reputation of the Israelitish monarch, she had repaired to Jerusalem to inspect the magnificent works of which she had heard so many encomiums.

Upon arriving there, and beholding for the first time the Temple, which glittered with gold, and which was so accurate1y adjusted in all its parts as to seem to be composed of but a single piece of marble, she raised her hands and eyes to heaven in an attitude of admiration, and at the same time exclaimed, Rabboni! equivalent to saying A most excellent master hath done this! This actions has since been perpetuated in the ceremonies of the Degree of Most Excellent Master. The legend is, however, of doubtful authority, and is really to be considered only as allegorical, like so many other of the legends of Freemasonry (see Sheba, Queen of).

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ADMISSION

Although the Old Charges, approved in 1722, use the word admitted as applicable to those who are initiated into the mysteries of Freemasonry, yet the General Regulations of 1721 employ the term admission in a sense different from that of initiation. By the word making they imply the reception of a profane into the Order, but by admission they designate the election of a Freemason into a Lodge. Thus we find such expressions as these clearly indicating a difference in the meaning of the two words. In Regulation v-"No man can be made or admitted a member of a particular Lodge." In Regulation vi-"But no man can be entered a Brother in any particular Lodge, or admitted to be a member thereof." And more distinctly in Regulation viii-"No set or number of Brethren shall withdraw or separate themselves from the Lodge in which they were made Brethren or were afterwards admitted members." This distinction has not always been rigidly preserved by recent writers; but it is evident that, correctly speaking, we should always say of a profane who has been initiated that he has been made a Freemason, and of a Freemason who has been affiliated with a Lodge, that he has been admitted a member. The true definition of admission is, then, the reception of an unaffiliated Brother into membership (see Affiliated Freemason).

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ADMONITION

According to the ethics of Freemasonry, it is made a duty obligatory upon every member of the Order to conceal the faults of a Brother; that is, not to blazon forth his errors and infirmities, to let them be learned by the world from some other tongue than his, and to admonish him of them in private. So there is another but a like duty or obligation, which instincts him to whisper good counsel in his Brother's ear and to warn him of approaching danger. This refers not more to the danger that is without and around him than to that which is within him ; not more to the peril that springs from the concealed foe who would waylay him and covertly injure him, than to that deeper peril of those faults and infirmities which lie within his own heart, and which, if not timely crushed by good and earnest resolution of amendment, will, like the ungrateful serpent in the fable, become warm with life only to sting the bosom that has nourished them.

Admonition of a Brother's fault is, then, the duty of every Freemason, and no true one will, for either fear or favor, neglect its performance. But as the duty is Masonic, so is there a Masonic way in which that duty should be discharged. We must admonish not with self-sufficient pride in our own reputed goodness-not in imperious tones, as though we looked down in scorn upon the degree offender---not in language that, by its hardness, will wound rather than win, wil1 irritate more than it will reform; but with that persuasive gentleness that gains the heart- with the all-subduing influences of "mercy unrestrained"-with the magic' might of love---with the language and the accents of affection, which mingle grave displeasure for the offense with grief and pity for the offender.

This, and this alone is Masonic admonition. I am not to rebuke my Brother in anger, for I, too, have my faults, and I dare not draw around me the folds of my garment lest they should be polluted by my neighbor's touch; but I am to admonish in private, not before the world, for that would degrade him; and I am to warn him, perhaps from my own example, how vice ever should be followed by sorrow, for that goodly sorrow leads to repentance, and repentance to amendment, and amendment to joy.

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ADONAI

In Hebrew, pronounced ad-o-noy, being the plural of excellence for Aden, meaning to rule, and signifying the Lord. The Jews, who reverently avoided the pronunciation of the sacred name JEHOVAH, were accustomed, whenever that name occurred, to substitute for it the word Adonai in reading. As to the use of the plural form instead of the singular, the Rabbis say, "Every word indicative of dominion, though singular in meaning, is made plural in form." This is called the pluralis excellentiae. The Talmudists also say, as in Joannes Buxtorfius, Lexicon Chaldaicum, Talmudicum et Rabbinicum, that the Tetragrammaton is called Shem hamphorash, the name that is separated or explained, because it is explained, uttered, and set forth by the word Adonai (see Jehovah and Shem Hamphorasch).

Adonai is used as a significant word in several of the advanced degrees of Freemasonry, and may almost always be considered as allusive to or symbolic of the True Word.

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ADONHIRAM

This has been adopted by the disciples of Adonhiramite Freemasonry as the spelling of the name of the person known in Scripture and in other Masonic systems as Adoniram (which see). They correctly derive the word from the Hebrew Adon and hiram, signifying the master who is exalted, which is the true meaning of Adoniram, the ..or h being omitted in the Hebrew by the union of the two words. Hiram Abif has also sometimes been called Adonhiram, the Adon having been bestowed on him by Solomon, it is said, as a title of honor.

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ADONIS, MYSTERIES OF

An investigation of the Mysteries of Adonis peculiarly claims the attention of the Masonic student. First, because, in their symbolism and in their esoteric doctrine, the religious object for which they were instituted, and the mode in which that object is attained, they bear a nearer analogical resemblance to the Institution of Freemasonry than do any of the other mysteries or systems of initiation of the ancient world. Secondly, because their chief locality brings them into a very close connection with the early history and reputed origin of Freemasonry. These ceremonies were principally celebrated at Byblos, a city of Phoenicia, whose Scriptural name was Gebal, and whose inhabitants were the Giblites or Gebalites, who are referred to in the First Book of Kings (v; 18), as being the stone-squarers employed by King Solomon in building the Temple (see Gebal and Giblim). Hence there must have evidently been a very intimate connection, or at least certainly a very frequent intercommunication, between the workmen of the first Temple and the inhabitants of Byblos, the seat of the Adonisian Mysteries, and the place whence the worshipers of that Rite were spread over other regions of country.

These historical circumstances invite us to an examination of the system of initiation which was practiced at Byblos, because we may find in it something that was probably suggestive of the symbolic system of instruction which was subsequently so prominent a feature in the system of Freemasonry.

Let us first examine the myth on which the Adonisiac initiation was founded. The mythological legend of Adonis is that he was the son of Myrrha and Cinyras, King of Cyprus. Adonis was possessed of such surpassing beauty, that Venus became enamored of him, and adopted him as her favorite. Subsequently Adonis, who was a great hunter, died from a wound inflicted by a wild boar on Mount Lebanon. Venus flew to the succor of her favorite, but she came too late. Adonis was dead. On his descent to the infernal regions, Proserpine became, like Venus, so attracted by his beauty, that, notwithstanding the entreaties of the goddess of love she refused to restore him to earth At length the prayers of the desponding Venus were listened to with favor by Jupiter, who reconciled the dispute between the two goddesses, and by whose decree Proserpine was compelled to consent that Adonis should spend six months of each year alternately with herself and Venus.

This is the story on which the Greek poet Bion founded his exquisite idyll entitled the Epilaph of Adonis, the beginning of which has been thus rather inefficiently "done into English" :

I and the Loves Adonis dead deplore:
The beautiful Adonis is indeed
Departed, parted from us. Sleep no more
In purple, Cyprisi but in watchet weed,
All wretched! beat thy breast and all aread
" Adonis is no more." The Loves and I
Lament him. " Oh her grief to see him bleed,
Smitten by white tooth on whiter thigh,
Out-breathing life's faint sigh upon the mountain high."

It is evident that Bion referred the contest of Venus and Proserpine for Adonis to a period subsequent to his death, from the concluding lines, in which he says:

"The Muses, too, lament the son of Cinyras, and invoke him in their song; but he does not heed them, not because he does not wish, but because Proserpine will not release him." This was, indeed, the favorite form of the myth, and on it was framed the symbolism of the ancient mystery. But there are other Grecian mythologies that relate the tale of Adonis differently. According to these, he was the product of the incestuous connection of Cinyras and his daughter Myrrha.

Cinyras subsequently, on discovering the crime of his daughter, pursued her with a drawn sword, intending to kill her.

Myrrha entreated the gods to make her invisible, and they changed her into a myrrh tree. Ten months after the myrrh tree opened, and the young Adonis was born. This is the form of the myth that has been adopted by the poet Ovid, who gives it with all its moral horrors in the Tenth Book (lines 29s-559) of his Melamrphoses.

Venus, who was delighted with the extraordinary beauty of the boy, put him in a coffer or chest, unknown to all the gods, and gave him to Proserpine to keep and to nurture in the under world. But Proserpine had no sooner beheld him than she became enamored of him and refused, when Venus applied for him, to surrender him to her rival. The subject was then referred to Jupiter, who decreed that Adonis should have one-third of the year to himself, should be another third with Venus, and the remainder of the time with Proserpine. Adonis gave his own portion to Venus, and lived happily with her till, having offended Diana, he was killed by a wild boar. The mythographer Pharnutus gives a still different story, and says that Adonis was the grandson of Cinyras, aud fled with his father, Ammon, into Egypt, whose people he civilized, taught them agriculture, and enacted many wise laws for their government. He subsequently passed over into Syria, and was wounded in the thigh by a wild boar while hunting on Mount Lebanon. His wife, Isis, or Astarte, and the people of Phoenicia and Egypt, supposing that the wound was mortal, profoundly deplored his death. But he afterward recovered, and their grief was replaced by transports of joy.

All the myths, it will be seen, agree in his actual or supposed death by violence, in the grief for his loss in his recovery or restoration to life, and in the consequent joy thereon. On these facts are founded the Adonisian mysteries which were established in his honor.

While, therefore, we may grant the possibility that there was originally some connection between the Sabean worship of the sun and the celebration of the Adonisian festival, we cannot forget that these mysteries, in common with all the other sacred initiations of the ancient world, had been originally established to promulgate among the initiates the once hidden doctrine of a future life.

The myth of Adonis in Syria, like that of Osiris in Egypt, of Atys in Samothrace, or of Dionysus in Greece, presented, symbolically, the two great ideas of decay and restoration. This doctrine sometimes figured as darkness and light, sometimes as winter and summer, sometimes as death and life, but always maintaining, no matter what was the framework of the allegory, the inseparable ideas of something that was lost and afterward recovered, as its interpretation, and so teaching, as does Freemasonry at this day, by a similar system of allegorizing, that after the death of the body comes the eternal life of the soul. The inquiring Freemason will thus readily see the analogy in the symbolism that exists between Adonis in the Mysteries of the Gebalites at Byblos and Hiram the Builder in his own Institution.

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ADONHIRAMITE FREEMASONRY

Of the numerous controversies which arose from the middle to near the end of the eighteenth century on the Continent of Europe, and especially in France, among the students of Masonic philosophy, and which so frequently resulted in the invention of new Degrees and the establishment of new Rites, not the least prominent was that which related to the person and character of the Temple Builder. The question, Who was the architect of King Solomon's Temple? was answered differently by the various theorists, and each answer gave rise to a new system, a fact by no means surprising in those times, so fertile in the production of new Masonic systems. The general theory was then, as it is now, that this architect was Hiram Abif, the widow's son, who had been sent to King Solomon by Hiram, King of Tyre, as a precious gift, and as a curious and cunning workman.

This theory was sustained by the statements of the Jewish Scriptures, so far as they threw any light on the Masonic legend. It was the theory of the English Freemasons from the earliest times; was enunciated as historically correct in the first edition of the Book of Constitutions (published in 1723, page 11) ; has continued ever since to be the opinion of all English and American Freemasons; and is, at this day, the only theory entertained by any Freemason in the two countries who has a theory at all on the subject. This, therefore, is the orthodox faith of Freemasonry.

But such was not the case in the last century on the Continent of Europe. At first the controversy arose not as to the man himself, but as to his proper appellation.

All parties agreed that the architect of the Temple was that Hiram, the widow's son, who is described in the First Book of Kings (chapter vii, verses 13 and14), and in the Second 'Book of Chronicles (chapter ii, verses 13 and 14), as having come out of Tyre with the other workmen of the Temple who had been sent by King Hiram to Solomon. But one party called him Hiram Abif, and the other, admitting that his original name was Hiram, supposed that, in consequence of the skill he had displayed in the construction of the Temple, he had received the honorable affix of Adon, signifying, Lord or Master, whence his name became Adonhiram.

There was, however, at the Temple another Adoniram, of whom it will be necessary in passing to say a few words, for the better understanding of the present subject.

The first notice that we have of this Adoniram in Scripture is in the Second Book of Samuel (chapter xx, verse 24), where, in the abbreviated form of his name, Adoram, he is said to have been over the tribute in the house of David ; or, as Gesenius, a great authority on Hebrew, translates it, prefect over the tribute service, or, as we might say in modem phrase, principal collector of the taxes.

Seven years afterward, we find him exercising the same office in the household of Solomon; for it is said in First Kings (iv, 6) that Adoniram, "the son of Abda, was over the tribute." Lastly, we hear of him still occupying the same station in the household of King Rehoboam, the successor of Solomon. Forty-seven years after he is first mentioned in the Book of Samuel, he is stated under the name of Adoram, First Kings (xii, 1s), or Hadoram, Second Chronicles (x, 18), to have been stoned to death, while in the discharge of his duty, by the people, who were justly indignant at the oppressions of his master.

The legends and traditions of Freemasonry which connect this Adoniram with the Temple at Jerusalem derive their support from a single passage in the First Book of Kings (v, 14), where it is said that Solomon made a levy of thirty thousand workmen from among the Israelites; that he sent these in courses of ten thousand a month to labor on Mount Lebanon, and that he placed Adoniram over these as their superintendent.

The ritual-makers of France, who were not all Hebrew scholars, nor well versed in Biblical history, seem at times to have confounded two important personages, and to have lost all distinction between Hiram the Builder, who had been sent from the court of the King of Tyre, and Adoniram, who had always been an officer in the court of King Solomon. This error was extended and facilitated when they had prefixed the title Aden, that is to say, lord or master, to the name of the former, making him Aden Hiram, or the Lord Hiram.

Thus, about the year 1744, one Louis Travenol published at Paris, under the name of Leonard Gabanon, a work entitled Catéchisme des Francs Maçons, ou Le Secret des Maçons, in which he says:

"Besides the cedars of Lebanon, Hiram made a much more valuable gift to Solomon, in the person of Adonhiram, of his own race, the son of a widow of the tribe of Naphtali. His father, who was named Hur, was an excellent architect and worker in metals. Solomon, knowing his virtues, his merit, and his talents, distinguished him by the most eminent position, intrusting to him the construction of the Temple and the superintendence of all the workmen" (see Louis Guillemain de Saint Victor's Recueil Précieuz, French for Choice Collection, page 76).

From the language of this extract, and from the reference in the title of the book to Adoram, which we know was one of the names of Solomon's tax collector, it is evident that the author of the catechism has confounded Hiram Abif, who came out of Tyre, with Adoniram, the son of Abda, who had always lived at Jerusalem ; that is to say, with unpardonable ignorance of Scriptural history and Masonic tradition, he has supposed the two to be one and the same person.

Notwithstanding this literary blunder, the catechism became popular with many Freemasons of that day, and thus arose the first schism or error in relation to the Legend of the Third Degree. In Solomon in all His Glory, an English exposure published in 1766, Adoniram takes the place of Hiram, but this work is a translation from a similar French one, and so it must not be argued that English Freemasons ever held this view.

At length, other ritualists, seeing the inconsistency of referring the character of Hiram, the widow's son, to Adoniram, the receiver of taxes, and the impossibility of reconciling the discordant facts in the life of both, resolved to cut the Gordian knot by refusing any Masonic position to the former, and making the latter, alone, the architect of the Temple. It cannot be denied that Josephus (viii, 2) states that Adoniram, or, as he calls him, Adoram, was, at the very beginning of the labor, placed over the workmen who prepared the materials on Mount Lebanon, and that he speaks of Hiram, the widow's son, simply as a skillful artisan, especia1ly in metals, who had only made all the mechanical works about the Temple according to the will of Solomon (see Josephus, viii, 3). This apparent color of authority for their opinions was readily claimed by the Adoniramites, and hence one of their most prominent ritualists, Guillemain de Saint Victor (in his Recueil Précieux de la Maçonnerie Adonhiramite, Pages 77-s), propounds their theory thus: "we a11 agree that the Master's Degree is founded on the architect of the Temple. Now, Scripture says very positively, in the 14th verse of the 5th chapter of the Third Book of Kings, that the person was Adonhiram. In the Septuagint, the oldest translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, the two books of Samuel are called the First and Second of Kings. Josephus and all the secrete writers say the same thing, and undoubtedly distinguish him from Hiram the Tyrian, the worker in metals. So that it is Adonhiram then whom we are bound to honor.

There were therefore, in the eighteenth century, from about the middle to near the end of it, three schools of Masonic ritualists who were divided in opinion identity of this Temple Builder:

1. Those who supposed him to be Hiram the son of a widow of the tribe of Naphtali, whom the King of Tyre had sent to King Solomon, and whom they designated as Hiram Abif. This was the original and most popular school, and which we now suppose to have been the orthodox one.

2. Those who believed this Hiram that came out of Tyre to have been the architect, but who supposed that, in consequence of his excellence of character, Solomon had bestowed upon him the appellation of Adon, Lord or Master, calling him Adonhiram. As this theory was wholly unsustained by Scripture history or previous Masonic tradition, the school which supported it never became prominent or popular, and soon ceased to exist, although the error on which it is based is repeated at intervals in the blunder of some modern French ritualists.

3. Those who, treating this Hiram, the widow's son, as a subordinate and unimportant character, entirely ignored him in their ritual, and asserted that Adoram, or Adoniram, or Adonhiram, as the name was spelled by these ritualists, the son of Abda, the collector of tribute and the superintendent of the levy on Mount Lebanon, was the true architect of the Temple, and the one to whom all the legendary incidents of the Third Degree of Freemasonry were to be referred.

This school, in consequence of the boldness with which, unlike the second school, it refused all compromise with the orthodox party and assumed a wholly independent theory, became, for a time, a prominent schism in Freemasonry. Its disciples bestowed upon the believers in Hiram Abif the name of Hiramite Masons, adopted as their own distinctive appellation that of Adonhiramites, and having developed the system which they practiced into a peculiar rite, called it Adonhiramite Freemasonry.

Who was the original founder of the rite of Adonhiramite Freemasonry, and at what precise time it was first established, are questions that cannot now be answered with any certainty. Thory does not attempt to reply to either in his Nomenclature of Rites, where, if anything was known on the subject, we would be most likely to find it. Ragon, it is true, in his Orthodoxie Maçonnique, attributes the Rite to the Baron de Tschoudy. But as he also assigns the authorship of the Recueil Précieux (a work of which we shall directly speak more fully) to the same person, in which statement he is known to be mistaken, there can be but little doubt that he is wrong in the former as well as in the latter opinion. The Chevalier de Lussy, better known as the Baron de Tschoudy, was, it is true, a distinguished ritualist. He founded the Order of the Blazing Star, and took an active part in the operations of the Council of Emperors of the East and West; but we have met with no evidence, outside of Ragon's assertion, that he established or had anything to do with the Adonhiramite Rite.

We are disposed to attribute the development into a settled system, if not the actual creation, of the Rite of Adonhiramite Freemasonry to Louis Guillemain de Saint Victor, who published at Paris, in the year 1781, a work entitled Recueil Precieux de la Maçonnerie Adonhiramite, etc.
As this volume contained only the ritual of the first four degrees, it was followed, in 1785, by another, which embraced the higher degrees of the Rite. No one who peruses these volumes can fail to perceive that the author writes like one who has invented, or, at least, materially modified the Rite which is the subject of his labors. At a1l events, this work furnishes the only authentic account that we possess of the organization of the Adonhiramite system of Freemasonry.

The Rite of Adonhiramite Freemasonry consisted of twelve degrees, which were as follows, the names being given in French as well as in English:

1. Apprentice-Apprenti.
2. Fellow-Craft-Compagnon.
3. Master Mason-Maître.
4. Perfect Master-Maitre parfait.
5. Elect of Nine---Premier Elu, qu L'Elu des Neuf.
6. Elect of Perignan-Second Elu nommé Elu de Pérignan.
7. Elect of Fifteen-Troisiéme Elu nommé Elu des Quinze.
8. Minor Architect-Petit Architecte.
9. Grand Architect, or Scottish Fellow Craft-Grand Archirecte, ou Compagnon Ecossais.
10. Scottish Master-Maître Ecossais.
l1, Knight of the Sword, Knight of the East, or of the Eagle-Chevalier de l'Épée surnommé Chefalier de l'Orient ou de l'Aigle.
12. Knight of Rose Croix-Chevalier de la Rose Croiz.

This is the entire list of Adonhiramite Degrees.

Thory and Ragon have both erred in giving a Thirteenth Degree, namely, the Noachite, or Prussian Knight. They have fallen into this mistake because Guillemain has inserted this degree at the end of his second volume, but simply as a Masonic curiosity, having been translated, as he says, from the German by M. de Bérage. It has no connection with the preceding series of degrees, and Guillemain positively declares in the second part (2nd Ptie, page l18) that the Rose Croix is the ne plus ultra, the Latin for nothing further, the summit and termination, of his Rite.
Of these twelve degrees, the first ten are occupied with the transactions of the first Temple; the eleventh with matters relating to the construction of the second Temple; and the twelfth with that Christian symbolism of Freemasonry which is peculiar to the Rose Croix of every Rite. All of the degrees have been borrowed from the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, with slight modifications, which have seldom improved their character. On the whole, the extinction of the Adonhiramite Rite can scarcely be considered as a loss to Freemasonry.

Before concluding, a few words may be said on the orthography of the title. As the Rite derives its peculiar characteristic from the fact that it founds the Third Degree on the assumed legend that Adoniram, the son of Abda and the receiver of tribute, was the true architect of the Temple, and not Hiram, the widow's son, it should properly have been styled the Adoniramite Rite, and not the Adonhiramite. So it would probably have been called if Guillemain, who gave it form, had been acquainted with the Hebrew language, for he would then have known that the name of his hero was Adoniram and not Adonhiram.

The term Adonhiramite Freemasons should really have been applied to the second school described in this article, whose disciples admitted that Hiram Abif was the architect of the Temple, but who supposed that Solomon had bestowed the prefix Adon upon him as a mark of honor, calling him Adonhiram. But Gui1lemain having committed the blunder in the name of his Rite, it continued to be repeated by his successors, and it would perhaps now be inconvenient to correct the error.

Ragon, however, and a few other recent writers, have ventured to take this step, and in their works the system is called Adoniramite Freemasonry.

*

ADONIRAM

The first notice that we have of Adoniram in Scripture is in the Second Book of Samuel (xx, 24), where, in the abbreviated form of his name Adoram, he is said to have been over the tribute in the house of David, or, as Gesenius translates it prefect over the tribute service, tribute master, that is to say, in modern phrase, he was the chief receiver of the taxes.

Clarke calls him Chancellor of the Exchequer. Seven years afterward we find him exercising the same office in the household of Solomon, for it is said, First Kings (iv, 6), that "Adoniram the son of Abda was over the tribute."

Lastly, we hear of him still occupying the same station in the household of King Rehoboam, the successor of Solomon. Forty-seven years after he is first mentioned in the Book of Samuel, he is stated under the name of Adoram, First Kings (xii, 18), or Hadoram, Second Chronides (X,18), to have been stoned to death, while in the discharge of his duty, by the people, who were justly indignant at the oppressions of his master.

Although commentators have been at a loss to determine whether the tax-receiver under David, under Solomon, and under Rehoboam was the same person, there seems to be no reason to doubt it; for, as Kitto says, ''It appears very unlikely that even two persons of the same name should successively bear the same office, in an age when no example occurs of the father's name being given to his son. We find, a1so, that not more than forty-seven years elapse between the first and last mention of the Adoniram who was 'over the tribute and as this, although a long term of service, is not too long for one life and as the person who held the office in the beginning of Rehoboam's reign had served in it long enough to make himself odious to the people, it appears, on the whole, most probable that one and the same person is intended throughout" (John Eitto in his Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature).

Adoniram plays an important part in the Masonic system, especially in advanced degrees, but the time of action in which he appears is confined to the period occupied in the construction of the Temple. The legends and traditions which connect him with that edifice derive their support from a single passage in the First Book of Kings (V, 14),where it is said that Solomon made a levy of thirty thousand workmen from among the Israelites ; that he sent these in courses of ten thousand a month to labor on Mount Lebanon, and that he placed Adoniram over these as their superintendent. From this brief statement the Adoniramite Freemasons have deduced the theory, as may be seen in the preceding article, that Adoniram was the architect of the Temple; while the Hiramites, assigning this important office to Hiram Abif, still believe that Adoniram occupied an important part in the construction of that edifice. He has been called "the first of the Fellow Crafts'' is mid in one tradition to have been the brother-in-law of Hiram Abif, the latter having demanded of Solomon the hand of Adoniram's sister in marriage; and that the nuptials were honored by the kings of Israel and Tyre with a public celebration. Another tradition, preserved in the Royal Master's Degree of the Cryptic Rite, informs us that he was the one to whom the three Grand Masters had intended first to communicate that knowledge which they had reserved as a fitting reward to be bestowed upon all meritorious craftsmen at the completion of the Temple. It is scarcely necessary to say that these and many other Adoniramic legends, often fanciful, and without any historical authority, are but the outward clothing of abstruse symbols, some of which have been preserved, and others lost in the lapse of time and the ignorance and corruptions of sundry ritualists.

Adoniram, in Hebrew .... compounded of .. Adon, Lord, and ... Hiram, altitude, signifies the Lord of altitude. It is a word of great importance, and frequently used among the sacred words of the advanced degrees in all the Rites.

*

ADONIRAMITE FREEMASONRY

See Adonhiramite Freemasonry
An organization which bears a very imperfect resemblance to Freemasonry in its forms and ceremonies, and which was established in France for the initiation of females, has been called by the French Maçonnerie d'Adoption, or Adoptive Freemasonry, and the societies in which the initiations take place have received the name of Loges d'Adeption, or Adoptive Lodges. This appellation is derived from the fact that every Female or Adoptive Lodge is obliged, by the regulations of the association, to be, as it were, adopted by, and thus placed under the guardianship of, some regular Lodge of Freemasons.

As to the exact date which we are to assign for the first introduction of this system of Female Freemasonry, there have been several theories, some of which, undoubtedly, are wholly untenable, since they have been founded, as Masonic historical theories too often are, on an unwarrantable mixture of facts and fictions---of positive statements and problematic conjectures. M. J. S. Boubee, a distinguished French Freemason, in his Études Maçonniques (Masonicstudies), places the origin of Adoptive Freemasonry in the seventeenth century, and ascribes its authorship to Queen Henrietta Maria, the widow of Charles I of England. He states that on her return to France, after the execution of her husband, she took pleasure in recounting the secret efforts made by the Freemasons of England to restore her family to their position and to establish her son on the throne of his ancestors. This, it will be recollected, was once a prevalent theory, now exploded, of the origin of Freemasonry-that it was established by the Cavaliers, as a secret political organization, in the times of the English civil war between the king and the Parliament, and as an engine for the support of the former.

M. Boubee adds that the queen made known to the ladies of her court, in her exile, the words and signs employed by her Masonic friends in England as their modes of recognition, and by this means instructed them in some of the mysteries of the Institution, of which, he says, she had been made the protectress after the death of the king. This theory is so full of absurdity, and its statements so flatly contradicted by well-known historical facts, that we may at once reject it as wholly without authority.

Others have claimed Russia as the birthplace of Adoptive Freemasonry; but in assigning that country and the year 1712 as the place and time of its origin, they have undoubtedly confounded it with the chivalric Order of Saint Catharine, which was instituted by the Czar, Peter the Great, in honor of the Czarina Catharine, and which, although at first it consisted of persons of both sexes, was subsequently confined exclusively to females. But the Order of Saint Catharine was in no manner connected with that of Freemasonry. It was simply s Russian order of female knighthood.
The truth seems to be that the regular Lodges of adoption owed their existence to those secret associations of men and woman which sprang up in France before the middle of the eighteenth century, and which attempted in all of their organization, except the admission of female members, to imitate the Institution of Freemasonry. Clavel, who, in his Histoire Pitoresque de la Franc-Maçonnery, an interesting but not always a trustworthy work, adopts this theory, says (on page iii, third edition) that female Masonry was instituted about the year 1730, that it made its first appearance in France, and that it was evidently a product of the French mind. No one will be disposed to doubt the truth of this last sentiment. The proverbial gallantry of the French Freemasons was most ready and willing to extend to women some of the blessings of that Institution, from which the churlishness, as they would call it, of their Anglo-Saxon Brethren had excluded them.

But the Freemasonry of Adoption did not at once and in its very beginning assume that peculiarly imitative form of the Craft which it subsequently presented, nor was it recognized as having any connection with our own Order until more than thirty years after its first establishment. Its progress was slow and gradual. In the course of this progress it affected various names and rituals, many of which have not been handed down to us. Evidently it was convivial and gallant in its nature, and at first seems to have been only an imitation of Freemasonry, inasmuch as that it was a secret society, having a form of initiation and modes of recognition. A specimen of one or two of these associations of women may be interesting.

One of the earliest of these societies was that which was established in the year 1743, at Paris, under the name of the Ordre des Félicitaires, which we might very appropriately translate as the Order of Happy Folks.

The vocabulary and all the emblems of the order were nautical. The sisters made symbolically a voyage from the island of Felicity, in ships navigated by the brethren. There were four degrees, namely, those of Cabin-boy, Captain, Commodore, and Vice-Admiral, and the Grand Master, or presiding officer, was called the Admiral. Out of this society there sprang, in 1745, another, which was called the Knights and Ladies of the Anchor, which is said to have been somewhat more refined in its character, although for the most part it preserved the same formulary of reception.
Two years afterward, in 1747, the Chevalier Beauchaine, a very zealous Masonic adventurer, and the Master for life of a Parisian Lodge, instituted an androgynous society, or system of men and women, under the name of the Ordre des Fendeurs, or the Order of Wood-Cutters, whose ceremonies were borrowed from those of the well-known political society of the Carbonari. All parts of the ritual had a reference to the sylvan vocation of wood-cutting, just as that of the Carbonari referred to coal-burning. The place of meeting was called a wood-yard, and was supposed to be situated in a forest; the presiding officer was styled Pére Maître, which might be idiomatically interpreted as Goodman Maser; and the members were designated as cousins, a practice evidently borrowed from the Carbonari.

The reunions of the Wood-Cutters enjoyed the prestige of the highest fashion in Paris; and the society became so popular that ladies and gentlemen of the highest distinction in France united with it, and membership was considered an honor which no rank, however exalted, need disdain. It was consequently succeeded by the institution of many other and similar androgynous societies, the very names of which it would be tedious to enumerate (see Clavel's History, pages lll-2).

Out of al1 these societies-which resembled Freemasonry only in their secrecy, their benevolence, and a sort of rude imitation of a symbolic ceremonial --at last arose the true Lodges of Adoption, which did far claimed a connection with and a dependence on Freemasonry as that Freemasons alone were admitted among their male members-a regulation which did not prevail in the earlier organizations.

It was about the middle of the eighteenth century that the Lodges of Adoption began to attract attention in France, whence they speedily spread into other countries of Europo-into Germany, Poland, and even Russia; England alone, always conservative to a faut, steadily refusing to take any cognizance of them.

The Freemasons, says Clavel in his History (page 112), embraced them with enthusiasm as a practicable means of giving to their wives and daughters some share of the pleasures which they themselves enjoyed in their mystical assemblies. This, at least, may be said of them, that they practiced with commendable fidelity and diligence the greatest of the Masonic virtues, and that the banquets and balls which always formed an important part of their ceremonial were distinguished by numerous acts of charity.

The first of these Lodges of which we have any notice was that established in Paris, in the year 1760, by the Count de Bemouville. Another was instituted at Nijmegen, in Holland, in 1774, over which the Prince of Waldeck and the Princess of Orange presided. In 1775 the Lodge of Saint Antoine, at Paris, organized a dependent Lodge of Adoption, of which the Duchess of Bourbon was installed as Grand Mistress and the Duke of Chartres, then Grand Master of French Freemasonry, conducted the business.

In 1777 there was an Adoptive Lodge of La Candeur, or Frankness, over which the Duchess of Bourbon presided, assisted by such noble ladies as the Duchess of Chartres, the Princess Lamballe, and the Marchioness de Genlis; and we hear of another governed by Madame Helvetius, the wife of the il1ustrious philosopher; so that it will be perceived that fashion, wealth, and literature combined to give splendor and influence to this new order of Female Freemasonry.

At first the Grand Orient of France appears to have been unfavorably disposed to these imitation pseudo Masonic and androgynous associations, but at length they became so numerous and so popular that a persistence in opposition would have evidently been impolitic, if it did not actually threaten to be fatal to the interests and permanence of the Masonic Institution. The Grand Orient, therefore, yielded its objections, and resolved to avail itself of that which it could not suppress. Accordingly, on the 10th of June, 1774, it issued an Edict by which it assumed the protection and control of the Lodges of Adoption. Rules and regulations were provided for their government, among which were two: first, that no males except regular Freemasons should be permitted to attend them; and, secondly, that each Lodge should be placed under the charge and held under the sanction of some regularly constituted Lodge of Freemasons, whose Master, or in his absence, his deputy, should be the presiding officer, assisted by a female President or Mistress; and such has since been the organization of al1 Lodges of Adoption.

A Lodge of Adoption, under the regulations established in 1774, consists of the following officers: Grand Master, a Grand Mistress, an Orator, dressed as a Capuchin or Franciscan monk, an Inspector, an Inspectress, a Male and Female Guardian, a Mistress of Ceremonies. All of these officers wear a blue watered ribbon over the shoulder, to which is suspended a golden trowel, and all the brothers and sisters have aprons and white gloves.

The Rite of Adoption consists of four Degrees, whose names in French and English are as follows :

1. Apprentice, or Female Apprentice.
2. Compagnonne, or Craftswoman.
3. Maîtresse, or Mistress.
4. Parfaite Maçonne, or Perfect Masoness.

It will be seen that the Degrees of Adoption, in their names and their apparent reference to the gradations of employment in an operative art, are assimilated to those of legitimate Freemasonry; but it is in those respects only that the resemblance holds good. In the details of the ritual there is a vast difference between the two Institutions.

There was a Fifth Degree added in1817-by some modern writers called Female elect-Sublime Dame Ecossaise, or Sovereign I1ustrious Scottish Dame, but it seems to be a recent and not generally adopted innovation. At all events, it constituted no part of the original Rite of Adoption. The First, or Female Apprentice's Degree, is simply preliminary in its character, and is intended to prepare the Candidate for the more important lessons which she is to receive in the succeeding Degrees. She is presented with an apron and a pair of white kid gloves. The apron is given with the following charge, in which, as in all the other ceremonies of the Order, the Masonic system of teaching by symbolism is followed:

"Permit me to decorate you with this apron, kings, princes, and the most illustrious princesses have esteemed, and will ever esteem it an honor to wear it, as being the symbol of virtue."

On receiving the gloves, the candidate is thus addressed:

"The color of these gloves will admonish you that candor and truth are virtues inseparable from the character of a true Freemason. Take your place among us, and be pleased to listen to the instructions which we are about to communicate to you."

The following Charge is then addressed to the members by the Orator.

''MY DEAR SISTERS Nothing is better calculated to assure you of the high esteem our society entertains for you, than your admission as a member. The common herd, always unmannerly, full of the most ridiculous prejudices, has dared to sprinkle on us the black poison of calumny; but what judgment could it form when deprived of the light of truth, and unable to feel all the blessings which result from its perfect knowledge? You alone, my dear sisters, having been repulsed from our meetings, would have the right to think us unjust; but with what satisfaction do you learn to-day that Freemasonry is the school of propriety and of virtue, and that by its laws we restrain the weaknesses that degrade an honorable man, in order to return to your side more worthy of your confidence and of your sincerity. However, whatever pleasure these sentiments have enabled us to taste, we have not been able to fill the void that your absence left in our midst ; and I confess, to your glory, that it was time to invite into our societies some sisters who, while rendering them more respectable will ever make of them pleasures and delights. We call our Lodges Temples of Virtue, because we endeavor to practice it. The mysteries which we celebrate therein are the grand art of conquering the passions and the oath that we take to reveal nothing is to prevent self-love and pride from entering at all into the good which we ought to do. The beloved name of Adoption tells you sufficiently that we choose you to share the happiness that we enjoy, in cultivating honor and charity. It is only after a careful examination that we have wished to share it with you. Now that you know it we are convinced that the light of wisdom will illumine all the actions of your life, and that you will never forget that the more valuable things are the greater is the need to preserve them. It is the principle of silence that we observe, it should be inviolable.

May the God of the Universe who hears us vouchsafe to give us strength to render it so." Throughout this Charge it will be seen that there runs a vein of gallantry, which gives the true secret of the motives which led to the organization of the society, and which, however appropriate to a Lodge of Adoption, would scarcely be in place in a Lodge of the legitimate Order.
In the Second Degree, or that of Compagnonne, or Craftswoman, corresponding to our Fellow Craft, the Lodge is made the symbol of the Garden of Eden, and the candidate passes through a mimic representation of the temptation of Eve, the fatal effects of which, culminating in the deluge and the destruction of the human race, are impressed upon her in the lecture or catechism.

Here we have a scenic representation of the circumstances connected with that event, as recorded in Genesis. The candidate plays the part of our common mother. In the center of the Lodge, which represents the garden, is placed the tree of life, from which ruddy apples are suspended. The serpent, made with theatrical skill to represent a living reptile, embraces in its coils the trunk. An apple plucked from the tree is presented to the recipient, who is persuaded to eat it by the promise that thus alone can she prepare herself for receiving a knowledge of the sublime mysteries of Freemasonry. She receives the fruit from the tempter, but no sooner has she attempted to bite it, than she is startled by the sound of thunder; a curtain which has separated her from the members of the Lodge is suddenly withdrawn, and she is detected in the commission of the act of disobedience. She is sharply reprimanded by the Orator, who conducts her before the Grand Master.

This dignitary reproaches her with her fault, but finally, With the consent of the Brethren and sisters Present, he pardons her in the merciful spirit of the Institution, on the condition that she will take a vow to extend hereafter the same clemency to others.

All of this is allegorical and very pretty, and it cannot be denied that on the sensitive imaginations of females such ceremonies must produce a manifest impression. But it is needless to say that it is nothing like Freemasonry.

There is less ceremony, but more symbolism, in the Third Degree, or that of Mistress. Here are introduced, as parts of the ceremony, the tower of Babel and the theological ladder of Jacob. Its rounds, however, differ from those peculiar to true Freemasonry, and are said to equal the virtues in number. The lecture or catechism is very long, and contains some very good points in its explanations of the symbols of the degree. Thus, the tower of Babel is said. to signify the pride of man-its base, his folly-the stones of which it was composed, his passions---the cement which united them, the poison of discord-and its spiral form, the devious and crooked ways of the human heart. In this manner there is an imitation, not of the letter and substance of legitimate Freemasonry, for nothing can in these respects be more dissimilar, but of that mode of teaching by symbols and allegories which is its peculiar characteristic.

The Fourth Degree, or that of Perfect Masoness, corresponds to no Degree in legitimate Freemasonry.

It is simply the summit of the Bite of Adoption, and hence is also called the Degree of Perfection. Although the Lodge, in this , is supposed to represent the Mosaic tabernacle in the wilderness, yet the ceremonies do not have the same reference. In one of them, however, the liberation, by the candidate, of a bird from the vase in which it had been confined is said to symbolize the liberation of man from the dominion of his passions; and thus a far-fetched reference is made to the liberation of the Jews from Egyptian bondage. On the whole, the ceremonies are unrelated, they are disconnected, but the lecture or catechism contains some excellent lessons. Especially does it furnish us with the official definition of Adoptive Freemasonry, which is in these words.

It is a virtuous amusement by which we recall a part of the mysteries of our religion; and the better to reconcile humanity with the knowledge of its Creator, after we have inculcated the duties of virtue, we deliver ourselves up to the sentiments of a pure and delightful friendship by enjoying in our Lodges the pleasures of society-pleasures which among us are always founded on reason, honor, and innocence.

Apt and appropriate description is this of an association, secret or otherwise, of agreeable and virtuous well-bred men and women, but having not the slightest application to the design or form of true Freemasonry.

Guillemain de Saint Victor, the author of Manuel des Franches-Maçonnes, on La Vraie Maçonnerie d'Adoption, meaning Handbook of the Women Freemasons or the True Freemasonry of Adoption, which forms the third part of the Recueil Précieux, or Choice Collection, who has given the best ritual of the Rite and from whom the preceding account has been taken, thus briefly sums up the objects of the Institution :

"The First Degree contains only, as it ought, moral ideas of Freemasonry ; the Second Degree is the initiation into the first mysteries, commencing with the sin of Adam, and concluding with the Ark of Noah as the first favor which God granted to men ; the Third and Fourth Degrees are merely a series of types and figures drawn from the Holy Scriptures, by which we explain to the candidate the virtues which she ought to practice" (see page 13, edition 1785).

The Fourth Degree, being the summit of the Rite of Adoption, is furnished with a Table Lodge, or the ceremony of a banquet, which immediately succeeds the dosing of the Lodge, and which, of course, adds much to the social pleasure and nothing to the instructive character of the Rite.

Here, also, there is a continued imitation of the ceremonies of the Masonic Institution as they are practiced in France, where the ceremoniously conducted banquet, at which Freemasons only are present, is always an accompaniment of the Master's Lodge. Thus, as in the banquets of the regular Lodges of the French Rite, the members always use a symbolical language by which they designate the various implements of the table and the different articles of food and drink, calling, for instance, the knives swords, the forks pickaxes, the dishes materials, and bread a rough ashlar (see Clavel's History, page 30).

In imitation of this custom, the Rite of Adoption has established in its banquets a technical vocabulary, to be used only at the table. Thus the Lodge room is called Eden, the doors barriers, the minutes a ladder, a wineglass is styled a lamp, and its contents oil-water being white oil and wine red oil. To fill your glass is te trim your lamp, to drink is to extinguish your lamp, with many other eccentric expressions (Clavel's History, page 34).

Much taste, and in some instances, magnificence, are displayed in the decorations of the Lodge rooms of the Adoptive Rite. The apartment is separated by curtains into different divisions, and contains ornaments and decorations which of course vary in the different degrees.

The orthodox: Masonic idea that the Lodge is a symbol of the world is here retained, and the four sides of the hall are said to represent the four continents-the entrance being called Europe, the right side Africa, the left America, and the extremity, in which the Grand Master and Grand Mistress are seated, Asia. There are statues representing Wisdom, Prudence, Strength, Temperance, Honor, Charity, Justice, and Truth. The members are seated along the sides in two rows, the ladies occupying the front one, and the whole is rendered as beautiful and attractive as the taste can make it (Recueil Précieuz, page 24).

The Lodges of Adoption flourished greatly in France after their recognition by the Grand Orient. The Duchess of Bourbon, who was the first that received the title of Grand Mistress, was installed with great pomp and splendor, in May, 1775, in the Lodge of Saint Antoine, in Paris. She presided over the Adoptive Lodge La Candeur until 1780, when it was dissolved. Attached to the celebrated Lodge of the Nine Sisters, which had so many distinguished men of letters among its members, was a Lodge of Adoption bearing the same name, which in 1778 held a meeting at the residence of Madame Helvetius in honor of Benjamin Franklin then American ambassador at the French court.

During the Reign of Terror of the French Revolution, Lodges of Adoption, like everything that was gentle or humane, almost entirely disappeared. But with the accession of a regular government they were resuscitated, and the Empress Josephine presided at the meeting of one at Strasburg in the year 1805. They continued to flourish under the imperial dynasty, and although less popular, or less fashionable, under the Restoration, they, subsequently recovered their popularity, and are still in existence in France .

As interesting additions to this article, it may not be improper to insert two accounts, one, of the installation of Madame Cesar Moreau, as Grand Mistress of Adoptive Masonry, in the Lodge connected with the regular Lodge La Jarusalem des Vallées Egyptiennes, on the 8th of July, 1854, and the other, of the reception of the celebrated Lady Morgan, in 1819, in the Lodge La Belle et Bonne, meaning-the Beautiful and Good, as described in her Diary.

The account of the Installation of Madame Moreau, which is abridged from the Franc-Maçon, a Parisian periodical, is as follows :

The fête was most interesting and admirably arranged. After the introduction in due form of a number of brethren and sisters, the Grand Mistress elect was announced, and she entered, preceded by the Five Lights of the Lodge and escorted by the Inspectress, Depositress, Oratrix, and Mistress of Ceremonies. M. J. S. Boubee, the Master of the Lodge La Jerusalem des Vallées Egyptiennes, conducted her to the altar, where, having installed her into office and handed her a mallet as the symbol of authority, he addressed her in a copy of verses, whose merit will hardly claim for them a repetition. To this she made a suitable reply, and the Lodge then proceeded to the reception of a young lady, a part of the ceremony of which is thus described:

Of the various trials of Virtue and fortitude to which she was subjected, there was one which made a deep impression, not only on the fair recipient, but on the whole assembled company. Four boxes were placed, one before each of the male officers.

The candidate was told to open them, which she did, and from the first and second drew faded flowers, and soiled ribbons and laces, which being placed in an open vessel were instantly consumed by fire, as an emblem of the brief duration of such objects.

From the third she drew an apron, a blue silk scarf, and a pair of gloves, and from the fourth a basket containing the working tools in silver gilt. She was then conducted to the altar, where, on opening a fifth box, several birds which had been confined in it escaped, which was intended to teach her that liberty is a condition to which all men are entitled, and of which no one can be deprived without injustice. After having taken the vow, she was instructed in the modes of recognition, and having been clothed with the apron, scarf, and gloves, and presented with the implements of the Order, she received from the Grand Mistress an esoteric explanation of all these emblems and ceremonies. Addresses were subsequently delivered by the Orator and Oratrix, an ode was sung, the poor or alms box was handed round, and the labors of the Lodge were then closed.

Madame Moreau lived only six months to enjoy the honors of presiding officer of the Adoptive Rite, for she died of a pulmonary affection at an early age, on the eleventh of the succeeding January.

The Lodge of Adoption in which Lady Morgan received the degrees at Paris, in the year 1819, was called La Belle et Bonne or the Beautiful and Good. This was the pet name which long before had been bestowed by Voltaire on his favorite, the Marchioness de Villette, under whose presidency and at whose residence in the Faubourg St. Germain the Lodge was held. Hence the name with which all France, or at least all Paris, was familiarly acquainted as the popular designation of Madame de Villette (see Clavel's History, page 114).

Lady Morgan, in her description of the Masonic fête, says that when she arrived at the Hotel la Villette, where the Lodge was held, she found a large concourse of distinguished persons ready to take part in the ceremonies. Among these were Prince Paul of Wurtemberg, the Count de Cazes, elsewhere distinguished in Freemasonry, the celebrated Denon, the Bishop of Jerusalem, and the illustrious actor Talma.

The business of the evening commenced with an installation of the officers of a sister Lodge, after which the candidates were admitted.

Lady Morgan describes the arrangements as presenting, when the doors were opened, a spectacle of great magnificence.

A profusion of crimson and gold, marble busts, a decorated throne and altar, an abundance of flowers, and incense of the finest odor which filled the air, gave to the whole a most dramatic and scenic effect. Music of the grandest character mingled its harmony with the mysteries of initiation, which lasted for two hours, and when the Lodge was closed there was an adjournment to the hall of refreshment, where the ball was opened by the Grand Mistress with Prince Paul of Wurtemberg.

Lady Morgan, upon whose mind the ceremony appears to have made an impression, makes one remark worthy of consideration: "That so many women," she says, "young and beautiful and worldly, should never have revealed the secret, is among the miracles which the much distrusted sex are capable of working." In fidelity to the Vow of Secrecy, the Female Freemasons of the Adoptive Rite have proved themselves fully equal to their brethren of the legitimate Order.

Notwithstanding that Adoptive Freemasonry has found an advocate in no less distinguished a writer than Chemin Dupontés, who, in the Encyclopédie Maçonnique, calls it "a luxury in Freemasonry, and a pleasant relaxation which cannot do any harm to the true mysteries which are practiced by men alone," it has been very generally condemned by the most celebrated of French, German, English, and American Freemasons. Chemin Dupontés, by the way, published in 1819-25 his Encyclopédie Maçonnique or Masonic Encyclopedia at Paris in four volumes. Gaedicke, in the Freimaurer Lezicon, or Dictionary for the Freemason, speaks lightly of it as established on insufficient grounds, and expresses his gratification that the system no longer exists in Germany.

Thory, in his History of the Foundation of the Grand Orient (page 361), says that the introduction of Adoptive Lodges was a consequence of the relaxation of Masonic discipline; and he asserts that the permitting of women to share in mysteries which should exclusively belong to men. is not in accordance with the essential principles of the Masonic Order. The Abbé Robin, the author of an able work entitled Recherches sur les initiations, Anciennes et Modernes, or Inquiries upon Ancient and Modern initiations, maintains on Page 15 that the custom of admitting women into Masonic assemblies will perhaps be, at some future period, the cause of the decline of Freemasonry in France. The prediction is not, however, likely to come to pass; for while legitimate Freemasonry has never been more popular or prosperous in France than it is at this day, it is the Lodges of Adoption that appear to have declined.

Other writers in various countries have spoken in similar terms, so that it is beyond a doubt that the general sentiment of the Fraternity is against this system of Female Freemasonry.
Lenning is however, more qualified in his condemnation, and says, in his Encycloadie der Freimaurerei, or Freemason's Encyclopedia, that while leaving it undecided whether it is prudent to hold assemblies of women with ceremonies which are called Masonic, yet it is not to be denied that in these Lodges of women a large amount of charity has been done.

Adoptive Freemasonry has its literature, although neither extensive nor important, as it comprises only books of songs, addresses, and rituals. Of the latter the most valuable are:

1. La Maçonnerie des Femmes, or Feminine Freemasonry, published in 1775, and containing only the first three degrees, for such was the system when recognized by the Grand Orient of France in that year.

2. La Vraie Maçonnerie d'Adoption, or The True Freemasonry of Adoption, printed in 1787. This work, which is by Guillemain de Saint Victor, is perhaps the best that has been published on the subject of the Adoptive Rite, and is the first that introduces the Fourth Degree, of which Guillemain is supposed to have been the inventor, since all previous rituals include only the three degrees.

3. Maçonnerie d'Adoption pour les Femmes, or The Freemasonry of Adoption for Women, contained in the second part of E. J. Chappron's Necessaire Maçonnique, or Essential Freemasonry, and printed at Paris in 1817. This is valuable because it is the first ritual that contains the Fifth Degree.

4. La Franc-Maçonnerie des Femmes, or The Freemasonry of Women. This work, which is by Charles Monselet, is of no value as a ritual, being simply a tale founded on circumstances connected with Adoptive Freemasonry.

In Italy, the Carbonari, or Wood Burners, a secret political society, imitated the Freemasons of France in instituting an Adoptive Rite, attached to their own association. Hence, an Adoptive Lodge was founded at Naples in the beginning of the nineteenth century, over which presided that friend of Freemasonry, Queen Caroline, the wife of Ferdinand II. The members were styled Giardiniere, or Female Gardeners ; and they called each other Cugine, or Female Cousins, in imitation of the Carbonari, who were recognized as Buoni Cugini, or Good Cousins. The Lodges of Giardiniere flourished as long as the Grand Lodge of Carbonari existed at Naples (see also Eastern Star, and Adoptive Freemasonry, American).

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ADONIS, MYSTERIES OF

An investigation of the Mysteries of Adonis peculiarity claims the attention of the Masonic student. First, because, in their symbolism and in their esoteric doctrine, the religious object for which they were instituted, and the mode in which that object is attained they bear a nearer analogical resemblance to the Institution of Freemasonry than do any of the other mysteries or systems of initiation of the ancient world. Secondly, because their chief locality brings them into a very close connection with the early history and reputed origin of Freemasonry. These ceremonies were principally celebrated at Byblos, a city of Phoenicia, whose Scriptural name was Gebal, and whose inhabitants were the Giblites or Gebalites, who are referred to in the First Book of Kings (v; 18), as being the stone-squares employed by King Solomon in building the Temple (see Gebal and Giblin). Henee there must have evidently been a very intimate connection, or at least certainly a very frequent intercommunication, between the workmen of the first Temple and the inhabitants of Byblos, the seat of the Adonisian Mysteries, and the place whence the worshipers of that Rite were spread over other regions of country.

These historical circumstances invite us to an examination of the system of initiation which was practiced at Byblos, because we may find in it something that was probably suggestive of the symbolic system of instruction which was subsequently so prominent a feature in the system of Freemasonry.

Let us first examine the myth on which the Adonisiac initiation was founded. The mythological legend of Adonis is that he was the son of Myrrha and Cinyras, King of Cyprus. Adonis was possessed of such surpassing beauty, that Venus became enamored of him, and adopted him as her favorite. Subsequently Adonis, who was a great hunter, died from a wound inflicted by a wild boar on Mount Lebanon. Venus flew to the succor of her favorite, but she came too late Adonis was dead. On his descent to the infernal regions, Proserpine became, like Venus, so attracted by his beauty, that, notwithstanding the entreaties of the goddess of love, she refused to restore him to earth. At length the prayers of the desponding Venus were listened to with favor by Jupiter, who reconciled the dispute between the two goddesses, and by whose decree Proserpine was compelled to consent that Adonis should spend six months of each year alternately with herself and Venus.

This is the story on which the Greek poet Bion founded his exquisite idyll entitled the Epitaph of Adonis, the beginning of which has been thus rather inefficiently "done into English":
I and the Loves Adonis dead deplore:

The beautiful Adonia is indeed
Departed, parted from us. Sleep no more
In purple, Cypris! but in watchet weed,
All'wretched! beat thy breast and all aread-
" Adonis is no more." The Loves and I
Lament him. " Oh! her grief to see him bleed,
Smitten by white tooth on whiter thigh,
Out-breathing life's faint sigh upon the mountain high."

It is evident that Bion referred the contest of Venus and Proserpine for Adonis to a period subsequent to his death, from the concluding lines, in which he says:

"The Muses, too, lament the son of Cinyras, and invoke him in their song; but he does not heed them, not because he does not wish, but because Proserpine will not release him." This was, indeed, the favorite form of the myth, and on it was framed the symbolism of the ancient mystery. But there are other Grecian mythologies that relate the tale of Adonis differently. According to these, he was the product of the incestuous connection of Cinyras and his daughter Myrrha. Cinyras subsequently, on discovering the crime of his daughter, pursued her with a drawn sword, intending to kill her.

Myrrha entreated the gods to make her invisible, and they changed her into a myrrh tree. Ten months after the myrrh tree opened, and the young Adonis was born. This is the form of the myth that has been adopted by the poet Ovid, who gives it with all its moral horrors in the Tenth Book (lines 298-559) of his Metamorphoses.

Venus, who was delighted with the extraordinary beauty of the boy, put him in a coffer or chest, unknown to all the gods, and gave him to Proserpine to keep and to nurture in the under world. But Proserpine had no sooner beheld him than she became enamored of him and refused, when Venus applied for him, to surrender him to her rival. The subject was then referred to Jupiter, who decreed that Adonis should have one-third of the year to himself, should be another third with Venus, and the remainder of the time with Proserpine. Adonis gave his own portion to Venus, and lived happily with her till, having offended Diana, he was killed by a wild boar.

The mythographer Pharnutus gives a still different story, and says that Adonis was the grandson of Cinyras, and fled with his father, Ammon, into Egypt, whose people he civilized, taught them agriculture, and enacted many wise laws for their government. He subsequently passed over into Syria, and was wounded in the thigh by a wild boar while hunting on Mount Lebanon.

His wife, Isis, or Astarte, and the people of Phoenicia and Egypt, supposing that the wound was mortal, profoundly deplored his death. But he afterward recovered, and their grief was replaced by transports of joy.

All the myths, it wi1l be seen, agree in his actual or supposed death by violence, in the grief for his loss, in his recovery or restoration to life, and in the consequent joy thereon. On these facts are founded the Adonisian mysteries which were established in his honor.

While, therefore, we may grant the possibility that there was originally some connection between the Sabean worship of the sun and the celebration of the Adonisian festival, we cannot forget that these mysteries, in common with all the other sacred initiations of the ancient world, had been originally established to promulgate among the initiates the once hidden doctrine of a future life.

The myth of Adonis in Syria, like that of Osiris in Egypt, of Atys in Samothrace, or of Dionysus in Greece, presented, symbolically, the two great ideas of decay and restoration. This doctrine sometimes figured as darkness and light, sometimes as winter and summer, sometimes as death and life, but always maintaining, no matter what was the framework of the allegory, the inseparable ideas of something that was lost and afterward recovered, as its interpretation, and so teaching, as does Freemasonry at this day, by a similar system of allegorizing, that after the death of the body comes the eternal life of the soul. The inquiring Freemason will thus readily see the analogy in the symbolism that exists between Adonis in the Mysteries of the Gebalites at Byblos and Hiram the Builder in his own Institution.

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ADOPTION MASONIC

The adoption by the Lodge of the child of a Freemason is practiced with peculiar ceremonies in some of the French and German Lodges, and has been introduced, but not with the general approval of the Craft, into one or two Lodges of this country.

Clavel, in his Histoire Pittoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie, meaning in French The Picturesque History of Freemasonry (page 40, third edition), gives the following account of the ceremonies of Adoption :

"It is a custom, in many Lodges, when the wife of a Freemason is near the period of her confinement, for the Hospitaller, if he is a physician, and if not, for some other Brother who is, to visit her, inquire after her health, in the name of the Lodge, and to offer her his professional services, and even pecuniary aid if he thinks she needs it.

Nine days after the birth of her child, the Master and Wardens call upon her to congratulate her on the happy event. If the infant is a boy, a special communication of the Lodge is convened for the purpose of proceeding to its adoption.

The hall is decorated with flowers and foliage, and censers are prepared for burning incense. Before the commencement of labor, the child and its nurse are introduced into an anteroom. The Lodge is then opened, and the Wardens, who are to act as godfathers, repair to the infant at the head of a deputation of five Brethren. The chief of the deputation, then addressing the nurse, exhorts her not only to watch over the health of the child that has been intrusted to her care, but also to cultivate his youthful intellect, and to instruct him with truthful and sensible conversation. The child is then taken from the nurse, placed by its father upon a cushion, and carried by the deputation into the Lodge room. The procession advances beneath an arch of foliage to the pedestal of the east, where it halts while the Master and Senior Warden rehearse this dialogue: "'Whom bring you here, my Brethren? says the Master to the godfathers.

"'The son of one of our Brethren whom the Lodge is desirous of adopting, is the reply of the Senior Warden.

"'What are his names, and what Masonic name will you give him?'

"The Warden replies, adding to the baptismal and surname of the child a characteristic name, such as Truth, Devotion, Benevolence, or some other of a similar nature.

"The Master then descends from his seat, approaches the Louveteau or Lewis, for such is the appellation given to the son of a Freemason, and extending his hands over its head, offers up a prayer that the child may render itself worthy of the love and care which the Lodge intends to bestow upon it.

He then casts incense into the censers, and pronounces the Apprentice's obligation, which the godfathers repeat after him in the name of the Louveteau.

Afterwards he puts a white apron on the infant, proclaiming it to be the adopted child of the Lodge, and causes this proclamation to be received with honors.

"As soon as this ceremony has been performed, the Master returns to his seat, and having caused the Wardens with the child to be placed in front of the north column, he recounts to the former the duties which they have assumed as godfathers. After the Wardens have made a suitable response, the deputation which had brought the child into the Lodge room is again formed, carries it out, and restores it to its nurse in the anteroom.

"The adoption of a Louveteau binds all the members of the Lodge to watch over his education, and subsequently to aid him, if it be necessary, in establishing himself in life. A circumstantial account of the ceremony is drawn up, which having been signed by all the members is delivered to the father of the child.

This document serves as a Dispensation, which relieves him from the necessity of passing through the ordinary preliminary examinations when, at the proper age, he is desirous of participating in the labors of Freemasonry. He is then only required to renew his obligations." Louveteau in French with Lewis in English, mean the same. Two meanings may be applied to each of the words in both countries. Among members of the trade as distinct from Brethren of the Craft, a Louveteau or Lewis means a wedge of iron or steel to support a stone when raising it, a chain or rope being attached to the wedge which grips a place cut for it in the stone.

The words Louveteau and Lewis are thus applied to sons of Freemasons as supports of their fathers.
In the United States, the ceremony has been practiced by a few Lodges, the earliest instance being that of Foyer Maçonnique Lodge of New Orleans, in 1859.

The Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdiction, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, has published the ritual of Masonic Adoption for the use of the members of that Rite. This ritual under the title of offices of Masonic Baptism, Reception of a Louveleau and Adoption, is a very beautiful one, and is the composition of Brother Albert Pike. It is scarcely necessary to say that the word Baptism there used has not the slightest reference to the Christian sacrament of the same name (see Lewis).

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ADOPTIVE FREEMASONRY, AMERICAN

The Rite of Adoption as practiced on the continent of Europe, and especially in France, has never been introduced into America. The system does not accord, with the manners or habits of the people, and undoubtedly never would become popular. But Rob Morris attempted, in 1855, to introduce an imitation of it, which he had invented under the name of the American Adoptive Rite. This consisted of a ceremony of initiation, which was intended as a preliminary trial of the candidate, and of five degrees, named as follows:

1. Jephthah`s Daughter, or the Daughter's Degree.
2. Ruth, or the Widow's Degree.
3. Esther, or the Wife's Degree.
4. Martha or the Sister's Degree.
5. Electa, or the Christian Martyr's Degree.

The whole assemblage of the five degrees was called the Eastern Star.

The objects of this Rite, as expressed by the framer, were "to associate in one common bond the worthy wives, widows, daughters, and sisters of Freemasons, so as to make their adoptive privileges available for all the purposes contemplated in Freemasonry; to secure to them the advantages of their claim in a moral, social, and charitable point of view, and from them the performance of corresponding duties." Hence, no females but those holding the above recited relations to Freemasons were eligible for admission.

The male members were called Protectors; the female, Stellae; the reunions of these members were styled Constellations; and the Rite was presided over and governed by a Supreme Constellation. There is some ingenuity and even beauty in many of the ceremonies, although it is by no means equal in this respect to the French Adoptive system.

Much dissatisfaction was, however, expressed by the leading Freemasons of the country at the time of its attempted organization; and therefore, notwithstanding very strenuous efforts were made by its founder and his friends to establish it in some of the Western States, it was slow in winning popularity.

It has, however, gained much growth under the name of The Eastern Star. Brother Albert Pike has also printed, for the use of Scottish Rite Freemasons, The Masonry of Adoption.

It is in seven degrees, and is a translation from the French system, but greatly enlarged, and is far superior to the original.

The last phrase of this Female Freemasonry to which our attention is directed is the system of androgynous degrees which are practiced to some extent in the United States.

This term androgynous is derived from two Greek words, a man, and a woman, and it is equivalent to the English compound, masculo-feminine. It is applied to those side degrees which are conferred on both males and females.

The essential regulation prevailing in these degrees, is that they can be conferred only on Master Masons, and in some instances only on Royal Arch Masons, and on their female relatives, the peculiar relationship differing in the various degrees.

Thus there is a degree generally called the Mason's Wife, which can be conferred only on Master Masons, their wives, unmarried daughters and sisters, and their widowed mothers. Another degree, called the Heroine of Jericho, is conferred only on the wives and daughters of Royal Arch Masons; and the third, the only one that has much pretension of ceremony or ritual, is the Good Samaritan, whose privileges are confined to Royal Arch Masons and their wives.

In some parts of the United States these degrees are very popular, while in other places they are never practiced, and are strongly condemned as modern innovations.

The fact is, that by their friends as well as their enemies these so-called degrees have been greatly misrepresented. When females are told that in receiving these degrees they are admitted into the Masonic Order, and are obtaining Masonic information, under the name of Ladies' Freemasonry, they are simply deceived. When a woman is informed that, by passing through the brief and unimpressive ceremony of any one of these degrees, she has become a Freemason, the deception is still more gross and inexcusable. But it is true that every woman who is related by ties of consanguinity to a Master Mason is at all times and under all circumstances peculiarly entitled to Masonic protection and assistance.

Now, if the recipient of an androgynous degree is candidly instructed that, by the use of these degrees, the female relatives of Freemasons are put in possession of the means of making their claims known by what may be called a sort of oral testimony, which, unlike a written certificate, can be neither lost nor destroyed; but that, by her initiation as a Mason's Wife or as a Heroine of Jericho, she is brought no nearer to the inner portal of Freemasonry than she was before---if she is honestly told all this, then there can hardly be any harm, and there may be some good in these forms if prudently bestowed. But all attempts to make Freemasonry of them, and especially that anomalous thing called Female Freemasonry, are reprehensible, and are well calculated to produce opposition among the well-informed and cautious members of the Fraternity.

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ADOPTIVE FREEMASONRY, EGYPTIAN

A system invented by Cagliostro (see Cagliostro).

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ADORATION

The act of paying divine worship. The Latin word adorare is derived from ad, to, and os, oris, the mouth, and we thus etymologically learn that the primitive and most general method of adoration was by the application of the fingers to the mouth.

Hence we read in Job (xxxi, 26). "If I beheld the sun when it shined, or the moon walking in brightness, and my heart hath been secretly enticed, or my mouth hath kissed my hand, this also were an iniquity to be punished by the judges; for I should have denied the God that is above." Here the mouth kissing the hand is equal in meaning and force to adoration, as if he had said, If I have adored the sun or the moon.
This mode of adoration is said to have originated among the Persians, who, as worshipers of the sun, always turned their faces to the east and kissed their hands to that luminary. The gesture was first used as a token of respect to their monarchs, and was easily transferred to objects of worship. Other additional forms of adoration were used in various countries, but in almost all of them this reference to kissing was in some degree preserved.

It is yet a practice of quite common usage for Orientals to kiss what they deem sacred or that which they wish to adore---as, for example, Wailing Place of the Jews at Jerusalem, the nearest wall to the Temple where they were permitted by the Mahommedans to approach and on which their tears and kisses were affectionately bestowed before the British General Allenby, took possession of the city in the World War and equalized the rights of the inhabitants.

The marble toes of the statue of Saint Peter in the Cathedral of Saint Peter's at Rome have been worn away by the kissings of Roman Catholics and have been replaced by bronze.

Among the ancient Romans the act of adoration was thus performed: The worshiper, having his head covered, applied his right hand to his lips, thumb erect, and the forefinger resting on it, and then, bowing his head, he turned round from right to left. Hence, Lucius Apuleius, a Roman author, born in the first century, in his Apologia sive oratio de magia, a defense against the charge of witchcraft, uses the expression to apply the hand to the lips, manum labris admovere, to express the act of adoration.

The Grecian mode of adoration differed from the Roman in having the head uncovered, which practice was adopted by the Christians. The Oriental nations cover the head, but uncover the feet.
They also express the act of adoration by prostrating themselves on their faces and applying their foreheads to the ground.

The ancient Jews adored by kneeling, sometimes by prostration of the whole body, and by kissing the hand. This act, therefore, of kissing the hand was an early and a very general symbol of adoration.

But we must not be led into the error of supposing that a somewhat similar gesture used in some of the high degrees of Freemasonry has any allusion to an act of worship. It refers to that symbol of silence and secrecy which is figured in the statues of Harpocrates, the god of silence.

The Masonic idea of adoration has been well depicted by the medieval Christian painters, who represented the act by angels prostrated before a luminous triangle.

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ADVANCED

This word has two technical meanings in Freemasonry.

l. We speak of a candidate as being advanced when he has passed from a lower to a higher degree; as we say that a candidate is qualified for advancement from the Entered Apprentice Degree to that of a Fellow Craft when he has made that "suitable proficiency in the former which, by the regulations of the Order, entitle him to receive the initiation into and the instructions of the latter." When the Apprentice has thus been promoted to the Second Degree he is said to have advanced in Freemasonry.

2. However, this use of the term is by no means universal, and the word is peculiarly applied to the initiation of a candidate into the Mark Degree, which is the fourth in the modification of the American Rite.

The Master Mason is thus said to be "advanced to the honorary degree of a Mark Master," to indicate either that he has now been promoted one step beyond the degrees of Ancient Craft Freemasonry on his way to the Royal Arch, or to express the fact that he has been elevated from the common class of Fellow Crafts to that higher and more select one which, according to the traditions of Freemasonry, constituted, at the first Temple, the class of Mark Masters (see Mark Master).

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ADVANCEMENT HURRIED

Nothing can be more certain than that the proper qualifications of a Candidate for admission into the mysteries of Freemasonry, and the necessary proficiency of a Freemason who seeks advancement to a higher degree, are the two great bulwarks which are to protect the purity and integrity of our Institution. Indeed, we know not which is the more hurtful-to admit an applicant who is Unworthy, or to promote a candidate who is ignorant of his first lessons. The one affects the externa1, the other the internal character of the Institution. The one brings discredit upon the Order among the profane, who already regard us, too often, with suspicion and dislike; the other introduces ignorance and incapacity into our ranks, and dishonors the science of freemasonry in our own eyes. The one covers our walls with imperfect and worthless stones, which mar the outward beauty and impair the strength of our temple the other fills our interior apartments with confusion and disorder, and leaves the edifice, though externally strong, both inefficient and inappropriate for its destined uses.

But, to the candidate himself, a too hurried advancement is often attended with the most disastrous effects. As in geometry, so in Freemasonry, there is no royal road to perfection. A knowledge of its principles and its science, and consequently an acquaintance with its beauties, can only be acquired by long and diligent study. To the careless observer it seldom offers, at a hasty glance, much to attract his attention or secure his interest. The gold must be deprived, by careful manipulation, of the dark and worthless ore which surrounds and envelops it, before its metallic luster and value can be seen and appreciated.

Hence, the candidate who hurriedly passes through his degrees without a due examination of the moral and intellectual purposes of each, arrives at the summit of our edifice without a due and necessary appreciation of the general symmetry and connection that pervade the whole system. The candidate, thus hurried through the elements of our science, and unprepared, by a knowledge of its fundamental principles, for the reception and comprehension of the corollaries which are to be deduced from them, is apt to view the whole system as a rude and undigested mass of frivolous ceremonies and puerile conceits, whose intrinsic value will not adequately pay him for the time, the trouble, and expense that he has incurred in his forced initiation. To him, Freemasonry is as incomprehensible as was the veiled statue of Isis to its blind worshipers, and he becomes, in consequence, either a useless drone in our hive, or speedily retire in disgust from all participation in our labors.

But the candidate who by slow and painful steps has proceeded through each apartment of our mystic Temple, from its porch to its sanctuary, pausing in his progress to admire the beauties and to study the uses of each, learning, as he advances, line upon line, and precept upon precept, is gradually and almost imperceptibly imbued with so much admiration of the Institution, so much love for its principles, so much just appreciation of its design as a conservator of divine truth, and an agent of human civilization, that he is inclined, on beholding, at last, the whole beauty of the finished building, to exclaim, as did the wondering Queen of Sheba: ''A Most Excellent Master must have done all this!"

The usage in many jurisdictions of the United States, when the question is asked in the ritual whether the candidate has made suitable proficiency in his preceding degree, is to reply, ''Such as time and circumstances would permit." We have no doubt that this was an innovation originally invented to evade the law, which has always required a due proficiency. To such a question no other answer ought to be given than the positive and unequivocal one that "He has.'' Neither lime nor circumstances of candidate should be permitted to interfere with his attainment of the necessary knowledge, nor excuse its absence. This, with the wholesome rule, very generally existing, which requires an interval between the conferring of the degrees, would go far to remedy the evil of too hurried and unqualified advancement of which all intelligent Freemasons are now complaining.

After these views of the necessity of a careful examination of the claims of a candidate for advancement in Freemasonry, and the necessity, for his own good as well as that of the Order, that each one should fully prepare himself for this promotion, it is proper that we should next inquire into the laws of Freemasonry, by which the wisdom and experience of our predecessors have thought proper to guard as well the rights of those who claim advancement as the interests of the Lodge which is called upon to grant it. This subject has been so fully treated in Mackey's Text Book of Masonic Jurisprudence that we shall not hesitate to incorporate the views in that work into the present article.

The subject of the petition of a candidate for advancement involves three questions of great importance: First, how soon, after receiving the First Degree, can he apply for the Second? Second, what number of black balls is necessary to constitute a rejection? Third, what time must elapse, after a first rejection, before the Apprentice can renew his application for advancement?

l. How soon, after receiving a former degree, can a candidate apply for advancement to the next? The necessity of a full comprehension of the mysteries of one degree, before any attempt is made to acquire those of a second, seems to have been thoroughly appreciated from the earliest times; thus the Thirteenth Article in the Regius Manuscript, which is the oldest Masonic document now extant, provides that "if the master a prentice have, he shall teach him thoroughly and tell him measurable points, that he may know the Craft ably, wherever he goes under the sun. " Similar direction is found in most all the Manuscripts.

But if there be an obligation on the part of the Master to instruct his Apprentice, there must be, of course, a correlative obligation on the part of the latter to receive and profit by those instructions. Accordingly, unless this obligation is discharged, and the Apprentice makes himself acquainted with the mysteries of the degree that he has already received, it is, by general consent, admitted that he has no right to be entrusted with further and more important information.

The modern ritual sustains this doctrine, by requiring that the candidate, as a qualification in passing onward, shall have made suitable proficiency in the preceding degree. This is all that the general law prescribes. Suitable proficiency must have been attained, and the period in which that condition will be acquired must necessarily depend on the mental capacity of the candidate. Some men will become proficient in a shorter time than others, and of this fact the Master and the Lodge are to be the judges.

An examination should therefore take place in open Lodge, and a ballot immediately following will express the opinion of the Lodge on the result of that examination, and the qualification of the candidate. Such ballot, however, is not usual in Lodges under the English Constitution.

Several modern Grand Lodges, looking with disapprobation on the rapidity with which the degrees are sometimes conferred upon candidates wholly incompetent, have adopted special regulations, prescribing a determinate period of probation for each degree.

Thus the Grand Lodge of England requires an interval of not less than four weeks before a higher degree can be conferred. This, however, is a local law, to be obeyed only in those jurisdictions in which it is in force. The general law of Freemasonry makes no such determinate provision of time, and demands only that the candidate shall give evidence of suitable proficiency.

2. What number of black balls is necessary to constitute a rejection ? Here we are entirely without the guidance of any express law, as all the Ancient Constitutions are completely silent upon the subject. It would seem, however, that in the advancement of an Apprentice or Fellow Craft, as well as in the election of a profane, the ballot should be unanimous. This is strictly in accordance with the principles of Freemasonry, which require unanimity in admission, lest improper persons be intruded, and harmony impaired.

Greater qualifications are certainly not required of a profane applying for initiation than of an initiate seeking advancement; nor can there be any reason why the test of those qualifications should not be as rigid in the one case as in the other. It may be laid down as a rule, therefore, that in all cases of balloting for advancement in any of the degrees of Freemasonry, a single black ball will reject.

3. What time must elapse, after a first rejection, before the Apprentice or Fellow Craft can renew his application for advancement to a higher degree ? Here, too, the Ancient Constitutions are silent, and we are left to deduce our opinions from the general principles and analogies of Masonic law. As the application for advancement to a higher degree is founded on a right enuring to the Apprentice or Fellow Craft by virtue of his reception into the previous degree---that is to say, as the Apprentice, so soon as he has been initiated, becomes invested with the right of applying for advancement to the Second Degree---it seems evident that, as long as he remains an Apprentice in good standing, he continues to be invested with that right.

Now, the rejection of his petition for advancement by the Lodge does not impair his right to apply again, because it does not affect his rights and standing as an Apprentice; it is simply the expression of the opinion that the Lodge does not at present deem him qualified for further progress in Freemasonry.

We must never forget the difference between the right of applying for advancement and the right of advancement. Every Apprentice possesses the former, but no one can claim the latter until it is given to him by the unanimous vote of the Lodge. As, therefore, this right of application or petition is not impaired by its rejection at a particular time, and as the Apprentice remains precisely in the same position in his own degree, after the rejection, as he did before, it seems to follow, as an irresistible deduction, that he may again apply at the next regular communication, and, if a second time rejected, repeat his applications at all future meetings. The Entered Apprentices of a Lodge are competent, at all regular communications of their Lodge, to petition for advancement. Whether that petition shall be granted or rejected is quite another thing, and depends altogether on the favor of the Lodge. What is here said of an Apprentice, in relation tn advancement to the Second Degree, may be equally said of a Fellow Craft in reference to advancement to the Third Degree.

This opinion has not, it is true, been universally adopted, though no force of authority, short of an opposing landmark, could make one doubt its correctness. For instance, the Grand Lodge of California decided, in 1857, that "the application of Apprentices or Fellow Crafts for advancement should, after they have been once rejected by ballot, be governed by the same principles which regulate the ballot on petitions for initiation, and which require a probation of one year." Brother Mackey commented on this action as follows:

"This appears to be a singular decision of Masonic law. If the reasons which prevent the advancement of an Apprentice or Fellow Craft to a higher degree are of such a nature as to warrant the delay of one year, it is far better to prefer charges against the petitioner, and to give him the opportunity of a fair and impartial trial. In many cases a candidate for advancement is retarded in his progress from an opinion, on the part of the Lodge, that he is not yet sufficiently prepared for promotion by a knowledge of the preceding degree ---an objection which may sometimes be removed before the recurrence of the next monthly meeting.

In such a case, a decision like that of the Grand Lodge of California would be productive of manifest injustice. It is, therefore, a more consistent rule, that the candidate for advancement has a right to apply at every regular meeting, and that whenever any moral objections exist to his taking a higher degree, these objections should be made in the form of charges, and their truth tested by an impartia1 trial. To this, too, the candidate is undoubtedly entitled, on all the principles of justice and equity."

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ADYTUM

The most retired and secret part of the ancient temples, into which the people were not permitted to enter, but which was accessible to the priests only, was called the adytum. Hence the derivation of the word from the Greek privative prefix a, and, to enter = that which is not to be entered. In the adytum was generally to be found a or tomb, or some relics or sacred images of the god to whom the temple was consecrated. It being supposed that temples owed their origin to the superstitious reverence paid by the ancients to their deceased friends, and as most of the gods were men who had been deified on account of their virtues, temples were, Perhaps, at first only stately monuments erected in honor of the dead. Thus the interior of the temple was originally nothing more than a cavity regarded as a Place for the reception of a person interred, and in it was to be found the ‚or coffin, the T…os, or tomb, or, among the Scandinavians, the barrow or mound grave. In time, the statue or image of a god took the place of the coffin; but the reverence for the spot as one of peculiar sanctity remained, and this interior part of the temple became, among the Greeks, the ....or Chapel, among the Romans the adytum, or forbidden place, and among the Jews the kodesh hakodashim, the Holy of Holies (see Holy of Holies). "The sanctity thus acquired, " says Dudley ( Naology, page 393 ), "by the Cell of interment might readily and with propriety be assigned to any fabric capable of containing the body of the departed friend, or the relic, or even the symbol, of the presence or existence of a divine personage." Thus it has happened that there was in every ancient temple an adytum or most holy place.

The adytum of the small temple of Pompeii is still in excellent preservation. It is carried some steps above the level of the main building, and, like the Jewish sanctuary, is without light.

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AENEID

Bishop Warburton (Divine Legation of Moses Demonstrated) has contended, and his opinion has been sustained by the great majority of subsequent commentators, that Vergil, in the Sixth Book of his immortal epic, has, under the figure of the descent of Aeneas into the infernal regions, described the ceremony of initiation into the Ancient Mysteries.

An equally noteworthy allusion is to be found in the Third Book of the Aeneid by Vergil. Here the hero, Aeneas, by means of a message given to him by the uprooting of a plant on the hillside, discovers the grave of a lost prince. A free translation is given as follows of this interesting story by the ancient Roman poet:

"Near at hand there chanced to be sloping ground crested by trees and with a myrtle rough with spear like branches. Unto it I came. There I strove to tear from the earth its forest growth of foliage that the altars I might cover with the leafy boughs. But at that I saw a dreadful wonder, marvelous to tell.

That tree when torn from the soil, as its rooted fibers were wrenched asunder, distilled black blood in drops and gore smeared the ground. My limbs shook with cold terror and the chill veins froze with fear.

"Again I essayed to tear off one slender branch from another and thus thoroughly search for the hidden cause. From the bark of that bough there descended purpled blood. Awaking in my mind many an anxious thought, I reverently beseeched the rural divinities and father Mars, who presides over these Thracian territories, to kindly bless the vision and divert the evil of the omen. So a third time I grasped the boughs with greater vigor and on my knees struggled again with the opposing ground. Then I heard a piteous groan from the depths of the hill and unto mine ears there issued forth a voice :

"'Aeneas, why dost thou strive with an unhappy wretch? Now that I am in my grave spare me. Forbear with guilt to pollute thy pious hands. To you Troy brought me forth no stranger. Oh, flee this barbarous land, flee the greedy shore. Polydore am I. Here an iron crop of darts hath me overwhelmed, transfixed, and over me shoots up pointed javelins.'

"Then indeed, depressed with perplexing fear at heart, was I stunned. On end stood my hair, to my jaws clung my tongue. This Polydore unhappy Priam formerly had sent in secrecy with a great weight of gold to be stored safely with the King of Thrace when Priam began to distrust the arms of Troy and saw the city blocked up by close siege.

The King of Thrace, as soon as the power of the Trojans was crushed and gone their fortune, broke every sacred bond, killed Polydore and by violence took his gold. Cursed greed of gold, to what don't thou not urge the hearts of men! When fear left my bones I reported the warnings of the gods to our chosen leaders and especially to my father, and their opinion asked. All agreed to quit that accursed country, abandon the corrupt associations, and spread our sails to the winds. Thereupon we renewed funeral rites to Polydore. A large hill of earth was heaped for the tomb. A memorial altar was reared to his soul and mournfully bedecked with grey wreaths and gloomy cypress. Around it the Trojan matrons stood with hair disheveled according to the custom. We offered the sacrifices to the dead, bowls foaming with warm milk, and goblets of the sacred blood. We gave the soul repose in the grave, and with loud voice addressed to him the last farewell."

Egyptian mythology also supplies us with a similar legend to the above in the story of the search for the body of slain Osiris. This was placed in a coffin and thrown into the sea, being cast upon the shores of Phoenicia at the base of a tamarisk tree. Here it was found by Isis and brought back to Egypt for ceremonious burial (see Mysteries).

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AEON

This word, in its original Greek, ...., signifies the age or duration of anything. The Gnostics, however, used it in a peculiar mode to designate the intelligent, intellectual, and material powers or natures which flowed as emanations from the B.... or Infinite Abyss of Deity, and which were connected with their divine fountain as rays of light are with the sun (see Gnostics).

*

AERA ARCHITECTONICA

This is used in some modern Masonic lapidary or monument inscriptions to designate the date more commonly known as anno lucis, the year of light.

*

AFFILIATE, FREE

The French gave the name of Free Affiliates to those members of a Lodge who are exempted from the payment of dues, and neither hold office nor vote. These Brethren are known among English-speaking Freemasons as honorary members. There is a quite common use of Affiliate in Lodges of the United States to designate one who has joined a Lodge by demit.

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AFFILIATED FREEMASON

A Freemason who holds membership in some Lodge. The word affiliation in Freemasonry is akin to the French affilier, which Richelet, Dictionnaire de la langue Française, Dictionary of the French Language, defines, "to communicate to any one a participation in the spiritual benefits of a religious order,'' and he says that such a communication is called an affiliation. The word, as a technical term, is not found in any of the old Masonic writers, who always use admission instead of affiliation.

There is no precept more explicitly expressed in the Ancient Constitutions than that every Freemason should belong to a Lodge. The foundation of the law which imposes this duty is to be traced as far back as the Regius Manuscript, which is the oldest Masonic document now extant, and of which the "Secunde poynt" requires that the Freemason work upon the workday as truly as he can in order to deserve his hire for the holiday, and that he shall "truly labor on his deed that he may well deserve to have his meed" (see lines 269-74). The obligation that every Freemason should thus labor is implied in all the subsequent Constitutions, which always speak of Freemasons as working members of the Fraternity, until we come to the Charges approved in 1722, which explicitly state that "every Brother ought to belong to a Lodge, and to be subject to its By-Laws and the General Regulations." Opportunity to resign one's membership should therefore involve a duty to affiliate.

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AFFIRMATION
The question has been mooted whether a Quaker, or other person having peculiar religious scruples in reference to taking oaths, can receive the degrees of Freemasonry by taking an affirmation. Now, as the obligations of Freemasonry are symbolic in their character, and the forms in which they are administered constitute the essence of the symbolism, there cannot be a doubt that the prescribed mode is the only one that ought to be used, and that affirmations are entirely inadmissible.

The London Freemason's Quarterly (1828, page 28G) says that "a Quaker's affirmation is binding." This is not denied. The only question is whether it is admissible. Can the obligations be assumed in any but one way, unless the ritual be entirely changed?

Can any "man or body of men" at this time make such a change without affecting the universality of Freemasonry? Brother Chase (Masonic Digest, page 448) says that "Conferring the degrees on affirmation is no violation of the spirit of Freemasonry, and neither overthrows nor affects a landmark." In this he is sustained by the Grand Lodge of Maine (1823).

On the report of a Committee, concurred in by the Grand Lodge of Washington in 1883 and duly incorporated in the Masonic Code of that State (see the 1913 edition, page130), the following was adopted: "The solemn obligation required from all persons receiving the degrees may be made equally binding by either an oath or an affirmation without any change in the time-honored Landmarks. " A decision of the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island on November 13, 1867 (see also the1918 edition of the Constitution, General Regulations, etc., of that State, page 34) was to the effect that "An affirmation can be administered instead of an oath to any person who refuses, on conscientious grounds, to take the latter." But the other Grand Lodges which expressed an opinion on this subject-namely, those of Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Delaware, Virginia, and Pennsylvania made an opposite decision.

During the latest revision of this work the Masonic authorities in each of these States were invited to give the latest practice in their respective Jurisdictions. Their replies are given substantially as below, and in the main the early custom has been continued.

Missouri has not recognized the word affirmation in the work, and unless the candidate is willing to conform to the wording of the obligation the instructions have been to not accept him and this has been the rule of successive Grand Masters in that State.

Tennessee has not made any change in the law, and in 1919 the Grand Lodge held that the Grand Master had no right to allow the Ritual to be changed in order to suit the religious views of a profane.

There has been no change in the attitude of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky in the matter of affirmation. That State has required the candidate to take the obligation in the usual manner. Delaware reported that there had been no change in the approved decision adopted by the Grand Lodge in 1890 which is as follows: "An applicant who desires to affirm instead of swear to the obligation cannot be received." The Grand Lodge of Virginia allows the use of an affirmation, not by the written law, but by the decision of a Grand Master of that State.

In Pennsylvania a petitioner becomes a member of the Lodge by initiation and dues begin from that time. He may, if he desires, remain an Entered Apprentice Freemason, a member of the Lodge, or he may resign as such. There is only one way of making an Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, or Master Freemason, in this Jurisdiction, which is by use of the greater lights, without any equivocation, deviation, or substitution.

One decision of Grand Master Africa of Pennsylvania, on October 24, 1892, does not state precisely at what point the candidate for initiation refused to obey, and even the original letter written by Grand Master Africa does not show it.

Presumably the reference was in regard to the candidate's belief in a supreme Being, yet it covers other points as follows:

"After having been duly prepared to receive the First Degree in Freemasonry, a candidate refused to conform with and obey certain landmarks of the craft. This refusal disqualifies him from initiation in any Lodge in this jurisdiction, and you will direct your Secretary to make proper record thereof, and , to make report to the Grand Secretary accordingly.

Freemasonry does not proselyte. Those who desire its privileges must seek them of their own free will, and must accept and obey, without condition or reservation, all of its ancient usages, customs, and landmarks."

The general practice of Lodges in America is also against the use of an affirmation. But in England Quakers have been initiated after affirmation, the principle being that a form of obligation which the candidate accepts as binding will suffice.

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AFRICA

Anderson (Constitutions, 1738, page195) has recorded that in 1735 Richard Hull, Esq., was appointed "Provincia1Grand Master at Gambay in West Africa," that in 1736 David Creighton, M.D., was appointed "Provincial Grand Master at Cape Coast, Castle in Africa," and that in 1737 Capt. William Douglas was appointed "Provincial Grand Master on the Coast of Africa and in the Islands of America, excepting such places where a Provincial Grand Master is already deputed." . However, in spite of these appointments having been made by the Grand Lodge of England, there is no trace of the establishment of any Lodges in West Africa until 1792, in which year a Lodge numbered 586 was constituted at Bulam, followed in 1810 by the Torridzonian Lodge at Cape Coast Castle. There have been, on the West Coast of Africa, Lodges Warranted by the Grand Lodge of England, or holding an Irish Warrant, as Lodge 197 at Calabar, founded in 1896, or under the Grand Lodge of Scotland, or by authority from Grand Bodies in Germany. In the Negro Republic of Liberia a Grand Lodge was constituted in 1867, with nine daughter Lodges subordinate to it, and with headquarters at Monrovia.

In the north of Africa there was founded the Grand Lodge of Egypt with headquarters at Cairo. Both Eng1and and Scotland have established District Grand Lodges in Egypt by consent of the former, While Italy, France, and Germany have organized Lodges at Alexandria, Cairo, Port Said and Suez.

In Algeria and Morocco French influence has been predominant, but in Tunis an independent Grand Lodge was established in 1881.

Freemasonry was introduced into South Africa by the erection of a Dutch Lodge, De Goede Hoop, at Cape Town in 1772, followed by another under the same Jurisdiction in 1802. Not until nine years later was it that the first English Lodge was established there, which was gradually followed by others. The Dutch and English Freemasons worked side by side with such harmony that the English Provincial Grand Master for the District who was appointed in 1829 was also Deputy Grand Master for the Netherlands. In 1860 a Scotch Lodge was set up at Cape Town. Thirty-five years later a Lodge was erected at Johannesburg, under the Grand Lodge of Ireland, so that there have been four independent Masonic Bodies exercising jurisdiction and working amicably together in South Africa, namely, the Grand Lodges of England, Ireland, and Scotland, and the Grand Orient of the Netherlands.

Under the Grand Lodge of England the subordinate Lodges were arranged in five Districts, namely, Central, Eastern and Western South Africa, Natal, and the Transvaal. At the same time there were Lodges owing allegiance to the Grand Lodge of Ireland, as well as those under the Scotch Constitution, divided among the Districts of Cape Colony, Cape Colony Western Province, Natal, Orange River Colony, Rhodesia, and the Transvaal, and those under the Jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of the Netherlands, in addition to the German Lodges at Johannesburg.

Under the Jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of the Netherlands there was appointed a Deputy Grand Master and two Districts, one being the Provincial Grand Lodge of South Africa and the Provincial Grand Lodge of the Transvaal. The first of these had its headquarters at Cape Town, the other at Johannesburg.

The Grand Orient of Belgium chartered a Lodge in 1912 at Elizabethville, in Northern Rhodesia. On the East Coast of the Dark Continent there were erected two Lodges at Nairobi, one of them being English and the other Scotch, and there was also established in 1903 an English Lodge at Zanzibar.

(See also the following references to other geographical divisions of Africa: Abyssinia, Algeria, Belgian Congo, British East Africa, Cape Colony, Cape Verde Islands, Egypt, Eritrea, French Guinea, German Southwest Africa, Liberia, Madagascar, Morocco, Mauritius, Nigeria, Nyasaland, Portuguese East Africa, Portuguese West Africa, Reunion Island, Rhodesia, Sierra Leone, St. Helena, Somaliland, Tripoli, Tunis and Uganda.)

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AFRICA

In the French Rite of Adoption, the South of the Lodge is called Africa.

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AFRICA, GERMAN SOUTHWEST

See German Southwest Africa.

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AFRICAN ARCHITECTS, ORDER OF

Sometimes called African Builders; or in French, Architectes de l'Afrique; and in German, Afrikanische Bauherren.

Of all the new sects and modern Degrees of Freemasonry which sprang up on the continent of Europe during the eighteenth century, there was none which, for the time, maintained so high an intellectual position as the Order of African Architects, called by the French Architectes de l'Afrique, and by the Germans Afrikanische Bauherren. A Masonic sect of this name had originally been established in Germany in the year 1756, but it does not appear to have attracted much attention, or indeed to have deserved it; and hence, amid the multitude of Masonic innovations to which almost every day was giving birth and ephemeral existence it soon disappeared.

But the Society which is the subject of the present article, although it assumed the name of the original African Architects, was of a very different character.

It may, however, be considered, as it was established only eleven years afterward, as a remodification of it.

The Society admitted to membership those possessing high intellectual attainments rather than those possessing wealth or preferment.

There was probably no real connection between this Order and the Freemasonry of Germany, even if the members of the latter organization did profess kindly feelings for it. Brethren of the former based their Order on the degrees of Freemasonry, as the fist of degrees shows, but their work began in the Second Temple. while they had a quasi-connection with Freemasonry, we cannot call them a Masonic body according to the present day standards.

The degrees of the Order of African Architects were named and classified as follows:

First Temple
1. Apprentice.
2. Fellow Craft.
3. Master Mason.
Second Temple
4. Architect, or Apprentice of Egyptian Secrets. Thory (Acta Latomorum I, page 297) gives the ...title as Bosonien.
5. Initiate into Egyptian Secrets. Acta Latomorum (1, page 292) gives the title as Alethophile.
6. Cosmopolitan Brother.
7. Christian Philosopher. Thory calls this the Fourth Degree in his Acta Latomorum (1, page ....632).
8. Master of Egyptian Secrets.
9. Esquire of the Order.
10. Soldier of the Order.
ll. Knight of the Order.

The last three were called superior Degrees, and were conferred only, as a second or higher class, with great discrimination, upon those who had proved their worthiness to receive promotion.

The assemblies of the Brethren were called Chapters.

The central or superintending power was styled a Grand Chapter, and it was governed by the following twelve officers:

1. Grand Master.
2. Deputy Grand Master.
3. Senior Grand Warden.
4. Junior Grand Warden.
5. Drapier.
6. Almoner.
7. Tricoplerius, or Treasurer.
8. Graphiarius, or Secretary.
9. Seneschal.
10. Standard Bearer.
l1. Marshal.
12. Conductor.

Mackenzie says the Order was instituted between 1756 and 1767, under the patronage of Frederick II of Prussia, by Baucheren, and that the objects were chiefly historical but the ritual was a compound of Freemasonry, Christianity, Alchemy, and Chivalry. He quotes from its claims thus: "When the Architects were by wars reduced to a very small number, they determined to travel together into Europe, and there to form together new establishments. Many of them came to England with Prince Edward, son of Henry III, and were shortly afterward called into Scotland by Lord Stewart. They received the protection of King Ing of Sweden in l125; of Richard Coeur-de-Lion, King of England in l190; and of Alexander III of Scotland in 1284. " He further states that the Order came to an end in 1786, that the three last degrees conferred offices for life, that the Order possessed a large building for the Meetings of the Grand Chapter, containing a library, a museum, a chemical laboratory', and that for many, years they gave annually a gold medal of the value of fifty ducats for the best essay on the history of Freemasonry, Lenning does not mention any connection of Frederick the Great with the Order and Woodford is inclined to limit its activity to ten years, presumably from 1767, though he points out that it has been said to have had an existence into the year 1806. A claim has been made that it was but an enlargement of a Lodge in action at Hamburg in 1747, and the further assertion has been offered of the French origin of the Order. The names of the degrees have also been named as:

1. Knight or Apprentice.
2. Brother or Companion.
3. Soldier or Master.
4. Horseman or Knight.
5. Novice.
6. Aedile, or Builder.
7. Tribunus, or Knight of the Eternal Silence.

The members are said by Woodford to have all been Freemasons and men of learning, the proceedings being, it is claimed, conducted in the Latin language, a circumstance that has a parallel in the Roman Eagle Lodge, No. 160, Edinburgh, Scotland, founded in 1785. This Lodge had its By-Laws and Minutes written in Latin, the object being "to erect and maintain a Lodge whose working and records should be in the classical Latin tongue" (see Historical Notes, Alfred A. A. Murray, Edinburgh, 1908, also The Jacobite Lodge at Romne, William J. Hughan, 1910, page 14).

For a helpful guide to the conditions under Frederick the Great's control favoring the existence of such organizations as the African Architects. the student may refer to volume ii, pages 60--73, The Beautiful Miss Craven, by Broadley and Melville, 1914.

The African Architects was not the only. society which in the eighteenth century sought to rescue Freemasonry from the impure hands of the charlatans into which it had well-nigh fallen.

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AFRICAN BROTHER

One of the degrees of the Rite of the Clerks of Strict Observance, according to Thory (Acta Latorum 1, page 291), but it is not mentioned in other lists of the degrees of that Rite.

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AFRICAN BROTHERS

One of the titles given to the African Architects, which see.

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AFRICAN BUILDERS

See African Architects

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AFRICAN LODGE

See Negro Lodges

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AGAPAE

The Agapae, or love feasts, were banquets held during the first three centuries in the Christian Church. They were called love feasts, because, including the partaking of the Sacrament, the Brethren met, both rich and poor, at a common feast-the former furnishing the provisions, and the latter, who had nothing, being relieved and refreshed by their more opulent Brethren. Tertullian (Apologia, chapter xxxix) thus describes these banquets: "We do not sit down before we have first offered up prayers to God; we eat and drink only to satisfy hunger and thirst, remembering still that we are to worship God by night: we discourse as in the presence of God, knowing that He hears us: then, after water to wash our hands, and lights brought in, every one is moved to sing some hymn to God, either out of the Scripture, or, as he is able, of his own composing.

Prayer again concludes our feast, and we depart, not to fight and quarrel, or to abuse those we meet, but to pursue the same care of modesty and chastity, as men that have fed at a supper of philosophy and discipline, rather than a corporeal feast."

The agapae united the group meal and the Lord's Supper because that Sacrament was first observed at a feast (see Matthew xxvi, 26-9). This custom was readily adopted among Gentile converts as such meals were usual practices by both the Greeks and Romans. Even in Bible times the observance was not always free of fault as is shown by Paul's rebuke at Corinth (see First Corinthians xi, 17-34; also in this connection note Second Peter11, 13; and Jude12).

These disorders marred the religious value of the function and led to its suppression in churches. The merit of the purpose, when properly carried out. gives substantial service to right living and has therefore much ceremonial and social importance.

Dr. August Kestner, Professor of Theology, published in Jena, in 1819, a work in which he maintains that the agapae, established at Rome by Clemens, in the reign of Domitian, were mysteries which partook of a Masonic, symbolic, and religious character.
In the Rosicurcian Degrees of Freemasonry we find an imitation of these love feasts of the primitive Christians; and the ceremonies of the banquet in the Degree of Rose Croix of the Ancient and accepted Rite, especially as practiced by French Chapters, are arranged with reference to the ancient agapae.

Reghellini, indeed, finds an analogy between the Table Lodges of modern Freemasonry and these love feasts of the primitive Christians.

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AGATE

A stone varying in color, but of great hardness, being a variety of the flint. The agate, in Hebrew ..., SheBO, was the center stone of the third row in the breastplate of the High Priest.

Agates often contain representations of leaves, mosses, etc., depicted by the hand of nature. Some of the representations on these are exceedingly singular. Thus, on one side of one in the possession of Velschius was a half moon, and on the other a star.

Kircher mentions one which had a representation of an armed heroine ; another, in the church of Saint Mark in Venice, which had a representation of a king's head, adorned with a diadem; and a third which contained the letters I. N. R. I. (see Oliver's Historical Landmarks ii, page 522). In the collections of antiquaries are also to be found many gems of agate on which mystical inscriptions have been engraved, the significations of which are for the most part no longer understood.

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AGATE, STONE OF

Among the Masonic traditions is one which asserts that the Stone of Foundation was formed of agate. This, like everything connected with the legend of the stone, is to be mystically interpreted. In this view, agate is a symbol of strength and beauty, a symbolism derived from the peculiar character of the agate, which is distinguished for its compact formation and the ornamental character of its surface (see Stone of Foundation).

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AGATHOPADES

A liberal ecclesiastical order founded in Brussels in the sixteenth century. Revived and revised by Schayes in 1846. It had for its sacred sign the pentastigma, a term meaning the stamp of the five points.

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AGBATANA

See Echatana

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AGE, LAWFUL

One of the qualifications for candidates is that they shall be of lawful age. What that age must be is not settled by any universal law or landmark of the Order. The Ancient Regulations do not express any determinate number of years at the expiration of which a candidate becomes legally entitled to apply for admission.

The language used is, that he must be of "mature and discreet age."

But the usage of the Craft has differed in various countries as to the construction of the time when this period of maturity and discretion is supposed to have arrived. The sixth of the Regulations, which are said to have been made in 1663, prescribes that "no person shall be accepted a Freemason unless he be one and twenty years old or more"; but the subsequent Regulations are less explicit. At Frankfort-on-the-Main, the age required is twenty; in the Lodges of Switzerland, it has been fixed at twenty-one. The Grand Lodge of Hanover prescribes the age of twenty-five, but permits the son of a Freemason to be admitted at eighteen see Lewis).

The Grand Lodge of Hamburg decrees that the lawful age for initiation shall be that which in any country has been determined by the laws of the land to be the age of majority. The Grand Orient of France requires the candidate. to be twenty-one, unless he be the son of a Freemason who has performed some important service to the Order, or unless he be a young man who has served six months in the army, when the initiation may take place at the age of eighteen.

In Prussia the required age is twenty-five. Under the Grand Lodge of England the Constitutions of 1723 provided that no man should be made a Freemason under the age of twenty-five unless by Dispensation from the Grand Master. This remained the necessary age until it was lowered in the Constitutions of 1784 to twenty-one years, as at present, though the Ancient Freemasons still retained the requirement of twenty-five until the Union of 1813. Under the Scotch Constitution the age was eighteen until 1891, when it was raised to twenty-one. Under the Irish Constitution the age was twenty-one until 1741, when it was raised to twenty-five and so remained until 1817, when it was lowered again to twenty-one. In the United States, the usage is general that the candidate shall not be less than twenty-one years of age at the time of his initiation, and no Dispensation can issue for conferring the degrees at an earlier period.

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AGE, MASONIC
In some Masonic Rites a mystical age is appropriated to each degree, and the initiate who has received the degree is said to be of such an age. Thus, the age of an Entered Apprentice is said to be three years ; that of a Fellow Craft, five; and that of a Master Mason, seven. These ages are not arbitrarily selected, but have a reference to the mystical value of numbers and their relation to the different degrees.

Thus, three is the symbol of peace and concord, and has been called in the Pythagorean system the number of perfect harmony, and is appropriated to that degree, which is the initiation into an Order whose fundamental principles are harmony and brotherly love. Five is the symbol of active life, the union of the female principle two and the male principle three, and refers in this way to the active duties of man as a denizen of the world, which constitutes the symbolism of the Fellow Craft's Degree ; and seven, as a venerable and perfect number, is symbolic of that perfection which is supposed to be attained in the Master's Degree. In a way similar to this, all the ages of the other degrees are symbolically and mystically explained.

The Masonic ages are---and it will thus be seen that they are all mystic numbers-3, 5, 7, 9, 15, 27, 63, 81.

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AGENDA

A Latin word meaning things to be done. Thus an "Agenda Paper" is a list of the matters to be brought before a meeting.

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AGLA

One of the Cabalistic names of God, which is composed of the initials of the words of the following sentence: ..........., Atah Gibor Lo1am Adonai, meaning "Thou art mighty forever, O Lord." This name the Cabalists arranged seven times in the center and at the intersecting points of two interlacing triangles, which figure they called the Shield of David, and used as a talisman, believing that it would cure wounds, extinguish fires, and perform other wonders (see Shield of David). The four Hebrew letters forming the initials of the above words were used on the floor cloths of Lodges in the eighteenth century.

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AGNOSTUS, IRENAEUS

This is supposed by Kloss (Bibliographie der Friemaurerei, Nos. 2442, 2497, etc. ) to have been a nom-de-plume or pen name of Gotthardus Arthusius, a co-rector in the Gymnasium of Frankfort-on-the-Main, and a writer of some local celebrity in the beginning of the seventeenth century (see Arthusius).

Under this assumed name of Irenaeus Agnostus, he published, between the years 1617 and 1620, many works on the subject of the Rosicrucian Fraternity, which John Valentine Andrea had about that time established in Germany, Among those works were the Fortaliciuni Scientiae, 1617; Clypeum Veritatis, 1618 ; Speculum Constantiae, 1618; Fons Gratiae, 1619; Frater non Frater, 1619; Thesaurus Fidei, 1619; Portus Tranquillitatis, 1620, and several others of a similar character and equally quaint title.

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AGNUS DEI

The Agnus Dei, meaning the Lamb of God, also called the Paschal Lamb, or the Lamb offered in the Pascal Sacrifice, is one of the jewels of a Commandery of Knights Templar in America, and is worn by the Generalissimo.

The lamb is one of the earliest symbols of Christ in the iconography of the Church, and as such was a representation of the Savior, derived from that expression of Saint John the Baptist (John1, 29), who, on beholding Christ, exclaimed, "Behold the Lamb of God."

"Christ," says Didron (Christian Iconography 1, page 318), "shedding his blood for our redemption, is the Lamb slain by the children of Israel, and with the blood of which the houses to be preserved from the wrath of God were marked with the celestial tau.

The Paschal Lamb eaten by the Israelites on the night preceding their departure from Egypt is the type of that other divine Lamb of whom Christians are to partake at Easter, in order thereby to free themselves from the bondage in which they are held by vice."

The earliest representation that is found in Didron of the Agnus Dei is of the sixth century, and consists of a lamb supporting in his right foot a cross. In the eleventh century we find a banneret attached to this cross, and the lamb is then said to support "the banner of the resurrection." This is the modern form in which the Agnus Dei is represented.

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AGRIPPA, HENRY CORNELIUS

Born in 1486 at Cologne, Germany, his real name being Von Nettesheim. Died in 1535 at Grenoble, France. Author of On the Vanity of the Sciences, published in 1527 at Cologne, and Libri Tres de Occulta Philosophia, published in 1533 at the same place. A scholarly and learned man whose writings led him into many controversies. Lenning and Gädicke say that Agrippa founded a secret literary and mystical society at Paris and during his life was reputed to have been a magician (see Henry Morley's Life of Cornelius Agrippa).

Agrippa was, as well as being a writer, a soldier, a physician and a well-known alchemist.A writer in the Quarterly Review of 1798 states that Cornelius Agrippa came to London in 1510 and founded there a secret alchemical society and was practically the founder of Freemasonry.

There does not seem to be any foundation for such a statement. Many of his writings dealt with Rosicrucianism.

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AHABATH OLAM

Two Hebrew words signifying eternal love. The name of a prayer which was used by the Jews dispersed over the whole Roman Empire during the times of Christ. It was inserted by Dermott in his Ahiman Rezon (page 45, edition 1764), and copied into several others, with the title of A Prayer repeated in the Royal Arch Lodge at Jerusalem. The prayer was most probably adopted by Dermott and attributed to a Royal Arch Lodge in consequence of the allusion in it to the "holy, great, mighty, and terrible name of God."

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AHIAH

So spelled in the common version of the Bible (First Kings iv, 3 ), but according to the Hebrew orthography the word should be spelled and pronounced Achiah, or akh-ee-yaw according to Strong.
He and Elihoreph or Elichoreph were the Sopherim, the Scribes or Secretaries of King Solomon. In the ritual of the Seventh Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Rite, according to the modern American system, these personages are represented by the two Wardens.

 

AHIMAN REZON

The title given by Dermott to the Book of Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of Ancient Freemasons in England, which was established about the middle of the eighteenth century in opposition to the legitimate Grand Lodge and its adherents who were called the Moderns, and whose code of laws was contained in Anderson's work known as the Book of Constitutions. Many attempts have been made to explain the significance of this title ; thus according to Doctor Mackey, it is derived from three Hebrew words, zhiln, meaning brothers; ..manah, to appoint, or to select in the sense of being placed in a peculiar class (see Isaiah liii, 12), and ..ratzon, the will, pleasure, or meaning; and hence the combination of the three words in the title, Ahiman Rezon, signifies the will of selected Brethren- the law of a class or society of men who are chosen or selected from the rest of the world as Brethren.

Doctor Dalcho (Ahiman Rezon of South Carolina, page 159, second edition) derives it from ahi, a brother, manah, to prepare, and rezon, secret, so that, as he says, " Abiman Rezon literally means the secrets of a prepared brother." But the best meaning of manah is that which conveys the idea of being placed in or appointed to a certain, exclusive class, as we find in Isaiah liii, 12 "he was numbered (nimenah) with the transgressors," placed in that class, being taken out of every other order of men. Although rezon may come from ratzon, a will or law, it can hardly be elected by any rules of etymology out of the Chaldee word raz, meaning a secret, the termination in on being wanting; and furthermore the book called the Ahiman Rezon does not contain the secrets, but only the public laws of Freemasonry. The derivation of Dalcho seems therefore inadmissible.

Not less so is that of Brother W. S. Rockwell, who as recorded in the Ahiman Rezon of Georgia (1859, page 3) thinks the derivation may be found in the Hebrew, ... amun, meaning a builder or architect and .., rezon, as a noun, prince, and as an adjective, royal, and hence, Ahiman Rezon, according to this etymology, wifl signify the royal builder, or, symbolically, the Freemason. But to derive ahiman from amun, or rather amon, which is the masoretic pronunciation, is to place all known laws of etymology at defiance. Rockwell himself, however, furnishes the best argument against his strained derivation, when he admits that its correctness will depend on the antiquity of the phrase, which he acknowledges that he doubts. In this, he is right. The phrase is altogether a modern one, and has Dermott, the author of the first work bearing the title, for its inventor.

Rockwell's conjectural derivation is, therefor, for this reason still more inadmissible than Dalcho's.

But the most satisfactory explanation is as follows: In his prefatory address to the reader, Dermott narrates a dream of his in which the four men appointed by Salomon to be porters at theTempel (First Cronicles ix, 17 ) appear to him sojourners from Jerusalem, and he tells them that he is writing a history of Freemasonry; upon which, one of the four, named Ahiman, says that no such history has ever yet been composed and suggests that it never can be.

It is clear, therefore, that the first word of the title is the name of this personage. What then does Rezon signify? Now the Geneva or Breeches Bible, publishes in 1560 contains a table giving the meanings of the Bible names and explains Ahiman as a prepared brother or brother of the right hand and Rezon as a secretary, so that the title of the book would mean Brother Secretary. That Dermott used the Geneva Bible is plain from the fact that he quotes from it in his address to the reader, and therefore it may fairly be assumed that he selected these names to suit his purpose from the list given in it, especially as he styles himself on his title-page merely Secretary.

The first Book of Masonic Law published by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania was entitled: Ahiman Rezon abridged and digested: as a Help to atilt are or would be Free and Accepted Masons. It was prepared by the Grand Secretary, the Rev. Brother William Smith, D.D., Provost of the University of Pennsylvania, and was almost entirely a reprint of Dermott's work; it was approved by the Grand Lodge November 22, 1781, published in, 1783, and dedicated to Brother George Washington. It is reprinted in the introduction to the first or edited reprint of the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, 1730-l808. On April 18, 1825, a revision of the Ahinwn Rezon was adopted, being taken largely from Anderson's Constitutions.

In the 1919 edition (page 210) are these comments: "The revision of 1825 contains the following as the definition of the words Ahiman Rezon: The Book of Constitutions is usually denominated Ahiman Rezon. The literal translation of Ahiman is A prepared Brother, from manah, to prepare, and Rezon, secret; so that Ahiman Rezon literally means, the secrets of a prepared Brother. It is likewise supposed to be a corruption of Achi Man Ratzon, the thoughts or opinions of a true and faithful Brother. As the Ahiman Rezon is not a secret, but a published book, and the above definition has been omitted from subsequent revisions of the book, the words were submitted to Hebrew scholars for translation upon the assumption that they are of Hebrew origin. The words however are not Hebrew.

"Subsequent inquiry leads to the belief that they come from the Spanish, and are thus interpreted: Ahi, which is pronounced Ah-ee, is demonstrative and means there, as if pointing to a thing or place; man may be considered a form of monta, which means the account, amount, sum total, or fullness; while razon or rezon means reason, principle, or justice, the word justice being used in the sense of law. If, therefore, we ascribe the words himan Rezon to Spanish origin, their meaning is-There is the full account of the law."

But the history of the origin of the book is more important and more interesting than the history of the derivation of its title.

The premier Grand Lodge of England was established in 1717 and ruled the Freemasons of London and the South of England without opposition until in 1751 when some Irish Freemasons established another body in London. This organization professed to work "according to the old institutions," and the Brethren called themselves Ancient Freemasons and the members of the older Grand Lodge .

Moderns, maintaining that they alone preserved the ancient usage of Freemasonry.
The former of these contending bodies, the Grand Lodge of England, had, In the year 1722, caused Dr. James Anderson to collect and compile all the Statutes and Regulations by which the Fraternity had in former times been governed. These, after having been submitted to due revision, were published in 1723, by Anderson, with the title of The Constitutions of the Freemasons. This work, of which several other edit out subsequently appeared, has always been called the Book of Constitutions, and contains the foundations of the written law by which the Grand Lodge if England and the Lodges deriving from it, both in that country and in America, are governed.

But when the Irish Freemasons established their rival Grand Lodge, they found it necessary, also, to have a Book of Constitutions. Accordingly, Laurence Dermott, who was at one time their Grand Secretary, and afterward their Deputy Grand Master, compiled such a work, the first edition of which was published by James Bedford, at London, in 1756, with the following title: Ahiman Rezon: or a Help to a Brother; showing the Excellency of Secrecy, and the first cause or motive of the Institution of Masonry; the Principles of the Craft; and the Benefits from a strict Observance thereof, etc., etc. ; also the Old and New Regulations, etc. To which is added the greatest collection of Masons' Songs, etc. By Bro. Laurence Dermott, Secretary.

A second edition was published in 1764 with this title : Ahiman Rezon: or a help to all that are or would be Free and Accepted Masons; containing the Quintessence of all that has been published on the subject of Freemasonry, with many Additions, which renders this Work more useful than any other Book of Constitution now extant. By Lau. Dermott, Secretary. London, 1764. A third edition was published in 1778, with the following title: Ahiman Rezon: or a Help to all that are or would be Free and Accepted Masons (with many Additions). By Lau. Dermott, D.G.M. Printed for James Jones, Grand Secretary; and sold by Peter Shatwell, in the Strand. London, 1778.

Five other edit out were published: the fourth, in 1778 ; the fifth in 1787 ; the sixth in 1800 ; the seventh in 1801; the eighth in 1807, and the ninth in 1813.

In this year, the Ancient Grand Lodge was dissolved by the union of the two Grand Lodges of England, and a new Book of Constitutions having been adopted for the united body, the Ahiman Rezon became useless, and no subsequent edition was ever published.

The earlier edit out oi this work are among the rarest of Masonic publications, and are highly prized by collectors.

In the year 1855, Leon Hyneman, of Philadelphia, who was engaged in a reprint of old standard Masonic works, an enterprise which should have received better patronage than it did, republished the second edition, with a few explanatory notes.

As this book contains those principles of Masonic law by which, over three-fourths of a century, a large and intelligent portion of the Craft was governed; and as it is now becoming rare and, to the generality of readers, inaccessible, some brief review of its contents may not be uninteresting. In the preface or address to the reader, Dermott pokes fun at the history of Freemasonry as written by Doctor Anderson and others, and wittily explains the reason why he has not published a history of Freemasonry.

There is next a Philacteri for such Gentlemen as may be inclined to become Freemasons. This article, which was not in the first edition, but appeared for the first time in the second, consists of directions as to the method to be pursued by one who desires to be made a Freemason. This is followed by an account of what Dermott calls Modern Masonry, that is, the system pursued by the original Grand Lodge of England, and of the differences existing between it and Ancient Masonry, or the system of his own Grand Lodge. He contends that there are material differences between the two systems; that of the Ancient being universal, and that of the Moderns not; a Modern being able with safety to communicate all his secrets to an Ancient, while an Ancient cannot communicate his to a Modern; a Modem having no right to be called free and accepted; all of which, in his opinion, show that the Ancient have secrets which are not in the possession of the Moderns. This, he considers, a convincing proof that the Modern Freemasons were innovators upon the established system, and had instituted their Lodges and framed their ritual without a sufficient knowledge of the arcana of the Craft. But the Modern Freemasons with more semblance of truth, thought that the additional secrets oi the Ancient were only innovations that they had made upon the true body of Freemasonry; and hence, they considered their ignorance of these newly invented secrets was the best evidence of their own superior antiquity. In the later editions Dermott has published the famous Leland Manuscript, together with the commentaries of Locke; also the resolutions adopted in 1772, by which the Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland agreed to maintain a "Brotherly Connexion and correspondence" with the Grand Lodge of England (Ancient).

The Ahiman Rezon proper, then, begins with twenty-three pages of an encomium on Freemasonry, and an explanation of its principles. Many a modem Masonic address is better written, and contains more important and instructive matter than this prefatory discourse.

Then follow The Old Charges of the Free and Accepted Masons, taken from the 1738 edition of Anderson's Constitutions. Next come A short charge to a new admitted Mason, The Ancient manner of constituting a Lodge, a few prayers, and then the General Regulations of the Free and Accepted Masons. These are borrowed mainly from the second edition of Anderson with a few alterations and additions. After a comparison of the Dublin and London Regulations for charity, the rest of the book, comprising more than a hundred pages, consists of A collection of Masons Songs, of the poetical merits of which the less said the better for the literary reputation of the writers.

Imperfect, however, as was this work, it for a long time constituted the statute book of the Ancient Masons. Hence those Lodges in America which derived their authority from the Dermott or Ancient Grand Lodge of England, accepted its contents as a true exposition of Masonic law. Several of their Grand Lodges caused similar works to be compiled for their own government, adopting the title of Ahiman Rezon, which thus became the peculiar designation of the volume which contained the fundamental law of the Ancient, while the original title of Book of Constitutions continued to be retained by the Moderns, to designate the volume used by them for the same purpose .

Of the Ahiman Rezons compiled and published in America, the following are the principal: 1. Ahiman Rezon abridged and digested; as a help to all that are or would be Free and Accepted Masons, etc. Published by order of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania; by William Smith, D.D. Philadelphia, 1783. A new Ahiman Rezon was published by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in 1825.

2. Charges and Regulation8 of the Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons, extracted from the Ahiman Rezon, etc. Published by the consent and direction of the Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia. Halivax, 1786.

3. The New Ahiman Rezon, containing the Laws and Constitution of Virginia, etc. By John K. Reade, present Deputy Grand Master of Virginia, etc. Richmond, 1791. Another edition was published in 1818, by James Henderson.

4. The Maryland Ahiman Rezon of Free and Accepted Masons, containing the History of Masonry from the establishment of the Grand Lodge to the present time; with their Ancient Charges, Addresses, Prayers, Lectures, Prologues, Epilogues, Songs, etc., collected from the Old Records, Faithful Traditions and Lodge Books; by G. Keating. Compiled by order of the Grand Lodge of Maryland. Baltimore, 1797.

5. The Ahiman Rezon and Masonic Ritual, published by the order of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina and Tennessee. Newbern, North Carolina, 1805.

6. An Ahiman Rezon, for the use of the Grand Lodge of South Carolina, Ancient York Masons, and the Lodges under the Register and Masonic Jurisdiction thereof. Compiled and arranged with considerable additions, at the request of 'the Grand Lodge, and published by their authority. By Brother Frederick Dalcho, M.D., etc. Charleston, South Carolina, 1807. A second edition was published by the same author, in 1822, and a third, in 1852, by Dr. Gilbert G. Mackey. In this third edition, the title was changed to that of The Ahiman Rezon, or Book of Constitutions, etc. Furthermore, the Work was in a great measure purged of the peculiarities of Dermott, and made to conform more closely to the Andersonian Constitutions. A fourth edition. Was published by the same editor, in 1871, from which everything antagonistic to the original Book of Constitutions has been omitted.

7. The Freemason's Library and General Ahiman Rezon ; containing a delineation of the true principles of Freemasonry, etc.; by Samuel Cole. Baltimore, 1817. 8vo, 332 + 92 pages. There was a second edition in 1826.

8. Ahiman Rezon; prepared under the direction of the Grand Lodge of Georgia; by Wm. S. Rockwell, Grand Master of Masons of Georgia. Savannah, 1859. 4to and 8vo, 404 pages. But neither this work nor the third and fourth edition of the Ahiman Rezon of South Carolina had any connection in principle or theory with the Ahiman Rezon of Dermott. They have borrowed the name from the Ancient Freemasons. but they derive all their law aud their authorities from the Moderns, or, as Doctor Mackey preferred to Call them, the legal Freemasons of the last century.
9. The General Ahiman Rezon and Freemason's Guild, by Daniel Sickles. New York, 1866. 8vo, 408 . Pages. This book, like Rockwell's, has no other connection with the work of Dermott but the name.

Many of the Grand Lodges of the United States having derived their existence and authority from the Dermott Grand Lodge, the influence of his Ahiman Rezon was for a long time exercised over the Lodges of this country. Indeed, it is only within a comparatively recent period that the true principles of Masonic law, as expounded in the first editions of Anderson's Constitutions, have been universally adopted among American Freemasons.

However, it must be observed, in justice to Dermott, who has been rather too grossly abused by Mitchell and a few other writers, that the innovations upon the old laws of Freemasonry, which are to be found in the Ahiman Rezon, are for the most part not to be charged upon him, but upon Doctor Anderson himself, who, for the first time, introduced them into the second edition of the Book of Constitutions, published in 1738. It is surprising, and accountable only on the ground of sheer carelessness on the part of the supervising committee, that the Grand Lodge should, in 1738, have approved of these alterations made by Anderson, and still more surprising that it was not until 1756 that a new or third edition of the Constitutions should have been published, in which these alterations of 1738 were expunged, and the old regulations and the old language restored. But whatever may have been the causes of this oversight, it is not to be doubted that, at the time of the formation of the Grand Lodge of the Ancient, the edition of the Book of Constitutions of 1738 was considered as the authorized exponent of Masonic law by the earlier, or, as Doctor Mackey would say, the original or regular Grand Lodge of England, and was adopted, with but little change, by Dermott as the basis of his Ahiman Rezon. How much this edition of 1738 differed from that of 1723, which is now considered the only true authority for ancient law, and how much it agreed with Dermott's Ahiman Rezon, will he evident from the following specimens of the first of the Old Charges, correctly taken from each of the three works:

First of the Old Charges in the Book of Constitutions, edition of 1723:

"A Mason is obliged by his tenure to obey the moral law; and if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist, nor an irreligious libertine. But though in ancient times Masons were charged, in every country, to be of the religion of that country or nation, whatever it was, yet it is now thought more expedient only to oblige them to that religion in which all men agree, leaving their particular opinions to themselves; that is to be good men and true, or men of honor aud honesty, by whatever denominations or persuasions they may be distinguished; whereby Masonry becomes the center of union, and the means of conciliating true friendship among persons that must have remained at a perpetual distance."

First of the Old Charges in the Book of Constitutions, edition of 1738:

"A Mason is obliged by his tenure to observe the moral law, as a true Noach.ida; and if he rightly understands the Craft, he will never be a stupid Atheist, nor an irreligious libertine, nor act against conscience.

"In Ancient times, the Christian Masons were charged to comply with the Christian usages of each country where they traveled or worked. But Masonry being found in all nations, even of divers religions, they are now only charged to adhere to that religion in which all men agree (leaving each Brother to his own particular opinions; that is, to be good men and true, men of honor and honesty, by whatever names, religions, or persuasions they may be distinguished; for they all agree in the three great articles of Noah enough to preserve the cement of the Lodge. Thus, Masonry is the center of their union, and the happy means of conciliating persons that otherwise must have remained at a perpetual distance."

First of the Old Charges in Dermott's Ahiman Rezon:

"A Mason is obliged by his tenure to observe the moral law, as a true Noachido ; and if he rightly understands the Craft, he will never be a stupid Atheist, nor an irreligious libertine, nor act against conscience.

"In Ancient times, the Christian Masons were charged to comply with the Christian usages of each country where they traveled or worked; being found in all nations, even of divers religions.
"They are generally charged to adhere to that religion in which all men agree (leaving each brother to his own particular opinions) ; that is, to be good men and true, men of honor and honesty, by whatever names religions, or persuasions they may be distinguished; for they all agree in the three great article of Noah enough to preserve the cement of the Lodge.
"Thus, Masonry is the center of their union, and the happy means of conciliating persons that otherwise must have remained at a perpetual distance. "

The italics in the second and third extracts will show what innovations Anderson made in 1738 on the Charges as originally published in 1723, and how closely Dermott followed him in adopting these changes. There is, in fact, much less difference between the Ahiman Rezon of Dermott and Anderson's edition of the Book of Constitutions, printed in 1738, than there is between the latter and the first edition of the Constitutions, printed in 1723. But the great points of difference between the "Ancient" and the "Moderns," points which kept them apart for so many years, are to be found in their work and ritual, for an account of which the reader is referred to the article Ancient Freemasons.

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AHISAR

See Achishar

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AHOLIAB

A skillful artificer of the tribe of Dan, who was appointed, together with Bezaleel, to construct the tabernacle in the wilderness and the ark of the covenant (Exodus xxxi, 6). He is referred to in the Royal Arch Degree of the English and American systems.

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AHRIMAN

See Ormuzd and Ahriman, also Zoroaster.

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AID AND ASSISTANCE

The duty of aiding and assisting, not only all worthy distressed Master Masons, but their widows and orphans also, "wheresoever dispersed over the face of the globe, " is one of the most important obligations that is imposed upon every Brother of the mystic tie by the whole scope and tenor of the Masonic Institution.

The regulations for the exercise of this duty are few, but rational. In the first place, a Master Mason who is in distress has a greater claim, under equal circumstances, to the aid and assistance of his brother, than one who, being in the Order, has not attained that Degree, or who, is altogether a profane. This is strictly in accordance with the natural instincts of the human heart, which will always prefer a friend to a stranger, or, as it is rather energetically expressed in the language of Long Tom Coffin "a messmate before a shipmate, a shipmate before a stranger, and a stranger before a dog''; and it is also strictly in accordance with the teaching of the Apostle to the Gentiles, who has said: "As we have therefore opportunity, Let us do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith" (see Galatians vi, 10). But this exclusiveness is only to be practiced under circumstances which make a selection imperatively necessary. Where the granting of relief to the profane would incapacitate us from granting similar relief to our Brother, then must the preference be given to him who is "of the household." But the earliest symbolic lessons of the ritual teach the Freemason not to restrict his benevolence within the narrow1imits of the Fraternity, but to acknowledge the claims of all men who need it, to assistance. Linwood has beautifully said: "The humble condition both of property and dress, of penury and want, in which you were received into the Lodge, should make you at all times sensible of the distresses of poverty, and all you can spare from the call of nature and the due care of your families, should only remain in your possessions as a ready sacrifice to the necessities of an unfortunate, distressed brother. Let the distressed cottage feel the warmth of your Masonic zeal, and, if possible, exceed even the unabating ardour of Christian charity. At your approach let the orphan cease to weep, and in the sound of your voice let the widow forget her sorrow" (Sermons, page 18).

Another restriction laid upon this duty of aid and assistance by the obligations of Freemasonry is, that the giver shall not be lavish beyond his means in the disposition of his benevolence. What he bestows must be such as he can give "without material injury to himself or family." No man should wrong his wife or children that he may do a benefit to a stranger, or even to a Brother. The obligations laid on a Freemason to grant aid and assistance to the needy and distressed seem to be in the following gradations, first to his family; next, to his Brethren; and, lastly, to the world at large.

So far this subject has been viewed in a general reference to that spirit of kindness which should actuate all men, and which it is the object of Masonic teaching to impress on the mind of every Freemason as a common duty of humanity, and whose disposition Freemasonry only seeks to direct and guide. But there is another aspect in which this subject may be considered, namely, in that peculiar and technical one of Masonic aid and assistance due from one Freemason to another. Here there is a duty declared, and a correlative right inferred; for if it is the duty of one Freemason to assist another, it follows that every Freemason has the right to claim that assistance from his Brother. It is this duty that the obligations of Freemasonry are especially intended to enforce; it is this right that they are intended to sustain.

The symbolic ritual of Freemasonry which refers, as, for instance, in the First Degree, to the virtue of benevolence, refers to it in the general sense of a virtue which all men should practice. But when the Freemason reaches the Third Degree, he discovers new obligations which restrict and define the exercise of this duty of aid and assistance. So far as his obligations control him, the Freemason, as a Freemason, is not legally bound to extend his aid beyond the just claimants in his own Fraternity. To do good to all men is, of course, inculcated and recommended; to do good to the household of faith is enforced and made compulsory by legal enactment aud sanction.
Now, as there is here, on one side, a duty, and on the other side a right, it is proper to inquire what are the regulations or laws by which this duty is controlled and this right maintained. The duty to grant and the right to claim relief Masonically is recognized in the following passages of the Old Charges of l722:

"But if you discover him to be a true and genuine Brother, you are to respect him accordingly; and if he is in want, you must relieve him if you can, or else direct him how he may be relieved. You must employ him some days, or else recommend him to be employed. But you are not charged to do beyond your ability; only to prefer a poor brother, that is a good man and true, before any other poor people in the same circumstances.''

This written law agrees in its conditions and directions, so far as it goes, with the unwritten law of the Order, and from the two we may deduce the following principles:

1. The applicant must be a Master Mason. In 1722, the charitable benefits of Freemasonry were extended, it is true, to Entered Apprentices, and an Apprentice was recognized, in the language of the law, as "a true and genuine brother." But this was because at that time only the First Degree was conferred in subordinate Lodges, Fellow Crafts and Master Masons being made in the Grand Lodge.

Hence the great mass of the Fraternity consisted of Apprentices, and many Freemasons never proceeded any further. But the Second and Third Degrees are now always conferred in subordinate Lodges, and very few initiates voluntarily stop short of the Master's Degree. Hence the mass of the Fraternity now consists of Master Masons, and the law which formerly applied to Apprentices is, under our present organization, made applicable only to those who have become Master Masons.

2. The applicant must be worthy. We are to presume that every Freemason is "a good man and true'' until a Lodge has pronounced to the contrary. Every Freemason who is "in good standing," that is, who is a regularly contributing member of a Lodge, is to be considered as worthy, in the technical sense of the term. An expelled, a suspended, or a nonaffiliated Freemason does not meet the required condition of ''a regularly contributing member.'' Such a Freemason is therefore not worthy, and is not entitled to Masonic assistance.

3. The giver is not expected to exceed his ability in the amount of relief. The written law says, "you are not charged to do beyond your ability"; the Unwritten law requires that your relief must be "without material injury to yourself or family." The principle is the same in both.

4. The widow and orphans of a Master Mason have the claim of the husband and father extended to them. The written law says nothing explicitly on this point, but the unwritten or ritualistic law expressly declares that it is our duty "to contribute to the relief of a worthy, distressed brother, his widow and orphans."

5. And lastly, in granting relief or assistance, the Freemason is to be preferred to the profane. He must be placed "before any other poor people in the same circumstances."

These are the laws which regulate the doctrine of Masonic aid and assistance.

They are often charged by the enemies of Freemasonry with showing a spirit of exclusiveness. But it has been shown that they are in accordance with the exhortation of the Apostle, who would do good "especially to those who are of the household of faith," and they have the warrant of the law of nature; for everyone will be ready to say, with that kindest-hearted of men, Charles Lamb, "I can feel for all indifferently, but I cannot feel for all alike. I can be a friend to a worthy man, who, upon another account, cannot be my mate or fellow.

I cannot like all people alike.'' So also as Freemasons, while we should be charitable to all persons in need or in distress, there are only certain ones who can claim the aid and assistance of the Order, or of its disciples, under the positive sanction of Masonic law.

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AITCHISON'S-HAVEN LODGE

Also spelled ATCHESON, ACHISON. This was one of the oldest Operative Lodges consenting to the formation of the Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1736. The age of this Lodge, like many or most of the oldest Lodges of Scotland, is not known. Some of its members signed the Saint Clair Charters in 1600 and 1601. The place of its meeting, Aitchison-Haven, is no longer on the map, but was in the County of Midlothian. The origin of the town was from a charter of James V, dated 1526, and probably the Lodge dated near that period. Aitchison's-Haven was probably the first meeting-place, but they seem to have met at Musselburgh at a later period.

Lyon, in his History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, speaks of trouble in the Grand Quarterly Communication respecting representatives from this Lodge when in May, 1737, it was "agreed that Atcheson's Haven be deleted out of the books of the Grand Lodge, and no more called on the rolls of the Clerk's highest peril."

The Lodge was restored to the roll in 1814, but becoming dormant, it was finally cut off in 1866. The Lodge of Edinburgh has long enjoyed the distinction of having the oldest preserved Lodge Minute, which is dated July, 1599.

Just recently Brother R. E. Wallace-James has brought to light a Minute Book bearing this title: The Buik of the Actis and Ordinans of the Nobile Maisteris and fellows of Craft of the Ludg of Aitchison's heavine, and contains a catalogue of the names of the fellows of Craft that are presently in the Zeir of God 1598.

The first page of this rare book bears in a bold hand the date 1598.

The Minute to which we have already referred is as follows :
"The IX day of Januerie the Zeir of God upon ye quhilk day Robert Widderspone was maid fellow of Craft in ye presens of Wilzam Aytone Elder, Johne Fender being Warden, Johne Pedden Thomas Pettencrief John Crafurd George Aytone Wilzame Aytone younger Hendric Petticrief all fellowis of Craft upon ye quhilk day he chois George Aytone Johne Pedded to be his intenders and instructouris and also ye said Robert hes payit his xx sh. and his gluffis to everie Maister as efferis" (see 'volume xxiv, Ars Quatuor Coronatorum).

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AITCHISON'S-HAVEN MANUSCRIPT

One of the Old Charges, or records of Freemasonry now in the custody of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, was formerly preserved in the archives of the Aitchison-Haven Lodge, which met later on at Musselburgh in Scotland. The manuscript. is engrossed in the Minute Book of Aitchison-Haven Lodge. The writer attests to his transcription in the following manner:

"Insert by me undersub and the 19" of May, 1666, Jo. Auchinleck, clerk to the Masones of Achisones Lodge."

This manuscript. has been reproduced, with 24 lines in facsimile, by D. Murray Lyon in his History of the Lodge of Edinburgh.

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AIX-LA-CHAPELLE

The French name of what is called in German, Aachen. A city of Germany, remarkable in Masonic history for a persecution which took place in the eighteenth century, and of which Gadicke, in his Freimaurer Lexicon, 1818 and 183l, gives the following account:

In the year 1779, Ludwig Grienemann, a Dominican monk, a follower of Dominic de Guzman, who founded an Order whose violent zeal led to the atrocities of the Inquisition in Spain and elsewhere, delivered a course of Lenten sermons, in which he attempted to prove that the Jews who crucified Christ were Freemasons, that Pilate and Herod were Wardens in a Freemason's Lodge, that Judas, previous to his betrayal of his Master, was initiated into the Order, and that the thirty, pieces of silver, which he is said to have returned, was only the fee which he paid for his initiation. Aix-1a-Chapelle being a Roman Catholic city, the magistrates were induced, by the influence of Grienemann, to issue a decree, in which they declared that anyone who should permit a meeting of the Freemasons in his house should, for the first offense, be fined 100 florins, for the second 200, and for the third, be banished from the city. The mob became highly incensed against the Freemasons, and insulted all whom they suspected to be members of the Order.

At length Peter Schuff, a Capuchin, so called from the capuche, or pointed hood, worn by the monks of this Order, jealous of the influence which the Dominican Grienemann was exerting, began also, with augmented fervor, to preach against Freemasonry, and still more to excite the popular commotion.

In this state of affairs, the Lodge at Aix-la-Chapelle applied to the princes and Masonic Lodges in the neighboring territories for assistance and protection, which were immediately rendered. A letter in French was received by both priests, in which the Writer, who stated that he was one of the former dignitaries of the Order, strongly, reminded them of their duties, and, among other things, said that "Many priests, a pope, several cardinals, bishops, and even Dominican and Capuchin monks, had been, and still were, members of the Order." Although this remonstrance had some effect, peace was not altogether restored until the neighboring free imperial states threatened that they would prohibit the monks from collecting alms in their territories unless they ceased to excite the popular commotion against the Freemasons.

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AKIROP

The name given, in the ritual of the Ancient and Accepted Rite, to one of the ruffians celebrated in the legend of the Third Degree. The word is said in the ritual to signify, an assassin. It might probably be derived from ..., KaRaB. to assault or join battle; but is just as probably a word so corrupted by long oral transmission that its etymology can no longer be traced (see Abiram).

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ALABAMA

Before the institution of the Grand Lodge of Alabama several Lodges there were organized by other Grand Jurisdictions. The first of these was Madison, No. l, at. Huntsville, established by, the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, under Dispensation dated August 29, 1811. A Charter was issued to this Lodge on August 28, 1812. On June 11, 1821, a Convention was held at Cahaba in the Hall of Halo Lodge for the purpose of constituting a Grand Lodge, Nine Lodges were represented;

namely, Halo Lodge, No. 21; Madison Lodge, No. 21; Saint Stephens Lodge; Rising Virtue Lodge, No. 30; Alabama Lodge, No. 51; Farrar Lodge, No. 41; Alabama Lodge, No. 21; Moulton Lodge, No. 34; Russellville Lodge, No. 36. Brother J. W. Farrar who presided over the meeting was the first Grand Master. Charters were issued to nine Lodges on June 15, l821, and to three others at the Annual Communication of December 11, 1821.

In l826 the Anti-Masonic agitation in the United States caused the Grand Lodge of Alabama, like very many others, to fade out of existence. A meeting was held at Tuscaloosa on December 6, l836, when, as there was not a quorum present, the Grand Lodge was declared extinct. At this meeting were present twelve brethren who declared the meeting a Convention in order to form a new Constitution and create a new Grand Lodge. They appointed William Leigh, Chairman, and John H. Vincent, Secretary. Grand Lodge officers were elected and John C. Hicks was installed the first Most Worshipful Grand Master under the new Constitution. The Grand Lodge was then opened in Ample Form.

Prior to May, 1823, there were four Chapters in Alabama, all chartered by the General Grand Chapter. In May and June, 1823, delegates of these met and decided to form a Grand Chapter of Alabama.

The General Grand Chapter, however, did not sanction it because one year had not elapsed since the establishment of the Junior Chapter of the four. On June 2, 1827, the Grand Chapter was reorganized, and met annually, until l830. On December 8, l837, the delegates from the several Chapters of the State met and recognized the Grand Chapter.

By authority of John Barker, a member of the Southern Supreme Council, several Councils were established and on December 13, 1838, 27 Royal and Select Masters assembled and formed the Grand Council of Alabama.

The first Commandery to be established in Alabama was Washington, No. l, at Marion, which was chartered in l844. This Commandery with four others, Mobile, No. 2; Montgomery, No. 4; Selma, No. 5 ; Tuscumbia, No. 3, agreed to meet of December 1, 1860, and they organized the Grand Commandery of Knights Templar for the State of Alabama. At the actual meeting the representative of Washington, No, l, was absent.

A Consistory of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Alabama, No. 1, at Birmingham, was chartered on December 27, 1900, and a Council of Kadosh was established at Birmingham, No. 1, on September 21, 1599. Hermes, No. 1, at Montgomery, was constituted a Chapter of Rose Croix by Letters Temporary and a Charter was given to Alabama, No. 1, as a Lodge of Perfection on April 13, 1574.

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ALAPA

A Latin word signifying a blow on the cheek with the open hand. Such a blow was given by the master to his manumitted slave as a symbol of manumission, and as a reminder that it was the last unrequited indignity which he was to receive. In fact, the very word manumit is derived from two Latin words meaning to send by hand. Hence, in medieval times, the same word was applied to the blow inflicted on the cheek of the newly created knight by the sovereign who created him, with the same symbolic signification. This was sometimes represented by the blow on the shoulder with the flat of a sword, which has erroneously been called the accolade (see Knighthood).

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ALARM
The verb to alarm signifies, in Freemasonry, to give notice of the approach of some one desirinq admission. Thus, to alarm the Lodge is to inform the Lodge that there is some one without who is seeking entrance.

As a noun, the word alarm has two significations :

1.An alarm is a warning given by the Tiler, or other appropriate officer, by which he seeks to communicate with the interior of the Lodge or Chapter.

In this sense the expression so often used, "an alarm at the door," simply signifies that the officer outside has given notice of his desire to communicate with the Lodge.

2. An alarm is also the peculiar mode in which this notice is to be given. In modern Masonic works, the number of knocks given in an alarm is generally expressed by musical notes. Thus, three distinct knocks would be designated thus, . . .; two rapid and two slow ones thus,. . . - - and three knocks , three times repeated thus, . . ./. . . /. . . , etc. The word comes from the French alarme, which in return comes from the Italian all'arme, literally a cry to arms, uttered by sentinels surprised by the enemy. The legal meaning of to alarm is not to frighten, but to make one aware of the necessity of defense or protection.

This is precisely the Masonic signification of the world.

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ALASKA

The Grand Master of the Territory, of Washington issued, on April 14, 1868, a Dispensation to form a Lodge at Sitka, Alaska. This Dispensation was renewed on October 13, 1868, and on September 17, 1869, a Charter was granted to Alaska Lodge, No. 14. This Charter was revoked on October 28, 1872. A Commission as Deputy Grand Master for Alaska Was, on September 18, 1869, issued under the same authority to Brother W. H. Wood, P.D. G.M. December 9, 1879, a Dispensation was issued by the Grand Lodge of the Territory of Washington for a new Lodge at Sitka and in due course a Charter Was granted to Jamestown Lodge, No. 33, on January 3, 1880. This Charter was returned and canceled on June 4, 1886. A Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Washington was issued on November 15, 1900, and a Charter granted on June 12, 1901, to White Pass Lodge, No. 113, of Skagway. Other Lodges chartered in Alaska by the same Grand Lodge have been Gastineaux Lodge, No. 124, at Douglas, on June 10, 1903; Anvil Lodge, No. 140, at Nome, on June 14, 1905; Mt. Juneau Lodge, No. 147, at Juneau, on June 14, 1905; Ketchikan Lodge, No. 159, at Ketchikan, on June 12, 1907; Tanana Lodge, No. l62, at Fairbanks, on June 17, 1908; Valdez Lodge, No, 168, at Valdez, on June 17, 1908; Mount McKinley Lodge, No, 183, at Cordova, on June 14, 1911; Seward Lodge, No. 219, at Seward, on June 14, 1917; Anchorage Lodge, No. 221, at Anchorage, on June 14, 1917.

A Royal Arch Chapter was authorized at Fairbanks by Dispensation from the General Grand High Priest Nathan Kingsley, on June 15, 1909, and this Chapter was granted a Charter on November 12, 1909. Seward Chapter at Nome received a Dispensation dated July 13, 1911, from General Grand High Priest Bernard G. Witt, and a Charter was granted on September 12, 1912. A third Chapter received a Dispensation from General Grand High Priest Frederick W. Craig dated January 16, 1919, and Charter was granted on September 29, 1921, to Anchorage Chapter at Anchorage.

The first Council of Royal and Select Masters was authorized at Fairbanks on March 16, 1914, and was granted a Charter as Artic Council, No. l, by the General Grand Council on August 31, 1915.

Alaska Commandery, No. l, was authorized by the Grand Encampment, Knights Templar of the United States, on August 14, 1913, at Fairbanks, and a Dispensation for Anchorage Commandery, No. 2, at Anchorage was issued on July 1, 1920, by Grand Master Joseph K. Orr. Alaska No, I, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, at Juneau, was established a Consistory by Charter granted October 22, 1915.

By Charters granted October 22, 1915, October 23, 1915, and October 16, 1911, respectively, at the same body were established a Council of Kadosh, a Chapter of Rose Croix and a Lodge of Perfection.

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ALAVA, MIGUEL RICARDO DE

Famous Spanish General, Aide-de-Camp under the Duke of Wellington and in 1814 imprisoned for being a Freemason.

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ALBAN, SAINT

See Saint Alban

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ALBERTA

(Canada). The Grand Lodge of Manitoba had jurisdiction over the Lodges in the Northwest Territories of Canada but the division of these into Provinces, on September 1, 1905, influenced Medicine Hat Lodge, No. 31, to invoke the oldest Masonic Body, Bow River Lodge, No. 28, to call a preliminary Convention at Calgary on May 25, 1905.

This was followed by another meeting on October 12, 1905, when seventeen lodges were represented by seventy-nine delegates, the Grand Lodge of Alberta was duly organized, and Brother Dr. George MacDonald elected Grand Master and was installed by Grand Master W. G. Scott of the Grand Lodge of Manitoba.

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ALBERTUS MAGNUS

A scholastic philosopher of the Middle Ages, of great learning, but who had among the vulgar the reputation of being a magician.

He was born at Lauingen, Swabia, in 1205, of an illustrious family, his subtitle being that of Count of Bollstadt. He studied at Padua, and in 1223 entered the Order of the Dominicans. In 1249 he became head-master of the school at Cologne. In 1260 Pope Alexander VI conferred upon him the bishopric of Ratisbon. In 1262 he resigned the episcopate and returned to Cologne, and, devoting himself to philosophic pursuits for the remainder of his life, died there in 1280. His writings were very voluminous, the edition published at Lyons, in 1651, amounting to twenty-one large folio volumes.

Albertus Magnus has been connected with the Operative Freemasonry of the Middle Ages because he has been supposed by many to have been the real inventor of the German Gothic style of architecture.

Heideloff, in his Bauhhutte des Mittelalters, says that "he recalled into life the symbolic language of the ancients, which had so long lain dormant, and adapted it to suit architectural forms. " The Freemasons were said to have accepted his instructions, with a system of symbols which was secretly communicated only to the members of their own body, and served even as a medium of intercommunication. He is asserted to have designed the pian for the construction of the cathedral of cologne, and to have altered the Constitution of the Freemasons, and to have given to them a new set of laws.

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ALBRECHT, HEINRICH CHRISTOPH

A German author, who published at Hamburg, in 1792, the first and only part of a work entitled Materialen zu einer kritischen Geschichte der Freimaurerei, meaning Collections towards a Critical History of Freemasonry.

Kloss says that this was one of the first attempts at a clear and rational history of the Order. Unfortunately, the author never completed his task, and only the first part of the work ever appeared. Albrecht was the author also of another work entitled Geheime Geschichte eines Rosenkreuzers, or Secret History of a Rosicrucian, and of a series of papers which appeared in the Berlin Archive der Zeit, containing Notices of Freemasonry in the first half of the Sixteenth Century.

Albrecht adopted the theory first advanced by the Abb‚ Grandidier, that Freemasonry owes its origin to the Steinmetzen of Germany (see Stone-masons of the Middle Ages ).

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ALCHEMY

The Neo-Platonicians introduced at an early period of the Christian era an apparently new science, which they called .............…, or the Sacred Science, which materially influenced the subsequent condition of the arts and sciences. In the fifth century arose, as the name of the science, alchemia, derived from the Arabic definite article al being added to chemia, a Greek word used in Diocletian's decree against Egyptian works treating of the ...... or transmutation of metals; the word seems simply to mean "the Egyptian Art," ......, or the land of black earth, being the Egyptian name for Egypt, and Julius Firmicius, in a work On the Influence of the Stars upon the Fate of Man, uses the phrase scientia alchemiac. From this time the study" Of alchemy was openly followed. In the Middle Ages, and up to the end of the seventeenth century, it was an important science, studied by some of the most distinguished philosophers, such as Avicenna, Albertus Magnus, Raymond Lulli, Roger Bacon, Elias Ashmole, and many others. Alchemy has also been called the Hermetic Philosophy, because it is said to have been first taught in Egypt by Hermes Trismegistus.

Alchemists are those who practised the art or science of alchemy, the pioneer chemistry of the Middle Ages, either alone or in a group with others seeking the transmutation of base metals into gold the elixir of life, etc, The word alchemy is evidently from the same root as chemistry and is related to Khem, the name of the Egyptian god of curative herbs. The Greeks called Egypt Chemita and in the ancient Egyptian, according to Plutarch, the country was called Khem because of the black color of the soil but the standard Dictionary prefers the first of these explanations. An Egyptian priest, Hermes Trismegistus, the Thrice-greatest Hermes, supposed to have lived about 2000 B.C., was one of the first to practice alchemy. Although our accounts of him are of a purely legendary character; so closely has the name of alchemy been connected with him that it became generally referred to as the Hermetic Art.

Toward the end of the eighth century. we have another famous alchemist, Geber, who wrote many books and treatises in Latin on the transmutation of metals and kindred subjects, setting forth many of the formulas, as well as the scientific, mystical and philosophical aspects of the art at that early period.

In the tenth century there was an Arabian medical philosopher named Rhazes or Rhasis, who numbered among his writings one, The Establishment of Alchemy, which caused him great misfortune. It is said that he presented a copy of this work to his prince, who immediately demanded that he verify some of his experiments. Failing in this, he was struck across the face with a whip so violently by the prince that he was blinded. During the next three or four centuries alchemy was studied by the scientists or chemists, as they are called today, and to them must be reedited the development of science such as it was until the Middle Ages. Unfortunately, the mystical terms in which the art was clothed, the great secrecy in which all knowledge was kept and the esoteric quality of the teaching made it a natural prey of the charlatans, quacks, necromancers and fortune-tellers who thrived upon the ignorance and superstition of the people. There are on record several instances of these adepts being put to death as a result of their inability to demonstrate certain claims made by them. Many sincere and learned scientific men came under the ban owing to the disrepute into which the art had failed and their work had to be done in secret to avoid punishment and death. J. E. Mercer in his Alchenly says that Marie Ziglerin was bummed to death by Duke Julius of Brunswick in 1575. David Benther killed himself in fear of the anger of the Elector Augustus of Saxony. In 1590 the Elector of Bavaria had Bragadino hanged and the Margrave of Bayreuth caused a like fate to befall William de Krohnemann.

A well-known example of the use to which alchemy was put was the case of Cagliostro. Kings and rulers retained alchemists in their employ, consulting them as to future events and often basing their campaigns upon the prophecies of their wise men. It was when these prophecies turned out contrary to expectations that the rulers took their revenge by condemning their counselors to death or imprisonment.

The first man of record to put alchemy to medical use was Paracelsus, probably born near Zurich, in 1493 and dying in 1541. He became a great teacher of medicine and has been proclaimed by the Encyclopedia Britannica as ''the pioneer of modern chemists and the prophet of a revolution in science. " Many new and powerful drugs were produced in his laboratory among which was laudanum. He was in great disfavor with the medical men of his time, he having done much to destroy many of the traditions and errors practiced by them, After his death a score of alchemists claimed the power of euring bodily ailments by the mystical powers of the philosopher's Stone, health and long life being among the benefits supposed to be derived from the art. Thory says that there was a society of alchemists at The Hague in 1622 which called itself Rose Croiz. It is claimed that Rosenkreutz founded the Order in 1459 with the ordinance that its existence should be kept a secret for two hundred years. Another organization of alchemists was known to have been in existence in 1790 in Westphalia, the Hermetic Society, which continued to flourish until about 1819. During the Middle Ages alchemy came in for the attention and study at least of many of the foremost men of the time. Raymond.

Lully, Roger Bacon, Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas made it the subject of many of their writings and it was not until the middle of the fifteenth century that the science as practised by the earlier artificers was relegated to the past. At that time an alchemical center was established in England at Oxford, Robert Boyle organizing a class for experiment and research. Such men as Elias Ashmole and Sir Isaac Newton assisted in the project and John Locke and Christopher Wren were among the pupils. A renowned Rosicrucian chemist was brought over from Strasburg. As a result of this determined and consistent work a new understanding of chemistry and physics was developed, marking the beginning of the modern science as it is known today.

For a more detailed account see J. E. Mercer's Alchemy, M. M. Pattison Muir"s The Story of Alchemy and Lewis Spence's An Encyclopedia of Occultism.

Astrology and the magic arts are usually associated with alchemy but we may fairly look upon it as having had a wider scientific scope. Indeed alchemy was the pioneer of our modern systematic chemistry. The alchemists of old sought by observation and experiment, by research and reflection, to gain the secret of nature's operations. Their early dreams were ambitious but not idle of a discovery of the means to change base metals into gold, and the concoction of an elixir to cure all diseases and overcome death.

From these hopes have come less revolutionary results but the gains have nevertheless been wondrously beneficial. Even the language of the ancient alchemists persists with a curious tenacity. They applied moral qualities, virtues and vices, to things of nature and today we still speak of noble and base metals, of gases perfect and imperfect, of good and bad electrical conductors, and so on. A meed of gratitude is due from us to these laborers who trod a thorny path in their zealous studies of physical forces. Against the prevailing superstitions, the lack of ready communications with other investigators and of a complete practical working knowledge of recent or remote discoveries, these hardy students laid the foundation for later conquests.
Fraud was tempting, fakers were easily made, yet honesty and fervor was manifest in so much of what was accomplished that we owe a distinct debt to the alchemists. Poor they were, yet rich, for as Alexander Pope says of them and their successors in his Essay on Man (ii, line 269) : "The starving chemist in his golden views, supremely blest.''

Freemasonry and alchemy have sought the same results (the lesson of Divine Truth and the doctrine of immortal life), and they have both sought it by the same method of symbolism. It is not, therefore, strange that in the eighteenth century, and perhaps before, we find an incorporation of much of the science of alchemy into that of Freemasonry. Hermetic Rites and Hermetic Degrees were common, and their relics are still to be found existing in degrees which do not absolutely trace their origin to alchemy, but which show some of its traces in their rituals.

The Twenty-eighth Degree of the Scottish Rite, or the Knight of the Sun, is entirely a Hermetic study, and claims its parentage in the title of Adept of Masonry, by which it is sometimes known.

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ALDWORTH, HON. MRS.

This lady, who is well known as the Lady Freemason, was the Hon.Elizabeth St. Leger, daughter of Lord Doneraile of Doneraile Court, County Cork, Ireland. She was born in 1693, and married in 1713 to Richard Aldworth, Esq., of Newmarket Court, County Cork.

There appears to be no doubt that while a girl she received the First and Second Degrees of Freemasonry in Ireland, but of the actual circumstances of her initiation several different accounts have been given. Of these the most authentic appears to be one issued at Cork, with the authority of the family, in 1811, and afterward republished in London. From this narrative it appears that her father, Viscount Doneraile, together with bisons and a few friends, was accustomed to open a Lodge and carry on the ordinary ceremonies at Doneraile Court, and it was during one of these meetings that the occurrence took place which is thus related:

"It happened on this particular occasion that the Lodge was held in a room separated from another, as is often the case, by stud and brickwork. The young lady, being giddy and thoughtless, and determined to gratify her curiosity, made her arrangements accordingly, and, with a pair of scissors (as she herself related to the mother of our informant), removed a portion of a brick from the wall, and placed herself so as to command a full view of everything which occurred in the next room; so placed, she witnessed the first two degrees in Freemasonry, which was the extent of the proceedings of the Lodge on that night.

Becoming aware, from what she heard, that the Brethren were about to separate, for the first time she felt tremblingly alive to the awkwardness and danger of her situation, and began to consider how she could retire without observation. She became nervous and agitated, and nearly fainted, but so far recovered herself as to be fully aware of the necessity of withdrawing as quickly as possible; in the act of doing so, being in the dark, she stumbled against and overthrew something, said to be a chair or some ornamental piece of furniture.

"The crash was loud ; and the Tiler, who was on the lobby or landing on which the doors both of the Lodge room and that where the Honorable Miss St. Leger was, opened, gave the alarm, burst open the door and, with a light in one hand and a drawn sword in the other, appeared to the now terrified and fainting Lady. He was soon joined by the members of the Lodge present, and luckily; for it is asserted that but for the prompt appearance of her brother, Lord Doneraile, and other steady members, her life would have fallen a sacrifice to what was then esteemed her crime. The first care of his Lordship was to resuscitate the unfortunate Lady without alarming the house, and endeavor to learn from her an explanation of what had occurred; having done so, many of the members being furious at the transaction, she was placed under guard of the Tiler and a member, in the room where she was found. The members reassembled and deliberated as to what, under the circumstances, was to be done, and over two long hours she could hear the angry discussion and her death deliberately proposed and seconded.

"At length the good sense of the majority succeeded in calming, in some measure, the angry and irritated feeling of the rest of the members, when, after much had been said and many. things proposed, it was resolved to give her the option of submitting to the Masonic ordeal to the extent she had witnessed (Fellow Craft), and if she refused, the brethren were again to consult. Being waited on to decide, Miss St. Leger, exhausted and terrified by the storminess of the debate, which she could not avoid partially hearing, and yet, notwithstanding all, with a secret pleasure, gladly and unhesitatingly accepted the offer.

She was accordingly initiated."

The above reference to Lord Doneraile, her brother, is a mistake ; her father, the first Lord Doneraile, was then alive. He did not die until 1727, when his daughter had been married for fourteen years.

A very different account is given in the Freemason's Quarterly Review for 1839 (page 322 ), being reprinted from the Cork Standard of May. 29, 1839.

According to this story Mirs. Aldworth was seized with curiosity about the mysteries of Freemasonry and set herself to discover them ; so she made friends with the landlady of an inn in Cork in which a Lodge used to meet, and with her connivance was concealed in a clock case which was placed in the Lodge room; however, she was unable to endure the discomfort of her confinement in such narrow quarters and betrayed herself by a scream, on which she was discovered by the members of the Lodge and then and there initiated.

It will be observed that according to this version the lady. was already married before she was initiated.

The story is said to be supported by the testimony of two members of Lodge 71, at Cork, in which Lodge the initiation is said to have taken place. However, this can hardly be correct, for that Lodge did not meet at Cork until 1777, whereas, Mrs. Aldworth died in1773.

If, however, the commoner version of the story is preferred, according to which Miss St. Leger was initiated as a young girl, then the occurrence must have taken place before her marriage in 1713, and therefore before the establishment of Grand Lodges and the introduction of warranted and numbered Lodges, and it is therefore a proof of the existence of at least one Lodge of Speculative Freemasons in Ireland at an early period.

After her marriage Mrs. Aldworth seems to have kept up her connection with the Craft, for her portrait in Masonic clothing, her apron and jewels, are still in existence, and her name occurs among the subscribers to Dassigny's Enquiry of 1744, her name being the second on the list and immediately following that of the Grand Master of Ireland, the accompanying names all being brethren ; and it has even been stated that she presided as Master of her Lodge.

The story has been fully discussed by Brothers Conder, Crawley, and others in the eighth volume (1895) of the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, of Quatuor Coronati Lodge of London, to which the curious are referred for further information.

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ALETHOPHILES

Greek for Lovers of Truth.
Graf von Manteuffel as president organized this society in Berlin, 1736, upon Wolf's philosophical teaching, the search after positive truth. Kenning's Cydopaedia of Freemasonry says they. adopted a hexalogue (from the Greek, six and words) of axioms, of which two only are given by Lenning :

1. Let truth be the only end and only object of your understanding and will.
2. Hold nothing for truth, Hold nothing for falsehood, as long as you are not convinced of either by some sufficient grounds. In the system of the African Builders, the fifth grade was called Alethophile, some connection seeming to have existed between the two societies.

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ALETHOPHILOTE

Lover of Truth. Given by Thory as the Fifth Degree of the Order of African Architects (see his Acta Latatomorum, 1, page 292).

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ALEXANDER I

I, Emperor of Russia. Alexander I succeeded Paul I in the year 1801, and immediately after his accession renewed the severe prohibitions of his predecessor against all secret societies, and especially Freemasonry. In1803, M. Boeber, counselor of state and director of the military school at St.Petersburg, resolved to remove, if possible, from the mind of the Emperor the prejudices which he had conceived against the Order. Accordingly, in an audience which he had solicited and obtained, he described the object of the Institution and the doctrine of its mysteries in such a way as to lead the Emperor to rescind the obnoxious decrees, and to add these words:
"What you have told me of the Institution not only induces me to grant it my protection and patronage, but even to ask for initiation into its mysteries. Is this possible to be obtained?" To this question M. Boeber replied:

"Sire, I cannot myself reply to the question. But I will call together the Masons of your capital, and make your Majesty`s desire known; and I have no doubt that they will be eager to comply. with jour wishes."

Accordingly Alexander was soon after initiated, and the Grand Orient of all the Russias was in consequence established with M. Boeber as Grand Master (see Thory's Acta Latomorum1, page 218)

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ALEXANDER III

king of Scotland, and legend tells us that he favored Freemasons and that Kilwinning Abbey was built under his guidance. Claims have been made that these facts refer rather to his son, David I. The ritual of the Scottish Knight of Saint Andrew credits Alexander as Protector of the Masonic Order.

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ALEXANDRIA, SCHOOL OF

When Alexander built the city of Alexandria in Egypt, with the intention of making it the seat of his empire, he invited thither learned men from all nations, who brought with them their peculiar notions. The Alexandria School of Philosophy which was thus established, by the commingling of Orientalists, Jews, Egyptians, and Greeks, became eclectic in character, and exhibited a heterogeneous mixture of the opinions of the Egyptian priests, of the Jewish Rabbis, of Arabic teachers, and of the disciples of Plato and Pythagoras.

From this school we derive Gnosticism and the Cabala, and, above all, the system of symbolism and allegory which lay at the foundation of the Masonic philosophy. To no ancient sect, indeed, except perhaps the Pythagoreans, have the Masonic teachers been so much indebted for the substance of their doctrines, as well as the esoteric method of communicating them, as to that of the School of Alexandria. Both Aristobulus and Philo, the two most celebrated chiefs of this school, taught, although a century intervened between their births, the same , theory, that the sacred writings of the Hebrews were, by their system of allegories, the true source of all religious and philosophic doctrine, the literal meaning of which alone was for the common people, the esoteric or hidden meaning being kept for the initiated. Freemasonry still carries into practice the same theory.

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ALGERIA

The number of Lodges in Algeria is, in comparison with the size of the State, quite large. Several are controlled by the Grand Lodge of France and many more are under the Grand Orient of that country, the Grand Orient having organized Bélisaire Lodge at Alger on March 1, 1832, and Hippone Lodge at Bone on July 13, 1832.

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ALINCOURT, FRANÇOIS D'

A French gentleman, who, in the year 1776, was sent with Don Oyres de Ornellas Praçao, a Portuguese nobleman, to prison, by the governor of the island of Madeira, for being Freemasons. They were afterward sent to Lisbon, and confined in a common jail for fourteen months, where they would have perished had not the Freemasons of Lisbon supported them, through whose intercession , with Don Martinio de Mello they were at last released (see Captain George Smith's Use and Abuse of Freemasonry, page 206).

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ALISON, SIR ARCHIBALD

English author, born December 29, 1792, at Kenley, Shropshire, England; died at Glasgow, Scotland, May 23, 1867. A member of Glasgow Kilwinning Lodge, having received his Degrees in 1837 (see New Age, May.,1925).

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ALLAH

Assyrian (Figure 1), ilu; Aramaic, elah,' Hebrew, eloah. The Arabic name of God, derived from (Figure 2) hah, god, and the article (Figure 3) al, expressing the God by way of eminence. In the great profession of the Unity, on which is founded the religion of Islam, both terms are used, as pronounced La ilaha ill`Allah, there is no god but God, the real meaning of the expression being, There id only one God (see Figure 4).

Mohammed relates that in his night journey from Mecca to Jerusalem, on ascending through the seven heavens, he beheld above the throne of God this formula; and the green standard of the Prophet was adorned with the mystic sentence.

It is the first phrase lisped by the infant, and the devout Moslem utters the profession of the faith at all times, in joy, in sorrow, in praise, in prayer, in battle, and with his departing breath the words are wafted to heaven; for among the peculiar virtues of these words is that they may be spoken without any motion of the lips. The mourners on their way to the grave continue the strain in melancholy tones.

Around the supreme name is clustered the masbaha, or rosary, of the ninety-nine beautiful names of God, which are often repeated by the Mohammedan in his devotions.

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ALLEGIANCE

Every Freemason owes allegiance to the Lodge, Chapter, or other body of which he is a member, and also to the Grand Lodge, Grand Chapter or other supreme authority from which that body has received its charter. But this is not a divided allegiance. If, for instance, the edicts of a Grand and a Subordinate Lodge conflict, there is no question which is to be obeyed. Supreme or governing bodies in Freemasonry claim and must receive a paramount allegiance.

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ALLEGORY

A discourse or narrative in which there is a literal and a figurative sense, a patent and a concealed meaning ; the literal or patent sense being intended, by analogy or comparison, to indicate the figurative or concealed one. Its derivation from the Greek, ... and , to say something different, that is, to say something where the language is one thing and the true meaning another, exactly expresses the character of an allegory. It has been said that there is no essential difference between an allegory and a symbol. There is not in design, but there is in their character.

An allegory may be interpreted without any previous conventional agreement, but a symbol cannot.
Thus, the legend of the Third Degree is an allegory, evidently to be interpreted as teaching a restoration to life ; and this we learn from the legend itself, without any previous understanding. The sprig of acacia is a symbol of the immortality of the soul. But this we know only because such meaning had been conventionally determined when the symbol was first established. It is evident, then, that an allegory whose meaning is obscure is imperfect. The enigmatical meaning should be easy of interpretation ; and hence Lemiére, a French poet, has said: "L`allégorie habits un palais diaphane;" meaning Allegory lives in a transparent palace.

All the legends of Freemasonry are more or less allegorical, and whatever truth there may be in some of them in an historical point of view, it is only as allegories or legendary symbols that they are of importance. The English lectures have therefore very properly defined Freemasonry to be "a system of morality veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols.''

The allegory was a favorite figure among the ancients, and to the allegorizing spirit are we to trace the construction of the entire Greek and Roman mythology. Not less did it prevail among the older Aryan nations, and its abundant use is exhibited in the religions of Brahma and Zoroaster. The Jewish Rabbis were greatly addicted to it, and carried its employment, as Maimonides intimates, in his More Nevochim (III, xliii), sometimes to an excess. Their Midrash, or system of commentaries on the sacred book, is almost altogether allegorical. Aben Ezra, a learned Rabbi of the twelfth century:, says, "The Scriptures are like bodies, and allegories are like the garments with which they are clothed. Some are thin like fine silk, and others are coarse and thick like sackcloth."

Jesus, to whom this spirit of the Jewish teachers in his day was familiar, taught many truths in parables, all of which were allegories. The primitive Fathers of the Christian Church were thus infected; and Origen, the most famous and influential Christian writer of his time, 186 to 254 A.D., who was especially addicted to the habit, tells us that all the Pagan philosophers should be read in this spirit : "hoe facere solemus quando philosophos legimus."

Of modern allegorizing writers, the most interesting to Freemasons are Samuel Lee, the author of Orbis Miraculum or the Temple of Solomon portrayed by Scripture Light, and John Bunyan, who wrote Solomon's Temle Spirituatized.

William Durand, or to use his Latin name, Guillelmus Durandus, who lived A. D, 1230 to 1296, wrote a treatise in Italy before 1286 on the origin and symbolic sense of the Christian Ritual, the ceremonies and teaching related to the church buildings. An English edition of this work entitled The Symbolism of Churches and Church Ornaments, by J. M. Neale and Benjamin Webb, was published at London, 1906, and is a most suggestive treatise.

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ALLEN, VISCOUNT JOHN

From 1744 to 1745 Brother Allen was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Ireland.

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ALLIANCE, SACRED

An organization of twenty-one brethren possessing the ultimate degree of the Scottish Rite, was formed in New York September 19, 1872, to assemble annually on that day. One by one, in the due course of time, this Assembly was to decrease until the sad duty devolved on some one to banquet alone with twenty draped chairs and covers occupied by the imaginary presence of his fellows. This body was instituted to commemorate the breaking of a deadlock in the close corporation of the Supreme Council by the admission of four very prominent members of the Fraternity.

 

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ALLIED MASONIC DEGREES

A body has been formed in England called the Grand Council of the Allied Masonic Degrees, in order to govern various Degrees or Orders having no central authority of their own. The principal degrees controlled by it are those of St. Lawrence the Martyr, Knight of Constantinople, Grand Tiler of King Solomon, Secret Monitor, Red Cross of Babylon, and Grand High Priest, besides a large number, perhaps about fifty, of side degrees, of which some are actively worked and some are not (see Council of Allied Masonic Degrees).

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ALLOCUTION

A word of Latin origin and meaning something spoken to. The address of the presiding officer of a Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite is sometimes so called. First used by the Council for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, the expression is derived from the usage of the Roman Church, where certain addresses of the Pope to the Cardinals are called allocations, and this in turn is to be traced to the customs of Pagan Rome, where the harangues or forcible speeches of the Generals to their soldiers were called attocutions.

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ALLOWED

In the old manuscript Constitutions, this word that is now unusual is found in the sense of accepted. Thus, "Every Mason of the Craft that is Mason allowed, ye shall do to him as ye would be done unto yourself" as in the Lansdowne Manuscript, of about 1600 A.D., Mason allowed means Mason accepted, that is, approved. Phillips, in his New World of Words, 1690, defines the verb allow, "to give or grant; to approve of; to permit or suffer."
Latimer, in one of his sermons, uses it in this sense of approving or accepting, thus : ''Saint Peter, in forsaking his old boat and nets, was allowed as much before God as if he had forsaken all the riches in the world." In a similar sense is the word used in the Office of Public Baptism of Infants, in the Common Prayer Book of the Church of England.

The Bible (see Romans xiv, 22), also has "Happy is he that condemneth not himself in that thing which he alloweth." Halliwell's Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words suggests the connection of the word with the Anglo-Norman alone, meaning to praise.

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ALL-SEEING EYE

An important symbol of the Supreme Being, borrowed by the Freemasons from the nations of antiquity. Both the Hebrews and the Egyptians appear to have derived its use from that natural inclination of figurative minds to select an organ as the symbol of the function which it is intended peculiarly to discharge. Thus, the foot was often adopted as the symbol of swiftness, the arm of strength, and the hand of fidelity.

On the same principle, the open eye was selected as the symbol of watchfulness, and the eye of God as the symbol of Divine watchfulness and care of the universe. The use of the symbol in this sense is repeatedly to be found in the Hebrew writers. Thus, the Psalmist says, Psalm xxxiv, 15 : "The eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, and his ears are open unto their cry," which explains a subsequent passage (Psalm cxxi, 4), in which it is said: "Behold, he that keepeth Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep. "

In the Apocryphal Book of the Conversation of God with Moses on Mount Sinai, translated by the Rev.WT. Cureton from an Arabic manuscript of the fifteenth century, and published by the Philobibion Society of London, the idea of the eternal watchfulness of God is thus beautifully allegorized:

"Then Moses said to the Lord, O Lord, dost thou sleep or not? The Lord said unto Moses, I never sleep: but take a cup and fill it with water. Then Moses took a cup and filled it with water, as the Lord commanded him. Then the Lord cast into the heart of Moses the breath of slumber; so he slept, and the cup fell from his hand, and the water which was therein was spilled. Then Moses awoke from his sleep.

Then said God to Moses, I declare by my power, and by my glory, that if I were to withdraw my providence from the heavens and the earth, for no longer a space of time than thou hast slept, they would at once fall to ruin and confusion, like as the cup fell from thy hand."

On the same principle, the Egyptians represented Osiris, their chief deity, by the symbol of an open aye, and placed this hieroglyphic of him in all their Temples. His symbolic name, on the monuments, has represented by the eye accompanying a throne, to which was sometimes added an abbreviated figure of the god, and sometimes what has been called a hatchet, but which may as correctly be supposed to be a representation of a square.

The All-Seeing Eye may then be considered as a symbol of God manifested in his omnipresence---his guardian and preserving character-to which Solomon alludes in the Book of Proverbs (xv, 3), where he says: "The eyes of the Lord are in every place, beholding (or, as in the Revised Version, keeping watch upon) the evil and the good." It is a symbol of the Omnipresent Deity.

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ALL SOULS' DAY

A day set apart for prayers in behalf of all the faithful dead. A festival established in 998 A.D. by an Abbot Odilo of Cluny in France.

The feast falls on the 2nd of November, or on the 3rd if the 2nd is a Sunday or a festival of the first class. The celebration of the day was abolished in the Church of England at the Reformation but has had some revival there. On the Continent of Europe the practise has been longer maintained among Protestants. The date is observed as a feast day by Chapters of Rose Croix.

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ALMANAC, MASONIC

Almanacs for the special use of the Fraternity are annually published in many countries of Europe, but the custom has not been so favored in America. As early as 1752 we find an Almanach des Francs-Maçons en Ecosse published at the Hague. This, or a similar work, continued to be published annually at the same place until the year 1778 (see Kloss, Bibliographie, Nos. 107-9). The first in English appeared in 1775, under the title of:

The Freemason's Calendar, or an Almanac for the year 1775, containing, besides an accurate and useful Calendar of all remarkable occurrences for the year, many useful and curious particulars relating to Masonry. Inscribed to Lord Petre, G.M., by a Society of Brethren. London, printed for the Society of Stationers.

This work was without any official authority, but two years later the Freemason's Calendar for 1777 was Published "under the sanction of the Grand Lodge of England." A Masonic Year Book has been issued annually by the Grand Lodge of England, and most of the English Provinces have published Masonic Almanacs.

The first German work of this class was the Freimaurer Kalendar auf das Jahr 1771 and the first French was Etrennes Intéressantes, ou Almanach pour les années1796 et 1797, the latter meaning in English Interesting Gifts, or Almanac for the years 1796 and 1797. The Masonic Year, an annual digest of timely facts from reliable sources to show the scope and success of Freemasonry, was first published for the year1920 by the Masonic History Company, Chicago, and edited by R. I. Clegg.

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ALMIGHTY

In Hebrew ...., pronounced Ale Shad-dahee. The name by which God was known to the patriarchs before He announced Himself to Moses by His Tetragrammatonic name of Jehovah (see Exodus vi, 3). Almighty refers to His power and might as the Creator and Ruler of the universe, and hence is translated in the Septuagint by ....., and in the Vulgate by Omnipotens. The word Tetragrammaton is used for the four consonants of the sacred name YHVH.

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ALMANACS

The annual almanac was the Eighteenth Century's monthly magazine, encyclopedia, calendar, a repository of literature, and what not, and is the mirror of the American mind between 1700 and the Revolution. Benjamin Franklin made his name with one, but his Poor Richard was not the first of the species nor, by long odds, was it the last (it is impossible to draw a line between almanacs and magazines in the history of American journalism).

James Franklin issued his Rhode Island Almanac five years before Poor Richard appeared in Philadelphia; and Nathaniel Ames, of Dedham, Mass., issued his eight years before, in 1725. This last was, except for Poor Richard, the most famous of the almanacs, and it was among the longest lived. Its author was physician, inn-keeper, scholar, wit, orator, and one of the brightest stars in the constellation of the famous Ames family. His biography was written and his works edited in 1891, in a volume entitled The Essays, Humor, and Poems of Nathaniel Ames, father and son, of Dedham, Mass., from their Almanacs, 1726-1775 with notes and comments, by Sam Briggs (Cleveland, Ohio). From this delicious old volume which should be read with a pipe and bowl of apples in front of the fireplace, it transpires that Bro. Ames was a member of Constellation Lodge in Dedham, and more than once aimed his skits and verses at the Fraternity. Thus, on page 116, in a poem are the lines: "So Masonry and Death are both the same, Tho' of a different name" ; meaning that a man knows nothing of either until be bas been initiated.
Of these words Editor Briggs notes that "These few lines of verse are the first I have noticed in any publication of the kind, adverting to the institution, which had been but lately introduced to the [New England] Colonists, through the office of Henry Price, who established the first Lodge in New England, in 1733." On page 203 is a verse for the month of October, not easily construed:

"Heaven's Candidates go clothed with foul Disguise,
And Heaven's Reports are damned for senseless lies :
Tremendous Mysteries are (so Hell prevails)
Lampooned for Jargon and fantastic Tales.''

Bro. Briggs says be can make nothing of this. As a guess Ames bad been reading exposés and Anti-Masonic lampoons brought over from England. Beginning on page 464 is a long Hudibrastic poem entitled "Entertainment for a Winter's Evening" which runs to six pages, describes a Masonic church service with wit and satire, and contains dozens of topical allusions, some very obscure ; it was written by Joseph Greene, an alumnus of Harvard University of the class of 1726, a Tory who fled to England, where he resided until his death in 1780. It is recommended to some member of Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research that he edit this (in its way) important document and publish it in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum.

On page 34: Vol. I of The Book-worm (A. C. Armstrong & Son; 1888) is a paragraph about the first American almanac.

''It is a fact upon which most bibliographers are agreed, that the first almanac printed in America came out in 1639, and was entitled 'An Almanac Calculated for New England,' by Mr. Pierce, Mariner: The printer was Stephen Day, or Daye, to whom belongs the title of first printer in North Arnerica. The press was at Cambridge, Mass., and its introduction was effected mainly through the Rev. Jesse Glover, a wealthy Non-conformist minister who had only recently left England. Some Amsterdam gentlemen 'gave towards furnishing of a printing-pre' with letters, forty-nine pounds and something more.' The first book issued was the 'Bay Psalm-Book,' in 1640." (Day is a famous and frequent name in the history of printing. The John Day Company of New York was named in honor of one of them.)

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AMERICANISMS

In an article contributed to the New York Masonic Outlook, in 1931, Brother Sir Alfred Robbins, President of the Board of General Purposes of the Grand Lodge of England, and present in America at the time as personal representative of the Grand Master of Masons in England, the Duke of Connaught, commented on certain "Americanisms" which he had observed in his visits to Lodges and Grand Lodges.

He singled out the Ancient Land- marks, which he said the English Craft seldom mentioned ; and the Doctrine of Exclusive Territorial Jurisdiction. He could have included the "Due guard," the Weeping Virgin symbol, the Working Tool of the Third Degree, etc. In discussing these points Bro. Robbins was carrying on what had come to be almost a tradition among English Brothers of animadverting upon what they have called "Americanisms,'' a tradition as old as the Rev. George Oliver's works. Usually, by an Americanism bas been meant some symbol, rite, rule, etc., invented here in this country, and in the majority of instances, in British eyes, a corruption of the original design of Masonry.

When making his comments Bro. Robbins apparently had not familiarized himself with the researches made in that particular subject by a large number of Masonic scholars in America over a quarter of a century. Those findings connect themselves with a carefully-considered statement which Sir Alfred made in a conversation with the writer during the two or three days be spent at the headquarters of the Nationa1 Masonic Research Society; and, considering Sir Alfred's own great Masonic experience, and his authorship of a history of English-speaking Masonry, is of an importance which calls for its being permanently recorded in print: not in his owrl words but with the following unambiguous meaning, Sir Alfred said that after witnessing the conferring of Degrees in Lodges and Grand Lodges be was both surprised and gratified to discover that we in the United States are still using the original Ritual practiced by English Lodges in the middle of the Eighteenth Century; and that if American ceremonies differ from those used in present-day English Lodges the difference is not because we have altered the old Working, but because we have not altered it.

The majority of those elements of American Lodge practice and ceremonies which so many English writers have called, and often (vide Hughan !) have stigmatized, as "Americanisms," turn out to be a continuation of sound Lodge working in England as it was a half century or so before the Union of 1813. Interest in the Ancient Landmarks is not peculiar to America ; the Minutes of the oldest English Lodges refer to them a large number of times, they were the whole point at issue in the controversy between the Ancient and the Modern Grand Lodges, and English Lodges give as much attention to them as do American Lodges but not by name. the Doctrine of Exclusive Territorial Jurisdiction is not peculiar to us ; the Grand Lodges of England, Scotland, and Ireland practice it.

The now obsolescent " York'' as a name for the Craft and Royal Arch Degrees came into use here from Britain via Canada. the Weeping Virgin symbol, which a few Grand Lodges retain as a relic in memory of Jeremy Cross, was not invented in America. Cross may have found it in some old French engravings which he took to be of English origin. "Due guard" appears to be Peculiar to American working but certainly is not an "Americanism"; it also is very possibly of French origin. In many early Eighteenth Century English and Irish engravings and portraits the Trowel is a jewel hung round the neck, and appears in a majority of old Tracing Boards; its prominence in the Third Degree is not modern but old, is not American but is British.

Our English colleagues, having what they have taken to be Americanisms in the forefront of their minds, refer again and again to "American" Masonry as if it differed from their Masonry. They speak of French Masonry, because the French altered Masonry, because the French altered Masonry (and War hatreds was one of the reasons for their unwisely doing so) and of Swedish Masonry, because the Swedes altered Masonry. In that sense there is no "American " Masonry; there is Freemasonry in America and it is the same, unaltered Freemasonry that it was in England about 1750.

Apropos of the subject of so-called "Americanisms'' as a whole and in principle, as it is referred to, and somewhat frequently, by British Bothers in their Masonic magazines and Research Lodge Transactions, it may be recalled to them that they continually overlook the fact that the Grand Lodge of Ireland and the Ancient Grand Lodge of England together, both directly and indirectly, bad a larger part in shaping pre-Revolutionary American Masonry than did the Modern Grand Lodge of England. And not only because Modern Lodges in the Colonies were filled with members on the Tory side for years before 1775, but more largely because the Ancient and Ireland sent over so many military and naval Lodges; and because so many of the Masons among the immigrants between 1760 and 1775 were members of Ancient and Irish Lodges. What often may appear as an "Americanism" or an innovation to an English student whose mind is saturated with the history of the Modern Grand Lodge, is neither an Americanism nor an innovation but is a continuation of the standard Working in the Ancient and Irish Lodges of that period; and which at that time differed so essentially from Modern Workings that it took nearly twenty years to bring Moderns and Ancient into Union.

The true basis for an understanding of the history of Freemasonry in America is not in the history of the Modern Grand Lodge, for Masonry in America from 1760 on differed from Modern practices fundamentally ; it is in the history of Ireland, and of the Ancient Grand Lodge which was Irish in origin. Bro. Melvin M. Johnson spoke truly when in his Foreword to Gould's History of Freemasonry (Scribners'; New York) he wrote: "Gould was the Thucydides of Masonic history" ; but the true Thucydides for the student specializing in American Masonic history is not Gould but is a double-headed Thucydides in the persons of Chetwode Crawley and Henry Sadler. Gould suffered from fundamental misunderstandings of Freemasonry in Colonial and Revolutionary America because be hated the Ancient, and against the pleas of his own colleagues stubbornly insisted on calling them Schismatics; and because be left out of account the role of Ireland in the establishment of American Lodges and practices, so that it is necessary for American students of Masonic history to keep revising Gould in the act of reading him whenever what be is writing bears on the American Craft.

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AMERICAN MERCURY ARTICLE

In its issue for February, 1941 (page 184), the American Mercury, a national monthly magazine specializing in non-fiction articles for the well educated, published "The Annihilation of Freemasonry,'' by Sven Lunden.

The article in itself was sound, competent, unexceptionable, but is here placed on record among the memorabilia of the Fraternity not for its content but because it marks a mile-stone in the history of American Freemasonry. For the whole length of the period between World War I and World War II Freemasonry was publicly and freely discussed in Europe in books, newspapers, magazines, and from the platform by Masons and non-Masons alike, and in the same manner as any other subject important to the public; but during the same period in the United States Masonry almost never appeared in the public prints except incidentally, and in what journalists call "spot news''; certainly its principles were not discussed nor was there any public awareness of its role in American ways of life. The American Mercury article was the first of its kind; it is possible that it may be one of very few; it is more probable that by 1950 it will be proved to have been the first of innumerable instances.

One of the indications of this latter probability is the rapidly increasing number of books in which Freemasonry is discussed (most of them by anti-masons) that are appearing on the shelves of public libraries.

Mr. H. L. Mencken, the founder-editor of The American Mercury, once undertook a campaign of derision against those whom he described as "joiners," but his campaign recoiled upon his own head because be discovered that more than thirty million American men and women held membership in at least one fraternity, and be was unable even to convince himself that almost one-third of the population could be "playing at Indian" or belonged to "the booboisie."

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AMERICAN PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION

European and American Roman Catholic writers link the American Protective Association with Freemasonry, and classify it as either a camouflaged "political arm" of the Craft or as a Side Order. This is not true. It is a matter of known history, of which the records are preserved, that the A.P.A, was never in any manner either connected with Masonry or encouraged by it. The A.P.A, was founded in Clinton, Iowa (a small town in an agricultural district), by seven men "to combat Roman Catholic influence in public schools and in politics.'' Its founders announced that they did not oppose Roman Catholicism as a religion; nor Roman Catholics as foreigners; they denied that theirs was a "nativistic" movement, or that it was based on racial issues like the Ku Klux Klan; and insisted that they were only opposed to church interference in politics and the schools. The founder, H. F. Bowers, a Clinton attorney and a Methodist, was Supreme President until 1893, when he was succeeded by W. J. H. Traynor. The A.P.A. was an active force in politics throughout the 1890's, and established branches in Canada, England, and Mexico. It was at one period closely connected with the Junior Order of United American Mechanics.

Though not one of the "nativistic'' crusades it nevertheless followed the same curve as they of rapid early development followed by a general decline, of which the typical case was the once famous Know-Nothing Party. Historians recognize four well-established reasons for the general lack of success of patriotic secret societies: their field is too narrow to keep members interested; they are captured by professional politicians; they tend to split up; and Americans, like English-speaking peoples everywhere, dislike secret political or patriotic organizations and prefer to keep their politics in the public forum of open discussion.

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AMERICAN SYSTEM, THE

The once universally established custom of describing the branches of Freemasonry as the York Rite and the Scottish Rite is falling into a disuse which an increasing number of Grand Bodies are hoping will become complete.

The two names have always been anomalous, ambiguous, confusing, and mistaken in fact. Knight Templarism was never in one "Rite'' with the Royal Arch, and of itself had never been associated with York; neither the Royal Arch itself nor the Craft Degrees to which it once belonged had originated in York---or, if a Mason prefers to accept the Prince Edwin tradition, they had no connection with it for centuries.

The Scottish Rite had not originated in Scotland; moreover a number of its Degrees are themselves Royal Arch or Knight Templar in character. To add to the confusion, the Lodges under the Ancient Grand Lodge of England (1751) called themselves York Masonry, and the name as thus used is still incorporated in the titles of two or three American Grand Lodges. In the process of taking on so many meanings the name "York" lost any meaning that may ever have properly belonged to it. There was once a Grand Lodge of All England at York, but it did not last many years, and Chartered no Lodges in America ; a second Grand Lodge sponsored by it, and called the Grand Lodge of England South of the River Trent, lasted for an even shorter time. If the tradition about Prince Edwin which is enshrined in the Old Charges is accepted as historical (as is seldom done) it gives no peculiar precedence to Freemasonry in York, because the City of York was merely the place where a General Assembly was held, and the Fraternity said to have been Chartered there had no more connection with Freemasonry in York than with Freemasonry in London.

The phrases "York Rite" and "Scottish Rite" are giving way to the more descriptive and historically correct phrase of The American Masonic System.

This System consists of a set of five Rites in which each maintains undivided its own independence and its own sovereignty, and yet are bound together by the rules of comity; these rules rest on the authority of honor, general agreement, and common consent.

These five are: Ancient Craft (or Symbolic-"Blue Lodge" is slang) Masonry; Royal Arch Masonry; Cryptic Masonry; Knight Templarism; the Scottish Rite (with 29 Degrees, not including the 33 ).

Each of the latter four Rites requires that any one of its own members must be also a member in good standing in a Regular Lodge of Ancient Craft Masonry, thereby guaranteeing that American Freemasonry shall not split into a number of separate Freemasonries as has occurred in European countries. The Ancient Craft Rite is organized under forty-nine Grand Lodges, each one independent and sovereign.

The Royal Arch and Cryptic Rites and the Knight Templar Orders are organized under State and National Grand Bodies; the Scottish Rite is organized under Consistories which belong to either of two Jurisdictions: the Northern with its seat at Boston, Mass.; the Southern with its seat at Washington, D.C. Of the "Side Orders" the largest are the Shrine, the Order of the Eastern Star, and the Grotto ; no one of these belongs to the American System but each and every one, and of its own volition, has made it a qualification that each of its own members shall have some connection, by membership or by family relationship, with one or more of the five Rites in The American System.

No satisfactory adjectival phrase for distinguishing the Degrees after the Third from Ancient Craft Masonry bas as yet been found; at least, none has been officially adopted. They are called "Concordant Orders," "High Degrees," etc.; according to the canons of historical usage "High Grades" would be most nearly correct; but the "high" has a special sense and does not mean that other Degrees are higher than the Master Mason Degree, except as 32 is a "higher" number than three. In two respects Ancient Craft Masonry is in a unique position by comparison with the other four Rites : it guards the doors to Freemasonry as a whole, so that no Mason can be in any Rite unless be is a member in it; and its own Ritual was that out of which the other Rituals were formed, or which they elaborated and expanded, or served as their point of departure: and in addition it bolds a great primacy in antiquity, for while there are existing records of Craft Lodges at least as early as the Fourteenth Century the oldest known record of any High Grade is of the 1740's.

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ALMOND TREE

When it is said in the passage of Scripture from the twelfth chapter of Ecclesiastes, sometimes read during the ceremonies of the Third Degree, "the almond tree shall flourish," reference is made to the white flowers of that tree, and the allegory signification is to old age, when the hairs of the head shall become gray.

But the pinkish tinge of the flower has aroused some criticism of the above explanation. However, Doctor Mackey's study of the allegory is supported by Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible which says, ''Probably the whiteness of the blossom from a little distance---the delicate pink at the bases of the petals being visible only on closer inspection-suggested its comparison to the white hair of age" (see Ecclesiastes xii, 5).

A poetic view of the flower is to be seen in Edwin Arnold's Light of the World (book1, page 57), thus:

"The almond's crimson snow, rained upon crocus, lily, and cyclamen, at feet of feathery palms'." There is another Bible reference in Jeremiah (1,11, 12), where we find a curious play upon the Hebrew word for almond, meaning also to watch, and in the same language an almost identical word, save only for a slight alteration of a vowel sound, meaning I wi1 hasten.

From these noteworthy examples the Freemason may make his own choice of the most useful instruction for practical application, though the suggestion given by Doctor Mackey has received general favor.

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ALMONER

An officer elected or appointed in the Continental Lodges of Europe to take charge of the contents of the alms-box, to carry into effect the charitable resolutions of the Lodge, and to visit sick and needy brethren. A physician is usually selected in preference to any other member for this office. An Almoner may also be appointed among the officers of an English Lodge. In the United States the officer does not exist, his duties being performed by a Committee of Charity. However, it is an important office in all bodies of the Scottish Rite.

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ALMS-BOX

A box which, toward the close of the Lodge, is handed around by an appropriate officer for the reception of such donations for general objects of charity as the brethren may feel disposed to bestow. This laudable custom is very generally practiced in the Lodges of England, Scotland, and Ireland and universally in those of the Continent. The newly initiated candidate is expected to contribute.

Brother Hyde Clarke says in the Freemasons' Magazine (London, 1859, page 1166) that "Some brethren are in the habit, on an occasion of thanksgiving with them, to contribute to the box of the Lodge more than on other occasions."

This custom has not been adopted in the Lodges of America, except in those of French origin and in those of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.

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ALMSGIVING

Although almsgiving, or the pecuniary relief of the destitute, was not one of the original objects for which the Institution of Freemasonry was established, yet, as in every society of men bound together by a common tie, it becomes incidentally, yet necessarily, a duty to be practiced by all its members in their individual as well as in their corporate capacity.

In fact, this virtue is intimately interwoven with the whole superstructure of the Institution, and its practice is a necessary corollary from all its principles. At an early period in his initiation the candidate is instructed in the beauty of charity by the most impressive ceremonies, which are not easily to be forgotten, and which, with the same benevolent design, are repeated from time to time during his advancement to higher degrees, in various forms and under different circumstances.

"The true Freemason," says Brother Pike, '"must be, and must have a right to be, content with himself; and he can be so only when he lives not for himself alone, but for others ,,who need his assistance and have a claim upon his sympathy."

The same eloquent writer lays down this rule for a Freemason's almsgiving: "Give, looking for nothing again, without consideration of future advantages; give to children, to old men, to the unthankful, and the dying, and to those you shall never see again ;

for else your alms or courtesy is not charity, but traffic and merchandise. And omit not to relieve the needs of your enemy and him who does you injury" ( see Exclusiveness of Freemasonry).

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ALNWICK MANUSCRIPT

This manuscript is written on twelve quarto pages as a preface to the Minute Book of the Company and Fellowship of Freemasons of a Lodge held at Alnwick, where it appears under the heading of The Masons' Constitutions. The document tells us of the "Orders to be observed by the Company and Fellowship of Freemasons at a Lodge held at Alnwick, September 29, 1701, being the General Head Meeting Day."

Among the items are the fifth and ninth which are of especial interest to us:

"No mason shall take any Apprentice (but he must) enter him and give him his charge within one whole year after.''

"There shall no apprentice after he have served seven years be admitted or accepted but upon the Feast of St. Michael the Archangel. "

But, the festival was in 1704 changed to that of Saint John the Evangelist and later entries of'" made Free December 27th" indicate clearly that. those, who had served their time were admitted or accepted on that date according to the purpose of the ninth "Order."

This record was first published in 1871 in Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Reprints, American edition, and again in 1872 by, the same author in his Old Charges of the British Freemasons. In this latter work, Brother Hughan says of the records of this old Lodge that, "ranging from 1703 to 1757 they mostly, refer to indentures, fines, and initiations, the Lodge from first to last remaining true to its operative origin.

The members were required annually to 'appear at the Parish Church of Alnwicke with their aprons on and common squares as aforesaid on Saint John's Day in Christmas, when a sermon was provided and preached by some clergyman at their appointment.' A. D. 1708." The manuscript was reproduced in facsimile by the Newcastle College of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia in 1895.

 

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AL-OM-JAH

In the Egyptian mysteries, this is said to have been the name given to the aspirant in the highest degree as the secret name of the Supreme Being. In its component parts we may recognize the .... ALE or EL of the Hebrews, the AUM or trilateral name of the Indian mysteries, and the ...JAH of the Syrians.

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ALOYAU, SOCIETE DE L

The word Atoyau is the French name for a sirloin of beef and hence the title of this society in English would be The Society of the Sirloin. This was a Masonic association, which existed in France before the Revolution of 1789, until its members were dispersed at that time.

They professed to be possessors of many valuable documents relating to the Knights Templar and, according to the Acta Latomorum (i, page 292), they claimed to be their successors (see Temple Order of the ).

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ALPHA AND OMEGA

The first, and last letters of the Greek alphabet, referred to in the Royal Master and some of the advanced degrees. They are explained by this passage in Revelations &hibar; xxii, 13 '1: ''1 am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last." Alpha and Omega is, therefore, one of the appellations of God, equivalent to the beginning and end of all things, and so referred to in Isaiah (xiiv, 6), "1 am the first and 1 am the last."

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ALPHABET, ANGELS

In the old rituals of the Fourth or Secret Master's Degree of the Scottish and some other Rites, we find this passage : ''The seventy-two names, like the name of the Divinity, are to be taken to the Caballstic Tree and the Angels' Alphabet." The Caballstic Tree is a name given by the Cabalists to the arrangement of the ten Sephiroth (which see). The Angels' Alphabet is called by the Hebrews ...., chetab hamalachim, or the writing of the angels.

Gabffarel (Curios. Inouis., xiii, 2) says that the stars, according to the opinion of the Hebrew writers, are ranged in the heavens in the form of letters, and that it is possible to read there whatsoever of importance is to happen throughout the universe.

The great English Hermetic philosopher, Robert Fludd, says, in his Apology for the Brethren of the Rosy Cross, that there are characters in the heavens formed from the disposition of the stars, just as geometric lines and ordinary letters are formed from points; and he adds, that those to whom God has granted the hidden knowledge of reading these characters will also know. not only whatever is to happen, but all the secrets of philosophy. The letters thus arranged in the form of stars are called the Angels' Alphabet. They have the power and articulation but not the form of the Hebrew letters, and the Cabalists say that in them Moses wrote the Tables of the Law."

The astrologers, and after them the alchemists, made much use of this alphabet; and its introduction into any of the high degree rituals is an evidence of the influence exerted on these degrees by the Hermetic philosophy.

Agrippa, in his Occult Philosophy, and Kircher, in his Oedipus Egyptiacus, and some other writers, have given copies of this alphabet. lt may also be found in Johnson's Typographia, But it is in the mystical books of the Cabalists that we must look for full instructions on this subject.

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ALPHABET, HEBREW

figuur Nearly all of the significant words in the Masonic Rituals are of Hebraic origin, and in writing them in the rituals the Hebrew letters are frequently used. For convenience of reference, that alphabet is here given. The Hebrews, like other ancient nations, had no figures, and therefore made use of the letters of their alphabet instead of numbers, each letter having a particular numerical value. They are, therefore, affixed in the following table :

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ALPHABET, MASONIC

See Cipher Writing

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ALPHABET, NUMBER OF LETTERS IN

In the Sandwich Island alphabet there are 12 letters; the Burmese, 19; Italian, 20; Bengalese, 21; Hebrew, Syrian, Chaldee, Phoenician, and Samaritan, 22 each; Latin, 23; Greek, 24; French, 25; German, Dutch, and English, 26 each ; Spanish and Sclavonic, 27 each ; Persian and Coptic, 32 each; Georgian, 35 ; Armenian, 35; Russian, 41; Muscovite, 43; Sanskrit and Japanese, 50 each; Ethiopic and Tartarian, 202 each.

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ALPHABET, SAMARITAN

figuur It is believed by Scholars that, previous to the captivity, the alphabet now called the Samaritan was employed by the Jews in transcribing the copies of the law, and that it was not until their return from Babylon that they adopted, instead of their ancient characters, the Chaldee or square letters, now called the Hebrew, in which the sacred text, as restored by Ezra, was written. Hence, in some rituals, especially those used in the United States, the Samaritan characters find use. For convenience of reference, the Samaritan alphabet is therefore here inserted. The letters are the same in number as the Hebrew, with the same power and the same names; the only difference is in form.

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ALPHA LODGE

Shortly after the Civil War a constitutional number of white citizens asked for a Dispensation to organize a Lodge at Newark, New Jersey. The Grand Master issued such authority. In due course the Grand Lodge authorized a Charter to Alpha Lodge No. 116 under date of January 19, 1871. At the time following the war many negroes found a haven in the neighborhood and petitions were received from them by the Lodge. Some of these petitioners were elected by the Lodge to membership. As a result several Grand Lodges withdrew their recognition from New Jersey but they all subsequently rescinded this action, Mississippi finally agreeing in 1927 to renew former relations.

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ALPINA

refers to the Grand Lodge of Switzerland. A Lodge was organized at Geneva in 1736, the Worshipful Master, a Scotchman, being the following year appointed a Provincial Grand Master by the Grand Lodge of England. This Lodge was forbidden by the Government to initiate native citizens. Notwithstanding this handicap, the Institution thrived. Nine Lodges met in Convention on June 1, 1769, and on June 24 of that year they formed the Independent Grand Lodge of Geneva. ,another Lodge, named Espérance, meaning Hope, was chartered at Berne by the Grand Orient of France on September 14, 1802.

This became a Provincial Grand Lodge under an English Warrant in 1815. The Helvetic Grand Orient was formed in 1810. Several of the Lodges working under these two organizations founded the National Grand Lodge of Switzerland. There were also some other Lodges using the ritual of the Rectified Rite under the control of a Grand Directorate. This lack of unity led to various efforts at organized cooperation and several General Assemblies of Freemasons in Switzerland were held at Zurich, Bern and Basle in 1836 and for some years later. The union so long patiently sought was perfected at a Convention held at Zurich, July 22 to 24, 1844, when fourteen Lodges agreed to a Constitution and organized the Grand Lodge Alpina, the name being a happy allusion to the Alps, a picturesque mountain range.

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ALTAR

figuur The most important article of furniture in a Lodge-room is undoubtedly the altar. It is worth while, then, to investigate its character and its relation to the altars of other religious institutions.
The definition of an altar is very simple. It is a structure elevated above the ground, and appropriated to some service connected with worship, such as the offering of oblations, sacrifices, or prayers.
Altars, among the ancients, were generally made of turf or stone. when permanently erected and not on any sudden emergency, they were generally built in regular courses of Freemasonry, and usually in a cubical form. Altars were erected long before temples. Thus, Noah is said to have erected one as soon as he came forth from the ark. Herodotus gives the Egyptians the credit of being the first among the heathen nations who invented altars.

Among the ancients, both Jews and Gentiles, altars were of two kinds-for incense and for sacrifice. The latter were always erected in the open air, outside and in front of the Temple. Altars of incense only were permitted within the Temple walls. Animals were slain, and offered on the altars of burnt-offerings. On the altars of incense, bloodless sacrifices were presented and incense was burnt to the Deity.

The Masonic altar, which, like everything else in Freemasonry, is symbolic, appears to combine the character and uses of both of these altars. It is an altar of sacrifice, for on it the candidate is directed to lay his passions and vices as an oblation to the Deity, while he offers up the thoughts of a pure heart as a fitting incense to the Grand Architect of the Universe.

The altar is, therefore, the most holy place in a Lodge.

Among the ancients, the altar was always invested with peculiar sanctity. Altars were places of refuge, and the supplicants who fled to them were considered as having placed themselves under the protection of the Deity to whom the altar was consecrated, and to do violence even to slaves and criminals at the altar, or to drag them from it, was regarded as an act of violence to the Deity himself, and was hence a sacrilegious crime.

The marriage covenant among the ancients was always solemnized at the altar, and men were accustomed to make all their solemn contracts and treaties by taking oaths at altars. An oath taken or a vow made at the altar was considered as more solemn and binding than one assumed under other circumstances.

Hence, Hannibal's father brought him to the Carthaginian altar when he was about to make him swear eternal enmity to the Roman power.

In all the religions of antiquity, it was the usage of the priests and the people to pass around the altar in the course of the sun, that is to say, from the east, by the way of the south, to the west, singing paeans or hymns of praise as a part of their worship.

From all this we see that the altar in Freemasonry is not merely a convenient article of furniture, intended, like a table, to hold a Bible. It is a sacred utensil of religion, intended, like the altars of the ancient temples, for religious uses, and thus identifying Freemasonry, by its necessary existence in our Lodges, as a religious institution. Its presence should also lead the contemplative Freemason to view the ceremonies in which it is employed with solemn reverence, as being part of a really religious worship.

The situation of the altar in the French and frequently in the Scottish Rites is in front of the Worshipfu1 Master, and, therefore, in the East. In the York Rite, the altar is placed in the center of the room, or more property a little to the East of the center.

The form of a Masonic altar should be a cube, about three feet high, and of corresponding proportions as to length and width, having, in imitation of the Jewish altar, four horns, one at each corner.

The Holy Bible with the Square and Compasses should be spread open upon it, while around it are to be placed three lights.

These lights are to be in the East, West, and South, and should be arranged as in the annexed diagram. The stars show the position of the lights in the East, West, and South. The black dot represents the position North of the altar where there is no light, because in Freemasonry the North is the place of darkness.

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ALTENBURG, CONGRESS OF

Altenburg is a town in Germany about twenty-three miles south of Leipzig and capital of the Duchy of Saxe-Aitenburg. Here in the month of June, 1764, the notorious Johnson, or Leucht, who called himself the Grand Master of the Knights Templar and the head of the Rite of Strict Observance, assembled a Masonic Congress for the purpose of establishing this Rite and its system of Templar Freemasonry-.

But he was denounced and expelled by the Baron de Hund, who, having proved Johnson to be an imposter and charlatan, was himself proclaimed Grand Master of the German Freemasons by the Congress (see Johnson and Hund; also Strict Observance, Rite of).

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ALTENBURG, LODGE AT

One of the oldest Lodges in Germany is the Lodge of Archimedes of the Three Tracing Boards, or Archimedes zu den drei Reissbrettern, in Altenburg. This Lodge was instituted on January 31, 1742, by a Deputation from Leipzig. In 1775 the Lodge joined the Grand Lodge of Berlin, but in 1788 attached itself to the Eclectic Union at Frankfort-on-the-Main, which body it left in 1801, and established a Directorate of its own, and installed a Lodge at Gera and another at Scheeberg. The Lodge published a Book of Constitutions in the year 1803 in a folio of 244 pages, a work which is now rare, and which Lenning says is one of the most valuable contributions to Masonic literature. Three Masonic journals were also produced by the Altenburg school of historians and students, one of which -the Bruderblatter, Fraternal Periodical-continued to appear until 1854. The Lodge struck a medal in 1804 upon the occasion of erecting a new hall, ln 1842 the Lodge celebrated its centennial anniversary.

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AMAI SAGGHI

Great labor. The name of the fifth step of the mystic ladder of Kadosh, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.

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AMARANTH

A plant well known to the ancients, the Greek name of which signifies never withering. It is the Cetosia cristata of the botanists. The dry nature of the flowers causes them to retain their freshness for a very long time, and Pliny says, although incorrectly, that if thrown into water they will bloom anew.

Hence it is a symbol of immortality and was used by the ancients in their funeral rites.
The flower is often placed on coffins at the present day with a like symbolic meaning, and therefore is one of the decorations of a Lodge of Sorrow.

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AMARANTH, ORDER OF THE

An organization instituted by Queen Christina of Sweden in 1653 and numbering thirty-one members, there being fifteen knights and fifteen ladies, and the Queen officiating as Grand Mistress. The insignia consisted two letters A interlaced, one being inverted, within a laurel crown, and bearing the motto Dolce nella memoria, these Words being the Italian for Sweet to the memory. The annual festival of this equestrian and chivalric Order was held at the Epiphany. A society of a similar name was arranged by J. B. Taylor at Newark, New Jersey, and was developed by Robert Macoy of New York City in 1883. A Supreme Council was organized June 14, 1883 with Brother Robert Macoy as Supreme Patron and Dr. Rob Morris as Supreme Recorder. In 1887 he published the Rite of Adoption containing the standard ritual of Degrees of the Eastern Star, the Queen of the South, and the Amaranth. Brother Willis D. Engle, in his History of the Order of the Eastern Star (page 135), says that the Amaranth was intended by Brother Macoy as the Third and Highest Degree in his revised system of Adoptive Masonry.

The ritualistic ceremonies planned by Brother Macoy were changed in 1915. The work is military in character. The object of the instruction is charity.

The organization has been incorporated, owns its own ritual and emblem, and has Courts in the several States of the Union, and in Canada, British Columbia, and the Philippines. The membership comprises Master Masons and their Wives, Mothers, Sisters, Widows, and Daughters.

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AMAR-JAH

Hebrew ...., God spake; a significant word in the high degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Strong prefers the pronunciation am-ar-yaw- or am-ar-yaw-hoo for the expression in Hebrew of God has said.

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AMEN

Sometimes used as a response to a Masonnic prayer, though in England, as well as in the United States, The formula is so mote it be. The word Amen signifies in Hebrew verily, truly, certainty. "Its proper place," says Gesenius, "is where one person confirms the words of another, and adds his wish for success to the other"s vows." It is evident, then, that it is the brethren of the Lodge, and not the Master or Chaplain, who should pronounce the word. Yet the custom in the United Sates is for the Master or Captain to say "Amen " and the brethren respond, "So mote it be"It is a response to the prayer.

We note with interest that line 793 of the Regius Manuscript, that the ancient Masonic poem of about 1390 says: Amen, Amen! so mot it be!"

The word in old English manuscripts is spelled mot or mote and in each case means may or must, from the Anglo Saxon motan, meaning to be obliged or compelled. The Talmudists have many superstitious notions in respect to this word. thus in one trease (Uber musar) it is said that whosoever pronounces the word with fixed attention and devotion, to him the gates of Paradise will be opened ; and, again, Whosoever enunciates the Word rapidly, his days shall pass rapidly away, and whosoever dwells upon it, pronouncing it distinctly and slowly, his life shall be prolonged.

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AMENDMENT

All amendments to the by-laws of a Lodge must be submitted to the Grand or Provincial or District Lodge for its approval.

An amendment to a motion pending before a Lodge takes precedence of the original motion, and the question must be put upon the amendment first. If the amendment be lost, then the question will be on the motion ; if the amendment be adopted, then the question will be on the original motion as so amended ; and if then this question be lost, the whole motion falls to the ground.

The principal parliamentary rules in relation to amendments which are applicable to the business of a Masonic Lodge are the following :

1. An amendment must be made in one of three ways: by adding or inserting certain words, by striking out certain words, or by striking out certain words and inserting others.

2. Every amendment is susceptible of an amendment of itself, but there can be no amendment of the amendment of an amendment ; such a piling of questions one upon another would tend to embarrass rather than to facilitate business. The object which is proposed to be effected by such a proceeding must be sought by rejecting the amendment to the amendment, and then submitting the proposition in the form of an amendment of the first amendment in the form desired.

Luther S. Cushing (Lex parliamentaria Americana; elements of the law and practice of legislative assemblies in the United States) illustrates this as follows : ''If a proposition consists of AB, and it is proposed to amend by inserting CD, it may be moved to amend the amendment by inserting EF; but it cannot be moved to amend this amendment, as, for example, by inserting G. The only mode by which this can be reached is to reject the amendment in the form in which it is presented, namely, to insert EF, and to move it in the form in which it is desired to be amended, namely, to insert EFG."

3. An amendment once rejected cannot be again proposed.

4. An amendment to strike out certain words having prevailed, a subsequent motion to restore them is out of order.

5. An amendment may be proposed which will entirely change the character and substance of the original motion. The inconsistency or incompatibility of a proposed amendment with the proposition to be amended, though an argument, perhaps, for its rejection by the Lodge, is no reason for its suppression by the presiding officer.

Of course an amendment is not in order if it fails to relate to the question to be amended; if it is merely equal to the negative of the original question ; if it is identical with a question previously decided; if it only changes one form of amendment or motion to another form.

6. An amendment, before it has been proposed to the body for discussion, may be withdrawn by the mover; but after it has once been in possession of the Lodge, it can only be withdrawn by leave of the Lodge. In the Congress of the United States, leave must be obtained by unanimous consent but the usage in Masonic bodies is to require only a majority vote.

7. An amendment having been withdrawn by the mover, may be again proposed by another member.
8. Several amendments may be proposed to a motion or several amendments to an amendment, and the question will be put on them in the order of their presentation. But as an amendment takes precedence of a motion, so an amendment to an amendment takes precedence of the original amendment.

9. An amendment does not require a seconder, although an original motion always does. There are many other rules relative to amendments which prevail in parliamentary bodies, and are discussed in detail in General Henry M. Robert's Rules of Order Revised (page 134, edition 1921), but these appear to be the principal ones which regulate this subject in Masonic assemblies.

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AMENTI

See Book of the Dead

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AMERICAN BRETHREN

See Free and Accepted Americans

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AMERICAN MASONIC FEDERATION

See Clandestine

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AMERICAN MYSTERIES

Among the many evidences of a former state of civilization among the aborigines of America which seem to prove their origin from the races that inhabit the Eastern hemisphere, not the least remarkable is the existence of Fraternities bound by mystic ties, and claiming, like the Freemasons, to possess an esoteric knowledge, which they carefully conceal from all but the initiated.

De Witt Clinton relates, on the authority of a respectable native minister, who had received the signs, the existence of such a society among the Iroquois. The number of the members was limited to fifteen, of whom six were to be of the Seneca tribe, five of the Oneidas, two of the Cayugas, and two of the St. Regis. They claimed that their institution had existed from the era of the creation. The times of their meeting they kept secret, and threw much mystery over all their proceedings.

Brinton tells us in his interesting and instructive work on The Myths of the New World (page 285), that among the red race of America "the priests formed societies of different grades of illumination, only to be entered by those willing to undergo trying ordeals, whose secrets were not to be revealed under the severest penalties. The Algonkins had three such grades-the waubeno, the meda, and the jossakeed, the last being the highest. To this no white man was ever admitted. All tribes appear to have been controlled by these secret societies. Alexander von Humboldt mentions one, called that of the Botuto, or Holy Trumpet, among the Indians of the Orinoco, whose members must vow celibacy, and submit to severe scourgings and fasts. The Collahuayas of Peru were a gild of itinerant quacks and magicians, who never remained permanently in one spot."

Brother Robert C. Wright has, in a later work (Indian Masonry, 1907, Ann Arbor, Michigan), made a collection of information on this subject enriched with many shrewd and helpful comments by way of comparison and appraisal of Freemasonry among the aboriginal races of the new world and those who practice the rites from other lands. Brother Wright cherishes no illusions and in regard to claims that Masonic signs have been observed among Indians says:

"Masonic signs, which are simply gestures given to convey ideas, no doubt have taken their origin from the same signs or like signs now corrupted but which meant something different in the beginning. Were we able to trace these signs we would then at once jump to the conclusion that the people who used them were Freemasons the same as we ourselves.

The signs which have just been mentioned as given by the Indians could easily be mistaken for Masonic signs by an enthusiastic Freemason, more anxious to find what he thinks is in them than to indulge in sober analysis of the sign and its meaning."
Brother Wright shows clearly how the like sentiments and aspirations among mankind are exhibited in signs and ceremonies and his book is a mine of useful information.

Another instructive work of great value is that by Mrs. Zelia Nuttall, The Fundamental Principles of Old and New World Civilizations, 1901, published by the Peabody Museum of Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. This is a comparative research based on a study of the ancient Mexican religions, sociological and calendrical systems. The work is elaborate and leads to the conclusion that the Men of Tyre, the Phoenicians, had a greater part in the civilization of the world than has been supposed and that they even established colonies in America.

Much that has long been mysterious in the prehistoric remains discovered in America is given light by this book. That there were analogies and resemblances of old and new world civilizations has often been claimed but the work in question does pioneer service in showing how the American continent could have become an area of preservation of primitive forms of civilization, religious cults, symbolism and industries, drawn at different epochs, from the centers or the outposts of old world culture.

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AMERICAN RECTIFIED MARTINIST ORDER

This Body was organized at Cleveland, Ohio, at a General Convocation held on June 2, 1902. The Martinist Body from which this American organization obtained its powers was established at Paris in 1887, and traces its ancestry to Louis Claude de Saint-Martin, who initiated M. de Chaptal and the Dr. Gerard Encausse, best known under his pen name as Papus. The organizer in America was Dr. Edouard Blitz. The American Body separated from the Supreme Martinist Council of France, and among other differences of action restricted itself to admitting Freemasons exclusively. A manifesto explaining the attitude of the American organization was issued under the direction of the Brethren who met at Cleveland on the above date. An Independent and Rectified Rite of Martinism was constituted in England the same year, 1902, but while in sympathy with the American project was not restricted to Freemasons. See also a paper, Martinisine, by Brother N. Choumitsky, of Saint Claudius Lodge No. 21, Paris, June 4, 1926, where the author discusses the periods of Dom Martines de Pasqualiy (1767-74) ; J. B. Villermo (1752-80) ; Louis Claude de Saint-Martin (1743-1805), and their successors, Doctors Encausse (Papus), M. Detre (Jeder) and others.

Martinism has three principal degrees :

Associate, Initiate, and secret Superior. Members in session wear red cloaks and masks. To elevate the soul toward heaven, to labor for the good of humanity, and all to the glory of the Grand Architect of the Universe, were the avowed purposes of the Order.

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AMERICAN RITE

The argument for the use of this term is given by Doctor Mackey thus:

"it has been proposed, and I think with propriety, to give this name to the series of degrees conferred in the United States. The York Rite, which is the name by which they are usually designated, is certainly a misnomer, for the York Rite properly consists of only the degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Mason, including in the last degree the Holy Royal Arch. This was the Freemasonry that existed in England at the time of the revival of the Grand Lodge in 1717.

The abstraction of the Royal Arch from the Master's Degree, and its location as a separate degree, produced that modification of the York Rite which now exists in England, and which should properly be called the Modern York Rite, to distinguish it from the Ancient York Rite, which consisted of only three degrees. But in the United States still greater additions have been made to the Rite, through the labors of Webb and other lecturers, and the influence insensibly exerted on the Order by the introduction of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite into the United States. The American modification of the York Rite, or the American Rite, consists of nine degrees, namely:

1. Entered Apprentice.
2. Fellow Craft.
3. Master Mason.
Given in Symbolic Lodges, and under the control of Grand Lodges.
4. Mark Master.
5. Past Master.
6. Most Excellent Master.
7. Holy Royal Arch.Given in Chapters, and under the control of Grand Chapters.
8. Royal Master.
9. Select Master.

Given in Councils, and under the control of Grand Councils.

"A tenth degree, called Super-Excellent Master, is conferred in some Councils as an honorary rather than as a regular degree ; but even as such it has been repudiated by many Grand Councils. To these, perhaps, should be added three more degrees, namely, Knight of the Red Cross, Knight of Malta, and Knight Templar, or Order of the Temple, which are given in Commanderies, and are under the control of Grand Commanderies, or, as they are sometimes called, Grand Encampments. But the degrees of the Commandery, which are also known as the Degrees of Chivalry, can hardly be called a part of the American Rite. The possession of the Eighth and Ninth Degrees is not considered a necessary qualification for receiving them. The true American Rite consists only of the nine degrees above enumerated.

"There is, or may be, a Grand Lodge, Grand Chapter, Grand Council, Grand Commandery in each State, whose jurisdiction is distinct and sovereign within its own territory. There has been no General Grand Lodge, or Grand Lodge of the United States, though several efforts have been made to form one (see General Grand Lodge). There is a General Grand Chapter, but all Grand Chapters have not been subject to it, and a Grand Encampment to which Grand commanderies of the States are subject."

In 1776 six Master Masons, four Fellow Crafts, and one Entered Apprentice, all but one officers in the Connecticut Line of the Continental army, in camp at Roxbury, Massachusetts, petitioned Richard Gridley, Deputy Grand Master of St. ,John's Grand Lodge, for a Warrant to form them into a regular Lodge. On the 1sth of February a warrant was issued to Joel Clark, appointing and constituting him First Master of American Union Lodge, "erected at Roxbury, or wherever your body shall remove on the Continent of America, provided it is where no Grand Master is appointed."

The Lodge was duly constituted and almost immediately moved to New York, and met on April 23, 1776, by permission of Dr. Peter Middleton, Grand Master of Freemasons in the Province of New York.

It was agreed at this meeting to petition him to confirm the Massachusetts warrant as, under its terms, they were without authority to meet in New York.

Doctor Middleton would not confirm the warrant of American Union Lodge, but in April, 1776, caused a new warrant to be issued to the same Brethren, under the name of Military Union Lodge, No. 1, without recalling the former Warrant. They thus presented an anomaly of a Lodge holding Warrants from and yielding obedience to two Grand Bodies in different jurisdictions.

The spirit of the Brethren, though, is shown in their adherence to the name American Union in their Minutes, and the only direct acknowledgment of the new name is in a Minute providing that the Lodge furniture purchased by American Union "be considered only as lent to the Military Union Lodge."

This Lodge followed the Connecticut Line of the continental Army throughout the War of Independence. It was Gen. Samuel Holden Parsons of American Union who returned to the British Army Lodge Unity, No. 18, their Warrant, which had come into possession of the American army at the taking of Stony Point in 1779. American Union participated in a Convention at Morristown, N. J., January 31, 1780, when it was proposed to nominate General Washington as "Grand Master over the thirteen United States of America, " and it was on the suggestion of Rev. Israel Evans of American Union that the ''Temple of Virtue, " for the use of the army and the Army Lodges, was erected at New Windsor, Newburgh, New York, during the winter of 1782-3.

The Lodge followed the army to the Northwest Territory after the War of Independence, and participated in the formation of the Grand Lodge of Ohio.

Shortly afterward the Lodge withdrew from the Grand Lodge of Ohio and did not appear on the roll thereafter, but pursued an independent existence for some years.

When the Brethren first established the Lodge at Marietta there was some question among them as to whether there was any Masonic power then in America having jurisdiction over that particular territory. Brother Jonathan Heart, the Worshipful Master, decided that there was a doubt as to more ample authority being obtainable elsewhere and he opened a Lodge in due form on June 28, 1790. However, Brother Heart was chairman of a Committee to bring the matter of regularity and recognition to the attention of Grand Lodges. Replies were received from the Grand Lodges of Pennsylvania and Massachusetts and their history interest and fraternal spirit prompts their appearance here.

May 21, 1792, a letter was received from Brother Pierre Le Barbier Duplessis, Grand Secretary, as follows:

"It was with equal surprise and pleasure the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania received the intelligence of the formation of a Lodge in the midst of the immense wilderness of the West, where but lately wild beasts and savage men were the only inhabitants, and where ignorance and ferocity contributed to deepen the gloom which has covered that part of the earth from the creation. This ray of light which has thus broke in upon the gloom and darkness of ages, they consider as a happy presage that the time is fast approaching when the knowledge of Masonry will completely encircle the globe, and the most distant regions of the Western Hemisphere rival those of the Eastern in Masonic splendor. As the account which you have given of the origin of your Warrant is perfectly satisfactory, and as the succession to the chair has been uninterrupted, your authority for renewing your work appears to be incontestable, the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania do therefore fully and cheerfully recognize the American Union Lodge, No. 1, as a just and regular lodge, whose members ought to be received as lawful Brethren in all the Lodges of the two hemispheres.''
December 6, 1791, Brother Moses M. Hays, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, wrote that his Grand Lodge:

"Applauds and commends your views and pursuits, and have desired me to signify how much they are pleased with your laudable undertaking. Your warrant is, beyond doubt, a perfect and good one, and must have its force and operation where you are until a Grand Lodge is founded and established in your territory, when it will become your duty to surrender it and obtain in its place a Warrant from the Grand Lodge that may have the government of Masonry in your State. I confirm your Warrant as good and perfect, as you are where no Grand Lodge is established. I wish you health and happiness, with the enjoyment of every earthly felicity."

As early as June 6, 1792, under the auspices of this Lodge there was organized a Royal Arch Chapter which advanced Brethren through the various grades from the third to the seventh step in Freemasonry.

We are told that "It was resolved that the Lodge was competent, both as to numbers and abilities, to hold Lodges of a higher Degree than that of a Master.

and no fees having been stipulated for any higher degrees in Masonry, nor any rules preseribed, fees were agreed on and new rules were added. The Lodge fixed the fees : for Passing the Chair, $2 ; benefit of the Mark, $2; Most Excellent, $2 ; Royal Arch, $4. Whenever an Exaltation took place notice to be sent to every Arch Mason resident within sixteen miles of Marietta, at expense of candidate."

The fees for the above Degrees may be compared with those earlier established by a Committee of which Brother Heart was chairman, and which provided that the "E. A, should be four pounds lawful money, F. C. twelve shillings, and for M. M. eighteen shillings. Candidates to stand proposed one month.'' Brother Jonathan Heart, then Major, was killed in Saint Clair's defeat, November 4, 1791, and this tragic event undoubtedly had serious consequences for the Lodge.

Moreover, the Lodge Hall, Charter and other documents were destroyed by fire on March 22, 1801.

But a reorganization took place in January, 1804, under a Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts which was to remain in full force and effect until a Grand Lodge should be founded in Ohio.

The present American Union Lodge at Marietta, Ohio, No, l on the roll of the Grand Lodge of Ohio, was organized by members of the old Lodge.

The first Minute-Book, from the original constitution to April 23, 1783, is in the library of the Grand Lodge of New York. During the war many prominent patriots were members, and several times Washington was recorded as a visitor.

The operations of this Lodge, American Union Lodge, Connecticut Line, during the War of the American Revolution, form a most important link in the chain of Masonic history, inasmuch as it embraced, in its membership and among its initiates, gentlemen attached to the Army, coming from various States of the Union, who, "When the storm of war was done," were separated by the return of peace, and permitted to repair to their respective homes; not, as we are bound to believe, to forget or misapply the numerous impressive lessons taught in the Lodge, but to cultivate and extend the philanthropie principles of "Friendship, Morality, and Brotherly Love," by fraternal intercourse and correspondence, resulting finally in the further establishment of Lodges in almost every part of the country.

A prominent object in publishing these Lodge proceedings in detail, is to show the character of the American Masonic Institution in its infancy, by showing who were its members, who visited its assemblies, and who performed its mystic ceremonies and observed its mystic rites. For this purpose we copy from the original Minute-Book of the American Union Lodge, giving the names of all who were received in it, whether by initiation, admission, or visitation, as it moved with the Army, as a pillar of "Light," in parts of Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey.

During the suspension of the meetings of the Grand Lodge at Boston, in 1776, the following Dispensation was issued by the Grand Master:

JOHN ROWE, Grand Master,
To Joel Clark, Esq.-Greeting.

By virtue of authority invested in me, I hereby, reposing special trust and confidence in your knowledge and skill of the Ancient Craft, do appoint and constitute you, the said Joel Clark, Esquire, Master of the AMERICAN UNION LODGE, now erected in Roxbury, or wherever your Body shall remove on the Continent of America, provided it is where no Grand Master is appointed.
You are to promote in your Lodge the utmost Harmony and Brotherly Love, and to keep up to the Constitutions, for the reputation of the Craft. In your makings you are to be very cautious of the Moral Character of such persons, and also of visitors, and such as desire to become Members of your Lodge (such as were not made in it).

You are to transmit to the Grand Lodge a fair account of the choice of your officers, as well as present as future.

Any matters coming before your Lodge that cannot be adjusted, you are to appeal to and lay the same before the Grand Lodge for a decision. You are, as often as the Grand Lodge meets, to attend with your two Wardens; of the time and place the Grand Lodge shall meet, you will have previous notice.

In order to support the Grand Lodge, your Lodge is to pay into the hands of the Grand Secretary, each Quarierly Night, the sum of 12 shillings lawful money; all of which you will pay due regard to.

This Commission to remain in full force and virtue until recalled by me or my successor in office. Given under my hand, and the hands of the Grand Wardens, (the seal of the Grand Lodge first after fixed,) this the 15th day of February, Anno Mundi 5776, of Salvation 1776.
(L. S.) Richard Gridley, D. G. M.
William Burbeck, S. G, W.
J. G. W.
Per order of the G. Master. Recorded, Wm. Hoskins, G. Secretary.

BY-LAWS OF AMERICAN UNION LODGE
1. That the members of this Lodge shall consist of forty-five and no more, unless it shall hereafter appear necessary for the benefit of Masonry, in which ease it shall be determined by a majority of the members present-the Master having a casting vote in this and all other matters that concern the true interest of this Lodge, except in cases hereafter mentioned.

2. That this Lodge shall be held from time to time at such place as by adjournment it shall be ordered, of which the members are desired to take particular notice and attend punctually.

3. In order to preserve the credit of the Craft and the harmony of Masonry in general, no candidate shall be made in this Lodge unless his character is well avouched by one or more of the Brothers present. Every Brother proposing a candidate shall stand up and address the Master, and at the same time shall deposit four dollars in advance towards his making, into the hands of the Secretary, and if he is accepted shall be in part of his making; if he is not accepted it shall be returned, and if he is accepted and does not attend it shall be forfeited for the use of the Lodge, casualties excepted.

4. No candidate shall be made on the Lodge night he is proposed, unless it shall appear that he is under such circumstances that he cannot with convenience attend the next Lodge night, in which case it shall be submitted to the Lodge. But this rule may be dispensed at discretion of the Lodge.
5. Every candidate proposed shall stand on the Minutes until the next Entered Apprentice Lodge night after he is proposed, and then shall be balloted for; if one negative only shall appear then he shall have the benefit of a second ballot, and if one negative shall still appear he shall have the benefit of a third ballot, and if a negative still appear, the candidate shall then be dismissed and his money refunded : provided, this by-law does not annul the provision made in the immediate foregoing article.

6. Every Brother made in his Lodge shall pay ten dollars for his making, of which the deposit money shall be considered as part.

7. A Lodge of emergency may be called for making, passing or raising a brother, they paying the expense of the evening.

8. Every brother made in this Lodge and shall sign the By-Laws, shall commence member thereof, and shall be considered as such until he signifies his intentions to the contrary to the Master and Wardens of the Lodge.

9. Every member shall pay into the hands of the Secretary one shilling, equal to one-sixth of a dollar, for every night's attendance, to be paid quarterly.

10. Every brother visiting this Lodge shall pay one shilling each night he visits, except the first night, when he shall be excused.

11. Any visiting brother who shall desire to become a member of this Lodge, being properly recommended, shall have the benefit of a ballot (the same as a candidate), and if accepted shall pay nine shillings.

12. No person who may have clandestinely obtained any part or parts of the secrets of Masonry shall be suffered to visit this Lodge until he has made due submission and gone through the necessary forms, in which case he shall pay for making, at the discretion of the Lodge, not exceeding the usual fees.

13. No person made a Mason in a traveling Lodge, being an inhabitant of any metropolis or city where there is a regular Lodge established, shall be admitted as a member or visitor in this Lodge until he has complied with tho restrictions in the immediate foregoing article.

14, Whenever the Master shall strike upon the table the members shall repair to their places and keep a profound silence. No Brother is to interrupt the business or harmony of the Lodge, under penalty of receiving a severe reprimand from the Master for the first offence, and if he shall remain contumaciously obstinate shall be expelled the Lodge.

15. When a brother has anything to propose he shall stand up and address the Master, and no brother shall interrupt another while speaking, under penalty of a rebuke from the Master.

16. The By-Laws shall be read every Lodge night by the Secretary, to which every member is to give due attention.

17. That every member of the Lodge shall endeavor to keep in mind what passes in Lodge, that when the Master shall examine them on the mysteries of the craft he may not be under necessity of answering for them.

18. That the officers of this Lodge shall be chosen on the first. Lodge night preceding the Festival of Saint John the Baptist and Saint John the Evangelist, and oftener in case of vacancies by death or any other casualties, at the discretion of the Lodge.

19. The Secretary. shall keep true and fair accounts of all the transactions of the Lodge, and shall pay all moneys collected into the hands of the Treasurer.

20. The Treasurer shall keep fair and true accounts of all moneys received and paid, and shall exhibit. the same when called upon by. the Master and Wardens for that purpose ; and when a new Treasurer is chosen the late Treasurer shall pay such balance as shall appear to remain in his hands to the new Treasurer.

21. No brother shall leave the Lodge Room until he obtains permition from the Master for that purpose.

22. The outside Tyler shall be allowed one shilling and six pence for each night's attendance, also three shillings more for each new made, passed or raised brother, which shall be paid them exclusive of the premiums paid to the Lodge; the inside Tyler shall be excused from paying quarterages.

23. Any brother who shall disclose the secret transactions of this Lodge or who shall be privy to the same done by any other brother, and does not inform the Lodge at the nem meeting thereof, shall be expelled the Lodge, never to be readmitted.

24. Any brother who shall remain in the Lodge Room after the Lodge is closed, and shall be guilty of or accessory to any conduct by which the craft shall be subjected to aspersions or the censure of the world, of which the Lodge shall be judge, shall for the first offence be severely reprimanded by the Master the first time he appears at Lodge; for the second offence he shall be expelled the Lodge.

25. Any brother who shall refuse to pay obedience to the foregoing regulations, or shall dispute the payment of any fine laid thereby, or adjudged to be inflicted by a majority of the Lodge, shall be expelled the Lodge.

26. That every brother (being a member of this Lodge) who shall be passed a Fellow Craft, shall pay twelve shillings, and fifteen for being raised to the sublime degree of a Master Mason; and that. any brother (not a member) shall, for being passed, pay twenty-four shillings, and thirty-six for being raised to the sublime degree of a Master Mason.

27. No visiting brother shall be allowed to speak in matters of debate, unless he be desired by the Master to give his opinion.

28. Whereas, many matters may come before this Lodge not particularly provided for in the foregoing By-Laws, the same shall be submitted to the determination of the Lodge by a majority of votes; the Lodge shall reserve to themselves to alter, amend, diminish or augment the aforesaid By-Laws, as shall appear necessary, by the majority of the members in Lodge assembled.

And whereas, from the present depreciation of our money, it will be impossible to maintain the dignity of the Lodge by the premiums arising from the By-Laws, it is ordered by a unanimous vote of this Lodge that the fees for a new made brother be thirty dollars; passing a brother (being a member), six dollars ; and raising, seven dollars and one-half ; and all other perquisites, so far as relates to the gentlemen of the army, be raised three fold to what is prescribed in the By-Laws; and in all other cases, that the fees and perquisites be at the discretion of the majority of the members in Lodge assembled, except the fees of the outside Tyler, which for making, passing and raising shall be six fold, to be paid agreeably to the 22d Article of the By-Laws. Signed by Jonathan Heart, Reuben Pride, Elihu Marshall, Timothy Hosmer, William Redfield, John Hobart, Oliver Lawrence, Jabez Parsons, Hezekiah Holdridge, Josiah Lacey., William Richards, Jonathan Brown, Eben Gray, Willis Clift, Prentice Hosmer, David F. Sill, Simeon Belding, Thomas Grosvenor, Henry Champion, Robert Warner, JohnRWatrous, Richard Sill,
STATE OF CONNECTICUT, viz,
Reading, February 7th, 1779.

On the application of a number of gentlemen brethren of the Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons to the members of American Union Lodge held by authority, under the Right Worship John Rowe, Esq., Grand Master of all Masons in North America, where no special Grand Master is appointed, requesting that the said American Union Lodge may be convened for the purpose of re-establishing the Ancient Craft in the same. Agreeable to which a summons was issued desiring the members of the American Union Lodge to meet at Widow Sanford`s near Reading Old Meeting House on Monday the 15th of inst. February at 4 o'clock and an invitation sent to the others, the brethren of the Past M.
JONATHAN HEART
Secretary American Union Lodge.

Feb. 10th, Anno Mundi 5779, Salutis 1779.

Reading, viz. Mrs. Sanford's, Feb. isth, 1779. Agreeable to summons, the members of the Ancient American Union Lodge assembled. Brother Jonathan Heart in the chair. Present-Joseph Hoit, Sen Warden ; William Judd, member; Charles Peck, Tyler. Visitors-Brs. Elihu Marshall, John Brown, Isaac Sherman, William Redfield, Coleman.

Lodge opened, when Brs. Elihu Marshall, John Brown, Isaae Sherman, and William Redfield, were separately proposed to become members of this Lodge, balloted for and accepted.

Then proceeded to elect a Master to fill the chair in room of the Worshipful Joel Clark, Esq., deceased, when the Hon. Samuel Holden Parsons was unanimously elected. Then proceeded to elect a Secretary when William Judd was elected.

As the Worshipful Master elect was absent and not likely to return soon or attend the brethren unanimously agreed to dispense with the regulation of the master`s being present at the election of the other officers, and therefore proceeded to the choice of a Senior Warden, when Bro. Heart was elected , who having taken the chair proceeded to the choice of the other officers, and duly elected Bro. Marshall, Junior Warden Bro. Sherman, Treasurer, and Charles Peck, Tyler. The newly elected officers (the Worshipful excepted, who was absent), having with the usual ceremonies taken their seats, proceeded to the consideration of the By-Laws, and unanimously agreed that the same continue in full force, With this proviso:

That the fees for admission of the candidates be thirty dollars, passing six dollars, and raising, seven and one-half dollars, and all other perquisites, &c., so far as relates to the gentlemen of the army, be raised three fold, and in all other cases the fees and perquisites be at the discretion of the majority of the brethren members in Lodge assembled; that the Tyler's fees for new admitted brethren, passing and raising be three dollars, exclusive of all other fees. Lieut. Col. Thomas Grosvenor and Capt. Henry Champion, of the Third Connecticut Battalion, and Simeon Belding, Division Quarter Master, were proposed to be made Entered Apprentices by Bro. Heart. Lodge closed until 17th February, 5 o'clock, P.M.

 

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AMETH

Properly Emeth, which see.

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AMETHYST

Hebrew ....., achlemah. The ninth stone in the breastplate of the high priest. The amethyst is a stone in hardness next to the diamond, and of a deep red and blue color resembling the breast of a dove.

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AMICISTS, ORDER OF

A secret association of students, once very extensively existing among the universities of Northern Germany, first about 1793, and again in 1810. According to Lenning this organization of students was widely spread, especially popular at Jena and Halle. Thory (Aeta Latomorum 1, 292 ), says that this association was first established in the College of Clermont, at Paris. An account of it was published at Halle in 1799, by F. C. Laukhard, under the title of Der Mosellaner-oder Amicisten- 0rden nach seiner Entstehung, innern Verfassung und Verbreitung auf den deutschen Universitaten. The Order was suppressed by the imperial government.

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AMIS REUNIS, LOGE DES

The Lodge of United Friends, founded at Paris in 1771, was distinguished for the talents of many of its members, among whom was Savalette de Langes, and played for many years an important part in the affairs of French Masonry. In its bosom was originated, in 1775, the Rite of Philalethes. In 1784 it convoked the first Congress of Paris, which was held in 1785, for the laudable purpose of endeavoring to disentangle Freemasonry from the almost inextricable confusion into which it had fallen by the invention of so many rites and new degrees.
The Lodge was in possession of a valuable library for the use of its members, and had an excellent cabinet of the physical and natural sciences. Upon the death of Savalette, who was the soul of the Lodge, it fell into decay, and its books, manuscripts, and cabinet were scattered, according to Clavel's Histoire Pittoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie (page 171).

All of its library that was valuable was transferred to the archives of the Mother Ledge of the Philosophic Scottish Rite. Barruel gives a brilliant picture of the concerts, balls, and suppers given by this Lodge in its halcyon days, to which "les Crésus de la Maçonnerie," meaning the wealthy ones of Freemasonry (Crésus being the name of the proverbially rich king of Lydia), congregated, while a few superior members were engaged, as he says, in hatching political and revolutionary schemes, but really in plans for the elevation of Freemasonry as a philosophic institution (see Barruel, Mémoires pour servir à l'Histoire du Jacobinisme iv, 343).

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AMMON

see Amun

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AMMONITISH WAR

A war oi interest in connection with the Fellow Craft Degree. The Ammonites were the descendants of the younger son of Lot, and dwelt east of the river Jordan, but originally formed no part of the land of Canaan, the Israelites having been directed not to molest them for the sake of their great progenitor, the nephew of Abraham.

But in the time of Jephthah, their king having charged the Israelites with taking away a part of his territory, the Ammonites crossed the river Jordan and made war upon the Israelites. Jephthah defeated them with great slaughter, and took an immense amount of spoil. It was on account of this spoil-in which they had no share---that the Ephraimites rebelled against Jephthah, and gave him battle (see Ephraimites).

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AMOR HONOR ET JUSTITIA

Love, Honor and Justice. A Latin motto of the Grand Lodge of England used prior to the union of 1813, which is to be found graven on the Masonic Token of 1794, commemorative of the election of the Prince of Wales as the Most Worshipful Grand Master, November 24, 1790.

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AMPHIBALUS

See Saint A mphibalus

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AMPLE FORM
When the Grand Master is present at the opening or closing of the Grand Lodge, it is said to be opened or closed "in ample form." Any ceremony performed by the Grand Master is said to be done "in ample form" ; when performed by the Deputy, it is said to be "in due form''; and by any other temporarily presiding ofiicer, it is "in form" (see Form).

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AMRU

The name given to the Phoenician carpenter, who is represented in some legends as one of the assassins, Fanor and Metusael being the other two.

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AMSHASPANDS

The name given in the Zoroastrian religion of the ancient Persians, the Parsees, in the Zend-Avesta, their bible an d prayer book, to the six good genii or powerful angels who continuously wait round the throne of Ormudz, or Ormazd. Also the name of the six summer months and the six productive working properties of nature.

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AMULET

See Talisman

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AMUN

The Supreme God among the Egyptians. He was a concealed god, and is styled "the Celestial Lord who sheds light on hidden things." From him all things emanated, though he created nothing. He corresponded with the Jove of the Greeks, and, consequently, with the Jehovah of the Jews. His symbol was a ram, which animal was sacred to him. On the monuments he is represented with a human face and limbs free, having two tall straight feathers on his head, issuing from a red cap ; in front of the plumes a disk is sometimes seen. His body is colored a deep blue. He is sometimes, however, represented with the head of a ram, and the Greek and Roman writers in genera1 agree in describing him as being ram-headed.

There is some confusion on this point. Kenrich says that Nouf was, in the majority of instances, the ram-headed god of the Egyptians; but he admits that Amun may have been sometimes so represented.

The student will be interested to learn that this word in the Hebrew language means builder or architect

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ANACHRONISM

Some Ritual makers, especially when they have been ignorant and uneducated, have often committed anachronisms or errors as to periods of time or dates by the introduction into Masonic ceremonies of matters entirely out of time. Thus, the use of a bell to indicate the hour of the night, practiced in the Third Degree; the placing of a celestial and a terrestrial globe on the summit of the pillars of the porch, in the Second Degree; and quotations from the New Testament and references to the teachings of Christ, in the Mark Degree, are all anachronisms But, although it were to be wished that these disturbances of the order of time had been avoided, the fault is not really of much importance.

The object of the ritualist was simply to convey an idea, and this he has done in the way which he supposed would be most readily comprehended by those for whom the ritual was made.
The idea itself is old, although the mode of conveying it may be new. Thus, the bell is used to indicate a specific point of time, the globes to symbolize the universality of Freemasonry, and passages from the New Testament to teach the practice of duties whose obligations are older than Christianity.

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ANAGRAM

The letters of a word or phrase so transposed as to make a different word or phrase. The manufacture of anagrams out of proper names or other words has always been a favorite exercise, sometimes to pay a compliment---as when Doctor Burney made Honor est a Nilo out of Horatio Nelson, the Latin phrase meaning Honor is from the Nile, and alluding to his victory at that river on August 1, 1798-and sometimes for purposes of secrecy, as when Robert Bacon concealed under an anagram one of the ingredients in his recipe for gunpowder, that the world might not too easily become acquainted with the composition of so dangerous a material.

The same method was adopted by the adherents of the house of Stuart when they manufactured their system of high degrees as a political engine, and thus, under an anagrammatic form, they made many words to designate their friends or, principally, their enemies of the opposite party. Most of these words it has now become impossible to restore to their original form, but several are readily decipherable.

Thus, among the assassins of the Third Degree, who symbolized, with them, the foes of the monarchy, we recognize Romvel as Cromwell, and Hoben as Bohun, Earl of Essex. It is only thus that we can ever hope to trace the origin of such words in the high degrees as Tercy, Stolkin, Morphey, etc. To look for them in any Hebrew roots would be a fruitless task. The derivation of many of them, on account of the obscurity of the persons to whom they refer, is, perhaps, forever lost; but of others the research for their meaning may be more successful.

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ANANIAH

The name of a learned Egyptian, who is said to have introduced the Order of Mizraim from Egypt into Italy. Doctor Oliver (in his Landmarks, ii, page 75 ), states the tradition, but doubts its authenticity. It is in a1l probability a matter of doubt (see Mizraim, Rite of).

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ANCHOR AND ARK

The anchor, as a symbol of hope, does not appear to have belonged to the ancient and classic system of symbolism. The Goddess Spes, the word meaning Hope, was among the ancients represented in the form of an erect woman, holding the skirts of her garments in her left hand, and in her right a flower-shaped cup.

This goddess was honored with several temples at Rome and her festival day was observed on August 1. As an emblem of hope, the anchor is peculiarly a Christian, and thence a Masonic, symbol. It is first found inscribed on the tombs in the catacombs of Rome, and the idea of using it is probably derived from the language of Saint Paul (Hebrews vi, 19), ''which hope we have as an anchor of the soul both sure and steadfast."

The primitive Christians looked upon life as a stormy voyage, and glad were the voyagers when it was done, and they had arrived safe in port. Of this the anchor was a symbol, and when their brethren carved it over the tomb, it was to them an expression of confidence that he who slept beneath had reached the haven of eternal rest. This is the belief of Kip, Catacombs of Rome (page l12). The strict identity between this conclusion and the Masonic idea of the symbol will be at once observed.

"The anchor," says Mrs. Jameson in her Sacred and Legendary Art (1, page 34), "is the Christian symbol of immovable firmness, hope, and patience; and we find it very frequently in the catacombs, and on the ancient Christian gems."

This representation of the anchor is the peculiar attribute of Saint Clement, and is often inscribed on churches dedicated to him.

But there is a necessary connection between an anchor and a ship, and hence, the latter image has also been adopted as a symbol of the voyage of life ; but, unlike the anchor, it was not confined to Christians, but was with the heathens also a favorite emblem of the close of life. Kip thinks the idea may have been derived from them by the Christian Fathers, who gave it a more elevated meaning. The ship is in Freemasonry substituted by the ark. Mrs. Jameson says in the above work that "the Ark of Noah floating safe amid the deluge, in which all things else were overwhelmed, was an obvious symbo1 of the Church of Christ. . . .

The bark of St. Peter tossed in the storm, and by the Redeemer guided safe to land, was also considered as symbolical."

These symbolical views have been introduced into Freemasonry, with, however, the more extended application which the universal character of the Masonic religious faith required. Hence, in the Third Degree, whose teachings all relate to life and death, "The ark and anchor are emblems of a well-grounded hope and a well-spent life. They are emblematical of that Divine ark which safely wafts us over this tempestuous sea of troubles, and that anchor which shall safely moor us in a peaceful harbor where the wicked cease from troubling and the weary shall find rest."
Such is the language of the lecture of the Third Degree, and it gives all the information that is required on the esoteric meaning of these symbols. The history that is here added by Doctor Mackey of their probable origin will no doubt be interesting to the Masonic student.

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ANCHOR, KNIGHT OF THE

See Knight of the Anchor

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ANCHOR, ORDER OF KNIGHTS AND LADIES OF THE

A system of Freemasonry for both sexes wich arose in France in the year 1745. It was a schism which sprang out of the order of Felicity from Which it differed only in being somewhat more refined . Its existence was not more durable than that of its predecessor. Clavel, in his Histoire Piltoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie (page 111), gives this information (see Felicity, 0rder of).

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ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED RITE

See Scottish Rite

*

ANCIENT ARABIC ORDER NOBLES OF THE MYSTIC SHRINE

See Shrine

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ANCIENT CRAFT MASONRY

This is the popular name given to the three symbolic degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Mason.

The degree of Royal Arch is not generally included under this appellation; although, when considered as it really is-a complement of the Third Degree, it must of course constitute a part of Ancient Craft Freemasonry. In the Articles of Union between the two Grand Lodges of England, adopted in 1813, it is declared that "pure Ancient Masonry consists of three degrees and no more, namely: those of the Entered Apprentice, the Fellow Craft and the Master Mason, including the Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch.

But this article is not intended to prevent any Lodge or Chapter from holding a meeting in any of the degrees oi the Orders of Chivalry, according to the constitutions of the said Orders."

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ANCIENT FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS

The title most generally assumed by the English and American Grand Lodges (see Tilles of Grand Lodges).

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ANCIENT or ANCIENT or ATHOLL FREEMASONS

In 1751 some Irish Freemasons in London established a body which they called the "Grand Lodge of England according to the Old Institutions," and they styled themselves Ancient and the members of the regular Grand Lodge, established in 1717, Moderns. Thus Dermott, in his Ahiman Rezon, divides the Freemasons of England into two classes, as follows: "The Ancient, under the name of Free and Accepted Masons, according to the old Institutions ; the Moderns, under the name of Freemasons of England.

And though a similarity of names, yet they differ exceedingly in makings, ceremonies, knowledge, Masonic language, and installations; so much, that they always have been, and still continue to be, two distinct societies, totally independent of each other" (see the seventh edition, page xxx).

The Ancient maintained that they alone preserved the ancient tenets and practices of Freemasonry, and that the regular Lodges had altered the Landmarks and made innovations, as they undoubtedly had done about the year 1730, when Prichard's book entitled Masonry Dissected appeared.

For a long time it was supposed that the Ancient were a schismatic body of seceders from the Premier Grand Lodge of England, but Brother Heary Sadler, in his Masonic Facts and Fictions, has proved that this view is erroneous, and that they were really Irish Freemasons who settled in London.

In the year 1756, Laurence Dermott, then Grand Secretary, and subsequently the Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the Ancient, published a Book of Constitutions for the use of the Ancient Freemasons, under the title of Ahiman Rezon, which work went through several editions. This became the code of Masonic law for all who adhered, either in England or America, to the Grand Lodge of the Ancient, while the Grand Lodge of the Moderns, or the regular Grand Lodge of England, and its adherents, were governed by the regulations contained in Anderson's Constitutions, the first edition of which had been published in 1723.

The dissensions between the two Grand Lodges of England lasted until the year 1813, when, as will be hereafter seen, the two Bodies became consolidated under the name and title of the United Grand Lodge of Ancient Freemasons of England. Four years afterward a similar and final reconciliation took place in America, by the union of the two Grand Lodges in South Carolina. At this day all distinction between the Ancient and Moderns has ceased, and it lives only in the memory of the Masonic student.

What were the precise differences in the rituals of the Ancient and the Moderns, it is now perhaps impossible to discover, as from their esoteric nature they were only orally communicated. But some shrewd and near approximations to their real nature may be drawn by inference from the casual expressions which have fallen from the advocates of each body in the course of their long and generally bitter controversies.

Already has it been said that the regular Grand Lodge is stated to have made certain changes in the modes of recognition, in consequence of the publication of Samuel Prichard's spurious revelation. These changes were, as we traditionally learn, a simple transposition of certain words, by which that which had originally been the first became the second, and that which had been the second became the first. Hence Doctor Dalcho, the compiler of the original Ahiman Rezon of South Carolina, who was himself made in an Ancient Lodge, but was acquainted with both systems, says, in the edition of 1822 (page193), "The real difference in point of importance was no greater than it would be to dispute whether the glove should be placed first upon the right or on the left. "

A similar testimony as to the character of these changes is furnished by an address to the Duke of Atholl, the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Ancient, in which it is said: "I would beg leave to ask, whether two persons standing in the Guildhall of London, the one facing the statues of Gog and Magog, and the other with his back turned on them, could, with any degree of propriety, quarrel about their stations ; as Gog must be on the right of one, and Magog on the right of the other. Such then, and far more insignificant, is the disputatious temper of the seceding Brethren, that on no better grounds than the above they choose to usurp a power and to aid in open and direct violation of the regulations they had solemnly engaged to maintain, and by every artifice possible to be devised endeavored to increase their numbers."

It was undoubtedly to the relative situation of the pillars of the porch, and the appropriation of their names in the ritual, that these innuendoes referred. As we have them now, they were made by the change effected by the Grand Lodge of Moderns, which transposed the original order in which they existed before the change, and in which order they are still preserved by the continental Lodges of Europe. Admitted as it is that the Modems did make innovations in the ritual; and although Preston asserts that the changes were made by the regular Grand Lodge to distinguish its members from those made by the Ancient Lodges, it is evident, from the language of the address just quoted, that the innovations were the cause and not the effect of the schism.
The inferential evidence is that the changes were made in consequence of, and as a safeguard against, spurious publications, and were intended, as has already been stated, to distinguish impostors from true Freemasons, and not schismatic or irregular Brethren from those who were orthodox and regular.

But outside of and beyond this transposition of words, there was another difference existing between the Ancient and the Moderns. Dalcho, who was acquainted with both systems, says that the Ancient Freemasons were in possession of marks of recognition known only to themselves. His language on this subject is positive.

"The Ancient York Masons," he says, "were certainly in possession of the original, universal marks, as they were known and given in the Lodges they had left, and which had descended through the Lodge of York, and that of England, down to their day. Besides these, we find they had peculiar marks of their own, which were unknown to the Body from which they had separated, and were unknown to the rest of the Masonic world. We have then, the evidence that they had two sets of marks; namely: those which they had brought with them from the original Body, and those which they had, we must suppose, themselves devised" (see page 192 of Doctor Dalcho's Ahiman Rezon).

Dermott, in his Ahiman Rezon, confirms this statement of Dalcho, if, indeed, it needs confirmation. He says that "a modern Mason may with safety communicate all his secrets to an Ancient Mason, but that an Ancient Mason cannot, with like safety, communicate all his secrets to a Modem Mason without further ceremony." He assigns as a reason for this, that "as a science comprehends an art (though an art cannot comprehend a science), even so Ancient Masonry contains everything valuable among the Moderns, as well as many other things that cannot be revealed without additional ceremonies."

Now, what were these "other things" known by the Ancient, and not known by the Moderns? What were these distinctive marks, which precluded the latter from visiting the Lodges of the former? Written history is of course silent as to these esoteric matters. But tradition, confirmed by, and at the same time explaining, the hints and casual intimations of contemporary writers, leads us to the almost irresistible inference that they were to be found in the different constructions of the Third, or Master's Degree, and the introduction into it of the Royal Arch element. For, as Doctor Oliver, in his History of the English Royal Arch ( page 21), says, ''The division of the Third Degree and the fabrication of the English Royal Arch appear, on their own showing, to have been the work of the Ancient." Hence the Grand Secretary' of the regular Grand Lodge, or that of the Moderns, replying to the application of an Ancient Freemason from Ireland for relief, says: "Our society (that is, the Moderns) is neither ,Arch, Royal Arch, nor Ancient, so that you have no right to partake of our charity."

This, then, is the solution of the difficulty. The Ancient, besides preserving the regular order of the words in the First and Second Degrees, which the Moderns had transposed (a transposition which has been retained in the Lodges of Britain and America, but which has never been observed by the continental Lodges of Europe, who continue the usage of the Ancient), also finished the otherwise imperfect Third Degree with its natural complement, the Royal Arch, a complement with which the Moderns were unacquainted, or which they, if they knew it once, had lost.

The following is a list of the Grand Masters of the Grand Lodge of Ancient from its organization to its dissolution: 1753, Robert Turner; 1754-5, Edward Voughan; 1756-9, Earl of Blessington; 1760-5, Earl of Kelly; 1766-70, The Hon. Thomas Matthew; 1771-4, third Duke of Atholl; 1775-81, fourth Duke of Atholl; 1782-90, Earl of Antrim; 1791-1813, fourth Duke of Atholl; 1813, Duke of Kent, under whom the two Grand Lodges were united.

The Grand Lodge of Ancient Freemasons was, shortly after its organization, recognized by the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland. Through the ability and energy of its officers, but especially Laurence Dermott, at one time its Grand Secretary, and afterward its Deputy Grand Master, and the author of its Ahiman Rezon, or Book of Constitutions, it extended its influence and authority into foreign countries and into the British Colonies of America, where it became exceedingly popular. Here it organized several Provincial Grand Lodges, as, for instance, in Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina, where the Lodges working under this authority were generally known as Ancient York Lodges.

In consequence of this, dissensions existed, not only in the mother country, but also in America, for many years, between the Lodges which derived their warrants from the Grand Lodge of Ancient and those which derived theirs from the regular or so-called Grand Lodge of Modems. But the Duke of Kent having been elected, in 1813, the Grand Master of the Ancient, while his brother, the Duke of Sussex, was Grand Master of the Moderns, a permanent reconciliation was effected between the rival Bodies, and by mutual compromises the present United Grand Lodge of Ancient Freemasons of England was established.

Similar unions were consummated in America, the last being that of the two Grand Lodges of South Carolina, in 1817, and the distinction between the Ancient and the Modems was forever abolished, or remains only as a melancholy page in the history of Masonic controversies. From their connection with the Dukes of Atholl, the Ancient Freemasons are sometimes known as Atholl Freemasons. The word is also spelled Athol and Athole

*

ANCIENT OF DAYS

A title supplied, in the visions of Daniel, to Jehovah, to signify that His days are beyond reckoning. Used by Webb in the Most Excellent Master's song.
Fulfilled is the promise
By the ANCIENT OF DAYS,
To bring forth the capstone
With shouting and praise.

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ANCIENT REFORMED RITE

A Rite differing very s1ightly from the French Rite, or Rite Moderns, of which, indeed, it is said to be only a modification.

It is practiced by the Grand Lodge of Holland and the Grand Orient of Belgium.
This Rite was established in 1783 as one of the results of the Congress of Wilhelmsbad.

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ANCIENTS

see Antient Freemasons

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ANCIENT, THE

The Third Degree of the German Union of Twenty-two.

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ANCIENT YORK FREEMASONS

One of the names of Lodges of Ancient Freemasons, which see.

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ANDERSON, JAMES

The Rev. James Anderson, D.D., a well known to all Freemasons as the compiler of the celebrated Book of Constitutions.

The date and place of his birth have not yet been discovered with certainty, but the date was probably 1680, and the place, Aberdeen in Scotland, where he was educated and where he probably took the degrees of Master of Arts and Doctor of Divinity.

At some uncurtained period he migrated to London, and our first precise knowledge of him, derived from a document in the State Records, is that on February 15, 1709-10, he, as a Presbyterian minister, took over the lease of a chapel in Swallow Street, Piccadilly, from a congregation of French Protestants which desired to dispose of it because of their decreasing prosperity. During the following decade he published several sermons, and is said to have lost a considerable sum of money dabbling in the South Sea scheme.

Where and when his connection with Freemasonry commenced has not yet been discovered, but he must have been a fairly prominent member of the Craft, because, on September 29, 1721, he was ordered by the Grand Lodge, which had been established in London in 1717, to "digest the old Gothic Constitutions in a new and better method." On the 27th of December following, his work was finished, and the Grand Lodge appointed a committee of fourteen learned Brethren to examine and report upon it.

Their report was made on the 25th of March, 1722; and, after a few amendments, Anderson's work was formally approved, and ordered to be printed for the benefit of the Lodges, which was done in 1723.

This is now the well-known Book of Constitutions, which contains the history of Freemasonry or, more correctly, architecture, the Ancient Charges, and the General Regulations, as the same were in use in many old Lodges. In 1738 a second edition was pub1ished.

Both editions have become exceedingly rare, and copies of them bring fancy prices among the collectors of old Masonic books. Its intrinsic value is derived only from the fact that it contains the first printed copy of the Old Charges and also the General Regulations. The history of Freemasonry which precedes these, and constitutes the body of the work, is fanciful, unreliable, and pretentious to a degree that often leads to absurdity.

The Craft is greatly indebted to Anderson for his labors in reorganizing the Institution, but doubtless it would have been better if he had contented himself with giving the records of the Grand Lodge from 1717 to 1738, which are contained in his second edition, and with preserving for"us the Charges and Regulations, which, without his industry, might have been lost.

No Masonic writer would now venture to quote Anderson as authority for the history of the Order anterior to the eighteenth century. It must also be added that in the republication of the Old Charges in the edition of 1738, he made several important alterations and interpolations, which justly gave some offense to the Grand Lodge, and which render the second edition of no authority in this respect.

In the year 1723, when his first edition of the Constitutions appeared, he was Master of Lodge No. 17, and he was appointed Grand Warden, and also became Chaplain to the Earl of Buchan; in 1732 he published a voluminous work entitled Royal Genealogies, or the Genealogical Tables of Emperors, Kings and Princes, from Adam to these times; in 1733 he issued a theological pamphlet on Unity in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity ; in 1734 he removed with a part of his congregation from his chapel in Swallow Street to one in Lisle Street, Leicester Fields, in consequence of some difference with his people, the nature of which is unknown ; in 1735 he represented to Grand Lodge that a new edition of the Book of Constitutions had become necessary and he was ordered to lay his materials before the present and former Grand officers; in 1738 the new Book of Constitutions was approved of by Grand Lodge and ordered to be printed.

Anderson died on May 28, 1739, and was buried in Bunhill Fields with a Masonic funeral, which is thus reported in The Daily Post of June 2d: "Last night was inferred the corpse of Dr. Anderson, a Dissenting Teacher, in a very remarkable deep Grave. His Pall was supported by five Dissenting Teachers, and the Rev. Dr. Desaguliers: It was followed by about a Dozen of Freemasons, who encircled the Grave ; and after Dr. Earle had harangued on the Uncertainty of Life, &c., without one word of the Deceased, the Brethren, in a most solemn dismal Posture, lifted up their Hands, sighed, and struck their aprons three times in Honor of the Deceased."
Soon after his death another of his works, entitled News from Elysium or Dialogues of the Dead, was issued, and in 1742 there appeared the first volume of a Genealogical History of the House of Yvery, also from his pen.

The preceding article, written by Brother Edward L. Hawkins, may be supplemented by the following paragraph by Brother John T. Thorp which appeared in the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum (xviii, page 9 ) :

"Of this distinguished Brother we know very little. He is believed to have been born, educated and made a Freemason in Scotland, subsequently settling in London as a Presbyterian Minister.

He is mentioned for the first time in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of England on September 29, 1721, when he was appointed to revise the old Gothic Constitutions-this revision was approved by the Grand Lodge of England on September 29th in 1723, in which year Anderson was Junior Grand Warden under the Duke of Wharton-he published a second edition of the Book of Constitutions in 1738 and died in 1739. This is about all that is known of him.''

Brother William J. Hughan, in his Origin of the English Rite of Freemasonry (Leicester, 1909 edition, page 31), devotes some attention to the Gild theory, as it has been called, which dates Masonic degrees in connection with Doctor Anderson farther back than what we term the Grand Lodge era. Brother Clement E. Stretton has discussed this question in his pamphlet, Tectonic Art, published at Melton Mowbray, England, 1909, and he says that "In 1710 the Rev. James Anderson was the Chaplain of the St. Paul's Gild Masons, who at that time had their head-quarters at the Goose and Gridiron Ale House in Saint Paul's Churchyard, and in September, 1717, the books of the Gild show that Anderson had made a very remarkable innovation in the rules which was to admit persons as members of the Masonic Gild without their serving the seven years apprenticeship.

This caused a split in the ranks." But the books in question were not produced and as Brother Hughan advises we must patiently wait for the production of documents in support of the claims thus made.

Miscellanea Latomorum, May, 1923, records that Sir Alfred Robbins announced at the March meeting of Quatuor Coronati Lodge that he had found the following item in the London Daily Courant of May 17, 1731: "We hear from Aberdeen that the University has lately conferred a Doctor's Degree in Divinity on Mr. James Anderson, Swallow street, a gentleman well known for his extensive learning."

This fixes more definitely the date and place when and where he received the degree of which title he soon made use.

*

ANDERSON MANUSCRIPT

In the first edition of the Constitutions of the Freemasons, published by Doctor Anderson in 1723, the author quorns on pages 32-3 from "a certain record of Freemasons, written in the reign of King Edward IV." Preston also cites it in his Illustrations (see page 182, 1788 edition), but states that it is said to have been in the possession of Elias Ashmole, but was unfortunately destroyed, with other papers on the subject of Freemasonry, at the Revolution. Anderson makes no reference to Ashmole as the owner of the manuscript, nor to the fact of its destruction.
If the statement of Preston were confirmed by other evidence, its title would properly be the Ashmole Manuscript, but as it was first mentioned by Anderson, Brother Hughan has very properly called it the Anderson Manuscript. It contains the Prince Edwin legend.

*

ANDERSON, JAMES

On September 29, 1721, the Mother Grand Lodge, then only four years old, left it on record that, "His Grace's Worship [Duke of Montague, Grand Master] and the [Grand] Lodge finding Fault with all the Copies of the old Gothic Constitutions, ordered Brother James Anderson, A.M., to digest the same in a new and better Method."

December 27, 1721, "The Duke of Montague appointed 14 learned [in Masonic ritual and customs] Brothers to examine Brother Anderson's Manuscript, and to make report." March 25, 1722, "The Committee of 14 reported that they had perused Brother Anderson's Manuscript, viz., the History, Charges, Regulations, and Masters' Song, and after some Amendments had approved of it; upon which the Lodge desired the Grand Master to order it to be printed." Dr. Desaguliers wrote the Preface, George Payne drafted the Regulations.

On May 17, 1731, the London Daily Courant reported : "We bear from Aberdeen that the University has lately conferred a Doctor's Degree in Divinity on Mr. James Anderson, Swallow Street, a gentleman well-known for his extensive learning."

Ever since R. F. Gould published his History of Freemasonry his successors and colleagues have followed his lead in describing Anderson as fanciful, a romancer, and in every way an unreliable "historian.''
The time has come to rescue the name of a man who ought never to have been described in such terms; and the publication of the histories and records of some sixty of the oldest Lodges in England has supplied the means to do it. The truth about Anderson (see page 77 of this Encyclopedia) can best be set forth in a number of separate statements of fact :

1. The word "history," which he himself employed, and as he well knew, did not denote history as a college Professor uses it, but rather meant the legends and traditions long circulated by the old Lodges. Each of the Old Manuscripts began with such a legend; Anderson transcribed a version of it, and as he had been commanded to do.

2. He was not the author but only the compiler of the book ; Grand Lodge ordered it, Payne revised the Regulations, the legendary part (''history") was compiled from Old Manuscripts Desaguliers had supplied, fourteen of the old Brethren approved, and it was the Grand Lodge, not Anderson, who ordered it printed. If Gould had a quarrel with the Book it was with the Grand Lodge that he should have quarreled, not with Anderson.

3. Nobody in Grand Lodge took the legend to be actual history. Desaguliers was one of the most learned men in England ; Payne was a scholar ; Anderson himself, " one of the above quotations showed, was signally honored for his learning by Aberdeen, a University hard to please. Other Grand Lodge leaders, such as the Duke of Montague and Martin Clare, were also of great intelligence. None of them could have dreamed of foisting off on their friends the old legend as a treatise of veridic history.

4. Later, Dr. Desaguliers asked Anderson "to hunt out as many old Grand Masters as he could find." Anderson did so, and in the 1738 Edition gives a list which goes back to Adam. What did this mean? Only that these were not historical Grand Masters, but ritualistic or legendary Grand Masters. If some old Lodge, jealous of its age, had the name of a Grand Master in its legend, Noah, Euclid, or whoever, it demanded to see that name in the version of the legend being used by Grand Lodge.

When Desaguliers asked Anderson to hunt out Grand Masters he did not mean to hunt them out from history, but from among the versions of the Old Charges in use among the earliest Lodges ; and neither Desaguliers nor Anderson could have believed that in sober history and fact Noah, or Charles Martel, or Euclid had ever been Grand Masters, because they knew too much, were too intelligent. The first entry quoted above proves that Anderson was not the author of the "history" portion, but merely arranged the old MSS. legend ''in a new and better Method." The whole Hughan-Gould body of Masonic historical writing needs radical revision on the subjects of Anderson and his Constitutions !

On page 46 of his The Lodge Aberdeen l terr, Bro. A. L. Miller states that Anderson was a member of that Lodge, which naturally was the place in which he would seek admittance to Masonry since he was a student in Marshal College in the University of Aberdeen, where he received the degree of M.A., and to which be made a personal present of his The Royal Genealogies, a book he had written, inscribed in his own hand, when the form of words in the Book of Constitutions is compared with the written records of the Lodge of Aberdeen dated 1670 it will be seen that Anderson must have had the records before him, or else had learned them by heart, because a number of terms, and arrangements of words, are the same in one as in the other. When in the Constitutions he wrote "James Anderson, A.M., the Author of this Book" be very probably used the word ''Author'' in the sense of "compiler, scribe, maker" as had been its meaning in the Aberdeen records, where another and previous James Anderson (his father?) had signed the Work Book as "the Writer of this Book."

In sum: Anderson received the best college education to be had in his period; earned two scholastic Degrees; was trained in Masonry in one of the oldest and most conservative of Lodges ; was author of three books not including the Constitutions; was on his merits called to a church in London ; while there made friends among the most eminent and substantial men, such as Desaguliers, Payne, Duke of Montague, William Preston, Straban the publisher, etc. It was impossible for a man with such a career and position and with such solid achievements, attained before be was forty, to have been the gullible, flighty, fable making man which Gould pictured him to have been.

Note. On nothing in the legendary portion of the first Book of Constitution have latter-day historians piled more ridicule than on the list of Grand Masters prior to 1717, and since Anderson was blamed for the list the ridicule was extended to him by implication. In this list are many eminent personages, kings and so on, stretching back to Adam, and including Euclid and Solomon ; it has no historicity; there were no Grand Masters before Anthony Sayer. However, there are some things to be said in its favor, and in addition to the fact, given above that they were ritualistic Grand Masters.

For one thing, the word "Grand Master" was employed loosely, and if this be accepted it was not unreasonable to incorporate in the list men known to have been Royal Supervisors of architecture. For another thing, the list, even if Anderson's own, was seen and approved by his Committee, ''the fourteen old Brethren," and the officers and members of the Grand Lodge. Finally, it was not as absurd as it may now seem to include kings, emperors, princes, etc., in the list because as a matter of known fact the majority of the kings and queens of England belonged to one or more gilds or City Companies. Edward III was a member of the Merchant Tailors Company ; so also was Richard II ; Queen Elizabeth was a member of a Company. Queen Victoria proclaimed herself Royal Protectress of the Fraternity of Freemasons. When Richard II was in the Tailors Company it also had in its membership ''four royal dukes, ten earls, ten barons, and five bishops."

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ANIMAL SYMBOLISM

The history of Medieval Masonry (Operative Masonry) can be written in the form of sweeping generalizations, particularly about the use and the extraordinarily rapid spread of the Gothic Style. Or it can be written in the form of histories of particular cathedrals, abbeys, priories, castles, mansions, such as St. Michele, York, Wells, King's College, Cologne, etc. Or it can be written as an engineer would write it, in terms of machines, tools, quarrying, transportation, scaffolding, etc. Or as an economist would write it (vide Knoop & Jones), in the terms of wages, hours of labor, contracts, etc. Or in the form of treatises on the customs and organization of the Freemasons, their Lodges, their Old Charges their apprentices.

Lastly it could be written in the form of an endeavor to describe the Masons themselves. Who were they? What were they as men? What was in their minds? How did they discover a number of truths which nobody else in the Middle Ages ever saw, or could see? How did they live? Where did they find their education? A history in this last form has yet to be written, and until it is written it is as if no other history of Freemasonry had ever been written, because it was not the structure, or the money, or the Fabric Rolls, or the hours, or the wages, or the contracts which discovered and perpetuate that set of truths which is Speculative Freemasonry; it was the men themselves; and it is those men, not a set of buildings, of whom we are the descendants.

Until a number of Masonic scholars have accumulated a large body of facts to make such a history possible, a 'Masonic student can only feel his way along by-paths, and guess out many things from traces here and there in the buildings which , like a thumb print, still bear the impress of the personality of the builders.

It is when viewed as contributing to that purpose that a study of such a comparatively unimportant detail as the sculptures, carvings, mosaics, and pictures of animals, including birds and insects (botany is too large to include here--it also is a field awaiting research) begins to take on a large significance, because in an indirect way it tells us a number of things about the Freemasons as men, it being remembered meanwhile that until a late period the Masons had a free hand in these ornamental details.

Among the carvings in the cathedrals are a zoology of actual and mythical animals, lions, foxes, goats, horses, donkeys, birds, snakes, bees, unicorns, griffins, etc., and often they are placed or fashioned with a sly but very open humor. If these are contrasted to the carvings in the Romanesque buildings which preceded Gothic, or the Classical which succeeded it, or either Byzantine or Arabic which were its contemporaries, animal figures in Gothic buildings become strikingly significant. They show that the Freemasons were independent and free, and flouted the old church censorship rules governing ornaments in religious buildings; that they looked at nature with fresh, new eyes, and observed it at first hand; that they were familiar with the old Bestiaries, the once popular tales and fables about animal heroes and villains, along with the mythology of animals; that they had many interests beyond the rigidly theological or ecclesiastical, and were not priest-ridden; and show a sense of humor seldom elsewhere in evidence in Medieval books, pictures, or tales, for their gargoyles and foxes and goats often are cartoons in stone.

See page 554 fl. in Art and the Re-formation, by G. G. Coulton. Animal Symbolism in Ecclesiastical Architecture, by E. P. Evans; Henry Holt & Co. ; 1896 ; perhaps the best introduction for American readers, and an excellent point of departure for special studies.

Symbolism of Birds and Animals in English Architecture, by Arthur H. Collins; Mach ride; New York; 1913.

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ANTHROPOLOGIC SCHOOL, THE

The name given to a comparatively small number of Masonic writers and researchers who have not agreed with the largest number of Masonic scholars that Freemasonry originated in Medieval architecture and was formed and constituted and manned by builders, but believe that it bas existed throughout the world for many centuries, or even for thousands of years.

Their answer to questions about rites, ceremonies, and symbols in the Lodge is to refer to rites and symbols of more or less primitive peoples, and especially to primitive tribes such as still are found in Africa. In order to maintain this theory they have broken with the established conclusions of Masonic historians of the type that is found in Quatuor Coronati and similar Lodges of Masonic research ; they also disagree with the established authorities on anthropology of whom none has ever found any Freemasonry in primitive rites and symbols; but who would have reported such findings if there had been any because among the thousands of professional anthropologists in America and Europe a large number have been Masons.

The terms used in duly-constituted and regular Freemasonry, Operative or Speculative, do not support the anthropologic theory. But from another point of view, and having in mind that ritualism and symbolism in Freemasonry are but one instance of ritualism and symbolism in general, anthropology gives a Masonic student a larger and richer background of thought and helps him better to understand Masonry's own rites and symbols. For that purpose there may be added to the books of Masonic anthropologists the non-Masonic works of such professional anthropologists as Lord Avebury, Rivers, Levy-Bruhl, Frazer, Goldenweiser, Boas, Mead,Webster, etc.

See Arcana of Freemasonry, by Albert Ch urch ward ; Macoy Publishing Co., New York; 1915. Signs and Symbols of Prilnordial Man, by Albert Churchward; Geo. Allen & Co., London. 1913. The Arcane Schools, by Jobn Yarker; William Tait; Belfast; 1909. Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods, by J. S. M. Ward; Simpkins, Marshall; London; 1921. Freemmonry; Its Aims and Ideals, by J. S. M Ward; Wm. Rider & sons; London; 1923.

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ANDRASSY, COUNT JULIUS

Born March 8, 1823, in Hungary., and died, February. 18, 1890. Statesman and patriot, from youth active in politics and civic affairs. Contributed to Brother Louis Kossuth's paper, Pesti Hirlap, 1846, upon public questions Served valiantly in 1848 when the Croats invaded his country. Andrassy was sent by, the revolutionary government to Constantinople to secure the neutrality of Turkey. In 1851, after his departure to London and Paris, the Austrian government hanged him in effigy for his share in the Hungarian revolt. For ten years he was exiled from Hungary.

At Paris, France, 1851, Count Andrassy was initiated into the Masonic Order when an ,,emigre" on May 2 in the Lodge Le Mont Sinai (see Transactions, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, volume iii, page iii). Brother Andrassy returned to Hungary in 1858; immediately became active in political life; in 1865 was chosen Vice-President of the Diet; in 1866 was president of the sub-committee appointed to draw up the Composition between Austria and Hungary; was appointed first constitutional Hungarian premier on February 17, 1867, and in 1871 he succeeded Count Beust as Chancellor. At the Berlin Congress in 1878, Andrassy was active for settlement a the Russian-Porte controversy, securing the support of both Great Britain and France.

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ANDRE, CHRISTOPHER KARL

An active Freemason, who resided at Brunn, in Moravia, where, in 1798, he was the Director of the Evangelical Academy. He was very zealously employed, about the end of the last century, in connection with other distinguished Freemasons, in the propagation of the Order in Germany. He was the editor and author of a valuable periodical work, which was published in five numbers, octavo, from 1793 to 1796, at Gotha and Halle under the title of Der Freimaurer, oder a compendiose Bibliothek alles Wissenswurdigen ueber geheime Gesellschaften, meaning The Freemason, or a Compendious Library of everything worthy of notice in relation to Secret Societies.... Besides valuable extracts from contemporary Masonic writers, it contains several essays and treatises by the editor.

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ANDREA, JOHN VALENTINE

This distinguished philosopher and amiable moralist, who has been claimed by many writers as the founder of the Rosicrucian Order, was born on the 17th of August, 1586, at the small town of Herrenberg, in the Kingdom of Wurttemberg, where his father exercised clerical junctions of a respectable rank.

After receiving an excellent education in his native province, he traveled extensively through the principal countries of Europe, and on his return home received the appointment, in 1614, of deacon in the town of Vaihingen. Four years after he was promoted to the office of superintendent at Kalw. In 1639 he was appointed court chaplain and a spiritual privy councilor, and subsequently Protestant prelate of a Adelberg, and almoner of the Duke of Wurttemberg. He died on the 27th of June, 1654, at the age of sixty-eight years.

Andrea was a man of extensive acquirements and of a most feeling heart. By his great abilities he was enabled to elevate himself beyond the narrow limits of the prejudiced age in which he lived, and his literary labors were exerted for the reformation of manners, and for the supply of the moral wants of the times. His writings, although numerous, were not voluminous, but rather brief essays full of feeling, judgment, and chaste imagination, in which great moral, political, and religious sentiments were clothed in such a language of sweetness, and yet told with such boldness of spirit, that, as Herder says, he appears, in his contentious and anathematizing century, 'ike a rose springing up among thorns.

Thus, in his Menippus, one of the ear1iest of his works, he has, with great skill and freedom, attacked the errors of the Church and of bis contemporaries.

His Herculis Christiani Luctus, xxiv, 18 supposed by a some persons to have given indirectly, if not immediately, hints to John Bunyan for his Pilgrim's Progress.

One of the most important of his works, however, or at least one that has attracted most attention, is his Fama Fraternitatis, published in 1615. This and the Chemische Hochzeit Christiani Rosencreuz, or Chemical Nuptials, by Christian Rosencreuz, which is also attributed to him, are the first works in which the Order of the Rosicrucians is mentioned. Arnold, in his Ketzergeschichte or History of Heresy, contends, from these works, that Andrea was the founder of the Rosicrucian Order.

Others claim a previous existence for it, and suppose that he was simply an annalist of the Order; while a third party deny that any such Order was existing at the time, or afterward, but that the whole was a mere mythical rhapsody, invented by Andrea as a convenient vehicle in which to convey his ideas of reform. But the whole of this subject is more fully discussed under the head of Rosicrucianism, which see.

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ANDREW, APPRENTICE AND FELLOW CRAFT OF SAINT
The French for this is Apprenti et Compagnon de Saint André; the German being Andreas Lehrling und Geselle. The Fourth Degree of the Swedish Rite, which is almost precisely the same as the Elu Secret of the French Rite.

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ANDREW, CROSS OF SAINT

See Cross, Saint Andrew's

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ANDREW, FAVORITE OF SAINT

The French is Favori de Saint André. Usually called Knight of the Purple Collar. The Ninth Degree of the Swedish Rite.

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ANDREW GRADE

One of the oldest of the high Continental grades added to Craft Freemasonry, probably originated in France among Stuart partisans and thence passing into Germany and elsewhere.

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ANDREW, GRAND SCOTTISH KNIGHT OF SAINT

See Knight of Saint Andrew

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ANDROGYNOUS DEGREES

From …, a man, and ...., a woman. Those degrees relative to Freemasonry which are conferred on both men and women. Besides the degrees of the Adoptive Rite, which are practiced in France, there are several of these degrees which are, as side degrees, conferred in America. Such are the Mason's wife, conferred on the wives, daughters, sisters, and mothers of Master Masons, and the Knight and Heroine of Jericho, conferred on the wives and daughters of Royal Arch Masons.

About 1850 Rob Morris introduced and thereafter taught very generally through the Western States of America, a series of androgynous degrees, which he called The Eastern Star. There is another androgynous degree, sometimes conferred on the wives of Royal Arch Masons, known as the Good Samaritan.

In some parts of the United States these degrees are very popular, while in other places they are never practiced, and are strongly condemned as improper innovations. The fact is, that by their friends as well as by their enemies, these so-called degrees have been greatly misrepresented. When females are told that in receiving these degrees they are admitted into the Masonic Order, and are obtaining Masonic information under the name of Ladies' freemasonry, they are simply deceived.

Every woman connected by ties of consanguinity, the blood relation or kinship, to a Master Mason is peculiarly entitled to Masonic assistance and protection. If she is told of this fact, and also told that by these androgynous degrees she is to be put in possession of the means of making her claims known by a sort of what may be called oral testimony, but that she is by their possession no nearer to the portals of Freemasonry than she was before, if she is honestly told this, then there is no harm, but the possibility of some good, in these forms if carefully bestowed and prudently preserved. But all attempts to make Freemasonry of them are wrong, imprudent, and calculated to produce opposition among the well-informed and cautious members of the Fraternity.

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ANDROGYNOUS FREEMASONRY

That so-called Freemasonry which is dedicated to the cultivation of the androgynous degrees. The Adoptive Rite of France is Androgynous Freemasonry.

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ANGEL

Angels were originally in the Jewish theology considered simply as messengers of God, as the name ...., herald or angel, pronounced mal-awk, imports, and the word is thus continually, used in the early Scriptures of the Old Testament. It was only after the captivity that the Jews brought from Babylon their mystical ideas of angels as instruments of creative ministration, such as the angel of fire, of water, of earth, or of air. These doctrines they learned from the Chaldean sages, who had probably derived them from Zoroaster and the Zendavesta. In time these doctrines were borrowed by the Gnostics, and through them they have been introduced into some of the advanced degrees; such, for instance, as the Knight of the Sun, in whose ritual the angels of the four elements play an important part.

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ANGELIC BROTHERS

The German for this expression is Engelsbruder. Sometimes called, after their founder, Gichtelites or Gichtelianer. A mystical sect of religious fanatics founded by one Gichtel, about the close of the seventeenth century, in the United Netherlands. After the death of their founder in 1710, they gradually became extinct, or were continued only in secret union with the Rosicrucians.

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ANGELS ALPHABET

See Alphabet, Angels

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ANGERONA

The name of a pagan deity worshiped among the Romans. Pliny calls her the goddess of silence, and calmness of mind. Hence her statue has sometimes been introduced among the ornaments of Masonic edifices. She is represented with her finger pressed upon her lips (see Harpocrates, for what is further to be said upon this symbol).

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ANGLE

The inclination of two lines meeting in a point. Angles are of three kinds-acute, obtuse, and right angles. The right angle, or the angle of 90 degrees, is the principal one recognized in Freemasonry, because it is the form of the trying square or try-square, one of the most important working tools of the profession, and the symbol of morality.

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ANGULAR TRIAD

A name given by Oliver to the three presiding officers of a Royal Arch Chapter.

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ANIMAL WORSHIP

The worship of animals is a species of idolatry that was especially practiced by the ancient Egyptians. Temples were erected by this people in their honor, in which they were fed and cared for during life. To kill one of them was a crime punishable with death. After the death of these animals, they were embalmed, and interred in the catacombs. This worship was derived first from the earlier adoration of the stars, to certain constellations of which the names of animals had been given ; next, from an Egyptian tradition that the gods being pursued by Typhon, had concealed themselves under the forms of animals ; and 1astly, from the doctrine of the metempsychosis, according to which there was a continual circulation of the sculls of men and animals.

But behind the open and popular exercise of this degrading worship the priests concealed a symbolism full of philosophical conceptions.

Gliddon says, in his Otia Egyptiaea (page 94), that "Animal worship among the Egyptians was the natural and unavoidable consequence of the misconception, by the vulgar, of those emblematical figures invented by the priests to record their own philosophical conception of absurd ideas.

As the pictures and effigies suspended in early Christian churches, to commemorate a person or an event, became in time objects of worship to the vulgar, so, in Egypt, the esoteric or spiritual meaning of the emblems was lost in the gross materialism of the beholder. This esoteric and allegorical meaning was, however, preserved by the priests, and communicated in the mysteries alone to the initiated, while the uninstructed retained only the grosser conception."

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ANIMA MUNDI

Latin, meaning Soul of the World. A doctrine of the early philosophers, who conceived that an immaterial force resided in nature and was the source of all physical and sentient life, yet not intelligential.

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ANNALES CHRONOLOGIQUES

The complete title is Annales Chronologiques, Litéraires et Historiques de la Maçonnerie des Pays-Bas, dater du 1" Janvier, 1814 (French, meaning the Chronological, Literary, and Historical Annals of the Masonry of the Netherlands from the year 1814). This work, edited by Brothers Melton and De Margny, was published at Brussels, in five volumes, during the years 1823.

It consists of an immense collection of French, Dutch, Italian, and English Masonic documents translated into French. Kloss extols it highly as a work which no Masonic library should be without. Its publication was unfortunately discontinued in 1826 by the Belgian revolution.

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ANNALES ORIGINIS MAGNI GALLIARUM ORIENTIS, ETC.

This history of the Grand Orient of France is, in regard to its subject, the most valuable of the works of C. A. Thory. It comprises a full account of the rise, progress, changes, and revolutions of French Freemasonry, with numerous curious and inedited documents, notices of a great number of rites, a fragment on Adoptive Freemasonry and other articles of an interesting nature. It was published at Paris, in 1812, in one volume of 471 pages, octavo (see Kloss, Bibliographic der Freimaurerei, No. 4088).

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ANNIVERSARY

See Festivals

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ANNO BONEFACIO

Latin, meaning In the Year of the Blessing; abbreviated A.'. B.". This date has been used by the brethren of the Order of High Priesthood to signify the elapsed period calculated from the year of the blessing of Abraham by the High Priest Melchizedek. The date is determined by adding the year of blessing to any Christian or so-called Vulgar Era thus: 1913+1930 = 3843.

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ANNO DEPOSITIONIS

Latin, meaning in the a year of the Deposit ; abbreviated A.'. Dep.'. The date used by Royal and Select Masters, which is found by adding 1000 to the Vulgar Era; thus, 1930+1000 =2930.

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ANNO EGYPTIACO

Latin, meaning in the Egyptian year. The date used by the Hermetic Fraternity, and found by adding 5044 to the Vulgar Era prior to each July 20, being the number of years since the consolidation of the first Egyptian monarchy under Menes who, according to Herodotus, built Memphis, and is reported by Diodorus to have introduced the worship of the gods and the practice of sacrifices into Egypt.

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ANNO HEBRAICO

Latin, meaning in the Hebrew year ; abbreviated A. '. H. '. The same as Anno Mundi; which see.

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ANNO INVENTIONIS

Latin, meaning in the year of the Discovery; abbreviated A.'. I.'. or A.". Inv.'. The date used by Royal Arch Masons. Found by adding 530 to the Vulgar Era ; thus, 1930 + 530 =2460.

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ANNO LUCIS

Latin, meaning in the Year of Light; abbreviated A.'. L.'. The date used in ancient Craft Freemasonry; found by adding 4000 to the Vulgar Era ; thus, 1930+ 4000 = 5930.

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ANNO MUNDI

Latin, meaning in the Year of the World. The date used in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite; found by adding 3760 to the Vulgar Era until September. After September, add one year more ; this is because the year used a the Hebrew one, which begins in September. Thus, July, 1930+3760 = 5690, and October, 1930+3760+1= 5691.

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ANNO ORDINIS

Latin, meaning in the Year of the Order; abbreviated A.'. O.'. The date used by Knights Templar; found by subtracting 1118 from the Vulgar Era; thus, 1930-1118 = 812.

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ANNUAIRE

Some French Lodges publish annually a record of their most important proceedings for the past year, and a 1ist of their members. This publication is called an Annuaire, or Annual.

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ANNUAL COMMUNICATION

All the Grand Lodges of the United States, except those of Massachusetts, Maryland, the District of Columbia, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island, hold only one annual meeting; thus reviving the ancient custom of a Yearly Grand Assembly.

The Grand Lodge of Massachusetts has provided far Quarterly Communications held in Boston on the second Wednesday in December, March, June and September. There has also been a Communication held annually on December 27 for the Installation of the Grand Officers and the Celebration of Saint John the Evangelist's Day. When that Anniversary occurs on Saturday or Sunday the Communication is held on the following Tuesday.

The Grand Lodge of Maryland has had two Communications, the Semi-Annual and the Annual of the Grand Lodge every year, in May and November.

The Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia has provided for four Stated Communications in each year, one on the second Saturday in March for the exemplification of the degrees, another on the second Wednesday in May for the transaction of general, business, a third on the third Wednesday in December being the Annual Communication to receive the Grand Master's annual address, the reports of the Grand Lecturer and Committees, and for general business, a succeeding Communication on Saint John the Evangelist's Day, December 27, or on the day following if the date fall upon a Sunday, to receive the Grand Master's report, to consider reports of Committees on the Annual Address of the Grand Master, and to elect and install officers. The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania has provided for Quarterly Communications on the first Wednesdays of March, June, September, and December, and an Annual Grand Communication on Saint John the Evangelist's Day in every year.

The Grand Lodge of Rhode Island has had two Communications in each year, namely, the Annual Communication on the tbird Monday in May and the Semi-Annual Communication on the third Monday in November.
The Grand Lodge of England holds Quarterly Communications.

At these Annual Communications it is usual to pay the representatives of the subordinate Lodges a per diem allowance, which varies in amount in the several Grand Lodges, and also their mileage or traveling expenses.

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ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS

Every Grand Lodge in the United States publishes a full account of the proceedings at its Annual Communication, to which there is usually added a list of the subordinate Lodges and their members. Some of these Annual Proceedings extend to a considerable size, and they are all valuable as giving an accurate and official account of the condition of Freemasonry in each State for the past year.

They also frequently contain valuable reports of committees on questions of Masonic law. The reports of the Committees of Foreign Correspondence are especially valuable in these publications (see Committee on Foreign Correspondence).

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ANNUITIES

In England, one of the modes of distributing the charities of a Lodge is to grant annuities to aged members or to the widows and orphans of those who are deceased. In 1842 the Royal Masonic Annuity for Males was established, which has since become the Royal Masonic Benevolent Institution for Aged Freemasons and Their Widows, and grants annuities to both males and females, having also an asylum at Croydon in Surrey, England, into which the annuitants are received in the order of their seniority on the list (see Asylum for Aged Freemasons).

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ANOINTING

The act of consecrating any person or thing by the pouring on of oil. The ceremony of anointing was emblematical of a particular sanctification to a holy and sacred use. As such it was practiced by both the Egyptians and the Jews, and many representations are to be seen among the former of the performance of this holy Rite. Wilkinson informs us, in his Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians (iv, 280), that with the Egyptians the investiture to any sacred office was confirmed by this external sign; and that priests and kings at the time of their consecration were, after they had been attired in their full robes, anointed by the pouring of oil upon the head. The Jewish Scriptures mention several instances in which unction was administered, as in the consecration of Aaron as high priest, and of Saul and David, of Solomon and Joash, as kings. The process of anointing Aaron is fully described in Exodus (xxix, 7).

After he had been clothed in all his robes, with the miter and crown upon his head, it is said, "then shalt thou take the anointing oil and pour it upon his head, and anoint him."

The use of oil in the service of the Churches is also worthy of note. In the ceremony of confirmation there is usually employed a chrism, an anointing fluid sometimes compounded of olive oil and a balm of balsam made from the terebinth tree of the East.

The olive oil is symbolic of strength, for it was used by the ancient athletes as an ointment to increase the bodily vigor; of light, because possible of use in lamps; of health, because practicable for food and medicine, while the balm means freedom from corruption and having the sweet savor of virtue.

The ceremony is still used in some of the high degrees of Freemasonry, and is always recognized as a symbol of sanctification, or the designation of the person so anointed to a sacred use, or to the performance of a particular function. Hence, it forms an important part of the ceremony of installation of a High Priest in the Order of High Priesthood as practiced in America. As to the form in which the anointing oil was poured, John Buxtorf, in the Lexicon Chaldaicum, Talmudicum et Rabbinicum (page 267), quotes the Rabbinical tradition that in the anointment of kings the oil was poured on the head in the form of a crown, that is, in a circle around the head ; while in the anointment of the priests it was poured in the form of the Greek letter X, that is, on ahe top of the head, in the pattern of a Saint Andrew's cross.

Important as the anointing ceremony was to persons, we also see plainly that in Bible times the use of the consecrating oil was deemed necessary to the house of worship, to the furniture therein, and to the pillars or other memorials of man's religious relation to God. Now as then we follow the same tendency in our Masonic consecration ceremonies of official corner stone laying, and of Temple and Lodge-room authorized dedication to Masonic usefulness.

See the Old Testament for the anointing of memorial stones (Genesis xxviii, 18, 22; xxai, 13, and xxxv, 14), and compare these references with the modern Masonic treatment of a corner stone, and for some comparison of the present day consecration of Lodge rooms with the ceremonies of old read Exodus (xxx, 23-9, and xl, 9), where we find an account of the sanctifying of the Tabernacle and its furniture "and it shall be holy."

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ANONYMOUS SOCIETY

A Society formerly existing in Germany, which consisted of seventy-two members, namely, twenty.-four Apprentices, twenty-four Fellow Crafts, and twenty-four Masters. It distributed much charity, but its real object was the cultivation of the occult sciences. Its members pretended that its Grand Master was one Tajo, and that he resided in Spain. Thory. is authority for the above statement in his Acta Latomorum (1, 294).

Anonymous
is a compound of two Greek words that together mean without name.

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ANSYREEH

A sect found in the mountains of Libanon, of Northern Syria. the name is also given as Nusairiyeh. Like the Druses, toward whom, however, they entertain a violent hostility, and the Assassins, they have a secret mode of recognition and a secret religion, which does not appear to be well understood by them. ''However,'' says Rev. Mr. Lyde, who visited them in 1852, "there is one in which they all seem agreed, and which acts as a kind of Freemasonry in binding together the scattered members of their body, namely,, secret prayers which are taught to every male child of a certain age, and are repeated at stated times, in stated places, and accompanied with religious rites."

The Ansyreeh arose about the same time with the Assassins, and, like them, their religion appears to be an ill-digested mixture of Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism. To the Masonic scholars these secret sects of Syria present an interesting study, because of their supposed connection with the Templars during the Crusades. Brother Bernard H. Springett discusses at length the subject of secret organizations of that neighborhood in his Secret Sects of Syria and the Lebanon.

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ANTEDILUVIAN FREEMASONRY

Among the traditions of Freemasonry, which, taken literally, become incredible, but which, considered allegorically, may contain a profound meaning, not the least remarkable are those which relate to the existence of a Masonic system before the Flood, the word antediluvian being from the Latin language and meaning before the deluge. Thus, Anderson (Constitutions, first edition, page 3) says: "Without regarding uncertain accounts, we may safely conclude the Old World, that lasted 1656 years, could not be ignorant of Masonry.''

Doctor Oliver has devoted the twenty-eighth lecture in his Historical Landmarks to an inquiry into "the nature and design of Freemasonry before the Flood" ; but he admits that any evidence of the existence at that time of such an Institution must be based on the identity of Freemasonry and morality. "We may safely assume," he says, "that whatever had for its object and end an inducement to the practice of that morality which is founded on the love of God, may be identified with primitive Freemasonry."

The truth is, that antediluvian Freemasonry is alluded to only in what are called the ineffably degrees; and that its only important tradition is that of Enoch, who is traditionally supposed to be its founder, or, at least, its Great Hierophant, or Chief Priest (see Enoch).

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ANTIN, DUKE D

Elected perpetual Grand Master of the Freemasons of France, on the 24th of June, 1738. He held the office until 1743, when he died, and was succeeded by the Count of Clermont. Clavel, Histoire Pittoresque, or Picturesque History (page141) relates an instance of the fidelity and intrepidity with which, on one occasion, he guarded the avenues of the Lodge from the official intrusion of a commissary of police accompanied by a band of soldiers.

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ANTIPODEANS

The French expression being Les Antipodiens. The name of the Sixtieth Degree of the seventh series of the collection of the Metropolitan Chapter of France (Acta Latomorum, 1, page 294).

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ANTIQUITY, LODGE OF

The oldest Lodge in England, and one of the four which concurred in February, 1717, in the meeting at the Apple-Tree Tavern, London, in the formation of the Grand Lodge of England. At that time the Lodge of Antiquity met at the Goose and Gridiron, in Saint Paul's Churchyard. This Lodge and three others met on Saint John the Baptist's Day, June 24, 1717, at the Goose and Gridiron Tavern, and by a majority of hands elected Mr. Anthony Sayer Grand Master, he being the oldest Master present. Capt. Joseph Elliot, and Mr. Jacob Lamball, carpenter, were chosen as Grand Wardens.

This and the other three Lodges did not derive their Warrants from the Grand Lodge, but "acted by immemorial Constitution or by an acknowledged authority reaching back beyond memory."

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ANTIQUITY MANUSCRIPT

This celebrated manuscript is now, and has long been, in the possession of the Lodge of Antiquity, at London. It is stated in the subscription to have been written, in 1686, by, "Robert Padgett, Clearke to the Worshipful Society of the Freemasons of the city of London." The whole manuscript was first published by W. J. Hughan in his Old Charges of British Freemasons on page 64, but a part had been previously inserted by Preston in his Illustrations (see book ii, section vi, pages 81-3, 1812 edition).

Here we have evidence of a curious tendency to alter or interpolate passages in old documents whenever it was required to confirm a preconceived theory.

Thus, Preston had intimated that there was before 1717 an Installation Ceremony for newly elected Masters of Lodges, a claim of doubtful worth. He inserts what he calls "the ancient Charges that were used on this occasion," taken from the manuscript of the Lodge of Antiquity,. To confirm the statement, that they were used for this purpose, he comes to the conclusion of the manuscript in the following words:

"These be all the charges and covenants that ought to be read at the installment of Master, or making of a Freemason or Freemasons." The words in italics are not to be found in the original manuscript. Brother E. Jackson Barron had an exact transcript made of this manuscript, which he carefully collated, and which was published by Brother Hughan. Brother Barron gives the following description of the document:

"The manuscript copy of the Charges of Freemasons is on a roll of parchment nine feet long by eleven inches wide, the roll being formed of four pieces of parchment glued together; and some few years ago it was partially mounted (but not very skillfully) on a backing of parchment for its better preservation.

"The Rolls are headed by an engraving of the Royal Arms, after the fashion usual in deeds of the period; the date of the engraving in this case being fixed by the initials at the top, 1. 2. R. "Under this engraving are emblazoned in separate shields the Arms of the city of London, which are too well known to require description, and the Arms of the Masons Company of London, Sable on a chevron between three castles argent, a pair of compasses of the first surrounded by appropriate mantling.

"The writing is a good specimen of the ordinary law writing of the times, interspersed with words in text. There is a margin of about an inch on the left a side, which is marked by a continuous double red ink line throughout, and there are similar double lines down both edges of the parchment. The letter U is used throughout the manuscript for V, with but two or three exceptions" (see Hughan's Old Charges, 1872, page 14).

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ANTIQUITY OF FREEMASONRY

Years ago in writing an article on this subject under the impressions made upon me by the fascinating theories of Doctor Oliver, though I never completely accepted his views, 1 was led to place the organization of Freemasonry, as it now exists, at the building of Solomon's Temple. Many years of subsequent research have led me greatly to modify the views I had previously held.

Although I do not rank myself among those modern iconoclasts who refuse credence to every document whose authenticity, if admitted, would give to the Order a birth anterior to the beginning of the last century, I confess that I cannot find any incontrovertible evidence that would trace Freemasonry, as now a organized, beyond the Building Corporations of the Middle Ages. In this point of view I speak of it only as an architectural brotherhood, distinguished by signs, by words, and by brotherly ties which have not been essentially changed, and by symbols and legends which have only been developed and extended, while the association has undergone a transformation from an operative art to a speculative science.

But then these Building Corporations did not spring up in all their peculiar organization-different, as it was, from that of other gilds-like Autochthones, from the soil. They, too, must have had an origin and an archetype, from which they derived their peculiar Character. And I am induced, for that purpose, to look to the Roman Colleges of Artificers, which were spread over Europe by the invading forces of the empire. But these have been traced to Numa, who gave to them that mixed practical and religious character which they are known to have possessed, and in which they were imitated by the medieval architects.

We must, therefore, look at Freemasonry in two distinct points of view: First, as it is-a society of Speculative Architects engaged in the construction of spiritual temples, and in this respect a development from the Operative Architects of the tenth and succeeding centuries, who were themselves offshoots from the Traveling Freemasons of Como, who traced their origin to the Roman Colleges of Builders. In this direction, I think, the line of descent is plain, without any demand upon our credulity for assent to its credibility.

But Freemasonry must be looked at also from another standpoint. Not only does it present the appearance of a speculative science, based on an operative art, but it also very significantly exhibits itself as the symbolic expression of a religious idea. In other and plainer words, we see in it the important lesson of eternal life, taught by a legend which, whether true or false, is used in Freemasonry as a symbol and an allegory.

But whence came this legend? Was it invented in 1717 at the revival of Freemasonry in England? We have evidence of the strongest circumstantial character, derived from the Sloane manuscript No. 3,329, exhumed from the shelves of the British Museum, that this very legend was known to the Freemasons of the seventeenth century at least.

Then, did the Operative Masons of the Middle Ages have a legend also? The evidence is that they did. The Compagnons de la Tour, who were the offshoots of the old Masters' Gilds, had a legend. We know what the legend was, and we know that its character was similar to, although not in all the details precisely the same as, the Masonic legend. It was, however, connected with the Temple of Solomon.

Again : Did the builders of the Middle Ages invent their legend, or did they obtain it from some old tradition? The question is interesting, but its solution either way would scarcely affect the Antiquity of Freemasonry. It is not the form of the legend, but its spirit and symbolic design, wish which we have to do.

This legend of the Third Degree as we now have it, and as we have had it for a certain period of two hundred and fifty years, is intended, by a symbolic representation, to teach the resurrection from death, and the Divine dogma of eternal life. All Freemasons know its character, and it is neither expedient nor necessary to dilate upon it.

But can we find such a legend elsewhere? Certainly we can. Not indeed the same legend; not the same personage as its hero; not the same details; but a legend with the same spirit and design; a legend funereal in character, celebrating death and resurrection, solemnized in lamentation and terminating in joy.

Thus, in the Egyptian Mysteries of Osiris, the image of a dead man was borne in an argha, ark or coffin, by a procession of initiates; and this enclosure in the coffin or interment of the body was called the aphanism, or disappearance, and the lamentation for him formed the first part of the Mysteries.

On the third day after .the interment, the priests and initiates carried the coffin, in which was also a golden vessel, down to the river Nile. Into the vessel they poured water from the river; and then with a cry of ............"We have found him, let us rejoice," they declared that the dead osiris, who had descended into Hades, had returned from thence, and was restored again to life ; and the rejoicings which ensued constituted the second part of the Mysteries.

The analogy between, this and the legend of Freemasonry must be at once apparent. Now, just such a legend, everywhere coinciding in particulars, but everywhere coinciding in general character, is to be found in all the old religions-in sun worship, in tree worship, in animal worship. It was often perverted, it is true, from the original design. Sometimes it was applied to the death of winter and the birth of spring, sometimes to the setting and the subsequent rising of the sun, but always indicating a loss and a recovery.

Especially do we find this legend, and in a purer form, in ahe Ancient Mysteries. At Samothrace, at Eleusis, at Byblos-in all places where these ancient religions and mystical rites were celebrated-we find the same teachings of eternal life inculcated by the representation of an imaginary death and apotheosis.

And it is this legend, and this legend alone, that connects Speculative Freemasonry with the Ancient Mysteries of Greece, of Syria, and of Egypt.

The theory, then, that I advance on the subject of the Antiquity of Freemasonry is this: I maintain that, in its present peculiar organization, it is the successor, with certainty, of the Building Corporations of the Middle Ages, and through them, with less certainty but with great probability,, of the Roman Colleges of Artifieers.

Its connection with the Temple of Solomon, as its birthplace, may have been accidental-a mere arbitrary selection by its inventors-and bears, therefore, only an allegorical meaning; or it may be historical, and to be explained by the frequent communications that at one time took place between the Jews and the Greeks and the Romans. This is a point still open for discussion. On it I express no fixed opinion. The historical materials upon which to base an opinion are as yet too scanty. But I am inclined, I confess, to view the Temple of Jerusalem and the Masonic traditions connected with it as a part of the great allegory of Freemasonry.

But in the other aspect in which Freemasonry presents itself to our view, and to which I have already adverted, the question of its antiquity is more easily settled.

As a brotherhood, composed of symbolic Masters and Fellows and Apprentices, derived from an association of Operative Masters, Fellows, and Apprentices-those building spiritual temples as these built material ones-its age may not exceed five or six hundred years. But as a secret association, containing within itself the symbolic expression of a religious idea, it connects itself with all the Mysteries, which, with similar secrecy, gave the same symbolic expression to the same religious idea. These Mysteries were not the cradles of Freemasonry, : they were only its analogues.

But I have no doubt that all the Mysteries had one common source, perhaps, as it has been suggested, some body of priests; and I have no more doubt that Freemasonry has derived its legend, its symbolic mode of instruction, and the lesson for which that instruction was intended, either directly or indirectly from the same source. ln this view the Mysteries become interesting to the Freemason as a study, and in this view only.

And so, when I speak of the Antiquity of Freemasonry, I must say, if I would respect the axioms of historical science, that its body came out of the Middle Ages, but that its spirit is to be traced to a far remoter period.

The foregoing digest of his conclusions is by Doctor Mackey.

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ANCIENTS AND MODERNS

The article which begins at page 75 was written before the publication of some 200 or so Histories and Minute Books of old British and American Lodges, and before the special researches inspired by Henry Sadler's Masonic Facts and Fictions bad uncovered the detailed history of the Ancient Grand Lodge.

In London, 1717, the first Grand Lodge of Speculative Freemasonry was formed by four old Lodges, and possibly with the support or consent of a number of unrepresented Lodges. It was tentative, experimental, had no precedent to guide it ; at the beginning it consisted of little more than a Grand Master with two Wardens to assist him, and claimed jurisdiction only over such Lodges as might unite with it in an area covering a radius of ten miles from the center of London. As it prospered it warranted (officially approved) Lodges outside of that area and in other countries, and in about twenty years set up a system of Provincial Grand Lodges throughout England

There was at the time no doctrine of Exclusive Territorial Jurisdiction. A small Grand Lodge at York was not challenged. A Grand Lodge was formed by Lodges in Ireland in 1725; and in Scotland in 1736. If self-constituted Lodges of regular Masons did not unite with the Grand Lodge at London, it did not outlaw them (they were called St. John's Lodges) but permitted visitation between them and its own Lodges.

Freemasonry had been very popular in Ireland, even before its Grand Lodge of 1725; after 1725 Lodges sprang up in almost every Irish village. Many Englishmen lived in Dublin ("Dublin was almost an English city") and many families of English origin lived here and there in the Island, especially in North Ireland. It was commonplace for Irish, and for Anglo-Irish, to move to England, to enter business and the professions there, to attend school, etc. ; during the food famines this number was greatly increased.

Among these (and the Irish were not "foreigners" but British!) were a large number of Masons ; among these latter a majority were in retail business, or were carpenters, plumbers, painters, brick-layers, machinists, and in other so-called "trades." But when these Irish residents or citizens of London who were members in regular Irish Lodges came to visit Lodges in London or to dimit to them, they were turned away, were snubbed, were looked down on because by that time (in the 1730's) the Grand Lodge had become a fief of the Nobility, and its Lodges had become exclusive and snobbish. A carpenter or a mason or a house painter might be a member in good standing in a regular Irish Lodge, but he was not deemed worthy to sit among English "gentlemen." the Irish Masons held meetings among themselves, consulted the Grand Lodge of Ireland, set up a Grand Committee in the 1740's, and in 1751 turned this Committee into a regular Grand Lodge. This action was strictly in accordance with the Ancient Landmarks.

In the meantime many exposés had been published in London, and clandestine "Masons" pestered regular Lodges; and a certain amount of Anti-Masonry became active. To circumvent these clandestines the Grand Lodge shifted the Modes of Recognition from one Degree to another, and made other changes about which little is known in detail. It also discontinued the Ceremony of Installation of the Master, thereby reducing him to the status of a mere presiding officer with no inherent powers. These alterations in things that ought not to be altered aroused resentment among a large number of Lodges. As time progressed, and as Lodge Histories make clear, an increasing number of Lodges ceased to be Lodges and became convivial clubs-some of them very expensive clubs. By 1750 the Grand Lodge had thus departed a long way from the original design. In the cant language of the time it had "modernized" itself ; and it came to be for that reason dubbed "the Modern Grand Lodge." the members of the new Grand Lodge of 1751 on the other band insisted on retaining the work and customs of the beginning, and because they did so declared themselves a Grand Lodge according to "the Ancient Institutions," and hence were called "Ancient Masons."

Because of this, a number of Modern Lodges took out Ancient Charters, a number of St. John Lodges took out Charters for the first time, and many new Lodges were warranted by it. Also, the new Grand Lodge conferred the Royal Arch, issued Ambulatory warrants to army Lodges, and it had the good fortune to have Laurence Dermott for Grand Secretary, of whom Gould was to say that "without erring on the side of panegyric" "he was the most remarkable Mason of that time." There was in reality no need for this new Grand Lodge; had the Modern Grand Lodge been a genuinely representative Body instead of a governing club of aristocrats, had , its Grand Master been accessible to the Lodges, and had both "parties" sat down in friendly discussion as they were to do after 1800, the whole Craft could have been made as strong and as united in 1750 as it was to become in 1850; but since it was not thus done, any Masonic historian must admit that the Ancient Grand Lodge was the salvation of the Craft, and (comparatively speaking) a great blessing to Freemasonry everywhere.

Mackey in his seven-volume history, and writing before Sadler and Crawley, was inclined to believe that the Ancient grew out of discontent, and a mood of rebellion. Gould, Hughan, Lane, etc., went farther : they condemned it in toto. In his History and in his concise History Gould blasted the whole of Ancient Masonry, and throughout his life insisted on calling them "Schismatics" ; as also did a line of Masonic writers who followed him.

1. If a number of the Officers and members of the Grand Lodge of 1717 had quarreled with the rest, had seceded, and then had set up a rival Grand Body claiming to possess the original authority, such a Grand Body would have been schismatic. (Preston's second Lodge of Antiquity, three or four Grand Lodges in the State of New York a century later, and the Wigan Grand Lodge, etc., these were in a true sense schismatic.) This did not occur; what did occur was not only unlike a schism but in principle was the opposite of one ; the regular Masons, Irish and English, who erected their 1751 Grand Lodge were seeking to have a Masonic home, and were doing so because the 1717 Grand Lodge had, violated the first great Landmark when it refused them a home.

2. Since the Doctrine of Grand Lodge Exclusive Territorial Jurisdiction was not yet adopted, the new Grand Lodge did not violate the law. the 1717 Grand Lodge itself had made no claim t.o exclusive jurisdiction, but had fraternized with the Grand Lodge of All England at York.

3. The new Grand Lodge of 1751 was guilty of no innovations of the ancient secrets, or of Ritual, or of practice ; on the contrary it was the 1717 Grand Lodge that was guilty (and self-confessedly so) of innovations.

4. The 1717 Grand Lodge was distressed to have a rival in the field, and a vigorous one, but even it, except sporadically, did not condemn Ancient Lodges as clandestine. Members under both Grand Lodges visited and shifted back and forth, often with no more ceremony than to take a second OB ; no court action was taken ; nobody accused the Ancient of using a spurious Ritual; in Canada and America both Lodges worked side by side.

5. The Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland, who were in a position to know the Ancient at first hand, and could speak with more authority than could. Gould, Hughan, or Mackey a century later, both recognized the Ancient, and for some years neither recognized the Moderns; in their eyes it was the Modern, not the Ancient Body, that was "schismatic." Of Ireland Crawley wrote (in A.Q.C.; VIII; p. 81). "Indeed, the Grand Lodge of Ireland, all modern assertions to the contrary notwithstanding, seems never to have been in fraternal intercourse with the Grand Lodge of the Moderns, after the rival organization of the Ancient had been established." Even before Sadler and Crawley had discovered and published the documents in the case the action taken by these two Grand Lodges was of itself sufficient to prove that the Ancient had never been "schismatic"--or irregular, or clandestine, or spurious.

6. For at least five centuries Freemasonry consisted wholly of working men. When they began to accept "gentlemen" into membership, the latter met upon the level to masons, smiths, carpenters, farmers. To meet upon To meet upon the level, to leave aristocratic privilege, prerogatives, titles, and snobbishness outside, was of the essence of Masonry, and ever was unanimously accepted as being such - the name "freemasonry" was almost anonymous with meeting upon the level. The 1717 Grand Lodge destroyed that ancient design Its Lodges could if they wished, shut the door on "the lower orders."The Earls of Moira. Grand Masters of the Ancient, were twitted by Modern Grand Officers because his Grand Secretary had been a house-painter.

This un-Masonic snobbishness, this denial of brotherliness, was the one great sin of the Moderns, and the one great justification of the Ancient; in comparison with that innovation, irregularities in ceremony were of secondary importance, for where there is no meeting on the level there is no Freemasonry. This social cleavage inside of the Fraternity came to the surface and stood out in bold relief on this side of the Atlantic during the American Revolutionary period, and explains why so many Modern Lodges failed or shifted allegiance, and why the Ancient (especially in New York and Pennsylvania) swept the field ; Modern Lodges here were on the whole Tory, Royalist, Loyalist, aristocratic, pro-British ;Ancient Lodges were democratic, pro-Patriotic, as open to blacksmiths as to Royal Governors.

7. Until a recent period Masons found their knowledge of Masonic history in the general histories, the majority of which were chiefly histories of Grand Lodges, and therefore were long generalizations of nation-wide or world-wide events as seen from a Grand Lodge point of view; with the publication of some 200 or so Minutes and Histories of the oldest British, American, Canadian, and West Indian Lodges it has become possible to know what Freemasonry was in actual practice, locality by locality, month by month, from 1751 to 1813.

NOTE. Since "Ancient" was at the time, and by both Grand Lodges, adopted as technically correct that spelling is here used. Bro. Clegg used "Ancient" on page 75; but see paragraph at top of the left-hand column on page 83. - The Earl who was Grand Master of the Ancient in 1760-5 is spelled Blessington on page 77; Blesinton on page 140. The family itself spelled the name in a dozen forms but in a document still extant, and signed by him in a bold hand, the Earl himself spelled it Blesinton. Gould's History of Freemasonry spells it Blesington.

In addition to being called "Ancient" the Grand Lodge of I751 was often called "Atholl"-Gould's book on the Ancient Lodges is entitled Atholl Lodges.

This name came into use because a Duke of Atholl was Grand Master over so many years: John, third Duke of Atholl, from 1771 to 1775 ; John fourth Duke of Atholl from 1775 to 1782 and again from 179I to 1813. In Canada, and, later, often in the American Colonies, the Ancient Body was called York Masonry.

In the 1903 edition of his A Consise History of Freemasonry [Gale & Polden; London], Robert Freke Gould heads his Chapter VII "The Great Schism in English Masonry" ; on page 343 he describes Ancient Masons as "the seceders"; the whole burden of the chapter is that the 1751 Grand Body was born of a rebellion against the lawful authority of the Grand Lodge of 1717, and was therefore irregular and schismatic. After Gould had written his long History of Freemasonry Satdler and Crawley made their discoveries of written records, etc., which showed for the first time what the facts had been, and which proved that the Ancient had been neither Seceders nor Schismatics ; Gould had access to these facts but when be came to write his Concise History he ignored them, and did so against the urgent protestations of his friends and colleagues. In the 1920's Fred J. M. Crowe issued a new and revised Edition of the Concise History, and in it deleted Gould's chapter on the Ancient and replaced it by one written by himself.

In a private letter he wrote that he had performed this labor of love not so much because a new edition of the book was demanded, as that English Masonic scholars felt themselves misrepresented by the position taken by their "premier historian."

It was therefore naturally expected that when he came to revise Gould's History of Freemasonry(in six volumes ; Scribners; 1936) Bro. Dudley Wright would, like Crowe, make sure to revise completely Gould's chapter on the Ancient; for some reason which has not been explained he did not do so. Chapter IV, Vol. II, page 145, begins : "The Minutes of that Schismatic body," etc. This failure in revision is regrettable to American readers because the Revised History elsewhere makes it clear that more than half of early American Masonry (before 1781) was derived from Ancient sources.

*

ANTI-MASONRY

Of the 225 or so Anti-Masonic books on the shelves in any one of our Masonic Libraries more than nine-tenths of them are about the particular Anti-Masonic Crusade which ensued upon the so-called Morgan Aflair at Batavia, N. Y., in 1826. "Anti-Masonry" and "Morgan Affair" are become synonymous ; Grand Lodges (like their Lodges and members) are so wearied of hearing about this century-old subject that in consequence the whole question of Anti-Masonry has gone by default, with the result that in the present period when Anti-Masonry is the overwhelming and all-important question before the Fraternity, the Fraternity ignores it.

Even d Anti-Masonry were nothing more than open attacks made upon Freemasonry by groups who believe they have reason to hate it, Anti-Masonry would comprise more than the Morgan Affair. The Craft in New England was rocked by an Anti-Masonic crusade immediately after the Revolution; New England and the Bavarian Illuminati, by Vernon Stauffer (New York ; 1918; 374 pages), is a detailed history of it. The Society of Friends (Quakers) either as a whole or in part has for more than a century sought to warn its own members against Freemasonry, and to persuade the public to abolish it ; since the Quaker literature on the subject is unimaginably dull a student need not persecute his mind by reading the whole of it, but can find a representative specimen in the outpourings (not always of the Spirit) of the Tract Association of Friends. It is a shock to find the apostles of reasonableness and gentleness resorting to the ancient propaganda tricks of misdirection, false statements, and violent language.
Tract No. 178, published in 1896, camouflaged an attack on Freemasonry under the title of "Secret Societies" ; in it Masons were accused of murdering each other, of being a secret "society" i.e., a conspiratorial society, like the Black Hand) ; of "covering up crime" ; of giving "a license to immorality," etc. (Yet Springett Penn, of the Penn family, was very active in the Grand Lodge of Ireland, and wrote one of the verses in the 'Prentice Song') ! The Lutheran Church has been as a whole unsympathetic with the Craft, and at one time or another certain of its Synods have been anti-Masonic ; their Pastor Wagner's writings (of Dayton, Ohio) belong to the demented, or lunatic fringe, of Anti-Masonic "literature."

The Mormons also---and in the "Mormon Empire" where in six States their influence is very strong their action is not to be lightly disregarded-have carried on an organized Anti-Masonic movement ever since their original members were expelled by the Grand Lodge of Illinois, when the town of Nauvoo was designed to be what Salt Lake City afterwards became.

During this whole time the Roman Catholic Church has carried on a continuous barrage against the Craft, and with an increasing tempo ever since Pope Leo XIII designated agencies for the purpose. (See Freemasonry and Roman Catholicism, by H. L. Haywood; Masonic History Company; Chicago; 1944.)

In these Anti-Masonic attacks enemies of Freemasonry believed themselves to have a particular quarrel of their own against it, and for private reasons.

But the larger number of Anti-Masonic movements have had another basis, one not motivated by any quarrel but rather as a form of an inevitable conflict of teachings, principles, doctrines. Before he had become the inventor of Fascism the ex-Socialist, ex-pacifist Benito Mussolini wrote in 1920:

"Humanity is still and always an abstraction of time and space ; men are still not brothers, do not want to be, and evidently cannot be. Peace is hence absurd, or rather it is a pause in war. There is something that binds man to his destiny of struggling, against either his fellows or himself. The motives for the struggle may change indefinitely, they may be economic, religious, political, sentimental ; but the legend of Cain and Abel seems to be the inescapable reality, while 'brotherhood' is a fable which men listen to during the bivouac and the truce. . ."

It is obvious that when he later found himself the head of a new government of which the above doctrine was the comer-stone Mussolini came into irreconcilable conflict with Freemasonry which not only taught brotherhood but was a Brotherhood. Other creeds came into power, became embodied in governments, were backed by money and armies, the Nazi creed, the Phalangist, the French army and church hierarchies, Communism, and what not ; and each of these, of itself, came into conflict with Freemasonry ; and these conflicts were not quarrels or vendettas, or accidental explosions like the Morgan Affair, but were just such conflicts as are waged by two opposed religions, or opposed philosophies, or opposed political programs. Wherever a creed which possesses power or is seeking it is contradicted by the teachings and principles of Freemasonry, it will become Anti-Masonic. It is Anti-Masonry of this latter type, not of the Morgan Affair type, that now confronts the Fraternity in every European country, and is destined to confront it more and more in both Britain and America.

Prince Metternich was the most powerful Anti-Mason whom the Craft has ever faced ; he was also the most successful, for within one generation after the Congress of Vienna he had destroyed it, or crippled it, or driven it underground in every country between Russia and the English Channel ; but he did not attack Masons personally, did not accuse them of crimes or conspiracies, as did the less enlightened architects of American Anti-Masonry, but laid it down as a principle that the anti-democratic, despotic societies being set up by the Holy Alliance could not consistently tolerate in their midst a philosophy so contradictory of it as the democracy, fraternalism, and tolerance of the Fraternity, and which refused to admit that God had made the few to own and to rule and the many to labor and be subservient.

NOTE. Apropos of Mussolini's reading of "the legend of Cain and Abel''-which in the main is the orthodox one -it is one more proof of the great "peculiarity'' of Freemasonry that it has a ''legend'' of Cain of a different kind ;it sees in him the builder of the first city, and therefore a man who knew the art of building. See index of Tite Two Earliest Masonic MSS., by Knoop, Jones, Hamer Manchester; 1938.

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ANTHEM

The anthem was originally a piece of church music sung by alternate voices. The word afterward, however, came to be used as a designation of that kind of sacred music which consisted of certain passages taken out of the Scriptures, and adapted to particular solemnities. In the permanent poetry and music of Freemasonry the anthem is very rarely used. The spirit of Masonic poetry is lyrical, and therefore the ode or song of sentiment is almost altogether used, except on some special occasions, in the solemnities and ceremonials of the Order.

No mention of Masonic music should fail to allude to the fine collection made under the direction of Brother Albert Pike for the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, the Royal Arch Orpheus of the General Grand Chapter, and the work of Brother W. A. Mozart.

*

ANCIENT AND MODERN

The use of these words is frequently assumed to be understood as a expressive of a rebuke or even of contempt. Brother W. J. Chetwode Crawley (Caementaria Hibernica, Fasciculus 1, page 18) points to a different understanding of them. He says, "The terms Ancient and Modem were not epithets of reproach, but seem to have been willingly adopted by the adherents of each Grand Lodge. Brother Sadler points out that they occur in juxtaposition in a Minute of Grand Lodge, March 31, 1735. For purposes of distinctiveness we retain the obsolete spelling Ancient, whenever we use the word in a technical sense, as referring to Dermott's Grand Lodge." This practice we have followed in the revision of the present work.

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ANCIENT AND PRIMITIVE RITE OF FREEMASONRY, OTHERWISE OF MEMPHIS
ANCIENT AND PRIMITIVE RITE

This rite claims a derivation from Egypt, and an organization from the High Grades which had entered Egypt before the arrival of the French Army, and it has been asserted that Napoleon and Kleber were invested with a ring at the hands of an Egyptian sage at the pyramid of Cheops. However that may be, in 1814 the Disciples of Memphis were constituted as a Grand Lodge at Montauban in France by Gabriel Mathieu Marconis and others, being an incorporation of the various rites worked in the previous century and especially of the Primitive Rite of Philadelphes of Narbonne, which see. In the political troubles that followed in France the Lodge of the Disciples of Memphis was put to sleep on March 7, 1816, and remained at rest until July 7, 1838, when Jacques Etienne or James Stephen Marconis was elected Grand Hierophant and arranged the documents, which the Rite then possessed, into ninety degrees.

The first Assembly of this Supreme Power was held on September 25, 1838, and proclaimed on October 5 following. The father of the new Grand Hierophant seems, to have been living and to have sanctioned the proceedings. Lodges were established in Paris and Brussels until the government of France forbade the meetings in 1841; however, in 1848 work was resumed and the Rite spread to Roumania, Egypt, a America, and elsewhere.

In 1862 J. E. Marconis united the Rite with the Grand Orient of France, retaining apparently the rank of Grand Hierophant; and in 1865 a Concordat was executed between the two bodies by which the relative value of their different degrees was settled.

In 1872 a Sovereign Sanctuary of the Rite was established in England by some American members with Brother John Yarker as Grand Master General.

An official journal entitled The Kneph was at one time issued by the authority of the Sovereign Sanctuary, from which we learn that the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Freemasonry is ''universal and open to every Master Mason who is in good standing under some constitutional Grand Lodge, and teaches the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man."

The degrees of the Rite are ninety-five in number, starting with the three Craft degrees, and divided into three series, and appear to have been rearranged and renamed at various times.

*

ANCIENT

See Ancient

*

ANTILLES, LESSER

See Caribbee Islands

*

ANTI-MASONIC BOOKS

There is no country of the civilized world where Freemasonry has existed, in which opposition to it has not, from time to time, exhibited itself ; although it has always been overcome by the purity and innocence of the Institution. The Roman Catholic religion has always been anti Masonic, and hence edicts have constantly been promulgated by popes and sovereigns in Roman Catholic countries against the Order. The most important of these edicts is the Bull of Pope Clement XII, which was issued on the 24th of April, 1738, the authority of which Bull is still in existence, and forbids any pious Catholic from uniting with a Masonic Lodge, under the severest penalties of ecclesiastical excommunication.

In the United States, where there are neither popes to issue Bulls nor kings to promulgate edicts, the opposition to Freemasonry had to take the form of a political party. Such a party was organized in the United States in the year 1826, soon after the disappearance of one William Morgan. The object of this party was professedly to put down the Masonic Institution as subversive of good government, but really for the political aggrandizement of its leaders, who used the opposition to Freemasonry merely as a stepping-stone to their own advancement to office.
But the public virtue of the masses of the American people repudiated a party which was based on such corrupt and mercenary views, and its ephemeral existence was followed by a total annihilation.

When the above attempt to destroy Freemasonry had spent its force and vanished, there came in its wake another enemy born of a conference held in October, 1867, at Aurora, Illinois. As a result of this meeting a convention of opponents to secret societies of all sorts assembled at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in May, 1868, when the National Association of Christians Opposed to Secret Societies was organized.

This body was incorporated under an Illinois charter in 1874 as the National Christian Association and has maintained headquarters in Chicago where a magazine, Christian Cynosure, founded in 1868, has been published. The organization has erected a monument to William Morgan in Batavia, New York, and "holds that the Lodge system denies Christ and worships Satan."

A society which has been deemed of so much importance as to be the victim of many persecutions, must needs have had its enemies in the press. It was too good an Institution not to be abused. Accordingly, Freemasonry had no sooner taken its commanding position as one of the teachers of the world, than a host of adversaries sprang up to malign its character and to misrepresent its objects. Hence, in the catalogue of a Masonic library, the anti-Masonic books will form no small part of the collection.

Anti-Masonic works may very properly be divided into two classes:

1. Those written simply for the purposes of abuse, in which the character and objects of the Institution are misrepresented.

2. Those written for the avowed purpose of revealings its ritual and esoteric doctrines. The former of these c1asses is always instigated by malignity, the latter by mean cupidity. The former class alone comes strictly within the category of anti Masonic books, although the two classes are often confounded; the attack on the principles of Freemasonry being sometimes accompanied with a pretended revelation of its mysteries, and, on the other hand, the pseudo-revelations are not unfrequently enriched by the most liberal abuse of the Institution.

The earliest authentic work which contains anything in opposition to Freemasonry is The Natural History of Staffordshire, by Robert Plot, which was printed at Oxford in the year 1686. It is only in one particular part of the work that Doctor Plot makes any invidious remarks against the Institution. We should freely forgive him for what he has said against it, when we know that his recognition of the existence, in the seventeenth century, of a society which was already of so much importance that he was compelled to acknowledge that he had "found persons of the most eminent quality that did not disdain to be of this fellowship," gives the most ample refutation of those writers who assert that no traces of the Masonic Institution are to be found before the beginning of the eighteenth century. A triumphant reply to the attack of Doctor Plot is to be found in the third volume of Oliver's Golden Remains of the Early Masonic Writers.

A still more virulent attack on the Order was made in 1730, by Samuel Prichard, which he entitled Masonry dissected, being an universal and genuine description of all its branches from the original to the present time. Toward the end of the year a reply was issued entitled A Defense of Masonry, occasioned by a pamphlet called Masonry Dissected. This was published anonymously, but the fact has recently been established that its author was Martin Clare, A. M., F. R.S., a schoolmaster of London, who was a prominent Freemason from 1734 to 1749 (see Ars Quatuor Coronatorum iv, pages 33--il). No copy of this Defense is known to exist, but it was reproduced in the Free Masons Pocket Companion for 1738, and in the second edition of the Book of Constitutions, which was published in the same year.

The above work is a learned production, well worth perusal for the information that it gives in reference to the sacred rites of the ancients, independent of its polemic character. About this time the English press was inundated by pretended revelations of the Masonic mysteries, published under the queerest titles, such as Jachin and Boaz; An authentic key to the door of Freemasonry, both Ancient and Modern published in 1762, Hiram, or the Grand Master Key to both Ancient and Modern Freemasonry, which appeared in 1764. The Three Distinct Knocks, published in 1760, and a host of others of a similar character, which were, however, rather intended, by ministering to a morbid and unlawful curiosity, to put money into the purses of their compilers, than to gratify any vindictive feelings against the Institution.

Some, however, of these works were amiable neither in their inception nor in their execution, and appear to have been dictated by a spirit that may be characterized as being anything else except Christian. Thus, in the year 1768, a sermon was preached, we may suppose, but certainly published, at London, with the following ominous title : Masonry the Way to Hell; a Sermon wherein is clearly proved, both from Reason and Scripture, that all who profess the Mysteries are in a State of Damnation. This sermon appears to have been a favorite with the ascetics, for in less than two years it was translated into French and German.

But, on the other hand, it gave offense to the liberal minded, and many replies to it were written and published, among which was one entitled Masonry the Turnpike-Road to Happiness in this Life, and Eternal Happiness Hereafter, which also found its translation into German.

In 1797 appeared the notorious work of John Robinson, entitled Proofs of a Conspiracy against all the Religions and Governments of Europe, carried on in the secret meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati, and Reading Societies. Robinson was a gentleman and a scholar of some repute, a professor of natural philosophy, and Secretary of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

Hence, although his theory is based on false premise and his reasoning fallacious and illogical, his language is more decorous and his sentiments less malignant than generally characterize the writers of anti-Masonic books.

A contemporary critic in the Monthly Review (volume xxv, page 315) thus correctly estimates the value of Robinson's work: "On the present occasion," says the reviewer, "we acknowledge that we have felt something like regret that a lecturer in natural philosophy, of whom his country is so justly proud, should produce any work of literature by which his high character for knowledge and for judgment is liable to be at all depreciated." Robinson's book owes its preservation at this day from the destruction of time only to the permanency and importance of the Institution which it sought to destroy. Freemasonry, which it vilified, has alone saved it from the tomb of the Capulets.

This work closed the labors of the anti-Masonic press in England. No work of any importance abusive of the Institution has appeared in that country since the attack of Robinson. The manuals of Richard Carlile and the theologico-astronomical sermons of the Rev. Robert Taylor are the productions of men who do not profess to be the enemies of the Order, but who have sought, by their peculiar views, to give to Freemasonry an origin, a design, and an interpretation different from that which is received as the general sense of the Fraternity. The works of these writers, although erroneous, are not hurtful.

The French press was prolific in the production of anti-Masonic publications. Commencing with La Grande Lumare or The Great Light, which was published at Paris, in 1734, soon after the modern introduction of Freemasonry into France, but brief intervals elap8ed without the appearance of some work adverse to the Masonic Institution. But the most important of these was certainly the ponderous escort of the Abbé Barruel, published in four volumes, in 1797, under the title of Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire du Jacobinisme, or Memorials to serve for a history of Jacobinism.

The French Revolution was at the time an accomplished fact. The Bourbons had passed away, and Barruel, as a priest and a royalist, was indignant at the change, and, in the bitterness of his rage, he charged the whole inception and success of the political movement to the machinations of the Freemasons, whose Lodges, he asserted, were only Jacobinical clubs.

The general scope of his argument was the same as that which was pursued by Professor Robinson ; but while both were false in their facts and fallacious in their reasoning, the Scotchman was calm and dispassionate, while the Frenchman was vehement and abusive. No work, perhaps, was ever printed which contains so many deliberate mis-statements as disgrace the pages of Barruel. Unfortunately, the work was, soon after its appearance, translated into English. It is still to be found on the shelves of Masonic students and curious work collectors, as a singular specimen of the extent of folly and falsehood to which one may be led by the influences of bitter party prejudices.

The anti-Masonic writings of Italy and Spain have, with the exception of a few translations from French and English authors, consisted only of bulls issued by popes and edicts pronounced by the Inquisition. The anti-Freemasons of those countries had it all their own way, and, scarcely descending to argument or even to abuse, contented themselves with practical persecution. In Germany, the attacks on Freemasonry were less frequent than in England or France. Still there were a some, and among them may be mentioned one whose very title would leave no room to doubt of its anti-Masonic character.

It is entitled Beweiss dass die Freimaurer-Gesellschaft in allen Staaten, u, s. w., that is, Proofs that the Society of Freemasons is in every country not only useless, but, if not restricted, dangerous, and ought to be interdicted. This work was published at Dantzic, in 1764, and was intended as a defense of the decree of the Council of Dantzic against the Order.

The Germans, however, have produced no such ponderous works in behalf of anti-Masonry as the capacious volumes of Barruel and Robinson. The attacks on the Order in that country have principally been by pamphleteers.

In the United States anti-Masonic writings were scarcely known until they sprung out of the Morgan excitement in 1826. The disappearance and alleged abduction of this individual gave birth to a bitterly spiteful opposition to Freemasonry, and the country was soon flooded with anti-Masonic works. Most of these were, however, merely pamphlets, which had a only a brief existence and have long since been consigned to the service of the trunk-makers or suffered a literary change in the paper-mill.

Two only are worthy, from their size (their only qualification), for a place in a Masonic catalogue. The first of these is entitled Letters on Masonry and Anti-Masonry, addressed to the Hon. John Quincy Adams. The author was William L. Stone. This work, which was published at New York in 1832, is a large octavo of 556 pages.
The work of Stone, it must be acknowledged, is not abusive. If his arguments are illogical, they are at least conducted without malignity. If his statements are false, his language is decorous. He was himself a member of the Craft, and he has been compelled, by the force of truth, to make many admissions which are favorable to the Order. The book was evidently Written for a political purpose, and to advance the interests of the anti-Masonic party. It presents, therefore, nothing but partisan views, and those, too, almost entirely of a local character, having reference a only to the conduct of the Institution as exhibited in what is called the Morgan affair.

Freemasonry, according to Stone, should be suppressed because a few of its members are supposed to have violated the laws in a village of the State of New York. As well might the vices of the Christians of Corinth have suggested to a contemporary of St. Paul the propriety of suppressing Christianity.

The next anti-Masonic work of any prominence published in the United States is also in the epistolary style, and is entitled Letters on the Masonic Institution.

These letters were written by John Quincy Adams.

The book is an octavo of 284 pages, and was published at Boston in 1847. Adams, whose eminent public services have made his life a part of the history of his country, has very properly been described as "a man of strong points and weak ones, of vast reading and wonderful memory, of great credulity and strong prejudice."

In the latter years of his life, Adams became notorious for his virulent opposition to Freemasonry. Deceived and excited by the misrepresentations of the anti-Freemasons, he united himself with that party, and threw all his vast energies and abilities into the political contests then waging. The result was this series of letters, abusive of the Masonic Institution, which he directed to leading politicians of the country, and which were published in the public journals from 1831 to 1833. These letters, which are utterly unworthy of the genius, learning, and eloquence of the author, display a most egregious ignorance of the whole design and character of the Masonic Institution. The "oath'' and "the murder of Morgan" are the two bugbears which seem continually to float before the excited vision of the writer, and on these alone he dwells from the first page to the last.

Except the letters of Stone and Adams, there is hardly another anti-Masonic book published in America that can go beyond the literary dignity of a respectably sized pamphlet.
A compilation of anti-Masonic documents was published at Boston, in 1830, by James C. Odiorne, who has thus in part preserved for future reference the best of a bad class of writings.

In 1831 Henry Gassett, of Boston, a most virulent anti-Freemason, distributed, at his own expense, a great number of anti-Masonic books, which had been published during the Morgan excitement, to the principal libraries of the United States, on whose shelves they are probably now lying covered with dust. That the memory of his deed might not altogether be lost, he published a catalogue of these donations in 1852, to which he has prefixed an attack on Freemasonry.

 

ANTI-MASONIC PARTY

A party organized in the United States of America soon after the commencement of the Morgan excitement, professedly, to put down the Masonic Institution as subversive of good government, but really for the political aggrandizement of its leaders, who used the opposition to Freemasonry merely as a stepping-stone to their own advancement to office.

The party held several conventions; endeavored, sometimes successfully, but oftener unsuccessfully, to enlist prominent statesmen in its ranks, and finally, a 1831, nominated William Wirt and Amos Ellmaker as its candidates for the Presidency and the Vice-Presidency of the United States. Each of these gentlemen received but seven votes, being the whole electoral vote of Vermont, a which was the only State that voted for them.

So signal a defeat was this publicly expressed national estimate of the party, that in the year 1833 it quietly withdrew from public notice, and now is happily no longer in existence.

William L. Stone, the historian of anti-Freemasonry, has with commendable impartiality expressed his opinion of the character of this party, when he says that "the fact is not to be disguised-contradicted it cannot be--that anti-Masonry had become thoroughly political, and its spirit was vindictive towards the Freemasons without distinction as to guilt or innocence" (see his Letters on Masonry and Anti-Masonry, chapter xxxviii, page 418).

Notwithstanding the opposition that from time to time has been exhibited to Freemasonry in every country, America is the only one where it assumed the form of a political party-. This, however, may very justly be attributed to the peculiar nature of its popular institutions. Here the ballot-box is considered the most potent engine for the government of rulers as well as people, and is, therefore, resorted to in cases a in which, in more despotic governments, the powers of the Church and State would be exercised. Hence, the anti-Masonic convention held at Philadelphia, in 1830, did not hesitate to make the following declaration as the cardinal principle of the parties
"The object of anti-Masonry, in nominating and electing candidates for the Presidency and Vice-Presidency, is to deprive Masonry of the support which it derives from the power and patronage of the executive branch of the United States Government.

To effect this object, will require that candidates besides possessing the talents and virtues requisite for such exalted stations, be known as men decidedly opposed to secret societies." This issue having been thus boldly made was accepted by the people ; and as principles like these were fundamentally opposed to all the ideas of liberty, personal and political, into which the citizens of the country had been indoctrinated, the battle was made, and the anti-Masonic party was not only defeated for the time, but forever annihilated.

For those who desire a further study of this interesting topic, they may refer to the Anti-Masonic Party: A Study of Political Anti-Masonry in the United States, 1827-40, by Charles McCarthy, also contained in the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 1902 (volume1, pages 365-574) ; Miscellany of the Masonic Historical Society of the State of New York, 1902 ;
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of New York, 1920 (pages 128--45) ; Mackey's revised History of Freemasonry (volume vii, pages 2039-60).

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ANTI-MASONRY

Opposition to Freemasonry. There is no country in which Freemasonry has ever existed in which this opposition has not from time to time exhibited itself ; although, in general, it has been overcome by the purity and innocence of the Institution.

The earliest opposition by a government, of which we have any record, is that of 1425, in the third year of the reign of Henry VI, of England, when the Masons were forbidden to confederate in Chapters and Congregations. This law was, however, never executed.

Since that period, Freemasonry has met with no permanent opposition in England. The Roman Catholic religion has always been anti-Masonic, and hence edicts have always existed in the Roman Catholic countries against the Order.

But the anti-Freemasonry which has had a practical effect in inducing the Church or the State to interfere with the Institution, and endeavor to suppress it, will come more properly under the head of Persecutions, to which the reader is referred.

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ANCIENT AND MODERNS

The article which begins at page 75 was written before the publication of some 200 or so Histories and Minute Books of old British and American Lodges, and before the special researches inspired by Henry Sadler's Masonic Facts and Fictions bad uncovered the detailed history of the Ancient Grand Lodge.

In London, 1717, the first Grand Lodge of Speculative Freemasonry was formed by four old Lodges, and possibly with the support or consent of a number of unrepresented Lodges. It was tentative, experimental, had no precedent to guide it ; at the beginning it consisted of little more than a Grand Master with two Wardens to assist him, and claimed jurisdiction only over such Lodges as might unite with it in an area covering a radius of ten miles from the center of London. As it prospered it warranted (officially approved) Lodges outside of that area and in other countries, and in about twenty years set up a system of Provincial Grand Lodges throughout England

There was at the time no doctrine of Exclusive Territorial Jurisdiction. A small Grand Lodge at York was not challenged. A Grand Lodge was formed by Lodges in Ireland in 1725; and in Scotland in 1736. If self-constituted Lodges of regular Masons did not unite with the Grand Lodge at London, it did not outlaw them (they were called St. John's Lodges) but permitted visitation between them and its own Lodges.

Freemasonry had been very popular in Ireland, even before its Grand Lodge of 1725; after 1725 Lodges sprang up in almost every Irish village. Many Englishmen lived in Dublin ("Dublin was almost an English city") and many families of English origin lived here and there in the Island, especially in North Ireland. It was commonplace for Irish, and for Anglo-Irish, to move to England, to enter business and the professions there, to attend school, etc. ; during the food famines this number was greatly increased.

Among these (and the Irish were not "foreigners" but British!) were a large number of Masons ; among these latter a majority were in retail business, or were carpenters, plumbers, painters, brick-layers, machinists, and in other so-called "trades." But when these Irish residents or citizens of London who were members in regular Irish Lodges came to visit Lodges in London or to dimit to them, they were turned away, were snubbed, were looked down on because by that time (in the 1730's) the Grand Lodge had become a fief of the Nobility, and its Lodges had become exclusive and snobbish. A carpenter or a mason or a house painter might be a member in good standing in a regular Irish Lodge, but he was not deemed worthy to sit among English "gentlemen." the Irish Masons held meetings among themselves, consulted the Grand Lodge of Ireland, set up a Grand Committee in the 1740's, and in 1751 turned this Committee into a regular Grand Lodge. This action was strictly in accordance with the Ancient Landmarks.

In the meantime many exposés had been published in London, and clandestine "Masons" pestered regular Lodges; and a certain amount of Anti-Masonry became active. To circumvent these clandestines the Grand Lodge shifted the Modes of Recognition from one Degree to another, and made other changes about which little is known in detail. It also discontinued the Ceremony of Installation of the Master, thereby reducing him to the status of a mere presiding officer with no inherent powers. These alterations in things that ought not to be altered aroused resentment among a large number of Lodges. As time progressed, and as Lodge Histories make clear, an increasing number of Lodges ceased to be Lodges and became convivial clubs-some of them very expensive clubs. By 1750 the Grand Lodge had thus departed a long way from the original design. In the cant language of the time it had "modernized" itself ; and it came to be for that reason dubbed "the Modern Grand Lodge." the members of the new Grand Lodge of 1751 on the other band insisted on retaining the work and customs of the beginning, and because they did so declared themselves a Grand Lodge according to "the Ancient Institutions," and hence were called "Ancient Masons."

Because of this, a number of Modern Lodges took out Ancient Charters, a number of St. John Lodges took out Charters for the first time, and many new Lodges were warranted by it. Also, the new Grand Lodge conferred the Royal Arch, issued Ambulatory warrants to army Lodges, and it had the good fortune to have Laurence Dermott for Grand Secretary, of whom Gould was to say that "without erring on the side of panegyric" "he was the most remarkable Mason of that time." There was in reality no need for this new Grand Lodge; had the Modern Grand Lodge been a genuinely representative Body instead of a governing club of aristocrats, had , its Grand Master been accessible to the Lodges, and had both "parties" sat down in friendly discussion as they were to do after 1800, the whole Craft could have been made as strong and as united in 1750 as it was to become in 1850; but since it was not thus done, any Masonic historian must admit that the Ancient Grand Lodge was the salvation of the Craft, and (comparatively speaking) a great blessing to Freemasonry everywhere.

Mackey in his seven-volume history, and writing before Sadler and Crawley, was inclined to believe that the Ancient grew out of discontent, and a mood of rebellion. Gould, Hughan, Lane, etc., went farther : they condemned it in toto. In his History and in his concise History Gould blasted the whole of Ancient Masonry, and throughout his life insisted on calling them "Schismatics" ; as also did a line of Masonic writers who followed him.

1. If a number of the Officers and members of the Grand Lodge of 1717 had quarreled with the rest, had seceded, and then had set up a rival Grand Body claiming to possess the original authority, such a Grand Body would have been schismatic. (Preston's second Lodge of Antiquity, three or four Grand Lodges in the State of New York a century later, and the Wigan Grand Lodge, etc., these were in a true sense schismatic.) This did not occur; what did occur was not only unlike a schism but in principle was the opposite of one ; the regular Masons, Irish and English, who erected their 1751 Grand Lodge were seeking to have a Masonic home, and were doing so because the 1717 Grand Lodge had , violated the first great Landmark when it refused them a home.

2. Since the Doctrine of Grand Lodge Exclusive Territorial Jurisdiction was not yet adopted, the new Grand Lodge did not violate the law. the 1717 Grand Lodge itself had made no claim to exclusive jurisdiction, but had fraternized with the Grand Lodge of All England at York.

3. The new Grand Lodge of 1751 was guilty of no innovations of the ancient secrets, or of Ritual, or of practice ; on the contrary it was the 1717 Grand Lodge that was guilty (and self-confessedly so) of innovations.

4. The 1717 Grand Lodge was distressed to have a rival in the field, and a vigorous one, but even it, except sporadically, did not condemn Ancient Lodges as clandestine. Members under both Grand Lodges visited and shifted back and forth, often with no more ceremony than to take a second OB ; no court action was taken ; nobody accused the Ancient of using a spurious Ritual ; in Canada and America both Lodges worked side by side.

5. The Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland, who were in a position to know the Ancient at first hand, and could speak with more authority than could. Gould, Hughan, or Mackey a century later, both recognized the Ancient, and for some years neither recognized the Moderns; in their eyes it was the Modern, not the Ancient Body, that was "schismatic." Of Ireland Crawley wrote (in A.Q.C.; VIII; p. 81) : "Indeed, the Grand Lodge of Ireland, all modern assertions to the contrary notwithstanding, seems never to have been in fraternal intercourse with the Grand Lodge of the Moderns, after the rival organization of the Ancient had been established." Even before Sadler and Crawley had discovered and published the documents in the case the action taken by these two Grand Lodges was of itself sufficient to prove that the Ancient had never been "schismatic"--or irregular, or clandestine, or spurious.

6. For at least five centuries Freemasonry consisted wholly of working men. When they began to accept "gentlemen" into membership, the latter met upon the level to masons, smiths, carpenters, farmers. To meet upon To meet upon the level, to leave aristocratic privilege, prerogatives, titles, and snobbishness outside, was of the essence of Masonry, and ever was unanimously accepted as being such - the name "freemasonry" was almost anonymous with meeting upon the level. The 1717 Grand Lodge destroyed that ancient design Its Lodges could if they wished, shut the door on "the lower orders."The Earls of Moira. Grand Masters of the Ancient, were twitted by Modern Grand Officers because his Grand Secretary had been a house-painter.

This un-Masonic snobbishness, this denial of brotherliness, was the one great sin of the Moderns, and the one great justification of the Ancient; in comparison with that innovation, irregularities in ceremony were of secondary importance, for where there is no meeting on the Level there is no Freemasonry. This social cleavage inside of the Fraternity came to the surface and stood out in bold relief on this side of the Atlantic during the American Revolutionary period, and explains why so many Modern Lodges failed or shifted allegiance, and why the Ancient (especially in New York and Pennsylvania) swept the field ; Modern Lodges here were on the whole Tory, Royalist, Loyalist, aristocratic, pro-British ;Ancient Lodges were democratic, pro-Patriotic, as open to blacksmiths as to Royal Governors.

7. Until a recent period Masons found their knowledge of Masonic history in the general histories, the majority of which were chiefly histories of Grand Lodges, and therefore were long generalizations of nation-wide or world-wide events as seen from a Grand Lodge point of view; with the publication of some 200 or so Minutes and Histories of the oldest British, American, Canadian, and West Indian Lodges it has become possible to know what Freemasonry was in actual practice, locality by locality, month by month, from 1751 to 1813.

NOTE. Since "Ancient" was at the time, and by both Grand Lodges, adopted as technically correct that spelling is here used. Bro. Clegg used "Ancient" on page 75; but see paragraph at top of the left-hand column on page 83. - The Earl who was Grand Master of the Ancient in 1760-5 is spelled Blessington on page 77 ; Blesinton on page 140. The family itself spelled the name in a dozen forms but in a document still extant, and signed by him in a bold hand, the Earl himself spelled it Blesinton. Gould's History of Freemasonry spells it Blesington.

In addition to being called "Ancient" the Grand Lodge of I751 was often called "Atholl"-Gould's book on the Ancient Lodges is entitled Atholl Lodges.

This name came into use because a Duke of Atholl was Grand Master over so many years: John, third Duke of Atholl, from 1771 to 1775 ; John fourth Duke of Atholl from 1775 to 1782 and again from 179I to 1813. In Canada, and, later, often in the American Colonies, the Ancient Body was called York Masonry.

In the 1903 edition of his A Consise History of Freemasonry [Gale & Polden; London], Robert Freke Gould heads his Chapter VII "The Great Schism in English Masonry" ; on page 343 he describes Ancient Masons as "the seceders"; the whole burden of the chapter is that the 1751 Grand Body was born of a rebellion against the lawful authority of the Grand Lodge of 1717, and was therefore irregular and schismatic. After Gould had written his long History of Freemasonry Satdler and Crawley made their discoveries of written records, etc., which showed for the first time what the facts had been, and which proved that the Ancient had been neither Seceders nor Schismatics ; Gould had access to these facts but when be came to write his Concise History he ignored them, and did so against the urgent protestations of his friends and colleagues. In the 1920's Fred J. M. Crowe issued a new and revised Edition of the Concise History, and in it deleted Gould's chapter on the Ancient and replaced it by one written by himself.

In a private letter he wrote that he had performed this labor of love not so much because a new edition of the book was demanded, as that English Masonic scholars felt themselves misrepresented by the position taken by their "premier historian."

It was therefore naturally expected that when he came to revise Gould's History of Freemasonry(in six volumes ; Scribners'; 1936) Bro. Dudley Wright would, like Crowe, make sure to revise completely Gould's chapter on the Ancient; for some reason which has not been explained he did not do so. Chapter IV, Vol. II, page 145, begins : "The Minutes of that Schismatic body," etc. This failure in revision is regrettable to American readers because the Revised History elsewhere makes it clear that more than half of early American Masonry (before 1781) was derived from Ancient sources.

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ANTI-SEMITISM AND MASONRY

Freemasonry is neither anti-Semitic, nor pro-Semitic. The question lies outside of, and apart from, the Fraternity ; and ever has. It would therefore have no proper place in this or in any other Masonic book had it not been that during the period between World War I and world war II the ruling parties, or governments, or both of Spain, France, Italy, and Germany forced the question on the Fraternity's attention. To understand why and how that was done a number of facts from the past are required :

1. Ever since the end of the Israelites Period of their history Jews have mingled with and joined with and lived peaceably with a number of Gentile peoples : the Arabs, Syrians, Persians, Ethiopians, Egyptians, Turks, Armenians, and a number of peoples in North Africa, etc. The fact proves that there is no necessary, conflict between jews and Gentiles, or between Gentiles and Jews. The question arises : where, how, and why did anti-Semitism arise? The answer is set forth in the next paragraph :

2. "In the Island of Corfu also the bells are mute, and the clocks are stopped the last days of Holy Week, but at 11 A. M. on the Saturday morning the whole town seems to have gone mad. All of a sudden a most fearful noise and Babel of sounds ensues, bells ring their loudest, and crockery is thrown out of the windows. . . . With regard to throwing crockery down into the street . . . she is a happy woman who can contrive to hit a Jew with one of her fragments. . . . Both those who fire off guns, and the smashers of old crockery, give us their reason for doing so that their intention is to kill the arch-traitor, Judas Iscariot!" This is quoted from page 196, of Symbolism of the East and West, by Mrs. Harriet Murray-Aynsley; London ; George Redway ;'1900. (She contributed papers to Quatuor Coronati Lodge.) Working, every-day anti Semitism, in its popular, down-on-the-street form, had a theological origin.

When that peculiar religion of Sacerdotalism, called Medieval Catholicism, was set up after Charlemagne had broken away from Constantinople, its theologians in the headquarters at the Vatican laid it down as one of the corner-stones the doctrine called, in its official form, extra ecclesiam nulla salus; "outside the Church there is no salvation"; and this ecclesiam carried on vigorous proselyting in every country it could reach, even in the Near East. Long before this time Judaism already had laid down a similar cornerstone for itself: "Outside the Covenant is no salvation"; only to the circumcised "were the promises made"; and Jews vigorously proselyted in every avialable country-the Pharisees "compassed sea and land to make one proselyte," but so did every synagogue. When these two proselyting religions, both exclusive, met in western Europe, conflict was inevitable; and since the Catholic Church won out, Jews were looked down on less as religious rivals than as a conquered people. There is no evidence that Medieval Masons, as Masons , ever took part in anti-Semitism, but it is very probable that the charge to apprentism that they "be true to Holy Church" (which in most instances was the Church of England, not the Roman Church) aimed at excluding Jews from the craft. A certain German called Hermann Goedsche had seen Some of the crude Anti-Semitic brawls on Holy Days of the type described by Mrs. Murray-Aynsley.

He had been discharged from the Secret Police for forgery. To get even with the German Socialists and their half-Jewish leader, Karl Marx, on whom he laid the blame for his troubles, Goedsche wrote a series of stories in the style of historical romance which he palmed off under the English pseudonym, "Sir John Ratcliff" In one chapter two of his characters are supposed to overhear the "Elect of Israel," under the headship of the "Holy Rabbi," in a meeting held only once a century, discuss the age-old plot they were fostering to overthrow the whole of Christian Europe.
Out of this tawdry stuff was formed the forged, famous "Protocols of the Elders of Zion," of which so much use was made by the Pan-Germans under Treitschke and Stocker before World War I, and by Ludendorf after it.

At first these "Protocols," printed in broadsheets by the millions, were used to stir up fear and hatred of Jews in Germany. They were then re-issued, somewhat revised, and directed at England to stir up hatred of the English. In Russia the "Protocols" were used to back up charges against the Jews for "ritual murders." It is said that Alfred Rosenberg, "the Black Balt," who helped write Mein Kampf, and was Hitler's official philosopher, came upon his first copy of the "Protocols" in Russia. He, Hitler, and Goebbels together gave the document a new twist, and by that means linked it to Freemasonry, alleging that Freemasonry was nothing but the vehicle of the Elders of Zion; and this was made large use of by Fascists in both Italy and France. Even in England this madness took hold, and burst into the open when the Morning Post, as conservative a newspaper as The New York Times, published under the head of "The Cause of World Unrest" seventeen articles in sixty or so columns of print, and the London Times almost followed suit. English Freemasonry had never had any known or conceivable connection with Judaism, but these monstrously ignorant articles attacked the two as if they were one thing.

Arthur Edward Waite published a conclusive reply but did not reach a large public. The effectual reply was written by Lucien Wolf, a colleague of Bro. Sir Alfred Robbins, who used the columns of the Manchester Guardian, Spectator, and Daily Telegraph.

This masterpiece of polemics was published in book form (53 pages) entitled The Myth of the Jewish Menace in World Affairs (The Macmillan Co. ; New York; 1921). When World war II came, Nazis, Beckists, Iron Guardsmen, Fascists, Phalangists, and Vichyites attacked not Judaism nor Freemasonry but a hyphenated monstrosity which they called Judaeo-Masonry; so that in spite of itself, and manage two whole centuries of keeping out of politics and aloof from controversy, English-speaking Freemasonry was dragged into the very focus of world-affairs; and European Masonry, which was not clear of political involvement, was obliterated. The Protocol of Zion fraud did not take hold in the United States, but it may be that the end is not yet, because the fraud already is proved to possess a salamarider's longevity. (See article on LUDENDORF, etc.)
Shakespeare's "Merchant of Venice" has long been a document in the history of Anti-Semitism, but it has not been until modem Shakespearean scholarship cleared up the provenance of the play that its true significance could be understood. Until near the end of the Middle Ages the lending of money on interest (securities were permitted if of no greater value than the loan) was forbidden by the Church as a mortal sin, and by the State as illegal. The Jews had no such rule in their religion, and could therefore lend money when governments permitted or ignored them-Tudor kings hid behind the feudal fiction that the persons of Jews were their private property, and they protected them as such.

This dike was broken, first, when Knights Templar began to make loans on interest (they were virtually state bankers) ; and, second, when Christians from one of the provinces of France appeared in London as money lenders. Such persecutions of the Jews as had occurred before these two developments had some justification on the grounds that money lending was a sin and a crime. When Christians began to lend money these grounds of persecution were removed; from then on any persecution was directed at the Jew solely as Jew. This is the point of Shakespeare's play. In an anti-Semitic wave which swept London at the end of the Sixteenth Century Queen Elizabeth's personal physician, Dr. Lopez, a Spanish Jew, was hanged at Tyburn in 1594. It was in the midst of that uproar that Shakespeare wrote and produced "The Merchant of Venice" ; the Shylock in it is no longer the anti-Christian or the criminal usurer, but is the Jew. (See page 139 OE. of Mr. Shakespeare of the Globe, by Frayne Williams; E. P.Dutton & Co. ; New York; 1941.)
In his Jews and Masonry Before 1810 Samuel Oppenheim (not a Mason) has chapters on Hayes, Saxas, da Costa, David Bush; his findings were that Jewish Masons were no larger in number than their proportion to the Jewish population; and that most of the Jewish Masons of the period were either Spanish or French.

The Rothschild family of France contributed members to the Craft, but did not take any position of leadership. Baron Nathan Mayer Rothschild was initiated in Emulation Lodge, No. 12, October 24, 1802, in London ; he had been born in Vienna in 1777.

There is no record of an exclusively Jewish Lodge in England ; there are many in the United States. Discrimination by Masons against Jews in Germany began as early as 1742; as late as 1940 three-fifths of the German Lodges excluded them.

(See The Jew in Freemasonry, by Dudley Wright.) In his history of the Riom trial, Pierre Cot, a minister of the French government under Leon Blum, says that in the many Fascist circles before World War II their writers and speakers were under instruction always to call the Republic "the Judaeo-Masonic Government." (See also Jews in a Gentile World; The Problem of Anti-Semitism,'edited by Isaque Graeber and Steuart Henderson Butt, a symposium by a number of authors ;Macmillan & Co.; New York; 1942. Books of this type are needed on anti-Gentilism, because the record of Jewish persecutions of Gentiles is a long one and they have sometimes been carried out with unspeakable cruelty; the Old Testament itself is in some chapters obviously anti-Gentile.

when the Soviet Government broke down the "pale" in southwestern Russia, in which Jews had been segregated so long, in order to give them a country of their own and equal rights, the officials in charge, of whom the majority were themselves Jews, reported to Moscow that anti- Gentilism obstructed them more than anti-Semitism Since Jewish newspapers and books and sermon preached by the Rabbis cannot be read by Gentiles the latter seldom know the extent of anti-Gentilism in Jewish communities, in ghettoes, and in segregation even in small towns. Anti-Gentilism and anti-Semitism are two halves of one problem.)

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ANTOINE, ORLLIE

Ever since the invention of writing the race of authors has had a share of individualities, eccentrics, wild men and madmen as much as any other art or calling; the tribe of Masonic authors, one must fear, has had more than its share but it is doubtful if among them there ever has been a more incredible man than the Frenchman, Orllie Antoine. This impossible man was born on May 12, 1825, in the Department of Périgeux, not many miles from Bordeaux. He grew up a tall young man with a French beard and a wild light in his eyes, and studied law. But instead of practicing that respectable profession he devoured travel books by the hundred, and therein was his undoing because he decided to become an adventurer. In 1858 he took to himself the title of Prince de Tounens, crossed over to Southampton, and from there took ship for South America.
The southern third of Argentina and Chile was at that time occupied by some fifteen or twenty Indian peoples, untouched by the White man, among whom the most powerful were the Araucanians, a warrior folk somewhat like our own Apaches, and famous for the fierceness of their battles; Charles Darwin accused them of being cannibals (but erroneously).

This people, along with a number of their neighbor peoples, long had a legend that some day a white man would come, and would be their leader and paramount king, and would sweep the Spanish invaders out of the land. Orllie had read about this in a book, and he set out to be that white man; indeed, while still on the boat he crowned himself King of the Araucanians with the title of Antoine l e, and drew up a very detailed code of laws by which he intended to govern the tribes whom he had never seen, in a country of whose location he was ignorant.
He succeeded in his amazing coup ! By 1860 he was sending from the central fortress of his chiefs heavily ribboned documents to "neighboring chiefs of state" in Chile and Argentina. His official title was "King of Araucania and Patagonia." For a narrative of the adventures and excitements of his reign a reader must consult the history books of South America, because there were too many of them to be crowded into a paragraph.

During one period he was captured by the Chileans, thrown into a prison at Santiago, was rescued by a French consul, and returned to France. For six years he made his living as a journalist in Paris, but in spare time continued in the campaign for a "French empire" in Patagonia which resulted finally in his being returned to Patagonia in a French warship. It was in that period, probably, that Orllie became a Mason.

In 1865 the Pope excommunicated Freemasons in France. As soon as Orllie discovered his own name in the blacklist he appealed to the Vatican, but without success. To prove that he was not an atheist, as the Pope had alleged that every Mason was, he composed a book of Masonic prayers and published it. The title (translated) was Masonic Prayers, by the Prince O. A. De Tounens, King of Araucania and Patagonia; it contained thirty-two prayers, and sold for twenty-five centimes.

He died in 1878. His rightful and legitimate title (far more legitimate than half the crowns in Europe) he bequeathed to his heirs. It never became operative again because the Christian soldiers of Chile and Argentina massacred the Indian peoples and left nobody to govern.

NOTE, Orllie Antoine was in no sense a crank or a fanatic but a cultivated, intelligent man who made friends and supporters among the first men of France. His memoirs possess the genuine sparkle of literature, and would make somebody's fortune if they were turned into a biography in English. For a brief epitome, written on the spot where Orllie once reigned, see chapter in This Way South-ward, by A. F. Tschiffely; W. W. Norton & Co. ; 1940. The same writer was author of Tschiflely'a Ride, an account of a famous journey on horse-back from Patagonia to Washington, D. C.

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ARCHEOLOGY AND FREEMASONRY

Archeology underwent at about the turn of the century a transformation which turned it from an almost esoteric specialty or hobby, engaged in by a small number of experts, into a large and ever-expanding profession which has covered the world with a network of activities, and is about to take its place alongside history and literature as one of the subjects for every well-read man to know. This transformation came about when a number of very highly specialized sciences and forms of research found in it a center and a meeting place. In consequence, archeology is now being carried on by a combined corps of specialists or experts in philology, in the history of art, in geology in paleontology, in philology, in ethnology, in chemistry, in geography, of experts on documents, of symbologists, of specialists in ethnic literatures, and of technologists who manage and carry on the work of expeditions, explorations, and excavations.

The public is not yet aware of the immensity of the findings, or to what an extent those findings are already effecting fundamental revisions in the writing of political, religions, and social history. Archeology has not absorbed antiquarianism on the one hand, nor historical research on the other, but it has become so dove-tailed into both that it is impossible to draw sharp boundaries between them. Masonic research under a have debt to this new archeology ;especially is so, when antiquarian and historical research are added to it. In it Masonic students possess new bodies of facts which belong to their own field.

Among these are such as: masses of data about the Ancient Mysteries in general and about Mithraism in particular; about the Collegia; about the origins of the gild system ; about the beginnings of European architecture; about the documents, customs, and practices of the earliest stages of Freemasonry; about the earliest Medieval social and cultural system in which the earliest Freemasonry was molded; about the arts, the engineering, and the mathematics of the period when Freemasonry began ; and about rites, societies, symbols, etc., which aliterate Freemasonry or were in action in other parts of the World ; about the Crusades ; and about the earliest present time larger part of the findings of archeology are in the form of reports of archeological societies or expeditions, in archeological journals, and in brochures and treatises not often found in bookstores. Only a small portion of this material has any bearing on the origin and history of Freemasonry ; but that portion is decisive for many questions and in the future must be included among the sources for Masonic history and research.

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ARCHITECT AND MASTER OF MASONS

Medieval Freemasons were organized as a body when employed on a cathedral, a castle, an abbey, or any other large building. This body, or Lodge, though its own officers were members of it, and though it as a body made many decisions, was not a soviet, or commune, nor was it a "democratic" body working through committees, but it worked under and was sworn to obey a chief officer, or Master of Masons (called by a number of titles). This Master of Masons, however, was not an architect, but rather was a superintendent ; the making of plans and specifications was done by the Lodge itself, and in many places it had a separate room or building for that purpose.

In the course of time, however, the development of architectural practices brought about a divorce between the making of plans, designs, and specifications, and the carrying on of the daily work called for by the plans. The modem office of architect came into use.

This architect might have his own quarters at a distance from the building; he need not be a member of the Craft ; after he had made the drawings, models, and plans, the Craftsmen were then to carry them out under a Master who had become merely a superintendent of workmen. It is impossible to mark the new system with a date but the beginning of the office of architect as a profession may be signalized (in England) by the career of Inigo Jones (z.d) This transition to an entirely new basis for the art was essentially brought about by an intellectual advance, which can be best described briefly by comparing it with a similar revolution more than 2,000 years before. In Egypt many trained workmen were employed by the state or by cities to do surveying, to measure the water allotments for irrigation, to lay off building sites, etc. This called for geometry, and especially for trigonometry ; but the Egyptians had their knowledge of these things only in an empirical, piecemeal, rule-of-thumb form, and did not try to dissociate geometry from surveying and empirical measurements and calculations. The Greeks discovered that these surveying formulas and rules could be divorced from surveying land, could be cast in abstract form, and could then be used for countless purposes. They transferred geometry from the land to the mind; found it to power certain necessities in thought; made of it a system of principles; perfected it as a pure science. what had begun as land-surveying became geometry.

The Medieval Mason is comparable to the Egyptian surveyor. He was trained, rather than educated ; was an apprentice rather than a student ; and was taught how to perform certain given tasks. These were empirical. He did not dissociate them from the style and structure of the type of building on which he was working. Then came the discovery that there are a number of principles, formulas, and processes which hold not for one type of building but for any building. Then architecture became independent, free, an art, a science, and men could study it in universities and learn it in architects' offices. In both cases there was, as it were, a transition from an Operative (or empirical) Craft to a Speculative one.

An account of the rise of the profession of architect is invariably given in any one of the modem standard histories of architecture. See in addition The Cathedral Builders in England, by Edward S. Prior; E. P. Dutton & Co.; New York; 1905. The Builders of Florence, by J. Wood Brown; Methuen & Co; London; 1909. Notes on the Superintendents of English Buildings in the Middle Ages, by Wyatt Papworth. An Historical Essay on Architecture, by Thomas Hope ; John Murray; London. Medieval Architecture. by Arthur Kingsley Porter. The Guilds of Florence, by Edgcumbe Staley. Westminster Abbey and the Kings' Craftsmen, and Architecture, both by W. R. Lethaby. Gothic Architecture in England, by Francis Bond ; B. T. Bostfood; London; 1905. A Short History of the Building Crafts, by Martin S. Briggs, Oxford; 1925. The Master Masons to the Croun of Scotland, by Robert Scott Myine; Scott & Ferguson; 1893.

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ANTON, DR. CARL GOTTLOB VON

A German Masonic writer of considerable reputation, who died at Gorlitz on the 17th of November, 1818. He is the author of two historical works on Templarism, both of which are much esteemed.

l. Versuch einer Geschichte des Tempelherren ordens, that is, An Essay on the Order of Knights Templar, at Leipzig, 1779.

2. Untersuchung uber das Gehemniss und die Gebrauche der Tempelherren, that is, An Inquiry into the Mystery and Usages of the Knights Templar, at Dessau, 1782.

He also published at Gorlitz, in 1805, and again in 1819, a brief essay on the Culdees, entitled Ueber die Culdeer.

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ANTON HIERONYMUS

In the examination of a German stanmetz, or stonemason, this is said to have been the name of the first Freemason. The expression is unquestionably a corruption of Adon Hiram.

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ANTRIM, EARL WILLIAM OF

Brother W. J. Hughan's Memorials of the Union says the Earl of Antrim was Grand Master from 1782 to 1790 of the Ancient or Athol Masters.

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ANUBIS OR ANEPU

Egyptian deity, son of Osiris and Nephthys. He was an equivalent to the Greek Hermes. Having the head of a jackal, with pointed ears and snout, which the Greeks frequently changed to those of a dog. At times represented as wearing a double crown. His duty was to accompany the souls of the deceased to Hades or Amenthes, and assist Horus in weighing their actions under the inspection of Osiris.

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APE AND LION, KNIGHT OF THE

See Knight of the Ape and Lion.

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APEX, RITE OF

See Sat B'hai, Order of

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APHANISM

In the Ancient Mysteries there was always a legend of the death or disappearance of some hero god, and the subsequent discovery of the body and its resurrection.

The concealment of this body by those who had slain it was called the aphanism, from the Greek, abavatw, to conceal. As these Mysteries may be considered as a type of Freemasonry, as some suppose, and as, according to others, both the Mysteries and Freemasonry are derived from one common and ancient type, the aphanism, or concealing of the body, is of course to be found in the Third Degree. Indeed, the purest kind of Masonic aphanism is the loss or concealment of the word (see Mysteries, and Euresis).

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APIS

The sacred bull, held in high reverence by the Egyptians as possessing Divine powers, especially the gift of prophecy. As it was deemed essential the animal should be peculiarly marked by nature, much difficulty was experienced in procuring it. The bull was required to be black, with a white triangle on its forehead, a white crescent on its side, and a knotted growth, like a scarabaeus or sacred beetle, under the tongue. Such an animal being found, it was fed for four months in a building facing the East. At new moon it was embarked on a special vessel, prepared with exquisite care, and with solemn ceremony conveyed to Heliopolis, where for forty days it was fed by priests and women. In its sanctified condition it was taken to Memphis and housed in a temple with two chapels and a court wherein to exercise. The omen was good or evil in accordance with which chapel it entered from the court. At the age of twenty-five years it was led to its death, amid great mourning and lamentations. The bull or apis was an important religious factor in the Isian worship, and was continued as a creature of reverence during the Roman domination of Egypt.

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APOCALYPSE, FREEMASONRY OF THE

The Greek word apocalypsis means a revelation and thus is frequently applied to the last book of the New Testament. The adoption of Saint John the Evangelist as one of the patrons of our Lodges, has given rise, among the writers on Freemasonry, to a variety of theories as to the original cause of his being thus , connected with the Institution. Several traditions have been handed down from remote periods, which claim him as a brother, among which the Masonic student will be familiar with that which represents him as having assumed the government of the Craft, as Grand Master, after the demise of John the Baptist.

We confess that we are not willing to place implicit confidence in the correctness of this legend, and we candidly subscribe to the prudence of Dalcho's remark, that ''it is unwise to assert more than we can prove, and to argue against probability."

There must have been, however, in some way, a connection more or less direct between the Evangelist and the institution of Freemasonry, or he would not from the earliest times have been so universally claimed as one of its patrons. If it was simply a Christian feeling-a religious veneration-which gave rise to this general homage, we see no reason why Saint Matthew, Saint Mark, or Saint Luke might not as readily and appropriately have been selected as one , of the lines parallel.

But the fact is that there is something, both in the life and in the writings of Saint John the Evangelist, which closely connects him with our mystic Institution. He may not have been a Freemason in the sense in which we now use the term.

But it will be sufficient, if it can be shown that he was familiar with other mystical institutions, which are themselves generally admitted to have been more or less intimately connected with Freemasonry by deriving their existence from a common origin.

Such a society was the Essenian Fraternity-a mystical association of speculative philosophers among the Jews, whose organization very closely resembled that of the Freemasons, and who are even supposed by some to have derived their tenets and their discipline from the builders of the Temple. As Oliver observes, their institution "may be termed Freemasonry, retaining the same form but practised under another name." Now there is little doubt that Saint John the Evangelist was an Essene. Calmet positively asserts it; and the writings and life of Saint John seem to furnish sufficient internal evidence that he was originally of that brotherhood. Brother Dudley Wright has taken the position that Jesus was also an Essene and that the baptism of Jesus by John marked the formal admission of the former into the Essenic community at the end of a novitiate or, as it may be termed, an apprenticeship (see page 25, Was Jesus an Essene ? ). Brother Wright says further (page 29) that when Jesus pronounced John the Baptist to be Elijah there was evidently intended to be conveyed the information that he had already attained to that acquisition of spirit and degree of power which the Essenes strove to secure in their highest state of purity.

But it seemed to Doctor Mackey that Saint John the Evangelist was more particularly selected as a patron of Freemasonry in consequence of the mysterious and emblematic nature of the Apocalypse, which evidently assimilated the mode of teaching adopted by the Evangelist to that practised by the Fraternity. If anyone who has investigated the ceremonies performed in the Ancient Mysteries, the Spurious Freemasonry, as it has been called, of the Pagans, will compare them with the mystical machinery used in the Book of Revelations, he will find himself irresistibly led to the conclusion that Saint John the Evangelist was intimately acquainted with the whole process of initiation into these mystic associations, and that he has selected its imagery for the ground-work of his prophetic book.

George S. Faber, in his 0rigin of Pagan idolatry (volume ii, book vi, chapter 6), has, with great ability and deamess, shown that Saint John in the Apocalypse applies the ritual of the ancient initiations to a spiritual and prophetic purpose.

"The whole machinery of the Apocalypse," says Faber, "from beginning to end, seems to me very plainly to have been borrowed from the machinery of the Ancient Mysteries; and this, if we consider the nature of the subject, was done with the very strictest attention to poetical decorum. "Saint John himself is made to personate an aspirant about to be initiated; and, accordingly, the images presented to his mind's eye closely resemble the pageants of the Mysteries both in nature and in order of succession.

"The prophet first beholds a door opened in the magnificent temple of heaven; and into this he is invited to enter by the voice of one who plays the hierophant.

Here he Witnesses the unsealing of a sacred book, and forthwith he is appalled by a troop of ghastly apparitions, which flit in horrid succession before his eyes.

Among these are pre-eminently conspicuous a vast serpent, the well-known symbol of the great father; and two portentous wild beasts, which severally come up out of the sea and out of the earth.
Such hideous figures correspond with the canine phantoms of the Orgies, which seem to rise out of the ground, and With the polymorphic images of the hero god who was universally deemed the offspring of the sea.

"Passing these terafic monsters in safety, the prophet, constantly attended by his angel hierophant, who acts the part of an interpreter, is conducted into the presence of a female, who is described as closely resembling the great mother of pagan theology. Like Isis emerging from the sea and exhibiting herself to the aspirant Apuleius, this female divinity, up born upon the marine wild beast, appears to float upon the surface of many waters. She is said to be an open and systematical harlot, just as the great mother was the declared female principle of fecundity; and as she was always propitiated by literal fornication reduced to a religious system, and as the initiated were made to drink a prepared liquor out of a sacred goblet, so this harlot is represented as intoxicating the kings of the earth with the golden cup of her prostitution. On her forehead the very name of MYSTERY is inscribed; and the label teaches us that, in point, of character, she is the great universal mother of idolatry.

"The nature of this mystery the officiating hierophant undertakes to explain; and an important prophecy is most curiously and artfully veiled under the very language and imagery of the Orgies. To the sea-born great father was ascribed a threefold state---he lived, he died, and he revived; and these changes of condition were duly exhibited in the Mysteries. To the sea-born wild beast is similarly ascribed a threefold state---he lives, he dies, he revives.

While dead, he lies floating on the mighty ocean, just like Horus or Osiris, or Siva or Vishnu. When he revives again, like those kindred deities, he emerges from the waves; and, whether dead or alive, he bears seven heads and ten horns, corresponding in number with the seven ark-preserved Rishis and the ten aboriginal patriarchs. Nor is this all : as the worshipers of the great father bore his special mark or stigma, and were distinguished by his name, so the worshipers of the maritime beast equally bear his mark and are equally decorated by his appellation.

''At length, however, the first or doleful part of these Sacred Mysteries draws to a close, and the last or joyful part is rapidly approaching.

After the prophet has beheld the enemies of God plunged into a dreadful lake or inundation of liquid fire, which corresponds with the infernal lake or deluge of the Orgies, he is introduced into a splendidly-illuminated region, expressly adorned with the characteristics of that Paradise which was the ultimate scope of the ancient aspirants ; while without the holy gate of admission are the whole multitude of the profane, dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie. "

Such was the imagery of the Apocalypse. The dose resemblance to the machinery of the Mysteries, and the intimate connection between their system and that of Freemasonry, very naturally induced our ancient brethren to daim the patronage of an apostle so pre-eminently mystical in his writings, and whose last and crowning work bore so much of the appearance, in an outward form, of a ritual of initiation.

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APOCALYPSE, ORDER OF THE
An Order instituted about the end of the seventeenth century, by one Gabrino, who called himself the Prince of the Septenary Number or Monarch of the Holy Trinity.

He enrolled a great number of artisans in his ranks who went about their ordinary- occupations with swords at their sides. According to Thory, some of the provincial Lodges of France made a degree out of Gabrino's system. The arms of the Order were a naked sword and a blazing star (see the Acta Latomorum, 1, 294). Reghellini, in Freemasonry considered as a result of the Egyptian, Jewish, and Christian Religions, or La Maçonnerie considérée comme le résultat des religions égyptienne, juive et chrêtienne (iii, 72), thinks that this Order was the precursor of the degrees afterward introduced by the Freemasons who practised the Templar system.

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APOCALYPTIC DEGREES
APOKALYPTISCHE GRADE

Those degrees which are founded on the Revelation of Saint John, or whose symbols and machinery of initiation are derived from that work, are called Apocalyptic Degrees.

Of this nature are several of the advanced degrees: such, for instance, as the Seventeenth, or Knight of the East and West of the Scottish Rite.

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APORRHETA

Greek, . The holy things in the Ancient Mysteries which were known only to the initiates, and were not to be disclosed to the profane, were called the aporrheta.

What are the aporrheta of Freemasonry? What are the arcana of which there can be no disclosure? These are questions that for years past have given rise to much discussion among the disciples of the Institution. If the sphere and number of these aporrheta be very considerably extended, it is evident that much valuable investigation by public discussion of the science of Freemasonry will be prohibited. On the other hand, if the aporrheta are restricted to only a few points, much of the beauty, the permanency, and the efficacy of Freemasonry which are dependent on its organization as a secret and mystical association will be lost.

We move between Scylia and Charybdis, between ' the rock and the whirlpool, and it is difficult for a Masonic writer to know how to steer so as, in avoiding too frank an exposition of the principies of the Order, not to fall by too much reticence, into obscurity. The European Freemasons are far more liberal in their views of the obligation of secrecy than the English or the American. There are few things, indeed, which a French or German Masonic writer will refuse to discuss with the utmost frankness. It is now beginning to be very generally admitted, and English and American writers are acting on the admission, that the only real aporrheta of Freemasonry are the modes of recognition, and the peculiar and distinctive ceremonies of the Order; and to these last it is claimed that reference may be publicly made for the purpose of scientific investigation, provided that the reference be so made as to be obscure to the profane, and intelligible only to the initiated.

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APPEAL, RIGHT OF

The right of appeal is an inherent right belonging to every Freemason, and the Grand Lodge is the appellate body to whom the appeal is to be made.

Appeals are of two kinds: first, from the decision of the Master; second, from the decision of the Lodge.

Each of these will require a distinct consideration.

1. Appeals from the Decision of the Master. It is now a settled. doctrine in Masonic law that there can be no appeal from the decision of a Master of a Lodge to the Lodge itself. But an appeal always lies from such decision to the Grand Lodge, which is bound to entertain the appeal and to inquire into the correctness of the decision.

Some writers have endeavored to restrain the despotic authority of the Master to decisions in matters atrictly relating to the work of the Lodge, while they contend that on all questions of business an appeal may be taken from his decision to the Lodge.

But it would be unsafe, and often impracticable, to , draw this distinction, and accordingly the highest Masonic authorities have rejected the theory, and denied the power in a Lodge to entertain an appeal from any decision of the presiding officer.

The wisdom of this law must be apparent to anyone who examines the nature of the organization of the Masonic Institution. The Master is responsible to the Grand Lodge for the good conduct of his Lodge. To him and to him alone the supreme Masonic authority looks for the preservation of order, and the observance of the Constitutions and the Landmarks of the Order in the body over which he presides. It is manifest, then, that it would be highly unjust to throw around a presiding officer so heavy a responsibility, if it were in the power of the Lodge to overrule his decisions or to control his authority.

2. Appeals from the Decisions of the Lodge. Appeals may be made to the Grand Lodge from the decisions of a Lodge, on any subject except the admission of members, or the election of candidates; but these appeals are more frequently made in reference to conviction and punishment after trial.

When a Freemason, in consequence of charges preferred against him, has been tried, convicted, and sentenced by his Lodge, he has an inalienable right to appeal to the Grand Lodge from such conviction and sentence.

His appeal may be either general or specific. That is, he may appeal on the ground, generally, that the whole of the proceedings have been irregular or illegal, or he may appeal specifically against some particular portion of the trial ; or lastly, admitting the correctness of the verdict, and acknowledging the truth of the charges, he may appeal from the sentence, as being too severe or disproportionate to the offense.

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APPENDANT ORDERS

In the Templar system of the United States, the degrees of Knight of the Red , Cross and Knight of Malta are called Appendant Orders because they are conferred as appendages to that of the Order of the Temple, or Knight Templar, which is the principal degree of the Commandery.

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APPLE-TREE TAVERN

The place where the four Lodges of London met in 1717, and organized the Grand Lodge of England. This tavern was situated in Charles Street, Covent Garden.

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APPRENTI

French for Apprentice

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APPRENTI ET COMPAGNON DE SAINT

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APPRENTICE

See Apprentice, Entered

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APPRENTICE ARCHITECT

The French expression is Apprenti Architecte. A degree in the collection of Fustier.

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APPRENTICE ARCHITECT, PERFECT

The French being Apprenti Architecte, Parfait. A degree in the collection of Le Page.

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APPRENTICE ARCHITECT, PRUSSIAN

The French being Apprenti Architecte, Prussien. A degree in the collection of Le Page.

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APPRENTICE, CABALISTIC

The French is .Apprenti Cabalistique. A degree in the collection of the Archives of the Mother Lodge of the Philosophic Rite.

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APPRENTICE COHEN

The French being Apprenti Coën. A degree in the collection of the Archives of the Mother Lodge of the Philosophic Rite.

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ANCIENT GRAND LODGE, NOTES ON

The miscellany of data below is given to supplement the general survey of the Ancient Grand Lodge of England, of 1751, on page 75. These data have as much interest for American Masons as for English because the history of the Ancient Grand Lodge has a large place in general Masonic history; and because the more active half of Freemasonry in the United States at the end of the Revolution was of Ancient origin, directly or indirectly, or had been largely shaped by Ancient usages. (The data also are in support of the article on ANCIENT AND MODERNS which immediately follows. They are not arranged in chronological or logical order.) Laurence Dermott was born in Ireland in 1720 ; was Initiated in 1740 ; was Master of No. 26 in Dublin, 1746, and received the Royal Arch at same time. Shortly afterwards he moved to London, was registered technically as a "house painter" but would now be called an interior decorator. In a number of sources he is also described as a wine merchant. He joined a (Modem) Lodge in London, 1748; soon afterwards joined an Ancient Lodge. He became Secretary of the Ancient Grand Committee in 1752, later was Grand Secretary, served twice as Deputy Grand Master (in reality, was acting Grand Master). He was both architect and leader of the new Grand Lodge system.
He died in 1791, at the age of seventy-one---a vigorous, aggressive, versatile, many-sided man of great native talent, who taught himself Latin and Hebrew, could both sing and compose songs, gave numberless speeches, and in its formative years was the driving force of the Grand Lodge to which he devoted forty of his years.

The Ancient (or Ancients) began as a Grand Committee, and became a Grand Lodge one step at a time.

It drew its membership from four sources :
a) Masons, most of them of Irish membership, who were repelled by the exclusiveness and snobbishness of the Lodges Under the Grand Lodge of 1717;
b) received into membership a number of self-constituted Lodges (called St. John's Lodges) which had not sought a Charter from the first Grand Lodge;
c) Lodges which held a Charter from the first Grand Lodge but resented its innovations and its methods of administration, withdrew, and affiliated with the Ancient;
d) from members initiated in London chartered by itself.

The Ancient adopted that name to signify that they continued the ancient customs ; the Moderns had "modernizing" the Work by altering Modes of Recognition, by dropping ceremonies, by becoming snobbish and exclusive - -a violation of an Ancient Landmark.

If these two names originated as epithets of abuse (there is no evidence that they did) they came into general usage and were employed everywhere Without invidiousness. The Ancient made much of the name "York"; they had no connection with the Grand Lodge of All England at York, but adopted the term to suggest, according to the Old Charges, that Freemasonry as a Fraternity had begun at York-it was a device for claiming to adhere to ancient customs.

Ancient Lodges were popular in the American Colonies from the beginning because they were more democratic than Modem Lodges. Ancient Provincial Grand Lodges were set up (to work for a longer or a shorter time) in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New York (it received in 1781 an Ancient Grand Lodge Charter), Virginia, and South Carolina.

There was from the first a close tie with the Grand Lodge of Ireland. For years Ireland did not recognize the Modern Grand Lodge. the Seals of Ireland and the Ancient were at one time almost identical; Warrants were similar. The Ancient adopted the Irish system of registering members (returns). Both issued certificates, sometimes in English, sometimes in Latin. Each of them had a peculiar interest in Hebrew; it is difficult to understand why unless it was in connection with the Royal Arch which both used, though the Modern did not.

The Third Duke of Atholl (or Athole, or Athol) was Grand Master of the Ancient from 1771 to 1774 (in 1773 be was also Grand Master of Scotland). The Fourth Duke of Atholl was Grand Master from 1775 to 1781, and again from 1791 to 1812.

Ireland had issued Army Warrants (or Regimental, or Ambulatory) ; the Ancient not only permitted but actively promoted the plan ; by as early as 1789 they had issued 49 Army Warrants, a number of them for use in America.

An attempt was made in 1797 to effect a Union with the Modern Grand Lodge, but it failed. Until the Union in 1813 many Masons never were able to understand the differences between the two Grand Bodies. For periods, or in some areas, the rivalry became bitter; at other times and places the relations were amicable. Usually, a Mason passing from a Modern to an Ancient Lodge or from an Ancient to a Modern had to be "remade." In a few instances a Lodge working under one Charter used the Work of the other; or it might surrender its Charter in one to seek a new Charter in the other (as Preston's mother Lodge did). the differences were real and not factitious as the result of quarreling; on both sides Brethren knew that before a Union could be effected a number of questions involving the fundamentals of Freemasonry would have to be answered.

One of these concerned the Royal Arch. Was it a part of the Master Degree? Could the Master Degree be complete without it? Should it be a separate Degree? If so, should a Lodge confer three Degrees?

The Union in 1813 gave two answers : the Royal Arch belonged to Ancient Craft Masonry; but it should be in a separate body (or ch apter). In 1817 the Ancient and Modern Grand Chapters were amalgamated.

The earlier Masonic historians dated the first appearance of a rift as early as 1735. Modern Lodges complained to the Grand Lodges about "irregular makings" in1739. It was discussed in that Grand Lodge again in 1740. In 1747 the Modern Grand Lodge made the mistake of electing "the wicked Lord Byron" to the Grand East, and kept him there for five years though he put in an appearance so seldom that a large number of Masons demanded a new Grand Master-this wide gap between the Grand Lodge and members was a fatal weakness in the Modern Grand Lodge system. A large number of "irregular" Lodges were formed, and between 1742 and 1752 forty-five Lodges were erased from the rolls.

The Modern Grand Lodge officially condemned the Ancient in 1755, though the Modern Grand Lodge did not have exclusive territorial jurisdiction in England, and had never claimed it, so that the Ancient were not invading jurisdiction and were not therefore "schismatics."
The Ancient elected Robert Turner their first Grand Master in 1753, with some 12 or so Lodges. In 1756 the Earl of Blesinton was Grand Master and remained so for four years, though Dermott was really in charge; 24 new Lodges were added to the roll. From 1760 to 1766, under the Earl of Kelly, 64 more were added. John, Third Duke of Atholl was installed Grand Master in 1771; by that year the roll increased to 197 Lodges. the Fourth Duke was installed in 1775. In 1799 he and the Earl of Moira, Grand Master of the Moderns, united to secure exemption of Masonry from Parliament's Secrecy Society Act of 1799. the Atholl family was active at the forefront of the Craft from 1771 to 1812.

In 1756 the Ancient published their Book of Constitutions, with Dermott himself taking the financial risk; taking that risk was another evidence of his great patriotism for the Fraternity because the publishing of a book was an expensive enterprise and Dermott's only "market" consisted of possibly thirty Lodges. Why he chose Ahiman Rezon for a title is a puzzle; it is also impossible to make sure of a translation because though the words are Hebrew he printed them in Roman letters. It probably meant "Worthy Brother Secretary," and implied that the book was a record, one to go by, etc. It was based primarily upon the Book of Constitutions of Ireland, and since the latter was originally a re-writing of the Modern's Book of 1723 the Ahiman Rezon did not differ materially from the latter, except that on pages here and there it had sentences filled with Dermott's own pungent flavor. But this was not an aping of the Modems ; Dermott was not, as one writer charges, "a plagiarist." Scotland and Ireland both had adopted the 1723 Book as their model.

The Moderns themselves bad not presented their own Book as a new literary composition, but as a printed version of the Old Charges; therefore Masons thought of any one of the Constitutions as belonging to the Craft at large rather than to any one Grand Lodge. Acting steps toward a Union began in 1801, though an abortive one was attempted in the Ancient Grand Lodge in 1797. The Earl of Moira warranted the Lodge of Promulgation in 1809, expressly to prepare for union. At the Union in 1813 each Grand Lodge appointed a Committee of nine expert Master Masons; they formed themselves into the Lodge of Promulgation, which toiled to produce a Uniform Work from 1813 to 1816.

At the ceremony of Union in 1813, 641 Modern Lodges and 359 Ancient Lodges were represented; both Grand Masters, the brother the Dukes of Kent and Sussex, sat together in the Grand East. The work of the Lodge of Reconciliation met with some opposition-here and there from Masons who believed that England would be better off with two Grand Lodges. The Lodge of Promulgation met with little opposition but it encountered so many difficulties that it did not succeed in establishing a single uniform Ritual. The "sacred drawing of lots" about which Virgil wrote a purple passage in the Aeneid, and which belonged to the sacred liturgy of the Romans, was, romantically enough, made use of at the Union. Each Grand Lodge had a list of numbered Lodges beginning with 1 (though in the Ancient this was a Grand Masters Lodge); which set of numbers should have priority? It was decided by lot, the Ancient drawing Lodge No. 1, No. 3, No. 5, and so on to win it; in this manner the Modern Lodge of Antiquity No, 1 became No. 2 in the new United Grand Lodge.

By an almost incredible chance the Lodges on the lists of the Grand Lodges added together to the sum of exactly 1000; 641 on the Modern list, 359 on the Ancient. In instances where a Modern and an Ancient Lodge were near neighbors, or where one was very weak, and the other strong, many Lodges were afterwards consolidated and others were removed from the roll. Altogether the new combined list numbered 647, which means a decrease by 353 Lodges.

The work of preparing a new Code of Regulations was entrusted to a Board of General Purposes (it is still functioning) organized at a special Grand Lodge in 1815. The next step was to ask approval of the new Esoteric Work by the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland. To this end an International Commission was formed June 27, 1814, and deliberated until July 2; "the Three Grand Lodges were perfectly in unison in all the great and essential points of the Mystery and Craft, according to the immemorial traditions and uninterrupted usage of Ancient Masons." The three Bodies adopted eight resolutions which constitute The International Compact. (The approval of other English-Speaking Grand Lodges was taken as read. )

This Union was for the Ancient a far cry from 1751.

The earliest existing record of their Grand Committee is dated July 17, 1751; on that day seven Lodges "were authorized to grant dispensations and Warrants and to act as Grand Master," an odd arrangement and now difficult to understand. In the same year the Committee issued its first Warrant, one for a Lodge to meet at the Temple and Sun Tavern. This procedure of having Lodges issue or approve Warrants was at the opposite extreme from the Moderns, where the Grand Master himself issued Warrants-a fact very suggestive, for it hints at one of the reasons for establishing a new Masonic system. In 1752 five more were issued. the first Lodge was given No. 2 ; perhaps the Committee itself counted as No. 1.

In 1751 John Morgan was elected Secretary but failed; Laurence Dermott succeeded him in the next year, and held membership in Lodges No. 9 and 10. "In the earliest years of the Grand Lodge of Ancient we look in vain for the name of any officer or member distinguished for social rank or literary reputation. We do not find such scholars as Anderson or Payne or Desaguliers." In the course of time Dermott discovered that a society without a Patron of high rank was in a vulnerable position in the then state of English society.

He secured recognition from Ireland and Scotland.

He further strengthened his position by proclaiming the Royal Arch as "the root, heart, and marrow of Masonry." To meet this last, the Moderns bad a Royal Arch Chapter in 1765, and in 1767 converted this into a Grand Chapter. Hughan says this "was virtually, though not actually, countenanced by the Grand Lodge. It was purely a defensive organization to meet the wants of the regular brethren [by which Hughan means members of Modern Lodges!] and prevent their joining the Ancient for Exaltation."

This was not a statesman-like procedure, nor a frank one and weakened the Modems' position in many eyes. Dermott always accused the Modems of having mutilated the Third Degree and of making of it "a new composition" ;this sounds like a rash utterance, but it has to be remembered that for some years the Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland both agreed with him. On the basis of the evidence as a whole it appears that it was the Moderns who had done the ,,seceding" from the Landmarks, and therefore more entitled to the epithet of "schismatic" which Gould and Hughan both so often applied to the Ancient; the course followed by American Lodges after the introduction of Ancient Masonry here bears out that supposition; and also substantiates the theory that the tap-root of the division was the introduction of class distinctions into Masonry by the Moderns; for in the American Colonies Modern Lodges tended to be aristocratic, royalists, Tory.

As noted some paragraphs above "irregular" or "disaffected" Lodges began to be referred to as early as 1735, and by 1739 the subject was brought to the attention of the Modern Grand Lodge. These, combined with the already-existent or independent (or St. John) Lodges, plus an increasing number of new self-constituted Lodges, plus some Lodges where old "Operative" traditions were strong, would make it appear that the Ancient Grand Lodge was an expression of discontent, that there were enough "rebels" and "malcontents" waiting about to produce a new Grand Lodge of themselves. But this, while it is a reading accepted by a number of historians, will not do. the Lodges that were independent were not craving a new Grand Lodge because they were independent; and as for disgruntlement in general, there was no aim or purpose or direction in it. To explain the origin of the new Grand Lodge of 1751 as a precipitation of discontent, a crystallization of mugwumpery, is to do an injustice to the men who established it. They were in no confusion ; were not resentful; were not mere seceders, and still less (infinitely less-as Hughan failed to note) were they heretics.

They believed it right and wise and needful to constitute a second Grand Lodge ; they proved themselves men of a high order of intelligence and ability in the Process; and the outcome proved that they had all along been better Masonic statesmen than the leaders of the Moderns. They are in memory entitled to be removed once and for ever from the dusty and clamorous charges of secession, disaffection, and what not a thing for which they were in no sense responsible---and lifted to the platform of esteem and good reputation where they belong, alongside Desaguliers, Payne, Anderson, and Preston.

The best and soundest data on the Ancient is in the Minutes and Histories of Lodges for the period 1750 to 1813, British, Canadian, and of the United States (or Colonies) ; the records in such books are piecemeal, to be picked out at random, are a mosaic that needs potting together, but the data in them comprise the substance of the history itself, and to read them is to be contemporaneous with the events; at the very least they correct and give a picture of the Ancient Grand Lodge different from that painted by Gould, and perpetuated by his disciples. For general works see: History of Freemasonry, by Robert F. Gould, Revised History of Freemasonry, by A. G. Mackey. Atholl Lodges, by Gould. Masonic facts and Fictions, by Henry Sadler. Cementaria Hibernica, by Chetwode Crawley, Memorials of the Masonic Union, by W. J.Hughan. A History of Freemasonry, by Haywood and Craig. Grand Lodge of England, by A. F. Calvert. Freemasonry and Concordant Orders, by Hughan and Stillson. Early Canadian Masonry, by Pemberton Smith. The Builders, by J. F. Newton. Military Lodges, by R. F. Gould. Notes on Lau.'.Dermott, by W. M. Bywater. Illustrations of Masonry, by William Preston. Story of the Craft, by Lionel Vibert. Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. Early chapters in the histories of the Grand Lodges formed in each of the Thirteen Colonies.
Note. Dermott made two statements of revealing significance: "I have not the least antipathy against the gentlemen members of the Modern Society; but, on the contrary, love and respect them''; and expressed hope to "live to see a general conformity and universal unity between the worthy Masons of all denominations." The latter was by Gould and his disciples made to sound as if Dermott referred to the Modern rand Lodge ; and Gould treats the whole subject of the Ancient on the basis that they had seceded from the Moderns, kept up a quarrel with the Moderns, and divided the field with them. But what did Dermott mean by "all denominations"? He would not have meant it to be "two.'' There was a Grand Lodge of all Masons at York; a Grand Lodge of England South of the River Trent; Ireland and Scotland did not recognize the Modern Grand Lodge; there were many independent St. Johns' Lodges; there were a number of Lodges suspended from the Modern lists yet still active.

It is absurd to suppose that Dermott and the Ancient Grand Lodge were in no better business than to heckle and oppose the Moderns-which in fact and on the record he did not do; he had the whole Masonic state of affairs in mind ; and even when he expressed a desire for friendly relations with the Modern Grand Lodge it does not follow that he desired amalgamation with it; more likely he desired to be able to work in harmony with it, and to see the four British Grand Lodges in harmony with each other.

Gould used the whole force of his great History and the weight of his own reputation to support his charge--more than a century after the event!-that the Ancient Grand Lodge was a "schismatic" body composed of "seceders."

In his ill-organized and harsh chapter he appears throughout to have forgotten that when the small Modern Grand Lodge of 1717 had been formed there were some hundreds of Lodges in Britain, and that a large proportion of them turned upon it with that same charge ; it was a new schism in the ancient Fraternity; it was composed of seceders from the Ancient Landmarks! The new, small, experimental Grand Body at London in 1717 was not formed by divine right, and possessed beforehand no sovereignty over Lodges anywhere. It was set up by only four (possibly five or six) out of some hundreds of Lodges. The four old Lodges acted solely for themselves. They had nothing more in view than a center for Lodges in London.

Any other four Lodges, or ten, or twenty, for a half century afterwards, had as much right as they to set up a Grand Lodge. They possessed no power of excommunication. By an action taken when the Duke of Wharton was Grand Master they even admitted that the Grand Lodge itself was but a union of independent Lodges; and that the four old Lodges still possessed complete sovereignty in their own affairs. The Grand Lodge at York was not questioned ; nor the ones in Ireland or Scotland ; nor were the self-constituted Lodges which had not joined the voluntary union. There was no justice, therefore, in condemning the Ancient' Grand Committee of 1751 when it became a Grand Lodge as schismatic or as seceders. We who are two hundred years wise after the event can see how easily both Ancient and Moderns could have found a home under one Constitution, but before the new and untried Grand Lodge system had become established as essential to Freemasonry ( at approximately 1775) it was not easy to see the way ahead ; and for all anybody now knows it might have been better if not only two but four Grand Lodges had been formed in England, united in a system of comity similar to ours where 49 Grand Lodges live and act and agree as one.

Hughan began, writing his concise historical studies in the 1870's Gould in the 1880's ; after almost three-quarters of a century there could be little purpose in the ordinary course of events in continuing to criticize their theories of the Ancient Grand Lodge. But a book is not a man ;it can be as new and as alive a hundred years afterwards as on the day it was written ; it is so with both Hughan and Gould ; they are both being widely read by studious Masons and by Masonic writers, and read with respect, as is fitting, and read as having authority. They both accused the Ancient of having been "schismatics," "secessionists," and called them other bad names, thereby raising the question of the regularity, legitimacy, and standing of the whole Ancient movement and with it questioning by implication more than half of the Freemasonry in Canada and the United States. Had they only stopped to consider, they would have seen that their question had already been answered, once and for all, and by a court possessing final authority, at the Union of 1813.

The Modem Grand Lodge had been a near neighbor to the Ancient Grand Lodge; had watched it coming into being ; had followed it from day to day and year by year ; the Ancient Grand Lodge was never out of its sight and this continued for 62 years. Yet in the act of effecting the Union the Modem Grand Lodge fully and freely recognized the Ancient Grand Lodge as its co-equal as of that date; recognized its regularity and legality; before the Union was consummated the two Grand Masters sat side by side in the same Grand East. Had the Ancient Grand Lodge surrendered and submitted itself ; had it confessed mea culpa; had it sued for forgiveness; had it permitted itself to be healed and merged into the Modern Grand Lodge, its doing so would have proved it to have been "schismatic" and "secessionist." One may submit, and without reflection upon Gould or Hughan or their followers in their theory, that the Modern Grand Lodge knew far more about the facts in 1813 than they did in 1888; and that the official verdict of the Modern Grand Lodge, just, carefully reasoned, fully documented, and given without minority dissent, ought to have disposed of any question about the Ancient Grand Lodge from that time on.

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APRON

There is no one of the symbols of Speculative Freemasonry more important in its teachings, or more interesting in its history, than the lambskin, or white leathern apron. Commencing its lessons at an early period in the Freemason's progress, it is impressed upon his memory as the first gift which he receives, the first symbol which is explained to him, and the first tangible evidence which he possesses of his admission into the Fraternity.

Whatever may be his future advancement in the "royal art," into whatsoever deeper arcana his devotion to the mystic Institution or his thirst for knowledge may subsequently lead him, with the lambskin apron-his first investiture---he never parts. Changing, perhaps, its form and its decorations, and conveying, at each step, some new but still beautiful allusion, its substance is still there, and it continues to claim the honored title by which it was first made known to him, on the night of his initiation, as the badge of a Mason.

If in less important portions of our ritual there are abundant allusions to the manners and customs of the ancient world, it is not to be supposed that the Masonic Rite of investiture-the ceremony of clothing the newly initiated candidate with this distinctive badge of his profession-is Without its archetype in the times and practices long passed away. It would, indeed, be strange, while all else in Freemasonry is covered with the veil of antiquity, that the apron alone, its most significant symbol, should be indebted far its existence to the invention of a modern mind.

On the contrary, we shall find the most satisfactory evidence that the use of the apron, or some equivalent mode of investiture, as a mystic symbol, was common to all the nations of the earth from the earliest periods.

Among the Israelites the girdle formed a part of the investiture of the priesthood. In the mysteries of Mithras, in Persia, the candidate was invested with a white apron. In the initiations practiced in Hindostan, the ceremony of investiture was preserved, but a sash, called the sacred zennar, was substituted for the apron.

The Jewish sect of the Essences clothed their novices with a white robe. The celebrated traveler Kaempfer informs us that the Japanese, who practice certain rites of initiation, invest their candidates with a white apron, bound round the loins with a zone or girdle. In the Scandinavian Rites, the military genius of the people caused them to substitute a white shield, but its presentation was accompanied by an emblematic instruction not unlike that which is connected with the Freemason's apron.

''The apron,'' says Doctor Oliver (Signs anc Symbols of Freemasonry, lecture x, page 196), "appears to have been, in ancient times, an honorary badge of distinction. In the Jewish economy, none but the superior orders of the priesthood were permitted to adorn themselves with ornamented girdles, which were made of blue, purple, and crimson, decorated with gold upon a ground of fine white linen; while the inferior priests wore only plain white. The Indian, the Persian, the Jewish, the Ethiopian, and the Egyptian aprons, though equally superb, all bore a character distinct from each other. Some were plain white, others striped with blue, purple, and crimson; some were of wrought gold, others adorned and decorated with superb tassels and fringes.
"In a word, though the principal honor of the apron may consist in its reference to innocence of conduct, and purity of heart, yet it certainly appears, through all ages, to have been a most exalted badge of distinction. In primitive times it was rather an ecclesiastical than a civil decoration, although in some cases the apron was elevated to great superiority as a national trophy. The Royal Standard of Persia was originally an apron in form and dimensions. At this day it is connected with ecclesiastical honors; for the chief dignitaries of the Christian church, wherever a legitimate establishment, with the necessary degrees of rank and subordination is formed, are invested with aprons as a peculiar badge of distinction; which is a collateral proof of the fact that Freemasonry was originally incorporated with the various systems of divine worship used by every people in the ancient world. Freemasonry retains the symbol or shadow; at cannot have renounced the reality or substance."

A curious commentary by Thomas Carlyle upon the apron is worth consideration and is found in his Sartor Resartus (chapter vi), and is as follows : "One of the most unsatisfactory sections in the whole volume is that upon aprons. What though stout old Gao, the Persian blacksmith, 'whose apron now indeed hidden under jewels, because raised in revolt which proved successful, is still the royal standard of that country'; what though John Knox's daughter, 'who threatened Sovereign Majesty that she would catch her husband's head in her apron, rather than he should be and be a bishop'; what though the Landgravine Elizabeth, with many other apron worthies-figure here? An idle, wire-drawing spirit, sometimes even a tone of levity, approaching to conventional satire, is too clearly dissemble. What, for example, are we to make of such sentences as the following:
"'Aprons are defenses, against injury to cleanliness, to safety, to modesty, sometimes to roguery.
From the thin slip of notched silk (as it were, the emblem and beatified ghost of an apron), which some highest-bred housewife, sitting at Nurnberg Workboxes and Toy-boxes, has gracefully fastened on, to the thick-tanned hide, girt around him with thongs, wherein the Builder builds, and at evening sticks his trowel, or in these jingling sheet-iron aprons, wherein your otherwise half-naked Vulcans hammer and swelter in their smelt furnace---is there not range enough in the fashion and uses of this vestment'?

How much has been concealed, how much has been defended in Aprons! Nay, rightfully considered, what is your whole Military and Police establishment, charged at uncalculated millions, but a huge scarlet-colored, iron-fastened Apron, wherein Society works (uneasily enough), guarding itself from some soil and stithy-sparks in this Devil's smithy of a world? But of all aprons the most puzzling to me hitherto has been the Episcopal or Cassock. Wherein consists the usefulness of this Apron?

The Overseer of Souls, I notice, has tucked in the corner of it, as if his day's work were done. What does he shadow forth thereby?"

Brother John Barr read a paper on The Whys and Wherefores of the Masonic Apron before the Masters and Past Masters Lodge No. 130, Christ Church, New Zealand, from which (Transactions, May, 1925) we take the following information:

" What we know as Freemasonry today can fairly easily be traced, with but slight breaks, to what is known in history as the Comacini Gild, or what Leader Scott, in her very interesting work calls The Cathedral Builders. Their officers were similar to our own, that is, with respect to the most important; they had the signs, symbols and secrets used in the main by us today; and, what affects this article, they wore white aprons, not only while actively engaged as operatives, but when meeting together for instruction and improvement in their Lodges. When members of the Fraternity first landed in Britain is not known. We have evidence that 'Benedict, the Abbot of Wearmouth, 676 A.D., crossed the ocean to Gaul and brought back stone-masons to make a church after the Roman fashion.' It is also known that stone-masons, that is members of the Comacini Gild, were in Britain before that date, and it is assumed that Benedict had to go for more, as all in Britain were fully employed.

One could dwell on that part of our history at considerable length; but my object is not that of tracing the history of the old operative mason, whether Comacini or Gild Mason. I have merely touched on it for the reason that I believe it to be the stream or spring that is the source of the goodly river whose waters it should be our endeavor to keep dear and pure. It is to the ancient Operative Masons we go for the origin of the present apron.

" Our apron is derived from that of the Mason who was a master of his Craft, who was free-born and at liberty to go where he chose in the days when it was the rule that the toiler was either a bondsman or a gildsman, and, in each case, as a rule, confined to one locality.

He was one who had a true love for his art, who designed the structure and built it, and whose anxiety to build fair work and square work was greater than his anxiety to build the greatest number of feet per day. He was skilled in the speculative, or religious and educative side of the craft as well as the operative, and, in the absence of what we know as the three R's, was yet highly educated, was able to find sermons in stone, and books in the running brooks.

He was one to whom the very ground plan of his building was according to the symbolism of his belief, and he was able to see, in the principal tools of his calling, lessons that enabled him to guide his footsteps in the paths of rectitude and science. If from his working tools he learned lessons that taught him to walk upright in the sight of God and man, why not from the apron that was always with him during his working hours, no matter how he changed tool for tool' It was part of him, one may say, while he converted the rough stone into a thing of beauty, fit for its place in the structure designed by the Master, or fitted it to its place in the building.

According to Leader Scott, there is 'In the Church of Saint Clemente, Rome, an ancient fresco of the eighth century.

Here we see a veritable Roman Magister, Master Mason, directing his men. He stands in Magisterial Toga, and surely one may descry a Masonic Apron beneath it, in the moving of a marble column.' The apron referred to by Leader Scott, seems, judging by the photograph, to have a certain amount of ornamentation, but the ordinary aprons of the brethren while working were akin to that worn by Masons to this day, that is operative Masons. As I know from tools found during the demolishing of old buildings, the tools were the same as the principal ones used today by the operative.

From my knowledge of the Operative side of Masonry, I feel sure the apron was substantially the same also. Many Masons wear today at the banker, aprons not only similar in form to those worn by our ancient brethren, but symbolically the same as those worn by brethren around me.

Let us examine an Operative Mason's Apron. The body shows four right angles, thus forming a square, symbolical of matter. The bib, as it is called in Operative Masonry, runs to the form of an equilateral triangle, symbolizing spirit. When used to moralize upon, the flap is dropped, thereby representing the descent of spirit into matter-the soul to the body.

In Operative Masonry the apex of the triangle was laced or buttoned to the vest, according to the period ; in due course this was altered,.and the apex of the triangle was cut away, while the strings, which were long enough to go around the body and finish at the front, were tied there. So that it is just possible, as one writer surmises, that the strings hanging down with frayed edges, may have their representation in the tassels of our Master Masons' Aprons.

"While we have no proof, so far as I know, that is written proof, that our ancient operative brethren lid moralize on the Apron after the manner of the working tool, there is nothing to show that he did not. To me the weight of evidence is in favor of an educational value being attached to the Apron, or, to use our usual term, a symbolical value.

The more we study and the more we read, the more we become impressed with the idea that symbolism was the breath of life to the ancient Mason; he was cradled in it, brought up in it; he was hardly able to build a fortification without cutting symbols somewhere on it. He never erected a temple or church but what he make of it a book, so clear and plentiful were his symbols. In addition to the evidence one may glean from the writings of various investigators, one can see the tatters of what was once a solemn service in a custom in use amongst Operative Masons a generation back.

The custom was that of 'The washing of the apron.' This custom is referred to by Hugh Miller in his Schools and Schoolmasters. In the days referred to by Miller, the Apprentice was seldom allowed to try his hand on a stone, during his first year, as during that time he helped, if at the building, in carrying mortar and stone, and setting out the tools as they came from the blacksmith.

If in the quarry, he might in addition to doing odd jobs, be allowed to block out rubble or a piece of rough ashlar. If he shaped well and was to be allowed to proceed, the day came when he was told he could bring out his Apron. This was a big day for him, as now he was really to begin his life's work, and you may be sure it was a white apron, for it was an unwritten law, even in my day, that you started your week's work with your apron as white as it was possible to make it. The real ceremony had of course disappeared, and all that took its place were the tatters I referred to, which consisted principally of the providing of a reasonable amount of liquid refreshment with which the Masons cleared their throats of the stone dust. If a serious minded journeyman was present, certain advice was given the young Mason about the importance of the Craft, and the necessity for good workmanship and his future behavior. Unfortunately, there was a time when the washing of the apron was rather overdone, even in Speculative Masonry.

With regard to the above custom, I having referred to it in a paper read before the members of Lodge Sumner, No. 242, the worthy and esteemed Chaplain of the Lodge Brother Rev. W McAra, informed me that as a young man, close on sixty years ago, he attended with the grownup members of his family, who were builders in Scotland, the washing of the Apprentices' Aprons; and according to the Rev. Brother, there was 'a very nice little ceremony, although he could not mind the particulars,' and he added, 'Although I was a total abstainer in those days, they were not all that, for I can mind that the apron was well washed.'

" I am further of opinion that, had there not been great importance attached to the apron, it would have been set aside, at least among English Masons, shortly after the formation of the Grand Lodge of England, as a certain section who got into the order at that time took strong exception to the apron on the plea that 'It made them look like mechanics.' lt must be remembered it was full length at that time, and remained so for considerable period after the formation of the first Grand Lodge.

"The material also differed in early days, both in the purely operative and in the early speculative. It was not that it differed according to the country, as both linen and cotton and skin were used in different parts of the one country.

One who has studied the operative side and who, as I am, is himself an Operative Mason, can fully understand the reason for the different materials being used, although they have caused some little confusion amongst the purely speculative investigators. I feel convinced that, in purely operative times, among the Cathedral Builders and those who carried on the Craft working after them, both materials were used, as both materials were used by Masons outside the Craft Lodges at a later stage.

The cloth apron was used largely by the Mason who never left the banker, that is, by him who kept to the work of hewing or carving. I can hardly fancy a hewer polishing a column, a panel, or any piece of work and drying his hands on a leather apron.

They would be full of cracks the second day in cold weather, and in the early days there was a considerable amount of polished work. Take, for instance, the churches built by Wilfrid Bishop of York.

The one built at Hexham in A.D. 674--680 had 'Round headed arches within the church supported by lofty columns of polished stone. The walls were covered with square stones of divers colors, and polished.'

''At ordinary unpolished work, all that was required was protection from dust. On the other hand, the skin apron was largely used by him who had to fix or build the stone. In those early days the builder had to do more heavy lifting than in later years, when derricks and cranes came into more common use.

What happened was just what may be experienced on a country job at a present day. If your wall were, say, three feet high, and a heavy bondstone is to be lifted, you may have to lift it and steady it on your knee and then place it on the wall, or the wall may be of such a height as necessitates your lifting the stone first on the knee, then on the breast, and from there to the wall. Cloth being a poor protection where such work had to be done frequently, skin was used. " We must remember also that so far as the Cathedral Builders were concerned in Britain, as elsewhere, all building tradesmen were within the guild, carpenters and tylers; while the mason could never do without his blacksmith, and the aprons were doubtless of material suitable to their departments. Skin aprons were worn by operative masons well into the 19th century. R. W. Portgate, who refers to the matter in his Builder's History, page 19, writes: 'In 1824 nearly all the Glasgow Master Masons employed between 70 and 170 Journeymen Masons each. One of them, noted as very droulhy, is marked as being the last to wear a leather apron.' "That is the last of the masters who had now become what we know as 'the employer,'but, from reminiscences of old Masons I have listened to, it was used by setters and builders throughout Scotland up to a much later period.

" At the date of the formation of the Grand Lodge of England, the apron was white-no ornaments at first, and full size, similar in every respect to that of the Operative. In the first public account of a Masonic funeral, which appears in Read's Weekly Journal for January 12th, 1723, it is set forth that, 'Both the pallbearers and others were in their white aprons;'and in Hogarth's picture of Night, the Tyler is shown conducting the newly installed Master to his home, both wearing the long Apron of the Operative and with what appears to be the flap bundled or rolled mughly among the top, with strings coming to the front and keeping the whole in place.

"The first attempt to create uniformity in the apron appears to have been in 1731, when a motion covering the whole question was submitted to the Grand Lodge of England by Dr. Desagulier. The motion was submitted on March 17, and was carried unanimously. As that, however, only referred to one section of the Freemasons, even in England, it lid not appear to effect much alteration. At that time many of the aprons varied in form, and some were very costly and elaborately decorated, according to the fancy of the owners. But all this was altered at the Union of Grand Lodges in 1813, and as Brother F. J. W. Crowe points out, 'The clothing to be worn under the United Grand Lodge of England was clearly laid down according to present usage.'" In the Masonic apron two things are essential to the due preservation of its symbolic character-its color and its material.

1. As to its color. The color of a Freemason's apron should be pure unspotted white. This color has, in all ages and countries, been esteemed an emblem of innocence and purity. It was with this reference that a portion of the vestments of the Jewish priesthood was directed to be white. In the Ancient Mysteries the candidate was always clothed in white. "The priests of the Romans,''says Festus, ''were accustomed to wear white garments when they sacrificed.'' In the Scandinavian Rites it has been seen that the shield presented to the candidate was white. The Druids changed the color of the garment presented to their initiates with each degree; white, however, was the color appropriated to the last, or degree of perfection. And it was, according to their ritual, intended to teach the aspirant that none were admitted to that honor but such as were cleansed from all impurities both of body and mind.

In the early ages of the Christian church a white garment was always placed upon the catechumen who had been newly baptized, to denote that he had been cleansed from his former sins, and was thence-forth to lead a life of purity. Hence it was presented to him with this solemn charge: "Receive the white and undefiled garment, and produce it unspotted before the tribunal of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you may obtain eternal life."

From all these instances we learn that white apparel was anciently used as an emblem of purity, and for this reason the color has been preserved in the apron of the Freemason.

2. as to its material. A Freemason's apron must be made of lambskin. No other substance, such as linen, silk, or satin, could be substituted without entirely destroying the emblematic character of the apron, for the material of the Freemason's apron constitutes one of the most important symbols of his profession. The lamb has always been considered as an appropriate emblem of innocence. Hence we are taught, in the ritual of the First Degree, that, "by the lambskin, the Mason is reminded of that purity of life and rectitude of conduct which is so essentially necessary to his gaining admission into the Celestial Lodge above, where the Supreme Architect of the Universe forever presides.''

The true apron of a Freemason must, then, be of unspotted lambskin, from fourteen to sixteen inches wide, from twelve to fourteen deep, with a fall about three or four inches deep, square at the bottom, and without device or ornament of any kind. The usage of the Craft in the United States of America has, for a few years past, allowed a narrow edging of blue ribbon in the symbolic degrees, to denote the universal friendship which constitutes the bond of the society, and of which virtue blue is the Masonic emblem. But this undoubtedly is an innovation, in the opinion of Doctor Mackey, for the ancient apron was without any edging or ornament. The Grand Lodge of Massachusetts has adopted a law that "The Apron of a Master Mason shall be a plain white lambskin, fourteen inches wide by twelve inches deep.

The Apron may be adorned with sky blue lining and edging, and three rosettes of the same color. No other color shall be allowed, and no other ornament shall be worn except by officers and past officers.

In the Royal Arch Degree the lambskin, of course, continues to be used, but, according to the same modern custom, there is an edging of red, to denote the zeal and fervency which should distinguish the possessors of that degree.

All extraneous ornaments and devices are in bad taste, and detract from the symbolic character of the investiture. But the silk or satin aprons, bespangled and painted and embroidered, which have been gradually creeping into our Lodges, have no sort of connection with Ancient Craft Freemasonry. They are an innovation of our French Brethren, who are never pleased with simplicity, and have, by their love of display in their various newly invented ceremonies, effaced many of the most beautiful and impressive symbols of our Institution. A Freemason who understands and appreciates the true symbolic meaning of his apron, would no more tolerate a painted or embroidered satin one than an artist would a gilded statue. By him, the lambskin, and the lambskin alone, would be considered as the badge "more ancient than the Golden Fleece, or Roman Eagle, and more honorable than the Star and Garter. " The Grand Lodge of England is precise in its regulations for the decorations of the apron which are thus laid down in its Constitution:

"Entered Apprentices.-A plain white lambskin, from fourteen to sixteen inches wide, twelve to fourteen inches deep, square at bottom, and without ornament ;white strings. "Fellow Craft.-A plain white lambskin, similar to that of the Entered Apprentices, with the addition only of two sky-blue rosettes at the bottom.

"Master Masons.-The same, with sky-blue lining and edging, not more than two inches deep, and an additional rosette on the fall or flap, and silver tassels.

No other color or ornament shall be allowed except to officers and past officers of Lodges who may have the emblems of their offices in silver or white in the center of the apron ; and except as to the members of the Prince of Wales Lodge, No. 259, who are allowed to wear the internal half of the edging of garter-blue three-fourths of an inch wide.

"Grand Stewards, present and past-Aprons of the same dimensions lined with crimson, edging of the same color three and a half inches, and silver tassels.

Provincial and District Grand Stewards, present and past, the same, except that the edging is only two inches wide. The collars of the Grand Steward's Lodge to be crimson ribbon, four inches broad.

"Grand Officers of the United Grand Lodge, present and past.-Aprons of the same dimensions, lined with garter-blue, edging three and a half inches, ornamented with gold, and blue strings; and they may have the emblems of their offices, in gold or blue, in the center.

"Provincial Grand Officers, present and past.- Aprons of the same dimensions, lined with garter-blue, and ornamented with gold and with blue strings :

they must have the emblems of their offices in gold or blue in the center within a double circle, in the margin of which must be inserted the name of the Province.

The garter-blue edging to the aprons must not exceed two inches in width.

"The apron of the Deputy Grand Master to have the emblem of his office in gold embroidery in the center, and the pomegranate and lotus alternately embroidered in gold on the edging.

"The apron of the Grand Master is ornamented with the blazing sun embroidered in gold in the center; on the edging the pomegranate and lotus with the seveneared wheat at each comer, and also on the fall; all in gold embroidery; the fringe of gold bullion. "The apron of the Pro Grand Master the same.

''The Masters and Past Masters of Lodges to wear, in the place of the three rosettes on the Master Mason's apron, perpendicular lines upon horizontal lines, thereby forming three several sets of two right angles ; the length of the horizontal lines to be two inches and a half each, and of the perpendicular lines one inch; these emblems to be of silver or of ribbon, half an inch broad, and of the same color as the lining and edging of the apron. If Grand Officers, similar emblems of garter-blue or gold."

In the United States, although there is evidence in some old aprons, still existing, that rosettes were formerly worn, there are now no distinctive decorations for the aprons of the different symbolic degrees.

The only mark of distinction is in the mode of wearing ; and this differs in the different jurisdictions, some wearing the Master's apron turned up at the corner, and others the Fellow Craft's. The authority of Cross, in his plate of the Royal Master's Degree in the older editions of his Hieroglyphic Chart, conclusively shows that he taught the former method.

As we advance to the higher degrees, we find the apron varying in its decorations and in the color of in border, which are, however, always symbolical of some idea taught in the degree.

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APPRENTICE DEGREES

Thory gives this list of the various rites:

1. Apprentice Architect; Apprenti Architecte, a Grade in title collection of Fustier.
2. Apprentice Perfect ,Architect; Apprenti Architecte Parfait, in Le Page's collection.
3. Apprentice Prussian Architect ; Apprenti Arehitecte Prussien, in Le Page's colleetion.
4. Apprentice Cabalistic; Apprenti Cabalistique.
5. Apprentice Cohen; Apprenti Coën: these two in the archives of the Mother Lodge of the Philosophic Scottish Rite.
6. Apprentice Egyptian ; Apprenti Egyptien, the First Degree of the Egyptian Rite of Cagliostro.
7. Apprentice of Paracelsus; Apprenti de Paracelse, found in the collection of Peuvret.
8. Apprentice of Egyptian Secrets; Apprenti des Secrets Egyptiens, the First Grade of the African Architects.
9. Apprentice Scottish; Apprenti Ecossais.
10.Apprentice Scottish Trinitarian ; Apprenti Ecossais Trinitaire, in the collection of Pyron.
11.Apprentice Hermetie; Apprenti Hermétique, the Third Grade, Ninth Series, of the Metropolitan Chapter of France.
12.Apprentice Mystical; Apprenti Mystique, grade in the collection of Pyron.
13.Apprentice Philosophical, or Number Nine; Apprenti Philosophique ou Nombre Neuf, a Grade in Peuvret's collection.
14.Apprentice Philosophical Hermetic; Apprenti Philosophique Hermétique.
15.Apprentice Philosophical by the Number Three; Apprenti Philosophique par le Nombre Trois.
16.Apprentice Theosophical; Apprenti Théosophe, name of a Swedenborgian Rite.

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APPRENTICE, EGYPTIAN

The French being Apprenti, Egyptien. The First Degree of the Egyptian Rite of Cagliostro.

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APPRENTICE, ENTERED

The First Degree of Freemasonry, in all the rites, is that of Entered Apprentice. In French it is called apprenti; in Spanish, aprendiz; in Italian, apprendente; and in German, lehrling; in all of which the radical or root meaning of the word is a learner.

Like the lesser Mysteries of the ancient initiations, it is in Freemasonry a preliminary degree, intended to prepare the candidate for the higher and fuller instructions of the succeeding degrees. It is, therefore, although supplying no valuable historical information, replete, in its lecture, With instructions on the internal structure of the Order.

Until late in the seventeenth century, Apprentices do not seem to have been considered as forming any part of the confraternity of Free and Accepted Masons.

Although Apprentices are incidentally mentioned in the 01d Constitutions of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, these records refer only to Masters and Fellows as constituting the Craft, and this distinction seems to have been one rather of position than of degree. The Sloane Manuscript, No. 3,329, which Findel supposes to have been written at the end of the seventeenth century, describes a just and perfect Lodge as consisting of "two Enteredapentics, two Fellow Crafts, and two Masters," which shows that by that time the Apprentices had been elevated to a recognized rank in the Fraternity.

In the Manuscript signed "Mark Kipling,'' which Hughan entitles the York Manuscript, No. 4, the date of which is 1693, there is a still further recognition in what is there called "the Apprentice Charge," one item of which is, that "he shall keep council in all things spoken in Lodge or chamber by any Masons, Fellows, or Freemasons." This indicates they had close communion with members of the Craft. But notwithstanding these recognitions, all the manuscripts up to 1704 shlow that only "Masters and Fellows" were summoned to the Assembly.

During all this time, when Freemasonry was in fact an operative art, there was but one Degree in the modern sense of the word. Early. in the eighteenth century, if not earlier, Apprentices must have been admitted to the possession of this Degree ; for after what is called the revival of 1717, Entered Apprentices constituted the bulk of the Craft, and they only were initiated in the Lodges, the Degrees of Fellow Craft and Master Mason being conferred by the Grand Lodge.

This is not left to conjecture. The thirteenth of the General Regulations, approved in 1721, says that "Apprentices must be admitted Masters and Fellow Crafts only in the Grand Lodge, unless by a Dispensation."

But this in practice, having been found very inconvenient, on the 22d of November, 1725, the Grand Lodge repealed the article, and decreed that the Master of a Lodge, with his Wardens and a competent number of the Lodge assembled in due form, can make Masters and Fellows at discretion.
The mass of the Fraternity being at that time composed of Apprentices, they exercised a great deal of influence in the legislation of the Order; for although they could not represent their Lodge in the Quarterly Communications of the Grand Lodge---a duty which could only be discharged by a Master or Fellow-yet they were always permitted to be present at the grand feast, and no General Regulation could be altered or repealed Without their consent; and, of course, in all the business of their particular Lodges, they took the most prominent part, for there were but few Masters or Fellows in a Lodge, in consequence of the difficulty and inconvenience of obtaining the Degree, which could only be done at a Quarterly Communication of the Grand Lodge.
But as soon as the subordinate Lodges were invested with the power of conferring all the Degrees, the Masters began rapidly to increase in numbers and in corresponding influence. And now, the bulk of the Fraternity consisting of Master Masons, the legislation of the Order is done exclusively by them, and the Entered Apprentices and Fellow Crafts have sunk into comparative obscurity, their Degrees being considered only as preparatory to the greater initiation of the Master's Degree.

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APPRENTICE, HERMETIC

The French is Apprenti Hermétique. The Thirteenth Degree, ninth series, of the collection of the Metropolitan Chapter of France.

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APPRENTICE MASON

The French is Apprenti Maçon. The Entered Apprentice of French Freemasonry.

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APPRENTICE MASONESS

The French is Apprentie Maçonne. The First Degree of the French Rite of Adoption. The word Masoness is a neologism, perhaps an unsanctioned novelty, but it is in accordance with the genius of our language, and it is difficult to know how else to translate into English the French word Maçonne, which means a woman who has received the Degrees of the Rite of Adoption, unless by the use of the awkward phrase, Female Freemason. To express this idea, we might introduce as a technicality the word Masoness.

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APPRENTICE MASONESS, EGYPTIAN

The French is Apprentie Maçonne Egyptienne. The First Degree of Cagliostro's Egyptian Rite of Adoption.

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APPRENTICE, MYSTIC

The French is Apprenti Mystique. A Degree in the collection of M. Pyron.

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APPRENTICE OF PARACELSUS.

The French is Apprenti de Paracelse. A Degree in the collection of M. Peuvret. There existed a series of these Paracelsian Degrees---Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master. They were all most probably forms of Hermetic Freemasonry.

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APPRENTICE OF THE EGYPTIAN SECRETS

The French is Apprenti des secrets Egyptiens. The First Degree of the Order of African Architects.

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APPRENTICE PHILOSOPHER, BY THE NUMBER 3

The French is Apprenti Philosophe par le Nombre 3. A Degree in the collection of M. Peuvret.

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APPRENTICE PHILOSOPHER, HERMETIC

The French is Apprenti Philosophe Herm‚tique. A degree in the collection of M. Peuvret.

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APPRENTICE PHILOSOPHER TO THE NUMBER 9

The French is Apprenti Philosophe au Nombre 9. A Degree in the collection of M. Peuvret.

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APPRENTICE PILLAR

See Prentice Pillar

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APPRENTICE, SCOTTISH

The French is Apprenti Ecossais. This Degree and that of Trinitarian Scottish Apprentice, which in French is Apprenti Ecossais Trinitaire, are contained in the collection of Pyron.

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APPRENTICE THEOSOPHIST

The French is Apprenti Théosophe. The First Degree of the Rite of Swedenborg.

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APPRENTI ET COMPAGNON DE SAINT ANDRE

French for Apprentice and Companion of Saint Andrew, the Fourth Grade of the Swedish system. The Fifth Grade is known as Maître de Saint André or Master of Sint Andrew, and the Ninth Degree being known as Les Favoris de Saint Andréé (the Favored of Saiut Andrew), sometimes called Knight of the Purple Band or Collar.

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APRON LECTURE

The coming years may bring to you success,
The victory laurel wreath may deck your brow,
And you may feel Love's hallowed caress,
And have withal domestic tenderness,
And fortune's god may smile on you as now,
And jewels fit for Eastern potentate
Hang over your ambitious heart, and Fate
May call thee ''Prince of Men,'' or ''King of Hearts,''
While Cupid strives to pierce you with his darts.
Nay, even more than these, with coming light
Your feet may press fame's loftiest dazzling height,
And looking down upon the world below
You may exclaim, "I can not greater grow!"
But, nevermore, O worthy Brother mine,
Can innocence and purity combine
With all that's sweet and tender here below
As in this emblem which I now bestow.
'Tis yours to wear throughout a life of Love,
And when your spirit wings to realms above
'Twill with your cold clay rest beneath the sod,
While breeze-kissed flowers whisper of your God.
O, may its stainless, spotless surface be
An emblem of that perfect purity
Distinguished far above all else on earth
And sacred as the virtue of the hearth,
And when at last your naked soul shall stand
Before the throne in yon great temple grand,
O, may it be your portion there to hear"Well done," and find a host of brothers near
To join the angel choir in glad refrain
Till Northeast comer echoes come again
Then while the hosts in silent grandeur stand
The Supreme Builder smiling in command
Shall say to you to whom this emblem's given,
"Welcome art thou to all the joys of heaven."
And then shall dawn within your 'lightened soul
The purpose divine that held control-
The full fruition of the Builder's plan-
The Fatherhood of God-The Brotherhood of man.

The above lines were written by Captain Jack Crawford for Dr. Walter C. Miller of Webb's Lodge No. 166, Augusta, Georgia.

" . . . Lambskin or white leathern apron. It is an emblem of innocence and the badge of a Mason: more ancient than the Golden Fleece or Roman Eagle, and when worthily worn, more honorable than the Star and a Garter, or any other Order that can be conferred upon you at this or any future period by king, prince, potentate, or any other person, except he be a Mason and within the Body of a just and legally constituted Lodge of such.

"It may be that, in the years to come, upon your head shall rest the laurel wreaths of victory ;
pendant from your breast may hang jewels fit to grace the diadem of an eastern potentate ; yea, more than these : for with the coming light your ambitious feet may tread round after round the ladder that leads to fame in our mystic circle, and even the purple of our Fraternity may rest upon your honored shoulders; but never again by mortal hands, never again until your enfranchised spirit shall have passed upward and inward through the gates of pearl, shall any honor so distinguished, so emblematic of purity and all perfection, be bestowed upon you as this, which I now confer. It is yours; yours to wear through an honorable life, and at your death to be placed upon the coffin which contains your earthly remains, , and with them laid beneath the silent clods of the valley.

"Let its pure and spotless surface be to you an ever-present reminder of 'purity of life, of rectitude of conduct,' a never-ending argument for higher thoughts, for nobler deeds, for greater achievements; and when at last your weary feet shall have reached the end of their toilsome journey, and from your nerveless grasp forever drop the working tools of a busy life, may the record of your life and conduct be as pure and spotless as this fair emblem which I place within your hands tonight; and when your trembling soul shall stand naked and alone before the great white throne, there to receive judgment for the deeds done while here in the body, may it be your portion to hear from Him who sitteth as Judge Supreme these welcome words: 'Well done, thou good and faithful servant, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord.'

"I charge you-take it, wear it with pleasure to yourself and honor to the Fraternity."

The above is from the New Kentucky Monitor arranged by Brother Henry Pirtle, 1918, for the Grand Lodge of that State.

"This emblem is now yours ; to wear, we hope, with equal pleasure to yourself, and honor to the Fraternity.

If you disgrace it, the disgrace will be augmented by the consciousness that you have been taught, in this Lodge, the principles of a correct and manly life. It is yours to wear as a Mason so long as the vital spark shall animate your mortal frame, and at last, whether in youth, manhood or age, your spirit having Winged its flight to that 'House not made with hands,' when amid the tears and sorrows of surviving relatives and friends, and by the hands of sympathizing Brother Masons, your body shall be lowered to the confines of that narrow house appointed for all living, it will still be yours, yours to be placed with the evergreen upon the coffin that shall enclose your remains, and to be buried with them.

"My Brother, may you so wear this emblem of spotless white that no act of yours shall ever stain its purity, or cast a reflection upon this ancient and honorable institution that has outlived the fortunes of Kings and the mutations of Empires.

May you so wear it and "
So live, that when thy summons comes to join
The innumerable caravan that moves
To the pale realms of shade, where each shall take
His chamber in the silent halls of death,
Thou go not, like the quarry slave at night,
Scourged to his dungeon, but, austained and soothed
By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave
Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams."

The above extract is from the Shaver Monitor, compiled by Brothers William M. Shaver, Past Grand Master, and Albert K. Wilson, Grand Secretary, of the Grand Lodge of Kansas. The concluding lines of verse are from William Cullen Bryant's famous poem Thanatopsis.

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APRONS, GEORGE WASHINGTON'S MASONIC

Two aprons of a Masonic and historic character were owned by General George Washington. One of these was brought to this country by our Masonic Brother, the Marquis de Lafayette, in1784.
An object of his visit was to present to General Washington a beautiful white satin apron bearing the National colors, red, white and blue, and embroidered elaborately with Masonic emblems, the whole being the handiwork of Madame la Marquise de Lafayette.

This apron, according to Brother Julius F. Sachse in his book, History of Brother General Lafayette's Fraternal Connections with the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania (page 5), was enclosed in a handsome rosewood box when presented to Brother George Washington.

Another apron was presented to General Washington. This gift was also made in France and the similarity of purpose and of origin has caused some confusion as to the identity of the two aprons that happily were preserved and proudly cherished by their later owners after the death of Brother Washington.

The gift of the second apron was due to the fraternal generosity of Brother Elkanah Watson and his partner, M. Cassoul, of Nantes, France. The name Cassoul in the old records is also spelled Cossouland Cosson. Watson and Cassoulacted as confidential agents abroad for the American Government during the revolutionary period, the former being also a bearer of dispatches to Dr. Benjamin Franklin.

Brother Sachse, in the above-mentioned work, quotes Brother Watson from a book Men and Times of the Revolution, or Memoirs of Elkanah Watson, (New York, 1856, pages 135-6), as follows: "Wishing to pay some mark of respect to our beloved Washington, I employed, in conjunction with my friend M. Cossoul, nuns in one of the convents at Nantes to prepare some elegant Masonic ornaments and gave them a plan for combining the American and French flags on the apron designed for this use.

They were executed in a superior and expensive style. We transmitted them to America, accompanied by an appropriate address."

An autograph reply to the address was written by Brother Washington and this letter was purchased from the Watson family and thus came into the possession of the Grand Lodge of New York.

The Washington apron owned by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania was first given by the legatees of Brother George Washington to the Washington Benevolent Society on October 26, 1816, sind was presented to the Grand Lodge on July 3, 1829.

The other Washington apron and sash came into the possession of Alexandria Washington Lodge No. 22, at Alexandria, Virginia, on June 3, 1812, and as recorded in the Lodge of Washington (page 90), were presented, with the box made in France which contained them, by Major Lawrence Lewis, a nephew of Washington, on behalf of his son, Master Lorenzo Lewis. The pamphlet, George Washington the Man and the Mason, prepared by the Research Committee, Brother C. C. Hunt, Chairman, of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, 1921, raises the question as to the number of degrees conferred upon Brother Washington.

Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, Fredericksburg, Virginia, where Brother Washington received his Masonic Degrees, conferred the Royal Arch Degree under the authority of its Lodge Warrant. In fact, the first known record of this degree being conferred anywhere is in the Minutes of this Lodge under date of December 22, 1753.

There is a reference to the degree by the Grand Committee of the Ancient, September 2, 1752, and the books of Vernon Lodge, No. 123, Coleraine in Ireland, show that "a Master and Royal Arch Mason" was proposed for membership, April 16, 1752, and also that a Royal Arch reception was held on March 11, 1745 (see Miscellanea Latomorum, volume ix, page 138). On the flap of the apron presented to Washington are the familiar letters H T W S S T K S arranged in the usual circular form. Within the circle is a beehive which may indicate the Mark selected by the wearer.

The above pamphlet points out that as this apron was made especially for Washington it is probable that he was a Mark Master Mason at least, and that it is not likely that this emblem would have been placed on the apron had the facts been otherwise. Certainly the beehive as an emblem of industry was an appropriate Mark for Washington to select.

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APULEIUS, LUCIUS

Roman author, born at Madaura in northern Africa about 125 to 130 A.D. Well educated, widely traveled, he became notable as lecturer and advocate at Rome and Carthage.

Accused of Witchcraft by the relatives of a rich widow he had married, he made a spirited and entertaining defense that is still in existence, and tells us something of his life. His chief work, the Metamorphoses or Golden Ass, tells of the adventures of the hero in the form of an ass but who is restored to human shape by the goddess Isis, his initiation into the Mysteriesais described and his progress in the priesthood discussed; he became a provincial priest, collected the temple funds and administered them. The works of Apuleius are valuable for the light they throw upon ancient manners and references to them during the centuries by Saint Augustine and others show the interest this writer excited in his studies of religion, philosophy and magic.

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ARABIA

This country is a peninsula forming the southwestern extreme of Asia. The Lodge of Integrity attached to the 14th Regiment of Foot, warranted June 17, 1846, and constituted on October 20 at Halifax, Nova Scotia, the same year, met in1878 at Aden.
There is at present in existence a Lodge at Aden chartered by the Grand Lodge of Scotland under the name of Felix Lodge.

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ARABICI

An Arabian sect of the second century, who believed that the soul died with the body, to be again revived with it at the general resurrection.

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ARANYAKA

An appendage to the Veda of the Indians supplementary to the Brahmanas, but giving more prominence to the mystical sense of the rites of worship.

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ARAUNAH

See Ornan

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ARBITRATION

In the Old Charges Freemasons are advised, in all cases of dispute or controversy, to submit to the arbitration of the Masters and Fellows, rather than to go to law.

For example, the Old Charges, adopted by the Grand Lodge of Ohio as part of the Constitution of that Masonic Jurisdiction, provide in the Code and Supplement of 1914 and 1919 (page16), that "Finally, all these Charges you are to observe, and also those that shall be communicated to you in another way ; cultivating Brotherly-Love, the foundation and Cap-stone, the Cement and Glory of this ancient Fraternity, avoiding all Wrangling and Quarreling, all Slander and Backbiting, nor permitting others to slander any honest Brother, but defending his Character, and doing him all good Offices, as far as is consistent with your Honor and safety, and no farther. And if any of them do you Injury, you must apply to your own or his Lodge ; and from thence you may appeal to the Grand Lodge at the Quarterly Communication, and from thence to the annual Grand Lodge; as has been the ancient laudable Conduct of our Forefathers in every Nation ; never taking a legal Course but when the Case cannot be otherwise decided, and patiently listening to the honest and friendly Advice of Master and Fellows, when they would prevent you going to Law with strangers, or would excite you to put a speedy Period to all Law Suits, that so you may mind the Affair of Masonry with the more Alacrity and Success;

but with respect to Brothers or Fellows at Law, the Master and Brethren should kindly offer their Mediation, which ought to be thankfully submitted to by the contending Brethren, and if that submission is impracticable, they. must however carry on their Process, or Law-suit, without Wrath and Rancor, (not in the common way,) saying or doing nothing which may hinder Brotherly-Love, and good Offices to be renewed and continued; that all may see the benign Influence of Masonry, as all true Masons have done from the Beginning of the World, and will do to the End of Time."

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ARBROATH, ABBEY OF

Erected in Scotland during the twelfth century. Rev. Charles Cordinet, in his description of the mins of North Britain, has given an account of a seal of the Abbey Arbroath marked ''Initiation.'' The seal was ancient before the abbey had an existence, and contains a perfectly distinct characteristic of the Scottish Rite. The town is also known as Aberbrotack and is a seaport in Forfarshire.

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ARCADE DE LA PELLETERIE

The name of derision even to the Orient tif Clermont in France, that is to say, to the Old Grand Lodge, before the union in 1799.

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ARCANA

Latin, meaning secrets or inner mystery.

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ARCANI DISCIPLINA

The mode of initiation into the primitive Christian church (see Discipline of the Secret).

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ARCH, ANTIQUITY OF THE

Writers on architecture have, until within a few years, been accustomed to suppose that the invention of the arch and keystone was not before the era of Augustus. But the researches of modern antiquaries have traced the existence of the arch as far back as 460 years before the building of King Solomon's Temple, and thus rescued Masonic traditions from the charge of anachronism or error in date (see Keystone).

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ARCH, CATENARIAN

See Catenarian Arch

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ARCH OF ENOCH

The Thirteenth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite is sometimes so called (see Knight of the Ninth Arch).

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ARCH OF HEAVEN

Job (xxvai, 11) compares heaven to an arch supported by pillars. "The pillars of heaven tremble and are astonished at his reproof."

Doctor Cutbush, on this passage, remarks, "The arch in this instance is allegorical, not only of the arch of heaven, but of the higher degree of Masonry, commonly called the Holy Royal Arch. The pillars which support the arch are emblematical of Wisdom and Strength; the former denoting the wisdom of the Supreme Architect, and the latter the stability of the Universe" (see the American edition of Brewster's Encyclopedia).

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ARCH OF SOLOMON, ROYAL

The Thirteenth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Rite is sometimes so called, by which it is distinguished fiom the Royal Arch Degree of the English and American systems.

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ARCH OF STEEL

The grand honors are conferred, in the French Rite, by two ranks of Brethren elevating and crossing their drawn swords. They call it in French the Voute d'Acier.

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ARCH OF ZERUBBABEL, ROYAL

The seventh Degree of the American Rite is sometimes so called to distinguish it from the Royal Arch of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, which is called the Royal Arch of Solomon.

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ARCH, ROYAL

See Royal Arch Degree

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ARCHEOLOGY

The science which is engaged in ahe study of those minor branches of antiquities which do not enter into the course of general history, such as national architecture, genealogies, manners, customs heraldic subjects, and others of a similar nature.'The archaeology of Freemasonry has been made within a recent period, a very interesting study, and is much indebted for its successful pursuit to the labors of Kloss, Findel, and Begemann in Germany, and to Thory and Ragon in France, and to Oliver, Lyon, Hughan, Gould, Sadler, Dr. Chetwode Crawley, Hawkins, Songhurst, and others in Great Britain.

The scholars of this science have especially directed their attention to the collection of old records, and the inquiry into the condition and organization of Masonic and other secret associations during the Middle Ages. In America, William S Rockwell, Albert Pike and Enoch Carson were diligent students of Masonic archeology, and several others in the United States have labored assiduously in the same inviting field.

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ARCHETYPE

The principal type, figure, pattern, or example whereby and whereon a thing is formed. In the science of symbolism, the archetype is the thing adopted as a symbol, whence the symbolic idea is derived. Thus, we say the Temple is the archetype of the Lodge, because the former is the symbol whence all the Temple symbolism of the latter is derived.

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ARCHIMAGUS

The chief officer of the Mithraic Mysteries in Persia. He was the representative of Ormudz, or Ormazd, the type of the good, the true, and the beautiful, who overcame Ahriman, the spirit of evil, of the base, and of darkness.

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ARCHITECT

In laying the corner-stones of Masonic edifices, and in dedicating them after they are finished, the architect of the building, although he may be a profane, is required to take a part in the ceremonies. In the former case, the square, level, and plumb are delivered to him with a charge by the Grand Master; and in the latter case they are returned by him to that officer.

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ARCHITECT, AFRICAN

See African Architects

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ARCHITECT, ENGINEER AND

An officer in the French Rite, whose duty, it is to take charge of the fumiture of the Lodge. In the Scottish Rite such officer in the Consistory has charge of the general arrangement of all preparatory matters for the working or ceremonial of the degrees.

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ARCHITECT BY 3, 5, AND 7, GRAND

The French expression is Grande Architecte par 3, 5, et 7. A degree in the manuscript of Peuvret's collection.

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ARCHITECT, GRAND

The French expression is Grande Architecte and is used in reference to the following:
1. The Sixth Degree of the Rite of Martinism.
2. The Fourth Degree of the Rite of Elect Cohens.
3. The Twenty-third Degree of the Rite of Mizraim.
4. The Twenty-fourth Degree of the third series in the collection of the Metropolitan Chapter of France.

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ARCHITECT, GRAND MASTER

See Grand Master Architect

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ARCHITECT, LITTLE

The French expression is Petit Architecte and refers to the following :
1. The Twenty-third Degree of the third series of the collection of the Metropolitan Chapter of Franee.
2. The Twenty-second Degree of the Rite of Mizraim.

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ARCHITECT OF SOLOMON
The French expression is Architecte de Salomon. A degree in the manuscript collection of M. Peuvret.

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ARCHITECT, PERFECT

The French phrase is, Parfait Architecte. The Twenty-fifth, Twenty-sixth, and Twenty-seventh Degrees of the Rite of Mizraim are Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Perfeet Architect.

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ARCHITECT, PERFECT AND SUBLIME GRAND

The French is Parfait et Sublime Grande Architecte. A degree in the collection of the Loge de Saint Louis des Amis Réunis at Calais.

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ARCHITECTONICUS

A Greek word, adopted in Latin, signifying belonging to architecture. Thus, Vitruvius writes, rationes architectonicae, meaning the rules of architecture.

But as Architecton signifies a Master Builder, the Grand Lodge of Scotland, in some Latin inscriptions, has used the word architectonicus, to denote Masonic or relating to Freemasonry. In the inscription on the corner-stone of the Royal Exchange of Edinburgh, we find fratres architectonici used for Freemasons; and in the Grand Lodge diplomas, a Lodge is called societas architectonica; but the usage of the word in this sense has not been generally adopted.

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ARCHITECTURE

The urge toward art of constructing dwellings, as a shelter from the heat of summer and the cold of winter, must have been resorted to from the very first moment in which man became subjected to the power of the elements. Architecture is, therefore, not only one of the most important, but one of the most ancient of sciences. Rude and imperfect must, however, have been the first efforts of the human race, resulting in the erection of huts clumsy in their appearance, and ages must have elapsed ere wisdom of design combined strength of material with beauty of execution.
As Geometry is the science on which Freemasonry is founded, Architecture is the art from which it borrows the language of its symbolic instruction. In the earlier ages of the Order every Freemason was either an operative mechanic or a superintending architect.

Therefore something more than a superficial knowledge of the principles of architecture is absolutely essential to the Freemason who would either understand the former history of the Institution or appreciate its present objects.

There are five orders of architecture: the Doric, the Ionic, the Corinthian, the Tuscan, and the Composite. The first three are the original orders, and were invented in Greece; the last two are of later formation, and owe their existence to Italy. Each of these orders, as well as the other terms of architecture, so far as they are connected with Freemasonry, will be found under its appropriate head throughout this work.

The Books of Constitutions, commenced by Anderson and continued by Entick and Noorthouck, contain, under the title of a History of Freemasonry, in reality a history of the progress of architecture from the earliest ages. In the older manuscript, Constitutions, the science of Geometry, as well as Architecture, is made identical with Freemasonry; so that he who would rightly understand the true history of Freemasonry must ever bear in mind the distinction between Geometry, Architecture, and Freemasonry, which is constantly. lost sight of in these old records.

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ARCHITECTURE, PIECE OF

The French expression is Morçeau d'architecture. The name given in French Lodges to the Minutes and has also been applied to the literary, musical, or other contributions of any Brother and especialiy to such offerings by a new member.

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ARCHIVES

This word means, properly, a place of deposit for records; but it means also the records themselves. Hence the archives of a Lodge are its records and other documents. The legend in the Second Degree, that the pillars of the Temple were made hollow to contain the archives of Freemasonry is simply a myth, and a modern one.

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ARCHIVES, GRAND GUARDIAN OF THE

An officer in the Grand Council of Rites of Ireland who performs the duties of Secretary General.

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ARCHIVES, GRAND KEEPER OF THE

An officer in some of the Bodies of the advanced degrees a whose duties are indicated by the name. In the Grand Orient of France he is called Grand Garde des Timbres et Sceaux, as he combines the duties of a keeper of the archives and a keeper of the seals.

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ARCHIVISTE

An officer in French Lodges who has charge of the archives. The Germans call him the Archivar.

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ARDAREL

A word in the advanced degrees, used as the name of the angel of fire. It is a distorted form of Adariel, or aw-dar-ale, meaning in Hebrew the splendor of God.

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ARELIM

A word used in some of the rituals of the advanced degrees. It is found in Isaiah (xxxiii, 7), where it is translated, in the authorized version, "valiant ones," and by Lowth, ''mighty men.'' It is a doubtful word, and is probably formed from Ariel, meaning in Hebrew the lion of God. D'Herbelot says that Mohammed called his uncle Hamseh, on account of his valor, the lion of God. In the Cabala, Arelim is the name of the third angel or sephirah, one of the ten attributes of God.

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ARCHITECTURE, FIRST & CHIEF GROUNDES OF

In the year of our Lord 1912 Laurence Weaver, F.S.A., Hon. A.R.I.B.A., set up for himself a fair and durable monument by reproducing an exact facsimile of the original edition of The First & Chief Grounds of Architecture, by John Shute, Paynter and Archytecte.' First Printed in 1663. lt is the first book, known to exist, to have been printed on architecture in England. In 1550, the Duke of Cumberland sent Shute "to confer with the doings of the skilul masters in architecture" in Italy, and he was probably abroad for two or three years.

He had his book ready for print in 1553, but the Duke losing his head that year for a conspiracy against Bloody Queen Mary it was delayed until 1563, the year of its author's own death. This was seven years before the publication of Palladio's treatise at Venice in 1570 (sundry old London Lodges studied Palladio), which, when Inigo Jones brought it back with him from his tour in Italy, was, via Jones' own genius, to transform English architecture ; and incidentally was to leave certain permanent traces in the Ritual of Speculative Masonry. lt is very curious that Shute wrote out a " Discourse on the beginnings of Architecture" which is reminiscent of the Legend in our Old Charters, one that is equally fabulous, though from Greek sources, and doubtless picked up in Italy.

The extraordinary interest of Shute's book to Freemasons is that it consists wholly (after an Introductory treatise) of chapters illustrated by himself (it is thought he may have been the first English engraver) on the Five Orders, one to each Order in turn.

A path of history lies from Shute to Inigo Jones to Sir Christopher Wren, and-very possibly-to William Preston ! In the Minutes of Lodge of Antiquity, No. 2, Nov. 27,1839 is this entry: "Mr. Elmes, the Architect," gave 'the Lodge the opportunity of buying, "a set of Five Columns representing the five Orders in Architecture which belonged originally to Brother Sir Christopher Wren, and were made use of by him at the time he presided over the Lodge of Antiquity as W. Master." (The price asked was 5200.) Preston was Master of the same Lodge ; he and its members studied Palladio together ; it is easy to believe that the lecture he wrote on the Five Orders, still in our Webb Preston work, was there and then suggested.

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ARS QUATUOR CORONATORUM

Ars Quatuor Coronatorum are the volumes of Transactions published each year since its constitution in 1886 by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research, No. 2076, London, England.
They contain the treatises read before the Lodge, discussions, Minutes of the Lodge,
miscellaneous short articles, many illustrations as informative as the text, book reviews, obituaries, lists of members, etc. The typical treatise is a one-part essay (though some are of two or more parts) prepared with much care and labor by a specialist in some chosen field of Masonic study or research; it usually contains a bibliography, and is followed by discussions, written out with care and oftentimes in advance, which have in many instances been as weighty and as instructive as the treatise they have criticized.

Treatises and discussions both are independent, responsible, uncolored by personal feelings ; are critical of each other. With their more than fifty volumes the Ars are now a larger set of books than the Encyclopedia Britannica, and perform the function for Masonic knowledge that is performed by the Britannica and similar works for general knowledge; since almost every contributor to the Ars has been a trained scholar, at least has been a specialist in some field of scholarship, the academic standards are higher than those of popular encyclopedias.

Book dealers' catalogs for 1945 (to give one year for purposes of comparison) list complete sets at from $500 to $ 1200. Masonic students however need not wholly deny themselves ownership of Ars because the lack of early volumes has created a scarcity value for the whole set ; there is no continuity from one volume to another, therefore without reader's loss he can start with whatever earliest volume he can find.

In its Masonic Papers, Vol. l, page 263, Research Lodge, No. 281, Seattle, Washington, publishes a complete Index of Ars Quatuor Coronatorum; Part I, an index of titles; Part II, an index of authors. The last item in Part I is numbered 770 ; this is somewhat in excess of the total number of treatises in A.C. because of cross-indexing and because inaugural Addresses, etc., are incltided. The treatises on Freemasonry in the United States (which is 200 years old and in which are some 90% of the Masons of the world) are: "Freemasonry in America," by C. P. Maccalla (very brief) ; III, p. 123. "The Carmick MS." (of Philadelphia), by WV. J. Hughan; XXII, pg5.
"Distribution in the U. S. of Anderson's Constitutions" (brief and incomplete), by Charles S. Plumb; XLIII, p. 227. "Josiah H. Drummond" (a short biographical sketch), by R. F. Gould ; X, p. 165. "Benjamin Franklin" (brief), by H. C. de Lafontaine ; XLI, p. 3. "Masonry in West Florida and the 31st Foot" (brief), by R. F. Gould; XIII, p. 69. "Morgan Incident of 1826," by J. Hugo Tatsch; XXXIV, p. 196. "Theodore Sutton Parvin" (brief biographical sketch), by R. F. Gould; XV, p. 29. "Albert Pike" (brief biographical sketch), by R. F. Gould ; lV, p. 116.

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ARTILLERY COMPANY, ANCIENT

Like the Worshipful Company of Musicians (which see) the history of the Ancient and Honorary Artillery Company of England runs a cotirse singularly parallel with the course of Masonic history, so that each throws light on the other.

The parent Company received its charter in England, in 1537. Because artillery was a modern invention (first used by the Turks when they captured Constantinople) this gild, "art," or society was not as ancient as others, but it claimed to be an integral part of the art of war, and on that ground had traditions and legends as old as any and older than most. A branch company was set up in Boston, Mass with a charter from the parent company dated January 13, 1638; the relation between the two was similar to the relations between an American Provincial Grand Lodge and the Grand Lodge at London. (see The Historic Book, by Justin H. Smith ; printed privately, by the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Co. .in Town of Boston ; 1903. )

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ASHLAR, PERFECT

The publication of a number of Minute Books of old Lodges since it was written calls for a revision of the paragraph on ASHLAR, on page 107. In one of his memoranda on the building of St. Paul s, Sir Christopher Wren shows by the context that as the word was there and then used an ashlar was a stone, ready-dressed from the quarries (costing about $5.00 in our money), for use in walls ; and that a "perpend asheler" was one with polished ends each of which would lie in a surface of the wall ; in that case a "rough" ashlar was not a formless mass of rock, but was a stone ready for use, no surface of which would appear in the building walls; it was unfinished in the sense of unpolished. In other records, of which only a few have been found, a "perpend" ashlar was of stone cut with a key in it so as to interlock with a second stone cut correspondingly.

It is doubtful if the Symbolic Ashlars were widely used among the earliest Lodges; on the other hand they are mentioned in Lodge inventories often enough to make it certain that at least a few of the old Lodges used them ; and since records were so meagerly kept it is possible that their use may have been more common than has been believed. On April 11, 1754, Old Dundee Lodge in Wapping, London, "Resolved that A New Perpend Ashlar Inlaid with Devices of Masonry Valued at £2 12s. 6d. be purchased. " The word ''new'' proves that the Lodge had used an Ashlar before 1754, perhaps for many years before; the word "devices" duggests long years of symbolic use.
It is obvious that the Ashlars as referred to in the above were not like our own Perfect and Imperfect Ashlars. It is certain that our use of them did not originate in America ; there are no known data to show when or where they originated, but it is reasonable to suppose that Webb received them from Preston, or else from English Brethren in person who knew the Work in Preston's period. Operative Masons doubtless used the word in more than one sense, depending on time and place ; and no rule can be based on their Practice.

The Speculative Masons after 1717, as shown above, must have used "Perfect Ashlar" in the sense of "Perpend Ashlar" ; nevertheless the general purpose of the symbolism has been the same throughout - a reminder to the Candidate that he is to think of himself as if he were a building stone and that he will be expected to polish himself in manners and character in order to find a place in the finished Work of Masonry. The contrast between the Rough Ashlar and the Perfect Ashlar is not as between one man and another man, thereby generating a snobbish sense of superiority; but as between what a man is at one stage of his own self-development and what he is at another stage.

In Sir Christopher Wren's use of "ashlar" (he was member of Lodge of Antiquity) the stone had a dimension of 1 x 1 x 2 feet; and many building records, some of them very old, mention similar dimensions; certainly, the "perpend" or "perfect" ashlar almost never was a cube, because there are few places in a wall where a cube will serve. Because in our own symbolism the Perfect Ashlar is a cube, a number of commentators on symbolism have drawn out of it pages of speculation on the properties of the cube, and on esoteric meanings they believe those properties to possess; the weight possessed by those theorizings is proportionate to the knowledge and intelligence of the commentator; but in any event these cubic interpretations do not have the authority of Masonic history behind them.

NOTE. During the many years of building and re-building at Westminster Abbey the clerk of the works kept a detailed account of money expended, money received, wages, etc. These records, still in existence, are called Fabric Rolls. In the Fabric Roll for 1253 the word "asselers" occurs many times, and means dressed stones, or ashlars. A "perpens" or "parpens," or "perpent-stone" was "a through stone," presumably because it was so cut that each end was flush with a face of the wall. It proves that "perpend ashlar" was not a "perfect ashlar" in the present sense of being a cube.

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ASHMOLE'S LODGE

Elias Ashmole was made a Mason in the Lodge at Warrington, in Lancashire, England, October 16, 1646. This event was for some decades given prominent space in Masonic histories, partly because of the great eminence of Ashmole himself (see page 107), more largely because in records then known Ashmole was the first of non-Operatives to be admitted to a Masonic Lodge.
It is odd that those who attributed this seniority to Ashmole did not see that the very document which proved Ashmole's acceptance proved also, and in the act, that others had been accepted before Ashmole! For in his Diary he writes that Col. Henry Mainwaring was accepted at the same time (thereby making him coeval) and also that other non-operatives already were in the Lodge and had been so from the beginning of it, among them Sankey, Littler, Ellam, etc., each one "a gentleman."

Ashmole's Diary therefore did not prove him to be the first, but proved the latter men to have been before him. (Richard Ellam described himself in his will as "Freemason.")

Whence came this Lodge? A reasonable answer is given on page 10 of The Time Immemorial Lodge at Chester, by John Armstrong (Chester; 1900) : "From the magnitude of the buildings in Chester we may safely assume that the Old Chester Lodge was of such strength, that like the Old Scotch Lodges, it threw off branches, and in this way the Old Warrington Lodge of Elias Ashmole would originate about the time the old church was built in that town. A number of Masons proceeding from Chester to Warrington, and as was the custom in those days would meet as a Lodge, looking up to Chester as the mother Lodge; here also when building operations ceased, non- Operatives were admitted and ultimately in 1646 we find it purely speculative and presided over by the gentry of the district.

The Warrington Lodge with its 7 members in 1646 as against 26 in the Chester Lodge points to Chester as being then the great seat of Masonry, as it had been from Roman times, the chief town and only borough in the North Western Provinces of England." The 26 members of the Lodge at Chester struck Bro. Armstrong as a show of "great strength" ; at the present remove in time it strikes a Mason by its smallness; for either there were few Masons in the county, or else only a small number belonged to the Lodge. If the latter was the case, perhaps the Lodge at Chester was itself "Speculative,'' or at least partly so? Of one fact it is reasonable to feel certain : the old Lodge at Chester would have neither approved nor countenanced a Speculative daughter Lodge at Warrington had it been an innovation ; which would mean that (a reasonable guess) at least as early as 1625 Speculative Freemasonry was nothing new in that area.

Why did Ashmole join the Lodge? It is known that he was interested in Rosicrucianism; Bro. Arthur Edward Waite argued from this that the Lodge itself must therefore have been a Rosicrucian center, and sought thereby to bolster his thesis that it had been an infiltration of Rosicrucianism and other forms of mysticism and occultism which had transformed the Craft from within from an Operative into a Speculative Fraternity. But why should he thus arbitrarily select Ashmole's interest in Rosicrucianism? Ashmole was also an encyclopedist, a natural museum maker, who had a long chain of interests ; any one of them as dear to him as what was the then (miscalled) Rosicrucianism, such as heraldry, rare books, Medieval manuscripts, alchemy;. astrology, Kabbalism, medals, ruins, folk-lore, old sciences, botany, old customs, architecture, and so on through half a hundred.

Perhaps, and remembering that he was both an intelligent and a sincere man, he joined the Lodge solely because he believed in Freemasonry itself as it already was; the fact would be consonant with his known plan to write a history of the Fraternity. Ashmole neither made nor changed the Lodge at Warrington ; and there were other members there and at Chester who were not Rosicrucians. It can be argued that Ashmole's own interest in Rosicrucianism was academic, and not for practice, like his interest in other subjects, and purstied in the spirit of the aritiquarian, the lover of erudition, the seeker for curiosa,'moreover he was a Christian, and was not likely to take up with heresies.

Against the notion that he was credulous, occultistic, superstitious in practice is a description of him when a student in Oxford: he "applied himself vigorously to the sciences, but more particularly to natural philosophy [physics and chemistry], mathematics and astronomy." The entry in the Diary begins: "1646. Oct. 16, 4 :30 P.M." (In his brochure, Elias Ashmole, Bro. Dudley Wright twice makes the error of giving the year as 1645.) The practices found in Lodges a half century later suggest that the ceremonies were followed by a dinner, or feast ; that the Brethren remained at table until late at night; and that portions of the ceremonies were given while seated. In their books and treatises Bros. Knoop and Jones have advanced the theory that in the Seventeenth Century the Ritual was a brief and bare ceremony, consisting of an oath and the giving of the Mason Word ; if that had been true it is difficult to understand why, as at Warrington, the "making" took so much time (that is but one of many difficulties in their theory). It is not likely that a group of seven men would meet together for six or seven hours as a Lodge merely to eat, drink, and talk together, because "gentlemen" of the times had large houses staffed with servants and were much given to entertainment where a mere social gathering would have been more convenient. It is more reasonable to believe that there were more ceremonies in 1646 than in 1746, not fewer ; the old Lodges kept no minutes or other records or else made them so brief that they are almost cryptic, but it does not follow that because the records were brief and bare, therefore the ceremonies had been brief and bare.

The entry also shows that Ashmole "was made a Free Mason" during this one meeting, and there is nothing to indicate that the ceremonies were shortened especially for him ; in the language of a later period he was Entered, Passed, and Raised at one time.

From this record, and from others like it, Hughan argued that the pre-1717 Lodges had only one Degree; Gould argued that there had been two Degrees but that they had been conferred one after the other at the same Communication, and that the names Fellowcraft and Master Mason were used interchangeably for the second step; and they both repeated at different places in their books the since-familiar phrases about how the pre-1717 ceremonies must have been bure, simple, brief, etc. It is a curious quirk of the historical fancy to assume that what came first always must have been rudimentary. In history it is often the other way about-the first Gothic building was extraordinarily large and rich and complex; the first printed books were better works of printing than any since, etc., etc. ; and it is certain that in the sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries men were much more given to elaborateness of ceremony than they ever have been since. (Read a detailed description of the ceremonies of receiving the Spanish Ambassador in which Shakespeare had a part ; it lasted four days.) It is more reasonable to believe that the Warrington Lodge met for five or six hours because the Masonic ceremonies were so full and rich than to believe that they consisted of nothing more than a password and an oath. When the post-1717 Lodges divided their ceremonies into three Degrees, the last was of itself so long that it contained what later was separated off into the Royal Arch Degree ; any student who is familiar with the workings of the Masonic mind in the earliest Lodges. knows that Masons did not manufacture hours of new ceremonies within eight or ten years of time, for one of their most powerful instincts was to preserve and to perpetuate the old.

The Hughan-Gould debate as between the ''one Degree " theory and the " two Degree " theory continues to be argued. As against both of those theories may be presented a third which shifts the argument to another ground, and for which (in these pages) the writer is solely responsible; it is more reasonable to think that until the approach of the 1717 period the Lodges did not have any Degrees-that is, separately organized and complete units of ceremonies, each with its own name; but that they had a large and indeterminate number of ceremonies, rites, symbols, among them being an oath for Apprentices, an oath for Fellowcrafts, etc. . that these ceremonies were used very flexibly so that a Lodge might use twice as many in one meeting as at another; and that they differed from one Lodge to another in many details, so that one Lodge might employ a ceremony (such as Installation of the Master) which another would not. This last named supposition would explain why there were side degrees and intimations of "higher" degrees (vide Dr. Stukeley; early records in Ireland, etc. ) before or at 1717. This theory would explain why it was that, soon after 1717, so many Lodges made Prentices and Fellows in one sitting, conducted Lodge business with Prentices present, had separate Masters' Lodges, and in the very early years of Speculative Lodges gave an immediate welcome to the formation of a separate Royal Arch Degree, to the Scotch Mason rites, etc. The probabilities are that on the day after his making Ashmole lid not think of himself as having passed through one Degree, or two Degrees, or even three, but as having been ''made a Free Mason " by the total (whatever it was) of the ceremonies used; it is also reasonable to believe that by " acceptance into Masonry " he would have thought not of architectural ceremonies but of his acceptance into a new circle of friends and associates.
(It is not to be supposed that even in the earliest Operative periods, and when a Lodge was still a mere adjunct to a building enterprise, such ceremonies, etc., as were used therefore were solely utilitarian; every skilled Craft was organized as a gild, fraternity, company, and each had a rich array of ceremonies, symbols, rites, etc., even the blacksmiths; and it was a common practice for them to admit Honorary Members from outside their own " operative " ranks. Symbolical ceremonies and ''accepted'' members in Seventeenth Century Lodges were not innovations.)

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ASSASSINS, CULT OF

At the time he wrote the article about the Assassins on page 108 Dr. Albert G. Mackey was endeavoring to enlarge the scope of Masonic studies, to open up new paths in many directions. The article has been taken by some critics of the Craft in too narrow a sense; perhaps because Mackey used the word "Freemasonry " in a sense too broad. One of the legends about a so-called Cult of Assassins stems from a story about Omar Khayyam, author of The Rubaiyat, and tells how a boyhood friend of his, a certain Hassan, became a sort of Persian Robin Hood. Another legend is that Crusaders were harassed by an organized band of land pirates, who were a species of dacoits; in one version of this story the leader was named Hassan, hence his followers were Called Hassanites, or Assassins; also he was called the Old Man of the Mountains, fabled never to die.

Another version is that the Assassins were so called from their use of hashish, or Indian hemp (indicans cabanis), an opiate. But there is the fourth possibility that no such man as Hassan ever lived, but was created, like our Paul Bunyan, out of those tall tales which Near Eastern peoples have vastly prefered to history; countenance is given to this theory by the fact that a tale about The Old Man of the Mountains was one of the stock-in trade of minestels before the Crusades went into the Holyland. In a Thirteenth Century Romance in verse by a pupil of Chrestien of Troyes entitled Flamenica one of the sections is little more than an inventory of that stock; one title is listed as "The Old Man of the Mountains and his Assassins," wedged in among such other fabulous tales as the Fisher King, the Fall of Lucifer, and how Icarus was drowned. Of only one thing can any Masonic student be certain : whether he was legend or was history the Fraternity never had any connection, not even a remote one, or any similarity, with the Old Man of the Mountains.

Note. Anacalypsis, by Godfrey Higgins, quoted by Mackey on page 108, is a monster of a book, ''With a million of quotations in it," somewhat on the order of Burton's Anotomy of Melancholy; of it a cynical critic has said : "a Mason should read all of it and believe none of it"-which is perhaps too harsh, though Higgins' philology is one long verbal insanity.

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AREOPAGUS

The third apartment in a Council of Kadosh is so called. The place represents a tribunal, and the name is derived from the celebrated court of Athens.

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ARGENTINE REPUBLIC

A federal republic of south America. The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania granted a Charter on September 5, 1825, to Southern Star Lodge, No. 205, at Buenos Aires. This was the first Lodge established in the Argentine Republic, but in 1846, with other Lodges which had been formed, it was suppressed.

It was reported that a Grand Lodge of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite had existed in 1856 but it did not flourish for long. On April 22, 1858, however, the Supreme Council and Grand Orient of Uruguay constituted a Body similar to itself at Montevideo. About this time it is said that a Roman Catholic Bishop in Buenos Aires was active against the Freemasons to such an extent that an appeal was made against one of his Degrees to Pope Pius IX at Rome. As a result of the appea1 it was claimed that a the Pope had, when a young man, taken the Degrees in 1816. This story, however, is also told with some variations in reference to there people and places.

In 1861 the Grand Lodge of England and the Grand Orient of the Argentine agreed that the latter had the power to establish Lodges in La Plata and to appoint a District Grand Master to preside over the District Grand Lodge.

The Grand Orient of Spain has chartered two Lodges at Buenos Aires, the Grand Orient of Italy has authorized three Lodges at Bahia Blanca, four at Buenos Aires, two at Boca del Riachuclo, and one at La Plata ; the Grand Lodge of Hamburg has a Lodge at Rosario de Santa Fe and another at Buenos Aires; the Grand Orient of France has also one at Buenos Aires which has been active since July 8, 1852, and the Grand Lodge of England has twenty-two 'attered through the country, two being at Rosario, and seven at the capital. .

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ARGONAUTS, ORDER OF

A German androgynous or male and female society founded in 1775, by Brethren of the Rite of Strict Observance.

The name is from a Greek myth of those who sailed with Jason on the ship Argo in search of the golden fleece. Much of the myth of the Argonauts was introduced into the forms and ceremonies, and many of the symbols taken from this source, such as meeting upon the deck of a Vessel, the chief officer being called Grand Admiral, and the nomenclature of parts of the vessel being used. The motto was Es Lebe die Freude, or Joy forever.

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ARIEL

In the demonology of the Cabala, the word is applied to the spirit of air; the guardian angel of innocence and purity : hence the Masonic aynonym.

A name applied to Jerusalem ; and to a water spirit.

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ARITHMETIC

That science which is engaged in considering the properties and powers of numbers, and ,wich, from its manifest necessity in all the operations of weighing, numbering, and measuring, must have had its origin in the remotest ages of the world.

In the lecture of the degree of Grand Master Architect, the application of this science to Freemasonry is made to consist in its reminding the Freemason that he is continually to add to his knowledge, never to subtract anything from the character of his neighbor, to multiply his benevolence to his fellow creatures, and to divide his means with a suffering Brother.

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ARIZONA

The year 1866 saw the first Lodge established in Arizona when, on October 11, Aztlan Lodge at Prescott was chartered by the Grand Lodge of California. On March 23, 1882, delegates of three Lodges : Arizona, No. 257 ; Tucson, No. 263, and White Mountain, No. 5, held a Convention at Tucson, and the representatives of Solomon Lodge, under dispensation, were invited to take part in the proceedings. After adopting a Constitution a Lodge of Master Masons was opened, and the Grand Officers were elected.

Two days later the Grand Officers were installed, the Convention closed, and the Grand Lodge duly opened.

A Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, Arizona No. l, at Phoenix, Maricopa County, was chartered August 24, 1880.

On the invitation of Companion Past High Priest George J. Roskruge, of Tucson Chapter, No. 3, a Convention of Royal Arch Masons met in the hall of Tucson Lodge, No. 4, on November 13, 1889, to consider the organization of a Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons for the Territory of Arizona. Five Chapters were represented: Arizona, No. l ; Preseott, No. 2; Tucson, No. 3; Cochise, No.4 and Flagstaff No. 5. The Grand Chapter of Arizona was opened in Ample Form, Martin W. Kales was elected Grand High Priest, and G. J. Roskruge. Grand Secretary.

By a Dispensation dated July 1, 1893, a Council of Royal and Select Masters, Olive No. l, was organized at Prescott. It was chartered on August 22, 1893 but this Charter was annulled on October 6, 1903. Phoenix Council at Phoenix had a Dispensation dated April 4 l895, but this was surrendered, February 17, 1897, and a Dispensation dated April 5, 1895, was surrendered on September 2, 1897, by Tucson Council at Tucson. At a Convention in Tucson, February 14, 1922, General Grand Master Fay Hempstead presiding, representatives from Huachuca Council No. l, chartered August 31, 191a of Bisbee; Hiram Council No. 2, chartered August 31, 1915, of Prescott; Gila Council No. 3, chartered September 27, 1921, of Globe, and Phoenix Council No. 4, chartered September 27, 1921, of Phoenix, formed the Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters of Arizona, with M. I. Riekmer N. Frederieks of Preseott as Grand Master, and R. I. George J. Roakruge of Tuewn as Grand Recorder. "

On February 22, 1883, Arizona Commandery, No. l, was established by Dispensation at Tuewn, Pima County. Its Charter was granted on August 23, 1883. The Grand Commandery of Arizona was formed by Warrant from the Grand Encampment of the United States on November 16, 1893. Sir George J. Roskruge, acting as proxy for Sir Hugh Mccurdy, Grand Master of Knights Templar, aummoned together on November 14, 1893, in the Asylum of Phoenix Commandery, No. 3, the representatives of the three chartered Commanderies in Arizona-Arizona, No. l; Ivanhoe, No. 2; Phoenix, No. 3. A Constitution was adopted and Grand Officers elected. The following day at the same place the Grand Oflieers were installed and Sir George J. Roskruge declared the Grand Commandery then assembled to be duly constituted. A Charter was granted to Arizona, No. l, as a Consistory of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, at Tucson on October 20, 1909, and on the same date to a Council of Kadosh, Santa Cruz, No. I. A Chapter of Rose Croix, Santa Catalina, No. l, was chartered on October 23, 1907, and a Lodge of Perfection, Santa Rita, No. l, on April 25, 1883.

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ARJUNA SOCIETY

Arjuna is the name of a personification in the Sanskrit poem, the Bhagavad Gita, and was given to a society formed at Manchester, New Hampshire, on January 1, 1893, for archeological studies, by S. C. Gould who became president. The latter published Notes and Queries monthly up to his death in 1909, some thirty-seven volumes, and in this publication only a few meetings of the Arjuna Society are recorded.

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ARK

In the ritual of the American Royal Arch Degree three arks are mentioned:
1. The Ark of Safety, or of Noah ;
2. The Ark of the Covenant, or of Moses;
3. The Substitute Ark, or the Ark of Zerubbabel. In what is technically called the passing of the veils, each of these arks has its commemorative illustration, and in the order in which they have been named.

The first was constructed by Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah; the second by Moses, Aholiab, and Bezaleel ; and the third was discovered by Joshua, Haggai, and Zerubbabel.

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ARK AND ANCHOR

See Anchor and Ark

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ARK AND DOVE

An illustrative Degree, preparatory to the Royal Arch, and usually conferred, when conferred at all, immediately before the solemn ceremony of exaltation.

The name of Noachite, sometimes given to it, is incorrect, as this belongs to a Degree in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. It is very probable that the Degree, which now, however, has lost much of its significance, was derived from a much older one called the Royal Ark Mariners, to which the reader is referred.

The legend and symbolism of the ark and dove formed an important part of the spurious Freemasonry of the ancients.

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ARKANSAS

The modem school of historians, Masonic and profane, write history, from original sources when possible, but in this case that method is no longer possible, as all the records of the Grand Lodge of this State were burned in 1864 and again in 1876 when all records gathered since 1864 were destroyed-depriving them of all early records.

On November 29, 1819, the Grand Lodge of Kentucky issued a Dispensation to Arkansas Lodge, at the Post of Arkansas. Its Charter was granted on August 29, 1820, but was surrendered on August 28, 1822. Brother Robert Johnson was named in the Charter as Woschipful Master. Representatives of four Lodges, Washington, Morning Star, Western Star, and Mount Horeb, under dispensation, attended a Convention on November 21, 1838, and adopted a Constitution. Officers were elected and the Grand Lodge duly constituted.

The first Chapter in Arkansas was chartered by the General Grand Chapter of the United States on September 17, 1841. With three others this Chapter organized the Grand Chapter of Arkansas, at a Convention held on April 28, 1851. Far West Chapter, No. l, joined in 1852.

Companion Elbert H. English was elected the first Grand High Priest, and when the General Grand Chapter of the United States held its Convocation at Nashville on November 24, 1874, he was elected General Grand High Priest. Companion Albert Pike, elected Grand High Priest on November 10, 1853, and also on November 11, 1854, is said to have originated the Ritual employed in Arkansas, which is somewhat different from that in general use.

The Supreme Couneil of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in the Southern Jurisdiction chartered five Councils in the State of which four formed the Grand Council, November 6, 1860. The Convention is said by Brother Robertson to have been called at the invitation of the Southern Supreme Council, one provision of its Constitution being that all members of that Supreme Council, resident in the State, and all the members of the Convention, should be members of the Grand Council as long as they were members of Councils in the State (see History of the Cryptic Rite, page 95).

The Hugh de Payens, No. l, Commandery was organized at Little Rock, December 20, 1853, and received a Charter September 10, 1856. On May 23, 1872, the Grand Commandery of Arkansas was constituted.

Arkansas, No. l, was established a Consistory at Little Rock by Charter dated October 10, 1892. On September 10, 1891, Charters were granted to a Council of Kadosh, Godfrey de Saint Omar, No. l, to a Chapter of Rose Croix, Excelsior, No. l, and to a Lodge of Perfection, Acacia, No. l, all of which were located at Little Rock.

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ARKITE WORSHIP

The almost universal prevalence among the nations of antiquity of some tradition of a long past deluge, gave rise to certain mythological doctrines and religious ceremonies, to which has been given the name of Arkite Worship, which was Very extensively diffused.

The evidence of this is to be found in the neared feeling which was entertained for the sacredness of high mountains, derived, it is supposed, from recollections of an Ararat, and from the presence in all the Mysteries of a basket, chest, or coffer, whose mystical character bore apparently a reference to the ark of Noah.

On the subject. of this Arkite Worship, Jacob Bryant in A New System or an analysis of ancient Mythology, George Stanley Faber in a Dissertation on the Mysteries of the Cabiri, Godfrey Higgins in the Anacalypas, the Abbé Antoine de Banier, and many other writers, have made learned investigations, which may be consulted with advantage by the Masonic archeologist.

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ARK MARINER, JEWEL OF ROYAL

The jewel of this Degree prefigures the teachings, which are unique, and draws their symbols from the sea, rain, ark, dove, olive-branch, and Rainbow. This last symbol, as the Almighty's sign, overshadows the ark, which really is the sign of Ishtar.

The ark is said to have contained all the elements of Elohim's creative power, and in ''about nine months and three days there came forth the pent-up energies of Maiya" ; her symbol is the dove with the mystic olive, which are sacred to her. The whole underlying thought is that of creation.

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ARK MARINERS

See Royal Ark Mariners

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ARK, NOAH'S

Known also as the Ark of Safety. Constructed by Shem, Ham, and Japheth, under the superintendence of Noah, and in it, as a chosen tabernacle of refuge, the patriarch's family took refuge. This ark has been called by many commentators a tabernacle of Jehovah ; and Doctor Jarvis, speaking of the Hebrew word , pronounced Zo-har, which has been translated window, says that, in all other passages of Scripture where this word occurs, it signifies the meridian light, the brightest effulgence of day, and therefore it could not have been an aperture, but a source of light itself. He supposes it therefore to have been the Divine Shekinah, or Glory of Jehovah which afterward dwelt between the cherubim over the Ark of the Covenant in the tabernacle and the Temple (see the Church of the Redeemed, 1, 20).

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ARK OF THE COVENANT

The Ark of the Covenant or of the Testimony was a chest, originally constructed by Moses at God's command (Exodus xxv, 10), in which were kept the two tables of stone, on which were engraved the Ten Commandments.

This ark contained, likewise, a golden pot filled with manna, Aaron's rod, and the tables of the covenant.

It was at first deposited in the most sacred place of the tabernacle and afterward placed by Solomon in the Sanctum Sanctorum of the Temple, and was lost upon the destruction of that building by the Chaldeans.

The later history of this ark is buried in obscurity.

It is supposed that, upon the destruction of the first Temple by the Chaldeans, it was carried to Babylon among the other sacred utensils which became the spoil of the conquerors. But of its subsequent fate all traces have been lost.

However, it is certain that it was not brought back to Jerusalem by Zerubbabel. The Talmudists say that there were five things which were the glory of the first Temple that were wanting in the second; namely, the Ark of the Covenant, the Shekinah or Divine Presence, the Urim and Thummim, the holy fire upon the altar, and the spirit of prophecy. The Rev. Salem Towne, it is true, has endeavored to Prove, by a Very ingenious argument, that the original Ark of the Covenant was concealed by Josiah, or by others, at some time previous to the destruction of Jerusalem, and that it was afterward, at the building of the second Temple, discovered and brought to light.

But such a theory is entirely at Variance with all the legends of the Degree of Select Master and of Royal Arch Freemasonry. To admit it would lead to endless confusion and contradictions in the traditions of the Order. Besides, it is in conflict with the opinions of the Rabbinical Writers and every Hebrew scholar. Josephus and the Rabbis allege that in the second Temple the Holy of Holies was empty, or contained only the Stone of Foundation which marked the place which the ark should have occupied.
The ark was made of shittim wood, which is a species of acacia, overlaid, within and without, with pure gold, and was about three feet nine inches long, two feet three inches wide, and of the same extent in depth. It had on the side two rings of gold, through which were placed staves of shittim wood, by which, when necessary, the ark was home by the Levites.

Its covering was of pure gold, over which was placed two figures called cherubim, an order of exalted angelic beings, with expanded wings. The covering of the ark was called nana, a Hebrew word pronounced kap-po-reth, from the word ana, pronounced kaw-far and meaning to blot out or pardon, and hence its English name of mercy-seat, as being the place where the intercession for sin was made.

The researches of archeologists in the last few years have thrown much light on the Egyptian mysteries. Among the ceremonies of that ancient people was one called the Procession of Shrines, which is mentioned in the Rosetta stone, and depicted on the Temple walls. One of these shrines was an ark, which was carried in procession by the priests, who supported it on their shoulders by staves passing through metal rings.

This ark was thus brought into the Temple and deposited on a stand or altar, that the ceremonies prescribed in the ritual might be performed before it. The contents of these arks were various, but always of a mystical character. Sometimes the ark would contain symbols of Life and Stability; sometimes the sacred beetle, the symbol of the Sun; and there was always a representation of two figures of the goddess Theme or Truth and Justice, which overshadowed the ark with their wings. These coincidences of the Egyptian and Hebrew arks must have been more than accidental.

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ARK, SUBSTITUTE

The chest or coffer which constitutes a part of the furniture, and is used in the ceremonies of a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, and in a Council of Select Masters according to the American system, is called by Freemasons the Substitute Ark, to distinguish it from the other ark, that which was constructed in the wilderness under the direction of Moses, and which is known as the ark of the Covenant. This the Substitute Ark was made to represent under circumstances that are recorded in the Masonic traditions, and especially in those of the Select Degree.

The ark used in Royal Arch and Cryptic Freemasonry in the United States is generally of this form:
Prideaux, on the authority of Lightfoot, contends that, as an ark was indispensable to the Israelitish worship, there was in the second Temple an ark which had been expressly made for the purpose of supplying the place of the first or original ark, and which, without possessing any of its prerogatives or honors, was of precisely the same shape and dimensions, and was deposited in the same place. The Masonic legend, whether authentic or not, is simple and connected. It teaches that there was an ark in the second Temple, but that it was neither the Ark of the Covenant, which had been in the Holy of Holies of the first Temple, nor one that had been constructed as a substitute for it after the building of the second Temple. It was that ark which was presented to us in the Select Master's Degree, and which being an exact copy of the Mosaical ark, and intended to replace it in case of its loss, which is best known to Freemasons as the Substitute Ark.

Lightfoot gives these Talmudic legends, in his Prospect of the Temple, in the following language:
"It is fancied by the Jews, that Solomon, when he built the Temple, foreseeing that the Temple should be destroyed, caused very obscure and intricate vaults under ground to be made, wherein to hide the ark when any such danger came; that howsoever it went with the Temple, yet the ark, which was the very life of the Temple, might be saved. And they understand that passage in the Second Chronicles ixxxv, 3), 'Josiah said unto the Levites, Put the holy ark into the house which Solomon, the son of David, did build, etc., as if Josiah, having heard by the reading of Moses' manuscript, and Huldah's prophecy of the danger that hung over Jerusalem, commanded to convey the ark into this vault, that it might be secured; and with it, say they, they laid up Aaron's rod, the pot of manna, and the anointing oil. For while the ark stood in its place upon the stone mentioned-they hold that Aaron's rod and the pot of manna stood before it ; but, now, were all conveyed into obscurity-and the stone upon which the ark stood lay over the mouth of the Vault. But Rabbi Solomon, which useth not, ordinarily, to forsake such traditions, hath given a more serious gloss upon the place ; namely, that whereas Manasseh and Amon had removed the ark out of its habitation, and set up images and abominations there of their own-Joshua speaketh to the priests to restore it to its please again.

What became of the ark, at the burning of the temple by Nebuchadnezzar, we read not; it is most likely it went to the fire also. However it sped, it was not in the second Temple; and is one of the five choice things that the Jews reckon wanting there. Yet they had an ark there also of their own making, as they had a breastplate of judgment; which, though they both wanted the glory of the former, which was giving of oracles, yet did they stand current as to the other matters of their worship, as the former breastplate and ark had done."

The idea of the concealment of an ark and its accompanying treasures always prevailed in the Jewish church. The account given by the Talmudists is undoubtedly mythical; but there must, as certainly, have been some foundation for the myth, for every myth has a substratum of truth. The Masonic tradition differs from the Rabbinical, but is in every way more reconcilable with truth, or at least with probability. The ark constructed by Moses, Aholiab, and Bezaleel was burned at the destruction of the first Temple; but there was an exact representation of it in the second.

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ARMENBUCHSE

The poor-box; the name given by German Freemasons to the box in which collections of money are made at a Table-Lodge for the relief of poor Brethren and their families.

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ARMES
A corrupted form of Hermes, found in the Lansdowne and some other old manuscripts.

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ARMIGER

I. A bearer of arms. The title given by Heralds to the Esquire who waited on a Knight. 2. The Sixth Degree of the Order of African Architects.

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ARMOR

In English statutes, the word armor means the whole apparatus of war ; offensive and defensive arms. In the Order of the Temple pieces of armor are used to a limited extent. In the Chivalric Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, in order to carry out the symbolism as well as to render effect to its dramas, armor pieces and articles for the use of knights become necessary, with mantling, crest, mottoes, etc. Some of these are herein enumerated as follows:

AILLETTES-Square shields for the shoulders, the original of the present epaulet.
ANLACE-A broad two-edged dagger or short sword once hung at the belt or girdle.
BALDRIC-Belt diagonally crossing the body.
BATTLE-Ax-Weapon with ax blade and spearhead. ,
BEAVER-Front of helmet, which is raised to admit food and drink or permit the recognition by a View Of the face.
BEAKER-The drinking-cup with mouth-lip.
BELT-For body. Badge of knightly rank.
BRASSARD-armor to protect the arm from elbow to shoulder.
BUCKLER-A round shield for protecting the body.
CORSELET-Breastplate or body armor.
CREST-Ornament on helmet designating rank and in heraldry as well to show identity.
CUIRASS-Defensive armor covering the entire upper part of the trunk and including breastplate and backplate, but has also been applied to breastplate alone.
GADLING-Sharp metallic knuckles on gauntlet.
GAUNTLET-Mailed gloves.
GORGET-Armor between the neck guard and breastplate.
GREAVES-Guards for calves of legs.
HALBERD-Battle-ax and spearhead on long staff formerly used as weapon but later became an emblem of authority at ceremonials.
HAUBERK-Shirt of mail, of rings or scales.
HELMET or CASQUE-Armor for the head.
JAMBEUX-Armor for the legs.
JUPON-Sleeveless jacket, to the hips.
LANCE-Long spear with metallic head and pennon or small pointed flag bearing personal device.
MACE-Heavy short staff of metal, ending with spiked ball.MANTLE-Outer cloak.
MORION-Head armor without vizor.
PENNON-A pennant, or short streamer, pointed or forked.
PLUME-The designation of knighthood.
SALLET-Light helmet for foot-soldiers.
SOLLERETS-Shoes of mail.
VIZOR-Front of helmet (slashed), moving on pivots.

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ARMORY

An apartment attached to the asylum of a Commandery of Knights Templars, in which the swords and other parts of the costume of the knights are deposited for safe-keeping.

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ARMS OF FREEMASONRY

Stow says that the Freemasons were incorporated as a company in the twelfth year of Henry IV, l412. Their arms were granted to them, in 1472, by William Hawkesloe, Clarenceux King-at-Arms, and are azure on a chevron between three castles argent; a pair of compasses somewhat extended, of the first. Crest, a castle of the second. They were adopted, subsequently, by the Grand Lodge of England.

The Atholl Grand Lodge objected to this as an unlawful assumption by the Modern Grand Lodge of Speculative Freemasons of the arms of the Operative Freemasons.

They accordingly adopted another coat, which Laurence Dermott blazons as follows: Quarterly per squares, counterchanged vert. In the first quarter, azure, a lion rampant, or. In the second quarter, or, an ox passant sable. In the third quarter, or, a man with hands erect proper, robed crimson and ermine. In the fourth quarter, azure, an eagle displayed or. Crest, the holy ark of the covenant proper, supported by cherubim. Motto, Kodes la Adonai, that is, Holiness to the Lord.

The reader in following the above language of heraldry will note, with reference to the colors, that of the words in French, taking them in order, azure means blue, argent means silver, vert means green, or means gold, sable means black.

These arms as described by Dermott and adopted by his Grand Lodge are derived from the tetrarchical, as Sir Thos. Browne calls them, or general banners of the four principal tribes ; for it is said that the twelve tribes, during their passage through the wilderness, were encamped in a hollow square, three on each side, as follows : Judah, Zebulun, and Issachar, in the East, under the general banner of Judah ; Dan, Asher, and Naphtali, in the North; under the banner of Dan; Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin, in the West, under the banner of Ephraim; and Reuben, Simeon, and Gad, in the South, under Reuben (see Banners).

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ARNOLD, BENEDICT

Born at Norwich, Connecticut, January 14, 1741, and died at London, England, June l4, 1801. Settled in New Haven, 1762, and as captain of the local militia offered his services in Revolutionary War, becoming Major-General in 1777, and a trusted associate of Washington but his progress embroiled by several serious conflicts with other officers and his sensitive waywardness matching his bravery, his vexations resulted in an attempt to betray West Point to the British. The plot was discovered but Arnold escaped and as Brigadier-General led an attack upon the Americans at Richmond, Virginia, and New London, Connecticut. The same year, 1781, he removed to England. The published history, 1917, Hiram Lodge No. l, New Haven, Connecticut, page 20, Past Grand Master Wallace S. Moyle writes, "The first record in Book 2 states that "Br. Benedict Arnold is by R. W. (Nathan Whiting) proposed to be made a member (i.e. an affiliate) of this R. W. Lodge. . . and is accordingly made a member in this Lodge." Arnold is recorded as being present as a visiting Brother. Page 82 of the history gives the date as April 10, 1765. Past Master George E. Frisbie, Secretary of Hiram Lodge, was, however, of the opinion (letter dated October 21, 1926) that Amold was made a Freemason in Hiram Lodge and held membership there until his death.

A temperate account is the Life of Benedict Arnold by Isaac N. Arnold, 1880, Chicago. Nathan Whiting was Master for several years, was with the Colonial Army in the wars against Canada, was at the fall of Quebec, 1761, and from the outbreak of hostilities to the end Whiting, with other members of the Lodge, was at the front.

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AROBA

Pledge, covenant, agreement. Latin, Arrhabo, a token or pledge. Hebrew, Arab, pronounced aw-rab, which is the root of Arubbah, pronounced ar-oob-baw, surety, hostage. This important word, in the Fourteenth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, is used when the initiate partakes of the Ancient Aroba, the pledge or covenant of friendship, by eating and drinking with his new companions. The expression is of greater import than that implied in mere hospitality. The word aroba appears nowhere in English works, and seems to have been omitted by Masonic writers.

The root arab is one of the oldest in the Hebrew language, and means to interweave or to mingle, to exehange, to become surety for anyone, and to pledge even the life of one person for another, or the strongest pledge that can be given. Judah pleads with Israel to let Benjamin go with him to be presented in Egypt to Joseph, as the latter had requested. He says:

"Send the lad with me; I will be surety for him" (Genesis xliii, 9) ; and before Joseph he makes the same remark in Genesis (xliv, 32). Job (xvii, 3), appealing to God, says: "Put me in a surety with thee ; who is he that will strike hands with me?" (see also First Samuel xvii, 18). In its pure form, the word arubbah occurs only once in the Old Testament (Proverbs xvii, 18) : "A man void of understanding striketh hands, and becometh surety in the presence of his friend." In Latin, Plautus makes use of the following phrase : Hunc arrhabonem amoris a me accipe, meaning Accept from me this pledge of love, or more freely, Accept this pledge of my love.

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ARRAS, PRIMORDIAL CHAPTER OF

Arras is a town in France in the department of Pas de Calais, where, in the year 1747, Charles Edward Stuart, the Pretender, is said to have established a Sovereign Primordial and Metropolitan Chapter of Rosicrucian Freemasons. A portion of the charter of this body is given by Ragon in his Orthodoxie Maçonnique. In 1853, the Count de Hamel, prefect of the department, discovered an authentic copy, in parchment, of this document bearing the date of April 15, 1747, which he deposited in the departmental archives. This document is as follows:

We, Charles Edward, King of England, France, Scotland, and Ireland, and as such Substitute Grand Master of the Chapter of H., known by the title of Knight of the Eagle and Pelican, and since our sorrows and misfortunes by that of Rose Cross, wishing to testify our gratitude to the Masons of Artois, and the officers of the city of Arras, for the numerous marks of kindness which they in conjunction with the officers of the garricon of Arras have lavished upon us, and their attachment to our person, shown during a residence of six months in that city.

We have in favor of them created and erected, and do create and erect by the present Bull, in the aforesaid city of Arras, a Sovereign Primordial Chapter of Rose Crox, under the distinctive title of Scottish Jacobite, to be ruied and governed by the Knights Lagneau and Robespierre; Avocats Hazard, and his two sons, physician ; J. B. Luoet, our upholsterer, and Jérome Cellier. our clockmaker, giving to them and to their successors the power not only to make knights, but even to create a Chapter in whatever town they may thank fit, provided that two Chapters shall not be created in the same town however populous it may be.

And that credit may be given to our present Bull, we have signed it with our hand and caused to be affixed there unto the secret seal, and countersigned by the Secretary of our Cabinet, Thursday, 15th of the second month of the Year of the Incarnation, 1747.

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CHARLES EDWARD STUART

Countersigned, BERKLEY
This Chapter created a few otheer, and in 1780 established one in Paris, under the distinctive title of Chapter of Arras, in the valley of Paris. It united itself to the Grand Orient of France on the 27th of December, 1801. It was declared First Suffragan of the Scottish Jacobite Chapter, with the right to constitute others. The Chapter established at Arras, by the Pretender, was named the Eagle and Pelican, and Oliver, Origin of the Royal arch (page 22), from this seeks to find, perhaps justifiably, a connection between it and the R. S. Y. C. S. of the Royal Order of Scotland.

Brother Hawkins points out that the story of the establishment of this Chapter by the Pretender is doubted by some writers and it certainly lacks confirmation ; even his joining the Craft at all is disputed by several who have carefully studied the subject.

Brother Hughan in the Jacobite Lodge at Rome (page 27), quotes the advice to students of Brother George W. Speth that they "put no trust whatever in accounts connecting the Stuarts with Freemasonry.

We have it in the Young Pretender's own written and verbal statements that they are absolutely baseless, pure inventions."

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ARREARS, EXCLUSION FOR

Sm Exclusion

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ARREST OF CHARTER

To arrest the Charter of-a Lodge is a technical phrase. by which is meant to suspend the work of a Lodge, to prevent it from holding its usual communications, and to forbid it to transact any business or to do any work. A Grand Master cannot revoke the Warrant of a Lodge ; but if, in bis opinion, the good of Freemasonry or any other sufficient cause requires it, he may suspend the operation of the Warrant until the next Communication of the Grand Lodge, watch Body is alone competent to revise or approve of his action.

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ARS QUATUOR CORONATORUM

Name under which the transaction of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati, No. 2076, London, the premier litemry Lodge of the world, have been pub1ished in annual volumes, commencing with the year 1888.

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ARTHUSIUS, GOTTHARDUS

A learned native of Dantzic, Rector of the Gymnasium at Frankfort-the-Main, who wrote many works on Rosicrucianism, under the assumed name of Irenaeus Agnostus (see agnostus).

*

ARTISAN, CHIEF

An officer in the Council of Knights of Constantinople.

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ART, ROYAL

See Royal art

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ARTS

In the Masonic phrase, "arts, parts, and points of the Mysteries of Freemasonry" ; ants means the knowledge, or things. made known, parts the degrees into which Freemasonry is divided, and points the rules and usages (see Parts, and also Points).

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ARTS, LIBERAL

See Liberal Arts and Sciences.

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ARUNDEL, THOMAS HOWARD, EARL OF

Tradition places Arundel as the Grand Master of English Freemasons from 1633 to 1635. This claim is in accordance with the accounts of Anderson and Preston.

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ARYAN

One of the three historical divisions of religion-the other two being the Turanian and the Shemitic. It produced Brahmanism, Buddism, and the Code of Zoroaster.

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ASAROTA

A variegated pavement used for flooring in temples and ancient edifices.

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ASCENSION DAY

Also called Holy Thursday. A festival of the Christian church held in commemoration of the ascension of our Lord forty days after Easter. It is celebrated as a feast day by Chapters of Rose Croix.

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ASES

The twelve gods and as many goddesses in the Scandinavian mythology.

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ASHE, D.D., REV. JONATHAN

A literary plagiarist who resided in Bristol, England. In 1814 he published The Masonic Manual; or Lectures on Freemasonry. Ashe does not, it is true, pretend to originality, but abstains from giving credit to Hutchinson, from whom he has taken at least two-thirds of his book. A second edition appeared in 1825, and in 1843 an edition was published by Spencer, with valuable notes by Dr. Oliver.

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ASHER, DR. CARL WILHELM

The first translator into German of the Halliwell or Regius Manuscript, which he published at Hamburg, in 1842, under the title of Alteste Urkunde der Freimaurerei in England. This work contains both the original English document and the aan translation.

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ASHLAR

This is defined by Bailey as "Freestone as it comes out of the quarry." In speculative Freemasonry we adopt the ashlar, in two different states, as symbols in the Apprentice's Degree. The Rough Ashlar, or stone in its rude and unpo1ished condition, is emblematic of man in his natural state---ignorant, uncultivated, and vicious. But when education has exerted its wholesome influence in expanding his intellect, restraining his passions, and purifying his life, he then is represented by the Perfect Ashlar, which, under the skillful hands of the workmen, has been smoothed, and squared, and fitted for its place in the building. In the older lectures of the eighteenth century the Perfect Ashlar is not mentioned, but its place was supplied by the Broached Thurnel.

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ASHMOLE, ELIAS

A celebreted antiquary, and a the author of, among other works, the well-known History of the Order of the Garter, and founder of the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. He was born at Litchfield, in England, on the 23d of May, 1617, and died at London on the 18th of May, 1692. He was made a Freemason on the 16th of October, 1646, and gives the following account of his reception in his Dairy page 303:

"1646. Oct: 16. 4,30 P.M., I was made a Freemason at Warington, in Lancashire, with Colonel Henry Mainwaring, of Karincham, in Cheshire. The names of those that were then of the Lodge, Mr. Richard Penket Warden, Mr. James Collier, Mr. Rich: Sankey, Henry Littler, John Ellam, Rich: Ellam and Hugh Brewer."

In his Diary, page 362, he again speaks of his attendance at a meeting, and thirty-six years afterward makes the following entry:

"1682. March 10. About 5 h PM, I received a summons to appear at a Lodge to be held the next day at Masons' Hall, London.

"ll. Accordingly, I went, and about Noone were admitted into the Fellowship of Freemasons, Sir William Wilson, knight, Capt. Richard Borthwick, Mr. William Woodman, Mr. William Wise" I was the senior fellow among them, (it being thirty-five years since I was admitted;) there was present besides myself the Fellows after named: Mr. Thomas Wise, Master of the Masons company this present year; Mr. Thomas Shorthofe, Mr. Thomas Shadbolt,-Waindsford, Esq., Mr. Nicholas Young, Mr. John Shorthofe, Mr. William Hamon, Mr. John Thompson, and Mr. William Stanton. We all dined at the half Moone Taveme in Cheapeside, at a noble dinner prepared at the charge of the new Accepted' Masons."

It is to be regretted that the intention expressed by Ashmole to write a history of Freemasonry was never carried into effect. His laborious research as evinced in his exhaustive work on the Order of the Garter, would lead us to have expected from his antiquarian pen a record of the origin and early progress of our Institution more valuable than any that we now possess. The following remarks on this subject, contained in a letter from Doctor Knipe, of Christ Church, Oxford, to the publisher of Asmole's Life, while it enables us to form some estimate of the loss that Masonic literature has suffered, supplies interesting particulars which are worthy of preservation.
"As to the ancient society of Freemasons, concerning whom you are desirous of knowing what may be known with certainty, I shall only tell you, that if our worthy Brother, E. Ashmole, Esq., had executed his intended design, our Fraternity had been as much obliged to him as the Brethren of the most noble Order of the Garter. I would not have you surprised at this expression, or think it all too assuming.

The sovereigns of that Order have not disdained our fellowship, and there have been times when emperors were also Freemasons. What from Mr. E. Ashmole's collection I could gather was, that the report of our society's taking rise from a bull granted by the Pope, in the reign of Henry III, to some Italian architects to travel over all Europe, to erect chapels, was ill founded. Such a bull there was, and those architects were Masons; but this bull, in the opinion of the learned Mr.Ashmole, was confirmative only, and did not by any means create our Fraternity, or even establish them in this kingdom.

But as to the time and manner of that establishment, something I shall relate from the same collections. Saint Alban the Proto-Martyr of England, established Masonry here; and from his time it flourished more or less, according as the world went, down to the days of King Athelstan, who, for the sake of his brother Edwin, granted the Masons a charter. Under our Norman princes.

They frequently received extraordinary marks of royal favor. There is no doubt to be made, that the skill of Masons, which was always transcendent, even in the most barbarous times,-their wonderful kindness and attachment to each other, how different soever in condition, and their inviolable fidelity in keeping religiously their secret,-must expose them in ignorant, troublesome, and suspicious times to a vast variety of adventures, according to the different fate of parties and other alterations in government.

By the way, I shall note that the Masons were always loyal, which exposed them to great severities when power wore the trappings of justice, and those who committed treason punished true men as traitors.

Thus, in the third year of the reign of Henry VI, an act of Parliament was passed to abolish the society of Masons, and to hinder, under grievous penalties, the holding Chapters, Lodges, or other regular assemblies.

Yet this act was afterwards repealed, and even before that, King Henry VI, and several of the principal Lords of his court, became fellows of the Craft."

But the most difficult question for the student is to find an answer to the following: What induced men like Ashmole and others to be made Masons early in the seventeenth century? Was it for 'cake and ale'? Surely not. Was it for company sake? perhaps; but then why so much mystery ?

It is certain that men like Dr. Plot, John Aubrey, Randle Holme, and Elias Ashmole were attracted to the subject for something more than what we find given at length in the Manuscript Constitutions."-Edward Conder, in Transactions, Quatuor Coronati Lodge (volume xvi, page 15, 1903). Another question a the influence exerted by such Brethren at and after their initiation and possibly up .to the time of the notable organization of the Grand Lodge of 1717. Our old friend Brother Trevaman W. Hugo wrote among his last contributions---printed after his death-for the Daluth Masonic Calendar (March, 1923), a biographical article on Elias Ashmole and he concludes thus:

" The object of going into those details is to enable the writer, and you who may read it, to have in mind the personage for whom we want to find a place between the date of his death, 1687 and 1717. We do not know whether there is some place in between there where such a personage could have made an impression on the Operative Masons at that time, so that his influence, when the time came, would make them willing to fall in and join with the Speculative Brethren, or vice versa, or whether the Speculative Brethren were able to deliver to the Operative Masons in 1717, the Astrologic, Philosophic, Symbolic Lore, which they held in regard to the order of Free Masons. There is an unquestionable 'hole in the Ballad' somewhere between 1646 and 1717."

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ASIA

In the French Rite of Adoption, the East end of the Lodge is called Asia. The Lodge-room is divided into quarters called Realms, the French word being Climat, the East is Asia; the West, Europe; the North, America, and the South, Africa.

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ASIA, INITIATED KNIGHTS AND BROTHERS OF

This Order was introduced in Berlin, or, as some say, in Vienna, in the year 1780, by a schism of several members of the German Rose Croix. They adopted a mixture of Christian, Jewish, and Mohammedan ceremonies, to indicate, as Ragon supposes, their entire religious tolerance. Their object was the study of the natural sciences and the search for the universal panacea to prolong life. Thory charges them with this ; but may it not have been, as with the Alchemists, merely a symbol of immortality?

They forbade all inquiries into the art of transmutation of metals. The Grand Synédrion, properly the Grand Sanhedrim, which consisted of seventy-two members and was the head of the Order, had its seat at Vienna.

The Order was founded on the three symbolic degrees, and attached to them nine others, as follows :
4 Seekers;
5. Sufferers;
6. Initiated Knights and Brothers of Asia in Europe;
7. Masters and Sages;
8. Royal Priests, or True Brothers of Rose Croix;
9. Melchizedek.

The Order no longer exists. Many details of it will be found in Luchet's Essai sur les Illumines.

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AISIA, PERFECT INITIATES OF
A rite of very little importance, consisting of seven Degrees, and said to have been invented at Lyons. A very voluminous manuscript, translated from the German, was sold at Paris, in 1821, to M. Bailleul, and came into the possession of Ragon, who reduced its size, and, with the assistance of Des Etangs, modified it. We have no knowledge that it was ever worked.

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ASIATIC TURKEY

The dominions of Turkey in Asia. Smyrna has one Lodge under the Grand Lodge of England and two under the Grand Orient of France. There are two Italian Lodges in the town and several others throughout the country.

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ASK, SEEK, KNOCK

In referring to the passage of Matthew (vii, 7), "Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you " Doctor Clarke says : "These three words ask, seek, knock---include the ideas of want loss, and earnestness." The application made to the passage theologically is equally appropriate to it in a Masonic Lodge. You ask for acceptance, you seek for light, you kock for initiation, which includes the other two.

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ASPIRANT

One who eagerly seeks to know or to attain something. Thus, Warburton speaks of "the aspirant to the Mysteries." The word is applied also to one about to be initiated into Freemasonry. There seems, however, to be a shade of difference in meaning between the words candidate and aspirant. The candidate is one who asks for admission ; so called from the Latin word candidatus, meaning one who is clothed in white, because candidates for office at Rome wore a white dress. The aspirant is one already elected and in process of initiation, and coming from aspiro, to seek eagerly, refers to the earnestness with which he prosecutes his search for light and truth.

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ASSASSINS

The Ishmaelites, or Assassins, constituted a sect or confraternity, which was founded by Hassan Sabah, about the year 1090, in Persia. The name is derived, it is supposed, from their immoderate use of the plant haschish, or henbane, which produced a delirious frenzy. The title given to the chief of the Order was Scheikh-el-Jebel, which has been translated the Old Man of the Mountain, but which Higgins has shown in his Anacalypsis (i, 700) to mean literally The Sage of the Cabala or Traditions. Von Hammer has written a History of the Assassins, but his opposition to secret societies has led him to speak with so much prejudice that, although his historical statements are interesting, his philosophical deductions have to be taken with many grains of allowance.
Godfrey Higgins has probably erred on the other side, and by a too ready adherence to a preconceived theory has, in his Annacalypsis, confounded them with the Templars, whom he considers as the precursors of the Freemasons. In this, as in most things, the middle course appears to be the most truthful.

The Assassins were a secret society, that is to say, they had a secret esoteric doctrine, which was imparted only to the initiated. Hammer says that they had a graduated series of initiations, the names of which he gives as Apprentices, Fellows, and Masters ; they had, too, an oath of passive obedience, and resembled, he asserts, in many respects, the secret societies that subsequently existed in Europe. They were governed by a Grand Master and Priors, and had regulations and a special religious code, in all of which Von Hammer finds a close resemblance to the Templars, the Hospitalers, and the Teutonic Knights. Between the Assassins and the Templars history records that there were several amicable transactions not at all consistent with the religious vows of the latter and the supposed religious faith of the former, and striking coincidences of feeling, of which Higgins has not been slow to avail himself in his attempt to prove the close connection, if not absolute identity, of the two Orders.

It is most probable, as Sir John Malcolm contends, that they were a race of Sofis, the teachers of the secret doctrine of Mohammed.

Von Hammer admits that they produced a great number of treatises on mathematics and jurisprudence ; and, forgetting for a time his bigotry and his prejudice, he attributes to Hassan, their founder, a profound knowledge of philosophy and mathematical and metaphysical sciences, and an enlightened spirit, under whose influence the civilization of Persia attained a high degree ; so that during his reign of forty-six years the Persian literature attained a point of excellence beyond that of Alexandria under the Ptolemies, and of France under Francis I.

The old belief that they were a confederacy of murderers-whence we have taken our English word assassins---must now be abandoned as a figment of the credulity of past centuries, and we must be content to look upon them as a secret society of philosophers, whose political relations, however merged them into a dynasty. If we interpret Freemasonry as a generic term, signifying a philosophic sect which teaches truth by a mystical initiation and secret symbols, then Higgins was not very far in error in calling them the Freemasons of the East.

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ASSASSINS OF THE THIRD DEGREE

There is in Freemasonry a legend of certain unworthy Craftsmen who entered into a conspiracy to extort from a distinguished Brother a secret of which he was the possessor. The legend is altogether symbolic, and when its symbolism is truly comprehended, becomes a surpassingly beautiful. By those who look at it as having the pretension of an historical fact, it is sometimes treated with indifference, and sometimes considered an absurdity.

But it is not thus that the legends and symbols of Freemasonry must be read, if we would learn their true spirit. To behold the goddess in all her glorious beauty, the veil that conceals her statue must be withdrawn. Masonic writers who have sought to interpret the symbolism of the legend of the conspiracy of the three assassins, have not agreed always in the interpretation, although they have finally arrived at the same result, namely, that it has a spiritual signification. Those who trace Speculative Freemasonry to the ancient solar worship, of whom Ragon may be considered as the exponent, find in this legend a symbol of the conspiracy of the three winter months to destroy the life-giving heat of the sun.

Those who, like the disciples of the Rite of Strict Observance, trace Freemasonry to a Templar origin, a explain the legend as referring to the conspiracy of the three renegade knights who falsely accused the Order, and thus aided King Philip and Pope Clement to abolish Templarism, and to slay its Grand Master. Hutchinson and Oliver, who labored to give a Christian interpretation to all the symbols of Freemasonry, referred the legend to the crucifixion of the Messiah, the type of which is, of course, the slaying of Abel by his brother Cain.

Others, of whom the Chevalier Ramsay has been set forth as the leader, sought to give it a political significance; and, making Charles I the type of the Builder, symbolized Cromwell and his adherents as the conspirators.

The Masonic scholars whose aim has been to identify the modern system of Freemasonry with the Ancient Mysteries, and especially with the Egyptian, which they supposed to be the germ of all the others, interpret the conspirators as the symbol of the Evil Principle, or Typhon, slaying the Good Principle, or Osiris; or, when they refer to the Zoroastic Mysteries of Persia, as Ahriman contending against Ormuzd.

Lastly, in the Philosophic Degrees, the myth is interpreted as signifying the war of Falsehood, Ignorance, and Superstition against Truth. Of the supposed names of the three Assassins, there is hardly any end of variations, for they materially differ in all the principal rites. Thus, we have Jubela, Jubelo, and Jubelum in the York and American Rites. In the Adonhiramite system we have Romvel, Gravelot, and Abiram. Romvel has been claimed as a corruption of Cromwell. In the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite we find the names given in the old rituals as Jubelum Akirop, sometimes Abiram, Jubelo Romvel, and Jubela Gravelot. Schterke and Oterfut are in some of the German rituals, while other Scottish rituals have Abiram, Romvel, and Hobhen. In all these names there is manifest corruption, and the patience of many Masonic scholars has been well-nigh exhausted in seeking for some plausible and satisfactory derivation.

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ASSEMBLY

The meetings of the Craft during the operative period in the Middle Ages, were called Assemblies, which appear to have been tantamount to the modem Lodges, and they are constantly spoken of in the Old Constitutions. The word Assembly was also often used in these documents to indicate a larger meeting of the whole Craft, which was equivalent to the modem Grand Lodge, and which was held annually. The York Manuscript No. l, about the year 1600, says ''that Edwin procured of ye King his father a charter and commission to hold every year an assembly wherever they would within ye realm of England,'' and this statement, whether true or false, is repeated in all the old records. Preston says, speaking of that medieval period, that''a sufficient number of Masons met together within a certain district, with the consent of the sheriff or chief magistrate of the place, were empowered at this time to make Masons, etc. To this assembly, every Freemason was bound, when summoned, to appear.

Thus, in the Harleian Manuscript, about 1660, it is ordained that "every Master and Fellow come to the Assembly, if it be within five miles about him, if he have any warning." The term General Assembly, to indicate the annual meeting, is said to have been first used at the meeting, held on December 27, 1663, as quoted by Preston. In the Old Constitutions printed in 1722 by Roberts, and which claims to be taken from a manuscript of the eighteenth century, the term used is Yearly Assembly. Anderson speaks of an Old Constitution which used the word General; but his quotations are not always verbally accurate.

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ASSISTANCE

See Aid and Assistance

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ASSOCIATES OF THE TEMPLE

During the Middle Ages, many persons of rank, who were desirous of participating in the spiritual advantages supposed to be enjoyed by the Templars in consequence of the good works done by the Fraternity, but who were unwilling to submit to the discipline of the Brethren made valuable donations to the Order, and were, in consequence, admitted into a sort of spiritual connection with it.

These persons were termed Associates of the Temple. The custom was most probably confined to England, and many of these Associates had monuments and effigies erected to them in the Temple Church at London

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ASSOCIATION

Although an association a properly the union of men into society for a common purpose, the word is scarcely ever applied to the Order of Freemasonry. Yet its employment, although unusual, would not be incorrect, for Freemasonry is an association of men for a common purpose. Washington uses the term when he calls Freemasonry "an association whose principles lead to purity of morals, and are beneficial of action," from his letter to the Grand Lodge of South Carolina.

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ASSYRIAN ARCHITECTURE

The discovery in 1882 of the remains of a town, cloto and north of Nineveh, built by Sargon, about 721 B.C., in size about a mile square, with its angles facing the cardinal points, and the enclosure containing the finest specimens of their architecture, revived much interest in archeologists. The chief place of regard is the royal palace, which was like unto a city of itself, everything being on a colosml ale. The walls of the town were 45 feet thick. The inclined approach to the palace was flanked by strangely formed bulls from 15 to 19 feet high. There were terraces, courts, and page-ways to an innermost square of 150 feet, surrounded by state apartments and temples. The Hall of Judgment was prominent, as also the astronomical observatory. All entrances to great buildings were ornamented by colosml animals and porcelain decorations and inscriptions.

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ASTRAEA

The Grand Lodge established in Russia, on the 30th of August, 1815, assumed the title of the Grand Lodge of Astraea. It held its Grand East at St. Petersburg, and continued in existence until 1822, when the Czar issued a Ukase, or proclamation dated August 1, 1822, closing all Lodges in Russia and forbidding them to reopen at any future time.

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ASTOR, JOHN JACOB

Born in lvaldorf, Germany, July 17, 1763, left an orphan as a boy, Astor came to New York City to join a brother, working his way, and arrived in 1784. He was founder of the American fur trade, a founder of the Territory of Oregon where Astoria is named after him, was in the "fur wars " with Indians and with Canadian trappers, was pioneer and founder of the American trade with China, as a real estate dealer was a founder of Greater New York, was founder of the Astor Library, was the largest financial backer of the War of 1812, and in his will left $400,000 for building the Astor Library, equivalent to one million at present money values. He was one of the first founders of Holland Lodge, No. 8; and was Worshipful Master in 1798. From June 6, 1798, to .June 25, 1801, he was Grand Treasurer of the Grand Lodge; the books which he wrote out in his own copper-plate hand are still in the vaults of Masonic Hall, New York City.

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ASTROLOGY

The word astrology is not a true term because it always has been ambiguous, meaning one thing in one country or period of time, another thing in some other country or time, and one contradicting the other. The nearest to any acceptable definition is to say that there has never been astrology, there have been astrologies, these astrologies among themselves vary from a form of astromical book-keeping practiced in China for calendar purposes, to the pseudo-religion which, to judge from the newsstands, has become a flourishing and also a financially profitable cult in America. As a further complication, at one or two periods in the late Middle Ages the word astrology was a synonym for astronomy. As a generalization it may be said that any particular astrology will teach the notion that a star is not what an astronomer says it is but is something more or something other; such as, that it is a god (or goddess!), or a saint, or an angel, or a fate, or possesses magical powers, etc. and that what it is, or some attribute it possesses, has some direct influence on men.

There is nowhere any trace of evidence to show that at any time astrology has been accepted by Freemasonry, or taught by it, or is one of the elements in the Ritual. If the mere mention of the skies, or the sun, or moon, etc., were to be considered to be astrology, then each and every man is an astrologist; so is each and every astronomer, every maker of calendars, almost every poet, the majority of composers of music, and many historians. The sun and moon are conspicuous in the Ritual, but not with any astrology meanings. For five or six centuries it was a "custom " of the Craft to work from sunrise to sunset, and usually contracts would set two lengths of work days for the year, the midpoint of one set falling on St. John the Baptist's Day when the daylight was longest, one on the Evangelist's Day when it was shortest ; and the moon represented the night; this old "custom" very probably was the origin of the two Masonic symbols of the Sun and the Moon.

Amateur Masonic occultists have attempted to connect Masonry with the zodiac, one of the conspicuous features of astrologies ; but here again there is no one zodiac, but many zodiacs throughout the world. The idea of a zodiac itself is one of the largest hoaxes with which men have ever befuddled themselves, and could never have been true to facts. The discovery of dark stars of great magnitude; that what in ancient times was taken for one star was two or more or even a whole galaxy; and the discovery of the precession of the equinoxes, has made the zodiac meaningless. It is a toy of the mind. There is nothing of the zodiac in the present Masonic Ritual; there was never a mention of it in the oldest Speculative Lodges ; in Medieval times it was a heresy, and Operative Freemasons would have abhorred the thought of it.

It can safely be laid down as a law of the Fraternity that anything and everything in the Ritual is understandable and knowable by any normal man, and nothing in it calls for erudition ; it could not be otherwise where so many millions are admitted to membership. When the Candidate is told that if he finds anything puzzling he can consult well-informed Brethren it is presupposed that in any Lodge there will be such Brethren. This principle, which also is a practice, disposes at a stroke the notion that there has ever been in the Craft any form of occultism which calls for erudition, or for adepts specially trained, or for a kind of knowledge not available to the rank and file of ordinary Masons. Astrology, in its present-day American form, is self-confessedly not open to common knowledge but is understandable only by experts, who for that reason charge a fee for the use of their supposedly erudite knowledge ; and it shares that practice with the majority of other forms of occultism.

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ATHELSTAN AND THE OLD CHARGES

On Page 110 is given a quotation from the Roberts MS. to the effect that Athelstan (King in England, 924-940) was a great lover of Masonry and gave Masons their Charter. In other versions of the Old Charges it is said that Athelstan made his son Prince Edwin Patron, or head, of the Masons. Scholars have not accepted the historicity of this tradition because of difficulties and self-contradictions in the text itself, because there is no supporting evidence in chronicles of the Tenth Century, and also because they have not believed that Masonry was as widely developed at the time as the Old Charges presuppose, or that Athelstan himself took any interest in the Craft. As regards the first two difficulties they continue in force, and make it hard to take seriously the confused or garbled accounts in the versions of the Old Charges; but as regards the last-named difficulty, that Athelstan himself had no interest in the Craft, there are data to show that the Old Charges have the support of historical evidence.

In his History of the Norman Conquest Prof. Henry A. Freeman (Vol. I ; page 190) writes: "Among the Laws of Athelstan none are more remarkable than those which deal with the internal affairs of London and with the regulation of her earliest commercial corporations." These laws are given in Thorpe's Laws and Institutes; Vol. I; page 228. They show that London was being built up, with walls, bridges, churches and many new buildings, and that King Athelstan took a large personal interest in the building, and that among his laws were regulations for the builders.
Athelstan must also have had an equally active interest in the builders at York, always a great architectural center and a free city from time immemorial ; in Vol. V, page 316, Prof. Freeman says, "The men of York had their Hanse-house." A hansa was a gild (hence "Hanseatic League'') and if the crafts in York had a building of their own, it means that they were strong and well organized, the Masons among them. Even more striking is Prof. Freeman's account of Exeter. This had been a Welsh city, or town, at least partly so. Athelstan removed the Welsh and rebuilt it as an English town, "surrounded by a wall of dressed stone." He helped to lay out the city, and supervised its building, which would include the supervision of its builders.

These data prove that Athelstan was both practically and intellectually interested in the arts of building and took an active part in its practice, not only once but in three cities ; and to that extent they give some foundation to the tradition embedded in the Old Charges.

See The History of the Norman Conquest in England, and its Resutts, by Henry A. Freeman; six volumes; Oxford ; 1873 ; revised American Edition.

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ATLANTIS, LOST CONTINENT OF

Plato wove a brief story about a Lost Continent of Atlantis into one of his Dialogs, and Homer (or "Homer") has hints of a somewhat similar legend in his Odyssey; from so slender a source was developed a long-lasting tale of a continent in the Atlantic, somewhere west of the Straits of Gibraltar, once covered with civilization, which sank suddenly under the waves. Soundings over the whole bed of the Atlantic Ocean have never encountered a submerged continent;
geographers have dismissed the possibility that there ever was one, and geologists won't admit that a continent could sink. Long before Plato the Hebrews (see Book of Isaiah) talked often, and almost rhapsodically, about Tarshish, a busy, populous place very far away, even farther away than Isaiah's "isles of the sea," but no geographer had ever found it. Also, the ubiquitous Phoenicians, and the Egyptians as well, had a similar tradition; once an Egyptian expedition set out in search of it. These two latter traditions, plus Plato's myth, hung in the air for centuries, tantalizing geographers and inspiring a huge occult and esoteric literature---even Conan Doyle wrote two tales on the theme, in one about a lost continent under the sea, in the other, about one far up on a mountainous plateau.

Lewis Spence, a specialist in occult history and geography, wrote The Problem of Atlantis (William Rider & Sons; London; 1925), and Atlantis in America (Ernest Benn; London; 1925). The latter surprised Americans but did not convert them. The multiplication of Atlantis' continued; James Churchward published his The Lost Continent of Mu; and somebody discovered another, not far from Guadalcanal, in the Southwest Pacific, called by the queer but romantic name of Lemuria, probably suggested by the animal called the Lemur. This multiplication of the Lost Atlantis was welcomed by men who had never believed in even one of them; it confirmed them in their unbelief.

While this multiplication of Lost Continents proceeded, areheologists in Greece, the Near East, and Egypt were uncovering unbelievably large masses of inscriptions and documents, among which (though only a fraction of them have been translated and analyzed) were a number of mentions of Atlantis, or clues to it. By assembling and correlating these data scholars have shown that in all likelihood Atlantis was in reality an island off the coast of southern Spain, east a little way from Gibraltar, which was a trading center for the eastern Mediterranean, to which came ships from Britain and far-off Norway, and caravan routes from western Europe. The bed under the water between this island and the mainland rose, it ceased to be a "continent'' (the word was often used to mean a large island) ; Atlantis disappeared not by sinking beneath the sea but by rising above it.

If it is be true---and there is every reason to believe that it is. - how ironical that Atlantistums out to have been not a mystery of the sea but of the land ! and that instead of being the center of a web of far-ranging sea toutes, it was the terminus of a system of land routes !

But if a man should bemoan the loss of a legend of a golden and glittering continent which sank into the ocean, along with old stories, and poesies, and symbolisms, he can more than recover those losses if he will tum to the old roads, or trails; they are veridic and historic ; their story is known; and that story is far more freighted with the richness of true tales, and marvels, and poesies, and symbolisms than ever was the mythic Atlantis. These old trails, or roads, or ways are the poetry of ancient geography. They also were one of the supreme symbols to ancient man for his religions, so many of which were described as The Way, or The Road, or The Gate. There was the great Amber Road which wandered down from the Baltic through the Black Forests of Germany and across France until it branched, and one branch came on down to Atlantis; over it slow mule caravans brought amber, which for centuries was more desired than gold. There were the two great Silk Trails, or Silk Roads, over which camel and horse caravans brought bales of silk into the west from far-off China. There was the tremendous Road of the Turcomans, over which one branch of our Sanskrit-speaking ancestors made their slow progress across to Afghanistan, and then down into India, leaving behind them, after the Way had been followed for centuries, hundreds of caves filled with wall paintings, and rich with libraries of old manuscripts.

Here in the United States was one of the most remarkable of the old roads, the Turquoise Trail (the stone originally was called The Turkish Stone, whence its beautiful name) which wound over the western deserts from Los Cerillos, near Santa Fe, in what is now New Mexico, out to the coast to the bay where San Diego now stands. It was trodden by so many Indians for so many centuries that their moccasins wore it deep into the rock, so that sections of it still are easily visible from an airplane.

The Trail itself always was neutral ground, and any traveler on it could pass without danger through strange places or warring tribes; the myths, and legends, and symbolisms of it run like a subterranean river through the ceremonies of the South-western Indians.

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ASTROLOGY

A whence demanding the respect of the scholar, notwithstanding its designation as a black art, and, in a reflective sense, an occult science; a system of divination foretelling results by the relative positions of the planets and other heavenly bodies toward the earth. Men of eminence have adhered to the doctrines of astrology as a science. It is a study well considered in, and forming an important part of, the ceremonies of the Philosophus, or fourth grade of the First Order of the Society of Rosicrucians. Astrology has been deemed the twin science of astronomy, grasping knowledge from the heavenly bodies, and granting a proper understanding of many of the startling forces in nature. It is claimed that the constellations of the zodiac govern the earthly animals, and that every star has its peculiar nature, property, and function, the seal and character of which it impresses through its rays upon plants, minerals, and animal life. This science was known to the ancients as the divine art (see Magic). ASTRONOMY. The science which instructs us in the laws that govern the heavenly bodies. Its origin is lost in the mists of antiquity ; for the earliest inhabitants of the earth must have been attracted by the splendor of the glorious firmament above them, and would have sought in the motions of its luminaries for the readiest and most certain method of measuring time. With astronomy the system of Freemasonry is intimately connected. From that science many of our most significant emblems are borrowed.

The Lodge itself is a representation of the world; it is adorned with the images of the sun and moon, whose regularity and precision furnish a lesson of wisdom and prudence; its pillars of strength and establishment bave been compared to the two columns which the ancients placed at the equinoctial points as supporters of the arch of heaven; the blazing star which was among the Egyptians a symbol of Anubis, or the dog-star, which sitting foretold the overflowing of the Nile, shines in the East; while the clouded canopy is decorated with the beautiful Pleiades, a group of stars in the constellation Taurus, or the Bull, about seven of which are visible to the naked eye.

The connection between our Order and astronomy is still more manifest in the .spurious Freemasonry of antiquity, where, the pure principles of our system being lost, the symbolic instruction of the heavenly bodies gave place to the corrupt Sabean worship of the sun, and moon, and stars-a worship whose influences are seen in all the mysteries of Paganism.
ASYLUM. During the session of a Commandery of Knights Templar, a part of the premises is called the asylum; the word has been adopted, by the figure in rhetoric synecdoche, in which the whole may be represented by a part, to signify the place of meeting of a Commandery.

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ASYLUM FOR AGED FREEMASONS

The Asylum for Aged and Decayed Freemasons is a magnificent edifice at Croydon in Surrey, England. The charity was established by Doctor Crucefix, after sixteen years of herculean toil, such as few men but himself could have sustained.

He did not live to see it in full operation, but breathed his last at the very time when the capstone was placed on the building (see Annuities). ATELIER. The French thus call the place where the Lodge meets, or the Lodge-room. The word signifies a workshop or place where several workmen are assembled under the same master. The word is applied in French Freemasonry not only to the place of meeting of a Lodge, but also to that of a Chapter, Council, or any other Masonic body. Bazot says in the Manual du Franc-Maçon (page 65) that atelier is more particularly applied to the Table Lodge, or Lodge when at banquet, but that the word is also used to designate any reunion of the Lodge. ATHEIST. One who does not believe in the existence of God. Such a state of mind can only arise from the ignorance of stupidity or a corruption of principle, since the whole universe is filled with the moral and physical proofs of a Creator. He who does not look to a superior and superintending power as his maker and his judge, is without that coercive principle of salutary fear which should prompt him to do good and to eschew evil, and his oath can, of necessity, be no stronger than his word. Freemasons, looking to the dangerous tendency of such a tenet, have wisely discouraged it, by declaring that no atheist can be admitted to participate in their Fraternity; and the better to carry this law into effect, every candidate, before passing through any of the ceremonies of initiation, is required, publicly and solemnly, to declare his trust in God. ATHELSTAN. The grandson of the great Alfred ascended the throne of England in 924, and died in 940. The Old Constitutions describe him as a great patron of Freemasonry. Thus, one of them, the Robera Manuscript, printed in 1722, and claiming to be five hundred years old, says: "He began to build many Abbeys, Monasteries, and other religious houses, as also castles and divers Fortresses for defense of his realm. He loved Masons more than his father; he greatly studied Geometry, and sent into many lands for men expert in the science. He gave them a very large charter to hold a yearly assembly, and power to correct offenders in the said science; and the king himself caused a General Assembly of all Masons in his realm, at York, and there made many Masons, and gave them a deep charge for observation of all such articles as belonged unto Masonry, and delivered them the said Charter to keep.''

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ATHOLL MASONS

The Ancient Freemasons are sometimes called Atholl Freemasons, because they were presided over by the Third Duke of Atholl as their Grand Master from 1771 to 1774, and by the Fourth Duke from 1775 to 1781, and also from 1791 to 1813 (see Ancient Freemasons). ATOSSA. The daughter of King Cyrus of Persia, queen of Cambyses, and afterward of Darius Hystaspes, to whom she bore Xerxes. Referred to in the degree of Prince of Jerusalem, the Sixteenth of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. ATTENDANCE. See Absence. ATTOUCHEMENT. The name given by the French Freemasons to what the English brethren call the grip. ATTRIBUTES. The collar and jewel appropriate to an officer are called his attributes. The working tools and implements of Freemasonry are also called its attributes. The word in these senses is much more used by French than by English Freemasons. ATWOOD, HENRY C. At one time of considerable prominence in the Masonic history of New York. He was born in Connecticut about the beginning of the nineteenth century, and removed to the city of New York about 1825, in which year he organized a Lodge for the purpose of introducing the system taught by Jeremy L. Cross, of whom Atwood was a pupil. This system met with great opposition from some of the most distinguished Freemasons of the State, who favored the ancient ritual, with had existed before the system of Webb had been invented, from whom Cross received his lectures. Atwood, by great diplomacy and untiring energy, succeeded in a making the system which he taught eventually popular. He took great interest in Freemasonry, and being intellectually clever, although not learned, he collected a great number of admirers, while the tenacity with which he maintained his opinions, however unpopular they might be, secured for him as many enemies. He was greatly instrumental in establishing, in 1837, the independent body known as the St. John's Grand Lodge, and was its Grand Master at the time of its union, in 1850, with the legitimate Grand Lodge of New York. Atwood edited a small periodical called The Sentinel, which was remarkable for the Virulent and un-Masonic tone of its articles. He was also the author of a Masonic Monitor of some pretensions. He died in 1860.

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ATYS

The Mysteries of Atys in Phrygia, and those of Cybele his mistress, like their worship, much resembled those of Adonis and Bacchus, Osiris and Isis. Their Asiatic origin is universally admitted, and was with great plausibility claimed by Phrygia, which contested the palm of antiquity with Egypt. They, more than any other people, mingled allegory with their religious worship, and were great inventors of fables; and their sacred traditions as to Cybele and Atys, whom all admit to be Phrygian gods, were very various. In all, as we learn from Julius Firmicus, they represented by allegory the phenomena of nature and the succession of physical facts under the veil of a marvelous history. Their feasts occurred at the equinoxes, commencing with lamentation, mourning, groans, and pitiful cries for the death of Atys, and ending with rejoicings at his restoration to life. AUDI, VIDE, TACE. Latin, meaning Hear, see, and be silent. A motto frequently found on Masonic medals, and often appropriately used in the documents of the Craft.

It was adopted as its motto by the United Grand Lodge of England at the union between the Antients and the Moderns in 1813. AUDITOR. An officer in the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States. His duty is, with the Committee on Finance, to examine and report on the accounts of the Inspector and other officers. This duty of auditing the accounts of the Secretary and Treasurer is generally entrusted, in Masonic bodies, to a special committee appointed for the purpose. In the Grand Lodge of England, the accounts are examined and reported upon annually by a professional auditor, who must be a Master Mason. AUDITORS. The first class of the secret system adopted by the Christians in their early days. The second class were Catechumens, and the third were The Faithful. AUDLEY, LORD JOHN TOUCHET. Anderson gives him as Grand Master of England, 154O -8, a patron of the building art in Magdalen College. AUFSEHER. The German name for the Warden of a Lodge. The Senior Warden is called Erste Aufseher, and the Junior Warden, Zweite Aufseher. The word literally means an overseer. Its Masonic application is technical.
AUGER. An implement used as a symbol in the Ark Mariners Degree. AUGUSTINE, ST. See Saint Augustine. AUGUSTUS WILLIAM, PRINCE OF PRUSSIA. Born in1722, died in 1758. Brother of Frederick the Great, and father of King Frederick William II. A member of Lodge Drei WeltkugeIn, or Three Globes, Berlin. AUM. A mystic syllable among the Hindus, signifying the Supreme God of Gods, which the Brahmans, from its awful and sacred meaning, hesitate to pronounce aloud, and in doing so place one of their hands before the mouth so as to deaden the sound. This triliteral name of God, which is as sacred among the Hindus as the Tetragrammaton is among the Jews, is composed of three Sanskrit letters, sounding Aum. The first letter, A, stands for the Creator; the second, U, for the Preserver; and the third, M, for the Destroyer, or Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva. Benfey, in his Sanskrit English Dictionary, defines the word as "a particle of reminiscence" ; and this may explain the Brahmanical saying, that a Brahman beginning or ending the reading of a part of the Veda or Sacred Books, must always pronounce, to himself, the syllable Aum; for unless that syllable precede, his 1earning will slip away from him, and unless it follow, nothing will be long retained. An old passage in the Parana says, "All the rites ordained in the Vedas, the sacrifices to fire, and all sacred purifications, shall pass away, but the word Aum shall never pass away, for it is the symbol of the Lord of all things. " The word has been indifferently spelled, O'm, Aom, and Aum; but the last is evidently the most proper, as the second letter is in the Sanskrit alphabet (see On). AUMONT. Said to have been the successor of Molay as Grand Master, and hence called the Restorer of the Order of the Templars. There is a tradition, altogether fabulous, however, which states that he, with seven other Templars, fled, after the dissolution of the Order, into Scotland, disguised as Operative Freemasons, and there secretly and under another name founded a new Order ; and to preserve as much as possible the ancient name of Templars, as well as to retain the remembrance of the clothing of Freemasons, in which disguise they had fled, they chose the name of Freemasons, and thus founded Freemasonry. The society thus formed, instead of conquering or rebuilding the Temple of Jerusalem, was to erect symbolical temples. This is one of the forms of the Templar theory of the origin of Freemasonry. AURORA. In Hebrew the light is called Aur, and in its dual capacity Aurim. Hence Urim, lights-as, Thme, Thummim, perfections. Ra is the sun, the symbolic god of the Egyptians, and Ouro, royalty. Hence we have Aur, Ouro, Ra, which is the double symbolic capacity of Light. Referring to the Urim and Thummim, Re is physical and intellectual light, while Thme is the divinity of truth and justice. Aurora is the color of the baldric worn by the Brethren in the Sixteenth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, which in the legend is said to have been presented by King Darius to the captive Zerubbabel on presentation of his liberty, and that of all his people, who had been slaves in Babylon for seventy years. AUSERWAHLTEN. German for Elu or Elect. AUSTIN. See Saint Augustine.
AUSTRALASIA. The first Masonic Lodge in this region was held in 1803 at Sydney, but was suppressed by the Governor, and it was not until the year 1820 that the parent Lodge of Australasia was warranted to meet at Sydney by the Grand Lodge of Ireland; it is now No. l on the New South Wales register and named the Australian Social Mother Lodge. After that many Lodges were warranted under the three Constitutions of England, Scotland and Ireland, out of which in course of time no less than six independent Grand Lodges have been formed, viz., South Australia founded in 1884, New South Wales 1888; Victoria, 1889 ; Tasmania, 1890; New Zealand, 1890, and Western Australia, 1900.

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ASTOR, JOHN JACOB

Born in lvaldorf, Germany, July 17, 1763, left an orphan as a boy, Astor came to New York City to join a brother, working his way, and arrived in 1784. He was founder of the American fur trade, a founder of the Territory of Oregon where Astoria is named after him, was in the "fur wars " with Indians and with Canadian trappers, was pioneer and founder of the American trade with China, as a real estate dealer was a founder of Greater New York, was founder of the Astor Library, was the largest financial backer of the War of 1812, and in his will left $400,000 for building the Astor Library, equivalent to one million at present money values. He was one of the first founders of Holland Lodge, No. 8; and was Worshipful Master in 1798. From June 6, 1798, to .June 25, 1801, he was Grand Treasurer of the Grand Lodge; the books which he wrote out in his own copper-plate hand are still in the vaults of Masonic Hall, New York City.

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ASTROLOGY

The word astrology is not a true term because it always has been ambiguous, meaning one thing in one country or period of time, another thing in some other country or time, and one contradicting the other. The nearest to any acceptable definition is to say that there has never been astrology, there have been astrologies, these astrologies among themselves vary from a form of astromical book-keeping practiced in China for calendar purposes, to the pseudo-religion which, to judge from the newsstands, has become a flourishing and also a financially profitable cult in America. As a further complication, at one or two periods in the late Middle Ages the word astrology was a synonym for astronomy. As a generalization it may be said that any particular astrology will teach the notion that a star is not what an astronomer says it is but is something more or something other; such as, that it is a god (or goddess !), or a saint, or an angel, or a fate, or possesses magical powers, etc. ; and that what it is, or some attribute it possesses, has some direct influence on men.

There is nowhere any trace of evidence to show that at any time astrology has been accepted by Freemasonry, or taught by it, or is one of the elements in the Ritual. If the mere mention of the skies, or the sun, or moon, etc., were to be considered to be astrology, then each and every man is an astrologist; so is each and every astronomer, every maker of calendars, almost every poet, the majority of composers of music, and many historians. The sun and moon are conspicuous in the Ritual, but not with any astrologic meanings. For five or six centuries it was a "custom " of the Craft to work from sunrise to sunset, and usually contracts would set two lengths of work days for the year, the midpoint of one set falling on St. John the Baptist's Day when the daylight was longest, one on the Evangelist's Day when it was shortest ; and the moon represented the night; this old "custom" very probably was the origin of the two Masonic symbols of the Sun and the Moon.

Amateur Masonic occultists have attempted to connect Masonry with the zodiac, one of the conspicuous features of astrologies ; but here again there is no one zodiac, but many zodiacs throughout the world. The idea of a zodiac itself is one of the largest hoaxes with which men have ever befuddled themselves, and could never have been true to facts. The discovery of dark stars of great magnitude; that what in ancient times was taken for one star was two or more or even a whole galaxy; and the discovery of the precession of the equinoxes, has made the zodiac meaningless. It is a toy of the mind. There is nothing of the zodiac in the present Masonic Ritual ; there was never a mention of it in the oldest Speculative Lodges ; in Medieval times it was a heresy, and Operative Freemasons would have abhorred the thought of it.

It can safely be laid down as a law of the Fraternity that anything and everything in the Ritual is understandable and knowable by any normal man, and nothing in it calls for erudition ; it could not be otherwise where so many millions are admitted to membership. When the Candidate is told that if he finds anything puzzling he can consult well-informed Brethren it is presupposed that in any Lodge there will be such Brethren. This principle, which also is a practice, disposes at a stroke the notion that there has ever been in the Craft any form of occultism which calls for erudition, or for adepts specially trained, or for a kind of knowledge not available to the rank and file of ordinary Masons. Astrology, in its present-day American form, is self-confessedly not open to common knowledge but is understandable only by experts, who for that reason charge a fee for the use of their supposedly erudite knowledge ; and it shares that practice with the majority of other forms of occultism.

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ATHELSTAN AND THE OLD CHARGES

On Page 110 is given a quotation from the Roberts MS. to the effect that Athelstan (King in England, 924-940) was a great lover of Masonry and gave Masons their Charter. In other versions of the Old Charges it is said that Athelstan made his son Prince Edwin Patron, or head, of the Masons. Scholars have not accepted the historicity of this tradition because of difficulties and self-contradictions in the text itself, because there is no supporting evidence in chronicles of the Tenth Century, and also because they have not believed that Masonry was as widely developed at the time as the Old Charges presuppose, or that Athelstan himself took any interest in the Craft. As regards the first two difficulties they continue in force, and make it hard to take seriously the confused or garbled accounts in the versions of the Old Charges; but as regards the last-named difficulty, that Athelstan himself had no interest in the Craft, there are data to show that the Old Charges have the support of historical evidence.

In his History of the Norman Conquest Prof. Henry A. Freeman (Vol. I ; page 190) writes: "Among the Laws of Athelstan none are more remarkable than those which deal with the intemal affairs of London and with the regulation of her earliest commercial corporations." These laws are given in Thorpe's Laws and Institutes; Vol. I; page 228. They show that London was being built up, with walls, bridges, churches and many new buildings, and that King Athelstan took a large personal interest in the building, and that among his laws were regulations for the builders. Athelstan must also have had an equally active interest in the builders at York, always a great architectural center and a free city from time immemorial ; in Vol. V, page 316, Prof. Freeman says, "The men of York had their Hanse-house." A hansa was a gild (hence "Hanseatic League'') and if the crafts in York had a building of their own, it means that they were strong and well organized, the Masons among them. Even more striking is Prof. Freeman's account of Exeter. This had been a Welsh city, or town, at least partly so. Athelstan removed the Welsh and rebuilt it as an English town, "surrounded by a wall of dressed stone." He helped to lay out the city, and supervised its building, which would include the supervision of its builders.

These data prove that Athelstan was both practically and intellectually interested in the arts of building and took an active part in its practice, not only once but in three cities ; and to that extent they give some foundation to the tradition embedded in the Old Charges.

See The History of the Norman Conquest in England, and its Resutts, by Henry A. Freeman; six volumes; Oxford ; 1873 ; revised American Edition.

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ATLANTIS, LOST CONTINENT OF

Rhapsodically
Plato wove a brief story about a Lost Continent of Atlantis into one of his Dialogs, and Homer (or "Homer") has hints of a somewhat similar legend in his Odyssey; from so slender a source was developed a long-lasting tale of a continent in the Atlantic, somewhere west of the Straits of Gibraltar, once covered with civilization, which sank suddenly under the waves. Soundings over the whole bed of the Atlantic Ocean have never encountered a submerged continent ;
geographers have dismissed the possibility that there ever was one, and geologists won't admit that a continent could sink. Long before Plato the Hebrews (see Book of Isaiah) talked often, and almost rhapsodically, about Tarshish, a busy, populous place very far away, even farther away than Isaiah's "isles of the sea," but no geographer had ever found it. Also, the ubiquitous Phoenicians, and the Egyptians as well, had a similar tradition; once an Egyptian expedition set out in search of it. These two latter traditions, plus Plato's myth, hung in the air for centuries, tantalizing geographers and inspiring a huge occult and esoteric literature---even Conan Doyle wrote two tales on the theme, in one about a lost continent under the sea, in the other, about one far up on a mountainous plateau.

Lewis Spence, a specialist in occult history and geography, wrote The Problem of Atlantis (William Rider & Sons; London; 1925), and Atlantis in America (Ernest Benn; London; 1925). The latter surprised Americans but did not convert them. The multiplication of Atlantis' continued; James Churchward published his The Lost Continent of Mu; and somebody discovered another, not far from Guadalcanal, in the Southwest Pacific, called by the queer but romantic name of Lemuria, probably suggested by the animal called the Lemur. This multiplication of the Lost Atlantis was welcomed by men who had never believed in even one of them; it confirmed them in their unbelief.

While this multiplication of Lost Continents proceeded, archeologists in Greece, the Near East, and Egypt were uncovering unbelievably large masses of inscriptions and documents, among which (though only a fraction of them have been translated and analyzed) were a number of mentions of Atlantis, or clues to it. By assembling and correlating these data scholars have shown that in all likelihood Atlantis was in reality an island off the coast of southern Spain, east a little way from Gibraltar, which was a trading center for the eastern Mediterranean, to which came ships from Britain and far-off Norway, and caravan routes from western Europe. The bed under the water between this island and the mainland rose, it ceased to be a "continent'' (the word was often used to mean a large island) ; Atlantis disappeared not by sinking beneath the sea but by rising above it.

If it is be true---and there is every reason to believe that it is. - how ironical that Atlantis tums out to have been not a mystery of the sea but of the land ! and that instaed of being the center of a web of far-ranging sea toutes, it was the terminus of a system of land routes !

But if a man should bemoan the loss of a legend of a golden and glittering continent which sank into the ocean, along with old stories, and poesies, and symbolisms, he can more than recover those losses if he will turn to the old roads, or trails; they are veridic and historic; their story is known; and that story is far more freighted with the richness of true tales, and marvels, and poesies, and symbolisms than ever was the mythic Atlantis. These old trails, or roads, or ways are the poetry of ancient geography. They also were one of the supreme symbols to ancient man for his religions, so many of which were described as The Way, or The Road, or The Gate. There was the great Amber Road which wandered down from the Baltic through the Black Forests of Germany and across France until it branched, and one branch came on down to Atlantis; over it slow mule caravans brought amber, which for centuries was more desired than gold. There were the two great Silk Trails, or Silk Roads, over which camel and horse caravans brought bales of silk into the west from far-off China. There was the tremendous Road of the Turcomans, over which one branch of our Sanskrit-speaking ancestors made their slow progress across to Afghanistan, and then down into India, leaving behind them, after the Way had been followed for centuries, hundreds of caves filled with wall paintings, and rich with libraries of old manuscripts.
Here in the United States was one of the most remarkable of the old roads, the Turquoise Trail (the stone originally was called The Turkish Stone, whence its beautiful name) which wound over the western deserts from Los Cerillos, near Santa Fe, in what is now New Mexico, out to the coast to the bay where San Diego now stands. It was trodden by so many Indians for so many centuries that their moccasins wore it deep into the rock, so that sections of it still are easily visible from an airplane.

The Trail itself always was neutral ground, and any traveler on it could pass without danger through strange places or warring tribes; the myths, and legends, and symbolisms of it run like a subterranean river through the ceremonies of the South-western Indians.

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AUSTRIA

Freemasonry was introduced into Austria in 1742 by the establishment at Vienna of the Lodge of the Three Cannons. But it was broken up by the government in the following year, and thirty of its members were imprisoned for having met in contempt of the authorities. Maria Theresa was an enemy of the Institution, and prohibited it in 1764. Lodges, however, continued to meet secretly in Vienna and Prague. In 1780, Joseph II ascended the throne, and under his liberal administration Freemasonry, if not actually encouraged, was at least tolerated, and many new Lodges were established in Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, and Transylvania, under the authority of the Grand Lodge of Germany, in Berlin. Delegates from these Lodges met at Vienna in 1784, and organized the Grand Lodge of Austria, electing the Count of Dietrichstein, Grand Master. The attempt of the Grand Lodge at Berlin to make this a Provincial Grand Lodge was successful for only a short time, and in 1785 the Grand Lodge of Austria again proclaimed its independence.

During the reign of Joseph II, Austrian Freemasonry was prosperous. Notwithstanding the efforts of its enemies, the monarch could never be persuaded to prohibit it. But in 1785 he was induced to issue instructions by which the number of the Lodges was reduced, so that not more than three were permitted to exist in each city ; and he ordered that a list of the members and a note of the times of meeting of each Lodge should be annually delivered to the magistrates.

Joseph died in 1790, and Leopold II expressed himself as not unfriendly to the Fraternity, but his successor in 1792, Francis II, yielded to the machinations of the anti-Freemasons, and dissolved the Lodges. In 1801 he issued a decree which forbade the employment of anyone in the public service who was attached to any secret society. Freemasonry has continued in operation in Austria, as it is in most non-Masonic countries. The World War developed the activities of the Grand Lodge of Vienna which received recognition abroad, the Grand Lodge of Kentucky so voting on October 20, 1926.

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AUSTRIA HUNGARY AND CZECHO-SLOVAKIA

Freemasonry in these countries began when Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine, husband of the Empress Maria Theresia was made Entered Apprentice and Fellow Craft in 1731 in a Lodge of which Doctor Desaguliers was Worshipful Master. On September 17, 1742, a Lodge was instituted at Vienna but it was closed during the following year by order of the Empires. Various Lodges were established by German authority but in 1764 a Royal Decree was issued against Freemasonry, although the Emperor Francis was at the time Worshipful Master of the first Lodge at Vienna.

By 1784, 45 Lodges under six Provincial Grand Lodges had been instituted in Austria. The Provincial Grand Lodges of Vienna, Bohemia, Hungary and Sieberburgen formed a National Grand Lodge of the Austrian States. Count Dietrichstein was elected Grand Master but when the new body was opposed by the National Grand Lodge at Berlin he accepted the rank of Provincial Grand Master. In 1785 the Emperor ordered the new Grand Lodge to be independent and he was obeyed. During the next few years edicts directed against secret societies were issued by the Emperor and all activity of the Craft ceased. Some Lodges were formed or revived but they soon disappeared again.

In 1867 Austria and Hungary were separated into two Kingdoms and the Brethren took advantage of there being no law in Hungary against Freemasonry to open several Lodges. A Convention of Unity Lodge and others at Temesvar, Oedenburg, Baja, Pressburg, Budapst and Arad met on January 30, 1870 and established the National Grand Lodge of Hungary. For the Austrian Freemasons the only thing left to do was to form social clubs which, when they met as Lodges, were convened in the neighboring country of Hungary. The great World War changed these conditions. A Grand Lodge of Vienna was formed on December 8, 1918. The formation in 1919 of the Republic of Czecho-Slovakia resulted in the establishment of the National Grand Lodge of Jugoslavia for the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

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AUTHENTIC

Formerly, in the science of diplomatica, ancient manuscripts were termed authentic when they were originals, and in opposition to copies.

But in modern times the acceptation of the word has been enlarged, and it is now applied to instruments which, although they may be copies, bear the evidence of having been executed by proper authority.

So of the old records of Freemasonry, the originals of many have been lost, or at least have not yet been found. Yet the copies, if they can be traced to unsuspected sources within the body of the Craft and show the internal marks of historical accuracy, are to be reckoned as authentic. But if their origin is altogether unknown, and their statements or style conflict with the known character of the Order at their assumed date, their authenticity is to be doubted or denied.

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AUTHENTICITY OF THE SCRIPTURES

A belief in the authenticity of the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament as a religious qualification of initiation does not constitute one of the laws of Freemasonry, for such a regulation would destroy the universality of the Institution, and under its action none but Christians could become eligible for admission. But in 1856 the Grand Lodge of Ohio declared "that a distinct avowal of a belief in the Divine authority of the Holy Scriptures should be required of every one who is admitted to the privileges of Masonry, and that a denial of the same is an offence against the Institution, calling for exemplary discipline.'' It is hardly necessary to say that the enunciation of this principle met with the almost universal condemnation of the Grand Lodges and Masonic jurists of this country. The Grand Lodge of Ohio subsequently repealed the regulation. In1857 the Grand Lodge of Texas adopted a similar resolution; but the general sense of the Fraternity has rejected all religious tests except a belief in God.

 

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AUTOPSY

Greek, a.....a, meaning a seeing with one's own eyes. The complete communication of the secrets in the Ancient Mysteries, when the aspirant was admitted into the sacellum, or most sacred place, and was invested by the hierophant with all the aporrheta, or sacred things, which constituted the perfect knowledge of the initiate. A similar ceremony in Freemasonry is called the Rite of Intrusting (see Mysteries).

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AUXILIARY DEGREES

According to Oliver, in his Historical Landmarks, ii, page 345, the Supreme Council of France, in addition to the thirty-three regular degrees of the Rite, confers six others, which he calls Auxiliary Degrees. They are,
1. Elu de Perignan.
2. Petit Architecte.
3. Grand Architecte, or Compagnon Ecossais.
4. Maitre Ecossais.
5. Knight of the East.
6. Knight Rose Croix.

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AVENUE

Forming an avenue is a ceremony sometimes practiced in the lower degrees, but more generally in the higher ones, on certain occasions of paying honors to superior officers. The Brethren form in two ranks facing each other. If the degree is one in which swords are used, these are drawn and elevated, being crossed each with the opposite sword- The swords thus crossed constitute what is called the arch of steel. The person to whom honor is to be paid passes between the opposite ranks and under the arch of steel.

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AVIGNON

Town on the River Rhone in the south of France about 75 miles north-west of the seaport of Marseilles which was the headquarters of the Hermetic Grades from 1740 to the French Revolution. A drastic persecution was set in motion in 1757 by the Archbishop J. de Guyon de Crochans and the Inquisitor P. Mabille, at which time the Mother Lodge was dissolved as the result of a direct attack by these two.

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AVIGNON, ILLUMINATI OF

The French expression is Illuminés d'Avignon. A rite instituted by Pernetti at Avignon, in France, in 1770, and transferred in the year 1778 to Montpellier, under the name of the Academy of True Masons The Academy of Avignon consisted of only four degrees, the three of symbolic or St. John's Freemasonry, and a fourth called the True Freemason, which was made up of instructions, Hermetical and Swedenborgian (see Pernetti).

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AVOUCHMENT

See Vouching

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AWARD

In law, the judgment pronounced by one or more arbitrators, at the request of two parties who are at variance. "If any complaint be brought," say the Charges published by Anderson, "the brother found guilty shall stand to the award and determination of the Lodge" (see the Constitutions, edition of 1723, page 54).

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AYES AND NOES

It is not according to Masonic usage to call for the ayes and nosses on any question pending before a Lodge. By a show of hands is the old and usual custom of determining the will of the Brethren.

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AYNON

Aynon, Agnon, Ajuon, and Dyon are all used in the old manuscript Constitutions for one whom they call the son of the King of Tyre, but it is evidently meant for Hiram Abif. Each of these words is most probably a corruption of the Hebrew Adon or Lord, so that the reference would clearly be to Adon Hiram or Adoniram, with whom Hiram was often confounded; a confusion to be found in later times in the Adonhiramite Rite.

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AYTOUN, WILLIAM EDMONSTOUNE

Poet and humorist. Studied law but said "though he followed the law, he could never overtake it.'' Professor of rhetoric and literature, University of Edinburgh.

Active member of the Scottish Grand Lodge and representative there of the Grand Lodge Royal York of Germany. Born June 21, 1813, his poetry brought him world-wide fame, the most popular being Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers.

Brother Aytoun died on August 4, 1865.

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AZARIAH

The old French rituals have Azarias.
A name in the advanced degrees signifying Helped of God.

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AZAZEL

Scapegoat, the demon of dry places.

Understood by others to be the fallen angel mentioned in the Book of Enoch, and identical with Sammael, the Angel of Death. Symmachus says, the goat that departs; Josephus, the averter of ills, caper emissarius.

Two he-goats, in all respects alike and equal, were brought forward for the day of atonement. The urn was shaken and two lots cast; one was For the Name, and the other For Azazel. A scarlet tongue-shaped piece of wood was twisted on the head of the goat to be sent away, and he was placed before the gate and delivered to his conductor. The High Priest, placing his two bands on the goat, made confession for the people, and pronounced THE NAME clearly, which the people hearing, they knelt and worshiped, and fell on their faces and mid, Blessed be the Name.

The Honor of His kingdom forever and ever.

The goat was then led forth to the mountainside and rolled down to death.

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AZRAEL

From the Hebrew, meaning Help of God. In the Jewish and the Mohammedan mythology, the name of the angel who watches over the dying and separates the soul from the body. Prior to the intercession of Mohammed, Azrael inflicted the death penalty visibly, by striking down before the eyes of the living those whose time for death was come (see Henry W. Longfellow's exquisite poem Azrael).

Azrael is also known as Raphael, and with Gabriel, Michael, and Uriel, identified as the four archangels. As the angel of death to the Moslems, he is regarded as similar to Fate, and Jewish. tradition almost makes him an evil genius.

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AZTECS

Native name of one of the tribes in Mexico at the arrival of the Spaniards in America, and frequently used as meaning Mexicans. Early records and other remains of the Aztecs studied by Nuttall, Peabody Museum Papers (volume ii, pages 522, 525, 532, 535, 538, and elsewhere), show a striking similarity of civilization to that from Phoenician sources and may be due to the migrations of the Men of Tyre.

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AZURE

The clear blue color of the sky. Cerulean is also used to mean sky-blue but is really from a Latin word, Caeruleus, meaning dark blue. The appropriate color of the symbolic degrees; sometimes termed Blue Degrees. Azure means blue in heraldry and in the engraving to show coats of arms it is represented by horizontal lines of shading.

 

 

 

         

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