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The ninth letter in~the alphabets of Western Europe, called by the Greeks Iota, after its Shemitic name. The Hebrew equivalent is, of the numerical value of 10, and signifies a hand. The oldest forms of the letter, as seen in the Phenician and Samaritan, have a rude resemblance to a hand with three fingers, but by a gradual simplification, the character came to be the smallest in the alphabet, and iota, or jot, is a synonym for a trifle. The thumb and two fingers are much used, and are of great significance, in religious forms, as well as in Freemasonry. It is the position of the hand when the Pope blesses the congregation, and signifies the Three in One. The Hebrew letter ain, y, with the numerical value of 70, possesses and gives the English sound of the letter i.


I. A. A. T.

Reghellini (i, 29) says that the Rose Croix Freemasons of Germany and Italy always wear a ring of gold or silver, on which are engraved these letters, the initials of Ignis, Aer, Aqua, Terra, in allusion to the Egyptian mystical doctrine of the generation, destruction, and regeneration of all things by the four elements, lire, air, water, and earth; which doctrine passed over from the Egyptians to the Greeks, and was taught in the philosophy of Empedocles. But these Rose Croix Freemasons, probably borrowed their doctrine from the Gnostics.



The name which the Great Architect directed Moses to use (Exodus iii, 14), that he might identify himself to the Israelites as the messenger sent to them by God. It is one of the modifications of the Tetragrammaton, and as such, in its Hebrew form eheyeh usher eheyeh, the e pronounced like a in fate, has been adopted as a significant word in the higher Degrees of the York, American, and several other Rites. The original Hebrew words are actually in the future tense, and grammatically mean I will be what I will bc; but all the versions give a present signification. Thus, the Vulgate has it, I am who am; the Septuagint, I am he who exists; and the Arabic paraphrase, I am the Eternal who passes not away. The expression seems intended to point out the eternity and self-existence of God, and such is the sense in which it is used in Freemasonry (see Eheyeh asher eheyeh).



From the Greek word the art of medicine. Ragon, in his Orthodoxic Maçonnique (page 450), says that this system was instituted in the eighteenth century, and thats its adepts were occupied in the search for the universal medicine. It must therefore have been a Hermetic Rite. Ragon knew very little of it, and mentions only one Degree, called the Oracle of Cos. The island of Cos was the birthplace of Hippocrates, the father of medicine, and to him the Degree is dedicated. The Order or Rite has no longer any existence.



An island south of the Hebrides, once the seat of the Order of the Culdees, containing the ruins of the monastery of Saint Columba, founded 565 A.D. Tradition plants the foundation of the Rite of Heredom on this island.



From the Greek words eikon, meaning image, and klazo, I break. The name used to designate those in the Church, from the eighth century downward, who have been opposed to the use of sacred images, or, rather, to the paying of religious honor or reverence to such representations. Image worship prevailed extensively in the sixth and seventh centuries in the Eastern Empire. The iconoclast movement commenced with the Imperial Edict issued, in 726, by the Emperor Leo III, surnamed the Isaurian, who allowed images only of the Redeemer. The second decree was issued in 730. This was opposed strenuously by Popes Gregory II and III, but without avail.



The science which teaches the doctrine of images and symbolic representations. It is a science collateral with Freemasonry, and is of great importance to the Masonic student, because it is engaged in the consideration of the meaning and history of the symbols which constitute so material a part of the Masonic system.



The Grand Lodge of Oregon granted a Dispensation to Idaho Lodge, No. 35, on July 7,1863, and on June 21,1864, a Charter was issued. At a Convention held in Idaho City on December 16, 1867, for the purpose of organizing a Grand Lodge, members of the four chartered Lodges in the State, namely, Idaho, No. 35; Boise City, No. 37; Placer, No. 38, and Pioneer, No. 12, were present. It was agreed that members of Owyhee Lodge, U. D., should be admitted and permitted to vote. On December 17, 1867, Grand of heers were elected and installed, and, adopting the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Oregon, the Grand Lodge of Idaho was opened in Ample Form.
Idaho Chapter in Idaho City, was granted a Charter on June 18, 1867, by the Grand Chapter of Oregon which was under the impression that the General Grand Chapter had ceased to exist. The General Grand Chapter, when considering the above Charter acknowledged that the petitioners acted in good faith and granted a Charter to Idaho Chapter, No. 1, on September 18, 1868. Ten Chapters in all were also chartered by the General Grand Chapter in this State. The eleven Chapters organized the Grand Chapter of Idaho on June 16, 1908. The first Council in Idaho, Idaho Council at Pocatello, was issued a Dispensation by the Officers of the General Grand Council on December 15, 1896. This Dispensation was annulled on October 11, 1897. on January 24, 1912, however, the General Grand Council issued a Dispensation to Idaho Council, No. 1, and chartered it on September 10, 1912.

Five Commanderies were instituted in Idaho before the Grand Commandery was organized. The first of these was Idaho, No. 1, at Boise, which was granted a Dispensation May 24, 1882, and a Charter September 13, 1882. With four other Commanderies, Lewiston, No. 2; Moscow, No. 3; Gate City, No. 4; Coeur d'Alene, No. 5, and Idaho, No. 1, the Grand Commandery was organized on August 21, 1904.

A Lodge of Perfections a Chapter of Rose Croix, a Council of Kadosh, and a Consistory, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, were established at Lewiston by the Supreme Council as Lewiston, No. 1, by Charters dated respectively June 15, 1895; January 18, 1898; April 29, 1899; and June 27, 1899.



Idiocy is one of the main disqualifications for initiation. This does not, however, include a mere dulness of intellect and indocility of apprehension. These amount only to stupidity, and "the judgment of the heavy or stupid man," as Doctor Good has correctly remarked, "is often as sound in itself as that of the man of more capacious comprehension." The idiot is defined by Blackstone as "one that hath had no understanding from his nativity; and therefore is by law presumed never likely to attain any." A being thus mentally imperfect is incompetent to observe the obligations or to appreciate the instructions of Freemasonry. It is true that the word does not occur in any of the old Constitutions, but from their general tenor it is evident that idiots were excluded, because "cunning," or knowledge and skill, are everywhere deemed essential qualifications of a Freemason. But the law of the ritual is explicit on the subject.



The worship paid to any created object. It was in some one of its forms the religion of the entire ancient world except the Jews. The forms of idolatry are generally reckoned as four in number.
1. Fetichism, the lowest form, consisting in the worship of animals, trees, rivers, mountains, and stones.
2. Sabianism or Sabaism, the worship of the sun, moon, and stars.
3. Shintoism, or the worship of deceased ancestors or the leaders of a nation. 4. Idealism, or the worship of abstractions or mental qualities.

Brother Oliver and his school have propounded the theory that among the idolatrous nations of antiquity, who were, of course, the descendants, in common with the monotheistic Jews, of Noah, there were the remains of certain legends and religious truths which they had received from their common ancestor, but which had been greatly distorted and perverted in the system which they practised. This system, taught in the Ancient Mysteries, he called the Spurious Freemasonry of antiquity.



A Latin phrase meaning By fire, nature is perfectly renewed (see I.·. N.·. R.·.1.·.)



The ignorant Freemason is a drone and an encumbrance in the Order. He who does not study the nature, the design, the history and character of the Institution, but from the hour of his initiation neither gives nor receives any ideas that could not be shared by a profane, is of no more advantage to Freemasonry than Freemasonry is to him. The true Freemason seeks light that darkness may be dispelled, and knowledge that ignorance may be removed. The ignorant aspirant, no matter how loudly he may have asked for light, is still a blind grouper in the dark.



The Cabalistic mode of reading Ho-hi, one of the forms of the Tetragrammaton (see Zo-hi).


I. H. S.

A monogram, to which various meanings have been attached. Thus, these letters have been supposed to be the initials of In hoc signo, words which surrounded the cross seen by Constantine. But that inscription was in Greek; and besides, even in a Latin translation, the letter V, for vinces, would be required to complete it. The Church has generally accepted the monogram as containing the initials of Jesus Hominum Salvator, a Latin expression meaning Jesus the Savior of Men; a sense in which it has been adopted by the Jesuits, who have taken it in the form here illustrated, as the badge of their society. So, too, it is interpreted by the Masonic Templars, on whose banners it often appears. A later interpretation is advocated by the Cambridge Camden Society in a work published by them on the subject. In this work they contend that the monogram is of Greek origin, and is the first three letters of the Greek name, JESUS. But the second of these interpretations is the one most generally received.



The eighth month of the Hebrew civil year. It corresponds to a part of the months of April and May.



The Anti-Masonic movement had so great an effect on Freemasonry in Illinois that it practically died. After the agitation ceased the Craft appeared again with renewed vigor. There are thus two early Lodges and two Grand Lodges to be considered in an account of the growth of Freemasonry in this State. On September 4, 1805, a Dispensation for six months was issued to Western Star Lodge, No. 107, while Illinois was still in Indian Territory.

The Lodge was chartered and on September 13, 1806, was duly constituted. A Convention was held at Vandalia on December 9, 1822, to consider the organization of a Grand Lodge for the State. At another meeting held December 1, 1823, eight Lodges were represented and a Grand Lodge was opened with Brother Shadrach Bond as Grand Master. In 1827, this Grand Lodge ceased operations and after June 24, 1827, all the Lodgea in the State went out of existence. A Warrant was issued on August 30, 1838, to Bodley Lodge, No. 97, by the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, there being at that time no other working Lodge in Illinois. At a Convention held at Jacksonville on April 6, 1840, six of the eight chartered Lodges in the State were present and one under Dispensation was represented. The Grand L,odge officers were elected and the Grand Lodge then opened. For some time, however, several Lodges in Illinois paid allegiance to Missouri because their business in St. Louis made it more convenient for the Brethreu to attend the Grand Lodge of Missouri.

A Dispensation was granted by the Deputy General Grand High Priest to Springfield Chapter, on July 19, 1841, and in the following September a Charter was issued. Seven Chapters were given permission subsequently by the General Grand Iiing to organize a Grand Chapter. On April 10, 1850, six of these Chapters held a Convention and opened the Grand Chapter of Illinois.

Degrees of the Cryptic Rite were conferred in some of the Royal Arch Chapters in this State. Then several Councils were chartered from 1852 by the Grand Council of Kentucky, the first being Illinois Council No. 15. A Charter was granted to Alton Council at Alton in 1853. Springfield Council at Springfield was not chartered until February, 1853, though the Convention to form a Grand Council was assembled on September 29, 1853, and during the adjourned meeting at Springfield the various Councils were arranged as Illinois Council No. 1; Springfield Council No. 2, and Alton Council No. 3. Any misunderstanding was cleared up by a second Convention at Springfield, March 10, 1854, when the Constitution was readopted and the Grand Council constituted by representatives of the three Councils.

Apollo Encampment, later Apollo Commandery, was organized at Chicago under Dispensation dated May 5, 1845, issued by Deputy Grand Master Joseph E. Stapleton of Baltimore. It receiveda Charter dated September 17, 1847. The Grand Commandery was organized on October 27, 1857, under authority of Grand Master W. B. Hubbard of the Grand Encampment, by three Commanderies: Apollo, No. 1; Belvidere, No. 2, and Peoria, No. 3. At the Conclave of 1858, Sir Hosmer A. Johnson presented a piece of the Charter Oak received from the Hon. Isaac W. Stewart of Hartford, Connecticut, which was afterwards made into a Patriarchal Cross for the use of the Grand Commanders as a Jewel of Office.

As early as 1857, appeared the first Body of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in Illinois, when an Rensselaer Lodge of Perfection was chartered on Alay 14, at Chicago. On that date also Chicago Council of Princes of Jerusalem, Gourgas Chapter of Rose Croix, and Oriental Consistory were established in the same city.



The word illiteracy, as signifying an ignorance of letters, an incapability to read and write, suggests the inquiry whether illiterate persons are qualified to be made Freemasons. There can be no doubt, from historic evidence, that at the period when the Institution was operative in its character, the members for the most part that is, the great mass of the Fraternity were unable to read or write. At a time when even kings made at the foot of documents the sign of the cross, pro ignorantia litterarum. because they could not write their names, it could hardly be expected that an Operative Mason should be gifted with a greater share of education than his sovereign. But the change of the Society from Operative to Speculative gave to it an intellectual elevation, and the philosophy and science of symbolism which was then introduced could hardly be understood by one who had no preliminary education. Accordingly, the provision in all Lodges, that initiation must be preceded by a written petition, would seem to indicate that no one is expected or desired to apply for initiation unless he can comply with that regulation, by writing, or at least signing, such a petition.

The Grand Lodge of England does not leave this principle to be settled by implication, but in express words requires that a candidate shall know how to write, by inserting in its Constitution the provision that a candidate, "previous to his initiation, must subscribe his name at full length to a declaration." The official commentary on this, in an accompanying note, is, that "a Person who cannot write is consequently ineligible to be admitted into the Order," aid this is now the very generally accepted law. The Latin words ne varies in Masonic diplomas, which follows the signature in the margin, indicates that the holder is required to know how to sign his name.



A modification of the system of Pernetty instituted at Paris by Benedict Chastanier, who subsequently succeeded in introducing it into London. It consisted of nine Degrees, for an account of which see Chastanier.



This is a Latin word, signifying the enlightened, and hence often applied in Latin Diplomas as an epithet of Freemasons.


See Avignon, Illuminati of



A secret society, founded on May 1, 1776, by Adam Weishaupt, who was Professor of Canon Law at the University of Ingolstadt. Its founder at first called it the Order of the Perfectibilists; but he subsequently gave it the name by which it is now universally known. Its professed object was, by the mutual assistance of its members, to attain the highest possible degree of morality and virtue, and to lay the foundation for the reformation of the world by the association of good men to oppose the progress of moral evil.

To give to the Order a higher influence, Weishaupt connected it with the Masonic Institution, after whose system of Degrees, of esoteric instruction, and of secret modes of recognition, it was organized. It has thus become confounded by superficial writers with Freemasonry, although it never could be considered as properly a Masonic Rite. Weishaupt, though a reformer in religion and a liberal in politics, had originally been a Jesuit; and he employed, therefore, in the construction of his association, the shrewdness and subtlety which distinguished the disciples of Loyola; and having been initiated in 1777 in a Lodge at Munich, he also borrowed for its use the mystical organization which was peculiar to Freemasonry. In this latter task he was greatly assisted by the Baron Von Knigge, a zealous and well-instructed Freemason, who joined the Illuminati in 1780, and soon became a leader, dividing with Weishaupt the control and direction of the Order.

In its internal organization the Order of Illuminati was divided into three great classes, namely,
1. The Sursery;
2. Symbolic Freemasonry; and
3. The Mysteries; each of which was subdivided into several Degrees, making ten in all, as in the following table:

I. Nursery. After a ceremony of preparation it began:
1. Novice.
2. Minerval.
3 Illuminatus Minor.

II. Symbolic Freemasonry.
The first three Degrees were communicated without any exact respect to the divisions. and then the candidate proceeded:
4 Illuminates Major, or Scottish Novice.
5 Illuminates Diligent, or Scottish Knight.

III. The Mysteries.
This class was subdivided into the Lesser and the Greater Mysteries.
The Lesser Mysteries were:
6. Presbyter, Priest, or Epops.
7. Prince, or Regent.

The Greater Mysteries were:
8 Magus.
9 Rex, or King.

Anyone otherwise qualified could be received into the Degree of Novice at the age of eighteen; and after a probation of not less than a year he was admitted to the Second and Third Degrees, and so on to the advanced Degrees; though but few reached the Ninth and Tenth Degrees, in which the inmost secret designs of the Order were contained, and, in fact, it is said that these last Degrees were never thoroughly worked up. The Illuminati selected for themselves Order Names, which were always of a classical character. Thus, Weishaupt called himself Spartocus, Knigge was Philo, and Zwack, another leader, was known as Cato. They gave also fictitious names to countries. Ingolstadt, where the Order originated, was called Eleusis; Austria was Egypt, in reference to the Egyptian darkness of that kingdom, which excluded all Freemasonry from its territories; Munich was called Athens, and Vienna was Rome. The Order had also its calendar, and the months were designated by peculiar names; as, Dimeh for January, and Bemeh for February. They had also a cipher, in which the official correspondence of the members was conducted. The character now so much used by Freemasons to represent a Lodge, was invented and first used by the Illuminati.

The Order was at first very popular, and enrolled no less than two thousand names upon its registers, among whom were some of the most distinguished men of Germany. It extended rapidly into other countries, and its Lodges were to be found in France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Poland, Hungary, and Italy. The original design of Illuminism was undoubtedly the elevation of the human race. Knigge, who was one of its most prominent working members, and the author of several of its Degrees, was a religious man, and would never have united with it had its object been, as has been charged, to abolish Christianity. But it cannot be denied, that in process of time abuses had crept into the Institution and that by the influence of unworthy men the system became corrupted; yet the coarse accusations of such writers as Barruel and Robison are known to be exaggerated, and some of them altogether false.

The Conversations-Lexicon, for instance, declares that the s society had no influence whatever on the French Revolution, which is charged upon it by these as well as other writers. But Illuminism came directly and professedly in conflict with the Jesuits and with the Roman Church, whose tendencies were to repress the freedom of thought. The priests became, therefore, its active enemies, and waged war so successfully against it, that on June 22, 1784, the Elector of Bavaria issued an Edict for its suppression. Many of its members were fined or imprisoned, and some, among whom was Weishaupt, were compelled to flee the country. The Edicts of the Elector of Bavaria were repeated in March and August, 1785, and the Order began to decline, so that by the end of the eighteenth century it had ceased to exist. Adopting Freemasonry only as a means for its own more successful propagation, and using it only as incidental to its own organization, it exercised while in prosperity no favorable influence on the Masonic Institution, nor any unfavorable effect on it by its dissolution.



An Order but little known; mentioned by Ragon in his Catalogue as having been instituted for the propagation of Martinism.



The system or Rite practiced lacy the German Illuminati is so called.



A title commonly used in addressing Brethren of the Thirty-Third Degree in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Formerly the word had a more extended usefulness among the Craft. For example, there is a Minute Book preserved in the Museum of the Grand Lodge Zur Sonne at Bayreuth, Germany. This record is written in French as a report of the inauguration of the Lodge Eleusis at Bayreuth on December 4, 1741. A translation of the memorandum is as follows: The fourth of the month of December our Very Worshipful Lodge hats installed the new Lodge in the City at the Golden Eagle. The procession was arranged with beautiful ceremonies.

1. Two Bearers carrying gloves.
2. Two Stewards or Marshals with their insignia and white batons or staffs in hand.
3. The Grand Sword Bearers of the Grand Lodge.
4. The Secretary of the Grand Lodge.
5. Our Very Illustrious Master—Margrave Friedrich von Brandenburg—Bayreuth—as Grand Master of the Order, between the Wardens.
6. The new Master of the new Lodge, between laid Wardens.
7. All the Brethren, fifty in number.

Before the entrance to the Golden Eagle was posted a Sentinel, on the staircase was another. Music of very agreeable kind woes heard. We made some Brethren anti Masters. After supper the Procession returned in the same manner that it had arrived. The student of Freemasonry will not only note the early use of the word Illustrious but also the prominence given to the gloves on this occasion (see Gloves).



The title now generally given to the Elect of Fifteen, which see



The French title of this organization is Grande Loge Nationale Indépendante et Reguliere pour la France et les Colonies Française. Grand Master D. E. Ribaucourt sent us the following information:

"Desirous of working in France outside of all compromise of political or atheistical character, some Brother French freemasons had in 1910 revived the practice of the old Rite of the Rectified Regime, which is a deistic system. This regular Rite among us had been practiced in France by numerous Lodges since the commencement of the eighteenth century. Lodges of that type have been put to sleep in France since 1841. They bequeathed their powers to the Grand Rectified Directory of Geneva, Switzerland in order that the Lodges of France should be awakened when the time was opportune.

That was done in 1910 by the Grand Rectified Directory of Geneva, which created the Respectable Rectified Lodge Le Center des Amis at the Orient of Paris. Thereupon the Grand Orient of France, preoccupied with the foundation of a new order of things, proposed to us a double Constitution guaranteeing the integrity of our Rituals of 1782, and the free exercise of the symbols of the Grand Architect of the Universe during these three years, l9l0-3, our Rite made much progress in France. In June, 1913, the Council of the Order of the Grand Orient of France violated the solemn promises of 1910 and imposed upon us new rituals, in which the opening and closing invocations had the symbol of the Grand Architect of the Universe suppressed. We carried our case before the Masonic Convent of the Grand Orient in 1913, and we were forbidden to use our old-time rituals.

The Orator of the Convent of the Grand Orient of France declared at that time amid the plaudits of the assemblage that the symbol of the Grand Architect of the Universe was contrary to the Constitution of the Grand Orient of France. To defend our menaced Masonic faith and to safeguard the traditions of our Order, we have been obliged to constitute ourselves in October, 1913, into the Independent and Regular National Grand Lodge. The Respectable Rectified Lodge, Le Centre des Amis of Paris, of which records exist as far as 1762, took the initiative and was promptly followed by the Respectable Lodge, L'Anglais No. 204, at Bordeaux, which existed in 1732. Some new Lodges have combined with us, and will adhere to the course of our action. We shall work after a just and perfect fashion in order to afford a sanctuary in France to Brothers believing in the Grand Architect of the Universe, loving and respecting His symbol, and also to resume with those abroad the chain of union so unfortunately broken between French Freemasons and those of other lands.

We have imposed and shall impose upon our Lodges the following obligations
1. During the work. the Bible shall be constantly open upon the altar at the first chapter of Saint John.
2. The ceremonies shall strictly conform to the Ritual of the Rectified Regime which we practice, revised in 1778 and approved in 1782.
3. The communications shall always be opened and closed with the invocation and in the name of the Grand Architect of the Universe, and Lodges shall insert in a space in their announcements, documents, the inscription A. L. G. D. G. A. D. l'U, these being the initials of the French words meaning, to the glory of the Grand Architect of the Universe.
4. No religious or political discussion shall be allowed in the Lodges.
5. The Brethren shall never officially as a Lodge take part in political matters, but each Brother shall reserve and guard his entire liberty of action.
6. Lodges of this Obedience only receive as visitors the Brethren belonging to the regular Obedience recognized by the Grand Lodge of England.

"In answer to our appeal, the Grand Lodge of England and its very Respectable Grand Master recognized us on November 20, 1913, as the only regular Masonic Power in France, and the announcement was made at the Centenary of that very Respectable Grand Lodge on December 3, 1913" (see France) .



An extensive peninsula of Southern Asia. The Grand Lodge of England authorized Brother George Pomfret in 1728 to open a Lodge in Bengal. Captain Ralph Farwinter, Pomfret's successor, was appointed Provincial Grand Master of India in 1730. The records of this Provincial Grand Lodge are not extant but even previous to this time Lodges had been constituted at various places.

A Dutch Body, the Grand Lodge of Solomon at Chinsura, was always most friendly to the Bengal Lodge and at times the two worked a joint ceremony.

January 25, 1781, was the date of the last meeting of the Bengal Provincial Grand Lodge before the war in the Carnatic proved the cause of the downfall of all but Industry and Perseverance Lodge in Calcutta. July 18, 1785, the Provincial Grand Lodge reopened and Freemasonry began an uphill struggle to regain its former strength. In 1794 the Provincial Grand Lodge controlled nine Lodges, from the first two of which its officers were always chosen. This caused ill feeling and a secession of several Lodges took place. It disappeared for a time but was re-established in 1813 by the Earl of Moira. The Provincial Grand Master returned to England in 1826 and the loss of all proper authority gradually brought about a failure of communication between the Bengal Provincial Grand Lodge and the Grand Lodge of England.

The earlier groupings of the Lodges overseas in India and other countries were designated as in the records of the Grand Lodge as Provinces but since 1866 these have been termed Districts to distinguish them from the Provinces in England itself.

The Grand Lodge of Ireland issued a Charter for a Lodge in 1837 at Kurnaul but this did not survive.

A Lodge at Madras was chartered from England in 1755, and in 1766 a Provincial Grand Master, Captain Edmond Pascal, was appointed.

A Lodge was warranted for Bombay under English authority in 1758 and Brother James Todd was appointed Provincial Grand Master in 1763.

The Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1836 appointed Dr. James Burnes of the Indian Medical Service as Provincial Grand Master of Western India and its Dependencies, and a Provincial Grand Lodge came into being on January 1, 1838. A Provincial Grand Lodge of Eastern India was also created to control Masonic matters on behalf of the Grand Lodge of Scotland and of this Body also Doctor Burnes became the head, and in 1846 he was duly invested as Provincial Grand Master for all India. He was the author of a Sketch of the History of the Knights Templar in 1844 and was also the founder of a fraternal organization having three classes of members, Novice, Companion, and Officer, and known as the Brotherhood of the Olive Branch of the East. Natives of India joined the Craft, and Rising Star Lodge at Bombay and Saint Andrew's Lodge at Poona were set up West and East in 1844 for that purpose and soon followed by others. Some prominent natives of India have become Freemasons. Among these are the son of the Nabob of Arcot, Umdat-ul-Umara, Prince Keyralla, Khanof Mysore, Prince Shadad Khan, the former Ameer of Scinde, Maharajah Duleep, and Maharajah Rundeer Sing.



The first Lodge in Indiana was organized at Vincennes by Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, August 27, 1807, as Sincennes Lodge, No. 15. Prior to this, however, Freemasonry had been introduced by Brethren belonging to Lodges in the army on the northwestern frontier. A Convention of representatives of the following Lodges of Ancient York Masons was held at Corydon on December 3, 1817, to consider the establishment of a Grand Lodge: Vincennes, No. 15; Lawrenceburg, No. 44; Madison Union, No. 29; Blazing Star, Is-o. 36; Melchizedeek, No. 43; Pisgah, No. 45. Three Lodges under dispensations Switzerland, Risines Sun and Brookville Harmona, also sent representatives and it was resolved to open a Grand Lodge. On January 12, 1818, arrangements were completed. The Id following day Grand Officers were elected with M. W. Alexander Buckner as Grand Master, and the Grand Constitution was adopted January 15. Since 1825 this Grand Lodge has had permanent quarters at Indianapolis but before then it met at Charlestown and elsewhere.

According to the proceedings of the General Grand Chapter on September 14, 1826, a Charter was granted to Vincennes Chapter on May 13, 1820. At the twelfth Convocation of the General Grand Chapter in 1St4, permission was granted for a Convention of Chapter representatives to assemble on November 18, 1845, and the Grand Chapter of Indiana was duly constituted on December 5, 1845. At the meeting of the General Grand Chapter the General Grand Secretary stated that, according to the records of 1819, Dispensations were said to have been granted for Chapters at Madison and Brookville which were not ratified and therefore the Chapters ceased to exist in a legal sense. They were supposed, however, to have continued their labors for some years and, with another Chapter established at Vincennes, to have organized a Grand Chapter in 1823. Of this there was no documentary evidence, but the General Grand Chapter granted Madison Chapter a legal Charter on September 12, 1844.

The Council Degrees in Indiana were at first given in the Chapter work but, after the General Grand Chapter decided in 1853 to give up control of the Cryptic Degrees, Councils were chartered by the Grand Council of Kentucky, August 30, 1854, and by the Grand Council of Ohio, October 18, 1B55. The three Councils thus organized sent delegates to a meeting on December 20, 1855, when the Grand Council of Indiana was formed.

The first Commandery to be organized in Indiana mas Roper, No. 1, at Indianapolis, which was granted a Dispensation May 14, 1848. It was chartered October 16, 1850. With three others, Greensburg, No. 2; La Fayette, No. 3, and Fort Wayne, No. 4, this Commandery organized the Grand Commandery of Indiana on May 16, 1854, by authority of the Grand Encampment.

On May 19, 1865, the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite became part of the Masonic life of Indiana when the Adoniram Lodge of Perfection, the Saraiah Council of Princes of Jerusalem, the Indianapolis Chapter of Rose Croixs and the Indiana Consistory were established at Indianapolis by the Supreme Council, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction.



An Indian or Hindu year begins in April, thus: First Vaisakha, April 13; First Jyaishtha, May 14; First Ashadha, June 14; First Sravana, July 16; First Bhadrapada, August 16; First Asvina, September 16; First Kartlika, October 17; First Agrahayana or Margasirsha, November 16; First Pansha, December 15; First Magha, January 13; First Phalguna, February 15; First Caitra, March 13. The days of the week, commencing with Sunday, are Aditya, Soma, Mangala, Budha, Guru, Sukra, and Sani. The Hindu Era, until April 13, 1885, was 1937.


See Buddhism



There is no doubt that Indians have been Freemasons, and devoted ones. But the claim has been made that there are Indian customs of so decided Masonic a character that a Freemason would at once assume their identity with the ceremonies of the Craft. The subject has been treated in a book, Indian Masonry, by Brother Robert C. Wright, who describes a number of Indian signs, for example, and he arrives at this conclusion (page 18).

It can thus be readily understood that Masonic signs which are simply gestures given to convey ideas, no doubt have taken their origin from the same signs or like signs no v corrupted but which meant something different in the beginning. Were we able to trace these signs we would then at once jump to the conclusion that the people who used them were Freemasons the same as we ourselves. The signs which have just been mentioned as given by the Indians could easily be mistaken for Masonic signs by an enthusiastic Freemason, more anxious to find what he thinks is in them than to indulge in sober analysis of the sign and its meaning. A ceremonial sign for peace, friendship, or brotherhood was made by the extended fingers separated, interlocked in front of the breast, the hands horizontal with the backs outward. When this sign is represented as a pictograph, we have on the Indian chart what corresponds exactly to the clasped hands on the Masonic chart. which means the same thing.

On the next page Brother Wright gives some attention to the study of things that may resemble each other and yet not be identical For instance, he says:

Charles Frush, a Freemason who spent many years among the Indians of Oregon and Washington, told me he had never seen any Masonic sign given by Indians, and if any one claimed he had seen such, it was misunderstood and was for conversational purposes. In response to an inquiry about a report that Indians who had gone East many years ago, upon returning to Lewiston, Idaho, had formed a Masonic Lodge, T. W. Randall, Grand Secretary of A. F. &; A. M. in Idaho, wrote me as follows: "I was in Lewiston as early as 1862 and heard of Indian Freemasons but was never able to trace this to a reliable source. I have frequently discussed this question with old pioneers of Oregon and Washington but never found a person who was a Freemason, and who believed the Indians ever were Freemasons or had a Lodge. That some Tribes have certain signs by which they can recognize each other, there can be no doubt, but those signs are not Masonic signs so far as I can learn." Brother Randall has thus correctly determined that the signs he refers to are nothing more than conversational signs. The different Tribes had a sign which stood for their totem or the name of their Tribe, and it is very easily understood that an Indian of the same Tribe on seeing his tribal sign, would recognize the one giving it as a fellow tribesman. Indians of a different Tribe, familiar with it, would also recognize the sign and in turn could give their own sign and thus each know where the other "hails from." There is nothing strange about it.

The closing chapter by Brother Wright sums up the "Lessons," as he heads it, we may derive from a Masonic study of the American Indian. He says on pages 108 and 109:

There is no Indian Freemasonry. There is Indian Freemasonry. This wide difference I make clear when I say, no Indian Freemasonry as the average man understands it, but there is a deep Indian Freemasonry for them who seeks to find it.

Shall we Freemasons, who tell the E. A. of the universality of Freemasonry, dare to say that the Indian is not a Freemason? An interesting institution was found among the Wyandottes and some other tribes—that of fellowship. Two young men agree to be friends forever, or more than Brothers. Each tells the other the Secrets of his life, advises him on important matters and defends him froth wrong and violence and at his death is his chief mourner. Here are, in full reality, all the elements of a Masonic Lodge. Those men were Freemasons in their hearts. There is no Indian Freemasonry in that small and narrow sense which most of us think of, that is, one who pays Lodge dues, wears an apron like ours and gives signs so nearly like ours that we find him perforce a freemason in any degree or degrees we know, and which degrees we are too prone to watch, just as we do a procession of historical floats, which casually interest us and maybe a little more so if we can but secure a place sit the head of the procession the true meaning of which we have but a faint idea about. This makes our own Freemasonry as meaningless as the interpretation of Indian signs by an ignorant trapper.

In a paper on the North American Indians, their Beliefs and Ceremonies Akin to Freemasonry, read by Brother F. C. Van Duzer on April 10, 1924, at a meeting of the Metropolitan College, London, England, and printed in the Transactions of that year (pages 18 to 27), the author examines several interesting kindred customs of the Indians of Worth Armeria and the Masonic Craft. He also furnishes some valuable particulars of the initiation of North American Indians into Freemasonry according to the Rites of the Craft. Brother Van Duzer says:

The first American Indian, of whom there is a definite record of having become a Master Mason, is Joseph Brant, the famous Mohawk, lroquois, Chief, whose native name was Thayendanega, and who was a brother in-law of Sir William Johnson, who married as his second wife Molly Brant, Joseph Brant's sister. Brant was born in Ohio in 1742, and was the son of Nickus, Indian for Nicholas, a full-blooded Mohawk of the Wolf family who is said to be a grandson of one of the five Sachems who visited England in 1710 and was presented to Queen Anne. He was initiated in the Hiram's Cliftonian Lodge, No. 41 " Moderns holden in Princes Street, in Leicester Fields, London, on April 26, 1776.

His Grand Lodge Certificate was signed by Joseph Heseltine, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of the Moderns. die was a member of Lodge No. 10, Hamilton, Canada, and No. 11, Mohawk Village, of which he was first Master. He translated, among other works, the Gospel of Saint Mark into the Mohawk language in 1776. Brother Brant was buried in the Mohawk Church, Mohawk Village, and the Freemasons restored the vault or tomb in 1850, placing an appropriate inscription on it. It is stated that Brant's Masonic apron was presented to him by King George III. The Lodge at Hudson, New York, has upon its walls a painting of Brother Brant, and in its archives is the story of his friendship for Colonel McKinistry, whose life he once saved through recognition of the Sign of D. It is also related of Brother Brant that during General John Sullivan's raid on the Iroquois in 1779 he recognized the Sign of D, as given by Lieutenant Boyd, who with Sergeant Parker, was captured by the Indians. He saved them from immediate death, but having been called away, the captives were placed in the charge of the noted Tory, Butler, who, exasperated because they would give him no information with regard to their Army, handed them over to the Indians, who tortured them to death.

It is further claimed that the famous Seneca orator, Red Jacket, a contemporary of Brother Brant, was a Freemason, but the probability is that he was only an entered Apprentice. Certain it is that on the village sites of the Iroquois of Colonial times. Masonic emblems have been discovered that have evidently been in possession of the Indians. There is in the Tioga Point Museum at Athens, Pennsylvania, an emblem of the Royal Arch, found in an Indian grave in the immediate vicinity, and which probably dates from the period of the American Revolution. It is known that a great Masonic student in America has in his possession the somewhat conventional Masonic emblems, showing the square and compasses hammered and cut from a silver coin by an Iroquois silversmith, and it was obtained from the Seneca Indians. Many other similar emblems have been seen and noted among the Indians.

Masonic history holds records of a number of Delaware Indians who were Freemasons. One of these v, as a member of the Munsey division who was named John Ronkerpot, who impoverished himself to help the American cause during the Revolution, and who later received Masonic aid. George Copway, the Ojibway was an ardent Freemason.

Shabbonee, the Pottawatomi who saved the early settlers of Chicago from the Sauk chief, Black Hawk, is known to have been a freemason and tradition claims the famous Black Hawk himself as such but that is doubtful. General Eli S. Parker, the Seneca Chief, who entered the American Civil War as a private and came out as Aide-de-Camp and Secretary to General Grant, is a very good example of an American Indian Freemason. His distinguished nephew, Archie C Parker, State Archaeologist of New Cork, whose native name was Gazoasauana or Great Star Shaft, has recently been elevated to the Thirty-Third Degree, perhaps the first American Indian to receive that signal honor. I should like to refer to one or two other prominent Freemasons, and among them the Cherokee Chiefs, Ross Bushyhead, Hayes and Pleasant Porter. Gabe E. Parker, Registrar of the United States Treasury, a Chickasaw Indian, and James Muriel a Pawnee, may also be mentioned. On November 10, 1923, Kenwood Lodge No. 303, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, conferred the Degree of Master Mason upon Amos Oneroad, whose native name was Jinxing Cloud a full-blooded Sioux Indian.

They conferred this Degree on behalf of Hiawatha Lodge So. 434, of Mount Vernon, New York. Amos Oneroad comes of a distinguished stock. His grandfather, Blue Medicine. was the first of his Tribe to welcome the white man to their country, and his Chief's medal, together with an American Flag with thirteen stars and a Certificate of good character, are still treasured by his descendants. Brother Oneroad's father, Peter Oneroad was a warrior of great distinction, having earned practically every honor that is possible to the Sioux and Dakota Nations. It is related that once, at the head of a small party, he completely overwhelmed a large body of the warriors of the Ponea Tribe and personally killed both of their Chiefs. In other accounts it is stated that he dared the fire of the enemy to secure the body of a wounded comrade. Again, he rescued an Indian girl from freezing, carrying her ninety miles on his back over the snow-swept plain. Brother Oneroad had the advantage of a good education. He was a graduate of the Haskell Institute, at Lawrence, Kansas, and of the Bible Teachers' Training School in New York; and he became an ordained minister of the Presbyterian Church. He has been a good and steadfast friend. In fact, that is the literal meaning of his name, for One Road signified steads fast among the Sioux.

Thus from primitive and ancient rites akin to Freemasonry, which had their origin in the shadows of the distant past, the American Indian is graduating into Free and Accepted Masonry as it has been taught to us. It is an instructive example of the universality of human belief in fraternity, morality and immortality.

General Eli S. Parker, the Seneca Chief, to whom I have previously referred, in alluding to himself at a banquet, said, "I am almost the sole remnant of what was once a noble race, which is rapidly disappearing as the dew before the morning sun. I found my race melting away and I asked myself, 'Where shall I find home and sympathy when our last Council fire is extinguished?' I said, 'I will knock at the door of Freemasonry and see if the white race will recognize me as they did my ancestors when we were strong and the white man weak.' I knocked at the door of the Blue Lodge and found Brotherhood around its altar. I went before the Great Light in the Chapter and found companionship beneath the Royal Arch. I entered the Encampment and found there valiant Sir Knights willing to shield me without regard to race or nation. If my race shall disappear from the continent I have a consoling hope that our memory shall not perish. If the deeds of my ancestors shall not live in stories their memories will remain in the names of our lakes and rivers, pour towns and cities, and will call up memories otherwise forgotten. I am happy; I feel assured that when my glass is run out I shall follow the footsteps of my departed race, Masonic sympathizers will cluster around my coffin and drop in my lonely grave the evergreen acacia, sweet emblem of a better meeting."

Brother Van Duzer says further: "I desire to express my grateful thanks to R. W. Brother Alanson Skinner; the eminent anthropologist of Milwaukee United States of America, for the great assistance he has rendered me."



This organization flourished in the middle of the eighteenth century in France The rites were of a quasi-Masonic character and both men and women were eligible to membership- The badge was a ribbon, striped black, white and yellow, and the device was an imitation of an icicle. One of the oaths taken by the members was to fight against Love, whose power they renounced, Mdlle. Salle, a famous danseuse, wars President for a time.



In the German Cyclopedia we find the following: The East Indians have still their mysteries. which it is very probable they received from the ancient Egyptians. These mysteries are in the possession of the Brahmans, and their ancestors were the ancient Brachmen.

It is only the sons-of these priests who are eligible to initiation. Had a grown-up youth of the Braehmen sufficiently hardened his body, learned to subdue his passions, and given the requisite proofs of his abilities at school, he must submit to an especial proof of his fortitude before he was admitted into the mysteries, which proofs were given in a cavern. A second cavern in the middle of a high hill contained the statues of nature, which were neither made of gold, nor of silver, nor of earth, nor of stone, but of a very hard material resembling wood, the composition of which was unknown to any mortal.

These statues are said to have been given by God to His Son, to serve as models by which He might form all created beings. Upon the crown of one of these statues stood the likeness of Bruma, who was the same with them as Osiris was with the Egyptians. The inner part, and the entrance also into this cavern, was quite dark, and those who wished to enter into it were obliged to seek the way with a lighted torch. A door led into the inner part, on the opening of which the water that surrounded the border of the cavern broke loose. If the candidate for initiation was worthy, he opened the door quite easily, and a spring of the purest water flowed gently upon him and purified him. Those, on the contrary who were guilty of any crime, could not open the door; and if they were candid, they confessed their sins to the priest, and besought him to turn away the anger of the gods by praying and fasting.

In this cavern, on a certain day, the Brachmen held their annual assembly. Some of them dwelt constantly there- others came there only in the spring and harvest— conversed with each other upon the doctrines contained in their mysteries, contemplated the hieroglyphics upon the statues and endeavored to decipher them. Those among the initiated who were in the lowest degrees, and who could not comprehend the sublime doctrines of one God, worshiped the sun and other inferior divinities. This was also the religion of the common people. The Brahmans, the present inhabitants of India, those pure descendants of the ancient Braehmen, do not admit any person into their mysteries without having first diligently inquired into his character and capabilities, and duly proved his fortitude and prudence. No one could be initiated until he had attained a certain age; and before his initiation the novice had to prepare himself by prayer, fasting, and almsgiving, and other good works, for many days.

When the appointed day arrived he bathed himself and went to the Guru, or chief Brahman, who kept one of his own apartments ready in which to perform this ceremony. Before he was admitted he was asked if he earnestly desired to be initiated—if it was not curiosity which induced him to do so—if he felt himself strong enough to perform the ceremonies which would be prescribed to him for the whole of his life, without the exception of a single day. He was at the same time advised to defer the ceremony for a time, if he had not sufficient confidence in his strength. If the youth continued firm in his resolution, and showed a zealous disposition to enter into the paths of righteousness, the Guru addressed a charge to him upon the manner of living, to which he was about to pledge himself for the future. He threatened him with the punishment of heaven if he conducted himself wickedly; promised him, on the contrary, the most glorious rewards if he would constantly keep the path of righteousness. After this exhortation, and having received his pledge, the candidate was conducted to the prepared chamber, the door of which stood open, that all those who assembled might participate in the offering about to be made.

Different fruits were thrown into the fire, while the High Priest. with many ceremonies, prayed that God might be present with them in that sacred place. The Guru then conducted the youth behind a curtain, both having their heads covered, and then gently pronounced into his ear a word of one or two syllables, which he was as gently to repeat into the ear of the Guru, that no other person might hear it. In this word was the prayer which the initiated was to repeat as often as he could for the whole day, yet in the greatest stillness and without ever moving the lips. Neither does he discover this sacred word unto any person.

No European has ever been able to discover thus word, so sacred is this secret to them. When the newly initiated has repeated this command several times, then the chief Brahman instructs him in the ceremonies, teaches him several songs to the honor of God, and finally dismisses him with many exhortations to pursue a virtuous course of life (see Paris) .



Southeast of Asia and south of China, including the protectorates of Annam, Tongking and Cambodia, the colony of Cochin China, and part of the Laos country. At Saigon, Cochin China, the Grand Orient of France established a Lodge in 1868, Le Réveil de l'Orient, meaning in English The Awakening of the East, and the Grand Lodge of France also warranted a Lodge there in 1908, La Ruche d'Orient, meaning The Beehive of the East. On December 8, 1886, the Grand Orient of France erected a Lodge at Hanoi, La Fraternité Tonkinoise, a title meaning The Tonking Brotherhood; a Lodge at Haiphong on July 21, 1892, L'Etoile du Tonking, meaning in English TheSlar of Tonking, and on Mareh 20, 1906, another at Pnom-Penh, L'Avenir Khmer, meaning The Coming Cambodia, Pnom-Penh being the capital of Cambodia or Khmer.



This word has more than one meaning:1. The Master of a Lodge, when installed into office, is said to be inducted into the Oriental Chair of King Solomon. The same term is applied to the reception of a candidate into the Past Master's Degree. The word is derived from the language of the law, where the giving a clerk or parson possession of his benefice is called his induction.
2. Induction is also used to signify initiation into the Degree called Thrice Illustrious Order of the Cross.



The Senior and Junior Inductors are officers in a Council of the Thrice Illustrious Order of the Cross, corresponding to the Senior and Junior Deacons.



A virtue inculcated amongst Freemasons, because by it they are enabled not only to support themselves and families, but to contribute to the relief of worthy distressed Brethren. "All Masons," say the Charges of 1722, "shall work honestly on working days that theft may live creditably on holy days" (Constitutions, 1723, page 52). The Masonic symbol of industry is the beehive, which is used in the Third Degree.



From the Latin word, ineffabilrs, that which can not or ought not to be spoken or expressed. The Degrees from the Fourth to the Fourteenth inclusive, of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Which are so called because they are principally engaged in the investigation and contemplation of the Ineffable Name.



It was forbidden to the Jews to pronounce the Tetragrammaton or sacred name of God; a reverential usage which is also observed in Freemasonry. Hence the Tetragrammaton is called the Ineffable Name. As in Freemasonry, so in all the secret societies of antiquity, much mystery has been attached to the Divine Name, which it was considered unlawful to pronounce, and for which some other word was substituted. Adonai was among the Hebrews the substitute for the Tetragrammaton.



The two triangles in crusted one upon the other, containing the Ineffable Name in Enochian characters, represented in the Eleventh Grade of the Ineffable Series. Good and t evil, light and darkness, life and death, are here not wanting in symbolism, foreshadowing the philosophic Degrees, and furnishing the true original of the two interlaced triangles adopted in modern Freemasonrv (seeEnochian Alphabet).



Who are and who are not ineligible for initiation into the mysteries of Freemasonry is treated of under the head of Qualifications of Candidates, which see.



One of the modes of recognizing a stranger as a true Brother, is from the lawful information of a third party. No Freemason can lawfully give information of another's qualifications unless he has actually tested him by the strictest trial and examination, or knows that it has been done by another. But it is not every Freemason who is competent to give lawful information. Ignorant and unskilful Brethren cannot do so, because they are incapable of discovering truth or of detecting error. A rusty Freemason should never attempt to examine a stranger, and certainly, if he does, his opinion as to the result is worth nothing. If the information given is on the ground that the party who is vouched for has been seen sitting in a Lodge, care must be taken to inquire if it was a "just and legally constituted Lodge of Master Masons."

A person may forget from the lapse of time, and vouch for a stranger as a Master Mason, when the Lodge in which he saw him was only opened in the First or Second Degree. Information given by letter, or through a third party, is irregular. The person giving the information, the one receiving it, and the one of whom it is given, should all be present at the same time, for otherwise there would be no certainty of identity. The information must be positive, not founded on belief or opinion, but derived from a legitimate source. And, lastly, it must not have been received casually, but for the very purpose of being used for Masonic purposes.

For one to say to another, in the course of a desultory conversation, "A. B. is a Freemason," is not sufficient. He may not be speaking with due caution, under the expectation that his words will be considered of weight. He must say something to this effect: "I know this man to be a Master Mason, for such or such reasons, and you may safely recognize him as such." This alone will insure the necessary care and proper observance of prudence.



The reader will see under Imitative Societies certain observations with regard to these organizations that in some ways resemble the Craft. As imitation is said to be a sincere form of flattery, such resemblances may be deemed a compliment to the reputation and the character of the Masonic Institution. Where the features maintained in common by the imitator and the imitated are employed innocently and perhaps for an object thoroughly devoid of any purpose to defame or in any particular to injure the Masonic Institution, the infringing organization is on an entirely distinct and different foundation than if it were guilty of the theft and misuse of a good name. So identified is that name with a recognized and highly respected Institution that any who attempt to take unauthorized liberties with the exclusive use of it do so at some risk of at least a rebuke and a refusal of legal permission to proceed. An instance is afforded in the case of the American Masonic Federation, which will be found concisely explained elsewhere in this work (see Clandestine). Another case where a Charter was sought to use a couple of significant words in combination with the name of a proposed organization is mentioned briefly here.

Brother Thomas G. Price, Past Potentate of Mecca Temple, New York City, contributed to the Meccan, September, 1921, a decision handed down on August 5 of that year by Justice Gannon of the Part II, Supreme Court of New York, to the effect that the words Masonic Rite are the property of the established Masonic Order and are not to be encroached upon by other organizations of any kind. Such a decision reserves to the Masonic Fraternity the right to the use of the word Masonic in connection with Rite and denies its use elsewhere no matter how it may be qualified by other words. Brother Price wrote that so far as he was able to ascertain, Justice Gannon was not a member of the Craft and in making this decision he was guided solely by the law and not by any personal bias. While the decision is given here to show the trend of judicial thought and not because of any claim for its value in law as a general precedent, it should have some influence on the activities of organizations claiming to be Masonic. The decision reads as follows:

In regard to Masonic Adriatic Rite—Certain citizens have presented a proposed Certificate, under Section 41 of the Membership Corporation Law, for my approval. The objects stated are patriotic and entirely laudable but the name presents an objection that I am not able to overcome. The title, Masonic Adriatic Rile, containing two words suggestive of a very ancient and familiar organization, cannot but lead to the conclusion that the proposed corporation is connected with and duly sanctioned by Masonic authority. The organizers concede that this is not the case and they contend that the qualifying word Adriatic removes this apparent identity I cannot subscribe to this view. A title containing the words Masonic and Rite, however separated, cannot blot be objectionable to the Masonic Order with which they have been connected from time immemorial, and it is not fitting that these objections should be challenged Thousands of words descriptive and arbitrary are available. The organizers must upon reflection see the reasonableness of these observations. Approval of the Certificate under the present title is withheld.

A few references are given here to show the ten deney of court decisions, and incidentally, against the unauthorized use of emblems:
The term " Freemasons" includes all members of any regular Body of the Fraternity known as "Free and Accepted Masons" or "Ancient Free and Accepted Masons." They have a peculiar system of jurisprudence which in determining legal questions concerning them, is considered and applied by the courts.

Smith v. Smith. 3 Desaus (S. C.), 566.
Connelly v Masonic Mutual Benefit Assn. (Conn.), 18 Am. St. Rep., 296.
It is almost the exclusive province of an Order like Freemasons to impose its own terms of membership, and the courts avid not interfere to compel recognition as a member of a Masonic Lodge of one who affiliates with a Rite of Masonry different from that recognized by the Grand Lodge.
Burt v. Grand Lodge. 66 Mich., 85.
Lawson v. Hewell, 188 Cal., 613.
Seceders have no particular rights which the courts are required to recognize.
Washington v. White, 27 Pittsburgh Legal Journal, New Style 338.
Curien v. Sam Tini, 16 La. Ann., 27.
Polar Star Lodge No. 1 v. Polar Star Lodge No. 1, 16 La. Ann., 53.
Smith v. Smith, 3 Desaus (S. C.), 357.
It is now universally held that the expulsion of a Freemason from a Blue Lodge will effect a like result as regards his membership in any of the higher Bodies in which he may belong.
Commonwealth v. O'Donnell, 188 pa. St., 14.
In eases involving the examination of ceremonies and rituals of the Masonie Order, members are allowed to state their opinions on the points involved without being obliged to discuss any of the secrets of Freemasonry.
Smith v. Smith, 3 Desaus (S. C.), 563.
The acts of the defendants and those under whom they hold in assuming to adopt the name, insignia, badges, etc., claimed by petitioners and those with whom they are associated, are contrary to the public policy of the State of Georgia on the subject of counterfeiting. as disclosed by Section 1989, et seq., Civil Code,
and Sections 254-8 of the Criminal Code.
Creswill v. Knights of Pswthias 133 Ga., 837.
Lane v. Evening Star Society, 120 Ga., 355.
The Good Samaritans and Sons of Samaria Case, 139 Ga., 423.
The Odd Fellows Case, 140
It is also contrary to the whole spirit of the age on the subject of counterfeiting.
See 3 Ann. Cases 32, and note.
Hammer v. State 21 Ann. Cases 1034.
(See also Clandestine, and Square.)



This has been a subject of fertile discussion among Masonic jurists, although only a few have thought proper to deny the existence of such rights. Upon the theory which, however recently controverted, has very generally been recognized, that Grand Masters existed before Grand Lodges were organized, it must be evident that the rights of a Grand Master are of two kinds those, namely, which he derives from the Constitution of a Grand Lodge of which he has been made the presiding officer, and those which exist in the office independent of any Constitution, because they are derived from the landmarks and ancient usages of the Craft. The rights and prerogatives which depend on and are prescribed by the Constitution may be modified or rescinded by that instrument.

They differ in various Jurisdictions, because one Grand Lodge may confer more or less power upon its presiding officer than another; and they differ at different times, because the Constitution of every Grand Lodge is subject, in regard to its internal regulations, to repeated alteration and amendment. These may be called the accidental rights of a Grand Master, because they are derived from the accidental provisions of a Grand Lodge, and have in them nothing essential to the integrity of the office. It is unnecessary to enumerate them, because they may be found in varied modifications in the Constitutions of all Grand Lodges.

But the rights and prerogatives which Grand Masters are supposed to have possessed, not as the presiding officers of an artificial Body, but as the Rulers of the Craft in general, before Grand Lodges came into existence, and which are dependent, not on any prescribed rules which may be enacted today and repealed tomorrow, but on the long-continued usages of the Order and the concessions of the Craft from time out of mind, inhere in the office, and cannot be augmented or diminished by the action of any authority, because they are landmarks, and therefore unchangeable.

These are called the inherent rights of a Grand Master. They comprise the right to preside over the Craft whenever assembled, to grant Dispensations, and, as a part of that power, to make Freemasons at sight (see Doctor Mackey's revised Jurisprudence of Freemasonry).



On the Grand Standard of a Commandery of Knights Templar these words are inscribed over "a blood-red Passion Cross," and they constitute in part the motto of the American branch of the Order. Their meaning, By this sign thou shalt conquer, is a substantial, but not literal, translation of the original Greek, Av vour¢ó. For the origin of the motto, we must go back to a well known legend of the Church, which has, however, found more doubters than believers among the learned. Eusebius, who wrote a life of Constantine says that while the emperor was in Gaul, in the year 312, preparing for war with his rival, Maxentius, about the middle hours of the day, as the sun began to verge toward its setting, he saw in the heavens with his own eyes, the sun surmounted with the trophy of the cross, which was composed of light, and a legend annexed, which said "by this conquer." This account Eusebius affirms to be in the words of Constantine. Lactantius, who places the occurrence at a later date and on the eve of a battle with Maxentius, in which the latter was defeated, relates it not as an actual occurrence, but as a dream or vision; and this is now the generally received opinion of those who do not deem the whole legend a fabrication. On the next day Constantine had an image of this cross made into a banner, called the labarum, which he ever afterward used as the imperial standard. Eusebius describes it very fully. It was not a Passion Cross, such as is now used on the modern Templar standard, but the monogram of Christ. The shaft was a very long spear.

On the toll was a crown composed of Kold and precious stones, and containing the sacred symbol, namely, the Greek letter rho or P. intersected by the chi or X, which two letters are the first and second of the name XPI2TOX`, or Christ. If, then, the Templars retain the motto on their banner, they should, for the sake of historical accuracy, discard the Passion Cross, and replace it with the Constantinian Chronogram, or Cross of the Labarum. But the truth is, that the ancient Templars used neither the Passion Cross, nor that of Constantine, norWyet the motto in hoc silo Winces on their standard. Their only banner was the black and white Beauseant, and at the bottom of it was inscribed their motto, also in Latin, Non nobis Domine, non nobis, sed noxnini too da gloriam, meaning Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto Thee give the glory. This was the song-or shout of victory sung by the Templars when triumphant in battle.



Brother R. F. Gould (History of Freemasonry, volume i, page 63) informs us that this manuscript was published only in the Masonic Magazine, July, 1881. A very curious folio manuscript, ornamented title and drawing by Inigo Jones, old red morocco, gilt leaves, dated 1607, was sold by Puttick & Simpson, November 12, 1879, and described as The Ancient Constitutions of the Free and Accepted Masons. Brother Woodford became its possessor, who mentions it as "a curious and valuable manuscript per se, not only on account of its special verbiage, but because it possesses a frontispiece of Masons at work, with the words Iniyo Jones delin. at the bottom. It is also highly ornamented throughout, both in the capital letters and with finials. It is of date 1607.... It is a peculiarly interesting manuscript in that it differs from ail known transcripts in many points, and agrees with no one copy extant."

Brother Gould remarks, "This, one of the latest discoveries, is certainly to be classed amongst the most valuable of existing versions of our manuscript Constitutions." It is now the property of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Worcestershire, and has been reproduced by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. It was probably a copy of a much earlier manuscript, and is considered to belong to the latter half of the seventeenth century, and never to have belonged to Inigo Jones.



The Latin is Initiatus.
1. The Fifth and last Degree of the Order of the Temple;
2. The Eleventh Degree of the Rite of Philalethes;
3. The Candidate in any of the Degrees of Freemasonry is called an Initiate.



The Second Degree in the Rite of African Architects.



The Twenty-first Degree in the Metropolitan Chapter of France.



The Sixty-second Degree of the collection of the Metropolitan Chapter of France.



Brother Kenneth Mackenzie, in the Royal Masonic Cyclopedia, informs us that this is the title of the Second Degree of a Masonic system founded on the doctrines and principles of Pythagoras.



The Thirty-second Degree of the Order of Initiated Brothers of Asia (see Asia, Initiated Knights and Brothers of ).



A term used by the Romans to designate admission into the mysteries of their sacred and secret rites. It is derived from the word initia, which signifies the first principles of a science. Thus Justin (Liber or book xi, chapter 7) says of Midas, King of Phrygia, that he was initiated into the mysteries by Orpheus, Ab Orpheo sacrorum solemnibus initiatus. The Greeks used the term Muat la, from ,uuar71puav, a mystery. From the Latin, the Freemasons have adopted the word to signify a reception into their Order. It is sometimes specially applied to a reception into the First Degree, but he who has been made an Entered Apprentice is more correctly said to be Entered (see Mysteries).



Professor Sayce, in his Hibbert Lecture, on the origin and growth of religion as illustrated by the religion of the ancient Babylonians (page 241), tells us of a tablet which describes the initiation of an Augur, a prophet, a soothsayer or fortune-teller, one foretelling future events by interpreting omens and giving advice upon these things, and states how one of these must be "of pure lineage, unblemished in hand or foot," and speaks thus of the vision which is revealed to him before he is "initiated and instructed in the presence of Samas and Rimmon in the use of the book and stylus" by the ascribe, the instructed one, who keeps the oracle of the gods." He is made to descend into an artificial imitation of the lower world and there beholds "the altars amid the waters, the treasures of Anu, Bel, and Ea. the tablets of the Gods, the delivery of the oracle of Heaven and Earth, and the cedar-tree, the beloved of the great gods, which their command has caused to grow."



Latin, meaning As a memorial. Words frequently placed at the heads of pages in the Transactions of Grand Lodges on which are inscribed the names of Brethren who have died during the past year. The fuller phrase, in Latin, of which they are an abbreviated form, is In perpetuam rei meinoriam, meaning, As a perpetual memorial of the event. Words often inscribed on pillars erected in commemoration of some person or thing.



An officer of a Lodge, according to the English system, whose functions correspond in some particulars with those of the Junior Deacon in the American Rite. His duties are to admit visitors, to receive candidates, and to obey the commands of the Junior Warden. This officer is unknown in the American system.



Name of the sixth grade of von Hund's Templar system.



There is a well-known maxim of the law which says Omnis innovatio plus nontate perturbat quam utilitate prodest, that is, every innovation occasions more harm and disarrangement by its novelty than benefit by its actual utility. This maxim is peculiarly applicable to Freemasonry, those system is opposed to all innovations. Thus Doctor Dalcho says, in his Ahiman Rezon (page 191), "Antiquity is dear to a Mason's heart; innovation is treason, and saps the venerable fabric of the Order." In accordance with this sentiment, we find the installation charges of the Master of a Lodge affirming that "it is not in the power of any man or body of men to make innovations in the body of Masonry."

By the "body of Masonry" is here meant, undoubtedly, the landmarks, which have always been declared to be unchangeable. The non-essentials, such as the local and general regulations and the lectures, are not included in this term. The former are changing every day, according as experience or caprice suggests improvement or alteration. The most important of these changes in the United States has been the tendency to abolition of the Quarterly Communications of the Grand Lodge, and the substitution for them, of an annual Communication. But, after all, this is, perhaps. only a recurrence to first usages; for, although Anderson says that in 1717 the Quarterly Communications "were revived," there is no evidence extant that before that period the Freemasons ever met except once a year in their General Assembly. If so, the change in 1717 was an innovation, and not that which has almost universally prevailed in the United States.

The lectures, which are but the commentaries on the ritual and the interpretation of the symbolism, have been subjected, from the time of Anderson to the present day, to repeated modifications.

But notwithstanding the repugnance of Freemasons to innovations, a few have occurred in the Order. Thus, on the formation of the Grand Lodge of Ancient, as they called themselves in contradistinction to the regular Grand Lodge of England, which was styled the Grand Lodge of Moderns, the former Body, to prevent the intrusion of the latter upon their meetings, made changes in some of the modes of recognition—changes which, although Dalcho has said that they amounted to no more than a dispute "whether the glove should be placed first upon the right hand or on the left" (Ahitnan Rezon, page 193), were among the causes of continuous acrimony among the two Bodies, which was only healed, in 1813, by a partial sacrifice of principle on the part of the legitimate Grand Lodge, and have perpetuated differences which still exist among the English and American and the Continental Freemasons.

But the most important innovation which sprang out of this unfortunate schism is that which is connected with the Royal Arch Degree. On this subject there have been two theories: One, that the Royal Arch Degree originally constituted a part of the Master's Degree, and that it was dissevered from it the Ancient; the other, that it never had any existence until it was invented by Ramsay, and adopted by Dermott for his Antient Grand Lodge. If the first, which is the most probable and the most generally received opinion, be true, then the regular or Modern Grand Lodge committed an innovation in continuing the disseverance at the Union in 1813. If the second be the true theory, then the Grand Lodge equally perpetuated an innovation in recognizing it as legal, and declaring, as it did, that "Antient Craft Masonry consists of three degrees, including the Holy Royal Arch." But however the innovation may have been introduced, the Royal Arch Degree has now beeome, so far as the York and American Rites are concerned, well settled and recognized as an integral part of the Masonic system. About the same time there was another innovation attempted in France. The adherents of the Pretender, Charles Edward, sought to give to Freemasonry a political bias in favor of the exiled house of Stuarts, and, for this purpose, altered the interpretation of the great legend of the Third Degree, so as to make it applicable to the execution or, as they called it, the martyrdom of Charles I. But this attempted innovation was not successful, and the system in which this lesson was practiced has ceased to exist. although its workings are now and then seen in some of the advanced Degrees, without, however, any manifest evil effect.

On the whole, the spirit of Freemasonry, so antagonistic to innovation, has been successfully maintained; and an investigator of the system as it prevailed in the year 1717, and as it is maintained at the present day, will not refrain from wonder at the little change which has been brought about by the long cycle of these many years.



Latin, meaning In perpetual memory of the thing.



The initials of the Latin sentence which was placed upon the cross: Jesus Nazarenus Rex Judaeorum, meaning Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews. The Rosicrucians used them as the initials of one of their Hermetic secrets: Igne Natura Rerun vatur Integra7 meaning that BJ fire, natureis perfectly renewed. They also adopted them to express the names of their three elementary principles salt, sulphur, and mercury by making them the initials of the sentence, Igne Nitrum Roris Invenitur. Ragon finds in the equivalent Hebrew letters nor the initials of the Hebrew names of the ancient elements: Iaminim, water; Nour, fire; Ruach, air; and Iebschah, earth.



A Court or Tribunal especially established in the twelfth century by Innocent III, to apprehend and punish heretics or persons guilty of any offense against orthodoxy. Freemasonry has always been the subject of much disapproval by the Roman Catholic Church and the Fraternity has been victimized by Papal pronunciations and Bulls issued by one after the other of the popes. Although Freemasonry makes a subscription to a belief in the existence of a Supreme Being a necessity yet the Roman Church chooses to regard its teachings as atheistic and as such has pursued, tortured, imprisoned and burned the Brethren of the Order at every period during the entire course of the Inquisition. Llorente, everywhere regarded as a reliable authority as he was secretary of the Inquisition at Madrid from 1789 to 1791, having access to the original documents and records, says in his History of the Inquisition:

The first severe measure against Freemasons in Europe was that decreed on December 14, 1732, by the Chamber of Police of the Chatelet at Paris: it prohibited Freemasons from assembling, and condemned M. Chapelot to a penalty of 6000 lives for having suffered them to assemble in his house. Louis IV commanded that those peers of France, and other gentlemen who had the privilege of the entry, should be deprived of that honor if they were members of a Masonic Lodge. The Grand Master of the Parisian Lodges, being obliged to quit France, convoked an assembly of Freemasons to appoint his successor. Louis XV, on being informed of this declared that if a Frenchman was elected, he would send him to the Bastille.



A record of the 1590's shows that at that period there were Lodges in existence in Great Britain which had both Operatives and non-Operatives in their membership; and the records of that period indicate that such Lodges had been in existence long before 1590. The first written version of the Old Charges was made it is believed, in the middle of the Fourteenth Century, or during the latter half of it. These Lodges were small in membership, therefore only a few of the men in the building trades were in them. These two facts together suggest that there must have been some special occasions, some particular event, or unusual set of circumstances, at some time and place, to account for these special Masonic organizations. There are two known historical occasions, either one of which would satisfy this theory. One of these has been carefully studied by Bros. Knoop and Jones in a paper published in Economic History, February, 1937, entitled "The Impressment of Masons for Windsor Castle" and to a more limited extent by Knoop, Jones, and Hamer w in The Two Earliest Masonic MSS., pp. 12, 13, 23. On page 12 of the latter they write: For the supply of these wage workers the Crown relied to a considerable extent upon impressment. The practice of pressing masons, as well as other craftsmen and laborers, was very common at this period. (1300 to 1400.) fin some eases orders were issued to sheriffs to take masons and to send them to certain royal works by specified dates; in other cases the master mason or clerk of the works at some particular building operation was authorized to press ' such labor as was required. Occasionally the Crown would authorize the Church or other employers to 'impress masons." After referring to the cases of impressment in Wales, they write on page 23: "The influence exerted, however, was probably slight compared with that exercised by the greatly increased use of impressment from 1344 onwards and in particular by its wholesale adoption in 136S3, when Masons from almost every county in England were assembled in such large numbers at Windsor Castle, that the continuator of the Polychronicon could write that William Wykeham had gathered at Windsor almost all the masons and carpenters in England. Though the chronicler's statement was doubtless an exaggeration, the vast gathering of Masons at Windsor in 136S3 must have marked an epoch in Masonic history and probably contributed more than any other single event to the unification and consolidation of the Masons' customs, and very possibly led to their first being set down in writing." (Note. It does not follow that violence was used in the impressment of masons and carpenters; it Mras the only available means by which large numbers of craftsmen could be brought together at one time and place.) In his The Masonic Poem of 1390, Circa, (page 28) Bro. Roderick H. Baxter notes a similar concentration of craftsmen, a ad, as will transpire from the paragraph, it has one advantage over the above suggestion. He is referring to the Regius MS.: "So far as the location of the writing is concerned, Dr. Begemann, after a careful and minute philological enquiry into the dialects of the country, succeeded in placing it at the South of Worcestershire or Herefordshire or even the North of Gloucestershire. [Dialects in the period hardly stopped short of being separate languages.] Assuming this conclusion to be correct— and no one, so far as I am aware, has ever tried to controvert it—we have only to examine the architectural remains in this district, to find that great activity of building was proceeding at the time of writing. The cathedrals of Worcester, Hereford and Gloucester—to say nothing of the various abbeys and minor buildings in the neighborhood—all exhibit remarkable traces of the architecture of the period, and although a similarity of activity could of course be traced to other parts of the country, I think this evidence may fairly be accepted as confirmatory of our learned Brother's view [Begemann]. so far as I am personally concerned, I would like to assume that the poem [Regtus MS.] was written for the benefit of the craftsmen engaged in the erection of the beautiful (and unusually placed) cloisters of Gloucester Cathedral, for Mr. Wyatt Papworth tells us, that the work was completed under Abbot Froucester between 1381 and 1412, dates which very nearly coincide with the range of time during which experts have placed the writing. " There is yet a third possibility, although it has no connection with the subject of impressment, and it has the advantage of conforming to an old tradition. This is the possibility that the required set of special circumstances may have occurred at York. According to old records the first church was built there in 627 A.D. (This is according to Bede.) This was destroyed by fire in 741 A.D. In 767 A.D. a second, and much larger church was built, but this also was destroyed by fire in 1069 when Northumbrians attacked the city. In 1070 a Norman, Archbishop Thomas, rebuilt the church; in 1171 a new Choir was built; a new Nave was begun in 1291 and completed in 1340. This latter date brings us into the period presupposed for the original version of the Old Charges, and when, according to this writer's own hypothesis, the first independent, permanent Lodges began to appear. The Presbytery was begun in 1361, completed in 1373. The Choir (presupposing the old one had been lost by fire) was begun in 1380, completed in 1400. In 1405 the central tower was begun, and other equally important operations continued until 1472. (A set of Fabric Rolls is authority for much of this data.) Thus, as Albert G. Mackey says, "For the long period of eight hundred and forty-five years, with some halting, the great work of building a cathedral in the city of York was pursued by Freemasons . . . " (And other buildings also; see Clegg's Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry, page 1135 ff.) Dr. Begemann placed the writing of the Refries MS. in Herefordshire—Worcestershire—Gloucestershire but the Regius was a copy of an original; the latter may well have been written in York.)`



George Pomfret was in 1728 appointed by the Grand Lodge of England to be Provincial Grand Master of East India (not to be confused with the East Indies) but nothing farther is known of him. The following year Captain Ralph Farwinter succeeded him, and in 1730 constituted Lodge No 72 in Bengal. (In 1731 he sent a gift of money and liquor to the Grand Lodge at London; he did not receive a reply until two years afterwards. India suffered as much as did the Provincial Grand Lodges in America from the silences, always long and often absolute, of the Grand Secretary in London; the Grand Secretary- ship appears for many years to have been a paralytic arm of the Mother Grand Lodge except in the immediate circles of London.) The first Lodge on the Coast of Coromandel was established at Madras in 1752. In the Presidency of Bombay, Lodge No. 234 was constituted at Bombay in 1758, and Lodge No. 569 at Surat in 1798; a Provincial Grand Master was appointed in 1763. Ceylon received no Lodge until 1761, when a military Lodge was brought there by a regiment with a Charter from the Ancient Grand Lodge. It will thus be seen that the planting of the Craft in India coincided with the period of its establishment in America, and by English merchants, soldiers, and sailors first, followed by Irish and Scottish. The Lodges were of the same pattern, used the same Constitutions and Rituals, were composed of men of the same type; and as with Indians here so with Hindus there, it was not until long afterwards and then in small numbers only that they began to be admitted into membership. Of Freemasonry itself, there was in India no trace before the white man arrived. Some Theosophists, Rosicrucians, and other occultists have argued that Freemasonry originated in India, but they produce no facts and their reasoning is weak—as when one of them argues that the thread worn by a Brahmin around his neck is the origin of the Cable Tow! In no other land in the world were the social, political, and religious customs less likely to produce Freemasonry, or anything similar to it in principles and teachings. The whole people were cut asunder by a caste system which made impossible any universality or meeting on the level or fraternalism; the 500 or so native states were (and still are) under personal despotisms which have always forbidden free associations; the religious cleavages are as abysmic as the caste cleavages; and nothing is farther from the truth than the notion that because the religion called Hinduism finds room in it for a million gods it would therefore find room in it for a million religions; its gods are Hindu gods, and it has never yet found room in itself for Mohammedanism, Judaism, Buddhism (it drove Buddhism out of India), Lamaism, Parsceism, or Christianity though it has been surrounded by these and many other religions for centuries. Indians are much given to the use of symbols, rites, ceremonies, and once had a large gild system; but the same has been true of every other people. Nothing in Indian philosophies, which are neither so numerous nor so profound as Americans have been led to believe (most of them are unbelievably crude) coincides at any point with the philosophy of Freemasonry- None of the many origins of Freemasonry had their first roots in India.



American Indians, including those in Canada, Mexico, Central, and South America (perhaps 25,000,000 in all), are divided into peoples, and these peoples are divided into either tribes or clans, or both; and they are remarkable for their large number of independent languages—among the Pueblo villages in New Mexico, no one of which has a population over 3,000, four separate languages are used. But it is equally extraordinary that in spite of these multiplying units of peoples and languages, and the lack of central or general states and governments, Indians are everywhere singularly at one in a continual use of ceremonies, for innumerable purposes, and on innumerable occasions—some of them improvise ceremonies on the spot for some special purpose. A learned Indian in the Pueblo of Isleta said: we are a race who always have believed in the power of ceremonies." In the tens of thousands of ceremonies in North, Central, and South America together, there are countless emblems, symbols, rites, signs, passwords, etc. It was inevitable that one of those should occasionally coincide with some symbol or rite of Freemasonry (the Navajos have an outdoor ceremony strikingly like the Third Degree); it was from this inevitable coincidence that the belief arose a century ago that the Indians (the Mayan were an Indian people) had possessed Freemasonry before Columbus came, whereas in fact they had none of it, and at the present have none except among the comparatively few Indian members of regular Lodges. (See The Builder; consult index under Arthur C. Parker, and Alanson Skinner. See also page 480 of this Encyclopedia.) (It is among the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and of Arizona [the Hopis are a Pueblo people] that the Indian prepossession with and great talent for ceremonies can be studied best, because they have carried ceremonies to their perfection, and to an extreme. See in especial The Delight Makers, by Adolph Bandelier. It is the "classic on the American Indian"; the characters are fictitious, but otherwise, as Pueblo Indians themselves admit, nothing else in it is fictional. Next in rank to it is Zuni Folk Tales, by Frank Hamilton Cushing; G. P. Putnam's Sons; New York; 1901. Since Cushing [who lived at Zuni Pueblo] wrote his path-finding study, Hodge, Hewitt, Webster, and a long succession of specialists have produced a large literature.) The principal feature of the Pueblo cosmology is shipapu, or Underworld, from which Indian peoples came to the Upper World and to which they return, the entrance being at the "Four Corners," a spot roughly in the region where Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado meet. In shipapu are the katcinas, which are not gods, or demons, or nature forces, but a "Something" impossible for a white man to envisage; each of them is in control of one of the many large cycles or things or regular occurrences, such as winds, rains, growing crops, seasons, death, etc. The Pueblo Indian believes that his ceremonies can set into action, or stop, or otherwise affect these katcinas. They are therefore, in his eyes, not dances, or prayers, or religious rites, or symbols, but a means of getting something done; a ceremony may set a katcina into action just as a horse may set a wagon in motion. Such ceremonies obviously have nothing in common with Masonic ceremonies; so also with ceremonies used by other Indian peoples, which, though they are unlike Pueblo ceremonies, are the same in principle.



The sketches and floor plans of the Goose and Gridiron on pages 412 and 413 are reminders of the fact that the inns and taverns in which the Speculative Lodges met in Great Britain and America during the Eighteenth Century were not like the modern hotel or bar-room, but were a center of hospitality of a type no longer met with; nor were they like the present-day English "pub." The inn was often one of the most distinguished buildings in a town; beautifully constructed and furnished; and managed by an inn-keeper and a staff who made of hospitality a trained profession. Except in the smallest villages the majority of inns were built with at least one large room designed for Lodges and clubs, and these usually had a private service stairway from the rear, so that even after a Lodge's doors were closed it could still make use of the facilities of the kitchen, the wine cellar, and the staff of servants. Each inn had a sign in front which consisted of a picture and which gave it its name—The King's Head, The Boar's Head, The White Horse, etc. A Masonic Lodge took its name from the inn in which it met, and it was not until the end of the Century that Lodges began to be numbered. Even as late as the end of the Nineteenth Century American Lodges here and there continued to meet in hotels; there are some of these old buildings still standing, especially in the Middle West, and on the old coach runs; in more than one of them the old fashioned judas window is still in an upstairs door, though it has been a half century since Lodges made use of them. Lodge meetings in inns and taverns were never completely satisfactory; some Lodges must never have found them satisfactory to any degree, because their Minutes show that they kept moving about every one or two years. A lack of privacy, the inconvenience of having to pack furniture and paraphernalia away after each meeting, difficulties with landlords, and the over-nearness of the bar, these were disadvantages; but it is probable that the many small early Lodges could not have managed under any other system. A joke has been made of the fact that the first Grand Lodge of Speculative Freemasonry held its first Grand Communion in a tavern but no Eighteenth Century Englishman or American would have seen any point to the joke; learned societies, clubs, religious groups, literary circles, scientific bodies (like the Royal Society), artists' groups, public officers, army and navy clubs, clubs of philosophers, an endless number of such societies met in the same rooms. A good tavern was highly respected in any community; its "mine host" often was the first citizen of his town. See The English Inn; Past and Present, by H. D. Eberlein; J. B. Lippincott Co.; Philadelphia; 1926.



Speculative Freemasonry appeared in Madrid in 1726, at Gibraltar in 1727, and at about the same time in Paris. The first Italian Lodges were constituted in Tuscany about 1735, and a Lodge was working in Rome at about the same time. These dates are mere indicia, and in themselves mean little, because almost every page of written records was lost, and it is probable that there were many more Lodges, and Masons not in Lodges, than the few surviving records would indicate. On April 28, 1738, Pope Clement XII issued a Bull of Excommunication; it was a feeble, ill-drawn document, in a Medieval Latin which only experts could read, but it consigned a Mason to hell in the future and ostracized him from the church, his family, and his property here and now; also it was drawn in such a way as to be most useful to the Inquisition, which assisted the Pope to draft it. The modus operandz of arrests, tortures, penalties, etc., was left to local tribunals; but the Cardinal Secretary of State gave assistance by publishing on Jan. 14, 1739, a model for these tribunals to use; it pronounced "irresistible pain of death, not only on all members but on all who should tempt others to join the Order, or should rent a house to it or favor it in any other way." But while local tribunals were adjured to be as harsh as possible, the crusade as a whole was turned over to the Holy Inquisition. It is difficult for modern men, and especially in England, America, and Canada, to understand the organization of the Inquisition because they have never had it in their midst. For centuries each country had two governments side by side; the state, or civil, or "temporal" government headed by a King, Prince, or Parliament; and an ecclesiastical government headed by the Pope, and under him by Cardinals, Bishops, and special offices appointed for the purpose. Present day churches have their own rules and regulations governing their internal affairs, but these do not at any point encroach upon civil government, nor can they apply civil penalties. The Roman Church government was of a different kind, before the Reformation, and rested on a different principle; it was not a church government, but a general government, of an authority and a jurisdiction equal to that of the civil government; it differed from the latter in that only such categories of laws and cases belonged to it as had to do with religion, and with the properties belonging to the church; there were, therefore, two complete governments standing side by side, of equal sovereignty, and duplicating offices and penalties. The church enacted laws (canonical law); it had courts, lawyers, judicial processes, hearings, verdicts, and penitentiaries and execution yards or chambers. l.t arrested men, tried them, sentenced them, and punished them. Among its punishments were the disfrocking of priests, removal from office, excommunications, interdicts, alienation of property, torture, selling into slavery, hanging, burning at the stake, beheading, sentence to galleys, banishment, fines, etc. If a crime, or an alleged crime, was a mixture of both civil and ecclesiastical offenses, the accused would be tried and sentenced in the civil courts and then tried and sentenced a second time in the church courts. He was in "double jeopardy" each day of his life. (It was one of the first concerns of the framers of our Constitution to make double jeopardy impossible.) The so-called Holy Inquisition was set up as a special arm of this ecclesiastical government, and yet while only an arm was itself empowered to act as a separate government, and could impose and execute sentence in its own name; it differed from ecclesiastical government in general only in that it was designed to stamp out heresy, and by heresy usually was meant any form of Protestantism. It is this fact which in the long run filled men of normal, sane minds with horror and led to uprisings and to driving the Holy Inquisition out of the country, as happened even in Spain which once was its home and center, as it also was the home and center of the Jesuits; and where an auto dafé, or the public and ceremonious burning of "here tics," was a holiday, and celebrated like a Fourth of July. The secret police of the czars, and the gestapos of the Fascists, Phalangists, and Nazis were patterned on it. Heinrich Himmler and his staff made a detailed study over a period of years of the methods used by the Inquisition. The Inquisition was not directed against criminals but against men accused of heresy—an exceptionally flexible term, because the Inquisition could decide for itself, and on the spot, what it meant by heresy; thousands of the men and women destroyed by it were of irreproachable reputation and character, many of a saintly life, and whom not even the Inquisition could accuse of crime. The theory on which the Inquisition worked was that it should act as a detective to search out the heretic, the heretic should confess, and the penalty would then be sanctioned by his confession; but where a marked-down man refused to confess or had nothing to confess, torture was used to reduce him to a state where out of agony or when out of his mind he became willing to confess anything— again, precisely according to the methods used by the Gestapo. Such an engine could be employed for many purposes: to terrorize a community, to browbeat a civil ruler, to defy civil laws, to destroy churches and associations, to seize wealth and property, to commit plain murder, etc. The Inquisition was not given exclusive jurisdiction over men accused of Masonry, for the regular church and civil courts continued to have jurisdiction also, but the Inquisition was especially held responsible for what in later years Adolf Hitler, a spiritual descendant of the Inquisition, was to describe as "the liquidation of Freemasons. " There were never many Masons in countries where the Inquisition was free to act in the Eighteenth Century, and only a few records escaped being destroyed, but in proportion to their numbers the Masons probably suffered more excommunications, tortures, and martyrdoms than any other one group. Books were written about the cases of Coustos and Da Costa. Cagliostro was a charlatan and a thief, and was repudiated by Lodges when his character was exposed, but the wide publicity given to his imprisonment brought the methods of the Inquisition into the light, and in the long run helped to drive it back into the un-advertised offices in the Vatican where it continues to carry on such work as it is able. In Spain alone, and as late as 1816, twenty five Masons suffered under the Inquisition; in 1819 there were seven cases; if it were free to act again, without a civil government to check it, it would resume its old practices, because neither it itself nor the Vatican has ever admitted the Inquisition to have been a crime against Christianity and civilization, nor altered its principles. Americans are far from Europe and farther still from the period when the Church was the second government in a land; because of this lack of information and first-hand knowledge they often confuse the Inquisition with the Jesuits. The two are and ever have been independent of each other. The Society of Jesuits is in theory an army, a church "militant," its members are enlisted; they receive a training," each is under an oath of allegiance to a general"; they go as troops, singly or in companies, wherever they may be sent, to carry out whatever orders are given to them. In some times and places they have been ordered to make war on Freemasonry; in others they have been ordered to join in with it, to weaken or divide it from within by " infiltration, " etc.; the whole story of Jesuit dealings with Freemasonry reads like a page out of a detective novel of a rather trashy sort, and causes adult men still unbereft of their senses to wonder how other grown-up men can have indulged in practices so childish. The Jesuit author of the article on Freemasonry in the Catholic Encyclopedia even charged Masons with "phallic worship" and Pope Leo XIII solemnly assured the whole of France that Masons worship the devil! The records of the Holy Inquisition are voluminous, in a dozen languages, full of ecclesiastical terminology, tortuous and tortured to the extreme; it is doubtful if any American scholar except Henry Charles Lea has ever examined them detail by detail; but the general organization and purpose of it is public, plain, easily intelligible. When in 1738 the Roman Church decided to abolish Freemasonry the Inquisition was used as one of the engines for that purpose. See Clement XII's Bull. History of Inquisition in Spain, by Henry Charles Lea. Freemasonry and Roman Catholicism, by H. L. Haywood. Sufferings of John Coustos, by Coustos. Censorship of the Church of Rome, by George Haven Putnam. Article on Freemasonry in Catholic Encyclopedia by Abbe Gruber. Memoirs of the History of Jacobznism and Freemasonry, by Barruel. See also in Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. II, p. 127; Vol. III, p. 330; Vol. XIV, p. 347; Vol. IV, p. 748; Vol. XIII, p. 9; a sort. on "Illuminati"; Vol. VII; Vol. XIV, p. 265; Vol. XV, p. 309; Vol. XIV, p. 72; Vol. X, p. 266; Vol. XII, p. 138; Vol. XII, p. 190; Vol. XIII, p. 193; Vol. XIV, pp. 67, 624. Roman Catholicism and Freemasonry, by Dudley Wright. Severe condemnations of the Inquisition have been written by Roman Catholics themselves. Lord Acton, a Roman Catholic, was a scholar of learning, intelligence, and character far above the type of such propagandists as the Abbe Gruber, and still more the unhappy Abbe Barruel; he declared the Inquisition to have been organized on the principle of crime, and that its executions were murders and nothing more. Men rebelled against the Inquisition because it was criminal, sadistic, unjust, and in violent contradiction of Christianity; American Roman Catholic apologists, of whom the number is now rapidly increasing, seek to becloud that known fact and at the same time to win Protestants over to their side by reiteration of the sophistry that men were killed by the Inquisition "because they were the foes of the Christian religion. "



If the Minute Books of fifty of the oldest American Lodges as of the period between 1800 and 1825 are compared with the Minute Books of the same Lodges as of the period 1900 to 1925 it will be discovered that the subject of the Lodge inventory was somewhere lost, abandoned, forgotten in the years between. Ever so often in the early days a Secretary with loving care, and often with an openly expressed pride, wrote out his inventory; and such inventories are for us now one of the best sources for a knowledge of what Lodge life was a century and a half ago, and coincidentally make vivid and clear one thing wrong with Lodge life now— something lost out of Masonry, like the Lost Word, an old Landmark unintentionally violated; a thing lost though not necessarily beyond recall. The inventory was not of the carpets, walls, windows, or other structural equipment, nor was it for real estate or taxation or fire insurance purposes; it was an inventory of the treasures of the Lodge. In almost every instance each item was described as a gift from some Brother, or as a memento of some occasion long remembered; there were oil portraits, framed prints, photographs; jewels kept in cases, of silver, and engraved, once the property of officers who later had presented them to the Lodge; aprons, collars, ballot boxes, gavels, Bibles and books, music books, an organ, sets of plate, glass and dishes, altar coverings, certificates, cherished letters in frames, punch bowls, and there were gifts which the Lodge had made to itself, such as hand-made and carved chairs for the officer, a visitors' book bound in morocco, etc. The Lodge Room had a feeling of being richly furnished; it was filled with the emblems and symbols of Freemasonry, of the Lodge's own past, of the community's esteem for it, and the members who had gone were not completely gone. Men loved their Lodge, and because they did there was no need to devise schemes for persuading them to attend. In every Lodge, even the crassest, there are these untapped feelings of affection. Each one should have an inventory. When a Lodge room is empty, its walls bare, it has no atmosphere of its own, does not feel like home; the Ritual loses its soul because it has not the environment it requires; the worst effect of the bare Lodge room is that its Masonry becomes barren because the Lodge has only the sense of being in a room and does not have a sense of being in the midst of a living and moving Fraternity; nor can it have a sense of its own past, or the Fraternity's past, but sinks into a feeling of isolation and flatness—it cannot even have a banquet because it has nothing to have it with. The inventory was one of riches; the riches came not out of the members' dues but out of their affection.



Shortly after Theodore Sutton Parvin became Iowa's Grand Secretary in 1844 he began the building of a collection of Masonic books which became the first American Masonic library, in the true sense of having a librarian, a catalog, and a building; and though Bro. Parvin gave the required time and attention to his duties as Grand Secretary, it was into his office as Grand Lodge Librarian that he put his heart. Decades before 1901, the year of his decease, his Iowa Masonic Library at Cedar Rapids had become not an Iowa center of Masonic learning only, nor even an American center, but a world-wide center. Its part in the development of Freemasonry from 1865 until now is un-honored because it is unsung; but if any Mason will go behind the published Proceedings of Grand Bodies and the published books and will search through the private correspondence which came to Parvin's desk he will discover that not only was this Library commandeered by leaders and scholars in every land but also that it made possible certain of the most important achievements of Masonic Bodies and of Masonic scholars and leaders. Thus, Gould, Hughan, Crawley (a part of Crawley's correspondence is at hand while this is being written), Lane, and the group in general which collaborated on the work published as Gould's History of Freemasonry, made continual use of it from England and Ireland. Mackey could not have prepared this Encyclopedia nor have written either his HisCory or his Jurisprudence without it. Albert Pike was always drawing upon it. and especially so in his war on Cerneauism, herein some of his most devastating arrows had been barbed by Parvin, etc. Moreover it was a visible proof to otherwise skeptical American Masons that Masonic books, and in large number, do in actuality exist; and it became an inspiration to other Grand Jurisdictions to set up Libraries of their own. From 1901 to 1925 Bro. Newton R. Parvin, the son of T. S. Parvin, was Grand Librarian as well as Grand Secretary; and if he was not a scholar he was at least a great book-man, and under him the collection grew. It occupies the largest part of one very extensive three-story building and the whole of another. The Grand Jurisdiction continued in its good fortune when in 1925 R.-. W. . Bro. Charles Clyde Hunt succeeded to both the Grand Secretaryship and the Grand Librarianship. Born in Cleveland, O., in 1866, Bro. Hunt went west to Iowa, worked his w ay through the famous Grinnell College, taught school for a time, became a county treasurer, and in 1917 became Deputy Grand Secretary, giving his full time to the position, and from the first devoting a major part of his time to the Library. He has for many years edited the Grand Lodge Bulletin. In 1930 he published Some Thoughts on Masonic Symbolism (later revised and enlarged); and collaborated with Eugene Hinman and Ray . Denslow (General Grand High Priest) to write in two volumes The History of the Cryptic Rite. Bro. Hunt was made a Mason in Lafayette Lodge, No. 52, Montezuma, Iowa in 1900. He joined each of the Rites one after another and has held a long list of offices.



Christian Schussele was born in Alsace, in 1824, studied painting in Paris where he specialized in the historical subjects then in vogue, moved to the United States in 1847, was for eleven years director of the Pennsylvania Art Schools, and died in Merchantville, N. Y., August 21, 1879. Four of his canvasses became famous. One of them has been among the most gazed-at pictures ever painted in America, because prints of it hang in half the Lodge quarters in the United States, and it has been reproduced in Masonic books and periodicals without number under the title of "King Solomon and the Blacksmith. " It is a conservative estimate that since it was painted (about 1860) at least twenty-five million men and women either have their own copies or have looked at it. In 1868 Mr. Joseph Harrison, Jr. wrote and printed a brochure (J. B. Lippincott; Philadelphia) entitled— Tale Iron Worker and King Solomon. In it he says he had Schussele paint the picture for him (he was writing in 1867) "four or five years ago." In the brochure he gives in his own words a version of the legend which is the subject-matter of the picture. Mr. Harrison, Jr. was one of the first American engineers of his day, who had built railways in Russia and iron construction in Britain, where he was held in high honor. In a speech delivered in 1859 he relates how from a folk-lore expert and friend of his, Charles G. Cleland (author of Hans Breitmann's Ballads of 1868), he heard a version of what he took to be an old Rabbinical Legend, and was so inspired by it that he engaged Schussele to reproduce it on canvas. The picture was engraved by Sartain (a member of the Thirty-third Degree), and was published by the Macoy Company of New York about 1890, accompanied by a pamphlet entitled Tubal Cain. (The pamphlet, and Harrison's brochure, are collectors' items.) This title, and the conspicuous figure of Solomon in the picture, led Masons everywhere to take it for a Masonic picture, and has occasioned the immense popularity referred to above. For many centuries the blacksmiths in England, a branch of the ironmongers, were a fraternity, and celebrated the Day of St. Clement their Patron, November 23, and in Britain continue to do so in centers where old ways are kept alive. (In ancient Ireland "smith" meant a builder.) As time passed Tubal Cain, Vulcan, and their St. Clement, whom they know as "Clem," became fused into a single character. They carried an image of him in their processions. This fraternity of blacksmiths has many old legends about "Clem," one of them built around King Arthur, and sing jolly songs about his adventures. Another and more popular version uses King Solomon in place of King Arthur; and a written legend (like and yet unlike our "Legend of the Craft") is still, or was until some years ago, read at gatherings of the Sons of Clem in English towns. It is this legend which Mr. Harrison Jr. heard from his friend Cleland, and not "an old Rabbinical legend." In the Talmudic and Rabbinical literature available at this writing no such legend is found, though there are any number of old stories and fables about Tubal Cain. It is the character of Tubal Cain, even if transmogrified into a blacksmith, whose description reminds one of the legend of HA.-. Freemasons have lost nothing by mistaking the Solomon and Blacksmith legend for one of their own, because in its modern written form it could be incorporated into the Ritual without dislocation, and the idea at the center of the story is as Masonic as the Square and Compasses. Notes. References to the Solomon and Blacksmith legend itself, to legends about Tubal Cain, and to the history and customs of the old fraternity of smiths are very numerous. Many titles in that bibliography, as well as the text of the legend itself, will be found in "Some Usages and Legends of Crafts Kindred to Masonry," by Gordon P. G. Hills; Are Quatuor Coronatorum; Vol. XXVIII; page 115.



On July 3, 1838, Congress passed a bill for the organization of the Territory of Iowa, and two years later the brethren in the new State decided to tour a Lodge. On November 19, 1840, a meeting was held at which were present Col. Hiram C. Bennett, Evan Evans William Fove, David Hammer, Robert Martins J. L. Lockwood, William Thompson, W. D. NIcCord, Thomas H. Curts, Chauncey Swan, Theodore S. Parvin and Robert Lucas, Governor of the Territory. The petition for the new Lodge was drawn up and a Dispensation dated November 20, 1840, was received from the Deputy Grand Master of Missouri. Brothers Bennett, Thompson and Evans svere named as Worshipful Master, Senior and Junior Wardens. The Dispensation was granted to Burlington Lodge but after the Charter was issued the name was changed to Des Moines Lodge. The Grand Lodge of Iowa was formed by Des Moines Lodge, No. 1; Iowa Lodge, No. 2; Dubuque Lodge, No. 3, and Iowa City Lodge, No. 4, formerly Nos. 41, 42, 62, and 63 of Missouri. Brother Ansel Humphreys presided over the Convention held on January 2, 1844, and Brother John H. McKinney was Secretary. Brothers Oliver Cock and T. S. Parvin were elected Most Worshipful Grand Master and Grand Secretary.

The Deputy General Grand High Priest authorized by proxy the formation of Iowa Chapter at Burlington, by Dispensation dated August 4, 1843. A Charter was granted on September 11, 1844. A Convention of four Chapters, namely, Iowa Chapter, No. 1; Iowa City Chapter, No. 2; Dubuque Chapter, No. 3, and Washington Chapter, No. 4, met at Mount Pleasant on June 8, 1854, and established the Grand Chapter of Iowa. Some time later the Grand Chapter of Iowa opposed the authority of the General Grand Chapter by claiming the privilege of issuing Dispensations for the organization of Chapters wherever no other Grand Chapter was at work. On October 26, 1869, however, it annulled its act of secession passed nine years previously, and since 1871 has been represented in the General Grand Chapter.

When the General Grand Chapter gave up control over Council Degrees in 1855, Companion Theodore S. Parvin journeyed to Alton where, on February 9~ 1855, he was empowered by Dispensation to organize Webb Council which was chartered by the Grand Council of Illinois, September 26, 1855. Webb Council, Excelsior Council and Dubuque Council held a Convention at Dubuque on January 2, 1857, and a Grand Council was organized. On October 15, 1878, the Grand Council adopted a plan of consolidation whereby the Degrees were to be conferred in a Royal Arch Chapter. On March 1, 1899, the Grand Chapter gave up this control of the Cryptic Degrees and therefore representatives from ten chartered Councils met at Des Moines, October 15, 1900, on the invitation of General Grand Master William H. Mayo, and organized a Grand Council.

The DeMolay Commandery, No. 1, at Muscatine, was organized by Dispensation March 14, 1855, and chartered, September 10, 1856. Four Commanderies: De Molay, No. 1; Palestine, No. 2; Siloam, No. 3, and Des Moines. No. 4, took part in the organization of the Grand Commandery of Iowa on October 97, 1863, acting upon 3 Warrant issued by Sir B. B. French, Grand Master of the Grand Encampment.

The ancient and accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, was first established in Iowa at Clinton. On May 12, 1869, a Lodge of Perfection, Iowa, No. 1, was opened; 3 Council of Ivadosh, Hugh de Payens, No. 1, and 3 Chapter of Rose Croix, Delphic, No. 1, on July 21, 1870, and the De Molay Consistory, No. 1, on March 6, 1877.



The Hebrew word spelled copy, and in Latin Aureum Excelsus, or of Golden Eminence. The former ruling Prince of Idumea (see Genesis xxxvi 43; First Chronicles i, 54).



The early history of Freemasonry in Ireland is involved in the deepest obscurity. It is vain to look in Anderson, in Preston, Smith, or any other English writer of the eighteenth century, for any account of the organization of Lodges in that kingdom anterior to the establishment of a Grand Lodge.

All the official records of the Grand Lodge of Ireland before the year 1760, and all the Minute Books prior to 1780, have been lost (see volume 6, page 52, History of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Ireland, 1925, Brothers John Heron Lepper and Philip Crossle). Brother Wilhelrn Begemann (Freirnaurerei in Ireland, page 8) alludes to the remarkable circumstance that Old Constitutions have not been discovered or traced in Ireland although many copies were found in England and Scotland. The absence of such documents is singular. Brothers Lepper and Crossle (History, page 36) refer to the vear 1688 and to the existence then of a Speculative Lodge at Trinity College, Dublin. Of this interesting instance, Brother W. J. Chetwode Crawley first submitted some particulars in the Preface to Brother Sadler's Masonic Reprints and Revelations. The following quotation is from the manuscript left by the author John Jones, a friend of the famous Dean Jonathan Swift:

It was lately ordered that for the honor and dignity of the University there should be introduced a society of freemasons, consisting of gentlemen, mechanics, porters (etc., etc.) who shall hind themselves by an oath never to reveal their mighty no-secret and to relieve whatsoever strolling distressed brethren they meet with, after the example of the fraternity of freemason in and about Trinity College, by whom a collection was lately made for, and the purse of charity well stuffed for, a reduced brother, who received their charity as follows.

Then come some academic jokes which in the course of centuries have lost the savor of their salt and finally the writer acknowledges he has offended his acquaintances "I have left myself no friends.... The Freemasons will banish me their Lodge, and bar me the happiness of kissing Long Lawrence'- (see The Differences between English and Irish Masonic Rituals, treated historically, by Brother J. Heron Lepper, 1920, Dublin).

Weighty as are the items collected by Brothers Lepper and Crossle none have greater romantic lure than those relating to these Lady Freemason, the Hon.Elizabeth Aldworth, about the only instance as the commentators suggest where the supposed initiation of a woman rests upon something more than mere tradition. Essays dealing with this curious ceremony are in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, by Brothers Crawley and Conder, and there is also a pamphlet by Brother John Day of Cork, Ireland, Memoirs of the Lady Freemason, 1914. A significant point is that in a portrait of her a small trowel is worn suspended from the left shoulder. This emblem on her breast is still deemed in the United States the distinguishing Masonic jewel of the Craft and its prominence in the day of Mrs. Aldworth and more recently for a like purpose in Ireland is another tie between the Lodges of the two countries For further information in this direction the reader may consult a paper, Irish Inguence upon American Freemasonry, by Robert I. Clegg, read at a Belfast communication of the Lodge of Research, No. 202, Dublin.

Briefly as to the Lady Freemason, we may here say she was the only daughter of the first Viscount Doneraile. Born in 1693, married in 1713 to Richard Aldworth, she died in 1773, aged 80. The tradition first printed in 1811 is that as a young girl, before her marriage, she by accident witnessed the meeting of a Masonic Lodge, held at Doneraile House, where her father was Master, and on her discovery was initiated. She is credited with a life-long love of the Craft, her portrait shows her wearing a small trowel and a lambskin apron trimmed with blue silkstill preserved by her descendants, her name appears as a subscriber to Brother Fifield D'Assigny's famous book, the Serious and Impartial Enquiry, 1744, and after her death the Freemasons in 1782 toasted the memory of "our Sister Aldworth of New-Market" (Ahiman Rezon, Belfast, 1782, page xx). The date of her initiation, neglecting the other details as we may prefer, in connection with the Jones account, indicates an early Masonic activity in Ireland before what is now considered the Grand Lodge era.

But Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawley, former Grand Treasurer of Ireland and a brilliant student of the Craft has done much to lift the veil from the early Irish Freemasonry. A contemporary newspaper has been discovered, which gives an account of the installation of the Earl of Rosse as Grand Master of Ireland in June, 1725; and this account is so worded as to leave little room for doubt that the Grand Lodge of Ireland had already been in existence long enough to develop a complete organization of Grand Officers with at least six subordinate Lodges under its jurisdiction (see Brother Crawley's Caementaria Hiber nica, Fasciculus ii).

Brother W. J. Chetwode Crawley (caementaria Hybernica, Fasciculus i, page 3) tells that in the year 1876 the Council-book of the Corporation of Cork was carefully transcribed and edited by Richard Caulfield, LL.D., Librarian of the Queen's College at Cork, an antiquary of more than local repute, who brought to light two entries of Masonic importance. Under the date of December 2, 1725, he found this item, "That a Charter be granted for the Master Wardens and Society of Free Mafions, according to their petition." Two months later, on January 31, 17254, he described this entry: "The Charter of Freemasons being this day read in Council, it is ordered that further consideration of this Charter be referred to the next Council, and that Alderman Phillips, Mr. Croker, Foulks, Austin, and Mr. Com. Speaker, do inspect same."

Brother Crawley found that beyond these two, no references are made, before or afterwards, to the Charter, or to Freemasons. He further states that the records of other Corporations in the South of Ireland have been published by the same diligent antiquary, but no similar entries have been found, "though we know the towns were thick-set with Freemasons."

The Minute of the Grand Lodge of Ireland for December 27, 1726, with which the records of the Grand Lodge begin, is not the earliest entry, either in point of time or of position. The transactions of a subordinate Lodge, which evidently acted as a Mother Lodge for Cork, and intermixed, and systematically entered by the same hand, in many cases, on the same page as those of the Grand Lodge. An entry of this sort holds the first page, and shows us the subordinate Lodge in full working order. "With some little pride," Brother Crawley continues, we can point out that the first recorded transaction of Irish Freemasons is concerned with the relief of a poor brother.' " He also points out that "The Minute of Grand Lodge plunges so boldly in mediatress, that we cannot help harboring the suspicion that this was not its first meeting." The wording of the item is as follows:

At an Assembly and Meeting of the Grand Lodge for the Provinee of Munster at the Lodge of Mr. Herbert Phaire in Corke on Saint John's Daye being the 27th day of December ano Dni 1726. The Honble. James O'Brien Esqrs, by unanimous consent elected Grand Master for the ensuing year.
Spningett Penn Esqre. appointed by the Grand Master as his Deputy.

Walther Good Gent}
Thomas Riggs Gent} appointed Grand Wardens.

The Grand Master was the third son of William, Earl of Inchiquin, and represented Youghall in the Irish Parliament. The Deputy Grand Master, Springett Penn, or Penne, as he signed himself, was a great-grandson of Admiral Penn, the famous Commonwealth Admiral, and grandson of the still more famous Quaker. Born in 1703, he died in 1744. Brother W. Wonnacott, Grand Librarian of England added to the above information by Brother Crawley the further interesting item that Springett Penn was a Brother in 1723 of the Lodge at the Ship behind the Royal Exchange at London as recorded in the Grand Lodge Minute Book No. 1.

In 1731 Lord Kingston, who had been Grand Master of England in 1729, became Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Munster and also of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, in connection with what appears to have been a reorganization of the latter Body. No more is heard of the Grand Lodge of WIunster, and from 1731 to the present date the succession of the Grand Officers of the Grand Lodge of Ireland is plain and distinct (Gould's Concise History of Freemasonry, page 273). In the year 1730, The Constitutions of the Freemasons Containing the History, Charges, Regulations, etc., of that most Ancient and Right Worshipful Fraternity. For the use of the Lodges, was published at Dublin. A second edition was published in 1744, and a third, in 1751. In 1749, the Grand Master's Lodge was instituted, which still exists; a singular institution, possessing several unusual privileges, among which are that its members are members of the Grand Lodge without the payment of dues, that the Lodge takes precedence of all other Lodges, and that any candidates nominated by the Grand Master are to be initiated without ballot.

In 1772, the Grand Lodge of Ireland recognized the Grand Lodge of the Ancient and entered into an alliance with it, which was also done in the same year by the Grand Lodge of Scotland. This does not appear to have given any offense to the regular Grand Lodge of England; for when that Body, in 1777, passed a vote of censure on the Lodges of Ancient Freemasons, it specially excepted from the censure the Lodges of Ireland and Scotland.

In 1779, an application was made to the Mother Kilwinning Lodge of Scotland, by certain Brethren in Dublin, for a Charter empowering them to form a Lodge to be called the High Knights Templar, that they might confer the Templar Degree. The Kilwinning Lodge granted the petition for the three Craft Degrees only, but at a later period this Lodge became, says Findel, the source of the Grand Encampment of Ireland.

The Grand Lodge holds jurisdiction over all the Blue Lodges. The Mark Degree is worked under the Grand Royal Arch Chapter. Next comes the Royal Arch, which formerly consisted of these three Degrees, the Excellent, Super-Excellent, and Royal Arch the first two being nothing more than passing the first two veils with each a separate obligation. But that system was abolished some years ago, and a new ritual framed something like the American, except that the King and not the High Priest is made the Presiding Officer.

The next Degrees are the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth, which are under the jurisdiction of the Templar Grand Conclave, and are given to the candidate previous to his being created a Knight Templar. Next to the Templar Degree in the b Irish system comes the Eighteenth or Rose Croix, which is under the jurisdiction of the Grand Chapter of Prince Masons or Council of Rites, composed of the first three officers of all the Rose Croix Chapters, the Supreme Council having some years ago surrendered its authority over the Degree. The Twenty-eighth Degree or Knight of the Sun is the next conferred, and then the Thirtieth or Kadosh in a Body over which the Supreme Council has no control except to grant Certificates to its members. The Supreme Council confers the Thirty-first, Thirty-second, and Thirty-third Degrees, there being no Grand Consistory.

The Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite for Ireland was established by a Patent from the Supreme Council of the United States, at Charleston, dated August 13, 1824, by which the Duke of Leinster, John Fowler, and Thomas McGill were constituted a Supreme Council for Ireland, and under that authority it continues to work. Whence the advanced Degrees came into Ireland is not clearly known. The Rose Croix and Kadosh Degrees existed in Ireland long before the establishment of the Supreme Council. In 1808 Doctor Dalcho's Orations were published at Dublin, by "the Illustrious College of Knights of K. H., and the Original Chapter of Prince Masons of Ireland." It is probable that these Degrees were received from Bristol, England, where there are preserved the earliest English records of the Rose Croix.


See Prince Masons of Ireland



These Chapters existed in Paris from the year 1730 to 1740, and were thence disseminated through France. They consisted of Degrees, such as Irish Master, Perfect Irish Master, and Sublime Irish Master, which, it is said, were invented by the adherents of the house of Stuart when they sought to make Freemasonry a political means of restoring the exiled family to the throne of England. The claim has been made but is disputed that Ramsay, when he assumed his theory of the establishment of Freemasonry in Scotland by the Templars, who had Bed thither under d'Aurnont, took possession of these Degrees (if he did not, as some suppose, invent them himself) and changed their name, in deference to his theory, from Irish to Scottish, calling, for instance, the Degree of Matre Irlandou or Irish Master, the Maitre, Ecossais or Scottish Master.



The Irish Chapters are also called by some writers Irish Colleges.


See Irish Chapters



A philanthropic and benevolent Masonic society for rendering assistance to the needy. In 1789 Chevalier Ruspini, State Dentist to George III, established a Royal Masonic Institution for Girls in England with thirty pupils. In 1790 several Irish Brethren met together and made themselves responsible for the school fees only that is, they did not pay for the board or clothing of the daughters of some deceased Brethren From that inauspicious beginning has sprung the present Masonic Female Orphan School of Ireland.

In 1792, a small house, affording accommodation for twenty girls, was taken where the pupils were boarded. clothed and educated until such time as they could earn their own living. In 1852, after several removals, Burlington House was opened. An appeal for funds was made to the Brethren and met with a steady response. Great interest was taken in the work by Augustus, third Duke of Leinster, who reigned as Grand Master of Ireland from 1813 to 1874. Such was the quality of the instruction given that the Education Committee was able to select its teachers from among the girls who had been educated in the school.

The first annual grant of one hundred pounds by the Grand Lodge of Ireland was made in 1855, which has been continued- ever since. Girls were admitted from six to ten years of age and retained until they reached the age of fifteen, unless they were then drafted on to the domestic staff. An extension of the building and equipment was made in 1860 and a further extension accomplished in 1870, when a public ball was held. Nine years later a more general enlargement became necessary and a more general appeal for funds was made. In 1880 the foundation stone of the school at Ball's Bridge, Dublin, was laid by James, first Duke of Abercorn who was Grand Master of Ireland from 1875 to 1885. Practically the entire sum appropriated for this building was subscribed by the Brethren.

In 1853 twenty-one girls were residents of the school; in 1875 there were forty-five; in 1890, eighty; and in 1925 there were one hundred four, but, in addition, more than sixty others were receiving extra grants to assist in their maintenance and education and annual sums are expended for the purpose.



The lectures teach us that at the building of King Solomon's Temple there was not heard the sound of ax, hammer, or other metallic tool. But all the stones were hewn, squared, and numbered in the quarries; and the timbers felled and prepared in the forest of Lebanon, whence they were brought on floats by sea to Joppa, and thence carried by land to Jerusalem, where, on being put up, each part was found to fit with such exact nicety that the whole, when completed, seemed rather the handiwork of the Grand Architect of the Universe than of mere human hands. This can hardly be called a legend, because the same facts are substantially related in the First Book of Kings; but the circumstance has been appropriated in Freemasonry to symbolize the entire peace and harmony which should prevail among Freemasons when laboring on that spiritual temple of which the Solomonic Temple was the arche-type.



The sons of Abraham by Sarah and Hagar. They are recognized, from the conditions of their mothers, as the free-born and the bondman. According to Brother Oliver, the fact that the inheritance which was bestowed upon Isaac, the son of his free-born wife, was refused to Ishmael, the son of a slave woman, gave rise to the Masonic theory which constitutes a Landmark that none but the free-born are entitled to initiation.



The Hebrew word Off, the Latin salus mea, my aid. one of the five Masters, according to the Masonic myth, appointed by Solomon after the death of Hiram to complete the Temple.



non ads. Literally meaning in Hebrew, men of hewing, that is, hewers. The phrase was originally used by Anderson in the first edition of the Constitutions (page 10), but is not found in the original Hebrew (First Kings v, 18) to which he refers, where it is said that Solomon had fourscore "hewers in the mountains," Chotzeb Bahar. But Ish Chotzeb is properly constructed according to the Hebrew idiom, and is employed by Anderson to designate the hewers whe, with the Giblim, or stonecutters, and the Bonai, or builders, amounted to eighty thousand, all of whom he calls (in his second edition, page ll) "bright Fellow Crafts." But he distinguishes them from the thirty thousand who cut wood on Mount Lebanon under Adoniram.



The Hebrew expression xxxxxxxx, meaning, Men of burden. Anderson thus designates the 70,000 laborers who, in the original Hebrew (First Kings v, 18) are called Noshe Sabal, or bearers of burdens. Anderson says "they were of the remains of the old Canaanites, and, being bondmen, are not to be reckoned among Masons" (see Constitutions, 1738, page 11). But in Webb's system they constitute the Apprentices at the building of the Temple.



Corruptly, Ish Soudy. This expression is composed of the two Hebrew words, Ish, and Sod. The first of these words, Ish, means a man, and Sod signifies primarily a couch on which one ret clines. Hence Ish Sodi would mean, first, a man of my couch, one who reclines with me on the same seat, an indication of great familiarity and confidence. Thence followed the secondary meaning given to Sod, of familiar intercourse, consultation, or intimacy. Job (xix, 19) applies it in this sense, when, using Mati, a word synonymous with Ish, he speaks of Mati Sodi in the passage which the common version has translated thus: "all my inward friends abhorred me," but which the marginal interpretation has more correctly rendered, "all the men of my secret." Ish Sodi, therefore, in this Degree, very clearly means a man of my intimate counsel, a man of my choice, one seleeted to share with me a secret task or labor. Such was the position of every Select Master to King Solomon, and in this view those are not wrong who have interpreted Ish Sodi as meaning a Select Master.



Known also as the Tabula Isiaca, Mensa Isiaca, and Tabula Bembina. A monument often quoted by archeologists previous to the discovery and understanding of hieroglyphics. A flat rectangular bronze plate, inlaid with niello and silver, 56 by 36 inches in size. It consists of three compartments of figures of Egyptian deities and emblems; the central figure is Isis. It was sold by a soldier to a locksmith, bought by Cardinal Bembo in 1527, and is now in the Royal Museum in Turin.



The sister and the wife of Osiris, and worshiped by the Egyptians as the great goddess of nature. Her mysteries constituted one of the Degrees of the ancient Egyptian initiation (see Egyptian Mysterzes and Osiris).



This Body was formed in England of Hermetic students in 1887 to give instruction in the mediaeval occult sciences. The Rituals were written in English from old Rosicrucian Manuscripts supplemented by independent literary researches. Several other Temples emerged from this one, namely: Osiris, Wester-super-Mare; and Horus, Bradford, in England; Amen Ra, Edinburgh, Scotland, and Ahathoor, Paris, France. Following a resignation in 1897, the English Temples lapsed into abeyance.



In the Mohammedan faith, the name of the angel who, on the judgment morn, will sound the trumpet of resurrection.



There is said to have been a Lodge in Italy at Naples as early as 1750 but there is no definite evidence to prove this statement. In 1767, however, according to the English "Constitutions," Don Nieholas Manuzzi was appointed Provincial Grand Master for Italy. A National Grand Lodge was founded by delegates from eight Lodges at a Convention held on February 27, 1764. The year 1767 opened a period of hardship for the Craft in Italy. Ferdinand IV was hostile to the Brethren and though Queen Caroline, his wife, did all she could to aid them, the Lodges finally in 1783 gave up their activities. Many Lodges and Grand Bodies were formed only to be suppressed and the result was a great confusion. In 1867 there existed a Grand Orient at Florence, two Supreme Councils at Palermo and a Grand Council at Milan. Brother Garibaldi (see Garibaldi), who was Grand Master of a Supreme Council at Palermo, then called a meeting on June 21, 1867, of all the Lodges in Italy. The result was that several of the Grand Bodies united and then combined the functions of a Supreme Grand Council of the Thirty-third Degree, a Symbolic Grand Lodge, and a Supreme Council of the Rite of Memphis.

Brother Oliver Day Street, in his excellent report to the Grand Lodge of Alabama, 1922, quotes from a letter to the International Bureau for Masonic Affairs, Neuchatel, Switzerland, as follows:"There are in Italy several Grand Lodges that are not recognized by any jurisdiction of other countries. There is a Grand Lodge in Florence, another at Naples; they are practicing rites of a rather occultist and mixed character, borrowed of rituals fallen long ago into desuetude." A Grand Lodge of the Italian Symbolic Rite and a Grand Orient of Italy have been organized separately distinct from each other and there is also independently at work a Supreme Council of Italy, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, founded in 1908. Under the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini, Premier of Italy, a leader of the Fascisti, organized on November 12, 1920, at Naples, and succeeding in gaining Rome and controlling the Italian Government, the Freemasons have been persecuted, their property destroyed, and prominent Brethren exiled.



A society of adepts, engaged in the search for the ITniversal Medicine, an organization that is now extinct. Mentioned by Fustier. The name is from the Greek and means healers.


I.. V.·. I.·. O.·. L.·.

The initials of a Latin sentence Inveni Verbum in Ore Leonis. Letters of significant words used in the Thirteenth Degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. They have reference to the recovery of the key of the Sacred Ark, which contains certain treasures. The Ark and its key having been lost in the forest during a battle which occurred when the Jews were journeying through the wilderness, the key was found in the mouth of a lion who dropped it upon the ground on the approach of the Israelites. Much symbolical teaching is deduced from the historical myth.



The symbolic jewel of the Fourth Degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. On the wards of the key is the Hebrew letter zain or Z.



A corruption of Zabud, which see.



The twenty-eight creations of the beneficent deity Ormudz, or Auramazda, in the Persian religious system.



The Hebrew words nanny Latin orietur Dominus. A word connected with the Seventh Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.





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