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The Hebrew is pronounced, Mem, which signifies water in motion, having for its hieroglyph a waving line, referring to the surface of the water. As a numeral, M stands for 1000. In Hebrew its numerical value is 40. The sacred name of Deity, applied to this letter, is Meborach, and in Latin Benedictus, meaning that Blessed One.



In the Tenth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite we are instructed that certain traitors fled to "Maacha, King of Cheth," by whom they were delivered up to King Solomon on his sending for them. In First Kings ii, 39, we find it recorded that two of the servants of Shimei fled from Jerusalem to "Achish, son of Maachah king of Gath." There can be little doubt that the carelessness of the early copyists of the Ritual led to the double error of putting Cheth for Gath and of supposing that Maacha was its king instead of its king's father.

The manuscripts of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, too often copied by unlearned persons, show many such corruptions of Hebrew names, which modern researches must eventually correct. Delaunay, in his Thuileur, 1813, makes him King of Tyre, calls him Mahakah, and adds a Latin word, Compressus, as further explanation, the meaning evidently being to bring together.



Masonic writers have generally given to this word the meaning of "is smitten," deriving it probably from the Hebrew verb macha, to smite. Others, again, think it is the word mak, rottenness, and suppose that it means "he is rotten." Both derivations are, in Brother Mackey's opinion, incorrect. Mac is a constituent part of the word macbenac, which is the substitute Master's Word in the French Rite, and which is interpreted by the French ritualists as meaning "he lives in the son." But such a derivation can find no support in any known Hebrew root. Another interpretation must be sought. Doctor Mackey believed there is evidence, circumstantial at least, to show that the word was, if not an invention of the Sentient or Dermott Freemasons, at least adopted by them in distinction from the one used by the Moderns, which latter is the word now in use in the United States of America.

Brother Mackey was disposed to attribute the introduction of the word into Freemasonry to the adherents of the House of Stuart, who sought in every way to make the Institution of Freemasonry a political instrument in their schemes for the restoration of their exiled monarch. Thus the old phrase, "the Widow's Son," was applied by them to James II, who was the son of Henrietta Maria, the widow of Charles I. So, instead of the old Master's word which had hitherto been used, they invented macbenac out of the Gaelie, which to them was, on recount of their Highland supporters, almost a sacred language in the place of Hebrew. Now, in Gaelic, Mac is son, and benach is blessed, from the active verb oeannaichy to bless.

The latest dictionary pushed by the Highland Society give this example:
"Benach De Righ Albane, Alexander, Mac Alexander," etc., that is, Bless the King of Scotland, Alexander, son of Alexander, etc. Therefore we find, without any of those distortions to which etymologists so often recur, that macbenac means in Gaelic the blessed son. This word the Stuart Freemasons applied to their idol, the Pretender, the son of Charles I.



This word is capable of at least two interpretations.
1. A significant word in the Third Degree according to the French Rite and some other Rituals (see Mac).
2. In the Order of the Beneficent Knights of the Holy City, the Recipiendary, or Novice, is called Macbenac.



A heroic family, whose patriotism and valor form bright pictures in the Jewish annals. The name is generally supposed to be derived from the letters M. C. B. I. which were inscribed upon their banners Wng the initials of the following words in the Hebrew sentence, Mi Camocha, Baalim, Jehovah, meaning, Who is like unto thee among the gods, O Jehovah. The Hebrew sentence has been appropriated in some of the advanced Degrees as a significant term.



Initiated in Concordia Lodge No. 67 at Philadelphia, 1869; was Worshipful Master in 1874; accepted position of Secretary in 1876 and served twelve years. Brother MacCalla was elected Junior Grand Warden of Pennsylvania in 1882, Senior Grand Warden in 1884, Deputy Grand Master in 1886 and Grand Master in 1888. For many years he was Editor of the Reystone, a Masonic journal. He wrote a historical sketch of Concordia Lodge in Philadelphia, a Life of Daniel Coxe and many essays on Freemasonry in America. He discovered the Secretary's ledger of Saint John's Lodge dating from June 24, 1731, to June, 1738 (see Transactionz, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, volume iii, page 134).



Du Cange (in his Glossarium) gives this as one of the Middle Age Latin words for orison, deriving it from maceria, a wail The word is now never employed.


See Macio



Du Cange, Slossarzum, defines Macio, Mario, or Machio, on the authority of Isidore, as Maçon, latomus, a mason, a constructor of walls, from machina, the machines on which they stood to work on account of the height of the walls. He gives Maço also.



His favorite pen name was Cryptonymus, a Latin word meaning One whose name is hidden. Editor of The Royal Masonic Cyclopedia of History, Rites, Symbolism, and Biography, published in London in 1877, by Brother John Hogg, Paternoster Row. He was one of the founders of the Rosicrucian Society in England (see Rosicrucianism).



The American Masonic historian. He was born at Charleston, South Carolina, March 12, 1807. This scholarly Brother lived to the age of seventy-four years. He died at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, June 20, 1881, and was buried at Washington, District of Columbia, Sunday, June 26, with all the solemnity of the Masonic Rites wherein he had long been an active leader. From 1834, when he was graduated with honors at the Charleston Medical College, until 1854 he gave attention to the practice of his profession, but from that time on literary and Masonic labors engrossed his efforts. Doctor Mackey was a Union adherent during the Civil War and in July, 1865, President Johnson appointed him Collector of the Port. In a contest for senatorial honors Brother Mackey was defeated by Senator Sawyer. Doctor Mackey removed to Washington. District of Columbia, in l870.

Doctor Mackey was Initiated, Passed and Raised in Saint Andrews Lodge No. 10, Charleston, South Carolina, in 1841. Shortly thereafter he affiliated with Solomon's Lodge No. 1, also of Charleston, and was elected Worshipful Master in December, 1842. From 1842 until 1867 he held the office of Grand Secretary and during this period prepared all the reports of the Foreign Correspondence Committee of the Grand Lodge. In 1851 he was a founder member of Landmark Lodge No. 76. During the winter of 1841-2 he was advanced and exalted in Capitular Freemasonry; elected High Priest in December, 1844; and also elected Deputy Grand High Priest in 1848 and successively re-selected until 1855. From 1855 to 1867 he was each year elected as Grand High Priest of his State. Elected in 1859 to the office of General Grand High Priest, he continued in that position until 1868. Created a Knight Templar in South Carolina Commandery No. 1, in 1842, he was elected Eminent Commander in 1844, later being honored as a Past Grand Warden of the Grand Encampment of the United States. Crowned a Sovereign Grand Inspector General of the Thirty-third and last Degree in 1844, he was for many years Secretary-General of the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.

As a contributor to the literature and science of Freemasonry, Doctor Mackey's labors have been more extensive than those of any other in America or in Europe. In 1845 he published his first Masonic work, entitled A Lexicon of Freemasonry; in 1851 he published his second work entitled Tame True Mystic Tie. Then followed The A11iman Rezon of South Carolina, 1852; Principles of Masonic Laun, 1856; Book of tile Chapter, 1858; Text-Book of Masonic Jurisprudence; 1859; History of freemasonry in South Carolina, 1861, Manual of the Lodge, 1869; Cryptic Masonry, 1877; Symbolism of Freemasonry, and Masonic Ritual, 1869; Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, 1874; and Masonic Parliamentary Law, 1875. Doctor Mackey also contributed freely to Masonic periodicals and edited several of them with conspicuous ability. In 1849 he established and edited the Southern and Western Masonic Miscellany for five years. In 1857 he undertook the publication of the Masonic Quarterly Review which continued for two years. Then he was invited to assume editorial charge of a department in the American Freemason which he accepted in July, 1859, and he held this position for one year. He was solicited to take charge of a department in the Masonic Trowel, his first article appearing in the September number of 1865, and he wrote for this publication for nearly three years. In October, 1871, Doctor Mackey again published a Masonic magazine of his own, Mackey's Nationd Freemason. Although a periodical of great merit, after three years it was discontinued. In January, 1875, Doctor Mackey became one of the editors of the Voice of Masonry, and for over four years was a constant contributor to that periodical, when failing health necessitated his giving up this work.

After Doctor Mackey located at Washington, District of Columbia, he affiliated with Lafayette Lodge No. 19, Lafayette Chapter No. 5, and Washington Commandery No. 1.

The funeral services in Washington in 1881 were begun at All Souls Church, Unitarian, of which Doctor Mackey was a member, by the pastor and were followed by the ceremonies of a Lodge of Sorrow, Rose Croix Chapter, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, and were in charge of the venerable General Albert Pike and his associate officers. General Albert Pike wrote a touching and ape precative message at the time of the death of Doctor Mackey, which was sent out officially by the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Southern Jurisdiction in which the various Masonic Bodies were instructed to "drape in black the altars and working tools and the Brethren will wear the proper badge of mourning during the space of sixty days."

The following Memorial was presented by a Committee headed by Brother Charles F. Stansbury at a Special Communication of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia:

Our illustrious Brother, Albert Gallatin Mackey, is no more! He died at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, on the 20th day of June, 1881, at the venerable age of 74, and was buried at Washington on Sunday June 26, 1881, with the highest honors of the Craft, ah Rites and Orders of Masonry uniting in the last sad services over his remains. The announcement of his death has carried a genuine sentiment of sorrow wherever Freemasonry is known. His ripe scholarship, his profound knowledge of Masonic law and usage, his broad views of Masonic philosophy, his ceaseless and invaluable literary labors in the service of the Order, his noble ideal of its character and mission, as well as his genial personal qualities and his lofty character, had united to make him personally known and vividly respected and beloved by the Masonic world. While this Grand Lodge shares in the common sorrow of the Craft everywhere at this irreparable loss she can properly lay claim to a more intimate and peculiar sense of bereavement, inasmuch as our illustrious Brother had been for many years an active member of this Body Chairman of the Committee on Jurisprudence, and an advisor ever ready to assist our deliberations with his knowledge and counsel. In testimony of our affectionate respect for his memory the Grand Lodge jewels, and insignia will be appropriately draped, and its members near the usual badge of mourning for thirty days.

A memorial page of our proceedings will also be dedicated to the honor of his name. We extend to his family the assurance of our sincere and respectful sympathy, and direct that an attested copy of this Minute be transmitted to them.

In the eulogy over Doctor Mackey, delivered by Past Grand Master Henry Buist, of Georgia, before the Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdiction, he said of the Doctor: He was a fearless and gifted speaker; his language was courteous and manner dignified; and occasionally, in his earnestness to maintain what he conceived to be right, he became animated and eloquent. Positive in his convictions, he was bold in their advocacy. His course of action once determined on, supported by an approving conscience no fear or disfavor or discomfiture could swerve him from his fixed purpose. Whatever was the emergency, he was always equal to it. Where others doubted. he was confident; where others faltered, he was immovable; where others queried, he affirmed. He was faithful to every public and Masonic duty. Treachery found no place in his character. He never betrayed a trust. He was eminently sincere and loyal to his friends, and those who were most intimately associated with him learned to appreciate him the most. He was generous and frank in his impulses, and cherished malice toward none, and charity for all. His monument is in the hearts of those who knew him longest and best. He is no longer of this earth. His work among men is ended; his earthly record is complete.


See Macio

The following is substantially from Renning's Cydopedia of Freemasonry: The Norman-French word for mason as the Operative Mason in early days was called "le rnaçon and this was corrupted into maccon, maccouyn, masoun, masouyn, messouyn, and even mageon. The word seems to come from maçonner, which had both its operative meaning and derivative meaning of conspiring, in 1238, and which again comes from mansio, a word of classic use. The word mason, as it appears to us, is clear evidence of the development of the operative Gilds through the Norman-French artificers of the Conquest, who carried the Operative Gilds, as it were, back to Latin terminology, and to a Roman origin,

In addition to the above paragraph by the Rev. A. F. A. Woodford, see Mason, Macemo and Macio.



French, meaning The Mason in the Right Way. The second grade of the Hermetic system of Montpellier (Thory, ActaLatomorum i, page 321).



French, meaning The Mason of the Secret. The sixth grade of the reformed Rite of Baron Tschoudy, and the seventh in the reformed rite of Saint Martin (Thory, ActaLatomorum i, page 321).



These French words are explained under their English equivalents (see Mason, Scottish Master).



Low Latin, signifying a Mason, and found in documents of the fourteenth century.



A French word signifying a Female Mason, that is to say, a woman who has received the Degrees of the Rite of Adoption. It is a very convenient word. The formation of the English language might permit the use of the equivalent word Masoness, if custom would sanction it.



The Third Degree in Cagliostro's Egyptian Rite of Adoption.



Third grade of the Maçonnerie d' Adoption.



Du Cange gives citations from documents of the fourteenth century, where this word is used as signifying to build.



French for Red Freemasonry. The designation of the four advanced grades of the French Rite. Bazot says that the name comes from the color worn in the fourth grade.



Dutch Masonic Clubs, somewhat like unto the English Lodges of Instruction with more, perhaps, of the character of a Club. Renning's Cyclopedia says "there were about nineteen of these associations in the principal towns of Holland in 1860."



"A General History, Cyclopedia, and Dictionary of Freemasonry," containing some 300 engravings, by Robert Macoy, 33 , published in New York, which has passed through a number of editions. It was originally founded on A Dictionary of Symbolical Masonry, by Dr. George Oliver. Brother Macoy has occupied the prominent position of Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New York, and that of Grand Recorder of the State Grand Commandery of the Order of the Temple, Knights Templar.



Greek, she great world. The visible system of worlds; the outer world or universe. It is opposed to Microcosm, the little world, as in man. It has been used as the Macric soul in opposition to the Micric animal life, and as the soul of the universe as opposed to the soul of a single world or being. A subject of much note to the Rosicrucians in the study of the Mysterium Magnum.



Latin of the Middle Ages for a mason. Du Cange quotes a Computum of the year 1324, in which it is said that the work was done "per manum Petri, maczonis de Lagnicio," meaning "by the hand of Peter, a mason of Lagnicio,"



L'Action Républicaine Lodge, from June 25,1913, at Diego Suarez, and La France Australe, from July 20, 1903, at Tananarivo, are subject both to the Grand Orient of France. Three others, La Fraternite Universale, from 1917, at Ambositra, Imerina, from 1903, at Tananarivo and Les Trois Freres, The Three Brothers, at Majungo, are controlled by the Grand Lodge of France. Madagascar is an island, under the French Government, is 975 miles long, with some three million inhabitants, and is in the Indian Ocean, 230 miles from the east coast of Africa.



A technical word signifying initiated into Freemasonry (see Make).



Madmen are specially designated in the oral law as disqualified for initiation (see Qualifications).


A presidency of British India. The first Lodge in Southern India was established at Madras. Others were opened in 1765 and in the following year Captain Edmond Pascal was appointed Provincial Grand Master for Madras and its Dependencies. A Provincial Grand Lodge was established in 1781 by the Athol Grand Lodge of England but after about seven years the state of warfare round about Madras caused its decline. Unity among the Brethren in Southern India was finally achieved by the appointment of Brigadier-General Horn as "Provincial Grand Master for the Coast of Coromandel, the Presidency of Madras and parts adjacent." The older Lodges had all ceased work when in 1786 the Carnatic Military Lodge was established at Arcot. The early attempts of the Freneh to plant Freemasonry in Madras were even less successful than those of the English. The first Lodge, La Fraternite Cosmopolite, meaning in French World wide Fraternity, was chartered in 1786, but after Iying dormant for some time finally ceased to exist. The Grand Lodge of Scotland has chartered many surviving and successful Lodges in Madras and other parts of India (see Bombay and India).



Sometimes spelled Maffia, a name for a Sicilian secret society active early in the nineteenth century, perhaps more usually the title is employed to mean the persons impatient and contemptuous of constitutional processes of law who reserve vengeance for execution by themselves. The Chief of Police of New Orleans was killed, following the severity of his course in hunting the murderers of an Italian. Several Mafiusi were implicated, six were acquitted but the verdict was credited to the fears of the jury, and the gaol was entered by a mob and eleven prisoners were lynched, March 14, 1891 (see Carbonari, Camorra, and Secret Societies).



The earliest Masonic magazine was published at Leipsic in 1738 and named Der Freimaurer. The second, in 1742, was Der bedachtiae Frei7naurer, at Hamburg, and then the Aufmerksamn Freimaurer, 1743, at Gorlitz, according to Brother Woodford (Renning's CycZopedia). In 1783 theFreimaurerzeitung appeared at Berlin, having only a short existence of six numbers. The Journal fur Freimaurer, which appeared in 1784 at Vienna, had a longer life of some three years. In England, the first work of this kind was The Freemasons Magazine or General and Complete Library, begun in 1793, and continued until 1798. In Ireland, in 1792, the Sentimental and Masonic Magazine appeared and ran to seven volumes (1792-5). In France the Miroir de laverite seems to have been issued 1800-2, followed by Nermes in 1808. In England the Free7naso7~s Quarterly Review commenced in 1834 and was continued until 1849, followed by the Freemasons Quarterly Magazine in 1853, which lived until 1858. In 1873 a new Masonic Mapazine was issued, but it had not a very long existence. Of American Masonic magazines the earliest is the Freemasons Magazine and General Miscellany, published at Philadelphia in 1811. An old and constant periodical devoted to Freemasonry was the Freemasonry's Monthly Magazine, published by Charles W. Moore, at Boston. It was established in the year 1842 (see Literature).



The ancient Greek historians so term the hereditary priests among the Persians and Medians. The word is derived from mog or amp, signifying Priest in the Pehlevi language. The Illuminati first introduced the word into Freemasonry, and employed it in the nomenclature of their Degrees to signify men of superior wisdom.



The "Wise Men of the East" who came to Jerusalem, bringing gifts to the infant Jesus. The traditional names of the three are Melchior, an old man, with a long beard, offering gold; Jasper, a beardless youth, rho offers frankincense; Balthazar, a black or Moor, with a large spreading beard, who tenders myrrh. The patron saints of travelers. "Tradition fixed their number at three, probably in allusion to the three races springing from the sons of Noah. The Empress Helena caused their corpses to be transported to Milan from Constantinople. Frederick Barbarossa carried them to Cologne, the place of their special glora as the Three Kings of Cologne." Yonge. The three principal officers ruling the Society of the Rosicrucians are styled Magi.



The idea that any connection exists between Freemasonry and magic is to be attributed to the French writers, especially to Ragon, who gives many pages of his Masonic Orthodozy to the subject of Masonic magic; and still more to Alphonse Louis Constant, who has written three large volumes on the History of Magic, on the Ritual and Dogma of the Higher Magic, and on the Key of the Grand Mysteries, in all of which he seeks to trace an intimate connection between the Masonic mysteries and the science of magic (see Levi, Eliphas). Ragon designates this sort of Freemasonry by the name of Occult Freemasonry But he loosely confounds magic with the magism of the ancient Persians, the medieval philosophy and modern magnetism, all of which, as identical sciences, were engaged in the investigation of the nature of man. the mechanism of his thoughts, the faculties of his soul, his power over nature, and the essence of the occult virtues of all things.

Magism, he says, is to be found in the Sentences of Zoroaster, in the Hymns of Orpheus, in the Invocations of the Hierophants, and in the Symbols of Pythagoras; it is reproduced in the Philosophy of Agrippa and of Cardan, and is recognized under the name of Magic in the marvelous results of magnetism. Cagliostro, it is well known, mingled with his Spurious Freemasonry the Superstitions of Magic and the Operations of Animal Magnetism. But the writers who have sought to establish a scheme of Magical Freemasonry refer almost altogether to the supposed power of mystical names or words, which they say is common to both Freemasonry and magic. It is certain that on omatology, or the science of names, forms a very interesting part of the investigations of the higher Freemasonry, and it is only in this way that any connection can be created between the two sciences. Much light, it must be confessed, is thrown on many of the mystical names in the advanced Degrees by the dogmas of magic; and hence magic furnishes a curious and interesting study for the Freemason (see Magic Squares and Alchemy).



Founded in New York City on September 29, 1913, by Brother Frank C. Higgins, for the study of Masonic symbolism (see American Freemason, November, 1913, and Miscellanea Latomorum, volume i, pages 63 and 128, new series).



A society founded at Florence, which became a division of the Brothers of Rose Croix. They wore in their Chapters the habit of members of the Inquisition. This must not be confused with a society of the same na ne but not claiming to be exclusively Masonic in the United States.



A magic square is a series of numbers arranged in an equal number of cells constituting a square figure, the enumeration of all of whose columns, vertically, horizontally and diagonally, wilt give the same sum. The Oriental philosophers, and especially the Jewish Talmudists, have indulged in many fanciful speculations in reference to these magic squares, many of which were considered as talismans. The accompanying figure of nine squares containing the nine digits so arranged as to make fifteen when counted in every way, was of peculiar import.

There was no talisman more sacred than this among the Orientalists, when arranged as in Figure 1-6. Thus designed, they called it by the name of the planet Saturn, ZaHaL, because the sum of the 9 digits in the square was equal to 45 (1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8 +g) which is the numerical value of the letters in the word ZaHaL, in the Arabic alphabet. The talmudists also esteemed it as a sacred talisman because 15 is the numerical value of the letters of the word JaH, which is one of the forms of the Tetragrammaton.

The Hermetic Philosophers called these magic squares Tables of the Planets, and attributed to them many occult virtues. The Table of Saturn consisted of 9 squares, and has Just been given. The Table of Jupiter consisted of 16 squares of numbers, whose total value is 136, and the sum of them added, horizontally, perpendicularly, and diagonally, in rows, is always 34; as in Figure 3. So the Table of Mars consists of 25 squares, of the Sun of 36, of Venus of 49, of Mercury of 64, and of the Moon of 81. These magic squares and their values have been used in the symbolism of numbers in some of the advanced Degrees of Freemasonry.

This subject should not be dismissed as a purely imaginative study. The matter has for many years engaged the attention of mathematicians of the highest quality. The Magic Square has been worn as an emblem or talisman insuring good luck to the possessor and evidently it formed an essential part in the early symbolism connected with the Craft. That singular picture by Albrecht Durer of the sixteenth century, Malancolia, shows a Magic Square with many other symbols easily recognized by members of the Masonic institution. The history of the Magie Square goes back hundreds of years and there has been undoubtedly through this period a superstitious, as vrell as a scientific, esteem for this device. They have not been worked out to their present perfection in any other than by systematic methods. The earliest known writer on the subject was a Greek, Emanuel Moscopulus, who flourished in the fourth or fifth century. Since that time there have been many laborers upon this work.

One of the very interesting of these Magic Squares is referred to above by Doctor Mackey. This occurs in a book by Agrippa (De Occulta Philosophie, logo) and is quoted on page 279 of George Falkener's Gaines Ancient arid Moderns By first arrangement the numerals from 1 to 16 in four rows as in Figure 4 it will be seen that by leaving the numerals unchanged at each corner of the large square, namely 1, 4, 16, and 13, and also at the inner square of 6, 7, 10, and 11, and substituting the other pairs of numerals, reversing them at the time, we have in Figure 5, this remarkable Magic Square reversed, which Brother Mackey has called the Table of Jupiter. The combinations of this figure are surprising, amounting to fifty-six arrangements, each totaling thirty-four. The four horizontals, as 1+15+14+4=34, 12+6+7+9=34, etc; and the four perpendicular columns, as 1+12+8+13 = 34, and 15+6+10+3=34, etc.; the diagonals,1+6+11+16= 34, and4+7+10+13=34; the diamonds, 1+7+16+ 10=34, and 4+11+13+6=34; the squares, 1+4+ 16+13=34, and 6+7+11+10=34; the oblongs, 15+ 14+2+3 =34, 12+9+5+8=34, and the romboids, 1+15+16+2=34, and 4+9+13+8=34, etc.

The method of working out a Magic Square with an uneven number of cells was suggested by De la Loubere. The several steps may be considered as follows: In assigning consecutive numbers, proceed in an oblique direction up and to the right as 4, 5, 6, as in Figure 6. When this would carry a number out of the Magic Square, write that number in the cell at the opposite end of the column or row, as shown by the numbers in the margin of Figure 6. When the application of the first of these rules in the present paragraph would place a number in a cell already occupied, write the new number in the cell beneath the one last filled. For instance, the cell above and to the right of 3 being occupied, 4 is written under 3. Treat the marginal square at the upper nght-hand corner marked x as an occupied cell and apply the rule given in the last sentence. Begin by putting 1 in the top cell of the middle column. A comparison of Figure 6 will show that it is a reflection of Figure 1 given by Doctor Mackey.

One of the most successful of all students of the subject unquestionably was Brother Benjamin Franklin. Two of his efforts, an 8xS and a 16x16, are today unsurpassed as purely remarkably successful attempts at the making of Magic Squares. A communication to an English friend by Brother Franklin appears in the work entitled Letters and Papers on Philosophical Subjects by Benjamin Franklin, printed in 1769. This letter is in part as follows:

According to your request I now send you the arithmetical curiosity of which this is the history. Being one day in the country at the house of our common friend, the late learned Mr. Logan, he showed me a folio French book filled with magic squares, wrote, if I forget not by one Mr. Frenicle, in which he said the author had discovered great ingenuity and dexterity in the management of numbers; and though several other foreigners had distinguished themselves in the same way, he did not recollect that any one Englishman had done anything of the kind remarkable.

I said it was perhaps a mark of the good sense of our mathematicians that they would not spend their time in things that were merely domiciles novae, incapable of any useful application. He answered that many of the arithmetical or mathematical questions publicly proposed in England were equally trifling and useless. Perhaps the considering and answering such questions, I replied, may not be altogether useless if it produces by practice an habitual readiness and exactness in mathematical disquisitions, which readiness may, on many occasions be of real use. In the same way, says he, may the making of these squares be of use. I then confessed to him that in my younger days, having once some leisure (which I still think I might have employed more usefully) I had amused myself in making this kind of magic squares, and, at length had acquired such a knack at it, that I could fill the cells of any magic square of reasonable size with a series of numbers as fast as I could write them, disposed in such a manner that the sums of every row, horizontal, perpendicular, or diagonal, should be equal; but not being satisfied with these, which I looked on as common and easy things, I had imposed on myself more difficult tasks, and succeeded in making other magic squares with a varietal of properties, and much more curious. He then showed me several in the same book of an uncommon and more curious kind, but as I thought none of them equal to some I remembered to have made, he desired me to let him see them; and accordingly the next time I visited him, I carried him a square of 8 which I found among my old papers, and which I will now give you with an account of its properties Figure 7-9. The properties are:

1. That every straight rov., horizontal or vertical, of 8 numbers added together, make 260, and half of each row, half of 260.

2. That the bent row of 8 numbers ascending and descending diagonally, viz., from 16 ascending to 10 and from 23 descending to 17 and every one of its parallel bent rows of 8 numbers make 260, etc., etc. And lastly the four corner numbers with the four middle numbers make 260. So this magical square seems perfect in its kind, but these are not all its properties, there are five other curious ones which at some time I will explain to you.

This Magic Square by Franklin is given here as Figure 7.

Brother Paul Carus has investigated the means by which Brother Franklin may have worked out his system of Magic Squares but it is really somewhat a question even now with all the later studies that have been given to the subject whether any one has perfected an ability capable of preparing a means of producing these designs with the facility that Brother Franklin mentions. Those who wish to examine the subject further will find it discussed in the Encyclopedia Britannica, in Magic Squares and Cubes, by W. S. Andrews, containing chapters by Brother Paul Carus and others, and in a Scrap Book of Elementary Mathematics by William F. White, as well as in Mathematical Recreations by Professor W. W. R. Ball.

This subject is somewhat allied as a mathematical curiosity with two other figures which come down to us through the Middle Ages, the Magic Pentagon or the Five Pointed Star, as a symbol of the School of Pythagoras, as in Figure 8, and the Magic Hexagram, Figure 9, commonly called the Shield of David and frequently used on synagogues, as Brother Carus points out. these two designs, Figures 8 and 9, have a peculiarity that is not perhaps noticed at the first glance- They can be drawn by one stroke of the pencil, beginning at any point. If they be compared in this respect with any square having two diagonals the difference can soon be tested as the square is not capable of being drawn as a complete figure, including the two diagonals, with one stroke. In order to better illustrate the operation of drawing Figures 8 and 9, numerals have been attached to illustrate the movement of the pencil in tracing them out. Of course, they can be begun at any place in any one of the lines composing the figures.



A title applied in the Middle Ages to one who presided over the building of edifices, and means Master of the Masons.


See Master of the Hospital



Du Cange (Glossiarum) defines this as Master Meson; and he cites the statutes of Marseilles as saying: "Tres Magistros Lapidis bonos et legates, " that is, three good and lawful Master Masons "shall be selected to decide on all questions about water in the city."



Latin, meaning Master of the Chivalry or Knight of Christ which see under this title.



A name given in the Middle Ages to a Mason; literally, a Master of Stones, from the French pierre, a stone.


See Master of the Temple


SeeComacxneMasters; bo Como



Istin, meaning The Truth is mighty, and will prevail. The motto of the Red Cross Degree, or Knights of the Red Cross.



A Marshal of France, nominated by Napoleon III, Emperor, as Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France, in 1862, and, though not a member of the great Fraternity at the time, was initiated and installed Grand Master, February 8, 1862, and so remained until May 29, 1865.



The title applied in modern usage to the Order of Knights Templar. Well does John Ruskin say (sesame and Lilies, 1865, page 65), "Mighty of heart, mighty of mind -magnanimous to be this, is indeed to be great in life." The word is compounded from the Latin magnus, great, and animus, soul, signifying Great of Soul.


This is a form of Freemasonry which, although long ago practiced by Cagliostro as a species of charlatanism, in the opinion of Brother Mackey was first introduced to notice as a philosophic system by Ragon in his treatise on Uafonnerie Occulte.

"The occult sciences," says this writer, "reveal to man the mysteries of his nature, the secrets of his organization, the means of attaining perfection and happiness; and, in short, the decree of his destiny. Their study was that of the high initiations of the Egyptians; it is time that they should become the study of modern Masons." And again he Id "A Masonic society which should establish in its bosom a magnetic academy would soon find the reward of its labors in the good that it would do, and the happiness which it would create." There can be no doubt that the Masonic investigator has a right to search everywhere for the means of moral, intellectual, and religious perfection; and if he can find anything in magnetism which would aid him in the search, it is his duty and wisest policy to avail himself of it. But, nevertheless, Magnetic Freemasonry, as a special regime, or Rite, will hardly ever be adopted by the Fraternity.



This word has at least two important references.
1. The Fourteenth Degree, and the first of the Greater Mysteries of the system of Illuminism.

2. The Ninth and last Degree of the German Rosicrucians. It is the singular of Magi, which see.



The Hebrew interrogative pronoun me, signifying What? It is a component part of a significant word in Freemasonry. The combination Mahhah, literally "Thatt the," is equivalent, according to the Hebrew method of ellipsis, to the question, "What! is this the ?"



A Sanskrit poem, recounting the rivalries of the descendants of King Bharata, and occupying a place among the Masters of the Hindus. It contains many thousand verses, written at various unknown periods since the completion of the Ramayana.



Meaning the great god. one of the common names by which the Hindu god Siva is called. His consort, Durga, is similarly styled MahAdevi, the great goddess. In Buddhistic history, Mahadeva, who lived two hundred years after the death of the Buddha Sakyamuni, or 343, is a renowned teacher who caused a schism in the Buddhistic Church.




The renowned disciple of Buddha Sakyamuni, who arranged the metaphysical portion of the sacred writings called Abhidharma.



Hebrew. Four Hebrew words which the prophet Isaiah was ordered to write upon a tablet, and which were afterward to be the name of his son. They signify, "make haste to the prey, fall upon the spoil," and were prognostic of the sudden attack of the Assyrians. They may be said, in their Masonic use, to be symbolic of the readiness for action which should distinguish a warrior, and are therefore of significant service in the system of Masonic Templarism.



A celebrated Rosicrucian and interpreter and defender of Rosicrueianism. He was born at Resinsburg, in Holstein, in 1568, and died at Magdeburg in 1620, Spence says 1622 (EncycZopsedia of Occultism, 1920) though the former figure is usually given. He is said to have been the first to introduce Rosicrucianism into England. He wrote many works on the system, among which the most noted are Atlanta Fugiens, 1618; Septimana Philosophica, 1620; De Fraternitate Rosoe Crucis, 1618; and Lusus Serius, 1617. Some of his contemporaries having denied the existence of the Rosicrucian Order, Maier in his writings has refuted the calumny and warmly defended the Society, of which, in one of his works, he speaks thus: "Like the Pythagoreans and Fgyptians, the Rosicrucians exact vows of silence and secrecy. Ignorant men have treated the whole as a fiction; but this has arisen from the five years probation to which they subject even well-qualified novices before they se admitted to the higher mysteries, and within this period they are to learn how to govern their own tongues."



Jeremy Gridley, Provincial Grand Master for Massachusetts, granted authority to Alexander Ross to constitute the first Lodge in Maine at Falmouth, afterwards Portland. Ross died November 24, 1768, and a petition signed by eleven Brethren was sent to John Rowe who succeeded Gridley. On March 30, 1769, he granted a new Charter, deputizing William Tyng to act as Master. In 1772 this Lodge resolved, as there was some dispute about the matter, to use the Ancient and Modern Rituals on alternate evenings. Maine was admitted into the Union of the States in 1819, at which time there were thirty-one Lodges in the new State. Twenty-nine of these at a meeting called by Simon Greenleaf agreed to constitute a Grand Lodge. On June 1, 1820, twenty-four Bodies were represented and chose their Grand Officers.. William King, Governor of the State, was elected the first Grand Master. The disappearance of Morgan in 1826 and the consequent anti-Masonic feeling caused a great number of the Lodges in Maine as in New York and Pennsylvania to cease work for a considerable period. In 1870, however, the Craft had grown so strong again that there were one hundred and fifty-four Lodges at work in the State.

The Grand Chapter of Massachusetts granted a Warrant to organize a Chapter in Portland, February 13, 1805, as Mount Vernon Chapter. Montgomery, New Jerusalem, Jerusalem and Mount Vernon Chapters met in convention at Portland on February 7, 1821, and adopted provisionally the Constitution of the Grand Chapter of Massachusetts. Companion Charles Fox of Portland was elected Grand High Priest and Companion James Lorin Child of Augusta, Grand Secretary. The Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Maine, thus constituted, was incorporated by special Act of the State Legislature, approved by the Governor, January 22, 1822.

In the early days of Select Freemasonry in Maine a Council was organized, and worked under the General Grand Chapter. Later, when the General Grand Chapter gave up control of the Degrees, the Brethren organized three Councils King Solomon, Mount Vernon and Jerusalem all chartered by the Grand Council of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Three representatives of each of these Councils with twenty other Companions met in Convention at Portland, May 3, 1855, to organize a Grand Council. Companion Robert P. Dunlap of Brunswick was chosen chairman and elected Grand Puissant.

The date of Maine Commandery, No. 1, at Gardiner, is recorded in the Proceedings of 1856 as March 17, 1827, but in the Proceedings of 1916 it appears as May 14, 1821. Maine, No. 1; Portland, No. 2, and Saint John's, No. 3, met in Convention and constituted on May 5, 1852, the Grand Commandery of Maine.

Portland saw the first introduction of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite to the State. On May 14, 1857, were chartered the Yates Lodge of Perfection, the Portland Council of Princes of Jerusalem. and the Dunlap Chapter of Rose Croix. The Maine Consistory, Portland was chartered May 22, 1862.



Initiated into Freeze masonry at Warrington, 1646, with his brother-inlaw, Elias Ashmole.



Born at Chamberg, France, April 1, 1754; died February 2Gr 1821. Diplomat and man of letters. A Roman Catholic of orthodox extremes against the Revolution in France and supporting the infallibility of the Pope. He is mentioned in Albert Lantoine's Histoire de la FrancMagonnerie, 1925, as a Freemason (see page 179 and other references in above work; also Joseph de Maistre, franc-mason, Paul Vulliaud, Paris, 1926).



The French word meaning Master and freely used as a part of many names of Degrees (see Master) .


The name of the Third Degree in French



French, meaning Ading Mistress. The title of the presiding officer of a female Lodge in the Egyptian Rite of Cagliostro.



The Third Degree of the French Rite of Adoption. We have no equivalent word in English. It signifies a Mistress in Freemasonry.



This expressive word wants an equivalent in English, Preeman's Right and Mastership come nearest. The French use La Maîtrise to designate the Third or Master's Degree.


The Sixth Degree of the German Rose Croix.



The Latin term is Illuminatus Major. The Eighth Degree of the Illuminati of Bavaria.



Elections in Masonic Bodies are as a general rule decided by a majority of the votes cast A plurality vote is not admissible unless it has been provided for by a special by-law.



"To make Masons" is a very ancient term; used in the oldest Charges extant as synonymous with the verb to initiate or receive into the Fraternity. It is found in the Larzsdowree Manuscript, whose date is the latter half of the sixteenth century. "These be all the charges . . . read at the making of a Mason."



Hebrew word, meaning an angel. A significant word in the advanced Degrees. Lenning gives it as Melek or Melech.



The last of the prophets. A significant word in the Thirty-second Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.



The most southern part of continental Asia. The Grand Lodges of England and Scotland have each chartered several Lodges in this district, and Freemasonry flourishes in Singapore, Selangor, Penang, Ipoh, Malacca, Seremban, Taiping Perak, and Teluk Anson. The first Lodge ever established here was the Neptune Lodge at Penang, warranted September 6, 1809, but, after becoming dormant and then reviving, it finally became extinct in 1862.


See Manuscripts, Aprocriphal



King of Scotland. Reported to have chartered the Lodge of Saint John of Glasgow in the year 1051.



One of the Working-Tools of a Mark Master, having the same emblematic meaning as the Common Gavel in the Entered Apprentice's Degree.

It teaches us to correct the irregularities of temper, and, like enlightened reason, to curb the aspirations of unbridled ambition, to depress the malignity of envy, and to moderate the ebullition of anger. It removes from the mind all the excrescences of nce, and fits it, as a well-wrought stone, for that exalted station in the great temple of nature to which, as an emanation of the Deity, it is entitled.

The Mallet or Setting Maul is also an emblem of the Third Degree, and is said to have been the implement by which the stones were set up at the Temple. It is often improperly confounded with the Common Gavel.

The French Freemasons, to whom the word Gavel is unknown, uniformly use maillet, or mallet, in its stead, and confound its sym bolic use, as the implelnent of the presiding officer, with the mallet of the English and American Mark Master.



Anciently known as Melita (see Acts xxviii, 1). A small island in the Mediterranean Sea, which, although occupying only about 91 square miles, possessed for several centuries a greater degree of celebrity than was attached to any other territory of so little extent. It is now a possession of the British Government, but was occupied from 1530 to 1798 by the Knights Hospitalers, then called Knights of Malta, upon whom it was conferred in the former year by Charles V.
The Saint John's Lodge of Secrecy and Harmony is claimed to "have assembled as a Lodge since 30 June 1788" (see Lane's Masonic Record, page 220).

On July 2, 1788, Secrecy and Harmony Lodge was reopened and on March 30 the following year it was warranted as No. 539 by the Grand Lodge of England. In 1815 Brother Waller R. Wright was appointed Provincial Grand Master.

Gibraltar was at one time part of the Malta Masonic territory and in 1914 there were five English Lodges located there.

Tunis became part of the Malta District in 1869.


See Cross, Maltese


See Knight of Malta


See Cross, Maltese



Among the several significance of word are the following:

1. Man has been called the Microcosm, or little world, in contradistinction to the Macrocosm, or great world, by some fanciful writers on metaphysics, by reason of a supposed correspondence between the different parts and qualities of his nature and those of the universe. But in Masonic symbolism the idea is borrowed from Christ and the Apostles, who repeatedly refer to man as a symbol of the Temple.

2. A man was inscribed on the standard of the Tribe of Reuben, and is borne on the Royal Arch banners as appropriate to the Grand Master of the Second Veil. It was also the charge in the third quarter of the arms of the Atholl Grand Lodge.

3. Der Mann, or the 7nan, is the Second Degree of the German Union.
4. To be "a man, not a woman," is one of the qualifications for Masonic initiation. It is the first, and therefore the most important, qualification mentioned in the ritual.



The symbol representing perfected creation, which is very common on ancient Hindu monuments in China," embraces so many of the Masonic emblems, and so directly refers to several of the elementary principles taught in philosophic Freemasonry, that it is here introduced with its explanations. Forlong, in his Faiths of Man, gives this arrangement:

A—is the Earth, or foundation on which all build.
Wa—Water, as in an egg, or as condensed fire and ether.
Ra—Flie, or the elements in motion.
Ka—Air, or wind—Juno. or Io ni; a condensed element.
Cha—Ether, or Heaven, the cosmical Fermer

The accompanying illustration sholvs a design that is frequently found in India. As these symbols are readily interpretable by those conversant with Masonic hieroglyph it may be seen that the elements, in their ascending scale, show the perfected creation. Forlong remarks that:

As it was difficult to show the All-pervading Ether Egypt for this purpose. surrounded her figures with a powder of stars instead of flame, which on Indra's garments were Yonis. This figure gradually developed, becoming in time a very concrete man, standing on two legs instead of a square base—the horns of the crescent Air, being outstretched. formed the arms, and the refulgent Flame. the head, which, with the Greeks and Romans, represented the Sun, or Fire, and gives Light to all. To this being, it was claimed, there were given seven senses; and thus, perfect and erect, stood Man, rising above the animal state.

A discussion of the subject is to be found in Chinese Thought, by Brother Paul Carus, a treatise of decided interest.

The seven senses were seeing, hearing, tasting, feeling, smelling, understanding, and speech (see Ecclesiasticus, in the Apocrypha xvii, 1-5):

"The Lord created man," and "They received the use of the five operations of the Lord; and in the sixth place he imparted (to) them understanding, and in the seventh speech, an interpreter of the cogitations thereof."

The words "seven senses" also occur in the poem of Taliesin, called Y Bid Mavrr, or the Macrocosm (British Magazine, volume xxi, page 30). See further the Mysterium Magnum of Jacob Boehmen, which teaches "how the soul of man, or his inward holy body," was compounded of the seven properties under the influence of the seven planets:

I will adore my Father,
My God, my Supporter,
Who placed, throughout my head,
The soul of my reason,
And made for my perception
My seren faculties
Of Fire, and Earth, and Water, and Air
And mist, and flowers, And the southerly wind,
As it were seven senses of reason
For my Father to impel me:
With the first I shall be animated
With the second I shall touch,
With the third I shall cry out,
With the fourth I shall taste
With the fifth I shall see,
With the sixth I shall hear,
With the seventh I shall smell.



From the Latin, meaning That which is commanded. The Benedictine editors of Du Cange define mandatum as "Breve aut Edictum Regium," that is, a Royal Brief or Edict, and mandamentum as "literae quibus magistratus aliquid mandat," meaning, letters in which a magistrate commands anything. Hence the orders and decrees of a Grand Master or a Grand Lodge are called Mandates, and implicit obedience to them is a Masonic obligation. There is an appeal, yet not a suspensive one, from the Mandate of a Grand Master to the Grand Lodge, but there is none from the latter.



The branches of this tree are a prominent feature in all Eastern religious ceremonies. The mango is the apple-tree of India, with which man, in Indian tale, tempted Eve.



A distinguished member of the Grand Orient of France. He founded in 1776, at Rennes, the Rite of Sublimes Elus de la Vérité, or Sublime Elects of Truth, and at Paris the androgynous, both sexes, society of Dames of Mount Thabor. He also created the Masonic Literary Society of Free Thinkers, which existed for three years. He delivered lectures which were subsequently published under the title of Cours de Philosophic Maçonnique, in 500 pages, quarto. He also delivered a great many lectures and discourses before various Lodges, several of which were published. He died, after a long and severe illness, February 17, 1829.



Also termed Gnostics. A sect taking its rise in the middle of the third century, whose belief was in two eternal principles of good and evil. They derived their name from Manes, a philosopher of Persian birth, sometimes called Manichaeus. Of the two principles, Ormudz was the author of the good, while Ahriman was the master spirit of evil. The two classes of neophytes were, the true, siddi kun; the listeners, Samma un.



A secret Italian Society, founded, according to Thory (Acta Latomorum i, 325), and Clavel (Histoire Pittoresque, page 407) in the eighteenth century, at which the doctrines of Manes were set forth in several grades.



Northern Light Lodge was granted a Dispensation in 1864 by Brother A. T. Pierson, then Grand Master in Minnesota. The new Lodge was organized at Fort Garry (Winnipeg) with Brother Dr. John Schultz as Worshipful Master but it ceased to exist after a few years' work. When Red River Settlement, as it was then called, became the Province of Manitoba the Grand Lodge of Canada assumed Jurisdiction and chartered Prince Rupert's Lodge, Winnipeg, in December, 1870. Prince Rupert, Lisgar, and Ancient Landmark Lodges held a Convention on May 12, 1875, and formed the Grand Lodge of Manitoba with the Rev. Dr. XV. C. Clarke as Grand Master. Until the Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were established and created Grand Lodges of their own the Grand Lodge of Manitoba controlled the Craft in the Northwest Territories and the Yukon Territory as well as in Manitoba



German, meaning the Man, the second grade of the Deutsche Union.



Among the articles laid up in the Ark of the Covenant by Aaron was a Pot of Manna. In the Substitute Ark, commemorated in the Royal Arch Degree, there was, of course, a representation of it. Manna has been considered as a symbol of life; not the transitory, but the enduring one of a future world. Hence the Pot of Manna, Aaron's Rod that budded anew, and the Book of the Law, which teaches Divine Truth, all found together, are appropriately considered as the symbols of that eternal life which it is the design of the Royal Arch Degree to teach.



Dr. Thomas Manningham was a physician, of London, of much repute in the eighteenth century. He took an active interest in the concerns of Freemasonry, being Deputy Grand Master of England, 1752-6. According to Oliver ( Revelations of a Square, page 86), he was the author of the prayer now so well known to the Fraternity, which was presented by him to the Grand Lodge, and adopted as a form of prayer to be used at the initiation of a candidate. Before that period, no prayer was used on such occasions, and the one composed by Manningham, Oliver says with the assistance of Anderson, which is doubtful, as Anderson died in 1739, is here given as a document of the time. It will be seen that in our day it has been somewhat modified, Preston making the first change; and that, originally used as one prayer, it has since been divided, in this country at least, into two, the first part being used as a prayer at the opening of a Lodge, and the latter at the initiation of a candidate.

Most Holy and Glorious Lord God, thou Architect of Heaven and Earth, who art the Giver of all good Gifts and Graces- and hath promised that where two or three are gathered together in thy Name, thou wilt be in the Midst of them- in thy Name we assemble and meet together, most humbly beseeching thee to bless us in all our Undertakings: to give us thy Holy Spirit to enlighten our minds with Wisdom and Understanding- that we may know and serve thee aright, that all our Doinhs may tend to thy Glory and the Salvation of our Souls. And we beseech thee, O Lord God, to bless this our present Undertaking, and to grant that this our Brother may dedicate his Life to thy Service, and be a true and faithful Brother amongst us. undue him with Divine Wisdom, that he may, with the secrets of Masonry, be able to unfold the Mysteries of Godliness and Christianity This we humbly beg, in the Name and for the Sake of Jesus Christ our Lord and Savior, Amen.

Doctor Manningham rendered other important services to Freemasonry by his advocacy of healthy reforms and his determined opposition to the schismatic efforts of the Ancient Freemasons. He died February 3, 1794. The third edition of the Boot; of Constitutions (1756, page 258) speaks of him in exalted terms as "a diligent and active officer." Two interesting letters written by Doctor Manningham are given at length in Gould's Concise History of Freemasonry (pages 328-34); one dated December 3, 1756, and addressed to what was then the Provincial Grand Lodge of Holland, refusing leave for the holding of Scotch Lodges and pointing out that Freemasonry is the same in all parts of the world; and another dated July 1, 1757, also dealing with the so-called Scotch Freemasonry, and explaining that its orders of Knighthood were unknown in England, where the only Orders known are those of Masters, Fellow Crafts, and Apprentices.

We may add to the above article, written by Brother Hawkins, retarding the prayer, a further comment upon its age with the addition of the word new preceding Brother it is found in the edition of the Constitutions printed at Dublin, 1730, and reprinted by Brother Richard Spencer, 1870. This seems to antedate the activity of Doctor Manningham.



A dress placed over all the others. It is of very ancient date, being a part of the costume of the Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans. Among the Anglo-Saxons it was the decisive mark of military rank, being confined to the cavalry. In the medieval ages, and on the institution of chivalry, the long, trailing mantle was especially reserved as one of the insignia of knighthood, and was worn by the knight as the most August and noble decoration that he could have, when he was not dressed in his armor.

The general color of the mantle, in imitation of that of the Roman soldiers, was scarlet, which was lined with ermine or other precious furs. But some of the Orders wore mantles of other colors. Thus the Knights Templar were clothed with a white mantle having a red cross on the breast, and the Knights Hospitaler a black mantle with a white cross. The mantle is still worn in England and other countries of Europe as a mark of rank on state occasions by peers, and by some magistrates as a token of official rank.



The mantle worn by a knight was called the Mantle of donor. This mantle was presented to a knight whenever he was made by the king.



By reference to the Book of the Dead, it will be found that this word covers an ideal space corresponding to the word West, in whose bosom is received the setting sun (see Truth).


Relating to the hand, from the Latin manus, a hand. see the Masonic use of the word in the next two articles.



Freemasons are, in a peculiar manner, reminded, by the hand, of the necessity of a prudent and careful observance of all their pledges and duties, and hence this organ suggests certain symbolic instructions in relation to the virtue of prudence.



In the early English lectures this term is applied to what is now called the Manual Point of Entrance.



Anderson tells us, in the second edition of his Constitutions, that in the year 1717 Grand Master Payne "desired any Brethren to bring to the Grand Lodge any old writings and records concerning Masons and Masonry, in order to show the usages of ancient times, and several old copies of the Gothic Constitutions were produced and collated" (constitutions 1738, page 110); but in consequence of a jealous supposition that it would be wrong to commit anything to print which related to Freemasonry, an act of Masonic vandalism was perpetrated.

For Anderson further informs us (page 111D, that in 1720, "at some private Lodges, several very valuable manuscripts, for they had nothing yet in print, concerning the Fraternity, their Lodges, Regulations, Charges, Secrets, and Usa yes, particularly one written by Mr. Nicholas Stone, the Warden of Inigo Jones, were too hastily burnt by some scrupulous Brothers, that those papers might not fall into strange hands." The recent labors of Masonic scholars in England, among whom the late William James Hughan deserves especial notice, have succeeded in rescuing many of the old Masonic manuscripts from oblivion, and we are now actually in possession of more of these heretofore unpublished treasures of the Craft than were probably accessible to Anderson and his contemporaries (see Records, Old, and Manuscripts, Old).



There are certain documents that at various times have been accepted as genuine, but which are now rejected, and considered to be fabrications, by most, if not by all, critical Masonic writers. The question of their authenticity has been thoroughly gone into by Brother R. F. Gould History of Freemasonry, chapter xi and he places them all "within the category of Apocryphal Manuscripts."

The first is the Leland-Locke Manuscript (see Leland Manuscript) .

The second is the Steinmetz Catechism, given by Krause as one of the three oldest documents belonging to the Craft, but of which Gould says, "there appears to me nothing in the preceding 'examination' (or catechism) that is capable of sustaining the claims to antiquity which have been advanced on its behalf."

The third is the Malcolm Canmore Charter, which came to light in 1806, consequent upon the "claim of the Glasgow Freemen Operatinc Saint John's Lodge to take precedence of the other Lodges in the Masonic procession, at the Saving of the foundation-stone of Nelson's Monument on Glasgow Green, although at that time it was an independent organization According to the Charter, the Glasgow Saint John's Lodge was given priority over all the other Lodges in Scotland by Malcolm III, King of Scots, in 1051. The controversy as to the document was lively, but finally it was pronounced to be a manufactured parchment, and the Grand Lodge of Scotland declined to recognize it of value.

The fourth is that of Krause, known as Prince Edwin's Constitution of 926. Upon this unquestioned reliance had for decades been placed, then it came to be doubted, and is now little credited by inquiring Freemasons. Brother Gould closes with the remark:

The original document, as commonly happens in forgeries of this description, is missing; and how, under all the circumstances of the case Krause could have constituted himself the champion of its authenticity, it is difficult to conjecture. Possibly, however, the explanation may be, that in impostures of this character, credulity, on the one part, is a strong temptation to deceit on the other, especially to deceit of which no personal injury is the consequence and which flatters the student of old documents with his own ingenuity.

These remarks, says Brother Hawkins, who prepared this article, are specially quoted as relating to almost all apocryphal documents.

The fifth is the Charter of Cologne, a document in cipher. bearing the date June 24, 1535, as to which see Cologne, Charter of.

The sixth is the Larmenius Charter, or The Charter of Transmission, upon which rests the claims of the French Order of the Temple to being the lineal successors of the historic Knights Templar, for which see Temple, Order of the.



The following is a list, arranged as far as possible in sequence of age, of the old Masonic Manuscripts, now usually known as the Old Charges. They generally consist of three parts— first, an opening prayer or invocation; secants, the legendary history of the Craft; third, the peculiar statutes and duties, the regulations and observances, incumbent on Freemasons. There is no doubt that they were read to candidates on their initiation, and probably each Lodge had a copy which was used for this purpose. The late Brother W. J. Hughan made a special study of these old Manuscripts, and was instrumental in discovering a great many of them; and his book The Old Charges of British Freemasons published in 1895, has long been a standard work on the subject. No.......Name.................................Date............Owner.................When and Where Published.

1.Regius (also Halliwell) about 1390. British Museum By James O. Halliwell in 1840 and 1844 by H. J Whymper in 1889; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1889.
2.Cooke about 1450 British Museum By Matthew Cooke in 1861-
by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1890
3.Dowland. 1550 Unknown By James Dowland, in Gentleman's Magazine, May, 1815, W. J. Hughan, Old Charges, 1872.
4.Grand Lodge No. 11583.Grand Lodge of England By W. J. Hughan, in Old Charges,1872; by H. Sadler, in Masonic Facts and Fictions 1887; in History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders, 1891; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1892.
5.Lansdowne./.about 1600 British Museum In Freemasons' Quarterly Retried 1848- in Freemasons' Magazine, l558; in Hughan's Old Charges, 1872- by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1890.
6.York, No. 1about 1600 York Lodge, No. 236 In Hughan's Old Charges, 1872; in Masonic Magazine, 1873; in Ancient York Masonic Rolls 1894
7.Wood1610 Prov. G. Lodge of Worcester In Masonic Magazine, 1881- by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1895
8.John T. Thorp 1629 J. T. Thorp, Leicester In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume ix, 1898, in Lodge of Research Transactions, 1898-99
9.Sloane,3848 1646 British Museurn In Hughan's Old Charges 1872- in Masonic Magazine, 1873; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1891
10.Sloane, 3323 1659 British Museum In Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Reprints, 1871; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1891.
11.Sloane, 3329 1640-1700 British Museum Voice of Masonry, 1872.
12.Grand Lodge, No. 2 about 1650 Grand Lodge of England By the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1892.
13. Harleian,1942 about 1650 British Museum. In Freemasons' Quarterly Review, 1836, in Hughan's Old Charges, 1872; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1890.
14. G. W. Bain. about 1650 R- Wilson, Leeds. In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume xx, 1907.
15. Harleian, 2054 about 1660 British Museum In Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Reprints, 1871; in Masonic Magazine, 1873; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in l591.
16.Phillipps, No. 1 about l777 Rev. J. E. A. Fenwick,Cheltenham. By the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1894.
17.Phillipps, No. 2 about 1677 Rev- J- E- A. Fenwick. In Masonic Magazine, 1876, in Archaelogical Library, 1878; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in l594.
18.Lochmore. 1650-1700 Prov G- Lodge of Worcester. In Masonic Magazine, 1882.
19. Buchanan. 1650-1700. Grand Lodge of England. ln Gould's History of Freemasonry, by Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1892.
20.Kilwinning. about 1665. Mother Kilwinning Lodge Scotland . In Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Reprints, 1871; in Lyon's History of the Lodge of Edinburch, 1873.
21.Ancient Stirling 1650-1700 Ancient Stirling Lodge, Scotland By Hughan in 1893.
22.Taylor. about 1650 Prov. G. Lodge of West Yorkshire. In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume xxi, 1908
23. Atcheson Haven. 1666. G. Lodge of Scotland. In Lyon's History of the Lodge of Edinburph. 1873
24. Aberdeen. 1670. Aberdeen Lodge, No. 1 tris. In Foice of Masonry, Chieago, U. S. A., 1874- in Freemason, 1895.
25. Melrose, No. 2. 1674. Melrose Saint John Lodge, No. 1 bis, Scotland. In Masonic Magazine, 1880- in Vernon's History of FreeMasonry in Roxburgh etc., 1893.
26. Henery Heade. 1675. Inner Temple Library, London . In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume xxi
27. Stanley. 1677. West Yorkshire Masonnic Librari. In West Yorkshire Masonic Reproductions, Freemason's Chronicle , 1893
28. Carson. 1677. E. T. Carson, Cincinnati . In Masonic Review (Cincinnati), 1890: in Freemasons' Chronicle, 1890.
29. Antiquity. 1686 Lodge of Antiquity, No. 2, London In Hughan's Old Charges, 1872.
30. Col. Clerke. 1686. Grand Lodge of England. In Freemason, 1888; in Conder's Hole Crafte, etc., 1894.
31. William Watson. 1687. West Yorkshire Masonic Library In Freemason, 1891; in West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1891; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1895.
32. T. W. Tew. about 1680. West Yorkshire Masonic Library In Christmas Freemason, 1888; in West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1889 and 1892
33. Inigo Jones about 1680. Worcestershire Masonic Library In Masonic Magazine, 1881; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1895.
34. Dumfries, No. 1 1675-1700 Dumfries Kilwinning Lodge No. 53, Scotland. In Smith's History of the Old Lodae of Dumfries, 1892
35. Dumfries, No. 2 1675-1700 Dumfries Kilwinning Lodge No. 53, Scotland . In Christmas Freemason, 1892; by Hughan 1892
36. Beaumont. 1675-1700 Prov. G. Lodge, West Yorkshire. In Freemasons 1894.
37. Dumfries, No. 3 1675-1700. Prov. G. Lodge, West Yorkshire. In Smith's History of the Old Lodge of Dumfries 1892
38. Hope. 1675-1700. Lodge of Hope, No. 302 Bradford, Yorkshire. In Hughan's Old Charges. 1872: in West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1892
39.T. W. Embleton. 1675-1700 West Yorkshire Masonic Library . In Christmas Freemason, 1889 - in West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1893.
40. York, No. 5 about 1670 . York Lodge, No. 236 . In Masonic Magazine, 1881; in Ancient York Masonic Constitutions, 1894
41. York, No. 6 1675-1700 York Lodge, No. 236. In Masonic Magazine, 1880- in Ancient York Masonic Constitutions, 1894
42. Colne, No. 1 1675-1700 Royal Lancashire Lodge, No.116, Colne, Lancashire. In Christmas Freemason, 1887.
43. Clapham about 1700. West Yorkshire Masonic Library. In Freemason, 1890; in West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1892.
44. Hughan. 1675-1700 West Yorkshire Masonic Library. In West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1892 in Freemason, 1892 and 1911
45. Dauntesey. about 1690. R. Dauntesey, Manehester. In Keystones Philadelphia, 1886.
46. Harris, No. 1. about 1690. Bedford Lodge, No. 157 London . In Freemasons' Chronicle, 1882.
47. David Ramsey. about 1690. The Library, Hamburg. In Freemason, 1906.
48. Langdale. about 1690. G. W. Bain. Sunderland. In Freemason, 1895
49. H. F. Beaumont. 1690 . West Yorkshire Masonic Library . In Freemason, 1894; in West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1901.
50. Waistell 1693. West Yorkshire Masonic Library. In West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1892.
51. York, No. 4. 1693 York Lodge, No. 236 In Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Reprints, 1871; in Ancient York Masonic Rolls, 1894.
52. Thomas Foxeroft. 1699. Grand Lodge of England In Freemason, 1900
53. Newcastle College Roll. about 1700. Neweastle College of Rosicrucians. By F. F. Schnitger in 1894
54. John Strachan. about 1700. Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No.2076. In the Transactions of the Lodge of Research 1899-1900
55. Alnwick. 1701. Formerly Edwin T. Turnbull Alnwick, now Newcastle College ./. In Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Resprints, 1871, and Old Charges, 1872, by the Newcastle College of Rosicrucians in 1895
56. York, No. 2 . 1704 . York Lodge, No. 238 . In Hughan's Masonic Stsetches and Reprints, 1871; in Ancient York Masonic Rolls, 1894.
57. Scar borough . 1705. Grand Lodge of Canada .In Philadelphia Mirror arusKeystoree, 1860; in Canadian Masonic Record, 1874; in Masonic Magazine, 1879- by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1894; in Ancient York Masonic Rolls, 1894
58. Wallace Heaton .1695-1715. Grand Lodge of England. In Masonic Record, London, July, 1927.
59. Colne, No. 2 1700-25 Royal Lancashire Lodge, No.116, Colne, Lancashire. Has not been reproduced
60. Papworth about 1720 W. Papworth, London In Hughan's Old Charoes, 1872
61. Macnab 1722 West Yorkshire Masonic Library. In West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1896.
62. Haddon. 1723 J. S. Haddon, wellington. ln siughan's Old Charges, 1895.
63. Phillipps, No. 3.. 1700-25. Rev. J. E. A. Fenwick, Cheltenham By the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1894
64. Dumfries, No. 4 1700-25 Dumfries Kilwinning Lodge,No. 53, Scotland. In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume v, 1893.
65. Cama . 1700-25 . Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No.2076, London. By the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1891.
66. Songhurst about 1725. Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No.207G, London. Has not been reproduced.
67. Spencer 1726. E. T. Carson, Cincinnati.. In Spencer's Old Constitutions, 1871.
68. Tho. Carmick . 1727. P. F. Smith, Pennsylvania. In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume xxii,1909.
69. Woodford. 1728. Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No.2076, London . A copy of the Cooke Manuscript.
70. Supreme Council.. 1728. Supreme Council, 33 , London. A copy of the Cooke Manuscript
71. Gateshead . about 1730. Lodge of Industry, No. 48,Gateshead, Durham./. In Masonic Magazine, 1575
72. Rawlinson .1725-50 . Bodleian Librara, Oxford..ln Freemasons' Monthly Magazine, 1855- in Masonic Magazine, 1876- in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume xi, 1898
73. Probite. about 1736.Probity Lodge, No. 61, Halifax, Yorkshire. In Freemason, 1886, in West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1892.
74. Levander-York . about1740. F. W. Levander, London. In Ars QuaJuor CororLatorum, volume xviii, 1905.
75. Thistle Lodge . 1756..Thistle Lodge, No. 62, Dumfries, Scotland . Has not been reproduced.
76. Melrose, No. 3. 1762. Melrose Saint John, No.1 his, Scotland . Has not been reproduced.
77. Crane, No. 1. 1781. Cestrian Lodge, No. 425,Chester. In Freemason, 1884.
78. Crane, No. 2. 1770-1800. Cestrian Lodge, No. 425,Chester. In Freemason, 1884.
79. Harris No. 2. about 1781. British Museum. By the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1892.
80. Tunnai. about 1828 . Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No.2076, London. Has not been reproduced.
81. Wren . 1852 . Unknown.. In Masonic Magazine, 1879.

There are a number of manuscripts not included in the above list but which will be found under their respective titles elsewhere in this Encyclopedia. Some of these manuscripts are known only by copies or by references of one kind or another in various documents and publications. Of these we may here enumerate the Wilson, Nos. 1 and 9, of either the sixteenth or seventeenth century; the Dermott and Morgan of the sixteenth century; the York, No. 3, Doctor Plot, Supreme Council, No. 1, Hargrove, Masons Company, Roberts, Briscoe, Baker, Colc, Dodd, of probably the seventeenth century, and the Batty Langley and the Krause of the eighteenth.



The second month of the Jewish civil year. It begins w ith the new moon in November, and corresponds, therefore, to a part of that month and of December.



more frequently known as De Negre, from his dark complexion, was the founder and first Grand Master and Grand Hierophant of the Rite of Memphis, brought by Sam'l Honis, a native of Cairo, from Egypt, in 1814, who with Baron Dumas and the Marquis de la Rogne, founded a Lodge of the Rite at Montauban. France, on April 30, 1815, which was closed March 7, 1816. In a work entitled The Sanctuary of Memphis, by Jacques Etienne Marconis, the author presumptively the son of G. M. Marconis who styles himself the founder of the Rite of Memphis, thus briefly gives an account of its origin: "The Rite of Memphis, or Oriental Rite, was introduced into Europe by Ormus, a seraphic priest of Alexandria and Egyptian sage, who had been converted by Saint Mark, and reformed the doctrines of the Egyptians in accordance with the principles of Christianity. The disciples of Ormus continued until 1118 to be the sole guardians of ancient Egyptian wisdom, as purified by Christianity and Solomonian science. This science they communicated to the Templars. They were then known by the title of Knights of Palestine, or Brethren Rose Croix of the East. In them the Rite of Memphis recognizes its immediate founders."

The above, coming from the Grand Hierophant and founder, should satisfy the most scrupulou6 as to the conversion of Ormus by Saint Mark, and his then introducing the Memphis Rite. But Marconis continues as to the main object and the underlying intention of his Rite: The Masonic Rite of Memphis is a combination of the ancient mysteries; it taught the first men to render homage to the Deity. Its dogmas are bared on the principles of humanity; its mission is the study of that wisdom which serves to discern truth; it is the beneficent dawn of the development of reason and intelligence; it is the worship of the qualities of the human heart and the impression of its aces: in fine, it is the echo of religious toleration. the union of all belief, the bond between all men, the symbol of sweet illusions of hope, preaching the faith in God that saves, and the charity that blesses.

We are further told by the Hierophant founder that:

The Rite of Memphis is the sole depository of High Masonry the true Primitive Rite. the Rite par excellence which has come down to us without any alteration, and is consequently the only Rite that can justify its origin and the combined exercise of its rights by constitutions the authenticity of which cannot be questioned. The Rite of Memphis. or Oriental Rite, is the veritable Masonic tree and all systems, whatsoever they be, are but detached branches of this institution, venerable for its great antiquity, and born in Egypt. The real deposit of the principles of Freemasonry, written in the Chaldee language. is preserved in the sacred ark of the Rite of Memphis and in part in the Grand Lodge of Scotland at Edinburgh, and in the Maronite Convent on Mount Lebanon.... Brother Marconis de Negre, the Grand Hierophant, is the sole consecrated depositary of the traditions of this Sublime Order.

The above is enough to reveal the character of the father and reputed son for truth, as also of the institution founded by them, which, like the firefly, is seen now here, now there, but with no steady beneficial light (see Memphis, Rite of ).



Born at Montauban, January 3, 1795; died at Paris, November 21, 1868 (see the preceding article, also Memphis, Rite of).



A victorious warrior-god, described on one of the Assyrian clay tablets of the British Museum, who was said to have engaged the monster Tiamat in a cosmogonic struggle. He was armed with a namzar, grappling-hook; ariktu, lance; shibbu, lasso; qashtu, bow; zizpau, club; and kabab, shield, together with a dirk in each hand.



A Norwegian secret society exclusively for women. The avowed purpose is to bind the members in a strong faithful body, to improve the consciousness of self, and to use familiar symbols for the furtherance of common ideals. The Freemasonry of Norway has had a friendly attitude toward this organization which was started officially in January, 1917, when the first Lodge was consecrated in Christiania; the second was dedicated in Bergen in April, 1922, and the third in Stavenger, in October, 1924. above translated from the Norwepan, for Palmer Templegram, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, March, 1925.



Empress of Austria, who showed great hostility to Freemasonry, presumably from religious leanings and advisers. Her husband was Francis I, elected Emperor of Germany in 1745. He was a zealous Freemason, and had been initiated at The Hague in 1731, at a Special Lodge, at which Lord Chesterfield and Doctor Desaguliers were present. He was raised at Houghton Hall, the same year, while on a visit to England. He assisted to found the Lodge Drei Kanonen, at Vienna, constituted in 1742. During the forty years' reign of Maria Theresa, Freemasonry was tolerated in Vienna doubtless through the intercession of the Emperor. It is stated in the Pocket Companion of 1754, one hundred grenadiers were sent to break up the Lodge, taking twelve prisoners, the Emperor escaping by a back staircase. He answered for and freed the twelve prisoners. His son, Emperor Joseph, inherited good-will to Freemasonry. He was Grand Master of the Viennese Freemasons at the time of his death.



The appropriate jewel of a Mark Master. It is made of gold or silver, usually of the former metal, and must be in the form of a keystone. On the obverse or front surface, the device or Mark selected by the owner must be engraved within a circle composed of the following letters: H. T. W. S. S. T. K. S. On the reverse or posterior surface, the name of the owner, the name of his Chapter, and the date of his advancement, may be inscribed, although this is not absolutely necessary. The Mark consists of the device and surrounding inscription on the obverse. The Mark jewel, as prescribed by the Supreme Grand Chapter of Scotland, is of mother-of-pearl. The circle on one side is inscribed with the Hebrew letters fast n, and the circle on the other side with letters containing the same meaning in the vernacular tongue of the country in which the Chapter is situated, and the wearer's mark in the center. The Hebrew letters are the initials of a Hebrew sentence equivalent to the English one familiar to Mark Masons. It is but a translation into Hebrew of the English mystical sentence.

It is not requisite that the device or Mark should be of a strictly Masonic character, although Masonic emblems are frequently selected in preference to other subjects. As soon as adopted it should be drawn or described in a book kept by the Chapter for that purpose, and it is then said to be "recorded in the Mark Book or Book of Marks," after which time it can never be changed by the possessor for any other, or altered in the slightest degree, but remains as his Mark to the day of his death.

This Mark is not a mere ornamental appendage of the Degree, but is a sacred token of the rites of friendship and brotherly love, and its presentation at any time by the owner to another Mark Master, would claim, from the latter, certain acts of friendship which are of solemn obligation among the Fraternity. A Mark thus presented, for the purpose of obtaining a favor, is said to be pledged; though remaining in the possession of the owner, it ceases, for any actual purposes of advantage, to be his property; nor can it be again used by him until, either by the return of the favor, or with the consent of the benefactor, it has been redeemed; for it is a positive law of the Order, that no Mark Master shall "pledge his Mark a second time until he has redeemed it from its previous pledge. " By this wise provision, the unworthy are prevented from making an improper use of this valuable token, or from levying contributions on their hospitable Brethren.

Marks or pledges of this kind were of frequent use among the ancients, under the name of tessera hospitals and arrhabo. The nature of the tessera hospitalis, or, as the Greeks called it, XuSoXor, cannot be better described than in the words of the Scholiast on the Medea of Euripides (v 613), where Jason promises Medea, on her parting from him, to send her the symbols of hospitality which should procure her a kind reception in foreign countries. It vas the custom, Eays the Scholiast, when a guest had been entertained, to break a die in two parts, one of which parts was retained by the guest, so that if, at any future period he required assistance, on exhibiting the hroken pieces of the die to each other, the friendship was renewed.

Plautus, about two hundred years before Christ, in one of his comedies, gives us an exemplification of themanner in which these tesseToe or pledges of friendship were used at Rome, whence it appears that the privileges of this friendship were extended to the descendants of the contracting parties. Poenulus is introduced, inquiring for Agorastocles, with whose family he had formerly exchanged the tessera.

Ag. Siquidem Antidimarchi quaeris adoptatitium.
Ego sum ipsus quem tu quaeris.
Poen. Hem! quid ego audio?
Ag. Antidamae me gnatum esse.
Poen. Si its est. tesseram Conferre Ei vis hospitalem, eccam, attuli.
Ag. Agedum huc ostende; est par probe; nam habeo domum.
Poen. O mi hospes, salve multum; nam mihi tuus pater
Pater tuus ergo hospes, Antidamas fuit:
Haec mihi hospitalis tessera cum illo fuit.
Poenuul., acs. v, sc. 2, rer. 85.
Ag. Antidimarchus' adopted son,
If vou do seek, I am the vers man.
Poen. Ah! Do I hear aright?
Ag. I am the son oi old Antidamus.
Poen. If so, I pray you Compare with me the hospitable die I've brought this with me.
Ag. Prithee, let me see it.
It is, indeed, the very counterpart
of mine at home.
Poen. All hail, my welcome guest
Your father was my guest, Antidamus.
Your father was my honored guest, and then
This hospitable die with me he parted.


These tesseroe, thus used, like the Mark Master's Mark, for the purposes of perpetuating friendship and rendering its union more sacred, were constructed in the following manner: they took a small piece of bone, ivory, or stone, generally of a square or cubical form, and dividing it into equal parts, each wrote his own name, or some other inscription, upon one of the pieces; they then made a mutual exchange, and, lest falling into other hands it should give occasion to imposture, the pledge was preserved with the greatest secrecy, and no one kneu the name inscribed upon it except the possessor.

The primitive Christians seem to have adopted a similar practice, and the tessera was carried by them in their travels, as a means of introduction to their fellow Christians. A favorite inscription with them were the letters II. T. A. II., being the initials of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. The use of these tessarae, in the place of written certificates, continued, says Doctor Harris (Dissertations on the Tesserae Hospitalis), until the eleventh century, at which time they are mentioned by Burchardus, Archbishop of Worms, in a visitation charge.

The arrhabo was a similar keepsake, formed by breaking a piece of money in two. The etymology of this word shows distinctly that the Romans borrowed the custom of these pledges from the ancient Israelites,
for it is derived from the Hebrew arabon, meaning a pledge.

With this detail of the customs of the ancients before us, we can easily explain the well-known passage in Revelation ii, 17: "To him that overcometh will I give a white stone, and in it a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it." That is, to borrow the interpretation of Harris, "To him that overcometh will I give a pledge of my affection, which shall constitute him my friend, and entitle him to privileges and honors of which none else can know the value or the extent." The White Storze of Revelation ii, 17, has been understood as perhaps referring to the Tessara Gladiatoria given to the victor in the arena.



Poet, born at Oregon City, Oregon, April 23, 1852, initiated, passed and raised in Acacia Lodge, No. 92, at Coloma, California, was in 1924 nominated in the Grand Lodge of Oregon for the position of Poet Laureate of the United States. Brother Markham has been farmer, sheep-herder, blacksmith, and superintendent of public schools. His splendid poem, The Man with the Hoe, made him internationally famous in 1899 though he already had written verses for years and has published books of poetry, essays, and other works.



According to Masonic tradition, the Mark Men were the Wardens, as the Mark; Masters were the Masters of the Fellow Craft Lodges, at the building of the Temple. They distributed the marks to the workmen, and made the first inspection of the work, which was afterward to be approved by the overseers. As a Degree, the Mark Man is not recognized in the United States. In England it is sometimes, but not generally, worked as preparatory to the Degree of Mark Master. In Scotland, in 1778, it was given to Fellow Crafts, while the Mark Master was restricted to Master Masons. It was not recognized in the regulations of the Supreme Grand Chapter of Scotland. Much of the esoteric ritual of the Mark Man has been incorporated into the Mark Master of the American System.



The Fourth Degree of the American Rite. The traditions of the Degree make it of great historical importance, since by them we are informed that by its influence each Operative Mason at the building of the Temple was known and distinguished, and the disorder and confusion which might otherwise have attended so immense an undertaking was completely prevented. Not less useful is it in its symbolic signification. As illustrative of the Fellow Craft, the Fourth Degree is particularly directed to the inculcation of order, regularity, and discipline. It teaches us that we should discharge all the duties of our several stations with precision and punctuality; that the work of our hands and the thoughts of our hearts should be good and true not unfinished and imperfect, not sinful and defective but such as the Great Overseer and Judge of heaven and earth will see fit to approve as a worthy oblation from his creatures.

If the Fellow Craft's Degree is devoted to the inculcation of learning, that of the Mark Master is intended to instruct us how that learning can most usefully and judiciously be employed for our own honor and the profit of others. And it holds forth to the desponding the encouraging thought that although our motives may sometimes be misinterpreted by our erring fellow mortals, our attainments be underrated, and our reputations be traduced by the envious and malicious, there is one, at least, who sees not with the eyes of man, but may yet make that stone which the builders rejected, the head of the corner. The intimate connection then, between the Second and Fourth Degrees of Freemasonry, is this, that while one inculcates the necessary exercise of all the duties of life, the other teaches the importance of performing them with systematic regularity. The true Mark Master is a type of that man mentioned in the sacred parable, "Well done, thou good and faithful servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord" (Matthew xxv, 21).

In America, the Mark Master's is the first Degree given in a Royal Arch Chapter. Its officers are a Right Worshipful Master, Senior and Junior Wardens, Secretary, Treasurer, Senior and Junior Deacons, Master, Senior and Junior Overseers The Degree cannot be conferred when less than six are present, who, in that case, must be the first and last three officers above named. The working tools are the Mallet and Indenting Chisel, which see. The symbolic color is purple. The Mark Master's Degree is now given in England under the authority of the Grand Lodge of Mark Masters, which was established in June, 1856 and is a Jurisdiction independent of the Grand Lodge. The officers are the same as in America, with the addition of a Chaplain, Director of Ceremonies, Assistant Director, Registrar of Marks, Inner Guard or Time Keeper, and two Stewards. Master Masons are eligible for initiation. Brother Hughan says that the Degree is virtually the same in England, Scotland, and Ireland. It differs, however, in some respects from the American Degree.

In a letter to the Masonic Home Journal, Louisville, Kentucky (see Proceedings, Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, Michigan, 1920), Companion Alfred A. A. Murray offers the following note to correct an error relating to the Mark Degree in Scotland

As regards the Mark Degree itself it was not worked in the Fellow Craft Lodges, but there were really two Degrees, namely, that of Mark Man, which was given to a Fellow Craft, and that of Mark Master, which was given to a Master Mason. The Degree of Mark Man was worked down to within fifty years ago by various Craft lodges, and given to Fellow Crafts. The Degree of Mark Master was conferred as a separate Degree in the same way as the Royal Arch, and was expressly cut off by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, about 1800, in the same way that the Royal Arch and the Temple were cut off. Before that date they used to be worked by an inner circle of the Lodge as a sort of side issue not under the Grand Lodge of Scotland at all.

The Royal Arch and the Temple wore, after 1800, organized as governing Bodies, and then the Mark Master Degree was taken under the sole control of the Supreme Grand Chapter, and continued so 'til, as I say, about fifty years ago, then an agreement was made between the Grand Lodge and the Supreme Chapter that the two Degrees of Mark Man and Mark Master were to be amalgamated, and were to be conferred under the authority of either Body but only upon Master Masons. It is wise to get a clear statement made upon this point, because I observe a very large amount of mistaken information is being granted from time to time, which is derived from conuson. of thought and want of knowledge, and results roanetunes in mistaken action.
Brother W. J. Hughan (Trestle Board, California, volume xxnii, No. 4, October, 1919) wrote:

During the centuries which immediately preceded the establishment of the premier Grand Lodge of England and the World, the mark was directly connected with operative and speculative Freemasonry, and from time immemorial, it has been the custom for the skilled Craftsman to chisel his distinctive Mark on the stones he fashioned, so as to indicate his workmanship. It is this fact that differentiates the Mark Degree from all other ceremonies additional to the first three, and justified the formation of the Mark Grand Lodge, nearly fifty years ago, so as to take under its wing those lodges which worked with interesting and suggestive ceremony the English Craft agreement excluding it from the formally recognized series, according to the Articles of Union of A.D. 1813-4.

The antiquity of Mark Masonry cannot be doubted. Operatively considered and even speculatively, it has enjoyed special prominence for centuries; records of the custom being followed by speculative Brethren, according to existing records, dating back to 1600, in which year, on June 8, "Ye principal warden and chief master of maisons, Wm. Schaw, master of work to ye Kingis Maistie," met members of the Lodge of Edinburgh-- now No. 1--at Holyrood House, at which meeting the Laird of Auchinleck was present, and attested the Minutes of the Assembly by his Mark as did the Operatives, in accordance with the Schaw Statutes of December 28, 1598, which provided: "That the day of reassauying, or receiving, of said fallow of craft or master be ord'lie buikit and his name and Mark insert in the said buik."

That theoretical Masons selected their Marks just as the Operatives did. during the seventeenth century is abundantly manifest, by an examination of the old Scottish records of that period. One of the most noteworthy instances out of many is the Mark Book of the Lodge of Aberdeen--now No. 1 tri-which started in l670 A.D., and is signed by forty-nine members, all of whom but two have their Marks inserted opposite their names. The Master of the 'Honorable Lodge of Aberdeen' in that year was Harrie Elphingston, Tutor of Airth and Collector of the King's Customs, and only a fourth part of the members were Operative Masons, the roll of Brethren including the Earl of Findlater, the Earl of Dumferline, Lord Pitsligo, the Earl of 'Errolle, a professor of mathematics, several ministers, doctors and other professional men and tradesmen, such as wrights, or carpenters, plaiters, glaziers, ete. The names of the apprentices were entered in another list, the Marks chosen by such being evidently similar to the fathers in several instances (see Marks of the Craft).

When the special and elaborate ceremony, with a distinctive legend, was first used it is not possible to decide, but probably about the middle of the eighteenth century, soon after the arrangement of the Royal Arch as a separate Degree. The oldest preserved records date from the year 1769, and there is no lack of evidence as to the observance of the custom in Speculative Lodges during that century and later either in separate Lodges or under the wing of the Royal Arch. The Mark continued to be worked in England as an unauthorized ceremony until the year 1856, when the Mark Grand Lodge was founded and has proved a conspicuous success, having ultimately secured the support of all the ' time immemorial ' and other Lodges in the country, besides having warranted several hundreds of Lodges to work the Degree in England and the Colonies and dependencies of the British Crown.

The ceremony is very popular, especially in North America, and is recognized by all Grand Chapters of Royal Arch Masons there and elsewhere, excepting in England. The Grand Lodge of Ireland includes it with the additional Degrees belonging to the other Masonic Grand Bodies recognized in it and acting in union with it, and the Grand Lodge of Scotland authorizes the Mark to be conferred on Master Masons. and the secrets only to be communicated in presence of those who have taken the step in a Lodge entitled to grant it. The Mark Grand Lodge in recent years has incorporated the Mark Man with the Mark Master; and wisely so, as it was the former that was conferred on yellow Crafts, and the latter on Master Masons during the eighteenth century.



Companion George W. Warvelle commented thus upon the longestablished custom of a penny a day paid as the wages of a Mark Master:

This ridiculously low wage scale seems to have been the work of the early American Titualists. I have in my possession two old English rituals, of Mark Man and Mark Mason, in both of which there is a specification of wages. In the former the rate was ' nine shekels, equal to one pound, two shillings, six pence of our money,' and in the latter it gas 'twenty-five shekels, equal to three pounds, two shillings, six pence of our money.' What the present rate may be in England I am unable to say, but no Englishman would work for the beggarly stipend paid in the American Mark Lodges. I am inclined to believe, however, that our English Brethren have fixed these abnormally high prices to make up for the actual wages formerly paid in England to the Operative Craft. As late as the year 1689 the wages of Freemasons were prescribed by law at one shilling and four pence a day. To demand more subjected them to severe penalties. In fact, it was really the passing of restrictive laws commencing say, about 1356, that led to the present speculative institution, and Masonic scholars of eminence assign the year 1424 as the cessation of English Freemasonry as a strictly operative association (from Tyler Keystone, Michigan, December, 1914) .



In the Mark Degree there is a certain stone which is said, in the instructions, not to have upon it the regular mark of the Craft. This expression is derived from the following tradition of the Degree. At the building of the Temple, each workman placed his own mark upon his own materials, so that the workmanship of every Freemason might be readily distinguished, and praise or blame be justly awarded. These marks, according to the lectures, consisted of mathematical figures, squares, angles, lines, and perpendiculars, and hence any figure of a different kind, such as a circle, would not be deemed "the Regular Mark of the Craft." Of the three stones used in the Mark Degree, one is inscribed with a square and another with a plumb or perpendicular, because these were marks familiar to the Craft; but the third, which is inscribed with a circle and certain hieroglyphics, was not known and was not, therefore, called regular (see also Marks of the Craft).

Companion Alfred A. A. Murray, submitted a Memorandum in 1919 to the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Scotland, which was in part as follows:

A clear statement has frequently been requested as to the exact rules governing the form of Marks. In particular, a prominent Chapter has specially asked to be provided with a definite rule. In consequence the following Memorandum was submitted to Supreme Grand Committee for the purpose of information so that they might consider the subject and, if so advised, give an official ruling on the meaning of the Committee on Marks, and in the interval the Memorandum has been revised and corrected.

In Ireland there are no definite rules, and the Marks are accepted just as they are sent in. No attention is paid practically to the matter, and not one Mark Mason in twenty adopts a Mark of any kind. Those who do frequently select designs quite unsuitable for the purpose, such as crests or monograms, but they are all registered in Grand Chapter books without question.

I am informed that by a resolution of the Grand Mark Lodge of England, on 14th December, 1864, the regulation confining Speculative Masons' Marks to any specified number of points was abrogated. But straight lines are imperative.

In America, so far as can be ascertained, there is no rule specifying what should be selected as a Mark, this being left entirely to the candidate himself to determine,
The Grand Lodge of Scotland has never, so far as can be ascertained, laid down any rule whatever, and disclaims any responsibility for any ritual on the subject.

The way, therefore, appears to be quite open to this Committee to suggest a definite ruling for themselves and to let others follow it or not as they choose. The instructions as they stand at present substantially consist of a direction that any Mark adopted by a candidate and member must consist of any number of odd points connected by lines, with the exception of one special figure containing three points. The old manuscript copy of the working, in the possession of Supreme Grand Chapter, says, "3, 5, 7, 9 or 11 points joined together to form any figure they please except, etc." It may be interesting to add, in parenthesis, that according to the old independent Yorkshire working early last century, the members present had also to be 3, 5, 7, 9, etc., and the fee was "one mark, Is lHd., neither more nor less."

The theory held by some is that the Mark was, and is still supposed to be, made by the workman with the edge of a chisel, not by its corner point, so that each stroke therefore will make nothing but a straight line. This would apply to the Mark on the blade of the chisel, but I should rather think the Mark cut on a stone would be made by a pointed chisel, and therefore that so far it would be conveniently possible to form a curved figure. As the Mark was reproduced on the hewn stones, it should have been the same as that which was struck on the blade of the Mason's own tools to identify them in the boxes, or when returned from sharpening, or for any other necessary purposes. While the actual wording of the instructions do not expressly say straight lines this is commonly understood to be implied.

The old ritual of Chapter Esk, No. 42, however, expressly says, "straight or curved lines." There may be others giving the same reading. Among the Operative Masons of Scotland for centuries genuine curved Marks are by no means unknown, but are very few. For instance, at Fortress Cathedral out of 265 Marks there is only one with curved lines--representing a vessel. A heart is also an emblem not uncommon. But, on the whole, out of the many thousand specimens from the thirteenth century downwards, it is almost unusual to find a Mark with curved lines. The Speculative Masons are lineal descendants of the Operative Craft, though not the only branch, and theoretically they are subject to the same rules of work and interpretation as the Body from which they sprang.

The first question which arises is as to the regulation about the number of points. This regulation may hold with the present speculative systems, but it has nothing whatever to do with King Solomon's Temple, where not a single Mason's Mark has ever been found. Indeed there are no Mason's Marks on any known historic and ancient Jewish building, or at least if so I am not aware of it. The story about a Mark of approval made by an equilateral triangle and about juxtaposition Marks is apocryphal. The regulation has no sanction or foundation in the practice of the Operative Craft. No system of counting will ever prove that such a rule existed operatively. Numberless specimens prove the contrary.

There used to be a story current in the Craft some thirty years ago that there was a distinction between the Mark of a Fellow of Craft and that of a Master Mason, the former having an even number of points and the latter an odd number. The idea was a fad of some theorists and had no foundation in fact, except that when the agreement between the Grand Lodge of Scotland and the Supreme Grand Chapter of Scotland regarding the Mark Degree was entered into, it evidently ignored the fact that the Stark Man and the Mark Master were two separate Degrees--the former worked after the second Degree and the latter after the third. But the Mark was chosen by the Mark Man, and the indiscriminate use of any number of Points for a Mark, odd or even, is therefore, according to the basis of the theory mentioned, correct. Incidentally. it may be added that the part of our present ritual referring to the infliction of the penalty is incorrectly expressed. It was the Entered Apprentice who suffered. because he had no Mark to present, not the Fellow Craft who presented his own Mark. It is absurd to suppose that he suffered because he used the triangle instead of his proper Mark.

The American ritual I have seen solves this difficulty by making the Mark Master present and withdraw his hand in a different way to that of his workmen. Assuming, however, that the rule according to the ritual is to be observed, a difficulty arises as to what precisely is meant by a point which has to be counted.

The instruction is that the Mark must have a certain number of odd points connected by straight lines. Now every straight line consists of an innumerable number of points. Logically, therefore, the definition means and implies that every point in a straight line is not to be counted solely because it is in that line. Any point to be counted must be Selected for some other reason. Now, according to the definition it is quite clear that the end points of a straight line must be and are intended to be counted because they are the points which are connected by a straight line. It is therefore beyond question that any point which is the beginning, or ending, of one or more straight lines must be a point to be counted according to the rules of the Degree.

The difficulty arises as to the counting when two straight lines intersect, or rather when they not merely intersect but cross one another. In such a case is the point of intersection a point within the meaning of the instructions for the Degree? Varying opinions have for the past half-century been held among Freemasons about this, but the old records rather support the rule that a mere intersection or crossing does not constitutes a point. The point is and must be the end of a line and not merely a part of it in the middle.

In the petition to Lodge Mother Kilwinning in 1677 on which the Warrant to Lodge Canongate Kilwinning was granted, nine out of the twelve petitioners append their Marks. They are all composed of straight lines connected together. If crossings are not counted, there were eight even and one odd. If crossings are counted, there were three even and six odd. one of them was even and had no crossing point. In the first Minute-Book of the Lodge of Edinburgh, if crossings are not counted, about two-thirds of the Marks are odd and the remaining one-third even. If crossings are counted, there is a slight preponderance of odd points. Robert Burns' Mark had eleven points, but if the crossing is counted it had twelve.

In the Mark Book of Chapter Edinburgh for the first fifty years or so, if crossings are not counted, there are thirty-three odd and forty even. If crossings are counted, the same proportion remains. But one hundred and thirty-four out of two hundred and thirty-three Marks transgress the rules that straight lines only must be counted. The use of curved lines has, however, in this case ceased for several decades. As in the case of the Roman Eagle Lodge, when the Mark Degree was intro duced in 1785, a large number of the transgressing Marks are not Marks at all, but representations of Masonic symbols and emblems such as the hive, the irradiated sun, the ladder, the skull and cross-bones, the heart, and so on. There are Jewish and other letters, a hand grasping an arrow, or a sword, or a pen, or a musket. There is a horse vaulting a gate, and a lion passant, a clam shell a stag's head, a man in the moon, a harp, the Volume of the Sacred Law, an irradiated star, and a laurel branch, etc., all drawn illustratively. There are also several Marks with points alone and no lines at all.

There are also instances of, say, a shield with a triangle or a cross, or some entirely separate figure within it Latterly, it is only too common to find puerile attempts to combine initials. To sum up, the main points for decision are:

1. Whether a point--a mere dot--can be counted if it is shown alone and not as part of a line.
2. Whether a point means the end of a separate and distinct line or a free salient angle.
3. Whether the lines must be straight or may be curved.
4. Whether the lines must all be connected or whether they may he disconnected as, for example, a triangle within a shield, or dots or a small or large circle.
5. Whether the points must be odd in number.
6. Whether in this case a crossing point must be counted.
7. Whether in the same ease n crossing point need not be counted unless desired, and, if one is counted, must all in the same figure be counted.
8. Whether the points may be odd or even in number. In this case it is not necessary to trouble about crossing points, because they can make no difference to the ultimate result

As a closing remark it ought to be added that, looking at the number of different Marks required for the large number of members now being admitted, if any mere point of intersection is allowed to be counted it will make it greatly easier to multiply the available number of possible Marks. If such a point of mere intersection is not to be counted and is ruled out, the number of available Marks with a reasonable number of lines will be cut down probably by one-fourth. This is admittedly an argument ad conrenientiam, but in certain eases expedience rises to the height of principle. The rule suggested is simply that ah Marks in future must be composed of straight lines joined together, and the counting of points be discontinued. If this rule be adopted no further question can apparently arise, and the simplicity of the rule is greatly in its favour. It would involve, however, that the ritual should be subject to a slight correction to bring it into conformity with the rule, but this can easily be done.

Further information will be found in Doctor Mackay's revised History of Freemasonry, some sixty-five items being indexed. Many valuable references to the subject are in the Appendix to the Proceedings (Grand Chapter, Royal arch Masons, Michigan, 1920), contributed by Companion Charles A. Conover, General Grand Secretary. Additional references are in a paper read by Professor George Godwin, Royal Institute of British Architects, 1868; four articles by John E. Dove, Builder, London, April 4 and 18, June 6, and July 11, 1863, also a paper on Masonry and Masorls Marks, Brother T. Hayter Lewis, Transactions, Quatuor Coronati Lodge (volume iii, 1890).



The pen name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, famous American humorist, born November 30, 1835, at Florida, Missouri. He petitioned Polar Star Lodge No. 79 of St. Louis under date of December 26, 1860, as follows:

The subscriber, residing in Saint Louis, of lawful age and by occupation a Pilot, begs leave to state that unbiased by friends and uninfluenced by mercenary motives he freely and voluntarily offers himself as a candidate for the mysteries of Masonry and that he is prompted to solicit this privilege by a favorable opinion conceived of the Institution, a desire of knowledge and sincere wish of being serviceable to his fellow creatures. Should his petition be granted he will cheerfully conform to all the ancient established usages and customs of the Fraternity.

Recommended by John M. Leavenworth, Tom Moore. Committee: H. T. Taylor, Defreiz, Wannall.

(Signed) Sam L. Clemens.
The petition was received on the same day and the Committee made a favorable report February 18, 1861. He was Initiated May 22, 1861, Passed, June 12, 1861, and Raised July 10, 1861. On June 12, he paid the Lodge $20 cash and made a further payment of $10 on July 10. During a trip that he made to Palestine he sent his Lodge at St. Louis a mallet accompanied by the following memorandum:

This Mallet is of Cedar cut in the Forest of Lebanon, whence Solomon obtained the Timbers for the Temple. The handle was cut by Brother Clemens himself from a cedar planted just outside the walls of Jerusalem by Brother Godfrey DeBoullion, the first Christian Conqueror of that City, nineteenth of July, 1099.

This gavel in its present form was made at Alexandria Egypt, by order of Brother Clemens.
From Brother Sam'l L. Clemens
(Mark Twain)
to J. H. Pottenger, M.D.
March 25, 1868
Presented to Polar Star Lodge No. 79
By J. H. Pottenger, W. M.
April 8, 1868.

In 1869 he asked for a dimit but this is not known to have ever been presented to any Lodge. Mark Twain has many racy books of travel and adventure, as well as a number of humorous autobiographical novels to his credit. He received the degree of Doctor of Literature from Oxford. For many years he was considered the most outstanding and popular American personality in the world of letters. During the later years of his life he was able to amass a considerable fortune although most of his life was harassed by a constant struggle against poverty. He died at Redding, Connecticut, on April 21, 1910.



In former times, Operative Masons, the Steinmetzen, or Stone Cutters, of Germany, were accustomed to place some mark or sign of their own invention, which, like the monogram of the painters, would seem to identify the work of each. They are to be found upon the cathedrals, churches, castles, and other stately buildings erected since the twelfth century, or a little earlier, in Germany, France, England, and Scotland. As Professor George Godwin has observed in his History in Ruins, it is curious to see that these marks are of the same character, in form, in all these different countries. They were principally crosses, triangles, and other mathematical figures, and many of them were religious symbols. Specimens taken from different buildings supply such forms as are here illustrated.

The last of these is the well-known vesica pisces, the symbol of Christ among the primitive Christians, and the last but one is the Pythagorean pentalpha. A writer in the London Times (August 13, 1835) is incorrect in stating that these marks are confined to Germany, and are to be found only since the twelfth or thirteenth centuries. More recent researches have shown that they existed in many other countries, especially in Scotland, and that they were practiced by the builders of ancient times. Thus Ainsworth, in his Travels (ii, 167), tells us, in his description of the ruins of Al-Hadhy in Mesopotamia, that "every stone, not only in the chief building, but in the walls and bastions and other public monuments, when not defaced by time, is marked with a character which is for the most part either a Chaldean letter or numeral."

M. Didron, who reported a series of observations on the subject of these Masons' Marks to the Comity Historique des Arts et Monuments of Paris, believes that he can discover in them references to distinct schools or Lodges of Freemasons. He divides them into two classes: those of the overseers, and those of the men who worked the stones. The marks of the first class consist of monogrammatic characters; those of the second are of the nature of symbols, such as shoes, trowels, mallets, etc.

A correspondent of the Freemasons Quarterly Revieto states that similar marks are to be found on the stones which compose the walls of the fortress of Allahabad, which was erected in 1542, in the East Indies. He says:

The walls are composed of large oblong blocks of red granite, and are almost everywhere covered by Masonic emblems which evince something more than mere ornament. They are not confined to one particular spot, but are scattered over the walls of the fortress, in many places as high as thirty or forty feet from the ground. It is quite certain that thousands of stones on the walls, bearing these Masonic symbols, were carved, marked and numbered in the quarry previous to the erection of the building.

In the ancient buildings of England and France, these marks are to be found in great abundance. In a communication, on this subject, to the London Society of Antiquaries, Professor George Godwin states that, "in my opinion, these marks, if collected and compared might assist in connecting the various bands of operatives, who, under the protection of the Church--mystically united--spread themselves over Europe during the Middle Ages, and are known as Freemasons." Professor Godwin describes these marks as varying in length from two to seven inches, and as formed by a single line, slightly indented, consisting chiefly of crosses, well-known Masonic symbols, emblems of the Trinity and of eternity, the double triangle, trowel, square, etc. The same writer observes that, in a conversation, in September, 18U, with a mason at work on the Canterbury Cathedral, he "found that many Masons, all who were Freemasons, had their mystic marks handed down from generation to generation; this man had his mark from his father, and he received it from his grandfather."

They're traced in lines on the Parthenon
Inscribed by the subtle Greek
And Roman legions have carved them on
Walls, roads and arch antique
Long ere the Goth, with vandal hand
Gave scope to his envy dark
The Mason Craft in many a land
Has graven its Mason Mark.
The obelisk old and the pyramids,
Around which a mystery clings,--
The hieroglyphs on the coffin lids
of weird Egyptinn kings,--
Syria. Carthage and Pompeii
buried and strewn and stark,
Have marble records that will not die,
Their primitive Mason Mark.
Upon column and frieze and capital,
In the eye of the chaste volute--
On Scotia's curve, or an astrogal,
()r in triglyp's channel acute--
Cut somewhere on the entablature,
Old oft, like a sudden spark,
Flashing a light on a date obscure,
Shines many a Mason Mark.
These Craftsmen old had a genial whim,
That nothing could e'er destroy
With a love of their art that naught could dim,
They toiled with a chronic joy;
Nothing was too complex to essay,
In aught they dashed to embark;
They triumphed on many an Appian Way,
Where they'd left their Mason Mark.
Crossing the Alps like Hannibal,
Or skirting the Pyranees
On peak and plain, in crypt and cell
On foot or on bandaged knees,--
From Tiber to Danube, front Rhine to Seine,
They needed no "letters of marque ";--
Their art was their passport in France and Spain,
And in Britain their Mason Mark.
The monolith gray and Druid chair,
The pillars and towers of Gael,
In Ogham occult their age they bear,
That time can only reveal.
Live on, old monuments of the past,
Our beacons through ages dark!
In primal majesty still you'll last
Endeared by each Mason Mark.


See Oceania



An absurd corruption of a Jewish word, and still more absurdly said to be its translation. It has no appropriate signification in the place to which it is applied, but was once religiously believed in by many Freemasons, who, being ignorant of the Hebrew language, accepted it as a true interpretation. It is now universally rejected by the intelligent portion of the Craft.



A Lodge was established in 1748, at Marseilles, in France, Thory says, by a traveling Freemason, under the name of Saint Jean d'Ecosse. It afterward assumed the name of Mother Lodge of Marseilles, and still later the name of Scottish Mother Lodge of France. It granted Warrants of its own authority for Lodges In France and in the Colonies.



An officer common to several Masonic Bodies, whose duty is to regulate processions and other public solemnities. In Grand Bodies he is called a Grand Marshal. In the American Royal Arch System, the Captain of the Host acts on public occasions as the Marshal. The Marshal's ensign of office is a baton or short rod. The office of Marshal in State affairs is very ancient. It was found in the court of the Byzantine emperors, and was introduced into England from France at the period of the conquest. Isis badge of office was at first a rod or verge, which was afterward changed to the baton, for, its an old writer has observed, Thinne, "the verge or rod was the ensign of him who had authority to reform evil in ware and in peace, and to see quiet and order observed among the people."



Born in Virginia, September 24, 1755; died July 6, 1835. Secretary of State, 1800, then first Chief Justice of the United States, serving for thirty-four years, and had been an officer, lieutenant and then captain, in the American Revolution. He was a famous Freemason, a member of Lodge No. 13 at Richmond and instrumental with Edmund Randolph, Governor of Virginia, 1786, and also Grand Master, in establishing the two Lodges, Richmond No. 10, and Richmond Randolph No. 19, the latter Lodge performing the Masonic rites at Brother Marshall's funeral. He served as Deputy Grand Master of Virginia and from October 8, 1793, was Grand Master for two terms during which nine Communications were held (see Washington, the Man and the Mason, Charles H. Callahan, 1913, pages 961-9, and New Age, July, 1924).



Charles Martel, or Charles the Hammer, born in 688, died in 741, although not actually King, was the ruler and reigned over France under the title of Mayor of the Palace. He was a notable soldier, defeating the Saracens at Poitiers in 732, and again in 737 driving them from Languedoc. Rebold (History, page 69) says that "at the request of the Anglo-Saxon lings, he sent workmen and Masters into England." The Operative Masons of the Middle Ages considered him as one of their patrons, and give the following account of him in their Legend of the Craft (see Grand Lodge Manuscript No. 1, Quatuor Coronati Lodge Reprints, volume iv).

Curious Crafts men walked about full wyde in Dyu's Countries some to learn more Craft and conning & some to teach them that had but little conning and so yt befell that their was on Curious Masson that height Naymus grecus that had byn at the making of Solomons Temple & he came into fraunce anal there he taught the Science of masonry to men of fraunce And there was one of the Regal lyne of fraunce that height Charles Martell. And he was A man that Loved well such A Craft and Drew to this Naymus grecus and Learned of him the Craft And to Nippon him the (Chardges & ye mann's. And afterward by the grace of god he was elect to be liyng of fraunce. And when he was in his Estate he took Masons and did help to make men Masons yt wear none & sett them A work and gave them both the Charges & mann's and good pay that he had learned of other Masons And confirmed them A Charter from yer to year to hold their assembly whear they boulder And cherish them right much And thus came the Craft into fraunce.



The Fourth Degree of the Eastern Star; a Rite of American Adoptive Freemasonry.



The Rite of Martinism, called also the Rectified Rite, was instituted at Lyons, by the Marquis de Saint Martin, a disciple of Martinez Paschalis, of whose Rite it was pretended to be a reform. Martinism was divided into two classes, called Temples, in which were the following Degrees:

First Temple.
1. Apprentice
2. Fellow Craft
3. Master Mason
4. Past Master
5. Elect
6. Grand Architect
7. Freemason of the Secret
Second Temple
8. Prince of Jerusalem
9. Knight of Palestine
10. Kadosh

The Degrees of Martinism abounded in the reveries of the Mystics (see Saint Martin).


See American Rectified Martinist Order


See Saint Martin



A title bestowed by the Templars on their last Grand Master, James de Molay. If, as Du Cange says, the Church sometimes gives the title of martyr to men of illustrious sanctity, who have suffered death not for the confession of the name of Christ, but for some other cause, being slain by impious men, then De Molay, as the innocent victim of the malignant schemes of an atrocious Pope and King, was clearly entitled to the appellation.


See Four Crowned Martyrs



There are no known records from the earliest Lodge in Maryland but a reference to it among the documents of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts states that it was chartered by Thomas Oxnard, Provincial Grand Master, on August 12, 1750, at Annapolis. On June 17, 1783, the Lodges on the Eastern Shore met at Talbot Court House and determined to petition the Grand Lodge in Philadelphia for a Warrant to open the Grand Lodge of Maryland. Five Lodges were represented by Deputies and the meeting was adjourned until July 31. On that date the same Lodges attended with the exception of No. 37, of Somerset County, which was not represented, and No. 6, of Georgetown, which appeared for the first time. Grand Officers were elected and the meeting was adjourned until December 18, 1783. The next meeting was not until nearly three years later but the subordinate Lodges maintained their allegiance and were not represented at any other Grand Lodge.

Royal Arch Chapters were probably attached to most of the Lodges in Maryland, but the first known was Washington Chapter instituted in 1787 by Warrant of Lodge No. 7, at Chestertown, and attached to Lodge No. 15, afterwards Washington, No. 3. The first Independent Grand Chapter in the United States was organized on June 24, 1897. It became inactive in 1803, but was revived in 1807, when a Convention was held in the City of Washington on January 21 of representatives of Washington, Concordia, Saint John's, Federal, Washington Naval and Potomac Chapters. It was resolved unanimously to organize a Grand Chapter for the State of Maryland and the District of Columbia, and this was opened in Ample Form. On May 9, 1814, Chapters Nos. 1, 2, and 3 met at Baltimore, adopted a Construction and elected Grand Officers.. On August 30, 1822, by the authority of the General Grand Chapter, the Chapters in the District of Columbia, with the exception of Potomac, No. 8, at Georgetown, withdrew from the Jurisdiction of Maryland. For the next twenty years these Columbia Chapters had no grand authority From 1841 until May 7, 1867, they were put under the control of the Grand Chapter of Maryland. On that date the Grand Chapter of the District of Columbus was duly constituted.

Until 1872 the Select Degrees were conferred by Chapters, but in that year the Grand Chapter made this illegal and independent Councils were formed. Six of these Councils, Concordia, Jerusalem, Adoniram, Salem, Tadmor, and Druid were represented at a Convention which met on May 12, 1874, at Baltimore to organize a Grand Council.

The first Commandery was Maryland, No. 1, at Baltimore, to which a Charter of Recognition was issued on May 2, 1814, admitting the year 1790 to be the date of the complete organization of the Encampment. It was resolved on July 12, 1870, to organize a Grand Commandery for the State. Delegates from Maryland, No. 1; Baltimore, No. 2, and Monumental, No. 3, met in Baltimore, Maryland, on December 12, 1870, for this purpose. A Warrant was issued by the Grand Master dated January 3, 1871, and on January 23, the Grand Commandery was dedicated in Ancient Form to Saint John the Almoner.

A Lodge of Perfection was established at Baltimore in 1792 by Henry Wilmans, Master of Concordia Lodge in 1793. On December 9, 1882, the Meredith Chapter of Rose Croix, No. 1, and the Maryland Council of Kadosh, No. 1, were constituted, and on May 15, 1885, the Chesapeake Consistory, No. 1, was opened under the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction.





The French expression is Maçon Couronne. A Degree in the nomenclature of Fustier.



The search for the etymology or derivation of the word Mason has given rise to numerous theories, some of them ingenious, but many of them very absurd. Thus, a writer in the European Magazine for February, 1792, who signs his name as "George Drake," Lieutenant of Marines, attempts to trace the Masons to the Druids, and derives Mason from May's on, May's being in reference to May-day, the great festival of the Druids, and on meaning men, as in the French on dit, for homme dit. According to this, May's on therefore means the Men of May. This idea is not original with Drake, since the same derivation was urged in 1766 by Cleland, in his essays on The Way to Things in Words, and on The Real Secret of Freemasons.

Hutchinson, in his search for a derivation, seems to have been perplexed with the variety of roots that presented themselves, and, being inclined to believe that the name of Mason "has its derivation from a language in which it implies some strong indication or distinction of the nature of the society, and that it has no relation to architects," looks for the root in the Greek tongue. Thus he thinks that Mason may come from Mao Soon, "I seek salvation," or from Mystes, "an initiate"; and that Masonry is only a corruption of Mesouraneo, "I am in the midst of heaven"; or from Mazourouth, a constellation mentioned by Job, or from Mysterion, "a mystery."

Lessing says, in his Ernst und Falls, that Masa in the Anglo-Saxon signifies a table, and that Masonry, consequently, is a society of the table.

Nicolai thinks he finds the root in the sow Latin word of the Middle Ages Massonya, or Masonia, which signifies an exclusive society or club, such as that of the Round Table.

Coming down to later times, we find Brother C. W. Moore, in his Boston Magazine, of May, 1844, deriving Meson from Lithotornos, a Stone Cutter. But although fully aware of the elasticity of etymological rules, it surpasses our ingenuity to get Mason etymologically out of Lithotomos.

Brother Giles F. Yates sought for the derivation of Mason in the Greek word Mazones, a festival of Dionysus, and he thought that this was another proof of the lineal descent of the Masonic Order from the Dionysiac Artificers.

Brother William S. Rockwell, who was accustomed to find all his Freemasonry in the Egyptian Mysteries and who was a thorough student of the Egyptian hieroglyphic system, derives the word Mason from a combination of two phonetic signs, the one being Mai, and signifying to love, and the other being Son, which means a brother. Hence he says, "this combination, Mason, expresses exactly in sound our word Masons and signifies literally loving brother, that is, philadelphust brother of an association, and thus corresponds also in sense."

But all of these fanciful etymologies, which would have terrified Bopp, Grimm, or Muller, or any other student of linguistic relations, forcibly remind us of the French epigrammatist, who admitted that alphna came from equus, but that, in so coming, it had very considerably changed its route."

What, then, is the true derivation of the word Mason? Let us see what the orthoepists, who had no Masonic theories, have said upon the subject.

Webster, seeing that in Spanish masa means mortar, is inclined to derive Mason, as denoting one that works in mortar, from the root of mass, which of course gave birth to the Spanish word. In Low or Medieval Latin, Mason was machio or memo, and this Du Cange derives from the Latin maceria, a long wall. Others find a derivation in machinoe, because the builders stood upon machines to raise their walls. But Richardson takes a commonsense view of the subject.

He says, "It appears to be obviously the same word as maison, a house or mansion, applied to the person who builds, instead of the thing built. The French Maisoner is to build houses; Masonner, to build of stone. The word Mason is applied by usage to a builder in stone, and Masonry to work in stone."

Carpenter gives Massom, used in 1225, for a building of stone, and Massonus, used in 1304, for a Mason; and the Benedictine editors of Du Cange define Massoneria "a building, the French Maconnerie, and Massonerius," as Latomus or a Mason, both words in manuscripts of 1385. Doctor Murray, in the New English Dictionary, says of the word Mason: "the ulterior etymology is obscure, possibly the word is from the root of Latin maceria, a wall.

As a practical question, we are compelled to reject all those fanciful derivations which connect the Freemasons etymologically and historically with the Greeks, the Egyptians, or the Druids, and to take the word Mason in its ordinary signification of a worker in stone, and thus indicate the origin of the Order from a society or association of practical and operative builders. We need no better root than the old French and Latin Maçonner, to build, or Maçonetus, a builder (see Freemason and Maçon) .



Used in the Strassburg Constitutions, and other German works of the Middle Ages, as equivalent to the modern Freemasonry. Kloss translates it by Masonhood. Lessing derives it from mosa, Anglo Saxon, a table, and says it means a Society of the Table. Nicolai deduces it from the Low Latin masTanya, which means both a club and a key, and says it means an exclusive society or club, and so, he thinks, we get our word Masonry. Krause traces it to mas mase, food or a banquet. It is a pity to attack these speculations, but we are inclined to look at Masonry as simply a corruption of the English Masonrie.



The French is Maçon Hermetique. A Degree in the Archives of the Mother Lodge of the Eclectic Philosophic Rite.



This was the title of a Society founded in England about 1871. Brother Walter Besant was the Secretary though he was not an original member of the Society which was probably founded by Brother William Smith, C. E., once Editor of the Freemason or Freemasons Magazine. The objects of the Society were the advancement of those branches of archeological knowledge and research which either directly or indirectly bear upon Freemasonry. Besides the study of Freemasonry proper, the Institute was to have papers read and discuss subjects connected with mysticism and allegorical teachings in literature and philosophy; symbolism in religion and art; the development and progress of architecture; the history of secret sects, associations and brotherhoods; and similar subjects. It was understood that no papers would be published whose subjects rendered them unsuitable for the reading of those who were not Freemasons. Later on Brother Besant became Treasurer and R. G. Haliburton the Secretary.

The latter was a Freemason of Saint John's Lodge, Nova Scotia, and was the son of Judge Haliburton, author of Sam Slick. The Society was not of long life but is particularly noteworthy because several of its early members were connected with the founding of Quatuor Coronati Lodge.



See Bapttsm, Masonic, Clean Hands, and Lustration



At Cawnpore, India, in July, 1857, occurred the massacre of hundreds of men, women and children. Of this butchery there is a pathetic record in the message of a Masonic character that was written on the wall of the Chamber of Blood. This inscription appearing in a recent issue of the Controlling Officers' Journal, was reprinted in the Transactions, Leicester Lodge of Research, 1912-3 (page 107) and as the Masonic cipher was not understood an invitation was extended the Craft to submit a clue to its meaning (see Cipher Writing).

Brother W. John Songhurst offered in reply the comment that the reproduction corresponded fairly with a photograph in his possession. But there were one or two small differences proving that they were not taken direct from the same original. For instance, the photograph shows that a blot had been erased at the word hands, and that an alteration had been made at the word Post which looks as though it had been first written Past. It is headed "The writing on the Wall in Sir H. Wheeler's Room." Brother Songhurst had been able to trace other copies, all having many features in common, but none corresponding exactly, and with some the differences are important. He proceeded in Transactions, 19134 (pages 71F83) to discuss the circumstances thus: At the outbreak of the Mutiny in May, 1857, Major General Sir Hugh Wheeler was in command of the Cawnpore division of the Indian Army. He at once ordered entrenchments to be constructed, and by the 21st of May these were occupied by the women and nonconubatants. It is stated that there were about one thousand Europeans in the town, of whom n ore than half were women and children. In a letter written by General Wheeler on 1st June, he says, "I have left my house, and am residing day and night in my tent."

On the 6th of June the siege commenced, and the defenders gallantly held out for three weeks. The attack was led by the adopted son of the former chief of the Mahrattas, known in history as Nana Sahib, whose claims to succession the British Government had refused to recognize. General Wheeler had with him his wife, who was of mixed blood, his son and two daughters. The son, Lieutenant Wheeler, was his Aide-de-Camp, and being severely wounded during the siege, he was carried to a room in the barracks. Here, in the presence of the whole family--father, mother and sisters--he was killed by a cannon-ball, winch, entering the building, took off his head.

On the 26th of June, Captain Moore, Captain Whiting and Mr. Roche, the postmaster, went from the trenches to arrange for capitulation, and eventually received the promise of safe conduct for all to Allahabad. Preparations were quickly made. Sepoys accompanied the fugitives to the banks of the river, but even before all were embarked in the boats, a murderous musket-fire was opened upon them, and according to one account, only four men escaped. It seems certain that General Wheeler, his wife and elder daughter were among the killed. About one hundred and twenty-five women and children were carried back to Cawnpore, including the general's youngest daughter, who was taken by one of Nana's troopers some say by Nana himself, and died a natural death in Nepal some years afterwards. The others were put into two rooms, about twenty feet by ten feet each, in a small building formerly occupied by a native clerk, close to Nana's house. Meanwhile General Havelock was hurrying to the relief.

He arrived on the 16th of July, only to find that all the prisoners had been massacred by Nana's orders, and hurled, dead and dying, into a well. sir George Trevelyan in his Cawnpore, published in 1865, says that this took place "within call of the theater, the assembly-rooms and the Masonic Lodge." Other accounts from which I have taken these particulars are The Story of Cawnpore, London, 1859, by Captain Mowbray Thomson, and A Personal Narrative of the Outbreak and Massacre at Cawnpore, Lucknow, 1879, by W. J. Shepherd. Both of these men escaped from the garrison. Thomson swam from the boats and managed to land lower down the river; Shepherd went out disguised during the siege, and was not able to return until after Havelock's occupation of the town. The cipher inscription is not mentioned in either of these narratives but Shepherd says that during the siege both he and Captain Seppings wrote messages upon the walls of the barracks in pencil. There were two barracks within the entrenchments. One is described as the Thatched Barrack, and it was burned down by the rebels. The other was called the Masonry Barrack, or the Flat-roofed Barrack, and it seems that it was in this building General Wheeler had his quarters, and in which his son was killed. Seppings was also in the Masonry Barrack, and wrote as follows:

"The following were in this barrack on 11th June, 1857, Captain Seppings, Mrs. Ditto, 3 children, Mrs. Wainwright, Ditto infant, Mr. Cripps, Mrs. Halliday."

Shepherd's inscription in the Thatched barrack was: " Should this meet the eves of any who were acquainted with us, in case we are all destroyed, be it known to them that we occupied this room for eight davs under circumstances so distressing as have no precedent. The destruction of Jerusalem could not have been attended with distress as severe as we have experienced in so short a time. W. J. Shepherd (wounded in the back), his wife and two children, Rebecca and her infant, Elnelina, Martha, old Mrs. Frost, Mrs. Osborne, Daniel, The Khoorranee, Conductor Bethell, his wife and daughter, together with other friends. 11th June, 1857."

The writing in cipher was first brought to Masonic notice in May, 1862, by a copy in the Indian Freemason's Friend, the correspondent asking if any reader could furnish an explanation. This brought a letter signed " Tatnai," dated from Lucknow, 27th July, in which it is said, that the inscription is "in many parts a string of characters devoid of significance." This fact " Tatnai" attributes to errors made by the original writer, to errors made by the copyist, and to chips of whitewash having fallen from the wall, before the copy was made. He then gives the cipher portion of the writing as it had appeared in the Journal, and adds a suggested restoration. The letter mentions "the few lines signed by J. W. Roche, just above R. A. B. Johnstone " written in plain English, and says that these include the words "nasty wound," which in a copy of his possession were written " mortally wounded." These particulars about Roche (called also Roach and Roache) do not appear in the photograph, but we find them in a copy made by R. MacCrea, of the 0. and R. Railway dated 20th July, 1887. Shepherd mentions that Roche had been wounded four times in the entrenchments, but they were only flesh wounds. He was killed on 27th of June. The same journal also printed a translation of the cipher, made by Colonel E. K. Money, which is as follows:

"Dear Jesus send His help soon and deliver us not into
the enemy's hands.
The General's daughter is in this corner.
May God reward them according to the bloody deeds
done to this innocent girl.
This is the corner General Wheeler occupied in his distress.
The General's wife is in this corner.
The P.M. in this.This is the place where two soldiers (unintelligible)
Remember the innocent."

As both of the General's daughters survived the siege there must be some mistake in this translation, on which a critic, possibly " Tatnai " himself, writes: " Colonel Money has misinterpreted the gender of the symbol, it was the general's son who was wounded, when a cannonball. in passing through the room, carried away the head of lieutenant Wheeler in the presence of his parents and sisters. Colonel Mowbray Thomson states this . . . and Colonel Williams, the special Commissioner, states that Lady Wheeler and her two daughters were brought down to the Ghaut on an elephant. One of the daughters was carried away by a Sowar. The remark 'unintelligible' . . . must refer to the spot where the two soldiers laid Lieutenant Wheeler down. Mr. Shepherd says that the two daughters occupied the adjoining room when he saw the General on the 24th June, 1S57."

I have mentioned that MacCrea's printed leaflet is dated July 1887- It purports to have been "copied by W. J. Shepherd in July, 185d," and it contains the following which I have not found elsewhere, though in part it is referred to by "Tatnai":

"T. B. Roach wounded in right foot, shin bone fractured by shell, knee cap fractured, musket shot behind, nasty wound, musket shot in right breast. 9 th June, 1857. Adjutant Halliday, With N. I-, killed by a round shot, 9th June, 1857."

Only three lines of cipher are given, and these with all else which could not be printed in type, are inserted with pen and ink. Some notes are added, but they are not reliable as they contain, for instance, the statement that the translation by (Colonel Money appeared in the Masonic Herald for 1808, while as a matter of fact that periodical was not in existence until about l870, and as I have said, the translation was printed in the Indian Freemasons Friend in 1862. While I cannot say that I am satisfied with Colonel Money's translation, I am not able to supply another. The absence of the original writing, or an authoritative copy, renders any serious attempt at deciphering practically impossible. We do not even know for certain where it was written. If, as seems most likely, it was on a wall in the Thatched Barrack, it could scarcely have referred to General Wheeler and his family, and we know that this building was burned during the siege; while the Masonry Barrack in which General Wheeler had his quarters, was destroyed soon after Havelock's entry. "Tatnai," writing within five years of the massacre, says that the building was not then in existence, and his suggestion is that the writer had concealed something in a certain place, and hoped that after his death some Brother might be able to recover it.

There were two English Lodges at Cawnpore at the time--Sincerity, constituted in 1819 and erased in 1858 and Harmony, constituted in 1836, which still exists as No. 438. It seems likely that Johnston may have been the Master of Sincerity, but unfortunately no names were registered at Grand Lodge after 1845. Shepherd mentions a Mr. A. R. Johnston, of the E. I. Railway, who with his wife and children was killed during the siege. James Williamson Roche, postmaster, was initiated in Harmony in December, 1806, and his is the only name I am able to trace in the lists at Freemasons' Hall. It is quite possible that the Brother who wrote the cipher was a Scotch Mason. The devie eat the head undoubtedly indicates the Red Cross of Babylon, which the second line ends with letters referring to the same Degree (Red Cross Knight), and one would not expect this to have been put forward prominently, in an English Lodge, at so late a date.

On the other hand a Scotch Master would probably have been described as R.W.M. The interlaced triangles which appear sometimes at the foot, and sometimes in the center of the copies, may be taken as referring to the Royal Arch, but it is not impossible that they may also indicate the key to the cipher. Colonel Money's translation seems to imply that the prayer was also written in cipher, while MacCrea's version points to a sense of inscriptions in the form of a diary, or record of events, during the siege, and Shepherd's statements rather bear out this view. It may be merely a coincidence that on the 17th of June, the date given on the photograph, a daughter of Shepherd was killed by a chance musket shot. If Colonel Money was right in his translation of "daughter" there is just a possibility that this u the incident referred to. In any case it seems that the mystery will not be cleared up, unless and until we have before us a correct copy of the writing as it originally appeared Only one thing can be stated with certainty: that it had no reference whatever to either of the two massacres but to occurrences which took place before the attempted escape by the boats.



Alabama Arizona. Arkansas. California. Colorado. Connecticut. Delaware. District of Columbia. Florida. Georgia. Idaho. Illinois. Indiana. Iowa. Kansas. Kentucky. Louisiana. Maine. Massachusetts. Michigan. Minnesota. Mississippi. Missouri. Montana. Nebraska. Nevada. New Hampshire. New Jersey. New Mexico. New York. North Carolina. North Dakotas Ohio. Oklahoman Oregon . Pennsylvania Rhode Island. South Carolina. South Dakota. Tennessee. Texas. Utah. Vermont. Virginia. Washington. West Virginia. Wisconsin Wyoming. CANADA Alberta. British Columbia. Manitoba. Nora Scotia. Prince Edward Island . Ontario. Saskatchewan.



The reader in this connection may look over the allied items dealing with Charity, Orphans, Masonic Relief Association of the United States and Canada, Children's Exchange Bureau, Shrine Hospitals for Crippled Children, each of which will contribute some information as to the Masonic urge to provide systematic loving care for the dependent. The Masonic Home and its adjuncts, as the Infirmary in Nebraska and the Sanitarium in Iowa, hold an honored place in Masonic activities. Their beneficiaries are guests of the Fraternity and the several branches of the organization have given generously toward the success of this worthy object. Brotherly moue is the proper expression of the attitude of the Brethren to the occupants of Masonic Homes, and this term is preferable to the word Charity with the meaning often associated with it. Obviously the treatment of Masonic Homes must be condensed for such a purpose as ours. Only the leading facts can be included and these must lag behind the actual attainments as, every month in the year, some one or more Grand Lodges are receiving annual reports on Masonic Homes and enlarging their service.

Brother Frank S. Moses, Past Grand Master of Iowa, prepared in 1923 a report of the activities in Masonic Homes, Brother Jesse M. Whited in his Correspondence Report of She Grand Lodge of California has also summarized the situations and these general surveys of the field have been supplemented by numerous local articles at various times. These items have been checked with the co-operation of the various officials throughout the country.

Alabama has men, women, boys and girls as guests at a Masonic Home and School near Montgomery. The Grand Lodge has here 275 acres of land, 40 of which are in a beautiful grove, 100 in pasture and the balance devoted to the raising of food crops and carried on at a profit. The property includes a library, auditorium, a main building, cottages for the guests, hospital building, operating room, dental parlor, nurses' quarters, school building, a separate infirmary for old men and many other structures representing an investment of $450,000 and a large sum has been invested in beautifying the grounds, driveways, etc. The Grand Lodge dues annually are $1 for each Master Mason in good standing, 90 cents of which goes to the Home and 10 cents is applied to maintaining old Freemasons and their wives and widows on the monthly pension system administered by the Local Lodges. Three dollars is also obtained for the maintenance or normal income of the Home for each Fellow Craft passed during the year; the Grand Chapter donates annually $25 per capita for every Royal Arch Mason; the Grand Commandery usually gives $2,000 a year. The Lodges also take up a voluntary contribution just before each annual meeting. The total income of the Home is about $75,000 a year and expenses have averaged $6,000 per month. Alabama has also inaugurated an Endowment Fund amounting to about $10,000 to be materially increased each year.

Arizona assesses $10 from every initiate and affiliate for the Masonic Home Endowment Fund, and 50 cents every year is collected and paid into the Masonic Home General Fund for each Brother on the roll of membership on December 31. The combined funds were $202,624; $114,372 being in the Masonic Home Endowment Fund, and $88,252 in the Masonic Home General Fund. There is a Sanatoria for the care of tubercular patients at Oracle, a summer resort village in the foothills of the Santa Catalina Mountains, forty miles from Tucson. The site of sixty acres and the house with sixteen rooms are valued at $60,000. Grand Lodge Committee spent a further $8,000 erecting three four-room cottages and improving the main building. This Home has had no facilities, however, for giving medical or nursing care or for handling bedridden patients, only those being able to care for themselves being received as guests.

Arkansas maintains an Orphans Home and also a Relief and Pension Fund for Widows. It has had guests at the Home at an annual expense of $425 each. It derives funds from $1 per member, $11 fee and interest on investments of $200,000. The Orphans Home received 50 cents per member and $8 for fees of the Three Degrees out of the above, aggregating approximately $40,000 per annum. Pension and Relief Fund is made up by a $7,000 appropriation by Grand Lodge and approximately $5,000 voluntary contributions by Lodges annually.

California maintains two Masonic Homes, one at Decoto, Alameda County, which was dedicated in 1898, and is a Home for Aged Freemasons and their adult dependents, and the other located at Covina, Los Angeles County, for Dependent Children of Freemasons. By 1910 their Permanent Improvement Fund had risen to $17,000 and the previous year, 1909, Jacob Hart Nebb died, leaving the residue of his estate, amounting to $12,688 to the Decoto Home. The balance in the Permanent Improvement Fused was added to this, the two being called a Permanent Endowment Fund, which has now gone over the S480,000 mark. The capital is not touched, only the interest on investments being used. These Homes include-hospital units and guests have been maintained at these homes for $500 each yearly. The hospital may accommodate 70 patients, largely those that are helpless from the infirmities of age. The cost of maintaining children in the Home at Covina has been $600 per year each. The two Institutions represent an investment of some $1,621,689. Funds are raised from a $20 fee for each initiate or affiliate and 25 cents each year from each member.

The Colorado Masons Benevolent Fund Association is practically a Committee of the Grand Lodge and has been in existence since 1902 and has accumulated in twenty-three years approximately S86,000. Lodges pay as dues to the Grand Lodge $1 annually for every member under sixty years of age and 10 per cent of that amount goes to the Benevolent Fund. The Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Colorado annually contributes to this fund 5 cents for every Royal Arch Mason. Only the income from the fund may be used for relief work. Grand Lodge created another fund of $40,000 for the relief of Freemasons who were in the military or naval service of the United States or for their relatives, and such relief is extended upon the recommendation of the Master of the Lodge where the Brother held membership. There is also a Grand Lodge Committee which cares for Freemasons in the two Government Hospitals in the State. One of these, near Denver, is for tubercular cases and has patients from all over the country.

The other is at Las Animas. The funds necessary for this Committee are provided by the Grand Lodge, Grand Chapter and Grand Commandery to the amount of S5,000 yearly. Members of the Committee visit these Brethren in hospitals every Sunday with flowers and theft furnish entertainment every week. Their families are assisted with advice and money when necessary and much valuable work has been done by the Committee assisting Brethren in these institutions with regard to their compensation from the Government and in similar matters. This Soldiers and Sailors Welfare Committee consists of nine members appointed by the Grand Master to extend relief and comfort to Freemasons who were employed in the military or naval service during the World War and the lives, children and dependents of these Brethren. The Grand Lodge has also planned a fund of $15,000 for establishing scholarships for the sons and daughters of Freemasons in institutions of higher learning.

Connecticut has long supported an incorporated Masonic Charity Foundation. It has a Home and Hospital at Wallingford, valued at $600,000, the Hospital Unit having facilities for the care of 100 patients. This unit was largely paid for by special assessment of $5 for each Brother and the Eastern Star of Connecticut levied a tax of $1 per member to furnish and equip it. It has an Endowment Fund of $100,000. Here at the Home in Ballingford are adult guests, of whom one-third ma! be classed as permanently helpless infirmary cases. They have been maintained at an average cost of $460 for each guest per year. The Grand Lodge also assists other needy cases in outside locations. Connecticut Freemasons pay $2.15 per annum for charity and $10 is collected from each initiate or affiliate.

Delaware has a Home at Wilmington for the aged and indigent, each Lodge contributing annually for its maintenance $2 per capita, $10 for every affiliation during the year and $10 for every candidate initiated. There is an investment in real estate and equipment of $29,480. The auditor's report of 1924 showed a total investment of $178,000. Delaware also has arranged for the distribution of four scholarships each year of $125 each in memory of their first Grand Master, Gunning Bedford, Jr. These may be used in any school or college grade, but the Committee having charge of the awards prefer the University of Delaware. If the student makes progress in his studies the scholarship will be continued for four years. Contributions to this will also be received from the subordinate Lodges in proportion to their membership, the fund being gradually increased each year.

District of Columbia Freemasons established a Home and Infirmary about 1914, valued at $150,000, which shelters adults and children. Its maintenance expense has been annually about $520 for each guest. An Endowment Fund of S107,000 has been accumulated. Each District Freemason contributes 75 cents annually for this charity, and each initiate $5.

Florida has a Masonic Home on a ten acre site at St. Petersburg which, with the improvements there, represents an investment of $103,000. This property was purchased at a Sheriff's Sale and has since then attracted an offer for it of S250,000. The assessment upon the Brethren for the support of the Home is $1 per capita and for emergency relief 25 cents. There is a $5 assessment upon every initiate for the Masonic Home Building Fund, which is not applied to maintenance but restricted to new work for bettering the Home facilities. There are two Relief Committees. The Emergency Committee comprises three members, appointed by the Grand Master, to handle all relief for members of Lodges in the State and the Fund for that purpose is obtained by the per capita tax plus a special appropriation turned over to the Committee at the close of each Grand Communication. If this amount is not sufficient the Committee has authority to supply deficiencies from the Masonic Home Fund.

Relief is furnished on the request of Lodges, where the applicant is worthy and the Lodge unable to furnish the required relief and on the approval of the Committee the relief is granted, a smalls monthly allowance being considered better when enabling applicants to remain at their residences rather than at the Masonic Home. The Masonic Relief Committee, as in Jacksonville, comprises one member from each of the five local Lodges and is supplied with funds by them on request of the Committee and then an appropriation of 25 cents per member is turned over to the fund, which is used exclusively for sojourning Brethren and not for Florida Freemasons. Each local Lodge has its own Special Committee for the relief of its members.

The Masonic Orphan's Home is four miles from the City of Macon on the hills overlooking the valley of the Ocmulgee River where there is a farm of 152 acres under a competent agriculturist to instruct the hoss. There is also a print-shop with Linotype Machines, presses and other equipment and with an instructor to teach ten of the boys at a time. The Come is for Children only none being accepted under five nor over fifteen years. The endowment in 1925 was $175,000. The Grand Lodge dues are $1 per capita yearly and 45 cents goes to the maintenance of the me. Widows, as w elf as elderly or decrepit members, are supported in their own home communities from fund of $120,000 appropriated annually by the Strand Lodge. This fund is administered by a Committee of Relief, which as a rule pays the individual compliant an amount equal to that given by the local or interested Lodge.

At the session of 1869, Idaho Freemasonry, with seven Lodges and a combined membership of 279, established the Orphan's Fund by an annual assessment of $1 per member for "the support and duration of the orphans of deceased members or the Children of indigent Freemasons whom the Grand Lodge might deem worthy of assistance." The principal must remain intact forever and the fund was placed in the control of a Board of Trustees consisting the Grand Master and the Grand Wardens, hut in 86 provision was made for a Board of three members elected annually by the Grand Lodge. The annual assessment was reduced to 50 cents in 1895. An amendment was adopted in 1885 whereby the benefits of the fund were also applied to "the support and clothing of poor and indigent Freemasons." Since that time the proper title for the fund has been the Grand Lodge Orphan and Indigent Fund." mother amendment was passed in 1909 providing or the support and clothing of indigent widows of deceased Freemasons. The fund grew from $294 in 1870 to $117,089 in 1923.

There was expended for relief in 1890, $289 and in 1923, .$4,875. The Trustees lo not deal with individual cases or applications except through the Lodges. Applications are made through the Lodge Officers and when preparations are made, the check is sent to the Worshipful Master and he is responsible for spending the appropriation in his best judgment. There may be expenses not filling within the laws providing for the expenditure in this fund such, for example, as funeral expenses, but the Trustees do not consider these as coming rithin their jurisdiction and they must be taken care of by the Lodge or from some other source.

Illinois has a Masonic Home and Hospital at Sullivan on a fine farm donated to the Grand Lodge for that purpose. Adult guests are fraternally cared for there. The Masonic Horne for Children is at La Grange, a suburb of Chicago, and trains children for useful citizenship. The realty value and investment in these institutions approximates $1,000,000, and the operating expenses have been $200,000 annually or a little over $400 per annum per guest. The Freemasons of Illinois contribute 62½ cents per capita annually and the appropriations and donations from other Masonic Bodies and interested Brethren amply support these worthy establishments.

Indiana has a splendid Home at Franklin, on an estate of 270 acres. The land and buildings are valued at approximately $1,250,000. The Order of the Eastern Star, Knights Templar and Scottish Rite have been very liberal in contributing toward the erection of the necessary buildings and the support of the Home and Hospital. Here are entertained adults and children at an annual operating cost of $347 per guest. An Endowment Fund of $200,000 has been accumulated. The Grand Lodge per capita for the Home is $1 and .$5 is charged for each Initiate, the latter being placed in the Endowment Fund.

Since 1894 Iowa has disbursed its benevolence through a Grand Charity Fund administered by a Board of three Trustees. This fund was started with an allotment of 10 cents per capita and used to supplement the benevolence of constituent Lodges as required. This per capita allotment has been increased several times and Special appropriations have been made from the general funds. This plan is most satisfactory in that it permits approved beneficiaries to live in familiar or chosen environment under the fraternal supervision of a local Trustee to whom the funds for each case have been remitted. Excess of receipts in this fund accruing through balances, donations and special appropriations have been converted into a permanent Grand Charity Fund, which amounted to $400,000 in 1925. In 1923 the Grand Lodge authorized an increase of $1 per capita in Grand Lodge dues for the establishment and operation of a Sanitarium; in 1925 the purchase of a piece of property for the purpose was approved and the institution is for the care of elderly and feeble dependents, with facilities for approximately one hundred guests.

The rules of admission to the Sanitarium are that "only those persons who are in need of daily nurse care shall be admitted to the Sanitarium or permitted to remain therein. No person shall be admitted to the Sanitarium who can be suitably eared for by allowances from the Grand Charity Fund; nor shall anyone be admitted against his will so long as he can be properly cared for elsewhere at a cost not to exceed the per capita cost of maintenance at the Sanitarium." The investment is about $200,000, including equipment, etc. Gland Lodge also derives income from a $10 fee for each initiate.

Kansas has a Home at Wichita for Freemasons, their wives, widows and orphans, valued at S350,000, and an Endowment Fund of $140,000. The Home entertains adult guests and children and has operated at an annual expense of $306 for each guest. The Home became overcrowded and additions were ordered in 1924, a $2 assessment being levied on each of its members. The regular per capita tax for charity is 50 cents and $5 is collected for each Brother personally when raised to the Sublime Degree of a Master Mason.

Kentucky was a pioneer in providing for its indigent Freemasons and their dependent wives, widows and orphans It has a Widows and Orphans Home at Louisville, with a valuation of $375,000. This Home contains adults and children and has operated at a yearly expense of $182 for each guest. Kentucky also maintains an Old Masons Home at Shelbyville where guests busy themselves on a small farm valued at $120.000. .&n Educational Endowment of $160,000 has been accumulated. The total accumulation of its Endowment Funds is $1,000,000; its per capita tax is $1.75 which includes the price of a Home Journal at 50 cents which is published by the Grand Lodge, and an Amendment provides for a fee of $10 from each Master Mason to apply to the Endowment Fund. In addition to these splendid achievements in the name of charity, it appointed a Committee to raise $1,600,000 by subscriptions payable over a term of years, to provide enlarged and modern facilities for the Home and Hospital.

Louisiana has disbursed relief from a permanent fund of $100,000 at the disposition of the Grand Master. A Home for Orphans was opened in 1925 at Alexandria and represented an investment of $250,000. The support of this institution has been from $1 per capita and $1 for each Degree conferred. Provision has also been made for a Home for the Aged.

The Grand Lodge of Maine distributes the income from a Charity Fund to beneficiaries direct through the Lodges. This invested fund of $85,000 is safely guarded by a constitutional provision that only the income can be used and no part of the principal expended. From 1864 the Grand Lodge operated this plan on an annual per capita tax of 20 cents and increased the Charity Fund from about $65,000 to the above amount. In 1924 the per capita tax was increased to 50 cents. The Lodges make application for their dependent members on blanks of prescribed form. These are submitted to the Committee on Distribution of Funds of the Board of Trustees. The total amount of money available is divided into units and the Committee votes to give the respective beneficiaries one, two or more of these units as the individual need requires. A check for the total sum appropriated is sent to the Worshipful Master of the Lodge of which the beneficiary is a member and he pays it out in installments as they are required. A typical case is that of an old lady who died at eighty-five and who had been dependent upon the Masonic Bodies for over twenty years. The Grand Lodge allowed her $150 a year with a like amount coming from the Grand Chapter, the local Lodge donating yearly from $75 to $100, with other gifts from the Chapter, Council and Commandery. This amount maintained a home for this lady among her old friends.

Massachusetts established a Home at Charlton in 1911, on a farm of 300 acres. The value of the Home is approximately $200,000 and it has cared for adult guests at an operating expense of $614 each per year. It has a Special Endowment of S363,000. This venerable Jurisdiction has maintained many charities. The Brethren have a General Charity Fund, a Rainy Day Fund, a \Var Relief fund, and finance a Masonic Employment bureaus 1 he total funds grouped under the head of Masonic Home and Educational Trust comprise several distinct funds and aggregate 31,389,000. $5 is collected from each initiate for the Grand Charity Fund. The charity work is provided for by the income of the funds and such appropriation from the current funds of the Grand Lodge as may be needed.

Michigan established a Home and Hospital at Alma in 1911, valued at some $300,000, including hospital facilities of 30 beds. The average expense has been about $560 per annum. It is interesting to note also that the average age of the guests is nearly 75 years. Michigan also disburses relief from a separate Charity Fund, and builds up a Reserve Maintenance Fund and a Building Fund for its Home and Hospital. Fifty cents per member goes to these purposes annually. In 1924 the Grand Lodge decided to devote an additional $1 for each member to a Fund to be used for another Home to be operated on the Cottage Plan.

Minnesota has had for years a Masonic Home managed by a separately incorporated Body and supported by individual subscriptions and appropriations from the Grand Lodge. The Grand Lodge took steps to assume the practical control of the Institution and greatly extended its usefulness by the construction, equipment and maintenance of an adequate Home and Hospital. A $500,000 fund for this purpose was subscribed. Another $100,000 was pledged for an endowment of this project. Minnesota has long had a Relief Fund from which disbursements have been made to all worthy beneficiaries according to their necessities, having a balance of $112,472 in that Fund in 1925. Revenue for the Masonic Home will be derived from $1 per capita of its membership and $5 from each initiate.

Mississippi maintains two Homes, one at Meridian, valued at $175,000, which cares for children, with all necessary equipment, including a well-managed hospital. The other Home, valued at $100,000, is located at Columbus. The operating expense of the Meridian Home has been reported at $28,734.67 per year, and the Columbus Home at $22,192.87. A farm was acquired by donation, covering 343 acres where the boys of the Homes reside and receive splendid vocational education and training as farmers. The charitable revenue is derived from $t per capita tax and $10 from those taking the Degrees. Grand Lodge authorized the creation of a fund of $20,000 for the erection of a hospital building at the State Sanatorium for tubercular patients and during 1924 Grand Lodge gave a supplement of $5,000 for this purpose. The Hospital Unit was completed in 1925 and named the Masonic Unit. The Masonic Home Maintenance Fund also contributes each vear a large sum of money to persons outside of the Home upon the recommendation of the Finance Committee. The Grand Lodge of Mississippi had a total Endowment Fund of $270,825, its Murphy-Martin Educational Endowment Fund alone amounting to $104,739.

Missouri has a beautiful Masonic Home at St. Louis, established in 1889, which houses both adults and children. A splendid Hospital was added to the plant in 1915; adult guests and children have been cared for by the Missouri Brethren at a cost of about $450 each per year. The total valuation of the assets in 1925 was S?1,380?000 including an Endowment Fund of $508,690. Charitable revenue is derived from a per capita tax of $1.50 and a $10 fee for the Degrees.

Montana opened its Masonic Home near Helena for Aged, Infirm and Destitute Masons and their widows in 1909. The original buildings cost $103,500 and were erected out of the proceeds of a per capita annual tax of $1 per member, and in addition thereto was purchased the site containing 590 acres, costing $10,000, a part of which price nas contributed. It has an Endowment Fund consisting of $24,328 cash and 13,000 acres of land given by the will of the late David Auchard, a wealthy cattle man and land owner of Lewis and Clark County, who died in 190 ; sultry bequests from others amounting to $7,000 and $"5,000 from the late William .s. Clark, Past Grand Master and former United States Senator from Montana. The net worth of the Home is over 5300,000. Guests have been maintained here at a per capita cost of $410 per year. The Home is Supported by $1 per capita annual assessment on all the Freemasons in the State, in addition to receipts from its Endowment Fund. Grand Lodge in 1923 placed a $10 initiation fee upon all candidates for the Entered Apprentice Degree, which goes to the Permanent Building Fund of the Home. In 1922 request was made of each Montana Freemason to make a voluntary offering of $10 for the purpose of erecting new buildings, this covering a period of five years. From that has been realized $21,907, which has been used to defray the cost of a new heating plant. A hospital unit has also been added.

There are Masonic Homes at Plattsmouth and Fremont. The Nebraska Masonic Home at Plattsmouth is a corporation, the Grand Lodge owning a large majority of the stock. The building, grounds and furniture cost $125,000 with an Infirmary valued at $140,000. The Grand Lodge appropriated $100,000 for the Infirmary, the Grand Chapter and the Grand Commandery $10,000 each, and the Nebraska Masonic Home paid the balance. The Home had a fund of $170,000 in bonds and mortgages in 1925. The War Relief Fund then amounted to $31,660 and the Orphan's Educational Fund $125,677. The Grand Lodge yearly dues are $2, 75 cents going to the Nebraska Masonic Home, 75 cents to the General Fund and 50 cents to the Building and Improvement Fund. S10 are collected from each initiation, $5 going to the General Fund and $5 to the Building and Improvement Fund. A fee of $10 for affiliation is collected on those whose demits are more than one year old. The Trustees of the Home pay annuities to dependent members or their families at their own homes or other institutions. The Home for Children at Fremont has building, grounds and furniture valued at $140,000 and this is managed by a Board appointed by the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge and the Grand Matron of the Order of the Eastern Star, each Body contributing funds for the support of this Home.

The Grand Lodge had in 1925 a Charity Fund of $2,512 to which every year ten percent of the net revenues are added. Charity and relief are administered directly by the Lodes, the smaller ones being, helped out by the Grand Lodge. As this record was written, a Lodge assumed the guardianship and education of two orphans. While aid to neighboring needy Brethren is given from the Grand Lodge Fund, gifts have been made to fire sufferers in Chicago and San Francisco, to assist the New Mexico and other sanitariums to building schools at Tokyo, etc. Nevada reports that real relief is handled in a masterly way by the Local Lodges, covering every charitable requirement.

New Hampshire established a Home at Manchester in 1903 at which time it was Valued at $30,000 and which cares for adult guests, which has since been enlarged by an addition valued at about $80,000 and which includes a modern infirmary. The Home is partially sustained by an Endowment of $50,000. They further have a War Relief Fund of $12,000, and a General Relief Fund of $12,000 from which they assisted worthy applicants. Charitable revenue is derived from a per capita tax of 75 cents, an initiation fee of $10 and an affiliation fee of $10.

New Jersey maintains a Home' and Orphanage near Burlington, on a large farm, the property being valued at $700,000. It there provides for adults and youthful guests. It has adequate hospital facilities for the sick and aged. The operating expense was about $530 each per year, and the Home has an endowment of $70,000. Charitable revenue is derived from 31 per capita and $10 from each initiate.

New Mexico Grand Lodge has a Masonic Home Fund, started in 1889, which amounted to over $72,000 in 1925. The Grand Chapter and Grand Commandery also had funds amounting to $9,000 and $3,100 respectively in 1925. A Grand Lodge Masonic Relief Fund assists aged and indigent Brethren and their widows and orphans. Applications for relief are made through a Lodge to the Grand Lodge and the appropriation is paid monthly through the Lodges. The constituent Lodge affords all possible assistance before applying to the Grand Lodge Relief Fund. At any time that the Grand Lodge Masonic Relief Fund is insufficient to cover necessary disbursements, the Grand Master directs that additional sums be transferred from the General Fund. $6,100 has been expended in one year from this Relief Fund. New Mexico has a particularly difficult problem, due to the large number of Brethren afflicted with tuberculosis who come from all parts of the United States.

The Grand Lodge Masonic Tubereular Sanatorium Committee, has "expressed the hope that our Sister Jurisdictions of Arizona and Texas would see their way clear to assist in furthering a national movement." The Committee on Grand Master's Address recommended that "we seek the co-operation in perfecting the necessary organization of the Grand Jurisdictions of Arizona, Texas and Oklahoma, and take all necessary steps to develop this important undertaking." At the United States Veterans Hospital No. 55, located at Fort Bayard, there is a Masonic Club known as the Sojourners' Club, to which the Grand Lodge, Grand Chapter and Grand Comrnandery of New Mexico, as well as Ballut Abyad Temple, Albuquerque, and constituent Lodges, Chapters, Commanderies and individual Brethren have contributed materially to its Building, Furnishing and Relief Funds. From the time of the inception of the Sojourners' Club, the Grand Lodge of New Mexico has annually contributed $1,200, this amount having been increased in 1925 to $1,500 per annum.

This is in addition to other donations from time to time to the Club. The Club Building was furnished early in 1923, and Leon M. Abbott, of the Sovereign Grand Commander, Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite for the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, contributed $26,000. Among the additional larger donors were: The Grand Lodge of California, $1,000; Grand Lodge of New York, S2,500; Grand Lodge of Texas, $1,000; Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, $2,50.0; Grand Lodge of New Jersey, S1,500; the Supreme Council, Scottish Rite for the Southern Jurisdiction, $1,000, and the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, $1,000. The Grand Bodies and Brethren of other Jurisdictions continue to contribute generously to the Club Relief Fund. The Grand Lodge, in the development of what is known as the Fort Bayard Undertaking, receives, through its Grand Secretary, contributions which are paid out by Grand Lodge warrants on requisitions approved by the Club Committee. The Club expended $5,000 from the Relief Fund alone in 1925. Work of a similar nature has also been done at the United States Marine Hospital at Fort Stanton. A Student Loan Fund is one of the activities of the Grand Lodge, enabling worthy young men and women to pursue their studies in accredited Universities by loans advanced by the Student Loan Fund Committee. Each year $2,00.0 is placed in this Fund from the Grand Lodge General Fund. The source of income for relief purposes comes from a S2 per capita tax for each Master Mason returned annually, $1 of which goes to the Masonic Home Fund, 50 cents to the Masonic Relief Fund and 50 cents to the Student Loan Fund. Plans were carried through energetically for the building of the Masonic Home and School.

New York has a splendid Home and Hospital at Utica It there cares for adults and children, with every necessary provision for their comfort and education. A splendid Memorial Hospital, with a capacity of 225 beds, has been dedicated. The annual operating expense of this Home and Hospital amounted to $400,000. The valuation of this property approximates $1,750,000. The Grand Lodge has accumulated a substantial endowment for this institution. The total of its other various special funds is over $1,000,000. Its revenue available for charitable purposes from all sources approximates $400,000 a year. The Grand Lodge of New York further distributes annually some $30,000 to beneficiaries outside of the Home. Many of the Lodges and districts provide for institutional care of their own members. The charitable revenue is derived from a per capita tax of 50 cents to meet current expense, and initiation fees of $3.50. The independent activities carried on in various cities and districts render it impossible to make an adequate review of the total of Masonic charity in this Jurisdiction. One of the early contributions to the Home was made by Edwin Thomas Booth, the famous American tragedian, who bestowed $5,000 upon the Home at Utica.

North Carolina maintains a Home for Children at Oxford, with a farm and dairy herd in connection with the Home, the entire property being valued at about $750,000. The project includes such departments as a Printing Plant, Electrical Department, a Shoe Shop, Laundry and Sewing Rooms and also has an accredited Eight School. A large percentage of the children are non-Masonic, the institution never having been limited to one class of orphans. This Home has always had the hearty support of all the people of the State, owing to the reputation it has ever maintained for the generous care and liberal education of its guests. Its annual income has amounted to $161,331, derived from Local Lodges, individual contributions, appropriations from Grand Lodge and from the State of North Carolina, as well as proceeds from Departments of the Home such as the Singing Class, the Printing Office and Electric Shop. Children have been maintained here at a cost of $309 for each guest per year, exclusive of profits from activities in Departments before mentioned, or $270 each per year, taking into consideration these proceeds. Another Masonic Rome is operated at Greensboro by the Freemasons in conjunction with the Eastern Star and is for Old People, being valued at $100,000, and where adult guests have been cared for at $778 for each per year. The Grand Lodge of North Carolina levies a tax of $10 on each initiate, which goes into the Charity Fund, and from which appropriations are made for charitable purposes, but there is no direct tax levied for either of the Homes by the Grand Lodge.

North Dakota disburses relief from a fund to which every Master Mason raised during the year pays $5 and the Grand Lodge has also made provision for a contribution to this purpose of 15 cents per capita from its General Fund, the original plan contemplating the accumulation of about $5,000 annually to ultimately permit the erection of a Masonic Home. This fund, at the beginning of 1925, for example, was $38,690; the amount expended during the previous year for relief was $4,424. The individual Lodges assume their share of the burden, the intent being for the Grand Lodge Relief Fund to assist them in this benevolence.

Ohio has a Masonic Home and Hospital on 400 acres near the city of Springfield. It has cared for adults and children at an operating expense of $585 each annually. It is under the control of the Grand Lodge, but is also substantially supported by the other Masonic Bodies of Ohio. The valuation of the Institution approximates $1,000,000, its splendid buildings and equipment largely financed by donations and bequests from Brethren interested in Masonic benevolence. The Grand Lodge collects $1 from each of its members for charity. Included in the grounds of the Home above mentioned are 37 acres with a beautiful building, barn, garage and chicken houses, known as the W. B. Hillman Memorial for boys, so named by the Grand Chapter in honor of Brother Hillman, who, in 1887, was one of the early advocates of the institution, at which time he was Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter of Ohio. Like the rest of the Home, the support of this institution comes from the annual per capita tax.

Oklahoma has erected a new group of buildings at Guthrie to accommodate all of its wards, and give the children better school facilities than were obtained at Darlington. They care for adults and children at an operating expense of $328 per guest. Valuable property acquired at an early date enables them to expend $500,000 on this project and establish a healthy reserve fund. Their charity revenue is derived from $1.50 per capita and $1 for each Degree conferred. Other adult beneficiaries are provided for at their own homes.

Oregon has a Masonic Home, S350,000 having been raised for that purpose by voluntary contributions from the Craft, including $50,000 contributed by the Order of the Eastern Star. The Home has a value of S420,000. Yearly dues for the Home are $1 per member, $5 for each Entered Apprentice Degree conferred and $5 on each affiliate from outside the State for the Maintenance Fund; $5 on each Entered Apprentice Degree conferred and $5 on each affiliate from outside the State for the Building Fund. there is an Educational Fund with an irreducible principal of 5990,000, the income from which is used to assist in the education of 100 children yearly in the grammar and high schools. There is a revolving Student Loan Fund of $6,000 which is loaned to students in colleges and universities in amounts not to exceed 3300, repayable at 4% interest.

Pennsylvania, about the beginning of this century, took up the establishment of Masonic Homes and secured a tract of 1,000 acres at Elizabethtown between Lancaster and Harrisburg, including some forty-nine farms. Guests were received and housed in one of the farm buildings about 1910. Children were first admitted in 1913, though the Boys Home was not opened until June 1, 1914, and the Girls Home in January, 1915. All these buildings have since been abandoned. Grand Lodge Hall, valued at over $400,000, was occupied by adult guests in August, 1913. In 1914 the Boys were housed in a temporary building, and the Girls in another farm house in 1915. A gift from Brother NV. Harry Brown and Mrs. Brown has since been used to build the Brown Home for Boys, costing $95,000. The John Smith Home for Boys was opened in June, 1925, costing $250,000, with an Endowment of $200,000 executed by an agreement. The boys, upon reaching a certain age and attaining a certain grade in school, are transferred to the Thomas Ranken Patton Masonic Institution for Boys, built upon a farm adjoining the Homes tract. This was provided for under the will of Brother Patton, for many years the Grand Treasurer of the Grand Lodge.
December 3, 1924, the Trustees reported a balance in hand of $1,545,105. Various branches of manual training are taught, the boys also continuing studying in the public schools. The girls are now housed in the Louis H. Eisenlohr Home for Girls, valued at $140,000. Louis Eisenlohr's brother, Charles J., and his sister Mary Eisenlohr, contributed $10,000 for furnishing this Home. Sick guests of the Pennsylvania Homes are cared for in the Philadelphia Freemasons Memorial Hospital, costing $320,000 completely furnished; capacity, 110 beds. After its three units were finished the Philadelphia Brethren handed Grand Lodge the balance of the fund to provide increased hospital accommodations as needed, amounting to $91,945, December 3, 1924. Since 1913, when Grand Lodge Hall was opened, there have been erected: John Henry Daman Memorial Cottage costing $41,000, Brother Daman having bequeathed his entire estate to Grand Lodge; Paul L. Levis Memorial Cottage costing $33,000; Gustavus Croetzinger Memorial, a completely equipped laundry, $12,000; Berks County Memorial, $33,000; Blair County Memorial, $7,000; Dauphin County Memorial, $80,000; Cumberland Valley Memorial, $8,000; Allegheny County Memorial, $336,000; and Lancaster County Memorial, $111,000. Illustrating the generosity of the Brethren, it may be noted that the per capita giving of those of Dauphin County was about S35 and of Lancaster County about $43. $10,000 was provided by the mother of Brother George M. McCandless from the estate, the income of which is used for the comfort of women guests in the Hospital. Grand Lodge has several legacies amounting to nearly $150,000, with which to build as future needs require. Strs. Exate E. Sell, widow of Brother John S. Sell, has given $100,000 for a chapel as a memorial to Brother Sell and agreed to give $2O.000 more for organ chimes, etc. Numerous gifts have been made by living donors and by the wills of others in aid of the work. On December 3, 1994, Grand Lodge had the following sums coming to it under Dequests from the following estates:

Brother Henry Crux...........................$132 062
Brother John NV. Nvilbrahan ..............95 434
Brother James NV. Orr.........................99,000
Brother J. Barren Hale and Mrs. Hale..16,000
Brother. tlbert F. Young.........................2 000
Mrs. Elinor Splane Sproal....................32,800
(This will be augmented then real estate is sold)

The brother and sisters of Past Grand Master William L. Gorgas of Pennsylvania, January, 1924, presented to Grand Lodge securities of the par value of $50,000, to be known as the William Luther Gorgas Memorial Fund, the income to go to the maintenance of the Homes, the Committee on Homes being given power to use part of the income for the relief of minor children of deceased Pennsylvania Freemasons. Numerous wills have been probated which will pay to Grand Lodge in the near future or at the termination of life estates the following amounts:

Brother Joseph D. Wilson....................................$100 000
Brother Thomas B. Dornan...................................250 000
brother Samuel J. Shannon.....................................30 000
Brother Jaeoh Gottman............................................5 000
Brother Charles Crane............................................30 000
Brother Charles E. Marshall.....................................5 000

Many- small legacies have also been received by Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania since the Homes were opened. It also manages by Trustees various Funds for charitable purposes including the Stephen Taylor Bequest of 815,800 and the Charles Jackson McClary Memorial Fund of $30,000, the income from each of which is turned over to the Homes for maintenance. The expenditures at Elizabethtown have amounted to about $2,500,000, augmented by large sums spent there by individuals and groups of Lodges The Brethren whose counties have erected buildings have established Endowment Funds for their care, to which Funds additions are being made from time to time. The Philadelphia Freemasons Memorial Hospital Fund amounted tov $28,023; the Allegheny County Fund, $6,250; the Berks County Fund, $1,000; and the Homes Endowment Fund to $200,000; these figures given as of December 3, 1924. The Homes Committee has at its disposal the income of $50,000, deposited by an anonymous Brother with a Trust Company, to provide higher education for a son or daughter of a Pennsylvania Freemason in or out of the Homes.

Brother Samuel Davis left his entire estate for accumulation until it amounted to $100,000; thereafter three-fourths of the income to be used for the relief of the children of deceased Master Masons of the State, and to be applied to keeping up the home life where a Brother dies leaving a widow and children. The Lodge of which the Brother was a member applies for a blank petition to be filled up by the mother and then the Lodge determines the amount to be allotted and agrees to pay one-half. Payments are made through the Lodge and every half year a report is made by it to the Committee on homes showing its receipts, the payments and the standing of the orphans in school, the home conditions and whether the aid continues necessary.

The Masonic Homes of Pennsylvania are maintained by direct appropriations by Grand Lodge and income on the estates and funds referred to herein. Every initiate pays, in addition to the fee fixed by the By-Laws of the Lodge, the sum of $40 which goes into the treasury of Grand Lodge marked as Masonic Homes Fees, winch have been more than sufficient to run the Homes, the surplus having been put into a Masonic Homes Reserve Fund amounting to over $250,000.

The Grand Lodge of Rhode Island in 1912 inaugurated a movement to establish a fund for the erection of a Masonic Home, at the same time appropriating $2,000 as a nucleus, to be augmented each year by a 10 cents per capita tax. Lodges and individual members are encouraged to donate such sums as they are able. In 1923 Grand Lodge voted to direct the Lodges to collect an additional fee of $o from each candidate for the Entered Apprentice Degree to be added to the Masonic Home Fund and which in 1925 amounted to over $40,000. A Board of five Trustees invest and re invest this Fund and may use the income only thereof, with the approval of the Grand Master, for the relief of, and for charitable, educational and welfare work among Freemasons, their families or widows and orphans. The individual Lodges of Rhode Island make every effort to handle this benevolent work among their own members, appealing to the Grand Lodge only when necessity demands.
There is also an Educational Fund, established in 1923, which is created and maintained by an assessment of $1 per annum levied on each Master Mason within the Jurisdiction, and which enables a number of young men and women to continue their studies by providing College Scholarships to them. A Masonic Service Board also serves the Brethren by relieving distress in many ways such as obtaining employment for those in need and otherwise rendering aid and assistance.

The Grand Lodge of South Carolina instituted a Fund in 1907 for the erection of a Masonic Home and Orphanage, to which Fund were assigned all the surplus revenues of Grand Lodge. When this Fund should reach $100,000 the question of building was to be entertained. Meanwhile, such cases of present need were to be relieved by able Trustees of the Fund. By the time this Fund had actually reached the figure set, the Brethren had decided that it would be a much better policy to care for aged and indigent Freemasons and their wives or widows in their own homes or among their friends and to care for orphans the same way, by arranging for their support and maintenance at their own homes with their widowed mother, if they had one, and, if not, by having them cared for in the various orphanages already established in the State. In 1924, in lieu of the former method of adding to the Fund, an amendment to the Constitution was adopted which provided for an assessment annually of $1 per member of each Lodge. In 1925 the Fund amounted to $135,000, the interest on which, added to the $1 per capita tax, increases the Fund by about $30,000 each year, which is about the amount paid out each year. There are five Trustees to the Fund, none of whom receive any compensation.

The Grand Lodge of South Dakota receives 50 cents from each member of the Fraternity, taken out from the Grand Lodge dues for benevolent purposes. A Fund amounting to $118,025 is handled through a Board of Trustees, the interest only being used for charitable distribution among the needy. Conditions in South Dakota have not warranted the maintenance of a Masonic Home, it having been found preferable to distribute the funds where needed in the manner suggested above.

Tennessee established a Widows and Orphans Home at Nashville in 1892 and has provided an Old Masons Home and special building for infirmary. The properties represent an investment of $353,773, but the Board of Control in 1925 recommended that a cash fund be set up to meet the loss by depreciation of buildings and equipment, this being prorated as 3 per cent on brick structures, 2h per cent on stone, and 10 per cent on equipment and furnishings. On farm implements and trucks there is assigned a depreciation of 25 per cent. The Endowment Fund was $200,000. Hospital attendance is furnished. Homes operate on a budget system apt proved by the Ways and Means Committee of the Grand Lodge, which furnishes the funds. It was recommended that a voluntary offering of at least $1 per year for five years be pledged for permanent improvements, and after one year, was changed to a special tax of $1 per year for two years for each member of the subordinate Lodges and the result is a new fireproof, three-story dormitory for widows and their children. A new auditorium adjoining the school building is due to the generosity of the Order of the Eastern Star.

Texas has two Masonic Homes, one at Fort Worth which combines a Home, School and Hospital for Orphan Children and is on 210 acres of land, with a total valuation of $1,600,000. There is a Home for the Aged Masons, established in 1911 at Arlington, where widows are also maintained from the Masonic Home and School Funds. The Grand Chapter controls and manages the Home for Aged Masons and furnishes hospital care for about one-fourth of them. The Grand Lodge charitable revenue is derived from $1.25 dues with $10 raising fee, which goes to the Endowment Fund. A special building donation of $5 per capita was invited in 1922 and was paid. Among the Masonic institutions of Texas, including the Home and the School, Aged Masons Home, are the Templar Hospital, Home for Aged Members of the Eastern Star, Girl's Dormitory at the State University at Austin, the Dallas Children's Hospital the Children's Clinic, Welfare Center for Tubercular Soldiers at Kerrville, Student Loan Funds, Tuberculosis Sanitoria Commission and Masonic Employment Bureau.

Utah has a Charity Fund which is being added to each year by 10 per cent of the gross receipts of their Grand Lodge and further supplemented by the interest accruing on the capital already invested. A small portion of this fund is used for relief work, although the individual local Lodges, combined with the Board of Relief, handle most of the needy cases from Lodge and contributed funds.

In Vermont each individual Lodge cares for its own needy and deserving eases. The amount expended by each Lodge is reported with the annual returns. If it is found that any Lodge has expended more than $1 per member, the excess is repaid to the Lodge. If less than $1 has been used per member, nothing is repaid. This money is drawn from the General Fund of the Grand Lodge of Vermont, which is maintained by annual dues. They have on hand in a Permanent Charity Fund about $50,000, the income from which is to be available for benevolent purposes.

Virginia established a Masonic Orphanage near Richmond in 1890 on a tract of 65 acres. The plant has been valued at $250,000 and has cared for children at an operating expense of $335 for each guest. Charitable revenue is derived from $1 dues and a special tax of $1.

Washington opened a Masonic and Eastern Star Home at Puyallup in 1914, with property valued at $100,000 and it enjoys an Endowment from bequests of $150,000. It has cared for adult guests at a net operating expense of $413 for each guest. It has permanent Relief Funds at 325,000. $150,000 additional was appropriated in 1993 by the Grand Lodge for the purchase and equipment of a site for a new Home and the furnishings of same. A site was purchased in 1924 at a cost of $78,625 near Zenith and the balance of the appropriation is to be used for expenses in connection with this project.

West Virginia has built a new Home for Masons, their Widows and Orphans at Parkersburg. The investment is apparently $275,000 and an Endowment Fund of $200,000 has been accumulated. It has a Permanent Relief Fund of $28,000. Revenues are derived from 50 cents per capita taxes, $10 initiation fee and a $2 special building tax.

Wisconsin has taken over the Masonic Home at Dousman, formerly in charge of the Wisconsin Consistory. This is a splendid tract of 319 acres, with practical farm buildings, and has been used as a Home for a limited number of adults. The new Home represents an investment of more than S250,000. The generosity of Brother W. A. Van Brunt provides the Home with an Endowment Fund of S200,000. Ample resources for its future are assured. The Order of the Eastern Star has started a hospital irs connection with this Home. Grand Lodge dues for Home and Building Funds are $1.50 per capita of the membership.

Wyoming appointed a Board of Trustees for a Masonic Home Fund in 1913, starting with $10,000, which amount in 1924 had increased to $48,000. Two funds have been provided, one known as the Temporary Fund, the other as the Permanent Fund. From the latter nothing can be drawn without an action of the Grand Lodge. This is all placed at interest under the direction of the Board. All receipts such as interest, per capita tax, and returns from other sources pertaining to these Funds are placed in the Temporary Fund during the entire Masonic year. At the close of the year, all funds in excess of the appropriations plus 3500 retained in the Temporary Fund, are transferred to the Permanent Fund. Emergency cases requiring either temporary or continuous relief are handled from the Temporary Fund. Wherever possible the local Lodges are expected to provide for their needy members and where this is impracticable the Board of Trustees of the Masonic Home Fund appropriates the funds necessary. In many instances the local Lodges agree to provide a certain portion of the total amount, the Grand Lodge supplementing this with further contributions. Income for charitable purposes is derived from a 50 cents per capita tax and from the interest of funds on hand, from which returns additions are made to the Permanent Fund each year from suers set aside from the Temporary Fund.

CANADA, Alberta has established a Benevolent Fund of about $100,000, the interest on which, together with a per capita tax of 50 cents per member, amounts to approximately $11,000 and which amount is annually expended for benevolent purposes. Monthly grants are made to needy Brethren and those depending upon them. The capital Benevolent Fund is augmented each N ear by a 50 cents per capita tax on the Grand Lodge membership and also by special contributions from Lodges and individuals.

British Columbia has a Grand Lodge Benevolent Fund amounting to approximately $150,000, the revenue being devoted to the relief of aged and Infirm Freemasons, their widows and orphans, generally by means of monthly payments. This Fund is maintained by voluntary subscriptions by the members, by a fee of $4 for each initiation in the Lodges, by ten per cent annually of the gross revenue of the Grand Lodge, and by any surplus which remains in the General Fund of the Grand Lodge after the year's business is wound up.

Manitoba. The Grand Lodge of Manitoba has no Masonic Home or Hospital. It has a Benevolent Fund of $185,000, the interest of which is devoted solely to charity.

Nova Scotia had an experience with joint management, a Home for Aged Men being established at Halifax. A Committee, of which Brother C. E. Puttner was Chairman, in 1904 solicited the support of every Lodge in the Jurisdiction that provision might be made for needy Freemasons. At the Grand Lodge Communication of the year, $900 was placed in the hands of Trustees named by the Grand Master. But the plan did not work well and the Grand Lodge withdrew. Another attempt by Brother Puttner in i905 was more successful, the assembled representatives of Lodges planning a Masonic Fair for the Armouries, Halifax, from September 25 to October 3, 190G, the net receipts being $17,406. In 1908 the Grand Lodge bought and im proved the Freemasons Home at Windsor, adding twenty rooms, and another wing to the Infirmary is under way. The Hone is maintained by a per capita tax of $1 per member and $5 for each candidate initiated. They also have an Endowment Fund of about $43,000.

Prince Edward Island . The Grand Lodge of Prince Edward Island has the smallest Jurisdiction in the world and maintains its Benevolent Fund from a per capita tax of 25 cents. The interest only from this Fund is used in dispensing relief to their needy Brethren and their widows and children, which more than amply covers necessary expenditures for this purpose. After investigation of a reported case the method of handling is very simple the Grand Lodge merely issuing a cheek for the amount necessary to meet the needs of the case.

Ontario. Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario makes allowances for relief directly from the General Fund or others of its resources and also provides assistance jointly with Lodges through local boards. Amounts disbursed by Grand Lodge in 1924, for example, never reported as $10,885; grants made by the Lodges were $60,000 in addition to this sum. This amount was far below the sum contributed by the constituent Lodges as they have not been compelled to report their benevolent grants to Grand Lodge. There is a Benevolent Emergency Fund of S2,000. The above report mentions that two beneficiaries are cared for in Roman Catholic Institutions, at the expense of Grand Lodge.

Saskatchewan has a Grand Lodge Benevolent Fund with an invested capital that in 1925, for example, amounted to $182,000, the interest only being used for relief. The Government has a Home in the Province for the aged and infirm and the Grand Lodge Benevolent Fund has defrayed the charge of ana or the Brethren or their widows whom it has been necessary to send there.



Thomas Babington Macaulay wrote a distort of England which has been read more often than any other English history, and in the United States has enjoyed a double fame: first, as a text book or as required reading in high schools and colleges almost since its publication; second, as a masterpiece of literature which in conjunction with his Essays and his poems has been used in the English Departments of Colleges in every State of the Union, is in every public library, and once was required reading for each well-read man. His biographer says of him that he had read everything, knew more than he had read, and forgot nothing.

A carefully considered remark Macaulay once made on Freemasonry must for such reasons carry more weight than if it had been made by a man less thoroughly acquainted with England from the Norman Conquest to Queen Victoria. In a conversation with Harriet Beecher Stowe her notes show that he said: "I believe that all the cathedrals of Europe came into existence nearly contemporaneously, and were built by traveling companies of Masons under the direction of systematic organization."



Bro. David McGregor holds for the second quarter of this Century in the United States a record for the brilliancy of his coups in Masonic research, two or three of them of fundamental importance. He was born in Dunfermline, Scotland, September 7, 1864; was educated in Lisburn, Ireland; came to New York City in 1889; was for thirty years chief engineer in the Sprague Electric Company and helped set up electric street car systems in New Jersey. He was raised in Union Lodge, No. 11 (N. J.), Dec. 22, 1916; was Master in 1931; Grand Historian after 1928; Chairman of Committee on Foreign Correspondence from 1935; was 3 member of the National Masonic Research Society, and published reports of his first discoveries in The Builder.

Among his discoveries: That John Skene, who came to Jersey in 1682, was a Freemason, a member of the Aberdeen Lodge in Scotland. (See under ABERDEEN 1'e', LODGE OF; see also New York Masonic Outlook; September, 1926; page 13). That Earl Perth, Jersey Proprietor, was a Freemason; and that a number of members of Aberdeen Lodge came to Jersey at same time as Skene but did not remain. That a pre1730 Lodge met in New York in the Black Horse Tavern. That the New York Weekly Journal announced on Jan. 24, 1737 (N. S. 1738) that Mr. Provoost, about to move away, at a Lodge on January 19, 1737, had resigned as Master, and Cap. Matthew Norris, son of Admiral Norris, had been elected in his place. That on November 26, 1737, the New York Gazette published a letter to the effect that a "new and unusual sect of society at last has extended to these parts," etc. (See GouZ's History of Freemasonry; New York; 1936; Vol. 6; page 41.)

Most important was Bro. McGregor's discovery of the records of Col. Daniel Coxe. In 1730 this eminent citizen of New Jersey was by the Grand Lodge of England appointed to be Provincial Grand Master of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. But since no documents could be found to show that he had put his authority into effect, save an entry in the Minutes of the Grand Lodge of England to show that he visited it in 1731 as Prov. Grand Master, it was generally believed that he had been inactive, and had "been out of the country."

In old court and other civil records of New Jersey Bro. McGregor found abundant evidences of the presence and great activity of Coxe in America during the years in question. (See Early Freemasonry in Pennsylvania—a magnificent book—by Henry S. Borneman; Grand Lodge of Pa; Philadelphia; 1931; page 56. See Chapters in Gould's History, above cited, Vol. VI, on New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. History of Freemasonry in New Jersey, by David McGregor; cloth; 164 pages; contains chapters on Pre-Grand Lodges in New Jersey; chapter on Daniel Coxe; Military Lodges; the Morristown Convention.)



In his bibliography of the principal works of Dr. Albert G. Mackey on page 608 Bro. Robert I. Clegg inadvertently omitted the work which Mackey himself would have placed at the head of the list, his seven-volume History of Freemasonry; perhaps the Freudians would have said that this was an unconscious slip of memory occasioned by a sense of humbleness, because at the time (1921) Bro. Clegg had only recently edited and revised and in some chapters wholly re-written the famous History which had long been (and continues to be) the most widely read long history of the Craft ever published. Bro. Clegg based his work of revision primarily on the edition current in 1898. He received his reward by having the new work go out with the new title Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry, by Robert Ingham Clegg.

When Mackey began a work the scope of which for a man of less learning would have meant a life-work, he had little to go on; Findel was not suited to American readers, and already was obsolete in part; Fort's Anturuittes dealt too much with antiquities; Oliver's "historical" works were better entitled romances; Gould's History had not yet been published; except for his own private library, his years of hard study and his erudition (of which there was much more than his readers may guess), and the assistance of a few friends like T. 9. Parvin, Mackey had to blaze a new road through the wilderness. He succeeded in blazing it; and while some hundreds of students and scholars have, as a body, blazed a better one since, no one man has ever approached the measure of his achievement.

His principal weakness (and granting that he did not possess data not discovered until afterwards) was a certain lack of reality, so that his book becomes at times too smooth, too static, with pages here and there like a drowsy sermon. This may be because he habitually thought of Freemasonry as an "institution" (one of his favorite words), a system, a collection of generalities and abstractions; and did not sufficiently see that there never had been such a thing as abstract Freemasonry, a thing separate and apart, but always that it had consisted of smen, actual, in flesh and blood, and that Freemasonry never had been anything more than a name for certain of the things those men were doing.

How does Mackey's History compare with Gould's Many Masons, and even many beginning students, can read one long History but they haven't the time to read two; which is the better for them? The question is therefore not an academic one; nor is it, at least on this page, a national one, as if one were to choose a national champion. As for this last point, a large fact stands out in full view, before which the point is lost: there is no such thing as English Freemasonry nor American Freemasonry; it is only Freemasonry, and belongs to no country; there is Freemasonry as it is in England and the same Freemasonry as it is in America.

The Grand Lodge of 1717, though it was erected in London, is as much the Mother Grand Lodge of Freemasonry in America as it is of Freemasonry in England; and until about 1800, and which means for two generations, Lodges and Provencal Grand Lodges here belonged as much to its Jurisdiction as any Lodge or Provincial Grand Lodge in England; when we American Masons study the history of that Grand Lodge, or of Freemasonry in Eighteenth Century England, or the history of Freemasonry prior to 1717, we are studying our own Masonic history, and it matters not if the settings of any of those chapters of it were in other lands or not.

St. Paul's remark about two stars differing in glory applies here. Mackey was far more erudite than Gould; had not only studied more, and read more, but had studied and read more widely. His knowledge was his own; overflowed; and he did not have to "get it up" for any subject. He had a sense for literature, and was master of a literary style, whereas Gould had neither.

Mackey had a grasp of the whole of Freemasonry, including the four modern Rites, and this unity was ever in his mind; there is a continuity from chapter to chapter; his history is a work of art in the true and original sense which has been lost to present-day literary cynicism. And since he knew that no one work (nor any thousand volumes) could contain each and every fact in one history, he had to select; and while selecting he knew from first-hand knowledge of rehem what his American readers wished most to learn.

Gould, and other things being equal, had the advantage of being at the headquarters of Masonic research; had access to Grand Lodge archives; could visit old Lodges; could use the British Museum, and a half hundred other collections of original sources; and had about him a circle of learned Masons to collaborate with him. His History has an effect of massiveness and power; is full of courage; and he had in him the new spirit of Masonic research—was himself one of its originators, and felt no reverence for any book merely because it was old, nor for any belief merely because generations of Masons had held it.

His literary faults were a lack of a sense of proportion—as when, though he had only one of his six volumes for a history of general Freemasonry properly so called, he used up fifty pages of it arguing over Sir Christopher Wren; and he was given to harsh, unjust judgments, as in his caricatures of Anderson and Preston. Also, he committed himself to the dogma that the Ancient had been a "schistnatic" Grand Lodge, and refused to surrender it when it was proved that they had not In the plan of his history he gave a disproportionate amount of space and attention to the Grand Lodge of 1717 as if it, and not hundreds of Lodges and tens of thousands of Masons, had made Speculative Masonry prosper around the world. AB against Mackey, he is preferred by students and researchers; and, as is natural, by Brethren in Great Britain.

As against both of them Begemann is of more massive technical erudition, but of narrower scope, and was guilty of ignoring Freemasonry in North America, where it has had as large a history as England had; and, if the four modern Rites be included, a larger one. Crawley stands apart, for his Cemenkria Hibernico is more than one half composed of documents, but he was, it is agreed, the most brilliant prose writer of any. There is a possibility that the writing of general, or "complete" histories is at an end and is to be replaced by books on single subjects or by special treatises, unless they may be written to serve as a framework or outline, or as a guide to special fields.



Robert Macoy was born in Ireland, October 4, 1816, but from the time he was four years old lived in New York City, where, at an early age, he apprenticed himself in the printing and publishing business, and continued in it for nearly forty years, first as printer and bookseller, and then as a Masonic publisher. During his generation he made a large place for himself in the American Craft, along with Mackey, McClenachan, Drummond, Morris, etc., with whom he was closely associated He won a success in four separate spheres of Masonic labors:

1. In the Order of the Eastern Star. Rob Morris had conceived the idea of it, had written rituals, had filled it with his inspiration, but was a failure at the work of organization. ". . . Upon his departure for the Holy Land, in 1868, Brother Morris transferred to Brother Macoy all the authority he had assumed and exercised in regard to the Order. Bro. Macoy immediately set about arranging the work more systematically.... Under his guiding hand the Supreme Grand Chapter. a selfeonstituted body, was organized in December, 1868. . ."

2. In the work of Grand Bodies of Masonry. He held the high office of Deputy Grand Master of New York, and was Grand Recorder of the Grant CommanderY, E. T.

3. AB author. He wrote an unknown number of articles for the Masonic press; wrote much in a number of Monitors and Manuals- and was author of The Worshipful Masters' Assistant which for half a century was to the office of Master what Mackey's Encyclopedia was to the whole of the Craft.

4. AB a publisher. He published (and oftentimes either edited or helped to write) a long list of Masonic books, among them The Master Workmen, 1849- The Masonic Manual 1852; The Book of the Lodge, 1855, a work of immense national influence which American Masonic historians have overlooked- Vocal Manual, 1853- Masonic Minstrel, 1857; Worshipful Master Assistant, 1885; Rise of Adoption, 1868, and in 1890- and the General History, Cyclopedia, and Dictionary of Freemasonry which is described under ENCYCLOPEDIA, Mackey's etc., elsewhere in this Supplement.

During the productive period of Bro. Macoy's published and writing the one demand everywhere was for Monitors and Hand-books, and Macoy was but one of a number who supplied them, from Webb to Mackey A detailed, exhaustive bibliography of Macoy by an expert would open up a path for historians into one of the most important fields of either American Masonic history or American Masonic Jurisprudence~ Grand Lodges (and other Grand Bodies) now prepare and publish their own Monitors. In the period, of almost three-quarters of a century, when it was left to private members to prepare and publish Monitors not a few of them (as was inevitable, and it is not to their discredit) insinuated into Craft practice more than one element of the Exoteric work which represented nobody's idea but their own, and in some instances was a mistaken idea. Certain of the small discrepancies, anomalies, inconsistencies which Grand Lodges find in the Monitorial sections of their Uniform Work, and sometimes in Lodge practice, could be traced back to a private Monitorialist.



Maimonides has been described "as the greatest Jewish figure since Old Testament times." Measured by any standard, and whether by a Jewish or a Gentile one, he was one of the towering men of the Middle Ages; in manhood, in learning, in power of mind, in his accomplishments for good, he was a greater man than Charlemagne, Thomas Aquinas, or Pope Gregory because he accomplished as much as any one of them did, but did it solely by means of his own greatness, and had no vast machinery of government, or church, or armies to make use of. The whole Jewish people of his time were not only widely separated but were bewildered, and often in despair; the final bitterness of the Diaspora had become almost too great for them to endure.

It was to them as well as for them that he wrote "their Bible next to the Bible," The Guide for the Perple2:ed. In it he advised them to discard ancient superstitions; to cease to attempt to carry out into minute detail regulations originally designed for Palestine; to cease to bewail and to lament a past which now was too far in the past to keep alive; and since they were excluded from the land, church, government, and army to turn to and to make their own the countries of the mind, to become scholars, artists, physicians (as he was himself), linguists, scientists, philosophers, because these terms of work were owned by neither pope nor king and knew of no difference between Jew and Gentile— "is geometry," he asked, "Jew or Gentile? is scholarship? is medicine?"

There is no discoverable connection in history between Maimonides and Freemasonry at any point, yet, paradoxically, he is one of the subjects Masonic students must study. A school of Masonic writers, small but influential, has for half a century been trying to show that one of the roots or sources of Freemasonry was in the Kabbala In his great History of Jews, and speaking as a representative of a large school of Jewish historians, Graetz sets forth at length evidence to prove:

(1) that the Kabbala consisted of three or four books written by Spanish Jews in the Thirteenth Century;
(2) that the rationalism (used in no sectarian sense) of Maimonides had won over the Jews of Spain;
(3) that the Kabbala was a reaction to it;
(4) that the occultism, mysticisms, and supposedly secret sciences in the Kabbalistic books concealed a superficial kind of thinking, not as profound as it may appear to be;
(5) that the claims made in them for the antiquity of their jargon and their doctrines were groundless, and in some instances were consciously false;
(6) and finally that there was no unity of thought among the Kabbalists themselves, and that if they had written their books in intelligible language, as they easily could have done, they had little to say. To do justice to himself a Masonic student must therefore study Maimonides and the Cabbala together, because the former is the key to the latter.

Maimonides was a Spanish Jew, of immense learning in many fields; he was born in 1135, died in 1204.

When in the Thirteenth Century Thomas Aquinas wrote his Summa, afterwards declared to be the orthodox Roman Catholic theology, his purpose at the time was to make a reply for his Church as against the science and philosophy coming out of Spain, the one European country in which learning flourished; it is significant that he selected as his adversaries Avicenna and the Arab philosophers; he probably was afraid to attempt to encompass Maimonides because his own learning was too meager, too wholly local and theological, to cope with the encyclopedic learning of the great Jew. It was for this reason that while Thomas found the machinery of argument by which to incorporate the Arabic scholars' Greek learning (what of it he knew) into his Summa he left out of it the whole scope of Jewish learning, though his own Church had officially declared the Old Testament to be infallibly inspired. This failure, or lack, on the part of Thomas was not the least of the ultimate sources of much antisemitism centuries later.



With the publication of the Minutes and histories of early Eighteenth Century Lodges of England, Canada, and the United States the widely discussed question of "making a Mason at Sight" has been set in a new frame-work of facts, and given a new meaning (See page 941.)

More data will be discovered but in the light of present knowledge it appears that while the phrase is apparently of American origin, and perhaps came first into use in Pennsylvania, the conferring of the Three Degrees in a condensed form on a Candidate in one evening (consisting, therefore, of little more than the OB's and the Modes of Recognition) was not only permitted among early English Lodges, but was in universal practice among them, and they considered it a Lodge prerogative. It continued in some American Lodges as late as 1860. A meeting for "making at sight" was called an "Emergency Meeting" (or Communication); during it a Candidate was Entered, Passed, Raised, and elected to membership in about two hound of time. Records of these Emergency Meetings stud the Minutes of at least 200 Eighteenth Century English and American Lodges.

It has been an accepted theory that Making at Sight was a prerogative seized or created by Grand Masters in order to enlarge the powers of their office; it is now plain that the-opposite-occurred; that so many Lodges took to "Emergent Makings" that Grand Masters were forced to reserve the right of such makings to their own office in order to put a stop to what had become an evil. These facts are fraternally called to the attention of those British Brethren who have criticized and even satirized "Making at Sight" as an "Americanism"; except that it is now (fortunately) reserved to Grand Masters it is a Briticism, and one in practice since the first half of the Eighteenth Century among nearly all English Lodges. Moreover, English Masons continue even now a constituted custom of "making at sight" in principle though it refers to Lodges rather than to Masons; for it is considered that to "make" a new Lodge is the Grand Master's prerogative. In the beginning Grand Masters first consented to the forming of a new Lodge and then appeared in person to constitute it, or else sent a personal deputy; what were called Warrants were not legal documents but personal communications which gave Grand Master's consent.

In the United States a Grand Master can issue a temporary Dispensation to form a Lodge, in order that for a period the Lodge can work on probation; a Charter can be issued only by a Grand Lodge at its Regular Annual Communication. In constitutional principle the making of Lodges by the Grand Master's personal act could be identical with making a Mason "at sight" by his own personal act. If English Brethren reply that we are inconsistent in recognizing the Grand Master's prerogative to make Masons while refusing him the prerogatives to make Lodges, many American authorities on jurisprudence will agree with them. Even so, there is something to be said in favor of Making at Sight, regardless of how inconsistent it may be, be cause once in a long while a Petitioner finds himself in circumstances where he must receive in one night the Degrees he has been elected to, or can receive none of them.

Those who have sought in times immemorial for some origin or authorization for the Grand Master's prerogative to Make at Sight need never have looked BO far afield, because it was recognized as legal by the Ancient Grand Lodge of 1751, from which so much of our Work and 80 many of our practices are derived. In the Records of that Grand Lodge, under date of April 16, 1777, a Minute shows that Dermott discussed the subject, admitted the Grand Mashr's right, but expressed it as his opinion that a Grand Masher ought not to Make at Sight except when he can make a sufficient number to form a Lodge. (The Minute is quoted in full in Gould's History of Freemasonry; Scribner's; 1936; page 176.)

A paragraph may be quoted as one specimen from many others in Lodge histories to show that for years after the date of the Dermott Minute the Lodge custom continued; it is from Some Memorials of the Globe Lodge, No. if; by Henry Sadler; London; Spencer & Company; 1904; page 45: "The 3rd of May, 1810, was the last occasion in this Lodge when the three degrees were conferred on candidates on the same evening, but it was only in case of emergency that the three degrees were given ...."



The history of the Knights of Malta (nee Knights of Hospital, Knights of St. John, etc.) was until recent years written by itself, that is, from its own records and reports of itself; or else by its enemies, who have not always been scrupulous; it is now possible to re-write its whole history in terms of modern, impartial scholarship. One of the results of that scholarship has been to break the one history of this Order into four or five almost separate histories, because the Order transformed, or at least transmogrified itself that many times.

As regards Freemasonry it may be said in general that the Knights were antipathetic to it, or to any such teachings or truths as Masons held at any period. In particular, the Order was twice used in attempts to destroy Freemasonry, and it therefore has at one time or another belonged to that long chapter of the history of the Fraternity which is called Anti Masonry.

It had become an open and confessed military arm of the Vatican before the Popes issued their first Bull against Freemasonry in 1738, and it was ordered to oppose Freemasonry wherever it could. In about 1800 it was instrumental in thriving Freemasonry out of Russia. When Metternich after 1815 and the Congress of Vienna became the dictator of Europe he made the complete elimination of the Fraternity one of his open and principal aims; and to a large extent he succeeded for some years, and may be described as the most powerful Anti-Mason of the Nineteenth Century.

The Knights of Malta were one of the agencies employed by him. (See page 539.) (Complete, detailed, fair, modern histories of the Order are On the Trail of the Eight-Pointed Cross 1G. P. Putman's; View York; 1940]; and Malta of the Knights, by E. W. Schermerhorn; Houghton, Mifflin; New York 1929; full bibliographies in both. For a more condensed account see House of the Temple; Study of Malta and its Knights in the French Revolution, by Frederick W. Ryan; Burns Oates and Washburn; London; 1930; bibliographies. Fifty Years in the Malts Order, by R. E. A. Land; two volumes; Toronto; Can.; 1928; contains also a detailed account of the Masonic Knights of Malta.)

After the first dissolution of the Order in Malta, an attempt was made to revive it in France to help the Greeks in their war with the Turks, after the latter had shocked Europe by a massacre of Christians on the Island of Scio; and they appealed to such Knights as were in England to assist them.

In consequence, the English branch of the Order was re established -it and in this action English members were permitted to be members of the Anglican Church. The English Knights based their rights on a Charter which had been granted by Queen Mary, but on grounds that were legally insecure. To remove this uncertainty Queen Victoria granted a new Charter in 1888. After this reincorporation, "the method of government of the Order was framed, as far as possible, on the precedents of the old Order.... The Sovereign of the Realm is the Sovereign Head and Patron, and no admission can be made to the Order except with his Majesty's sanction." From 1910 until his death the Duke of Connaught (Grand Master, the United Grand Lodge of England at the time) was Grand Prior.

The Order organized and maintained the St. John Ambulance Association and St. John Ambulance Brigade, with a highly efficient and very large membership of members expertly trained in First Aid. "In June, 1912, as a special mark of their appreciation of the work of the Brigade, the King and Queen inspected in Windsor Great Park, 11,000 men and 3,000 Nursing Sisters, including many representatives from Overseas." It furnished over 17,000 Hospital Orderlies in World War I; maintains a hospital; carries on relief work abroad; and carried on very extensive relief work in World War II.

Notes. The above is in correction of one or two statements made in last paragraph on page 541. The indispensable reference work on the modern Order is The Order of the Hospital of St. John and its Grand Priory of England, by H. W. Fincham; W. H. ,& L. Collingridge; 148 Oldersgate St., E. C., London; 1915. Beginning on page 78 it gives a list of the Grand Priors of England from Walter, 1143, to William Weston, who was Prior when Henry VIII dissolved the Order in 1540, and Thomas Tresham who held office of the revived Priory under Queen Mary in 1557; and for the period when English Priors were stationed in Malta under Richard Shelley, in 1566, to Girolamo Layarelli in 1806; and from Sir Robert Peat, first Prior after revival of Order in England, in 1831, to the Duke of Connaught, in 1910.



The original of the hundred or so copies of the Old Charges (Old MSS, Old Constitutions, etc.) must have been written in the Fourteenth Century, perhaps about 1350 A.D. Each and every Masonic student would desire above almost anything else to have a detailed knowledge of Freemasonry as it then was; who and what men the Masons were; how they dressed; their manner of work; in what houses they lived, and how much they earned; and so on forth. To arrive at even an approximation of that picture he must collect small bits of fact from here and there, a short reference, a line in a book, a history of the building art, a study of contemporary laws, etc.

Among these sources is one which as yet has not been utilized by any Masonic scholar, at least if it has his book has not reached America: it consists of those small pictures which the writers of the MSS., Masonic and otherwise, often used to draw or paint into some small space in their parchment (or vellum) left by the text vignettes often of cunning workmanship and masterly composition. The large number of these MSS. are in Britain or Europe; a number of them however can be seen in American private collections, such as Morgan's in New York City, and Huntington~s in California, or in any one of the large universities; also, they may be found reproduced in books or photographs in any of the better metropolitan Libraries. A Masonic student looking out for a path of his own in research, and if he have access to the materials, can be promised that he will find out something new, and in time may be able to publish a Masonic book of a novel kind.

A small specimen list is not interesting to read; it may, however, serve as an illustration of what is said above, and at the same time give a beginning student sufficient guidance for making a start:

The earliest Speculative Lodges at the time of the first Grand Lodge met in public rooms in taverns, and each tavern was named after its sign, which hung in front in the form of a picture. Operative Masons four centuries before doubtless gathered in the evenings for ale or beer and for talk in taverns of the same type. Two of them are pictured in the Bodleian Library (Oxford) MSS., No.264, which like each title in the list, is of the Fourteenth Century Among five pictures in Brit. Mus. 2 B. VII are: a suit of everyday clothes worn by craftsmen; a straw bee-skelp (or bee-hive).

Brit. Mus. Roy. 20. C. VII contains detailed picture of a burning at the stake, the method being the same as that of the Pps; another of a beheading; and in Brit. Mus. Roy. E. IV is a scene showing a criminal being drawn.

Brit. Mus. Fasc. 175; Masons building a tower, using a windlass. B. M. Roy. 15. D. III- Mason using stone axle shows how ramp was used to carry stones up to top of high walls. In another MS. not named, the King—or some other crowned noble or prince—looks on while a Mason uses a plumb-line; in this operation a wooden inclined plane with cleats is used instead of a ladder.

A MS. in Brit. Nat., Paris; a building scene, showing use of ladder.
B. M. MS, Roy. 10 E. IV; sawmills were run by man powers and sawyers did not belong to same gild as carpenters
B. M. MS. Harl. 6563: a smith wears leather apron
B. M. MS. Roy. 2. B. VII; stone carver, sitting on bench ("bank"), using gavel.
B. M. Addl. MS. 10292; stone carving by method of incising.
B. M. MS. Roy. 2. B. VII; four stone-cutters- one is Master of Masons; shape of gavel is very clearly shown (In very few instances are Masons shown wearing Aprons Smiths always wear leather aprons.)
B. M. MS. Egeston 1894- Mason on back, inside altar canopy, while carving above his head.
B. M. My. Luttrell Psalter. Building walls was a specialty.
Such Masons were "wailers" and had own gild. This is a picture of their work; a city wall, towers gates, etc.



Edwin Markham was born in Oregon but went soon to California. He was made a Mason in Acacia Lodge, No. 92, Coloma, Calif. When he published his "Man With a Hoe," President Theodore Roosevelt's acclaim of it made Markham's name familiar throughout America almost overnight Another Masonic poet, Rudyard Kipling, also had in his poem "Recessional" ("Lest we forget") an equally universal, immediate reception, and each poem was an answer to the other; Kipling's theme was "We must have rulership"; Markham's was, "Yes, but the rulership must be by ourselves."

The body of Markham's poetry as a whole has been very slow in winning a way into popular use, perhaps because two World Wars turned the attention of men away from poetry, but the Masonic Fraternity need not wait upon the general public; for Markham is America's laureate of Masonry, as Burns was Scotland's; and as he said when he presented a holograph copy of his "Man With a Hoe" to the Grand Lodge of New York, everything of his was in the Spirit of Masonry. (Like a number of other world-famous poems, that poem was never completed; Markham kept experimenting with small revisions of it as long as he lived.)



Louis Claude de Saint-Martin was born in Amboise, France, January 18, 1743; he was therefore fifty-six years of age in the Revolution year of 1799; and since he was in ill health much of the time he was unable to take any active part in the French Revolution during the four years he continued to live (he died in 1803) except in private circles; and it is certain that he did not have any part in planning or preparing for it. He was sensitive, aristocratic, a warm friend to a chosen few, a mystic. (See page 901.)

It is probable that Martin would have played no part in Freemasonry had it not been for Martines de Pasqually, his early teacher and for many years his friend and colleague. Pasqually was a Rosicrucian, though it is impossible to use that adjective as in any sense a descriptive one because it was so loosely employed in France, and often had no connection with Rosicrucianism properly so called—indeed Rosicrucianism properly so called was little understood at any time and ever will be because there is in the Pama Fraternitatu, its bible, no clear, consistent system of teachings but only a congeries of visions, legends, cloudy pictures which can easily accept what meanings an occultist chooses to attribute to them. In his capacity as a Rosicrucian, Pasqually compiled a Degree, or Rite, which he called Elect Cohens ("cohen" meaning priest); and it is believed that Pasqually had some connection with the founding of the Rite of Swedenborg but not that he was in any sense its creator.

In Martin's eyes, and after Pasqually had died, his old teacher's Pite had been conceived as a ritualistic mystery of a mystical Christianity but being such it had, he felt, certain defects and lacks; therefore he contrived a Rite of his own, which he called the Rectified Rite.

Both St. Martin and Pasqually, as well as the author (or authors) of the Swedenborgian Rite, are typical of the Frenchmen, of whom over a century there may have been a hundred or so, who were Masons in their own special sense only; which was a sense the true and ancient Fraternity could not have recognized as even remotely like itself;

they swept six or seven centuries of Masonic history aside, cutting their own "Masonry" off from its roots, acknowledged no Ancient Landmarks, concocted private "Rites" out of their private theories, used them as a vehicle for teachings which often regular Freemasonry would have wholly repudiated, constructing them eclectically out of scraps of text, or symbolism, or legend to which they had taken a fancy in various obscure works of occultism, metaphysics, and theology. Pasqually's Rite and Martin's Rectified Rite are interesting for themselves, as a book by either of them might be interesting (they were in essence little more than books in the form of ceremonies), but they have no discoverable connection with Freemasonry, which never was a cult of aristocracy, or of occultism, or of mysticism.

Martin signed a few of his small books by the pseudonym Philosophe Inconnu, the Unknown Philosopher. Because of this, because his Rite has in it certain references to or traces of Kabbalism and other little-known sources, and because no biography was written in English, he was for American Masons a vague, mysterious figure, and a number of American writers have placed him somewhere back in the late Middle Ages, along with Raymund Lully.

Martin was on the contrary a modern man; younger than Benjamin Franklin, whom he could have known; and moved in a circle about whom whole libraries of memoirs have been written. The achievement by which he is better known is not his Rite (in which he himself took little interest) but a number of slender books or treatises in which he set forth his own difficult and private version of religious mysticism, and which was, though such a generalization is hazardous, an attempt to describe the universe from within; seen, as it were, through the eyes of God. An account of this work, and a portrait of the man, by an author who admired him much and who, in part and at a distance, was his disciple, is The Life of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin: The Unknown Philospher, by Arthur Edward Waite; William Rider 45c Sons; London.


sixth president and son of John Adams. second president; born July 11, 1767; president, 1825; died February ('3. 1848. A native of Massachusetts, his name has often been mistaken for that of another resident of Boston. Brother John C. Hurll, Acting Secretary, Saint John's Lodge, Boston, August 25, 1919. answering an inquiry of ours, copied the Lodge record of December 5, 1826, thus: " 'Brother John Quincy Adams, a regular candidate for membership, was inquired for and being well recommended, was voted to be balloted for, and on balloting was unanimously admitted a member of Saint John's Lodge.' It would seem from this that he did not receive the Degrees in this Lodge, but what Lodge he says raised in is not stated. There is no reference to the presidency and I think he was another Adams." Certainly the president was not then at Boston- The Second Session of the Nineteenth Congress opened at Washington the previous day and President Adams himself records that from December 4 to 6, from early morn to late afternoon he had no leisure for reflection or writing However, there is on record his own emphatic denial of membership (page 345, volume vii, Memoirs, Lippincott), on October 25, 1825, in reply to the plain question, he writes: "I told Watkins he might answer Tracy that I am not, and never was, a Freemason."


fifteenth president; born April 23, 1791; president, 1857; died, June 1, 1868; received Masonic burial from his Brethren of Lodge No. 43, in his native state, Pennsylvania, on June 4, 1868. Brother J. Fred Fisher, Secretary of Lodge No. 43, furnished on August 16, 1919, the following Masonic record of Brother James Buchanan: "He was made a Mason in Lodge No. 43 on December 11, 1816. Entered by W. M. Brother John Reynolds, and was Passed and Raised by W. M. Brother George Whitaker, January 24, 1817. He was elected Junior Warden, December 13, 1820, and Worshipful Master, December 23, 1822. At the expiration of his term of office, he was appointed the first District Deputy Grand Master of this District. He was elected an honorary member of Lodge No. 43, March 10, 1858. He died on June 1, 1868. He was also a member of Royal Arch Chapter No. 43, F. and A. M., but the only record we have is that he was Exalted on May 90, 1826."


thirteenth president; born February 7, 1800; elected vice-president, 1848, and on death of President Taylor succeeded him July 9, 1850, and died March 8, 1874. Said to have received the Degrees but afterwards recanted during the Anti-Masonic era in which he was active against the Craft (see page 548, Annual Report American Historical Association, volume i, 1902). No evidence of his Masonic affiliation obtained. In his official capacity as president he attended the laying of the eorner-stone of the Capitol extension by the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia, July 4, 1851 (see History, Federal Lodge No. 1, Washington).


twentieth president; born November 19, 1831; president, 1881; died September 19, 1881. Masonic Eclectic, September, 1881 (pages 430-1), published the following: "Initlated, Novernber 19, 1861; Passed, December 3, 1861, in Magnolia Lodge No. 20, Columbus, Ohio, and Raised in Columbus Lodge No. 30, by request of Magnolia Lodge, November 11, 1864. Affiliated vith Garrettsnille Lodge No. 24G, October 10, 1865; 1 remaining a member until 1870, and was Chaplain in the years 1868-9. United with Pentalpha Lodge No. 23, Washington, District of Columbia, as a charter member, May 4, 1869, and so remained until death. By special dispensation was admitted to Columbia Royal Arch Chapter No. 1, in Washington, District of Columbia, April 4, 1866, and exalted to the Royal Arcl1 Degree, April 18, 1866; received the Red Cross and Templar Order in Columbia Commanderv No. 9 at Washington, WIav 18, 1866 rthis Commander) acting as escort from Washington to Cleveland faith the remains after Brother Gaffield's death). Received the Select and Most Excellent Architect's Degrees, February 9, 1871; received the bourth and Fifth Degrees, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, in Mithras Lodge of Perfection No. 9, at Washington, May 9, 1871, and the intermediate Degrees to the Thirteenth included during the year (Brother W. L. Bowden, Librarian of the Supreme Couneil records these were communicated by General Albert Pike) and the Fourteenth Degree, January Id 1822, with four other Brethren, three of whom died before him, named: Francello G. Daniels, Robert NI. Johnson, ex-,Senator from Arkansas. and Henry Harrison Bradly, the only survivor of the five being Wm. Pieree Bell, Eso.. lawyer, Washington City." Under date of September 2, 1919, Brother NV. S. Lanfersiel;, Secretary, Magnolia Lodge No. 90, by letter, confirmed the above Lodge references and Past Grand Master Campbell M. Voorhees of Ohio, November 11, 1921, also wrote explaining the division of the Degrees between the two Craft Bodies in his city, "During the Civil War times Columbus Lodge and Magnolia Lodge frequently exchanged courtesies in the conferring of Degrees upon soldiers in the service, and this was done in the conferring of the Degrees upon General Garfield. He received his First and Second Degrees in Magnolia dodge and his Third Degree was conferred by Columbus Lodge for Magnolia."


eighteenth prescient; born April 27, 1822; president, 1869; died July 93, 1885. A letter in the Blue and Gray, from Major Bryant S. Parker of South Carolina, was freely copied in other journals and convened the impression that General Grant was a Freemason. Major Parker told of being taken to headquarters as a prisoner of war that General Grant asked him if he was a Freemason and that the prisoner soon convinced him of it and thereupon was promptly freed. General John Corson Smith attacked this story in the Rough Ashlar, a Masonic journal of Richmond, Virginia, and his essay was reprinted, November, 1895, in the Masonic Tidings, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and other magazines. Briefly, Brother Smith's finding, as in Proceedings, Grand Commandery of Illinois, 1908 (page 165) is that the General was too much of a soldier and not at all a Freemason for any such affair. Jesse R. Grant, Simpson S. Grant, and Orville S. Grant, father and brothers of the General, were all three Freemasons.

Simpson a member of Galena Lodge No. 17, with Brother John Corson Smith, where the father, Jesse, visited on his trips from Covington, Kentucky; and Orville was imitated in Miners' Lodge No. 273, Galena, Illinois. General, or Captain Grant as he was then known, came to Galena in 1859 and moved his family there in 1860. The father told General Smith that he knew his son would like to be a Freemason and the subject was discussed between them on an excursion to Dubuque, Iowa, and on other occasions. General Grant was at home when Galena Commandery No. 40, Knights Templar, was instituted in 1871, with Brother Smith as Eminent Commander. In the evening President Grant received the Brethren for a pleasant hour of conversation and then the visitors returned to the Asylum.

At that reception the president's favorable opinion of Freemasonry was expressed and it was agreed that at the first opportunity he would sign a petition to Miner's Lodge No. 273 of which Brother Smith was then Master. During the political campaign of 1872-3 General Grant was again home and Grand Master James A. Hawley agreed to make the president a Freemason "at sight" but affairs of state recalled him unexpectedly to Washington and the subsequent ill-health and removal from Galena of Brother Smith brought the plans unsuccessfully to an end. The matter does not appear to have ever been received.


twenty-ninth president; born November 9, 1865; president 1921; died August 9, 1923. From a letter written by the late Grand Secretary, J. H. Bromwell, and from the announcement sent out by the Grand Master, Harry S. Johnson, of Ohio, on August 8, 1923, these details are obtained: Brother Harding, was initiated in Marion Lodge No. 70 at Marion, Ohio, on June 2S, 1901; Passed, August 13,1990; Raised, August 27, 1990. In Clarion Chapter No. 6 , Royal Arch Masons; at Wiariol1, Ohio. he received the Mark Master, Past and Most excellent Master's Degrees on January 11, 1921, and the Exaltation of the Royal Arch Degree on January 13, 1921. In Marion Commandery No. 36, Knights Templar, at Marion, Ohio, he received the Order of the Re(l Cross, and the Orders of Knight of Malta and Knight Templar, March 1, 1921.

In Scioto Consistory, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, he (the only candidate at that time) received all the grades from Fourth to Thirty-second inclusive, on January 5,19 1. He became a member of Aladdin Temple, S9obles of the Mystic Shrine, at Columbus, Ohio, on January as, 1921. By special dispensation the Order of Veiled Prophet was conferred upon him at the White House, Washington, May 11, 1921, by E. W. Libbey, E. S. Schmid, C. P. Boss, and W. W. Jermane, of Rallipolis Grotto. Brother Harding had been elected to receive the Degrees in Marion Council tso. 29, Royal and Select Masters, at Marion, Ohio. as well as the Thirty-third Degree of the Supreme Council, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, but death intervened (see Proceedings, Grand Lodge of Ohio, 1923, pages 10, 75,87).


seventh president; born March 15, 1707; president, 18 9; died June 8, 1845. He was elected Grand Master of Tennessee on October , 1829, and re-elected on October 6, 1823, but his Lodge was not named and in the Proceedings, Grand Lodge of Tennessee. 184o, when his Masonic services were affectionately acknowledged (pages 559-3, 570-1, 57a-80 of Reprint) there is no more information than in the obituary notice prepared by Grand Chaplain Philip P. Neeley, who says (page 578), "We have not received information as to the Lodge where he was made a Mason, but learn that he was for some time, during the early part of his life, in connection with one that met at Clover Bot, tom, held under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky." Philanthropic Lodge No. 12 was granted a Charter from Kentucky on September 18, 1805 (see Dozngs of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, 1800-1900, page 25, by H. B. Grant, Grand Secretary). However, the practice prevailed of Lodges reporting their members in full to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky and careful search made for us by the late Grand Secretary Dave Jackson failed to find the name of Andrew Jackson.

Philanthropic Lodge No. 12 ceased to be on the Kentucky roll in 1812. But Jackson was present as a Freemason at the opening of the Lodge at Greenville September 5, 1801, under a Dispensation from the Grand Lodge of North Carolina which possesses the original transcript of the Minutes showing that the Senior Warden named in the Dispensation being absent Andrew Jackson served as "S. W."Pro Tem" of this first meeting of Greenville Lodge No. 43, afterwards No. 3 of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee. Brother Jackson made the motion for the appointment of a Committee on By-laws at this meeting under Dispensation but two others were assigned to that duty and the probability is that he was only a visitor on that occasion.

Another Lodge, at Nashville, chartered on December 17, 1796, No. 29 of North Carolina, Saint Tammany, afterwards Harmony Lodge No. 1 of Tennessee, following the division into the two Grand Lodges, shows that Jackson was a member but the records being incomplete do not determine the date of his initiation but he became a resident of Nashville in 1788 and Brother William L. Boyden, Librarian of the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, finds Andrew Jackson a member as early as 1800 because he was present on March 24 of that year at the first meeting of Tennessee Lodge No. 2, formerly No. 41 under North Carolina, held in Knoxville and was then credited as a member of Harmony Lodge No. 1. Past Grand Master Charles Comstock of Tennessee believed him to have received the Royal Arch Degree under authority of a Craft Lodge Warrant and probably did not affiliate with any Chapter though he officiated as Deputy General Grand High Priest at the institution of the Grand Chapter of Tennessee on April 4, 1826, and is recorded later as present in Cumberland Chapter No. 1 at Nashville, assisting at installation of officers.

Andrew Jackson took part in several Masonic functions and at Nashville on May 4, 1825, introduced General Lafayette to the Grand Lodge of Tennessee. The Charter of Harmony Lodge No. 1 was arrested on December 9, 1808, and this would leave General Jackson a non-affiliate which may account for the appearance of his name in the records as a Past Master without mention of any Lodge connection. For much interesting information here summarized we are indebted to Past Grand Master A. B. Andrews, North Carolina; Past Grand High Priest C. H. Smart, and Past Grand Master Charles Comstock, Tennessee; W. L. Boyden, Librarian, Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite; Dave Jackson, late Grand Secretary, Kentucky. An article by Brother Andrews on Andrew Jackson the Freemason appeared in the New Age, Washington, January, 1921.


third president; born April 13, 1743; president, 1801; died July 4, 1829, on the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of independence of which he was the author. While the assertion has frequently been made that Jefferson was a Freemason and that he attended the Lodge of the Nine Sisters (the Muses) at Paris no further details are given and a letter from the Grand Orient of France under date of September 9, l919, assures us that there is no evidence in existence of any visit to that Lodge by Jefferson, nor does our own search through the history of that Lodge—one Lodge Maf onnique d'.Avant 1X89, by Louis Amiable discover any such allusion. Examination by Brother Julius F. Sachse and W. J. Paterson of the "Tableaux" of this Lodge, the "Regalements" of 1779 and 1806, and the "nnuaire" of 1838, preserved in the Library of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, disclose no mention of Thomas Jefferson as a member.

His letter to Madison on secret societies makes no allusion suggesting any personal acquaintance of Freemasonry. Dr. Joseph W. Eggleston, Past Grand Master of Virginia, was most positive that Jefferson was not a Freemason. From correspondence between Charles H. Callahan, also a Past Grand Master of Virginia, and Brother E. E. Dinwiddie, Secretary, Widow's Son's Lodge No. 60, Charlottesville, we find the latter examined carefully the records of his Lodge, but found no evidence of Jefferson's membership. He also ascertained that when General Lafayette visited Jefferson at Monticello in 1824, the Freemasons of Charlottesville, only four miles away, entertained him at an elaborate social function and banquet. At the Lodge meeting held before the banquet, the Marquis was elected an honorary member. Jefferson was then at home but was not present among the Freemasons with his guest but he did attend and participate in the public function of the citizens. Grand Secretary Charles A. Nesbitt of Virginia nrrote us, October 4, 1919, "To the best of my knowledge Thomas Jefferson was not a Mason. According to the records of our Grand Lodge he was not connected with the Craft in this State."

seventeenth president; born December 29, 1808; as vice-president he became president on the death of Lincoln in 1865; died July 31, 1875. Initiated, Passed and Raised in Greeneville Lodge No. 119, now No. 3, Greeneville, Tennessee, sometime in May, 1851. The records of Greeneville Lodge were destroyed during the Civil War. The Grand Lodge files were also partly burned up when the Masonic Temple was gutted by fire in 1856. Past Grand Master Charles Comstock who saw the name on the Lodge roster in the sixties, also added: "I am not sure about the Chapter membership but think he (Johnson) may have been exalted in Washington Chapter No. 21 at Jonesboro. In that event he was probably a charter member of Greeneville Chapter No. 82, chartered October 1, 1868." We note his name on the roster of Nashville Commandery No. 1, the "Date of Knighting" being July 26, 1859 (see Proceedings, first State Conclave, Nashville, 1859, page 27). This book contains a list with Andrew Johnson's name as of Nashville Commandery No. l and among the names of those present at the formation of the Grand Commandery of Tennessee is recorded Andrew J. Johnston.

Each name is not I in both lists and one might assume that these two names refer to the same Brother, the names being slightly misspelled. However, Brother Comstock quotes Knight Templar Registr7y by Brother James D. Richardson, 1883. to show that Johnston was a farmer from Franklin. Scottish Rite Degrees including Prince of the Royal Secret were communicated to the president, June '0, 1S67, at White House, Washington, by Brothers B. B. French and A. T. C. Pierson of the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction. Johnson took part publicly in several Masonic functions, laving of corner-stones, etc., and at his funeral Deputy Grand Master G. C. Conner officiated. Coeur de Lion Commandery No. 9, Knoxville, also giving Templar ceremony.

sixteenth president; born February 1 , 1809; president, 1861; died April 15, 1865. Brother Edouard Quartier-la-Tente, Past Grand Masters SNviss Grand Lodge "Alpina," in the Annuaire, International Masonic Association, listed Lincoln among illustrious Freemasons (see, for example, page 44, 1913, and page 59, 1923). William H. Grimshaw of the Library of Congress also in History of Freemasonry, 1903 (page 365), lists Lincoln as a Freemason. In a letter to us, April 5, 1917, this author says: "So far as my book is concerned I quoted M. Edouard Quartier-la-Tente, P. G. M., Grand Lodge 'Alpina.' I will further state that Mr. J. H. Brooks, who was Mr. Lincoln's messenger. informed me that Mr. Lincoln was a Mason. The degrees were conferred in an Army Lodge attached to Gen. Grant's army in front of Richmond. I wrote Robert T. Lincoln as to the matter, and he informed me that so far as he could find, there were no papers or other record among his father's papers to indicate that he was a Mason."

Nothing further to support the claim credited to Brooks has been discovered by us. In the memorial volume published by the Government at Washington 1866, there are found the tributes of forty-four foreign Masonic Bodies, most of these plainly referring to Lincoln as a Brother. An inquiry made by R. NV. Robert D. Holmes, Deputy Grand Master, New York; was answered by Brother B. B. French from the Washington office of the Grand Master, Knights Templar, April 91, 1865, "Yours of the 19th is just received. President Lincoln was not a Mason. He once told me in the presence of Most Worshipful Brother J. W. Simons that he had at one time made up his mind to apply for admission to our Fraternity but that he feared he was too lazy to attend to his duty as a Mason, 3S he should like to do, and that he had not carried out his intentions. I told him it was not too late now. 'Well,' said he, 'as likely as not I shall apply to nou some day to let me in' " (see the Masonic Monthly, May, 1865, page 351; Builder, volume 3, page 93; volume 10, pages 31, 286, 361). A published address by Dr. L. D. Carman, Past Master, before his Lodge, Harmony No. 17, Washington, District of Columbia, January 28, 1914, contains the B. B. French letter with much other data, including some peculiarly significant allusions made by Lincoln in Masonic style, a circumstance perhaps due to his early intimacy with Past Master Bowling Green at whose funeral Lincoln was asked by the Fraternity to make an address, which he was unable to complete owing to emotion, His great antagonist, Stephen Douglas was a Freemason whose framed petition, written in his own hand entirely, hangs on the wall of the Masonic Temple at Springfield, Illinois. For this information and other particulars we are indebted to Brother Hal C. McLoud of Springfield.

fourth president; born March 16, 1751; president, 1809; died June 28, 1836. Mentioned in connection with the Craft but no proof offered. Brother Bovden found in the history of Richmond Lodge No. 10, Richmond, Virginia, where Brother Walthall records that on July 25, 1836, this Lodge with Nos. 14 and 19 took part in a general tribute of respect to the memory of the ex-president. But this offers no evidence of Masonic affiliation. A letter, not indicative of Masonic membership, purporting to be from Madison to a friend on January 24, 1832, is given in the Anti-Masonic Publications (page 22, volume ii, 1834-79), by Joseph Ritner, Governor of Pennsylvania, but the authenticity of the communication is not fully established any more than is Madison's connection with the Craft. Both are doubtful.

twenty-fifth president; born January 29, 1843; president, 1897; died September 14, 1901. A native of Niles, Ohio, he took his first Degrees at Winchester, Virginia, in Winchester Hiram Lodge No. 21, Secretary C. Vernon Edd! kindly supplying us the dates, as Entered Apprentice, May 1, 1865; Fellow Craft, May 2, 1865; Master Mason, May 3, 1865. This occurred during the Civil War while Major McKinley was stationed there nith the Northern Army. Observing the Masonic brotherhood prominent under the afflictions of war a number of northern soldiers petitioned the local Lodge and received the Degrees. McKinley affiliated with Canton (Ohio) Lodge No. 60, August 21, 1867; then became a Charter Member of Eagle Lodge No. 43, also at Canton, a Lodge afterwards named after him. He received the Marl;, Past and Most Excellent Master Degrees in Canton Chapter No. 84, December 27, 1883, and the Royal Arch Degree, December 28, that year. The Red Cross was conferred upon him December 18, 1884, in Canton Commandery No. 38, and the Malta and the Order of the Temple, December 23, 1884. A gold card presented to him by California Commandery No. 1 of San Francisco for his reception there on May 22, 1901, came by gift after McKinley's death into the possession of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania through the kindness of Brother John Wannamaker, formerly Postmaster General.

fifth president; born April 28, 1758; president, 1817; died July 4, 1831. Brother W. L. Bovden finds from the original records that Monroe was on November G. 1775, recommended to be admitted a member of Williamsburg Lodge No. 6, at Williamsburg, Virginia, and that on November 9, 1775, Monroe was "preferred, received and balloted for, passed, accepted and entered an apprentice." Where his other Degrees were given is not clear but as there is an old tradition oft repeated of him taking Degrees in an Army Lodge that may account for them. Brother J. G. Hankins. Richmond, Virginia, mentioned in a letter his correspondence with the president of Williams and Mary College at Williams burg, Virginia, that Dr. Lyon G. Tyler wrote a history of the Lodge from the records, that this was published in the William and Mary Quarterly, 1892, volume I, number 1, lists the name of James Monroe, afterwards President of the United States. Dalcho Consistory Bulletin at Richmond, Virginia, March April, 1915, tells of Richmond Randolph Lodge No. 19, taking part in a memorial meeting in honor of James Monroe. A much more conclusive instance is the one given by Brother Boyden that the records of Cumberland Lodge No. 8, of Tennessee, June 8, 1819, show a reception to Monroe as "a Brother of the Craft," that the Worshipful Master W. Tannehill, afterwards Grand Master, headed the procession meeting the president, and that he was given a "Private Reception by the Masons." Admiral George W. Baird, Past Grand Master, Credits Monroe, on page 125, Masonry in the formation of Our Government, by Philip A. Roth, with also being a member of Kilwinning Cross Lodge No. 2 at Port Royal, Virginia (see also Quarterly Bulletin, Iowa Masonic Library. October, 1923, pages 121-3).

fourteenth president; born November 23, 1804; president, 1853; died October 8, 1869. Has been claimed as a Freemason, but Brother lV. L. Boyden in View jlyc, August, 1920, asserted there was no record of it, nor has any since come to our notice.

eleventh President; born November 9, l795; president, 1845; died June 15, 1849. Initiated, June 5, 1820; passed, August 7, 1820; Raised, September 4, 1820; chosen Junior Deacon October 20, Junior Warden December 3, 1821, all in Columbia Lodge No. 31, Columbia, Tennessee. Lafayette Chapter No. 4, Columbia, Tennessee, gave him the Royal Arch April 14, 1825.

thirty second president; born January 30, 1882; died April 12, 1945. Initiated October 10, 1911; Passed, November 14, 1911 Raised, November 28, 1911, Holland Lodge No. 8, New York, N.Y. Received the 32 A. A. Scottish Rite in Albally Consistory February 28, 1929. Cyprus Temple A.A.O.M.S. Albany, A. Y., March 25, 1930. Tri-Po-Bed Grotto M.O.V.P.E. R. Poughkeepsie, N. "at sight" October 30, 1931. Greenwood Court No. 81, Tall Cedars of Lebanon, Warwick, A. Y., "at sight' April 25, 1930.

twenty-sixth president; born October 27, 1858; as vice-president he succeeded the assassinated President McKinley 1901; died January 6, 1919. A member of Matinecock Lodge No. 806, Oyster Bay, New York, he was initiated January as, 1901; Passed, March "7, 1901, and Raised, April 24, 1901. His Masonic interests were keen, loyal, and constant, and his intercourse vsith Brethren abroad and at home most enjoyable. He participated w hole-heartedly in a number of public Masonic functions

twenty-seventh president; born September 15, 1857; president, 1909. Brother F. Wm. Harte, Secretary, Kilwinning Lodge No. 356, Cincinnati, Ohio, wrote us as follows: "William Howard Taft was made a Mason at sight on the afternoon of February 18, 1909, by Worships ful Brother Charles S. Hoskinson, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Ohio. In the evening of the same day Brother Taft witnessed the conferring of the Master Mason Degree in full form on one candidate, the work being done by Kilwinning Lodge No. 356. All of the above took place in the Scottish Rite Cathedral 417 Broadway, Cincinnati, Ohio. He was given a demit from the Grand Lodge of Ohio and presented same to Kilwinning Lodge No. 356, F. & it. LI., on February 18, 1909, and he was elected a member of said Lodge on April 14, 1909." "At sight" in this case meant that the Grand Master convened a Lodge of such assisting Brethren as he deemed necessary and the three Degrees were given concisely on the one occasion.

twelfth president; born September 24, 1784; president, 184t9; died July 9, 18a0. Brother Boyden suggests that the story of Taylor being a Freemason arose from resolutions passed by Santa Rosa Lodge No. 16, Milton, Florida, on the death of "Brother Taylor," and from his presence when the Grand Lodge of Virginia laid a cornerstone at Riellmond, February 22, 1850. But nothing conclusive has arisen to establish his Masonic affiliation.

President and Bro. Harry S. Truman was initiated in Belton Lodge, No. 450, Missouri, Feb. 9, 1909; raised March 18, 1909, and became Junior Warden in 1910. In 1911 he became Charter Master of Grandview Lodge, No. 618; was District Deputy Grand Master of the 59th Masonic District from 1925 to 1930, and was an expert ritualist. He entered the Grand Lodge line in 1930; became Grand Master of Masons in Missouri, in 1940. He presided over the Grand Communication, held in St. Louis, beginning September 30, 1941. His address was memorable. He was a United States Senator at the time, with temporary residence in Washington, D. C.

Harry S. Truman was born at Lamar, Barton Co., Rio., May 8, 1884. He attended the grades and high school in Independence Hall, and studied law for two years in Kansas City. He served as Captain of Artillery in World War I, and was demobilized with the rank of Major in 1913. After many years as County Judge, and in the Senate he was elected Vice-President in 1944. On April 12, 1945, at 7:08 P.M. he was Sworn in as President, four hours after President and Bro. Franklin D. Roosevelt had died in Warm Springs, Ga.

In his address as Grand Master he called the attention of his Grand Lodge to the martyrdom of tl1ousands of Masons in Europe and Asia at the hands of Faseists, Nazis, and Japanese. They were executed, he said, because they stood for freedom in polities, religion, thought and Speech, which are principles of Freemasonry, and he expressed the hope that American Masons would hold their martyrdom in sacred memory. He also warned that the fraternity should not admit new members with insufficient examination.

tenth president; born Marsh 99, 17'D0; president, 1841, as vice-president succeeding President Harrison on the latter's death; died January 18, 1862. No support of consequence has appeared for the claim that he was a Freemason. The Virginia Masonic Journal, September, 1919, published the following: "In a public address before a body of Masons at a corner-stone laying a few years before his death, John Tyler used these words 'It is not my good fortune to belong to your (Masonic) society, or to any of a kindred character' " (see also Bulletin, Dalcho Consistory, Richmond, Virginia, March-April, 1915, quoted in above).

first president; born February 11, 1731/2 (Old Style, owing to reform of the calendar date now celebrated is February 2 , 1732); president, 1789; died December 14, 1799. Initiated, November 4, 1752; Passed, Marsh 3, 1753; Raised, August 4, 1753, in Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, Fredericksburg, Virginia. Charter Master of Alexandria Lodge No. 22, Alexandria, Virginia, April 98, 17S8, and re-elected December 20, 1788. This Lodge formerly N o. 39 under Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, became N o. 22 under the Grand Lodge of Virginia, and after the death of Washington v as in 180o named Alexandria-Washington Lodge (see article on Washington for additional details?.

A thorough-going treatise on Masonic Presidents, Vice-Presidents and Signers (of the Declaration of Independence), Washington, is published by Brother William L. Boyden, Librarian of the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, arid in the Stew Age, August, 1920, Brother Boyden also deals with the subject. His list of Masonic Vice Presidents includes John C. Breckinridge, Aaron Burr, Schuyler Colfax, George LI. Dallas, Charles W. Fairballks, Garret A. Hobart, Andrew Johnson, Richard LI. Johnson, William R. King, Thomas R. Marshall, Theodore Roosevelt, Adlai E. Stevenson, Daniel D. Tompkins, all of u horn are given the obtainable details of their respective memberships. Lists have also appeared in Masonic journals, notably the Quarferly Bulletin, Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, January, 1917, and October, 1923.



If Freemasonry had a Foxe to write for it its own Book of Martyrs the larger number of Brethren would be horrified to find that men had been tortured, blinded, mutilated, hanged & burned, sent to the galleys, put into dungeons to starve dragged through streets, beaten by mobs, and in each instance for no other crime than that they were Free masons; they would next be astounded by the number of these martyrs, for if the latter were to be gathered together out of the past 200 years, and from each of almost fifty countries, and were to meet in a single throng, it would not number hundreds; it would not number thousands; it would number hundreds of thousands.

In 1735 a Scotsman named George Gordon fathered a Lodge in Portugal under a Charter granted by the Duke of Montage, London. For ten years the work of this and of other Lodges, purely cultural and strictly Masonic, was unmolested. Then, almost unannounced, and on representations (greatly falsified) of a Dominican monk named Bonnet de Meantry, the French Ambassador's confessor, the Lodge Virtud at Lisbon was raided; three of its members, Damiao de Andrade and Manoel de Revelhos, aristocrats, and a Brother named Christoph Diego were hanged, March 8, 1743. Thomas Brasle and Jacques Mouton, Frenchmen, and John Coustos, a Swiss by birth, but a British subject, were tortured again and again by the Inquisition; the French Brothers died, Coustos was sent to the galleys. This was the beginning of a long red chapter, first in Portugal, later in Spain; in Spain it came to a fiery end when Franco had hundreds of men hanged, shot, mobbed, mutilated, and burned for being Masons.

And thus:
General Luigi Capello commanded an Italian army corps at Gorz in World War I. When Mussolini ordered Italy to destroy Freemasonry he gave every Italian Mason of whatever station, rank, or dignity in the country an either-or: renounce Freemasonry and embrace Fascism; renounce Fascism and remain loyal to Freemasonry on peril of life. General Capello remained loyal to Freemasonry, was accused of having given 500,000 lira to conspirators to assassinate Mussolini; after a trial which dragged on month after month to give Fascist newspapers time to scream insults and threats against the Order, was found guilty and sentenced to "thirty years imprisonment, with solitary confinement for the first six years"—a death sentence at has age. Almost at once the secret police arrested Grand Master Torrigiani, and in two hours the Confinement Commission banished him without charge, hearing, or trial to the Lepari Islands to starve to death. How many hundreds of other Italian Brothers were dispossessed of their property, beaten and mobbed, sent to concentration camps, thrown into prison, or killed there is no way of knowing. It was however only the beginning of the slaughter of men for being Masons from 1925 until the Allied Armies liberated European countries; and from the Russian border to Ireland only Switzerland, Sweden, and Britain were exempt—and even in England it was in Mosley's plans for his Fascist party to destroy the Fraternity and to assassinate its leaders. Between the two extremes of 1925 and 1944 there was a long succession of men, in thousands which have never been counted, who suffered martyrdom for their loyalty to Freemasonry; and outside of Europe in every Latin country from Mexico south, and in Japan, China, and the Philippine Islands.

The almost complete lack of knowledge of these martyrdoms by three millions or so of American Masons is one of the most extraordinary phenomena in the whole history of the Craft. One explanation is found in "the sabotage of history." This also is almost unknown among American Masons and among American citizens at large though professional historians are familiar with it to excess. and must everlastingly battle with it.

This "sabotage of history" consists of destroying documents, altering documents. forging documents creating false legends, the assassination of character of men long dead—as was done with Cromwell—, and the writing of books consisting of open and brazen lies. It was the discovery that monuments to heroes of the Revolutionary and Civil War were being systematically defaced or destroyed in order to erase the only existing proofs of their having been Masons which started Admiral George W. Baird on his years Of research and produced Great Men Who Were Masons. Two recent attempts at obligate were made in the eases Of Edit Carson and William E. Cody [' Buffalo Bill"], the former in the year 1943. Another explanation is the fact that American Masonry has almost no national journalism. and in consequence possesses no means to publish general information.



It is in each and every Grand Jurisdiction an unwritten law, and in a number of them is a written law, that Lodge or other Masonic funds are to be expended for Masonic purposes" only. This is a Landmark which Mackey did not include in his list (see page 560) though it indubitably is a Landmark and is as Ancient as the Craft itself. Masonic Jurisprudence continues in an inchoate, or uncompleted, condition; neither Grand Lodges nor authorities on jurisprudence have ever codified either the Statutes or the Constitutional regulations concerning money; it is for that reason impossible to define "Masonic purposes" accurately, though in practice it is almost never difficult to draw a line between Masonic and non-Masonic (or un-Masonic) purposes.

In general, statements as to what Masonic purposes are may be found in the lists of Landmarks officially adopted or approved by Grand Lodges; here and there in Codes; in established rules and practices; in the Lodge Charter, and in the Old Charges. There is to be a Lodge; it is to have a room; it is to make Masons; at stated times it is to assemble them; it is to extend relief; and it is to be expected that among themselves they will enjoy feasts and other entertainment which belong to good fellowship. For these purposes, money must be expended; the total cost per year is divided among members and among petitioners and candidates, who pay proportionate shares in ache form of fees, dues, and assessments. The funds which come into the Lodges are therefore, and as it were, already earmarked; it is unlawful to use them in expenditure for anything other than the purposes for which they were paid or given.



Bro. Robert I. Clegg's paragraph on the formation of the Masonic Service Association on page 648 had to go to press before the full facts had become available to him, therefore his account calls for some amplification. It also must be revised at one point, because he leaves the impression that the Association was a continuation of the Overseas Mission of which Judge Townsend Scudder, P. G. M., of New York, had been chairman.

The account given herewith can be recommended ax completely reliable to future historians because its writer was with Grand Master George L. Schoonover, Grand Lodge of Iowa, then living at Anamosa, la., on the day when he was first inspired with the idea; discussed it with him at length a number of times during some three months before the Grand Masters' Conference convened at Cedar Rapids, la., November 26, 1918, worked with him and Bro. Scudder to lay out the blue-print for the form of organization which was adopted the next day; was author of the educational plank which was incorporated in the plan; for some four or five weeks after the formation of the Association gave his full time to working out details for the Association's educational work; and co-operated with Prof. William Russell, then of the University of Iowa, afterwards Dean of the School of Education in Columbia University, in writing the first Short Talk Bulletins.

Grand Master Schoonover's idea was not to perpetuate the Overseas Mission of the Grand Lodge of New York. It was almost the opposite of that. He believed that the Grand Lodges had not supported the Conference which had been held at New York in April, 1917, partly because the Grand Lodges had not received notice sufficiently in advance, partly because he did not believe that the forty-nine Grand Lodges would ever work through a Committee, and more largely because he believed that the War Relief plan carried out by the Committee (to which he gave his whole-hearted support) was too narrow a basis on which to build a concerted national Masonic activity

He believed that just as the Government of the United States sets up independent, staffed organizations arr special governmental purposes which are self-managed and yet are owned and controlled by the Government, so should the American Grand Lodges set up a permanent and continuously active association which though staffed by salaried men and directed by an Executive Secretary, would be owned, controlled, and used by the Grand Lodges, and used by them both individually and collectively, at any time and for any good purpose. At a period of emergency the whole of American Masonry could act as a unit, employing such an Association as its instrument. How would a salaried staff be kept busy? The writer's contribution to the theory of the proposed Association was to recommend that they be given a program of nation-wide Masonic educational services to carry on.

The Masonic Service Association came into existence when the Grand Masters, Conference adopted the Constitution, of which a copy is included in a booklet published by the Association entitled "The Masonic Service Association of the United States: Origin, Purpose, Activity." The Grand Lodges were divided into ten geographical Divisions; the Association was to meet annually, and each year was to elect an Executive Commission consisting of a Chairman and a member from each Division. This Committee was to administer activities; and salaried staff members were to be under its directions. Membership was by Grand Lodges, each acting to join or not join at one of its regular Grand Communications; and finances were to be pro-rated among member Grand Lodges according to their membership. In the Session held immediately after adoption of the Association, Bro. Schoonover was elected the first Executive Secretary.

During its formative period the Association encountered two difficulties. One was the ever-lurking fear of a National Grand Lodge; this was overcome by patient correspondence and personal visits to Grand Communications The other was a prejudiced and unwarranted rumor teethe effect that the Association was created to "support" the National Masonic Research Society which Bro. Schoonover had founded in January, 1915, which published a journal called The Builder, and for which he had erected a headquarters building at Anamosa, Iowa (later he erected a second and larger one at Cedar --Rapids, Iowa, to which the Society moved its offices). The facts were the opposite of the rumor. The Research Society was in no need of support. During the first months it supported the new Association, furnished it with office space, gave it the use of its mailing room and its library, gave wide publicity to it in The Builder, and its own Executive Secretary, already over-burdened, gave his time as Executive Secretary to the Association without salary.

But the rumor persisted, and to free both the Research Society and the Association from it, headquarters of the latter were set up in an office building in downtown Cedar Rapids. Bro. Schoonover resigned as Executive Secretary, and Bro. A. L. Randell, P.G.M., Texas, was employed at an adequate salary to take his place. From then on the two organizations went their own ways independently, the M.S.A. moving to Washington, D.C., which Btill is its headquarters city. M.-. W. . Carl H. Claudy succeeded Bro. Randell after the latter's death. A complete dossier of minutes, reports, and other original documents are in the vault of the Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.—H.L.H.



What are now called Masons' Marks were in the centuries of Operative Masonry most often called Bench, or Banker Marks, because after a stone or some other piece of work was completed and signed, or "marked," it was placed on the "bench," or "bank," where bookkeepers could make a record of it, thereby giving each workman credit for no more and no less than he had done. (The word "bench" as then used still survives as a philological relic among the terms used in commercial green-houses, where the raised plant beds are called "benches.") Each Mason had his own mark; he was not permitted to use one like, or too much like another's; after he had completed a stone he carved, scratched, or painted his Mark on it.

The custom has Sways and everywhere been in use among builders, in China and India and the Near East as much as in Europe, in ancient times as much as in Medieval. (When the foundation stones of Solomon's Temple were excavated the painted marks on them were as unworn and as unfaded as ever.) A Mark had to be easy to chisel; it also had to be simple enough for clerks to write into their records without too much trouble. A Mason kept the same Mark throughout his career, so that it became identified with him like his name. As late as 1670 the members of Aberdeen Lodge, Operatives and non-Operatives alike, put down their Marks along with their names. (See page 626.)

Marks themselves were not symbols or emblems, and every attempt to find in them some esoteric system of teachings has failed; and though one or another type of them might have been favored in one period or country the fact has no more significance than that of any similar custom. But while the Marks failed the hopes of those who sought in them a key to symbolism and thereby ceased to be as important to Masonic symbology as was once expected, they have on the other hand become of ever-increasing importance to researchers in the history of both architecture and Freemasonry. In one instance a Mark found in a building and on the Fabric Rolls was identified with the name of a workman and a date; when the same Mark was found in fifteen or sixteen other buildings over a large area it proved conclusively that the work men had been free to move about to work in different parishes; and it also proved the dates of a number of buildings.

But while the designs of the Marks were not symbolic the general use and purpose of Marks in general was so surcharged with meaning and rich in suggestions that the development of a general symbolism of Masons' Marks was inevitable sooner or later—if the Mark Degree had not been organized in the Eighteenth Century it would have been in the Nineteenth, and out of the Royal Arch Degree itself as it in turn had been developed out of the old Master Degree. A Masons' Mark was like his name, or like his thumb print, both a proof and an expression of his identity, his individuality. That same idea had always been marked out and stressed by every people in history.

Even before history (as is still true of our Indians) a man had a public or general name, also a secret name belonging solely to himself. In countries where each tribe had a god and yet where through wars, consolidations, or alliances one tribe became mixed with another, a tribe gave its god a secret name known only to its own members lest the god of one tribe be confused with the god of another. The story of "shibboleth" and "sibboleth" was but one of thousands of similar stories in ancient times.

There is throughout history a never-ending see-saw between the social, and the individual A man is both individual and social, and it is fatal to him when he cannot be both.

The insanities of "the ego and his own," of "rugged individualism," of "all-out competition," of the "lone-wolf philosophy," of egoism, Nietscheanism, and ultra-individualism together, are as deadly as totalitarianism, communism, equalitarianism, and other insanities of the sort which seek to wipe out the man as an individual. A working man, solely as such, can never be a hired hand, a mere employer, a number in a list, a "member" in an organization, and be thus reduced to a cypher, a drop of water lost in the ocean of a so-called "class"; on the other hand he cannot himself evade his responsibility by hiding out in the anonymousness of a crowed in order to do scotched work or no work—the Masons would have said that each and every workman stands separately in the All-seeing Bye of the Grand Architect. In the symbolism of the Mark the many truths of individuality and of society both are present, or are suggested, for the Mark meant that at one and the same time each Craftsman had an indefeasible identity of his own yet at the same time was a member of a Brotherhood of Craftsmen.

See chapters on Masons' Marks in English Monasteries in the Middle Apes, by R. Liddesdale Palmer; page 200; in the Histories by R. F. Gould and by Albert G. Mackey; in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum; and in Art and the Reformation, by G. G. Coulton. In a period when the whole world is shaken with wars and debates between totalitarianism and democracy, communism and individualism, the state and the citizen, the Mark Degree is no longer an interesting piece of Masonic antiquarianism, or of a symbolism more or less inert and academic, but is worth careful study by thinking men because in it are clues and ideas overlooked by the majority of arguments, and they are rich, and suggestive, and unbelievably wise.



The Minutes of the oldest Speculative Lodges consist of very brief memoranda, often of little more than a note to the effect that the Lodge had met on 3 certain date, and with the names of the Master and officers. There are three general reasons for these sketchy brevities: first, the Lodge made little use of its records; second, Secretaries were always afraid of violating the rule of secrecy; third, the Secretaries who took their Minutes hon. we were afraid lest outsiders might see them; and if they left them in the Lodge Room (records were kept in a bag in the base of a pedestal;) they were afraid that employees of the tavern might get at them. It is only by a great amount of auxiliary research in tow n histories, local papers, and biographies that an historian can make the dry bones live.

This meagerness of records is always tantalizing; it is tantalizing in the extreme on the subject of Masters' Lodges, for while such Lodges are often mentioned in Minutes almost nothing is ever told about them; the paradoxical result is that we know with certainty that Masters' Lodges were at work, and yet know very little about them—not even from their own Minutes, of which a scant amount are in existence.

It appears that after about 1725 there were a number of them, in and around London at least. They were separately organized, had their on n warrant, and their own officers, at least as a general rule, for in some cases the Masters' Lodge appears to have been an adjunct to some Lodge on the Grand Lodge List.

A typical Masters' Lodge would meet on Sunday; to it would go a few members of each of a number of Lodges. For the rest, the data are confusing. In some instances they appear to have had no function except to confer the Master Mason Degree. In others they appear to have been composed of Past Masters only (in days when a Master served only six months, ten Lodges would have 200 Past Masters in ten years). In still others it appears that any Lodge member (a Fellowcraft) was eligible, but that he had "to pass the chair"—in the Minutes are such titles as Pass Master, Passed Master, Past Master. Also, there are hints that what became the Royal Arch Degree may leave been a portion of the ceremonies used in a Masters' Lodge.

It is certain that in the majority of Lodges members were made Apprentice and Fellowcraft only; that a Worshipful Master was usually a Fellowcraft (in at least one Lodge he was an Apprentice); and that very often the two "Degrees" were conferred in one evening (called "emergency"); it may be, though at present it is impossible to be sure, that the tri-gradal system was set up when these Masters' Lodges were discontinued, "raising" was turned back to the Lodges, and the Royal Arch was separately organized to confer some of the ceremonies which before had been conferred in Masters' Lodges. It is almost certain that the Royal Arch (at least as old as 1744) and the Mark Degrees always were considered to belong to Ancient Craft Masonry; even as late as 1813 at the time of the Union, Ancient Craft Masonry was proclaimed to consist of the Degrees of Apprentice, Fellowcraft, Master Mason and the Holy Royal Arch.

See An Old Masters' Lodge, by William James Hughan; Kenning; London; 1897; it incorporates Minutes from 1720 to 1734. Some light on Masters' Lodges is in Antiquity of the Holy Royal Arch; Lewis; London; 1927; Historical Analysis of the Holy R. A. Ritual; Lewis; London; 1929; and Organization of the Royal Arch Chapters Two Centuries Ago; Lewis; London; 1930; the three books are by the Rev. F. de. P. Castells. See also, and especially for documents, History of the Origin and Development of the Royal Arch Degrees, by Charles A. Conover; Coldwater, Mich.; 1923.

In a paper on "Masters' Lodges" read by John Lane at a meeting of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, N o. 2076, June 25, 1888, he gives a brief sketch of each of 36 Masters' Lodges which appeared on the Grand Lodge Engraved List from 1723 to 0813.

One of the most valuable sources of information is Chapter VIII, Olel Dundee Lodges by Arthur Heiron. Between 1754 and 1769 the Masters' Lodge which was connected with Old Dundee held about 400 meetings. Bro. Heiron describes it in terms of seven "chief characteristics":

1. The meetings were held in six winter months only, at first on Sunday, then on Monday, and finally on alternate Thursdays. but never on a stated Lodge night.
2. "An Express Vote" or "Indulgence" had to be passed by the Lodge before a Masters' Lodge could be held; Brethren attending paid one shilling for each meeting.
3. .A second "Indulgence" was needed to grant them privilege of using jewels and furniture.
4. The purpose was to "Raise Masters," but in occasional emergencies the Lodge itself conferred three Degrees in one night, though Old Dundee did not approve such practices.
5. Only members of the Masters' Lodges were permitted to attend. The Work was conferred by Past Masters in a "Uniform with Purple Colored Ribbons"—a suggestion of the colors of the Royal Arch.
6. The Masters' Lodges' funds were kept by the Lodge Treasurer in a separate account.
7. In 1769 the Grand Chapter R.A.M. for the first time granted Warrants to 'private Chapters"—i.e., bodies separate from a Lodge.

In that same year the Lodge discontinued its Masters' Lodge, and voted that "They should have a Master's Lecture on the Public Nights from Micas to Ladyday."

Bro. Heiron was of the opinion that the Masters' Lodge performed the ceremony of "Passing the Chair." To "Raise a Master," the ceremony being more elaborate than one used in "Modern" Lodges at the time. During the period of the "Masters' Lodge" the regular Old Dundee continued to confer the Third Degree on any "ordinary Lodge Night." Why then a Masters' Lodge? It conferred a dram4ttzed, or acted out, fond, Bro. Eeiron believed, whereas the Lodge itself used only a Floor Cloth and a Lecture; also, the Masters' Lodge ceremony probably contained the Royal Arch ceremonies, for which reason the "Passing the Chair" ceremony was required. Lodges under the Ancient Grand Lodge had no Masters' Lodges; they did have a separate Royal Arch Degree; the fact suggests that conferring the Royal Arch was one of the principal purposes of the Moderns' Masters' Lodges. (The whole of Bro. Heiron's Chapter VIII is worth careful study.)



At a time when little or nothing was known about the Mayas, and to take advantage of that general ignorance while he could, LePlongeon wrote a book to prove that the Mayas (or Quiches) had invented Freemasonry "20,000.years ago." Now that the veil has been lifted from that great and fine people, LePlongeon's book is exposed as either a hoax or as one of the most exquisite masterpieces of ignorance ever penned. A curator of the Maya Museum at San Diego made a special study of two or three details in the replicas of Maya monuments exhibited there from which the dreamful Le Plongeon had woven his fantasy; not one had even a remote connection with Freemasonry.

Thus, to mention only one of them, the bas-relief figure of a Maya chieftain of ceremony is wearing a garment faintly resembling an apron; even if it were an apron the fact would signify nothing because liturgists in thousands of cults and religions have worn aprons; none of the emblems on it was Masonic.

The Mayas were an American Indian people, who centered in what is now Yucatan and Guatemala. They built large cities, had schools, hospitals, doctors, the arts and sciences (very little engineering), mathematics, astronomy; a few of their descendants continue to speak the Maya tongue. They reached their heyday about the same century as Charlemagne. From their center went out waves of civilizations, the Aztecs, Peruvians, Mexicans, and, finally, the Pueblo Indians who still live in Arizona and New Mexico.

It is believed that each and every North American Indian tribe or people descended from the Mayas; the symbol of the plumed serpent which had so prominent a place among Maya emblems and symbols (representing a river, clouds, rain) is still in use, though altered almost out of recognition, among Indians in America and in Northern Canada. (See History of Mayas, by Gann and Thompson. People of the Serpent, by Thompson. The largest and safest source of materials for a student are in the reports of archaeologists and of the special societies, bureaus, and institutions devoted to Indian history. Except for what they obtained from American Lodges, no trace of Speculative Freemasonry has ever been found among Indians in general; still less, among the Mayas.)

See Kukulcan; The Bearded Conqueror (New Mayan discoveries), by T. A. Willard; Murray and Lee; Hollywood; 1941. This book by a Maya enthusiast who quit the manufacture of electric storage batteries to live in Yucatan and join Moler and Thompson in the recovery of Maya ruins admittedly is by an amateur of archeology who writes for laymen; for all that, he writes no dreams of his own like Le Plongeon but relates for the non-technical what the specialists have found. What the specialists have found is that the Maya sculptures, so mysterious in appearance, are no more mysterious than a daily paper.

The Mayas are not vanished but live still in Yucatan, talking Maya; until 619 A.D. there were two peoples in Yucatan, the Itzaes and the Chicans—hence Chichen-Itza—vixen they were conquered; in 1027 A.D. they founded their capital of Mayapan—hence "Maya"; in that gear a Toltec named Eukulcan came down out of Mexico and conquered them—"a white man with a beard"- the Spaniards first arrived in 1520, and conquered the Mayas in 1541, whereupon—in 1549—a Franciscan friar named Landa, afterwards bishop, began to destroy their books, religion, science, schools, art. The famous quetzal bird is not extinct, but flourishing; the sculptures and writings are little more than a chronicle of Mayan history. Of "secrets," and esoteric knowledge, and above all of Freemasonry, there is nowhere a trace. They got the great stones up to the top of their temples and pyramids by pulling them on rollers up temporary dirt ramps. The earliest authentic, recorded Maya date is 179 A.D.



Among the medals preserved in the old United States mint in Philadelphia are six of Masonic subjects, or struck to commemorate Masonic events. Two of these are of George Washington. For data about these, and for other medals with Masonic connections of one sort or another, see Catalogue of Coins, Tokens, and Medais in the Numismatic collection of the Mint of the United States at Philadelphia, Pa.; Government Printing Office; Washington, D. C.; 1914.



Bro. R. J. Meekren, Stanstead, Quebec, and A. L. Kress, McKeesport, Pa., contributed to The Builder, of which Bro. Meekren was editor at the time, a series of articles between May, 1928 and October, 1929 in which they developed sith skill and thoroughness a theory of the Ritual which they have a right to call their own, and which has been receiving a sympathetic consideration by Masonic scholars.

The theory cannot be bracketed or labeled because it stands in a unique position. It is concerned largely with the Third Degree, and more particularly with the Legend of HA.-. On the one side they refuse to agree with the more timid investigators that the Third Degree was concocted out of nothing, or next to nothing ("the Mason Word," etc.), after 1725, by the "new men" who had come into the Craft, and who, as old Minutes so abundantly show, knew very little about Freema60nry's past; and they refuse partly because they do not believe that the old Lodges in control of the Grand Lodge would have accepted any artificially constructed novelty into the structure of the Ritual, and partly because the internal evidence of the Third Degree indicates that it is at least in substance far older than the Eighteenth Century.

On the other side, they refuse to agree with the extremists of the so-called "anthropologic school" (Ward, Cock burn, etc.) that our ceremonies ever were handed over to us by African savages, or any other savages. They believe however, and in so believing have the backing of the whole science of anthropology, that there are in modern civilization some "culture survivals"; that these originated, many of them, in ancient times, and that they have persisted because for generation after generation men have found in them something worth preserving.

In their articles they carry out a series of studies of such rites and symbols as Form of the Lodge, the Precious Jewels, HA.-. etc., in the light of their being possible culture survivals, and in 60 doing bring to them a fresh interpretation, and extract from them new meanings, and as always, when that is done, receiving grateful thanks from other students. Their interpretation is being criticized at two points. First, have they not narrowed too much the scope of Medieval architecture, ignoring the fact that it was a world in itself in which the construction and engineering of buildings was only a part, and in which there was in every period a rich, interior culture? If they have, they have weakened their argument for carrying back the origin of the (admittedly) oldest stratum of Masonic rites and symbols to ages preceding Medieval architecture.

Second, and on the contrary, they could in part strengthen their theory if it could be shown, as is possible, that the whole use of the ideas of Degrees, or separately organized ceremonies, has no meaning prior to about 1600. It is reasonable to think that Operative Masons had not fewer ceremonies (rites, symbols) than Speculative, but had more; but that they used them here and there, now and then, for many purposes, and were never concerned to organize them into independent Degrees. If this is true the problem of HA.-. can be detached from any problem about the Third Degree (as a Degree) for it is possible that it is one of many ceremonies, or rites, or symbolic actions of which there were probably a large number in the earliest Medieval Masonry.



Ancient Craft Masonry ("Blue Lodge"), the Royal Arch, Cryptic Rite, Knight Templarism, and the Scottish Rite have each one its own laws, rules, and regulations,|written and unwritten; the whole of these, taken as a single subject, comprise Masonic Jurisprudence. As in civil jurisprudence where Federal laws are not the same as State laws, where the laws of one State are not the same as the laws of another, and the municipal law of cities inside the same State differ from one to another, so in Freemasonry each Rite has its own jurisprudence, and inside each Rite its local or constituent bodies have their by-laws. Nevertheless, and as in civil law, Masonic jurisprudence is in substance the same throughout; the differences are differences of wording, of construction, of "place" (i.e., what is a Grand Lodge statute in one Grand Jurisdiction is a by-law in another), of application, and of the amount of written law (the Grand Lodge of Connecticut has a minimum of written rules, California has a maximum), but these are differences in the same set of fundamental laws.

It is needed that these facts be remembered when the rules and regulations governing the individual Lodge member are in consideration. In the jurisprudence of a Master Mason what is his capacity as member of a Lodge? On few other subjects do Grand Lodges and Lodges (and Bodies of the other Rites) appear to differ more, nevertheless their laws are everywhere the same in purpose and intent. Individual membership is a Lodge office; the member has his own place to sit, his own time to act or speak, his own duties to perform, his own rights and privileges, his own regalia, his own responsibility; he even has his own title of "Brother" which is as much a title as "Secretary," "Senior Warden," or "Worshipful Master."

Unlike the member of a club or a society there is nothing fluid or uncertain in his activities; he is not foot-loose, cannot go or come or act as his whim might lead him to, but belongs to an Order, and in his capacity as member of a Masonic Lodge he is ordered— hang his own place, time, etiquette, rank, title, In Book III, Chapter 3, The Jurisprudence of Freemasonry, by Albert G. Mackey, the office of membership is described under the heads of nine uprights."

The Master Mason as member of a Lodge has the Right of Membership, the Right of Affiliation, of Visit, of Avouchment, of Relief, of Demission, of Appeal, of Burial, of Trial. But if he has Rights he also has Duties, for if there be no Duties there is no means to satisfy Rights; as, in example, if A has the Right to ask for Relief it is the Duty of B. or W. or Z to give it to him else the Right is useless. It is a member's Duty to attend Lodge, to pay dues, to vote, to take part in Lodge discussion, to obey when instructed or ordered by the Master, to give relief, to visit the sick, to answer the Sign of Distress, and to hold office if in his Brethrens' judgment he ought to do so; unless he has the qualification and willingness to perform these Duties he does not possess the qualifications for membership.

During the first century of Speculative Freemasonry Lodges in every country took the ground that this is what was meant by the Doctrine of Qualification and they "excluded" a man who lacked them, and fined members for non-attendance, or for not responding to the Master's summons, or for refusing to vote or to accept office. Also, a member has Prerogatives: the prerogative of seeking to visit, of making himself known to other Masons, of the privilege of the floor, of introducing resolutions, of entering and retiring, of being addressed by his title of "Brother," etc.

A member, and solely in his capacity as member, also has his own designated right of power which once was described as his rights to sovereignty, and which in a literal sense is sovereignty within its own limits. The laws, rules, and regulations by which he is governed and ordered appear on the surface to be little more than restrictions and restraints, as if in the eyes of the Fraternity he were "merely a member," and as such has little voice in things; but if those rules and regulations are analyzed, and if they are observed in action, it will be found that one of their grand purposes is to guarantee that no officer, custom, or set of circumstances shall interfere with a member's freedom—his freedom to act, his rights, or duties, or his power.



Anthropologists have been impressed with the similarity between a Lodge, composed of men only, admitting members by initiation and as apprentices, with ceremonies of their own, and the Men's House of a number of uncivilized peoples. In their campaigns in World War II among island peoples in the South Pacific and the Southwest Pacific American soldiers reported the finding of these Men's Houses in a number of islands—among the Marianas they were called All Men's House. A Men's House is the largest building of a community, stands well apart and by itself; in it unmarried men have their quarters; to it boys of twelve are taken when they are initiated into the tribe and are to live apart from women until marriage.

The analogy between the House and a Lodge is interesting; both are instances, or forms, of free associations; but it is impossible to push the analogy beyond that point without turning it into an absurdity. (Studies of the Men's House and its ceremonies are common in general anthropological and ethnological literature; and there are special, detailed studies in the works of Hutton Webster, J. G. Fraser, and Margaret Mead. See also The Mends House, by Joseph Fort Newton, a collection of Masonic essays of which the first gives its title to the booked



In 1839, two French Freemasons, named respectively Marconis and Moullet, of whom the former was undoubtedly the leader, instituted, first at Paris, then at Marseilles, and afterward at Brussels, a new Rite which they called the Rite of Memphis, and which consisted of ninety-one Degrees. Subsequently, another Degree was added to this already too long list. The Rite, however, has repeatedly undergone modifications. The Rite of Memphis was undoubtedly founded on the extinct Rite of Mizraim; for, as Ragon says, the Egyptian Rite seems to have inspired Marconis and Moullet in the organization of their new Rite. It is said by Ragon, who has written copiously on the Rite, that the first series of Degrees, extending to the Thirty-fifth Degree, is an assumption of the thirty three Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Rite, with scarcely a change of name. The remaining Degrees of the Rite are borrowed, according to the same authority, from other well-known systems, and some, perhaps, the invention'.of their founders. The Rite of Memphis was not at first recognized by the Grand Orient of France, and consequently formed no part of legal French Freemasonry. So about 1852 its Lodges were closed by the civil authority, and the Rite, tousea French Masonic phrase, "went to sleep."

A Lodge was operating in 1859 as of the Reformed Masonic Order of Memphis, or Rite of the Grand Lodge of-Philadelphes, in England, and issuing certificates of membership. The Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of England therefore sent out a circular warning members of the English Lodges against spurious Lodges claiming to be Masonic.

In the year 1869, Marconis, still faithful to the system which he had invented, applied to the Grand Master of France to give to it a new life. The Grand college of Rites was consulted on the subject, and the Council of the Order having made a favorable degree, the Rite of Memphis was admitted, in November, 1869, among those Masonic systems which acknowledge obedience to the Grand Orient of France, and perform their functions within its bosom. To obtain this position! however, the only one which, in France, preserves a Masonic system from the reputation of being clandestine, it was necessary that Marconis, who was then the Grand Hierophant, should, as a step preliminary to any favorable action on the part of the Grand Orient, take an obligation by which he forever after divested himself of all authority, of any kind whatsoever, over the Rite. It passed entirely out of his hands, and, going into obedience to the Grand Orient, that Body has taken complete and undivided possession of it, and laid its advanced Degrees upon the shelf, as Masonic curiosities, since the Grand Orient only recognizes, in practice, the thirty-three degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.

This, then, became the position of the Rite of Memphis in France. Its original possessors have disclaimed all further control or direction of it. It has been admitted by the Grand Orient among the eight systems of Rites which are placed under its obedience; that is to say, it admits its existence, but it does not suffer it to be worked. Like all Masonic Rites that have ever been invented the organization of the Rite of Memphis is founded on the first three Degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry. These three Degrees, of course, are given in Symbolic Lodges. In 1862, when Marconis surrendered the Rite into the hands of the ruling powers of French Freemasonry, many of these Lodges existed in various parts of France, although in a dormant condition, because, as we have already seen, ten years before they had been closed by the civil authority Had they been in active operation, they would not have been recognized by the French Freemasons; they would have been looked upon as clandestine, and there would have been no affiliation with them because the Grand Orient recognizes no Masonic Bodies as legal which do not in return recognize it as the head of French Freemasonry.

But when Marconis surrendered his powers as Grand Hierophant of the Rite of Memphis to the Grand Orient, that Body permitted these Lodges to be resuscitated and reopened only on the conditions that they would acknowledge their subordination to the Grand Orient; that they would work only in the first three Degrees and never confer any Degree higher than that of Master Mason; the members of these Lodges, however high might be their dignities in the Rite of Memphis, were to be recognized only as Master Masons; every Freemason of the Rite of Memphis was to deposit his Masonic titles with the Grand Secretary of the Grand Orient; these titles were then to be visé or approved and regularized, but only as far as the Degree of Master Mason; no Freemason of the Rite of Memphis was to be permitted to claim any higher Degree, and if he attempted to assume any such title of a higher Degree which was not approved by the Grand Master, he was to be considered as irregular, and was not to be affiliated with by the members of any of the regular Lodges.

Such became the condition of the Rite of Memphis in France. It was absorbed into the Grand Orient; Marconis, its founder and head, surrendered all claim to any jurisdiction over it; there are Lodges under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient which originally belonged to the Rite of Memphis, and they practice its Ritual, but only so far as to give the Degrees of Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Mason. Its "Sages of the Pyramids" its "Grand Architects of the Mysterious City," its "Sovereign Princes of the Magi of the Sanctuary of Memphis," with its "Sanctuary," its "Mystical Temple," its "Liturgical College," its "Grand Consistory ," and its "Supreme Tribunal," existed no longer except in the Diplomas and Charters which were quietly laid away on the shelves of the Secretariat of the Grand Orient. To attempt to propagate the Rite became in France a high Masonic offense. The Grand Orient had the power, but there seemed no likelihood that it would ever exercise it.

Some circumstances which occurred in the Grand Orient of France very clearly show the true condition of the Rite of Memphis. A meeting was held in Paris by the Council of the Order, a Body which something like the Committee of General Purposes of the Grand Lodge of England, does all the preliminary business for the Grand Orient, but which is possessed of rather extensive legislative and administrative powers, as it directs the Order during the recess of the Grand Orient. At that meeting, a communication was received from a Lodge in Moldavia, called The Disciples of Truth, which Lodge is under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of France, having been chartered by that Body. This communication stated that certain Brethren of that Lodge had been invested by one Cadence with the Degree of Rose Croix in the Rite of Memphis, and that the diplomas had been dated at the Grand Orient of Egypt, and signed by Brother Marconis as Grand Hierophant.

The Commission of the Council of the Order, to whom the subject was referred, reported that the conferring of these Degrees was null and void; that neither Carence nor Marconis had any commission. authority, or power to confer Degrees of the Memphis Rite or to organize Bodies; and that Marconis had, by oath, solemnly divested himself of all right to claim the title of Grand Hierophant of the Rite; which oath, originally taken in May, 1862, had at several subsequent times, namely, in September 1863, March, 1864 September, 1865, and March. 1566, been renewed. it's a matter of clemency, the Council determined not, for the present at least, to prefer charges against Marconis and Cadence before the Grand Orients but to warn them of the error they committed in malting a traffic of Masonic Degrees. It also ordered the report to be published and widely diffused, so that the Fraternity might be appraised that there was no power outside of the Grand Orient which could confer the high Degrees of any Rite.

An attempt having been made, in 1872, to establish the Rite in England, Brother Montague, the Secretary-General of the Supreme Council, wrote to Brother They've not, the Grand Secretary of the Grand Orient of France, for information as to its validity. From him he received a letter containing the following statements. from which official authority we gather the fact that the Rite of Memphis is a dead Rite, and that no one has authority in any country to propagate it: "Neither in 1866, nor at any other period, has the Grand Orient of France recognized "the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Masonry," concerning which you inquire. and which has been recently introduced in Lancashire. At a particular time, and with the intention of causing the plurality of Rites to disappear, the Grand Orient of France annexed and absorbed the Rite of Memphis, under the express condition that the Lodges of that Rite, which were received under its jurisdiction, should confer only the three Symbolic Degrees of Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master, according to its Special rituals, and refused to recognize any other Degree, or any other title, belonging to such Rite.

At the period when this treaty was negotiated with the Supreme Chief of this Rite by Brother Marconis de Stegre, Brother H. J. Seymour was at Paris! and seen by us but no power was conferred on him by the Grand Orient of France concerning this Rite; and, what is more, the Grand Orient of France does not give, and has never given, to any single person the right to make Freemasons or to create Lodges. Afterwards, and in consequence of the bad faith of Brother Marconis de Négre, who pretended he had ceded his Rite to the Grand Orient of France for France alone, Brother Harry J. Seymour assumed the title of Grand Master of the Rite of Memphis in America, and founded in New York a Sovereign Sanctuary of this Rite. A correspondence ensued between this new power and the Grand Orient of France, and even the name of this Sovereign Sanctuary appeared in our Calendar for 1867. But when the Grand Orient of France learned that this power went beyond the three symbolic Degrees, and that its confidence had been deceived, the Grand Orient broke off all connection with this power, and personally with Brother Harry J. Seymour; and, in fact, since that period, neither the name of Brother Harry J. Seymour, as Grand Masters nor the Masonic power which he fondled, have any longer appeared in the Masonic Calendar of the Grand Orient.

" Your letter leads me to believe that Brother Harry J. Seymour is endeavoring, I do not know with what object, to introduce a new Rite into England. in that country of the primitive and only true Freemasonry, one of the most respectable that I know of. I consider this event as a misfortune. The Grand Orient of France has made the strongest efforts to destroy the Rite of Memphis; it has succeeded. The Lodges of the Rite, which it at first received within its jurisdiction, have all abandoned the Rite of Memphis to work according to the French Rite. I sincerely desire that it may be the same in the United Kingdom, and you will ever find me ready to second your efforts.

"Referring to this letter, I have, Very Illustrious Brother, but one word to add, and that is, that the Constitution of the Grand Orient of France interdicts its founding Lodges in countries where a regular Masonic power already exists; and if it cannot found Lodges a fortiori, it cannot grant Charters to establish Grand Masonic Powers: in other terms, the Grand Orient of France never has given to Brother Harry J. Seymour, nor to any other person, powers to constitute a Lodge, or to create a Rite, or to make Masons. Brother Harry J. Seymour may perfectly well have the signatures of the Grand Master and of the Chief of the Secretary's office of the Grand Orient of France on a Diploma, as a fraternal vise; but certainly lie has neither a Charter nor a Power. I also beg you to make every effort to obtain the textual copy of the documents of which Brother Harry J. Seymour takes advantage. It is by the inspection of this document it will be necessary to judge the question, and I await new communications on this subject from your fraternal kindness" (see Marconis, also Yarker and Seymour).



In Second Chronicles in, 18, it is said that at the building of the Temple there were "three thousand and six hundred overseers to set the people work." The word translated "overseers" is, in the original, Ohmic, Menatzchim. Doctor Anderson, in his catalogue of workmen at the Temple. calls these Menatzchim "expert Master Masons, " saying they were "overseers and Comforters of the People in Working, that were expert Master Masons"; and so they have been considered in all subsequent lectures.


see Qualifications



When the secret intention wilfully disagrees with the spoken promise, we call that sort of dishonesty, an equivocation, or mental reservation. To purposely mislead by one's deceitful statement is to equivocate; to withhold one's inner consent from what he outwardly says is a mental reservation, a disagreement between a person's purpose and pledge. Such a difference between the will and the word, an unspoken qualification partially or wholly altering a statement so as to lead the hearer astray is mental reservation.

For the causes and reasons behind such deceptive actions there is much scope for speculation. A doctor may temper an explanation of the facts according to his knowledge of the hearer's ability to listen helpfully. In the face of danger, fear suggests dodging. The historian James A. Froude tells in the Divorce of Catherine (page 326), that:

The Abbots and Priors had sworn to the Supremacy (of King over Pope), but had sworn reluctantly, with secret reservations to save their consciences.

Here is the report, as Froude gas it, of a case where allegiance to a foreign power was mentally approved but openly denied. The moral danger of the practice is evident and Blaise Pascal in his Provincial Letters has exposed its possibilities with wit and vigor in discussing the Jesuits within his Church. In the ninth letter, July 3, 1656, we find the following dialogue beginning with the explanation by a monk of the Jesuitical use of equivocations, words and sentences of intentional deceitfulness and then passing to the use of mental reservations:

"I would now say a little about the facilities we have invented for avoiding sin in worldly conversations and intrigues. One of the most embarrassing of these cases is how to avoid telling lies, particularly when one is anxious to induce a belief in what is false. In such cases, our doctrine of equivocations has been found of admirable service, according to which, as Sanchez has it, ' it is permitted to use ambiguous terms, leading people to understand them in another sense from that in which we understand them ourselves."'

"I know that already father," said I.

" We have published it so often," continued he, " that at length, it seems, everybody knows of it. But do you know what is to be done when no equivocal words can be got? "

"No, father."

"I thought as much," said the Jesuit; "this is some thing new, sir: I mean the doctrine of mental reservations. 'it man may swear.' as Sanchez says in the same place. ' that he never did such a thing (though he actually did it). cleaning within himself that he did not do so on a certain dale or before he was born, or understanding any other such circumstance, While the words which he employs have no such sense as would discover his meaning. And this is very convenient in many cases, and quite innocent, when necessary or conducive to one's health, honor, or advantage.' "

" Indeed, father! is that not a lie, and perjury to boot?"

"No," said the father; "Sanchez and Filiutius prove that it is not: for, says the latter, 'it is the intention that determines the quality of the action.' And he suggests a still surer method for avoiding falsehood, which is this:

After saving aloud I swear that I hare not done that, to add, in a low voice today; or after saying aloud, I swear, to interpose in a whisper, that I say, and then continue aloud, that I have done that. This, thou perceive, is telling the truth."

"I grant it," said I, "it might possibly, however, he found to be telling the truth in a low key, and falsehood in a loud one, besides, I should be afraid that many people might not have sufficient presence of mind to avail themselves of these methods.'

' Our doctors," replied the Jesuit, "have taught, in the same passage, for the benefit of such as might not be expert in the use of these reservations, that no more is required of them, to avoid lying. than simply to say that they have not done what these have done, provided 'they have, in general, the intention of giving to their language the sense which an able man would give to it.' Be candid. now, and confess if you have not often felt yourself embarrassed, in consequence of not knowing this""

' Sometimes," said l.

"And will you not also acknowledge," continued he, "that it would often prove very convenient to be absolved in conscience from keeping certain engagements one may have made? "

"The most convenient thing in the world!" I replied
" Listen, then, to the general rule laid down by Escobar:

'Promises are not binding, when the person in making them had no intention to bind himself. Now, it seldom happens that any have such an intention, unless when they confirm their promises by an oath or contract; so that when one simply says, I will do it, he means that he will do it if he does not change his mind: for he does not mish. by saving that. to deprive himself of his liberty He gives other rules in the same strain, which you may consult for yourself, and tells us, in conclusion, 'that all this is taken from Molina and our other authors, and is therefore settled beyond all doubt ""

"My dear father," I observed, "I had no idea that the direction of the intention possessed the power of rendering promises null and void."

' You must perceive," returned he, " what facility this affords for prosecuting the business of life." Needless to say that the attempt to involve the subject in a fog of difficulties by supposing extreme cases where equivocation and mental reservation may be believed necessary, as to save life, for example, is not to deal with the matter squarely. As the Scriptures say, "Let your yea be yea; and your nay nay" (James v, 12), remembering an example of such sincerity as that of Paul who wrote in the Second Epistle to the Corinthians (I, 18), "But as God is true, our word toward you was not yea and nay," not two mutually destroying statements meaning naught in truth, but a straightforward affirmation, the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth (see Equivocation).



In the Indian mythology, Menu is the son of Brahma, and the founder of the Hindu religion. Thirteen other Menus are said to exist, seven of whom have already reigned on earth. But it is the first one whose instructions constitute the whole civil and religious polity of the Hindus. The code attributed to him by the Brahmans has been translated by Sir William Jones, with the title of The Institutes of Menu.



The point of a Knight Templar's sword is said to be characterized by the quality of "mercy unrestrained" which reminds us of the Shakespearian expression—"the quality of mercy is not strained." In the days of chivalry, mercy to the conquered foe was an indispensable quality of a knight. An act of cruelty in battle was considered infamous, for what ever was contrary to the laws of generous warfare was also contrary to the laws of chivalry (see Magnimous)


See Prince of Mercy



The lid or cover of the Ark of the Covenant was called the Mercy-seat or the Propitiatory, because on the day of the atonement the High Priest poured on it the blood of the sacrifice for the sins of the people.



The sun in the South is represented in Freemasonry by the Junior Warden, for this reason: when the sun has arrived at the zenith, at which time he is in the South, the splendor of his beams entitles him to the appellation which he receives in the instructions as "the beauty and glory of the day." Hence, as the Pillar of Beauty which supports the Lodge is referred to the Junior Wardens that officer is said to represent "the sun in the South at High Twelve," at which hour the Craft are called by him to refreshment, and therefore is he also placed in the South that he may the better observe the time and mark the progress of the shadow over the dialplate as it crosses the meridian line.



The Old Charges say, "all preferment among Masons is grounded upon real worth and personal merit only; that so the Lords Man be well served, the Brethren not put to shame, nor the Royal Craft despised. Therefore no Master or Warden is chosen by seniority, but for his merit" (see Preferments



The space in which the sun moves, as an Egyptian personification, signifying, the habitation of Horus.



A learned German Freemason, born in 1812. Initiated in Apollo Lodge, at Leipsic ad in 1834. He resuscitated the Lodge Zum goldenen Hirsch (Golden Stag), Oldenburg, and was for years Deputy Master. He published Die Symbole, die Gesetze. die Geschichte, der Zweck: der Masonei schliessen keine Religion von derselben aus, Leipsic, 1836; Die Denkmunzen der Freimaurer Brüderschaft, Oldenburg, 1852; Lessing's Ernst und Fallc, historisch kritisch beleuchtet, Hanover, 1855; Geschichte der Freimaurer Brüderschaft im Scotland, 1861, and several other works.



Corresponding to Adam and Eve, in accordance with Persian cosmogony.



A German physician who was born in Suabia, in 1734, and, after a long life, a part of which was passed in notoriety and the closing years in obscurity, died in 1815. He was the founder of the doctrine of animal magnetism, called after him Mesmerism. He visited Paris, and became there in some degree intermixed with the Masonic activities of Cagliostro, who used the magnetic operations of Mesmer's new science in his initiations (see Mesmeric Freemasonry).



In the year 1782 Mesmer established in Paris a Society which he called the Order of Universal Harmony. It was based on the principles of animal magnetism or mesmerism, and had a form of initiation by which the founder claimed that its adepts were purified and rendered more fit to propagate the doctrines of his science. French writers have dignified this Order by the title of Mesmeric Freemasonry.



The Fourth Degree of the German Union of XXII.



A Greek word, signifying, I am in the center of heaven. Hutchinson fancifully derives from it the word Masonry, which he says is a corruption of the Greek and refers to the constellation Magaroth mentioned by Job; but he fails to give a satisfactory reason for his etymology. Nevertheless, Oliver favors it.



In the divestiture of metals as a preliminary to initiation, we are symbolically taught that Freemasonry regards no man on account of his wealth. The Talmudical treatise Beracorh, with a like spirit of symbolism, directs in the Temple service that no man shall go into the Mountain of the House, that is, into the Holy Temple, "with money tied up in his purse."



We are told in Scripture that the Temple was "built of stone made ready before it was brought thither, so that there was neither hammer, nor axe, nor any tool of iron heard in the house while it was in the buildings (First Kings vi, 7). Freemasonry has adopted this as a symbol of the peace and harmony which should reign in a Lodge, itself a type of the world. But Clarke, in his commentary on the place, suggests that it was intended to teach us that the Temple was a type of the kingdom of God, and that the souls of men are to be prepared here for that place of blessedness. There is no repentance, tears, nor prayers: the stones must be all squared, and fitted here for their place in the New Jerusalem; and, being liteing stoners must be built up a holy temple for the habitation of God.



There existed in France, toward the end of the last century, a Body calling itself the Grand Chapter General of France. It was formed out of the débris of the Council of Emperors of the East and latest, and the Council of Knights of the East, which had been founded by Pirlet. In l786, it united with the schismatic Grand Orient, anal then received the title of the Metropolitan Chapter of France. It possessed in its archives a large collection of manuscript cashiers of Degrees, most of them being mere Masonic curiosities.



The name given to the Hebrew Quarryman, who is represented in some legends as one of the assassins, Fanor and Amru being the other two.



The first recorded Masonic Lodge in Mexico was probably Architecture Moral which met in Mexico City as early as 1806. The Scottish Rite was introduced about four years later and in l813 a Grand Lodge was established with Don Felipe Martinez Aragon as Grand Master.

About 1824 the York Rite was brought into the territory by the American Ambassador, Brother Joel R. Poinsett, who procured a Charter for a Lodge through the Grand Lodge of New York. Brother Mackey states that three Lodges were opened in the year 1825 and that they established a Grand Lodge of the York Rite. The two systems existing side by side were the cause of much bitterness and political strife and in 1830 some of the leading Brethren of both Rites planned to bring about more peaceful conditions by forming a third Rite, consisting of nine Degrees and composed of both York and Scottish Rite Freemasons. A Grand Orient was formed with a National Grand Lodge attached. From 1833 to 1863 Freemasonry, at any rate as far as the activities of the Grand Bodies were concerned, was dormant. In 1859 Brother Lafon de Ladebat had been sent by authority of Brother Albert Pike to organize Freemasonry in Mexico but instead of opening a Grand Lodge of Symbolic Freemasonry as expected he constituted a Supreme Council.

In 1858 the Supreme Councils were fused with the National Grand Lodge. In 1872 dissension again arose. Grand Lodges were probably organized at the time by Lodges under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Council. A Central Grand Lodge was formed at Vera Cruz but the Supreme Council did not give up its authority.

There were seven Grand Lodges in Mexico when the Grand Lodge of Colon, regarding Mexico as unoccupied territory, proceeded to form three Lodges which in January, 1883, established at Vera Cruz the Mexican Grand Lodge.
On June 25, the same year, twelve Lodges met and established a Grand Lodge of the Federal District of Mexico.

According to Brother Oliver Day Street's Report on Correspondence made in 1922 to the Grand Lodge of Alabama, in 1882 "all Masonry of the Craft, Symbolic or Blue degrees except possibly a few Lodges of the old Mexican National Rite had fallen under the control of Scottish Rite bodies of which there were at least three contending with each other for supremacy."

In February, 1890, was established the Gran Dieta Simbolica which was to be a central governing Body for the entire republic. It started well and had at one time seventeen of the State Grand Lodges under its control. In April, 1901, it was disbanded and with the Grand Lodges became independent. Brother Street remarks: "Our information is that at present there cares or recently were, four Grand Lodges in the Federal District, each claiming to be sovereign and independent, and each exercising jurisdiction not only in the district but in several states."



The third fundamental principle of Judaism, or the Sign upon the Door-post. The precept is founded upon the command, "And thou shalt write them upon the posts of thy house, and on thy gates" (Deuteronomy vi, 4-9; xi, 13-21). The doorposts must be those of a dwelling; synagogues are excluded. The Karaite Jews affix Mezuzas to synagogues, and not to private houses. The Mezuza is constructed as follows: the two above-mentioned portions of Scripture are written on ruled vellum prepared according to Rabbinical rules, then rolled and fitted into a metallic tube. The word Shaddai, meaning the Almighty, is written on the outside of the roll, and can be read, when in the tube, through a got. The Mezuza is then nailed at each end on the right-hand door-post, while the following prayer is being said: "Blessed art thou, O Lord our God! King of the Universe, who hath sanctified us with His laws, and commanded us to fix the Mezuza." Under the word Shaddai some Jews write the three angelic names Coozu, Bemuchsaz, Coozu. To these some pray for success in business. The Talmud esti mates the virtue of the Talith, the Phylacteries, and the Mezuza in the following terms: "Whosoever has the phylacteries bound to his head and arm, and the fringes thrown over his garments, and the Mezuza fixed on his door-post, is safe from sin; for these are excellent memorials, and the angels secure him from sin; as it is written, 'The angel of the Lord encamped round about them that fear Him, and delivereth them " (Psalm xxxiv, 7).



The Hebrew word, meaning Who is like unto God. The chief of the seven archangels. He is the leader of the celestial host, as Lucifer is of the infernal spirits, and the especial protector of Israel. He is prominently referred to in the Twenty eighth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, or Iinight of the Sun.



Zion Lodge was established by Warrant, dated April 27, 1764, from Provincial Grand Master George Harrison of New York. It was numbered 448 on the Register of England and No. 1 of Detroit. On September 3, 1806, this Lodge was reorganized and the original Warrant of 1764 was surrendered to the Grand Lodge of New York. The Installation took place on July 6, 1807. Having forfeited its Charter during the War with England, it was granted a new one as No. 62 on March 14, 1816, but by a rearrangement of numbers in 1819 it became Lodge No. 3. A Convention met on June 24, 1826, to organize a Grand Lodge. Representatives of Zion, No. 3; Detroit, No. 337; Minomanie, Nu. 374, and Monroe, No. 375, were present and Oakland, No. 343, joined later. On June 28 a Constitution was adopted and on July 31 Grand Officers were elected and installed. During the Anti-Masonic agitation the Craft in this district almost died out. In 1837, however, Michigan became a State and the increase of population caused a revival of Freemasonry. The Grand Lodge of Michigan was again constituted on September 17, 1844, and Grand Officers were duly elected.

The members of Zion Lodge formed a Chapter called Monroe Chapter, No. 1, at Detroit which was granted a Dispensation by the General Grand High Priest, DeWitt Clinton, on December 3, 1818. The Chapters in Michigan were authorize in January, 1848, by the General Grand Scribe to meet and organize a Grand Chapter for the State. Representatives of Monroe Chapter, No. 1; St. Joseph Valley, No. 2, and Jackson Chapter, No. 3, were present at a Convention held on March 9, 1848, and Grand Officers were elected and installed.

Monroe Council was formed by the members of Monroe Chapter, No. 1, at Detroit. On May 13, 1856, at the annual assembly of the Grand Council of Connecticut, it was reported that a Dispensation had been granted to Monroe Council, No. 23, at Detroit. A meeting of the Council was held on May 19, 1856, to receive the Dispensation and a Code of By-Laws was adopted. Representatives from Monroe, St. Clair and Pontiac Councils, all of which possessed Charters dated May 12, 1857, met on January 13, 1858, at Detroit and formed a Grand Council. Detroit, No. 1, at Detroit was the first Commandery to be organized in Michigan. Its Dispensation was issued November 1,1850, and its Charter, September 19, 1853. Six Commanderies sent representatives to Detroit on January 15, 1857, and, by Warrant issued February 12, 1857, instituted the Grand Commandery of Michigan. The Grand Master of the General Grand Encampment was present and installed the Grand Officers on January 11, 1858 The beginning of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in Michigan was at Detroit. On May 26, 1861, the Carson Council of Princes of Jerusalem was chartered. On May 22, 1862, the Detroit-Carson Lodge of Perfection, the Mount Olivet Chapter of Rose Croix, and the Michigan Consistory were established.


See Man



These are supposed by the best historians to extend from the time Theodoric liberated Rome, 493, to the end of the fifteenth century, the important events being the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the discovery of America in 1492, and the doubling of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497. This period of ten centuries is one of great importance to the MaBoniC student, because it embraces within its scope events intimately connected with the history of the Order such as the diffusion throughout Europe of the Roman Colleges of Artificer, the establishment of the architectural school of Como, the rise of the Gilds, the organization of the Building Corporations of Germany, and the Company of Freemasons of England, as well as many customs and usages which have descended with more or less modification to the modern Institution.



There were three stories of side chambers built around the Temple on three sixths; what, therefore, is called in the authorized aversion a middle Clamber was really the middle story of those three. The Hebrew word is yatsang. They are thus described in First Kings vi, 5, 6, 03: And against the wall of the house he built chambers round about, against the walls of the house round about, both of the temple and of the oracle: and he made chambers round about. The nethermost chamber was five cubits broad and the middle was six cubits broad, and the third was seven cubits broad: for without in the wall of the house he made narrowed rests round about, that the beams should not be fastened in the walls of the house. The door for the middle chamber was in the right side of the house: and they went up with winding stairs into the middle chamber, and out of the middle into the third.

These chambers, after the Temple was completed, served for the accommodation of the priests when upon duty; in them they deposited their vestments and the sacred vessels- But the knowledge of the purpose to which the middle chamber was appropriated while the Temple was in the course of construction, is only preserved in Masonic tradition. This tradition is, however, altogether mythical and symbolical in its character, and belongs to the symbolism of the Winding Stairs, which see.



Preston's Illustrations of Freemasonry refers with an excellent choice of language to the beauties of nature and the more important truths of morality. The second section of this Monitor provides employment for leisure hours, traces science from its original source and by drawing attention to the sum of perfection we may, as Brother Preston tells us, contemplate with admiration the wonderful worlds of the Creator. This composition (found on pages al to 60 of the 1812 edition) has been restated in a most practical form by Brother Charles C. Hunt, Grand Secretary, Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. His essay runs as follows:

This journey to the Middle Chamber, like many of the ceremonies of Freemasonry, is based upon one of the legends connected with the building of King Solomon's Temple. It is said that there were 80,000 Fellow Crafts who labored in the mountains and the quarries. Here it vas their duty to prepare materials to be used in the erection of the Temple. At this task they worked six days and then received their wages. On the evening of the sixth day those who had proved themselves worthy by a strict attention to their duties, were entrusted with certain mysterious words, signs, and grips, by means of which they were enabled to work their way to the Middle Chamber of the Temple to receive their wages. At the same time King Solomon, accompanied by his confidential officers, repaired to the Middle Chamber to meet them. His secretary he placed near his person, the Junior Warden at the outer door, and the Senior Warden at the inner door, with strict instructions to suffer none to enter who were not in possession of the words, signs and grips previously established, so that when they gained admission he knew they had been faithful workmen and ordered their names enrolled as such entitling them to wages.

He then admonished them of the reverence due the great and sacred name of Deity, and suffered them to depart for rest and refreshment until the time should come for them to resume their labors on the first day of the following week. They did not work upon the seventh day, because in sis days God created the heaven and the earth and rested upon the seventh. The seventh day, therefore, our ancient Brethren confederated as a day of rest from their labors, thereby enjoying frequent opportunities to contemplate the glorious works of creation and adore their great Creator. We, also, my Brother, follow our usual vocations six days of the week and rest upon the seventh. We have now symbolically been working for six days. have been found faithful and are in possession of the same mysterious words signs and grips us were our ancient Brethren. We are therefore about to endeavor to work our way to the place representing the Unriddle (Chamber of King Solomon's Temple where. if we succeed in gaining admission, I have no doubt we will alike be received and rewarded, as were they.

This. my Brother. is a symbol of our life on earth. As Fellow Crafts. we are laboring in the quarries of the world. preparing ourselves as living stones for that Spiritual Temple, that house not made with hands eternal in the heavens. The signs. words, and grips with which we are entrusted symbolize the means by which we are known as faithful workmen. They are tokens of that noble character which can only be acquired by faithful service.

The reward of such service is a constant acquisition of knowledge and continual growth in character represented by the weekly payment of wages in the Middle Chamber. Before we can enter the Middle Chamber we must pass through an outer and an inner door. At the outer door the Junior Warden will demand of you the pass and token of the pass of a Fellow Craft which symbolize the characteristics by which we are judged by our fellow men. They are the signs which give us our reputation with our Brethren. At the inner door the Senior Warden will demand the grip and word of a Fellow Craft, the symbols of those deep seated characteristics called characters The pass and token can be assumed. They are outward manifestations only- but the grip and word, are the inner secret of the soul and cannot be imitated or assumed by those who do not actually have them.

The token represents the opinion of men, the word is the knowledge of God. In the legend of King Solomon's Temple, the unfaithful workman sometimes ascended to the inner door, but as he did not have the mystic signs and tokens entrusted only to the faithful craftsmen, he could not enter the place of wages So you, though you have entered our mystic circle and may mount to all the grades of honor we can bestow may not acquire those celestial signs and tokens by which alone you can pass the inner door of the Spiritual Temple where the wages of the soul are received by the worthy craftsmen. In this journey to the Middle Chamber we will impart to you a fund of valuable information and in your continued progress through the ceremonies of our Order we will instruct you in many Masonic secrets which will enable you to pass our outer door, the door of the material lodge; but the signs and tokens which will take you through the inner door of the spiritual lodge to the Middle Chamber of nourishment, refreshment and joy can only be acquired by daily putting into practice the principles which we here teach. If you fail to so acquire them, on you and you alone will rest the responsibility for your failure. You come here to learn the secrets of Masonry, which when properly applied, lead to the inner secrets of the soul. There are two kinds of Masonry, Operative and Speculative.

By Operative Masonry we allude to a proper application of the useful rules of architectures whence a structure derives figure strength and beauty. By it we learn to apply the materials and forces of Nature to the construction of material edifices and to maintain a due proportion and a just correspondence between all the parts of the structure.

By Speculative Masonry we allude to a proper application of the useful rules of the Temple Builder whence our souls will derive a spiritual strength and beauty. By it we learn to subdue our passions, act upon the square, keep a tongue of good report, maintain secrecy and practice charity. It is so far interwoven with religion as to lay us under obligations to pay that rational homage to the Deity, which at once constitutes our duty and our happiness.

We work as Speculative Masons only, but our ancient Brethren worked in Operative as well as in Speculative Masonry. The difference between the Operative and the Speculative Mason is not determined by the tools with which he works, but by the difference in the materials with which he builds. We use the same tools and implements as did our ancient Brethren, but to us the gauge, gavel, square, level and plumb are not merely the working tools of an Operative Mason's art, but visible, tangible emblems of great moral truths and duties. The Operative Mason's work, being constructed of perishable materials must sooner or later crumble into dust, but the Speculative Mason is a moral builder for eternity, fitting immortal nature for that spiritual building which shall endure when earth's proudest monumental piles shall have crumbled, and its glory and greatness shall have been forgotten.

When the vast sun shall veil his golden light,
Deep into the gloom of everlasting night,
When wild destructive flames shall wrap the skies,
When ruin triumphs and when nature dies,
Man shall alone the wreck of worlds survive, Unhurt amidst the war of elements.

As Speculative Masons, therefore, let us imitate our ancient Brethren and proceed on our way to the Middle Chamber. At the very beginning of our journey we must pass through an aisle between two pillars which respectively represent the porch of the Temple and the two brazen pillars which King Solomon placed at its entrance. The pillar on the left hand is called Boaz and denotes strength; the one on the right hand is called Jachin and denotes establishment. Together they allude to the promise of God to David that he would establish his kingdom in strength. King Solomon is said to have erected these pillars in commemoration of the pillar of cloud and the pillar of fire which guided the Israelites in their journey through the wilderness. The right hand or south pillar represents the pillar of cloud and the left hand or north pillar that of fire. Thus they were memorials of God's repeated promises to His people, and bus the Children of Israel passed through the porch to the Temple, they were continually reminded of the abundant promises of their God and inspired with confidence in His continued protection and support. So to us as Masons, they represent the ever sustaining power of our God supporting and directing us in the great work we have to do. As they were placed at the entrance of the Temple so are they placed at the beginning of our journey to the Middle Chamber to remind us that we are passing from the world of the seen and temporal, the material world, to the realm of the unseen and eternal, the spiritual realities.

The Temple pillars are said to have been east by the architect of the Temple, H. A. on the banks of the Jordan, in the clay-ground between Succoth and Zarthan. In this respect they are representatives of Space and Time, which were east by the great Architect of the Universe in the clay ground of the brain and placed in the porchway of human consciousness, where they constitute the border between material and spiritual sciences We
All are architects of fate
Working in these walls of time,
Some with massive deeds and great,
Some with ornaments of rhyme.

And the structure that we raise,
Time is with materials filled;
Our to-days and yesterdays
Are the blocks with which we build.
Build to-day, then, strong and sure,
With a firm and ample base;
And ascending and secure
Shall to-morrow find its place.

The pillars of the Temple are said to have been east hollow, the better to serve as safe repositories for the archives of Masonry against all conflagrations and inundations. Space and time are hollow. We are dwelling within their wails, and though floods may overwhelm and fire consume the material work of our hands yet will the record of a noble character be forever safe in the repository of God's infinite love and care. The Temple pillars were each I8 cubits in height and over adorned with chapiters of five cubits. The chapiters were adorned with lily-work. net-work and pomegranate, denoting Peace. Unity and Plenty. The lily from its extreme whiteness and purity deriotes Peace; the net-work from the intimate connection of its parts, Unity; and the pomegranate from the exuberance of its seeds, Plenty. To us the chapiters speak of the unity which should ever distinguish our fraternity, encouraging us to live in peace and harmony with each other and with all men.

The chapiters were further adorned with globes on their tops, representing the terrestrial and celestial spheres, and teach us to so regulate our lives that when we pass from earth, the terrestrial, it male be to that other and better world the celestial. Thus the globes are two artificial spherical bodies and denote the universality of Masonry.

Between the pillars we see a path, representing the path of life. This path is paved with checkered blocks of alternate white and Black to indicate the nature of this life, checkered with light and darkness. prosperity and adversity calm and storms good and evil. Taking this path me come to a flight of winding stairs which represent tile means by which we climb from the depths of our earthly nature to that higher life in the temple of our God. As you stand here, my Brother, you represent a man just starting out on the journey of life. with a great task before him, that of self-development. If you are faithful in this task you will receive the reward of the noble upright character, as designed by the great Architect of the Universe Upon your moral, spiritual and Masonic trestle-board. You will notice that this flight of winding stairs has three divisions of respectively three five and seven steps representing life under three aspects each higher noble and greater than the preceding.

The first division, consisting of three steps, alludes to the three symbolic Degrees of Masonry, L. A. F. C. and M. M. and also the three principal Stages of human life, infancy, manhood, and age, the period assigned to us for the completion of our spiritual Temple. As such it is a constant reminder that we should employs our time wisely and well. " so teach us to number our days that we man apply our hearts unto wisdom as the prayer of a distinguished Mason of the olden time. and it should be the daily prayer of each one of us. Let us take the three steps.

This brings us to the second division consisting of five steps and alludes to the five senses and to the five orders of architecture. The five senses may be defined as man's faculty of receiving impressions and are the means by which he receives his knowledge of the material world. They are hearing, seeing, feeling, smelling and tasting. Their proper use enables us to form just and accurate notions of the operations of nature, to provide sustenance for our bodies, to ward off danger to enjoy the blessings which God has given us, and contribute to the happiness and comfort of others. Their improper use, tends to impair our faculties and weakens our power to grow and accomplish. Masonry urges us to make proper use of these senses and thereby to attain to the fullness of true manhood. Of these senses the three most revered by Seasons are hearing, seeing and feeling, for by hearing we hear the word, by seeing we see the sign and by feeling we recognize the grip whereby one Mason may K A I T D A W A IT L. These three are most closely allied to spiritual truths, for by hearing we hear the voices of duty; by seeing we see the truth. and by feeling we recognize the grip of brotherly lover and affection whereby one Mason may know another in the darkness of adversity as well as in the light of prosperity. By order in architecture, is meant a system of all the members, proportions and ornaments of columns and pilasters, or, it is a regular arrangement of the projecting parts of a building, which, united with those of a column, form a beautiful, perfect and complete whole.

The five orders of architecture are Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite. Each is distinguished from the others by the shape of its column and the variety and richness of its ornamentation. To us as Speculative Seasons these orders in connection with the five senses teach the important, lesson that we should so develop our faculties that each, according to the needs of his own character, may plan, support and adorn his spiritual Temple with the columns of Divine knowledge, power and love. The three orders most revered by Masons are the lonic, Doric and Corinthian, since they represent Wisdom, Strength and Beauty. The Doric order on amount of its robust solidity and massive grandeur.

combined with harmonious simplicity, represents the pillar of Strength. The Corinthian, the richest of the five orders. is deemed a masterpiece of art and represents the pillar of Beauty. The Ionic, requiring great judgment and skill in its construction. and combining the strength of the Doric with the beauty of the Corinthian. represents the pillar of Wisdom. Let us take the five steps. This brings us to the third division of the stairway consisting of sex en steps. It alludes to the seven liberal arts and sciences, (Grammar, Rhetoric, Logic, Arithmetic, Geometry. Music and Astronomy. These sciences are representative of universal knowledge and the symbol of the foundations Logic of the superstructure, and Rhetoric the ornament of the temple of language. Arithmetic represents the foundation, (geometric the superstructure and Astronomy the sublime ornamentation of our intellectual temple. Grammar, Rhetoric and Logic furnish the soul with the key to all language, while Arithmetic Geometry and Astronomy open to him the secret laws of nature. Music is the connecting link between them, the medium giving the natural world communication with the spiritual. Let us take the seven steps.

And now, my Brother, having reached the summit of our symbolic stairway, let us pause a moment to consider the lesson of life which Masonry would teach you. Thee three steps represent the period of our life on earth, divided into three stages of infancy, manhood and age. The five steps our human faculties applied to the construction of material edifices symbolized by the five orders of architecture, while the seven steps symbolize the complete circle of human learning and the full development of man's soul. the winding stairway as a whole is a symbol of progress and instruction, teaching you that as a Mason you must not remain in the ignorance of irrational childhood, if you would be worthy of your vocation, but that your destiny as an immortal being requires you to ascend step by step, until you reach the summit, where the completed treasures of truth await you. The stairs are winding to represent the circuitous way by which we must go to investigate the many sides of truth. Masonry points the way, but you must travel the road yourself. Our symbolic stairway was easy for you to ascend, but the heights which you must climb in actual life will be hard to reach and the task is great; yet remember the reward will be magnificent; your wages will well repay the effort.

See also Dew Drop Lecture and Liberal Arts and Sciences.



This word has two references of interest to us.
1. In pure Latin, miles means a soldier; but in Medieval Latin the word was used to designate the military knights whose institution began at that period. Thus a Knight Templar was called Miles Templarius, and a Knight Banneret, Miles Bannerettus. The pure Latin word eques, which Signifies a knight in Rome, was never used in that sense in the Middle ages (see Knighthood).
2. The Seventh Degree of the Rite of African Architects.



Lodges established in an army. They are of an early date, having long existed in the British army. The earliest Warrant creating a Traveling or Movable Lodge was issued in 1732 by the Grand Lodge of Ireland to the then First Foot, now the Royal Scots. The Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1743 established a Military Lodge in the Fifty-fifty Foot and the first English Military Lodge was set up or erected in 1750 and attached to the Thirty first Foot. The Grand Lodge of the Ancient was particularly active in such work and at the close of 1789 this Body had granted forty-nine army Warrants. The Grand Lodge of Ireland has always had more such Lodges than the English or Scotch. In 1813 there were one hundred and twenty-three under the Irish Jurisdiction. At that time the moderns had fifteen, the Ancient sixty-two and Scotland eighteen. These numbers have been greatly reduced and Brother Hawkins in 1908 pointed out there were then only two on the Register of the United Grand Lodge of England, seven under the Grand Lodge of Ireland and none under Scotland.

In the United States of America, the first Lodge of this kind of which we have any record was one the Warrant for which was granted by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, in 1738, to Abraham Savage, to be used in the expedition against Canada. A similar one was granted by the same authority, in 1756, to Richard Gridley, for the expedition against Crown Point. In both of these instances the Warrants were of a general character, and might rather be considered as Deputations, as they authorized Savage and Gridley to congregate Freemasons into one or more Lodges. In i779, the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania granted a Warrant to Colonel Proctor, of the artillery, to open a Military Lodge, which in the Warrant is called a Movable Lodge. In the Civil War in the United States between 1861 and 1865, many Military Lodges were established on both sides; but it is questionable whether they had a good effect. They met, certainly with much opposition in many Jurisdictions. In the Spanish War and in the World War, Lodges were empowered to work the armies.

In England, the system of Military Lodges is regulated by special provisions of the Grand Lodge Constitution. They are strictly limited to the purposes for which the Warrants were granted, and no new Lodge can be established in a regiment without the concurrence of the commanding officer.. If the military Body to which a Lodge is attached be disbanded or reduced, the Warrant must be given up, or exchanged for a Warrant for a Civil Lodge. They cannot make Freemasons of any civilian nor any military person below the rank of Corporal, except as Serving Brethren, or by Dispensation; and they are strictly enjoined not to interfere with the Masonic Jurisdiction of any country in which they may be stationed.

Military Lodges also exist on the Continent of Europe. We find one at Berlin, in Prussia, as far back as 1775, under the name of the Military Lodge of the Blazing Star, of which Wadzeck, the Masonic writer, was the orator.

J. H. Manners Howe contributed to the Graphic (December 11, 1909, see also Transactions, Leeds Installed Masters Association, volume vi, page ''29) the following paper on Fighting Freemasons, the Influence of the Brotherhood in War:

The annals of Military Freemasonry may be described as a veritable romance of "goodwill upon earth." This is not to deny to the civil records of the Craft the possession of an abundant fund of varied interest on the same excellent lines both in their archaeological and historical aspects. But, after all, the warrior members of the Brotherhood are those who have always carried its influence into what are still the most strenuous paths of romance-those of military adventure.

The earliest recorded names of English Freemasons, which date from the first half of the seventeenth century, are those of two soldiers. One of these was Captain Elias Ashmole, of Warrington, in Lancashire, who belonged to Lord Ashley's Regiment in the King's Service; the other being Colonel Henry Mainwaring, a soldier of the Parliament, whose name frequently appears in the annals of the Civil War. In Scotland, where Masonic records go back to an older time, there are many earlier names of warrior members among chief and clansman alike. Moreover, on the rolls of the Lodge of Edinburgh, there is an interesting record curiously testifying to the diligence with which Freemasons have pursued their craft even amidst the stress of warlike operations.

In 1641, the Scottish Army, having crossed the Tweed, defeated the Royalist forces at Newburn and seized Newcastle. The minutes of the Edinburgh Lodge record that while in occupation of this town the admission took place of " Mr. the Right Honorable Mr. Robert Moray, General Quartermaster to the Armie off Scotland." This is additionally interesting from its being the first initiation in Freemasonry on English soil. It is equally pleasing to note, also, that General Alexander Hamilton, who was present on the above occasion, and afterwards commanded Cromwell's Artillery at Marston Moor, is mentioned in the records of the same Lodge as assisting at the initiation of an officer of the Royalist forces in 1647. Similarly in England, during the height of the struggle between King and Parliament, the Masonic craft continued its mission of good-fellowship, and in spite of the fierce heat of partisan feeling, many additions to the brotherhood were made among the members of each of the contending forces.

Coming, however, to the nearer times of George II, we find a more systematic extension of Military Masonry taking place. The Grand Lodges of England, Scotland and Ireland began to issue warrants establishing traveling Lodges in British regiments, and these ultimately became the means of a remarkable extension of the Brotherhood in our oversea possessions wherever our soldiers were stationed. The first of these Regimental Lodges was established by the Grand Lodge of Ireland in a Scottish Regiment, appropriately enough the 1st Foot, or the Royal Regiment, now known as the Royal Scots. The date of this extent is 1732, and by the close of 1734 Lodges were founded in four other regiments. These, which at the time bore the names of their colonels, were subsequently known as the 33rd, the 27th, the 21st and 28th.

The record of their names is interesting inasmuch as they are those of the first British corps in which Masonic Lodges were created and maintained for many years. The example once set was soon followed, and ere long these traveling Lodges began to increase and multiply throughout the British Army. They counted among their members numbers of the most distinguished soldiers of the time, and it is worth noting, that from them, as the pioneers of Freemasonry in every- part of the world garrisoned by British soldiers, has largely sprung and developed the great and important cult of Freemasonry in the United States.

The history of these Regimental Lodges seems to have been a very conquered one, most of them expiring, with occasional renewals, after more or less prolonged existence. This, however regrettable, was the inevitable outcome of the military life, the constant migrations from station to station. war, and the death or retirement of members. From a grand total of some four hundred they had dwindled nine years ago to about eight, and now the general practice of soldier Freemasons is to become members of stationary Lodges.

At the battle of Mars-la-Tour, between the French and Germans in 1870, thirteen French soldiers of the 64th Regiment, though opposed to a whole German battalion, refused to surrender, and, getting behind a fallen tree, fought on till all were shot down except three. The position was then rushed. and the survivors were about to be bayoneted when the French corporal gave the Masonic "sign of distress." The German leader, also a Freemason, at one cheeked his men, carving, "Don't harm him, he is my brother," and parried the blow aimed at hum The Frenchmen were made prisoners. but their lives were spared.

During the same war some Prussians, after looting a French chateau and destroying everything they could not carry away, seized a box containing a large sum of money. They were about to maltreat the owner, who endeavored to prevent them, when, as a last thought, he made the same sign. The Prussian officer was a Freemason, and instantly recognized the appeal. He expressed regret for what had been done, and placed a guard over the chateau to prevent further outrages.
It is in accordance with the highest and best in human nature, therefore. that so many of our leading soldiers should all have been Freemasons. Referring to recent times we may mention Lord Chelmsford, of Ulundi fame, Sir Charles Warren, Lord Wolseley, Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener of Khartoum, each of the last three being a Past Grand Warden of England.

The lively interest taken by the Craft from of old in the Brethren whose welfare may be involved in the fortunes of war is clearly shown in a few paragraphs mentioned by the Book of Constitutions, 1767, page 282, referring to the Seven Years War, 1756 to 1763. These particulars are as follows:

Grand Lodge, at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, in the Strand, was held on the 24th of Jan. 1760. A Motion was made and seconded, that the Sum of Fifty Pounds be sent to Germany, to be distributed amongst the Soldiers that are Masons in Prince Ferdinand's Army, whether English, Hanoverian, or Hessian. The Depute Grand Master acquainted the Brethren that Major-General Kingsley now in Prince Ferdinard's Army, was a Mason, and that if it was agreeable he would write to him, and desire he would distribute the aforesaid Sum amongst the Masons; which passed unanimously.

Ordered, that the Treasurer do par the Sum of Fifty Pounds into the Hand of the Deputy Grand Master, to remit to General Kingsley for the aforesaid Purpose.

Grand Lodge, at the Deril Tavern, Temple Bar, 14th of May 1760 in due Fornw....
The Deputy Grand Master produced a Letter from Major General Kingsley, with a List of the Masons in Prince Ferdinand's Armn also a Receipt for the Bill of Exchange, for the Fifty Pounds ordered to be sent to Germany at the last Quarterly Communication.



R. F. Gould's Military Lodges, published in 1899, was the first full size book on the subject of Lodges warranted expressly for the uses of soldiers and for men in the navy. It was not an interesting book to read, for on many pages it was little more than a directory of names and dates, but it opened up afield for Masonic students. (See p. 667). Unfortunately not many have passed through that opening, except to write a few articles and essays, and the "great history" of Freemasonry among soldiers is yet to be written; and until it is written a long chapter will remain missing out of the general history of the Craft, because Military Lodges have had a larger place in the development and diffusion of the Fraternity than could have been believed in Gould's day; in America they were one of the principal means by which Lodges were introduced into the Colonies, and they left a long and deeply-felt influence on Lodge practice.

It is when it is read in this context of facts that Freemasonry in the Royal Scots by T. R. Henderson (Gale & Polden; London; 1934) becomes so valuable and so illuminating, and in spite of its author's having narrowed himself to one regiment, and in a book of only 100 pages. It is one of the finest Masonic books ever written; manly, sane, straightforward, friendly, has a living and moving style, and written with courage —courage, because he had to say hard things here and there against the officer caste to which he himself belonged, and age one or two Grand Lodges.

Bro. Henderson gives a number of interesting "firsts" in his opening chapter. The Lodge of Edinburgh was admitting both Operatives and Speculatives as early as 1599, and it is impossible to guess how much earlier (there are some reasons to believe that in Scotland Lodges had always admitted a small number of non Operatives); doubtless among the Sixteenth Century members at Edinburgh there were military men, because at least one branch of the army always had been in contact with Masonry, the military engineers, and to a iesser extent men specializing in artillery. But the first recorded instance is that of David Ramsey, made a Mason in August, 1637; the second was Alexander Hamilton, who was admitted "Fellow and Master of the Craft," May 20, 1640. It may be that either or both of these Brothers belonged to the Royal Scots, then called The Royal Regiment.

From 1713 to 1748 "the civil government feared and disliked the Army.... The soldier generally was enlisted for life, and was often impressed against his will. More often than not he had to serve along with thieves, pirates and other criminals brought in by press gangs. . ." Colonial service usually "ended in the majority of cases in a miserable death from disease." In contrast Freemasonry "offered the soldier a sphere of action where he could regain his self-respect .... It is not surprising that ... the Craft spread rapidly among the military forces of the Crown."

The first military (or ambulatory) Warrant ever issued was No. 11, granted in 1732 by the Grand Lodge of Ireland, to the regiment which is now the Royal Scots.

By 1734 four others were at work. There were eight before Scotland issued its first military Warrant 29 or more before any were issued by either of the two Grand Lodges in England. By 1813, and not counting "remote pentacles under Provincial Grand Lodges in foreign parts" (as in the West Indies) there are known to have been 190 under Grand Lodge of Ireland; 116 under Ancient Grand Lodge of England; 25 under Modern Grand Lodge of England; 21 under Grand Lodge of Scotland; a total of 352. This was the total number of Warrants from 1732 to 1813; mortality is high among military Lodges, but 219 were still working after 1813. Since 1813, the year of the Union of the Ancient and Modern Grand Lodges, England has issued 25 Warrants; Ireland, 40; Scotland, 2; a grand total of 419 British military Lodges. Of this total 224 were in Infantry; 68 in Militia; 49 in Cavalry; 28 in Artillery; 7 in Royal Marines; 3 in the Royal Engineers; and one in the Foot-Guards.

The majority of Military Lodges on both sides in the Revolutionary War were chartered by Ireland, England, and Scotland. How many may have been chartered by American Provincial Grand Lodges is not known. Masonry in the Formation of Our Government: 1761-1799, by Bro. Philip A. Roth; Milwaukee, Wis.; 1927, lists ten: St. John's Regimental Lodge, July 24, 1775; American Union, February 15, 1776, Washington No. 10, October 6, 1779; these were constituted by Massachusetts. Pennsylvania (Philadelphia was then the National Capital) chartered: Lodge No. 19, May 18, 1779; Lodge No. 20, in 1779; Lodge No. 27, April 4, 1780; No. 28, in 1780; No. 29, on July 27, 1780; No. 31, March 26, 1781; No. 36, September 2, 1782. No. 20 was for the North Carolina line; No. 27 for Maryland; Nos. 31 and 36 for New Jersey.



The most epoch making of archeologic finds since the discovery of the site of Troy was the wholly unexpected uncovering of the ruins of a great and very advanced civilization which had its center in the Island of Crete, and which was at its height at about 1400 B.C. It was superior to the Egyptian civilization contemporaneous with it, and it was in a number of its achievements the equal of the Greek civilization which followed it; it is even believed that Homer, (or if there never was a man by that name, then the Homeridae) was a descendant of the Minoans, and that the Homeric gods and goddesses were mythic recollections of old kings and heroes of Crete. This means that a wide-spread culture including mathematics, art, music, architecture, skilled crafts, medicine, merchants, and argosies of ships had its center only a short (geographic) distance from Palestine a half millennium before David established the Jews as a nation with a capital, and Solomon built his Temple.

The Minoan discoveries have not contained any data of direct interest to Freemasons, but the discovery as a whole has a very large indirect importance. A number of Masonic writers have endeavored to persuade their readers that Freemasonry originated among the Hermetists of the Middle Ages;

the Hermetists, as the name implies, originated in turn in Egypt; Egypt thus became the ultimate cradle of Freemasonry—one writer (Palmer) professed to see in the Book of the Dead the first faint outlines of the Masonic Ritual. The strongest argument they had, the only one to which non-Masonic historians could give their assent at the time, was that the fraternities and arts of builders must have originated in Egypt because in it alone, in ancient times, were those arts known. Now that the Minoan civilization has been discovered, and a detailed knowledge of it is being increased almost day by day, that can no longer be said. Any argument sound for the Egyptian is equally sound for the Minoan; and if any argument were required the scales would tilt toward the Minoan because it, unlike Egypt, was in the line of those civilizations which led to Europe. The most eminent authority on the Minoans was the man who made the first and the largest of the discoveries about them, the late Sir Arthur Evans. Those discoveries with a factual description of them in detail as written by him are found in the volumes of The Palace of Minos in Knossos; Macmillan; New York; 1921.



In what Charles Sumner Lobingier described as "the first direct step toward the formation of the Mother Supreme Council" of the Scottish Rite, John Mitchell received a patent from Barend Moses Spitzer vw hich raised him to 'sthe degree of K. H. and further to the highest degree in Masonry," and granted him authority to establish a Lodge of Perfection and the several Councils and Chapters where there are no such Lodges or Councils.' This was dated April 2, 1795, seven years before the new (to be) Supreme Council's Manifesto.

Little is known about Mitchell's early life except that he was born in Ireland about 1741, came to Pennsylvania, and must have early shown himself possessed of great native ability as well as patriotism because in 1776 he was appointed Muster-Master of the Pennsylvania Navy; the following year was appointed its Acting Commissary (one of the most thankless and difficult positions in the Colonial forces); and then was appointed Deputy Quartermaster-General of the Continental Army, and continued to be such until 1780. In 1791 he moved to Charleston, S. C.,where, seven years later, he became active in the Society of the Cincinnati, and continued active in it until 1816. He became Worshipful Master of Lodge No. 8, in Charleston; was Junior Grand Warden of the (Ancient) Grand Lodge of South Carolina; and in 1799 and in M 1800 was its Deputy Grand Master. On June 24, 175)9, he, with two others, issued a circular to the Lodges urging them to support the proposal for a General (or National) Grand Lodge.

Little or nothing is known about Spitzer, except that he possessed authority from a French Council. His name is Jewish but very little reliance ean be placed on names of that period especially in the West Indies, because many Gentiles had Jewish names—descendants of some Gentile of Franee or Spain adopted into a Jewish family—and many Jews had Gentile names.
French, Italian, and German Fascist .anti-Masons between the two World Wars published everywhere and many times statements that the Scottish Rite was made" by Jews. It would make no difference if it had been, but as a matter of record the Rite was remade" by Frenchmen and only a few Jews were active in it during the formative period of the Mother Supreme Couneil. Frederick Dalcho said that he believed Spitzer to have been a Prussian but wasn't sure Mitehell himself was one of the outstanding men of the Colonies; and the more that is learned about them the more of the founders of the American Rites are found to have been men of his calibre. It once was the fashion to believe that the Craft had begun obscurely, in out-ofthe-way corners, in tents or log cabins, and by "uncouth pioneers" • it is knownthatonthecontraryitsfounderawere the founders of Colonies, and of high office in their administrations or in trade or in the armies, and that Lodges were far more conspicuous in their activities then than now).



The short biographical sketch of Bro. J. W. S. Mitchell on page 671 was inadvertently so worded as to convey a misleading impression of Bro. Mitchell both as a man and as a scholar, a fact which is regretted. In 1858 he published A History of Freemasonry and Masonic Digest, which had a content so diversified that the descriptive title to the two volumes occupies the whole of the titlepage. By 1869 it had gone to its seventh edition, and second only to Preston and to Oliver was the most widely-read Masonic book in America. Vol. I of that edition contains 720 pages; Vol. II contains 719 pages. The two together covered the histories of Operative Masonry, of Speculative Masonry, the High Grades, the Egyptian Mysteries, and they contained many pages about Solomon, for Mitchell followed Oliver in believing that Solomon had been the first Grand Master.

Bro. Mitchell began the composition of his history only ten years after Mackey (in 1845) had published his Lexicon; the Lexicon was a slender volume of very brief articles, most of them only a short paragraph in length, and in the book certain of Mackey's theories are scarcely less quaint than were some of Mitchell's. and yet Mackey was a highly-educated and widely read man. The two men both suffered from the almost complete lack of any available literature; there were no Masonic libraries; it was almost a case of reading Oliver or nothing. If this fact be taken into consideration, then Bro. Mitchell was entitled to great credit, and was, relative to the handicaps under which he worked, both a learned and an intelligent man, and ought still to possess the same gratitude from Masons that was accorded to him by his contemporaries who bought up seven editions of a large and expensive work.

Also, the work has positive values for Masonic students now: it shows what was known and thought and practiced in Freemasonry in the United States a decade before the Civil War, and explains much that otherwise remains obscure; and though Bro. Mitchell's theories of the history of the Craft are obsolete, his two volumes were not confined to theories; on almost every page are facts about the Craft in his own and in the preceding period which do not cease to be facts when divorced from the theories. These facts are of great worth, just as are the facts in Oliver's books. And again, the chapters on jurisprudence as it was thought and practiced in the 1850's is invaluable for comparison with jurisprudence now.



When the article on Mithras, page 671, was first composed no sources of information w ere available except passages here and there in Greek and Roman writings and in the polemical writings of early Church Fathers; and these last hated Mithraism so bitterly that they cannot be trusted. Since that time the full, detailed history of Mithraism has been put together, piece by piece, by archeologists, who have discovered tens of thousands of inscriptions and manuscripts. On the whole, the collected writings of Franz Cumont, though among the first in the scientific period, still are the best introduction to the subject In the most skeletonal outline, Mithraism was: an Ancient Mystery Cult; the germ of it was in the old Iranian and Babylonian sun cults; it became a separate cult in Phrygia; planted in Greece it was cleansed of its old ugly imagery, often very brutal and even savage, by artists and sculptors; after being introduced into Italy in the First Century, it soon became popular, especially in the army, and some Emperors belonged to it; soldiers carried it as far west as Ireland, as far north as the Baltic, as far east as the Danube, and as far south as Egypt. For some two centuries it was Christianity's most powerful rival. Once it was overthrown, Churchmen destroyed every trace of it they could find, and in consequence a once great religion was forgotten for nearly a thousand years.

A local building and center was called a mithreum; it had a priesthood, sacred writings, baptism, doctrines of God, Satan, heaven, hell, judgment day, end of world, missionaries, admitted candidates by initiation, divided its membership into grades or degrees, etc. Much of Mithraism became embodied in Manicheism, the cult in which Augustine had been a member before his conversion; Manicheism in turn became reembodied in Patraism, etc., and thence very distinct traces of it are found in the Waldensians, the Albigensians, the Huguenots, the Anabaptists, and on into Puritanism. The root idea which persisted through its transformations w as the doctrine of dualism; that evil is as real as the good, and that man's life is a struggle between the two. (See Chapter in Gould's History of Freemasonry; and [more modern] in A History of Freemasonry, by Haywood and Craig.)



Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de la Breda et de Montesquieu, was born near Bordeaux, France, in 1689; died 1755. He published his Lettres persanes in 1721; in 1748 he published his L'Esprit des Lois, "greatest book of French Eighteenth Century," translated into English as Spirit of Laws. It was one of the very few of the supreme masterpieces in the world to win fame almost as soon as it was printed—it was in fact famous before its publication because Montesquieu already was known as the first political thinker in Europe and Britain before his book went to the printer.

It was a fashion among the older historians of the United States to say that the Fathers and Founders of the nation had found their first ideas of democracy and a republican state in French literature, but this is now known not to have been true. Washington was in the war against the French when a young man, and did not alter a deeply-rooted dislike of them until the second or third year of the Revolutionary War. John Adams was a student of Greek and Latin political writings. Franklin formed his own ideas years before he went to France. Alexander Hamilton was opposed to "French theories." Jefferson knew and loved French literature, but as he stated over and over he had found his first inspirations for his own conception of democracy in an early, exhaustive study of the Angles and Saxons (he taught Anglo-Saxon). The one outstanding exception was Montesquieu's Spirit of Laws; it was studied like a Bible by the American Revolutionary thinkers.

In 1735 the Duke of Richmond and Dr. Desaguliers constituted a new Lodge in Paris in the Rue de Bussy, which met in the home of the Duchess of Portsmouth and was mainly composed of English peers. Ambassador Waldegrave was a founder, and his son Lord Chewton was initiated at the time. In an item published in the St. James Evening Post, London, September 20, 1735, Montesquieu is mentioned as having been one of the founders.

The Lodge's first French Candidate, Count Saint-Florentin, Secretary of State for France, was sponsored by him. In his article on Freemasonry in the French Encyclopedia Lalande (Master of the Lodge of the Nine Muses), the as tronomer and mathematician, sketched this period of French Masonry and gave Montesquieu credit for being one of the founders of the French Craft. Montesquieu (like Voltaire) was at the time working to introduce the "English philosophy" of Newton and Locke ("philosophy" was used in the sense of science) into France, and it is not unlikely that he was able to discuss it with friends in the Lodges without danger of antagonizing French political and religious prey judice; moreover in London as well as in Paris Masons of that decade were keenly interested in Newton, Locke, Halley, etc., and were among the founders of the Royal Society. The Lodges were also the first audience to welcome The Spirit of Laws. When Schwartz and Novikov established their famous Lodge in Moscow, which was a Russian "Nine Muses," they translated The Spirit of Lasts into Russian. The present writer has found no mention of Masonry in Montesquieu's books (he had no occasion to mention it) but the Lettres persanes, or The Persian Letters, is, like Locke's work on Toleration (Locke probably was a Mason), in thought and spirit a Masonic classic.

It is certain that Montesquieu had been a Mason before he helped to found the Lodge in Rue de Bussy in 1735. He had struck up a life-long friendship with Lord Chesterfield while in Italy, and was by Chesterfield introduced in London; since Chesterfield was an indefatigable missionary for Freemasonry wherever he went it is reasonable to believe that it was he who interested Montesquieu in the Craft during the latter's first stay in London. The St. James Evening Post for September 7, 1734 (almost exactly one year before the founding of the Lodge in Paris) mentions him as having been an attendant in a Lodge held in the home of Charles Lennox, the Duke of Richmond, who had been Grand Master in 1724. The Duke had been a member of No. 4, of the four old Lodges which had formed the first Grand Lodge of the world in London in 1717. The records show that he was attending Grand Lodge as late as 1738. Desaguliers, James Anderson, Lord Paisley, the Count Le Lippe, Lord Waldegrave also were members; and it is probable that Montesquieu was made a Mason in this Lodge.

The Minutes of Horn Lodge show that about 1738 Montesquieu was a visitor. The old Lodge No. 4 had met at the Rummer and Grapes in 1717, then moved to the Horn Tavern in New Palace Yard, Westminster. (The Black Death had begun in that spot.) The Duke of Richmond was Master in 1737-8, with George Payne as Deputy Master. In 1772 it met at the King's Arms in the same neighborhood. After the Union of the Modern and Ancient Grand Lodges in 1813 it continued as Somerset Lodge, then in 1828 it absorbed the Royal Inverness Lodge. (For history see No. 4, by A. W. Oxford; Quaritch; London; 1928). In the Horn Lodge the Duke of Richmond initiated Lord Chesterfield, the Duke of Tuscany, the Emperor Francis I, etc. The Duke later became sponsor of Lodges in Tuscany, the first in Italy, and it was against these that Clement XII addressed his denunciations in 1738 in the first of the Papal Bulls against Masonry. Richmond had been one of the generals who had put down the Jacobite rebellion in Scotland. In one way or another Lodge No. 4 was at the center of more history, Masonic and civil, than any other Lodge in the world.



During a number of private conversations, the late Mrs. Lillian Pike Roome, of Boston, a daughter of Albert Pike (her home was a Pike Museum), described her father as she had seen him day by day until her marriage, as above all a man who had a passion for reading. An attendant of the Public Library of Washington reported that "the General came in almost every morning"; and he went on to say that he "read old religions and old philosophers." This is borne out by Pike's own letters to his friends, especially to Parvin and to Mackey, of which there are very many, and which students of Pike hope to see collected and published.

This preoccupation and passion with "old religions and old philosophies" is manifest in Morals and Dogma the book given to each Candidate by the Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite, S.J., and called, though Pike would have resented the description, "the Bible of the Scottish Rite." This famous book is not so much a commentary on the Scottish Rite Degrees—has no such relevancy or connection with them that Preston's Illustrations has with the Craft Degrees—as it is a series of soliloquies, or meditations, or expositions of the high themes of metaphysics, and theology, and cosmology; and their author keeps his eyes fixed not on modern works of Freemasonry but on the epics and bibles of religion, and more especially those of the Iranian and Indian sages, on the Zend-Avesta, the Vedas, the Tripitaka, etc.; and the image of the book as it must have been in his own mind could be best illustrated by a picture of the Seven Sages of Greece in a circle, discussing God, Cosmos, and Man. It is therefore almost a book for students of metaphysics and theology rather than for Masons. To such students the central idea in Pike's thought is clear: Pike refused to admit that God is Divinity only, that is, a God for theology and churches: he insisted that God is Deity, that is, the Ground and Source of matter, life, the heavens, space, time, and he therefore believes that God must be thought out by the mind as well as worshiped by the heart.

In his last years Pike was drawn once again back to Ancient Craft Masonry, the original source and foundation of the Freemasonry of every Rite, and wrote in an unpublished treatise a newer, and more humble, commentary on its deceptively simple ceremonies and symbols, but did not live long enough to write a Morals and Dogma for the Three Degrees. Toward the end he tried to make his friends realize that his Morals and Dogma itself had never been finished; was indeed as he said, not a book but a mountainous mass of materials waiting to be milled and smelted down into a book. This explains why there are whole pages in it taken word for word from other writers, and other pages from other writers re-written in his own words.

Moreover, as he said, he had not been able to bring his studies of the Zend-Avesta, Vedas, etc., down to date, and to make use of the works of modern scholars; this in turn is why Bro. A. V. W. Jackson, the world famous authority on Zoroaster and the Zend-Avesta, of Columbia University, found in his critical analysis of the pages in Morals and Dogma that Pike had used authorities now discarded, and lacked the mass of knowledge acquired by archeology and Oriental language researches, and that Pike's picture of Zoroastrianism is not now acceptable to authorities. This win not disturb Masons who read Morals and Dogma; they have never read it for sake of what of philosophy and of Zoroastrianism and metaphysics there is in it; they have read it for the sake of what they find of Pike in it; he is the object of their studies. Pike's vision of Freemasonry was a sound one, even though his Orientalism was that of an amateur; he saw that there is a Masonry of the MIND, and that if Masonry were not sound and true in its philosophy it could not be sound and true anywhere else.



The paragraph on page 680 is of especial interest because Moray was made a Mason in 1641, which was five years before the Initiation of Ashmole at Warrington. Bro. William J. Hughan very properly called attention to the fact that Moray was not the first known non-Operative on English soil because, as Bro. Edward Conder had shown in his Hole Craft, non-Operatives belonged to the "accepcion," a division of the Masons Company of London, "as early as 1620." But the "accepcion" was not a Lodge; its records were not regular Lodge Minutes; and the fact therefore does not derogate from the importance of the record which proves that Moray had been regularly made a Mason, on English soil, and the event recorded in the still-existing Minutes of the Lodge of Edinburgh.

The Minutes record that R. Moray, described as Quartermaster to the Army of Scotland, then on English soil, had been made a Mason at Newcastle, May 20, 1641, and the Minute thus made was for the purpose of authenticating and registering his membership in the Lodge. The Initiation also is notable for the reason that Robert Moray (afterwards Sir Robert) was believed to have been one "of the great and good men of his day," a founder and first president of the Royal Society, and had been buried in Westminster Abbey. For both of these reasons much has been written about him in Masonic books and periodicals.

But it happens that a biography of Sir Robert which was published in 1922 raises a disturbing question. In The Life of Sir Robert Moray, by Alexander Robertson (Longmans, Green & Co.), page 10, the author writes that, "On the 5th of November, 1641, indeed, there is mention in the Acts of Parliament of Scotland of a Robert Murray who was General Quartermaster, and this may have been the Moray with whom we are concerned" (italics ours).

This raises the question as to whether the Robert Moray who was recorded in the book of the Lodge at Edinburgh was the Sir Robert of the Royal Society. Bro. A. Murray Lyon himself, in his history of the Lodge, raises another question when he says that he "died June 1673, and was buried in the Cannongate Churchyard"; but in a book about Westminster Abbey published in 1753 it is stated that "Sir Robert Murray" was buried there, near D'Avenant, and makes it clear that this Sir Robert was the president of the Royal Society. The author of that book says, "he was a great admirer of the Rosy Crucians" and this has been taken to mean Freemasonry, but the context rather suggests it was chemistry that was meant, for it goes on to say that how as "well versed in Chemistry . . ." and chemistry in that period often was called Rosicrucianism by non-scientific men. These data mean that until proof is found that the Robert Moray of the Edinburgh Lodge was the Sir Robert Moray buried in Westminster Abbey that which has been written about the question must be held in suspense.

NOTE. "Murray" and "Moray" were often used interchangeably.



In 1839 the Latter Day Saints, or Mormons, under the leadership of Joseph Smith, the author of their Book of Mormon, purchased land in Illinois at the village of Commerce, and re-christened it Diauvoo. The Saints came in large numbers. Among them were a number of Masons under the leadership of Dr. John C. Bennett, Heber C. Kimball, and Hyrum Smith, Joseph Smith's brother. On October 15, 1841, Grand Master Jonas, Illinois, issued a dispensation for a Lodge October 15, 1842, and personally constituted it March 15, 1842. This was less than one year after Joseph Smith married his first plural s if e, "the first instance of the practice of polygamy" in the United States. (Bennett later became a violent opponent of the Mormons.)

When—so we learn from Smith's own journal—the new Lodge installed its officers in an open grove, before a large crowd, Joseph Smith acted as Grand Chaplain, though not a Mason. He and one Sidney Rigdon were that day "made Masons at Sight." Upon this, Bodley Lodge, No. 1, of nearby Quincy, Ill., sent a resolution to Grand Lodge asking for an investigation. On August 11, less than six months after he had issued the Dispensation, Grand Master Jonas suspended it; between the two dates Nauvoo Lodge had Initiated 286 Candidates, and "Raised" 256. After it had reformed itself the Lodge was on November 2, 1842, permitted to resume labor.

The Saints took in new members in such droves, that by October 3, 1843, there were five Mormon Lodges: Nauvoo, Nye and Helen, in Nauvoo; Keokuk, U. D.; and Rising Sun, No. 12, at Nontrose. Keokuk and Montrose were in Iowa Territory. Grand Lodge OD that date listened to complaints about the scandalous irregularities in the practices of these Lodges, no one of which had made reports to Grand Lodge or appeared in it to answer questions; Grand Lodge suspended the five, and ordered them to return their Dispensations, Charters, and Records. But the Lodges continued to work in defiance of the Grand Lodge and "made" Masons by the thousands. A detailed record may be found in the Grand Lodge Proceedings of Illinois for 1843,1844, 1845, and 1846. On June 27, 1844, Joseph Smith and his Brother Hyrum were murdered by a mob at Carthage, Ill. After Brigham Young had taken the place of Joseph Smith, and had moved the Church to Utah, the Latter Day Saints renounced and denounced Masonry, forbade Mormons to be Masons, and have been actively Anti-Masonic ever since.  Note:  The only ban that ever existed was the Grand Lodge of Utah's ban of Mormons.  The (LDS Church) holds no position for or against the compatibility of Masonry with LDS Church doctrine.  Due to the effects of time and the improved opinions of both organizations towards each other, in 2009 a Latter-day Saint became a Worshipful Master of a lodge in Hancock County, Illinois the first since the Latter-day Saints left Nauvoo.

See Mormoism and Masonry, by S. H. Goodwin; Salt Lake City; 1921. In 1935 a Mormon wrote a "reply" to it (How can a man "reply" to a set of written records?): Mormonism and Masonry by E Cecil McGavin; The Deseret News; Salt Lake City Another reply, and "as full of 'whoppers' as the yarns about Paul Bunyan," is The Relationship of Mormonism and Freemasonry; Deseret News Press; 1934. The Story of the Mormons, by William Alexander Linn: Macmillan, New York; 1923, contains a section on Nauvoo.

Mormon theologians have had a task unique in the history of Biblical criticism and exegesis, and which has been more than once smiled at by other theologians familiar with the secrets of their own craft: the Mormons has had to prove that Joseph Smith did write The Bool; of Mormon, else he was not the Prophet of their Revelation or the head of their Church; they also have had to prove that he did not write it, because he himself declared that he had found the Book already written! In a brochure on Mormonism and Anti-Masonry written as a sequel to his ,Mormonism and Masonry, Bro. S. H. Goodwin (Grand Secretary, Utah) proved that the Book of Mormon contained a sizeable number of words and phrases coined by Anti-Masonic stump-speakers and writers which were current in Joseph Smith's early years in New York, these findings added another problem to the Mormon theologians' already too onerous task: if the Book of Mormon had been written in heaven by an angel how had this Anti-Masonic jargon gotten into the sacred Book?



An eminence situated in the southeastern part of Jerusalem. In the time of David it must have been cultivated, for it is called "the threshing-floor of Oman the Jebusite," from whom that monarch purchased it for the purpose of placing there an altar. Solomon subsequently erected there his magnificent Temple. Mount Moriah was always profoundly venerated by the Jews, among whom there is an early tradition that on it Abraham was directed to offer up his son. The truth of this tradition has, it is true, been denied by some Biblical writers, but it has been as strenuously maintained by others. The Freemasons, however, have always accepted it and to them, as the site of the Temple, it is especially sacred, and combining with this the Abrahamic legend, they have given to Mount Moriah the appellation of the ground floor of the Lodge, and assign it as the place where what are called the three grand offerings were made.



Grand Master of Haiti, 1863



The founder of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in America. On the 27th of August, 1761, the "Deputies General of the Royal Art, Grand Wardens, and officers of the Grand Severin Lodge of Saint John of Jerusalem established at Paris," so reads the document itself, granted a Patent to Stephen Morin, by which he was empowered "to multiply the Sublime Degrees of High Perfection, and to create Inspectors in all places where the Sublime Degrees are not established." This Patent was granted, Thory, Ragon, Clavel, and Lenning say, by the Grand Council of Emperors of the East and West. Others say by the Grand Lodge. Dalcho says by the Grand Consistory of Princes of the Royal Secret at Paris. Brother Albert Pike, who has very elaborately investigated the question, says that the authority of Morin was "a joint authority" of the two then contending Grand Lodges of France and the Grand Council, which is, Brother Mackey supposed, what Dalcho and the Supreme Council of Charleston called the Grand Consistory. From the Grand Lodge he received the power to establish a Symbolic Lodge, and from the Grand Council or Consistory the power to confer the advanced Degrees.

Not long after receiving these powers, Morin sailed for America, and established Bodies of the Scottish Rite in Santo Domingo and Jamaica. He also appointed M. M. Hayes a Deputy Inspector-General for North America. Hayes, subsequently, appointed Isaac da Costa a Deputy for South carolina, and through him the Sublime Degrees were disseminated among the Freemasons of the United states (see Scottish Rite). After appointing several Deputies and establishing some Bodies in the West India Islands, Morin is lost sight of. We know not anything of his subsequent history, or of the time or place of his death. Ragon, Thory, and Clavel say that Morin was a Jew; but as these writers have Judaized all the founders of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in America, we have no right to place any confidence in their statements. The name of Morin has been borne by many French Christians of literary reputation, from Peter Morin, a learned ecclesiastical writer of the sixteenth century, to Stephen Morin, an antiquary and Protestant clergyman, who died in 1700, and his son Henry, who became a Catholic, and died in 1728. The above surmise by Doctor Mackey has more recently had the support of Brother Cyrus Field Willard who, in the Builder, September, 1925, and in correspondence with us, gave his reasons for believing Morin to have been of a French Huguenot family in New Stork, the name Stephen also occurring in eighteenth-century church records in that city at a date favorable to the known movements of the noted Freemason. Brother Willard notes the boyhood of Morin coincides in the same city with that of Brother Moses M. Hayes, another pioneer of prominence in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Another claim unearthed by Brother Willard is that Morin was a sea captain captured by the British in 1777 but an attempt by us to have this verified By Government records at London has been unsuccessful.



Soldier and surgeon, born in 1780, at Greenfield, Scotland. He was the owner of a valuable Masonic library which, after his death in 1848, was given by his widow to the Grand Lodge of Scotland.



A Privy Councillor, Professor, and Member of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin, was born at Hameln on the 15th of September, 1757, and died the 26th of June, 1793. Gadicke says that he was one of the most celebrated authors of his age, and distinguished by his works on the German language. He was the author of several Masonic works, among which are his Contributions to the Philosophy of Life and the Diary of a Freemason (Berlin, 1793) and a Book of Masonic Songs.


See Book of Mormons



This country is at the northwest extremity of Africa with an area of about 300,000 square miles and since the World War has been under a protectorate of the French Republic. Five Lodges have been put at work in Morocco under the Grand Orient of France. These were warranted as follows: Nouvelle Volubilis (this latter being the French name for a plant, the New Convolvulus. or Bindweed), Tangier, June 8, 1891; Le Phare (the Beacon) de la Chaouia, Casablanca, May 4, 1910; Le Reveil du Moghreb (The Awakening of the Extreme West), Rabat, February 7, 1918; E1 Bridja Dial Douk Rala, Mazagen, June 10, 1990; La Nouvelle Tagmusiga, Mogador, August 18, 1921. hinder the Grand Lodge of France there are five Lodges as follows: Woodrow Wilson, No. 479, Mogador; Aula Lumiere, I90. 480, Casablanca; Tit, Sso. 490, Mazagan; Les deux Soeurs (Thc Tuxo Sisters), No. 497, Rabat-Sali; Asfy, So. 498, Safi. The Grand Orient of Italy warranted Concordia Lodge at Tangiers, and the Grand Orient of Spain chartered the following: Morayta, Tangier; Abel-el-Aziz, Tangier; Casablanca, No. 247, Casablanca; Felicidad, Lavache.



The name of one of the twelve Inspectors in the Eleventh Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. This name, like the others in the same catalogue, bids defiance to any Hebraic derivation. They are all either French corruptions, worse even than Jakinai for Shekinah, or they have some allusion to names or events connected with the political intrigues of the exiled house of Stuart which had, it is known, a connection with some of the advanced Degrees which sprang up at Array, and other places where Freemasonry is said to have been patronized by the Pretender. This word Morphey may, for instance, be a corruption of Murray. James Murray, the second son of Lord Stormont, escaped to the Court of the Stuarts in 1715. He was a devoted adherent of the exiled family, and became the governor of the young prince and the chief minister of his father, who conferred upon him the empty title of Earl of Dunbar. He died at Avignon in 1770. But almost every etymology of this kind must be entirely conjectural.



Born August 31, 1818. Was first brought to Masonic light March 5, 1846, in Oxford Lodge, at a place of the same name in Mississippi. The life of Brother Morris was so active and untiring for the benefit of the Institution of Freemasonry, that he had the opportunity of filling very many positions in all the departments of Freemasonry, and was Grand Master of Freemasons of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky in 1858-9. His service to the Order of the Eastern Star was devoted and valuable. He was also an organizer of the Conservators,'Brethren who aroused much interest and some resentment over proposed changes and standardization of Masonic ceremonies. His writings cover Masonic jurisprudence, rituals and handbooks, Masonic belles-lettres, history and biography, travels and contributions to the Review, Freystone, Advocate, New York Dispatch, and other papers and periodicals. His Masonic songs and poetic effusions stand out prominently. He was the author of Te Meet upon the Level, which is sufficient to render his name immortal. A complete biography of Brother Rob Morris would fill volumes. He died in 1888.



We meet upon the Level, and we part upon the Square:
What words sublimely beautiful those words Masonic are!
They fall like strains of melody upon the listening ears, As they've sounded hallelujahs to the world, three thousand years.
We meet upon the Level, though from every station brought,
The Monarch from his palace and the Laborer from his cot
For the King must drop his dignity when knocking at our door
And the Laborer is his equal as he walks the cheekered floor.
We act upon the Plumb,—'tis our Master's great command
We stand upright in virtue's way and lean to neither hand
The All-Seeing Eye that reads the heart will bear us witness true,
That we do always honor God and give each man his due.
We part upon the Square,—for the world must have its due,
We mingle in the ranks of men, but keep the Secret true,
And the influence of our gatherings in memory is green,
And we long, upon the Level, to renew the happy scene.
There's a world where all are equal,—we are hurrying toward it fast
We shall meet upon the Level there when the gates of death are past
We shall stand before the Orient and our Master will be there,
Our works to try, our lives to prove by His unerring Square.
We shall meet upon the Level there, but never thence depart.
There's a mansion bright and glorious, set for the pure in heart
Sand an everlasting welcome from the Zost rejoicing there,
Who in this world of sloth and sin, did part upon the Square.
Let us meet upon the Level, then, while laboring patient here
Let us meet and let us labor, tho' the labor be severe;
already in the Western Sky the signs bid us prepare,
To gather up our Working Tools and part upon the Square.
Hands round, ye royal Craftsmen in the bright, fraternal chain !
We part upon the Square below to meet in Heaven again;
Each tie that has been broken here shall be cemented there,
And none be lost around the Throne who parted on the Square.



A signer of the Declaration of Independence and a Freemason who devoted his entire personal fortune to the furthering of the cause of the Colonists, as well as borrowing large sums from France which were also turned over to the Colonists. He was born in Liverpool, England, January 20, 1734, and died May 8, 1806. He patriotically sacrificed all his worldly possessions. Said to have been a member of an old Pennsylvania Masonic Lodge (see New Age, May, 1925, and Brother Peters' Masons as Makers of Amenia, page 58, but not so asserted by Brother Boyden, Masonic Presidents, Vice-Presidents and Signers; and Brother Roth, Masonry in the Formation of Our Government, page 83, says no definite proofs have been found of Morris as a Freemason).



The ancient Egyptians introduced a skeleton at their feasts, to impress the idea of the evanescence of all earthly enjoyments; but the skeletons or deaths' heads did not make their appearance in Grecian art, as symbols of mortality, until later times, and on monuments of no artistic importance. In the earliest periods of ancient art, the Greeks and Romans employed more pleasing representations, such as the flower plucked from its stem, or the inverted torch. The moderns have, however, had recourse to more offensive symbolization. In their hatchments or funeral achievements the heralds employ a death's head and crossed bones, to denote that the deceased person is the last of his family. The Freemasons have adopted the same symbol, and in all the Degrees where it is necessary to impress the idea of mortality, a skull, or a skull and crossed hones, are used for that purpose.


See Untempered Mortar



Mosaic work consists properly of many little stones of different colors united together in patterns to imitate a painting. It was much practiced among the Romans, who called it museum, whence the Italians get their musaico, the French their mosaique, and we our mosaics The idea that the work is derived from the fact that Moses used a pavement of colored stones in the tabernacle has been long since exploded by etymologists. The Masonic tradition is that the floor of the Temple of Solomon was decorated with a mosaic pavement of black and white stones. There is no historical evidence to substantiate this statement. Samuel Lee, however, in his diagram of the Temple, represents not only the floors of the building, but of all the outer courts, as covered with such a pavement. The Masonic idea was perhaps first suggested by this passage in the Gospel of Saint John xix, 13, "When Pilate, therefore, heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment-seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha." The word here translated Pavement is in the original Lithostroton, the very word used by Pliny to denote a mosaic pavement.

The Greek word, as well as its Latin equivalent is used to denote a pavement formed of ornamental stones of various colors, precisely what is meant by a Mosaic Pavement. There was, therefore, a part of the Temple which was decorated with a mosaic pavement. The Talmud informs us that there was such a pavement in the Conclave where the Grand Sanhedrin held its sessions. By a little torsion of historical accuracy, the Freemasons have asserted that the ground floor of the Temple was a mosaic pavement, and hence as the Lodge is a representation of the Temple, that the floor of the Lodge should also be of the same pattern. The mosaic pavement is an old symbol of the Order. It is met with in the earliest Rituals of the eighteenth century. It is classed among the ornaments of the Lodge in combination with the indented tassel and the blazing star. Its parti-colored stones of black and white have been readily and appropriately interpreted as symbols of the evil and good of human life.



In the religion of Moses, more than in any other which preceded or followed it, is symbolism the predominating idea. From the tabernacle, which may be considered as the central point of the whole system, down to the vestments which clothed the servants at the altar, there will be found an underlying principle of symbolism. Long before the days of Pythagoras the mystical nature of numbers had been inculcated by the Jewish lawgiver, and the very name of God was constructed in a symbolical form, to indicate His eternal nature. Much of the Jewish ritual of worship, delineated in the Pentateuch with so much precision as to its minutest details would almost seem puerile were it not for the symbolic idea that is conveyed. So the fringes of the garments are patiently described, not as decorations, but that by them the people, in looking upon the fringe, might "remember all the commandments of the Lord and do them." Well, therefore, has a modern writer remarked, that in the symbolism of the Mosaic worship it is only ignorance, that can find the details trifling or the prescriptions minute; for if we recognize the worth and beauty of symbolism, we shall in vain seek in the Mosaic symbols for one superfluous enactment or one superstitious idea.

To the Freemason the Mosaic symbolism is very significant, because from it Freemasonry has derived and transmitted for its own uses many of the most precious treasures of its own symbolical art. Indeed, except in some of the higher, and therefore more modern Degrees, the symbolism of Freemasonry is almost entirely deduced from the symbolism of Mosaism. Thus the symbol of the Temple, which persistently pervades the whole of the ancient Masonic system, comes to us directly from the symbolism of the Jewish tabernacle. If Solomon is revered by the Freemasons as their traditional Grand Master, it is because the Temple constructed by him was the symbol of the Divine life to be cultivated in every heart.

And this symbol was borrowed from the Mosaic tabernacle; and the Jewish thought, that every Hebrew was to be a tabernacle of the Lord, has been transmitted to the Masonic system, which teaches that every Freemason is to be a temple of the Grand Architect. The Papal Church, from which we get all ecclesiastical Symbolism borrowed its symbology from the ancient Romans. Hence most of the advanced Degrees of Freemasonry which partake of a Christian character are marked by Roman symbolism transmuted into Christian. But Craft Masonry, more ancient and more universal, finds its symbolic teachings almost exclusively in the Mosaic symbolism instituted in the wilderness.

If we inquire whence the Jewish lawgiver derived the symbolic system which he introduced into his religion, the history of his life will readily answer the question. Philo-Judaeus says that "Moses was instructed by the Egyptian priests in the philosophy of symbols and hieroglyphics as well as in the mysteries of the sacred animals." The sacred historian tells us that he was "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians"; and Manetho and other traditionary writers tell us that he was educated at Heliopolis as a priest, under his Egyptian name of Osarsiph, and that there he was taught the whole range of literature and science, which it was customary to impart to the priesthood of Egypt. When, then, at the head of his people, he passed away from the servitude of Egyptian taskmasters, and began in the wilderness to establish his new religion, it is not strange that he should have given a holy use to the symbols whose meaning he had learned in his ecclesiastical education on the banks of the Nile.

Thus is it that we find in the Mosaic symbolism so many identities with the Egyptian Ritual. Thus the Ark of the Covenant, the Breastplate of the High Priest, the Miter, and many other of the Jewish symbols, will find their analogies in the ritualistic ceremonies of the Egyptians. Reghellini, who has written an elaborate work on Masonry considered as the result of the Egyptian, Jewish, and Christian Religions, says on the subject: "Moses, in his mysteries, and after him Solomon, adopted a great part of the Egyptian symbols, which, after them, we Masons have preserved in our own" (see Doctor Mackey's revised Symbolism of Freemasonry).



The Hebrew word Urn, which means drawn out; but the true derivation is from two Egyptian words, po, me, and ouxe, oushes, signifying saved from the water. The lawgiver of the Jews, and referred to in some of the higher Degrees, especially in the Twenty-fifth Degree, or Knight of the Brazen Serpent in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, where he is represented as the presiding officer. He plays also an important part in the Royal Arch of the York and American Rites, all of whose Ritual is framed on the Mosaic symbolism.



An eminent German Freemason, who was born March 2, 1757, at Eckartsberge, and died about 1830. He resided in Dresden, and took an active part in the affairs of Freemasonry. He was a warm supporter of Fessler-s Masonic reforms, and made several contributions to the Freyberg Freimaurenischen Taschenbuche in defense of Fessler's system. He became intimately connected with the learned Krause, the author of The Three Most Ancient Records of the Masonic Fraternity, and wrote and published in 1809 a critical review of the work, in consequence of which the Grand Lodge commanded him to absent himself for an indefinite period from the Lodges. Mossdorf then withdrew from any further connection with the Fraternity. His most valuable contributions to Masonic literature are his additions and emendations to Lenning's Encyclopadie der Freimaurerei. He is the author also of several other works of great value.



The title given to a Royal Arch Chapter, and to its presiding officer, the High Priest; also to the presiding officer of a Lodge of Most Excellent Masters.



The Sixth Degree in the York or American Rite. Its history refers to the dedication of the Temple by King Solomon, who is represented by its presiding officer under the title of Most Excellent. Its officers are the same as those in a Symbolic Lodge. There are, however, some Rituals in which the Junior Warden is omitted. This Degree is peculiarly American, it being practiced in no other country. It was the invention of Webb, who organized the Capitular System of Freemasonry as it exists in the United States of America, and established the system of lectures which is the foundation of all subsequent systems taught there.



The title of the presiding officer of a Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters.



The title usually given to a Grand Lodge and to its presiding officer, the Grand Master. However, the title of Grand Master of Pennsylvania is Right Worshipful.



A French expression, meaning Half yearly word. Every six months the Grand Orient of France sends to each of the Lodges of its obedience a password, to be used by its members as an additional means of gaining admission into a Lodge. Each Freemason obtains this word only from the Venerable or Worshipful Master of his own Lodge. It was instituted October 28, 1773, when the Duke of Chartres was elected Grand Master.



From an old Anglo-Saxon word motan meaning "to be allowed," as in the phrase so mote if be, meaning so may it be.



The Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States of America, which was organized in 1801, at Charleston, is called the Mother Council qf the World, because from it have issued directly or indirectly all the other Supreme Councils of the Rite which are nose in existence, or have existed since its organization



In the eighteenth century certain Lodges in France and Germany assumed an independent position, and issued Charters for the constitution of Daughter Lodges, claiming the prerogatives of Grand Lodges. Thus we find the Mother Lodge of Marseilles, in France, which constituted many Lodges. In Scotland the Lodge of Kilwinning took the title of Mother lodge, and issued Charters until it was merged in the Grand Lodge of Scotland. The system is altogether irregular, and has no sanction in the laws of the Fraternity

Perfect Sincerity Lodge, of Marseilles, France, was of English descent organized in 1767 as a Subordinate Lodge of the Grand Lodge of France and was a subordinate of the Grand Orient of France since the consolidation in 1806- Perfect Sincerity Lodge granted a Charter to Polar Star Lodge of New Orleans in 1796 and reported this action to the Grand Orient of France, which latter Body approved the course that had been taken and healed the work of Polar Star Lodge from the time they commenced working up to 1804, at which time the Grand Orient granted them a Charter. As Polar Star Lodge No. 4263, working under the Grand Orient of France, they continued to so operate until the organization of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana.

These facts were obtained through a search caused by Post Office Inspector M. G. Price and given on page 248, Thomson Masonic Fraud. This Lodge and the one usually called the Mother Lodge of Marseilles or Mother Scotch Lodge of France, are sometimes confused. They are distinctly independent Bodies (see also Thory, Acta Latomerum, page 63; Ragon, Orthodoxie Maconnique, page 120, and Outline of the Rise and Progress of Freemasonry in Louisiana, James B. Seot. The particulars are to be found in the aceount of the Craft in Louisiana, Mackey's revised History of Freemasonry, pages 1554-9).



A motion when made by a member cannot be brought before the Lodge for deliberation unless it is seconded by another member. Motions are of two kinds, principal and subsidiary; a principal motion is one that presents an independent proposition for discussion. Subsidiary motions are those which are intended to affect the principal motion—such as to amend it, to lay it on the table, to postpone it definitely or indefinitely, or to reconsider it, all of which are governed by the parliamentary law under certain modifications to suit the spirit and genius of the Masonic organization (see Doctor Mackey's Treatise on Parliamentary Law as Applied to Masonic Bodies, also his revised Jurisprudence of Freemasonry).



In imitation of the sentences appended to the Coats of Arms and seals of the Gilds and other societies, the Freemasons have for the different branches of their Order mottoes, which are placed on their banners or put at the head of their documents, which are expressive of the character and design, either of the whole Order or of the particular branch to which the motto belongs. Thus, in Ancient Craft Masonry, we have as mottoes the sentences, Ordo ab Chao, and Lug e tenebris; in Capitular Masonry, Holiness to the Lord; in Templar Masonry, In hoc signo winces; in Scottish Masonry, Ne plus ultra is the motto of the Thirtieth Degree, and Spesmea in Deoest of the Thirty-second; while the Thirty-third has for its motto Deus meumaue Jus. All of these will be found with their signification and origin in their appropriate places in this work.



Early inhabitants in the valleys of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers who seem to have had a civilization more enlightened than that of the aborigines first met by the white settlers. The mounds built by these people are scattered over the territory extending from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean. Many of these are in Ohio—some circular, others four and six-sided. Sometimes there are combinations of these and certain structures are known as altar mounds, small rounded heaps of earth having at the center a hollowed mass of hard clay showing the effects of fire and containing ashes and charcoal. The hollowed parts are from three to four feet in diameter. In Adams County, Ohio, between two branches of the Licking River, is a remarkable mound lying upon a narrow ridge and is in the form of a serpent, the jaws being wide open and measuring across some seventy-five feet. The body is about five feet high and behind the head about thirty feet across.

The whole length is 1,348 feet and it covers an area of about four square miles and, following the curves of the body, the tail is arranged in a triple coil. In front of the head is an egg-shaped enclosure with a pile of stones at the center, and beyond this a somewhat indistinct form thought to represent an animal. There are other mounds representing birds, reptiles, and so on in Wisconsin, and the suggestion has been offered that these were of a totemic character and served as objects of worship and perhaps were regarded as the guardians of the villages. The conclusion of various authorities is that the Mound-Builders lived in the stone-age and had no knowledge of smelting, though they made many articles in beaten metals and from other materials. A study of the skulls indicates that they were not of one race.



In the Mohammedan mythology, a fabulous mountain which encircles the earth. The home of the giants and fairies, and rests upon the sacred stone Sakhral, of which a single grain gives miraculous powers. It is of an emerald color, and its resected light is the cause of the tints of the sky.


See Calvary


See Morzah


See Sinai



The mourning color has been various in different times and countries. Thus, the Chinese mourn in white; the Turks in blue or in violet; the Egyptians in yellow; the Ethiopians in gray. In all the Degrees and Rites of Freemasonry, with a single exception black is the symbol of grief, and therefore the mourning color. But in the highest Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite the mourning color, like that used by the former kings of France, is violet.



The Freemason is taught by an expressive symbol, to whisper good counsel in his Brother's ear, and to warn him of approaching danger. "It is a rare thing," says Bacon, "except it be from a perfect and entire friend, to have counsel given that is not bowed and crooked to some ends which he hath that giveth it." And hence it is an admirable lesson, which Freemasonry here teaches us, to use the lips and the tongue only in the service of a Brother.



See Petrels of a Lodge


M. O. V. P. E. R.
See Grotto



A celebrated German composer and musician, born January 27, 1756, in Salzburg, and died December 5, 1791, in Vienna. Mozart's father, Leopold, was a violinist of repute and gave his son early and splendid trainings so much so, in fact, that at the age of five the young Mozart wrote an extremely difficult concerto for the harpsichord.

At six he made his musical debut in Vienna; published his first sonatas for the harpsichord at seven years of age in Paris and at eight performed before the Court of England difficult compositions of Bach and Handel. In 1767 he received his first commission from the Emperor Joseph II at Vienna to write the music of a comic opera. This-was written, but unfortunately was suppressed and never performed owing to the opposition of the court musicians. In 1769 Mozart went to Milan—then fourteen Years of age—with the idea of finishing his education. Here he heard the Miserere (usually meaning Psalm 51, but sometimes any penitential chant) once at Sistine Chapel and then wrote it down from memory, note for note. At that time even the singers were forbidden to transcribe the music of the Miserere on pain of excommunication by the Pope, so this feat created a sensation and was so mighty an accomplishment that the Pope, cl on the return of Mozart to Rome, invested him with the Order of the Golden Spur, which honor had also been conferred upon Gluck not many years before. Mozart's first opera was written during his twentieth year, called Mithridates, and performed more than twenty times in succession. Following this he was appointed Composer to the Court. At the age of twenty-five he married Constance Weber.

All through Mozart's life he was harassed and handicapped by extreme poverty and his hardships and difficulties were greatly increased by Hieronymus, Count of Colloredo, a Roman Catholic Archbishop of Salzburg, to which office he was appointed at the death of a previous Archbishop who had rendered the young Mozart much assistance in the way of interest and help to Mozart's father during the earlier years of his training of his son. When Mozart was sixteen vears old, Hieronvmus summoned him and kept him in Salzburg without funds, refusing him permission to leave on a concert tour for the purpose of gaining some income to relieve the extreme financial stress which Mozart was suffering. This in spite of the fact that the position he held with Hieronymus was a purely honorary one without income.

At twenty-one Mozart again sued for permission to resign this appointment and after much vituperation Hieronymus finally permitted him to leave. Mozart's art naturally gave him immediate success when performing independently but unfortunately, as soon as Hieronymus found that he had successfully established himself, he was prompted by his petty vanity and a desire to retain a celebrated artist in his service to summon poor Mozart back into his domain and provided a small salary, although he did not permit Mozart to add to this by performing anywhere except at the archiepiscopal palace. Here he used every opportunity of mistreating Mozart, who stood for these indignities as long as was humanly possible and then sent in his formal resignation, for which action he was insulted by the Archbishop "in terms too vulgar for translation." Mozart was buried in a pauper's grave. Xan Swieten, Sussmayer and only three other friends planned to accompany him to the cemetery but even these turned back "because it rained." Sussmayer it was who finished the last composition written in part while on Mozart's death-bed, the Requiem, it being probable that he did so at Mozart's specific request

Brother Herbert Bradley, Transactions, of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, volume Levi, 1913, states that Mozart is said to have been initiated in Lodge Zur Wohltätigkeit, meaning Charity, in the autumn of 1784 and that other authorities state that he was initiated in the Lodge Zur Hoffnung or a Lodge Zur Gekronten Hoffnung, meaning Crowned Hope. As a matter of fact all these statements are in a measure true. Under the decree of the Emperor, of December 1, 1785, these Lodges were united into one Lodge. The words of Mozart's opening ode for the Lodge clearly illustrate these changes.


Opening Ode, Opus 483
Sing vestal lays to heav'n ascending
Fraternal voices blending
sing our Protector's praise.
For in our brethren's hearts a triple fire he found,
And all our hope aIlew is crown'd
Then loud let our chorus be swelling
his praises forever forthtelling
Who knitted more closely our band,
Who finding our zeal warmly glowing
For merit this honor bestowed
Has crown'd us with generous hand.
These, two, we praise, who watching o'er us,
Held virtues torch before us
So walk we in their ways
For flowing from their path, where'er their steps have stood
Our brother finds a souree of good.
Far better than mere acclamation
To heed them by bold emulation
And honor like theirs to attain.
Threefold is the labor before us
So hush'd be the strains of our chorus till called to
refreshment again.
Closing Ode, Opus 484
Our thanks are yours for ever,
Who are the badge of Office wearing
Let virtue be your sole endeavor;
So everyone will joy in bearing
The chains that bind such brothers true
Sweetening the cup of life anew.
And this obligation
We swear to fulfill
Upon your foundation
To build with a will.
Then raise us ever higher
Upon the wings of truth ascending
To wisdom's throne we may aspire.
That so our wearv labors ending
We may be worthy of her crown,
And rest where envy is unknown.
And this obligation
We swear to fulfill,
Upon your foundation
To build with a will.

The above translation is by Brother Orton Bradle. Transactions, Quatuor Coronati Lodge (page 241 al;;i page 263, volume xxvi, 1913).

Richard Koch in his treatise on Brother Mozart Freimaurer und Illuminaten, 1911, says that Mozart s Mother Lodge had a library of 1,900 volumes, that it was a legally constituted Lodge, and that it had a laboratory in which lectures were given. The list of 1788 shows that the members of the united Lodge Zur Neugekronten Hoffnung consisted of one Ruling Prince, thirty-six Counts, one Marquis, fourteen Barons and forty-two Nobles, officers, Ambassadors Chamberlains Prebendaries, Officials, etc.

Brother Bradley gives the following as the principal blasomc compositions of Brother Mozart: Die Gesellenreise. Opus 468, a Masonic song, composed March 26, 1785.

The Opening and Closing of the Lodge. Opus 483 and 484. These were probably composed for the first meetings of the Lodge Neugekronten Hoffnung.

A short Cantata. Maurerfreude, Opus 471, for tenor and chorus, dated April 20, 1785, performed on the 24th of April, in honor of the metallurgist Von Born, at a special Lodge held on that day to celebrate his discovery of the method of working ores by amalgamation.

The success of this discovery was celebrated by a Lodge Zur wahren Eintracht, meaning True Harmony , by a banquet, at Which the Cantata was performed.

A short Masonic Cantata, words said to have been written by Schikaneder, for two tenors and a bass, with orchestral accompaniment, Opus 623. This was written for the consecration of a Masonic Temple on November 15. 1791. It was the last finished composition of which Mozart conducted the performance. This contains as an appendix, a Hymn for closing of the Lodge, which was probably Mozart's farewell to the Craft. The words of the Cantata, and this Hymn, clearly refer to the consecration ceremony: "Today we consecrate this habitation for our temple, for the first time we gather within this new seat of knowledge and of virtue, and look, the consecration is completed, O ! that the work were finished also that consecrates our hearts. " This Cantata was published about 1902 under the title Praize of Friendship, with English words by Brother George C. Dusart, describing the Three Degrees, Davis & Co., London and Brighton, England.

A Cantata, Die ihr des unernesslichen Weltalls Schopfer ehrt, Opus 619, words by Ziegenhagen. Maurerisehe Trauernmusik, an orchestral piece, an elegy on the death of the Duke Georg August of WIeeklenhurg Strelitz, and Prince Franz Esterhazy, Opus 4v ,. Composed July, 1785. The Magie Flute. Brother Hubert W. Hunt on pages 265 and 266 of the above volume of the Transactions of Quatuor Coronati Lodge says " It is impossible to describe the numbers of Mozart's works as Opus numbers." Like Bach, Mozart did not number his compositors, the numbers refer to the catalog compiled by Kochel and should he indicated K, KY, or Koehel, thus Die Zauberflote, KV 620. Kochel endeavored to enumerate the works in chronological order, and the list of Masonic music should follow this plan, and run one, four, seven, two and three, six, eight, five. Three other works are supposed to have been intended for Masonic use: they are, an adagio, in Canon form, for wind instruments, KV 411, and Adagio, also for wind instruments KV 412, and a short Cantata, a hymn to the sun
Die Seele des Weltalls, KV 429. Libretto was by Schikaneder.

Brother Herbert Bradley on page 252 of the above Transactions of Quatuor Coronati Lodge says "The plot of the Magic Flute is now generally believed to be a book published in 1731 by the Abbe Terrasson named Sethos, described as a history of life drawn from the monuments of ancient Egypt. It contains a description of the initiation of Sethos, an Egyptian priest, into the mysteries of Egypt."

Brother Hubert W. Hunt on page 267 says in part, "A Masonic friend of Mozart of whom more might brave been said is Franz Joseph Haydn, 1732 to 1809 the composer of the Creation, and of over one hundred and fifty Symphonies and the father of the stringed quartet." The setting of the words "And there was light" in the opening chorus is worthy of remark. The Creation was composed 1796 to 1798.

Brother Bradley quotes the following translation from the oration made at the Lodge of Mourning held by the Freemasons in honor of Mozart. This oration was published in 1792 and sold for the benefit of Mozart's family—

It has pleased the everlasting Master Builder to tear our beloved Brother from the chain of our brotherhood. Who did not know him? Who did not value him? Who did not love him, our worthy Brother, Mozart? Only a few weeks ago he stood in our midst and with the magic tones added such beauty to the dedication of our Masonic Temple. Mozart's death brings irreparable loss to his art; his talents which were apparent in his earliest youth made him even then the greatest marvel of his time. Half Europe valued him. The creat called him their favorite, Liebling, and we caned him Brother. But while we must of necessity recall his powers in Art we must not forget the praise due to his great heart. He was a most enthusiastic follower of our Order. Love for his Brethren, sociability, enthusiasm for the good cause, charity, the true and deep feeling of pleasure when he was able by means of his talents to help one of his Brethren, these were the chief features of his charater. He was husband, father, friend to his friends, Brother to his Brethren. Only the wherewithal was wanted to hinder him from making hundreds happy, as his heart bade him." What more could be said of any Freemason? See also Mozart and his Masonic Circle, Brother Dudley Wright, New England Craftsman, July, 1922, and Mozart and Masonry, Brother Sir John A. Cockburn, Masonic Record, December, 1922.



Wrote Masonic poems and songs, 1819



German poet; friend of Brother Goethe; and member of Lodge Amalia, at Weimar, where he was initiated in 1809, becoming its Orator and Deputy Master. He composed some poetry and delivered the oration in honor of Wieland in 1813, and when the Lodge held its festival for the fifty years, Jubilee of the Grand Duke Charles Augustus of Saxe Weimar, 1825, he delivered the address. To the memory of Goethe shortly after, he made another address. Several of the selections are by him in the song book of the Lodge Amalia.



Born in 1761, and died in 1830. He was Professor of Theology in the University of Copenhagen, and afterward Bishop of Seeland. He was the author of a treatise on the Symbols and Art Representations of thel3arly Christians In 1794 he published his Statute Book of the Order of Knights Templar, the German title being Statutenbuch des Ordens der Tempelherren; a work which is one of the most valuable contributions that we have to the history of Templarism.


Latin for much but Veto, a concise history of Freemasonry brought down to 1763 and published in England, probably in 1764, but without date or author's name with the title of The Complete Freemason or MulJa Paucis for Lovers of Secrets. This book differs slightly from Doctor Anderson's history, one point of Interest being the assertion that the Grand Lodge of England was organized in 1717 by sis Lodges, not four.



The author of A Discourse in Praise of Freemasonny, London, 1805; An Exhortation to the Practice of those Specific Virtues which ought to prevail in the Masonic Character, with Historical Notes, octavo, London, 1805; and Occasional Discourses on Various Subjects, with Copious Annotations, three volumes, octavo, London, 1805. This last work contains many discourses on Masonic subjects. Doctor Munkhouse was an ardent admirer and defender of Freemasonry, into which he was initiated in the Phoenix Lodge of Sunderland. On his removal to Wakefield, where he was Rector of Saint John the Baptist's Church, he united with the Lodge of Unanimity, under the Mastership of Richard Linnecar, to whose virtues and Masonic knowledge he has paid a high tribute. Doctor Munkhouse died in the early part of the nineteenth century.



Born in 1771, executed in 1815. The great cavalry general of Napoleon, and titular King of Naples. In 1803, he was appointed Senior Grand Warden in the Grand Orient of France. When the fifth Supreme Council of the World was established at Naples, on June 11, 1809, by the Supreme Council at Milan, a Concordat became necessary, and was executed May 3, 1811, between the Grand Orient, which was created June 24, 1809, and the Supreme Council of Naples, whereby the latter should have sole control over the Degrees beyond the eighteenth, in like manner as signified in the Concordat of France. King Joachim Murat accepted the supreme command of both Bodies. The change in his political surroundings allowed him no permanent rest.



Son of the King of Naples. Was appointed Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France, and initiated February 26, 1825. He resigned the office in 1861.


A distingtushed historical and archeological writer, who was born at Nuremberg, in 1733, and died April 8, 1811. In 1760 he published an Essay on the History of the Greek Tragic Poets, in 1777-82, six volumes of Antiquities of Herculaum, and several other historical works. In 1803 he published an essay on the True Origin of the Orders of Rosicrucianism anal Freemasonry, zeith an Appandi: on the History of the Order of Templars. In this work, Murr attempts to traee Freemasonry to the times of Oliver Cromwell, and maintains that it and Rosicrucianism had an identical origin, and the same history until the year 1633, when they separated.




In the early lectures of the eighteenth century, the tradition is given, that certain Fellow Crafts, while pursuing their search, discovered a grave covered with green moss and turf, when they exclaimed, Muscus Domus, Deo- gratias, which Latin expression was interpreted, Thanks be to God, our Master )m a mossy house. Whence a Freemason's grave came to be called Muscus Domus. But both the tradition and its application have become obsolete in the modern instructions.



One of the seven liberal arts and sciences, whose beauties are inculcated in the Fellow Craft's Degree. Music is recommended to the attention of Freemasons, because as the "concord of sweet sounds" elevates the generous sentiments of the soul, so should the concord of flood feeling reign among the Brethren, that by the union of friendship and brotherly love the boisterous pardons may be lulled and harmony exist throughout the Craft



As in the Fellow Craft's Degree, music is dilated upon as one of the liberal arts, the sweet and harmonious sounds being the representative of that harmony which should ever exist among the Brethren, we are apt to inquire what were the instruments used by the ancients in their mystical service. The oldest ever discovered, we believe, is a small clay pipe not over three inches in length, found by Captain Willock among the presumed ruins of Babylon; if so it must be 2,600 years old.

By the use of the two finger holes, the intervals of the Common Chord, C, E, and G. are produced, or the Harmonic Triad. From the ruins of Nineveh we have countless representations of the harp, with strings varying from ten to twenty-six; the lyre. identical in structure with that of the Greeks; a harp-shaped instrument held horizontally, and the six to ten strings struck with a plectrum, which has been termed the Asor, from its resemblance to the Hebrew instrument of that name. There is also the guitar-shaped instrument, and a double pipe with a single mouthpiece and finger-holes on each pipe. The Assyrians used musical bells, trumpets, flutes, drums cymbals, and tambourines. The Abyssinians call their lyre the Kissar the Greek name being, kithara. There is also the flute, called Monaulos, which is of great antiquity, and named by the Egyptians Photins, or curved flute. The crooked horn or trumpet, called Buccina, and the Cithara, held sacred in consequence of its shape being that of the Greek letter delta.



The Gerrnan title is Der Orden vom Senfkorn. This Association, whose members also called themselves "The Fraternity of Moravian Brothers of the Order of Religious Freemasons," was one of the first innovations introduced into German Freemasonry. It was instituted in the year 1739. Its mysteries were founded on that passage in the fourth chapter of Saint Mark's Gospel in which Christ compares the kingdom of heaven to a mustard-seed. The Brethren wore a ring, on which was inscribed Keiner son uns lebt ihm selber, meaning in English, No one of us lives for himself. The jewel of the Order was a cross of gold surmounted by a mustard plant in full bloom, with the motto, Quod Suit ante nihil, this Latin meaning What was before nothing. It was suspended from a green ribbon. The professed object of the Association was, through the instrumentality of Freemasonry, to extend the kingdom of Christ over the world. It has long been obsolete (see Zinzendorf, Count son, Nicolaus Ludwig).



The Roman goddess of silence.



The birthplace of the Hindu Redeemer, Erishna The capital of a district in the Northwest Provinces of British India.



In Latin, Spes Mea in Deo est. Motto of the Thirty-second Degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.



A resinous gum of a tree growing in Arabia, valued from the most ancient times (Genesis xxxvii, 25). It was among the presents Jacob sent to Egypt, and those brought to the infant Jesus bv the wise men of the East.



The sacred plant of the Eleusinian mysteries, and analogous in its symbolism to the Acacia of the Freemasons.



The one who presided at the Ancient Mysteries, and explained the sacred things to the candidate. He was also called the hierophant. The word, which is Greek, signifies literally one who makes or conducts an initiate.



Each of the Pagan gods, says Warburton (Divine Legation I, u, 4), had, besides the public and open, a secret worship paid to him, to which none were admitted but those who had been selected by preparatory ceremonies called Initiation. This secret worship was termed the Mysteries. And this is supported by Strabo (book x, chapter 3) who says that it was common, both to the Greeks and the Barbarians, to perform their religious ceremonies with the observance of a festival, and that they are sometimes celebrated publicly, and sometimes in mysterious privacy. Noel (Dictionnaire de la Fable) thus defines them: Secret ceremonies which were practiced in honor of certain gods, and whose secret was known to the initiates alone, who were admitted only after long and painful trials, which it was more than their life was worth to reveal.

As to their origin, Warburton is probably not wrong in his statement that the first of which we have any account are those of Isis and Osiris in Egypt; for although those of Mithras came into Europe from Persia, they were, it is supposed, carried from Egypt by Zoroaster. The most important of these Mysteries were the Osiris in Egypt, the Mithraic in Persia, the Cabiric in Thrace, the Adonisian in Syria, the Dionysiac and Eleusinian in Greece, the Scandinavian among the Gothic nations, and the Druidical among the Celts.

In all these Mysteries we find a singular lusty of design, clearly indicating a common origin, and a purity of doctrine as evidently proving that this common origin was not to be sought for in the popular theology of the Pagan world. The ceremonies of initiation were all funereal in their character. They celebrated the death and the resurrection of some cherished being, either the object of esteem as a hero, or of devotion as a god. Subordination of Degrees was instituted, and the candidate was subjected to probations varying in their character and severity; the rites were practiced in the darkness of night, and often amid the gloom of impenetrable forests or subterranean caverns; and the full fruition of knowledge, for which so much labor was endured, and so much danger incurred was not attained until the aspirant, well tried and thoroughly purified, had reached the place of wisdom and of light.

These Mysteries undoubtedly owed their origin to the desire to establish esoteric philosophy, in which should be withheld from popular approach those sublime truths which it was supposed could only be entrusted to those who had been previously prepared for their reception. Whence these doctrines were originally derived it would be impossible to say; but Doctor Mackey was disposed to accept Creuzer's hypothesis of an ancient and highly instructed body of priests having their origin either in Egypt or in the East, from whom was derived religious, physical, and historical knowledge, under the veil of symbols.

By this confinement of these doctrines to a system of secret knowledge, guarded by the most rigid rites, could they may only expect to preserve them from the superstitions, innovations, and corruptions of the world as it then existed. "The distinguished few," says Brother Oliver (History of Initiation, page 2), "who retained their fidelity, uncontaminated by the contagion of evil example, would soon be able to estimate the superior benefits of an isolated institution, which afforded the advantage of a select society, and kept at an unapproachable distance the profane scoffer, whose presence might pollute their pure devotions and social converse, by contumelious language or unholy mirth." And doubtless the prevention of this intrusion, and the preservation of these sublime truths, was the original object of the institution of the ceremonies of initiation, and the adoption of other means by which the initiated could be recognized, and the uninitiated excluded. Such was the opinion of Warburton, who says that "the Mysteries were at first the retreats of sense and virtue, till time corrupted them."

The Abbe Robin in a learned work on this subject entitled Recherches sur Yes Initiations Anciennes et Modernes (Paris, 1870), places the origin of the initiations at that remote period when crimes first began to appear upon earth. The vicious, he remarks, were urged by the terror of guilt to seek among the virtuous for intercessors with the Deity. The latter, retiring into solitude to avoid the contagion of growing corrupttion, devoted themselves to a life of contemplation and the cultivation of several of the useful sciences. The periodical return of the seasons, the revolution of the stars, the productions of the earth, and the various phenomena of nature, studied with attention, rendered them useful guides to men, both in their pursuits of industry and in their social duties.

These recluse students invented certain signs to recall to the remembrance of the people the times of their festivals and of their rural labors, and hence the origin of the symbols and hieroglyphics that were in use among the priests of all nations. Having now become grudes and leaders of the people, these sages, in order to select as associates of their learned labors and sacred functions only such as had sufficient merit and capacity, appointed strict courses of trial and examination, and this, our author thinks, must have been the source of the initiations of antiquity. The Magi, Brahmans, Gymnosophists, Druids, and priests of Egypt, lived thus in sequestered habitations and subterranean eaves, and obtained great reputation by their discoveries in astronomy, chemistry, and mechanics, by their purity of morals, and by their knowledge of the science of legislation. It was in these schools, says M. Robin, that the first sages and legislators of antiquity were formed, and in them he supposes the doctrines taught to have been the unity of God and the immortality of the soul; and it was from these Mysteries, and their symbols and hieroglyphics, that the exuberant fancy of the Greeks drew much of their mythology.

Warburton deduces from the ancient writers from Cicero and Porphyry, from Origen and Celsus, and from others—what was the true object of the Mysteries. They taught the dogma of the unity of God in opposition to the polytheistic notions of the people, and in connection with this the doctrine of a future life, and that the initiated should be happier in that state than all other mortals; that while the souls of the profane, at their leaving the body, stuck fast in mire and filth and remained in darkness, the souls of the initiated winged their flight directly to the happy islands and the habitations of the gods.

"Thrice happy they," says Sophocles, "who descended to the shades below after having beheld these Rites; for they alone have life in Hades, while all others suffer there every kind of evil." And Isocrates de clares that "those who have been initiated in the Mysteries, entertain better hopes both as to the end of life and the whole of futurist.

Others of the ancients have given us the same testimony as to their esoteric character. "All the Mysteries," says Plutarch, "refer to a future life and to the state of the soul after death." In another place, addressing his wife! he says, "We have been instructed in the religious Rites of Dionvsius, that the soul is immortal, and that there is a future state of existence."

Cicero tells us that, in the Mysteries of Ceres at Eleusis, the initiated mere taught to live happily and to die in the hope of a blessed futurity. And, finally, Plato informs us that the hymns of Musaeus, which were sung in the Mysteries, celebrated the rewards and pleasures of the virtuous in another life, and the punishments which awaited the wicked. These sentiments, so different from the debased polytheism which prevailed among the uninitiated, are the most certain evidence that the mysteries arose from a purer source than that which gave birth to the religion of the vulgar.

We must not pass unnoticed Faber's notion of their arkite origin. Finding, as he did, a prototype for every ancient cultus in the ark of Noah, it is not surprising that he should apply his theory to the Mysteries. Faber says (begin of Pagan Idolatry II, iv, 5)

The initiations into the mysteries scenically represented the mystic descent into Hades and the return from thence to the light of dan, by which was meant the entrance into the ark and the subsequent liberation from its dark enclosure. They all equally related to the allegorical disappearance, or death, or descent of the great father, at their commencement; and his invention, or revival, or return from Hades, at their conclusion.

Dollinger (Gentile and Jew I, 126) says, speaking of the Mysteries:The whole was a drama, the prelude to which consisted in purifications, sacrifices, and injunctions with regard to the behavior to be observed. The adventures of certain deities, the sufferings and joys, their appearance on earth, and relations to mankind, their death, or descent to the nether world, their return, or their rising again—all these, as symbolizing the life of nature, were represented in a connected series of theatrical scenes.

These representations, tacked on to a nocturnal solemnity, brilliantly got up particularly at Athens, with all the resources of art and sensual beauty. and accompanied with dancing and song, were eminently calculated to take a powerful hold on the imagination and the heart, and to excite in the spectators alternately conflicting sentiments of terror, and calm, sorrow and fear, and hope. They worked upon them, now by agitating, now by soothing, and meanwhile had a strong bearing upon susceptibilities and capacities of individuals, according as their several dispositions inclined them more to reflection and observation, or to a resigned credulity.

Bunsen (God in History II, book iv, chapter 6), gives the most recent and the most philosophic idea or the character of the Mysteries:

They did indeed exhibit to the initiated coarse physical symbols of the generative powers of Nature, and of the universal Nature herself, eternally, self-sustaining through all transformations; but the religious element of the Mysteries consisted in the relations of the universe to the soul, more especially after death. Thus, even without philosophic proof, we are justified in assuming that the Nature symbolism referring to the Zodiac formed a mere framework for the doctrines relating to the soul and to the ethical theory of the universe. So likewise, in the Samothracian worship of the Kabiri, the contest waged by the orb of day was represented by the story of the three brothers, the seasons of the year, one of whom is continually slain by the other two, but ever and anon arises to life again. But here, too, the beginning and end of the worship were ethical. A sort of confession was demanded of the candidates before admission and at the close of the service the victorious God. Dionysius was displayed as the Lord of the spirit. Still less, however, did theorems of natural philosophy form the subject-matter of the Eleusinian Mysteries, of which, on the contrary, physical conceptions were the beginnings and the end. The predominating idea of these conceptions was that of the soul as a divine, vital force. held captive here on earth and sorely tried, but the initiated were further taught to look forward to a final redemption and blessedness for the good and pious, and eternal torment after death for the wicked and unjust.

The esoteric character of the Mysteries was preserved by the most powerful sanctions. An oath of secrecy was administered in the most solemn form to the initiate, and to violate it was considered a sacrilegious crime, the prescribed punishment for which was immediate death, and we have at least one instance in Livy of the infliction of the penalty. The ancient writers were, therefore, extremely reluctant to approach the subject, and Lobeck gives, in his Aglaophamus (volume i, appendix 131, 151; ii, 12, 87), several examples of the cautious manner in which they shrunk from divulging or discussing any explanation of a symbol which had been interpreted to them in the course of initiation. I would forbid, says Horace (Epistles iii, Ocles 2, 26), that man who would divulge the sacred Rites of mysterious Ceres from being under the same roof with me, or from setting sail with me in the same precarious bark.

On the subject of their relation to the Rites of Freemasonry, to which they bear in many respects so remarkable a resemblance, that some connection seems necessarily implied, there are five principal theories.

The first is that embraced and taught by Doctor Oliver, namely, that they are but deviations from that common source, both of them and of Freemasonry, the patriarchal mode of worship established by God himself. With this pure system of truth, he supposes the science of Freemasonry to have been coeval and identified. But the truths thus revealed by divinity came at length to be doubted or rejected through the imperfection of human reason, and though the visible symbols were retained in the Mysteries of the Pagan world, their true interpretation was lost.

There is a second theory which, leaving the origin of the Mysteries to be sought in the patriarchal doctrines, where Brother Oliver has placed it, finds the connection between them and Freemasonry commencing at the building of King Solomon's Temple. Over the construction of this building, Hiram, the Architect of Tyre, presided. At Tyre the Mysteries of Bacchus had been introduced by the Dionysian Artificers, and into their fraternity Hiram, in all probability, had, it is necessarily suggested, been admitted. Freemasonry whose tenets had always existed in purity among the immediate descendants of the patriarchs, added now to its doctrines the guard of secrecy, which, as Doctor Oliver himself remarks, was necessary to preserve them from perversion or pollution.

A third theory has been advanced by the Abbe Robin, in which he connects Freemasonry indirectly with the Mysteries, through the intervention of the Crusaders. In the work already eited, he attempts to deduce, from the ancient initiations, the orders of chivalry, whose branches, he says, produced the Institution of Freemasonry.

A fourth theory, and this has been advanced by the Rev. C. W. King in his treatise on the Gnostics, is that as some of them, especially those of Mithras, were extended beyond the advent of Christianity, and even to the very commencement of the Middle Ages, they were seized upon by the secret societies of that period as a model for their organization, and that through these latter they are to be traced to Freemasonry.

But perhaps, after all, the truest theory is that which would discard all successive links in a supposed chain of descent from the Mysteries to Freemasonry, and would attribute their close resemblance to a natural coincidence of human thought. The legend of the Third Degree, and the legends of the Eleusinian, the Cabiric, the Dionysian, the Adonic, and all the other Mysteries, are identical in their object to teach the reality of a future life; and this lesson is taught in all by the use of the same symbolism, and, substantially, the same scenic representation.

And this is not because the Masonic Rites are a lineal succession from the Ancient Mysteries, but because there has been at all times an aptness of the human heart to nourish this belief in a future life, and the proneness of the human mind to clothe this belief in a symbolic dress. find if there is any other more direct connection between them it must be sought for in the Roman Colleges of Artificers, who did, most probably, exercise some influence over the rising Freemasons of the early ages, and who, as the contemporaries of the Mysteries, were, we may well suppose, imbued with something of their organization. We conclude with a notice of their ultimate fate. They continued to flourish until long after the Christian era; but they at length degenerated. In the fourth century, Christianity had begun to triumph. The Pagans, desirous of making converts, threw open the hitherto inaccessible portals of their mysterious rites. The strict scrutiny of the candidate's past life, and the demand for proofs of irreproachable conduct, were no longer
deemed indispensable.

The vile and the vicious were indiscriminately, and even with avidity, admitted to participate in privileges which were once granted only to the noble and the virtuous. The sun of Paganism was setting, and its rites had become contemptible and corrupt. Their character was entirely changed, and the initiations were indiscriminately sold by peddling priests, who wandered through the country, to every applicant who was willing to pay a trifling fee for that which had once been refused to the entreatie9 of a monarch. At length these abominations attracted the attention of the emperors, and Constantine and Gratian forbade their celebration by night, excepting, however, from these edicts, the initiations at Eleusis. But finally Theodosius, by a general edict of proscription, ordered the whole of the Pagan Mysteries to be abolished, in the four hundred and thirty-eighth year of the Christian era, and eighteen hundred years after their first establishment in Greece.

Clavel, however, says that they did not entirely cease until the era of the restoration of learning, and that during a part of the Middle Ages the Mysteries of Diana, under the name of the Courses of Diana, and those of Pan under that of the Sabbats, were practiced in country places. But these were really only certain superstitious rites connected with the belief in witchcraft. The Mysteries of Mithras, which, continually attacked by the Fathers of the Church, lived until the beginning of the fifth century, were the last of the old mysteries which had once exercised so much influence over the Pagan world and the Pagan religions.

Doctor Mackey's conclusions in the preceding article have not been materially weakened by later writers. Some additions may be made to support his position and briefly increase the amount of information he has submitted. The word Mystery must here be strictly reserved for these ancient religious rites of the Greeks and Romans, the name coming from two Greek words, the one meaning an initiate, and the other to close the mouth. There is another word Of ystery, or Mistery, meaning a trade and in the opinion of Professor Skeat applied to the medieval plays because they were performed by the Craftsmen (see Mystery).

So far as the Mysteries of antiquity have especial interest to us in the relation of their ceremonies to those of Freemasonry, we are compelled to obtain our knowledge rather by inference, more or less remote, than otherwise. What we know of the initiations and of the ritualistic instructions is limited by the very same concealment that in these modern times reserves such information from the profane, those without the fold. yet here and there we catch a glint and a glow of the inner light that radiated from these centers of such wisdom as in that day and era was at the service of the candidates. There were peculiar resemblances to prove anew to us that profound initiation moves on parallel lines in all the ages. Only those specially prepared might join in the solemn rites, only then after probation and purification, in charge of a guide and instructor who led the candidate on to further light. There was more than prayer and sacrifice. there was communication, some explanation, a revelation, an investiture probably as spiritual as it was a material one, and at least something stronger than a suggestion appears to us that the whole ceremonial included a dramatic conception of a sacred play.

We readily see from the writers of the time how glowing was the poetic ritual. From certain hints we can get an inkling of the ceremonies, in fact there is a trace of two Degrees, one preliminary to the other. There is also an intimation of a rebirth, holy objects and scenes were shown, the brotherhood breaking of bread together, a common partaking of food, the illuminating use of symbolism here and there, the instruction to be remembered for a life of contentment and a hereafter of happiness, these were in all probability impressed as we can reasonably infer by splendor of stagecraft, regal raiment, stately action, the solemn solace of holy sacraments. That there were Mysteries less creditable than others from our modern stand point is doubtless true, just as all secret societies are not the same today in merit. Secrecy then and now does not always mean sufficiency.

Nevertheless, we may well glean and study such fragments of worth as are thus available from the scanty records of these our forerunners of Freemasonry. For further information consult Brother Goblet d'Alviella's Eleusinia, Andrew Lang's Myth, Ritual and Religion, Doctor Jevons' Introduction to the Study of Religion, Franz Cumont's Mysteries of Mithra, Dudley Wright's Eleusinian Mysteries, and the Encyclopedia Britannica. Passages from classical literature relative to the Mysteries are found in C. A. Lobeek's Aglaophamus, and L. R. Farnell's Cults of the Greed States.



Instituted among the Mexicans, Aztecs, and mere of a sacred nature. The adherents adopted the worship of some special deity Quetzalcoatl, the Mexican Savior, under secret rites, and rendered themselves seclusive. A similar Order was that called Tlamacazajotl, also the Order known as Telpochtliztli. It is understood that under the sway of the Aztecs, the Mexican Mysteries had some Masonic affinities (see Aztec Writings).



From the Greek compound word meaning an initiate and a secret, something to be concealed. The Gilds or Companies of the Middle Ages, out of which we trace the Masonic organization, were called mystenes, because they had trade-secrets, the preservation of which was a primary ordination of these fraternities. "Mystery" and "Craft" came thus to be synonymous words. In this secondary sense we speak of the "Mystery of the Stone-Masons" as equivalent to the "Craft of the Stone-Masons."

Adam Smith, Wealth of Cations (volume i, page 126), refers to the old stipulation that unless he had served an apprenticeship to it of seven years, "it was enacted, that no person should for the future exercise any trade, craft, or mystery." But the Mystery of Freemasonry refers rather to the primary meaning of the word as immediately derived from the Greek (see Mysteries).



From the Greek to shut the eyes.
One who had been initiated into the Lesser Mysteries of Paganism. He was now blind; but when he was initiated into the Greater Mysteries, he was called an Epopt, or one who saw. The Mystes was permitted to proceed no farther than the vestibule or porch of the temple. To the Epopts only was accorded the privilege of admission to the advtum or sanctuary. A female initiate was called a Mystis.



A word applied to any language, symbol, or ritual which is understood only by the initiated. The word was first used by the priests to describe their mysterious rites, and then borrowed by the philosophers to be applied to the inner, esoteric doctrines of their schools. In this sense we speak of the mystical doctrines of Speculative Freemasonry. Suidas derives the word from the Greek aim, to close, and especially to close the lips. Hence the mystical is that about which the mouth should be closed.



A Society formed by the ad herents of Mesmer, in August, 1787, of a beneficent, nonpolitical. and nonsectarian nature, to which Master Masons only were admitted.



A word applied in religious phraseology to any views or tendencies which aspire to more direct communication between God and man by the inward perception of the mind than can be obtained through revelation. "Mysticism," says Vaughan (Hours with the Mystics i, 19), "presents itself in all its phases as more or less the religion of internal as opposed to external revelation—of heated feeling, sickly sentiment, or lawless imagination, as opposed to that reasonable belief in which the intellect and the heart, the inward witness and the outward, are alike engaged." The Pantheism of some of the ancient philosophers and of the modern Spinozaists, the Speeulations of the Neoplatonists, the Anabaptism of Munster, the system of Jacob Behmen, the Quietism of Madame Guyon, the doctrines of the Bavarian Illuminati, and the reveries of Swedenborg, all partake more or less of the spirit of mysticism.

The Germans have two words, mystik and mysticismus— the former of which they use in a favorable, the latter in an unfavorable sense. Mysticism is with them only another word for Pantheism, between which and Atheism there is but little difference. Hence a belief in mysticism is with the German Freemasons a disqualification for initiation into the Masonic rites. Thus the second article of the Statutes of the Grand Lodge of Hanover prescribes that "ein Freimaurer muss vom Mysticismus und Atheismus gleich weit entfernt stehen," that is, "a Freemason must be equally distant from Mysticism and Atheism." Gadicke, Freimaurer-Lencon, thus expresses the German sentiment: "Etwas mystisch sollte wohl jeder Mensch seyn, aber man hute sich vor grobem Mysticismus," that is, "Every man ought to be somewhat mystical, but should guard against coarse mysticism."


See Grotto



That sacred and inviolable bond which unites men of the most discordant opinions into one band of brothers, which gives but one language to men of all nations and one altar to men of all religions, is properly, from the mysterious influence it exerts, denominated the mystic tie; and Freemasons, because they alone are under its influence, or enjoy its benefits, are called "Brethren of the Mystic Tie."

The expression was used by Brother Robert Burns in his farewell to the Brethren of Saint James Lodge, Tarbolton, Scotland,
Adieu! a heart-warm, fond adieu!
Dear Brothers of the mystic tie!
Ye favored, ye enlightened few,
Companions of my social joy!


Brother A. Glass, Ayr Operative Lodge, No. 138, has also in the Freemason (August 5, 1871), later used the expression effectively thus in allusion to Brother Burns himself:
His was the keen prophetie eye,
Could see afar the glorious birth
Of that great power, whose mystic tie,
Shall make "One Lodge" of all the earth.



The word myth, from the Greek a story, in its original acceptation, signified simply a statement or narrative of an event, without any necessary implication of truth or falsehood; but, as the word is now used, it conveys the idea of a personal narrative of remote date, which, although not necessarily untrue, is certified only by the internal evidence of the tradition itself. This definition, which is substantially derived from George Grote ( History of Greece, volume I, page 295), may be applied without modification to the myths of Freemasonry, although intended by the author only for the myths of the ancient Greek religion.

The myth, then, is a narrative of remote date, not necessarily true or false, but whose truth can only be certified by internal evidence. The word was first applied to those fables of the Pagan gods which have descended from the remotest antiquity, and in all of which there prevails a symbolic idea, not always, however, capable of a positive interpretation. As applied to Freemasonry, the words myth and legend are synonymous. From this definition it will appear that the myth is really only the interpretation of an idea. But how we are to read these myths will best appear from these noble words of Max Muller (Science of Language, second series, page 578), "Everything is true, natural, significant, if we enter with a reverent spirit into the meaning of ancient art and ancient language. Everything becomes false, miraculous, and unmeaning, if we interpret the deep and mighty words of the seers of old in the shallow and feeble sense of modern chroniclers."

A fertile source of instruction in Freemasonry is to be found in its traditions and mythical legends; not only those which are incorporated into its ritual and are exemplified in its ceremonies, but those also which, although forming no part of the Lodge Lectures, have been orally transmitted as portions of its history, and which, only within a comparatively recent period, have been committed to writing. But for the proper appreciation of these traditions some preparatory knowledge of the general character of Masonic myths is necessary. If all the details of these traditions be considered as asserted historical facts, seeking to convey nothing more nor less than historical information, then the improbabilities and anachronisms, and other violations of historical truth which distinguish many of them, must cause them to be rejected by the scholar as absurd impostures. But there is another and a more advantageous view in which these traditions are to be considered. Freemasonry is a symbolic institution—everything in and about it is symbolic— and nothing more eminently so than its traditions.

Although some of them—as, for instance, the Legend of the Third Degree—have in all probability a deep substratum of truth lying beneath, over this there is superposed a beautiful structure of symbolism. History has, perhaps, first suggested the tradition; but then the legend, like the myths of the ancient poets, becomes a symbol, which is to enunciate some sublime philosophical or religious truth. Read in this way, and in this way only, the myths or legends and traditions of Freemasonry will become interesting and instructive (see Legend ).



A historical myth is a myth that has a known and recognized foundation in historical truth, but with the admixture of a preponderating amount of fiction in the introduction of personages and circumstances. Between the historical myth and the mythical history, the distinction cannot always be preserved, because we are not always able to determine whether there is a preponderance of truth or of fiction in the legend or narrative under examination.



A myth or legend, in which the historical and truthful greatly preponderate over the inventions of fiction, may be called a mythical history. Certain portions of the Legend of the Third Degree have such a foundation in fact that they constitute a mythical history, while other portions, added evidently for the purposes of symbolism, are simply a historical myth.



Literally, this word means the science of myths; and this is a very appropriate definition, for mythology is the science which treats of the religion of the ancient Pagans, which was almost altogether founded on myths or popular traditions and legendary tales; and hence Knightly (Mythology of Ancient Greece and Italy, page 2), says that "mythology may be regarded as the repository of the early religion of the people." Its interest to a Masonic student arises from the constant antagonism that existed between its doctrines and those of the Primitive Freemasonry of antiquity and the light that the mythological mysteries throw upon the ancient organization of Speculative Freemasonry.



This is a myth or legend that is almost wholly unhistorical, and which has been invented only for the purpose of enunciating and illustrating a particular thought or dogma. The Legend of Euclid in the manuscripts of our ancient Craft is clearly a philosophical myth.






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